The Economic and
     Social Importance of Estuaries

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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ESTUARINE POLLUTION STUDY SERIES - 2
    THE ECONOMIC AMD SOCIAL I?!POP.TA!fCE OF ESTUARIES
                     Davirf C. Sweet
                    Project director
This report r«ras prepared as a result of contract  No.  14-12-115
awarded by the Federal Mater Pollution  Control Administration,
as «i part of the National Estuarine Pollution Stufri,  to
Dattollc Memorial Institute.
                          PPOTECTIOiJ AGF.
                 Water Quality Office
              Technical 5ur>oort Division
                          l, 1071

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for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S.  Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 20402  -  Price $6. 25
                                               Stock Number 5501-0054

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                              FOREWORD
The Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966 stated in Section 5(g)  that
the Secretary of the Interior:

     "... shall, in cooperation with . .  .  other appropriate
     Federalf Statef interstate, or local public bodies and
     private organizations, institutions, and individuals, con-
     duct . . . and encourage contributions to, a comprehensive
     study of the effects of pollution ...  in the estuaries
     and estuarine zones of the United States . . . ."

(The complete text of Section 5(g) is included in the inside back
cover of this document.)

In response to this decree and on behalf of the Secretary of the
Interior, the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (now
incorporated into the Environmental Protection Agency) conducted the
National Estuarine Pollution Study which resulted in a Report to the
Congress on November 3, 1969.  A substantial  amount of the information
compiled and analyzed by the Study was obtained through contracts
awarded to various individuals and organizations to assemble infor-
mation and data on certain aspects of the effects of pollution on
estuarine areas.  These contracts resulted in reports which were used
in the preparation of the Study's Report to Congress.  Each report
described one or two of the three estuarine environments (biophysical,
socio-economic, and institutional) in a specific geographic area and
constituted only a segment of the overall National Estuarine Pollution
Study.

To make available the total reports contributing to the Study,
specifically the contractors' reports, the Estuarine Pollution Study
Series was created.  The reports included in this Series are essen-
tially the same, except for minor editing, as the form in which
they were submitted to the Study and represent the findings only
of individual contractors, not of the National Estuarine Pollution
Study.

Copies of these Reports are available for a nominal cost from the
Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C., 20402.
                                    William D. Ruckelshaus
                                         Administrator
                                Environmental Protection Agency

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                                   PREFACE
     This study is a preliminary attempt to assess the economic importance of
estuaries in the United States.  To hold cost of the study to reasonable proportions,
the effort was largely limited to the assembly of secondary source information; the
collection of primary data was held to a minimum.  It was realized that voids in
secondary source information surely would exist, and it was one of the explicit goals
of the study to define the nature of such voids so that they might be filled in
subsequent studies.

     The approach employed in this study was to assemble the secondary source
information that was readily available and to analyze it in such a way as to yield
some basis for evaluating estuaries, their major uses, the value of these uses, and
the conflicts between these uses.  A major  problem, fully recognized before the
study commenced, was the fact that data  regarding various uses  of estuaries are
not available in the form of a single common denominator,  such as dollars.  Instead,
a hodgepodge of information exists which yields only an intuitive  feel for relative
values of the various estuarine uses rather than a strictly analytical comparison.
Nevertheless, it is felt that, from the data that are available,  an understanding of
the magnitudes of these various uses can be achieved which would be useful to de-
fine general parameters for estuarine management.

     While the kinds of variables one might consider in estuarine-management
studies can emerge from an overview of this kind, estuarine-management plans for a
particular estuary must be based on specific data on the estuary of concern.  Differ-
ences between estuaries in their uses, their hydrology,  geography, and other
factors, make it difficult to generalize about their problems.  It is also clear that
the trade-offs that exist among the uses of an estuary are sufficiently complex that
rather sophisticated methods of analysis  may be needed to derive sensible estuarine-
management programs.

     Thus, it is felt that the research reported herein can provide guidelines for
national policy and a "starting point" for  studies of particular  estuaries; however,
estuarine-management programs must be derived for individual  estuaries in
response to specific problems.

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                        Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	    1

     Significance of Estuaries for Outdoor Recreation	    i
     Significance of Estuaries for Commercial Fishing	   ii
     Significance of Estuaries for Wildlife	   ii
     Significance of Estuaries for Water Transportation and National Defense   iii
     Significance of Estuaries for Land Reclamation	   iii
     Significance of Esturaies for Extractive Industries	   iii
     Significance of Estuaries for Waste  Assimilation	   iv
     Conclusion	   iv

INTRODUCTION	    I

     Background	    1
     Definition of Estuary	    2
     Choice of Uses to be Reviewed	    3

SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION	    5

     Role of Bstuarine Recreation  	,	    5
     Types of Recreation Activities	    5
     Economic Impact	    8
     Data Voids	:	    8

SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING	    9

     Summary of Current Situation	    9
     Future Market Demand for Fish Products	   10
     Estuarine Dependency of United States Commercial Fish Species	   12
     From Conflict to Accommodation	   17

SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR WILDLIFE	   18

     Fur Production.	   18
     Waterfowl	   20
     The "Exotic" Shore and Sea Birds	   21
     Common Wildlife	   22
     Conclusion	   24

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                (Continued)
                                                                      Page

SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR WATER TRANSPORTATION AND
 NATIONAL DEFENSE	    25

     Inventory of Estuarine Ports	    25
     Environmental Effects of Commercial Watercraft	    27
     Use of the Estuaries for National Defense	    27
     Environmental Effects of National Defense Activities	    28

SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR LAND RECLAMATION	    30

     Introduction.	    30
     Quantity of Filled Estuarine Wetlands	    30
     Uses of Filled Land	    30
     Sources of Fill	    31
     Disposal Practices	    31
     Examples of Intensive Spoil Site Development	    34
     The Problem of Evaluating Wetland Worth	    34
     Costs of Developing Wetlands	    35
     Conclusion	    35

SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES	    38

     Introduction	    38
     Minining of Materials Below Estuarine Floors	    38
     Minining of Materials Directly From Estuary Floor	    44
     Mining of the Estuarine Waters,	    46
     Conclusion	    47

SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR WASTE ASSIMILATION	    49

     Scope	    49
     Significance of Waste Assimilation	    49
     Methodology	    49
     Existing of DO/BOD Models	    50
     The Delaware Estuary	    51
     Potomac River Estuary	    52
     James River Estuary	    53
     East River Estuary	    53
     Hudson River Estuary	    54

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                         TABLE OF CONTENTS
                              (Continued)
                                                                   Page

     Economic Contribution of This Assimilative Capacity	   54
     Assimilation of Thermal Loadings	   56
     Patuxent River Estuary	   56
     Potomac River Estuary	   57
     Thames River Estuary	   57
     Economic Contribution of Natural Cooling	   57
     Conclusion	   58

CONCLUSION	   59

     Introduction	   59
     General Use	   59
     Interrelated Uses	   60
     Dynamic Nature of Use	   60
     Data Voids	   61
                              APPENDIX A

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL VALUES OF ESTUARINE RECREATION	 A-l

                              APPENDIX B

THE FUTURE ECONOMIC VALUE OF ESTUARINE-DEPENDENT
 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES	 B-l

                              APPENDIX C

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL VALUE  OF ESTUARINE WILDLIFE	 C-l

                              APPENDIX D

USE OF ESTUARIES FOR WATER TRANSPORTATION AND NATIONAL
 DEFENSE	 D-l

                              APPENDIX E

LAND RECLAMATION IN ESTUARINE ZONES	 E-l

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                            (Continued)
                                                               Page

                            APPENDIX F

ECONOMIC VALUE OF ESTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES IN THE ESTUARINE
  ZONE	   F-l

                            APPENDIX G

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ESTUARINE POLLUTION	„	   G-l

                            APPENDIX H

DEVELOPMENT OF CHESAPEAKE BAY RESOURCES	   H-l

                            APPENDIX I

NOTES ON COST-BENEFIT AND SYSTEMS ANALYSE AS APPLIED TO THE
 ANALYSIS OF ESTUARINE POLICY	    1-1

                            APPENDIX J

INTRODUCTION	     i

ABSTRACTS	   J-l

INDEX	J-191

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                             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

      As one of several concurrent efforts to assemble information for the Department
of Interior's study of the United-States Estuarine Zone, this report examines the litera-
ture and state of the art describing the economic and social importance of these estu-
aries,  fhe main report is a summary of seven appendices analyzing the following social
and economic activities: (1) recreation, (2) commercial fishing, (3) wildlife habitation,
(4) extractive industries, (5) waste assimilation, (6)  land reclamation, and (7) transpor-
tation.  Additional appendices were prepared on: the Chesapeake Bay region,  the use of
cost benefit analysis in estuarine economic research, and an annotated bibliography of
estuarine economics literature.   The report is based primarily on published source
material and data voids are noted.  Emphasis has been placed upon (1) effects  of pollu-
tion on estuarine uses  and (2) when available,  long-term trends have been examined.
                  Significance of Estuaries for Outdoor Recreation
      The economic and social significance of the estuaries for recreation is rooted in
the social and demographic evolution of our society and the functional uniqueness of the
estuaries.  The United States population is continuing to gravitate towards a denser urban
structure with disproportionate concentrations within the estuarine zones.  By 1967, ten
metropolitan areas with individual populations exceeding 1 million persons and a total of
about 40 million persons were situated along estuaries.  At the same time, economic and
social trends appear to be enhancing the ability to seek outdoor recreation.

      Competition for the limited resources of estuaries has intensified.  Nonrecreation
activities have closed off areas of coastline or have produced water conditions incompati-
ble with recreation.  Sport fishing for some species,  such as the croaker in the
New York - New Jersey area, has been negatively affected by ecological change.  Beyond
these specific uses, the less easily defined functions  of estuaries  as open spaces in the
midst of urban concentrations have constantly risen in scale and significance, and have
raised serious esthetic and social issues.

      Partially because of these conflict situations, specialized estuarine recreation has
not been highly developed.  Probably less than 3  percent of all swimming participation in
the United States occurs in estuaries.  On a per capita basis, recreational boating in
coastal states is considerably less popular than for the inland north-central states.  And,
despite the increasing public pressures for more esthetically conscious development of
the estuarine shoreline in urbanized areas, the institution of controls such as the creation
of parks has noticeably lagged.

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                  Significance of Estuaries for Commercial Fishing
      Logical extrapolation of key trends suggests that a major conflict is gradually
emerging between continuation of the commercial fishing industry at significant levels
and socio-economic forces pressing physical development upon the estuarine areas.
About 4. 06 billion pounds of commercial fish and shell fish worth $438 million were
landed by United States fishermen in 1967 and 8.1 billion pounds with a value of $687
million were imported.  Of the United  States catch in 1967,  approximately two-thirds of
the total value, or about $300 million,  consisted  for estuarine-dependent species.
Shrimp, representing about 24 percent of the entire  United States catch value,  was the
most valuable single species, followed by oysters.

      Virtually the entire United States shrimp catch consisted of a genus that spawns at
sea but develops in the  estuary.  Numerous studies and experiments have shown the
juvenile shrimp to be highly sensitive  to the physical condition of the  estuary.  Thus,
estuarine change,  including pollution and filling,  can affect the availability of shrimp,
though exact relationships are not fully understood.  Menhaden, the leading industrial
fish species, has a life cycle similar to the shrimp's and has equivalent vulnerability.
Almost the entire commercial oyster industry is based upon a single  estuarine-dependent
species.
                        Significance of Estuaries for Wildlife
      Excluding the commercial fishery resources, estuarine wildlife can be classified
into four categories, with differing economic and social significance:  (1) fur-bearing
mammals, (2) game water fowl, (3) other shore and water birds, and (4) the common
wildlife that can tolerate human presence.  Commercial trapping produces an annual
value of about $6 million, a sum which indicates relatively accurately the direct eco-
nomic value.  The United States' water fowl, primarily ducks, geese, and swan, repre-
sent both an aesthetic and a recreation-industry resource, but their relationship with the
estuarine zone is complex and incompletely understood.  Available evidence indicates
that the estuaries do not generally comprise critical habitat.  The situation is slightly
more acute for some of the rarer shore birds, particularly the waders which depend
upon estuarine biota for food. Also, fish contaminated with pollutants are believed to
have a key role in the marked decline of the successful breeding of eagles and ospreys.

      For more United States citizens, however, the most important function of estuaries
involving wildlife is to bring an element of the natural environment into the urban setting.
This open expense includes innumerable forms of wildlife that is increasingly counted
among a city's significant resources as evidenced by the increase of 19 percent in nature
walk participation between 1960 and 1965.
                                       11

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                 Significance of Estuaries for Water Transportation
                               and National Defense
      The nation's estuaries provide the physical, social, and economic conditions re-
quired for an effective system of transfer points serving international trade and coastal
shipping.  In 1966, about 1,626 marine terminal facilities were providing deepwater
berths in 132 estuarine ports on the Atlantic, Pacific,  and Gulf coasts,  including Alaska
and Hawaii.  While published data are not available for all coastal ports,  reports indi-
cate that 77 coastal and 40 Great Lakes ports listed earnings (value added by transporta-
tion services) of about $5.6 billion in 1963.

      Despite these economic advantages, commercial transport vessels have been
shown to be significant contributors to estuarine pollution.   Commercial watercraft are
estimated to be responsible for about 39 percent of human waste loading from all water-
craft in the United States waterways, or the equivalent of approximately 200,000 resi-
dents.  Furthermore, bulkheads, navigational channels,  shore structures, and supple-
mental land transportation systems subtly change the character of the estuary's ecolog-
ical characteristic.  The role of estuaries in the national defense system is similar to
that involving commercial transport, except that the impact is more regionalized and  the
essence of the national benefits  is  less easily quantified.
                   Significance of Estuaries for Land Reclamation
      Complex,  often overlapping motivations have caused the filling of the "reclaimed"
estuarine wetlands.  Spoil beds for dredged mud, solid waste disposal sites, mosquito
control efforts,  agricultural uses,  and a vast number of urban-related uses have each
claimed a share.  According to a 1958 survey, estuaries of the United States encompass
26.6 million acres of water, both shallow and deep. About 7.7 million acres of th'is
entire area could be considered prime estuarine habitat for wildlife but, being shallow,
it is particularly vulnerable for development. Approximately 7  percent of the habitat
wetlands have already been filled within the past 20 years; and in some urbanized areas,
the proportion is considerably higher. About 45 percent of the basic habitat loss oc-
curred in California, where 243 square miles had been filled by 1957 in San Francisco
Bay.
                 Significance of Estuaries for Extractive Industries
      Extractive operations can be divided into three general groups according to the
source of the material: (1) below  the estuarine floor, (2) from the estuarine floor, and
(3) from the water.  Petroleum production is the most important extractive industry that
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penetrates significantly beneath the estuarine floor, but only a small fraction of the total
United States drilling for petroleum is occurring in estuarine zones and even this is now
concentrated in four states: Louisiana, Texas, California,  and Alaska.  However,
petroleum extraction is linked to an extensive  system of related activities, such as re-
finery and petrochemical plants, which also affect estuaries.

      Oyster shell and sand-gravel operations are the most  common form of mining di-
rectly from the estuary floor.  While about 20 million tons of oyster shells are estimated
to be recovered annually,  the economic viability of this industry is declining and the im-
pact has been restricted to several regions, such as Galveston  Bay.  Mining of sand  and
gravel is more extensive, and the  effects have been highly damaging ecologically where
uncontrolled.  Extraction of minerals from estuarine waters is gradually declining and
does not have significant environmental effects.
                  Signjfiqance of Estuaries for Waste Assimilation
      Considerable reliance is being placed upon the ability of estuaries to assimilate
human and industrial wastes that would otherwise be processed by treatment plants.
Using a series of assumptions, the economic costs of providing 1 mg/1 increase in the
dissolved oxygen level was calculated for the Delaware, Potomac, James, East, and
Hudson river estuaries, which have a total area of 116, 670 acres.  The total implied
monetary value per year on this basis was  estimated at $5.9 million.

      A similar  analysis involving thermal assimilation was performed for the estuaries
of the Patuxent,  Potomac,  and Thames rivers with a total area of 31,870 acres.  The
economic costs of decreasing the temperature levels of these estuarine areas was esti-
mated.  The annual monetary value of a 0. l-degree-»Fahrenheit increase in excess tem-
perature was $34,700 for the three estuaries.
                                   Conclusion
      Throughout the study, four primary themes continually emerged:

      (1)  The most rapidly increasing use of estuaries appears to be for personal
          satisfaction (e.g.,  recreation), as the public becomes more aware of
          the natural estuarine environment.

      (2)  Estuarine activities are based  upon the use of a common set of natural
          resources, and are therefore highly interrelated.
                                       iv

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(3)  Estuarine environment is rapidly changing due to the mounting intensity
    of estuarine use.

(4)  Management of estuarine resources is complicated by  difficulties in
    defining goals,  data deficiencies, and voids in understanding estuarine
    ecology.

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  FINAL REPORT ON THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF ESTUARIES
                                INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND

    The National Estuarine Pollution Study. In Title n, Section 5 (g) (1), of the Clean
Water Restoration Act of 1966 (P. L.  89-753), the Secretary of the Interior was di-
rected to conduct a study of the United States1 estuarine zones to (1) document and
analyze the various aspects of estuarine pollution, (2) make recommendations for a
comprehensive national program to preserve, study, use, and develop the estuarine
zones, and (3) recognize the possible roles of legitimate interests, including the
Federal, state, and local governments and both public and private parties.

    In this connection,, the Department of the Interior was authorized to conduct a
comprehensive study of the pollution effects upon present and future uses of the estuaries
and estuarine zones.  Existing data were to be assembled, coordinated,  and organized,
and representative estuaries were to be surveye'd to provide supplementary data.  In-
formation voids were to be identified, and the present economic and social values of the
estuaries were to be analyzed.  The major economic, social, and ecological trends
influencing the probable future pollution problems were to be studied to provide a basis
for understanding the possible future values of the estuary.  Assembly of the project
data was to be completed by February 1, 1969,  and a preliminary draft was to be com-
pleted two months  later.

    As one segment  of this study, Battelle's Columbus Laboratories proposed in
June, 1967, to survey and to identify the literature and the state of the art relevant to
an understanding of the economic and social importance of estuaries in the United
States.  Pursuant to the subsequent contract agreement, a detailed, annotated bibliog-
raphy has been prepared for the Office of Estuarine Studies and is submitted as Ap-
pendix J of this report.
Structure of This Report

    In line with discussions with the Office of Estuarine Studies, the structure selected
for this primary report employs a series of distinct surveys in the important areas of
estuarine use, each survey being prepared by a specialist in the particular field.  These
surveys have been compiled as a series of appendices.  The purpose of the main report
is to introduce these individual appendices and to relate them to the overall problem.

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    In a third aspect of the Battelle survey, the nature and sources of various data
describing the estuaries have been incorporated in the footnotes of the appendices and
in the bibliography.

    A major data deficiency, namely, a lack of a monetary measure of estuary use
was recognized before the study commenced.  An effort has been made to furnish
estimates and measured quantities whenever these have been available and reliable so
that a general feeling for the order-of-magnitude and the ranking of priorities can be
made.
DEFINITION OF ESTUARY

    In the technical literature,  considerable concern is expressed about the lack of a
single, simple definition of estuary that can be accepted throughout the different pro-
fessional fields.  This situation, however, is comprehensible when the vast variety and
complexity of conditions and activities in estuaries are viewed.  The American College
Dictionary provides two definitions, the first referring to the part of a river where its
currents are affected by ocean tides and the second is synonomous with "bay".  Web-
ster's New International Dictionary adds a third definition from physical geography,
"... a drowned river mouth,  caused by the sinking.of land near the coast." The most
commonly accepted definition today is by Cameron and Pritchard. *

    An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water having a free connection
    with the open sea and within which the sea water is measurably diluted with
    fresh water deriving from land drainage.

    Another term frequently used in discussing estuaries and their environs is
"estuarine zone." This term is now being used loosely to refer to adjoining land masses
or water bodies.  It also is used to describe the zone of human activities that are ad-
jacent to and have a direct impact upon the estuaries. Originally, however it was
defined as:**

    "An environmental system  consisting of the estuary and those transitional
    areas consistently influenced or affected by water from the estuary."
 *W.M. Cameron and D.W. Pritchard, in:  The Sea;  Ideas and Observations on the
  Progress in the Study of the Seas, Vol. 2, Ch. 15 (New York: Interscience  Pub-
  lishers,  1963).
**Roland F. Smith, "Forward,  "A Symposium of Estuarine Fisheries, Special
  Publication No. 3 (Washington, D.C.:  American Fishery Society, 1966).

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This definition refers to the biological transition zones, in the salt meadows, coastal
marshes,  intertidal areas, and tidal fresh-water habitats above the upper limit of salt-
water intrusion. This report examines these ecological aspects of the estuary but also
encompasses land areas having a direct interrelationship with the biological transition
zones described above.
        *

    Some of the complexities involving estuaries can be clarified by describing the
four primary subdivisions on a geomorphological basis.*

    (1) Drowned river valleys - Frequently called waterways or coastal plain
        estuaries,  these river valleys are typical of the Eastern Seaboard in the
        United States such as Chesapeake Bay.

    (2) Fjords  - Relatively rare in the United States,  fjord estuaries were carved
        by glaciers that subsequently receded, leaving a till across the mouth of the
        coastal indenture. Within the basin, depths of 1,000 feet are frequent and
        sheer walls often preclude a significant biological transition zone on the sides
        of the estuary. Because of the Moraine formed by the glacial till, estuarine
        conditions  often exist only in the upper water layers. Most of the  fjord
        estuaries of the United States are found in Alaska.

     (3) Bar-built estuaries - Estuaries can be formed when fresh water enters
        behind a barrier beach. Typically, such estuaries are shallow and tidal
        action is limited by a small entrance.  Examples would include Albemarle
        and Pamlico sounds in North Carolina.

    (4) Tectonic estuaries - Faulting and other local conditions can form estuaries
        with a variety of  characteristics.  San Francisco Bay is a frequently cited
        example.

    Salinity levels in estuaries vary greatly depending on the fresh water intake,
degree of tidal flushing, and evaporation rates. The salinity level of sea water is
typically about 35 ppt (parts per thousand):  it may go as low as 0.1 ppt in some
estuarine areas.
CHOICE OF USES TO BE REVIEWED

    Estuaries are an important element of the modern human habitat, as reflected in
the myriad of uses which it serves.  They are the principal recreational areas of most
of the nation's largest cities - such as Boston, New York, Baltimore, Los Angeles,
and San Francisco.  These provide protected harbors for shipping and have developed
*DonaldW.  Pritchard, "What is an Estuary: Physical Viewpoint,  "Estuaries,
 Publication No. 83 (Washington, D.C.:  American Association for the Advancement
 of Science, 1967), pp 4-5.

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into major terminals for oceanic, river,  and land-based transportation systems.
Coastal highways traverse the estuaries, and airplanes cross the open waters ap-
proaching the nations major airports.  Estuaries are prodigious  growing areas for sea
biota and, at the same time, are viewed as depositories for human wastes and expan-
sion space for real-estate ventures.

    The complexity and variety of estuarine use have been aptly  described in qualita-
tive terms by the literature and by Congressional hearings. *  To provide an analytic
structure for this report, however, the subject was arbitarily divided into seven cate-
gories to represent the primary social and economic uses noted in the literature,  as
well as to comply with the normal areas of specialty favored by scientists.  These
seven categories are: (1) recreation, (2) commercial fishing, (3) wildlife,  (4) extractive
industries, (5) waste assimilation, (6)  land reclamation,  and  (7)  transportation.

    In future decades, new uses of the estuaries may emerge to  replace or supplement
existing uses. A brief survey of the demographic, economic, and technological trends
suggest that intensification of existing uses will be the most probable occurrence in
approaching decades.  The coastal states have experienced the nation's greatest popu-
lation growth, and the demand for commercial construction in the coastal cities indicates
that this trend is persisting.  As the scale of estuarine use rises, greater segregation
of activities appears inevitable.  Aquaculture, the intensive farming of sea animals in
isolated areas of the estuaries will probably occur because of improved technology and
economic demand for the products.  Demands for more urban services will probably
result in more dredging and filling for  offshore facilities. Recreation technology will
continue to make recreational activities more easily accessible to urbanites and intensify
the use of recreational areas.  Desalinization to recover minerals and fresh water ap-
pear inevitable.  Certain types of industry may find it profitable  to locate close  to urban
centers and in the estuarine environment.  Other uses appear increasingly unlikely
despite past publicity.  Tidal power represents one of these categories. Despite a spate
of enthusiasm several years ago when the La Ranee estuary station in Brittany,  France,
was constructed,  the lack of synchronization between the tidal surge and market demand
for energy appears an insurmountable problem. **  Furthermore, the extensive  construc-
tion necessary to obtain an energy head will interfere with other  estuarine uses.
 *As an example of the professional literature in this area, see:  L. Eugene Cronin
  "The Role of Man in Estuarine Processes." George H.  Lauff (ed.), Estuaries,
  Publication No. 83 (Washington, D.C.:  American Association for the Advancement
  of Science, 1967), pp 667-689.
**Jacques Duport,  et al., "Power From the Tides," International Science and Tech-
  nology, No. 41 (May, 1965), p  34. E.M. Wilson, "A New Approach to Power From
  The Tide",  New  Scientist, No. 415 (October 29, 1964),  p 290.

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           SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION
ROLE OF ESTUARINE RECREATION

    Estuarine areas are intensively used for recreation because of the unique combina-
tion of resources and the proximity to population centers. The intensity of recreational
use is expected to increase in the estuaries as population continues to grow in these
areas and as the ability of people to seek outdoor recreation is enhanced. *

    The competition for resources in the estuary has had its greatest impact upon
recreation because of its sensitivity to the environment.  For an estuarine area to be
able to support recreation activities, along with activities which alter the natural en-
vironment such as waste disposal or dredging, costly management is required.   Not
only water quality has to be protected but public access has to be guaranteed. The
following sections discuss each recreation activity and how they have been affected by
changes in the environment.
TYPES OF RECREATION ACTIVITIES

     People rarely have a single activity as the sole objective of a recreational outing.
Boating, one of the most prevalent activites,  is often combined with fishing, cruising,
water skiing, hunting, and even travel or socializing.  Swimming may be combined
with picnicking or camping.  However, clusters of activities that require similar
environmental conditions but differ in sensitivity to environmental quality can be
identified:  (1) swimming and associated shore activities, including picnicking and
camping; (2) sport fishing from shore or small boat; (3) boat-centered activities, such
as cruising or water skiing; and (4) aesthetic appreciation (e.g., nature walks,  bird
watching).
Swimming and Associated Shore Activities

    Available evidence suggests that estuaries provide a minute share'of the nation's
swimming opportunities.  For instance, the most heavily attended beaches in the United
States - in New York (Long Island), Virginia, Massachusetts,  Florida, Maryland, and
*For a comprehensive review of the forces and circumstances surrounding the increased
 demand for outdoor recreational opportunities, see the various reports prepared under
 the auspices of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission and presented
 to the President and to the Congress in 1962.  Also,  Hans H. Landsberg,  Leonard L.
 Fischman, and Joseph L. Fisher, Resources in America*^ Future (Baltimore: Johns
 Hopkins Press,  1963); and Marion Clawson and Jack L. Knetsch,  Economics of Outdoor
 Recreation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968).

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California - generally face an open sea, not an estuary or coastal sound.  Probably
less than 10 percent of the entire coastal swimming activity, or less than 3 percent
of all swimming participation, occurs on estuaries.  At least three circumstances con-
tribute to this situation:

     (1)   A lack of large sandy beaches, surf, and expansive seascape.

     (2)   A lack of public access because of marshy terrain and private development
         along the shoreline.  For example, in all of Maryland's forty-one state parks,
         including those authorized or under construction, only five are on the estuaries.
         In Connecticut, only five of the eighty-two state parks are located on the coast,
         despite a recreation shoreline of 162 miles.

     (3)   Swimming is often prohibited or is disagreeable because of low water quality.
Sport Fishing

    The estuary is a habitat for a large number of sport and commercial fish for all
or part of their life cycle. Some, such as the winter founder, croaker,  and spotted
trout,  are essentially estuarine species while others, such as striped bass, bluefLsh,
and fluke, use the estuary as a nursery zone. Very few estimates have been made of
the estuarine sport fish catch or of the economic impact of estuarine  sport fishermen
on the local economies.

    Gross expenditures by salt-water fishermen give a crude indication  of the value of
coastal and estuarine sport fishing.  The limitations of this data have been discussed
extensively in the literature (See Appendix A).  In addition to its inherent limitations,
the data do not apply only to estuarine areas or to estuarine dependent species.  Their
primary interest for estuarine management is that they give some indication of the size
of the industry and its rate of growth.  For example, sport fishermen spend an average
of $96 per year in this activity and total expenditures on sport fishing have increased
80 percent between 1955 and 1965.  These increases effect the estuary as well as the
coastal areas.
Estuarine Boating

    On a per capita basis, the coastal states do not appear to have a high propensity
tdwards boating activities.  While representing 61.5 percent of the nation's population
in 1966, the coastal states accounted for only 55.4 percent of the total sales in outboard
motors. Only about 25 percent of all pleasure boating is estimated to occur in the
coastal waters.  Most of this boating is in protected areas but the percentage occurring
within the estuary has not been estimated.  Of all the states, Wisconsin led in boat
registrations, with 3.1 times the national average, followed by Minnesota with 2.8 and

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Michigan with 2.3.  While the larger coastal pleasure vessels are generally moored
in estuaries, not all boats registered in coastal states are necessarily used in salt
water, some being maintained at inland lakes and streams.

    In terms of expenditures, boat recreation accounted for an estimated $3 billion at
the retail level during 1966 (again approximately 25 percent would be coastal).  Included
in this total were equipment,  services, insurance, fuel, mooring and launching fees,
and boat club memberships.  In many estuarine areas, marinas have been a major
source of income for the local community.  In a nationwide study of 417 marinas by
the National Association of Engine and Boat Manufacturers, the lack of slips and moor-
ing was reported to be the largest single factor retarding the sale of new boats and
motors. Of the marinas interviewed, 77 percent were completely occupied and more
than half were turning people away.
Aesthetics

    The estuary provides an attractive scenic vista in many of our coastal cities.
Recently, public pressure has been responsible for the establishment of coastal parks,
and esthetic values of the estuarine setting have been considered in urban planning and
management.  Many articles have been written on the value of estuarine areas to urban
communities.* The literature, however, is general and has not attempted to determine
the quantitative or qualitative role of estuarine waters within city limits.

    Besides enhancing the panorama of the city,  some estuaries have been intensively
utilized for active recreational pursuits.  An example would be the Charles River Basin
in the Boston Estuary, where sailing is a popular activity. Sightseeing in New York
Harbor is a popular pastime for tourists, and the recreational opportunities provided
by wildlife in the  estuaries is described in more detail elsewhere in this report.  More
active use of the estuaries is discouraged by commercial shipping interests,  lack of
access, and the polluted condition of the  estuarine waters.
Other Activities

    Because of the versatile and complex nature of the estuaries, numerous other
recreational activities frequently occur on estuarine waters or in the immediate vicinity.
Some hunting for waterfowl, for instance, occurs in  estuaries or in adjoining marshes.
*A typical example would be:  Joseph E. Bodovitz, "San Francisco Bay," Transactions
 of the Thirty-Second North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference
 (March,  1967, pp 120-126.

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The total expenditures by hunters of waterfowl in 1965 amounted to $87.1 million, with
an unknown proportion occurring within the estuarine zone.  As described in the wild-
life section, some waterfowl do depend upon estuaries for part of their habitat, thus
establishing a linkage with the estuaries, even though all hunting may not occur in the
immediate vicinity.

    Occasionally other activities,  such as scuba diving and surfing,  can occur in the
estuarine waters. Normally, though, the waters are too turbid and nutrient laden to
provide visibility required for scuba diving.  The restricted reach of the  estuarine bays,
furthermore,  reduces the suitability for surfing and related water sports.  Spectator
activities,  particularly regattas, are often held on estuaries, but they can be typically
considered boating activities.
ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Because of the growing economic role of outdoor recreation, several studies have
attempted to determine the impact of recreation on the estuaries.  An excellent series
has been conducted by the University of Rhode Island on Narragansett Bay and the
southern New England region.  In a 1963 study of this region, general summer sales,
pleasure-craft building, and operation of boat yards and marinas accounted for less
than 7 percent of the monetary flow, representing expenditures in the vicinity of $10
million.  Expenditures were analyzed to determine how each type benefited the local
community.  From this analysis it was shown, for example, that beaches and museums
contribute little  direct income to the region but attract customers for other services
and equipment.  Marinas and boat yards provide stable year-around employment while
seaside restaurants and hotels conduct about 70 percent of their business between
Memorial Day and Labor Day.
DATA VOIDS

    Until recently, estuarine areas were not recognized as geographic entities for
economic analysis as distinct from river basins or, in some cases, salt-water coasts.
As a result, virtually no recreational data exist for estuaries per se. A few estimates
can be gleaned from more general surveys of fresh or coastal water activities, but
these are not particularly useful for policy-making decisions.   For instance, what
additional recreational opportunities would improved access to  estuaries provide? Or
is pollution a greater deterrent to swimming?  Specifically, surveys are required on
the ORRRC scope to measure recreation activities, such as swimming and boating,
and the environmental factors influencing these activities.
                                        8

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                       SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR
                             COMMERCIAL FISHING
SUMMARJ OF CURRENT SITUATION

    In 1967, United States fishermen received $438 million for approximately 4.06
billion pounds of commercial fish and shellfish. *  It has been estimated that two-thirds
of the total value, or approximately $300 million,  can be considered from estuarine-
dependent species.**  This is a conservative estimate of the direct value derived from
the estuarine fishery for it does not include the value of fish harvested by foreign ves-
sels off the United States coast.  Furthermore, the term "estuarine-dependent" includes
a vast spectrum of biological relationships, and even some continental-shelf species,
such as bluefish,  and most marine predators, including tuna, can be considered depen-
dent upon the estuary as an ultimate source of most of their food.
Industrial Fish Products

    After a period of relative stability, the consumption of industrial fish products
rose almost steadily from a catch weight of 3.2 billion pounds in 1958 to 9.1 billion
pounds in 1967. ***  For the domestic fisherman, this trend was masked by a rising
flow of imports, which represented 35 percent of the total United States supply in 1958
but 82 percent in 1967.  During this period, the domestic industrial fish catch fell from
2.1 to 1.7 billion pounds.

    Fish oil, fish solubles, and fish  meal are the primary industrial fishery products
in the United States market with fish  meal being the principal item, the poultry industry
consuming about 75 percent of the supply.****  However, substitutes for fish meal in
   *Charles H. Lyles, Fisheries of the United States... 1967, C.F.S. No.  4700
     (April 1968) p 4.
  **J. L. Me Hugh,  "Management of Estuarine Fisheries," A Symposium of Estuarine
     Fisheries. American Fisheries Society Special Publication No. 3 (1966), p 134.
 ***Charles H. Lyles, Fisheries of the  United States... 1967.  C.F.S. No.  4700
     (April, 1968), p 53.
****lh 1967,  the supply of fish meal was 1,726 million pounds; fish solubles, 156
     million pounds; and fish oils, 50 million pounds.

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poultry feed have begun to gain wide acceptance, causing price adjustments.*
Fish oil competes with vegetable oils in the internationally edible oils market though
about one-third of the United States fish oil production is used domestically for nonedible
purposes.**
Edible Fish Products

    While per capita consumption of edible fish products was virtually static,  popula-
tion growth caused the market to expand from 4.3 to 5.1 billion pounds between 1958 and
1967.***  During this decade, the proportion of the catch caught domestically de-
clined from 67 to 47 percent, indicating that the expanding domestic market was met
primarily by foreign suppliers. The inroads by imports differed substantially by
species.

    Shrimp,  which had represented about 10 percent by weight of edible fish products
in 1957, rose to about 20 percent by 1967.  While 36 percent of the shrimp in 1957 v.'ex-e
imports, this had risen to 51 percent by 1967.  Tuna consumption rose from 36 to 41
percent of all fishery products while imports rose slightly from 42 percent to  51 percent
of the supply. Salmon and sardines declined in importance relative to the entire fish-
eries market with catches of other species remaining approximately the same in volume.
Affecting the entire market was an increase in processing.  From 1957-67, sales of
prepared fish sticks and portions increased from 83,000 pounds to over 232,000 pounds.
During the same period, production of breaded shrimp increased from 39,000 to 93,000.
pounds.
FUTURE MARKET DEMAND FOR FISH PRODUCTS

    The future world market for fish is expected to increase, but the situation is clouded
by the recent development of new products and changing technology.
  *Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Industrial Fishery Products; 1967 Review,
   Current Economic Analysis n (April, 1968), p 4.
 **For a thorough discussion of projected demand for industrial fish products, see:
   Bureau of Commercial Fisheries,  Projected Needs for Fish Products, Issue Paper
   No. 1, unpublished (May,  1967).
***Charles H. Lyles, Fisheries of the  United States... 1967.  C.F.S. No. 4700
   (April, 1968), p 60.
                                       10

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Industrial Fish Products

    Expanding markets for industrial fish products are expected to result as feed lot
operations for livestock are extended in the United States and introduced in other na-
tions.  Al§o, increased fish production could be absorbed by new products,  such as
fish protein concentrate. On the other hand, numerous protein substitutes, including
petroleum and soy-bean derivitives,  are under development, and the market for in-
dustrial fish at a price now attractive to United States fishermen may further diminish.
The future of this industry seems to be more dependent on the ability of United States
fishermen to compete with imports by lower production costs. This could occur through
either technical innovations or introduction of new species to the market.

    The abundant stock and  schooling characteristics of the herring-like  coupeoid
fishes sought for the industrial market permit the development of large scale automated
equipment and specialization among fishery technicians.  Also, promising new, species
have been identified, such as the thread herring (Opisthonena oglinum) in the Gulf of
Mexico.* At the same time, production costs for competing nations are expected to
rise as wage rates increase and the more easily tapped fishing grounds are depleted.**

    On the basis of income and population projections, the Bureau of Commercial
Fisheries in 1966 made a series of projections for the industrial fish market in the
United States.  From a 1966 base market of 7.04 billion pounds, their "moderate"
market projection was for utilization of 10.2 billion pounds in 1973, 12.8 in 1985,
and 16.1 in  2000.  Since 9.1 billion pounds was marketed in 1967, these estimates
appear to be low.
Edible Fish Products

    The price of edible fish has declined relative to alternative sources of protein
such as meat and poultry.  This relative price decline is primarily a result of increas-
ing fish supplies.  From 1956 to 1966, the world fish and shellfish catch rose 87 percent
or at a compounded rate of 6 percent annually, while the world's population rose about
24 percent,  or 1.7 percent annually. ***

    Increasing affluence in the  United States should increase the demand for more deli-
cate fish products (such as shrimp). New techniques of freezing and preparation will
  *Sykes, p 76.
 **For a more complete analysis of production-cost trends in the world,  see Appendix
   B,  pp 6-10.
***Food and Agriculture Organization,  Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics:  1966,
   Catches and Landings, Vol. 22 (Rome:  1967), Table A2-1.
                                        11

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improve the marketability of fish delicacies.  In a few cases,  particularly salmon,
declines in supply and price indicate that demand has declined.  Economists at the
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries estimate that consumption of edible fish and shell-
fish products should reach 5.9 billion pounds in 1973; 7.8 in 1985; and 12.0 in 2000.*
ESTUARINE DEPENDENCY OF UNITED STATES COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIE B

    Estuarine dependence is a convenient term to describe a normally complex bio-
logical interrelationship between the estuarine environment and an aquatic organism.
The degree of dependency is specie specific, and also varies due to geographical and
climatic circumstances.   Four fundamental types of dependence can be identified as
follows:**

    (1)  Truly estuarine  species - restricted to the estuarine habitat (e.g.,
        the Virginia oyster)
    (2)  Anadromous and catadromous species - dependent upon the estuarine
        zone as a passage between fresh water and the salt water environments
        (e.g., salmon)

    (3)  Seasonally estuarine specie - dependent upon the estuarine environment
        to provide food and, in some cases, spawning areas during a significant
        part of the year  (e.g., spotted hake)

    (4)  Marine species using estuary as a nursery - juvenile stages dependent
        upon the estuary to provide shelter and food, though spawning occurs
        at sea (e.g., shrimp).

    Five of the six leading species by weight, representing over one-half of the
United States commercial fish tonnage in 1967, could be considered estuarine-dependent:
  *Bureau of Commercial Fisheries,  Projected Needs for Fish Products,  Issue Paper
   No.  1, unpublished (May, 1967), p 19.
 **In Fish and Man, Clark described three general patterns for Atlantic fish: (1) the
   Residents, which live primarily in the estuary and are exemplified by the spotted
   sea trout; (2) the Outsiders, which are primarily marine but depend upon the estuary
   for a nursery, such as the fluke and menhaden; and (3) the Insiders, the migratory
   fish that spawn and spend juvenile stages in the estuarine zone, such as the weakfish
   and red fish.
   In "Estuarine Nekton,"  (Estuaries) McHugh describes the four categories listed in
   the text above plus two other types of relationships, fresh water fishes  that enter
   brackish water and adventitious visitors, which occasionally can be found in the
   estuarine environment but cannot be truly described as estuarine-dependent.
                                       12

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menhaden (1.17 billion pounds), crabs (0.32 billion pounds), shrimp (0.31 billion pounds),
salmon (0.21 billion pounds), and flounder (0.11 billion pounds). *  When ranked by
value,  four of the leading six were estuarine-dependent and these four represented 48
percent of the total catch value:  shrimp ($103.1 million),  salmon ($48.6 million),
oysters ($31.6 million), and crabs ($27.1 million).  Shrimp value alone equals the  other
three and accounts for 24 percent of the value of the entire United States catch.  Shrimp
are also  a primary food item for other fish species, such  as the spotted seatrout
(Cynoscion nebulosus), and thus contribute indirectly to these other commercial fisheries.
Estuarine Dependence of Shrimp

    Most of the shrimp catch comes from the Gulf of Mexico.  Three specis are caught
commercially:  the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus). the white shrimp (P. setiferus).
and the pink shrimp (P. duorarum).  Their life is described by Category 4 of the estua-
rine dependencies described previously.  For example, the pink shrimp spawn offshore
about 100 miles from the Florida mainland.  Within 3 to 5 weeks, an estimated 0.05
percent of the original egg crop enters the estuary in the postlarvae stage.** From about
2 up to 9 months, the juvenile shrimp grow to commercial size in the estuary and then
return to the sea where they reproduce.

    The complete role of the estuary in shrimp development is still not thoroughly
understood.  The environment provides food and protection during the rapid growth
stage of the juveniles.  The shrimp's diet during the early stages appears to consist of
estuarine materials, such as polychaete worms, mollusk larvae, fish larvae, and
various bacteria.or molds. Vegetation and debris provide protection from predators.
Sensitivity to Change

    It is currently believed that the important commercial shrimp species cannot exist
outside the estuaries in large quantities. Thus, any dredge and fill activities which
reduce access to estuarine areas will directly effect the size of the crop.  Habitat that
is altered by channelization, changes in salinity, or nutrient flows from waste treatment
plants may have both positive and negative effects, depending on the species, the ecology,
and other natural conditions in the environment.
  *The crab landings include the  King crab, which is not an estuarine-dependent specie.
 ** J. L. Munro,  A. C.Jones, and D. Dimitriou, "Abundance and Distribution of the
  Larvae of the Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) on the Tortugas Shelf of Florida,"
  manuscript (1967).
                                       13

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     Fishermen can respond to deteriorating estuarine conditions by shifting to a less
estuarine-dependent specie, particularly the royal red shrimp (Hymenopenaeus
robustus),  or by developing shrimp aquaculture.  Harvesting the royal red shrimp is
difficult because they tend to run deep and are hard to find. Research in aquaculture
of shrimp in this country has not advanced very far. *
Estuarine Dependence of Menhaden

     Four species of Menhaden are caught commercially in this country: Atlantic men-
haden (Brevoortia tyrannus), Gulf menhaden (B.  patronus),  yellowfin menhaden (B.
smith!),  and finescale menhaden (B,  gunteri).  All species spawn at sea along the con-
tinental shelf, and the larvae then move into the estuaries. ** Menhaden feed on plank-
ton in the estuary.  It is not clear how successful these fish would be if they were
excluded from estuarine areas or if they were forced to feed in highly polluted waters.
It is known that menhaden tend to pick up many parasites and infections which may be
more prevalent in nutrient rich waters.
Estuarine Dependence of Oysters

    Virtually the entire commercial oyster fishery is based on one domestic specie,
the Virginia oyster (Crassostrea virgica).  From about 1890 to 1930, a significant
industry was developed on the Pacific coast using a native Pacific specie, Ostrea lurida,
however, toxic liquid waste from paper mills in the estuaries proved fatal to the larvae
and the fishery collapsed.  Only partial revival was achieved using important seeds of
the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas, which is slightly more tolerant to paper mill
chemicals.

    As an organism, the Virginia oyster is thoroughly adapted to the estuarine eco-
system, appearing to find here  the most appropriate food and substrate conditions.
While it tolerates  salinities as low as 7 ppt in Chesapeake Bay and as high as 30 ppt,
 *G. Robert Lunz, "Farmingthe Salt Marshes," Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary
  Management Symposium (July, 1967), pp 172-177.
**Victor L. loosanoff, "Mariculture...Its Recent Development and Its Future,"
  Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 2 (February,  1965), pp 93-97.
  H.E. Crowther, "BCF Role in Farming of the Sea," 1967 Proceedings of the National
  Shellfisheries Association. Vol. 58 (June, 1968), pp 16-18.
  JohnW. Reintjes and Anthony L. Pacheco, "The Relation of Menhaden to Estuaries,"
  A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries, American Fisheries Society Special Publication
  No.  3, Washington,  D.C. (1966), pp 50-58.
                                       14

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the lower, estuarine salinities are usually considered optimal for growth and defense
from predators. *  Yet the record of the oyster industry in the United States consists
of a continuing series of disasters usually associated with man-made changes in the
estuaries.

     The Pacific coast experience noted earlier has had variations in virtually every
prime oyster-growing area of the country with (1) a form of pollution fatal to the oysters,
(2) a level of pollution which has rendered the oyster unfit for consumption, (3) a loss
of adequate clutch material for the spatfall, both through dredging and silting, (4) pre-
dator increase, (5) disease, or (6),  most commonly, some combination of these.  Dur-
ing the nineteenth Century, Raritan Bay and Jamaica Bay in the New York area were
developed as major centers for oyster  culture with the  Hudson beds providing seed. **
As pollution drove oyster culture from these areas, the Connecticut shore of long Island
Sound became a primary source of seed oysters with the growing beds in Rhode Island,
Massachusetts, Connecticut,  and New York.

     This industry was ruined by the hurricane of 1950 when millions of dollars in oyster
beds and setting grounds were lost.  Efforts to reestablish the industry in the same areas
have failed, partially because of predators, but also presumably because a combination
of estuarine change, such as  dredging and filling, and intolerable levels of industrial and
domestic pollution.  Commercial oyster operations in Rhode Island completely vanished,
almost ended in Massachusetts,  and drastically declined  in Connecticut and New York.
Even the Chesapeake Bay beds were reduced.

     In the past 2  decades, increases of chemical pollutants appear to have decreased
the vigor and, in  some cases, possibly eliminated oyster beds.***  For example, oysters
exposed to concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm of polychlorinated hydrocarbon insecti-
cides, or polychlors, quickly show physiological irritation, and decreased shell growth.
Furthermore, oysters exposed to concentrations of DDT as low as 0.0001 ppm can store
this chemical in tissues to a concentration of 7 ppm, a biological magnification of 70,000
times.  Oysters can flush the pesticide from their bodies and resume normal growth
rates after 10 days in uncontaminated water while body residues are still greater than
than 100 ppm. While the implications for mortality are still not clear, oyster eggs have
  *Gunter, "Some Relationships of Estuaries to the Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico,"
   p 629.
 **David H. Wallace, "Oysters in the Estuarine Environment," A Symposium on
   Estuarine Fisheries, American Fisheries Society Special Publication No. 3,
   Washington, D.C. (1966).
***Philip A. Butler, "The Problem of Pesticides in Estuaries," A Symposium on
   Estuarine Fisheries, American Fisheries Society Special Publication No. 3,
   Washington, D.C. (1966).
                                       15

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had concentrations as high as 25 ppm after the adults have been exposed to 1.0 ppm of
DDT for 12 days, and some experiments have shown  100  percent mortality for oyster
larvae within 6 days with an exposure on only 1.0 ppm DDT.*

    Another aspect of the pollution problem, particularly in southern waters, is the
closing of oyster beds because of high coliform counts. In 1967,  for instance, all beds
in Biloxi Bay, Mississippi, were closed to harvesting, and about 3,000 acres of beds
in Louisiana are estimated to be closed. **  In many cases,  including the beds in  parts
of Biloxi Bay, the oysters are thriving in their high nutrient environment.  Oysters in
beds subject to pollution are even able to tolerate short periods of anaerobic  conditions.

    The future development of the oyster industry appears to be towards controlled
water conditions in ponds and aquaculture.  Hatcheries are being established to produce
seed, and floats are being used to suspend oysters  in layers to increase production per
cubic acre and to protect the oysters from bottom-dwelling  predators,  such as the drills
and starfish.  Depuration plants are being devised to alloy oysters from polluted waters
to purge themselves of pathogenic organisms.
Estuarine Dependence of Other Species

    Each of the other estuarine-dependent species represents a special ecological
situation. The striped bass (Roccus saxatilis), for instance, has shown remarkable
adaptive capabilities to completely fresh-water environments and to different geo-
graphical circumstances. ***. The greater biomass resulting from mild domestic pol-
lution may have enhanced the crop of adult bass. ****  However, the fish remains
   *Harry C.  Davis, "Effects of Some Pesticides on Eggs and Larvae of Oysters
    (Crassoscrea virginica) and Clams (Venus mercenaria)," Commercial Fisheries
    Review, Vol. 23, No. 12 (1961), pp 8-23.
  **T.A. Wastler,  "Municipal and Industrial Wastes in the Estuaries of the South
    Atlantic and Gulf Coasts,1f Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Management
    Symposium July, 1967), p 115.
    Also, see: T.G.Metcalf and W.C.Stiles, "Viral Pollution of Shellfish in Estuary
    Waters," Proceedings of  the American Society of Civil Engineers, No. 6063
    (August, 1968), pp 595-609.
 ***Gerald B. Talbot, "Estuarine Environmental Requirements and Limiting Factors
    for Striped Bass," A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries, American Fisheries
    Society Special Publication No. 3, Washington, D.C. (1966).
****R. j. Mansueti, "Effects of Civilization on Striped Bass and Other Estuarine
    Biota in Chesapeake Bay and Tributaries," Proceedings of the Gulf Caribbean
    Fisheries Institute,  Fourteenth Annual Session (1961),  pp 110-136.
                                       16

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 sensitive to serious pollution conditions, and it is particularly dependent upon stringent
 spawning conditions,  especially an unimpeded fresh-water current with certain velocity
 constraints.  Thus, river barriers can destroy the prerequisite conditions for propaga-
 tion.

     By contrast, the  spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is consistently an estuarine
 fish, preferring the brackish,  nontidal bays such as can be found along the Gulf of
 Mexico.*  This fish can spend its entire life cycle in the estuary, and it possesses an
 exceptional tolerance to salinity variations.  Despite this adaptability, however,  estua-
 rine destruction or creation of barriers between shallow and deep waters will destroy
 the necessary characteristics of its natural habitat.
 FROM CONFLICT TO ACCOMMODATION

     Typically, estuarine change alters the biomass as it effects particular species.
 Urban development along the estuary will create conflicts  as various important species
 are effected.  The conflict can be minimized by zoning,  control, and accommodation.
 The more pervasive of the industrial pollutants can be contained.  Nutrients  from sewage
 can be regulated to prevent annihilation of the natural biota.  Land reclamation with
 relatively high social and economic justification can be permitted while more isolated
 areas canb6 protected from dredging, draining,  or spoil disposal.  Some estuaries can
 be preserve'd while detrimental changes can be balanced by improvement of other parts
 of the estuarine waters.

     An institutional framework is needed to facilitate this  type of management. Vast
 literature is available to document the failure of many existing institutional  structures
 in making reasonable judgments or in enforcing these judgments when made. ** Politi-
 cal manipulations of control agencies, expressions of vested interests,  impotent legal
 structures and instruments, and a severe lack of understanding or appreciation of
 simple ecology has taken an immense toll. With enlightened management providing a
 period of adjustment by both the fish species and the commercial fishing industry, the
 United States commercial fishermen should be capable of meeting both the challenges
 and opportunities of the future.
 *Durbin C. Tabb, "The Estuary as a Habitat for Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus),"
  A Symposium on Estuarine  Fisheries, American Fisheries Society Special Publication
  No. 3, Washington,  D.C. (1966),  pp 59-67.
**As examples, see:  John Clark, Ibid., pp 27-70.
  Charles Chapman, "Channelization and Spoiling in Gulf Coast and South Atlantic
  Estuaries," Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium (July,
  1967), pp  93-106.
  A.R.  Marshall, "Dredging  and Filling," Proceedings of the Marsh and  Estuary
  Management Symposium (July, 1967), pp 107-113.
  Bob Eckhardt, "Death of Galveston Bay," Proceedings of the Thirty-third North
  American Wildlife Conference (1968), pp 79-90.
                                        17

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                 SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR WILDLIFE
    Estuarine wildlife can be classified into four categories with differing economic
significance: (1) fur-bearing mammals, (2) game waterfowl,  (3) "exotic" shore birds,
and (4) the common wildlife that can tolerate human presence.
FUR PRODUCTION

    The fur-bearing mammals that are commercially trapped offer a clear indication
of economic value.  In the 1965-1966 trapping season, trappers in the coastal marshes
of the Gulf and Atlantic states sold about $5 million in fur and possibly another $1 mil-
lion in meat, primarily nutria. * Louisiana was the primary producer with about
1,257,400 nutria; 324,200 muskrat; 78,300 raccoons; 28,200 mink; and 3,600 otter
valued at approximately $4.6 million. Approximately $4 million of this can be attri-
buted to the 3. 5 million acres of coastal marsh.  The annual value of fur production is
highly unstable, varying as much as 50 percent from year to year.

    The primary fur bearers involved are the nutria (Myocastor coypus) in the south
Atlantic and Gulf states, the common eastern muskrat (Ondatra zebethicus) in New
Jersey, the Virginia muskrat (Ondatra z. macrondon) in the central Atlantic states,
and the Louisiana muskrat (Ondatra z. rivalicious) in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
and Texas.  Secondary in importance are the raccoon (Procyon spp.), mink (Mustela
spp.),  and otter (Lutra spp.). Foxes (Vulpes and Urocyon), weasels (Mustela spp.),
opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and bobcats (Lynx spp.) are not sought for their furs
but may occasionally be trapped. **

    For economic levels of fur production, the marshes must be managed specifically
for the fur bearers.  For practical purposes, this means control of undesirable plants,
prevention of excessive populations and, in some cases, control of predators.  The
primary food plant is the threesquare (Scirpus olneyi) and,  to a lesser extent, the cat-
tails (Typha spp.).  Since these are sub-climax plants, they can be superseded by in-
vading needle rush (Juncus roemerianus), cordgrass  (Spartina patens), sawgrass
{Cladium jamaicense), and other undersirable plants. Hence,  the marshes are burned
annually, usually in the fall, and are subsequently flooded to eradicate the pest plants
and enhance growth of the threesquare.
 *Ted O'Neill,  "Comparative Takes of Fur Animals in the United States", Louisiana
  Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (1966).
**Kenneth A. Wilson, "Fur Production on Southeastern Coastal Marshes", Proceedings
  of the Marsh and Estuary Management Sumposium (July, 1967), p 150.
                                        18

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    Saline waters will destroy the marsh vegetation, particularly the threesquare and
cattails,  and one of the prime objectives of using dikes or other water control devices
is to help minimize the intrusion of salt water into the fresh or brackish water of the
producing marshes.  Thus, the marshes managed for fur production are not normally
available for other valuable aquatic species, especially shrimp and estuarine depen-
dent fish.  *
Threats to Fur Production

    Hurricanes and man-made intrusions upon the fur-producing marshes have most
seriously endangered fur-bearing animals and their habitat.  Between 1933 and 1936,
500,000 acres of marsh, mostly in New Jersey,  Delaware, and Maryland, were drained
for mosquito control. *  Some drained areas have returned to their original state,  but
this method of control has continued on a smaller scale in the coastal states,  though
alternatives such as marsh empoundments and fish stocking are equally effective in
controlling the  mosquito, while preserving wildlife habitat. **

    Construction for highways, canals, flood control, dredging for navigation channels,
and the other encroachments of physical development and urbanization are eliminating
or isolating significant areas of marsh.  Industrial activity, particularly in the
Delaware and New Jersey regions,  has polluted large areas, and pesticides are also
believed to be having a significant effect on fur-bearing mammals.

    While man's impact may be the most persistent and significant over an extended
time, no changes introduced by man can rival hurricanes for sheer,  sudden destruction
on a massive scale. Dikes  and levies are breached, and ditches are filled.  Marsh
areas that have been over-grazed are completely gouged out, and the surging storm
tides drown thousands of animals.  Vegetation that remains is scalded by the  salt
water.  The drastic decline in muskrat harvest since World War n appears to have
been precipitated by the 1947 hurricane.  This destruction was compounded by a series
of other hurricanes during the 1950's, and Betsy,  in 1965, succeeded in destroying
some of the rebuilt control works.
Economic Significance of Fur Production

     The harvesting of pelts from marsh animals is a small industry.  Trapping is
normally restricted to several months - 90 days in Louisiana - of the year and usually
  *C.  Cottam, W. S. Bourn,  F. C. Bishopp, L. L. Williams,  and W. Vogt, "What's
   Wrong With Mosquito Control?", Transactions of the North American Wildlife
   Conference. Vol 3 (1938), pp 81-98.
**Otto Florschutz, Quarterly Progress Report, Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration,
   North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission,  Raleigh, N. C., Vol 18 (1965),
   pp  8-26.
                                        19

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supplements income earned from other occupations.  Fur production does not appear to
be affected by man-made estuarine change because the fur-bearing marshes are managed
and because these mammals are particularly sensitive to changes in the ecology.
WATERFOWL

    The dependence of waterfowl on the estuarine zone is both complex and incom-
pletely understood. * The primary sport species,  such as the mallards and  canvasbacks,
have been successfully adapted to man-made changes in their environment, particularly
those changes not  affecting the nesting sites.  In some cases, the cpnstruction of
roads, drainage canals,  and other works have enhanced nesting  areas by stabilizing
water levels, providing flood-proof nesting sites and drought-proof rearing ponds.**
Furthermore, most species do not appear particularly dependent  on any aspect of the
estuarine  zone, being  able to use fresh water marshes, lakes,  and pond"  with equal
ease.  This ambivalence towards the estuarine zone has been sharply enhanced by the
extensive rice cultivation and cattle  farming in the Gulf area, enabling many species,
such as the white-fronted geese, to shift habitats from the  estuarine marshes. Other
species, such as the Canada geese and mallards, have demonstrated even more adapt-
ability, many remaining the entire winter in the fresh-water bodies of the  Midwest,
particularly in  Missouri and Illinois, or in the Midwestern corn and wheat zones.

    While the diving ducks have not  learned to feed on agricultural lands, they tend  to
migrate to deeper  salt-water  environments during the winter.  Even when found in
estuaries,  they do not appear to be sensitive to organic pollution.  Ruddies have been
reported feeding successfully on midge larvae (Chironomidae) in turbid, heavily pol-
luted zones of Chesapeake Bay. *** The long-term effects of this feeding environment
are not known.   A  more significant problem may be the  dependence of many sea ducks
upon small crustaceans, fish, and insects that are estuarine-dependent.

    In  summary,  while waterfowl are frequently observed in the  estuarine  areas, they
do not appear dependent upon specific estuarine  conditions. There are some exceptions,
such as the American brant, but research has not determined the relationship between
altered habitat  and declining numbers.
  *John J. Lynch, ''Values of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marshes and Estuaries
   to Waterfowl", Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium
   (July,  1967), pp 51-63.
 **Ibid.,  p61.
***Lynch, p 59.
                                       20

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THE "EXOTIC" SHORE AND SEA BIRDS

    Rarely having direct economic value except as a component of the natural ecosys-
tem, the "exotic" shore and sea birds are a particularly aesthetic attraction among
our national fauna.  These birds are generally more dependent upon estuarine conditions
than the more mobile waterfowl and, in addition, have demonstrated a considerably
greater sensitivity to the overall encroachment of man. The saga of the whooping
crane is well known and documented; the trials of several other groups, such as the
egrets,  have received periodic  publicity.  In  general, few of these exotic species are
now in danger of extinction. Respectable numbers can be maintained by wise planning
and reasonable provisions incorporated in the development of the estuarine  zones.*
Pelicans, Cormorants, Eagles, and Ospreys

    The larger fish-eaters of the United States coast appear among the most threatened
of the bird life by changing environmental conditions,  especially in the estuaries.  The
Department of Interior has officially listed the southern subspecies of the bald eagle
as an endangered species. **  The brown pelican has already disappeared from the Gulf
Coast of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, where it was a common sight
prior to 1960. Since this  disappearance coincided with the heavy fish kills of 1960-
1964 in the lower Mississippi River, which were caused by excessive residues of
pesticides, especially endrin, it was assumed that the dead and dying pelicans ob-
served during that period had accumulated lethal dosages.***  The assumption was
not verified however, and another theory used to explain the lack of  any resurgence
by the species was the destruction of nesting grounds in black mangroves by the
severe  cold.   (Ayicennia nitrica).

    Except for about 50 pairs of bald eagles nesting in the  Everglades National Park,
the population of bald eagles  has suffered a sharp decline in the past  3 decades.  In
the Chesapeake Bay area, nesting success has  dropped from over 50 to 15 percent.
About 70 percent of the southern subspecies nest in either marsh or estuarine areas,
and the general assumption is that they are also suffering from the dual pressures of
pesticide residues in the estuaries and more blatent inroads by man,  including
vandalism.****
   *Alexander Sprunt,  IV, "Values of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marshes and
    Estuaries to Birds Other Than Waterfowl", Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary
    Management Symposium (July, 1967), pp 64-72.
  **Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife,  Rare and Endangered Fish and Wildlife
    of the United States. Resources Publication No.  34, Washington, D.C. (1966).
 ***Donald I. Mount and George J. Putnicki, "Summary Report of the 1963 Mississippi
    Fish Kill",  Transactions of the Thirty-First North American Wildlife and Natural
    Resources Conference (1966), pp 177-184.
****Sprunt, p 68.
                                       21

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      Similar declines have been occurring in the populations of ospreys, though geo-
graphically the changes have not coincided with those of the eagles. Very little re-
search has been performed on the particular problems of the ospreys,  and a reason-
able understanding of the relationships between the osprey population and the environ-
ment has not been achieved.  Both birds depend upon the fish population of the estua-
rine areas,  including mullet and catfish.

The Waders

      The 80 species of waders, which include the egrets, storks, herons, ibis, and
spoonbills, are predominantly residents of the southern United States,  particularly in
Florida.  The recent drought in the Everglades has drastically reduced the number of
these species in Florida.  For some species, this represents a serious setback in
their gradual recovery from near extinction at the hands of the plume hunters.  Waders
elsewhere on the southern coast have also diminished in numbers, apparently because
of irresponsible shooting and man-made environmental changes.

Other Species

      Numerous species of marsh birds,  such as the rails and gallinules, are distrib-
uted throughout the marsh zones, but there is no evidence that they are estuarine-
dependent in a strict sense.  Shore birds, such as the golden plover, are a diverse
and mobile family that are  not dependent upon the estuary per se, though large-scale
mortalities have occurred under certain estuarine conditions, such as concentrated
pesticide pollution.  Many of the gulls, such as the laughing gull,  frequent the estu-
aries during the winter months.  Some, such as the gull-billed heron, utilize offshore
islands  for nesting and have been displaced when these islands have been developed.
As the marshes and underbrush of the estuaries are removed, still more families,
such as the blackbirds, grackles and seaside sparrows, will be affected.

COMMON WILDLIFE

      For many of the major cities in the United States, such as New York, Boston,
San Francisco, the estuaries represent the most striking expanses of open space with-
in the vista of the urban dweller. For example, the boundaries of municipal New York
enclose 320 square miles of land and 65 square miles of water  In every case, this
open expanse also harbors  innumerable wildlife forms that are increasingly counted
among a city's significant resources.  Within the past 2 decades,  urban dwellers have
shown an increasing interest in nature studies and the myriad facets of their immedi-
ate natural environment.  During the summer of 1960, the National Recreation Survey
indicated that about 98 million activity days had been occupied by  nature walks.  By
                                       22

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 the summer of 1965, the nature walks had increased to 117 million activity days, a
 rise of 19 percent over a period of 5 years. * The National Wildlife Federation
 initiated the magazine National Wildlife in 1963 with 60, 000 circulation.   By 1967.
 circulation stood at 250,000.  Within 10 years, membership in The Wilderness Society
 rose from 9,JOOO to 36,000.  Bird watching has become the subject of considerable
 public amusement but also attracts dedicated devotees.

      Many of the major cities have had studies published of their natural history,
 John Kieran's Natural History of New York City being perhaps the best known. **  The
 variety of estuarine wildlife that he describes is typical of the subjects sought by
 amateur urban naturalists.  If the water is sufficiently free of pollution,  colonies of
 sponges can be found on the bottom with other forms of submarine life including sea
 anemones, jellyfish, ribbon worms, and numerous crustaceans.  The latter could
 include water fleas, copepods, barnacles, blue crabs,  hermit crabs, calico crabs,
 fiddler crabs, grass shrimp,  and sand shrimp. As the tides recede, numerous shells
 can be found, including those of the horseshoe crabs, whelks, snails,  periwinkles,
 and possibly 40 to 50 species of oysters,  clams,  scallops, mussels, and other bi-
 valves.  Starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers are among the more picturesque
 members of the estuary life.  Thirty-one species of amphibians, including salaman-
 ders, frogs,  and toads,  have been recorded in New York State,  most of them fresh-
 water species but a few being fouai in the brackish areas of the estuary. Occasionally,
 the saddleback or harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and the  harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)
 can be seen during the winter in the Lower Bay.  Vegetation bordering the tidal flats
 can harbor raccons, mink,  weasels, skunks, and similar common mammals.

      The richest variety of wildlife for a city located in an estuary is in the variety
 of waterfowl, shore birds,  and sea birds. On a tonnage basis, Kieran estimates that.
 the approximately 50, 000 heron gulls typically found within New York City during
 January would outweigh all  the starlings and, possibly, the pigeons too.   Other sea
 birds would include the ring-billed gull, the great black-backed gull, the laughing gull,
 the Bonaparte's gull, the glaucous gull, the Iceland gull,  the black-legged Mttiwake,
 the common tern, the reseate tern, Forster's tern, the Arctic tern, the least tern,
 the black tern, the black skimmers, the gannet. In the early 1960's, the  Department of
 Parks established the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge to provide nesting grounds for sea
 birds as well as various marsh birds.  Even a novice bird watcher can identify the
 common loon, the red-throated loon, and the horned grebe in the offshore waters.
 Canada geese occasionally nest within the city  limits,  and the brant has  been returning
 to New York City in increasing numbers with the resurgence of eelgrass growth in the
 * Stuart T. Davey, "The Role of Wildlife in an Urban Environment",  Transactions of
   the Thirty-Second North American Wildlife and Natural Resources  Conference
   (March, 1967), pp 50-60.
   See also: Forest W.  Stearns,  "Wildlife Habitat in Urban and Suburban Environment",
   Transactions, pp 61-69.
   Robert H. Twiss,  "Wildlife in the Metropolitan Landscape", Transactions, pp 69-74.
** John  Kieran, Natural History of New York City (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959).
                                        23

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estuary.  Only one duck, the black duck, can be found during the entire year, but
numerous species including the American widgeon, the mallard,  the gadwall, the
pintail, the blue-winged teal,  green-winged teal, shoveler,  greater scaup, lesser
scaup, redhead, canvasback,  goldeneye, bufflehead,  and old squaw, can be found in
Jamaica Bay during the fall, winter, and spring.  This list does not include the waders,
shore birds,  and marsh birds. Nor does it include the species of fish that the fisher-
men of the harbor bring from the water.

CONCLUSION

      As these discussions indicate, the principal value of estuarine wildlife lies with-
in the social  realm, and is not readily convertible into monetary terms.  It is in the
social province that the significant increases in value will appear as populations in-
crease and natural areas become more remote from the urban centers.  Concurrently,
the monetary value of estuarine uses conflicting with wildlife will rise, intensifying an
already-existing conflict.   But the nature of the wildlife generally appears sufficiently
adaptable that compromise and planning can both preserve the major wildlife populations
and serve the critical needs of our society.
                                        24

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         SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR WATER TRANSPORTATION
                           AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

INVENTORY OF ESTAURINE PORTS
     The nation's estuaries provide the physical, social, and economic conditions re-
quired for an effective system of water terminals serving international trade and
costal shipping.  According to the Maritime Administration's "Listing of Existing
Capital Plant of Ports and Terminals", about 1,626 marine terminal facilities in 1966
were providing deepwater berths in 132 estuarine ports on the Atlantic,  Gulf, and
Pacific coasts, including Alaska and Hawaii. A far greater number of marine termi-
nals could accommodate vessels with a berthing requirement of less than 20 feet in
depth.

      In 1965,  the 132 estuarine ports handled 346,315,000 tons of foreign trade cargo,
which represented 78 percent of the total United States foreign trade, or 90 percent of
all coastal ports' foreign trade. The composition of estuarine port traffice in 1965
can be summarized as follows:

                  SELECTED ESTUARINE PORT TRAFFIC:  1965

                                  Million Tons

      Foreign Trade            Coastal            Local            Total,
         346.3                  332.1             288.2             966.6
      In terms of total number of vessels,  the port of New York carries the largest
volume by a significant margin (see Table  1).  For example, a total of 24, 580 arrivals
and departures were counted at the port of New York during 1964. *  Of these, 18,682
*U. S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
Wastes From Watercraft.  Report to the Congress, 90th Con.,  1st Ses., Senate Docu.
No. 48 (August, 1967), p 56.
                                       25

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 carried dry cargo or passengers and were divided in registration between 6,625
 American-flag and 12,057 foreign-flag watercraft.  The remaining 5,098 vessels were
 tankers, 3,153 being American-flag and 2,745 being foreign-flag.

       No published data are available listing revenues from all coastal ports.  However,
 a report prepared by the Maritime Administration indicated that 77 coastal and 40
 Great Lakes ports listed earnings (value added by transportation services) of about
 $5. 6 billion in 1963 from the cargo  passing through the water transportation system. *
 Many ports calculate the direct revenue to the port community of a ton of general car-
 go at about $16 to $20.  Other types of cargo  - petroleum, coal,  ore, grain, etc. -
 similarly produce direct but varying revenues,  Applying these 1963  direct revenue
 factors to the 132 estuarine port traffic estimates in 1965,  a conservative dollar value
 of cargo earnings would be approximately $4. 7 billion.  In the city of New York, about
 430,000 persons are believed to be  employed in activities directly related to the port
 operations, and their total salaries and wages are in the vicinity of $2.1 billion per
 year.  Assuming that ship arrivals  and departures are a crude indicator of the order
 of magnitude of port employment, the major ports listed in Table 1 probably account
 for roughly $10 billion in salaries and wages  each year for approximately 2 million
 persons.

     TABLE 1.  ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF OCEANGOING WATERCRAFT
               AT MAJOR PORTS OF THE UNITED STATES DURING 1964
Port
New York
Philadelphia
Hampton Roads
Baltimore
New Orleans
Los Angeles - Long Beach
San Francisco
Houston
Seattle
Boston
Portland, Oregon
Arrivals and Departures
(Combined)
24, 580
13,791
11,353
10,734
10,400
9,467
9,081
8,372
4,171
4,168
4,081
Number of Watercraft
(Estimated)
12,290
6,895
5,676
5,367
5,200
4,733
4,540
4,186
2,085
2,084
2,040
Source: U.S. Department of the Interior, FWPCA, Wastes from Watercraft.
* "The Economic Lnpace of Unites States Ocean Parts", Maritime Administration,
  U. S. Department of Commerce, Government Printing Office, 1966
                                         26

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ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL WATERCRAFT

      Despite the advantageous economic aspects of the nation's water transport
system, the system as it now operates has created several serious environmental
problems, particularly in the estuaries.  First, commercial transport vessels have
been shown to be significant contributors to estuarine pollution. * Commercial water-
craft are estimated to be responsible for about 39 percent of human waste loading from
watercraft in United States waterways, or the equivalent of approximately 200,000
residents compared to the equivalent of approximately 513, 000 persons in waterways
during 1967. ** While the total level of watercraft pollution rarely exceeds 5 percent
of the pollution found in an entire drainage basin, this part of the pollution is usually
concentrated in a relatively small dock area of a harbor or in restricted navigation
channels.  Typically,  the dock areas are in urban regions of exceptionally high popula-
tion density where human waste pollution is particularly objectionable.

      Besides human wastes, commercial watercraft are serious - if not the primary -
sources of polluted ballast and bilge water, waterways litter, and oil discharges into
navigable estuaries.  In some cases, such as the rock phosphate carriers docking at
Sacremento, California, or the floating crab  canneries in the harbor of Kodiak, Alas-
ka, commercial vessels can even be significant sources of industrial-type pollutants.

      A second, less manageable problem posed by commercial shipping is the phy-
sical alteration of the estuaries to service the transport system.  Bulkheads are con-
structed as docks, supplanting the shallow marshes sought by juvenile fish.  Naviga-
tional channels are dredged,  altering the salinities and currents, while the spoil banks
block access to the marshes.  Shore structures are raised for warehouses and mainte-
nance facilities, occupying prime recreational lands and altering the natural appear-
ance of the shoreline.  Integrated land transportation systems, including railroads
and highways,  are constructed, sending silt into the estuaries and blocking or  elimi-
nating marshes.  Even the location of industrial, commercial, and residential struc-
tures in port cities is affected by the presence of commercial shipping.

USE OF THE ESTUARIES FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE

      Estuaries and,  more specifically, ocean terminals  are unavoidably essential
elements in the national defense system.  Furthermore, the location of these deep-
water terminals has critically influenced the location of other defense installations as
well as the industrial complexes necessary for the logistical support in the defense
effort. Quantification of the Department of Defense's overall dependence on estuaries,
*For a comprehensive summary of the watercraft pollution situation, refer to: U. S.
 Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Wastes
 From Watercraft. Report to the Congress, 90th Con.,  1st Ses., Senate Docu. No. 48
 (August,  1967)
**Ibid., p 48.
                                        27

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however,  is not easily derived, since most of the data available, such as fund expendi-
tures,  employment statistics, and investment in real property, are aggregated on an
area or installation basis without special identification of estuary-related activities.

     Employment data maintained by the Economic Studies Division,  Office of the
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Systems Analyses),  indicate that during 1966 about
1 million civilians and 1. 8 million military personnel were employed by the defense
establishment in installations located in coastal SMSA's (Standard Metropolitan Statis-
tical Areas). *  Another 1. 6 million civilians were employed at defense plants in these
cities.   California was the most affected,  accounting for more than one-third of the
employment in each category.

     Another indication of the Department of Navy's use of estuaries is the number of
ships in commission.  This number has fluctuated between a high of 1, 030 in 1955 to a
low of  812 in 1960.  For 1969, the number of ships expected to be in commission is
960. These vessels require extensive shoreside logistical support facilities as well
as berthing structures that will normally be located within or adjacent to the estuarine
system.

     Another dimension of the Department of the Navy's involvement in estuaries is
the expenditures allocated for vessel construction, repair, and modernization.  During
1968, these expenditures were expected to account for $1. 8 billion, with 34 major
ships involved.  Since 1959, Navy shipyard employment has fluctuated between 80, 000
and 100, 000 persons.  In 1965, the most recent figure available, the average payroll
per employee was $7,268, which indicates that the national payroll from all shipyards
with defense vessels may have been in the vicinity of $675 million in 1967.  To this
should be added the funds allocated for Naval shipyard modernization, an effort that
cost $31 million in fiscal year 1968.   In six  of the nation's estuaries,  reserve merchant
fleets are maintained. While not all of the vessels anchored in the fleet are maintained
on a regular basis, expenditures for preservation and cathodic protection plus over-
head costs were about $4,340 per maintained vessel. Thus, the reserve fleet required
an appropriation of $5.4 million for fiscal year 1968, with approximately $2.4 million
being spent for local personnel services.

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF NATIONAL DEFENSE ACTIVITIES

     In some respects,  the effects of national defense efforts in the estuaries have
not differed significantly from those of commercial shipping.  Very few of the approxi-
mately 700 U.S. Navy vessels operating in our territorial waters are equipped with
sewage treatment devices; and less than one-third of the 325 U. S.  Coast Guard water-
craft operating entirely in United States waters have even rudimentary sewage treat-
ment facilities. ** None of the Maritime Administration's reserve fleet vessels
* Data provided by the Economic Studies Division, Assistant Secretary of Defense
  (Systems Analyses).
** U. S.  Department of the Interior, FWPCA, p 48.
                                        28

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activated for service by the Military Sea Transport Service (MSTS) during the Viet Nam
war have any type of sewage treatment devices.  Thus, the National Defense vessels
(excluding MSTS vessels) account for about 28 percent of the human waste loading
placed in national waterways by watercraft, the equivalent of a resident population of
140,000 persons. Similarly, many of the shore facilities, particularly the urban
shipyards,  offer the same sterile appearance and indirect degradation of the estuaries.

      However, in a few cases, the coastal defense facilities, such as Fort Hancock
(Sandy Hook), New Jersey, and the John F, Kennedy Space Center (Cape Kennedy),
have preserved valuable estuarine  coastline from indiscriminate development. Even
here, though, the record is far from favorable, since some valuable Department of
Defense lands on estuaries have reverted to highly commercial and physically developed
uses incompatible with general or recreational activities.  One example would be the
acquisition of National Park lands in the Florida barrier islands  during World War n,
then the postwar allocation of coastal tracts to private developers.
                                       29

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             SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR LAND RECLAMATION
INTRODUCTION

      A pattern of conflicting, often overlapping motivations has brought about the
filling of "reclaimed" estuarine wetlands.  Wetlands have been filled with dredged
muds and trash from coastal cities.  They have been drained for mosquito control and
have been used for salt evaporation beds and for agriculture.  They have been sought
for water-oriented uses, such as commercial port facilities and recreational boating,
and land-oriented uses, such as housing,  industrial sites, roadways,  and airports.
Historically, land-use patterns on the former wetlands have been determined by the
value of adjacent land, development costs, and the market price of the wetlands to a
potential developer.  Qualitative factors,  such  as the aesthetic quality of the land and
water, are now receiving more consideration by agencies responsible for estuarine
management.

QUANTITY OF FILLED ESTUARINE WETLANDS

      According to a 1958 survey by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, estu-
aries of the United States encompassed 26.6 million acres of water,  both shallow and
deep (see Table 2).  In 1967, another brief survey indicated that only 7.7  million
acres of this entire area could be considered prime estuarine habitat for wildlife,
including aquatic species.  Unfortunately, this  is primarily the shallow areas and is
thus most easily filled for development purposes.  Approximately 7 percent of these
habitat wetlands have already been filled within the past 20 years; in some urbanized
areas, the proportion is  considerably higher.   About 45 percent of the basic habitat
loss occurred in California, where 243 square  miles of wetlands had been filled by
1957 in San Francisco Bay.

      The New York metropolitan area and the  Florida peninsula were other areas of
particularly rapid filling. Around Long Island, for example,  12,635 acres of wetlands
out of a total of 43,215 available in 1954 had been filled by 1964.

USES OF FILLED LAND

      The uses of filled estuarine lands are integrated with the uses of adjacent shore-
line.  Where the shoreline property is residential, filled land will probably serve as
residential or recreational uses.  Harbor facilities on the shore are often extended,
and filled lands adjoining commercial areas will carry either a transportation corridor
or additional commercial property.  On Long Island, primarily a residential area,
34 percent of the filled land has been for residential development, while in San
Francisco Bay, filled lands have generally been for  recreation, salt evaporation
ponds, agriculture, and transportation.   In Florida, approximately 60, 000 acres
have been filled for residential development, while land fill in Texas and  Louisiana


                                       30

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has generally been undeveloped spoil areas from navigation channels.  In Galveston
Bay alone, approximately 67,000 acres of marsh - about 16 percent of the total marsh-
land - have been either dredged or filled (see Table 3 for examples of uses made of
filled wetlands).

      In the 1956 wetlands inventory, estuarine wetlands were rated on the basis of the
threat of filling.  About 4. 8 million acres of shallow wetlands, or 18 percent of the
total estuarine area and 62 percent of the important habitat area, were considered in
this category.  The wetlands  study in Long Island during 1963 placed 79 percent of the
island's shallow coastal wetlands in this category.

SOURCES OF FILL

      Disposal of spoil from navigation channels is the most common reason wetlands
have been filled.  Even in the highly populated Northeastern area the necessity of dis-
posing of the dredged spoil has been listed as the major reason for filling land (see
Table 3).   Ultimately, the Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for the maintenance
of the nation's navigation channels and harbors and,  in most cases, the work is con-
ducted under its direct supervision and financing.  During Fiscal Year 1968, the
estimated budget for this phase of its operations was $83. 0 million,  and the Corps'
budgetary request for 1969 was $74.2 million.  Approximately one-half, or $36. 0 mil-
lion,  was for projects in coastal areas.  While considerable dredging is contracted,
the Corps is believed to own over one-third of the nation's dredging capacity.

DISPOSAL PRACTICES

      Dredging-conducted by the Corps of Engineers is usually at the request of local
interests who provide areas for the disposal of the spoil or approve the Corps' selected
site.  Since the Federal government does not recover any of its  cost by direct use of
dredged material, the Corps is motivated to find a site that is close  to the dredge area
and requires a minimum of preparation.

OVERBOARD DISPOSAL

      When discarded directly from the dredge, spoil may be pumped considerable dis-
tances to a deep-water site or it may be distributed on adjacent  shallow areas.
Pumping to adjacent shallows is less expensive but the deposits  are then susceptible
to resuspension by wind-wave energy.  During the period of compaction, the spoil
material may tend to drift into the deeper waters again,  thus requiring further
dredging.  In addition,  spoil  deposited in the shallow areas destroys the flora and
less mobile bottom fauna.

      Deep-water spoil disposal is less destructive, since the flora is less  dense and
the fauna species tend to be more mobile.  If a deep canyon is chosen for deposition,
it can act as a natural container and reduce the spread of the spoil material.  Also,
wave action is reduced at the greater depths and will affect the spoil less.   Whichever
alternative is chosen, it normally becomes controversial.  The spoil from the
Baltimore Harbor maintenance project is deposited in a canyon near Kent Isalnd.  The
                                        31

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Bay was less productive and had also been the most altered by filling.  However, the
filling was associated with higher pollution levels and it was not possible to separate
the two  effects.

      In Chesapeake Bay,  the high land values on the western shore have forced the
Army Corps of Engineers to decrease on-shore dumping of spoil and to increase over-
board disposal.  The Corps has attempted to show that overboard disposal spoil from
the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal project will not harm nursery areas in the upper bay.
Their conclusions were based on the timely phasing of dredging to avoid the spawning
season.  Biologists hired by the State of Maryland disagreed with the Corps' conclu-
sions.  An alternative dumping site on federal property at Aberdeen Proving Grounds
was suggested.  This location would increase the project's coast by $33 million and
delay its completion by 1 year according to the Engineers.

      A recent study of spoil disposal practices has been conducted in the Chesapeake
Bay by the Natural Resourses Institute,  University of Maryland.  An interim report
indicated that the sediments spread over an area at least five times as large as the
designated disposal area.  The nutrient  chemical outflow was equivalent to the sewage
from a town of about 10, 000 persons. No gross effects were observed on the micro-
scopic plants and animals in the water,  on the eggs and larvae of fish, nor on adult
fish held in cages near the outflow and caught in the area. Some bottom animals were
smothered over a wide area,  other species survived deposition,  and certain species
begin repopulation immediately.
Concentrated Spoil Deposits
      Spoil has been carried considerable distances to be dumped on wetlands, in a
bank adjacent to the dredged channel, and in offshore islands.  The dumping of the
material in bars adjacent to the dredged channel is more common in less populated
areas and represents the principal means of disposal when channels are dredged for
access to offshore drilling rigs in the Gulf of Mexico.  This practice often cuts off
large sections of the estuary from swimming species, and the stagnant pools remain-
ing behind the bars have little biological value.   Furthermore, since the bottom muds
in many waterways are polluted, they create unpleasant odors and are aesthetically
unattractive when deposited in bars or islands.   On some occasions, though, the Corps
and others have claimed that these bars may serve as locations for oyster beds and
nutrient-rich areas for other forms of wildlife.

      In the Chesapeake Bay estuary, spoil has been deposited in islands to serve as
wildlife sanctuaries.  A harbor channel project now under consideration includes plans
for dumping material in a spoil island to be developed for recreation.  One island in
the northern part of the bay already has been developed in this manner, and a third is
being proposed south of Havre de Grace.
                                      32

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oyster industry is currently opposed to any extension of the spoil area southward in
the canyon because of possible damage to oyster beds.   The Corps, however, claims
that the nutrient enrichment will beneficially affect the area's wildlife.   The present
spoil site is known as an excellent sport fishing area.

Effects of Overboard Disposal on Wildlife

      Dredged material pumped overboard increases the silt level  and turbidity in the
water.  Normally, the silt level will be determined by water turbulence, direction and
velocity of coastal currents, and the rate of soil erosion from higher surrounding ele-
vations.  Thus,  overboard disposal has to be evaluated in terms of the natural level of
silt already existing in the water.

      The effects of dredging on oysters was studied in shallow bays of Louisiana by
John G. Mackin of the Texas A. & M. University under a grant from four large petro-
leum companies. Three dredging operations were examined: a hydraulic dredge
depositing on a spoil island, a clam dredge operating in a canal, and a hydraulic dredge
depositing in a half-fan circle.  The results showed that the silt stirred up by the
dredge was carried a maximum of 1,300 feet with rapid dispersal by dilution and
sedimentation.  A maximum of 1 percent of the material was observed to be drifting
 away from the immediate site of deposition. Turbidities beyond a few hundred feet did
not exceed the natural levels,  and no harmful effects were observed on the oyster beds.
He concluded that oxygen depletion with dredging in Louisiana marshes was a relative-
ly minor factor  and was not responsible for fauna and flora mortality.

      A study of sediment dispersal around a "spoil island" in Redfish Bay near
Aransas Pass, Texas, was conducted by T.  R.  Hellier, Jr. and L. S.  Kornicker, In-
stitute of Marine Science, University of Texas.  Their purpose was to determine the
effect of dredging on marine life, and examinations of conditions before and after sedi-
ment deposition in the bay showed that erosion from the "spoil island" was completely
deposited less than 1  mile from the spoil bank.   Beyond 0. 5 miles, siltation had little
effect on the existing  biota.

      Heavy covers of loose and watery anaerobic muds have been observed near
dredged areas.  These muds can be tolerated by only a few forms of animal life and
serious ecological effects can be caused by their deposition.  When the Julia Tuttle
Causeway was built in the early 1950's in Biscayne Bay, Florida,  the bottom vegetation
consisting of algae and sea grasses was eliminated over an area more than 1 /2 mile
from the causeway site.  At Hillsborough Bay, Florida, an improperly diked fill site
spread muds over 250-300 acres of adjacent bay bottoms in 1966.   Vegetation was com-
pletely destroyed,  and a bird sanctuary enveloped by the muds was abandoned by most
of the population of American egrets, brown peltsans, cormorants, and wood ibises.

      One of the conservationist's most difficult tasks is to persuasively estimate the
quantitative  results of a particular dredge-and-fill proposal.   Only a few steps have
been taken to obtain the data necessary for such predictions.   One study conducted by
Sykes and Finucane examined the overall effect of bay alteration on a large number of
species of juvenile fin fish and shellfish.  Comparing Old Tampa Bay with Hillsbouough
                                        33

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EXAMPLES OF INTENSIVE SPOIL SITE DEVELOPMENT
      Industrial development has been a favored use for spoil sites for decades.
Since the early part of this century, dredged spoil in the port of Portland, Oregon, has
been used to develop industrial sites,  an airport,  and shipbuilding facilities.  Similar
projects have developed on Long Island, in New Jersey, and along the shores of
Manhattan.

      Estuaries have been particularly favored for airports, partially because filled
wetlands were easily accessible from the core city and partially because approaches
over water minimized the noise nuisance.  Both factors appear destined to intensity in
the next decade.  Little immediate success is promised for quieter jet aircraft,  and
the cost of vast acreages of land within convenient access to the major cities continues
to rise.  Three West Coast cities, San Diego,  Seattle, and Los Angeles,  are presently
considering Pacific Ocean locations for landing fields.  Chicago continues to look to-
wards Lake Michigan,  and Boston periodically revives a plan for a new offshore jetport.
Studies  to determine the effects of high noise levels on the estuarine ecology, however,
have not been performed.
THE PROBLEM OF EVALUATING WETLAND WORTH
      The market value of filled wetlands depends upon (1) the value of lands in the im-
mediate vicinity and (2) the quality of the land which is created by the fill material.
Since both factors vary from site to site, no general conclusions about price levels can
be drawn.  However, for various reasons,  some users are normally excluded by the
mechanisms of this market.  Organizations of oyster fishermen, for instance, have
rarely attempted to purchase rich oyster beds in order to protect their incomes;
organized commercial fishermen have not tried to purchase coastal wetlands  to pre-
serve nursery and feeding areas.  One reason for this lack of land-market participa-
tion by commercial users is that no way exists to prevent outsiders from benefiting
from the preserved lands; that is, there is no way for the landowners to control the
benefit stream from their capital investment.  A second factor preventing some users
from participating in the wetland market is the low profit margin on the products they
market.  No single producer can normally afford to pay the  high capital costs repre-
sented by wetland purchases and still remain competitive.  Another problem is simply
knowledge and education, since few oystermen and, to a lesser extent, fishermen gene-
rally have the understanding and training necessary to increase the financial complex-
ity of their operation.

      Since rigorous tools have not been developed for determining the dollar value of
undeveloped estuary lands, natural value is being decided by political action.   Among
the groups attempting to inform the political establishment of the value of these lands
to their natural users are the Natural Conservancy, the Izaak Walton League, the
National Wildlife Foundation,  the Sport Fishing Institute, the Wildlife Management
                                        34

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Institute, the American Fisheries Society, the American Littoral Society, and the many
local chapters of the Audubon Society.  The Natural Conservancy, in particular, has
taken positive action by purchasing valuable estuarine habitat for public use.
COSTS OF DEVELOPING WETLANDS


      The costs of filling wetlands for development vary considerably depending on the
following:

      (I)  Quantity and quality of fill required

      (2)  Distance which fill must be transported

      (3)  Nature of the structures which the land is being designed to support
      (4)  Local labor and equipment costs.

      A survey of ten fill projects in San Francisco Bay from 1938 to 1958 indicated an
average cost of $8,300 per acre (unadjusted price levels).  The California State Divi-
sion of Water Resources in 1955 estimated costs of reclaiming San Francisco Bay wet-
lands at from $22,000 to $27,000 per acre.  In many cases, however, fill can be ob-
tained without costs to the owner of the land simply by opening the area to excavators,
dredge operators,  and even sanitary land-fill operators.


CONCLUSION
      Conflicts are continuing to emerge in estuarine management partially because
(1) convenient tools of benefit and cost analysis are lacking and (2) a diverse array of
commercial and recreational users benefit from the areas.  Many persons are them-
selves multiple users, including the fishermen who steers through a dredged channel
to reach productive fishing areas or the land developer who depends on the aesthetic
characteristics of the bay to maintain the value of his newly filled land.  These multi-
ple users will continue to complicate the decision-making problems df politically
responsive groups who are trying to deal with the conflict situations arising over use
of estuaries.
                                       35

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TABLE 2.  FISH AND WILD LIFE ESTUARINE HABITAT LOST IN PAST 20 YEARS


State


Alabama
Alaska
California
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan**)
Mississippi
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
New York
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Texas
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin (a)
Total
Total 0»
Acres of Estuaries

Total
Area

530, 000
11,022,800
552, 100
31,600
395, 500
1,051,200
170, 800
3,545,100
39,400
1,406,100
207,000
151,700
251,200
12,400
778,400
376,600
48, 900
2,206,600
37,200
57,600
5,000
94, 700
427,900
1,344,000
1,670,000
193, 800
10,600
26,618,200
26,369,800
Basic Area
of
Improtant
Habitat
132,800
573, 800
381,900
20,300
152,400
796,200
125,000
2, 076,900
15,300
376,300
31,000
151,700
76,300
10,000
411,300
132, 500
48, 900
793,7,00
37,200
20,200
5,000
14,700
269, 400
328,100
428,100
95, 500
10,600
7,938,100
7,689,700
Area of Basic
Habitat Lost
by Dredging
and Filling
2,000
1,100
255,800
2,100
8,500
59,700
800
65, 400
1,000
1,000
2,000
3,500
1,700
1,000
53,900
19, 800
600
8,000
100
700
100
900
4,300
68,100
2,400
4,300
0
568,300
564, 100
Percent
Loss
of
Habitat
1.5
.2
67.0
10.3
5.6
7.5
.6
3.1
6.5
.3
6.5
2.3
2.2
10.0
13.1
15.0
1.2
1.0
3
3.5
2.0
6.1
1.6
8.2
.6
4.5
0
7.1
7.3
Source: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service tabulation, p 46, hearing on estuarine areas,
House Merchant Marine and Fisheries subcommittee on fisheries and wildlife
consdervation, March 6, 8, 9, 1967.
(a) In the Great Lakes, only shoals (areas less than 6 feet deep) were considered
as estuaries.
(b) Great Lakes shoals omitted.
                                36

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TABLE 3. USE OF FILLED WETLANDS: THREE EXAMPLES
Use
Acres
Long Island (1964)(a)
Housing
Miscellaneous fill'")
Recreation
Industry
Marinas, docks, channels
Airports
Bridges, roads, parking
Waste disposal
Schools
Agriculture
Drainage
Total
4,357
2,505
2,094
1,634
732
479
414
177
108
96
39
12,635
Percent

34
30
17
13
6
4
3
1
1
1
—
loo"
San Francisco Bay Area (1957)(b)
Residential and commercial
Recreation
Industrial
Transportation
Dumps and vacant lands
Agriculture
Salt ponds
Military and other reserved lands
Total
6,080
41,856
7,488
11,200
4,480
36,096
38,464
9,728
155, 392
4
27
5
7
3
23
25
6
100
Maine to Delaware (1955-64)(c)
Ujfedged spoil
Housing
Recreation
Transportation
Industrial
Dumps
Other
Total
15,300
12,150
6,750
4,500
3,150
2,700
450
45,000
34
27
15
10
7
6
1
Too
(a) Source: U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife,
Supplementary Report on the Coastal Wet lands Jftventory of Long Island,
New York (Boston, Mass. : June, 1965), p 9.
(b) Source: U.S. Department of Commerce for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Future Development of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1960-2020, p 81.
(c) Source: John Clark, Fish and Man: Conflict in the Atlantic Estuary, Special
Publication No. 5 (Highlands, N.J.: Amer few* tt&?ral Society, 1967).
(d) This term was used when ultimate use of the filled area was unknown.
_^ _j
                        37

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          SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES


INTRODUCTION


      Woefully inadequate data place a severe limitation on comprehensively des-
cribing either the location or scale of extractive operations in the estaurine zone.
Often extractive activities are identified as being "offshore" or simply on the con-
tinental shelf. In no significant cases do the primary reference sources for the ex-
tractive industries explicitely relate production statistics with the" estuarine environ-
ment.  Nevertheless, the existing extractive operations in estuaries can be divided
into three general groups according to the source of the material:

      (1)  Below the estuarine floor, e.g.,  sulfur and petroleum

      (2)  Directly from the estuarine floor, e. g., sand and gravel

      (3)  Directly from the water, e. g., magnesium compounds.

Each group of operations poses a particular problem for future management of
estuarine areas.


MINING OF MATERIALS BELOW ESTUARINE FLOORS


Petroleum

      Only a small fraction of the total United States drilling for petroleum is occuring
in the estuarine  zones, and this fraction is principally concentrated in four states:
Louisiana, Texas, California, and Alaska.  Gradually, though, operations  are being
extended to the eastern Gulf of Mexico and north along the Pacific Coast  Even when
offshore operations are not located in the estuaries, drifitng pollutants from deeper
waters, spillage from pipelines and tankers, and the physical modifications required
for service traffic exert an influence upon the ecology and quality of the estuaries.

      As the discovery of new inland fields has declined, offshore activity has steadily
gained.  By 1966, offshore areas were producing about 15 percent of the free world's
petroleum supply,  compared to 8 percent 4 years earlier. *  By 1968, an estimated
*  Frank N. Beard,  "Offshore Petroleum Recovery - Status and Outlook", Supplement;
   Transactions of the Second Annual MPS Conference and Exhibit. Marine Technology
   Society (June 27-29, 1966).
                                      38

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$7. 5 billion had been spent on free-world offshore exploration and development, and
the annual rate of expenditures was believed to be about $2 billion annually.   Less
than half of the total investment is believed to have been recovered, and a represen-
tative of Shell Oil Company predicted for example that the monetary return in
Louisiana would not pay out the investment in offshore operations for  12 to 15 years. *

      Because drilling and operational costs are partially dependent upon both the ac-
cess from shore installations and the drilling depth,  the desirability of  estuarine
wells versus deep-water operations is obvious.  Yet both types pose environmental
problems.  All offshore petroleum operations can be considered in four phases: ex-
ploration, drilling, production, and transportation.
Petroleum Exploration.  The basic concept of most petroleum exploration is to iden-
tify promising underground rock structures by analyzing reflections of man-made
shock waves.  Three techniques are currently being used to produce the initial seismic
energy: electronic sparkers, gas exploders,  and conventional seismic explosions.
The first two techniques  are relatively inexpensive, convenient means, that do not
have significant interaction with local biota.   Where greatest penetration by a shock
wave is required,  though, seismic explosions -  usually the electrical detonation of an
explosive  charge - are used extensively.  Unfortunately, those explosive materials
with the most desirable shock characteristics are also those producing the greatest
interaction with the immediate environment.  For instance, fish life appears to emerge
unscathed from explosions of black powder,  since this material burns relatively slowly,
with a comparably slow build-up in pressure. On the other hand, the seismographic
record from black powder lacks a distinct, sharp shock wave.  Furthermore, this
material is considered too expensive  and dangerous for crews. Normally, blasting
agents,  particularly the nitro-carbonitrates, have been favored. **

     When petroleum exploration using nitro-carbonitrate was proposed in California,
the Scripps Institute of Oceanography conducted  a series of tests to evaluate the possi-
ble effects on local biota. ***  Two test species with air bladders, pilchard and
anchovies, were placed in wire cages at varying distances from the test explosion.
The Scripps report concluded:
  * "Louisiana's Future Pegged to Offshore", The Oil and Gas Journal (June 19, 1967),
   p 73.
 **Robert L. Rulifson and Robert W. Schoning,  Geophysical Offshore Oil Explorations
   and Associated Fishery Problems.  Investigational Report No. 1, Fish Commission
   of Oregon (Portland: April,  1963).
***C. L.  Hubbs, E. Pater son Schultz,  and Robert Wisner, Preliminary Report on
   Investigations of the Effects on Caged Fishes of Underwater Nitro-Carbonitrate
   Explosions, unpublished manuscript of the University of California,  Scripps Insti-
   tute of Technology (1960).
                                       39

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          In the horizontal direction, out through the upper mixed layer
          of the ocean,  the probable lethal range seems to be about 150
          feet for five-pound charges, about 350 feet for ten-pound charges,
          and about 500 feet for twenty-five-pound charges.  Vertically below
          the shot these limits would seem to be between 100 and 150 feet
          for five-pound charges,  between 150 and 200 feet for ten-pound
          charges, and between 200 and 250 feet for twenty-five-pound
          charges.

      Other tests have indicated that, even with an 800-pound dynamite charge, few
fish are killed beyond a distance of 200 feet. *  In general, though, results varied
according to the local topography and the species of sea life involved.  Extensive fish
kills resulted from detonations of dynamite in a submarine canyon,  suggesting that
the refelction of shock waves from the sides of a deep estuary could have a similarly
damaging effect. ** However, fish without air bladders - including the halibut and
soles - were not usually killed or injured unless they were exceptionally close to the
explosion.  Also, fish with cylindrical body shapes appeared less vulnerable because
of equalization of pressure on  all sides of the body.

      Evaluation of the effects caused by explosions on other sea life, such as plankton,
crustaceans, and shellfish, have proved difficult to perform, and relatively little data
exist.  However, because of the incompressible  fluid within these organisms,  most
appeared to be unharmed visibly even when collected from the immediate area of an ex-
plosion.  Other tests on king crab eggs and fish eggs have similarly indicated minimal
apparent damage.  Some minor pollution can be caused by the absorption of the explo-
sive's gases, which, in the case of nitro-carbonitrate, include  carbon monoxide,
nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide.  Because of the tremendous and rapid dilution, though,
this is not considered significant by biologists.

      There has been an attempt to evaluate from observations the claims that seismic
explosions frighten fish and thus reduce the catches.  While evidence is inconclusive,
there are indications that the opposite may occur.  Tuna fishermen have reported ex-
ceptionally successful catches during periods of seismic blasting, and California bio-
logists have described catching salmon with commercial trawling almost immediately
 *J.N. Gowanlock, "The Effects of Underwater Seismographic Exploration",
  Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fishery Institute, Second Annual Session
  (1950), pp 105-106.
**C.L. Hubbs and A. B. Rechnitzer, "Report on Experiments Designed to Determine
  Effects of Underwater Explosives on Fish Life", California Fish and Game. Vol.
  38, No. 3 (1952), pp 333-366.
                                       40

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after a series of explosions. * During 1962, an otter trawl tow was made off the
Columbia River with a total catch of 1,100 pounds.  A series of seven seismic shots
were then set off in the same area and,  within 2 hours after the first two shots,  a
second tow was performed with a yield of 800 pounds.  The difference in total weight
of species composition was not significant.  Frequently, a slight increase in the fish
population may occur because of fish arriving to feed on those previously killed.
Also, an explosion apparently creates a disturbance that is attractive to certain fish
species.
Petroleum Drilling.  Three aspects of the drilling process represent threats to the
estuarine environment.  First, materials are removed from the drill hole and de-
posited on the sea bed.  Usually these are simply pulverized rock particles from
underlying strata and are no more harmful than normal silting from, for instance,
dredging operations.  Second, drilling muds used for lubrication and maintaining
pressure  in the hold contain potentially detrimental chemicals.  For instance,  the
barium element found in the muds has sterilized topsoil in experiments on land,
though no published studies examine the possible extent of environmental change on
the sea bottom.  But, compared to the typical areas in an estuary, the quantities of
material involved are minute, and the cost of the muds provides an incentive for
conserving them.  Usually they are captured, cleansed,  and recirculated.

      The third type of environmental threat is the possible rupture of the  well pres-
sure, producing a wild well.  In the restricted area of an estuary,  such an accident
could be disastrous for both local flora and fauna.  These occurences, however,  are
highly infrequent and are being further  reduced by technological advances.  Since the
lives of drill operators are endangered and potential losses are high, avoidance of
these incidents has a high priority in petroleum operations.
Petroleum Production.  After drilling has ceased, the danger remains of damage
to the well and resulting pollution of the surrounding area with oil or natural gas,  or
even fire.  All offshore wells, however, are required to be equipped with a storm
choke which reduces the possibility of damage by a severe storm to minimal levels.
During Hurrican Betsy, one well in the Gulf of Mexico did rupture below the choke but
reportedly was brought under control within hours after the storm.

      Increasingly, one of the severest problems in oil production along the densely
populated coastline is the  visual appearance of drilling or production rigs.  The
aesthetic aspects of oil equipment,  such as platforms, tanks, and rigs, are criticized
by recreationists and residents as intrusions upon the natural panorama.  In parts of
California, particularly Santa Barbara County, shielding structure and artificial
*W. J. Baldwin, "Underwater Explosions Not Harmful to Salmon", California Fish and
 Game. Vol. 40, No. 1 (1954), p 77.
                                      41

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islands for petroleum operations have been required as one aspect of measures to pre-
serve that region's natural appearance. *  With the perfection of underwater flow-con-
trol systems and maintenance equipment,  the submergence of the entire production
operation is becoming increasingly feasible.  Another technique being used at estuaries
is the slanted well, with drilling operations based on land where structures can be
more easily disguised.

      One unique problem that can occur in an estuary is the pollution of the estuary's
brackish waters with the highly saline bleed waters from a well.  If uncontrolled, in-
trusion of this saline water can severely burn vegetation and upset the delicate salinity
balances with possibly long-term effects.  This condition, of course, can be controlled
by transporting the saline solution to ocean areas where dilution can occur without
detriment to  the ecology.
Petroleum Transportation.  Spillage during some phase of the transportation process
remains the most common form of environmental pollution from petroleum operations.
Pollution from tankers cleaning their tanks has been nationally publicized and studied
intensely.  Similarly, the petroleum leaking from damaged barges or other vessels
during transit is considered with varying results by national legislation,  and further
legal action to control this problem appears inevitable.  Potential damage from a rup-
tured pipeline is relatively minimal, because the drop in line pressure would be regis-
tered immediately on instruments at pumping installations where the line could be
closed.

     More difficult to control are the physical modifications being made in the es-
tuaries to facilitate transportation, such as docks, pipelines,  navigational channels
and similar measures.  Vast changes can be made in the estuarine ecology by actions
that alter currents, salinities,  silt covers, temperatures, and other underwater
parameters. ** The relationship between oil operations and physical change of the
estuaries can be best illustrated by recent developments in southern Louisiana and
Texas.  In the Northeast, spoil from dredging is already considered the predominant
cause of 4oss in estuarine marsh area. ***
  * "Steps to Guard Beauty Will Cost Producers in California",  The Oil and Gas Journal
   (April 10,  1967), pp 56-57.
 **See Appendix B, Economic Value of Commercial Fishing, for a more thorough
1   description of biological effects brought by estuarine change.
***John Clark, Fish and Man;  Conflict in the Atlantic Estuaries. Special Publication
   No.  5  (Highlands,  N. J.: American Littoral Society, 1967), p 12.
                                      42

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Indirect Effects of Petroleum Extraction

      As indicated in the previous paragraph, the indirect effects of petroleum extrac-
tion in terms of associated industrial and economic development can be more devastat-
ing to the natural condition of the estuaries than the actual recovery of the oil or
natural gas.  Processing plants tend to crowd the shoreline, as was sharply publicized
during the 1968 elections when Santa Barbara, California, residents overturned an
earlier zoning decision to allow a refinery to be constructed on a waterside site.
Secondary industries, particularly the petrochemical plants, tend to emerge in response
to the presence of raw materials. As markets expand, a vast array of supporting
and servicing industries appear with the predictable increase in population,  appropri-
ation of estuarine area, widespread expansion of both industrial and domestic pollution,
and, in general, partial destruction of the natural environment.  However, these costs
are offset in varying degrees by the economic benefits associated with those industries.
Sulfur

      Only two sulfur mines are actually situated offshore, both being in the coastal
zone of southern Louisiana.  Freeport Sulphur's Grand Isle mine has been producing
more than 1 million tons per year continuously since it opened in April, 1960.  In 1968,
a second mine 7 miles away began operation. However, at least three other land-based
mines in Louisiana are adjacent to estuaries, and the Frash process of sulfur mining
poses  a potential pollution problem comparable  to that of bleed water from petroleum
operations.

      Basically, tfie Frasch process consists of using superheated water to melt the
sulfur, which then flows to the surface through the wall pipe. To prevent a buildup of
hydrostatic pressures,  bleeder wells are drilled about the periphery of the deposit and
the effluents  are ejected. * If proper precautions are taken to thoroughly mix this
saline effluent with seawater, no significant threat to local biota appears to occur.

      As in the case of petroleum operations, probably the most drastic changes in the
estuarine zone associated with sulfur mining is  not in the mine's direct pollution, which
can be successfully contained, but in the indirectly caused estuarine changes necessi-
tated by supporting facilities.  Pipelines, barge traffic, and the continual passage of
workers require considerable intrusion and, in  some cases, modification in the es-
taurine zone.


*Paul  D.  Bybee and Frederick G. Deiler,  Disposal of Sulfur Mine  Effluents - How
 Freeport Sulfur Solved Its Effluent Problems,  a paper presented  at the Joint Meeting
 of 1he AIME  (September,  1959).
                                        43

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MINING  OF MATERIALS DIRECTLY FROM ESTUARY FLOOR

Sand and Gravel

      Production of sand and gravel from offshore deposits is not separately reported
by the Bureau of Mines.  In 1967, the total output of sand and gravel in the United
States was about 905 million tons with a value of $963 million.   Though the Northeast
coastal area has ample offshore deposits of sand and gravel due to glacial transport
and rapid streams, probably no more than 2 or 3 percent of the United States total
production is derived from the estuarine zones.  Recent surveys that have identified
previously unknown deposits in the Northeast may alter the situation slightly, but each
deposit will have to be evaluated by a complex balancing of cost factors.

      On one hand, land operations generally require  considerably lower investments
in equipment and are  more reliable, being less dependent upon weather conditions and
more shielded from public observation.   However, transportation costs for sand and
gravel frequently exceed the value of the product  as mined.  Therefore, a premium
exists for deposits that are readily accessible to large urban centers.  Since estuarine
and other offshore deposits can utilize barges for transport, costs in congested areas
can be considerably reduced.  One of the most prominent sand and gravel operations is
at Oyster Bay, Long Island, where a floating,  "ladder-type" dredge maintains naviga-
tional channels while  furnishing considerable sand and gravel for sale.

      Like strip-mining for coal in the upland environment, sand and gravel operations
can devastate  valuable salt marsh acreage by removing vegetation and leaving a sterile
floor. However, unlike the upland counterpart,  a strip operation in an estuary can
frequently be disguised under another purpose, such as maintenance of navigational
channels. While an effort has been made to curb this type of operation in the Northeast,
abuses are frequently difficult to detect until considerable damage has been done. For
example, the Connecticut Water Resources Commission has reported one particularly
flagrant example of a New York firm that applied for  a permit to dig a trench 300 feet
wide, 30 feet deep, and 1-1 fe miles long.  Though wide enough for a battleship,  the
purpose of this channel was stated as providing access to a small marine site. *
Oyster Shell

      About 20 million tons of oyster shells are estimated to be mined annually in the
United States.  Where only one producer is operating,  the U.S. Bureau of Mines pro-
tects proprietary figures by combining the shell output with crushed stone or other
 *Louis Darling, "The Death of a Marsh: The Story of Sherwood Island Marsh and Its
  Political Consequences", Connecticut's Coastal Marshes: A Vanishing Resource.
  Connecticut College,  Bulletin No.  12 (1961),  pp 21-27.
                                        44

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mineral items. Nevertheless, the distortion is not considered significant in the over-
all totals except in the case of some individual states with minor production.  In order
of descending magnitude, the primary oyster-shell mining states are: Texas, Louisiana,
Alabama,  Mississippi, California, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and North
Carolina.  Use as aggregate in concrete and as road surfacing material accounts for
approximately 62 percent of the shell production while another 33 percent is utilized by
manufacturers of portland cement and lime.  The remainder is consumed as poultry
grit, mineral food,  and various other industrial uses.

     No comprehensive survey of oyster shell deposits has been performed, and both
the scale and location of reserves are unknown.  However, it is believed that the more
accessible reefs have been stripped and operations are continually becoming more
marginal economically.  Furthermore, some states, such as Mississippi, have become
increasingly reluctant to allow oyster-shell operations within state waters because of
the detrimental effect on the environment.

     Objections against oyster-shell operations are usually three-fold.  First, Dyster-
men object to the removal of potential clutch material for future sets.  Second,
dredging releases considerable silt that can bury  live reefs, and, for this reason,  most
states do not permit dredging near live reefs.  Third, removal of oyster shell changes
the configuration of the estuary's bottom, altering currents, depths, and salinities,
and - in the case of reefs near the surface - removes protective shelter for countless
estuarine organisms.  Extremely bitter controversy has surrounded some of the
oyster-shell removal activities, such as those that have plagued the sportsmen and
oystermen of Galveston Bay in recent years. *
Other .Materials

     Various minerals,  including diamonds, gold, rutile, and zircon, have been
identified in the estuarine sands of various states. However, the economics of
recovery have generally acted forcefully against any significant effort to mine the
deposits.  One example would be the mineral shoals off the deltas of the Chattahoochee
and Apalachicola rivers in Florida where the deeper waters have acted as sediment
traps for large volumes of quartz and mineral sands.  Three major shoals have been
formed,  and their mineral content has been generally established by surveys.  However,
the beach and barrier samples have been the least attractive, assaying at about 0.10
percent mineral sands, though higher concentration in samll pockets or skims have
been noted.  The average mineral  content for the offshore sea-floor sands, on the
other hand, appears to be about 0.40 percent.  It appears possible that some deposits
may be found where the concentration could reach 4.0 percent by weight.  The proba-
bility of finding sufficient reserves to justify the capital investment needed to reach
*Bob Eckhardt, "Death of Galveston Bay", Transaction of the Thirty-Third North American
 Wildlife Conference (1968), pp 79-90.
                                       45

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these richer sands appears too unfavorable for any potential investor today.  The highly
publicized deposits of phosphate rocks or sands and, particularly, the manganese
nodules are also generally found at considerably greater depths than exist in estuaries,
and the economics of operating under these marine conditions have thus far proven
prohibitive.
MINING OF THE ESTUARINE WATERS

      Though estuarine waters by definition generally have diluted salinities, the con-
venience, lower physical exposure to weather,  and accessibility of estuaries have gen-
erally made them the favored sites for plants extracting various minerals and metals
from seawater salts.  Four products form the bulk of this production: (1) common salt
(sodium chloride), (2) magnesium oxide, (3) magnesium metal, and (4) bromine.
Common Salt

      Of the 102 plants operated by 58 companies in the United States for production of
salt,  3 are located on estuaries - San Francisco Bay, Newport Bay,  and San Diego Bay
and produce salt by solar evaporation behind diked flats.  The operation mormally be-
gins in the spring of the year, and the crystallized salt is harvested  in August and
September.  During 1967, about 2.7 million tons of salt valued at $17 million was re-
covered in these facilities.   This  represented about 7 percent of the total United States
salt production for that year, the remaining supplies being recovered from brines or
mined in rock-salt deposits.

      To be economically viable, large acreages in the estuarine area have to be main-
tained for salt production.  Though equipment and labor costs are relatively low, this
land requirement and the increase in pressures of urbanization on the estuaries appear
to foreclose the possibility that future solar evaporation fields will be opened.  Envi-
ronmentally, pollution from these  fields has been nil but the aesthetic and ecological
problems  of allocating this acreage to the recovery of a common mineral are obvious.
Magnesium Oxide

      Magnesium oxide is used in the manufacture of refractories, ceramics,  and
various insulating materials.  At least four plants on the Gulf of Mexico and one in
New Jersey are currently extracting the magnesium values for this material from sea-
water.  During 1967,  production from these plants amounted to 246,000 tons with a
value of $16.4 million, representing about 30 percent of the total United States produc-
tion.  The remaining domestic supply is produced in mid-continent locations depending
upon well or lake brines and mineral deposits, such as magnesite or dolomite.  De-
tailed investigations of the pollution or other undesirable aspects of the estuarine
facilities have not been prepared.
                                       46

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Magensium Metal

      Magnesium metal is produced electrolytically from magnesium chloride at the
Dow Chemical Company plant in Freeport, Texas.  Using seawater as a source for the
magnesium chloride, the plant has been producing about 95,000 tons annually with a
value of $61. 5 million, though the rated capacity of the facility is about 120,000 tons
annually.

      The demand for magnesium metal has been unexpectedly lower than forecast
during the past 10 years, and further investment in this field is expected to be limited
during the immediate future.  Furthermore, the proposed plants for future expansion
are to be located inland,  using concentrated brines, such as in the Great Salt Lake, or
entirely different processes.  Again, no detailed examination of the environmental im-
pact of this process upon the estuary at Freeport has been made,  but the future eco-
logical implications of this industry on the estuaries do not appear significant.
Bromine

      During 1967, only two estuarine facilities were producing bromine.  The Dow
Chemical Company plant at Freeport, Texas, was extracting the chemical as one of
the products of its seawater plant, and elemental bromine was being recovered from
the concentrated solutions left after solar salt evaporation at Newark, California.
These two plants produced about 143.-5 million pounds of bromine with a value of
$34.5 million during 1967. The principal application for the chemical was in the
manufacture of ethylene dibromide, an ingredient of antiknock fluids and fumigants.
Environmentally, the recovery of bromine from  seawater bitterns poses no problem
beyond those existing in extraction of the other minerals.
CONCLUSION

      In virtually every type of extractive industry associated with the estuary, the
interaction between the industry and the estuarine environment takes two basic forms:
direct and indirect impacts.  In most cases, the direct impact in terms of pollution
and physical intrusion upon the natural ecology could be considered serious but could
also be  weighed against the value of extracted minerals by simple analytic techniques.
More difficult to evaluate but probably more insidious in overall effect upon the es-
taurine  system are the numerous industrial, commercial, and residential activities
stimulated by the extractive industries.  This is particularly true for the petroleum
industry, which requires a complex system of pipelines, service vessels, and opera-
ting crews,  and which can spawn a series of linked petrochemical industries with
undesirable effects on the environment.  Only a carefully designed series of regula-
tions, such as has been instituted in areas of California, appear successful in control-
ling these indirect impacts without also terminating the economic benefits.
                                       47

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      Sand and gravel and, to a very limited extent, oyster-shell dredgers represent
anomalies among the extractive industries.  Both furnish low-value minerals which
are absorbed directly in the urban development process.  The presence of these min-
erals does not cause or even stimulate significant industrial and economic development
in the estuarine area, but the existence of economic development does stimulate the
extractive process.  Both sand and gravel as well as the lime of oyster shell can be
extracted easily,  though possibly at slightly higher direct costs, from other sources.
Thus, the justification for tight controls appear relatively high where estuarine
values in terms of fisheries and public recreation can be compared to the one-time
exploitation by private parties. Unfortunately,  no clear, inflexible rule can replace
the current case-by-case examination of mineral values versus biological productivity
and recreational use.
                                      48

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           SIGNIFICANCE OF ESTUARIES FOR WASTE ASSIMILATION
SCOPE

    Though possibly costly in an ecological sense, considerable reliance is being
placed upon the ability of estuaries to assimilate human and industrial wastes that
otherwise would be processed by treatment plants. In order to indicate the signifi-
cance of this  assimilative capability, this study describes in terms of two parameters:
(1) some effects that various waste loadings have upon selected estuaries and (2) the
monetary value this assimilative capability represents as a substitute for treatment
facilities.
SIGNIFICANCE OF WASTE ASSIMILATION

    Of the world's ten largest metropolitan areas, seven have developed upon shores
of estuaries.  Today, about one-third of America's population lives and works in
coastal counties,  most of these within estuarine zones. *  Through tradition,  conven-
ience, and simple economics, the liquid and,  to a lesser extent,  the solid wastes of
these urban complexes have been shunted to the estuaries with the assumption that the
estuaries' natural assimilative capacity would rid the communities of further nuisance.
In many cases, this assumption has been partially correct.  The river currents im-
posed upon tidal motion have  usually swept the wastes  into open /sea.  But estuaries
vary tremendously in shape,  size,  depth, biota, and other physical and hydrological
features.  Gradually the ability of many estuaries both to maintain acceptable water
quality and to assimilate  more wastes has been grossly exceeded. Obviously, the
cost of maintaining water quality by treatment must be compared to the costs of
allowing the quality standards to be further reduced.
METHODOLOGY

    Detailed analyses in this study were restricted to the assimilation of organic
BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) and of waste-heat loadings.  Although other waste
*In 1962, 32.8 percent of the United States population was estimated to be living in
 coastal counties compared to 32.3 percent in 1959 and 28.2 percent in 1950.  Source:
 Regional Economics Information System, Office of Business Economics, as provided
 by the FWPCA.
                                      49

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materials with measurable parameters, such as phosphorus and nitrogen compounds,
coliform bacteria, and pesticides, can be identified, BOD and waste heat were selected
because (1) the capacity to assimilate these two wastes appears to contribute the major
portion of the economic assimilative value of the estuaries and (2) the state of the art
allowing us to predict the response of an estuarine environment to various loadings is
particularly developed for these two parameters.
EXISTING DO/BOD  MODELS

    Because of the significant physical, chemical, and ecological differences among
all estuaries, quantitative discussion of waste assimilative capacity must be approach-
ed on an estuary-by-estuary basis.  Research and engineering studies have been
concerned with the development of models for predicting the dissolved oxygen (DO)
response of a given estuary,  or class of estuaries, and have been primarily an
extension of the work by Streeter and Phelps on natural purification in the Ohio
River. *

    O'Connor developed a steady-state model for predicting the dissolved-oxygen
profile, which considers the effects of displacement by land runoff, longitudinal
diffusion, the concentration of the organic materials, the rate of oxidation,  and the
resulting rate of reaeration. ** The model was confirmed by field data from estuarine
surveys of the Delaware and James rivers.  O'Connor developed a similar but less
general model for the Hudson River and New York Harbor, and generally close agree-
ment between theoretical prediction and observed values was noted. ***  Thomann
developed a model for describing the time variation of dissolved oxygen in a finite
number of sections of an estuary; a frequency response technique is employed and
dissolved-oxygen-response equations resulting from imposition of general input-
forcing functions are derived. **** The model results in a system of differential
equations which require computer solution.  Thomann and Sobel extended Thomann's
   *H. W. Streeter and E. B. Phelps, A Study of the Pollution and Natural Purifica-
    tion of the Ohio River, Public Health Bulletin No. 46, U. S. Department of
    Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service (Washington: 1925).
  **Donald J. O'Connor, "Oxygen Balance of an Estuary", Journal of the Sanitary
    Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers 86-SA3 (May, 1960),
    pp 35-55.
 ***Donald J. O'Connor, "Organic Pollution of New York Harbor, Theoretical
    Considerations", Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 34-6
    (September, 1962), pp 905-919.
****R.  V. Thomann,  "Mathematical Model for Dissolved Oxygen", Journal of the
    Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 89-SA5
    (October, 1963),  pp 1-30.
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model to provide a means for determining optimum utilization of funds for waste
treatment and water quality management in an estuary. * O'Connor then developed a
general model more refined than his previous one for handling the distribution of
nonconservative substances in estuaries. **

    Because of the relative simplicity of the calculations involved and because the ob-
jective of this investigation is to generate informative estimates as opposed to decision
criteria, O'Connor's original mathematical model for investigating the oxygen balance
in an estuary was selected for making the estimates in this study.  This model de-
scribes the oxygen balance in an estuary as a function of land runoff, longitudinal
diffusion, tidal action,  atmospheric reaeration,  and deoxygenation as a result of BOD.
Estuaries selected for application of this model were the Delaware River, Potomac
River, James River, East River, and Hudson River estuaries.
THE DELAWARE  ESTUARY

    The Delaware Estuary is defined as the 86 miles of waterway from- Trenton, New
Jersey, to Listen Point, Delaware, where Delaware Bay commences.  While
municipal waste-treatment plants serve the majority of the population, eight plants
contribute over 90 percent of the area's discharged municipal oxygen-demanding
loads.   Total estimated waste loadings  in terms of carbonaceous oxygen demand
before treatment are described in Table 4.

               TABLE 4.   ESTIMATED BOD LOADINGS (BEFORE
                    TREATMENT) IN DELAWARE ESTUARY
Pounds per Day
Year
1964
1975
2010
Industrial
700,000
1,200,000
4,600,000
Municipal
1,200,000
2,800,000
6,100,000
Total
1,900,000
4,000,000
10,700,000
Source: Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U. S. Department
of the Interior, Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study, Prelimi-
ary Report and Findings, Philadelphia (July, 1966).
 *R. V. Thomann and N* J.  Sobel, "Estuarine Water Quality Management and
  Forecasting", Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society
  of Civil Engineers, 90-SA5 (October, 1964)t pp 9-36.
**D. J. O'Connor, "Estuarine Distribution of Non-Conservation Substances",
  Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil
  Engineers, 91-SA1 (February, 1965).
                                      51

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    The total carbonaceous oxygen-demanding waste load actually discharged after
treatment during 1964 was  estimated to be about 1,030,000 Ib/day, with 650,000
Ib/day from municipal sources and 370,000 Ib/day attributed to industries.  The
degree of treatment provided by various facilities averaged about 47 percent removal
of carbonaceous BOD for the  estuary as a whole.  Additional oxygen demand resulted
from the discharge of about 600,000 Ib/day of nitrogenous  material from both
municipal and industrial sources.  Because of these loadings, water quality from
Torresdale, Pennsylvania, to below the Pennsylvania-Delaware state line was
exceptionally low,  and anaerobic conditions developed frequently, especially during
the summer months.  Offensive solids, floating materials, and miscellaneous
floatsam seriously degraded the aesthetic quality of the estuary.
O'Connor Model Estimates

    To simplify the calculations involved in applying the O'Connor model to the
Delaware estuary, the thirty sections employed in the comprehensive FWPCA study
were combined into five extended sections, and all waste loadings were assumed to
occur at  the midpoint of each section.  While point sources will yield somewhat  lower
values of dissolved oxygen than a distributed loading, this  difference is not considered
significant for objectives of this analysis.

    Data in the FWPCA report indicated that the most critical section of the estuary
in terms of low dissolved oxygen levels was Section 15 just south of  Philadelphia.
The dissolved-oxygen response in this section as predicted by the model agrees
satisfactorily with the observed condition.  The FWPCA report describes the average
dissolved oxygen in Section 15  during the summer of 1964 as 0.7 mg/1, but also in-
dicates that periods of anaerobic conditions have been noted.  The model predicts an
anaerobic condition.   Furthermore, the model indicates that each incremental 1 mg/1
increase in the minimum dissolved-oxygen level requires removal of an additional 5
percent of the total BOD load,  or about 100,000 Ib/day.  For comparison purposes,
data on allowable BOD loadings from the FWPCA report were correlated with the
percent removal based on the existing load of 1,900,000 Ib/day.  About 300,000 Ib
of BOD removal per day appear necessary to achieve a 1-mg/l increase in the
minimum dissolved oxygen level, a condition attributed to  the large  benthal and
nitrogenous oxygen demands which together amounted to about 800,000 Ib/day.   This
was not taken into account in O'Connor's model and, thus,  the model is low by a
factor of about 3 when compared to the results of the more sophisticated analyses
conducted for the FWPCA study.
POTOMAC RIVER  ESTUARY

    The Potomac Estuary extends from Little Falls to the Chesapeake Bay and is
subject to a wide variety of regional waste loadings.  The upper estuary extending 25. 8
                                       52

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miles to Hallowing Point is the most critical section, with waste loadings of about
140,000 Ib of the 5-day BOD per day, which is eight times the assimilative capacity
required to maintain a dissolved oxygen level of 5 mg/1.  Overall combined BOD re-
moval by the five major treatment plants has been estimated at about 50 percent, sug-
gesting that the raw waste loadings prior to treatment are-approximately 280,000 Ib
BOD/day.
BOD Removal

    When the  O'Connor equations are applied to data obtained at the Woodrow Wilson
Bridge south of Washington in 1965, each 1 mg/1 in the minimum dissolved oxygen
level appears to require the removal of 10 percent of the BOD load.  Since 140,000 Ib
BOD/day represents 50 percent removal, it is estimated that the total waste generated
in the estuary's region is 280,000 Ib/day.   Thus, each 1 mg/1 increase in dissolved
oxygen would require removal of 28, 000 Ib of BOD per day.
JAMES RIVER ESTUARY

    The  James River Estuary begins at Richmond,  Virginia; the major waste loadings
occur at Richmond and at Hopewell, a community 20 miles downstream from Richmond.
The BOD loading from Richmond is approximately 50,000 Ib/day, while Hopewell's is
approximately 175,000 Ib/day.  Overall BOD removal in the upper estuary is estima-
ted at about 42 percent, so the raw BOD loading is about 390,000 Ib/day.
BOD Removal

    At 42 percent removal of the total load at both Richmond and Hopewell, the mini-
mum dissolved oxygen is calculated at 2.2 mg/1.  This compares to 2.8 mg/1 for the
field data published by O'Connor, the discrepancy caused by a slightly higher degree of
treatment currently being provided at Hopewell compared to Richmond.   From these
data it can be determined that each additional 1 mg/1 increase in the minimum dissolved
oxygen concentration requires removal of an additional 10 percent of the BOD loadings
at Richmond and Hopewell, or an additional 39,000 Ib/day.
EAST RIVER ESTUARY

    The East River is essentially a long, narrow strait connecting upper New York
Harbor with Long Island Sound.  Assuming from data obtained by O'Connor that the
treatment plants provide an overall average BOD removal of 60 percent, the before-
treatment loading of the plants is estimated to be about 363,000 Ib/day.  Thus, the
total raw load is approximately 565,000 Ib/day.  The weighted overall removal from
all sources, treated plus untreated,  is calculated to be about 40 percent.
                                      53

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BOD Removal

    Calculations using O'Connor's  data and model indicate that each incremental
1 mg/1 increase in the minimum dissolved oxygen level requires removal of an ad-
ditional 9 percent of the total load, or about 51,000 Ib/day.  Calculations also show
that pollution loadings delivered by the Hudson River do not materially affect dissolved
oxygen levels in the East River because of the dilution available in the upper bay.
HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY

    The critical reach of the Hudson Estuary in terms of waste loading is the lower
24-mile waterway from the New York City line to the Narrows, where the BOD reaches
525,000 Ib/day.  To simplify the analysis of the effect of BOD removal on the minimum
dissolved oxygen, it was assumed that the entire waste loading to the Hudson River be-
tween the Battery and the city limits occurred at a midpoint about 9 miles above the
Battery.
BOD Removal

    The total BOD load in the river is 525,000 Ib/day.  Assuming this represents 50
percent removal, the total raw load is about 1 million Ib/day. Using O'Connor's model,
each incremental 1 mg/1 increase in the minimum dissolved-oxygen level appears to
require removal of an additional 14 percent of the waste loading, or about 140,000
Ib/day.
ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF THIS ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY

    Table 5 summarizes the estimated unit cost for waste treatment (for detailed ex-
planations, see Appendix G).  Cost of incremental secondary treatment refers only to
the secondary plant facilities required in addition to existing primary plants.  Similarly,
incremental tertiary treatment implies the addition of tertiary processes to existing
secondary facilities.   As indicated in Appendix G,  costs per unit of BOD removed are
based on a waste containing a 5-day BOD equal to 250 ppm, 30 percent being removed
in primary plants and an additional 55 percent being removed in secondary plants.
Removal of BOD in tertiary plants is based upon a 9 mg/1 reduction, from 10 mg/1 to
1 mg/1.  All costs have been adjusted to 1968 dollars by application of engineering
cost ratios.  Capital  costs were amortized over 20 years at an interest rate of
5 percent.
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           TABLE 5.  APPROXIMATE COSTS OF WASTE TREATMENT
Type of Treatment
Primary treatment
Primary plus secondary treatment
Incremental secondary treatment
Incremental tertiary treatment
Approximate Cost
Dollars /Million
Gallons Treated
90
130
40
150
Dollars /Lb
BOD Removed
0.150
0.080
0.040
2.00
    Table 6 summarizes the BOD removals required to achieve incremental 1 mg/1
increases in the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration for the estuaries examined.
Existing levels of overall treatment in these estuaries have been estimated to range
from about 40 to 60 percent removal of BOD.  Thus,  additional BOD removal in most
cases can be accomplished primarily by the additional of secondary treatment facilities
to the existing primary treatment plants.  In Table 5, the estimated cost of treatment
in such facilities is estimated to be about $0.04 per pound of BOD removed.  On this
basis,  Table 7 summarized the economic contribution of the estuaries' assimilative
capacity for each  1 mg/1 decrease allowed in the minimum dissolved oxygen concentra-
tion.


   TABLE 6.  BOD REMOVALS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE  1 MG/L  INCREASE IN
                         MINIMUM DISSOLVED OXYGEN
E stuary
Delaware
Potomac
James
East
Hudson
BOD Removal,
Ib/day
100,000
28,000
39,000
51,000
187,000
    K should be pointed  out that the values indicated in Table 7 are based upon the ad-
dition of secondary facilities to existing primary treatment plants with an associated
BOD removal cost of $0. 04 per pound.  If all treatment plants in a region were brought
up to the level of secondary treatment, further removal would have to be provided by
tertiary treatment facilities, and this would have the effect of increasing the economic
worth of the estuaries' assimilative by a factor as high as 50.
                                      55

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      TABLE 7.  ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF ESTUARINE ASSIMILATIVE
                 CAPACITY PER MG/L OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Estuary
Delaware
Potomac
James
East
Hudson
Total
Surface Area,
acres
70, 500
17,000
5,120
18, 800
5,250
116,670
Economic Contribution
Dollars /Day
4,000
1,120
1,560
2,040
7,450

Dollars /Year
1,460,000
408,000
570,000
745,000
2,720,000
5,903,000
ASSIMILATION OF THERMAL LOADINGS

    Except for some preliminary work conducted in England several years ago with
limited success, generalized models for predicting directly the temperature response
of a stream or estuary to thermal loadings are not available in the same form as models
relating to dissolved-oxygen levels.  Existing studies of thermal loadings have been
limited in the United States to empirical dye-dispersion studies for prediction of tem-
perature distribution. Pritchard and Carter,  for instance, have developed a model
based on the physical processes of movement and dispersion of an effluent as simulated
by flourescent-dye tracers. *  Both the nonconservative process of boundary cooling
and the conservative distribution of the effluent are considered by the model, which is
summarized in Appendix G.
PATUXENT RIVER ESTUARY

    After circling the eastern outskirts of Washington, D. C.,  the Patuxent River
merges into an estuary that eventually empties into Chesapeake Bay about 50 miles
south-east of Washington.  The Pritchard and Carter model was originally developed
to predict the temperature response of the Patuxent Estuary to thermal discharges
from the PEPCO power plant to be built at Chalk Point.  Using a series of assumptions
based on the data from the original study and the model, it can be determined that each
0.1-degree-Fahrenheit decrease in the 1,000-yard-downstream excess temperature
requires removal of 1. 9 percent of the 3.6 x 1010 Btu/day load, or 0. 0684 x 1010 Btu/day
*D. W. Pritchard and H. H.  Carter, On the Prediction of Excess Temperature from
 a Heated Discharge in an Estuary, Technical Report No.  33, Chesapeake Bay Institute,
 The Johns Hopkins University (1965).
                                       56

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POTOMAC RIVER ESTUARY
    To assess the assimilative capacity of the Potomac Estuary for thermal loadings,
the data and analyses of Hetling and O'Connell,  who generated mass-balance relation-
ships for Rhodamine dye in sixteen segments of the Potomac Estuary, have been used
as a basis. *  Applying their data to the Pritchard and Carter model and assuming
critical data \foere they were not available, each incremental 0.1-degree-Fahrenheit
decrease in the excess temperature was estimated to require a  5 percent reduction in
the assumed 1010 Btu/day loading.  Again, this estimate applies only to the assumed
loading intensity and pattern.  Changes in location of the single  source, the addition of
multiple sources, or changes in the intensity of loading will significantly affect the
analyses.
THAMES RIVER ESTUARY

    Considerable data are available on the distribution of excess temperature in the
Thames Estuary below London.  The average rate of heat discharge from various
power stations during 1951-1954 was estimated to have been 228 x 10  Btu/day,  about
75 percent of the total heat being contributed by five large plants.  From the assembled
data,  the total head load from all sources to the estuary has been estimated at
306 x 10   Btu/day.  Deducting heating due to biochemical activity and similar heat
sources, the. total Btu load is about 248 x 109 Btu/day.

    To compare the assimilative capacity of the Thames Estuary with the Potomac and
Patuxent analyses, the excess temperature response as a function of thermal loading
at a single point was established on an order-of-magnitude basis.  With this assumption,
0.1-degree-Fahrenheit decrease in the maximum excess temperature appears to re-
quire  the removal of about 13 percent of  the 1010 Btu/day load for a single source  10
miles above London Bridge.
ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF NATURAL COOLING

    For purposes of this report,  average values of $9/million gallons treated and
$0.045/million Btu removed were assumed.  Both values include the amortized capital
and the operating costs.  With these assumptions, the economic contribution of the
estuarine cooling capacity per 0.1 degree Fahrenheit is summarized in Table 8.
*L. J. Hetling and R. L. O'Connell, A Study of Tidal Dispersion in the Potomac River,
 C-SRBP Technical Paper No.  7,  FWPCA, Region HI (undated).
                                       57

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    TABLE 8. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF ESTAURINE COOLING  CAPACITY
           PER 0.1-DEGREE-FAHRENHEIT INCREASE ALLOWED IN THE
                 MAXIMUM DOWNSTREAM  EXCESS TEMPERATURE
Estuary
Patuxent
Potomac
Thames
Total
Surface Area,
acres
7,000
17,000
7,870
31,870
Economic Contribution
Dollars /Day
31.50
22.50
41.00
Dollars /Year
11, 500
8,200
15, 000
34,700
CONCLUSION

    The focus of this analysis has been exclusively on the monetary cost of restoring
the environmental quality of estuaries from two waste loadings - organic and thermal.
Omitted are the costs of cleansing the waters of industrial wastes now being discharged
into the nation's  waterways.  Furthermore, before the cojjt estimates of restoring the
environmental quality can be applied to management decisions, this restoration cost
should be compared to the total cost,  social and economic, of not restoring full quality.
Inevitably,  tradeoffs would  be found.  But with  a balanced evaluation of the two total costs,
our society could both more rationally utilize our natural resources and, at the same
time, appreciate more fully a rarely  recognized national asset, the assimilative capa-
bilities of our estuaries for discharged wastes.
                                        58

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                                  CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION

      This survey has reviewed the primary economic and social importance of es-
tuaries in the United States.  Technical and general literature has been examined and
the state of the art in the study of estuaries has been described.  Throughout the dif-
ferent phases of this report, however, four primary thems have continually emerged:

      (1)  The most rapidly increasing use of estuaries appears to be for
          personal satisfaction (e.g. , recreation), as the public becomes mor,e
          aware of the natural estuarine environment for general use.

      (2)  Estuarine activities are based upon the use of  a common set of
          natural resources, and are therefore highly interrelated.

      (3)  Estuarine environment is rapidly changing due to the mounting
          intensity of estuarine use.

      (4)  Management of estuarine resources is complicated by difficulties
          in defining goals, data deficiencies, and voids  in understanding
          estuarine ecology.

Each of these themes has a spectrum of implications.
GENERAL USE

      Owing primarily to two factors, (1) the urban development within the immediate
vicinity of the estuaries and along tributaries and (2) the growing scale and complexity
of virtually all industrial activity, the most pervasive uses of the estuaries do not ap-
pear tied to a specific economic or social category.  Estuaries now represent the
primary open spaces in virtually all of the nation's great urban centers, including
New York, Boston,  and San Francisco.  The Boston Common is considerably smaller
than the Charles River Basin; Central Park in New York City is a fraction of the acreage
of the waters of the Hudson River adjoining Manhattan alone.  Estuaries have been in-
corporated into the daily life of the urban residents.  They perform an anesthetic func-
tion, breaking the vertical forest  of buildings.  They serve as cleansing zones for
pollution-laden air.  They assimilate liquid wastes.  They provide recreational outlets.
They  absorb the noise of jet exhausts rising from airports bordering the estuaries,
and they have provided the corridors for shoreline highways.  In summary,  estuaries
are so intimately intertwined with other elements of the urban environment that an enu-
meration of their functions must touch virtually every phase of urban life.
                                        59

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      As the complexity and scale of industries have grown, the facilities and staffs
required to support productive activities - such as offshore petroleum operations -
have multiplied.  Service vessels and tankers need a varied range of dock and harbor
facilities as well as adequate navigation channels.  Pipelines intrude physically upon
the complex balance of currents, vegetation, temperatures, and other parameters of
the estuary.  Land transportation facilities must be integrated with the sea systems,
resulting in the construction of highways on estuarine fill and  in silt loads or diverted
fresh-water flows from the watersheds.  Maintenance and operating personnel must
be housed and provided the normal range of residential facilities,  resulting the the
further extension of the urban system.  In economics, the multiplier effect in a com-
pletely accepted fact, though its measurement remains controversial.  In actuality, the
multiplier effect of estuarine-centered activities generally far outweighs the original
activities in terms of total impact on the estuarine system.
INTERRELATED USES

      Estuarine activities are intimately related in both a horizontal and vertical sense.
Horizontally, competing activities for estuarine-dependent resources have developed to
a point where their conflicting edges acutely affect each other.  The conflict between
waste assimilation and the development of commercial and recreation fisheries is one
example.  Only a few generations ago, estuaries were sufficiently extensive in size
compared to the scope of commercial activities that conflict were generally narrowly
defined, as between fin fishermen and shell fishermen, and relatively easily arbitrated.
As each activity has expanded and new activities have been added, flexibility can  no
longer be  derived from reserve resources.

      At the same time,  though, the vertical development of estuarine-centered activi-
ties, such as the linked and service industries associated with offshore petroleum pro-
duction, has added to the complexity of estuarine use.  Because of the interdependence
between activities, management decisions in the estuaries have  been immensely com-
plicated.
DYNAMIC NATURE OF USE

      As in the relationships among uses, the dynamics of estuarine use has had two
dimensions.  On one hand, the absolute number of uses being made of resourses in the
dstuarine zone has multiplied as urbanization has spread and the industrial complexity
of the United States economy has grown.  At the same time,  though, the sheer volume
of each use has increased.  The magnitude of pollution can be directly related to growth
of the Gross National Product.  The population growth in the.vicinity of the estuaries is
another convenient indicator.  Since the 1920's, the population size in the coastal
cotfnties of the United States has approximately doubled, rising from 32 million persons
in 1929 to 61 million  in 1962.  This population represented 26. 3 percent of the total
United States pollution in 1929 and 32. 8 percent in 1962.  The proportion of the popula-
tion in coastal  counties has constantly increased with each national census.
                                        60

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DATA VOIDS

     In examining uses of estuaries, an analyst is constantly hampered by data voids
and, almost equally, he finds a lack of understanding involving basic relationships to
be seriously debilitating.  As noted frequently in this report,  simple statistics to weigh
priorities are lacking.  Examples would be the inadequacy of current censuses on rec-
reation areas and activities in estuaries,  wetlands of different categories, filled
estuarine areas, activities in estuaries, and waste assimilation.  However, even with
these data, our understanding of the ecology of estuaries would probably still not permit
satisfactory management decisions.  We simply do not yet understand the full impact
of different variables upon the biota of an estuary.  An example would be the ecological
effects of shoreline construction, such as the Connecticut Turnpike, or the full implica-
tions of the higher nutrient flow into estuaries from polluted watersheds.  It appears,
though, that more complete understanding of the estuary will continue to be a cyclic,
feedback process.  Data will lead to improved understanding, which will then permit
identification of more desirable data.  Unfortunately,  this procedure occupies time and
required funds.  At the current rate of estuarine degradation, how long can management
decisions be postponed ?
                                        61

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         APPENDIX A
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL VALUES OF
    ESTUARINE RECREATION
         Ira L. Whitman

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                         Page

Introduction	A-l
Types of Estuarine Recreation Activities 	A-2
     Land-Water Dependencies  	A-6
     Differences Between Estuarine and Other
       Outdoor Recreation	A-8
Supply of Estuarine Recreation Resources and Facilities 	A-9
     Availability of Recreation Shoreline  	•	A-9
     Accessibility of Recreation Shoreline	A-12
Data Quality and  Sources	A-16
Approaches Used to Measure Economic Values of Outdoor
 Recreation	A-16
Economic Values of Estuarine Recreation as Measured by
 Sales and Expenditures	A-19
     Types of Recreation Expenditures and Their Significance	A-20
     Sport Fishing 	A-22
     Estuarine Boating 	A-25
     Swimming	A-32
     Hunting and Wildlife Management	A-33
Economic Values of Estuarine Recreation as Measured by
 Regional Impacts 	A-34
     Regional Analysis - Southern New England 	A-34
     Seasonal Impact of Recreation on Employment	A-39
Economic Values of Estuarine Recreation by User Benefits	A-40
Conflicts in Resource Use	A-46
     Natural Factors 	A-46
     Pollution	A-46
     Conflicts Between Sport Fishing and Commercial Fishing	A-48
     Reductions in Flow  	A -50
     Dredging and Excavation  	A -50
Conclusion	A-53

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                                 APPENDIX A
        1 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL VALUES OF ESTUARINE RECREATION

                                      by
                               Ira L. Whitman
INTRODUCTION

     Outdoor recreation has become a major consideration in the development and
management of America's natural resources, including estuaries.  The reasons for
the emphasis on recreation are widely recognized and documented. * Participation, and
the demand to participate, have increased as leisure time and disposable income per
capita have increased. ** Outdoor recreation involves use of natural resources which
often competes or conflicts with the earlier and more traditional uses of the same
resources, such as logging and commercial fisheries.  To cope with the problems of
allocating resources among these competing uses, including recreation,  economic
analyses of outdoor recreation development have gradually proven their utility and
validity.   Furthermore, economic criteria appear to be useful in choosing between
alternative recreation developments given the real constraint of limited financial
resources.***
  *Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC), Outdoor Recreation
   for America. Washington (1962).
 **Mueller, E., and Gurin, G.,  Participation in Outdoor Recreation; Factors Affecting
   Demand Among American Adults, ORRRC Report #20, Washington (1962).
***Davis, R., "Recreation Planning as an Economic Problem", Natural Resources
   Journal.  Volume 3, #2, pp 239-249 (October, 1963).
                                      A-l

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      The primary satisfaction received by an individual engaging in most forms of
outdoor recreation seems to be personal and of a social and psychological nature. *
However, the individual's decision to engage in a recreational activity is often governed
by his economic willingness or ability to make the necessary expenditures in money and
travel time to allow his participation.  The allocation of an individual's  income to a par-
ticular recreation activity is,  therefore, one indication of ttie value which he derives
from that activity. **  It must be recognized, though, that some of the personal values
associated with outdoor recreation cannot be directly translated into economic values.

      This discussion on estuarine recreation is intended to identify economic and social
values that will be useful in comparing recreation with other estuary uses for the pur-
pose of better estuarine management.  Many of these values,  it should be noted, are
not directly comparable with other types of estuarine activity, and judgment and res-
traint must be exercised in their application.  Areas where data and information on
estuarine recreation economics are lacking are pointed out, so that these voids may
eventually be filled.  Problems and conflicts in the management of estuarine recrea-
tion are identified and approaches for their solution are discussed.
TYPES OF ESTUARINE RECREATION ACTIVITIES

      The types of recreational activities occuring on and adjacent to estuarine waters
should be identified before attempting to indicate the associated economic and social
values.  Seven major classes of estuarine-related recreation can be described:

      Boating,
      Fishing,
      Swimming and contact sports,
      Hunting,
      Land based, water dependent (e. g., camping)
      Land based, water related (e. g.,  sightseeing),
      Land based, water unrelated (e. g., golf).

      Boating.  Boating is a major recreational activity of estuaries, as it is on most
inland waters.  The major classes of recreational boats include:

      (1)  Manually propelled craft-canoes,  rowboats, etc.
      (2)  Sail craft
      (3)  Outboard-motor boats
      (4)  Inboard boats with outdoor drive
      (5)  Inboard boats.
  *Clawson, M., and Knetsch, J., Economics of Outdoor Recreation. Resources for
  the Future, Baltimore (1966),  pp 11-40.
 **Ibid., pp 41-142.
                                       A-2

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      Boating highly complements other water-based recreation activities.  It is diffi-
cult, therefore,  to distinguish between one's participation in boating as compared to his
time spent at other activities.  This is evidenced b y the results of the latest survey of
purchasers of outboard motors and boats.  Preferences for their boating-related ac-
tivities are as follows:
           TABLE A-l.  USES OF OUTBOARD MOTORS AND BOATS
                                                                  (a)

Activity

Fishing
Cruising
Skiing
Hunting
Others
Percent of Buyers Mentioning Preferences, 1967


Outboard Motors
71
36
29
12
7

Outboard Boats
66
48
42
11
6
Source: The Boating Industry Magazine, The Boating Business - 1967


       The multiple preferences of boat-owners and users make it equally difficult to
evaluate the allocation of recreation expenditures to one activity or another.  For
example, the largest expenditure of sport-fisher men is for the purchase of boats and
boating equipment. *

       Additional complexity in describing estuarine boating activity arises from the
mobility of recreational boating.  Much of this mobility occurs in the form of:

       (1) Estuary to estuary travel, via intracoastal waterways,

       (2) Estuarine berthed boats sailing beyond coastal limits,

       (3) Estuarine berthed boats sailing inland via navigable inland waterways,

       (4) Boats kept at places of residence and trailered to waterways, estuarine
           and other.
 *U.S.  Department of Interior, 1965 National Survey of Fishing and Hunting, U.S.
 Government Printing Office, p 44.
                                       A-3

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      Sport Fishing.  Estuarine sport fishing may be characterized by:

      (1) Surf fishing

      (2) Fishing from piers, bridges, etc.

      (3) Fishing by boat.

      Many fish species caught in nonestuarine waters are dependent upon estuaries
for some portion of their life cycle.  Similarly, many deep-sea charter fishing boats, as
well as personal craft, are estuary based.

      Swimming.  Swimming activities in estuaries include such water-contact sports
as surfing and scuba diving. * Sun bathing on beaches is closely related to beach swim-
ming,  and may entail similar purchases and expenditures.

      Swimming is one of the most popular forms of outdoor and indoor recreation and
has the highest rate of participation of any of the major estuarine activities. ** Yet
swimming is among the more easily substitutable of water-dependent estuarine
recreation activities.  Coastal areas with multiple attractions but poor swimming
resources are quick to construct pools to provide satisfaction for the swimming de-
mand.

      Because swimming activities are spread widely throughout the entire coastal re-
gion, and require no major purchases of equipment by individuals, it is difficult  to es-
timate the numbers and locations  of estuarine swimmers. It is estimated that 330
million visits a year are made to  coastal shores*** for the purpose of swimming, yet
a large majority of these shores are on seaward exposures, rather than in estuarine
waters.  Four examples illustrate this point.

      (a) Long Island, a major recreation region, has a majority of its
         beaches on the Atlantic  Ocean, rather than on bays separating
         the mainland from off-shore bars.

      (b) Baltimore-Washington residents flock to Maryland-Delaware -
         Virginia beaches on the Atlantic coast despite the prixomity
         of Chesapeake Bay.
  *Water skiing is generally considered with boating.
 **ORRRC, op.  cit.
***U.S.  Department of Commerce, Development Potential of U.S. Continental Shelves
   (April,  1966), p IH-64.
                                       A-4

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      (c) Los Angeles' majority of beaches front directly on the open
         Pacific Ocean.

      (d) Miami's "miracle"tourist strip fronts the Atlantic Ocean
         rather than the estuarine waters of Biscayne Bay.

      Therefore,  while specific data are not available, it can be assumed that estuarine
swimming is a secondary and less preferred form of coastal swimming.

      Estuaries are generally considered inferior for surfing, due to lack of waves.
Scuba diving is another swimming activity which is generally nonestuarine.   All in all,
it is doubtful whether as much as 10 percent of the entire coastal swimming activity or
3 percent of the entire U.S. swimming participation takes place on estuaries.

      Hunting.  Estuarine-related hunting includes:

      (1) Hunting by boat
      (2) Shoreline and marsh hunting for waterfowl and small game

      (3) Inland hunting for estuarine-related fowl.

      Land-based water-dependent activities (camping and picnicking).   Many campsites
and picnic areas are located adjacent to points of water-based recreation activities.
The primary attractions of campers to shoreline campsites are the water-based,
estuarine-related activities of boating,  swimming,  fishing and hunting.  Picnicking is
an important day-use of many estuarine recreation areas, particularly swimming
beaches and multiple-use state and national parks.  The  climate, environment,  and
scenery of the seashore are important attributes of land-based, water-dependent ac-
tivities.

      Land-based water-related activities  (sightseeing, driving for pleasure, walking
for pleasure, horseback riding, hiking, nature walks).  This class of recreation
activity, popular at any location, may be particularly enhanced by coastal or estuarine
environment.  Each of the  activities included in this class is among the 20 most popu-
lar outdoor recreation activities as determined by the Outdoor Recreation Resources
Review Commission. * Many of these activities are likely to take place in multiple-use
waterfront parks, in urban waterfront communities, along scenic highways, and at any
other locations where there is public access to the shore.

      Land-based, water-unrelated activities  (golf, sports).   This class of recreation
activity is often located adjacent to estuaries for reasons other than a primary water-
activity relationship.  Many waterfront parks  include such popular facilities as golf
courses and athletic fields. Often, this land is reclaimed from estuaries by filling.
*ORRRC, op.  cit., p34.
                                       A-5

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Land-Water Dependencies
      To properly manage estuarine recreation resources, it is important to be aware
of the interrelationships between recreation activities and the physical characteristics
of land and water areas.  Among the important water characteristics for recreation
are:

          Water quality - biological, chemical and physical properties

          Size and depth of a water body

          Biological productivity

          Degree of protection of water surface from turbulent meteorological
          conditions.

      Primary land characteristics include:
          Shoreline features (beach, bluff, or marsh) and shoreline access
          Capacity at a shoreline recreation area

          Man-made facilities
          Physical environment including scenery, vegetation, and habitat.

      There are three degrees of dependency between recreation activities and the
physical characteristics of land and water areas.

      (1)  Essential dependency  - signifying that the absence or inadequacy of a
         physical characteristic would prohibit the development of a recreation
         activity.

      (2) Consequential dependency - signifying that the absence or inadequacy
         of a physical characteristic would limit the development of a recreation
         activity.

      (3) Nondependency - signifying that the absence or inadequacy of a physical
         characteristic would be unrelated to the development of a recreation
         activity.

      An analysis of the relationships among the seven types of estuarine recreation
and the eight land and water characteristics  is presented in Table A-2.
                                        A-6

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                               TABLE A-2.  ESTUARINE RECREATION DEPENDENCIES ON
                                           WATER AND LAND CHARACTERISTICS
>
Activity
Boating
Fishing
Swimming
Hunting
Land based -
water dependent
Land based -
water related
Land based -
water unrelated
Water Characteristics
Quality
+
+
*
+

+

-

-
Size
and
Depth
*
+
+
+

+

+

-
Productivity1
-
*
-
*

+

-

-
Protection
+
+
-
+

+

-

-
Land Characteristics
Shoreline
+
*
+
*

*

+

+
Capacity
+
+
+
+

+

+

+
Facilities
*
+
+
-

*

+

*
Environment
-
-
-
+

+

*

—
Key: * Essential dependency.
+ Consequential dependency.
- Non-dependency.

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Difference Between Estuarine and Other Outdoor Recreation

      Given the major estuarine recreation activities and their dependencies upon the
physical characteristics of land and water resources, several important aspects of
estuarine  recreation can be noted:

      (1)  Estuarine-related recreation is significantly dependent upon the
          characteristics of the estuarine water resource for its existence.

      (2)  Estuaries are natural bodies of water, as contrasted to the rapidly
          developing number of man-made recreation reservoirs.   The creation
          of estuarine recreation areas is less flexible in design than that for
          comparable areas on new reservoirs or on controllable waterways;
          i. e., the physical properties of water quality,  size and depth,
          productivity and protection are less manageable.

      (3)  Because of the natural processes occurring in  estuaries and their
          drainage basins, estuarine properties tend to be more permanent
          than comparable properties on other bodies of  water, particularly
          inland lakes and reservoirs.

      (4)  From a management perspective, the slow response to change which
          estuaries possess has both positive and negative implications. The
          advantages include the relatively long time which estuaries, particu-
          larly large ones,  take to respond to deteriorating conditions. On the
          other hand, once an estuarine area has seriously degraded, particu-
          larly in water quality or in loss of water-surface area, the permanency
          of the resource tends to make recovery more difficult and time
          consuming.

      (5)  There are normally several water and shoreline uses associated
          with estuarine resources.  It is generally impossible to reserve
          estuaries only for recreation. They are multiple-use bodies of water,
          adaptable in some part or  form for recreation.  (Note section on
          Use Conflicts.)

      (6)  Estuaries are used as access means for other  waters, including both
          inland and deep-sea areas.  As such, they are related to recreational
          activities,  especially boating, beyond their immediate boundaries.

      (7)  Since estuaries are nursery grounds for many  species of sport-fish,
          fish conservation and management in estuaries is important for the
          entire salt-water fishery.
                                       A-8

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SUPPLY OF ESTUARINE RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
Availability of Recreation Shoreline

     The present and future economic impact and effect of estuarine recreation is par-
tially determined by the present and potential supply of estuarine recreation opportunities.
Yet recreational activities vary in sensitivity to the supply of different estuarine re-
sources as well as to the supply of different man-made facilities.  Boating, for instance,
is far more dependent upon the supply of surface area in an estuarine region than is
swimming. On the other hand, swimming is far more dependent upon the nature of the
shoreline, i. e., the degree of accessibility from the land to the water,  and on the
quality of the water body as opposed to its size or  its quantity.   Therefore, there is no
single criterion which can be used to effectively describe supply of estuarine recreation
resources or facilities.   The three criteria most often used in evaluating the capacity
of an estuarine recreation site are (1) shoreline distances, (2) park or recreation area
in acres, and (3) water surface area in acres.

     No survey of estuarine recreation resources has been performed.  While ORRC
Study Report No. 4, Shoreline Recreation Resources of the United States (1962), con-
tained a detailed inventory of the nature and the extent of the entire recreation shore-
line, both estuarine and coastal, the results are inapplicable to  this  study because the
estuarine shoreline was not distinguished from the nonestuarine and  considerable
change in the usage and  ownership of shoreline areas has occurred since preparation of
that report.  However, many of the summaries and conclusions  from that report are
valid for those portions  of recreation shorelines which are on estuaries.

     In performing its analysis, the Outdoor Recreation Resources  Review Commis-
sion was faced with the problem of precisely defining recreation shoreline. The term
shoreline was described as the line of intersection of the stated  water surface with
the land. However, that portion of shoreline which qualified as potential or existing
recreation shoreline was judged by the following subjective criteria:

     (1) The existence of a marine climate and environment

     (2) The existence of an  expansive view of at least  5 miles over
         water to the horizon from somewhere on the shore

     (3) Location on some (external) water boundary of the United States.

The second criterion, the necessity of a  5-mile expanse  to the horizon, is the most re-
strictive of the three criteria for estuaries.  Marine climate and environment would
naturally occur at almost 100 percent of estuarine shoreline areas, but many of the
smaller inlets and tidal  portions of rivers cannot meet this criterion.  As a result,
only 17,455 miles, less than 33 percent of  the total detailed coastal shoreline of
53,677 miles, qualifies  as recreation shoreline.
                                       A-9

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      The Commission report further elaborates on the nature of shoreline by classi-
 fying the physical characteristics of shorelines according to three categories: beach,
 bluff,  and marsh.  Beach is defined as a wide expanse of sand or other beach material
 lying at the waterline and of sufficient extent to permit its development as a recreation
 facility without important encroachment of the upland.  The Commission adds that the
 typical image of recreation shoreline is that of the beach. A bluff shore is described
 as the existence of a bank, bluff, or cliff immediately landward of a relatively narrow
 beach and varying in height from several feet up to mountainous elevations.  The
 bluff shore provides a marine environment, scenic values of a high order, and,
 frequently, the isolation that many outdoor recreation seekers prize so  highly.   Marsh
 shoreline is defined as the existence of a tidal or nontidal marsh as the  principal shore
 feature.  The Commission describes the marsh type of shoreline as the most ignored
 and the most promising of shoreline for future recreation use.

      Table A-3 describes the mileage of detailed U. S. coastal shoreline, recreation
 shoreline, public recreation shoreline, and restricted shoreline.


         TABLE A-3.  SHORELINE DESCRIPTION BY MAJOR COASTLINE

                                  (Statute Miles)
Coast
Atlantic Ocean
Gulf of Mexico
Pacific Ocean*
Total
Detailed
Shoreline
28,377
17,437
7,863
53,677
Recreation
Shoreline
9,961
4,319
3,175
17,455
Public
Recreation
Shoreline
336
121
296
753
Restricted
Shoreline
263
134
127
524
Source: ORRRC, Report No. 4, p 11.
*Excluding Alaska and Hawaii.
   Table A-4 presents the estimated mileage of U. S. recreation shoreline, by state,
type, ownership, and approximate development status as of 1960.  Public shoreline
restricted for recreational use includes military, and other nonrecreational public in-
stallations.  In a broader sense, much of the privately owned recreation shoreline is
also restricted to use by the majority of the recreation-seeking public. An indication
of the availability of recreation shoreline to the public is given in Table A-5, which
presents for each major coastline the percentage of shoreline suitable for  recreation,
the percentage of recreation shoreline in public ownership available for public use,
and the percentage of recreation shoreline which is presently restricted from public
recreation use.
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TABLE A-4.
ESTIMATED MILEAGE, BY STATE, OF THE  U.S.  RECREATION SHORELINE,  BY TYPE,
               OWNERSHIP, AND DEVELOPMENT STATUS.
                              (Statute Miles)



State

Alabama
California
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Mississippi
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
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Accessibility of Recreation Shoreline

     The ORRRC Report stresses that the important shoreline recreation targets are
those which have the characteristics of (1) availability, and (2) accessibility.  Avail-
able shorelines are those with use not restricted by the nature of ownership, high fees,
or some other  inhibiting factor.  In general, the only beaches widely available to the
public are public beaches, and some of these, particularly municipal beaches, admit
only citizens of that municipality.  Other public recreation areas practice some form
of segregation  or other type of restriction.  The use of private beaches is normally
under the control of the owners, although in some states, access may be gained to the
foreshore, the  area below high tide, through public thoroughfares.  Table A-5 dis-
closes therefore that an average of only 4 percent of shoreline suitable for recreation
on the three coasts is actually in public recreational use. Another 3 percent is in
public use for purposes other than recreation, thereby restricting recreation.  Of the
total recreation shoreline, 93 percent is privately owned and hence is not available to
the recreation-seeking public

    Accessible shorelines are those which are close enough to large user populations
for day and/or  overnight use. The heaviest demands for shoreline recreation comes
from those population centers within 1 hour's driving time - or 30 miles - from the
recreation facility.
       TABLE A-5.  RELATIVE AVAILABILITY OF RECREATION SHORELINE
Coast
Atlantic
Gulf
Pacific
Average
Coastline,
percentage of
U.S. Shoreline
53
32
15

Recreation
Shoreline,
percentage
of each
Shoreline
35
25
40
32
Percentage of
Recreation
Shoreline
in Public Use
3
3
9
4
Percentage of
Recreation
Shoreline
Restricted from
Public Use
3
3
4
3
    There are 10 metropolitan areas in the United States of over 1 million population
situated along coastlines.  Each of these metropolitan areas has some or all of its
water-front on estuaries.  The total population in these 10 metropolitan areas is ap-
proximately 40 million people. Another 8 metropolitan areas of over 1/2 million
population each are also situated on coastal-estuarine shoreline,  or within 30 miles
of such shoreline.   Based on these major metropolitan areas, and smaller population
centers within 30-miles driving distance of the seacoast, it can be estimated that
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approximately 50 million Americans live within 1 hour's driving time of potential
recreation shoreline sites.  A majority of this population is within an hour's time of
potential estuarine recreation shoreline.  Table A-6 lists the 18 largest coastal metro-
politan areas, their 1967 population, and the names of estuaries adjacent to the metro-
politan areas.

             TABLE A-6.  MAJOR COASTAL METROPOLITAN AREAS
Metropolitan Area
New York-New Jersey


Los Angeles
Philadelphia
Boston
San Francisco
Washington
Baltimore
Houston
Seattle
San Diego

New Orleans
Miami
Tampa
Norfolk
Providence
Anaheim
San Jose
Jacksonville
1967 Population, millions**)
14.8


6.0
4.3
2.6
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.4
1.1
1.0

0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Estuaries
Long Island Sound
New York Bay
Jamaica Bay
San Pedro Bay
Delaware River-Bay
Massachusetts Bay
San Francisco Bay
Potomac River Estuary
Chesapeake Bay
Galveston Bay
Puget Sound
Mission Bay
San Diego Bay
Lake Ponchartraine
Biscayne Bay
Tampa Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Narragansett Bay
San Pedro Bay
San Francisco Bay
St. Johns River
(a) Executive Office of the President, Bureau of the Budget,
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 1967, Washington (1967).

    The significance of the population statistics presented in Table A-6 is the relation
between population masses and available estuarine recreation resources.  Although
total shoreline and recreation shoreline in the United States are substantial, it is those
portions of shoreline within an hour's driving distance of these  18 coastal metropolitan
areas which are subject to the heaviest usage and heaviest demand.  Intermediate use,
longer day trips, overnight trips, and extended vacation usage of shoreline areas
farther from these metropolitan areas are not subject to the intensive demand and use
which characterize metropolitan-area recreation facilities.   Furthermore, shoreline
recreation areas which are not intensively used generally do not require as high a
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degree of improvement and facility construction as those areas close to the metropoli-
tan sectors.  Therefore, supply of shoreline recreation areas must be thought of in
terms of shoreline length, location, and degree of development.  The general manager
of the Los Angeles city department of recreation and parks emphasizes the need for
development, describing the attitudes of beach goers as changing through the years so
that patrons are no longer content to just bask in the sun or wade in the surf. *  Aware
of this change in attitude, the city of Los Angeles has provided recreation facilities
on its beaches for more active purposes through the installation of athletic areas to
meet the demand of all age groups. These facilities include fenced children's areas,
athletic areas for teenagers and adults, senior citizens recreation areas,  outdoor
theaters,  and special locations for conducting special events for all age groups. Through
intensive development of this nature, the utilization of the scarce recreation resources
adjacent to estuaries  near large cities can be increased and made more attractive to
more recreation seekers.

    In many estuaries, public access is severely restricted.  The state of Maryland,
for instance,  has the  largest shoreline of  any state on a single estuary, the Chesapeake
Bay.  The Bay physically divides the state of Maryland, and its inlets and tributaries
drain much of the state.  Many of the traditions, historical values,  and present eco-
nomic activities of the state of Maryland are related or dependent upon the Chesapeake
Bay.  For recreation, on the other hand,  public facilities are at a minimum, although
private facilities are  plentiful.  Of a total of 41 state parks which are either operational,
under construction, or authorized, only five are on the Chesapeake Bay or other estuary
tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac. Recent studies have shown
the State and  many of its subregions to be deficient in public recreation areas. ** In
the three-county southern Maryland region, for instance, the only beaches on the Bay
are privately owned and commercially operated.  Yet, there are over 3,000 private
seasonal residences in these counties.  Over 4 million people within easy driving dis-
tance of this potential recreation region are essentially denied free shoreline access.

    To  compare with the dearth of public  recreation in the southern Maryland region,
there are 65 private marinas, boatyards,  and boat clubs. These facilities provide over
2,000 recreational boating slips and 34 launching ramps.  Somerset County on Maryland's
eastern shore has no  public beaches, parks, or campgrounds.  Most waterfront is oc-
cupied by private, year-round residences, or summer dwellings.  Sand beaches along
the Bay are divided by private jetties  in individual efforts to hold back the advancement
of shoreline erosion.   The County does provide 11 public boat-launching ramps. The
significance of those examples is that the  Bay is not available for use by a Majority of
the public, many of whom may live within close proximity. ***
  "William Frederickson,  Jr.,  "Public Seashores:  Their Administration", Parks and
   Recreation, Vol 1, No. 8 (August 1966), pp 638-641.
 **Maryland State Planning Department, Summary,  Maryland's Outdoor Recreation
   Plan (April 1966).
***Area Redevelopment Administration,  U.S. Department of Commerce, Tourist and
   Recreation Potential, Eastern Shore, Maryland (January 1965).
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    The State of Connecticut has a recreation shoreline of 162 miles.  Most of the
State's population reside within 1 hour's driving time of Long Island Sound.  Yet, only
5 of the 82 state parks in Connecticut are located on the saltwater shoreline.   Further-
more,  of 87 state-owned boat launching sites, 10 are on the Sound,  or at locations which
have access to saltwater.

    A recent study of the recreation resources in the San Francisco Bay area compares
the potential capacity of the study area with the total use if there were no limitations in
the supply of recreation facilities.  The study shows that there are  presently adequate
facilities for'swimming, sightseeing, and nature walks, and inadequate facilities for
boating, sailing, water-skiing, picnicking, and camping.  The results of the study are
summarized in Table A-7.
               TABLE A-7.  SUPPLY OF RECREATION FACILITIES.
                            ON SAN FRANCISCO BAY
Activity
Sunbathing and swimming
Sightseeing
Boating
Sailing
Water skiing
Picnicking
Nature walking
Camping
Hiking
Fishing*
Waterfowl hunting
Total, all activities
Source: Stanford Research Insti
the San Francisco Bay i
Participation Days, millions
Facility
Capacity
3.86
3.45
2.30
0.07
0.50
0.44
0.26
0.05
0.00
3.60
No estimate
14.53
1960 Use
Potential
3.74
3.45
5.07
0.51
1.76
0.60
0.26
0.69
0.06
4.80
0.14
21.08
tute, Recreation and Fishery Values in
and Delta, Menlo Park,
California (1966).
*Based on a statement that estimates of demand have been reduced 25 percent
as an approximation of the effect of poor access.
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DATA QUALITY AND SOURCES

    There are few sources of meaningful economic data in the recreation field.  Those
which are available are repeatedly used by analysts and planners and therefore appear
to be exceedingly arbitrary.  Much of the economic data in the recreation field is of
limited accuracy due to the vague and regional nature of the participation in recreation
and its place as an economic activity.  Furthermore, much of the data collected is on
a gross or industry-wide basis, and therefore, more precise subdivisions are difficult
to ascertain. By comparison, however, recreational data exclusively for estuarine
areas is virtually nonexistent so current estuarine studies must use general sources
as a basis for estimates and conclusions.
APPROACHES USED TO MEASURE ECONOMIC VALUES OF OUTDOOR
RECREATION

    Much of the information and data available on the economic values associated with
outdoor recreation is a function of the objectives of the study for which they were ob-
tained.  There have been substantial efforts to determine the 'Value" or "benefits" of
outdoor recreation in general but, because of differences in study goals and the types
of study organizations, there is a lack of comparability between the "values" measured
in different studies.  Therefore, the nature of the economic information available for
estuarine  recreation should be examined to avoid misinterpretation of the data.  The
following types of studies provide a basis for  economic evaluations of estuarine
recreation:

    Industrial surveys - business within recreation industries

    Regional development - tourism expansion

    Regional development - economic base and impact evaluation

    Recreation demand and participation analysis.

    These four categories of available information are by no means mutually exclusive.
Many of the same techniques and economic indicators are employed by several of the
studies.  Likewise, within each category there are major differences of approach.
However,  each category may be identified with a particular goal,  or set of objectives,
as described below.

    Industry Surveys.  Although recreation is often thought of as a single activity in
the economic sense, it is related to several sizeable industries.   The "lion's share"
of expenditures by participants in outdoor recreation goes to the purchase of equipment
of many types, and therefore, within many industrial groupings.   The single largest
                                      A-16

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portion is expended on recreational boats and motors.  Much of the information available
on recreation expenditures is collected and distributed through the recreation boating
industry. *

    As for any other industry, information collected by recreation-oriented industries
is directed toward measuring and improving the level of business activity.  Industry-
wide surveys often designate economic activity by sales,  rather than by use.  For >
instance,  data on the sales of recreation boats are recorded geographically by area of
purchase.  However, those interested in recreation-resource management must know
where these craft are to be sailed rather than where they were bought.

    Regional Development; Expansion of Tourism Base.  Regional success in indus-
trial development rests largely with ability to produce goods {or export from the region,
i.e., basic products.  In recent years, it has been realized that outdoor recreation can
be a substitute for basic industry in some regions where there are few  advantages to
industrial location.  Rather than exporting goods, regions have attempted to import the
market through development of tourist attractions and facilities.  Much of the attrac-
tion to tourists is natural: climate, scenery, and open space.   Most coastal regions,
including those located on estuaries, possess these natural attributes.

    The remainder of the attractiveness to tourists of an area consists of the activities
and facilities available for their pleasure.  The objective of most tourism studies is to
develop regional facilities and activities to attract a disproportionately large share of
the tourist market and thereby reap regional economic advantages in comparison to
other regions.  Many of the activities and facilities considered in such  analyses are
recreation oriented in keeping with the local natural resources.  Several such tourism
studies have been prepared in areas partially or totally adjacent to estuaries. **

    Regional tourism analyses are useful in assessing the needs of an area to attract
a greater share of the market.  However, they are based generally on an assumed
premise that (1) the area possesses the natural attractions that warrant tourism expan-
sion and  (2) increase in tourism would be beneficial to the local economy over and above
  *See in particular
  a.  The Boating Industry,  monthly magazine
  b.  The Boating Business, yearly summaries
  c.  The Marine Market, annual market research yearbook
  d.  Boating Statistics,  U. S.  Coast Guard Annual Reports
  e.  Boating Facilities, periodic reprints by the Outboard Boating Club of America.
 **For instance
  a.  1966 Florida Tourist Study
  b.  Economic Growth in Alabama:  A Case for Travel Industry Development, University
      of Alabama Bureau of Business Research (May, 1966).
  c.  Tourism in Alaska, University of Alaska Institute of Business (1965).
  d.  The Georgia Travel Industry 1960-1985, University of Georgia Bureau of Business
      and Economic Research  (1966).
                                      A-17

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the costs of development.  la many cases, neither of these assumptions has been proven
prior to tourism investigations.  Tourism analyses generally have a limited approach
to the problem of regional development, in that only one industry, tourism, is con-
sidered.  Other potential areas of regional growth are ignored, or at least considered
and reported separately.

    Regional tourism analyses generally aim for improving income to the study region,
and therefore are quite sensitive to tourist expenditures. Therefore, the principal
economic indicators discussed in such reports are expenditures, including recreation
expenditures.

    Regional Development; Economic Base and Impact Evaluation.  Many  coastal  and
estuarine regions have undertaken more complete analyses than those focusing on the
tourist industry alone.  Studies of the economic use of a region, or the impact of local
resources on the local economy serve as a jumping off point for many types of regional
development, including industrial expansion, river-basin development, recreation
growth, etc.  In many coastal areas,  estuarine-related recreation is an important
economic activity, and therefore, becomes part of any regional economic analyses.
Data from several of these regional analyses are useful inputs into the overall study of
the values of estuarine recreation discussed in this appendix. *

    Economic base and impact studies have the advantage over tourism studies in
taking a more comprehensive approach that relates the economic importance of recrea-
tion to mat of other industries in the area.   The objective of some of these  studies is
to go beyond measuring local expenditures to understand how these incomes are distri-
buted within the region.  Distribution thus indicates which segments of the  economy
are most affected by recreational activities.  In a limited number of cases, analyses
of distribution of income go so far as to estimate "multiplier", or the quantities of
local value generated by income from each industry.

    Recreation Demand and Participation Evaluations. Measurements or estimates of
benefits derived from recreation activities represent the heart of recreation economic
effects. In other words, evaluation of recreation benefits answers the question, "How
much added value will recreation participants derive from an additional investment in
recreation facilities ?'  Benefits, therefore, in proper economic terminology represent
the incremental impact from an incremental unit of investment, not the total impact of
recreation activity. Traditional benefit-cost analysis compares computed  benefits with
estimated costs to measure the return on the investment.
*Ihcluding
 Economic Impact of Marine Oriented Activities, A Study of the New England Marine
 Region, Rorholm, Lampe, Marshall, and Farrell, University of Rhode Island,
 Bulletin 396 (1967).
 Coastal Georgia, Its Resources and Development, University of Georgia Bureau of
 Business and Economic Research (1964).
 Marine Resources of the Corpus Chrlsti Area, Arvid A. Anderson, Bureau of Business
 Research, University of Texas (1960).
 Hampton Virginia, Waterfront Economic Study, City Planning Commission (1967).

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    The undertaking of systematic approaches to measure recreation benefits is a
recent development.  Previous attitudes considered recreation to be primarily a social
benefit,  and therefore economic measurements were irrelevant.  Current philosophy
recognizes that social benefits which individuals derive from their recreation partici-
pation can be indicated economically in terms of their willingness to pay for achieving
social satisfaction.  The need to quantify recreation satisfaction was further advanced
with the inclusion of recreation as a major purpose in water resources development
projects.  The recognition of recreation in this manner required comparisons of recrea-
tion with other development purposes to measure the return of the overall water-
resources investment. *

    It can be seen, that the progression of studies on recreation values discussed above
goes from the general to the specific,  and therefore each succeeding type of analysis
is more useful in assessing the economic role of estuarine recreation.  The sequence
is as follows:

                                      Sales
                                  Expenditures
                                     Impact
                                    Benefits.

Economic Values of Estuarine Recreation as Measured by Sales and Expenditures

    Some studies claiming to identify the economic value of recreation present, rather,
a level of income to the local economy associated with outdoor recreation expenditures
in the area.  Often these income figures are then projected to arrive at the conclusion
that outdoor recreation development is a panacea for regional economic ills.
 *The following government documents trace the history of recreation evaluation in
 federal water resources projects.
 a.  Proposed Practices for Economic Analysis of River Basin Projects, Subcommittee
     on Evaluation Standards, Inter-Agency Committee on Water Resources (May, 1950,
     Revised, May,  1958).
 b.  Policies, Standards, and Procedures in the Formulation,  Evaluation, and Review
     of Plans for Use and Development of Water and Related Land Resources, 87th
     Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Document 97 (May,  1962).
 c.  Evaluation Standards for Primary Outdoor Recreation Benefits,  S. D.  97, Supple-
     ment No. 1 (June, 1964).
                                      A-19

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     Sales and expenditures data presented in this section do not in themselves repre-
sent the salient economic values necessary for judicious planning and investment in
additional recreational resources. Sales and expenditures data are significant for
the following reasons:

     (1)   They offer a basis for comparison with other economic activities.

     (2)   They are the most readily available data.

     (3)   Knowledge of the distribution of expenditures on recreation can
          lead to understanding of regional impact of recreation development.

     (4)   Some types of recreation expenditures signify an individual's
          "willingness to pay" for an additional unit of recreation at a
          specific  site and are therefore indicators of "benefits" derived
          by an individual from his recreation experience.


Types of Recreation Expenditures and Their Significance

     (1)  Direct Charges.  Direct charges for estuarine recreation include payments to
owners and operators of recreation areas and facilities, and purchase of licenses from
state, local, and federal agencies to participate legally in an activity.  These include:

             Park-entrance and parking fees

             Boat-launching and docking fees

             Hunting and fishing licenses.

     Direct charges for recreation generally account for less than 10 percent of an
individual's recreation costs, except at expensive resorts. Even then they can be
broken down into several components, some of which are not direct charges for recrea-
tion. Direct charges generally have little regional significance and slight impact on
economic climate of an area.

     Direct charges have the greatest economic effect upon the operators of recreation
areas.  In public recreation, such revenues defray the costs of operation and institute a
degree of regulation of the use of an area.  Hunting and fishing revenues are usually
employed toward managing state fish and wildlife resources, and thereby perpetuate
the recreation activity.  For private recreation, direct charges contribute towards a
profit for the owner.

     To the user of  a recreation area,  the direct charge is a cost which is made per
day of recreation use, or per season,  and has a direct bearing upon his decision to
participate or not.
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    (2)  Recreation Equipment.  The major share of expenditures for recreation goes
into the purchase of recreation equipment. For estuarine-type recreation the principal
types of equipment include:

            Boats, motors, and trailers
            Water skis

            Fishing gear

            Hunting gear

            Clothing (including swim suits).

    Recreation-equipment expenditures represent the greatest contribution of the
recreation industry to the gross national product.  Purchases of equipment, however,
are widely distributed and are not necessarily confined to the regions of estuarine
recreation.

    (3)  Recreation-Site Goods and Services.  In addition to expensive recreation
equipment,  most estuarine recreation outings require some expenditure on local
recreational goods and services. For example:

            Gasoline

            Fishing tackle and bait

            Guides
            Boat rental
            Suntan lotion,  etc.

            Souvenirs.

    Expenditures on such goods and services are small compared to expenditures on
major items of recreation equipment.  However, the impact of these expenditures is
strictly local and may tend to make a more significant contribution to a local economy
than direct charges on equipment purchases.   In particular, the incomes of many
recreation operators, private and public, may be enhanced considerably by providing
these types of services and goods.

    (4)  Nonrecreation Goods and Services in Recreation Areas.   Any extensive visit
to a recreation site (even a few hours in some cases) requires expenditures for goods
and services which would otherwise be obtained at home or at another recreation area
including:

            Food

            Lodging
            Personal service (laundry, beauty shop, etc.)

            Car maintenance.

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    Much of the benefit of having a local recreation industry accrues to a region
through its ability to provide such goods and services.  Local jobs are created for the
purpose of serving customers who primarily bring outside sources of funds into the
region. In this sense, goods and services for a local tourist or recreation trade sub-
stitute for basic industries (exporters of products) in regions with economies weak in
basic industry.  Therefore, most regional analyses of recreation resources and tourist
attractiveness stress the necessity of developing facilities and services for visitors to
the area.

    (5) Transportation.  Transportation costs occur in almost every individual partic-
ipation experience in outdoor recreation.  Some of these costs consist of:

             Car expense

             Tolls
             Public transportation

             Parking.

    Transportation expenditures are similar to equipment purchases  in that they have
wide geographic distribution.  The bulk of such expenditures occur near an individual's
home; a second share taking place near a recreation site,  with the remainder distri-
buted between these two locations.

    Transportation costs are useful in some circumstances for distinguishing the
attractiveness of one recreation site in comparison to a second.  Given the same type
of activities, the site which attracts users from greater distances (and therefore at
higher cost) is the one which has the greater utility to users.
Sport Fishing

    Saltwater sport fishing is far more closely related to estuaries than commercial
fisheries. * Land based fishing from piers, bridges or the surf involves only those
species whose habitat is estuarine or in shallow coastal waters.  Marine based fishing,
via charter or individually owned craft, depends upon estuaries for safe mooring and
launching. Finally, a majority of the species sought in all sport fisheries depend upon
the estuaries for some phase of their life cycles. ** And, primarily because of the
access and harbor factors, much of the land-based economic impact of saltwater sport
fishing occurs in areas located on estuarine waters.
 *Mock, C, Importance of Gulf Estuaries and Problems Facing Our Fishery Resources
  Proc.  llth International Game Fish Conference (1967),  pp 66-68.
**See Appendix B for a description of the biological estuarine dependencies charac-
  teristic of salt water fisheries.
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    Data.  The primary series of data available was assembled for the Department of
the Interior by the Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, in the National
Survey of Fishing and Hunting.  Statistics on sport fishing differentiate between fresh-
water and saltwater but not between estuarine and deep sea. The survey used 357 areas
throughout the 50 states, reaching approximately 16,000 households or 45,000 individuals.
Respondents who participated in fishing and hunting, a total of approximately 6400 per-
sons,  were later interviewed.   From these samples come virtually all of the data on
sport fishing and hunting in the  United States.  While by far the best data source in the
field,  the statistics deduced from this survey are used repeatedly.in and out of context
in almost all studies and projections involving these forms of recreation.  Of particular
consequence is the use of figures for average values of fishermen and hunters expendi-
tures, which are quite variable by geographic location and by specific activity.

    There are many regional studies of estuarine sport fishing using local surveys of
species, catches, and other biological  factors significant in sport Wishing. Regional
analyses, which also include economic factors, are the only means of establishing a
true evaluation of the impact of sport-fishery resources.  Examples of regional studies
that include the economic impact of sport fishing on estuarine areas would be the series
of investigations completed by the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries on se-
lected estuaries throughout Massachusetts. *    More often, data which are claimed to
represent the economic impact  of sport fishing on a region are merely interpretations
and extrapolations of average national expenditure figures used out of context in regional
applications. **

    National data for expenditures by saltwater fishermen are presented in Table A-8
for the years 1955, 1960, and 1965, to indicate the economic trend over a decade.
These expenditures do not represent a  total contribution to the economy since they do
not express the effect of multipliers.  Furthermore, gross expenditures may be a con-
servative indicator of the value that users placed upon the activity.  As Crutchfield has
explained, "Where people choose freely to spend money on this activity we can legi-
mately infer that they value it at least as highly as other things that could have been
puchased for the same amount". ***

    Crutchfield also points out  that the gross expenditures for estuarine related sport
fishing should not be mistaken for net expenditures since the costs of the local,  state,
and Federal services are not included.  Some of these services, such as Coast Guard
and weather forecasting services, pollution control, research activities and overall
fish and wildlife management, are diffused throughout the economy.  Another omission
from this economic indicator is the full resource cost for the right to fish at a given
estuary; i. e., the rent of the resource.
  *For instance, Jerome, Chesmore, Anderson and Grice,  A Study of the Marine
   Resources of the Merrimack River Estuary,  Department of Natural Resources,
   Monograph #1 (June, 1965).
 **See Sport Fishing Institute Bulletins #172 and #81.
***James A. Crutchfield, "Valuation of Fishery Resources",  Land Economics, Vol.
   XXXVm, No. 2 (May,  1962), pp 145-154.
                                      A-23

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                               TABLE A-8. EXPENDITURES OF SALTWATER FISHERMEN





Food and lodging
Food
Lodging
Transportation
Automobile
Bus, rail, air, and water
Auxiliary equipment
Boats and boat motors
General
Fishing equipment
Licenses, tags, and permits
Privilege fees and other
Annual lease and
privilege fees
Daily entrance fees
Bait, guides, and other
trip expenses
Boat launching
Other
Total
Year
1955*
Total
Spent,
$1,000

25,238
18,261

42, 828


—
—
54,458
1,449

—

—
—

—
346,705
488,939
Avg per
Fisherman,
$

5.54
4.00

9.40


—
—
11.95
.32

—

—
—

-
76.08
107.29
1960
Total
Spent,
$1,000

56,705
12,749

68,293
5,037

175,077
19,701
73,945
3,575

4,595

3,379
182,127

6,555
14,457
626,191
Avg per
Fisherman,
$

9.01
2.03

10.85
.80

27.83
3.31
11.75
.57

.73

.54
28.95

1.04
2.30
99.52
1965
Total
Spent,
$1,000

83,952
24,503

72,933
12,388

237,216
22,410
73,098
4,368

6,166

7,831
236,958

7,330
10,503
799,656
Avg per
Fisherman,


10. 11
2.95

8.78
1,49

28.56
2.70
8.80
.53

.74

.94
28.53

..88
1.26
96. 29
Source: National Surveys of Fishing and Hunting, 1955, 1960, and 1965.
*1955 Survey not comparable in all details to succeeding surveys.
>
t'c

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Estuarine Boating

    There are no accurate data expressing the total number of boats used on estuaries
or even on coastal waters in general.  However, a study of activities on the U. S. con-
tinental shelf makes the estimate that "1,285,000 boats (34 percent of the total of...
numbered boats in the U. S.) are used in shelf environs.  This seems to indicate that a
25 percent figure for boating expenditure in (continental) shelf regions is not too high. "*

    Data show that,  on a per capita basis, coastal states have fewer recreational boats
than inland states, a fact seemingly supporting the estimate that only 25 percent of
pleasure boats are used in coastal waters.  In 1966, coastal states with 120 million
people, or 61. 5 percent of the total population accounted for 55.4 percent of total sales
of outboard motors.  Expressed differently, there are over 20 percent more boats per
capita in inland states than in coastal states.

    Several coastal states with high populations and high buying power but with low
per-capita sales in recreation boats, include: California, Connecticut, Maryland,
Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York.

    Each of these states has large estuafine water areas adjacent to large masses  of
people, yet are considered "weak markets" in the boating industry.  Coastal states
considered "strong markets" are those with relatively low buying power but high sales
of boats, include:  Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, New Hampshire, South
Carolina, and Washington.

    Overall, the strongest recreation boating region in the nation is the East North
Central, particularly Wisconsin,  Minnesota and Michigan.  These states have boat
registrations of 3.1, 2. 8, and 2.3 times the national average, respectively.

    For 1966 in the U. S.  an estimated $3 billion was spent at the retail level on
boating recreation-related expenditures.  Items included:

    (1) Equipment

    (2) Services

    (3) Insurance

    (4) Fuel

    (5) Mooring and launching fees

    (6) Boat club membership.
*U.S. Department of Commerce, ESSA= Development Potential of U.S.  Continental
 Shelves. Washington (1966).
                                      A-25

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    Sales reports from many individual product categories indicated increases in
dollar sales from 1965-1966 although generally they were small increases.  Some areas
showed losses in unit sales while indicating gains in dollar sales.  The outboard-boat
market, for example, sustained a slight loss in unit volume in 1967, although there
was a small increase in total dollars due to an average boost of $21 per unit over 1966
for each boat sold.  Most products enjoyed peak sales in 1959 and suffered a severe
drop in the following years.  From 1964 there has been a gradual upward growth pat-
tern, although the 1959 peak has not yet been regained. Exceptions to this trend have
been the life saving equipment market, which has been on a decline, and the water ski
market, which has been flourishing.
    The following tabulation illustrates equipment sales for 1966:*
                   Item                                       Unit
          Outboard boats                                 260,000
          Inboard boats                                    36,000
          Sailboats                                        13,000
          Boat trailers                                  160,000
          Outboard motors                               444,000
          Inboard engines                                  92,000
          Inboard/outdrives                                46,000
          Fuel                                        1» 000.10°  gallons
          Marine electronics gear                   $17, 500,000
          Safety                                    $10,000,000
          Waterskiis                                    810,000
    Pleasure Boating-Related Activities. ** In 1967 the following boating-related
sports were pursued:
                 Sport                       Number of People, Total U.S.
         Pleasure boating                              41,375,000
         Water skiing                                   9,500,000
         Fishing                                      30,000,000
         Skin and scuba diving                          3,000,000
  The Boating Business 1967, The Boating Industry.
 **Source: "The Boating Business-1967", The Boating Industry.
                                      A-26

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    In the course of these activities the estimated number of pleasure craft and attend-
ant accessories was broken down as follows:
        Pleasure boats                       8,27 5,000*
        Outboard boats                       4,843,000
        Inboard boats                           591,000
        Sailboats                               561,000
        Houseboats                               5,500
        Pontoon boats                            22,500
        Canoes                                265,000
        Inboard/outdrive                       112,000
        Miscellaneous draft                  2,280,000
        Outboard motors                     6,904,000
        Inboard engines                        671,500
        Inboard/outdrive units                  12 5,000
        Boat trailers                         3,560,000
    Impact of Marinas.  As with most water-based recreation activities, boating is
heavily dependent upon related land-based facilities.  Both freshwater and saltwater
boating require the following land-based services:
    (1) Sales outlets
    (2) Major servicing
    (3) Maintenance
    (4) Fuel
    (5) Access or mooring
    (6) Storage
    (7) Transportation
    (8) Lodging
    (9) Food
    (10) Recreation
    (11) Weather notification.
 *Assume estuarine use comprises an estimated 25 percent of all data.

                                      A-27

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    "Marinas" represents the broad term designating land-based service establish-
ments for recreational boating.  Smaller boats along coastal waters can be launched at
beaches or ramps, but many coastal boats require some sort of launching or berthing
facilities provided by marinas.  Many municipalities have developed public marina
facilities, generally on a less-luxurious scale than private facilities.

    Large inland marinas, comparable to those located in coastal waters, are developed
along the Great Lakes and the  major inland waterways.  However, the type of boating
activity along the coasts tends towards larger and more expensive land-based facilities
than those for inland waters.  Investigation of marinas and the kinds of services which
they provide can indicate the relationship between an estuarine-recreation activity and
the land-based economy.

    Access and Launching.  The prime requisite for boating is access and launching,
including roads and land development.  Launching must include ramps, winches, and
other services.  Size and complexity of launching facilities increase with boat size,
which in turn tends to increase with waterway size.

    Slips and Moorings.   In a nationwide study of 417 marinas by the National Asso-
ciation of Engine  and Boat Manufacturers, it was reported that the lack of slips and
moorings was the largest single factor retarding the sale of new boats and motors. *
From the 417 marinas:

    (1)  there was a total of 35,592 slips

    (2)  of these slips 94 percent were occupied

    (3)  279 marinas turned people away

    (4)  233 had waiting lists

    (5)  397 said  more boats could be sold

    (6)  of all marinas, 77 percent were 100 percent occupied.

    Estimated Revenues. Table A-9 shows the estimated revenues of a 200-slip marina.

    In addition, boaters  spent an average of $54,000 in the communities nearby the
marinas.  Survey findings revealed that during a 5-month season, boatmen spent an
average of $9 per day.  The boatowner was able to boat an average of 30 days per year
(estimates for Southern states are higher).

    Tables A-10  and A-ll indicate the range of expenditures and the number of boating
days per year:
*Knight, H. B., The Marina and the Community, Boating Facilities,  Outboard Boating
 Club of America, Vol 6 (Feb.  1964).
                                      A-28

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TABLE A-9.  ESTIMATED GROSS REVENUES, 200-SLIP MARINA
  Slip and mooring rentals
  §ale of accessories and equipment
  Repairs
  Sale of new boats and engines
  Sale of fuel and oil
  Winter storage charges
  Sale of used boats and engines
  Restaurant and bar sales
  Boat rentals
  Sale of bait, tackle, etc.
  Sleeping quarters
  Sale of groceries and ice

  Total
                                    $ 35,000
                                      23,500
                                      21,000
                                      19,000
                                      18,500
                                      18,000
                                      15,000
                                       8,000
                                       7,500
                                       6,500
                                       4,000
                                       4,000

                                    $180,000
  Source:  Knight, The Marina and the Community, p 5.
 TABLE A-10.
DAILY EXPENDITURES FOR ALL PURPOSES BY
     LAND-BASED BOATERS
Amount
$ 0 to $ 5
$ 6 to $10
$11 to $15
Over $15
Percent of
Survey Spending
26.2
40.5
23.8
9.5
    Source: Knight, The Marina and The Community, p 5.
                            A-29

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             TABLE A-11.  NUMBER OF BOATING DAYS PER YEAR
Number of Days
20 to 30
31 to 50
Over 50
Percent of
Boaters Boating
47.5
30.0
22.5
Source: Knight, The Marina and The Community, p 5.
    Size of Marinas.  Table A-12 indicates the range in size of the marinas in this
country.

 TABLE A-12.  ESTIMATED NUMBER AND  AVERAGE  SIZE OF U.S. MARINAS
Number of
Berths
Under 50
50 to 99
100 to 199
200 to 299
300 to 399
400 and Over
TOTALS
Estimated
Number of
Marinas
2250
1125
675
225
135
90
4500
Percent
of Total
50
25
15
5
3
2
100
Source: Jones, Charles, Where Marina Profits Come From,
Boating Facilities, Outboard Boating Club of America,
Vol 7 (1965).
                                    A-30

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    Services of Marinas.  Table A-13 describes the services offered by marinas.
       TABLE A-13.  MAJOR SALES AND SERVICE FACILITIES OFFERED
                                BY U.S. MARINAS



Repairs and service
Hauling and launching
Fuels
Storage; seasonal or winter
Berths or slips
Sales - boat, engine, trailer (new and used)
Sales - marine hardware
Accessories and boating supplies
Sales - fishing supplies, ice, bait, tackle, etc.
Boats for hire
Rowboats, charter, etc.
Beverages (soft drinks)
Rest rooms
Snack bars
Restaurants
Groceries
Number of
Marinas
Offering
2700
3465
3330
3150
4500
2250

2250
3015

2070
3150
3465
1350
945
225
Percent of
Marinas
Offering
60
77
74
70
100
50

50
67

46
70
77
30
21
5
Source: Jones, Where Marina Profits Come From, p 9.
    These services provide an income for operators as described in Table A-14.

    A unique advantage of a marina is that even in cold weather it can continue to offer
some services and thus alleviate the problem of seasonality which afflicts employment
in the recreation industry.  Boat storage and maintenance are perennial requirements.
Boat sales, to a lesser extent, are also carried out throughout the year.   Marine facili-
ties can be utilized for winter sports and social activities and restuarants can remain
open throughout the year.
                                     A-31

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              TABLE A-14.  AVERAGE MARINA INCOME SOURCES
               Facility
 Profit
Ratio
-------
of the other activities which respondees participated in require greater levels of
expenditure than swimming, such as fishing and hunting, commercial attractions,
boating, dancing, and night life   Considering the data from the Florida Tourist Study,
the value of $900 million appears to be unreasonably high to be attributable only to
swimming.^ Nevertheless, assuming that $1. 5 billion is expended annually for coastal
swimming, 10 percent or $150 million may be related to estuarine swimming activity.
These expenditures have been broken down thusly:*

          Purchases of swim suits and equipment     11 percent
          Local transportation                       4 percent
          Fees, food,  and miscellaneous             9 percent
          Florida vacations                         61 percent
          Other vacations                          JL5 percent

                           $150 million           100 percent
Hunting and Wildlife Management

    The only data available on expenditures by hunters were provided by the National
Survey of Fishing and Hunting. However, there are no means by which to ascribe the
data in terms of estuarine-related hunting activities.  Total hunter expenditures in
1965 were $1.1 billion,  with the following breakdown given by type of game.

                            Type                  Expenditures

                           Big game               $  418,764,000
                           Small game                615,234,000
                           Waterfowl                  87,136,000
                           Total                   $1,121,134,000

    It may be assumed that big game are almost totally nonestuary dependent, while
small game are largely nonestuary dependent.  On the other hand, the life cycle of
some species  of waterfowl is dependent, at least in part, upon estuaries and adjacent
marsh and land areas.  Furthermore, much of the actual hunting activity takes place
along the coastal flyways.  Therefore, some of the  $87 million of hunter expenditures
would be related, at least indirectly, to estuarine hunting and waterfowl management.

    In addition to hunting activities, there are numerous wildlife preserves along
estuarine waters.  Maintenance  of these areas requires governmental expenditures
for the purposes of wildlife management and preservation.  Some of these expenses
are directly applicable to those game which are essential to the hunting sport, while
others are more broadly related to the overall program for conservation and wildlife
.preservation.
 *Continental Shelf Report,  op. cit.
                                      A-33

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ECONOMIC VALUES OF ESTUARINE RECREATION AS MEASURED BY REGIONAL
                                   IMPACTS

    The economic impact of an industry upon a region, such as that adjacent to an
estuary, is generally measured by several economic indicators.  Impact is a term used
to describe a region's response to its income sector, employment, supporting
industries and services, and growth potential.  Impact, therefore,  is more than just
the dollar volume of business which one industry contributes to an economy; it is the
effect on all sectors of that economy due to the presence of a particular economic
activity, in this case estuarine recreation.
Regional Analysis - Southern New England

    Several coastal and estuarine regions have investigated the impact of coastal and
estuarine related activity on their economies.  Perhaps the most sophisticated has been
a series of studies done at University of Rhode Island on the economic impacts of
Narragansett Bay and the Southern New England region,  including Rhode Island,
Southeastern Connecticut and the Plymouth-Cape Cod sectors of Massachusetts. *

    In a 1963 study of the Economic Impact of Narragansett Bay, it was  estimated
that about 7 percent of the monetary impact of uses of the bay was in activities related
to estuarine recreation, namely (1) general summer sales, (2) ship and boat building
and (3) boatyards and marinas.  On the other hand, over 90 percent of the impact was
due to a naval installation, an activity which in trim contributes to the level of recreation
use of the bay.  Being an early  study on the economic impact of marine resources, the
author cautions that the monetary estimates used (see Table A-15)  are not directly
comparable,  as in the case of wages for naval personnel compared to sales compared
to taxes.

    In discussing impact of estuarine activity, the author had some pertinent qualifications
regarding the use of monetary data in economic impact studies.  These qualifications
are equally applicable to the present  National Estuary Studies as well.

    1.   The impact of a dollar expenditure in each of two marine industries may be
         vastly different.  Purchase of a boat manufactured outside of the estuarine
         region has impact on the local area only in payment of those services required
         to sell the boat locally. On  the other hand, "value added" by a local fisherman
         or other local beneficiary of estuary use is retained in the community.
"Including Rorholm, Economic Impact of Narragansett Bay (1963).
    Alexander, Narragansett Bay: A Marine Use Profile (1966).
    Rorholm, The Economic Impact of Marine Industries in the Southern New England
      Region (1967).
    Rorholm, Lampe, Marshall and Farrell, Economic Impact of Marine-Oriented
      Industries - A Study of the Southern New England Marine Region (1967).
                                      A-34

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        TABLE A-15. MONETARY IMPACT OF ACTIVITIES REXATED TO
                              NARRAGANSETT BAY
                                                               of Total
        Naval installations
        General summer sales(a)
        Ship and boat build ing(a)
        Fish landings
        Boatyards and marinas(a)
        Transportation
        Heal estate taxes
        Research
        Municipal expenditures

               Total:  $145,000,000 per annum
        91
         4
         2
         1
Less than 1
Less than 1
Less than 1
Less than 1
Less than 1

       100
        Source: Rorholm, Economic Impact of Narragansett Bay, p 4.
        (a)  Recreation oriented activities.
    2,   Estimates of summer trade from sales-tax data ignore the fact that factors
        which contribute to the summer activity lessen winter sales, and therefore
        value added due to summer sales may be an indication of year-round economic
        weakness rather than a beneficial effect from summer visitors.

    A later study on the economic impact of marine industries in the Southern New
England Region characterizes the impact  of those estuarine activities which are recre-
ation dependent.  Marinas and boat yards have four characteristics as recreation
enterprises which differentiate them from other recreation types of businesses.

        (a)   They are more nearly year-round, adding stability to local employment.

        (b)   Boating brings business to the area, particularly to merchants and
             restaurants.

        (c)   Boat  owners generally desire to live near their boats, exerting an
             upwards influence on land values.

        (d)   Marina and boatyard facilities are generally compatible, and sometimes
             complementary with residential development.
                                      A-35

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     Beaches and museums contributed a very small portion of the total income
 to the Southern New England Region,  (0.15 percent) yet are characterized as being
 good "gateway" enterprises.  They are attractions for people in the area, who
 usually spend additional money on food and lodging. Furthermore, income to beaches
 and museums remains in local possession.  Their impact, however, includes high
 demands on regional transportation facilities and, for beaches, high demands on police
 efforts.

     Seaside  restaurants and hotels catering to recreationists are generally seasonal
 activities. Though several of the establishments in the Southern New England Region
 were open all year they reported, on the average, that 68 percent of their business was
 transacted in the period between Memorial Day and Labor Day.  Generally, restaurants
 and hotels depend upon customers brought there by other attractions.  However, it is not
 unusual to see these units grow into attractions themselves through attention to quality.
 In this sense they can become important in improving the general recreational environ-
 ment of an area,  and even serve to lengthen the recreational season by attracting meet-
 ings and conventions.

     The Southern New England Study reported  on certain effects of marine industries
 on the local region.  These effects, described  subjectively, are listed in Table A-16.

     The most recent study at Rhode Island evaluates multipliers indicating the salient
 components of economic impact of marine industries.  Multipliers provide a key to
 economic impact and development strategies because they are concerned not with the
 magnitude of an economic sector but with the significance of changes in the sector and
 their relation to the economy as a whole.   The multipliers represent the effect on the
 economy in dollars, given a dollar change in final demand for an economic sector,
 provided that the resources are available  for the change.

     1.   General multipliers — represent total effect on the economy.

     2.   Personal imcome multipliers — represent effect on personal  imcome, often
         a key factor in public policy decision.

     3.   Nonmarine multipliers — show the rate at which each marine sector stimulates
         business in the rest of the region's economy.

     Table A-17 presents  the multipliers showing impact of marine sectors of the economy
.for the Southern New England Marine Region, 1965. The multipliers shown indicate
 that recreation industries are about average in their impact on the Southern New England
 Region relative to other industries.  Commercial fisheries represent the greatest local
 effect of any marine industrial sector.

     Based upon their thorough analyses of the  Southern New  England Region, the authors
 evaluated the potential of the recreation industries in the region.  Water-based recrea-
 tion is one of the fastest growing recreation activities.   The  growth appears to occur
                                      A-36

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TABLE A-16.  SELECTED EFFECTS OF MARINE INDUSTRIES
Industry
Recreation oriented
Marinas and yards
Beaches and recreational
Marine restaurants
Nonrecreation oriented
Marine retail and wholesale
Marine manufacture
Fishing
Research
Marine agents and brokers
Marine construction and transportation
Marine military
Gateway
Characteristics (a)

3
4
2

1
2
2
2
0
0
5
Traffic^)

0
2
0

0
2
1
0
0
0
2
Pollutipn(c)

I
I
0

0
2
1
0
0
0
2
Source: Rorholm, Lampe, Marshall and Farrell, Economic Impact of Marine Oriented Industries.
(a) Gateway Characteristics - Stimulation of employment in other business in the area directly as
opposed to indirectly through earnings of employees. 0 = not a gateway enterprise, to 5 =
strong gateway effect.
(b) Traffic Generators - Degree to which activity puts a burden on local transportation network.
0 = low; to 2 = high.
(c) Pollution Effect - Degree of air, water or space pollution. 0 = low; to 2 = high.
(Defined as the general "messing up" of the environment which often accompanies some
commercial enterprises. ) .

-------
             TABLE A-17.   MULTIPLIERS FOR MARINE ACTIVITIES
Activity
Recreation-oriented
Marinas and yards
Charter fishing
Partially recreation oriented
Ship and boat building
Marine wholesale and retail
Construction and towing
Other marine
Nonrecreation oriented
Fish catching
Fresh-fish processing
Frozen-fish processing
Fish wholesaling and jobbing
Marine manufacturing
Research and education
Marine military
General

2.76
3.07

1.99
2.75
1.97
2.68

2.96
3.32
3.74
3.41
2.37
1.95
2.73
Personal
Income

0.94
1.17

0.71
0.87
0.64
0.96

1.18
1.07
1.16
1.09
0.95
0,62
1.22
Nonmarine

0.43
0.47

0,22
0.42
0.27
0.50

0.46
0.41
0.48
0.47
0.32
0.28
0.41
Source: Rorholm, Lampe, Marshall and Farrell, Economic Impact of Marine
Oriented Industries.
across the spectrum of water-based recreation, including boating,  swimming, fishing,
and general use of the marine environment.  They estimated recreational growth to be
based on an approximate regional economic value of $200 million for marine recreation
activities.  Seventy-eight percent of this base is derived from summer visitors, and the
remaining 22 percent from increases in all other industries due to pleasure boating,
fishing, and tourism.

    Their conclusion is that there will be increased pressure on the coastal resources
of the North Atlantic seaboard,  and particularly on the Southern New England Marine
                                      A-38

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Region with its historic significance and many unique characteristics, as a recreation
area.  They further conclude that the social and economic impact of such growth
will depend on the extent to which private and public organizations are able to protect
the quality of the marine environment while advancing its development.
Seasonal Impact of Recreation on Employment

    The full impact of the tourist trade on employment trends in resort areas is not
reflected in available employment data since much of this employment is not included
under state employment bureaus. Four New Jersey counties studied, however, indicate
certain definite trends in seasonal employment.  (See Table A-18).  The counties are
chiefly resort areas; the economy is dominated by the tourist business and agriculture.
Thus, trade and service industries are particularly prevalent. *

          TABLE  A-18.  UNEMPLOYMENT RATES  IN FOUR COASTAL
                         NEW JERSEY  COUNTIES, 1967

Annual Average
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Atlantic
5.7
8.8(a)
8.3
8.0
6.7
4.7
4.1
3.9
3.l(°)
3.7
4.9
5.8
7.6
Ocean
5.9
7.8
8.3(a)
7.1
5.8
5.3
5.4
5.1
4.8
4.6(b)
5.0
5.1
5.9
Monmouth
4.9
6.2
6.5
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    These industries are at their strongest during the summer season, and employment
fluctuates according to the demand,  i. e., the tourist influx.  Job holding expands
sharply from March to reach the highest level of employment in August or September.
Hiring for the summer recreation season includes workers for the hotels, restaurants,
amusements, concessions,  and retail-trade businesses.  Much of the hiring includes
seasonal-job seekers who migrate to the area for the summer season only and compete
with the local job seekers.

    During 1960 in Atlantic City, 24 percent of the unemployed workers of the area
were listed in the service occupation. Forty-seven percent of all unemployed were
women, 50 percent of all unemployed were over 45 years of age,  18.5 percent of all
unemployed were under 27 years of age.  In Atlantic City the Convention season begins
in February and continues until mid-April, providing employment for the local service
and trade workers in otherwise slack months.
ECONOMIC VALUES OF  ESTUARINE RECREATION BY USER  BENEFITS

    The most critical issue in the evaluation of an estuarine recreation resource,
such as a fishery, is the net benefits attributable to an added investment or a change in
management policy.  The impact of management on a natural water body is difficult to
directly measure, though attempts have been made to some  man-made reservoirs and
other restricted types °^ recreation sites. While'these procedures are recognized as
being extremely difficult,  one specialist concludes that, at worst, such surveys would
yield more useful information than the large sums now spent on "essentially useless
studies of fishermen's gross expenditures. "*
                                                                            »
    The following approaches and measures have been used in evaluating recreation
benefits:

    1.   Net benefits from estuarine pollution control

    2.    Waterfront land-value enhancement

    3.    Landed value of estuarine sport fish

    4.    Consumer surplus-demand analyses

    5.    User-days fixed recreation benefits.

    Net Benefits From  Estuarine Pollution Control.  One study applied the net-value
approach to estuarine fishing attempted to measure net recreation benefits from
*Crutchfield,  op. cit., p. 148.
                                      A-40

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pollution control in Yaguina Bay,  Oregon. *  Demand equations and "success per unit of
effort" were estimated for three estuarine sport fisheries.  The methodology was
illustrated by means of an assumed reduction in angling success resulting from water
pollution. The direct or net recreation benefits were identified as the consumer surplus
that woul<| result from the prevention of water pollution.  Although just an exploratory
effort to measure the direct benefits of estuarine sports fishing, the Stevens research
points toward the direction which meaningful economic  research must take in the
analysis of estuarine recreation.  Coupled with estimates of incremental costs of
pollution control, research of this nature would yield a basis for comparing investment
in estuarine management (i. e., pollution control) with prospective recreational benefits.

    Waterfront Land-Value Enhancement.  Where bodies of water are in demand as
recreation resources, the value of adjacent lands tend to  increase in response to the
demand for recreation. The value increase may be termed as direct benefits to prop-
erty owners.  These benefits represent the land owners' willingness to pay additionally
for land which possesses recreation opportunities or visual and environmental ammeni-
ties.  Land-value increases are much better documented  for man-made reservoir sites
than for estuarine adjacent land areas. **  However,  it is generally conceded among
land-use planners that waterfront locations where there are recreation opportunities do
influence the price of land.

    Some measure of the benefits of land-value enhancement was provided by the City
of Hampton, Virginia, for a publication on urban waterfront renewal. ***  Waterfront
lots were valued first as comparable nonwaterfront lots,  and then a waterfront-location-
value factor was applied.

    AAA Class - 100 percent (or double the lot value or square-foot value)

     (1)  Protected,  inland
     (2)  Readily accessible
         (a)  good beach
         (b)  less than 100' dockage necessary for boats at low water
         (c)  not limited to small boats (no low bridges to open water)

     (3)  Pleasant view
   *Stevens, Joe B., "Recreation Benefits From Water Pollution Control,  Journal of
   Water Resources Research.  Volume 2, No. 2, 1966, p. 167.
  **Wisc.  Dept.  of Resource Development, Waterfront Renewal. Technical Supplement
   (1964), pp. 141-142.
 ***Knetsch, Jack L.,  The Influence of Reservoir Projects on Land Values, Journal of
   Farm  Economics (February 1964), pp.  231-243.
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AA1 Class - 80 percent
(1) On open water, unprotected
(2) Readily accessible
    (a)  good beach
    (b)  less than 100' dockage necessary for boats for low water
(3) Pleasant view
AA2 Class - 70 percent
(1) Protected, inland
(2) Accessible at low tide or high for small boats only
(3) Pleasant view
A  Class - 60 percent
(1) Protected, inland
(2) Limited access
    (a)  muddy lowland
    (b)  needs more than 100' dock to reach water at low tide
    (c)  limited to small boats
(3) Pleasant view
 o
A  Class - 50 percent
(1) On open water, unprotected
(2) Limited access
    (a)  poor facilities for boats
    (b)  poor or no beach
    (c)  not limited to small boats
(3) Pleasant view
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    B Class - 40 percent

    (1)  Protected, inland

    (2)  Limited access

        (a) muddy lowland

        (b) no access except at high tide

        (c) limited to small outboard boats

    (3)  View obstructed or no view of open water or view not classed as pleasant

    B Class - 40 percent

    (1)  On open water

    (2)  Limited access

        (a) poor facilities for boats
        (b) limited to small boats

    (3)  View obstructed or otherwise not classed as pleasant

    C Class - 20 percent

    (1)  Protected inlet or canal

    (2)  Accessible by small boats except at low tide
    (3)  Narrow passage permitting only small parallel dock

    (4)  No special view factor.

    Landed Value of Estuarine Sport Fish. Economists are quick to point out that the
product in sport  fishing is recreation, not fish. As a consequence, their interest lies
with evaluating the economic impact on fishermen participating in this activity.  In
many estuaries,  however, particularly those where sport fishing and  commercial fish-
ing are competitive,  the value of the catch by sport fishermen may have real economic
consequences.  In estuarine waters yielding a limited amount of fish,  it may be assumed
that each pound of sports catch is of equal landed value by weight to a comparable com-
mercial catch.  However,  value added to commercial landings through processing rep-
resents a multiplier factor of possibly 3.  This value added could be reduced if the com-
mercial catch were diminished by sport fishermen depleting fishery stocks.   In addition,
a greater share of a sports-fish catch becomes wasted.

    Although fish landings are a "bonus" to sport fishermen, 15 percent of the respon-
dents  to an Arizona survey gave a motive for sport fishing as "economic", indicating
the desirability of the catch as an economic supplement. *  Furthermore, the  economic
*Davis, W. C., Values of Hunting and Fishing in Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish
 Department (1965).

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motive was the most rapidly increasing motive stated in the survey, rising from 5 to
15 percent in the period 1960-1965.  Therefore,  the economic consequences of sport
fishing may not be minimal.

    Estimates of sports-fish catch in estuaries compared to commercial catch vary
significantly.  One of the most thorough studies was the Massachusetts Marine Sports
Fishery Inventory of 1961* encompassing the entire marine fishery resources of that
state.  The inventory estimated that 9 million pounds of the species landed by both
fisheries were caught by sportsmen compared to 56 million caught commercially. This
sports catch represents about 14 percent of the total marine fishery resource of Mass-
achusetts.  The minimum value of these catches were,  as Crutchfield notes, their
equal per pound to the commercially landed catch.  However, including other expendi-
tures on a total of over 600,000 fishing trips, these landed sportfish represented a far
greater economic impact than just their landed value.

    Consumer Surplus and Demand Analyses. Regrettably,  no sophisticated benefit
analyses exist for estuarine recreation though such analyses are currently being devel-
oped for recreation areas in several interior regions of the country.   They require much
data on the behavior of recreationists and the factors behind their decisions to visit a
given recreation area at a particular time.  Such data are difficult to collect and require
large inputs of time and money.  In return for the effort, however, economists are able
to measure the economic effect of  investment in recreation on the users of recreation
facilities. **

    User-Days Fixed Recreation Benefits.  Out of the confusion that developed following
the first federal attempts at quantifying recreation benefits,  a ssystem of values was
agreed upon for use in federal water-resources projects.  The method adopted assigns
a fixed value for a user-day or participation-day of recreation activity. The range of
values selected were representative of the amount that  users  would be willing to pay
for particular recreation activities,  should such payments be necessary.  The user-
day recreation-benefits approach has been widely criticized by economists as being
arbitrary and unsensitive to the economic factors relevant to  recreation-demand analysis.
    *Op cit, p 152.
   **See, for instance
     (a) Clawson and Knetsch, Economics of Outdoor Recreation,  The Johns Hopkins
        Press (1966).
     (b) Seckler, David W., On the Uses and Abuses of Economic Science in Evaluating
        Public Outdoor Recreation,  Land Economics (November,  1966), pp 485-494.
     (c) Lerner, Lionel J., Quantitative Indices of Recreational Values. Economics in
        Outdoor Recreation Polity, Report No. 11,  Committee on Water Resources and
        Economic Development of the West,  Western Agricultural Economics Research
        Council (1962).
     (d) Knetsch and Davis, Comparisons of  Methods for Recreational Evaluation, in
       Water Research,  Johns Hopkins Press, 1966.


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    Principal use of the user-day approach has been in federal waterway and reservoir
projects.  It has received little application towards estuarine recreation with the major
exception of an analysis of recreation and fisheries on San Francisco Bay. * Net benefits
for general recreation activities, by this method, range from$0. 50 to $1. 50 per user
day.  Specialized activities are valued higher.  The San Francisco Study used medium
unit valuei! for recreation participation, as follows:
    TAB:LE A-19.  MEDIUM UNIT VALUES FOR RECREATION PARTICIPATION
Activity
Sunbathing and swimming
Sightseeing
Boating
Water skiing
Picnicking
Nature walking
Hunting
Camping
Hiking
Striped bass angling
Catfish angling
Miscellaneous bay angling
Ocean and bay salmon angling
River salmon angling
Unidentified delta angling
American shad angling
Steelhead angling
Largemouth black bass angling
Sturgeon angling
Dollars per Participation Day
1960
1.00
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.00
4.50
1.50
1.00
3.50
1.00
1.00
6.00
4.50
2.50
2.50
5.00
1.50
3.50
1965
1.00
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.00
4.50
1.50
1.00
3.50
1.00
1.00
6.00
4.50
2.50
2.50
5.00
1.50
3.75
1970
1.00
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.00
4.50
1.50
1.00
3.50
1.00
1.00
6.00
4.50
2.50
2.50
5.00
1.50
4.00
1980
1.00
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.30
1.00
4.50
1.50
1.00
3.50
1.00
1.00
6.00
4.50
2.50
2.50
5.00
1.50
4.50
      With the prevalent dissatisfaction toward this method of evaluating recreation
 benefits among resource economists, it is expected that the user-day approach will be-
 come less significant in the near future,  in favor of more analytical demand analysis.
 *Stanford Research Institute, Recreation and Fishery Values in the San Francisco Bay
  and Delta. Report to FWPCA, 1966.
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CONFLICTS IN RESOURCE USE

    There are several serious conflicts which affect recreational activities in the use
of estuaries.  Although the literature widely discusses resource-use conflicts involving
recreation, there are very few quantitative data actually expressing the degree to which
resource conflicts detract from the use of estuaries for recreation.  Most of the data in
discussion of use conflicts  are generally developed to support one side or the other in a
particular conflict situation; therefore, there is little to be found in the way of objective
conflict information.
Natural Factors

    Few natural factors prohibit or reduce the use of estuaries for recreation.  One of
the most common types of natural inhibitors is the presence of undesirable marine spe-
cies in the estuarine environment.  A good case  in point is the abundance of the sea
nettle in much of the waters of the Chesapeake Bay.  The sea nettle, and similar species,
makes swiming in the waters of the Bay extremely uncomfortable and, therefore, highly
undesirable.  For this reason, much of the Chesapeake Bay,  throughout a good portion
of the summer recreation season,  is virtually unused for swimming.  Methods for elim-
inating pests of this type have not succeeded, although current biologic research is
attempting to reduce the population of sea nettles in the Bay,  and open up its waters for
swimming.  No estimates have been made of the losses in recreation value or potential
due to the presence of sea nettles in the Bay, or to other pests in other estuarine waters.

    A second important natural factor reducing the recreational usefulness of many
estuaries is the natural character of the shoreline.  Many estuarine areas are bounded
primarily by marshlands, which have prohibited public access to the water, and some
estuarine shorelines consist of high-bluff regions which,' again,  restrict access to the
water.  Although shoreline physiography has played a role in determining the extent and
nature of recreation ia some estuaries, modern methods of land development and con-
struction are generally able to overcome such problems.  Usage of estuaries for out-
door recreation has been restricted by man's activities on estuaries and development
of land adjacent to estuaries far more than it has been by natural causes.
Pollution

    Swimming.  Estuaries are widely used as the receiving bodies of water as dis-
charges for man's domestic and industrial wastes.  With this use has developed a
degree of pollution in many estuaries which is considered to be unsuitable for human-
contact activities, notably swimming.  Public health and sanitation officials seem to
be in some disagreement as to the degree of pollution that is detrimental to human
health via water contact.  There are few verified cases where human illness has de-
veloped as a result of swimming in polluted estuarine waters.  However, all states  and
most municipalities have sanitation codes pertaining to'swimming beaches which re-
strict the use of polluted waters.  Inasmuch as estuaries in proximity to major
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metropolitan areas receive the greatest waste loadings,  beach closings in these areas
are most common,  and,  therefore, most seriously affect large numbers of people.
Because of their oscillatory flow patterns, many estuaries retain waste materials
indefinitely and, thereby, seriously pollute beach and other coastal waters.  In several
large metropolitan areas,  estuarine-located beaches must be closed for sanitary
reasons, while beaches located facing the open sea remain unpolluted and hence
usable. In Baltimore County,  Maryland,  the only beaches kept open during the 1967
recreation season were those directly facing upon the main water .expanse of the
Chesapeake Bay.  On the other hand,  all beaches located along smaller tributary in-
lets and estuaries in the vicinity of the Bay had to be closed because of municipal and
industrial pollution.  Several of the beaches in Baltimore County are directly affected
by tidal action from the Patapsco River, which is the main estuarine route into
Baltimore Harbor.  These beaches are not directly located on the water bodies re-
ceiving direct sewage discharges, but due to tidal transport of water and waste mate-
rial, they are nevertheless affected.  Such tidal action carries pollution from many
large industrial plants along the waterway as well.   Because of proximity to a major
seaport, local sanitation authorities are doubtful whether these bodies of water will
ever be suitable for human-contact sports such as swimming.  Their doubt extends
even into the future when direct discharges of municipal and industrial wastes may be
eliminated. *

    Nutrient materials present in sewage effluents stimulate the growth of aquatic
plants.  Excessive plant growth, eutrophication,  has long been a problem on inland
bodies of water in Europe and in parts of the United States.  Recent cases of eutro-
phication in estuarine waters have caused this to be a serious problem in the coastal
regions as well.  The Potomac Estuary is a notable example of excessive algae blooms
causing a detrimental effect upon the  environment of an estuary.  Many of the small
inlets and estuaries along the shores  of the Chesapeake Bay are similarly affected by
eutrophication. Decay of plant material is often responsible for  obnoxious odors which
inhibit uses of shoreline areas adjacent to estuaries. Excessive vegetation is detri-
mental to recreational boating  and swimming, and causes serious deleterious effects
upon estuarine fisheries.

    There has been relatively  little investigation of the actual relationship between
recreational usage of an estuary and water pollution. Swimming is generally affected
by pollution in a very absolute  relationship.  That is, either a bathing beach is open,
and therefore in use,  or else it is closed due to pollution. There is no experience in
measuring the relationship between swimming usage of a particular estuary and the
water quality at that estuary.  It is known, however, that several estuaries in metro-
politan areas on which swimming is prohibited due to pollution are nevertheless used
for swimming by  sections of the population.
*News release, Baltimore County Department of Health,  May 11, 1967.
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    Fishing.  The relationship between water pollution on estuaries and sport fishing
is far less absolute than it is for swimming.  As water quality deteriorates in a body
of water,  there is a gradual replacement in species of highly desirable game fish by
less desirable species.  Finally,  grossly polluted waters are inhabited by species
which are totally undesirable for recreational fishing, or in the extreme, uninhabit-
able.  Research to quantify and measure the relationship between recreational fishing
and water pollution is barely in the exploratory stages.  One study which has been
done develops a methodology for estimating direct recreational benefits from water-
pollution control through a model of biological and behavioral relationships involved
in sports fishing. * A function was developed to relate angling effort and the output,
or yield, of fish taken.  Angling success per unit of effort was used to represent the
quality of the recreational experience.  Water pollution would cause deteriorations
in dissolved oxygen, temperature, or toxicity characteristics of the water, thus
shifting the production function downward and causing reductions in angling success,
angling effort, and recreational value of the fishery.  Demand equations &nd success-
efforts relationships were estimated for three estuarine fisheries, and the  methodo-
logy was illustrated by an assumed reduction in angling success.  Research of this
nature, which was conducted on Yaquina Bay, Oregon, represents a beginning in the
determination of the relationship between recreational value and water pollution.

    Boating.  Although there are many contradictory statements and remarks
concerning the relationship between recreational boating and water pollution, it
appears evident that recreational boating is seldom inhibited due to water pollution.
In extreme cases, where boaters have  a choice of waters upon which to launch and
sail their boats, there is a tendency to favor those waters that are less polluted and
which cause least damage to their craft, all other things being equal.  Similarly,
there is some controversy as to the extent to which recreational craft cause polluted
conditions on esiuarine waters.  It is unlikely that recreational boating is a major
source of estuarine pollution, except in sheltered areas and coves with poor water
circulation, or where there is a cluster of boats, such as at a marina or public
launching area.
Conflicts Between Sport Fishing and Commercial Fishing

    Considerable concern exists on the part of sport fishermen about the conflicting
interest between sport and commercial fishermen. **  Most literature in the sport-
fishing field calls for greater protection of the sport fishery.  The economic com-
parisons presented,  however,  are generally invalid and usually misleading. In terms
of actual number of fish caught and, therefore, the actual value of the fishery, com-
mercial fishing in estuaries is still responsible for a greater catch than sport fishing.
 ^Stephens, Joe B., Recreational Benefits From Water Pollution Control, Journal
  of Water Resources Research.  Vol 2, No. 2 (1966), pp 167-182.
**Moss, Frank, Relations Between Sport and Commercial Fishermen. Proceedings,
  Eleventh International Game Fish Conference (1966).
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However, most estimates of the value of sport fishing include all expenditures by
fishermen for participation in the activity.  This, when compared with the value of
commercial catches, appears to present the fact that the sport-fishing activity is
more valuable to the economy than the commercial activity. However, an analysis
of comparable expenditures by commercial fishermen would probably indicate that,
in terms of total dollars to the economy, commercial fishing is still the more valu-
able use of estuarine fishery resources. However, c6mparison of these figures does
nothing to solve the real conflicts and problems between sport fishermen and  commer-
cial fishermen, i. e. , the  depletion of the fishery resource.

    Responsible persons in both the  sport fishing and commercial fishing activities
are in  agreement that it is to their mutual benefit to protect the fishery resource in
estuaries, where it is particularly vulnerable to adverse environmental factors.   Moss
suggests* that if fishing as we know it today is to continue in the future for both sport
and commercial fishermen,  both sides are going to have to get together, settle differ-
ences, and join ranks to fight the "big battles".  He identifies the following "big
battles":

     (1) The plunder of our  continental  shelves by fishing fleets of foreign nations
        (considered to be one of the most serious).  He considers the new 12-mile
        fisheries-protection zone, as recently passed into law, to be insufficient
        to protect the food and mineral resources of the continental shelf.

     (2) Attitudes  on the part of sport fishermen and commercial fishermen,
        which do not recognize the valid activity of the other, also come into
        criticism by Moss.

     He cites the problem in the menhaden industry of the Chesapeake region  and the
conflict in that estuary between bunker  seiners and local sport fishermen.  Sportsmen
in that area have been quick to blame that industry's problems on overfishing by the
commercial fisheries.  The menhaden fishermen, on the other hand,  have been
especially vulnerable to restrictive legislation desired by elements among local
sport fishermen who would like to see the industry driven out of the region alto-
gether.  Moss suggests that sport fishermen must start to recognize  that attempts
to get  special-privilege legislation are  being received negatively in most state
legislatures.  He reports that sportsmen do themselves more harm than good when
they insist that the conservation of fishery resources means reserving the fish for
sports fishermen.  He suggests that the commercial-fishing industry could achieve
new life by opening the membership of the various marine fisheries commissions to
responsible sport-fishing representation.  It is apparent that commercial and sport-
fishing interests on estuarine waters have too much in common not to cooperate to-
ward a common goal of improving fishery resources.
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Reductions in Flow

    Most estuaries depend upon inflows of fresh water from considerable land-
drainage areas as an input into their total hydrologic system.  Several large fresh-
water inflows to estuaries have been diverted for on-land use or consumption, thereby
altering the flow balance in the estuarine portion of the basin.  The consequences of
these diversions are poorly understood by biologists and Geologists responsible for
improving and preserving marine life in estuarine waters.  A notable plan for major
diversion of freshwater has been proposed as part of the Texas Water Plan, which
would divert freshwater flowing toward the Gulf of Mexico to West Texas for irriga-
tional use.  The effect upon the estuaries on the Texas coast from the reduction in
freshwater inflows is  not known at this time and is cause for considerable concern
among ecologists interested in those estuaries. Ecological relationships in estuaries
of this type present an important data gap which must be overcome before proper
hydro logic-eco logic management of river basins and estuaries can be achieved.

    Another area for  concern is at the headwaters of the Chesapeake Bay and its
major freshwater inflow, the Susquehanna River.  Presently, the Susquehanna
constitutes the major  freshwater source for Chespeake Bay, and particularly for
its upper reaches.  The Chesapeake-Delaware Canal, connecting the upper portion
of Chesapeake Bay with Delaware Bay, is being improved to carry larger vessels.
The improved canal will also divert flows from Chesapeake Bay into Delaware Bay.
These flows will consist primarily of the freshwater inputs from the Susquehanna
River, therefore causing a probable increase in salinity within most reaches of the
Chesapeake Bay.

    Tidal and hurricane barriers at the mouths of some estuaries restrict the inter-
change of flows to and from the open seas.  The hydrologic and biologic significance
of these restrictions is not fully understood.
Dredging and Excavation

    Estuaries are generally dredged or excavated for three principal purposes:

    (1) Navigation improvements

    (2) Landfill and reclamation

    (3) Mineral extration.

    The dredging of estuaries for navigation improvements is closely related to land-
fill operations in that much of the spoil material from channel dredging is used in
shoreline land reclamation.   Land reclamation on estuaries is an ancient practice -
one that proved very successful at many locations. *  Dredging and landfill operations
*See Appendix E on Land Reclamation.


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on estuaries provide many beneficial applications toward recreational activities.
Recently, however, there has been wide publicity cast upon detrimental effects, to
the point where the beneficial effects are often no longer considered.  This discussion
will attempt to highlight both the favorable and unfavorable effects from estuarine
dredging and landfill.  However, as for most other areas of estuarine use conflicts,
there are few quantitative data available with which to evaluate the effects.

    While the primary navigational dredging on estuaries takes place for the enhance-
ment of commercial shipping, there are several estuarine areas at which channels
are improved solely for the purpose of recreational boating.  With these shallow-
draft channels, new shoreline areas are opened up for recreational usage, and
recreational boating is enhanced.  Likewise, land reclamation on estuarine shorelines
often creates recreation opportunities previously unavailable.  New shoreline lands,
although developed for many purposes,  often are at least partially utilized for re-
creation.  Generally, recreational communities located on shoreline-landfill sites
contain, and often feature, the development of recreational facilities for use by local
residents.  Many of the new Florida communities on estuaries highlight the accessi-
bility of aquatic recreation to the purchasers of new homes in the development.  New
marinas and other recreational areas are often  located on such landfill sites. Marsh
lands are converted to areas where new recreational development takes place and
better access is afforded to the shoreline.

    The primary argument against dredging and land reclamation on estuaries is the
destruction of the estuarine habitat and environment through this process.  Hearings
before the subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife  Conservation of the committee on
Merchant Marine and Fisheries of The House of Representatives, 1967,  spotlighted
many arguments against the continuation of dredging of navigation channels in
estuaries and the excavation of new channels. It is claimed that estuaries are the
most productive areas of marine organisms, and, therefore, destruction of estuarine
habitat causes serious depletion of commercial  and sport fisheries, as well as all of
the organisms necessary to support such  fisheries.   Land reclamation on estuaries
reduces the total volume and area of such estuaries and may, in itself, cause serious
problems within the  marine environment.  The most notable example of reduction of
area due to filling is in San Francisco Bay, the  size of which has been reduced by 50
percent through land-filling operations  in recent years.  While additional shoreline
may present new recreation opportunities,  reduced estuarine area may limit the
number of participants and the types of activities for which an  estuary may be used.
Dredging also may uncover sludge beds and other contaminants which can adversely
affect the estuarine biota.

    In some estuaries, including  Cheapeake Bay,  there is a deficiency of land sites
available for the disposal of spoil  dredged from navigation channels.  Navigation
channels in estuaries on which major seaports are located must be constantly dredged
and cleared to accommodate commercial  shipping.   The dredged material,  or spoil,
presents a serious problem in land and water use,  particularly adjacent to urban areas
where most shoreline  has previously been developed.  Removal of spoil is expensive,
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and its final location may be detrimental to the local marine environment.  In fact,
at the recent Maryland Governor's Conference on the development of the Chesapeake
Bay, it was hypothesized that spoil disposal is the single most serious physical or
environmental problem in the Chesapeake Bay. *

    Mineral-extraction activities are generally far enough offshore to present few
problems to recreational usage of estuaries.  One exception is for the dredging of
shells from estuaries as a source of aggregate,  calcium,  and other minerals.  Such
dredging has a detrimental effect upon the local environment and may seriously re-
duce an estuary's production of finfish and shellfish.  One estuary where this problem
is particularly serious is in the Galveston-Trinity-East Bay-Estuarine Complex along
the Gulf Coast of Texas.   At present, there  are approximately 60 million cubic yards
of recoverable shell remaining in these estuaries. **  It is estimated that the shell
supply will become exhausted by the fall of 1970.   The alternative to using and
dredging the shell deposits is to mine limestone deposits on land, which are a  greater
distance,  with greater transportation cost, from the area presently being served by
the shell deposits.

    On the other hand, it is feared that dredging of oyster shells from this Texas estu-
arine complex inflicts serious biological effects upon the productivity of the estuary
complex.  It is estimated that over 6 million fisherman days are spent in this estuary
complex,  accounting for  32 million pounds of sport fish caught per year. It is feared
that the shell dredging, a temporary activity,  will permanently damage the environ-
ment of this estuary system. Similarly, the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
indicates that the present commercial-fishery harvest in this region could be in-
creased immediately by about 50 percent, with cessation of the dredging.  Similar
situations exist in other estuaries with high  shellfish production.

    In summary, it must be noted that estuaries are rarely used solely for recreation.
Because of multiple uses of estuaries and their shorelines, there are, and will con-
tinue to be,  conflicts between recreation uses and other uses.  However, if pollution
of estuaries is reduced and other adverse environmental interactions  avoided,  there
is no reason why estuaries cannot continue to be used for  recreation as well as for a
multitude of other uses.  It would seem appropriate to consider zoning techniques
for estuarine water areas and for shoreline  land areas to  make the coexistence of
                                                                  »
recreation and commercial activities on estuaries profitable and enjoyable.
 *September 12-13,  1968.
**Sport Fishing Institute Bulletin, No. 184 (May 1967), pp 5-7.
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Conclusion

    The future development and management of estuaries for recreation by the public
sector may be based on data which are presently not suitable for statistical analysis.
Private investors may use projections of sales, expenditures, and regional impacts
to make their decisions but as a major criterion for public investment, user benefits,
has hardly been developed for estuarine recreation.  Furthermore, there has been
little effort to compare the return on public investment from estuarine recreation
development with comparable development in other regions of the country.

    Many of the problems now confronting estuarine recreation use are conflicts be-
tween users.  These conflicts will have to be handled through a program of estuarine
management, preferably under the authority of a regional organization.  To achieve
effective management, more  must be learned about the effects that human activities
have on the natural environment.  In short, what we now know about the physical and
economic aspects of estuarine recreation is not likely to be  sufficient to assure that
future development and management of estuaries for recreation is fully responsive
to the demands on the estuarine resource.
                                      A-53

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                 APPENDIX B
       THE FUTURE ECONOMIC VALUE OF
ESTUARME-DEPENDENT COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
     Granville H.  Sewell and Robert F. Hillman

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                         Page

Summary of Current Situation  	 B-l
Market Demand for Fish Products 	 B-2
     Industrial Fish Products  	 B-2
     Edible Fish Products   	 B-4
Trends in the World Fisheries	 B-6
     Production Costs 	 B-6
     World Demand for Fishery Products	 B-9
     Sudden Changes in Supply 	 B-10
Estuarine Dependency of United States Commercial Fish Species  	 B-10
     1.  Truly Estuarine Species	 B-10
     2.  Anadromous and Catadromous Species	 B-ll
     3.  Seasonally Estuarine  Species  	 B-ll
     4.  Marine Species Using Estuary as a Nursery	 B-ll
Relative Importance of Different Estuarine-Dependent Fishery Resources  .... B-ll
Estuarine Dependence of Shrimp	.•	 B-12
     Role of Estuarine in Shrimp Development  	 B-14
     Compatibility of Commercial Shrimp Industry and Estuarine Change	 B-14
Estuarine Dependence of Menhaden	 B-17
     Role of the Estuary in Menhaden Development	 B-17
     Compatibility of the Menhaden Industry and Estuarine Change	 B-17
Estuarine Dependence of Oysters	 B-18
     Role of the Estuary Development	 B-19
     Compatibility of the Oyster Industry and  Estuarine Change  	 B-19
Estuarine Dependence of Other Species  	 B-22

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                                  APPENDIX B

                      THE FUTURE ECONOMIC VALUE OF
              ESTUARINE-DEPENDENT COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

                                       by
                     Granville H.  Sewell and Robert F.  Hillman
SUMMARY OF CURRENT SITUATION

     In 1967,  United States fishermen received approximately $438 million for about
4.06 billion pounds of commercial fish and shellfish. *  While 7 percent less in dollar
value than the 1966 catch, this 1967 harvest of sea products still registered 16 percent-
about balancing the inflationary trend - more  in value than the previous 10-year average
and can be considered representative of the overall trend for the United States com-
mercial fisheries.

     Comparison of a list of estuarine-dependent fish species prepared by Dr. J. L.
McHugh with the 1967 catch by species indicates that approximately two-thirds of the
total value, or approximately $300 million, can be considered derived from estuarine -
dependent species.** This gross indication of estuary value, though, is undoubtedly
conservative since it omits the value of estuarine-dependent fish harvested off the
United  States coast by foreign fishing vessels, and it does not include estuarine -
dependent species from the estuaries of other nations but imported into the United
States.  Furthermore, the term "estuarine-dependent" includes a vast spectrum of
biological relationships,  and even some continental-shelf species,  such as bluefish,
and marine predators, such as tuna, can be considered dependent upon the estuary as
an ultimate source of niost of their food.
 *Charles H. Lyles, Fisheries of the United States... 1967.  C.F.S. No. 4700 (April,
  1968), p 4.
**J. L. McHugh, "Management of Estuarine Fisheries", A Symposium on Estuarine
  Fisheries, American Fisheries Society Special Publication No. 3 (1966), p 134.

  For estimates of estuarine-dependent fisheries on a regional basis, see:

  James E. Sykes,  "Commercial Values of Estuarine-Generated Fisheries on the
  South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Coasts", Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary
  Management Symposium (July 19-20,  1967),  p 74.
  B.E. Skud and W.B. Wilson, "Role of Estuarine Waters in Gulf Fisheries",
  Transactions of the 25th North American Wildlife Conference (1960), pp 320-326.

  John Clark,  Fish  and Man; Conflict in the Atlantic Estuaries.  Special Publication
  No. 5, American  Littoral  Society,  Highlands,  N.J.  (1967), p 24.
                                      B-l

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      The future economic value of the estuarine-dependent species for the United
States commercial fishing industry will depend upon at least three major forces now
significantly influencing trends: (1) the shifting market demand for fishery products
in the United States, (2) the state of the commercial fishing industry on a worldwide
basis, and (3) the compatibility between evolving conditions in the United States
estuaries and the production of adequate fishery stocks. Each of these trends is
characterized by numerous complicating circumstances, by a lack of descriptive
data,  and by rapidly changing factors. The objectives of this report is to describe and,
where possible, evaluate the nature of the forces and implications of possible future
trends.
MARKET DEMAND FOR FISH  PRODUCTS

      Domestic market demand in recent years has been dominated by (1) rapidly ex-
panding sales of industrial fish products and (2) shifting demand in edible species from
staple to luxury or convenience categories,  though the per-capita demand for edible
fish products has remained almost static at about 10.5 pounds for  at least 50 years.*
Industrial Fish Products

      After a period of relative stability, the United States Consumption of industrial
fish products rose almost steadily from a catch weight of 3.2 billion pounds in 1958  to
9.1 billion pounds in 1967. ** Yet the domestic industrial fish catch fell from 2.1 to
1.7 billion pounds during the same period.  Imports filled the gap, representing 35
percent of the total United States supply in 1958 but 82 percent in 1967 (see Figure B-l).

      Fish oil, fish solubles, and fish meal are the primary industrial fishery products
in the United States market with fish meal being the principal item. *** The poultry
industry consumes about 75 percent of the fish meal as a feed component for broilers,
and the bulk of the fish oil competes directly with vegetable oils in the international
edible oils market, ****  about one-third of domestic production remaining in the United
States for nonedible uses.  The growth in fish-meal consumption follows the spectacular
fall in wholesale prices for poultry, particularly broilers, relative to wholesale prices
for all commodities.  The wholesale price index shifted from  171.1 in 1950  to  92.0 in
1966, a drop of  46.2 percent using wholesale prices for all commodities in  1957-1959
   *Lyles, op. cit., p 60.
  **Ibid,  p 53.
 ***Ih 1967,  the supply of fish meal was 1, 726 million pounds; fish solubles, 156 mil-
    lion pounds; and fish oils, 50 million pounds.
****For a thorough discussion of projected demand, see: Bureau of Commercial Fish-
    bries, Projected Needs for Fish Products, Issue Paper No.  1, unpublished (May,
    1967).
                                       B-2

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as the index of 100. t  By comparison, wholesale fish prices rose 29.4 percent during
the same period while meat prices fell 13 percent.

     Nevertheless, prices for fish meal have been declining, dropping from an average
of $163.65  per  short ton (New York City) in 1966 to $140.15 in 1967,  for menhaden
meal. *  Future declines in broiler prices with corresponding increases in poultry's
share of the protein market may occur but past performance is unlikely to be matched
because of the high conversion efficiency of feed to meat already being achieved.  Also,
use of substitutes for fish meal in broiler feeds is becoming more widespread.  Hence,
the fish-meal market, on a tonnage basis, will probably continue to climb at a dim-
inished rate in the immediate future.
             CO

             I
             •8
                 10

                  9

                  8

                  7

                  6

                  5

                  4

                  3

                  2

                  1
                                                          Total Supply
                                                     Domestic Catch
                                                              66   67
                  1957   58   59   60   61    62   63   64   65

                                          Year

           Figure B-l.  United States Supply of Industrial Fishery Products

Source: Lyles, Fisheries of the United States... 1967, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
        C.F.S. No. 4700.

     In the extended future  - beyond possibly 5 years - the outlook for the industrial
fish market is confused.  On one hand, vast new markets may be opening in extended
feed-lot operations for live stock and in production of new products, particularly FPC
  tlbid.,  p9.
 * Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Industrial Fishery Products; 1967 Review, Cur-
  rent Economic Analysis I  1 (April, 1968),  p 4.
                                       B-3

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(fish protein concentrate), which is slowly overcoming technological difficulties and
bureaucratic proscriptions.  On the other hand, numerous protein  substitutes, includ-
ing petroleum and soybean derivatives, are under development and the market for
industrial fish at a price attractive to United States fishermen may further diminish.
Part of the answer lies not in the protein derivative market but in the ability of United
States fishermen to lower production  costs through technical innovations and through
introduction of new species to the  market.

      Both developments appear possible. As noted later, the abundant stock and
schooling characteristics of the herring-like or clupeoid fishes  sought for the  indus-
trial  market do permit the development of economies of scale through vastly improved
and enlarged equipment,  automation,  and specialization by fishery technicians.  Also,
promising new species have been identified, such as the thread herring (Opisthonena
oglinum) of the Gulf of Mexico. *   Estimates by J. A.  Butler indicate that the existing
thread-herring stocks could supply a minimum annual catch of 1 billion pounds. **

       On the basis of income and  population projections,  the  Bureau of Commercial
Fisheries' economists in 1966 made a series of market projections for industrial fish
in the United States. From a 1966 base market of 7. 04 billion pounds, their "moderate"
market projection was for utilization of 10.2 billion pounds in 1973, 12.8 in 1985, and
16.1 in 2000.  Since the market has already absorbed  9.1 billion pounds in 1967, these
estimates are probably low.

Edible Fish Products

      Though per-capita consumption of edible fish products has been virtually static,
population growth caused the  market to expand from 4.3 to 5.1 billion pounds between
1957  and 1967.  The additional demand has been met by imports, the domestic catch
shrinking from 61 percent of the total supply in 1958  to 47 percent in 1967. The com-
position of the total supply, though, has shifted, and the inroads made by imports have
been  selective by species.

      Shrimp, which had represented about 10 percent of the edible fish products by
weight on the  market in  1957,  rose to about 20 percent by 1967. While 36 percent of
the shrimp in 1957  was imported,  this had risen to 51 percent by 1967.  Tuna was
another fishery product gaining substantial favor among housewives,  extending its
market from about  36 percent of all fishery products  to 41 percent during the decade.
Imports of tuna  rose slightly from 42 percent to 51 percent.  Salmon and sardines
were the principal losers among fish  species, with catches of other  species remaining
approximately the  same in volume.  All species, however,  were more often found at
the grocery stores  in a more highly processed form.  Slightly less than 83,000 pounds
of prepared fish sticks and portsions were sold in 1957, while the corresponding
figure for 1967 was over 232,000  pounds.  Production of breaded shrimp increased from
39,000 in 1957 to 93,000 in 1967.
  *Sykes,  op. cit., p 76.
 **J.A. Butler, "Development of a Thread-Herring Fishery in the Gulf of Mexico",
   Commercial Fisheries Review,  23 (9),  12-17 (1961).
                                       B-4

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      Three factors are particularly likely to influence the future edible-fish market
 in the United States: prices, changing tastes, and world supply.  As described in
 Figure B-2, the competitive position of fish has been hampered by a rising market
 price relative to its primary protein competitors, meat and poultry. If beef and other
 meat prices rise substantially in the future, as some market specialists anticipate,
 fish may partially regain its standing as an economy food item and sales could rise. *
 Thus, a rise in demand for edible fishery products proportionate to population increase
 appears reasonable.  And, as incomes  increase, the popularity of more delicate fish
 products, such as  shrimp, can be expected to continue increasing as long as a stable
 price and adequate supply remain.   In a few cases, particularly salmon, a shrinking
 world supply appears to dictate a declining market that is not responsive to price rises.
                         170


                         160


                         150
                      _  140
                      8

                         130
                        120
                         110
                         100
                         80
                         70
                         60
                         50
                              I
J	I
                         1950  52
                                  54
                                          58

                                         Year
                                              60
                                                  62   64
                                                          66
          Figure B-2.  Wholesale Price Index for Poultry, Fish, and Meat
                       as Deflated by Wholesale Price Index for All
                       Commodities, 1950-66

Source:  Bureau of Commercial Fisheries,  Projected Needs for Fish Products, Issue
Paper No. 1, Unpublished (May,  1967), p 9.
*For a thorough discussion of income elasticities for fish and competitive protein sources,
 see Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Projected Needs for Fish Products, Issue Paper
 No. 1, unpublished (May,  1967).
                                       B-5

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On the basis of a series of projections which took many of these issues into account,
economists  at the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries estimated that consumption of
edible fish and shellfish products should reach 5.9 billion pounds in 1973,  7.8 in 1985,
and 12.0 in  2000.*
TRENDS IN THE WORLD FISHERIES

    In 1967, over 70 percent of the United States supply for all fishery products was
attributed to imports, compared with 33 percent in 1957. ** On a worldwide basis,
United States imports accounted for approximately 40 percent of the entire world trade
in fish products. *** This trend towards imports could be reversed if (1) the differ-
ences hi production costs between the United States fishing industry and foreign com-
petitors were diminished; (2) demand in other nations rose, increasing world prices
and diverting imports elsewhere; or (3) the supply obtained from a particular fishery
was suddenly reduced by war or natural disaster.  In any case, a reduction of imports
that increased reliance upon estuarine-dependent species in the United States would
mean a corresponding rise  in the apparent value for maintaining adequate estuarine
conditions.
Production Costs

    The existing gap in production costs between United States fisheries and foreign
competitors could be reduced by either a relative rise in costs, particularly in labor,
for the foreign producers or a relative rise in efficiency among American fishermen.
Both represent realistic possibilities for the future.  The differences in production
costs are frequently drastic and are reflected in landing prices.  For example,  cod
in the United States typically brought 8.62 cents per pound on the market in 1965 but
3.89 cents (U.S.) per pound in Canada.**** Hake brought 6.42 cents in the United States,
2.63 in Canada; flounders,  9.96 in the United States, 3.04 in Canada.  However, the
rise in consumer prices in major fish-producing countries during this decade has gen-
erally favored the United States - though this trend may not be maintained during the
current inflationary period for the United States.  In 1965, consumer prices in Japan
rose about 8 percent over the previous year; in Italy, 5.5 percent; in Norway, 5.3
percent; in Spain, 16.3 percent; and in the United States, 1.3 percent.***** Between
1958 and 1965, wage rates rose by 77 percent in Japan, 62 percent in Italy, 62 percent
in Norway, and 24 percent in the United States.
    *Ibid.,  p 19
   **Lyles, op. cit., p xx.
  ***Bureau of Commercial Fisheries,  Structure of the U.S. .Commercial Fishing
     Industry, Issue Paper No.  3, unpublished (May,  1967), p 2.
 ****Bureau of Commercial Fisheries,  Sources of Supply for Meeting U.S. Demand
     for Fish and Shellfish Products. Issue Paper No. 2,  unpublished (May, 1967),
     p20.
*****D>id.,  p21.
                                      B-6

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    The American fishing fleet has been sharply criticized for backwardness in both
equipment and manpower quality.  Among the evidence cited is that the United States
has the greatest number of reported powered fishing craft of any nation except Japan
but ranks seventh (after Japan, U.S.S.R., W. Germany, Spain, Italy,  and Iceland) in
the estimated number of modern,  large-scale,  high-seas fishing vessels over 500 gross
tons (see Table B-l).  Only 5 percent of United States vessels are constructed of steel,
and during a survey performed in 1962, less than half were reported having as elemen-
tary a piece of equipment as a depth finder. * A change is occurring gradually.  In
1967, 13 vessels - more than estimated for the entire United States fleet in 1965 - out
of 869 added to the fishing fleet exceeded 500 gross tons, and  about 30 percent were
constructed of steel instead of wood or plastic.  Because of the relatively short dis-
tance to many fishing grounds, lack of large steel vessels per se is not an absolute
indicator of inefficiency.  However, coupled with statistics of the fishing labor force,
an image of backwardness akin to the pre-World War II agricultural sector in the
United States emerges.

 TABLE B-l.  ESTIMATED NUMBER OF MODERN,  LARGE-SCALE,  HIGH-SEAS
           FISHING VESSELS OF OVER 500 GROSS  TONS FOR SELECTED
                          COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
Country
Japan
U.S.S.R.
W. Germany
Spain
Italy
Iceland
U. S.
Year
for Which
Data Apply
1964
1965
1965
1964
1964
1966
1965
E stimated Number
of Fishing Vessels
Over 500 Gross Tons
260
246
155
102
79
45
12
Total Gross
Tons
730, 000
922,644
131,400
n.a.
45,000
29,566
7,720
Average Gross
Tons/Vessel
2,812
3,751
848
n.a.
570
657
643
Source: Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Structure of the U.S. Commercial
Fishing Industry, Issue Paper No. 3, unpublished (May, 1967), p 8.
    In a 1963 census of commercial fisheries, nearly 90 percent of all operations
were conducted with less than five employees. Their average annual gross receipts
were $16,319,  and their total gross receipts accounted for less than  half the receipts
by the entire industry. **  Out of this average of $16,319,  the boat owner presumably
  *Data from a private survey performed by Fish Boat magazine.
 **U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1963 Census of Commercial
   Fisheries.
                                       B-7

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had to cover wages and costs for operation, capital, and maintenance.  As could be
anticipated from this situation, the average commercial fisherman during the past
decade has been a relatively untrained, poorly paid individual.  His numbers peaked
about 1950 when 161,463 fishermen were included in the census but had declined to
130,431 in 1963 though a slight increase raised the number to an estimated 135,636
in 1966.* Between 25 and 35 percent of these fishermen were defined as "casual"
fishermen who received less than one-half of their annual compensation from fishing.

    In any case, the 1960  census data suggest that  commercial fishermen comprised
an economically disprivileged category. Mean earnings  per experienced male worker
in the fishing industry were $2,395 compared with  the national average for all indus-
tries of $4,621.**  Furthermore, their status deteriorated in some aspects between
the 1950  and 1960 censuses, the percent unemployed rising 6 percentage points and
the proportion of workers employed for 50 to 52 weeks declining 4.2 percentage points
to 32.5 compared with 68.8  percent for all occupations.  Yet full-time fishermen in
the Boston haddock fleet worked an estimated average of 3,192 hours in 1964 compared
with 2,168 hours in manufacturing. *** The median age of the Boston fishermen was 57
years. About three-quarters had not completed grade school, and only about 13 per-
cent held a high  school diploma.

    This equipment and labor situation depicts a fragmented, passive, and aging
industry that resembles mining and agriculture before economic pressures, specialized
technicians, and (in the case of agriculture) government-spurred research precipitated
drastic restructuring.  Several indicators suggest that this situation may change.
Articulate individuals are arguing for more-professional development.**** The United
States Government is encouraging innovation through new programs, including
    *Lyles, op. cit., p 15.
   **Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Structure of the U.S. Commercial Fishing
     Industry,  Issue Paper No. 3, unpublished (May,  1967), p 26.
  ***U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of Population.
 ****Harvey R. Bullis, Jr., "Fishery Challenges in the  Gulf and Caribbean", Paper
     presented to the GURC Seminar, New Orleans (September 8, 1966).
                                      B-8

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subsidies.*  And, physically, the older generation must gradually fade from the field,
opening opportunities for younger, more aggressive professionals. Improved effi-
ciency, reflected in relatively lower production costs, will inevitably result.
World Demand for Fishery Products

    The international market for fishery products is in rapid transition because of an
extraordinarily swift expansion of supply. In the decade between 1956 and 1966, the
world fish and shellfish catch rose from about 30 to 56 million metric tons, an increase
of 87 percent, or about 6 percent annually compounded.** During the same period,
the world's population rose about 20 percent, or 1.6 percent annually.*** With con-
tinuing absolute economic development throughout the world and the anticipated rise in
demand for proteins, the annual increase in demand for protein foods is expected to be
a minimum of 3 to 4 percent and could easily exceed the 6 percent of fishery growth
because of the vast population base involved.  Furthermore, as the more accessible
untapped fishing grounds are developed, the rate of fishery growth will probably decline.
  *Five Federal Laws provide the basis for current efforts to rejuvenate the fishing
   industry:
   1.  The Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 authorized a Fisheries Loan Program which
       through 1967 had funded 1,066 applications with a value of $24,957,653.
   2.  The Fishing Vessel Mortgage Insurance Program provides insurance for
       financing of construction,  reconstruction, or reconditioning of fishing vessels.
       During 1967, 36 mortgage insurance applications were approved for $10,147,720.
   3.  P.L. 86-516 established the Fishing Vessel Construction-Differential Subsidy
       Program which was extended by P.L. 88-498, the United States Fishing Fleet
       Improvement Act, of August, 1964. To qualify, a fishing vessel must be of
       advanced design which will enable it to operate in expanded areas and must be
       equipped with newly developed gear. It could not be operated in a fishery where
       economic hardship would be caused to efficient vessels, and a public hearing
       must precede each application approval.  Through 1967, 26 contracts have been
       executed under the program for a value of $15.5 million.
   4.  P.L. 88-309, the Commercial Fisheries  Research and Development Act of
       1964, provides for research to conserve  fishery resources and  improve the
       economic status of the fishing industry.  During 1966 and 1967,  $4.1 million
       was made available.
   5.  P.L. 88-304, the Anadromous Fish Act of 1965, authorized federal funds for
       conservation,  development, and enhancement of the nation's anadromous
       fishery resources,  including those of the Great Lakes.  By the end of 1967,
       slightly more than $1 million was made available to non-Federal agencies on
       a 50 percent sharing basis.
   Source:  Lyles, op. cit., pp 68-69.
  **Food and Agriculture Organization, Yearbook of Fishery Statistics;  1966; Catches
   and Landings.  Vol. 22, Table A2-1, Rome (1967).
 ***United Nations, Demographic  Yearbook; 1967. Table 1, Paris (1968).
                                       B-9

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Sudden Changes in Supply

    Some of the newly developed fisheries of the world rest upon delicate international
or natural circumstances.  An outstanding example is Peru's fish-meal exports.  Be-
sides the arbitrary extension of territorial waters, Peru's fisheries are almost totally
dependent upon the nutrient-rish Humboldt Current and southerly winds.  Historically,
however, these oceanographic and meteorological conditions have been fickle, shifting
inexplicably with disastrous results upon local ecology and Peruvian fisheries.  Yet
the United States imported  68 percent of its fish meal from Peru in 1967.*  On a more
extended time basis, the same problems of polluted, diminished estuaries plaguing
the United States can be expected to occur in foreign estuaries. **
ESTUARINE DEPENDENCY OF UNITED STATES COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIES

    Estuarine dependence is a convenient term to describe a normally complex bio-
logical interrelationship between the estuarine environment and an aquatic organism.
In actuality, the degree of dependence varies widely according to the type of depen-
dence, the particular species involved,  and even the geographical and climatic circum-
stances.  Usually three or four fundamental types of dependence can be identified. ***
1.  Truly Estuarine Species

    A few commercial species appear to be restricted entirely to the estuarine habitat,
never entering fresh water or fee high-salinity sea.  The Virginia oyster (Crassostrea
virginica) is the most important example, others - such as the striped killifish
(Fundulus majalis) and the skilletfish (Gobiesox strumosus) - being more significant
ecologically than commercially.
  *Lyles, op. cit., p 35.
 **P. Korringa, "Estuarine Fisheries in Europe as Affected by Man's Multiple Activi-
   ties",  Estuaries. H. Lauff (Ed.), American Association for Advancement of Science,
   Washington, D.C. (1967).
***In Fish and Man. Clark described three general patterns for Atlantic fish:  (1) the
   Residents, which will live most of their lives in the estuary and are exemplified by
   the spotted sea trout; (2) the Outsiders, which are primarily marine but are depen-
   dent upon the estuary for nursery, as in the cases of bluefish, fluke, menhaden, and
   king whiting; (3) the Insiders,  the migratory fish that even spawn  in the estuaries as
   well as depend  upon the estuarine zone for nursery grounds.  Examples would be the
   weakfish, red fish, mullet, and black drum.
     In "Estuarine Nekton", (Estuaries) McHugh describes the four categories ex-
   plained in the text above plus two other types of relationships, fresh water fishes
   that enter brackish water and adventitious visitors, which occasionally can be found
   in the estuarine environment but cannot be truly described as estuarine-dependent.
   Examples would be the bluefish, the albacore, and some of the jack fishes.
                                      B-10

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2.  Anadromous and Catadromous Species

    Salmon, the second most valuable United States fishery, is dependent upon the
estuarine zone as a passage between the freshwater spawning areas and the saltwater
environment where most of the salmon's life is passed.  Numerous other such species,
such as the striped bass (Roccus saxatilis) exist,  but their commercial importance
does not approach  the level of salmon. Even fewer species, such as the American eel
(Anguilla rostrata), are catadromous, living in fresh or brackish water during their
adult stage but returning to saltwater for spawning.
3.  Seasonally Estuarine Species

    Many species, such as the striped anchovy (Anchoa hepsetus) and the spotted hake
(Urophycis regius). are estuarine residents on a seasonal basis, consistently depending
upon the estuarine environment to provide food and, in some cases, spawning areas
during a significant part of the year.
4.  Marine Species Using Estuary as a Nursery

    In both value and weight, the most important generic kinds of marine resources
(shrimp and menhaden) are dependent upon the estuary to provide shelter and food
during the juvenile stage of their development.  Spawning occurs at sea, not in the
estuary,  but adults would presumably not develop if the estuarine stage of the life
cycle were thwarted.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT ESTUARINE-DE PENDENT FISHERY
RESOURCES

    When ranked by weight, five of the six leading generic kinds of marine resources
caught by United States commercial fishermen in 1967 could be considered estuarine-
dependent: menhaden (1.17 billion pounds), crabs  (0.32 billion pounds), shrimp (0.31
billion pounds), salmon (0.21 billion pounds), and flounder (0.11 billion pounds) (see
Table B-2. )* These five fisheries encompass over half of the United States commer-
cial fish  landings by weight.

    When ranked by value, four of the leading six were estuarine-dependent and these
four represented 48 percent of the total catch value:  shrimp ($103.1 million), salmon
($48.6 million), oysters ($31. 6 million), and crabs ($27.1 million). *  Shrimp value
alone  almost equals the other three and accounts for  24 percent of the value of the
entire United States catch.  Shrimp are also a primary food item for other fish species,
such as the spotted seatrout (Gynoscion nebulosus). and thus contribute indirectly to
these  other commercial fisheries.
*The crab landings include the king crab, which is not an estuarine-dependent species.
                                      B-ll

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      TABLE B-2.  RANKING OF THE TEN MOST IMPORTANT COMMERCIAL
                 FISHERIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1967
By Weight,
thousand pounds
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Kind
Menhaden
Tuna
Crabs
Shrimp
Salmon
Flounder
Haddock
Sea Herring
Ocean Perch
Anchovies
Total
Weight
1,165,800
329,000
316,000
312,200
206,400
110,900
98,500
85,100
71,500
69,600
2,765,000
By Value,
thousand dollars
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Kind
Shrimp
Salmon
Tuna
Oysters
Crabs
Lobsters
Clams
Menhaden
Flounders
Haddock
Total
Value
103, 100
48,600
44,514
31,600
27,100
24, 100
19,000
15,200
13,600
10,500
337,314
Source: Lyles, Fisheries of the United States. . . 1967.
ESTUARINE DEPENDENCE OF SHRIMP

    Commercial shrimp are primarily drawn from two groups of decapod Crustacea,
the Caridea and the Penaeidae.  The Caridea bear their eggs externally, are generally
less prolific than the Penaeidae, and are caught in only small numbers for the United
States market.  Examples would be the deep-water Pandalus borealis of the North
Atlantic and the estuarine Crago franciscorum of San Francisco Bay.  The bulk of
United States catch consists of the generally more prolific penaeidean shrimps, with
the estuarine-dependent species predominating.

    About 60 percent of the entire United States shrimp catch is comprised of the
brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus.  The white shrimp (P. setiferus) stocks vary widely
from year to year but typically provide between 20 and 25 percent of the catch, while
the pink shrimp (P. duorarum) is a source for possibly 10 to 15 percent. * These
species are concentrated commercially in flie Gulf of Mexico and adjacent waters.  In
each of these penaeidean species,  the basic life cycle falls into Category 4 of  the estuarine
dependences described  previously. Using the pink shrimp as an example,  spawning
occurs in offshore waters at depths of 100 to  150 feet, salinity between 36.1 and 37.7
*Joseph H. Kutkuhn, "The Role of Estuaries in the Development and Perpetuation of
 Commercial Shrimp Resources", A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries, Special
 Publication No. 3, American Fisheries Society,  Washington, D.C. (1966).
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ppt (parts per thousand),  and temperatures between 18 and 25 C. * After 13 or 14 hours,
the eggs hatch and the larval shrimp begin to pass through a series of developmental
stages, at the same time beginning to move or drift towards the Florida mainland about
100 miles distant. ** Movement to the estuary is believed to  take from 3 to 5 weeks and,
despite the large numbers of postlarvae entering the estuary, only an estimated 0.05
percent or less of the eggs produce shrimp that  survive to this  stage. ***

    By the time the estuary  is entered, the postlarvae have developed from planktonic
to benthic feeders and have developed a wide tolerance to varying salinity and tempera-
ture conditions. **** From about 2 to possibly 9 months, the juvenile shrimp grow
rapidly from perhaps 1/2 inch in length to commercial size before returning to the sea
and completing the life  cycle.

    While the life cycles of the three primary commercial species are similar,  the
species differ in their penetration of the estuary and their utilization of the estuarine
environment after the adult stage is attained.  The most valuable species, the brown
shrimp, spawns in waters 150 to 230 feet in depth and remains  a relatively short time
in the estuary.  The second most valuable species, though, is the white shrimp which
rarely is found in waters with  a depth greater than 100 feet and possesses a greater
affinity for freshwater  sources than do the other two species.  For instance,  a correla-
tion between drought and  a decline in white-shrimp stocks has been noted, f  Conversely,
   *AlbertC. Jones, Dolores E. Dimitriou, Jay Ewald, and JohnH. Tweedy, "Distri-
    bution of Pink Shrimp Larva (Penaeus duorarum) Burkenroad in Waters of the
    Tortugas Shelf,  Gulf of Mexico", unpublished manuscript of the Institute of Marine
    Sciences, University of Miami (1964).
    E.S.  Iversen and C.T. Idyll,  "Aspects of the Biology of Pink Shrimp (Penaeus
    duorarum)". Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 89. (1), 1-8 (1960).
  **Sheldon Dobkin,  "Early Developmental Stages of Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum)
    From Florida Waters", U.S.  Fish and Wildlife Service, Fisheries Bulleton 190,
    321-349 (1962).
    Joseph J. Ewald, "The Laboratory Rearing of Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum)
    Burkenroad",  Bui.  Mar. Sci.  Gulf and Carib., 15  (2), 436-449 (1965).
 ***J.L.  Munro, A.C.  Jones, and D.Dimitriou, "Abundance and Distribution of the
    Larvae of the  Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) on  the Tortugas Shelf of Florida",
    unpublished manuscript of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Miami
    (1967).
****C.P.  Idyll, D.C. Tabb, and B.  Wokel, "The Value of Estuaries to Shrimp",  Pro-
    ceedings of the Marsh and Estuaries Management Symposium (July, 1967), pp 83-90.
   tHenry H. Hildebrand and Gordon Gunter, "Correlation of Rainfall with the Texas
    Catch of White Shrimp", Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 8JJ,
    151-155 (1953).
    Robert H.  Parker,  "Changes in  the Invertebrate Fauna,  Apparently Attributable
    to Salinity  Changes, in the Bays of Central Texas", Journal of Paleontology,
    29 (2), 193-211 (1955).
    Percy Viosca, Jr., "What Became of the White Shrimp?",  Louisiana Conserv.
    Rev., 10 (7-8),  17-18 (1958).
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an exceptionally large influx of fresh water has been shown to stimulate stocks. *
These correlations, of course, may be related to the nutrients carried by the fresh
water as well as to the change in salinities, but further research has indicated that
salinities are important both for survival and growth. Furthermore, the toleration
of different temperatures is related to the salinity.

    Another commercial species (possibly as  much as 2 percent of the catch) is the
seabob (Xiphopeneus kroyeri) which completes its total life cycle in a narrow coastal
zone, rarely penetrating the estuary deeply but not being caught by fishermen in open
waters beyond the coast. **  On the other hand, the red shrimp (Plesiopenaeus edward-
sianus) appears to complete its entire life cycle at depths down to 2,500 feet and is not
found in the estuary at any stage. ***
Role of Estuaries in Shrimp Development

    While the complete role of the estuary in shrimp development is still not thor-
oughly understood,  the estuary appears to fulfill two primary functions: (1) provision
of adequate nourishment during a period of rapid physical growth and (2) protection from
predators. A large proportion of the shrimp's diet appears to consist of small,
invertebrate animals, such as poiychaete worms, mollusk larva, and small crusta-
ceans, as well as fish larvae and nematodes.  Since mud appears to be a significant
proportion of the material found in the  alimentary canal, it is assumed that muds are
sought for the foraminifera, dinoflagellates, and various bacteria or molds.

    While shrimp is a primary food  item for various estuarine animals, including the
red drum (Sciaenops ocellata), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), snook
(Centroponus undecimalts), and the gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), the estuary
undoubtedly provides more vegetation and  debris for protection than can be found in
open waters.  Furthermore,  sufficient alternative  foods exist in the estuaries for these
fish so that some of the pressure can be removed from the  shrimp.
Compatibility of Commercial Shrimp Industry and Estuarine Change

    The future viability of the commercial shrimp industry undoubtedly will be
influenced by two factors: (1) the impact that a changing estuarine environment has upon
  *Percy Viosca, Jr., "Effect of the Bonnet Carre Spillway on Fisheries", Louisiana
   Conserv. Rev., £(4), 51-53 (1938).
 **Joseph H. Kutkuhn, "Gulf of Mexico Commercial Shrimp Populations—Trends and
   Characteristics, 1956-59", U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fisheries Bulletin,  62,
   333-402  (1962).
***Stewart Springer and  Harvey R. Bullis, Jr., "Collections by the Oregon in the Gulf
   of Mexico", U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,  Special Scientific Report, Fisheries,
   No.  196  (1956).
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the existing stocks of commercial shrimp and (2) the ability of the shrimp fishermen to
respond with appropriate new techniques or technological innovations.  Estuarine change
can take numerous forms, but most of the changes appear to bode unfavorably for main-
taining present stocks of brown, white,  and pink shrimp.  In its most drastic aspect,
change means  that estuarine areas are completely  removed from access by juvenile
shrimp*.  While some specimens of juvenile pink shrimp have been found outside
estuaries,  it is currently assumed that none of the major commercial species would
continue to exist in commercial quantities if estuaries were unavailable for develop-
ment. *  Thus, filling or diking of estuarine areas can be considered to reduce com-
mercial shrimp stocks in some direct relationship to the estuarine area and volume
removed.

    More difficult to evaluate are estuarine changes caused by estuarine or river
modifications,  including dams and navigational channels.  In most cases, these modifi-
cations will alter the estuarine conditions,  such  as salinity, and thus will cause a
deterioration in vegetation which will adversely affect shrimp stocks. **  In a few cases,
changes - particularly navigational channels - can theoretically improve estuarine
conditions by providing access for shrimp to previously inaccessible marshes, by pro-
viding deep-water escape routes in case of sudden temperature drops or changes in
salinity, and by stirring nutrients entrapped in sediments. On the other hand, these
modifications  are often accompanied by spoil banks and other negative changes in
estuarine conditions, and the positive effects are more than counterbalanced. At this
point in ecological sciences,  estuarine modifications have to be evaluated on a case-
by-case basis.

    The effects of pollution similarly depend upon the particular situation.   Small
quantities of domestic sewage which do not deplete the oxygen content of the water
significantly can provide nutrients which presumably improve the bearing capacity of
the habitat. On the other hand,  certain industrial-type wastes - such as  insecticides -
have been shown to have disastrous impacts.  When  a laboratory population of brown
shrimp (P. aztecus) were fed a diet of DDT-contaminated oyster meats with a total
DDT residue of approximately 2 ppm, half died within 2 weeks. ***  Since DDT residues
in shrimp or other crustaceans caught in estuaries are usually negligible or absent, it
  *T. J. Costello and Donald M. Allen, "Migrations and Geographic Distribution of Pink
   Shrimp fPenaeus duorarum) of the Tortugas and Sanibel Grounds, Florida", U.S.
   Fish and Wildlife Service, Fisheries Bulletin,  65 (2), 449-460 (1966).
   IJyll, et al., Ibid., p 87.
 **Gordon Gunter,  "Some Relationships of Estuaries to the  Fisheries of the Gulf of
   Mexico", Lauff (Ed.), Ibid., pp 621-623.
   Charles Chapman, "Channelization and Spoiling in Gulf Coast and South Atlantic
   Estuaries", Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium (July,
   1967), pp 93-106.
   A.R. Marshall, "Dredging and Filling", Ibid.,  pp 107-113.
 ***Philip A. Butler,  "Fixation of DDT in Estuaries",  Transactions of the Thirty-First
   North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference (March, 1966), p 189.
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is generally assumed that this type of estuarine fauna is normally killed by concentra-
tions less than can be identified and measured with existing technology. *  While some
resistance to pesticides is now being reported for some freshwater fish species, there
is yet no evidence that such a resistance can be built up in crustaceans without a thorough
disruption of their population distribution and densities, t

     Thermal pollution is a relatively new phenomenon in the estuaries frequented by
shrimp.  However, there  is no reason to believe that slight rises in water temperatures
in the immediate vicinity of plant outflows would adversely affect shrimp stocks since
they are relatively mobile. On the other hand,  severe cold waves have been known to
cause high mortalities among juvenile shrimp, and an area of artifically heater water
could provide a sanctuary for some  shrimp during these exceptionally cold periods.

     Dredging and other activities which tend to  create sudden shifts in silt deposition
have to be evaluated on the basis of  experiments that indicate that«each shrimp species
has an affinity for certain types of substrate.  Brown and white shrimp prefer softer
bottoms with sandy mud, muddy sand, or loose  peat, while pink shrimp tend to select
harder bottoms of mixed shell and sand or of  low organic content. **

     Several possible though difficult responses  appear to exist for United States com-
mercial fishermen if deteriorating estuarine conditions restrict the stocks of shrimp
species now being harvested.   For instance, part of the burden of harvesting can be
shifted to a new, less estuarine-dependent species,  particularly the royal red shrimp
(Hymenopenaeus robustus) or aquaculture or farming of shrimp can be developed.  Be-
cause of the elusive and deep-running nature of  the royal red shrimp, technological
improvements in both location detection and the quality of equipment would have to
occur if the former option were to be followed.  Furthermore,  certain market resist-
ance to the acceptability of red shrimp would  have to be overcome, a  less serious
problem with the advent of breaded shrimp which shields the skin color.  On the other
hand, past shrimp-culture efforts in this country have not been promising, despite
some limited progress in  Japan and the traditional,  pond-culture methods of South
America and parts of the Indo-Pacific. Research activities are continuing, however. ***

  *Philip A. Butler, "Pesticides in the Estuary", Proceedings of the Marsh and
   Estuary Management Symposium (July 19-2(5, 1967), p 123.
  fKutkuhn, "The Bole of Estuaries in the Development and Perpetuation of Commer-
   cial Shrimp Resources",  p 27.
   Denzel E. Ferguson, "The Ecological Consequences of Pesticide Resistance in
   Fishes", Transactions of the Thirty-Second  North American Wildlife and Natural
   Resources  Conference (March, 1967), pp 103-107.
 **Austin B. Williams, "Substrate as a Factor  in Shrimp Distribution", Limnology
   and Oceanography,  3,  283-290 (1958).
   Durbin C. Tabb,  "Biological Fresh Water Requirements of South Florida Estuaries",
   unpublished manuscript of the Institute of Marine Sciences,  University of Miami (1967).
***G. Robert Lunz,  "Farming the Salt Marshes", Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary
   Management Symposium (July, 1967),  pp 172-177.
   H.E. Crowther, "BDF Role in Farming of the Sea", 1967 Proceedings of the National
   Shellfisheries Association (June, 1968) Vol.  58,  pp 16-18.
   Victor L. Loosanoff, "Mariculture... Its Recent Development and  Its Future",
   Agricultural Engineer, 46 (2), 73,  93-97 (February, 1965).
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ESTUARINE DEPENDENCE OF MENHADEN

    Commercial menhaden resources in the United States consist primarily of four
species:  the Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), the Gulf menhaden (B. patronus)
the yellowfin menhaden (B. smithi). and the finescale menhaden (B.  gunteri).  As in
the caise of shrimp, spawning for all species occurs at sea along the continental  shelf,
and the eggs hatch in the ocean after about 2 days.  Larvae move into the estuaries and
quickly penetrate as far as 25  to 35 miles into freshwater rivers. * A transformation
of its physical characteristics accompanies the entrance into the estuaries as the
organism shifts from being a selective, particulate feeder to being a nonselective,
filter-feeding omnivore.  Within the estuaries,  the juvenile menhaden can tolerate wide
variations in both salinity and  temperature.  Some specimens have survived in fresh-
water reservoirs (though they  did not reproduce), while other juvenile specimens have
developed into the adult stage at ocean  salinities in 'a laboratory tank. **
Role of the Estuary in Menhaden Development

    Food appears to be the primary biological factor in the menhaden's dependence
upon the  estuary.  Before metamorphosis in feeding mechanisms, zooplankton forms
the principal food.  After metamorphosis, food becomes primarily dinoflagellates
diatoms, small zooplankton, and virtually any other natural plankton that the men-
haden can strain from the water.  They are even known to graze directly on dense
floating scum, such as Anabaena in Lake Pontchartrain near New  Orleans.  The men-
haden population of an estuary seems to be determined both by the number of larvae
entering  the waters and the parameters of the estuary in terms of food, oxygen, com-
petition,  and predators.  Because they are primary consumers, feeding directly upon
the natural vegetation, menhaden represent the base of the food chain for many pre-
dators, such as the bluefish fPomatomus saltatrix). striped bass (Roccus saxatilis).
bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), and sharks.   In terms of biomass, menhaden are
probably second in the United States only to the bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli).
Compatibility of the Menhaden Industry and Estuarine Change

    As with the shrimp industry, the production of menhaden appears to be directly
dependent upon the existence of estuarine waters with sufficient quality standards.
Removal of estuarine areas by either diking or filling will presumably have an impact
roughly proportional to the area and volume removed, the exact quantity depending upon
the parameters of the particular estuary. Polluted waters, however, raise particularly
difficult questions with menhaden because of their proclivity toward parasites and

 *JohnW. Reintjes and Anthony L. Pacheco, "The Relation of Menhaden to Estuaries'1,
  A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries,  Special Publication No. 3, American Fisheries
  Society, Washington, D.C. (1966), pp  50-58.
**F.C. June and J.L. Chamberlin,  "The Role of the Estuary in the Life History and
  Biology of Atlantic Menhaden", Proceedings of the Gulf Caribbean Fisheries Institute.
  Eleventh Annual Session (1958), pp 41-45.


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disease.  Serious parasitic infections noted have included copepods on the body surface
and gills, isopods  in the buccal cavity, monogenetic trematodes on the gills,  digenetic
trematodes in the intestine, and sporozoans in the testes.  While not usually fatal in
themselves, these parasites can weaken a fish's resistance to other environmental
threats as well as  reduce fertility. * These infections are generally associated with
the estuarine phase of the life cycle, either being caused by factors existing during that
period or becoming obvious by then. The exact  role - if any - of pollution in promoting
these infections is unknown, but the intense flow of nutrients associated with most
domestic  and industrial sewage can be seen to, at best,  create more favorable condi-
tions for propagation of parasitic infections.
ESTUARINE DEPENDENCE OF OYSTERS**

    Virtually the entire commercial oyster fishery is based on one domestic species,
the Virginia oyster (Crassostrea virginica).  From about 1890 to 1930,  a significant
industry was developed on the Pacific Coast using a native Pacific species, the Olympia
oyster (Ostrea  lurida).  However,  environmental change, particularly the presence of
toxic  liquid waste from paper mills, proved fatal to the larvae and the fishery collapsed.
A partial revival was achieved  using imported seeds of the Japanese oyster,
Crassostrea gigas, which is  slightly more tolerant  to paper mill chemicals.  Yet only
5.9 million pounds of oyster  meat were harvested on the Pacific Coast in 1967, com-
pared with 51.8 million pounds of the Virginia oyster on the East Coast, and the general
trend of the Western oyster harvest has been sharply downward since 1959. ***

    The Virginia oyster has  a range extending beyond the United States' borders into
both Mexico and Canada, a spawning temperature of nearly 70 F being the limiting
factor in northern waters. It tolerates salinities as low as 7 ppt in Chesapeake Bay
and as high as 30 ppt, but the lower estuarine salinities are usually considered optimal
for growth and  defense from  predators. ****  In spawning, the eggs are cast directly
into the water where they are fertilized, hatch, and the developing larvae remain free-
swimming for approximately 9  to 25 days.  Then  as spats they settle to the bottom,
weighted by their developing  shells.
   *Reintjes and Pacheco, op. cit., p 56.
  **While estuarine conditions are significant for salmon, the second most valuable
    estuarine-dependent species after shrimp, the current crisis in the supply of this
    anadromous fish appears  more related to other factors,  including gross disturbances
    of the natural conditions in major spawning streams, blockage of river systems by
    hydroelectric installations, and massive pressure from overfishing.  The complexity
    of these factors are beyond the scope of this  review.  A brief summary of the diffi-
    culties can be found in McHugh, "Estuarine Nekton", pp 612-613.
 ***Lyles, op. cit., p 22.
****Gunter,  op. cit., p 629.
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    If the larval oyster finds a suitable surface, it begins to cement itself and develop
the calcium carbonate shell.  Usually the small seed oysters are moved to growing
beds after 6 to 9 months.  In the Gulf states they reach market size, about 3 inches,
in less than 3 years, but this growth may take as long as 5 years in the colder, more
northern waters.
Role of the Estuary Development

    As an organism,  the Virginia oyster is thoroughly adapted to the estuarine eco-
system, appearing to find here the most appropriate food and substrate conditions.
The primary food of the oyster consists of microscopic plants and animals, though
decaying seaweeds can also contribute food value.  The gills of the oyster act as both
a pump and food collector, drawing water into the shells,  sieving out the food, and
expelling the strained water and wastes.
Compatibility of the Oyster Industry and Estuarine Change

    The record of the oyster industry in the United States consists of a continuing
series of disasters, usually associated  with man-made changes in the estuaries.  The
Pacific Coast experience noted earlier has had variations in virtually every other
prime oyster region of the country with (1) a form of pollution fatal to the oysters,
(2) a level of pollution which has rendered the oyster unfit for consumption, (3) a loss
through dredging and  siltation of adequate clutch material for the spats, (4) disease,
(5) predators, or (6) some combination  of these and unidentified causes.  During the
19th Century,  Raritan Bay and Jamaica Bay in the New York area were developed as
major centers for oyster culture,  with the Hudson beds providing seed. * As  pollution
drove oyster culture from these areas,  the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound
became a primary source of seed  oysters, with the growing beds in Rhode  Island,
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York.

    This industry was abruptly shattered by the hurricane of 1950,  when oyster beds
and setting grounds with a total value extending into the millions of dollars were lost.
Efforts to reestablish the industry in the same areas failed, presumably because a
combination of estuarine change, such as caused by dredging and filling, and  the
increasing presence of industrial and domestic pollution could no longer be tolerated
by the oysters.  Commercial oyster operations have completely vanished in Rhode
Island, almost ended  in Massachusetts, and drastically declined in Connecticut and
New York.  Even the  Chesapeake Bay beds have been reduced.

    A spectacular case of estuarine pollution occurred in Great South Bay  on Long
Island in 1950. Establishment of duck farms on the  Bay's watershed led to a rapid
*David H. Wallace,  "Oysters in the Estuarine Environment", A Symposium on
 Estuarine Fisheries, Special Publication No. 3, American Fisheries Society,
 Washington, D.C. (1966).
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increase in phytoplankton density and to a complete change in the type of producer
organisms present.  The normal mixture of diatoms, green flagellates,  and dino-
flagellates was almost completely replaced by small, little-known flagellates known
by the genera of Nannochloris and Stichococcus. * The famous  "blue-point" oysters,
which had flourished in the Bay under the cultivation of descendants from the original
Dutch families, gradually became unfit for market and then died.  Disection showed
that the oysters were unable to digest the green flagellates.  In experiments, it was
shown that the green flagellates by-passed the normal nitrogen cycle which requires
organic material to be reduced by nitrates, instead using the nitrogen directly in the
form  of urea, uric acid,  and ammonia. ** Thus, the oysters were starving in the
midst of the flourishing flagellates, which were being fertilized by phosphates from
the duck ponds.  After about 5 successive years during which the industry was abandoned
in the Bay, inlets on the east end were  opened to the sea and the condition seemed cor-
rected with the increased salinity.   While the oyster industry was then resumed,  the
scale was considerably diminished from that of earlier years.

    In the past two  decades, the increased level of chemical pollutants,  such as
pesticides, in some of the estuarine environments has been charged with decreasing
the vigor of and, in some cases, possibly eliminating oysters.***  Oysters exposed
to concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm of polychlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, or
polychlors, quickly shows physiological irritation by changes in shell movements.
Contrasted with oysters in pesticide-free water, their shell deposition or growth has
been shown to be inhibited by approximately 60 percent after shell rims have been
ground smooth.  Furthermore,  oysters exposed to concentrations of DDT as low  as
0.0001 ppm can store this chemical in tissues to a concentration of 7 ppm, a biological
magnification of 70,000 times.  If the level of DDT is increased from 0.0001 ppm to
1.0 ppm, oyster growth decreases logarithmically from 20 to 90 percent.  However,
the oysters are also able to flush the pesticide from their bodies at rates dependent
upon the initial concentration, and growth rates can resume to  normal after as short
a period as 10 days in uncontaminated water while body residues are still greater than
100 ppm.  While the implications for mortality are still not clear, oyster eggs have
concentrations as high as 25 ppm after  the adults have been exposed to 1.0 ppm of DDT
for 12 days, and some experiments have shown 100 percent mortality for oyster larvae
within 6 days witii an exposure on only 1.0 ppm DDT. **** Lake-trout eggs with simi-
lar concentrations have been shown to be almost completely sterile.^  Ironically, the
   *John H. Ryther, "The Ecology of Phytoplankton Blooms in Moriches Bay and
    Great South Bay, Long Island, New York", Biological Bulletin, 1QQ, 108-209 (1954).
  **Eugene P.  Odum, Fundamentals of Ecology, Saunders, London (1959), p 97.
 ***Fhilip A. Butler, "The Problem of Pesticides in Estuaries", A Symposium on
    Estuarine Fisheries. Special Publication No. 3, American Fisheries Society,
    Washington, D.C. (1966).
****Harry C. Davis,  "Effects of Some Pesticides on Eggs and Larvae of Oysters
    (Crassoscrea virginica) and Clams (Venus mercenaria)", Commercial Fisheries
    Review, 23 (12),  8-23 (1961).
   tPhilip A. Butler, "Pesticides in the Estuary", Proceedings of the Marsh and
    Estuary Management Symposium (July, 1967), p 123.
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oyster drill (Thais haemastoma) appears to suffer no ill effects and does not built up
significant DDT residues when fed live oysters containing about 50 ppm of DDT. *
The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries is now monitoring the pesticide levels in estu-
aries at various points in the country.

    Another aspect of the pollution problem, particularly in southern waters, is for
the oyster beds to be closed by public health authorities because of high coliform counts
in the vicinity.  In 1967, for instance,  all beds in Biloxi Bay,  Mississippi, were closed
to harvesting, and about 3,000 acres of beds in Louisiana are estimated to be closed. **
But in many cases,  including beds in parts of Biloxi Bay,  the  oysters are exceptionally
healthy in appearance, presumably because of the high nutritional value of the water's
phytoplankton.  Clysters in beds subject to pollution are even able to tolerate short
periods of anaerobic conditions.  As described previously, though, this tolerance does
not normally extend to many of the industrial chemicals.

    Besides, a need for chemically pure waters, oysters are sensitive to  adverse
clutch, or substrate,  conditions for the settling spats.  Increased mining of oyster-
shell banks for ttie  lime content has removed the traditional and convenient clutch
material, while marine engineering operations,  such as dredging and filling, have
either altered estuarine currents or created excessive  silt conditions that  have buried
the clutch material.

    For future development of the oyster industry, the general trend appears to be
towards highly controlled water conditions in ponds and other technological means of
"farming11 the fishery.  Hatcheries are being established to produce seed,  and fl9ats
are being used to suspend oysters in the water column, thus utilizing the total volume
of suitable water more efficiently and protecting the oysters from bottom-dwelling
predators, such as the drills  and  starfishes. Also, depuration plants are  being devised
to allow oysters from polluted waters to purge themselves of  any pathogenic organisms.
In the future, the water environment may be further controlled by harnessing the waste
heat now discharged by power-generation plants  and similar industries as  thermal
pollution.


  *Philip A. Butler, "Fixation of DDT in Estuaries", Transactions of the Thirty-First
   North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference (March. 1966),  p 189.
**T.  A. Wastler, "Municipal and Industrial Wastes in  the Estuaries of the South Atlantic
   and Gulf Coasts", Proceedings  of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium
   (July, 1967), p 115~"
   For summaries of the state of the art in tidal  pollution and  implications in shellfish
   culture, see:
    Gerald A. Strobel, "Coliform-Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Tidal Waters", Pro-
   ceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers^ No. 6068 (August, 1968),
   pp 641-656.
     T.G.  Metcalf and W.C.  Stiles, 'Viral Pollution of Shellfish in Estuary Waters  ,
   Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. No. 6063 (August,  1968),
   pp 595-609.
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Estuarine Dependence of Other Species

    Each of the other estuarine-dependent species represents a special ecological
situation.  The striped bass (Roccus saxatilis). for instance, has shown remarkable
adaptive capabilities to completely freshwater environments and to different geographical
circumstances. *  The greater biomass resulting from mild domestic pollution may have
enhanced the crop of adult bass.**  However, the fish remains sensitive to serious
pollution conditions, and it is particularly dependent upon stringent spawning conditions,
especially an unimpeded freshwater current with certain velocity constraints. Thus,
river barriers can destroy the prerequisite  conditions for propagation.

    By contrast,  the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is consistently an estuarine
fish,  preferring the brackish,  nontidal bays such as can be found along the Gulf of
Mexico.*** These  fish can spend their entire life cycle in the estuary and possess an
exceptional tolerance to salinity variations.  Despite this adaptability, however, estu-
arine destruction or creation of barriers between shallow and deep waters will destroy
the necessary characteristics of their natural habitat.

    Several incompatible trends appear to be occurring between the preferences of the
United States' consumers and physical realities.  On one hand, consumption of certain
fishery products - such as  shrimp and industrial fish derivatives - is increasing.  The
existing United States catch has been augmented by imports, but this supplemental
supply is unreliable.

    On the other hand, the fish species in rising demand - including shrimp, crabs,
and most domestic industrial fish - are predominantly estuarine-dependent.  Yet the
estuarine habitats are being altered in many ways that will destroy a significant propor-
tion of these fisheries.  This trend is particularly marked in the Gulf region which,
until recently, was  spared  intensive industrialization.

    Some loss in available fish stocks seems inevitable.  By judicious control of
estuarine changes,  the loss can be minimized.  Some compensation for destruction of
estuarine habitats can possibly be made by cultivation of certain species in specially
controlled areas.  But, with existing techniques, this approach is ineffective for other
species.  And the scale and nature of the natural estuarine zones in the United States
makes any reasonable substitution by aquaculture appear both technically  and economically
unfeasible.  Thus, a harsh choice appears inevitable: greater estuarine management
or less commercial fishery stocks.
  *Gerald B. Talbot, "Estuarine Environmental Requirements and Limiting Factors for
   Striped Bass", A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries. Special Publication No. 3,
   American Fisheries Society, Washington, D.C. (1966).
 **R. J.  Mansueti, "Effects of Civilization on Striped Bass and Other Estuarine Biota in
   Chesapeak Bay and Tributaries", Proceedings of the Gulf Caribbean Fisheries In-
   stitute. Fourteenth Annual Session (1961),  pp 110-136.
***Durbin C. Tabb, "The Estuary as a Habitat for Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus)",
   A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries, Special Publication No.  3, American Fisheries
   Society,  Washington, D.C. (1966), pp 59-67.

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          APPENDIX C
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL VALUE OF
     ESTUARINE WILDLIFE
        GranvilleH. Sewell

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                       Page

Fur Production  	 C-l
     Threats to Fur Production 	C-2
     Economic Significance of Fur Production 	C-3
Waterfowl	C-4
     The Larger Waterfowl  	C-4
     The Dabbling Ducks	 C-4
     Diving Ducks  	C-5
The "Exotic" Shore and Sea Birds	C-6
     Pelicans, Cormorants,  Eagles, and Ospreys  	C-6
     The Waders	C-7
     Others	C-8
Common Wildlife	C-8
Conclusion	C-10

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                                  APPENDIX C
           ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL VALUE OF ESTUARINE WILDLIFE

                                       by
                               Granville H. Sewell
    Excluding the fishery resources,  estuarine wildlife can be classified into four
categories with differing economic and social significance for the United States popula-
tion:  (1) fur-bearing mammals, (2) game waterfowl, (3) "exotic" shore birds, and
(4) the common wildlife that can tolerate human presence.  Each category represents
a drastically different relationship to the human community; and within the individual
categories wide variations can be found in the degree of dependence upon estuarine
conditions.
FUR PRODUCTION

    The clearest and simplest case is represented by the fur-bearing mammals.
They are commercially trapped, and the sale of their pelts offers a clear indication
of economic value.  In  the 1965-1966 trapping season, for instance, trappers in the
coastal marshes of the Gulf and Atlantic states  sold about $5 million in fur and possibly
another $1 million in meat, primarily nutria. *  Louisiana was primary producer,
with about 1,257,400 nutria, 324,200  muskrat,  78,300 raccoons,  28,200 mink, and
3,600 otter for a total value of approximately $4,600,000.  Roughly $4 million of this
can be attributed to the 3. 5 million acres of coastal marsh.  This annual value of fur
production is highly unstable, and the variation from one year to the next can be as
great as 50 percent.

    The primary fur bearers involved are the nutria (Myocastor coypus) in the South
Atlantic and Gulf states,  the common  eastern muskrat (Ondatra zebethicus) in New
Jersey, the Virginia muskrat (Ondatra z. macrondon) in the central Atlantic states,and
the  Louisiana muskrat  (Ondatra z.  rivalicius) in Alabama,  Mississippi, Louis ana,  and
Texas.  Secondary in importance are  the raccoon (Procyon spp.), mink (Mustela spp.),
* Ted O'Neil,  "Comparative Takes of Fur Animals in Louisiana", Louisiana Department
of Wildlife and Fisheries (1966).
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  and otter (Lutra spp.).  Foxes (Vulpes and Urocyon), weasels (Mustela spp.),
  opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and bobcats (Lynx spp.) are not sought for their
  fur but may occasionally be trapped. *

      For economic levels of fur production,  the marshes must be manages specifically
  for the fur bearers.  For practical purposes, this means control of undesirable plants,
  prevention of excessive populations, and, in some cases, control of predators.  The
  primary food plant is the threesquare  (Scirpus olneyi) and, to a lesser extent, the
  cattails (Typha supp.).  Since these are subclimax plants, they can be superseded by
  invading needlerush (Juncus roemerianus).  cordgrass (Spartina patens), sawgrass
  (Cladium jamaicense),  and other undesirable plants.  Hence, the marshes are burned
  annually, usually in the fall, and are subsequently flooded to eradicate the pest plants
  and enhance growth of the threesquare.

      Saline waters will  burn the marsh vegetation, particularly the threesquare and
  cattails, and one of the prime objectives of  using dikes  or other water-control devices
  is to help minimize the intrusion of saltwater into the fresh or brackish water of these
  marshes.  Thus, the marshes managed for  fur production are not normally available
  for most typical aquatic estuarine life, especially shrimp and the fish that use the
  estuaries as a nursery.
  Threats to Fur Production

      Hurricanes and man-made intrusions upon the fur-producing marshes have repre-
  sented the most serious threats to the fur-bearing animals and their habitat.  Between
  1933 and 1936, 500,000 acres of marsh were reclaimed in New Jersey, Delaware,and
  Maryland. ** This project was promoted by the U. S.  Public Health Service and conducted
  by the Works Project Administration to reduce the mosquito-breeding areas in the east-
  ern United States.  Some of this marshes have reverted to their original state, but
  ditching to control mosquitoes has continued to a lesser extent in virtually all coastal
  states.  Marsh empoundments and fish stocking have been shown to accomplish the same
  objective. At the same time, empoundments provide excellent habitats for muskrat and
  waterfowl while drainage creates a near wasteland. ***
  *Kenneth A. Wilson, "Fur Production on Southeastern Coastal Marshes", Proceedings
  of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium (July, 1967),  p 150.
 **C. Cottam, W.  S.  Bourn F. C. Bishopp,  L. L. Williams, and W. Vogt, "What's Wrong
  With Mosquito Control ?', Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference,
  Vol. 3 (1938),  pp. 81-98.
***Otto Florschutz, Quarterly Progress Report, Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration.
  North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Raleigh, N. C., Vol. 18 (1965), pp. 8-26.
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    Navigation and similar construction projects have frequently had serious adverse
effects. One of the  most severe in terms of fur production could be the proposed
channel through the  Atehafalaya Basin by the Corps of Army Engineers.  This is con-
sidered to pose a direct threat to about 1,300 square miles of exceptionally productive
marsh and adjacent  wildlife habitat.  On a gradually rising scale,  highway construction,
canal systems, dredging and filling,  flood-control  works,  and the other encroachments
of physical development and urbanization are slowly removing significant areas of
marsh.  At the same time, industrial activity, particularly in the Delaware and New
Jersey regions, have devastated many square miles of marsh with pollution.  Intensive
applications of pesticides are also believed to significantly effect some areas.

    While man's impact may be the most persistent and significant over an extended
time, no changes introduced by man  can rival hurricanes for sheer, sudden destruction
on a massive scale.  Dikes and levies are breached,  and ditches are filled.  Marsh
areas that have been overgrazed are completely gouged out, and the surging storm tides
drown thousands of animals.  Vegetation that remains is scalded by the saltwater.  The
drastic decline in muskrat harvest since World War n appears to have been precipitated
by the 1947 hurricane.   This destruction was compounded  by a series  of other hurri-
canes during the '1950's, and Betsy in 1965 succeeded in destroying some of the rebuilt
control works.

    The effect of predators upon fur production is  rarely serious.  In the several
recorded instances where predators  have been held responsible for significant declines
in production, the most frequent culprit appears to have been the raccoon which des-
troys the young in the nestling stage. *
Economic Significance of Fur Production

    On a national scale, the harvesting of pelts from marsh animals is a miniscule
industry.  Even in local terms, trapping is normally restricted to several months (90
days in Louisiana) of the year and usually supplements income earned from other occu-
pations.  Furthermore,  the industry is susceptible to domestication, fur farming being
the primary source of mink pelts.  Because of the managed nature of the fur-production
marshes and their weak ecological relationship with  the estuaries, fur production does
not appear to be  a major victim of man-made estuarine change.
 * John J. Lynch "Values of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marshes and Estuaries
   to Waterfowl, "  Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium
   (July,  1967), pp 51-63.
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WATERFOWL

    The United States waterfowl - primarily ducks, geese, and swan - represent both
an aesthetic and a recreation industry resource.  The relationship, however, between
these waterfowl and the estuarine zone is both complex and incompletely understood. *
The primary sport species,  such as the mallards and canvasbacks, have shown a keen
ability in adapting to man-made changes in their environment,  particularly those
changes not related to the nesting sites.  In some cases, even nesting has been enhanced
by the construction of roads, drainage canals, and other works that stabilize water
levels and thus provide flood-proof nesting sties and drought-proof rearing ponds. **
Furthermore, most species do not appear particularly dependent on any aspect of the
estuarine zone, as they are  able to use freshwater marshes, lakes, and ponds with
equal ease.  The primary problem appears to be the moral issue of threatening the
existence of the less adaptable species.  A brief review of the primary waterfowl
groups helps to place the role of the estuarine zone in perspective.
The Larger Waterfowl

    The whistling swans are one of the most spectacular estuarine waterfowl, and are
frequently found in the lower reaches of major Atlantic estuaries.  While its habits are
not completely understood, the adaptability of this species in captivity has demonstrated
that it can survive environmental changes.  Considerably more is known about the geese
populations, which present several sharp contrast  to the waterfowl.  For example, the
lesser snow geese have  abandoned the coastal marshes in favor of rice fields and upland
cattle pastures,  and appear to be thriving.  The white fronted geese have made a simi-
larly successful change  in habitat.  The Canada geese have demonstrated even more
adaptability, with many remaining for the entire winter in the freshwater bodies of the
Midwest, particularly in Missouri and Illinois.  While large numbers of Canada geese
can still be found in coastal marshes,  it is assumed that these birds could adapt
quickly to any changes in their aquatic environment.  By contrast,  the brant appears
to be stubbornly dependent upon ellgrass (Zostera marina), and the disappearance of
this coastal vegetation has apparently  resulted in drastic decreases of brant. *** Similarly,
the greater snow geese have continued to frequent Atlantic-coast marshes and have not
increased in numbers during recent years.
The Dabbling Ducks

    While large numbers of mallards and pintails can be found congregating in coastal
marshes, this marsh habitat is generally considered to be only a resting area.  Most
 * John J. Lynch "Values of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marshes and Estuaries
   to Waterfowl, " Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium
   (July,  1967), pp 51-63.
** Ibid.,  p. 61.
***C.  Cottam, J. J.  Lynch, and A. L. Nelson, "Food Habits and Management of the
   Brant", Journal of Wildlife Management, 8 (1), 35-56 (1944).

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feeding occurs in coastal rice fields and other agricultural areas.  In recent years,
many mallards have tended to remain the entire winter in Midwestern corn and wheat
zones, and the estuarine waters do not appear to be a critical factor in their environ-
ment.  Nor does this appear to  be the case for the pintails, which are considerably more
mobile than the mallards.   The black ducks, the dominant duck of the Atlantic flyway,
exhibit  a determined preference for natural marshes and environments undisturbed by
man.  Yet they are  also adaptable, willing to accept inland ponds and lakes as well as
major rivers. A similar lack of environmental commitment is shown by the American
widgeons, the gadwalls, shovelers, green-wing teal, bule-wing teal, and wood ducks.
Diving Ducks

    Unlike the dabbling ducks,  dividn ducks do not appear to have developed a strong
dependence upon agricultural lands for their continued existence.  Rather, they seem
to display a general ambivalence toward specific types of environments.  Scaups,  red-
heads, and canvasbacks can be found during winters in both saltwater bays and sounds
as well as freshwater ponds and reservoirs.  Hooded mergansers and buffleheads
show a slight preference for coastal lagoons, while larger mergansers, goldeneyes,
and old squaws (known as "sea ducks") winter primarily in the deeper saltwater, though
they will frequently gather within coastal lagoons.  Eiders and scoters are even more
dependent upon the deeper saltwater.  Their opposites in the freshwater environment
are the ringnecks and ruddies,  which winter in ponds and small lakes,  though they may
be found occasionally in the freshwater marsh ponds of the coast.  Ruddies have been
reported to feed extensively on midge larve (Chironomidae) in turbid, heavily polluted
zones of Chesapeake Bay, suggesting that ducks are not repulsed by organically polluted
waters. * The long-term effects of this feeding environment in terms of disease are
still unknown, although domesticated ducks have been reared for centuries in polluted
farm ponds.  A more significant problem may be the dependence of many sea ducks
upon small crustaceans, fish, and insects that are estuarine-dependent.

      In summary, while waterfowl are frequently observed in the estuarine areas,
their numbers do not generally appear dependent upon specific estuarine conditions.
Some exceptions, such as the American brant, may exist, but even here the research
has been inadequate to determine the role of incomplete censuses or poor nesting con-
ditions in the declining numbers.
 *  Lynch, op.  cit., p 59.
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THE "EXOTIC" SHORE AND SEA BIRDS
    Rarely serving a direct economic function except as a component of the natural
ecosystem, the more spectacular shore and sea birds nevertheless perform a particu-
larly significant aesthetic role among our national fauna.   Only slightly more dependent
upon estuarine conditions than the more mobile waterfowl, these birds have demon-
strated a considerably greater sensitivity to the overall encroachment of man.  The
sage of the whooping crane is well known and documented, and the trails of several
other groups,  such as the egrets, have received periodic publicity.  However, the
current assumption of many naturalists is that few of the  species are in actual danger
of extinction,  and respectable numbers of most species can be maintained by wise
planning in the estuarine zones. *
Pelicans, Cormorants, Eagles, and Ospreys

    The larger fish eaters of the United States coast appear among the most threatened
of the bird life by changing environmental conditions, especially in the estuaries.  The
Department of Interior has officially listed the southern subspecies of the bald eagle as
an endangered species. ** The brown pelican has already disappeared from the Gulf
coasts of Alabama,  Mississippi, Louisiana,  and Texas, where it was a common sight
prior to 1960. Since this disappearance coincided with the heavy fish kills of 1960-1964
in the lower Mississippi River which were caused by excessive residues of pesticides,
especially endrin, it appeared that the dying pelicans observed during mat period had
accumulated lethal dosages. *** The assumption was not verified.  Another theory
used to explain the lack of any resurgence by the species was the destruction of black
mangrove (Avicennia nitica) nesting grounds by the severe cold.

    Except for about 50 pairs of bald eagles nesting in the Everglades National Park,
the population has-suffered a sharp decline in the past three decades.  In the Chesapeake
Bay area, nesting success has dropped from 50 to about 15 percent.  ****  About 70
   *  Alexander Sprut, IV.   'Values of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marshes and
      Estuaries to Birds Other Than Waterfowl",  Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary
      Management Symposium (July, 1967), pp 64-72.
  **  Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Rate and Endangered Fish and Wildlife of
      the United States, Resources Publication 34, Washington,  D.  C.  (1966).
 ***  Donald I. Mount and George J. PutnicW,  "Summary Report of the 1963  Missis-
      sippi Fish Kill. "  Transactions of the Thirty-First North American Wildlife and
      Natural Resources Conference (1966),  pp 177-184.
****  Sprunt, op.  cit, p 68.
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percent of the Southern subspecies nest in either marsh or estuarine areas, and the
general assumption is that they are also suffering from the dual pressures of pesticide
residues in the estuaries and more latent inroads by man, including vandalism.

    Similar declines have been occuring in the populations of ospreys, though geo-
graphically the changes have not coincided with those of the eagles.  Very little research
has been performed on the particular problems of the ospreys, and a reasonable under-
standing of the relationships between the osprey population and the environment has not
been achieved.  Both birds depend upon the fish population of the estuarine areas,  in-
cluding mullet and catfish.

    Significant changes in the numbers of white pelicans have not been noted,  but this
species is distributed on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts extending into Mexico.
Unlike the brown pelican, it is usually only a seasonal, resident on the Atlantic and Gulf
estuaries, but it is presumably equally dependent upon  estuarine fish life and ecological
conditions.

    The cormorants have exceptionally wide ranges of  habitats.  One subspecies nests
in saltwater areas of Florida, but most of this family can be found breeding in Texas,
Louisiana, and around freshwater, brackish, or saltwater environs throughout the
southern United States and into Central America.
The Waders

    The eighty species of waders, which include the egrets, storks, herons, ibis, and
spoonbills, are predominantly residents of the southern United States, particularly
Florida.  These species are currently undergoing a crisis because of the drought
conditions in the Everglades, and their numbers have declined drastically as a result.
For some species, this represents a serious setback in their gradual recovery from
near extinction at the hands of the plume hunters.  About 1,800 great white heron in
the salt flats and mangroves of southern Florida constitute the entire population of
this species.  Most of the other representatives, such as the common egret, snowy
egret, great blue heron, Louisiana heron, and little blue heron, are more widely dis-
tributed and are generally more flexible in their habitat requirements,  accepting both
saltwater and freshwater, though generally preferring one or the other.  One excep-
'tion is the reddish egret, which has failed to increase its decimated numbers since
the plume trade was ended.  It appears dependent upon saltwater environments, but its
ecological requirements are not yet understood. The four species of ibis are also in-
adequately studied for management purposes, but the distribution is relatively wide,
extending from the Carolinas to Texas, though their numbers are restricted.   The
roseate spoonbill  is flexible in its salinity requirements and has been increasing in
numbers in recent years.
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Others

    Numerous species of marsh birds, such as the rails and gallinules, are distri-
buted throughout the marsh zones, but there is no evidence that they are estuarine-
dependent.  Shore birds such as the golden plover are a diverse and exceptionally mo-
bile family and, while also not dependent upon the estuary per se, certain changes in
the estuary such as concentrated pesticide pollution could cause large-scale mortality.
Many of the gulls, such as the laughing gull, frequent the estuaries during the winter
months.  Some, such as the gull-billed heron, utilize offshore islands for nesting and
have been displaced when these islands have been developed.  As the marshes and
underbrush of the estuaries are removed, still further families, such as  the blackbirds,
grackles, and seaside sparrows,  will be  affected.

                                 Common Wildlife
    For many of the major cities in the Unites States- such as New York, Boston, and
San Francisco - the estuaries represent the most striking expanses of open space with-
in the vista of the urban dweller.  Municipal New York's boundaries, for ins trace, en-
compass 320 square miles of land and 65 square miles of water.  In every case,  this
open expanse also harbors innumerable forms of wildlife which are counted among
a city's significant resources.  Within the past two decades, urban dwellers have
shown an increasing interest in nature studies and the myriad facets of their immediate
natural environment.  During the summer of 1960, the National Recreation Survey
indicated that about 98 million activity-days had been occupied by nature walks. 'By
the summer of 1965, the nature walks had increased to 117 million activity-days, a
rise of 19 percent over a period of 5 years. *  The National Wildlife Federation initiated
the magazine, National Wildlife, in 1963 with a circulation of 60,000.  By 1967,  cir-
culation stood at 250,000. Within 10 years, membership in The Wilderness Society
rose from 9,000 to 36,000.  Bird watching has become the subject of considerable public
amusement but has also attracted dedicated devotees.

    Many of the major cities have had published studies of their natural history, John
Kieran's Natural History of New York City being perhaps the best known. ** The variety
 *  Stuart T. Davey, "The Role of Wildlife in an Urban Environment", Transactions of
    the Thirty-Second North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conferences
    (March, 1967), pp 50-60.
    Also see:  Forest W.  Sterns, "Wildlife Habitat in Urban and Suburban Environment",
    pp 61-69.
    Robert H. Twiss, "Wildlife in the Metropolitan Landscape", ibid., pp 69-74.
**  John Kieran, Natural  History of New York City,  Houghton Mifflin, Boston (1959).
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of estuarine wildlife that he describes is typical of the subjects sought by amateur
urban naturalists.   While not exactly a form of wildlife, seaweed appears along the
shores in numerous forms, including the brown bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosis). the
green sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca). the brown henware (Alaria esculenta),  red chenille
weed (Dasya pendicillata). and purple carrageen (Chondrus crispus).  If the water is
sufficfently free of pollution,  colonies of sponges can be found on the bottom with other
forms of submarine life, including sea anemones, jellyfish, ribbon worms, and numer-
ous crustaceans. The latter  could include water fleas, copepods, barnacles, blue
crabs, hermit crabs,  calico crabs, fiddler crabs, grass shrimp, and sand shrimp.
As the tides recede, numerous shells can be found, including those of the horseshoe
crabs, whelks, snails, periwinkles, and possibly 40 to 50 species of oysters, clams,
scallops, mussels,  and other bivalves.  Starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers are
among the most picturesque members of the estuary life.  Thirty-one species of'am-
phibians, including  salamanders, frogs, and toads have been recorded in New York
State, most of them freshwater species but a few being found in the brackish areas of
the estuary. Occasionally, the saddleback or harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and the
harbor seal (Phoca  vitulina) can be  seen during the winter in the Lower Bay.  Vegeta-
tion bordering the tidal flats can harbor raccoons, mink, weasels,  skunks, and similar
common mammals.

    The richest variety of wildlife for a city located in an estuary is the diversity of
waterfowl, shore birds,  and sea birds.  On a tonnage basis, Kieran estimates that the
approximately 50, 000 heron gulls typically found within New York City during January
would outweigh all the starlings and, possibly, the pigeons,  too.  Other sea birds
include the ring-billed gull, the great black-backed gull, the laughing gull, the  Bona-
parte's gull, the glaucous gull, the  Iceland gull, the black-legged kittiwake, the common
tern, the roseate tern, forster's tern, the Arctic tern, the least tern, the black tern,
the black skimmers, and the  gannet.  In the early 1960's, the Department of Parks
established the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge to provide nesting grounds for sea birds
as well as various marsh birds.  Even a novice bird watcher can identify the common
loon, the red-throated loon, and the horned grebe in the offshore waters.  Canada
geese occasionally nest within the city limits, and the brant has been returning to New
York City in increasing numbers due to the resurgence of eelgrass  growth in the estuary.
Only the black duck can be found during the entire year, but numerous species, including
the American widgeon, the mallard, the gadwall, the pintail, the blue-winged teal, the
green-winged teal,  the shoveler, the greater scaup, the lesser scaup, the redhead,
the canvasback, the goldeneye, the  buffiehead, and the old squaw, can be found in
Jamaica Bay during the fall,  winter and spring. This list does not  include the waders,
shore birds, and marsh birds.  Nor does it include the species of fish that the fishermen
of the harbor bring  from the water.
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CONCLUSION

      As these discussions indicate, the principal value of estuarine wildlife lies within
the social realm, and is not readily convertible into monetary terms.  It is within the
social province that the significant increases in value will appear as populations
increase and natural areas become more remote from urban centers.  Concurrently, the
monetary value of estuarine uses conflicting with wildlife will  rise, intensifying an
already-existing conflict.  But the nature of the wildlife generally appears sufficiently
adaptable that some compromise and considerable planning can preserve both the
major wildlife populations and serve the critical needs of the United States society.
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                 APPENDIX D
USE OF ESTUARIES FOR WATER TRANSPORTATION
           AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
      Charles C. Kimm and Benjamin E.  Perry

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                          Page

Introduction 	   D-l
Transportation  	   D-l
     Inventory of Estuarine Ports 	   D-l
Environmental Effects of Commercial Watercraft	   D-6
National Defense 	   D-6
Environmental Effects of National Defense 	   D-13

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                                  APPENDIX D
                USE OF ESTUARIES FOR WATER TRANSPORTATION
                            AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

                                       by
                      Charles  C.  Kimm and Benjamin E.  Perry
INTRODUCTION

    The nation's estuaries provide the physical, social, and economic parameters re-
quired for a system of water terminals serving international trade and coastal shipping.
Similarly, estuaries support the national defense effort by providing natural harbors for
military ocean terminals, berthing space for combat ships, storage areas for reserve
fleets, protected water for ship construction and repair facilities as well as training
and residential areas for -service personnel involved in marine activities.  Both uses
affect the estuaries by (1) direct pollution and (2) encouraging modification of the
estuaries' physical configuration to facilitate traffic flow.  Furthermore, shore facili-
ties, both active and abandoned,  tend to dominate prime water frontage in areas of
high-density populations.
TRANSPORTATION

    The economic health of the United States is to a significant degree related directly
to a port and shipping industry that can rapidly, safely, and inexpensively transfer im-
ports, exports, and domestic trade between terminal points.  The complex network of
United States ocean ports provides an intrinsic economic asset that generates a vast
dollar activity, a steady trade movement, and an  external economy which permeates
and strengthens virtually all phases of the nation's industrial and market structure.
Inventory of Estuarine Ports

    Based on the Maritime Administration's "Listing of Existing Capital Plant of Ports
and Terminals*, there were some 1,626 marine terminal facilities**in 1966 providing
deep water berths located in 132 estuarine ports on Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts,
including Alaska and Hawaii.  These 132 ports do not represent all existing estuarine
 *Maritime Administration, "Public Works Needs - Marine Port Facilities", Prepared
  for Joint Economic Committee of the Congress, June, 1966.
**A terminal is defined by the function which it serves (e. g., bulk cargo, livestock, etc.).
                                      D-l

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ports in the United States, but only those with marine terminals which can accommodate
oceangoing vessels along side a pier or wharf with a minimum of 20 feet of berthing
depth.  These facilities can be considered the most significant ones from the standpoint
of trade and commerce.

     In 1965,  the 132 estuarine ports handled 346,315,000 tons of foreign trade cargoes,
which represent 78 percent of total U.  S. foreign trade or 90 percent of all coastal
ports' foreign trade.  This estuarine port traffic in 1965 can be summarized as follows:*

                      Selected Estuarine Port Traffic - 1965
                      	(in million tons)	

      Foreign Trade             Coastal            Local            Total
           346.3                 332.1              288.2            966.6

     The geographical distribution of these estuarine ports by coast and by state is de-
scribed in Table D-l.

    No published data are available listing these ports' revenues.  Based on records
spanning a 17-year period, 1946-1962, the average annual modernization and rehabili-
tation expenses incurred by these 132 estuarine ports were estimated at $17,245,000.
These  expenditures include all additions, replacements, improvements, and restorative
work to existing facilities which do not result in additional new berths.  The  Maritime
Administration report also reveals that about $1.4 billion was spent on port terminal
facilities between 1946 and 1962.  Also, a total of $606 million is estimated as capital
requirements for the port terminal facilities during the decade 1966 to 1975.

    The Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program was formally initiated in 1824 and
has subsequently facilitated the improvement of harbors and connecting channels in all
coastal regions of the country and on the Great Lakes.  Table D-2 summarizes invest-
ments  made between 1824 and 1966 through the Civil Works Program in harbors and
channels by coast.

    The role of the largely estuarine system in maritime industry employment is indi-
cated by the Maritime Manpower Report that provides  employment data by seafaring,
longshore, and shipyard classifications.  These data are summarized in Table D-3.

    The overall importance of an estuarine port to the economy of its community can
be best illustrated by "The Port and the Community",  a report on the economic impor-
tance of the New York/New Jersey Port to the people of the port district.
*Corps of Engineers, "Waterborne Commerce of the United States", Calendar Year 1965.
                                      D-2

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          TABLE D-l.  DISTRIBUTION OF ESTUARINE PORTS
                        BY COAST AND BY STATE
Coast
Atlantic














Gulf




Pacific




State
Maine
New Hampshire
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
New York(a)
New Jersey
Delaware
Pennsylvania
Maryland
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Florida
Florida
Alabama
Mississippi
Louisiana
Texas
California
Oregon
Washington
Alaska
Hawaii
Number of Ports
3
1
6
1
3
1
8
2
4
1
4
2
3
2
6
7
1
2
3
10
19
8
11
15
9
Number of Terminals
18
5
77
19
13
294
18
4
71
89
68
23
21
23
45
48
29
7
105
157
222
68
132
29
41
Source: Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers.
(a) Includes 36 terminals located in New Jersey.
Highlights of the report include the following:

(1) The Port as an Employer. Port jobs provide livelihoods for at least 430,000
people and pay $2.1 billion in wages a year as a result of the movement of 140
million tons of commerce into, out of, and through the port each year.  The de-
tailed breakdown is  given below.
                                  D-3

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  TABLE D-2. SUMMARY OF OUTLAYS FOR COASTAL HARBORS BY
              U. S. CORPS OF ENGINEERS, 1824-1966

                      Thousands of Dollars
Coast
Atlantic
Gulf
Pacific
TOTAL
Outlays Through Fiscal Year 1966
Construction
547,444
211,941
212,424
971,809
Operation and
Maintenance
493,786
153,154
192, 687
839, 627
Rehabilitation
4,139
2,905
17,402
24,446
Total
1,045,369
368,000
422,513
1,835,882
Non- Federal
Cost(a)
52,610
36,895
83,465
172, 970
Source: Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers.
(a) Monetary value of local contribution as identified in project authorization documents.
TABLE D-3.  SEAFARING, LONGSHORE, AND SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT
              As of September, 1967 - Sea Coasts Only
Seafaring Jobs Aboard
Licensed
Unlicensed
Longshore
Atlantic Coast
Gulf Coast
Pacific Coast
Shipyard .- Commercial
MAR AD Projects
Navy Projects
Private Projects
Non-Ship Work
Other
TOTAL
Source: Maritime Manpower Report,
ment of Commerce (October

15,327
48,455

50,400
22,800
15,000

6,652
30,095
13,451
796
1,779

Maritime
25, 1967).

63,782

88,200



52,773





204,755
Administration, U. S Depart-

                             D-4

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                               Annual Average             Total Annual
         Occupation              Employment       Payroll millions of dollars

    Marine transportation             66,400                     428.9

    Auxiliary marine
     transportation                   65,200                     255.3

    Marine construction              34,100                     160.1

    Land transportation               40,400                     172.7
    Port trade and finance             96,000                     462.8

    Port industries                  127,600                     657.7
        TOTAL                     429,700                   2,137.5
    (2)  The Port as a Provider.  Each of the 430, 000 jobs is believed to create an. eco-
    nomic  equivalent of two additional jobs, or a total of 1,300,000 jobs.  On the basis
    of 2.4 dependents per job,  a total of 3,120,000 port district residents of a total
    population of about 13 million may be dependent for their livelihood upon the port's
    waterborne commerce, earning $6.3 billion in port-generated income, more than
    25 percent of the total  wages earned in the port district.

    To summarize the economic  implications of estuarine ports,  the best source may
be a report prepared by the Maritime Administration entitled "The Economic Impact of
United States Ocean Ports".  This study is in effect a nationwide, statewide, and selec-
ted individual port compilation  and analysis with the primary purpose of determining the
ecomonic significance of ocean and Great Lakes ports.  Some of the highlights reveal
that, with respect to domestic employment attributable to United States exports in 1960,
a national total of 3.1 million workers was employed in direct export and export-related
industries.  Of this total, approximately 1.8 million represented  workers employed in
the 22 maritime coastal states  and the District of Columbia to produce, transport,
market and export merchandise.  Using 1963 figures, the study also indicates that  the
77 coastal and 40 Great Lakes ports listed earned about $5. 6 billion in that year from
the cargo passing through their ports.   Many ports calculate the direct revenue to the
port community of a ton of general cargo at about $16 to $20.  Other types of cargo,
such as petroleum, coal, ore,  and grain, similarly produce direct by varying revenues.
Applying these 1963  direct revenue factors to the 132 estuarine port traffic estimates  in
1965, a conservative estimate  of the dollar value of cargo earnings would be approxi-
mately $4.7 billion.
                                       D-5

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Environmental Effects of Commercial Watercraft

    Despite the advantageous economic aspects of the nation's water transport system
the same system has also created several serious environmental problems, particularly
for the estuaries.  First, commercial transport vessels have been shown to be signifi-
cant contributors to estuarine pollution. * Commercial craft are estimated to be respon-
sible for about 39 percent of the human waste loading from watercraft in the United
States' waterways, or the equivalent of approximately 200,000 residents out of a total
waterway occupancy equivalent of 513,000 persons in 1967. ** While the level of all
watercraft pollution rarely exceeds 5 percent of the entire drainage basin loading, the
pollution from commercial watercraft is usually concentrated in a relatively small dock
area of a harbor or in restricted navigation channels.  Besides human wastes, commer-
cial watercraft are serious  - if not the primary - sources of polluted ballast and bilge
water, litter, and oil discharges into navigable estuaries.  In some cases,  such as the
rock phosphate carriers docking at Sacramento, California, or the floating crab canner-
ies in the harbor of Kodiak, Alaska, commercial vessels are even significant sources
of industrial-type pollutants.

    A second, less manageable problem posed by commercial shipping is the physical
development of the estuaries to service the transport system.  Bulkheads are construc-
ted as docks,  navigational channels are dredged, and shore structures are  raised for
warehouses and maintenance facilities.  Even the location of industrial, commercial,
and residential structures in port cities is affected by the  presence of commercial ship-
ping.  Commercial waterfronts are rarely considered places of urban beauty, and com-
mercial shipping thus bears some responsibility for the degenerating physical circum-
stances that major cities of the nation are now experiencing.
NATIONAL DEFENSE

    It is recognized that estuaries and, more specifically, ocean terminals are an
essential element of the national defense system.  It is also apparent that deep-water
terminals exert a significant influence on the location of defense installations as well
as industrial complexes necessary for logistical support of the defense, effort. Even
the mere fact that a resource is available when needed can be a significant contribution
to the defense effort although it may be maintained in a standby condition without ever
experiencing the need for activation.  An example of this type of resource would be the
reserve fleet.
 *For a comprehensive summary of the watercraft pollution situation,  see:  U. S.  De-
  partment of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Wastes
  from Watercraft, Report to the Congress, 90th Con., 1st Ses., Senate Doc. No. 48
  (August, 1967).
**Ibid., p 48.
                                       D-6

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    Quantification of the Department of Defense's overall dependence on estuaries is
not feasible since most of the data available,  such as fund expenditures, employment
statistics,  and investments in real property,  are aggregated on an area or installation
basis without any differentiation of estuary-related activities.  However,  the University
of Rhode Island study, "Economic Impact of Narragansett Bay",  Bulletin  374, Decem-
ber,*1963,  by Niels Rorholm, clearly shows  the overwhelming influence that Depart-
ment of Defense activities can have on a particular estuary. Activities associated with
Narragansett Bay were estimated to have an annual monetary impact of $145.1 million;
of this amount, $132 million was attributed to naval payrolls.

    In an attempt to assess the influence of estuaries on Department of Defense employ-
ment, it was found that the Economic Studies Division, Office of the Assistant  Secretary
of Defense  (Systems Analyses),  maintains employment data by location.  These data
are summarized for select coastal standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA) in
Table D-4.
TABLE
                         DEFENSE EMPLOYMENT IN DECEMBER, 1966
                             Thousands of Employees
Coastal SMSA
New England
Middle Atlantic
South Atlantic
Gulf
California
Northwest
TOTAL
Continental U. S.
total S MSA's
Coastal SMSA's as
percent of total
Civilians
at Plants
98.4
199.8
29.6
9.9
273.9
26.9
638.5
1,647.8
38.7
Civilians at
Installations
22.4
95.6
55.3
15.6
115.7
24.6
329.2
1,047.9
31.4
Military
10.9
92.9
68.7
28.4
173.0
39.9
413.8
1,846.0
22.4
Source: Economic Impact Studies Division, Assistant Secretary of Defense
(Systems Analysis).
                                       D-7

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    These employment figures in some way indicate the drawing power of coastal areas
for Department of Defense-related employment.  It should, however, be recognized that
these employment statistics tend to overstate defense utilization of the estuarine system
in that all employees in the coastal areas are not engaged in activities directly related
to estuaries.

    A more direct indication of the Department of Navy use of estuaries is the number
of naval ships in commission.  It may be observed from Table D-5 that this number
has fluctuated between a high of 1,030 in 1955 to a low of 812 in 1960.  The number of
ships in commission during Fiscal Year 1967 was 931 with planned increase to 936 ships
in 1968 and 960 in 1969.  These vessels will require extensive shore-side logistical
support facilities as well as berthing facilities, which will normally be located within or
adjacent to the estuarine  system.

          TABLE D-5.  DEPARTMENT OF NAVY COMMISSIONED SHIPS
1955
1,030
1964
849
1957
967
1965
880
1959
860
1966
909
1960
812
1967, .
931
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     TABLE D-6.  NAVY BUDGET REQUESTS OR FUND AUTHORIZATIONS FOR
                SHIPBUILDING, REPAIR, AND MODERNIZATION
Fiscal Year
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
TOTALS
Shipbuilding, Repair,
and Modernization, (a)
millions of dollars
$ 1,381
1,150
2,032
3,000
2,900
2,644
1,966
1,721
1,756
1,824
$20,374
Number of
Major Ships ( '
20
20
44
35
37
41
53
62
47
34
393
Naval Shipyard
Employment, (c)
thousands
96.7
96.0
98.4
97.8
93.9
87.4
83.8
85.4
92.8(3)


(a) Marine Engineering/Log, June 15, 1967, p. 157.
(b) September, 1967, Statistical Quarterly, Shipbuilders Council of America,
1730 K Street, N.W. , Washington, D.C.
(c) Average first 7 months, 1967.
the planned long-range modernization for all naval shipyards would ultimately total
$700 million.  For Fiscal Year 1968, planned naval shipyard modernization expendi-
tures totaled $30,988,000 to be distributed as follows:
              San Francisco
              Boston
              Philadelphia
              Bremerton
              Norfolk
              Charleston
              Long Beach
              Pearl Harbor
$9,174,000
   496,000
 1,526,000
 6,923,000
 6,943,000
 3,063,000
   626,000
 2,237,000
    At the present time there are 1,071 merchant ships in the National Defense Re-
serve Fleet; of these, 628 are maintained in a retention status. Ships in the reserve
fleet are distributed as follows:
                                      D-9

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                         Ships Not
                         Maintained
               Ships Maintained in
                Retention Status
                   Total
    Hudson River
    James River
    Mobile
    Beaumont
    Suisun Bay
    Olympia

           Total
 69
164
 65
 25
 99
 21

443
 68
122
100
100
128
110

628
  137
  286
  165
  125
  227
  131
1,071
    Very little is expended on the reserve fleet ships other than those held on a re-
tention status.  Average yearly cost per retention ship is $4,340 for preservation and
cathodic protection and $2,246 overhead cost.  Of the total appropriation of $5,440,000
for Fiscal Year 1968,  it is estimated that approximately $2.4 million would be spent
for personnel services.  The number of ships in this fleet is diminishing quite rapidly
as indicated in Table D-7.
               TABLE D-7.   NATIONAL DEFENSE RESERVE FLEET
Year
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
Ships Not
Maintained
447
495
596
709
831
Total Ships in
Retention Status
624
731
854
941
958
Total Ships
in Fleet
1,071
1,226
1,450
1,650
1,789
    Since July of 1965, 161 retention ships have been taken out of the reserve fleet and
placed in active  service as a result of the Vietnam conflict.  The economies realized by
having these ships available for service when needed can be rather significant.

    The Office of Congressional Requests and Special Projects, Chief of Naval Opera-
tions,  maintains rather comprehensive payroll data  for shore-based naval and marine
military personnel and Department of Navy civilian employees.  These payrolls may be
obtained by state or city for the entire United States, however, it would be rather dif-
ficult to identify specifically the total payroll directly related to the estuarine system.
The total payroll is shown in Table D-8 as an indication of the order of magnitude to be
considered.
                                      D-10

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         TABLE D-8.  DEPARTMENT OF NAVY PAYROLL OUTLAYS FOR
                  SHORE-BASED PERSONNEL (a) - 6 MONTHS,
                     July 1, 1967 TO DECEMBER 31,  1967
           Civilian
           Marine Corps, Active
           Navy, Active
           Marine, Reserves
           Navy, Reserves

               Total
$1,534,848,000
   360,104,000
   590,433,000
    12,000,000
    41,352,000

$2,538,737,000
           Source:  CMD Report No. F637-0020, "Reporting of DOD
                   Payroll Outlays by Geographic Location.

           (a) Includes Continental U.S., Guam, Puerto Rico, Hawaii,
              Alaska, Midway, and Canal Zone.
    Admiral Lawsen P. Ramage, USN, Commander MSTS, reported at the 1947
National Defense Transportation Association, Transportation Logistics Forum in Los
Angeles,  that "98 percent of the support for our military forces stationed throughout
the world is transported in ships". This points up the need for an adequate system of
ocean terminals to support overseas military operations.  The Military Traffic Manage-
ment and Terminal Service, Quarterly Progress Report (Parts I and II), shows all tonnage
shipped overseas for Department of Defense and the cost for handling in-port operations
involving both cargo and passengers.  This is a most definitive indicator of defense use
of the estuarine system.  It can be observed from the extract of the  fourth quarter FY
1967 report shown in Table D-9 that only a limited use is made of Great Lake ports.
Total cargo operations for 1967 amounted to $20,835,500.

    A gross summary of the national defense operations associated  with the estuaries
is as follows:

    Personnel
        Employment in coastal SMSA's, 1966
            Civilians at plants                               638,500 persons
            Civilians at installations                         392,200 persons
            Military                                        413,800 persons
        Payroll in Naval shipyards,  1967                      $674,500,000
                                     D-ll

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TABLE D-9.  CARGO AND PASSENGERS TRANSHIPPED THROUGH
       CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES WATER PORTS
Part I
Cargo Areas
Total all areas
Eastern area
Atlantic ports
Gulf ports
Great Lakes ports
Western area
N. Pacific Coast
(Wash ington - Oregon)
S. Pacific Coast
FY 1966
Measurement
Ton, (a>
thousands
15,965.4
7,777.3
5,723.5
2,030.0
22.8
8,188.1
1,625.2
6,562.9
Dollars,
millions
134.0
52.0
39.9
12.0
0.1
82.0
14.5
67.5
FY 1967
Measurement
Ton, (a)
thousands
20,835.5
8,973.5
6,243.3
2,635.5
94.7
11,862.0
3,275.5
8,586.5
Dollars,
millions
184.6
66.8
49.1
17.0
0.7
117.8
29.1
88.7
Part II
Passenger
Total all areas
Eastern area
Atlantic ports
Gulf ports
Western area
N. Pacific Coast
(Wash ington-Oregon)
S. Pacific Coast
FY 1966
Passengers,
thousands
213.7
121.2
120.0
1.2
92.5
(C)
92.5
Dollars,
thousands
480.5
365.9
361.2
4.7
114.6
(C)
114.6
FY 1967
Passengers,
thousands
120.8
28.6
27.8
0.8
92.2
10.2
82.0
Dollars, 
thousands
366.6
171.8
166.4
5.4
194.8
21.6
173.2
Source: Quarterly Progress Report, Fourth Quarter FY 1967, RCSDD-1L (Q) 493,
Military Traffic Management and Terminal Service, Washington, D.C.
(a) One measurement ton = 40 cu ft.
(b) Dollar amounts represent cost, not revenue, which is computed on pre-
determined billing rates.
(c) No movement reported .
                        D-12

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        Navy and Marine Corps pay and
        allowance for shore-based personnel
        and civilian employees for 6 months
        July through December, 1967                         $2,538,737,000
    Ships

        Naval ships in commission,  1968                             936 ships
        Maintenance cost of National
        Defense Reserve Fleet, FY  1968                      $5,440,000

        Expenditures for shipyard                            $1,824,000
        Expenditures for modernization
        of Naval shipyards, FY 1968                         $30,988,000
    Shipping

        DOD water terminal cargo
        handling costs, FY 1967                              $134,000,000

        DOD water terminal passenger
        handling cost, FY  1967                              $    366,600

    Although some of these indicators overstate the national defense economic depen-
dence on estuaries, they provide convenient order-of-magnitude estimates for evaluating
the economic impact on the  nation's estuarine system.
Environment Effects of National Defense

    In some respects, the effects of national defense efforts have not differed signifi-
cantly from those of commercial shipping in the physical impact on the estuaries. Very
few of the approximately 700 U.S. Navy vessels operating in our territorial waters are
equipped with sewage treatment devices; and less than a third of the 325 U.S. Coast
Guard watercraft operating wholly in United States waters have even rudimentary sewage
treatment facilities. None  of the Maritime Administration's reserve fleet vessels acti-
vated for service by the Military Sea Transport Service (MSTS) during the Vietnam War
have any type of sewage treatment devices. Thus, the national defense vessels (ex-
cluding MSTS vessels) account for about 28 percent of the human waste loading in the
national waterways, the equivalent of approximately 140,000 persons.* Similarly, many
of the shore facilities, particularly the urban shipyards, offer the same sterile appear-
ance and indirect degradation for the estuaries.
*U.S. Department of the Interior,  FWPCA, p 48.
                                     D-13

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    However, in a few cases,  the coastal defense facilities, such as Forts Hancock
(Sandy Hook),  New Jersey, and the John F. Kennedy Space Center (Cape Kennedy),
have preserved valuable estuarine coastline from indiscriminate development. Even
here, though,  the record is far from favorable since some valuable Department of
Defense lands on estuaries have reverted to highly commercial and physically developed
uses incompatible with general or recreational activities.  One example would be the
acquisition of National Park lands in the Florida barrier islands  during World War II,
then the postwar allocation of coastal tracts to private developers.
                                     D-14

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              APPENDIX E
LAND RECLAMATION IN ESTUARINE ZONES
            Gerald I. Nehman

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                          Page

Introduction 	  E-l
Background  	  E-l
Quantity of Filled Estuarine Wetlands  	  E-2
Uses of Filled  Estuarine Land  	  E-4
Sources of Fill	  E-6
     Harbor Maintenance and Navigation Channels  	  E-6
     Channelization in the Estuaries  	  E-7
Disposal Practices  	  E-9
     Overboard Disposal	  E-9
Concentrated Spoil Deposits  	E-13
Examples  of Intensive Spoil-Site Development	  E-13
     Building Construction	  E-14
     Airport Location	E-14
Value of Wetlands  	  E-17
     Determining Value  	E -17
     Value of Filled Lands  	E-18
     Costs of Developing Wetlands  	E-18
Means of Administrative  Control of Wetlands	E-19
Summary   	E~20

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                                   APPENDIX E
                  LAND RECLAMATION IN ESTUARINE ZONES

                                        by
                                 Gerald I. Nehman
INTRODUCTION

    The purpose of this discussion is to describe the economic environment in which
estuarine wetlands have been filled along U. S. coastlines.  This will help to determine
the economic motivations for filling wetlands as part of the overall task of defining the
economic environment in which U. S. estuaries are being developed.

    The research primarily uses data and information available in the literature.  In
some cases, though, these data have not been collected in a form available for an analy-
sis of the economics of filled estuarine lands.  These data gaps will be indicated through
this discussion.  When feasible, Chesapeake Bay is used as a case study for estuarine-
wetland use.  For this purpose,  agencies concerned with landfill in the Chesapeake Bay
were interviewed to supplement  our knowledge of this particular area.
BACKGROUND

    Wetlands have been filled for a variety of reasons.   First, they have been used as
spoil areas for muds dredged from navigation channels  and as garbage dumps for coastal
cities.  Second, they have been drained for mosquito control, salt mining,  and agricul-
tural uses.  Third, they have been filled for water-oriented uses, such as commercial
port facilities and recreational boating.  Fourth, they have been developed for land-
oriented uses,  such as housing, industrial sites, roadways,  and airports.  Historical
land-use patterns on wetlands have been determined by the market price of the wetlands,
development costs, and by the value of adjacent land.  Qualitative factors,  such as the
esthetic quality of land and water, are now becoming more important as determinants of
estuarine-development patterns.  These factors are discussed as they relate to the
future of estuarine areas.

    The physical structure of the land-water interface in the estuary is a major deter-
minant of the value of filled lands.  Economic activity is generated by salt- and fresh-
water fisheries; low-cost access to interior and overseas ports; protected bays for
recreational boating, fishing, and swimming;  and an abundant water supply.  The phys-
ical characteristics of the coastal area also determine the cost of land development.
                                       E-l

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In addition to the physical structure of the land form, the proposed use of the filled
land and the unit cost of the fill material determine total development costs.

    The value and costs of filled land will help to explain historical land-use patterns
on filled areas and will give some indication of what can be expected to develop in the
near future.  Major areas of conflict between the various users of the natural estuary
and with users interested in filling wetlands are  discussed.
QUANTITY  OF FILLED ESTUARINE WETLANDS

    According to a 1958 survey by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, estu-
aries of the  United States cover 26. 6 million acres.  This includes both shallow and
deep-water areas.  Some of these areas are not suitable as wildlife habitat; some are
too deep to be considered as prospective landfill sites.  The area of concern, there-
fore,  is substantially less than the total acreage.

    The Fish and Wildlife Services (FWS) in 1956 estimated that there were 9. 3 mil-
lion acres of shallow coastal fresh and saline areas in the United States. Only 1.3
million acres is open water covered to a depth of 10 feet or more.   The bulk of the
area is intermittently under water or under less than 3 feet of water.

    In 1967, FWS estimated that there were 7.7 million acres of important estuarine
habitat (Table E-l).  The important habitat is primarily the shallow areas, which are
also the most easily filled for development purposes. Thus,  approximately 8 million
acres of wetlands are feasible locations for landfill operations. This does not include
deep areas filled by disposal activities where the cost of developing the land is a sec-
ondary consideration.

    Coastal lands have been reclaimed in several metropolitan areas since the early
part of the 1800's.  La New York City, ships entering the harbor dumped their stone
ballast along the Manhattan shore before loading with produce for European markets.
This stone formed an excellent foundation for the construction of harbor facilities, and
later for industrial sites and roadways. *  FWS estimated that by 1958, 7.3 percent,
or 564,000 acres of basic habitat has been filled.  This estimate does not include
dredge and fill in deep-water spoil areas, or acreage which dredged but later became
suitable for wildlife habitat.

    A large portion (45 percent) of the basic habitat filled was in California (see Table
E-l).  Most of this loss was in San Francisco Bay where 243 square miles of wetlands
had been filled by 1957. This represents 43 percent of the land that was available for
reclamation in 1850.**
 *"Duteh Treat for New Amsterdam",  Engineering News Record, p 79 (January 12,
  1967).
**U. S.  Department of Commerce, "Future Development of San Francisco Bay Area-
  1960-2020", U.S.  Army Corps of Engineers (December, 1959).
                                      E-2

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TABLE E-l.  FISH AND WILD-LIFE ESTUARINE HABITAT LOST IN PAST 20 YEARS

State



Alabama
Alaska
California
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan^)
Mississippi
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
New York 
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Texas
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin (a)
Total
Total(b)
Acres of Estuaries

Total Area


530,000
11,022,800
552,100
31,600
395,500
1,051,200
170,800
3,545,100
39,400
1,406,100
207,000
151,700
251,200
12,400
778,400
376,600

48,900
2,206,600
37,200
57,600
5,000
94,700
427,900
1,344,000
1,670,000
193,800
10,600
26,618,200
26,369,800

Basic Area of
Important Habitat

132,800
573,800
381,900
20,300
152,400
796,, 200
125,000
2,076,900
15,300
376,300
31,000
151,700
76,300
10,000
411,300
132,500

48,900
793,700
37,200
20,200
5,000
14,700
269,400
328,100
428,100
95, 500
10,600
7,938,100
7,689,700
Area of Basic
Habitat Lost
by Dredging
and Filling
2,000
1,100
255,800
2,100
8,500
59,700
800
65,400
1,000
1,000
2,000
3,500
1,700
1,000
53,900
19,800

600
8,000
100
700
100
900
4,300
68,100
2,400
4,300
0
568,300
564,100

Percent Loss
of Habitat


1.5
.2
67.0
10.3
5.6
7.5
.6
3.1
6.5
.3
6.5
2.3
2.2
10.0
13.1
15.0

1.2
1.0
.3
3.5
2.0
6.1
1.6
8.2
.6
4.5
.0
7.1
7.3
(a) In Great Lakes only shoals (areas less than 6 feet deep) were considered as
estuaries.
(b) Great Lakes shoals omitted.
Source: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service tabulation, p 46, hearings on estuarine
areas, House Merchant Marine and Fisheries subcommittee on fisheries
and wildlife conservation, March 6, 8, 9, 1967.
                                E-3

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     Other regions where large quantities of lands have been filled are around New York
and Raritan bays; Tampa, Florida; New Orleans,  Louisiana; and Texas.  Around Long
Island, for example,  12,635 from a total of 43,215 acres of wetlands available in 1954,
had been filled by 1964 (see Table E-l).  The annual rate of fill appears to be in-
creasing, and the proportion of filled to unfilled areas rising. * Both the Gulf-Texas
coast from Laguna Madre to Galveston Bay and the Florida bays (including Tampa Bay),
are shallow areas with low freshwater intakes. **  This physical profile helps to ex-
plain the large quantities of lands that have been filled in these two areas (see Table
E-l).
USES OF FILLED ESTUARINE LAND

    The uses of filled estuarine lands are integrated with the uses of adjacent shore-
line.  Where the shoreline property is residential, filled land will probably serve resi-
dential or recreational uses.  Harbor facilities on the shore are often extended onto
filled lands or the filled lands are developed for industry which will use the water trans-
portation network.  Estuarine wetlands have been rated on the basis of the probability
of imminent development.  This estimate was made by evaluating the physical suit-
ability of the land, population concentrations, and land ownership.  In the 1956 wet-
lands inventory, this category included 4. 8  million acres of shallow wetlands,  or 18
percent of total estuarine area and 62 percent of the important habitat area.

    Land use on filled estuarine lands has been estimated for Long Island and San
Francisco Bay.  In Long Island, primarily a residential area, 34 percent of the filled
land is for residential development.  Other  uses are for miscellaneous fill (i. e..,  end
use unknown), recreation, and industrial development (see Table E-2). The wetlands
study in  Long Island in 1964 placed 79 percent of the island's shallow coastal wetlands
in this category. ***  Filled land in San Francisco Bay was primarily for recreation,
salt ponds, and agriculture (see Table E-3).

    The development of Long Island landfill for housing and industry is a reflection of
a more intensive use of land in the New York area.  Also,  San Francisco Bay is a more
sheltered body of water than is Long Island  Sound; and thus, is more conducive to uses
such as agriculture and salt evaporation. In addition, the most attractive housing in
San Francisco is on the hills overlooking the Bay area and not on the Bay itself.
  *S. P. Shaw and C. G. Fedine, Wetlands of the U. S., Supplementary Report - June
   1965 on the Coastal Wetlands Inventory of Long Island,  U. S. Department of the
   Interior, Fish and Wildlife Circular 39,  Division of River Basin Studies, Boston
   (June,  1965).
 **E.J. Wood and Furguson, Microbiology of Ocean and Estuaries (New York; Elsevier
   Publishing Company, 1967), p 185.
***Shaw and Fedine, op. cit.
                                       E-4

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  TABLE E-2.  USES OF FILLED COASTAL WETLANDS IN  LONG ISLAND:  1964
Use
Housing
Miscellaneous fill
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      TABLE E-3.  USE OF  RECLAIMED TIDE, MARSH, AND SUBMERGED
               LANDS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY  AREA:  1957
Uses
Residential and commercial
Recreation
Industrial
Transportation
Dumps and vacant lands
Agriculture
Salt ponds
Military and other reserved lands

Acres
6080
41856
7488
11200
4480
36096
38464
9728
155392
Percent
4
27
5
7
3
23
25
6
100
Source: Future Development of the San Francisco Bay Area 1960-2020
U. S. Department of Commerce for U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers, p 81.
SOURCES OF FILL

Harbor Maintenance and Navigation Channels

    Dredging and filling for development purposes are occurring primarily in areas
where population pressures have increased land values to levels that make the higher
development costs economically feasible.  These areas are primarily around northern
New Jersey and New York City, San Francisco, and in southern Florida.  Dredging to
maintain navigation channels is more extensive than any other single activity through-
out all the U. S. estuaries.  Data have been compiled for the coast from Maine to
Delaware.  Even for this highly populated area, disposal of dredged spoil was the major
reason for filling land (Table E-4).  In addition, areas first used for spoil disposal
often were later used for development projects.  Thus, the economics of spoil disposal
are often interrelated with the costs of land development.

    Dredging activities to maintain channels in the estuaries is essential for the eco-
nomic well-being of the country.  Of the 170 ocean ports in the United States, 132 are
located on estuaries. *  These estuarine ports are excellent locations for port facilities
and presently handle 89.5 percent of the total U. S. foreign trade.  In addition, vessels
must pass through estuarine areas to reach most of the nation's interior ports.
* Ocean ports are defined as ports with facilities to handle vessels with 20-foot draft at
 docksj.de.
                                       E-6

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TABLE  E-4.  USE OF FILLED WETLANDS, MAINE TO DELAWARE;  1955 to 1964
Uses
Dredged spoil
Housing
Recreation
Transportation
Industrial
Dumps
Other
TOTAL ACREAGE
Percent
34
27
15
10
7
6
1
45, 000
Source: Clark, John, Fish and Man: Conflict in the Atlantic
Estuary, Special Publication No. 5 (American
Littoral Society, Highlands, N.J. : 1967).
Channelization in the Estuaries

    The Army Corps  of Engineers is responsible for maintaining the nation's channels
and harbors.  The  estimated budget for this phase of its work in FY 1968 was
$83,027,000; its budgetary request for 1969 was $74,228,000.  Approximately one-
half of the 1969 budget request, or $36 million, was for projects in coastal areas. An
additional $500,000 was requested for rehabilitation of navigational structures in one
coastal area,  Galveston Bay. *

    The Corps does not compile data to determine either the total cubic yards of silt
which it removes from channels and harbors or the total number of miles of channel
maintained in a given year in the estuary.  This information can be compiled on a
project-by-project basis, however, by referring to the Corps' annual report.  For ex-
ample,  4.7 million cubic yards of material was dredged from harbors and channels
around the Chesapeake Bay in FY 1966 at a cost of $2. 2 million. The average unit
cost was $0.59 per cubic yard, with a range of $0.30 to $1. 89.  For jobs over 70,000
cubic yards,  the  range was $0.21 to 0. 81 per cubic yard (Table E-5).

     This range of costs  is quite large because of the wide variation in conditions under
which dredging is conducted in Chesapeake Bay.  The relevant cost-determining factors
are depth of water and distance to spoil area, consistency of dredged material,  exposure


 *U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Annual Report of fee Chief of
  Engineers,  U.S. Army on Civil Works Activities, 1966,  Vol. 2, U.S.G.P. O.
  pp 259-288.
                                       E-7

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TABLE E-5.  CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGING PROJECTS IN CHESAPEAKE
      BAY (1966) SHOWING QUANTITY DREDGED, PROJECT COST,
                     AND TYPE OF DISPOSAL
Name of Project
Baltimore District
Norfolk District
Baltimore District
Baltimore Harbor
Black Walnut Harbor
Wicomico River
Bonum Creek, Va.
Crisfield Harbor, Md.
Duck Point Cove, Md.
Fishing Creek, Md.
Honga River and Tar
(Barren Bay Island Gaps), Md.
Knapps Narrow, Md.
Little Wiscomico River, Va.
Muddy Hook & Tyler Coves
(Dorchester County, Md . )
Pocomoke River, Md.
Susquehanna River above and
below Havre de Grade, Md.
Tilgham Island
Harbor Md.
Tred Avon River, Md.
Twitch Cove and Big Thoroughfare
River, Md.
Upper Thoroughfare, Deal
Island, Md.

Type of
Project^
NW
NW
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
NW
M
M
NW
N
M
M

Total Material
Dredged
2,992,903

609,200
86,222
14,300
478,080
In progress
78,810
19,300
15,900
86,400
Condition surveys
Condition surveys
96,020
In progress
187,668
In progress
Condition surveys
29,977
In progress
4,683,780
Spoil
Disposal^)
O

O

O
O.A

A
A
0
O
—
—
A
~
O
—
—
A
~

Project
Cost,
dollars
1,486,216
550,140
304,774
44,189
15,742
102,610
924
62,000
17,263
30,000
55,000
1,778
845
58,551
—
55,850
—
379
25,000
2,886
2,781,147
Cost per
cu. yd.,
dollars
0.50
~
0.50
0.51
1.10
0.21
—
0.81
0.89
1.89
0.64
—
— •
0.61
—
0.30
—
~
1.09
__
0.59
(a)l New Work = N\V; Maintenance = M.
(b) Overboard = O; Ashore = A.
Source: 1966 Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, Chief of Engineers
Works Activities, Department of the Army Corps of Engineers, Vol. 2, U
Washington.
U.S. Army Civil
.S.G.P.O. ,


                              E-8

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of the particular location to weather, the degree to which the spoil area must be pre-
pared, and the amount of preliminary engineering work that is required.  Because of
the many variable factors in the costing of projects, there has been very little attempt
to analyze dredging costs to define trends over time or to set up uniform means for
computing costs of removing material from estuarine areas.

    In 1958 the Corps  of Engineers submitted a report to the U. S. House  of Repre-
sentatives Appropriations Committee to discuss the desirability of purchasing addi-
tional government dredges.  As part of this report,  the Corps measured the cost of
dredge operation in terms of capital requirements, labor and fuel costs, and normal
profits.  They also considered specific job characteristics such as length of pipeline,
abrasiveness of material, and development requirements at disposal areas.  It was
estimated that the dredging  industry within the continental United States has an annual
earning capacity of $85 million on an 8-month utilization basis (except for the North
Central and North Pacific areas, where a 6-month period was used).  The federal
program for FY 1958  for this type of equipment required a capacity of $32 million,
or 38 percent of the dredging industry's earning capability.  At the same time,  the
Corps had an earning capability of $4. 8 million using its own equipment.

    Based on the above analysis and on discussions with the industry, the Corps esti-
mated that federal and private work divided the capacity fairly evenly, though data on
the quantity of private  dredging was not available. *  It must be kept in mind that this
analysis was for all the Corps' work so it is not directly applicable to United States
estuary activity.  The  overall conclusion,  however, that approximately  one-half of
the dredging in the United States is conducted by private parties, probably can be as-
sumed relevant to estuarine activity.
DISPOSAL PRACTICES

    Dredging conducted by the Corps of Engineers is usually at the request of local in-
terests who provide areas for the disposal of the spoil or approve the Corps' selected
site.  Since the federal government does not recover any of its cost by direct use of
dredged material, the  Corps is motivated to find a site that is close to the dredge area
and that requires a minimum of preparation.
Overboard Disposal

    Spoil  may be pumped from the dredging site to a distant deep-water site or it may
be distributed on adjacent shallow areas.  Pumping onto adjacent shallows is less
*Analyses of Dredging Costs and Relationship to Corps of Engineers Dredging Program,
 Report of the Corps of Engineers to the Senate Public Works Appropriations Committee,
 Hearings (1959), pp 6-7.
                                       E-9

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expensive but the deposits are then susceptible to re-suspension due to wind-wave
energy.  During the period of adjustment to equilibrium, the spoil material may tend
to drift into deeper water, hence requiring periodic maintenance of the dredged area.
In addition, spoil deposited in shallow areas destroys less mobile bottom fauna and
fluora.

     Deep-water spoil disposal is less destructive since the flora population in these
areas is less dense and the fauna species are more mobile.  IE a deep canyon is chosen
for deposition it acts as a natural container and reduces the spread of spoil material.
Reduced wave action at greater depths has the same effect.

     The spoil from the Baltimore Harbor maintenance project is deposited overboard
in a canyon near Kent Island.  The oyster industry is presently opposed to extending
the spoil area southward in the canyon because of anticipated damage to oyster beds.
The Corps claims that the nutrient enrichment has an overall beneficial effect on the
area's wildlife.  The present spoil site is an excellent sport-fishing area.

     Effects of Overboard Disposal on Wildlife.   Dredged material pumped overboard
increases the  silt level in the water.  The normal silt level will depend on water turbu-
lence, the direction and velocity of coastal currents, and the rate of soil erosion from
higher surrounding elevations.  Overboard disposal should be evaluated in light of
these natural phenomena.  Studies conducted to determine the effect of overboard dis-
posal of spoil have obtained conflicting results.

     The effects of dredging on oysters was studied in shallow bays of Louisiana by
John G.  Mackin of the Agricultural & Mechanical College of Texas under a grant spon-
sored by four large petroleum companies.  Three dredging operations were examined:
a hydraulic dredge depositing a spoil island, a clam dredge operating in a canal,  and a
hydraulic dredge depositing in a half-fan circle.  The results showed that the silt
sitrred  up by the dredge was  carried a maximum of 1300 feet with rapid dispersal by
dilution and sedimentation.  A maximum of 1 percent of the material was observed to
be drifting away from the  site of deposition. Turbidities beyond a few hundred feet did
not exceed the natural levels  and no harmful effects were observed on the oyster beds.
He concluded that oxygen depletion with dredging in Louisiana marshes was a relatively
minor factor and not responsible for fauna and flora mortality. *

     A study was conducted in Narragansett Bay on the effects of overboard spoil dis-
posal on lobsters.   Water samples were taken before and during dumping.  Lobsters
were observed in baskets placed on the periphery of the dumping site and under labora-
tory conditions.  They concluded that "mature lobsters will tolerate concentrations of


*John G. Mackin, "Canal Dredging and Silting in Louisiana Bays", Institute of Marine
 Science Publication,  University of Texas,  Vol. 7 (1961),  pp 262-314.
                                      E-10

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suspended material as great or greater than those resulting from the discharge of
dredged sediment". *

    A study of sediment dispersal around spoil islands in Redfish Bay near Aransas
Pass, Texas,  was conducted by T. R. Hellier, Jr., and L. S. Kornicker, Institute of
Marine Science, University of Texas.  The purpose of the study was to determine the
effect of dredging on marine life.  Studies  of conditions before and after sediment de-
position in the bay showed that erosion from the spoil island was deposited less than
1 mile from the spoil bank.  Beyond 0. 5 mile, siltation had little effect on the existing
biota. **

    Heavy covers  of loose and water anaerobic muds have been  observed near dredged
areas. These muds can be tolerated by only a few forms of animal life.  When the
Julia Tuttle Causeway was built in the early 1950's in'Biscayne Bay, Florida, bottom
vegetation, including a mixture of algae and sea grasses, was eliminated over an area
more than a half mile south of the causeway site. ***  A second incident has been docu-
mented in Hillsborough Bay, Florida.  In 1966, when an improperly diked fill site
spread muds over 250 to 300 acres of adjacent bay bottoms, access to the area by
boatsmen became limited due to the muds, and vegetation was completely destroyed.
An island bird sanctuary became surrounded by the muds which  precipitated a drastic
decline in nesting populations of American egrets, brown pelicans,  cormorants, and
wood ibis.  No practical means of removing the mud has been suggested. ****

    Though opinions differ as to the effect of the dumping of silt in shallow and deep
areas, it is clear that there is a dramatic  physical alteration at the dredge and at the
fill site.  Natural habitat is obviously lost  when the fill area is made into land.   The
dredge itself is equally destructive when an area becomes too deep for light to pene-
trate and support bottom vegetation.

    Conservationists' most difficult task is to show how the production of a particular
estuary is affected by each incidence of dredge and fill.  Ultimately, in order to do
this they must be able to document a decline in production with each increment of
dredging activity.  It would then be possible to conclude, for example,  that destruction
of 10 acres of wetlands in Chesapeake Bay would result in a decline of 1 percent in the
productive ability of the bay. The cost of a 1 percent decline in productivity could
then be determined.

   *S. B. Saila,  T. T. Polgar, and B. A. Rogers, Results of Studies to Dredged Sedi-
    ment Dumping in Rhode Island Sound,  Graduate School of Oceanography,  University
    of Rhode Island, Kingston (undated), p 44.
  **Thomas R. Hellier, Jr. , and Louis S. Kornicker, "Sedimentation From  a Hy-
    draulic Dredge in a Bay", Institute of  Marine Sciences, University of Texas,
    Vol.  7 (1961), pp 212-215.
 ***W. R. Marshall,  "Practices Affecting  South Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marshes and
    Estuaries Dredging and Filling", Bureau of Sports,  Fisheries, Vero Beach, p 6.
****Ibid., p 6-9.
                                      E-ll

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    As a first step, a study has been conducted by Sykes and Finucane to examine the
overall effect of bay alteration on a large number of species of juvenile fin fish and
shellfish. * They compared Old Tampa Bay and Hillsborough Bay and found the latter
to be less productive.  Hillsborough Bay has been more altered by bay filling.  Since
bay filling is usually associated with population concentrations and the resulting higher
pollution levels, it was not possible to separate the two effects.  However, until we
are in  a position to control our waste outflows, analyzing these two effects together
may be justified.

    The Chesapeake Bay.  High land values on the western shore of the Chesapeake
Bay has forced the Army Corps of Engineers to decrease on-shore dumping of spoil
and to  increase the practice of overboard disposal.  In 1966, there were 11 dredging
jobs in the Chesapeake Estuary where the spoil area was specified; 7 were in over-
board locations (see Table E-5).

    Studies have been conducted by the Corps  to show that overboard disposal of spoil
from the dredging of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal will not harm nursery areas
in the upper bay.  Their conclusions were based on the timely phasing of  the dredging
to avoid disposal during the spawning season.  Biologists hired by the State of Maryland
disagree with the Corps'  conclusions.  Alternative dumping sites have been suggested
on Federal property at Aberdeen Proving Grounds.  The adoption of this plan would  in-
crease the project's cost $33 million and delay its completion 1 year, according to the
Engineers. **

    A  study of spoil-disposal practices has been conducted in the Chesapeake Bay by
the Natural Resources Institute, University of Maryland.  An interim report entitled
"Gross Physical and Biological Effects of Overboard Spoil Disposal" has  been released
by the  Institute.  This report considered the effects of dredging on the geology and hy-
drography, phytoplankton,  fish eggs and larvae, and adult fish.  Sediments were found
to spread over an area at least five times as large as the designated disposal area.
The nutrient chemical outflow was equivalent to the sewage from a town of about 10,000
people. No gross effects were observed on the microscopic plants and animals in the
water, on the eggs and larvae of fish, or on adult fish held in cages near the outflow or
caught near the area.  In a wide area, some bottom animals were smothered, other
species survived deposition, and certain species began repopulation immediately. ***
  *Ibid., p 11.
 **Estuarine Hearings, Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (March, 1967), p 182.
***Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, "Interim Report on Gross Physical and Bi-
   ological Effects of Overboard Spoil Disposal", Natural Resources Institute, Uni-
   versity of Maryland (May,  1967).
                                       E-12

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CONCENTRATED SPOIL DEPOSITS

    Spoil has been dumped on wetlands adjacent to the shore, in banks adjacent to the
dredged channel, and in off-shore islands.  Many of these deposit areas eventually have
been used as a base for further development.  In the Houston Ship Channel, muds have
been dumped in a long bar extending down the length of the channel.

    The dumping of dredged material in bars adjacent to the channel is more common
in less populated areas.  It is the principal means of disposal when channels are
dredged to gain access to near-shore drilling rigs in the Gulf of Mexico.  This prac-
tice often cuts off large sections of the estuary from swimming species, and the stag-
nant pools that are left behind the bars have little biological value.  Furthermore, in
many parts of the country,  the bottom muds in the waterways are polluted.  When they
are deposited in bars or islands, they create unpleasant odors, and are esthetically
unattractive.  For other than commercial users of the waterway,  the bars may act as
barriers to cross-channel traffic, eliminating access for pleasure craft to the channel
from on-shore entrance ramps.  It is possible, on the other hand, that under some
circumstances these bars may serve as locations for oyster beds, and as nutrient-rich
areas for other forms of wildlife.  This positive contribution has  been claimed by the
Corps on some occasions.

    In the Chesapeake Bay, the  Department of Natural Resources has requested that
spoil be deposited in islands to serve  as wildlife sanctuaries.  A harbor-channel pro-
ject now under consideration includes plans for dumping material in a spoil island to
be developed for recreation.  One island in the northern part of the bay already  has
been developed in this way.  A third island is being proposed south of Havre de Grace.
The development of these islands for recreation has countered some of the initial re-
sistance to this means of spoil disposal.


EXAMPLES OF INTENSIVE SPOIL-SITE  DEVELOPMENT

    Spoil sites have been used intensively for industrial development around port areas
for many years.  Since the early part of this century, dredged spoil in the port of
Portland,  Oregon, has been used to develop industrial sites on Swan Island.  This
island is now almost entirely a product of dredged material; and, besides providing
land for an airport and a shipbuilding yard, there is adequate acreage for a light-
industry park and an industrial complex for 50 firms. *
*"Dredge Clackamas", Harbor News (September,  1962).
                                       E-13

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Building Construction

    In Jersey City, New Jersey, a 12-story apartment building is being constructed
300 feet offshore in the Hudson River estuary on the site of an old ferry ship.  This
$3.4 million structure will be elevated 50 feet over the water to exploit a spectacular
view of New York City and the Hudson River, and will be connected to the mainland by
a roadway which encircles the structure. *

    A similar project is underway on Manhattan's East River shore.  A 6-acre tri-
angular platform supported on piles will be the site for a complex of apartment towers,
townhouses, and multilevel commercial and recreational plazas.  Just south of this
platform and connected to it will be a new United Nations International School built on
a platform supported by piles and fill material. **

    Foundations for the support of structures for apartment buildings or industrial
plants are more expensive on most fill material  than oh adjacent land where more con-
solidated material or a firm rock base may be available.  Flat paved areas such as
roadways, parking lots,  and open storage areas, require less-demanding site prepara-
tion.  Though the foundation must be stabilized,  the weight is distributed over a wide
area.  If some settling does occur the cost of filling and repaving is low.  For example,
many of the major highways entering New York City pass through the New Jersey mead-
ows on landfill.  Though some of these roads have presented stabilization problems in
the past, they have not been serious.
Airport Location

    Early airport location was haphazard.  Some airports owe their origin to a county
fair performer who used an open field outside of town to land and refuel.  Others were
started by private companies who built landing strips adjacent to their plants. What-
ever their origin, many of today's urban airports are experiencing location problems
because of over-congestion, new construction obstructing approaches, and objection-
able noise levels over residential areas.  Several coastal cities already have located
their airports on, or adjacent to, estuaries and are anticipating expansion into the
water. *** Several West Coast cities are proposing radical airport design to allow them
to locate in estuarine and coastal areas that are isolated from the densely settled urban
environment.


   *"Offshore Building Shows Way to Revise Waterfronts", Engineering News Record
    (October 6, 1966).
  **The New York Times (November 15, 1967).
***Airports located on estuarine coastline include Boston, New York (Kennedy and
    LaGuardia), Washington, Norfolk, San  Diego, San Francisco, and Oakland,
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    The incidence of planes hitting urban structures are rare events relative to the
number of successful landings and take-offs at major urban airports.  Most U. S. cities
have taken precautions to keep tall structures away from airport approaches so that
most of the accidents which do occur are from overshooting or undershooting runways.
This problem is of minor importance as compared to the nuisance generated by high
noise levels emanating from low-flying jet aircraft.

    Noise Pollution.  At the present time,  one of the main barriers to the construc-
tion of new airports is adjacent property owners aversion  to noise.  This was asserted
by General William F. McKee, Federal Aviation Administrator, at a meeting before
the Society of Automotive Engineers in Los Angeles. *  In 1967, there were 175 law-
suits initiated by individuals and groups of private citizens against airlines because of
damages  incurred by noise and for damaging vibrations.  Claimants have been rela-
tively unsuccessful in the past but more relevant data is being collected as intense
sound waves reach more and  more people.   A man living one-half mile from the north-
west runway of Kennedy International Airport expressed his problem in the following
manner:

    "They're using the runway tonight,  I wish you could feel the walls.
    When they take off, it's like they were shooting at us	There are
    cracks in the walls.  The beams are giving way in the basement.
    The floor slants... If you were here you could smell the fuel.  I
    honestly think its getting to us...  Either the New York Port
    Authority moves the airport or it moves me. "**

Airport agencies  in New York, New Jersey, and several West Coast cities are con-
sidering water  sites to reduce the unpleasant effects of low-flying jetliners.

    Locating airports on the edge of the estuary is desirable because of less  rever-
beration and less people to disturb.  The costs of providing rapid transit to the city
are very high but estuarine locations can usually be closer to downtown areas than
comparable facilities in the suburbs. *** Though the cities are close, the danger of
running into structures usually can be avoided by arranging flight patterns to enter and
leave the airport over water.  Runways for San Francisco Airport, International Air-
port in Washington, Kennedy and LaGuardia Airports in New York, and Newark Airport,
to name a few,  have some facilities constructed on filled estuarine wetlands.   In addi-
tion, several liew projects are being planned to develop wetlands for airport use.
  *Evert Clark, "Noise Called Bar to New Airports", The New York Times (October
   5, 1967), p79.
 **Robert Sherrill, "The Jet Noise", The New York Times Sunday Magazine (January
   14, 1968), p 24.
 ***Costs of rapid transit  are approximately 1 million dollars per mile for a highway,
 2-3 million dollars per mile for monorail, or 5-8 million dollars for a subway.
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    The three West Coast cities, San Diego, Seattle, and Los Angeles presently are
considering Pacific Ocean locations for landing fields to be built on piers, pontoons,
or landfill.  San Diego is considering a proposal to obtain fill material from a dredged
cut through Coronado Silver Strand, a project proposed by the Corps of Engineers.
Off-shore locations are more costly but it is felt that the long-term  benefits will
justify the added expenses. *

    Limitations of Estuary Locations.  Though airports may be planned to minimize
the noise nuisance, the possibility always exists for neighbors to move too close and
thus become exposed to high noise levels. Homes are sometimes sold near airports
to families who are fully aware of the noise problem but who do not realize the effect
it will have on their daily lives.  It does not take them long to join citizen-action groups
to complain about disrupted conversations during dinner or television interference
during the 7:00 news.   Zoning laws must  be enforced to control encroaching land uses,
if airport planning on estuaries is to be effective.  In San Francisco, for example, a
developer is seeking a permit to build houses on filled wetlands under one of the final
approaches to the airport.

    New York airports have had more problems with air traffic than most other cities.
Recommendations have been made to zone lands adjacent to airports for compatible
uses and to divert some traffic away from Kennedy International.  To appease residents
of communities surrounding its airports, the Port of New York Authority has placed
noise-recording instruments at ground level under flight paths and has agreed to keep
recorded noise levels below 115 decibels. Pan American Airlines reportedly stations
a man on the ground to warn pilots when to reduce power so as to quitely pass the
"black" boxes, after which they proceed normally, a maneuver known as "beating the
box".   The boxes around Kennedy International have been set up since 1960. **

    At first glance, it appears that  estuaries can be used to absorb  airplane noise,
minimizing the effect on the surrounding  communities.   Wetlands set aside for this
purpose could continue to serve as natural habitat if the noise and the vibrations do
not disturb this environment.  Studies should now be conducted to determine if, in
fact, the noise will have a minimal effect on the large number of species living in
shallow waters.
 *"Big Jet Airport May Go Off Shore", Engineering News Record (February 2, 1967).
**William E. Burrows, "Hush-Hush Agent Helps Airlines Beat Noise Ban", The New
  York Times (October 18, 1967).
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VALUE OF  WETLANDS

Determining Value

    The value of filled wetlands will depend on (1) the value of lands in the immediate
vicinity, and (2) the quality of the land that is created by the fill material. Since both
of these factors will vary from site to site throughout the country, no general conclu-
sions can be drawn.  For the time being,  it will have to be assumed that lands are
filled for development because market conditions favor this development.  That is,
there is not  an a priori reason to assume  that land developers are making excess
profits or are assuming excessive costs for their work.  Since development costs also
include acquisition costs, individuals interested in using the land in its natural form
have an opportunity to enter the market and help determine its use. There are some
users, however, who for various reasons are normally excluded from this market.

    Users of the natural estuarine wetlands are not in a position to express them-
selves in the market for estuarine land.   Organizations of oyster fisherman have never
attempted to purchase rich oyster beds in order to protect their source of incomes;
organized commercial fisherman have not tried to purchase coastal wetlands to pre-
serve nursery and feeding areas.  One reason for this lack of land-market participa-
tion by commercial users is that there is  no way to stop outsiders from benefitting
from the preserved land; that is, there is no way for the land owners to control the
benefit stream from the land holdings. A second reason why commercial users may
not participate in the land market is that their profits from selling on product markets
do not justify a land investment.  In either case, the stream of values to users  of
natural habitat must be Determined outside of the market in order for their needs to
be included in land-management decisions.

    There are a few notable exceptions where lands have been purchased by private
groups to preserve  their natural productivity.  These groups are primarily conserva-
tion oriented with membership among the  8,200,000 bird watchers, 1,650,000 water-
fowl hunters, and 8,500,000 saltwater anglers in the United States. *

    Since rigorous  tools have not been developed for determining the dollar value of
undeveloped estuary lands, natural value  will be decided by political action.  Such
groups as the Natural Conservancy, the Izaac Walton League, the National Wildlife
Foundation,  the Sport Fishing Institute, and many local chapters  of the Audubon
Society are attempting to influence  the political establishment by indicating, with a
dearth of facts and an abundance of pictorial case  studies,  the value of these lands to
their natural users.  The Natural Conservancy, in particular, has taken positive action
by purchasing valuable estuarine habitat for public use.


*Polly Redford, "Vanishing Tidelands", Atlantic Monthly,  No.  219 (June 20, 1966),
 p78.
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Value of Filled Lands

    The value of some of the filled lands discussed previously has been estimated.
The offshore islands in Long Beach which serve as sites for oil rigs cost $185,000 per
acre: the cost of developing a peninsula, also a part of the project, was $63,000 per
acre.  It was estimated by the developers that the prorated cost per well site is $10,000
as opposed to a cost of from $20,000 to $150,000 per well site for conventional equip-
ment.  Using the low estimate for cost of conventional equipment, the value added per
well site is $10,000, though this is admittedly an exceptional case.

    The value of the proposed filled land in the port of Baltimore has  been estimated
to be $20,000 to 25,000 per acre.  The acquisition and development costs for this land
are going to be approximately $16,000.  Thus,  the Port Authority estimates  a net re-
turn of from $4,000 to $9,000 per acre.  Again using the low side of the range, the
90-acre land development project is returning approximately $360,000. *
Costs of Developing Wetlands

    The costs of filling wetlands for development varies considerably depending on:

    (1)  Quantity and quality of fill required

    (2)  Distance which fill must be transported

    (3)  Nature of the structures which the land is being designed to support.

A survey of 10 fill projects in San  Francisco Bay from 1938 to 1958 indicated an aver-
age cost of $8,300 per acre (unadjusted price levels).  The California State Division
of Water Resources, in 1955, estimated costs of reclaiming San Francisco Bay wet-
lands.   Their estimates ranged from $22,000 to $27,000 per acre for filled land.  On
the basis of a 50-year amortization of capital costs at 3 percent, and including oper-
ating and maintenance costs, the annual cost of reclamation would be between $860 and
$1060 per acre for filled land. **

    The costs of filling land from  dredged material have not been isolated from the
standpoint of the fill project per se.  Lands are often filled-in with spoil and then not
developed for 10 to 20 years while the material dries and settles.  The owner of the
land does not pay for this type of material, however, since he is considered to be per-
forming a service by allowing his land to be used as a spoil dump.   If he chooses to
develop the land, his costs are those incurred in working with the spoil-filled site.
 *Personal interview, Richard W. Tyler, Maryland Port Authority.
**U. S.  Department of Commerce, "Future Development of San Francisco Bay Area -
  1960-2020", U. S.  Army Corps of Engineers (December, 1959).
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    On the other hand, there are some costs that are incurred by the users of dredged
waterways which can be determined.  Here again,  however, cost figures are available
on a project-by-project basis with great variations among projects and little to be
gained by aggregating them.
MEANS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL OF WETLANDS

    The United States has an estimated 27 million acres of Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific
coast estuarine area and Great Lakes shoreline.  Approximately 8 million acres of
this total is considered basic fish-and-wildlife habitat and is of primary concern to
conservation management, Legislation is being sponsored in the House of Representa-
tives to control the effects of dredging and filling on the wildlife values of estuaries.
The Dingell Bill, proposed by John D.  Dingell, chairman of the House Fisheries and
Wildlife Committee would do the following:

    (1)  Provide for a study by the Department of Interior to determine the estuarine
        areas to protect

    (2)  Permit Interior to manage estuarine areas owned by state and local
        governments

    (3)  Allow Interior to establish national estuarine areas, with Congressional
        approval

    (4)  Provide that there may be no dredging, filling,  or excavation in any estuary
        without a permit from Interior or from an appropriate state agency estab-
        lished to protect the scenic, and fish and wildlife values of estuaries.

    This bill was initiated by  Congressional dissatisfaction with the Corps' present
practice of consulting with the Department of Interior on issuance of dredge and fill
permits.  The Fish and Wildlife Service has been making recommendations on Corps'
permits for a number of years with limited success.  In 1962, for example, FWS
recommended that the Corps deny permits in 18 cases,  of which 10 were issued.  In
1963, the  Corps  approved 2 out of 11 permits that FWS opposed.  From  1963 to 1966,
the Corps did not comply with 11 percent of the modifications or denials suggested by
FWS.  The Corps received about 5,000  applications in 1964-66,  and FWS objected
to 193.  After modifications, 8 were denied and 147 were granted. Thirty-eight of
those granted were against FWS recommendations.   Conservationists are dissatisfied
with both the Corps' acting against FWS recommendations and with the small number
of permits to which FWS  objected.  In addition, FWS does not review dredging con-
ducted by  the Corps for harbor and channel maintenance.

    In June, 1967, the Secretary of Interior and the Secretary of the Army exchanged
"Memorandum of Understanding" to jointly review dredging permits on the basis of
controlling pollution and conserving fish and wildlife, recreation,  and esthetic values
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in the estuaries.  This is the first time that the Corps has been given other than navi-
gational criteria for deciding whether or not to issue permits for dredging.  There has
not been sufficient time to evaluate the effectiveness of this agreement.  Proponents
of the various bills that have been proposed would like the Secretary of the Interior to
approve any dredging,  filling, or excavation work within any estuary.

    Studies are being conducted to provide a data base for making management de-
cisions for estuarine uses.  The Estuarine Technical Coordinating Committee (ETCC)
of the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission has joined with others to investigate
the effects of-pollution, dredging, and construction to learn how to continue most of
these activities and at the same time mitigate their effects on the natural productivity
of estuarine areas.

    Even with increasing populations,  several factors may contribute to a change in
the rate of fill of wetlands.  First, as development proceeds, the shallow  waters will
be filled because of lower development costs.  It may take a long time for the filling
of deeper wetlands to be economically justified.  Second, new technology may shift
the demand for land.  Building skyscrapers, building underground, building on very
steep slopes, or on unstable foundations all reduce the pressure for the use of filled
welands.  These alternatives must be included in a management program attempting
to alter the existing patterns of land development.

    Conflicts emerge in estuarine management because of the diverse commercial,
and recreational users of these areas. Many people are themselves multiple users,
as is, for example, the fisherman who uses the dredged channel as a path to reach
productive fishing areas, or the land developer who depends on the esthetic charac-
teristics of the bay to maintain the value of his newly filled land.  These multiple users
will continue to complicate the decision-making problems of politically responsive
groups who are trying to deal with conflict situations.
SUMMARY

    The following is a list of effects that dredge and fill have on the natural charac-
teristics of estuarine lands:
Detrimental:

    (1)  Reduction in water area
    (2)  Denuding of areas of fill material from the bottom
    (3)  Changes in current, salinity, and water temperature (these may be beneficial
         as well)
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    (4)  Reduction of access to water areas by near-shore spoil areas

    (5)  Temporary increase in siltation level in the water.
Beneficial:

    (1)  May provide nutrients that can attract large fish populations

    (2)  May serve as launching ramps for recreational boats

    (3)  Help control the salt-marsh mosquitoes.

    This Appendix has discussed the reasons why estuarine lands have been dredged
and filled  and the effects that these activities may have on the various users. Though
the beneficial and detrimental effects are enumerated, they are not easy to identify on
a project basis.  Further analysis is needed to better understand the overall impact
that channel maintenance has on a particular estuary.

    An attempt was made to enumerate the  costs of dredging and the value of filled
lands. Data are not available to give a complete picture of the economic parameters
which, at least partially, are directing use  patterns on filled estuaries.  In order to
obtain this information, detailed surveys of coastal landfill projects must be conducted
to measure the real development costs and the market value of the new real estate.
                                        E-21

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               APPENDIX F
ECONOMIC VALUE OF EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES
          IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE
              Raymond W. Hale

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                          Page

Introduction 	F-l
Mining of Materials Below Estuarine Floors  	F-l
      Petroleum 	F-l
      Sulfur 	F-7
Mining of Materials Directly From Estuary Floor  	F-9
      Sand and Gravel	F-9
      Oyster Shell	F-9
      Other	F-10
Mining of the Estuarine Waters  	F-ll
      Common Salt	F-ll
      Magnesium Oxide  	F-ll
      Magnesium Metal	F-12
      Bromine	F-12
Conclusion 	F-12

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                                  APPENDIX F

  ECONOMIC VALUE OF EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE

                                       by
                              Raymond W.  Hale


INTRODUCTION

    This appendix reviews the extractive uses of estuarine waters and bottoms.  Woe-
fully inadequate data, however, provide a severe limitation in comprehensively de-
scribing either the location or scale of extractive operations.  Several circumstances
contribute to this situation.  In many publications, extractive activities are described
as being "offshore", or the area specified is simply the continental shelf. No sig-
nificant primary reference sources for the extractive industries explicitly relate
production statistics with the estuarine zone.  Nevertheless, extractive activities are
occurring in estuaries and these operations can be divided into three general groups:

    (1)  Mining of materials from below the estuarine floor; e. g., sulfur
        and petroleum
    (2)  Mining of materials directly from the estuarine floor; e. g., sand
        and gravel
    (3)  Extraction of materials directly from the water; e. g., magnesium
        metal.

    Each  of these groups poses its particular problem for future management of
estuarine  areas.


MINING OF MATERIALS BELOW ESTUARINE FLOORS

Petroleum

    Economic Significance of Offshore Wells.  Only a minute fraction of the total
U. S. drilling for petroleum is occurring in the estuarine zones,  and even this re-
stricted activity has been concentrated in coastal areas of four states:  Louisiana,
Texas, California,  and Alaska.  Offshore drilling operations, however, are grad-
ually being extended to the coastal areas of other states, including Florida and
Oregon.  Furthermore, even when offshore operations are not located in the estuaries,
                                      F-l

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drifting pollutants from deeper waters, spillage from pipelines and tankers,  and the
physical modifications required for service traffic still exert an influence upon the
ecology and quality of the estuaries.

    Forcing this expansion of offshore petroleum production is a steadily rising world
demand for petroleum coupled with a relative decline in the discovery of new inland
fields.  From an estimated 8 percent of the free world's petroleum supply in 1962, the
percentage pumped from offshore areas had approximately doubled by 1966. *  In 1967,
the offshore petroleum output of the United States was approximately 900,000 barrels
per day compared to a total production - inland and offshore - of approximately
8,800,000. In Louisiana, the number of onshore rigs dropped from 325 in 1959 to 175
in 1967, while offshore rigs doubled from 50 to 100 during the same period. **  Only
this offshore activity appeared to prevent Louisiana from suffering the same  decline in
drilling that was plaguing the rest of  the nation.  The total wells drilled in Louisiana
and its offshore areqs numbered 360  in 1959 compared to 270 in 1967, a decline of 25
percent, while the national drop was  50 percent.   On a regional basis, the anticipated
drilling activities for 1968 are described in Table F-l.
   TABLE F-l. UNITED STATES OFFSHORE ACTIVITY OUTLOOK FOR 1968
Region
Gulf of Mexico
Alaska
West Coast
Totals
Number of
Wells
950
120
175
1,245
Average Number of
Rigs Running
95
23
28
146
Estimated Platform
Installations
68
3
6
~rT
Source: "Petroleum Industry Outlook/Direction, 1968," Petroleum Engineer
(January, 1968), pp 49-63.
    These figures do not include the accelerated drilling activity from four man-made
islands in the East Wilmington field in the Long Beach, California, harbor. An average
of two wells each week is being completed by four rigs installed on each of these islands.
 *Frank N. Heard, "Offshore Petroleum Recovery - Status and Outlook," Supplement:
  Transactions of the Second Annual MPS Conference and Exhibit, Marine Technology
  Society (June 27-29, 1966).
**"Louisiana's Future Taped to Offshore, " The Oil and Gas Journal (June 19, 1967),
  p73.
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However, the figures of Table F-l do include the 75 to 80 newly erected, self-contained
drilling platforms being constructed in the offshore areas elsewhere in the country.
These will be supplemented by mobile rigs.

    The commitment of the petroleum companies to offshore operations is indicated
by the extent of their investment in offshore exploration and development.  By 1968,
an estimated $7. 5 billion had been spent and the annual increase in expenditures
was believed to be about $2 billion annually.  Less than half of the total investment
is believed to have been recovered, and a representative of Shell Oil Company pre-
dicted that the cumulative monetary return would not equal the investment in off-
shore operations for 12 to 15 years.*  Meanwhile, the escalation of drilling costs
over a 10-year period due to inflation, deeper wells, and operation in deeper water
was sending the per-day expenditures from $8, 500 to $15,550.  Cementing, logging,
transportation, catering, and other costs  of well operation rose 74 percent in  the
same period and represented about one-half of the total costs  of each well.

    Because drilling and operational costs are partially dependent upon both the
access from shore installations and the drilling depth, the desirability of estuarine
wells over deepwater operations is obvious.  Yet both pose environmental problems.
All offshore petroleum operations can be divided among four phases:  exploration,
drilling, production, and transportation.  The first two phases represent imperfectly
known but localized threats to environmental quality, but the second two phases can
provide extended and serious threats to estuarine environments even when the petro-
leum operations are a significant distance beyond the estuary's merger with the sea.

    (1)  Exploration. The basic concept of most petroleum explorations is to  identify
promising rock structures by analyzing reflections of man-made shock waves.  Three
techniques are currently being used to produce the initial shock:  electronic sparkers,
gas exploders, and conventional seismic explosions.  The first two are relatively in-
expensive, and do not significantly affect the local biota.  Their paver is weak, how-
ever, limiting the penetration of the resulting shock wave. Thus, the conventional
seismic explosion, usually the electrical detonation of an explosive charge, is used
extensively.  Typically ranging from 5 to  25 pounds of nitro-carbonitrate, the charges
are normally detonated at about 1/4-mile  intervals near the water surface.  Costs
are comparatively high, ranging from $250 to $400 per mile,  and the threat to both
sea life and crews is significant.

    Because of the extensive complaints by commercial fishermen, intensive  studies
have been performed on the effects of various types of explosions. **  Explosives can
  *Ibid.
 **Robert L. Rulifson and Robert W. Schoning, Geophysical Offshore Oil Explorations
   and Associated Fishery Problems, Investigational Report No. 1, Fish Commission
   of Oregon (Portland:  April, 1963).
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generally be divided into three basic groups: low explosive, high explosive, and
blasting agent.  Black powder, an example of low explosive, burns progressively for
a comparatively long time period with a relatively slow build-up in pressure. As a
result,  fish life appears to emerge unscathed but the seismographic record suffers
from a lack of a distinct, sharp shock wave.  Furthermore, it is considered too
expensive and dangerous for crews.

    Dynamite, TNT, and the majority of the military compounds comprise the high
explosives.  Burning is almost instantaneous,  and the build-up in gas pressure is
extremely fast.  While the shock wave has advantageous characteristics,  the mate-
rials are both expensive and dangerous to handle.

    Blasting agents are considerably less expensive and are commonly available, as
variants are used for fertilizer and industrial chemicals.  While comparatively stable
and inexpensive, their shock wave with a high-explosive primer can be compared to
that of a medium-grade dynamite.  Thus, blasting agents - particularly nitro-
carbonitrate — have been favored for seismic operations.

    When test using nitro-carbonitrate were proposed in California, the Scripps
Institute of Oceanography conducted a series of tests to evaluate the possible effects
on local biota. * Two test species with air bladders, pilchard and anchovies, were
placed in wire cages at varying distances from the test explosion.  The report
concluded:

    "In the horizontal direction,  out through the upper  mixed layer of the ocean,
    the  probably lethal range seems  to be about 150 feet for five-pound charges,
    about 350  feet for ten-pound charges, and about 500 feet for twenty-five-
    pound charges.  Vertically below the shot these limits would seem to be
    between 100 and 150 feet for five-pound charges, between 150 and 200 feet
    for  ten-pound charges, and between 200 and 250 feet for twenty-five-pound
    charges."

    Other tests have indicated that, even with an 800-pound dynamite charge, few
fish were killed beyond a distance of 200 feet. ** In general, results varied according
to the local topography and the species of sea life involved. Extensive fish kills
resulted from  detonations of dynamite in a submarine canyon, suggesting that the
 *C. L. Hubbs, E. Paterson Schultz, and Robert Wisner, Preliminary Report on
  Investigations of the Effects on Caged Fishes of Underwater Nitro-Carbonitrate
  Explosions, unpublished manuscript of the University of California, Scripps
  Institute of Technology (1960).
**J.N. Gowanloch,  "The Effects of Underwater Seismographic Exploration,"
  Proceedings of  the Gulf and Caribbean Fishery Institute, Second Annual Ses-
  Sion (1950), pp  105-106.
                                      F-4

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reflection of shock waves from the sides of a deep estuary could have a similarly
devasting effect. **  However, fish without air bladders - including the halibut and
soles - were not usually killed or injured unless they were exceptionally close to
the explosion. Also, fish with cylindrical body shapes appeared less vulnerable
because of equalization of pressures on all sides of the body.

    Evaluation of the effects caused by explosions on other sea life, such as plankton,
crustaceans,  and shellfish,  have proved difficult to perform and relatively few data
exist.  However, because of the incompressible fluid within these organisms, most
appeared to be unharmed visibly even when collected from the immediate area of an
explosion. Other tests on king crab eggs and fish eggs have similarly indicated
minimal  apparent damage.  Some minor pollution can be caused by the absorption
of the explosive's gases which, in the case of nitro-carbonitrate, include'carbon
monoxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric  oxide.  Because of the tremendous dilution that
occurs immediately, this is not considered a problem by biologists.

    Observations have attempted to  evaluate claims that seismic explosions frighten
fish and thus  reduce the catches. While evidence is inconclusive, there are indica-
tions that the opposite  may occur.  Tuna fishermen have reported exceptionally
successful catches during periods of seismic blasting and California biologists
have described catching salmon with commercial trawling almost immediately
after a series of explosions. ***  During 1962, an otter Jrawl tow was made off
the Columbia River with a total catch of  1,100 pounds.  A series of seven seismic
shots was then set off in the same area and, within 2 hours after the first tow,  a
second tow was performed with a yield of 800 pounds.  The difference in total
weight of species composition was not significant.  Frequently,  a slight increase
in the fish population may occur because of fish arriving to feed on those previously
killed.  Also, an explosion apparently creates a disturbance that is attractive to
certain fish species.

     (2) Drilling.  Three aspects of the drilling process represent threats to the
estuary.   First, materials are removed from the drill hole and deposited on the
sea bed.   Usually these are pulverized rock particles from underlying strata and
are not harmful  to biota.  Second, drilling muds used for lubrication and maintaining
pressures in the hole contain potentially dangerous chemicals.  For instance, barium
in the muds has  sterilized top soil in experiments on land, though no published studies
examine the possible extent of environmental change on the sea bottom.  Most of these


  **C.L.  Hubbs  and A. B. Rechnitzer, "Report on Experiments Designed to Determine
   Effects of Underwater Explosives on Fish Life, " California Fish and Game, Vol.
   38, No. 3  (1952), pp 333-336.
***W.J.  Baldwin, "Underwater Explosions Not Harmful to Salmon,  California Fish
   and Game, Vol. 40, No.  1 (1954),  p  77.
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muds are recovered and re-used because of their value, however, and the rest are
easily diluted in the ocean environment.

    The third environment threat is the possible rupture of the well pressure, pro-
ducing a wild well.  In the restricted areas of an estuary, such an accident could be
disastrous for both local flora and fauna.  These occurrences,  however, are highly
infrequent and are being further reduced by technological advances.  Since the lives
of drill operators are endangered and potential losses are high, avoidance of these
incidents lias a high priority in petroleum operations.

    (3)  Production.   After drilling has ceased, the danger remains of damage to the
well and resulting pollution of the surrounding area with oil or natural gas - or even
fire.  All offshore wells, however, are required to be equipped with a storm choke
which reduces the possibility of  damage by a severe_ storm to minimal levels. During
Hurricane Betsy, one well in the Gulf of Mexico did rupture below the choke  but re-
portedly was brought under control within hours after the storm.

    Increasingly, one of the severest problems in oil production along densely popu-
lated coastlines is the physical appearance of drilling or production rigs.  The aes-
thetic aspects of oil equipment,  such as platforms, tanks, and rigs, are criticized
by recreationists and residents as intrusions upon the natural panorama.  In parts
of California, particularly Santa Barbara  County,  shielding structures and artificial
islands  for petroleum operations have been required as one aspect of measures to
preserve that region's natural appearance. * With the perfection of underwater
Christmas trees and maintenance equipment, the submergence of the entire pro-
duction operation is becoming increasingly feasible. Another technique being used
for estuaries is the slanted well with drilling rigs located on land where they can
be more easily disguised.

    One unique problem that can occur in an estuary is the pollution of the estuary's
brackish waters with the highly saline bleed waters from the well.  K uncontrolled,
intrusion of this saline water can severly burn vegetation and upset the delicate
salinity balances with possible long-term effects.  This condition can be controlled
by transporting the saline solution to open areas where disposal can occur without
detriment to the ecology.

    (4) Transportation. Spillage during some phase of the transportation process
remains the most common form of environmental pollution from petroleum opera-
tions.  Spillage from tankers cleaning their tanks has been nationally publicized
and studied intensely.  Similarly,  the petroleum leaking from damaged barges or
other vessels during transit is considered with varying results by national legislation,
*'Steps to Guard Beauty Will Cost Producers in California, " The Oil and Gas Journal
 (April 10, 1967),  pp 56-57.
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and further legal action to control this problem appears inevitable.  Potential damage
from a ruptured pipeline is  relatively minimal because the drop in line pressure
would be registered immediately on instruments at pumping installations where the
line could be closed.

   *While spillage of petroleum in the estuary is a serious problem, it is being sur-
passed in extent and difficulty of control by the physical modifications being made in
the estuaries to facilitate transportation, either by construction of transportation
devices, particularly pipelines, or by dredging and other measures to enhance naviga-
tion.  Vast changes can be made in the estuarine ecology by altering currents, salinities,
silt covers, temperatures,  and other underwater parameters.  (See Appendix B for a
more thorough description of biological effects brought by estuarine change.) The
relationship between spoil operations and physical change of the estuaries can be best
illustrated by recent developments in southern Louisiana and  Texas. In the Northeast,
spoil from dredging is already considered the predominant cause for loss in estuarine
marsh area. *

    Indirect Effects of Petroleum Extraction.  As indicated in the previous paragraph,
the indirect effects of petroleum extraction in terms of associated industrial and eco-
nomic development can be more devasting to the natural condition of the estuaries than
the actual recovery of the oil or natural  gas.  Processing plants tend to crowd the
shoreline,  as was sharply publicized during the 1968 elections when Santa Barbara,
California, residents overturned an earlier zoning decision to allow a refinery to be
constructed on a waterside site.  Secondary industries,  particularly the petrochemical
plants, tend to emerge in response to the presence of raw materials.  As markets
expand, a vast array of supporting and servicing industries arise with the predictable
increase in population, appropriation of  estuarine area, wide-scale expansion of both
industrial and domestic pollution, and, in general, extensive  destruction of the natural
environment and its existing benefits.
Sulfur

    Significance of Estuarine Operations.  Consumption of sulfur in 1967 was esti-
mated to be about 24. 9 million tons, and the annual rate of consumption increase was
in the vicinity of 7 percent.  Only two mines are actually situated over water, both
being in the coastal zone of southern Louisiana.  Freeport Sulphur's Grand Isle mine
has been producing more than 1 million tons per year continuously since it opened in
April,  1960.  In 1968,  a second mine 7 miles away began operation.  However,  at
least three other mines in Louisiana are located on land adjacent to estuaries, and the
Frasch process poses a potential pollution problem in Louisiana and Texas comparable
to that of bleed water from petroleum operations.
*John Clark, Fish and Man:  Conflict in the Atlantic Estuaries, Special Publication
 No. 5 (Highlands,  N.J.: American Littoral Society, 1967), p 12.
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     In the Frasch process, vast quantities of water are heated to a mining tempera-
 ture of 325 F and are injected into the sulfur-bearing formation by pipeline. * Only
 pure sulfur emerges from the producer wells, leaving the spent water in the cavity. **
 To prevent a build-up of hydrostatic pressure, bleeder wells are  drilled around the
 periphery of the deposit to release the  connate waters.  Even small mines eject several
 million gallons of bleed water per day.

     Environmental Effects of Sulfur Mining.  When adequate precautions are taken,
 the emission of bleed waters  does not appear to have noticeably detrimental effects on
 local ecology.   The principal pollutants are salt and dissolved hydrogen sulfide (270
 to 1,200 mg/litter).  Since the sulfide is transient and readily oxidized, adequate
 mixing with seawater appears to completely remove the compound.  At the Offshore
 Grand Isle mine, this is achieved by piping 5 million gallons a day of bleed water
 through jets located 15 feet below the ocean surface.   As a precaution,  the late
 Dr.  A. E. Hopkins at the Biloxi marine laboratory conducted a series of bioassay
 tests with bleed water stripped of the sulfide.  Mollusks were found to tolerate
 concentrations of bleed water up to 50 percent.  Chemically, the salt in the bleed
 water is identical to that found in seawater.

     As in petroleum operations, probably the most drastic changes in the estuarine
 zone associated with sulfur mining is not in the mine's direct pollution,  which is
 normally limited to a few hundred feet diameter from the mine site, but in the
 indirectly caused estuarine changes necessitated by supporting facilities.  In the
 case of Freeport Sulphur's new Caminada mine near  Grand Isle, a 9-mile insulated
 pipeline had to be constructed from the' mine to dock  facilities. Barge traffic was
 generated by the need to transport the elemental sulfur to the storage-shipping
 depot of Port Sulphur 35 miles distant.  Services,  including those of about 100
 men constantly at the offshore mine, necessitated considerable traffic by small
 vessels, residential construction on shore, and the myriad commercial activities
 with large industrial investments.  No comprehensive investigation has been made
 into the cumulative effects of this domestic and industrial pollution, silt deposition,
 and changes in physical configuration of the estuaries resulting from this development.
 *Paul D. Bybee and Frederick G. Deiler, Disposal of Sulfur Mine Effluents - How
  Freeport Sulfur Solved Its Effluent Problems, a paper presented at the Joint Meet-
  ing of the Coal and Industrial Division, Society of Mining Engineers of the AEVLE
  (September, 1959).
**Richard J.  Lund, "Industrial Mineral Mining," Industrial Waste Water Control, C
  C. Fred Gurnham (ed.) (New York: Academic Press,  1965).
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MINING OF MATERIALS DIRECTLY FROM ESTUARY FLOOR

Sand and Gravel

    Production of sand and gravel from offshore deposits is not reported separately
b/the Bureau of Mines.  In 1967,  the total output of sand and gravel in the United
States was about 905 million tons with a value of $963 million.  Although the Northeast
coastal area has ample offshore deposits of sand and gravel due to glacial transport
and rapid  streams,  probably only several percent of the total U.S. production is
derived from the  estuarine zones. Recent surveys  that have identified previously
unknown deposits in the Northeast may alter the situation slightly, but each deposit
will have to be evaluated by a complex balancing of  cost factors.

    Land  operations generally require considerably lower investments in equipment,
are less dependent upon weather conditions, and can be shielded from public observa-
tion.  Since transportation costs frequently exceed  50%of the costs for sand and gravel,
a premium exists for deposits that are readily accessible to large urban cneters.
Costs in congested estuarine areas can be considerably reduced by utilizing barges
for transport.  One of the most prominent sand and gravel operations is at Oyster
Bay, Long Island, where a floating, "ladder-type"  dredge maintains navigational
channels while furnishing considerable sand and gravel for sale.

    As in strip-mining for coal in the upland  environment,  sand and gravel operations
can devastate valuable salt marsh acreage by removing vegetation and leaving a  sterile
floor.  However, unlike  the upland counterpart, a strip operation in an estuary can
frequently be disguised under another purpose, such as navigational channel mainte-
nance.  While an effort has been made to curb this  type of operation in the Northeast,
abuses are frequently difficult to detect before damage has been incurred.  For exam-
ple, the Connecticut Water Resources Commission has reported one flagrant example
of a New York firm that  applied for a permit to dig artrench 300 feet wide,  30 feet
deep, and 1-1/2 miles long.  Though wide enough for a battleship, the stated purpose
of this channel was to provide access to a small marina site. *
 Oyster Shell

     An estimated 20 million tons of oyster shells are mined annually in the United
 States   Where only one producer is operating, the U. S. Bureau of Mines protects
 proprietary figures by combining the shell output with crushed stone or other mineral
 items.  Nevertheless, the distortion is not considered significant in the overall totals


 *Louis Darling   "The Death of a Marsh:  The story of Sherwood Island Marsh and Its
  Political Consequences," Connecticut's Coastal Marshes: A Vanishing Resource,
  Connecticut College, Bulletin No. 12 (1961),  pp 21-27.
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thougfr outputs from individual states may be distorted.  la order of descending mag-
nitude, the primary oyster-shell mining states are: Texas, Louisiana, Alabama,
Mississippi, California, Virginina, Maryland, New Jersey, and North Carolina.  Use
as aggregate in concrete and as road surfacing material accounts for approximately
62 percent of the shell production while another 33 percent is utilized by manufacturers
of portland cement and lime. The remainder is consumed as poultry grit,  mineral
food, and other uses.

    No comprehensive survey of oyster-shell deposits has been performed, and neither
the size nor location of reserves is known.  However, it is believed that the more ac-
cessible reefs have been stripped, and operations are continually becoming more
marginal economically.  Furthermore, some states,  such as Mississippi,  have be-
come increasingly reluctant to allow oyster-shell operations within state waters be-
cause of the detrimental effect on the environment.

    Objections against oyster-shell operations are usually three-fold.  First, oyster-
men object to the removal of potential clutch material for future sets. Second, dredg-
ing releases considerable  silt which can bury live reefs, and, for this reason,  most
states do not permit dredging near live reefs.  Third, removal of oyster shell changes
the configuration of the estuary's  bottom, altering currents, depths, and salinities,
and — in the case of reefs  near the surface — removes protective shelter for other
estuarine organisms.  Bitter controversy has surrounded some of the oyster-shell-
removal activities, such as those that have plagued the sportsmen and oystermen of
Galveston Bay in recent years. *
Other

    Various minerals, including diamonds, gold, rutile, and zircon, have been identi-
fied in the estuarine sands of various states.  However,  the economics of recovery
have  generally acted forcefully against any significant effort to mine the deposits.
One example would be the mineral shoals off the deltas of the Chattahoochee and
Apalachicola Rivers in Florida where the deeper waters have acted as sediment
traps for large volumes of quartz and mineral sands.  Three major shoals have been
formed, and their mineral contents have been generally  established by surveys.
However, the beach and barrier samples have been the least attractive,  assaying at
about 0.10 percent mineral sands, although higher concentration in small pockets or
skims have been noted.  The average mineral content for the offshore sea-floor sands,
on the other hand, appears to be about 0.40 percent.  ft  appears possible that some
deposits may be found where the concentration could reach 4.0 percent by weight.  The
*Bob Eckhardt, "Death of Galveston Bay," Transactions of the Thirty-Third North
 American Wildlife Conference (1968), pp 79-90.
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probability of finding sufficient reserves to justify the capital investment needed to
reach these richer sands appears too unfavorable for any potential investor today.
The highly publicized deposits of phosphate rocks or sands and, particularly, the
manganese modules are also found at considerably greater depths than exist in
estuaries, and the economics of operating under these marine conditions have proven
prohibitive.
MINING OF THE ESTUARINE WATERS

    Though the minerals in estuarine waters are diluted,  the convenience,  lower
physical exposure to weather, and accessibility of estuaries have made them the
favored sites for mineral and metal extraction from seawater salts.  Four products
form the bulk of this production:  (1)  common salt (sodium chloride),  (2) magnesium.
oxide,  (3) magnesium metal, and (4) bromine.
Common Salt

    Of the 102 plants operated by 58 companies in the United States for production of
salt, 3 are located on estuaries - San Francisco Bay, Newport Bay, and San Diego
Bay - and produce salt by solar evaporation behind diked flats.  The operation normally
begins in the spring of the year and the crystallized salt is harvested in August and
September. During 1967, about 2.7 million tons of salt valued at $17 million was re-
covered in these facilities.  This represented about 7 percent of the total U. S. salt
production; the remaining supplies were recovered from brines or mined in rock-salt
deposits.

    For salt production to be economical, large acreages in the estuarine area have
to be maintained.  Though equipment and labor costs are relatively low,  this land
requirement and the increase in pressures of urbanization on the estuaries appear to
foreclose the possibility that future fields for solar evaporation will be opened.  Envi-
ronmental pollution from these fields has been nil but the aesthetic and ecological
problems of allocating this acreage to the recovery of a common mineral are obvioys.
     Magnesium Oxide

     Magnesium oxide is used in the manufacture of refractories, ceramics,  and
 various insulating materials.  At least four plants on the Gulf of Mexico and a fifth
 facility in New Jersey are currently extracting magnesium for this material from
 sea water  During 1967, production from these plants amounted to 246,000 tons
 with a value of $16.4 million,  representing about 30 percent of the total U. S. pro-
 duction   The  remaining domestic supply is produced in midcontinent locations and
                                      F-ll

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depends upon well or lake brines and mineral deposits, such as magnesite or dolomite.
Detailed investigations of the pollution or other undesirable aspects of the estuarine
facilities have not been prepared.
Magnesium Metal

    Magnesium metal is prepared electrolytically from magnesium chloride at the
Dow Chemical Company plant in Freeport, Texas. Using seawater as a source for
the magnesium chloride, the plant has been producing about 95,000 tons annually with
a value of $61. 5 million though the rated capacity of the facility is about 120,000 tons
annually.

    The demand for magnesium metal has been unexpectedly lower than forecast
during the past 10 years, and further investment in this field is expected to be limited
during the immediate future.  Furthermore, even the proposed plants under discussion
are to be located inland with sources of concentrated brines, such as the Great Salt
Lake, or an entirely different process would be used.  Again, no detailed examination
of the environmental impact of this process upon the  estuary at Freeport has been
made, but the future ecological implications of this industry on the estuaries do not
appear significant.
Bromine

    During 1967, only two estuarine facilities were producing bromine.  The Dow
Chemical Company plant at Freeport, Texas, was extracting bromine as one of the
products of its seawater plant, and elemental bromine was being recovered from the
concentrated solutions left after solar salt evaporation at Newark,  California.  These
two plants produced about 143. 5 million pounds of bromine with a value of $34.5
million during 1967.   The principal application for the chemical was in the manufacture
of ethylene dibromide, an ingredient of antiknock fluids and fumigants.  The recovery
of bromine from seawater bitterns poses no environmental problem beyond those
existing in extraction of other minerals from seawater.
CONCLUSION

    In virtually every type of extractive industry associated with the estuary, the
interactions between the industry and the estuarine environment are represented by
direct or indirect impacts.  In most cases, the direct impact, in terms of pollution
and physical intrusion upon the natural ecology,  could be considered serious but
could also be weighed against the value of extracted minerals by simple analytical
techniques.  The indirect impacts are more difficult to evaluate and probably more
invidious in overall effect upon the estuarine system.  These are the numerous
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industrial, commercial, and residential activities stimulated by the extractive
industries.  This is particularly true for the petroleum industry which requires a
complex system of pipelines,  service vessels, and operating crews,  and which can
spawn a series of linked petrochemical industries with notoriously undesirable effects
on the environment.  Only a carefully designed series of regulations,  such as insti-
tuted in areas of California, appear successful in controlling these indirect impacts
without also terminating the economic benefits of the industrial activity.

    Sand and gravel,  and oyster-shell dredgers represent anomalies among the
extractive industries.  Both furnish low-value minerals which are absorbed directly
in the urban-development process.  The presence of these minerals does not cause or
even stimulate significant industrial and economic development in the estuarine area,
but the existence of economic development does stimulate the extractive process.
Sand, gravel,  and oyster-shell lime can be extracted easily,  although possibly at
slightly higher direct costs, from other sources.  Thus, tight controls appear justifi-
able where estuarine values in terms of fisheries and public recreation can be com-
pared to the one-time exploitation by private parties. Unfortunately,  no clear,
inflexible  rule can replace the current case-by-case examination  of mineral values
versus biological productivity and recreational use.
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                   APPENDIX G
ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ESTUARINE POLLUTION
           Neil F. Drobny and Syed Qasim

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                        Page

Summary	  G-l
Introduction	  G-2
     Significance of Waste Assimilation  	  G-2
     Methodology  	  G-2
Assimilation of BOD Loadings	  G-3
     Existing DO/BOD Models	  G-3
     Analytical Approach for Predicting Environmental Response  	  Q-4
The Delaware Estuary	  G-4
     Background 	  G-4
     FWPCA Estimates  	  G-6
     O'Connor Model Estimates  	  G-8
Potomac River Estuary	  G-10
     Background  	  G-10
     Estimated BOD Removal Requirements  	  G-ll
James River Estuary  	  G-ll
     Background 	  G-ll
     Estimated BOD Removal Requirements  	  G-15
East River Estuary	  G-16
     Background 	  G-16
     Estimated BOD Remval Requirements  	   G-17
Hudson River Estuary 	   G-17
     Background 	  G-17
     Estimated BOD Removal Requirements  	  G-18
Economic Contribution of the Estuarine Assimilation Capacity	   G-20
     Unit Costs of Waste Treatment	   G-20
     The Economic Value of Selected Estuaries  	   G-20
Assimilation of Thermal Loadings 	   G-22
     Introduction  	   G-22
     Analytical Approach for Predicting Environmental Response 	   G-22
     Excess Temperature Response of Selected Estuaries  	   G-23
     Economic Contribution of Natural Cooling 	   G-34
Conclusion	• •   G~34
Notes to Appendix G  	   G~37
     Summary of Analytic Models Used  	   G-37
     Waste Treatment Costs 	.-	   G~39
     Cooling Costs  	   G-41
     Needs for Additional Research  	   G-45

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                                  APPENDIX G

             ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ESTUARINE POLLUTION

                                       by
                          Neil F. Drobny and Syed Qasim


SUMMARY

    Scope.  The natural capacity of estuaries (1) to assimilate organic (BOD) wastes
and (2) to provide natural cooling for thermal discharges can be quantitatively estimated,
but available information is insufficient to establish the economic consequences of pollu-
tant discharges upon marine ecology, fish and wildlife, recreation, port navigation, and
transportation.  Thus, this analysis has attempted to assess only the economic  impli-
cations in terms of the hypothetical waste treatment required to raise the quality of
existing effluent to an acceptable standard.  The actual costs being incurred by  society
is not meeting these  and other standards in the discharge of liquid wastes into estuaries
are discussed only qualitatively.

    Organic (BOD) Wastes. Quantitative estimates of the economic worth of the natural
assimilative capacity of estuaries for organic (BOD) loadings were based upon the cost
of waste treatment which  could be saved by tolerating incremental decreases of 1/mg/e
in the minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration in the estuary. Analyses were  conducted
for five estuaries having a total area of 116,670 acres, and the total economic contribu-
tion of the assimilative capacity of these waters was estimated to be $5,903,000 per year
for each mg/fc gained in the minimum dissolved oxygen level. Sufficient data were not
available to generate an assessment of the national contribution.  A projection solely on
the basis of estuarine acreage is not justified because the estuaries analyzed are heavily
industrialized and their combined waste assimilative capacity is not truly representative.
This is true because for an estuarine assimilative capacity to possess economic value,
a waste loading must be present.  Projections based on a combined measure of popula-
tion and industrial base,  which are in turn a measure of waste loadings, would be one
way of extending the assessment generated in this study.

    Thermal Discharges. Quantitative estimates of the economic worth of natural cool-
ing capacity of estuaries were based upon the cooling costs which could be avoided by
tolerating incremental increases of 0.1 degree Fahrenheit in the maximum downstream
temperature of the estuary resulting from a 1010 Btu/day point loading.  Based on analy-
ses of three estuaries having surface area of 31,870 acres, the average annual economic
value for this  cooling capability was estimated to be about $34,700.
                                       G-l

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     Because of the many simplifying assumptions employed to generate these estimates,
of course,  these values should be interpreted only as gross indications and not as firm
figures.
INTRODUCTION

Significance of Waste Assimilation

    Of the world's ten largest metropolitan areas, seven have developed upon the
shores of estuaries.  Today, one-third of America's population lives and works in the
estuarine zones.  Through tradition, convenience, and simple economics, the liquid
and, to a lesser extent, the  solid wastes of these urban complexes have been shunted
to the estuaries with the assumption that the estuaries' natural assimilative capacity
would rid the communities of further nuisance.  In many cases, this assumption has
been partially correct.  But estuaries vary tremendously in shapej size, physical,
and hydrological features. The ability of many estuaries, both to maintain acceptable
water quality and to assimilate more wastes, has been grossly exceeded.  Obviously,
the cost of maintaining water quality by treatment must be compared with the costs of
allowing the quality standards to be bleached further. The objective of this analysis
is to define the dimensions of this trade-off between quality and treatment.
Methodology

    The only information sources and predictive techniques employed in this study were
those described in the literature.  No experimental work, sampling programs, or model
development studies were conducted.  The rationale employed was to assign an economic
benefit to waste assimilative capacity equal to the costs which would be incurred to
achieve an incremental increase in the level of water quality through waste treatment in
on-shore waste-treatment plants.  Wherever information was available, the negative
benefits imposed upon fish and wildlife, recreation, and other estuarine resources have
been noted.

    A separate question not considered in this report is whether or not the natural as-
similative capacity should be exceeded. This is a policy question, not a technical one.
Technical studies outlined in this appendix, however,  provide a basis for assessing the
economic implications and consequences of the policy decisions related to this question.

    As previously indicated, detailed analyses have been restricted to the assimilation
of organic wastes (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and of waste heat loadings. Although
other waste-material parameters, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, coliform bacteria,
and toxicity, can be conceived and identified, BOD and waste heat were selected because
(1) the capacity to assimilate these two waste streams appears to contribute the major
portion of the economic value of the estuaries and (2) the state of the art allowing us to
predict the response of an estuarine environment to various loadings is particularly
developed for these two parameters.
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    This more advanced state of the art, though, is only relative to the other para-
meters.  As G.T.  Orlob stated at a recent technical meeting, estuaries are - except
for the oceans themselves - the most difficult of the water environments to analyze. *
Even prediction of estuarine water temperature as a function of waste-heat loads is
not as developed as models for response of dissolved oxygen in the estuarine waters as
a*function of BOD loadings.  Nevertheless, order-of-magnitude estimates are possible
with the existing predictive techniques.
ASSIMILATION OF BOD LOADINGS

Existing DO/BOD Models

    Because of the significant physical, chemical, and ecological differences between
all estuaries, quantitative discussion of waste assimilative capacity must be approached
on an estuary-by-estuary basis.  Existing research and engineering studies have been
concerned with the development of models for predicting the dissolved oxygen response
of a given estuary, or class of estuaries,  and have been based on extension of the work
by Streeter and Phelps on natural purification in the Ohio River. **

    O'Connor developed a steady-state model for predicting the dissolved oxygen pro-
file that considered the effects of displacement by land runoff, longitudinal diffusion,  the
concentration of the organic material, rate of oxidation of organic material, and the re-
sulting rate  of reaeration. *** The model was confirmed by field data from estuarine
surveys of the Delaware and James Rivers.   O'Connor developed a similar, but less
general, model for the Hudson River and New York Harbor, and generally close agree-
ment between theoretical prediction and observed values was noted. ****  Thomann de-
veloped a model for describing the time variation of dissolved oxygen in a finite number
   *G.T. Orlob, statement before the American Water Resources Association Symposium
    on Analysis of Water Resource Systems (July 3, 1968),  in Denver, Colorado.
  **H.W. Streeter and E. P. Phelps, A Study of the Pollution and Natural Purification
    of the Ohio River, Public Health Bulletin No. 46, U.S.  Department of Health, Edu-
    cation and Welfare,  Public Health Service (Washington:  1925).
 ***Donald J. O'Connor, "Oxygen Balance of an Estuary", Journal of the Sanitary
    Engineering Division,  American Society of Civil Engineers 86-SA3 (May, 1960)
    pp 35-55.
 ****Donald J. O'Connor, "Organic Pollution of New York Harbor,  Theoretical Con-
    siderations", Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,  34-6 (September,
    1962), pp 905-919.
                                       G-3

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of sections of an estuary; a frequency-response technique is employed and dissolved-
oxygen response equations resulting from imposition of general input forcing functions
are derived. *  The model results in a system of differential equations which require
computer solution.  Thomann and Sovel extended Thomann1 s model to provide a means
for determining optimum utilization of funds for waste treatment and water-quality
management in an estuary. ** O'Connor developed a general model more refined than
his previous one for handling the distribution of nonconservation substances in estuaries.***
Analytical Approach for Predicting Environmental Response

    Because of the relative simplicity of the calculations involved and because the ob-
jective of this investigation was to generate informative estimates as opposed to deci-
sion criteria, O'Connor's original mathematical model for investigating the oxygen
balance in an estuary was selected for making the estimates in this study. **** This
model describes the oxygen balance in an estuary as a function of land runoff, longitudinal
diffusion, tidal  action,  atmospheric reaeration, and deoxygenation as a result of BOD
decay.  To generate the estimates outlined below, this model was combined with selected
data and other information sources for the Delaware River, Potomac River,  James  River,
East River, and Hudson River estuaries. In each case, the assimilative capacity for BOD
loadings was assessed by calculating the response of the minimum dissolved oxygen level
in the estuary to various levels  of BOD removal.  The economic implications were then
calculated from estimated costs of BOD removal at various types of treatment plants.
THE DELAWARE ESTUARY

Background

    The Delaware Estuary is defined as the 86 miles of waterway from Trenton, New
Jersey, to Listen Point, Delaware, where Delaware Bay commences (See Figure G-l).
While municipal waste-treatment plants serve the majority of the population,  eight plants
    *R.V. Thomann, "Mathematical Model for Dissolved Oxygen", Journal of the Sani-
     tary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers 89-SA5 (October,
     1963), pp 1-30.
   **R.V. Thomann and N.J. Sovel, "Estuarine Water Quality Management and Fore-
     casting",  Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil
     Engineers, 90-SA5 (October, 1964), pp9-36.
  ***D.J.  O'Connor, "Estuarine Distribution of Non-Conservation Substances", Journal
     of the Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 91-SA1
     (February, 1965).
 ****For a summary of the model, see "Notes to Appendix G" at the end of this paper.
                                      G-4

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Source:  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S.
Department of the  Interior, Delaware Estuary Comprehensive
Study,  Preliminary Report and Findings (Philadelphia: July, 1966)
Figure G-l.
The Delaware Estuary Showing the Thirty Sections
Being Studied by the Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration
                             G-5

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contribute over 90 percent of the area's discharged municipal oxygen-demanding load.
Total estimated waste loadings in terms of carbonaceous oxygen demand before treat-
ment are described in Table G-l.*
        TABLE G-l.
ESTIMATED BOD LOADINGS (BEFORE TREATMENT)
   IN THE DELAWARE ESTUARY
Year
1964
1975
2010
Carbonaceous BOD, Ib/day
Industrial
700,000
1,200,000
4,600,000
Municipal
1,200,000
2,800,000
6,100,000
Total
1,900,000
4,000,000
10,700,000
Source: Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S. Department
of the Interior, Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study, Pre-
liminary Report and Findings (Philadelphia: July, 1966).
    The total carbonaceous oxygen-demanding waste load actually discharged after
treatment during 1964 was estimated to be about 1,030,000 Ib/day, with 650,000 lb/
day from municipal sources and 370,000 Ib/day attributed to industries.  The degree
of treatment provided by various facilities averaged about 47 percent removal of car-
bonaceous BOD for the estuary as a whole.  Additional oxygen demand resulted from
the  discharge of about 600,000 Ib/day of nitrogenous material from both municipal and
industrial sources. Because of these loadings, water quality from Torresdale, Penn-
sylvania, to below the Pennsylvania-Delaware state line was exceptionally low,  and
anaerobic conditions developed frequently, especially during the summer months.
Offensive solids, floating materials and miscellaneous flotsam seriously degraded
the  aesthetic quality of the estuary.
FWPCA Estimates

    The FWPCA Delaware Comprehensive Study provided a detailed estimate of the
economic value that could be assigned to the estuary's natural assimilative capacity.
Estimated costs were generated for achieving five levels, termed "objective sets",  of
water quality in the estuary.  The dissolved oxygen objectives, allowable waste load-
ings, total estimated costs, and estimated benefits - mostly recreational - for the
respective objectives  sets are summarized  in Table G-2.

    It should be noted, of course, that about sixteen parameters other than dissolved
oxygen can be used to specify water quality  associated with objective set.  Dissolved
                                      G-6

-------
                        TABLE G-2.   DELAWARE ESTUARY WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVE SETS
O
i
Objective
Set
(1)
I
II
ni
IV
V
(present
conditions)
Dissolved Oxygen,
minimum summer^3)
average, mg/1
(2)
4.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
1.0
Allowable
Carbonaceous
Oxygen -D em and
Loadings,
Ib BOD/day
(3)
100,000
185,000
485,000
595,000
950,000
Costs^'0),
millions
of dollars
(4>
460
250
125
95
30
Estimated(d)
Incremental
Benefits Over
Objective Set V
millions of dollars
(5)
255
230
220
200
0
Net Cost or
Benefit*, millions
of dollars
(6)
205C
20C
95B
105B
30C
Source: Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S. Department of the Interior, Delaware
Estuary Comprehensive Study, Preliminary Report and Findings (Philadelphia: July 1966).
(a) Will occur south of Philadelphia.
(b) Values given represent means of ranges given by source cited below.
(c) 1964 present worth of amortized capital and maintenance and operating costs for 25 years.
(d) Primarily recreational but also includes commercial fishing and negative benefits to industrial
water uses to account for corrosion effects at higher dissolved oxygen levels.
*C = Cost-Column 4 minus Column 5.
B - Benefit=Column 5 minus Column 4.

-------
oxygen was selected as a basis for comparison because of its direct relationship to waste
loadings as measured by BOD.  One measure of the economic benefit attributable to
natural  assimilative capacity can be made by comparing Objective Set n to Objective
Set L For an increase of 85,000 Ib BOD/day in allowable loading, approximately $185
million, or $2170 per Ib BOD/day discharged, may be saved.  Selection of Objective
Set ffl over n would permit the discharge of an additional 300,000 Ib BOD/day, with an
incremental saving of $115 million or $393Ab of BOD discharged.
O'Connor Model Estimates

    To simplify the calculations involved in applying the O'Connor model to the Delaware
Estuary, the thirty sections employed in the comprehensive FWPCA study were combined
into five extended sections, and all waste floatings were assumed 19 occur at the mid-
point of each section as indicated in Table G-3.  It should be noted that grouping the waste
loadings into five point sources will yield somewhat lower values of dissolved oxygen
than a distributed loading.  The effect of this difference is not considered to be signifi-
cant, however,  for the purpose of this analysis.

      TABLE G-3.  IDEALIZED WASTE LOADINGS IN DELAWARE ESTUARY
Assumed Segment
of Loading
4
9
13
18
24

Component
Segments
1-6
7-11
12-14
15-20
21-30

Total Waste Load,
Ib BOD/day
18,000
136,000
309,000
327,000
226,000
1,016,000
Source: Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S. Depart-
ment of the Interior, Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study,
Preliminary Report and Findings (Philadelphia: July 1966).

    Data in the FWPCA report indicated that the most critical section of the estuary in
terms of dissolved oxygen levels was Section 15, just south of Philadelphia.  Using the
waste loading summarized in-Table G-3, as well as other data presented in the FWPCA
report and by O'Connor, Figure G-2 illustrates the idealized effect of BOD removal
(equal percent removal assumed to occur at all points of loading) on the minimum dis-
solved oxygen in the estuary.
                                      G-8

-------
           BOD Removal At All Six Point Sources, percent
Figure G-2.
Idealized Response of Minimum Dissolved Oxygen
in the Delaware Estuary to Bod Loading
                            G-9

-------
    The dissolved oxygen response as predicted by the model agrees satisfactorily with
the observed condition.  The FWPCA report describes the averaged dissolved oxygen in
Section 15 during the summer of 1964 as 0.7 mg/fc.,  but also indicates that periods of
anaerobic conditions have been noted.  The model predicts an anaerobic condition
(L e., minus 0. 9 mg/£). The model also predicts  that at 100 percent BOD removal,  the
dissolved oxygen should rise to 8 mg/£; the saturation value described by O'Connor is
8.1 mg/&.

    From Figure G-2, it can be determined that each incremental 1 mg/fc increase in
the minimum dissolved oxygen requires removal of an additional 5 percent of the total
BOD load, or about  100,000 Ib/day.  For comparison purposes, data on allowable BOD
loading from the FWPCA report were correlated with the percent removal based on the
existing load of 1,900,000 Ib/day, as described in  Table G-4.  The dotted line in
Figure G-2 depicts these data graphically.  The flatness of this curve, which indicates
that about 300,000 pounds of BOD per day must be  removed to achieve a 1 mg/A increase
in a minimum dissolved oxygen, is attributed to the large benthal and nitrogenous oxy-
gen demands, which together amount to about 800,000 Ib/day and which are not taken
into account in O'Connor's model. Thus, it appears that the results predicted by
O'Connor's model for the Delaware Estuary are low by about a factor of 3 when com-
pared with the results of the more sophisticated analyses conducted for the FWPCA.

       TABLE G-4.   BOD REMOVALS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE DELAWARE
                 ESTUARY WATER-QUALITY OBJECTIVE SETS
Objective
Set
I
II
m
IV
V
Minimum Dissolved
Oxygen, mg/t,
4.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
1.0
BOD Loadings
(Lb/Day)
100,000
185,000
485,000
595,000
950,000
Percent Removal(a)
95
90
75
68
50
Source: Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S. Department of
the Interior, Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study, Preliminary
Report and Find ings (Philadelphia: July 1966).
(a) Based on "present" 1964 untreated loadings of 1,900,000 Ib/day.
POTOMAC RIVER ESTUARY

Background

    The Potomac Estuary extends from Little Falls to the Chesapeake Bay and is sub-
ject to a wide variety of regional waste loadings.  The upper estuary extending 25. 8
                                     G-10

-------
miles to Hollowing Point is the most critical section and will provide the primary focus
for the following analyses (see Figure G-3).  To date, the natural assimilative capacity
of the receiving waters has been adequate to eliminate any measurable water-quality
degradation before the upper estuary near Washington is reached.

 '"  Waste loads into the upper estuary are  about 140,000 pounds of the BOD per day,
which is eight times the assimilative capacity required to maintain a dissolved oxyben
level of 5  mg/A. *  Specific  sources of pollution are listed in Table G-5.  The overall
combined  BOD removal of the five major treatment plants has been estimated at about
50 percent, suggesting that the raw waste loadings prior to treatment are approximately
280,000 Ib BOD/day.
Estimated BOD Removal Requirements

    Figure G-4 indicates the removals of 5-day BOD required to achieve various mini-
mum dissolved oxygen levels at the Woodrow Wilson Bridge south of Washington in'1965,
originally reported by Aalto. **  From the slope of the graph, it may be determined that
an increase in each additional 1 mg/£ in the minimum dissolved oxygen will require re-
moval of 10 percent of the BOD load.  With total waste generated in the estuary region
estimated at 280, 000 Ib/day, each 1 mgA increase in dissolved oxygen would require
removal of 28, 000 pounds of BOD per day.
JAMES RIVER ESTUARY

Background

     The James River Estuary (Figure G-5) begins at Richmond,  Virginia; the major
waste loadings occur at Richmond and at Hopewell, a community 20 miles downstream
from Richmond.  The BOD loading from Richmond is approximately 50,000 Ib/day,
  *Data sources are:
   D. Aalto,  "The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections", Paper presented at
   the winter meeting ol the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin,
   Fredericksburg, Virginia (February 29, 1968).
   L.J.Hetling, A Mathematical Model for the Potomac River - What It Has Done and
   What It Can Do, Paper presented at the fall meeting of the Interstate Commission on
   the Potomac River Basin, St. Mary's City, Maryland (Septemoer 22, 1966).
 **Aalto, Johan A., The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections.
                                      G-ll

-------
                                                                  Legend
                           Hollowing Point
                       (25.8 miles from Little Frlls)
                                                                         - Major Waste
                                                                           Treatment Pfant

                                                                         = Estuary Segments
                                                                         = Gagfng Stations
                                                                     Little Falls Branch-
                                                                     SetKeida, Maryland
                                                                     Potomac River
                                                                     Washington, D.C.
                                                                     RocU Creek-Sherrill Drive-
                                                                     Washington, D.C.
                                                                     N.E, Br. Anacostia River
                                                                     Rweidole, Md.
                                                                     N.W. Br. Anacostio River
                                                                     Hyattsville, Md.
                                                                     Fourmile Run-
                                                                     Alexandria, Va.
                                                                     Little Pimmit Run
                                                                     Alexandria, Va.
                                                                     Cameron Run
                                                                     Alexandria, Va.
                                                                     Henson Creek-
                                                                     Oxon Hill, Md.
                                                                     PohickCreek-
                                                                     Lorton, Va.
                                                                 11   Mattowoman Creek-
                                                                     Pexnonkey, Md.
                                         District of Columbia

                                         Arlington County

                                         Alexandria Sanitation Authority

                                         Fairfax County - Westgate Plant

                                         Fairfax County - Little Hunting Creek (Hani

                                         Fairfax County - Dogue Creek Plant
Source:  Hetling, L.  J.,  and R.  L. O'Connell, A Study of Tidal
            Dispersion in the Potomac River,  C-SRBP Technical
            Paper  No.  7,  FWPCA,  Regiln  III  (undated)
Figure G-3.
The Upper  Potomac Estuary Indicating the FWPCA
Estuary Segments
                                        G-12

-------
          TABLE G-5.  SOURCES OF POLLUTION IN THE
                   UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY
              Plant Source
                                              Percent of Total
                                              BOD Contributed
District of Columbia WPG plant
Arlington sewage treatment plant
Fairfax County Westgate sewage
   treatment plant
City of Alexandria sewage treatment plant
Fairfax County's Dogue Creeke and Little
   Hunting Creek plants
                                                     72
                                                     16
                                                      7

                                                      4

                                                      1
Source: Aalto, Johan A.,  "The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Pro-
        jections", Paper presented at the winter meeting of the Inter-
        state Commission on the Potomac River Basin at Fredericksburg,
        Virginia, on February 29, 1968.
* u
2
•u
1 5
°^L
c o> 4
§)E
X -
50)
-g3 3
-o "
Q> CO
_£ C
O09
vt  —
Sg
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*c
> 0





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      40
                 55             70            85
                  Removal of BOD in 19657 percent
100
Figure G-4.
                 Idealized Response of Minimum Dissolved Oxygen
                 in the Upper Potomac Estuary to Bod Loading
                 (1965 Conditions)
                               G-13

-------

                         Scale in Miles
                      0      10    20
Source: Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S.
Department of the Interior, Water Quality and Pollution Control
Study-James River Basin, CB-SRBP Working Document No. 14,
Middle Atlantic Region (June, 1967).
     Figure G-5.   The James River and its Upper Estuary
                            G-14

-------
while Hopewell's is approximately 175, 000 Ib/day. * Overall BOD removal in the upper
estuary is estimated at about 42 percent, so the raw BOD loading is about 390,000 Ib/day.


Estimated BOD Removal Requirements

    Figure G-6 indicates the predicted response ot the minimum dissolved-oxygen
levef in the estuary as a function of equivalent levels of BOD removal at both Richmond
and Hopewell. The minimum dissolved-oxygen level was calculated to occur about 32
miles downstream of Richmond; this compares to about 27 miles for the field data pub-
lished by O'Connor.
             %
                8
             E  7
             c
             0)
             6
             ~3  4

                 1
                 40          55          70          85         100
                Removal of BOD at Both Richmond and Hopewell, percent
          Figure G-6.
Idealized Response of Minimum Dissolved Oxygen
in the Upper James Estuary to Bod Loading
(1965 Conditions)
    At 42 percent removal of the total load at both Richmond and Hopewell,  the mini-
mum dissolved oxygen is calculated at 2. 2 mgA.  This is compared to 2. 8 mg/£ for the
field data published by O'Connor, the discrepancy arising from the slightly higher degree
of treatment currently being provided at Hopewell compared to Richmond.  From Figure
6, it may be determined that each additional 1 mg/£ increase in the minimum dissolved
oxygen concentration requires removal of an additional 10 percent of the BOD loadings
at Richmond and Hopewell, or an additional 39, 000 Ib/day.
* Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U. S.  Department of the Interior,
 Water Quality and Pollution Control Study - James River Basin, CB-SRBP Working
 Document No.  14, Middle Atlantic Region (June,  1967).

 O'Connor, Donald J.,  "Oxygen Balance of an Estuary".
 O'Connor, Donald J.,  "Estuarine Distribution of Non-Conservation Substances".
                                     G-15

-------
EAST RIVER ESTUARY

Background

    The East River is essentially a long, narrow strait connecting Upper New York
Harbor with Long Island Sound (see Figure G-7).  The Harlem River joins the East
River approximately midway between these points.  There is essentially no fresh water
flow to the East River, except for waste water and periodic storm overflows. The
large quantities of organic matter in the waste flows cause significant depletions of
dissolved oxygen, particularly at the end of the summer and early fall when water
temperatures are high.  The East River Survey Stations of the New York City Depart-
ment of Public Works are described by O'Connor,  and the assembled data  indicate
that the concentration of BOD is fairly constant over the summer. * Low fresh-water
flow and consistent waste-water discharge at various locations cause a steady-state
condition,  and only seasonal temperature variations have a significant effect upon dis-
solved oxygen.

    The BOD input data from existing treatment plants for July, 1960,  as  presented by
O'Connor are given below.

              Treated Sources                              Units

               Ward's Island                            37,600 Ib/day
               Bowery Bay                              50,000
               Hunt Point                                14,700
               TaUman Island                            5,600
               Newtown Creek                           30,600
               Harlem River                             6,600
               Total                                   145,100 Ib/day

             Untreated Sources                             Units

               Manhattan.                               99,400 Ib/day
               Brooklyn-Queens                         93,000
               Storm overflow                           10,000
               Total                                   202,400 Ib/day

    Assuming that the treatment plants provide an overall average BOD removal of
60 percent, the before-treatment loading of the plants is estimated to be about 363,000
Ib/day.  Thus, the total raw load is approximately 565,000 Ib/day.  The weighted over-
all removal from all sources, treated plus untreated, is calculated to be about 40
percent
*Donald J O'Connor, "An Analysis of the Dissolved Oxygen Distribution in the East
 River", Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 38-11 (1966), pp 1813-
 1830.

                                     G-16

-------

                         Proposed treatmen
                         plants In design 01
                         construction
                           Figure G-7.  East River Estuary*
 Estimated BOD Removal Requirements

     Data presented by O'Connor indicate that the minimum dissolved oxygen in the
 East River occurs  approximately 4. 2 miles north of the Battery.  Use of O'Connor's
 data and the model described earlier yield the effect of BOD removal on the minimum
 dissolved-oxygen concentration described by Figure G-8.  Calculations indicate that
 pollutant loadings delivered by the Hudson  River do not materially affect dissolved
 oxygen levels in the East River because of the dilution available in the upper bay.
 Based on the curve in Figure G-8,  it is calculated that each incremental 1 mgA in-
 crease in the minimum dissolved oxygen requires removal of an additional 9 percent
 of the total load,  or about 51, 000 Ib/day.


 HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY

 Background

     The critical  reach of the Hudson Estuary in terms of waste loadings is the lower
 24-mile waterway from the New York City line to the Narrows  (See Figure G-9).  The
 minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration occurs at the Battery.
*Donald J. O'Connor, "An Analysis of the Dissolved Oxygen Distribution in the East River, "Journal of the Water Pollution
 Control Federation, 38-11 (1966), pp 1813-1830. Reprinted with permission from Journal of the Water Pollution Control
 Federation 38-11, pp. 1813-1830, November 1966, Washington, D.C. 20016.
                                         G-17

-------
£
o
m
i+-
o
f 8
o
2 7
0)
5 6
°- v? r
^ ^ 5
5 E
2 4
S ,
-D °
9)
"B 2
S l






X
X
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§ 40 55 70 85 10(
                                Removal of BOD, percent
          Figure G-8.
Idealized Response of Minimum Dissolved Oxygen
in the East River to Bod Loading
     Data supplied by O'Connor indicate that the waste loading reaches 525,000 Ib/day. *
In order to simplify the analysis of the effect of BOD removal on minimum dissolved
oxygen, it was assumed that the entire waste loading to the Hudson River between the
Battery and the city limits occurs at the midpoint, about 9 miles above the Battery.
Estimated BOD Removal Requirements

     Based on O'Connor's model, the effect of BOD removal on the dissolved oxygen
concentration at the Battery is described by Figure G-10.  The total BOD load to the
River is 525,000 Ib/day. Assuming that this represents 50 percent removal, the total
raw load is about 1 million Ib/day.  From the slope of the curve in Figure G-10, each
incremental 1 mg/£ increase in the minimum dissolved oxygen level appears to require
removal of an additional 14 percent of the waste loading, or about 187,000 Ib/day.
!*Donald J. O'Connor, "Organic Pollution of the N<^w York Harbor - Theoretical Con-
  siderations", Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 34-9 (September,
  1962), pp 905-919.
                                     c-ia

-------
         NYCDPW stations
         USCE model stations
         Existing treatment  plants
         Proposed  treatment plants
         Drainage areas of plants
         Areas not presently served
         by plants
Source: O'Connor, Donald J., "Organize Pollution of the New York Harbor-Theoretical Con-
siderations", Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 34-9 (September, 1962), pp.
905-919. Reprinted with permission from Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
34-9, pp. 905-919, September 1962, Washington, D.C. 20016.
                 Figure G-9.   Hudson River  Estuary
                                    G-19

-------
     X
     at
    "5
    CQ
     c
     
     V)
^
^4
 E
    E
    D

    'E
          50
                                75
                      Removal of BOD , percent
100
          Figure G-10.  Idealized Response of Minimum Dissolved Oxygen
                        in the Lower Hudson to Bod Loading

ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF THE ESTUARINE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY

Unit Costs of Waste Treatment

    Table G-6 summarizes the estimated unit costs of waste treatment (see "Notes to
Appendix G"). Secondary treatment refers to the complete treatment process,  including
primary treatment.  Cost of the incremental secondary treatment, though, refers only
to the secondary plant facilities required in addition to existing primary plants.  Simi-
larly, incremental tertiary treatment implies the addition of tertiary processes to
existing secondary facilities.  As indicated in "Notes Appendix G",  costs per unit of
BOD removed are based upon a waste containing a  5-day BOD equal to 250 ppm, 30
percent being removed in primary plants and an additional 55 percent being removed in
secondary plants.  Removal ob BOD in tertiary plants is based upon a 9 mg/£ reduction,
from 10 mg/eto 1 mg/e.  All costs have been adjusted to 1968  dollars by application of
engineering cost ratios.   Capital costs were amortized over 20 years at an interest rate
of 5 percent.

The Economic Value of Selected Estuaries

    Table G-7 summarizes the BOD removals required to  achieve incremental  1 mgA
increases in the minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration for the estuaries previously
examined. Existing levels of overall treatment in these estuaries have  been estimated
                                     G-20

-------
         TABLE G-6.  APPROXIMATE COSTS OF WASTE TREATMENT
        Type of Treatment
                                              Approximate
                                   Do liars/Million
                                   Gallons Treated
                 Dollars/Pound of
                   BOD Removed
     Primary
     Secondary
     Incremental secondary
     Incremental tertiary
 90
130
 40
150
0.150
0.080
0.040
2.00
             TABLE G-7.   BOD REMOVALS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE
              1 MG/e INCREASE IN MINIMUM DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Estuary
Delaware
Potomac
James
East
Hudson
BOD Removal, Ib/day
100,000
28,000
39,000
51, 000
187,000
to range from about 40 to 60 percent removal of BOD. Thus, additional BOD removal
in most cases can be  accomplished primarily by the addition of secondary treatment
facilities to existing primary treatment plants.  In Table G-6, the estimated cost of
treatment in such facilities is estimated to be about $0.04 per pound of BOD removed.
On this basis, Table G-8 summarizes the surface area of each estuary under study and
the economic contribution of the estuaries' assimilative capacity for each 1 mg/£ de-
crease allowed in the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration.

     It should be pointed out that the values indicated in Table G-8  are based upon the
addition of secondary facilities to existing primary treatment plants, with an incremental
cost of BOD removal  of $0.04 Ab.  Since  all  treatment plants in a region are brought up
to the level of secondary treatment,  additional BOD removal, which would be provided by
tertiary treatment facilities, would have  the effect of increasing the economic worth per
incremental unit of natural assimilative capacity of the estuary by a factor as much as 50.
                                     G-21

-------
            TABLE G-8.  ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF ESTUARINE
          ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY PER MGA OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Estuary
Delaware
Potomac
James
East
Hudson
Economic Contribution
dollars /day
4000
1120
1560
2040
7450
TOTAL
dollars /year
1,460,000
408,000
570,000
745,000
2,720,000
5,903,000
Surface Area,
acres
70, 500
17, 000
5,120
18, 800
5,250
116,670
ASSIMILATION OF THERMAL LOADINGS

Introduction

    Two general categories of beneficial effects can be associated with the release of
heat to the aquatic environment:  (1) the natural cooling processes involving direct heat
exchange with the marine environment can be substituted for costly cooling facilities
that disperse the heat into the air or soil,  and (2) under certain ecological conditions,
beneficial responses can be evoked from the marine ecology.  In the following discus-
sion,  the economic value of the marine environment's natural  cooling capacity in terms
of facility substitution is estimated quantitatively.   However, since the ecological ef-
fects  are (1) a function of the specific ecosystem involved and  (2) the implications have
not been widely studied, this effect is discussed only in general terms.
Analytical Approach for Predicting Environmental Response

    Except for some preliminary work conducted in England several years ago with
limited success, generalized models for predicting directly the temperature response
of a stream or estuary to thermal loadings are not available in the same form as models
relating dissolved oxygen levels to BOD loadings.  Existing studies of thermal loadings
have been limited in the United States to empirical dye-dispersion studies for prediction
of temperature distribution.

    Dye-dispersion studies employed a fluorescent-dye tracer to simulate the heated
effluent.  From these,  Prltchard and Carter developed a model based on physical processes
                                     G-22

-------
of movement and dispersion of the effluent. * Both the nonconservative process of
boundary cooling and the conservative distribution of the effluent are considered by
the model, which is  summarized in "Notes to Appendix G".


Excess Temperature Response of Selected Estuaries

     Patuxent River Estuary.  After circling the eastern outskirts of Washington, D. C.,
the Patuxent River merges into an estuary that eventually empties into Chesapeake Bay
about 50 miles southeast of Washington.  The Pritchard and Carter model was originally
developed to predict the temperature response of  the Patuxent Estuary to several dis-
charges from the PEPCO power plant to be built at. Chalk Point (See Figure G-ll).

     The Chalk Point plant is a conventional thermal generating facility using fossil
fuel.  According to the Pritchard and Carter study,  the plant was to be operated initially
with a single 350-MW generator. Ultimately,  a total of four 350-MW generators were
planned, and it was estimated that the thermal discharge from the condensers would be
4.3 x 106 Btu/hour per megawatt of power produced.  For the initial 350-MW generator,
the thermal loading to the estuary was estimated to be 3.6 x 1010 Btu/day.

     Based on a series of assumptions, the excess temperature distribution upstream
and downstream of the power station were estimated by Pritchard and Carter (see
Table G-9).  In addition to the actual temperature rise anticipated from the discharge
of the 350-MW generator, the expected temperature rise for 1010 Btu/day has also been
calculated for this analysis to provide comparison with data for the Potomac and Thames
estuaries.  Pritchard and Carter stated that temperature predictions could not be ex-
tended to an area within 100 yards  of the power plant, since the relatively large volume
rate of discharge within this zone would yield a distribution different from that predicted
by dye studies employing a very low volume rate of discharge. Figure G-12 describes
the excess  temperature  response of the estuary to thermal discharges for distances
varying from 1, 000 to 8, 000 yards downstream of the Chalk Point power plant.

    Since there exists a linear relationship between the temperature rise of a point
and the rate of heat addition, Figure G-12 may be used with the Pritchard and Carter
data to determine the excess temperature  at any point in the estuary for various Btu
inputs.  Figure G-13 indicates the  response of the excess temperature 1,000 yards
downstream as a function of the percentage reduction in Btu input at the source.  From
the slope of the curves it can be  determined that each 0.1 degree Fahrenheit decrease in
the 1,000 yard downstream excess temperature requires removal of 1.9 percent of the
3.6 x 1010  Btu/day load, or 0. 0684 x 1010 Btu/day.
*D. W. Pritchard and H. H. Carter, On the Prediction of Excess Temperature From a
 Heated Discharge in an Estuary, Technical Report No. 33, Chesapeake Bay Institute,
 The Johns Hopkins University (1965).
                                      G-23

-------
             Magruder
             Landing
                  29/S 30
                         28 Cooktown Cr
                                            Yards
                                  1	"	1	T	1	1	1
                                 1000   0   1000   2000  3000  4000  5000
            Out fall
.Potts Pr.
     Hunting Cr
          Swanson Cr
Source:  Prichard D. W., and H. H.  Carter, "On the Prediction
of Excess Temperature from a Heated Discharge in an Estuary",
Technical Report No.  33,  Chesapeake Bay Institute,  The Johns
Hopkins University (1965).
            Figure G-ll.  The Patuxent River Estuary
                             G-24

-------
         TABLE G-9.   TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE PATUXENT
                ESTUARY UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF THE
                             PEPCO POWER PLANT
Temperature Distribution
Upstream of Power Station
Distance,
yards
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
8000
Excess Temperature,
degrees F
Per 350-MW
Generator^)
4.20
3.70
3.05
2.95
2.45
2.40
Per 1010
Btu/day
1.17
1.03
0.85
0.82
0.68
0.66
Temperature Distribution
Downstream of Power Station
Distance,
yards
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
8000
Excess Temperature
degrees F
Per 350-MW
Generator'3)
5.3
4.7
4.1
2.8
2.0
1.2
Per 1010
Btu/day
1.47
1.31
1.14
0.78
0.56
0.33
(a) Corresponds to 3. 6 x 1010 Btu/day.
    Potomac River Estuary.  To assess the assimilative capacity of the Potomac
Estuary for thermal loadings, the data and analyses of Hetling and O'Connell,  who
generated mass balance relationships for Rhodamine dye in sixteen segments of the
Potomac Estuary,  have been used as a basis (see Figure G-14). * Applying the data to
the Pritehard and Carter model, and assuming critical data where not available, the
excess temperature distribution in the estuary was calculated as a function of a hypo-
thetical 1010 Btu/day thermal input at the midpoint of Section 5.  The^magnitude and
location of the thermal loading have been selected arbitrarily in the absence of actual
loadings so that an estimate of assimilative capacity could be obtained on a basis com-
parable to similar estimates generated for the Patuxent and Thames estuaries. The
excess temperature profile for this hypothetical loading is shown in Figure G-15.   The
excess temperature 1, 000 yards downstream of a heat input at the midpoint of Section 5
as a function of percentage removal of the assumed 1010 Btu/day thermal load is shown
in Figure G-16.
*L.J. Hetling and R. L.  O'Connel, A Study of Tidal Dispersion in the Potomac River,
 C-SRBP Technical Paper No. 7, FWPCA,  Region m (undated).
                                     G-25

-------
 4)
 u
 X
 E
 D
 E

 'x
 D
                :Per 1010 Bry/day
                 discharge
                                    	Upstream

                                         Downstream
                                        Per 3.6 x 1010 Btu/day
                                       -discharge
                             4567

                       Distance, thousands of yards
                                                 8
10
     Figure G-12.  Excess Temperature Response of the Patuxent
                  River Estuary to Thermal Discharges at Chalk

                  Point Power Plant
 0!
 0>
 Q.


 93
0)
o
X
E

1
'x
o
4



3


2
                     Discharge = 3.6 x 1010 Btu/day
        Discharge = 1010 Btu/day
                 20   30    40    50    60    70

                    BTU Reduction at Source, percent
                                                80    90   100
   Figure G-13.  Excess Temperature Response of Patuxent River

                 Estuary 1000 Yards Downstream of Chalk Point
                 Power Plant Discharge
                              G-26

-------
                                                       LEGEND
                                                     IA
                                                             Major Waste
                                                             Treatment Plont

                                                             Estuary Segment
Gaging Stations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1
11.
Little Falls Branch -
Bethesda, Md.
Potomac River -
Washington, D. C.
Rock Cr. - Sherrill Drive -
Washington, D. C.
N.E. Br. Anacostia River •
Riverdale, Md.
N.W. Br. Anacostia River
Hyaftesville, Md.
Fourmile Run -
Alexandria, Va.
Little Pimmit Run -
Alexandria, Va.
Cameron Run -
Alexandria, Va.
Henson Creek -
Oxen Hill, Md.
Pohick Creek -
Lofton, Va.
Motrawomon Creek -
Pomonkey, Md.
                                                             A. District of Columbia

                                                             B. Arlington County

                                                             C. Alexandria Sanitation
                                                                 Authority

                                                             D. Fairfax County - Westgate
                                                                 Plant

                                                             E. Fairfax County - LHHe
                                                                 Hunting Creek Plant

                                                             F. Fairfax County - Dogue
                                                                 Creek Plant
Source:  Hetling, L. J.,  and R. L.  O'Connel, A study of Tidal
Dispersion in the Potomac River, C-SPBP Technical  Paper No.  7,
FWPCA,  Region HI (undated).

              Figure G-14.  The Potomac River Estuary
                                   G-27

-------
                              1000 yards
                             ' T=2.025 F
                      02468
                      Distance, thousands of yards
     Figure G-15.  Excess Temperature Response of the Potomac
                   Estuary to 1010 Btu/Day Thermal Discharge
                   at Section 5
 o
 OD
 O  ~
T3  O
                          Discharge = 1010 Btu/day
                     30    40    50    60     70
                     Reduction at Source, percent
80    90   100
     Figure G-16.  Excess Temperature Response of Potomac
                  Estuary 1000 yards Downstream to Thermal
                  Discharge in Section 5
                              G-28

-------
    The slope of the curve in Figure 16 indicates that each incremental 0.1-degree-
Fahrenheit decrease in the excess temperature requires 5 percent reduction in the
assumed 1010 Btu/day loading.  Again, the above analysis applies only to the assumed
loading intensity and pattern. Changes in location of the single source, the addition of
multiple sources, and changes in the intensity of loading will significantly affect the
analysis.

    Thames River Estuary,   Considerable data is available on the distribution of
excess temperature in the Thames Estuary, down river from London (see Figure
G-17). * The average rate of heat discharge from various power stations during
1951-54 was estimated to have been 228 x 109 Btu/day,  about 75 percent of the total
heat being contributed by five large plants shown in Figure G-18.  Considerable heat
was also added from other sources, such as the biochemical activity associated with
industrial and domestic sewage effluents.  The heat contributions from each of these
sources are summarized in Table G-10.

    From Table G-10, the total heat load contributed to the estuary is estimated at
306 x 109 Btu/day.  Heat from fresh-water discharge is attributable primarily to power
plants using the upper Thames and river Wandle as a source of cooling water.  A mathe-
matical model is presented by Gameson,  Hall, and Freddy for predicting the tempera-
ture distributions resulting from  the fresh water flow, tidal flow,  heat addition, cooling,
and mixing.  Observed and calculated values of excess temperature along the Thames
Estuary for the third quarter of 1954 are presented in Figure G-19.

    Since this analysis is concerned only with the assimilative capacity of the estuary
for thermal discharges, the heating due to biochemical activity and other heat sources
are not included in the analysis.  On this basis, the total Btu load is 248 x 109 Btu/day.
Instead of the actual loading of 306 x 109  Btu/day, data obtained from Figure G-19 have
been employed to determine the excess temperature distribution in the estuary for multi-
ple discharges equal to 1010 Btu/day so comparisons arre possible with the Patuxent and
Potomac estuaries (see Figure  G-20).  The excess temperature which would be asso-
ciated with a charge of 248 x 109  Btu/day can be calculated by multiplying their values
given in Figure G-20 by 24. 8.  For example, the excess temperature at London Bridge
would be about 6 degrees F.  The slow rate of change in excess temperature according
to empirical  data is the result of multiple sources along the estuary.

    To compare the assimilative capacity of the Thames estuary with the Potomac and
Patuxent data, the excess temperature response as  a function of thermal loading at a
single point must be established.  Data presented by Gameson for hypothetical excess
temperature  response to a single source discharge of 1010 Btu/day 10 miles above
London Bridge is shown in Figure G-21.

*A.L.H. Gameson,  H.  Hall, and W. S. Preddy,  "The Effect of Heated Discharge on the
 Temperature of the Thames Estuary, The Engineer (London), pp 819-826 (December 6,
 1957); pp 850-852 (December 13, 1957); and pp 893-896 (December 20, 1957).
 Wilbur N. Torpey, Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, "Response to
 Pollution'of New York Harbor and Thames Estuary, " Vol. 39, No. 11 (November, 1967),
 pp 1797-1809.

                                      G-29

-------
                                                           Beam River
                                                                            Ingrebourne River
                       Northern Outfall
                        Sewage Works
                                            Southern  Outfall
                                             Sewage  Works
 West Kent
Sewage Works
                                                                              River Darent
Source: Torpey, W.N., "Response to Pollution of New York Harbor and Thames Estuary",
Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 29, 11 November 1967, pp. 1797-1809.
Reprinted with permission from Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 39-11,
pp. 1797-1809, November 1967, Washington, D.C. 20016.
  Figure G-17.  The Thames River Estuary  (London Vicinity)
                                   G-30

-------
              o
              rt>
            I*.
            w -<
            EPS
            ? ft-
              Q_
              O
              CD
                     Waste-Heat Loading, Btu in billions per day
                                                 Ul
                 §•
                 I
0
to
o
rt
o
o
8
S
ft

_
—
— • '
"

FO;
Bal
De
Boi
ham
tersea
brford
"king
Littlebrook








     Source:  Gameson, A.L.H., H. Hall, andW.S. Freddy, "The
     Effect of Heated Discharge on the Temperature of the Thames
     Estuary", The Engineers (London), pp 819-826 (December 6,
     1957); pp 850-852 (December 3, 1957); andpp 893-896 (December
     20, 1957).
             Figure G-18.
           Waste-Heat Discharge from the
           Central Electricity Authority
           During 1951-54
TABLE G-10.
AVERAGE HEAT INPUT IN BILLIONS OF BTU PER DAY
        IN THAMES ESTUARY
Heat Sources
Power plants
Sewage effluent
Fresh water
Industrial effluents
Biochemical
Total
Heat Input
228
27
20
19
12
306
Percent of Total
74.5
9.0
6.5
6.0
4.0
100.0
 Source:  Gameson,  A. L.H., H. Hall, andW.S. Freddy, "The Effect of
         Heated Discharge on the Temperature of the Thames Estuary",
         The Engineers (London),  pp 819-826 (December 6, 1957);
         pp 850-852 (December 3, 1957); and pp 893-896 (December 20,
         1957).
                               G-31

-------
      l/l
      0)
      Si
      5
      D
      ZL
      o
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
n

















/
r




•••^••i
/ V
/ '
/
/








— Observed
— Calculated f =

,
\
VV
V\
V




L<



\
\\
V
^


sndon 1





V
\

Jridge

= 3.7c







\


m/hr







^

          30    20    10
                Above •*•
 10    20    30   40    50
-*• Below
           Distance from London Bridge, Thousands of Yards
Source: Gameson, A.L.H., H. Hall, andW.S. Freddy, "The
Effect of Heated Discharges on the Temperature of the Thames
Estuary",  The Engineer (London) pp. 819-826 (December 6,
1957); pp.  850-852 (December 13,  1957) and pp. 893-896 (December
20, 1957).
          Figure G-19.  Temperature Distribution in the
                       Thames Estuary, Third Quarter
                       1954
                            G-32

-------
           4
 0246     8    10
Distance, thousands of dollars
12    14
                                               16   18
 Figure G-20.  Excess Temperature Response of Thames Estuary
               Per 1()10 Btu/Day Discharge From Multiple Sources
I ••£
« i.o
ttJ
0
0)
-g 0.8
v
I 0.6
k.
| 0.4
V)
8
x 0.2
LU
n.o




x
x




7



y
/



/
/




/





^^











^*"*N,





\





X
X





\


Lo



^
ndon B
\



"\

ridge



^^^ 	


           0
 46     8    10    12
Distance, thousands of dollars
                             14   16
     18
20    22
Figure G-21.  Estimated Excess Temperature Response of Thames
              Estuary to Single 1010 Btu/Day Discharge 17, 600
              yards Above London Bridge
                             G-33

-------
    It is noted from Figure G-21 that the model employed by Gameson, Hall, and
Freddy predicts for this case that the maximum excess temperature occurs an appre-
ciable distance downstream of the single source discharge.  No explanation is given
by the author for this deviation from the expected response; i. e., maximum excess
temperature at the point of discharge.  Thus, the reliability of the Thames model is
open to question but the data are considered sufficient for an order-of-magnitude esti-
mate  being sought.

    Figures G-22 and G-23 indicate the response of the maximum excess temperature
indicated in Figures G-20 and G-21 to the percentage reduction in respective loadings.
It is noteworthy that excess temperature response is much less sensitive to Btu input
reduction for the case of multiple sources than it is for single sources.  Figure G-23
indicates that a 0.1-degree -Fahrenheit decrease in the maximum excess temperature
requires removal of about 9.1 percent of the 1010 Btu/day load for a single source 10
miles above London Bridge.
Economic Contribution of Natural Cooling

    Unit Costs of Cooling.  Detailed calculations for the estimated unit costs of cooling
are outlined in "Notes to Appendix G".  For the purpose of this report, average values
of $9.00 per million gallons treated and $0.045 per million Btu removed have been
assumed.  These values include both the amortized capital and the operating costs.

    Economic Analyses for Selected Estuaries.  Based upon excess temperature
responses for the estuaries previously described, the reduction in Btu inputs required
to achieve each 0.1-degree-Fahrenheit decrease  in the maximum downstream excess
temperature from thermal loadings is summarized in Table G-ll.

    Assuming that the cost of cooling is $0. 045 per million Btu removed, the economic
contribution of the estuarine cooling capacity per 0.1 degree Fahrenheit is summarized
in Table G-12.
CONCLUSION

    The focus of this analysis has been exclusively on the cost of restoring the environ-
mental quality of estuaries from two waste loadings — organic and thermal.  Omitted are
the costs of cleansing the waters of industrial wastes, particularly petroleum, now being
discharged into the nation's waterways.  Furthermore, before the cost estimates of
restoring environmental quality can be applied to management decisions, this restoration
cost must be compared to the total cost - social and economic - of not restoring full
quality.  Inevitably, trade-offs would be found. *  But with a balanced evaluation of the
* Allen V. Kneese, The Economics of Regional Water Quality Management (Baltimore:
 Johns Hopkins, 1964).
                                     G-34

-------
   0.30
 £
 0>
•g  0.20
 5
"o
£  0.10
vi
£

I
    0.0
10    20     30    40    50    60    70   80

          Btu Reduction of Source, percent
                                                           90   100
  Figure G-22.  Maximum Excess Temperature Response of Thames
                Estuary to Equal Reduction in Total 10l°Btu/Day
                Load at Multiple Sources
           10    20   30    40    50    60    70    80

                     Btu Reduction of Source, percent
                                            90   100
  Figure G-23.  Maximum Excess Response of Thames Estuary to
                Reduction in IQlO Btu/TJay Discharge 10 miles
                Upstream of London Bridge
                              G-35

-------
        TABLE G-ll.  REDUCTIONS IN THERMAL LOADS REQUIRED TO
              ACHIEVE 0.1-DEGREE-FAHRENHEIT DECREASE IN
             MAXIMUM (a) DOWNSTREAM EXCESS TEMPERATURE
          Estuary
Reduction in Thermal Load, 106 Btu/day
         Patuxent
         Potomac
         Thames
                 700
                 500
                 410
         (a)  Taken to be 1000 yards downstream for Patuxent and Potomac
             estuaries.  Taken to occur 7000 yards downstream in Thames
             Estuary (see text).
      TABLE G-12.  ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF ESTUARME COOLING
        CAPACITY PER 0.1-DEGREE-FAHRENHEIT INCREASE ALLOWED
          IN THE MAXIMUM DOWNSTREAM EXCESS TEMPERATURE
Estuary
Patuxent
Potomac
Thames
Total
Economic Distribution
Dollars /Day
31.50
22.50
41.00

Dollars /Year
11,500
8,200
15,000
34,700
Surface Area,
acres
7,000
17,000
7,870
31,870
   total costs, our society could both more rationally utilize our natural resources and,
at the same time, appreciate more fully a rarely recognized national asset, the assimi-
lative capability of our estuaries for discharged wastes.
                                   G-36

-------
NOTES TO APPENDIX G
Summary of Analytic Models Used*

    DO /BOD Model. The concentration of dissolved oxygen at any point is given as
        c = c_ e   + c
             O        £
            [   J2X1   ,      PlX   3
            |l - e   J  - F LQ  [e    - e
    The location of the critical deficit is given as
x  =•
 c
12_
h
                                    1 -
                             Q
                          Lop
    The magnitude of the critical oxygen deficit is given, as
n KdL°
K2
. 2
1, ^ '

O *J>
K2
                                                [FLo-Do]
    where,
                             1 - J 1
                                       u2

                       1 -
                            K
 and
     c
     c
      s
concentration of dissolved oxygen
initial concentration of dissolved oxygen
saturation value of dissolved oxygen
 *0'Connor  Donald J.,  "Oxygen Balance of an Estuary", Journal of the Sanitary
  Engineering Division,  American Society of Civil Engineers, 86-SA3 (May, 1960)
  pp 35-55.
                                      G-37

-------
     D   =   dissolved oxygen deficit
     D   =   initial dissolved oxygen deficit
     D   =   critical dissolved oxygen deficit
     K   =   coefficient of reaeration
      £1
     K,  =   coefficient of deoxygenation
     L   =   ultimate BOD
     L   =   ultimate BOD at initial point
      o
     L   =   5-day BOD
      O
     U   =   velocity due to land runoff
     x   =   longitudinal distance
     e   =   coefficient of eddy diffusion.
    Thermal Assimilation Model.  The model developed by Pritchard* is summarized
by the following expression
                                  Dd
where
    77   =   rate constant (day  ) - (determined from field data)
    y   =   rate coefficient (depends on wind velocity,  temperature of the heated
            effluent, and natural or unheated temperature of the receiving waters
            (ft/day)
    D,  =   vertical extent of heat distribution (feet)
    D,  =   vertical extent of dye distribution (feet)
    Q.  =   rate of heat discharge (Btu/day)
     n
    Q   =   rate of dye discharge (Ib/day)
*Pritchard, D. W., and H. H. Carter, On the Prediction of Excess Temperature From
 a Heated Discharge in an Estuary, Technical Report No. 33, Chesapeake Bay Institute,
 The Johns Hopkins University (1965).
                                      G-38

-------
    FJ» ~   steady state concentration of dye at a given point in the estuary resulting
            from a continuous discharge for an infinite time (ppb or 10~9 Ib/lb)

    T, M=   steady-state concentration of heat at a given point in the estuary resulting
       '     from a continuous discharge for an infinite time, taking into account heat
            loss by cooling (Btu Ab. )

    Since 1 Btu is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of
water one degree F, and since rh, » is given in terms of BtuAb, the amount of excess
temperature, in degrees F, is numerically equal to -r   .
Waste Treatment Costs

    Primary and Secondary Treatment. Recent publications containing data on primary
and secondary waste -treatment plants were reviewed.  Three information sources* were
selected and relevant cost data extracted and analyzed.  Data are summarized in Table
G-13 for (1) primary treatment, (2) complete secondary treatment (including a primary
treatment), and (3) incremental secondary treatment (i. e. ,  the addition of secondary
facilities to existing primary facilities).  All published data reviewed are reported in
terms of dollars per unit of flow.  Costs in Table G-13 related to BOD removal are
based upon a waste stream containing 250 ppm BOD, 30 percent of which is removed in
primary plants and an additional 55 percent of which is removed in secondary processes.
This is equivalent to the following removals:

    (1)  Primary (30 percent) - 62. 0 pounds BOD per million gallons
    (2)  Secondary (85 percent) - 177. 0 pounds BOD per million gallons
    (3)  Incremental Secondary (55 percent) - 1150 pounds BOD per million gallons.

All costs have been adjusted to 1968 dollars by the use of various engineering cost
indices available.  Capital  costs have been amortized over a period of 20 years at an
interest rate of 5 percent.
*"Modern Sewage Treatment Plants, How Much Do They Cost ?', U. S. Public Health
 Service Publication No. 1229, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,  D. C.,
 1964.
 Gibbs, Charles V., and Bothel,  Ray H., "Potential of Large Metropolitan Sewers
 for Disposal of Industrial Waste",  Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
 37:10, 1417-1421 (October,  1965).
 Rowan, P.P., Jenkins, K.L., and Howells, D.H., "Estimating Sewage Treatment
 Plant Operation and Maintenance Costs", Journal of the Water Pollution Control
 Federation, 33:2,  111-121 (February,  1961).
                                      G-39

-------
                      TABLE G-13.  PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SEWAGE TREATMENT COSTS
Capacity,
mgd
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
10
25
100
100
100
Primary Treatment
Amortized
Capital,
$/mg
175. 00
72. SO*1*)
75. 95
34. 20
23.70
~
23. 70
Operating,
$/mg
80.00<°)
64.50
23. 00 <°)
26.60(b)
I7.35
17. 93 
119. 00^)
109. 15
41.40
48.00
45. Sofa)
~
45.80(b)
Operating,
$/mg
183.00
41. 50(c)
30. 00^)
20.80
Total
$/Mg
391. 00
~
—
186.80
82.90
78.00
~
--
70.20
$/Lb BOD
Removed
0.22


0.106
0..047
0.044
—
--
0.039
Incremental Secondary
Amortized
Capital,
$/mg
33. 00
46. BflC1)
33. 20
13. SO^
22. lO^
~
22. 10^
Operating,
$/mg
103. 00 (°)
17. Sofa)
36.70(°)
27. J0
Total
$Alg
136. 00
—
--
60.20
28.70
17.20
--
--
28.57
$/Lb BOD
Removed
0.118
__
—
0.052
0.025
0. 015
~
—
0.024
(a) Based on data contained in "Modern Sewage Treatment Plants, How Much Do They Cost?' U.S. Public Health Service Publication No. 1229,
U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 1964.
(b) Based on data contained In Gtbbs, Charles, V. , and Bothel, Ray H. , "Potential of Large Metropolitan Sewers for Disposal of Industrial Waste",
Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 37:10, 1417-1421 (October, 1965).
(c) Based on data contained In Rowan, P. P., Jenkins, K. L. , andHowella, D. H. , "Estimating Sewage Treatment Plant Operation and Maintenance Costs",
Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 33:2, 111-121 (February, 1961).
(d) Represents average when more than one value is available.
o
J,
o

-------
    Incremental Tertiary Treatment. Estimated incremental capital and operating
costs of tertiary sewage treatment are based upon data published by Gulp and Roderick*
for a tertiary process designed for the South Lake Tahoe Utility District.  The costs
presented are for a chemical coagulation process employing polyelectrolytes, plus car-
bon adsorption.  Costs presented by Gulp and Roderick are presented in terms of
dollars/mgd.  These have been converted to dollars/million gallons.  In addition, costs
have been calculated in terms of dollars per pound of BOD removed, assuming a 9 mg/4
Capital costs have been amortized over 20 years at an interest rate of 5 percent.  All
costs are summarized in Table G-14. It is seen from Tables G-13 and G-14 that tertiary
treatment roughly doubles the cost of sewage treatment in terms of dollars per gallon
treated.

     Summary.  It is noted from the data presented in Tables G-13 and G-14 that treat-
ment costs vary significantly with plant  size.  These costs are plotted in Figures G-24
and G-25.  The majority of plants constructed in the United States are in the size range
1 to  10 mgd and it seems reasonable to use arbitrarily the cost data for 4 mgd plants for
establishing the economic data required in this study. The following costs will therefore
be used:

                                       Cost, $/mg     Cost, $/lb BOD removed

   Primary treatment                       90                 0.150
   Secondary treatment                     130                 0.080
   Incremental secondary treatment          40                 0.040
   Incremental tertiary treatment           150                 2.000
Cooling Costs

   Capital costs of cooling towers including installation are given in Perry's Chemical
Engineers' Handbook. ** These have been adjusted to 1968 dollars and are summarized
in Table G-15.

   Using data published by Berg, et al. ***, power costs have been estimated to range
from $2.00 to $5.00 per million gallons, and from $0.015 to $0.022 per million Btu
removed.
   *Culp, Russell, L., and Roderick, R.E.,  "The Lake Tahoe Water Reclamation
    Plant", Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 38:2, 147-155 (February,
    1966).
  **Perry,  John H., Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 4th Edition,  McGraw Hill,
    New York (1963).
 ***Berg, Brian, R.W.  Lane, andT.E. Larson,  Water Use and Related Costs With
    Cooling Towers, Illinois State Water Survey,  Circular 86, Urbana,  Illinois (1963).
                                      G-41

-------
                     TABLE G-14.  INCREMENTAL COSTS OF TERTIARY SEWAGE TREATMENT
Plant Capacity
(mgd)
2.5
10.0
50.0
100. 00
200.00
Amortized Capital Cost
$/Million
Gallons
61.60
45.90
41.50
37.30
34.70
$/Lb BOD
Removed
0.820
0.623
0.553
0.496
0.461
Operating Cost
$/Million
Gallons
103. 00
77.50
65.00
61.80
59.00
$/Lb BOD
Removed
1.37
1.03
0.865
0.824
0.784
Total Cost
$ /Million
Gallons
164.60
123.40
106. 50
99.10
93.70
$/Lb BOD
Removed
2.190
1.653
1.418
1.320
1.245
Source: Gulp, Russell, L. , and Roderick, R.E., "The Lake Tahoe -Water Reclamation Plant", Journal
of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 38:2. 147-155 (February, 1966).
Q

^
to

-------
                  1000
I
o

fc

§
s
s,

!
5?
      CD
c  100
o
                     10
                      0.1
                                                                                       Incremental tertiary
                                                                                          Primary

                                                                                 D    D Secondary

                                                                                 A  '  A Incremental secondary

                                                                                      ~"X Incremental tertiary
                                                                                 Incremental  Secondary
                                                                                                            I
                                                                              10
                                                                                                                  100
                                                            Plant Capacity, mgd

-------
     10
5
o
o
o
o
 o
        — O  Primary
        — D  Secondary
         _Z\  Incremental secondary
          V  Incremental tertiary
   0.01
       0.1
1.0                10
  Plant Capacity, mgd
               Figure G-25.  Costs of Waste Treatment
                               G-44

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             TABLE G-15.  INSTALLED COSTS OF COOLING TOWERS
Tower Capacity
gpm
2000
4000
6000
10,000
18,000
mgd
2.88
5.76
8.64
14.40
25.90
Cost, ($ /million gallons)
A = 30 F
8.34
5.95
5.20
4.60
4.20
AT = 15 F^)
6.45
3.40
2.90
2.55
2.37
Cost, $/106 Btu
AT = 30 F(a>
0. 0337
0. 0238
0.0208
0. 0177
0. 0167
AT = 15 F(b)
0.0515
0. 0272
0. 0232
0. 0204
0. 0197
(a) Represents 85 F wet bulb and 5 F approach.
(b) Represents 75 F wet bulb and 10 F approach.
   For purposes of cost estimates to be generated in this study,  capital costs will be
assumed at $6.00 per million gallons and $0.025 per million Btu removed.  Operating
costs, which will be almost totally power costs, will be assumed to be $3.00 per mil-
lion gallons  and $0.02 per million Btu removed.  Total costs are then assumed to be
$9.00 per million gallons and $0.045 per million Btu.  Because of the wide variability
among cooling towers and other cooling facilities, these costs  must be considered as
approximations which for any given installation may be in error by a factor of 3 or 4.
These figures are nevertheless considered satisfactory for the purpose of the estimates
generated in this report.
Needs for Additional Research

   Mathematical Model for Assessing the Effect of Thermal Pollution on Estuarine
W.ater Quality.  Increasing concern has been voiced in recent years about the effects of
thermal loadings from power plants and other industrial sources on the estuarine environ-
ment.  However, productive techniques and models do not exist which allow one to assess
in advance, on the basis of receiving water characteristics, the expected response of the
environment (i.e., the excess temperature distribution) to alternative patterns of ther-
mal loadings.

   Existing methodology for assessing environmental responses to nonconservative
pollutant loads is limited to a variety of mathematical models for predicting the effect of
BOD loadings on dissolved oxygen depletion. Methods for the analysis of thermal pollu-
tion effects are extremely limited. One recently developed technique employs dye
tracer studies to generate data upon which predictions of excess temperature distribution
                                      G-45

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may be based. *  However, these studies are costly to conduct. Researchers at
Johns Hopkins have developed a procedure for determining the temperature distribu-
tion that would result from increasing the size of a power plant based upon the existing
distribution of excess temperature. ** Consequently, a need exists for developing
methods of modeling the mass and energy balances on a receiving body so that excess
temperature distributions can be predicted solely on the basis of the physical and
hydrological characteristics of the receiving body.

   After development of the thermal response model a next logical step would be to
integrate the thermal model with existing BOD responses models to include synergistic
and antagonistic  effects.  For example, increased temperatures from thermal dis-
charges decrease the saturation level of dissolved oxygen, and hence, reaeration
rates,  but increase the rate of BOD decay.  These effects are not included in existing
pollution response models.

   Following completion of the above efforts a logical extension would be to incorporate
the effects of the stochastic nature of the system inputs (streamflows, waste loadings,
wind, sunlight, etc.).  Efforts have been initiated to incorporate stochastic phenomena
into BOD response models*** and an extension to thermal models and combined thermal
BOD models would provide considerable improvement to existing techniques.
  *Pritchard, D.W.,  and Carter, H.H., On the Prediction of Excess Temperature
   From A Heated Discharge in an Estuary, Technical Report No. 33, Chesapeake Bay
   Institute,  Johns Hopkins University (1965).
 **Edinger, John Eric, and John C. Geyer,  "Analyzing Steam Electric Power Plant
   Discharges", Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, ASCE,  94 (SA4),
   611-623 (August,  1968).
***Thayer, Richard P.,  and Richard G. Krutchkoff, A Stochastic Model for Pollution
   and Dissolved Oxygen in Streams, Water Resources Research Center,  Virginia
   Polytechnical Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia (August, 1966).
   Kothandarman, Veerasamy, Probabilistic Analysis of Wastewater Treatment and
   Disposal Systems, Research Report No. 14, Water Resources Center, University
   of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois (June,  1968).
                                     G-46

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                APPENDIX H
DEVELOPMENT OF CHESAPEAKE BAY RESOURCES
         Gerald Nehman and Ira Whitman

-------
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                         Page

General Description	  H-l
The Historical Development of the Chesapeake Bay 	  H-l
Demographic Character of the Chesapeake Bay Region 	  H-3
Waste Assimilation  	  jj_4
     Eastern Shore	  jj_4
     Northwestern Shore	  H-6
     Southwestern Shore 	  H-7
Commercial Shipping in the Chesapeake 	  H_9
     Port Development in Baltimore	  H-10
     Dredging Chesapeake Channels 	  H-ll
Commercial Fisheries	  H-12
     Oysters	  H-13
     Blue Crabs	  H-15
     Soft Shell Clams 	  H-15
     Finfish  	  H-16
Shore Erosion 	  H-17
Recreation   	  H-17
     Political Restraints on Recreational Development 	  H-18
     Biological Restraints on Recreational Development 	  H-18
     Extent of Outdoor Recreation 	  H-18
Planning for Waterfront Development	  H-21
     Baltimore Inner-Harbor Plan  	  H-21
     Anne Arundel County-Suburban Development  	  H-23
Provisions for Open-Space on Chesapeake Bay Shoreline 	  H-24
     Western Shore Planning Agencies	  H-25
     Eastern Shore Planning Agencies  	  H-27
     Plans for Open Space   	  H-27
Summary	  H-28

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                                  APPENDIX H
              DEVELOPMENT OF CHESAPEAKE BAY RESOURCES

                                       by
                                 Gerald Nehman
                                 Ira Whitman
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest inlet in the Atlantic coastal plain.  It is ap-
proximately 180 miles long, varies in width from 3 to 30 miles, and covers a total
area of 4300 square miles.  The Bay is a fairly shallow body of water and requires
extensive dredging to maintain ship channels into Baltimore Harbor.

    The drainage basin of the Bay includes an area of 74,000 square miles:  42 percent
of this area is drained by the Susquehanna, 22 percent by the Potomac, and an addi-
tional 24 percent by the Rappahannock, York, and James rivers on the Western Shore. *
Emptying into the Bay from the Eastern Shore are the Wicomico, Nanticoke, Choptank,
and Chester Rivers.
THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT  OF THE  CHESAPEAKE BAY

    Indian tribes living along the Bay prior to the arrival of European settlers sup-
plemented their fo'od supply with fin fish and shellfish, and used the shell to make hand
tools.  The many navigable rivers and the  Bay facilitated travel throughout the region.
The early settlers, arriving around 1634,  also oriented their livelihood around the
Bay and its tributaries.

    The most important early commercial development on the Bay was the tobacco
industry. Plantation agriculture developed along the waterways with each locality
having its own docks for delivery of supplies and overseas shipment of tobacco.  At
the beginning of the eighteenth century, the shipbuilding industry grew in response to
a need for vessels to transport the tobacco crop.
*L. Eugene Cronin, The Conditions of the Chesapeake Bay, Transactions of the Thirty-
 Second North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, Published by
 Wildlife Management Institute, 1967, p 137+.
                                      H-l

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Chesapeake Bay Region
        H-2

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    Toward the end of the eighteenth century there was a severe decline in tobacco
prices.  This price decline, coupled with a depleted land resource, reduced tobacco
production in the area at the same time that ship building was becoming an important
industry.  Two conditions were favorable for the development of this industry:  first,
extensive forests provided a good supply of timber, tar, pitch, and turpentine;  second,
the navigable rivers and creeks were excellent protected areas for shipbuilding and
excellent places to store wooden ships during periods when infestations from wood
borers and barnacles were heaviest. *

    After the Revolutionary War, the first dredges began to operate in the Chesapeake,
deepening channels and docking areas.  Increased commerce and shipbuilding encour-
aged the development  of more centralized  marketing areas.  Whereas in the early
period each plantation maintained its own docking facilities,  they now became more
centralized around Baltimore and Norfolk. ** Centralization was encouraged by two
factors:  the trend towards construction of large steel vessels requiring specialized
construction facilities, and the development of railroads connecting the coastal cities
with the Ohio Valley.

    The fishing industry did not develop in the Chesapeake Bay until the 1840's when
New Englanders came to the area to exploit the oyster fishery. *** Prior to this time,
local colonists used the oyster's shell as flux for iron smelting, for making roads,
and in mortar,  but they had not appreciated its food value.  The development of can-
neries and the railroad  system both contributed to the expansion of this market. ****
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTER OF THE  CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION

     Today, the population surrounding the Chesapeake Bay is concentrated in Baltimore
and Norfolk,  The residents of these two urban areas are the major recipients of wealth
derived from the Bay's resources.  From 1940 to 1960, population growth in Maryland
and Virginia has been more rapid than the national average and in both states the major
growth areas have been in the coastal counties.

     Thirty percent of the population of Maryland resides in counties contiguous with
the Chesapeake Bay.  Over 50 percent of the coastal population is found in Baltimore
County which has been experiencing very rapid population growth during the last
    *Middleton, A. P. , Tobacco Coast, A Maritime History of Chesapeake Bay in the
     Colonial Era. The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia,  1953, pp 36.
  **Brewington,  M. V.,  Chesapeake Bay, Pictoral Maritime History, Cornell
     Martime Press, Cambridge, Maryland, 1953, pp 36.
 ***Middleton, A. P. , Op. Cit., pp 57-58.
****Radoff, B. , The Old LAnfe State, History of Maryland, Historical Record Assoc.,
     Annapolis, Md.,  1956, p 294.
                                      H-3

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15 years.  The population of the Western Shore increased 53 percent between the 1950
and 1960 census which was 20 percent faster than the growth rate of the state as a
whole.  The Eastern Shore grew about 8 percent during the same period (Table H-l).
This rate of growth has been increasing since 1960 because  of access via the two Bay
Bridges. The Bay Bridge-Tunnel from Norfolk to Cape Charles and the new Bay
bridge under discussion at the present time should continue to accelerate growth of
this area.

    Twenty-three percent of Virginia's population resides in the twelve counties con-
tinguous to the Chesapeake Bay shoreline.  Population growth  in these counties has
been increasing about 14 percent faster than has the state as a whole, during the 1950-
1960 period.  The main source of population growth in this area (33 percent from 1950
to 1960) is immigration generated by growth of the shipbuilding industry. *  This trend
will probably continue because of the large growth in Princess Anne County and the
cities of Hampton, Newport News, Norfolk, and Portsmouth.  The two counties on the
tip of the Delmarva Peninsula declined in population from 1950 to 1960 and probably
will not experience substantial growth for some time (Table H-l).

    Thus, for both Maryland and Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay has continued to be a
focus of economic activity, and hence, population concentrations.  This increase in
population has intensified the management problems of the Bay as the demands for its
resources has increased.  These problems have been studied to some extent from the
standpoints of recreation, the fishery, water consumption, waste disposal, and trans-
portation.  This appendix summarizes and analyzes these studies in terms of the new
information that it provides researchers and managers concerned with Chesapeake Bay
management.
WASTE ASSIMILATION

    There have been few pollution problems in the Bay proper.  This is partly a re-
sult of the large volume of water circulating in the Bay, but more important, the tribu-
taries assimilate most of the pollutants from urban and industrial centers.  Since
waste assimilation is confined to the river basins, they have been studied as entities.
Eastern Shore

    The major drainage basins on the eastern shore are the Elk, Chester,  Choptank
Nanticoke,  Wicomico, and Pocomoke rivers.  There is very little urban development
around these rivers.  Elkton is at the headwaters of the Elk, Cambridge is  near the
mouth of the Choptank, and Salisbury is near the headwaters of the Wicomico.
*"Economic Base Study, Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basins", FWPCA, Middle Atlantic
 Region, Contract No.  PH 186-63-92 (1967), p 94.
                                      H-4

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TABLE H-l. POPULATION OF POLITICAL JURISDICTIONS
        ADJACENT TO THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

Jurisd iction

Western Shore
Anne Arundel County
Baltimore City
Baltimore County'
Calvert County
Cecil County
Harford County
St. Marys County
Subtotal
Eastern Shore
Dorchester County
Kent County
Queen Annes County
Talbot County
Somerset County
Subtotal
Regional Total
State Total
Percent of Total in Region

Accomack County
Gloucester County
Hampton City
Isle of Wight County
Lancaster County
Mathews County
Middlesex County
Nansemond County
Newport News City
Norfolk City
Norfolk County
Northampton County
Northumberland County
Princess Anne County
Portsmouth City
York
Regional Total
State Total
Percent of Total in Region
Population
1950
Maryland

118,392
949,708
270,273
12,100
33,356
51,782
29,111
1,463,722

27,815
13,677
14,579
19,428
20,745
96,244
1,559,966
2,343,001
66.6
Virginia
33,832
10,343
61,010
14,906
8,640
7,148
6,715
25,238
42,358
213,513
99, 937
17,300
10,012
42,277
80,039
11.750
684,998
3,318,680
20.6
1960


206,634
939,024
492,428
15,826
48,406
76,722
38,915
1,779,042

29,666
15,481
16,569
21,578
19,623
102,917
1,881,959
3,100,689
60.7

30,635
11,919
89,258
17,164
9,174
7,121
6,319
31,366
113,662
304,869
51,612
16,966
10,185
77,127
114,773
21,583
913,733
3,966,948
23.0
Increase,
percent


76.0
-1.1
82.2
30.8
45.1
48.2
33.7
"2T75

6.7
13.2
13.6
11.1
15.4
~O"
20.6
32.3


-9.4
15.2
46.3
15.1
6.2
-0.4
-5.9
24 .,3
38.2
43.3
-48.4
-1.9
1.7
80.1
43.4
83.7
33.4
19.5

Source: U.S. Census, 1960.
                      H-5

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    The eastern shore was geographically isolated until the completion of a cross-bay
bridge in 1958.  The new bridge has improved access to this area but has not caused a
substantial increase in land values or intensified land use patterns.  Water pollution
surveys have been conducted on the Wicomoco, Pocomoke, and Nanticoke rivers by the
FWPCA; and on the Choptank, Chester, and Elk rivers by the State of Maryland.  Some
localized problems have been identified (e. g., some industrial pollution on the Upper
Elk River), but there are no  areas where large quantities of pollutants are being
absorbed. *
Northwestern Shore

    The northwestern shore of Chesapeake Bay is the critical pollution area because
of the urban-industrial complex of Baltimore, and adjacent suburban environs.  The
primary drainage basins in this area are the Patapsco, Back, Gunpowder, Bush, and
Susquehanna rivers.  The Patapsco and the Back rivers are the most intensely de-
veloped of the river basins in this area, with the Baltimore industrial and harbor com-
plex in the former, and high-density suburban development and  municipal waste treat-
ment facilities in the latter.

    Back and Patapsco Rivers.  The upper portion of the Back River is polluted by in-
flow from Herring Run and Moores Run. Pollution is caused by septic tank overflow
(Moores Run) and industrial waste according to a Public Health  Study Report on pollu-
tion of Back River. ** In 1965, it was estimated that Herring Run contributed  90 per-
cent of the coliform and fecal coliform bacteria to the Back while four tributary streams
and the Back River sewage treatment plant contributed 10 percent. ***  The Parapsco
River receives diluted waste from Gwynns Falls and Jones Falls. ****  A Baltimore
County Department of Health report, "Completed Water and Sewer Projects",  January,
1968, indicated that 127 sewage improvements on Her^g Run and 1,370 on Back River
were completed as of January 26, 1968.  A comparison report,  "Baltimore County
Sewer and Water Priorities", indicates that 1,606 other properties on Back River have
either sewer, water, or combined problems. *****
    ^Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs, The Eastern Shore of Delaware.
     Maryland, and Virginia, FWPCA Working Document No. 20, Middle Atlantic
     Region, September 1967.
   **Ira L.  Whitman, Physical Conditions of Streams in Baltimore and Their Relation
     to Park Areas, Report to Departments  of Recreation and Parks, and Public Works,
     Baltimore, Maryland (1966), p. 33.
  ***P.R. Farragut,  A Reconnaissance Study of the Chesapeake Bay, Regional Planning
     Council, Baltimore,  Maryland (September, 1968) p 62.
 ****!.  Whitman, op.  cit., p 37.
*****P.R. Farragut,  op.  cit. , p 62.
                                      H-6

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    The Bush River.  Studies of water quality in the Bush River by the Harford County
Health Department have shown a substantial improvement from 1965 to 1967.  This im-
provement in water quality is probably due to improved sewage treatment at the Edge-
wood Arsenal sewage treatment plant and the construction of a temporary stabilization
pond to hold outflow until the county's Sod Run treatment plant is completed. In De-
cember, 1967, the FWPCA collected a small number of samples and found the streams
around the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County to be rich in nutrients but in
no case was the water found to be unsuited for water contact recreation.  The report
suggested that a more detailed sanitary survey was needed in certain areas, however. *

    Beaches Around Baltimore.  During the summers of 1966 and 1967, 10 of the 21
county beaches were closed because of water quality problems.  All 4 county-owned
beaches at Bear Creek were closed because of untreated sewage, largely coming from
Bethlehem Steel Corporation and Baltimore Harbor.  In 1969, Bethlehem will tie into
the county sewer system.  Two of the three beaches on the Bird and Gunpowder rivers
were closed primarily because of septic tank overflow.   Beaches on the bay front gen-
erally have good water quality. Even if industrial and municipal waste is all treated,
the very presence of the harbor traffic around Baltimore may continue to keep water
quality at many beaches below levels acceptable for water contact recreation. **

    Need for Public Facilities.  The FWPCA has tabulated immediate construction
needs for the northwestern shore area.  They estimate that these facilities would cost
$69 million (Table H-2). In general, however, water-quality information does not in-
dicate a serious pollution problem, even  in the outer harbor of the Patapsco.   Of
greater concern has been the problem of  sludge disposal from sewage treatment plants
in the  Baltimore City area because of odor, nuisance, and lack of suitable sites for
land disposal.  Various proposals have been made, including barging or piping to the
sea and incineration.  Disposal at sea would be expensive: incineration would  create
an air-pollution problem.
 Southwestern Shore

     The southwestern shore of the Chesapeake Bay is drained by the Patuxent,  Potomac,
 Rappahannock, York, and James rivers.  The Potomac and the James rivers receive
 large quantities of municipal and industrial waste and have been studied extensively.

     Patuxent River.  The sewered population on the Patuxent is around  78,000.  This
 causes few pollution problems though high coliform counts have been taken in some
 areas. ***
   *This section is taken from Paul R. Farragut, A Reconnaissance Study of the
   Chesapeake Bay, Regional Planning Council, Baltimore, Maryland (September,
   1968).
 **News Release, Baltimore County Department of Health (May 11, 1967).
***Cronin, op. cit., p 143-144.
                                      H-7

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TABLE H-2.  IMMEDIATE CONSTRUCTION NEEDS, NORTHWESTERN
                 SHORE CHESAPEAKE BAY
Location
Patapsco sewage treatment plant
Back River sewage treatment plant
Patapsco interceptor
Oliver Beach Interceptor
Interceptors and pumping stations
for-.
Gray Manor
Chesaco Park
Pennwood Terrace
Old Battle Grove
Hyde Park
Stansbury Manor
Cox Creek sewage treatment plant
Marley Neck interceptor
Edgewood-Sod Run Interceptor
Ferryman-Sod Run Interceptor
Bel-Air Long Bar Harbor Inter-
ceptor
Swan Creek sewage treatment plant
White Marsh Interceptor
Jones Falls pumping station
Port Deposit
Herring Ron interceptor
Southwest diversion sewer
Lilly Ron sewer separation
Community Interceptors at:
Bynum Run
Wildcat Branch
winter's Run
Little Gunpowder
Cranberry Run addition
County Line interceptor
Conowlngo
Havre de Grace sewage treat-
ment plant
Separate sewage
Cooper Branch sewage treatment
plant
Forge Heights sewage
Total
Responsibility
Baltimore City
Baltimore City
Anne Arundel County,
Baltimore County,
Howard County
Baltimore County
Baltimore County

Anne Arundel County
Anne Arundel County
Harford County
Metropolitan
Commission
Harford County
Metropolitan
Commission
Harford County
Metropolitan
Commission
Harford County
Metropolitan
Commission
Baltimore County
Baltimore City
Port Deposit
Baltimore City
Baltimore City
Havre de Grace
Harford County
Anne Arundel County,
Howard County
Cecil County
Havre de Grace
Baltimore City
Baltimore County
Baltimore County
Need
Add primary capacity, add secondary treatment
Add capacity and rehabilitate plant. (Includes
outfall and pumping station at Moore's Run. )
Eliminate waste discharges into Patapsco River,
divert Patuxent Basin sewage.
Divert sewage flows from Gunpowder River to
Back River sewage treatment plant.
Divert sewage leaking to Back and Middle
Rivers to Back River sewage treatment plant.

Add to capacity and provide secondary treatment.
Construct a parallel force main to Cox Creek
sewage treatment plant to increase capacity.
Divert sewage from Edgewood Arsenal sewage
treatment plant to Sod Run sewage treatment
plant.
Divert sewage from temporary Ferryman
sewage treatment ponds to Sod Run sewage
treatment plant.
Divert Bel Air sewage to sewage system serving
Sod Run sewage treatment plant.
Interim secondary treatment.
Divert sewage from the upper Gunpowder River
Basin to Back River sewage treatment plant.
Increase capacity to eliminate discharge of raw
sewage to Jones Falls.
Provide secondary treatment.
Add capacity to eliminate raw sewage dis-
charges.
Eliminate sewage discharge into Gwynns Falls.
Separate sanitary and storm sewage for exist'
ing combined system.
Divert untreated or inadequately treated
sewage to Sod Run to protect respective
streams.
Eliminate waste discharges into Deep Creek,
provide capacity for diversion of
Patuxent sewage.
Add secondary treatment.
Add secondary treatment.
Complete separation of storm and sanitary
sewage.
Eliminate plant by connecting to Patapsco
Interceptor.
Interceptor to divert sewage to Forge Heights
sewage treatment plant.
Cost, dollars
10,000,000
20,000,000
4,500,000
1,100,000
2,100,000

3,500,000
600, 000
2,750,000
800, 000
3,000,000
350, 000
900, 000
750, 000
150,000
300, 000
10,000,000
500,000
2, 500, 000
3,000,000
30, 000
300, 000
1,000,000
250, 000
700,000
69,080,000
Source: Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs, Northwest Chesapeake Bay Area, CB-SRBP, Working Document No. 19,
F\VPCA, Middle Atlantic Region, Aug. , 1967.
                         H-8

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    A study was conducted to determine the temperature response of the river from
thermal discharges at a proposed power plant to be built at Chalk Point.  On the basis
of an input of 100 billion Btu per day there would be a 1. 47-degree-Fahrenheit increase
in water temperature 1,000 yards from the discharge point.  It was estimated that
7 percent of the heat discharge must be removed to decrease the 1,000-yard down-
stream temperature increase by 0.1 degree Fahrenheit. *

    Potomac River.  The Potomac River assimilates most measureable water-quality
contaminants before reaching the Chesapeake Bay.  It is presently handling 140,000
pounds of 5-day  BOD per day.  Annual contributions of 8,000,000 pounds of phosphorus
and 25,000,000 pounds of nitrogen have been measured from  Washington, D. C. Waste
loadings are expected to double in the next 30 years and will be the major problem con-
fronting the Potomac River basin. **  It has been estimated that the waste-discharging
facilities in the Potomac estuary remove about 50 percent of  their raw waste before
dumping it into the river, resulting in many local pollution problems. ***

    James River.  Major waste loadings occur at Richmond and at Hopewell.  Overall
BOD  removal in the upper estuary is estimated to be about 390,000 pounds per day.
The economic value of the assimilative capacity of the James River is estimated to be
$570,000 per year. This value is based on the addition of secondary facilities to
existing primary treatment plants .with an associated cost of  BOD removal of $0. 04
per pound. ****
 COMMERCIAL SHIPPING IN THE CHESAPEAKE

     The Chesapeake Bay is the gateway to Baltimore and five ports in Virginia.  The
 total number of vessels handled annually by these ports is around 48,000 making it the
 second most heavily traveled bay on the East Coast (the Port of New York and New
 Jersey ranks first), and the third largest ocean port area in the country New Orleans
 ranks'second in vessels handled). ***** Chesapeake Bay ports have a total of 157 ter-
 minals with drafts of over 6 feet. In addition to the vessels handled by the ports, there
 is a large volume of through traffic using the Intracoastal Waterway System which ex-
 tends the length of the Bay, through Hampton Roads and into Virginia.  The port of
 Baltimore handled around 12,000 vessels carrying 44 million tons of cargo in 1966.
 A $67 million, 10-year expansion program has recently been approved to construct up
    *Appendix G.
   **M. Brehmer, "Nutrients", Problems in the Potomac Estuary, Proceedings,
     Interstate Commission Potomac River Basin (1964), pp 47-50.
  ***Appendix G.
 ****Appendix G.
*****"The Economic Impact of United States Ocean Ports", U. S. Department of
     Commerce, Maritime Administration (data from 1963).
                                      H-9

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to eight new berths,  rehabilitate obsolete berths,  and acquire waterfront property.
This 10-year expansion program is designed to provide the Port with facilities for the
handling of containerized cargo. The completion of the Chesapeake and Delaware
Canal Project will reduce the travel time from New York Harbor and Northern European
ports by approximately 20 hours.

    The Virginia ports are located at Alexandria, Norfolk, Newport News, Hopewell,
and Richmond. Norfolk is by far the largest port in Virginia, handling annually approx-
imately 39 million tons of cargo carried by 19,000 vessels.  Newport News is second,
handling 11,500 vessels and 14 million tons (Table H-3).
 TABLE H-3.  VOLUME OF TRADE IN MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA PORTS (1966)
Port
Maryland
Baltimore
Virginia
Alexandria
Norfolk
Newport News
Hopewell
Richmond
Cargo
Tonnage
million tons

44

0.5
39
14
0.5

/g\
Passengers

166, 000

—
61,200
1,900
800
800
Total Vessels ^
Handled

12,240

1,067
19, 342
11, 554
1,187
2,205
Source: "Waterborne Commerce of the United States, " Calendar Year 1966,
Part I, Atlantic Coast, Corps of Engineers.
(a) Total inbound and outbound.
(b) Average of inbound and outbound.
(c) Data for 1963.
Port Development in Baltimore

    Since the port of Baltimore came under public ownership ten years ago, it has
been expanding its general cargo and containerized cargo facilities.  Prior to this time,
the vast majority of the port facilities were for handling bulk commodities, such as
grain,  coal, and ore which were owned by the railroads serving Baltimore.  Since the
port has been publicly owned, the Port  Authority has spent approximately $50 million
to develop facilities, and expects to spend $67 million  over the 1967-1977 period to
construct eight new berths, rehabilitate some existing berths, and acquire waterfront
property.  Thus, the Port Authority is  committed to maintain the growth of port
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facilities in Baltimore.  For the port to grow,  access routes must be provided for an
increase volume of traffic and deeper draft vessels.  Most of the dredging activity in
the Chesapeake Bay is centered around access  routes to Baltimore.  At the present
time, the main access route is around Cape Charles at the tip of the Delmarva Peninsula
and north to Baltimore.  The disadvantage of this route, from the standpoint of the
Baltimore Port Authority, is that their customers can gain 40 hours round-trip travel
time by stopping at the Hampton, Virginia docks at the mouth of the Bay. *  Deepening
of the Chesapeake Delaware Canal to connect the Bay with the Delaware River will make
travel time to Norfolk and Baltimore equivalent for southbound vessels.  At the same
time, studies to deepen the Chesapeake Bay  channel are underway.   The present project
depth is 42 feet.
Dredging Chesapeake Channels

    The least expensive place to dump spoil material from channel dredging is over-
board and adjacent to the channel project.  General practice has been for public or
private groups requesting the project to provide land areas to serve as dumps.  Land
areas have been in short supply because of more intense utilization and because the
sediments in the Chesapeake Bay are unconsolidated and have little use as fill material
for land development.  Subsequently, the Corps of Engineers has been using overboard
spoil areas  and has been criticized by commercial fishing and conservation groups of
damaging the natural habitat.

     In 1966, 4.7 million cubic yards of material was dredged from harbors and chan-
nels around the Chesapeake Bay by the Corps in the conduct of 20 dredging projects. In
11 cases, the spoil area was specified, and in 7 of these spoil was deposited over-
board. ** The spoil from the Baltimore Harbor Maintenance Project is deposited over-
board in a canyon near Kent Island.  A request has been made to extend this dump south-
ware but conservation-oriented groups have opposed this proposal because of anticipated
damage to fishing and to oyster beds.

     Spoil from the Chesapeake and Delware Canal project has been dumped overboard
adjacent to the channel.  This has  met with objections from the Maryland Board of
Natural Resources who initially wanted the material dumped on-shore, and then later
suggested using a deep trench near Pooles Island.  The Corps has objected to the
Pooles Island dump because of the high cost of moving material to that area.
  *Speech by Gregory Halpin on Impact of the Marine Shipping Industry on the Chesapeake
   Bay, delivered to Governor's Conference on Chesapeake Bay, Wye Institute, Chester-
   on-Wye, Maryland, September 12,  1968.
 **Appendix E,  Table E-5.
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    Studies have been conducted by the Corps to show that overboard disposal does
not harm nursery areas in the upper Bay.  The Natural Resources Institute at the
University of Maryland has studied the effects of high silt load due to overboard dis-
posal.  They have identified very little effect on plants and animals in the water and on
adult fish held in cages near the outflow or caught near the area.  Some bottom animals
were smothered but this was restricted to the area of deposition.

    Though the quality of dredged material is poor, it has been successfully used as
land fill in some cases.  Many of the dock areas in the Baltimore Harbor are on
dredged material.  Also, a spoil island has been created as a wildlife refuge and
proposals have been made to use spoil material for additional development of this kind
(particularly south of Havre de Grace).
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    Chesapeake Bay is probably best known throughout the nation and the world for its
seafood resources.  The economic and social values of commercial fishing on Chesa-
peake bay has been recently discussed by the director of the Department of Chesapeake
Bay Affairs,  using data and statistics from the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, De-
partment of the Interior, and the Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs. *  The material
presented herein draws heavily upon this paper which pertains only to the Maryland
portion of the Bay.  Although similar data exist for the Virginia Bay resource, there
are no references available in which the topic has been discussed as a whole.

    The landed value of Maryland's commercial fisheries products reached an all-
time high  of $17 million in 1967.  The 1967 value was distributed among species as
follows: 66 percent in oysters, 14 percent in crabs, 9 percent each in soft clams and
finfish, and 1 percent each in hard clams and all others.  The value of Maryland's
manufactured fisheries products in 1965 was $36 million and is estimated at more than
$40 million for 1967.

    About 9,000 fishermen, of whom two-thirds have no other employment, harvest
Maryland's seafoods.  Approximately 6,500 boats are used in harvesting and trans-
porting the catch.  The value of landings reached a low in 1963  and since then has been
increasing at a rate of about $1. 5 million a year.  The harvests in 1965, 1966, and
1967 exceeded in quantity those of any year since 1908 (Table H-4).
*By Joseph Manning, Director, Maryland Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs,
 presented by Fred W. Sieling at the Governor's Conference on Chesapeake Bay, Wye
 Institute, Cheston-on-Wye, Maryland, September 12, 1968.  Soon to be available in
 in Conference Proceedings.
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                TABLE H-4.  MARYLAND FISHERIES STATISTICS

                                    1880-1967
Year
1880
1890
1901
1908
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
Thousands of Pounds
95,712
143,905
82, 975
113,796
59,531
71,099
51,085
67,092
69, 113
66,492
67,574
55,457
70,828
86,672
82,704
73,412
Thousands of Dollars
5,222
6,019
3,768
3,306
4,198
3,985
2,598
8,888
13,963
12,778
11, 926
10,748
11,729
13,220
14, 012
16,913
Source: By Joseph Manning, Director, Maryland Department of
Chesapeake Bay Affairs, presented by Fred W. Sieling
at the Governor's Conference on Chesapeake Bay, Wye
Institute, Cheston-on-Wye, Maryland, September 12,
1968. Soon to be available in Conference Proceedings.
     The number of wholesale and manufacturing establishments in Maryland has de-
clined steadily from 357 in 1957 to 285 in 1965, while the number employed by these
establishments has remained fairly constant.   The decrease in number of establish-
ments follows a  general trend of consolidation in the food processing industry.  Many
small seafood processing plants have gone out of business in the past 30 years because
of increased costs resulting from improved sanitation standards.
Oysters

    Maryland and Virginia have been the leading oyster producing states for the past
2 years (Table H-5).  Landed value of the Maryland harvest in 1966 was $7. 8 million:
the Virginia harvest was valued at $6.7 million.  These two states accounted for more
than 50 percent of the total value of production and 41 percent of the poundage.
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  TABLE H-5.  PRODUCTION OF  OYSTERS  BY STATE DURING 1966.
            FROM U. S. FISH  AND WILDLIFE  SERVICE, BUREAU OF
                           COMMERCIAL FISHERIES).
(FIGURES
State
Maryland
Virginia
Washington
Texas
Louisiana
Florida
South Carolina
Mississippi
Alabama
California
North Carolina
New Jersey
Connecticut
Oregon
Georgia
New York
Massachusetts
Delaware
Maine
TOTALS
Founds
12,068,785
9,232,821
7,835,300
4,725,000
4,622,686
4,291,900
2,614,816
2,235,385
1,304,314
737,362
724,265
669, 043
336,100
185,000
181,861
176, 603
62,800
45,066
4,118
52,117,000
Value, dollars
7,861,846
6,741,326
2,050,000
1,837,600
1,944,995
1,343,000
1,066,734
597,324
606,538
432, 936
398, 884
765, 087
675,371
55, 000
63, 563
325, 860
162,639
35, 518
4,972
26,162,000
    The tidal waters of the Chesapeake provide an excellent environment for oyster
production.  The salinity range of Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay excludes
the starfish, which is one of the oyster's most effective predators, and boring snails
are restricted to the lower eastern shore.  Two natural predators, the oyster parasite
Minchinia nelsoni (MSX), and a marine fungus Dermocystidium marinum.  are present
in about one-third of the Bay's waters and have caused extensive mortalities.

    The productivity of the oyster beds has declined during the last 100 years because
of over-exploitation, neglect, and mismanagement.  Since 1961, Maryland has invested
about $3. 3 million annually in an effort to restore the productivity of this resource.
The effort has been based on (1) use of shell deposits that have accumulated in Chesa-
peake Bay over the centuries as oyster clutch and (2) the application of "farming"
practices  to the management of the oyster bars.  Between 3 and 4 million bushels of
dredged shells have been planted annually since 1961 in the several state seed areas.
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    Legislation enacted in 1967 and 1968 by the Maryland General Assembly provides
a basis for placing the public oyster fishery of the state on a self-sustaining,  nonsub-
sidized basis.  A Fisheries Research and Development Fund was  created in 1967, to be
administered by the Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs and to be expended for "re-
pletion of fisheries resources, marketing of fisheries products, and related research".
The Fund, which  may be used to match Federal funds available for similar purposes,
receives most of  the revenues collected under the provisions of Article 66C relating to
tidewater resources including royalties paid for shells, taxes,  fines, license fees,
sales of seed oysters, etc.  The Department may also sell up to 50 percent of all seed
oysters produced annually in excess of one million bushels to private planters.  The
1968 General Assembly enacted a new schedule of oyster taxes  which can be expected
to yield revenues well in excess of $600,000 annually.
Blue Crabs

    The blue crab catch fluctuates widely from year to year.  Harvests in 1965 and
1966 exceeded those of any previous year for which records are available (back to 1880).
Virginia leads Maryland in production of blue crabs while their combined catch is about
50 percent of United States production of this specie.   Maryland's secondary position in
crab production is partly attributable to more stringent controls over gear and season.
Significant quantities of crabs are taken in Maryland by noncommercial crabbers, but
no reliable statistics are available on the size of the catch.
 Soft Shell Clams

     Chesapeake Bay northward from the Little Choptank on the eastern shore and from
 the Potomac on the western shore is near the southern limit of the range of soft shell
 clams.  The high water temperatures of late summer approach the critical upper limit
 for the species, but only one widespread mortality of serious proportions is known to
 have occurred during the past decade.

     Before 1952, about 95 percent of the United States catch of soft shell clams was
 taken and marketed in the New England states.   Introduction of the escalator harvester
 in Maryland, making possible the exploitation of subtidal populations of clams,  occurred
 almost simultaneously with the beginning of a long period of decline in New England
 supplies.   By 1962,  Maryland was accounting for more than 70 percent of the total
 catch.  Since 1964, however, New England supplies have increased,  reducing Maryland's
 proportion of the total catch to 59 percent in 1966  (Table H-6).  Future growth of Mary-
 land's soft shell clam fishery appears to depend on increased demand for the product,
 the status of New England supplies,  and geographic expansion of the fishery within
 Maryland's tidal waters.
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  TABLE H-6.  PRODUCTION OF SOFT SHELL CLAMS BY STATE  DURING 1966
State
Maryland
Maine
Massachusetts
Virginia
New York
New Jersey
TOTAL
Quantity,
thousands of pounds
7,007
3,008
1,039
398
282
72
11,806
Value,
thousands of dollars
1,650
1,387
676
87
86
29
3,964
Source: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
Finfish

    Maryland leads the United States in production of striped bass.  The catch usually
accounts for about one-third of the total value of Maryland's catch of finfish.  It reached
an all-time high of 5.4 million pounds in 1961, and has averaged 3. 5 million pounds an-
nually since that year.  About 60 percent of the catch is taken during the spawning run
when the fish are concentrated in the tributaries and highly vulnerable to capture by
gill nets.

    Maryland's commercial finfishery has undergone a profound change during the
past 20 years.  Fishing effort has shifted from expensive gear such as pound nets and
haul seines to relatively inexpensive gill nets. Many full-time fishermen have turned
to other employment to be replaced by more than an equal number of seasonal fisher-
men, operating almost exclusively during the striped bass spawning season. Decreases
in catch of valuable migrant fishes such as bluefish, flounder, croaker,  and spot are
attributable not only to decreased availability but to changes in methods  of fishing.
There is no indication that the trend will be reversed.
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    The value of Maryland's sports fishery is undetermined, but it is believed that its
contribution to the economy of the state is many times that of the commercial fin-
fisheries.  An extensive creel census conducted in 1962 as a joint effort of the Chesa-
peake Biological Laboratory and the Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs provides
the basis for an estimate that sports fishermen probably catch more than twice as
many striped bass as are taken by commercial fishermen.

    Because of the conflicts between sports fishing and commercial fishing interests,
and because commercial fishing effort is severly restricted by the laws of the state,
there appears to be little likelihood that Maryland's commercial production of finfish
will increase significantly.
SHORE EROSION*

    Shore erosion is a problem to the entire Chesapeake Bay shore, but only the
Maryland portion has received comprehensive study.  In any future study of this prob-
lem, it would be desirable to include all of the Chesapeake shore because the deposition
and erosion of material in all areas is interdependent.

    Shore erosion results in destruction of property and filling of navigation channels.
The study conducted by Slaughter specified the quantity of shore erosion by Maryland
county.  Over a 90-year period, Maryland has had a net loss of 24,712  acres or 274
acres per year.  This loss is slightly more severe on the eastern than on the western
shore.  The islands, with 19 percent of the total measured shoreline on the  Bay,  flbf-
fered 31 percent of the net acreage loss.  Most of the land lost on the eastern shore
has been marshland with little economic value.  Lands  lost on the western shore have
been of higher elevations and greater value for development purposes.

    Slaughter identified those navigation improvement projects which were neces-
sitated,  at least in part, by shore erosion.  Expenditures on these projects  for new
work and maintenance totaled $4 million.   He estimated that $591,000 of the main-
tenance costs were directly attributable to deposition of shore-eroded material.
RECREATION

    The most startling aspect of recreational development of the Chesapeake Bay is
the lack of public development.  This large body of protected water which seems physi-
ographically well-suited to recreational pursuits is being used extensively for transpor-
tation, national defense activities, and commercial fishing.  Reasons for this lack of
public recreational development are both political and biological.  It is used extensively
for private recreation.
*Turbid H. Slaughter, "The Shore Erosion Measurements", Bulletin 6. Shore Erosion
 in Tidewater Maryland (1949).
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Political Restraints on Recreational Development

    There has been very little interest among political subdivisions on the densely
settled Western Shore of the Bay to make land available for high-density recreation.
In an area where highly concentrated populations could make use of bay-oriented re-
creation areas, the land generally is held in private hands.  This restricts access to
a selected group of high-income users.  It also permits selective exclusion of "unde-
sirable" groups from using recreation facilities.
Biological Restraints on Recreational Development

    Water around the Baltimore area is unsuited for water-contact recreation because
of poor water quality.  Industrial wastes are introduced in the immediate harbor area.
Rivers around Baltimore are polluted with organic waste from sewage treatment plants,
storm sewers,  and septic tank overflows (discussed under Waste Assimilation).

    Infestation of Bay waters by a stinging jellyfish, commonly referred to as the sea
nettle, almost eliminates swimming during August in parts of the Bay.   Researchers
working on control measures have recently identified a natural enemy in the form of a
native snail which eats the sea nettle larvae.  Funds have recently been appropriated
for further snail research and for research into other methods of control. *
Extent of Outdoor Recreation

    Recreation on the Chesapeake Bay is centered around private summer and per-
manent residences, and private marinas.  There is no information available on the
number of recreation-oriented private dwellings on Bay locations but information on
marinas has been collected. **

    Recreational Boating.  In 1965 there were 308 marinas in Maryland, all but 20 of
these were located on the Chesapeake Bay or its estuarine tributaries.   About 19,000
mooring slips were provided  on waters with access to the Bay. The marina distribu-
tion throughout the state is presented in Table H-7. ***
  *Paul Farragut, op. cit. , p 53-54.
 **Maryland State Planning Department, Maryland's Outdoor Recreation Plan, Interim
   Report, Baltimore (April,  1966), p. 28.
***See: Boating Almanac, 1968,  Vol.  3, New York: G. W. Bromley and Company,  Inc.
   Gale H. Lyon,  Economic Analysis of Marinas in Maryland, unpublished doctoral
   dissertation, University of Maryland (1967).
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     TABLE H-7.  NUMBER OF MARINAS, SLIPS, AND SLIPS PER MARINA,
                                MARYLAND 1965
County
Anne Arundel
Baltimore
(and Baltimore City)
Cecil
Calvert
St. Mary's
Queen Annes
Harford
Kent
Talbot
Charles
Dorchester
Prince Georges
Worcester
Somerset
Garrett
Wicomico
TOTAL
Marinas
95
50

29
17
17
10
11
17
19
7
12
2
11
3
5
3
308
Slips
6,066
3,261

3,019
932
859
808
795
737
705
566
456
456
455
208
122
115
19,559
Slips Per Marina
65
85

104
58
51
81
72
46
39
81
38
228
41
69
24
38
64
Source: Lyon, op. cit.
Note: The economic significance of Maryland's marinas is discussed in
Appendix A of this report, "Impact of Marinas".
    There are extensive data on recreational boat registration compiled by the Maryland
Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs and the U. S.  Coast Guard.  In 1967, Maryland
registered over 62,000 recreational boats on the Chesapeake Bay, plus  1,200 to 1,500
documented yachts. *  In Virginia, over 55,000 boats were registered, but these are not
all in the Bay area. **  There are also an estimated  20,000 craft using the Bay which
are unregistered because they are powered by engines under 7-1/2 horsepower. *** On
the basis of these figures it is estimated that there are approximately 120,000 recrea-
tional boats on the Chesapeake Bay.  Ten thousand registered boats in Maryland are
with owners residing out of the state,  providing a significant inflow of expenditures to
the state by recreational boaters.
  *Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs,  1967 Boating Report,  Annapolis.
 **U. S. Coast Guard, Boating Statistics, 1967.
***Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs,  private communication.
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    Of the 66,000 registered boats in Maryland, 44,000 are kept on the water.  There
are about 19,000 marina slips available for public use, signifying that there are around
25,000 private water berths.  In addition, 22,000 boats are kept at home and trailered
to the point of launching.  It is estimated that over 80 percent of these boats are used
on the Bay.

    Sport Fishing.  The total sports finfish catch for the Bay is estimated to be three
times as large as the commercial finfish cast (see Table H-8).  The spending of sports
fishermen in the Bay communities has a substantial economic impact on the local
economies.  There are no firm estimates on the contribution of the Bay's sport fishing
      TABLE H-8.  COMPARISON  OF COMMERCIAL AND SPORTS FINFISH
                       CATCH, CHESAPEAKE BAY, 1962
Species
Striped bass
White perch
Spot
Hardhead
Trout
Bluefish
Eels
Sunfish
Yellow perch
Catfish
TOTAL
Commercial
Landings,
pounds
3,910,000
1,960,000
27,000
5,900
194,000
63,000
114, 000
22,000
150,000
297,000
6,743,000
Estimated Sports -fish Catch,
pounds
9,340,000
7,300,000
81, 000
2,400
2,200
1,200,000
268, 000
46,000
22, 000
170, 000
18,400,000
Source: Elser, H.J. , Chesapeake Bay Creel Census, 1962, Natural
Resources Institute (1965).
                                    H-20

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activity to the local economies, but it is known that the number of participants through-
out the Bay and the Maryland and Virginia tributaries is substantial. * A majority of
boaters on the Bay use their craft,  at least in part, for fishing. **

    Promotional Activities.  Fishing tournaments, sailing regattas,  and power-boat
races  are organized for the enjoyment of the recreational boaters and observers in the
Bay region.   An annual "Chesapeake Appreciation Day" is conducted under the auspices
of a regional association of yachtsmen and features races between the famed Maryland
Skipjacks.  Annapolis conducts an annual Clam Festival,  which attracts  thousands of
visitors to that city.  There is at least one biweekly newspaper, and one local radio
station directed towards  Bay-oriented recreational and commercial activities.
PLANNING FOR WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT

    To a large extent, waterfront and shoreline development on the Chesapeake Bay
has been determined by the necessity and desire to develop the  Bay for commercial
fishing and shipping,  recreation, and national defense.  Future waterfront development
will determine how these use patterns will change with the changing demographic and
business environment of the Bay community.   To illustrate how this change is now being
accommodated, two projects have been selected for detailed discussion: the Baltimore
Inner-Harbor Plan, and Anne Arundel County-Suburban Development.
Baltimore Inner-Harbor Plan

     Background.  On the Maryland portion of,Chesapeake Bay, the hub of commercial
activity is at the City of Baltimore.  Baltimore has been a major shipping link between
the Atlantic Coast and the Ohio valley for 150 years.  Its commerce, as well as its sea-
food industry is dependent upon the estuarine resources of the Chesapeake Bay.   The
nation's largest steel mill and related ship yards are located adjacent to Baltimore at
Sparrow's Point.  The "Clipper Ships", which made the City of Baltimore known
throughout the world, illustrate the city's historical ties with the Bay.  The city's
greatest historical event, the siege of Fort Me Henry, was a battle to break the blockade
of Chesapeake Bay.

    Despite its historical and commercial ties with Chesapeake Bay, there is relatively
little opportunity for Baltimoreans to be involved in waterfront related activities be-
cause the  shoreline area is occupied by heavy industry and port development.  The
 *Edgar H. Hollis, "Commercial and Sport Fisheries", Problems of the Potomac
  Estuary. Proceedings. Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (1964).
  C. E.  Richards,  "A Survey.of Salt-Water Fishing in Virginia, 1955-1960", Chesapeake
  Science.  Vol. 3, No.  4(1962).
**Lyon, op. cit.
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Inner-Harbor Plan is an attempt to make the waterfront more attractive and
accessible.

    The Plan's Objectives.  The Inner-Harbor Plan is conceived as a joint private-
municipal-federal venture to encourage interaction between the residents of the urban
seaport and the Bay.  The primary purpose of the Inner-Harbor Plan, as it typifies
urban waterfront renewal on estuaries throughout the country, are as follows:*

    (1)  To renew the Inner-Harbor environment at minimum expense to the public.

    (2)  To eliminate the existing drain on the city treasury from blight and
        obsolescence.

    (3)  To create opportunities for enjoyment of the waterfront for persons of all
        ages, income, and backgrounds.

    (4)  To develop new downtown employment and business opportunities.

    (5)  To increase net tax returns to the city by $1. 5 million annually for a total
        municipal investment of $15 million.

    (6)  To create a new image for the city around the dramatic setting of the harbor.

    New Harbor Facilities.  The major features of the 110-acre project site will
cover all aspects of the Bay environment.  Baltimore's role as a major port of entry
will be highlighted by construction of a World Trade Center, under the auspices of the
Maryland Port Authority.  A new marine museum will emphasize the city's historical
importance as a maritime center.  The Inner-Harbor will be closed off to commercial
shipping, to accommodate recreational boating facilities in the heart of the city.  This
will include marinas, restaurants, and overnight "boatels". **

    Other features to be included in the Inner-Harbor Plan are not, in themselves,
directly related to waterfront activities, but will serve to attract people to the water-
front and its improved environment.  These include a science center under the Maryland
Academy of Science, extensive park areas, commercial recreation, apartments,  re-
ligious facilities, office and commercial structures,  and adequate parking facilities.

    Harbor Environment.  The Inner-Harbor and Charles Center project will trans-
form downtown Baltimore into an environment of modern architecture and open space.
At the same time, however, other environmental problems have not been dealt with.
If present conditions prevail, the project will be attracting people to an area where
little has been done to remedy serious air and water-pollution problems. ***
  *Inner-Harbor Project I Summary Fact Sheet,  Inner-Harbor Management,  Inc. ,
   One Charles Center, Baltimore.
 **Appendix A.
***Dee, Horn, Sculley, and Weil, Report on the Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland,
   The Johns Hopkins University Water Sciences and Management Program,  Baltimore
   (1967), p 11.
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    Air pollution in the Harbor area is a nuisance and potential health threat.  Water
pollution is complicated by a lack of exchange of water between the Inner Harbor and
the main harbor outside.  Much of the water pollution of the Inner Harbor is attribut-
able to municipal and industrial wastes derived from Jones Falls, the harbor's prin-
cipal feeder tributary.  Storm runoff from downtown Baltimore is also considered to
be a major source of contaminants. *

    The  Inner Harbor report** suggests that pollution would have a deleterious effect
upon the  overall environment of the Inner Harbor, and thus pn the redevelopment pro-
ject.  It recommends treatment measures be used to improve the quality of inflows
from Jones Falls and storm drains around the harbor. While not prohibiting any of
the planned functions at the site, the effects of oils, solids, industrial dyes and metal-
lic wastes, coal dust, and organic pollution would significantly reduce the aesthetic
appeal of the Inner Harbor Plan.  Strangely,  initial plans for the project had no con-
cern for  the possible detrimental effects of water pollution, nor was there any attempt
in the plans to define what these effects would be.
Anne Arundel County-Suburban Development

     Anne Arundel County, Maryland, on the west short of Chesapeake Bay, south of
Baltimore, is unique because of its Bay-oriented activities.  The county's only city is
at Annapolis, a small metropolitan area of 30,000 people.  The county differs from
Baltimore in its Bay-orientation, for while the latter is using the public sector to
stimulate new associations with the Bay, the former is doing so via the private sector.

     Anne Arundel County contains 95 marinas, about 30 percent of Maryland's entire
marina capacity, and about 10 percent of its population. *** It is a leading center for
sail  craft, a major seafood center, and the homes of the United States Naval  Academy.

    The  county's privately-owned marinas are mostly in or adjacent to Annapolis.
Most of the Chesapeake Bay shoreline and many smaller tributary estuaries in the
county are dotted with private residential development with direct access to the Bay.
There is one state park in the county which has a major bathing beach and several
municipal beaches.  By and large, however, the majority of shoreline in the county
is private and recreational.
  *See: Chesley F.  Garland, A Study of Water Quality in Baltimore Harbor. Publi-
   cation No.  96,  Maryland Board of Natural Resources (1952).
   Stroup,  Pritehard, and Carpenter, Final Report — Baltimore Harbor Study.
   Technical Report No. 25 (1961).
   L L. Whitman,  Physical Conditions of Streams in Baltimore and Their Relation to
   Park Areas. Department of Public Works and Recreation and Parks, Baltimore
   (1966).
 **Dee, et al.,  op. cit
***Gale H.  Lyon,  Economic Analysis of Marinas in Maryland,  unpublished Doctoral
   Thesis, University of Maryland (1967)

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     Limited Public Access.  The growing popularity of boating has made property in
Annapolis with Bay access extremely valuable.  In addition to attracting people from
Washington and Baltimore, the Annapolis area is now developing as a regional center
for science and light industry, further taxing the boating facilities in the region and
increasing the demand for new facilities.

     Unlike the City of Baltimore, Annapolis and Anne Arundel County have few plans
for public development of their waterfronts. Because of the great expanse of shore-
line in the county, far more people can utilize the Bay and realize its amenities than
in a limited area such as Baltimore.  However, because of the predominance of
private-shoreline development in the county, public access and use is limited for non-
owners of waterfront  real estate.

     The City of Annapolis is aware  that more public access to the waterfront is needed.
Presently the city does not appear to have the resources to develop its own waterfront,
particularly under conditions of land-value inflation.  Thus, the majority of public ac-
tivity towards  waterfront development is determining patterns of use through zoning.
They do have a capital improvement program, however, slated to spend $1. 5 million
by 1972 for more dock space and tourist facilities (Table H-9). *  About 70 percent of
these expenditures are to be city financed,  the remainder will draw upon available
state and federal funds.
PROVISIONS FOR OPEN  SPACE ON CHESAPEAKE BAY SHORELINE

    The bulk of this chapter has discussed the problems which have resulted from the
interaction of Bay area residents and the natural resource base.  The unique combina-
tion of land, rivers, and tidal bay waters which are naturally found in the estuarine
zone have been developed intensively along the western and southern shores of the Bay.
These areas are also valuable for wildlife and for recreation because of the sheltered
land-water interface.  The conflict between intensive and natural uses results from
their inability to exist adjacent to each other under present conditions.  Up until now,
most of these conflicts have been settled in the marketplace.  Lands have been pur-
chased and developed in ways which are compatible with adjacent land-based activities.
In the future, it is hoped that land development along the estuary will be planned to be
compatible with the natural resources of the estuary.  A survey conducted by the
Battelle research team of the Baltimore and Virginia counties bordering the estuary
revealed some agencies with very sophisticated plans,  some with plans presently being
developed, and others with no master development plans.  Almost all of the counties
responding to the survey are using some zoning procedures to regulate bay-shore
development.
*City of Annapolis, Capital Improvements Program (1968-1972).
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            TABLE  H-9.  PROPOSED WATERFRONT  IMPROVEMENTS,
                            ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND
Year
1968
1968
1969
1969
1970
1971
1972
Project
Enlarge and improve City
dock
Acquire property,
Compromise St.
Acquire remainder, and
develop Compromise
St. property
Public safety
Complete city dock and
market space plan
Start Bembe Point
project
Bembe Point project
and city marina
Cost,
dollars
200,000
225,000
275,000
25,000
175,000
200,000
400,000
City
Contribution,
dollars
50, 000
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transportation. *  Of the 8,200 acres of industrial zoned land vacant in Baltimore
County, 21 percent or 1,690 acres has potential access to deep-water channels or to
port facilities. The study found all of this land to be unsuitable for development in its
present state because of a lack of drainage facilities.  Most of the land being con-
sidered was marsh.

    The preliminary master plan report for Patapsco Neck Planning Area includes
attempts to coordinate intensive land use and open space in an "economical and de-
sirable manner". **  Patapsco Neck is a residential and industrial area between the
confluence of the Back and Patapsco Rivers in Baltimore  County.  The plan attempts
to provide a public elementary school on a large  site to be used as  a recreation cen-
ter for every one to two thousand dwellings.  In addition to the school playground
parks, Patapsco Neck had 5.2 miles of shoreline for public recreation at the time that
this preliminary report was prepared.  An additional 2. 8 miles were proposed, which
would place 15 percent of the shoreline in this use.  North of Patapsco Neck on the
Chesapeake is the Eastern Planning Area of  Baltimore County.  A Report on the
Master Plan and Comprehensive Rezoning Map for the area recommends the purchase
of land for open space with bond issues.   Two major parks are proposed along the
waterfront:  on the Hart Island Chain and Gunpowder-Dundee Park around Saltpeter
and Dundee Creeks.

    The plan proposes the construction of a  causeway -to Hart and Miller Islands, and
the filling of 200 acres on Hart Island.  The  fill for the islands and the causeways is
to come from a proposed channel-dredging project in the  Black River. This develop-
ment would give  access  to 8 miles of shoreline, doubling  the recreational waterfront
of Baltimore County.

    The proposed Gunpowder-Dundee Park is a 1000-acre tract of woody, marshy, and
cultivated land.  The Plan suggests  that some of  this land is well-suited to providing
a natural wilderness for the area.  Most of this land is now privately held.

    None of the Baltimore County areas discussed have a zoning classification for re-
creational or open-space use.   Zoning codes are used to regulate the density of dwell-
ing units,  and the type of dwellings and industrial users which may locate in particular
areas.  Open space is being considered within the housing codes  so that recreation
areas will be available in areas of high-density housing.  This type of zoning does not
necessarily preserve waterfront areas which have unique recreation or wildlife value.
 *Land for Industry — An Inventory and Analysis of Vacant Industrial Land in Baltimore
  County, Maryland, Office of Planning and Zoning, Industrial Development Commission
  (October, 1965).
**Preliminary Master Plan Report, Patapsco Neck Planning Area, Office of Planning
  and Zoning, Baltimore County (1961).
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    The waterfront in Annapolis County is presently all zoned as a maritime district.
The Planning and Zoning Commission has recommended that this zone be divided into
(1) marina activities,  recreational boating and apartments, and (2) boat building, bulk
oil plants, seafood, and heavier maritime uses.  The first zone only would include ac-
tivities which are compatible with residential uses.  There are no legal requirements
for open space in the old ordinance nor are they being suggested in the proposed ordi-
nance changes.
Eastern Shore Planning Agencies

    In the Maryland Counties of Talbot, Salisbury-Wicomico, and Dorchester there
are no formal plans for coastal development.  Salisbury-Wicomico County is presently
working on an open space and recreation plan, and they anticipate that the Stump-Point
- Ellis Bay area will be designated as a natural shoreline area.  Dorchester County
has all Bay land zoned residential.
Plans for Open Space

    Among those planning agencies who responded to Battelle inquiries, only one (Kent
County) discussed the use of land for wildlife preservation and for undeveloped open
space. In two counties there are large estuarine parks held by state and federal agen-
cies (Cecil and Prince Georges counties).  One of the plans for land use suggests a
zoning classification to include recreation and small open spaces (Baltimore-Anne
Arundel County Planning Area).

    These general findings indicate a reluctance on the part of local planning agencies
to .designate land for low-intensity use compatible with undeveloped estuarine coastal
areas. Almost the entire Chesapeake Bay shoreline is designated for private use.
Local government agencies apparently are sensitive to the desires of private users of
coastline and are not in a position  to put this land to economically less productive func-
tions.  The few major parks which do appear on the coast have been in existence for a
long time.

    Rural Area  Development.  Though estuarine areas are not available for public use,
the majority of lands adjacent to Chesapeake Bay are in rural development and will
probably remain so for many years.  Two factors are primarily responsible for this
lack of development.  First,  there is resistence by landowners to change the use of
the land and open the way for "outsiders" to come in.  Secondly, these areas are rela-
tively remote.  Southern Maryland, located on the western shore of the Bay, and the
Delmarva Peninsula are removed from the primary traffic arteries of the eastern
megalopolis.

    Availability of Federal Property.  Several attempts are being made to gain public
access to federal lands in the Bay. Discussions have been held to acquire a large piece
                                      H-27

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of wooded acreage at Fort Howard for use as a park and beach.  Also, Aberdeen
Proving Grounds,  located within easy access of Baltimore, has been viewed as a pos-
sible recreation area.  At the present time, recreation facilities for employees are
operated by the base but opening this area to the public is complicated by the dangerous
nature of the work being carried out there.  This land is a valuable wildlife habitat in
its present state.
SUMMARY

    The Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries have served as a focal point for settlement
since the first colony was established around 1634.  The community has benefited in
many ways from its association with the estuarine environment.  This Appendix has
focused attention on three major uses: (1) assimilation  of waste material, (2) avenues
for transportation, and (3) nursery for the local fishery. In discussing these uses,
problems have been identified which are presently creating conflicts between various
groups around the Bay.

    Problems identified are both man-made, such as water pollution and disposal of
dredged spoil, and natural, such as shore erosion and sea nettle infestation.  To max-
imize the economic benefit to the Bay community these problems must be dealt with in
an orderly fashion via planning by public agencies on local and regional bases.   A sur-
vey of planning agencies was conducted by Battelle to learn how plans are being de-
veloped in communities surrounding the Chesapeake.  The results of this survey indi-
cate that little consideration is being given to how the natural resources of the Bay can
best be used by the Bay community.  A counter example was discussed in some detail,
however, namely, the Baltimore Inner Harbor Project which is an attempt to bring the
people of the city into closer contact with the Bay environment.
                                      H-28

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                  APPENDIX I
 NOTES ON COST-BENEFIT AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
AS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF ESTUARINE POLICY
                H. R. Hamilton

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                            Page

Introduction	1-1
     Historical Background	 1-1
Standards for, Cost-Benefit Analysis   	1-2
     Definition of Benefits	1-4
     Application of Benefit-Cost Analysis 	1-7
The Use of Systems Analysis  	1-8
     Design of Model	1-8
     Type of Variables  	1-10

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                                  APPENDIX I

   NOTES ON COST-BENEFIT AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  AS APPLIED TO THE
                       ANALYSIS OF ESTUARINE POLICY

                                       by
                                H.  R.  Hamilton
INTRODUCTION

    The term "cost-benefit analysis" means different things to different people.  To
some it is viewed as a very general concept wherein increments of cost and benefits
with regard to any investment, program, or policy are compared. For instance,
Prest and Turvey state, "Cost-benefit analysis is a practical way of assessing the
desirability of projects, wherein it is important to take a long view (in the sense of
looking at repercussions in the future) and a wide view (in the sense of allowing for
side effects of many kinds on many persons, industries, regions, etc.); i. e., it  im-
plies the enumeration and evaluation of all relevant costs and benefits"*.  At the
other extreme, cost-benefit analysis is viewed by many as essentially limited to the
traditional economic analyses conducted by Federal agencies, such as the Bureau of
Reclamation and, particularly,  the United States Army Corps of Engineers, in relation
to public investments in water resource projects. The  discussion below assumes
cost-benefit analysis is a general method of incremental economic -analysis, although
it is recognized that its applications have often been rather narrow. **
Historical Background

     The term "cost-benefit analysis" has long had a close association with public in-
vestments in water resource analysis.  The River and Harbor Act (1902) required a
 *A. R.  Prest and R. Turvey, "Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Survey", The Economic
  Journal. No. 300 LXXV (December, 1965), p 683.
**Hammond states that even the Federal Government allows a wide latitude in the
  application of C/B technique: "Even the official formulas for Government use
  appear ipi Recognize the right of individual agencies to vary their practices as
  conscience or convenience may require. " R. J.  Hammond, Benefit-Cost Analysis
  and Water Pollution Control. Food Research Institute, Miscellaneous Publication
  13, Stanford University.
                                       1-1

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 board of engineers to report on the desirability of Army Corps of Engineers' river and
 harbor projects, taking into account the cost and the benefits to commerce.  Another
 act (1920) further required a statement of local or special benefits as a means of
 charging local interests with part of the cost.  Consequently, the Corps of Engineers
 worked out valuation techniques confined to tangible costs and benefits.

    In the Thirties, with the New Deal, the idea of broader social justification for
 projects developed.  The Flood Control Act of 1936  authorized Federal participation
 in flood control schemes "if the benefits to whomsoever they may accrue are in excess
 of the estimated costs".  The practice of making these analyses then spread to other
 agencies concerned with water development projects.  The purpose was not only to
 justify projects but also to help decide who should pay.

    By the end of World War n,  agencies had broadened their approaches by:

    (1)   Bringing in secondary and indirect benefits and costs

    (2)   Including intangibles.

    In 1950,  an interagency committee produced the "Green Book" - an attempt to
 codify and agree on general principles - which introduced the language of welfare
 economics. *
STANDARDS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    Senate Document No.  97, "Policies, Standards, and Procedures in the Formula-
tion, Evaluation, and Review of Plans for Use and Development of Water and Belated
Land Resources", further amplified and updated official procedures for water resource
investment analysis in the United States. This document is divided into six sections:
(1) Purpose and Scope, (2) Objectives of Planning, (3) Planning, Policies, and Proce-
dures, (4) Review of Comprehensive  Plans and Project Proposals,  (5) Standards for
Formulation and Evaluation of Plans,  and (6) Relation to Cost Allocation,  Reimburse-
ment, and Cost-sharing Policies, Standards, and Procedures.  Comments on several
of these sections appear below.

    Purpose and Scope.  The document states: "The purpose of this statement is to
establish Executive policies, standards, and procedures for uniform applications in the
formulation, evaluation, and review of comprehensive river basin plans and individual
project plans for use in development of water and related land resources....  These
provisions shall govern, insofar as they are consistent with law and other applicable
regulations, all formulation, evaluation, and review of water and land resources plans.
*Prest and Turvey, op.  cit., pp 683-684.
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Any proposed variation from these policies and standards shall be specified in planning
reports and the reasons therefore indicated. "*  It is not stated in this document that
estuarine projects and policies are considered within the preview of the procedures
enumerated, but it is the opinion of this author that the provisions of Senate Document
97 are relevant to estuarine management policies and can be used until congress
provides specific guidelines for these regions.

    Planning Objectives.  The document sets forth three purposes of planning:  (1)
economic development, (2) preservation, and (3) the well-being of the people.  In
planning for the well being of the people, "... care shall be taken to avoid resoure
use and development for the benefit of a few or the disadvantage of many". *  The intent
of this section is to avoid public investment in water resources wherein the benefits
accrue to only a small segment of the public  or to special interest groups.

    Planning, Policies, and Procedures. Section HI states that "regional,  state,  and
local objectives shall be considered and evaluated within a frame-work of national
public objectives...." and that "significant departures from a national viewpoint re-
quired to accomplish regional, state, or local objectives  shall be set forth in planning
reports...". **  The significance of this statement is that benefits derived from water
policy and  investment should be truly national in character and, if they are  not, then
their local nature should be clearly specified in planning reports.  This is an import-
ant factor which will be discussed subsequently in relation to the kinds of benefits
that may accrue from water resource programs.

    Standards for Plans.  Section V sets forth some of the details regarding the kinds
of plans that are to be submitted in justification of water resource investments.

     It states:  "Comprehensive plans shall be formulated initially to include all
    units and purposes which satisfy these criteria in quantitative economic
     terms:

     (a)  Tangible benefits exceed project economic cost

     (b)  Each separable unit or purpose provides benefits at least
         equal to its cost

     (c)  The scope of development is such as to provide maximum
         net benefits

     (d)  There is no more economical means, evaluated on a comparable
         basis, of accomplishing the same purpose or purposes which would
         then be precluded from development if the plan were undertaken. "***
   *Senate Document 97, p 1.
  **Ibid.
 ***Ibid., p 8.
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     Item (a) is a familiar benefit-cost ratio.  It should be noted that only tangible
benefits can be counted in the formal benefit-cost ratio.  It should also be noted that
in recent years analyses have been made which include estimates for such benefits as
recreation — benefits which are viewed by some as "intangible".   Item (b) seeks to
overcome a complaint that economists have  had against certain applications of benefit-
cost analysis by Government agencies  wherein the projects were extended beyond the
point where marginal costs equaled marginal benefits. *
Definition of Benefits

    Benefits are defined in Section V as "increases or gains, net of associated or in-
duced costs, in the value of goods and services which result from conditions with the
project, as compared with conditions without the project.  Benefits include tangible
and intangibles and may be classed as primary or secondary. "**

    The problem of determining the  true additions to national wealth resulting from
water-resource investment is the basis for much of the controversy surrounding
applications of benefit-cost analysis. Some of these problems are as follows:

    (1) defining the economic conditions that would exist both with and without the
        project
    (2) determining whether or not  resources committed to the project would
        have been used somewhere else if the project was not initiated

    (3) determining the economic return on alternative investment of the
        resources.

These problems are clarified somewhat in Senate Document 97 by more detailed
definitions of the classes of benefits.

    Tangible Benefits.  Tangible benefits are defined as "those benefits that can be
expressed in monetary terms based on or derived from actual or simulated market
prices for the products or services,  or, in the absence of such measures of benefits,
the cost of alternative means that would most likely be utilized to provide equivalent
products or services. "***  As defined here, tangible benefits appear to be net
increments to national wealth resulting from an investment that can be measured in
monetary terms because of existing market prices for the benefits, or because a
  *See, for instance, Hammond,  op. cit. p 14, footnote 28.
 **Senate Document 97, p 8.
***Ibid
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simulated or imputed market price can be derived. * For example, a sewage treat-
ment plant may allow shell fishing to be conducted on a previously closed bed.  The net
value  of the  catch would be considered a net increment to national wealth.  The invest-
ment in the sewage system would be responsible for the benefit stream.  In addition,
if an imputed value can be given to increased recreation enjoyment in the area,
simulated market prices can be derived for the products.

    Intangible Benefits.  Intangible benefits are defined as "those benefits which are
not fully measurable in monetary terms or capable of such expression in formal analy-
sis. "**  This definition of intangibles is interesting,  since it seems to imply that the
difference between tangible and intangible benefits depends upon the "state of the art"
of the economist's trade at any given point in time.  Thus, if a method is found to
impute prices or values to a heretofore  considered intangible,  it then becomes a
tangible.  It would appear that the incorporation of dollar values for recreation bene-
fits into cost-benefit analyses may have marked a change in  attitude of many people
who previously considered recreation benefits intangible.  As late as 1960, Hammond
was skeptical about the  relevancy of recreation benefits to cost-benefit calculations. ***

    Primary Benefits.  Primary benefits are defined as "the value of goods and ser-
vices directly resulting from the project**** less associated costs incurred in realiza-
tion of the benefits and induced costs not included in project  costs.  "*****  This defini-
tion replaces the words 'primary" with "directly" but does not describe the meaning
ascribed to the word direct.  However,  there seems to be general  agreement that
primary benefits involve what might be  the "main" purposes for which a project or
system of projects are  initiated. For instance, some of these main uses may be
water supply, power, navigation, irrigation, etc.  These uses are directed at producing
goods of some kind. Here there is some "commodity", such as power or lower cost
transportation,  which can be evaluated in terms of being sold in one sense or another.

    Secondary Benefits.  The concept of secondary benefits  denotes potential increases
in income (and employment) which are "spun off" as a result of the primary benefits.
Such  benefits might  "stem" from a project; e. g., the additional employment and in-
come generated by a cannery that cans the fish from the additional fish catch  attribut-
able to a water resource investment or  policy. Or the benefits might be "induced",
     *McKean argues against the "net increment to national wealth" concept.  He
      argues that "attention be focused on the increments rather than on large aggregates
      which reflect offsetting pecuniary effects. " R. N. McKean, Efficiency in
      Government through Systems Analysis, (New York: J.  Wiley and Sons, 1966),
      p!45.
    **Senate Document 97,  p 8.
   ***Hammond, op. cit.
 ****Note use of word "project", which illustrates the project rather than systems
      orientation that has been evident in Government applications of benefit-cost
      analysis.
 *****Senate Document 97,  p 9.

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such as the extra profits made by equipment manfacturers selling to the fish-
ermen. *

    Analyses concerning secondary benefits have been the most controversial part
of cost-benefit analysis. **  Economists tend to agree that "secondary activities
induced by a water resource project are,  under conditions of full employment,
likely to be off-set by decreases elsewhere in the economy". *** As a result,
Ciriacy-Wantrup has recommended that such benefits be entirely excluded from
consideration in cost-benefit analyses of public investments. ****

    In reviewing arguments of economists on the secondary benefit question, it is not
clear whether they feel that such secondary benefits are nonexistent or whether they
feel that measurement is too complex to undertake.  For instance, Hammond argues
that "if one is attempting an evaluation on a nationwide scale,... the case for ex-
cluding secondary benefits seems overwhelming,  if only because once they are
admitted there is  no logical point down the endless chains of results at which one
can halt". ***** Certainly, the calculation of secondary benefits may be very difficult,
but this cannot be used as an argument that they do not exist.  In situations where
resources, either physical or human, are idle, secondary benefits could well be
substantial.  Furthermore, national policy in recent years has focused on regions
of the nation with  above average unemployment levels of people and resources.
While one  may question the economic efficiency of such policies from the point of
view of maximizing national wealth, the point is that such policies exist. In these
cases, the "spinoff" benefits may be critical elements in project or program eval-
uations and must normally be estimated.

    In many cases, it might be necessary to admit that the benefits estimated may be
largely regional rather than national. Perhaps itvis necessary to label them as some-
thing different from secondary benefits in order to emphasize that they are not truly
national in character.

    A  review of the cost-benefit literature leads one to believe that many of the
arguments about cost-benefit analysis revolve around the ways that it has been
applied, rather than its ultimate usefulness. Arguments against the degree of
accuracy with which things can be measured seem (as used by Hammond, for
instance) non sequitur.  In many cases some decision must be made.  It is believed
that it  is better to make the decision based on informed quantitative judgments than
    *Prest and Turvey, op.  cit., p 689.
   **Hammond, op.  cit.,  p 34.
  ***Hammond, op.  cit.,  p 34.
 ****S. V. Ciriacy-Wantrup,  "Benefit-Cost Analysis and Public Resource Develop-
     ment", Journal of Farm Economics (Norvember, 1955), p 680.
*****Hammond, op.  cit.,  p 34.
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upon qualitative assertions. Further, it appears that cost-benefit analysis is really
little more than incremental economic analysis. Too much emphasis has been put
on the fact that a cost-benefit ratio is calculated.  If cost-benefit analysis is defined
broadly,  arguments against it seem to be arguments against economic analysis in
general.
Application of Benefit-Cost Analysis

    The increments of costs (including capital or investment costs) and benefits
that are generated may result from the implementation of a policy as well as a public
investment in "concrete or iron".  One might make a cost-benefit analysis of a set of
water-quality standards for an estuary.   The costs involved would result from the
investments and expenses needed to maintain the standards, and the  benefits would
result from the alleviation of water-use conflicts involving pollution. Thus, estuarine
programs and policies might be evaluated by cost-benefit analysis, properly conceived
and executed.

    In the past, cost-benefit analysis has often been tied to specific  water resource
investment projects. For instance,  the cost-benefit ratios are quoted for a dam in
many Corps of Engineer's reports, even though the dam may be part of the compre-
hensive river basin plan.  Unless various proposed dams within a basin are entirely
independent in terms of the costs involved and the benefits induced,  one would expect
a whole range of benefit-cost ratios resulting from alternative configurations of the
systems of dams recommended. * Or, one would expect a cost-benefit ratio for the
entire system.

     The above criticism of current uses of the cost-benefit method in no way impugns
the ability of the methodology as applied to a total system.  Senate Document 97 in no
way says cost-benefit analysis must be tied to projects.   In the real world, however,
the evaluation of a complete system is much more difficult than the evaluation of a
given project, particularly when project-oriented analyses are allowed to assume that
the world  external to the project remains constant.  Clearly, however,  programs,
policies, and investments relating to estuaries must involve a systems-analysis
approach, since most estuarine programs will have widespread ramifications across
a number of estuarine uses.  In light of this fact,  the section below describes the
rudiments of an estuarine model which might be useful in terms of applying benefit-
cost analysis to estuarine problems.  In this section cost-benefit analysis and sys-
tems analysis are viewed as identical.  Systems analysis techniques are suggested
merely as the means for generating the streams of costs and benefits as they would
occur over time.
 *See:  J.V. Krutilla, Sequence and Timing in River Basin Development, Resources
  for the Future, Inc., Washington, D. C. (February, 1960).
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THE USE OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    The term "systems analysis" has as many alternative meanings as does benefit-
cost analysis.  Basically, the concept of systems analysis merely denotes the inclu-
sion of all significant variables relating to the topic under study within the framework
of one analysis. Systems analysis attempts to approach a problem as a totality,
recognizing interactive and mutually dependent characteristics of the problem.

    In practice, systems analysis employs mathematical models and uses the com-
puter as a tool.  These circumstances occur because (1) most real-world systems
cannot be subjected to experiment, whereas a mathematical model can be simulated,
altered,  etc.; (2) mathematical models are useful abstractions since they can relate
more variables than the human mind can grasp; and (3) computer's are low-cost means
of experimenting with the models that are developed.
Design of Model

    The management of most estuaries involves complex technical and economic rela-
tionships which are difficult to study in isolation. A systems analysis of these estu-
aries will include factors such as the physical flow of water in the estuary, the
biological life in the estuary, the effects of various  levels of pollutants on the biologi-
cal life, the population in the region adjacent to the  estuary, industrial development
around the estuary, the transportation  variables related to commercial shipping, and
a host of other factors discussed in the main body of the report.

    In addition to handling many interrelated factors, the system will involve rela-
tionships of a feedback nature.  For instance, Figure 1-1 shows what the systems
analyst terms a feedback loop.  Here the level of industrial activity in the region
causes pollution.  Pollution precipitates a public reaction, and the public reaction in
   Industrial
    Activity
Pollution
           Abatement
              Costs
                                                                     Public
                                                                    Reaction
                                       1-8

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turn imposes costs on industry needed to reduce the pollution level.  Finally, the
costs imposed may affect further industrial location or expansion in the region, thus
changing the level of economic activity from that which it would have ordinarily
attained in absence of the public reaction.

    A third technical feature concerns the fact that there is no reason to expect that
the complex relationships involved in estuaries would be linear or independent of
time.

    Given these four factors - namely, large numbers of variables, feedback,  non-
linearities, and time-variant functions — simulation is the only feasible approach by
which we can explore mathematical models of estuarine situations.  Subsequent to
the initial formulation of simulation models which will aid in more rigorous defini-
tion and understanding of the systems involved, however, it might be possible to
devise other kinds of models which provide "optimum" solutions to specific questions
if we can define some criterion for judging optimality.

    A systems model of an estuary would be useful in answering the following kinds
of questions:

     (1) How will the growth of economic activity around the estuary affect
        pollution loading ?

     (2) What would be the effects on growth, pollution, biological life,  and
        recreation in connection with a large port development project ?
     (3) What might be the effect on a local fishery and its associated employ-
        ment and incomes if we allow pollution to reach specified levels ?
     (4) What would be the effect of regulation concerning land reclamation in
        an estuary on (a) fish and wildlife, (b) recreation,  and (c) industrial
        and residential development ?

     (5) What would be the effect on pollution and industrial development of
        removing a military establishment from a given estuary ?
     (6) What might be the effect of oil production on the economy of an
        estuarine region and what conflicts might it create within the estuary ?
     Other questions of the type listed above surely come to mind in light of the con-
flicts and trade-offs  between estuarine uses discussed in the body of the report.

    A number of different kinds of factors  must be used in any systems model that
is developed.  It is convenient to separate these factors into two classes:  variables
and parameters.  In the context of modeling, a variable may be roughly described
as a quantity whose magnitude changes over the time-period of interest in the
modeling analysis.  In contrast to variables, parameters may be considered constant
over the time period of interest in the analysis.
                                      1-9

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 Type of Variables

     The variables in a model may be further classified as endogenous and exogenous.
 An endogenous variable is one whose behavior over time results from its relationship
 with other variables in the model (both exogenous and endogenous).  In contrast, an
 exogenous variable has a behavior that is prescribed in advance to model esperimen-
 tations.  The values of the exogenous variables are not affected by the behavior of
 any of the other variables.  Table 1-1 lists some of the exogenous and endogenous
 variables, as well as several of the parameters, that might be included in an estu-
 rine model.  It should be noted that whether a factor is an exogenous or endogenous
 variable or a parameter can only be determined in light of a given situation.  Thus,
 the factors listed in Table 1 might be recategorized in specific situations.
  TABLE 1-1.  EXOGENOUS AND ENDOGENOUS VARIABLES AND PARAMETERS
           OF A HYPOTHETICAL ESTUARINE SIMULATION MODEL
     Exogenous Variables
Endogenous Variables
    Parameters
General technology
Hydrological variables
National economic values
   and trends
Estuarine policy, program and
   investment alternatives
 Fish population
 Water quality
 Economic growth
 Recreational benefits
 Wildlife benefits
 Land values
 Water demand
Water withdrawals by
  (1) Domestic users
  (2) Industrial users
  (3) Others users
Water consumption by
  (1) Domestic users
  (2) Industrial users
  (3) Other users
    The construction of a simulation model for use in estuarine management is a
major task. However, such a task is not without precedent.  The study of the Dela-
ware Estuary by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration included a
physical model of this estuary. * Taken as variables exogenous to this model were
economic activity and resultant pollution loads, as well as projections of water use.
Levels of pollution were then endogenously computed.  Exogenous to the model were
values of economic benefits to be gained.  The model used was highly complex but
limited to the physical characteristics of the estuary.
*R. V.  Thomann,  "Use of Systems Analysis in Estuarine Water Pollution Control",
 New Horizons for Resources Research:  Issues & Methodology, 1964, Western
 Resources Conference, University of Colorado Press, Boulder, Colorado (1965),
 pp47-59.
                                     1-10

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    A contrasting approach was utilized by Battelle in a study of the Susquehanna
River Basin. * Here,  an economic model was tied to a hydrologic model in an
attempt to show interrelationships between the economy and the water variables.
If one expects that the economy of an estuary will affect the estuary, as it must»
and that the effects on the estuary may affect the economy, as seems highly likely
in many situations, then a feedback situation exists and a systems model of the
simulation type,  like the Susquehanna model,  may be warranted.  Such models
are not simply constructed.  They require many tenuous assumptions. But they
would make explicit our best knowledge about the complex, interactive estuarine
systems, and their expense would represent only a small fraction of the economic
values at stake.
 *H.R. Hamilton, et al,  A Dynamic Model of the Economy of the Susquehanna River
  Basin, Battelle Memorial Institute (August, 1966).
                                     1-11

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        APPENDIX J
 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
            ON
ESTUARINE ECONOMIC STUDIES

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                         TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                 Page
INTRODUCTION  	   J-i
ABSTRACTS	   J-l
INDEX	,	J-191

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                                  APPENDIX J

                          ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

                                       on

                        ESTUARINE ECONOMIC STUDIES
INTRODUCTION

    This bibliography was compiled *or the purpose of providing detailed subject ac-
cess to the literature on estuarine economics identified during the course of the pro-
ject, "The Identification of the Economic and Social Importance of Estuarines in the
United States", performed under Contract No. 14-12-115.  The abstracts are slanted
to reflect those aspects of the literature pertinent to estuarine economics; other as-
pects,  not important to the project, are not necessarily covered.  The subject index
has the same orientation.

    The abstracts are, for the most part,  of the indicative type — intended to describe
the content of the references (as they pertain to estuarine economics) without relating
specific details.  They are arranged in alphabetical order by first author or, in the
case of anonymous articles, by the first significant word in the title.

    The references listed in the bibliography have been indexed using the Water Re-
sources Thesaurus*, and according to procedures compatible with those stated in the
Instructions for Abstracting and Indexing Scientific and Technical Documents for the
Water Resources Scientific Information Center**.

    All index terms associated with each article are listed in the bibliography im-
mediately following the abstract.  The terms considered most descriptive of the cen-
tral theme of the article are preceded by asterisks and printed in upper-case letters.
The lower-case terms represent topics judged to be of secondary importance; they
are presented for the convenience of those using the bibliography as input to informa-
tion systems, or otherwise requiring in-depth indexing.
  *Water Resources Thesaurus.  U. S.  Department of the Interior, Office of Water Re-
   sources Research, Washington, D. C.  (1966).
**Instructions for Abstracting and Indexing Scientific and Technical Documents for the
   Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC), U. S. Department of the
   Interior, Water Resources Scientific Information Center, Washington, D. C. (1968).
                                       J-i

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    The format chosen for the subject index has been used before in the Battelle-
compiled Bibliography on Socio-Economic Aspects of Water Resources, prepared in
1966 for the Office of Water Resources Research.  It was chosen over alternative
formats because it is particularly informative and affords the user a high degree of
selectivity.  Each entry consists of an alphabetically ordered index term, full title of
the reference, and all other terms by which the article is indexed.  The index's con-
ventional arrangement overcomes the problems of user education and acceptance.  By
basing the index on those select few terms which best describe each reference (i. e.,
the terms printed in upper-case letters in the bibliography) an acceptable compromise
between index depth and manageable size was achieved.

    The index was produced on Battelle's  CDC 6400 computer utilizing a modified
Key-Word-Out-of-Context (KWOC) program especially prepared by Donald P.  Moon,
Information Scientist, Information Operations Division.  Preparation of the bibliog-
raphy and index was supervised by Donald H. Owens.  Other personnel involved were
Karen B. Barnes, Ann R.  Glenn,  Robert T. Niehoff, Victor D. Zoller,  Nancy E.
Drake, Richard E. Krohn, Myrtle W. Banas,  Linda L.  Stewart, and the authors con-
tributing to this report.
                                      J-ii

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ABSTRACTS

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1.   Aalto, Johan A. , THE POTOMAC ESTUARY - STATISTICS AND PROJECTIONS,
    paper presented at Winter Meeting of the Interstate Commission on the Potomac
    Basin,  Fredericksburg,  Virginia, February 29, 1968.

    The author presents information water quality and polution loads  in the Upper
    Potomac Estuary.  The total load is eight times the assimilative  capacity required
    to maintain a dissolved oxygen (DO) average of five mg/1.  The median counts per
    100 ml at Woodrow Wilson Bridge were 91,000 MPN coliforms and 24,000 MPN
    fecal coliforms (E. Coli).  Minimum dissolved oxygen levels for  1965 and 1985 are
    also given.

    *STATISTICS, *WATER QUALITY, *BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND, *DIS-
    SOLVED OXYGEN, ^FORECASTING, *WATER POLLUTION,  E. Coli, data col-
    lections, oxygen demand, plants, coliforms, bacteria, microorganisms,  Maryland,
    Virginia, geographical regions, regions,  Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic
    coastal plain,  coastal plains, northeast U. S., southeast U.  S.

2.   Aasen, K. D. , SUMMARY OF THE  1963  AND 1964  SOUTHERN  CALIFORNIA
    INSHORE BAIT FISHERY, California Fish and Game,  Vol. 53, No. 1, 1967,
    pp. 28-34.

    The distribution, method of catch,  and the 1963 and 1964 catch statistics are given
    for the most commonly taken Southern California inshore bait species.  The author
    states  that the 180,000 pounds per year (valued at $90,000) is adequate to supply
    the needs of the sport fishermen at this time, however, many prime fishing areas
    are being lost due to construction of new harbors and marinas.  Certain areas
    within the boundaries of military reservations, now closed  to public access,
    might  make alternative bait fishing sites.

    *COMMERCIAL FISHING, *SPORT FISHING, *CALIFORNIA, *BAIT FISHING,
    *STATISTICS, construction, marinas, geographical regions, Pacific coast region,
    regions, southwest U. S., fishing,  industries, recreation,  water sports,  harbors,
    excavation, recreation facilities, military reservations, federal reservations,
    public lands,  data collections

3.  Abbott, Walter, "STATEMENT", in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
    ESTUARIES,  Transcript of Public Meeting, Biloxi, Mississippi, January 17,
    1968, pp. 8-13.  Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration, Department
    of the Interior, S. E. Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

    From the standpoint of economics, the estuaries of Mississippi are best put to
    use as navigation channels and open sewers, recognizing that pollution growth is
    inevitable.
                                      J-l

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        The author sees no justification for federal intervention in the management of
    intrastate estuarine waters.  Hypereutrophication concepts are derived from
    "glacially formed, oligotrophic, northern lakes" which do not necessarily apply
    to Gulf of Mexico estuaries.  He concludes, "it would appear that decrease in
    fresh-water influx, with associated decrease in turbidity, probably constitutes a
    far greater hypereutrophication menace than does inflow of domestic and indus-
    trial waste waters".

    *MISSISSIPPI, *GULF  OF MEXICO, *ECONOMIC  JUSTIFICATION, ^FEDERAL
    GOVERNMENT, * ADMINISTRATION,  coastal plains, geographical regions, Gulf
    coastal plain, state governments, regions, navigation, state jurisdiction, govern-
    ments, eutrophication, southeast U. S., turbidity, physical properties, gulfs,
    bodies of water, surface waters, waste water (pollution), liquids, liquid wastes,
    wastes,  water types

4.  Alabaster, J. S., THE  EFFECT OF HEATED EFFLUENTS  ON  FISH, Inter-
    national Journal of Air and Water Pollution, Vol. 7, No. 6/7, August,  1963,
    pp. 541-563.

    Research on thermal pollution in the rivers of Great Britain is reported   The
    article does not deal with estuarine waters, but conclusions may be relevant to
    estuarine management.  Cooling water effluent from power generating stations,
    both with and without cooling towers, is discussed.  The author states that, "This
    investigation was undertaken because it was believed that the direct effect of heated
    effluents might be important in Britain.  The work has shown, however, that the
    chances of fishkills are rare provided the present operating conditions do not
    change. "

    THERMAL POLLUTION, *FISHKILL, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES, water pollution,
    cooling water, water types, powerplants, engineering structures, industrial plants,
    structures,  foreign research,  geographical regions, regions, fish, animals,
    aquatic animals, aquatic life, wildlife

5.  Alexander,  Lewis M.,  NARRAGANSETT  BAY: A MARINE USE PROFILE,
    Geography Branch, Office of Naval Research, Contract No. Nonr-396(09),
    NR-389-134, June, 1966.

    A portion of this report deals with the commercial fish and shellfish industries of
    Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.  Trends in values of commercially exploitable
    resources are discussed.  Some of the factors seen limiting the industries or
    causing declines in fisheries production are pollution, hurricanes,  silting, and
    over-exploitation of the resource.  Conflicts between users of the resources are
    discussed, and the need for more studies of management problems  is mentioned.
                                       J-2

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    "COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH,  "COMMERCIAL FISH,  *ESTUARINE FISHERIES,
    *RHODE ISLAND, "COMPETING USES,  marine fisheries, sport fishing, fisheries,
    shellfish, aquatic life, invertebrates, animals,  aquatic animals, wildlife, fish,
    water pollution,  hurricanes, regions, northeast U.S., New England, geographical
    regions, aquatic productivity,  productivity, exploitation, silting, sedimentation,
    efficiencies, water utilization

6.   Allen, G.W.,  A BIOLOGIST'S VIEWPOINT  OF  MAN-MADE CHANGES IN
    ESTUARIES, 19th Annual Session Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute (1966),
    Proceedings, September, 1967, pp. 69-74.

    The author argues that no man-made changes in estuaries benefit estuarine pro-
    duction and that, in most cases,  they harm it.  He feels that these changes can
    come about in one of four ways:  (1) channel and stream flow diversion, (2) indus-
    trial filling and encroachment, (3) pollution of all sorts, and (4) real estate
    development.
        It is stated that there is a point where the benefit ratio does not equal estuarine
    value, and that the value of estuaries will increase in direct proportion to their
    destruction by so-called improvements.  The author feels that point has been
    reached.

    "AQUATIC PRODUCTIVITY, "DIRECT BENEFITS, "ECOLOGY, "ENVIRON-
    MENTAL EFFECTS, marine fisheries, channel flow, stream flow, balance of
    nature, real property, industrial wastes, Mississippi River, indirect benefits,
    benefits, productivity, thermal pollution, fisheries, water pollution, alteration
    of flow, flow, wastes, surface waters, streams,  running waters, rivers, inter-
    state waters,  bodies of water, encroachment, saline water intrusion

7.  Allen, George W.  , ESTUARINE DESTRUCTION. .. A  MONUMENT TO PROGRESS,
    Twenty-Ninth North American Wildlife and Natural Resources  Conference, Trans-
    actions, pp. 324-331.

    The author presents a general discussion of  "values of estuaries" and "means and
    methods of destruction".  He argues strongly for minimizing damage to estuarine
    values through coordinated planning of engineering developments.   He further
    argues that, "One of the most difficult problems that face those of us who are de-
    pendent on our marshlands and estuaries for our source of food and recreation,
    is the establishing of a value to use in the effective combating of such develop-
    ments. .."
        The author estimates annual production value attributable to Alabama's estu-
    arine areas as follows,  without a product-by-product breakdown: "In Alabama
    our marine resources are centered in Mobile and Baldwin Counties, with a total
    estuarine area of 550,000 acres and an average depth of 12 feet. The entire pro-
    duction is closely connected with the Mobile Delta Area of 50,000 acres.  This
    delta  is the so-called 'mother superior' for an industrial and recreational pro-
    duction totaling $18,581,000.  This is a production value of $37 per acre of
                                      J-3

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    estuarine area, including all of Alabama's coast and estuarine marshlands annu-
    ally.  In one generation, generally considered as thirty years, this is a total value
    of $557,430,000, or around $1100 per acre. "

    "VALUES, ""COMPETING USED, "ALABAMA,  market value, property value,
    land appraisal, productivity, estimated costs, costs, efficiencies, water utiliza-
    tion, regions, southeast U. S. ,  Gulf coastal plain, geographical regions, coastal
    plains, Appalachian Mountain region

8.   Anderson, Arvid A. , MARINE  RESOURCES OF THE CORPUS  CHRISTI  AREA,
    Bureau of Business Research, The University of Texas, Research Monograph
    No. 21, June, 1960.

    The report describes a study which developed estimates of dollar value per sur-
    face acre of the various economic uses of the bays in the Corpus Christi,  Texas,
    area.  Values estimated were for recreational used,  commercial fishing, oil
    production, natural gas production, mudshell production, industrial and municipal
    uses of bay water including waste assimilation, and savings resulting from
    shipping goods by water rather than land.  A detailed summary of value estimates
    is given in tabular form.

    "WATER RESOURCES, "VALUE,  "TEXAS, "WATER VALUES, resources, water
    sports, sport fishing, recreation,  natural gas,  mining,  commercial fishing, waste
    water disposal, transportation, productivity, aquatic productivity,  oil wells, gases,
    fishing, industries, waste disposal, transportation, bays,  bodies of water, central
    U. S. , Gulf coastal plain, regions, coastal plains, geographical  regions, southwest
    U.S.

9.   ANNUAL REPORT  OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S.  ARMY, ON CIVIL
    WORKS ACTIVITIES, Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army,  1966.

    The civil work activities of the Department of the Army, as carried out by the
    Corps of  Engineers during fiscal year 1965, are reported.  Volume 1 reviews
    overall program status, accomplishments, and planning to meet existing and
    future needs and presents summary data on water resource development by the
    Corps. Volume 2 contains detailed information on individual projects  and activi-
    ties by ports and harbors.  During fiscal year 1965,  expenditures were $1,198. 5
    million on the civil works program.  Of this amount, $1,167 million was spent
    for rivers and harbors and flood control.

    "HARBORS, "RIVERS, "WATER RESOURCES  DEVELOPMENT, "FEDERAL
    GOVERNMENT, "PLANNING,  "FEDERAL BUDGETS, "DATA COLLECTIONS,
    forecasting, governments, animals, navigation, beach erosion,  hydroelectric
    power, recreation, wildlife, channel improvement,  electric power, resource
    development, administration, flood control, control, water control, bodies  of
    water, running streams,  streams, surface waters,  erosion, future planning
    (projected), long-term planning, project planning, short-term planning
                                      J-4

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10.  1967 ANNUAL REPORT - COOPERATIVE WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH AND
    TRAINING, Office of Water Resources Research, Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D. C. , December, 1967.

    This is the annual report of all research projects carried out for the  OWRR during
    the year 1967.  All projects are abstracted and listed by state, subject, and author.
    Two projects are concerned with estuaries; one study deals with currents in the
    Neuse River Estuary (North Carolina), and the other concerns flushing character-
    istics of lagoons and estuaries in Florida.

    *PROJECTS, *CURRENTS (WATER), *NORTH  CAROLINA, *FLORIDA, *LAGOONS,
    *RIVERS, water resources development, conservation, abstracts,  documentation,
    bodies of water, surface waters, Appalachian Mountain region,  Atlantic coastal
    plains, coastal  plains,  geographical regions, regions, southeast U. S. Gulf coastal
    plain, running waters,  streams

11.  Asano, Takashi, "DISTRIBUTION OF POLLUTIONAL LOADINGS  IN SUISUN
    BAY", in PROCEEDINGS OF  THE NATIONAL  SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE
    POLLUTION, August 23-25, 1967, pp. 441-461.  Department of Civil Engineering,
    Stanford University, Stanford, California.

    The California  Department of Water Resources conducted a series  of dye tracer
    studies during 1965 and 1966.  The 1966 series was conducted jointly with the
    Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration in the Lower Delta and Suisum
    Bay and in the United States Army Corps of Engineers' San Francisco Bay Model.
    The waste dispersive characteristics under various flow regimes and the specific
    effect of fresh water inflow upon the dispersion and transit of continuously dis-
    charged pollutants into the study area were investigated.  Coordination of the actual
    waste loadings  and dispersive information with proposed mathematical expressions
    was examined to reproduce present and future water quality conditions.

    *DYE  RELEASES,  *DISPERSION, *WASTE DISPOSAL, *WATER  QUALITY,
    *CALIFORNIA, mathematical studies, tracers,  water types, analytical techniques,
    tracking techniques, flow, inflow, mixing, geographical regions, Pacific coast
    region, regions, southwest U.S., water pollution, freshwater

12. Auld, David V.  , PROTECTING THE  POTOMAC AT WASHINGTON, Water Pol-
    lution Control Federation, Journal, Vol. 37, No. 3, March, 1965,  pp.  275-288.

    The author describes a pollution abatement program and investments in the
    Washington, D. C.,  metropolitan area.  Brief capital cost estimates of alternative
    plans considered by the Washington Metropolitan Council of Governments are pre-
    sented. The population growth in the Washington, D. C. , metropolitan area is pro-
    jected through the year 2000.  Capital-cost outlays for storm and sanitary sewer
    separation projects for small segments of the metropolitan area are tabulated.
    These costs are reported to have averaged about $1,500 per house  for detached
    dwellings when contracts for separation have involved groups of 30 to 75 houses.
                                       J-5

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    *DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, *SEWERS, *FLOW SEPARATION, "CAPITAL
    COSTS, "POLLUTION ABATEMENT, water pollution control, construction
    costs,  conduits, conveyance structures, detached dwellings, growth rates, rates,
    population, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,
    geographical regions, regions, southeast U. S., abatement, northeast U.  S.,
    engineering structures, hydraulic structures,  structures,  costs, cities

13. Auld, David V., "WASTE DISPOSAL AND  WATER SUPPLY", in PROBLEMS OF
    THE POTOMAC ESTUARY, January, 1964, pp. 13-18. Interstate Commission
    on the Potomac River Basin, Washington, D. C.

    The use of the Potomac Estuary for domestic waste assimilation is examined.
    Reductions in biochemical oxygen demand from the installation of secondary
    treatment facilities in the Washington, D. C., area are discussed.  Estimates
    of BOD loading in  1950 and in the current year are given.  A system of dams for
    flow augmentation is advocated to offset effects of population growth in the
    Washington, D. C.,  area.

    *WASTE DISPOSAL, "WATER  POLLUTION CONTROL,  *BIOCHEMICAL
    OXYGEN DEMAND, *FLOW AUGMENTATION, "DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,
    water supply, supply, Virginia, Maryland,  forecasting, population, Appalachian
    Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions,
    dams, engineering structures,  hydraulic structures, northeast U. S.,  regions,
    southeast U. S., oxygen demand, cities, human population, control, flow control,
    regulation, structures

14. Bailey,  Thomas E., "ESTUARINE OXYGEN RESOURCES—PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    AND REAERATION", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE  NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
    ESTUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25, 1967, pp. 310-330.  Department of
    Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford,, California.

    This paper presents a discussion of the primary sources of oxygen supplied to
    the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary and Suisun Bay system through photosynthesis
    and reaeration. Results of field surveys are presented. Changes in oxygen
    levels due to photosynthesis can be predicted by an empirical equation  as a func-
    tion of chlorophyll concentration, solar intensity, light extinction coefficient,
    temperature,  and water depth.   It was concluded, however, that reaeration and
    diffusion rates are too complex to be predicted reliably by empirical relationships
    and that direct field measurements must be made to obtain reliable data.

    *REAERATION, "PHOTOSYNTHESIS, "OXYGENATION,  "DIFFUSION,
    "CALIFORNIA, "WATER QUALITY, Pacific coast region, dissolved oxygen,
    chemical reactions,  chlorophyll, magnesium compounds, southwest U. S.,
    geographical regions, regions, water properties, organic  compounds,  pigments,
    plant pigments, solar radiation, radiation,  temperature, water temperature
                                     J-6

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15.  Bain, Richard C., Jr.,  "PREDICTING DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN DISSOLVED
    OXYGEN CAUSED BY ALGAE  IN ESTUARINE WATERS, PART I", in PRO-
    CEEDINGS OF THE  NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION,
    August 23-25,  1967,  pp. 250-279.  Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford
    University, Stanford, California.

    Eutrophic environments are often dominated by planktonic algal populations
    (phytoplankton) which can cause diurnal variations in dissolved oxygen concen-
    trations through respiratory activity and photosynthesis.  Photosynthetic oxygena-
    tion and respiratory deoxygenation rates of estuarine phytoplankton were measured
    at various standing crop (chlorophyll) levels.  Oxygen production and consumption
    rates for actively growing phytoplankton populations were related to standing crop
    at 20 C and nonlimiting light.  Variations in algal photosynthetic production rate
    as related to light adaption, age of cells,  nutrition, temperature, and algal type
    are discussed.
        Light-production relationships (based on oceanographic literature) were used
    to estimate total production of a well-mixed system.  Streeter-Phelps equations
    were modified to include phytoplankton production and respiration rates in form-
    ulations designed to predict dissolved oxygen concentrations over a 24 hour
    period. An example is given, and the resulting dissolved oxygen prediction is
    compared with field measurements from a tidal reach of the San Joaquin River,
    California.

    *PHYTOPLANKTON, *DISSOLVED OXYGEN,  *ALGAE, *DIURNAL DISTRI-
    BUTION,  ""CALIFORNIA, estimating equations, oxygenation, standing crop,
    microenvironment, aquatic life, environment, microorganisms, water chemis-
    try, plants, southwest U. S., regions, Pacific coast regions, geographical
    regions, photosynthesis, chemical reactions, zooplankton, animals, aquatic
    animals, photosynthetic oxygen, gases, oxygen, oxygen demands, eutrophication

16. Barlow, J. P., C. J. Lorenzen,  and R. T. Myren,  EUTROPHICATION  OF A
    TIDAL ESTUARY, Limnology and Oceanography, Vol 8, No. 2, 1963, pp. 251-262.

    The growth and photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Forge River is described.
    The region provides  a unique  environment for the growth of phytoplankton, which
    is shown in the photosynthesis/respiration ratio and in the rates of photosynthesis
    per unit of chlorophyll,  or assimilation numbers that have been observed.  There
    is distinct stratification in salinity, and the nutrients added from the river are
    carried seaward by circulation without significant tendency to accumulate in the
    deeper layer.  The large amount of organic matter accumulated in the estuary is
    produced locally by the dense populations of plankton and algae.

    *PHYTOPLANKTON, *NUTRDENTS,  *EUTROPHICATION,  *ALGAE, Aquatic
    life, aquatic plants, path of pollutants,  ecology, photosynthesis, bodies of water,
    running waters,  streams, rivers,  stratification, surface waters, chemical re-
    actions, salinity, chemical properties, water properties, plankton, plants
                                      J-7

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17. Barnes, C. A., andE. E.  Collias,  SOME CONSIDERATIONS  OF OXYGEN
    UTILIZATION RATES IN PUGET SOUND,  Journal of Marine Research, Vol. 17,
    No. 1, November 28, 1958, pp. 68-80.

    The changes of local oxygen concentration with time have been determined for
    selected basin waters in the Puget Sound system.  In the photic zone of the sea,
    the oxygen concentration tends to be altered by local production,  diffusion and
    advection, exchange of oxygen across the sea surface, and biochemical utiliza-
    tion.  The average rate of oxygen utilization was 0.016 ml per liter per day,
    which is higher in comparison to offshore waters.  Oxygen utilization rates de-
    creased with both decreases in DO and increases in the time that the water had
    been standing in the basin.  Some published work on Dabob Bay has also been
    discussed.

    *DISSOLVED OXYGEN, *WASHINGTON, *OXYGEN, geographical regions,
    Pacific coast region, Pacific northwest U. S.,  regions,  biochemical oxygen
    demand, oxygen demand

18. Barnett, Harold J.,  and Chandler Morse, "NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE
    QUALITY  OF  LIFE", in READINGS IN RESOURCE  MANAGEMENT AND
    CONSERVATION, 1965, pp. 585-594.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago,
    Illinois.

    Barnett and Chandler discuss the social problems which have arisen in relation
    to the use of natural resources, e.g. whether a community has pre-emptive
    rights to exploit a resource irrespective of the rights of other communities to
    the same resource.  It was concluded that it would be advisable to apply a more
    objective methodology to the natural-resource value problems.

    *RESOURCE ALLOCATION,  *SOCIAL VALUES,  *NATURAL RESOURCES,
    *COMPETITION, water resources development, values, resources, resource
    development

19. Barnhill, K. G., ESTIMATED COST OF DESALTING THREE FLORIDA
    BRACKISH WATERS, American Water Works Association, Journal, Vol. 54,
    No. 5, May, 1962, pp. 526-528.

    The author presents estimated costs for desalting three brackish water supplies
    in  Florida. The author draws attention to the fact that many brackish waters can
    be  desalted at much lower cost than is possible with sea water.

    *DESALINATION, *ECONOMIC  FEASIBILITY, *COSTS,  *BRACKISH WATER,
    * FLORIDA, demineralization, separation techniques, water purification, water
    treatment, saline water, water types, feasibility,  Atlantic coastal plain, coastal
    plains, geographical regions, Gulf coastal plain, regions, southeast U. S.
                                     J-8

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20. Barrett, ElinoreM., THE CALIFORNIA OYSTER INDUSTRY, Resources
    Agency of California, Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, California,
    Fisheries Bulletin No. 123, 1963.

    The history and future of the California oyster industry are discussed, stating
    that it has entered a relatively active period after being quiescent since 1910.
        Tables and graphs on trends  in production since 1888 are provided.

    *OYSTERS,  "COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH, *CALIFORNIA, marketing, history,
    geographical regions,  Pacific coast region,  regions, southwest U. S., animals,
    aquatic animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna, benthos, invertebrates, marine
    animals, mollusks,  shellfish

21. Baxter, Samuel S.,  ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS OF WATER  POLLUTION
    CONTROL, Water Pollution Control Federation, Journal, Vol. 37, No. 10,
    October, 1965, pp. 1363-1369.

    Water-pollution-control expenditures should be justified on the basis of a
    favorable benefit-cost ratio. The author considers the following four topics
    with respect to pollution-control expenditures:
         1.  The purposes and uses expected of receiving streams.
         2.  The actual benefits and improvements derived from the stream if a
    higher degree  of treatment is used.
         3.  The relation between the costs and benefits from different degrees
    of treatment.
         4.   The relation of the costs and benefits of pollution control to the
    costs and benefits of other civic programs.

    *COST-BENEFIT RATIO, *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL,  *ECONOMIC
    JUSTIFICATION, beneficial use, control, water pollution treatment, water
    treatment, cost-benefit analysis

22. Bella, David A., and William E. Dobbins, "FINITE-DIFFERENCE MODELLING
    OF RIVER AND ESTUARY  POLLUTION", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE
    NATIONAL  SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION,  August  23-25, 1967,
    pp. 612-645.  Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University,  Stanford,
    California.

    One  dimensional dynamic model for describing the mass balance  in an estuary is
    described.  It  is shown that the resulting differential equations are too compli-
    cated for analytical solution.  Numerical solution techniques are presented.

    "MATHEMATICAL MODELS, "DISSOLVED OXYGEN, "WASTE  ASSIMILATION,
    biochemical oxygen demand, mathematical studies, model studies
                                      J-9

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23. BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS FOR WATER RESOURCE PROJECTS:  A SELEC-
    TED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, Tennessee Valley Authority,  Knoxville,
    Tennessee, October,  1967.

    The bibliography is divided into six major subject categories:
        1.  Basic works                   4.   Pollution (quality) control
        2.  Flood control                  5.   Recreation
        3.  Navigation                     6.   Land value enhancement.
        Within each subject category the abstracts are placed under the following
        headings:
        1.  Definition                     4.   Evaluation techniques
        2.  Forecasting demand            5.   Decision criteria.
        3.  Benefit measurement and/or cost determination

    *COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, *WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT, *BIBLI-
    OGRAPHIES, *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, abstracts, documentation,
    control, navigation, flood control,  control, water control, recreation, apprecia-
    tion, real property, property values, value, forecasting, evaluation

24. Berg, B., R. W.  Lane, andT. C. Larson, WATER USE AND  RELATED COSTS
    WITH COOLING  TOWERS,  American Water Works Association, Journal,  Vol.
    56, No. 3, March, 1964, pp. 311-329.

    This study is primarily an economic evaluation of cooling towers for water reuse
    compared with once-through use. The authors state that this report presents a
    method whereby approximate costs for specific cooling-tower applications may be
    estimated and compared with the costs of non-conservative practices. The study
    identifies eight kinds of information needed to assess the costs of cooling-tower
    operations in any specific situation.

    "COSTS, *COOLING TOWERS, *EVALUATION, "WATER REUSE, thermal
    pollution, temperature, economic feasibility,  engineering structures, feasibility,
    assessments, cost comparisons, analysis, cost analysis, mathematical studies,
    water utilization,  efficiencies

25. Berkeley, Norborne,  Jr., THE ECONOMICS  OF RECREATION, Parks and
    Recreation,  July, 1966, pp. 549-550.

    The author says that, due to automation and the shorter work week, the average
    American is finding himself with more free time than ever before.   Our economy
    is geared to  expanding this free time and expanding use of that free time for
    active recreation.
        More than almost any other business field in the past twenty-five years,
    recreation has grown rapidly as a source of work and as an item in the budgets
    of most Americans.  In 1964, there were approximately 35,000 full-time year-
    round workers in the specific field of recreation and about 100,000 part-time
                                    J-10

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    workers, plus millions whose jobs are indirectly dependent on recreation.  And
    in that same year, Americans spent $24,000,000,000 on recreation, an increase
    of more than 500 percent since 1950.
        Gallup polls have found that these leisure time activities have provided an
    expanding "leisure market" which by the end of 1969 will amount to an
    estimated 50,000,000,000.

    *RECREATION DEMAND, ASOCIAL PARTICIPATION,  *ECONOMIC PREDIC-
    TION, *STATE3TICS,  *VALUE,  economic impact, recreation facilities, demand,
    forecasting,  data collections, surveys,  parks

26. Biglane, Kenneth E., "ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION TO  WATER POLLUTION",
    in MARINE,  ESTUARIAN, AND  RIPARIAN POLLUTION DISASTERS AND THEIR
    CONSEQUENCES, Ocean Resources Subcommittee Meeting, December  12, 1967.
    National Security Industrial Association, Washington,  D.  C.

    The author states that an accidental or sudden release of pollutants to the aquatic
    environment usually causes a more spectacular reaction by the inhabitants or
    users of the  resource than does the continuous discharge which slowly erodes
    the quality of the resource.
        The recovery of the resource from both sudden release and continuous waste
    discharges is dependent upon the type and quantity of material released. Usually,
    one thinks of the environment recovering much faster from the effects of a
    sudden and non-recurring waste discharge.
        Several types of sudden release or shock-type discharges and their primary
    and secondary effects on the  aquatic environment are discussed.

    *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS,  *ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS,  *WATER
    POLLUTION, *DISASTERS,   social aspects

27. THE BOATING BUSINESS (1966),  1966.  The Boating Industry, Chicago,
    Illinois.

    This is  a yearly trade publication which presents statistics on the pleasure
    boating  industry. The subjects covered include: use of recreation boats; sales
    of boats, motors, and equipment; retail expenditures; distribution of boats and
    motors  by state; buyer characteristics; dealer characteristics; marinas; accidents;
    and foreign trade.

    *BOATING,  *STATISTICS, recreation, marinas, data collections, water sports,
    recreation facilities, accidents, expenditures, foreign trade
                                     J-ll

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28.  BOATING FACILITIES, Vol.  1-8, 1959-1967.  Outdoor Boating Club of America,
    Chicago, Illinois.

    The Outdoor Boating Club of American compiles information and reprints on
    boating and related facilities in periodic publications.  Eight volumes, spanning
    the period 1959-1967,  have been published to date.  The reprints contain informa-
    tion on the economics  of building and operating marinas.  Other topics include:
    pollution and the marina, launching-ramp construction, marina profits, marina
    prices, profits of dry-land marinas, the marina and the community—feasibility
    and benefits, marina management, boating facilities found at marinas, "From
    marsh to marina", "A marina is  good for a city", and "Do marinas pay their way".

    *RECREATION FACILITIES, *BOATESfG, *MARINAS, *BOAT-LAUNCHING
    RAMPS,  *PROFIT,  *PRICES, recreation, water sports, water pollution, statis-
    tics, data collections

29.  Bodovitz, Joseph E. ,  PROBLEMS OF MAINTAINING BAYS AND ESTUARIES—
    A  PANEL, SAN FRANCISCO BAY,  32nd North American Wildlife and Natural
    Resources Conference, San Francisco, California, Transactions, March 13-15,
    1967, pp. 120-126.

    As a result of extensive diking and filling, San Francisco Bay has been reduced
    to  1/3 the size it was at the time of the Gold Rush.  This steady filling of the Bay
    has prompted a detailed study and plan for the Bay waters and  shoreline,  scheduled
    for completion in January, 1969.
        At present the five harmful effects of land reclamation as  it exists in the San
    Francisco Bay are:  (1) esthetics and real estate values go down, (2) recreation
    uses are cut by the present inaccessibility of the Bay, (3) only 75 square miles of
    marsh and tidelands remain to support fish and wildlife, and (4) the population
    will double by mid-twenty-first century, and the waters of the  Bay are steadily
    decreasing.

    *CALIFORNIA, *COASTAL ENGINEERING,  *LAND RECLAMATION, land man-
    agement, recreation,  regions, southwest U. S. , Pacific coast region, geographical
    regions, bays, bodies of water, management, engineering, property values, wild-
    life,  animals,  fish,  aquatic animals, aquatic life

30.  Bowden, K. F.  , THE  MIXING PROCESSES IN A TIDAL ESTUARY, International
    Journal of Air and Water Pollution, Vol. 7, No. 4/5, June,  1963, pp. 343-356.

    The author briefly reviews the literature concerned with mixing processes in a
    tidal estuary.  A modified approach is presented to account for the significant
    effects of density currents upon longitudinal diffusion and the importance of sta-
    bility effects on reducing vertical eddy viscosity and diffusivity.
                                     J-12

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    *MIXING,  *MATHEMATICAL STUDIES, *TIDAL WATERS, diffusion, density
    currents, currents (water), saline water-freshwater interfaces,  boundaries
    (surfaces), interfaces, stability, viscosity, physical properties, diffusivity,
    hydrologic properties

31.  Boyd, J. Hayden, THE  QUALITY  OF THE RECREATION EXPERIENCE—ITS
    ECONOMIC BENEFITS, unpublished paper.

    Using the Tolley and Hastings equation for crowding and distance costs,  one can
    relate intensity of use of recreation areas to marginal net benefits of use.  The
    utility maximizing (recreation) consumer will choose that combination of crowding,
    travel, and admission charge which minimizes the cost of each visit and will con-
    tinue to make visits as long as the marginal benefits exceed marginal costs.  The
    recreator by this analysis bears all marginal costs.

    *USE RATES, *RECREATION, *MATHEMATICAL STUDIES, *MARGINAL COSTS,
    *MARGINAL  BENEFITS, recreation demand, motivation, value, benefits, cost-
    benefit analysis, demand,  rates,  costs, benefits

32.  Boyle, Robert H. , HOW TO STOP THE  PILLAGE OF AMERICA, Sports Illus-
    trated, Vol. 27, No.  24, December 11,  1967, pp. 40-53.

    The author argues strongly for increased federal legislation to protect U. S. natural
    resources.  He particularly urges Congressional legislation on thermal pollution
    and the protection of coastal estuaries and wetlands.

    *THERMAL POLLUTION,  *WETLANDS, * CONSERVATION, *LEGISLATION,
    natural resources, resources, water pollution

33. Braarud,  T., THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION  BY SEWAGE UPON THE WATERS
    OF THE OSLO-FJORD, Verhandlungen Internationalen Verein Limnology, Vol. 12,
    1955, pp.  811-813.

    This article describes the configuration of Oslo Fjord and its apparent role in the
    pollution effects observed.  Brief consideration is given to the effects of sewage
    on vertebrate and invertebrate marine organisms.

    *SEWAGE, *FOREIGN WATERS,  *MARINE ANIMALS, *WATER POLLUTION
    EFFECTS, water pollution sources, domestic wastes, wastes, water types, ani-
    mals, aquatic animals, aquatic life

34.  Bramhall,  David F., and Edwin S. Mills., A NOTE  ON THE ASYMMETRY BE-
    TWEEN FEES AND  PAYMENTS, Water Resources Research, Vol. 2, No. 3,
    1966, pp.  615-616.

    The authors review schemes for controlling industrial pollution by systems of
    effluent charges as opposed to systems of subsidies,  with respect to short-run
                                      J-13

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    economic effects.  They caution that the conclusions reviewed are incomplete be-
    cause they deal with short-run effects only, and that there is an important asym-
    metry in long-run economic effects due to differences in amount of entry and exit
    in the long-run, depending on whether a fee or charge method is selected for use.

    *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, "INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION, *EFFLUENT,
                    control

35. Braswell, R.W., A COOLING POND PROVES  CHEAPER,  Electrical World,
    Vol. 140, No.  22,  November 30, 1953, pp.  84-85.

    The author evaluates the economics of two methods of cooling: cooling ponds and
    cooling towers.  Cooling ponds were found to be .cheaper in initial construction
    cost,  lower maintenance cost, longer life, and about two percent saving in annual
    operating cost. Estimated costs of both methods have been worked out quite ex-
    tensively.  Direct use of a river for condensing with upstream recirculation was
    not feasible because of procurement of rights  and permissions over the rich farm
    land.

    *WATER COOLING, *COOLING TOWERS, *PONDS, *COST COMPARISONS,
    streams, running waters,  rivers, costs, riparian rights,  cooling, engineering
    structures, water types, recirculated water,  water rights, bodies of water, lakes,
    standing waters, surface waters, analysis, cost analysis, mathematical studies

36. Brehmer, Morris L., "NUTRIENT ASSIMILATION  IN  A  VIRGINIA  TIDAL
    SYSTEM",  in  PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL  SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE
    POLLUTION,  August 23-25, 1967,  pp.  218-237.  Department of Civil Engineering,
    Stanford University,  Stanford, California.

    This study was conducted to assess nutrient assimilation and phytoplankton re-
    sponse in the tidal James River Estuary and in the Nansemond Estuary,  a  tribu-
    tary to the James. The assimilation  of nitrogen and phosphorus was  measured
    for a period of one year in each of the above two river systems.  It was determined
    that the nutrient assimilation capacity of estuarine waters varies seasonally, being
    greatest in the winter, even though fresh water discharge levels may remain
    nearly constant  Data indicate that water containing dissolved solids of marine
    origin may be  able to assimilate higher nutrient levels than fresh water without
    producing aquatic nuisance conditions.

    *WATER PROPERTIES, "NUTRIENTS, "VIRGINIA, nitrogen compounds,  phos-
    phorus, nuisance algae, salts, tides, southeast U. S., regions, geographical
    regions, coastal plains, Atlantic coastal plain, inorganic compounds, metals,
    plankton, aquatic life.'zooplankton, aquatic animals, animals, Appalachian
    Mountain region
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37.  Brehmer, Morris L., "NUTRIENTS", in PROBLEMS OF  THE POTOMAC
    ESTUARY, January, 1964, pp. 47-50. Interstate Commission on the Potomac
    River Basin, Washington, D. C.

    The author briefly discusses the problem of secondary pollution stemming from
    excessive nutrients  of sewage origin in receiving waters, with specific reference to
    the Potomac Estuary.  He presents estimates of the daily phosphorous and nitrogen
    enrichment of the Potomac Estuary by Washington, D. C.   Research is advised in
    order to determine safe nutrient levels for the Potomac Estuary and to develop
    methods of sewage treatment to remove phosphorus and nitrogen from sewage ef-
    fluents as an economic by-product.  The nitrogen and phosphorous content of sew-
    age from Washington,  D. C., if valued at 10 and 8 cents respectively per pound,
    would have a recovered value of about $3,150,000 annually, as compared with the
    present annual operating cost for the sewage treatment system of about $2,100,000.

    *NUTRIENTS, *EUTROPHICATION, *WATER  QUALITY,  *PHOSPHORUS, *NITRO-
    GEN, *COST ANALYSIS, sewage treatment, waste treatment, Maryland, Virginia,
    water pollution sources, water pollution effects, Appalachian Mountain region,
    Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,  geographical regions, operating costs, costs,
    northeast U. S.,  regions, southeast U. S. , District of Columbia, cities, inorganic
    compounds, metals, gases, analysis,  mathematical studies

38. Brewington, M.V. , CHESAPEAKE BAY, A PICTORIAL MARITIME HISTORY,
    1953.  Cornell Maritime Press,  Cambridge, Maryland.

    This history treats  Chesapeake Bay as a many-factored area, and traces its growth
    through specific subjects such as commercial fishing, boating, sports, and others.

    *HISTORY, *MARYLAND,  *VIRGINIA, *BAYS, commercial fishing, fishing, in-
    dustries, boating, recreation, water sports, bodies of water, Appalachian Moun-
    tain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast
    U. S. ,  regions, southeast U. S.

39. Bridges,  Wayne W.  , "LITTERING AND OBSTRUCTIONS", in PROBLEMS  OF
    THE POTOMAC  ESTUARY, January, 1964, pp. 57-59.  Interstate Commission on
    the Potomac River Basin,  Washington, D. C.

    This report defines the problem of floating debris in the Potomac Estuary.  Legis-
    lation relating to the prevention and control of littering is  discussed.

    *MARYLAND, *VIRGINIA, *LEGISLATION, *WASTES,  *FLOATING,  aquatic
    drift, driftwood, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain,  coastal
    plains,  geographical regions, northeast U. S.,  regions, southeast U. S.
                                     J-15

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40.  Brink, Robert J., OPERATING  COSTS  OF WASTE TREATMENT IN GENERAL
    MOTORS, Nineteenth Industrial Waste Conference, Proceedings, January, 1965,
    pp.  12-16.

    The costs of waste-water treatment at the Buick Division of General Motors Cor-
    poration are reported.

    "WASTE  WATER TREATMENT, *INDUSTRIAL PLANTS, "OPERATING COSTS,
    industrial wastes, treatment facilities, waste treatment, water treatment, wastes,
    buildings, engineering structures, structures, costs

41.  Brooks, Norman H. , "DIFFUSION OF  SEWAGE EFFLUENT  IN AN OCEAN-
    CURRENT", in PROCEEDINGS  OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
    ON  WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE  MARINE  ENVIRONMENT, July 22-25, 1959,
    pp.  246-265.  Pergamon Press,  New York.

    Lateral mixing of a sewage field in an ocean current has been analyzed, taking
    into account the increase of the eddy diffusivity as the field spreads. The exact
    solution of the partial differential equation balancing diffusion, advection, and
    mortality of colif orm bacteria was derived, giving concentration as a function of
    the position in the horizontal plane downstream from the ideal line source.  Sim-
    pler expressions were also obtained for the rate of spread of a sewage field and
    for concentrations along the centerline of the field downstream from the source.
        The application of these results to ocean outfall problems is explained by
    means of an outline of general design steps for outfall design and an example
    taken from an outfall plan recently prepared for the City of San Diego,  California.

    *DIFFUSION, *WASTE DILUTION, *SEWAGE DISPOSAL, "CALIFORNIA,
    * OCEAN  CURRENTS, outlets, design, colif orms, currents (water), municipal
    wastes, geographical regions, Pacific coast region, mathematical studies, model.
    studies, southwest U. S.,  regions, bacteria, microorganisms, plants, waste dis-
    posal,  water pollution sources, sewage  effluents, bodies of water, surface waters,
    mathematical models

42.  Brunn, P. , COASTAL RESEARCH AND ITS ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION,
    Geografisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 59,  1960, pp. 33-57.

    Arguments are presented for increasing the  research effort in the field of coastal
    engineering.  Many examples of engineering mistakes in jetties  and other engi-
    neering structures are cited to substantiate the argument that  more research is
    needed.  With reference to Miami Beach, the author states that  the unpopularity
    of ocean swimming at Miami Beach can  be attributed to the unattractiveness and
    smaliness of the beach area, a steep offshore bottom, dangerous currents, and
    too much shell material in the beach sand.

    "COASTAL ENGINEERING, "JETTIES, "ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION, "SWIMMING,
    coastal structures, beaches, engineering, engineering structures, coasts,  recre-
    ation, water sports

                                     J-16

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43.  Burbanck, W. D. , "STATEMENT", in  CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
    ESTUARIES, Proceedings of the Georgia Public Meeting, Jekyll Island, Georgia,
    February 20, 1968,  pp. 25-30.  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
    Department of the Interior,  S. E.  Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

    The problem of pollution should be faced with two objectives:
        1.  To clean up areas such as Delaware Bay where pollution has become ex-
            tensive and
        2.  To practice conservation in areas that still approximate natural conditions.
        A multi-disciplinary model approach for the management of estuaries is de-
    sirable, since there are so  many aspects of pollution and varied effects from it.

    *WATER QUALITY CONTROL, *MODEL STUDIES, *WATER POLLUTION CON-
    TROL, food chains, Georgia, water pollution treatment, water treatment, water
    pollution sources, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal
    plains, geographical regions, regions, southeast U. S., control,  soil conservation,
    water resources development, resource development

44.  Burgess, Robert H., "THE CHESAPEAKE  MARCHES ON", in THIS WAS  CHESA-
    PEAKE BAY, 1963, pp.  200-202.  Cornell Maritime Press, Cambridge, Maryland.

    The article describes with examples how land area ground Chesapeake Bay is
    shrinking annually,  while the Bay itself is becoming larger.

    *MARYLAND, *VIRGINIA,  *BAYS, *HISTORY,  *LAND SUBSIDENCE, bodies of
    water, land use, water utilization, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal
    plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, regions,  southeast U.S., northeast
    U. S.  , subsidence

45. Burgess, Robert H. , THIS  WAS CHESAPEAKE BAY, 1963.  Cornell Maritime
    Press,  Cambridge, Maryland.

    This  book is devoted to various aspects of life on Chesapeake Bay in the nineteenth
    century. Navigation, oyster cultivation, menhaden processing, and shipbuilding
    are among the topics discussed.

    *HISTORY,  *MARYLAND,  *VIRGINIA, *BAYS, bodies of water, navigation, oys-
    ters, ships, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,
    geographical regions, regions, southeast U. S., northeast U. S. , animals, aquatic
    animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna, benthos, commercial shellfish, invertebrates,
    marine animals, mollusks, shellfish,  crustaceans
                                      J-17

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46. Butler, Philip A. ,  THE PROBLEM  OF PESTICIDES IN ESTUARIES, A Sym-
    posium on Estuarine Fisheries, American Fisheries Society,  Special Publication
    No. 3, 1966, pp. 110-115.

    Despite two decades of research, the extent and importance of pesticide pollution
    in estuaries are poorly understood.  Laboratory studies of their acute and chronic
    toxicity indicate that pesticides may  be the  cause of ill-defined but significant
    mortality, loss of production, and, perhaps, changes in the direction of natural
    selection in estuarine fauna.
        Preliminary investigations show the need for a continuing surveillance pro-
    gram to identify the seasonal and geographical distribution of pesticide pollution
    in estuaries.

    *PESTICIDE TOXICITY, *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, *ESTUARINE EN-
    VIRONMENT, *AQUATIC ANIMALS, *ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, pesticides,
    water pollution, toxicity, toxins, mortality, morbidity, fish-kill, water pollution
    sources, pesticide  residues, aquatic environment, environment,  animals,  aquatic
    life, pollutants, regions, seasonal, economic impact, marine animals

47. Butler, Philip A. ,  and Paul F. Springer, PESTICIDES—A NEW FACTOR  IN
    COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS, Twenty-Eighth North American Wildlife and Natural
    Resources Conference, Transactions, March,  1963, pp. 378-390.

    The state of knowledge concerning the effects of pesticides on marine life is
    summarized.

    *PESTICIDES, *COASTS, *MARINE ANIMALS, pesticide residues, pesticide
    toxicity, continental margin, shores, toxicity, seashores, aquatic environment,
    environment, aquatic life, animals,  aquatic animals, water pollution effects,
    water pollution sources, toxins, pollutants, morbidity, mortality, water pollution

48. Cadwallader, Lewis M. , STATEMENT  BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON AIR
    AND WATER POLLUTION, Committee on  Public Works, U. S. Senate,  Washington,
    D. C.  April 17, 1968.

    Cadwallader states the pros and cons of cooling towers in an estuary. There are
    five factors to be considered when placing cooling towers in an estuary:
        1.  They introduce large volumes of water vapor to the environment which
            can produce local fogging or icing;
        2.  They produce concentrated liquid wastes which are a disposal problem;
        3.  They are aesthetically unpleasing;
        4.  They present construction problems due to the corrosiveness of the salt
            and brackish waters on the materials used in their construction; and
        5.  Their salt-water vapors are potentially dangerous to nearby crops and
            vegetation.

    *THERMAL POLLUTION, *COOUNG  TOWERS, *MARYLAND, *THERMAL
    POWERPLANTS, *POLLUTION ABATEMENT, electric powerplants, Appalachian

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    Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,  geographical regions,
    northeast U. S.,  regions, engineering structures, industrial plants, powerplants,
    structures, water pollution, waste disposal, abatement

49.  Cain, S. A. , ESTUARIES: A NEGLECTED RESOURCE COMPLEX, Commercial
    Fisheries Review, Vol. 28,  No. 10, October,  1966, pp. 27-34.

    This article discusses some of the values and  current problems associated with
    estuaries.  The  author states that:
        1.  A salt marsh in Massachusetts can yield $300/year of seafood.
        2.  North Atlantic coast commercial finfish landings averaged  1. 6 billion
            pounds  in a recent 10-year period; shellfish contributed about 107 million
            pounds, with a monetary value of $90 million.
        3.  In a typical year, seafood landings produced 2. 2 billion pounds  on the
            Atlantic coast; Gulf coast,  1.4 billion pounds; Pacific coast (Hawaii
            excluded), 1.1 billion pounds.  The total worth was $362 million.
        4.  In 1960, three million fishermen spent more than $1/3 billion on sport
            fishing  on the Atlantic coast.

    *MONETARY BENEFITS, *COMMERCIAL FISHING, *FISH HARVEST, direct
    benefits, sport fishing, management, coastal marshes, salt marshes, benefits,
    income, return  (monetary), value,  commercial fish, fishing,  industries, recre-
    ation, water sports,  bodies of water, surface waters, marshes, wetlands, coasts,
    Massachusetts,  geographical regions, New England, northeast U.S., regions,
    Atlantic Ocean,  oceans,  Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, gulfs

 50. CALIFORNIA AND  USE OF THE OCEAN, October,  1965.  California State Office
    of Planning, University of California,  Institute of Marine Resources, La Jolla;
    California.

    This  is a study of ocean resources as part of Phase n of California's Development
    Plan.  The topics covered are: (1) urbanization; (2) weather and climate; (3) recre-
    ation; (4) wildlife preservation, conservation,  research, and education;  (5) waste
    management and pollution control; (6) water, power, and mineral resources;
    (7) interaction at the land-sea interface; (8) transportation and export trade;
    (9) engineering and technology; (10) social, legal, and economic considerations.

    *CALIFORNIA,  *PACIFIC OCEAN, *RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT, recreation,
    control, regions, wildlife conservation, transportation, conservation, technology,
    social aspects,  legal aspects, southwest U. S., bodies of water,  oceans, surface
    waters, urbanization, climatology, water pollution control,  geographical regions,
    Pacific coast region

 51. Cameron, W. M. , andD.W. Pritchard, "ESTUARIES", in THE  SEA, Vol. 2, 1963,
    pp. 306-324.  Interscience, London, England.

    The authors discuss several selected physical aspects of estuaries.  Topics covered
    include circulation patterns,  stratification, tidal flushing, estuarine dynamics, and

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    the distribution of conservative properties such as salt concentration.  The infor-
    mation presented is essentially descriptive.

    "CIRCULATION, "STRATIFICATION, TIDAL EFFECTS, "SALINITY, chemical
    properties, water properties

52. Carey, Omer L. ,  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EVALUATING RECREATIONAL
    BENEFITS, Conference of the Western Economic Association, San Francisco,
    California, August 22, 1963.

    The purpose of the paper is to stress the need for economic analyses in the planning
    of outdoor recreation facilities, and to enumerate some of the techniques which have
    been used to compute recreation benefits.  These techniques include:
        1.  Willingness to pay.
        2.  Evaluating economic impact.
        3.  Value in use - evaluation of consumer surplus in recreation.
        4.  Cost of alternative facilities as a measure of benefit from public facilities.
        5.  Opportunity cost of a recreation site, including the "marginal method",
            comparing value of recreation and timber per acre of forest.

    "RECREATION DEMAND,  "BENEFITS, "RECREATION FACILITIES,  "EXPEN-
    DITURES, "EVALUATION, recreation,  economic impact, prices

53. Carver, J. A. , Jr., SOME CRITICAL PROBLEMS OF  THE  SHELLFISH  INDUS-
    TRY, National Shellfisheries Association, Proceedings, Vol.  56,  May, 1966,
    pp. 9-12.

    Technological inefficiency as well as outdated legislation are  seen as critical prob-
    lems of the shellfish industry.  The author states that technological inefficiency
    leads to an unfavorable competitive position.  Conflicts between the shellfish in-
    dustry and other uses of the water resource are discussed.

    "COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH, "EFFICIENCIES, "COMPETITION,  "LEGISLATION,
    "TECHNOLOGY, "WATER POLICY, economic efficiency, fish management, com-
    peting uses, water utilization, productivity, management, fisheries,  commercial
    fishing,  methodology,  industries,  industrial production, water resources,  re-
    sources, water management, administration,  regulation,  water law,  animals,
    aquatic animals, aquatic life, invertebrates, shellfish

54. 'Cassidy, William F.,  LIMITING FACTORS IN HARBOR  DEVELOPMENT, paper
    presented to the Tanker Conference of the American Petroleum Institute, May 10,
    1966.

    General Cassidy maintains that the limit to channel and harbor deepening has been
    reached and urges the oil companies to seek alternatives for low cost shipping other
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    than continued construction of several-hundred-thousand-ton tankers.  Joint off-
    shore pipeline loading facilities are one suggested solution.  Port use conflicts
    are listed.

    *OIL  INDUSTRY, *COMPETING  USES, *HARBORS, channel improvement, navi-
    gation, industries, transportation, efficiencies, water utilization

55.  Castle, Emery N., ECONOMICS  OF  WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, Water
    Pollution Control Federation, Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5,  May, 1966, pp. 789-793.

    This article is a brief, concise, and well-written exposition of the relationship of
    market economics to optimal water quality management, and of the possible tech-
    niques and institutions for resolving the problem of external diseconomies which
    stem from water pollution.  Arguments are presented for and against (1) detailed
    administrative regulation, (2) maintenance of minimum  standards, and (3) basin-
    wide or regional organizations, as appropriate approaches to the external dis-
    economies problem.  It is concluded that the latter approach is superior to the
    former two.

    *ECONOMIC  EFFICIENCY,  *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL,  *WATER QUALITY
    CONTROL, resource allocation,  water quality, control, quality control, regulation,
    administration

56. Caulfield, Henry P., Jr., COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING IN RELATION TO THE
    RISE AND MANAGEMENT OF ESTUARIES, A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries,
    American Fisheries  Society, Special Publication No. 3, 1966, pp. 121-126.

    The use and management of estuaries involve some unique physical and analytical
    problems not normally encountered by water planners traditionally concerned with
    river basins.  Nevertheless, the basic analytical framework which has evolved
    over time in seeking solutions to river basin problems is equally applicable to
    estuarine problems.   This framework requires an understanding of (1) fundamental
    objectives of planning, development,  and management; (2) standards and criteria
    for translating these objectives into specific plans for improvement measures; and
    (3) processes and techniques of analysis in plan formulation to achieve stated ob-
    jectives.  Developing computational techniques enables persons to apply standards
    and criteria to an expanded array of alternative solutions and to a greater choice
    of selected objectives.  The  opportunity to achieve optimal solutions is thereby
    enhanced.

    ^MANAGEMENT, *PLANNING, *FUTURE PLANNING  (PROJECTED), ""LONG-
    TERM PLANNING, * ADMINISTRATION, economic justification, project planning,
    decision making, methodology, feasibility, productivity, economic efficiency
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57. Chambers, G.V.,  and A. K.  Sparks, AN ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE
    HOUSTON SHIP CHANNEL  AND ADJACENT BAYS, Institute of Marine Science,
    Publications, Vol.  6, 1959,  pp. 213-250.

    An ecological survey was initiated in the summer of 1957 with data collected at
    frequent regular intervals.   This  report includes the comparison of data on tem-
    perature, chlorinity,  dissolved oxygen, and related quantities with data on fish,
    shrimp, and crabs caught in trawls.  Data are also given on currents, bottom
    cores, and organic content of sediments.
        Studies of bottom samples demonstrated that extensive silting has occurred
    in the ship channel and bays.  Low dissolved oxygen, hydrogen sulfide production,
    and high organic content of the mud in the channel,  all indicative of organic pol-
    lution, prevent the establishment of a normal bottom fauna.
        A small temperature gradient was found in the ship channel, two or three de-
    grees higher in the upper channel than in the lower part of the survey area.  When
    dissolved oxygen (D. O.) level is sufficient, a large and diverse population of fishes
    exists throughout the bays in the survey area and for a considerable distance above
    the Humble Oil & Refining Company's outfall.
        No lowering of the dissolved oxygen concentration of the ship channel attri-
    butable to Humble's effluent was found, and no effect was found to be exerted on
    the fish populations of the ship channel and adjacent bays by Humble's operations.

    *WATER POLLUTION,  *ECOLOGY, *BAYS, *FISH POPULATIONS, southwest
    U. S. , geographical regions, coastal plains,  central U. S., ecological distribution,
    water quality bodies of water,  dissolved oxygen,  organic matter, silting, sedi-
    mentation,  oil wastes, Gulf coastal plain,  Texas, sediments, bottom sediments,
    organic matter, wastes, industrial wastes, effluents,  aquatic animals, animals,
    aquatic life, aquatic populations,  population, surveys, regions

58. Chapman, Charles R., THE TEXAS BASINS PROJECT, A Symposium on Estuarine
    Fisheries,  American Fisheries Society, Special Publication No. 3, 1966, pp. 83-92.

    The proposed Texas-Basin-Project is a multiphased plan to establish 18 reservoirs
    to supply fresh water to a trans-Texas canal intercepting tributary discharges to
    all of the coastal marshes of the state. The project's area of influence, develop-
    ment plan,  stages of construction, and operation are discussed.  A general descrip-
    tion is given of the Texas coastal fisheries.  To date,  the take of commercial species
    has been only partially exploited; and, although the trend is upwards, the overall
    harvest may more than double over the next three or four decades provided suitable
    environmental conditions in the estuary can be maintained.
        Estimates and projections of population, water requirements, etc., are pre-
    sented for the years 1960 and 2010.   By 2010 the Texas estuaries may be called
    upon to provide about 17-million man-days of angling as compared to the present
    seven million man-days  of sport-fishing for estuarine species.
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    TEXAS, *COMMERCIAL FISHING, *SPORT FISHING, *PROJECT  PLANNING,
    *HUMAN POPULATION, *WATER REQUIREMENTS, tributaries, bodies of water,
    canal construction, project feasibility, planning, feasibility,  running water,
    streams, coastal marshes, fishing, industries, recreation, water sports, estu-
    arine environment, estuarine fisheries, central U.S., coastal plains, geographical
    regions, Gulf coastal plain, regions, southwest U. S. , marshes, wetlands, popu-
    lation,  fisheries, fish harvest

59.  Chapman,  W. M. , "POLITICS AND THE  MARINE FISHERIES", in FISHERIES
    OF NORTH 'AMERICA,  First North American Fisheries Conference, Proceedings,
    1965, pp.  8-16.

    Reasons for the inability of the United States to compare favorably with other
    countries in fisheries  are presented. One of these reasons is that most of our
    fishing regulations are at the state level and are based on such a variety of com-
    plex and sometimes involved conflicts that it is impossible to determine the effects
    of this  legislation without extensive legal, economic, social,  and resource research
    on the state level.
         It is suggested that a Department of the Ocean be established, with a Secretary
    of Cabinet rank, which will coordinate within the United States all aspects of ocean-
    ography, including fisheries.

    *MARINE FISHERIES, *OCEANOGRAPHY, *LEGISLATION, *POLITICAL AS-
    PECTS, *FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, commercial fishing, competition, produc-
    tivity,  natural resources,  fisheries,  oceans, fishing, industries, legal aspects,
    regulation, water law, federal jurisdiction, jurisdiction, state jurisdiction, rela-
    tive rights, governments,  water policy, water rights, state governments, profit,
    foreign countries,  geographical regions, regions, resources, water resources
    development, bodies of water,  surface waters

 60. Chapoton, R. B., and J. E. Sykes,  ATLANTIC  COAST MIGRATION OF  LARGE
    STRIPED BASS AS EVIDENCED  BY FISHERIES AND  TAGGING, American
    Fisheries Society, Transactions,  Vol. 90, No. 1, 1961, pp.  13-20.

    Migration patterns of striped bass along the east coast are described.  The only
    known commercial fishery now being operated exclusively for striped bass  on the
    Atlantic coast is a haul-seine fishery in North  Carolina.  Management of this
    fishery is different from most estuarine fisheries and will have to be further
    studied, since sport fishing exploits the fishery in three widely separated geo-
    graphic areas, although spawning takes place generally in the more southern
    regions of the U. S. east coast.

    *COMMERCIAL FISHING, *STRIPED BASS, *ATLANTIC OCEAN, *MIGRATION,
    sp'ort fisheries, bodies of water,  oceans, surface waters,  fishing, industries,
    animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, fish, marine animals, marine fish,  saline
    water fish, sea basses, wildlife,  recreation, water sports
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61. CHESAPEAKE BAY STUDY TASK GROUP ON  FLOOD CONTROL, NAVIGATION,
    EROSION, FISHERIES—MINUTES OF  THE FIRST  MEETING, Department of the
    Army, Baltimore District,  Corps of Engineers, Baltimore,  Maryland, April 18,
    1968.

    The primary discussion topics of the meeting reported were as follows:
        1.  Authorization and objectives of the Chesapeake Bay Study;
        2.  Studies that could be made with the use of a hydraulic model of the
            Chesapeake Bay;
        3.  Conversion of model data to prototype requirements;
        4.  Organization of task groups;
        5.  Outline of report to be submitted by the Corps to the Committee on Multi-
            ple Use of the Coastal Zone.

    *MARYLAND, *FLOOD CONTROL, *NAVIGATION, *EROSION, *FISHERIES,
    federal government, governments, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal
    plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U. S., regions,  control

62. Chin, Edward, THE BAIT SHRIMP FISHERY OF GALVESTON  BAY, TEXAS,
    American Fisheries Society, Transactions, Vol.  89, No. 2, April, 1960, pp.
    135-141.

    The total production of bait shrimp in Galveston Bay,  Texas,  over a two-year
    period from June, 1957, through May, 1959, amounted to over 676,000 pounds,
    worth almost $779,000.  The bait shrimp industry,  despite its value, is not con-
    sidered with the commercial fishery industry which catches shrimp for food.
    Whereas the fishing season for the commercial fishery is limited by state regu-
    lation, no such regulations exist for bait shrimp.

    *SHRIMP, *BAIT FISHING, TEXAS,  *EVALUATION; commercial shellfish,
    Gulf of Mexico, legislation, animals,  aquatic animals, aquatic life, crustaceans,
    invertebrates,  shellfish, industries, industrial production, fishing, baits,  bays,
    regions, regulation, state jurisdiction, commercial fisheries, bodies of water,
    gulfs, surface waters, central U. S., coastal plains, geographical regions, Gulf
    coastal plain, southwest U. S.

63. Christy, Francis T., Jr. , and Anthony Scott,  THE COMMON WEALTH IN OCEAN
    FISHERIES, 1965.  Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

    The fishery resource is heterogeneous, varying widely in size, location and depth,
    density of population, and ease of capture.   No single species is free from the
    possibility of depletion.  All western nations have the same common-property situ-
    ations in their territorial waters and the same right of access to the high seas.  The
    size of their fishing industry depends upon the cost of labor and the cost of capital.
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        As in all such international industry comparisons, it is difficult to make evalu-
    ations of comparative advantage based on any measure other than value of capital
    goods.
        The "extent of the resource"  on the high seas is an unusual situation.  Coastal
    waters are usually territorial seas and are fished only by the local industry.  But
    the high seas fisheries are open to all.  It is extremely difficult to predict how
    much each nation will participate  in a given high seas fishery, even in static con-
    ditions.  When techniques, labor costs, tastes, and incomes are changing at dif-
    ferent rates in each country, the outcome cannot be guessed.
        Ocean fisheries are undergoing a technological revolution. Devices and tech-
    niques are being developed at a rapid rate. In the absence of techniques to increase
    the resource base and in the face  of growing demand, the stocks of fish are being
    subjected to heavy pressures.
        Estimates of the oceans' future productivity range widely from about twice the
    present level of output to a billion metric tons or more.  The total potential output
    of the oceans can be estimated at almost any level, depending upon the various
    assumptions about kinds of product and stages of technology.

    *MARINE  FISHERIES,  *RESOURCE ALLOCATION,  "INTERNATIONAL WATERS,
    *COMMERCIAL FISHING, INTERNATIONAL  LAW, economic efficiency, regu-
    lation, value, treaties, international commissions, supply, fisheries,  oceans,
    bodies of water, surface waters,  coasts, water policy, water rights, water re-
    sources, industries, legal aspects, labor supply, capital supply, technology, de-
    mand,  income

64. Churchill, M. A. , ANALYSIS OF A STREAM'S CAPACITY FOR  ASSIMILATING
    POLLUTION,  Sewage and Industrial Wastes,  Vol.  26, July, 1954, p. 887.

    The procedure presented in the paper suggests a statistical method to evaluate the
    effects of pollution load and stream flow on dissolved oxygen levels in the rivers.
    Basic data for Main River in Tennessee have been used for statistical development.
    A good correlation in regression  lines to predict DO drop values for known BOD
    load condition  was obtained.

    *WASTE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY, *BIOCHEMICAL  OXYGEN  DEMAND,  *D1S-
    SOLVED OXYGEN,  *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, oxygen demand, southeast
    U.S. , regions, geographical regions, rivers, bodies of water, running waters,
    streams, surface waters,  Tennessee, Appalachian Mountain region, central U.S.

65. Ciriacy-Wantrup, S.V., WATER QUALITY,  A PROBLEM FOR  THE  ECONOMIST,
    Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. 43, No.  5, December, 1961.

    A general discussion of the incidence of social costs and benefits in water quality
    management is presented.   Political and economic factors pertinent to formulation
    of policy objectives in water quality management are considered.  Arguments are
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    presented for a minimum quality standard for receiving waters, based on the qual-
    ity required to support fish life.

    *WATER  QUALITY, *STANDARDS, *SOCIAL VALUES, * ADMINISTRATION,
    water pollution control, control, value, cost-benefit analysis

66. Clark, J., FISH AND MAN, CONFLICT IN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES, American
    Littoral Society, Special Publication No. 5, 1967.

    This report is a discussion of the estuarine environment specifically as it relates
    to salt water fish, and the effect that human progress has on that environment.
    The conflicts are discussed between the need for conservation of our estuarine
    resources and the need for progress, particularly in the areas of land fill, navi-
    gation, gravel and sand mining, mosquito control and marsh impoundment, high-
    way construction, and water control.
        It is argued that even small amounts of damage to estuarine areas can lead to
    widespread damage to an estuarine resource.
        A discussion of the economic value of fisheries is provided.  It is stated that
    at least $75 million worth of estuarine dependent fish are landed each year along
    the Atlantic coast.
        A review of the activities of each of the Atlantic coastal states in relation to
    conservation of the estuaries is given.

    *ESTUARiNE FISHERIES, *ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT, *ENVIRONMENTAL
    EFFECTS, *PRODUCTIVITY,  *FE3H HARVEST, commercial fishing, commercial
    shellfish,  sport fishing,  conservation, landfills, mining, control, navigation,
    water control, fisheries, aquatic environment, environment,  water pollution,
    aquatic animals, animals, aquatic life, aquatic plants, plants, Atlantic coastal
   .plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, regions, fishing,  industries, inver-
    tebrates, shellfish,  value

67.  Clawson, Marion, "RECREATION", in PROBLEMS OF  THE  POTOMAC ESTUARY,
    January, 1964,  pp. 19-22.  Interstate  Commission on the Potomac River Basin,
    Washington, D. C.

    This is a general discussion of the questions which must be answered to estimate
    the value of recreational benefits resulting from public investments. The material
    is presented in layman's terms.

    *RECREATION, *MARYLAND,  *VIRGINIA, "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, water
    sports, cost allocation, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain,
    coastal plains, geographical regions,  northeast U. S., regions, .southeast U. S. ,
    expenditures
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68.  Clawson, Marion, and Jack L. Knetsch, ECONOMICS  OF OUTDOOR RECREA-
    TION, 1966.  Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

    This book is the most comprehensive coverage available on the economics of out-
    door recreation.  It includes references to most of the other major papers and
    reports on the subject.
        Demand and supply aspects of outdoor recreation are given coverage in depth.
    Discussion on demand includes the construction of demand curves and factors which
    are important in estimating demand.  Alternatives to demand curves are also
    discussed.
        Recreation supply is analyzed from the perspectives of resource use, recre-
    ation quality, and description of existing areas.
        Economic considerations in outdoor recreation include: the value of land and
    water resources when used for recreation; economic impacts on local areas; costs
    and investment considerations; and pricing and paying for outdoor recreation
    facilities.
        Future aspects include policy issues and research.

    *ECONOMIC IMPACT, *RECREATION DEMAND, *RESOURCE ALLOCATION,
    *WATER RESOURCES, recreation, recreation facilities, social aspects, natural
    resources, land use, demand, supply, resources, costs, benefits,  values

69. CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S  ESTUARIES, PROCEEDINGS OF THE
    PUERTO RICO PUBLIC MEETING, NATIONAL ESTUARINE POLLUTION
    STUDY,  SANTUREE,  PUERTO RICO, April 22, 1968.  Federal Water Pollution
    Control Administration, Department of the Interior, S. E. Region, Atlanta,
    Georgia.

    The papers presented at this meeting are chiefly concerned with industrial and
    sewage pollution of the bays and inlet of densely populated Puerto Rico.
         A need for water pollution control within the limitations of the budget and the
    necessity for industrial expansion is discussed.

    *PUERTO  RICO, *WASTE WATER DISPOSAL, *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL,
    *INDUSTRIAL WASTES, *SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, water quality control, geograph-
    ical regions, islands, regions, waste disposal

70. CLOSING OF THE SEA ARMS, Dienst der  Zuiderzeewerken, The Hague, Nether-
    lands, July, 1967.

    There are many tangible advantages to the construction of new sea walls to close
    the sea arms in the Netherlands Delta area:
         1.  The existing coastline will be shortened, thus decreasing the force of the
             ocean on the land;
         2.  Security against floods will be increased;
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    3.   A fresh water supply can gradually be built up in reservoirs created by the
        enclosures;
    4.   Land reclamation from presently unindated areas provides more living space
        for over-crowded areas;
    5.   Creation of new recreational areas will result;
    6.   Increased efficiency of transportation in the Delta area.
    These advantages are offset by losses which will be suffered by the commercial
    fisheries in the Delta; however, it is felt that the advantages gained justify this
    liability.

    "COASTAL ENGINEERING, *BENEFITS, "COSTS, "COMMERCIAL FISHING,
    "FOREIGN COUNTRIES, standing waters, shore protection, dam construction,
    land reclamation, drainage,  reservoirs, engineering, lakes, construction, rec-
    reation, transportation, geographical regions, regions, bodies  of water, impound-
    ments, surface waters

71.  Cohen, Bernard, SALINITY OF THE DELAWARE  RIVER, Department of the
    Interior, Geological Survey,  Water Resources Division, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
    1957.

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain data on the factors affecting the
    salinity of the Delaware River from Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania, to Reedy  Island,
    Delaware.  The techniques and results of the data  anal yses are presented.
        The amount of salt water in the Delaware River at any location is dependent
    upon (1) the distance from  the ocean,  (2) the fresh water flow of the river, (3) the
    quantity of salty water moving upstream from the ocean, (4) the stage of tide,
    and (5) the range of tide.   During the  summer and early fall, the freshwater
    inflow is at a minimum and the mean sea level (which governs the movement of
    sea water into the estuary) is at a maximum—thus providing favorable conditions
    for movement of salt water upstream.  During late October or early November
    the fresh-water flow increases and concurrently the sea level flow decreases,
    causing the salty water to  recede downstream.  Advance and retreat of salinity may
    occur at other times, depending upon the fresh-water inflow and the sea level.  The
    severity of a salinity invasion may be estimated from sea level, river level, and
    fresh-water discharge data.  Hurrlcances affect salinity as a result of wind direc-
    tion and velocity, and runoff from precipitation.

    "SALINE WATER INTRUSION, "SALINITY, "DELAWARE RIVER,  "INFLOW, "RIVER
    FLOW, water properties,  chemical properties,  wind tides,  discharge (water),
    bodies of water, interstate rivers, rivers, running waters,  streams,  surface waters,
    channel flow, flow,  streamflow,  tides

72. Colberg, M., and D. M. Windham, THE OYSTER-BASED ECONOMY OF FRANKLIN
    COUNTY,  FLORIDA, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington,
    D.  C.,  1966.
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    This is a study of the importance of the oyster industry, economically and socially,
    to the residents of Franklin County, Florida.  A general description of the county
    and the operation of the oyster industry in the county is provided.  Graphs and
    tables on the income of a variety of sources to the county, as well as information on
    per capita income, are given.  Comparisons with income from the oyster industry
    are made.  Values added to oysters at various stages of production and distribution
    are discussed.

    *FLORIDA, *OYSTERS, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna,
    benthos,  commercial shellfish,  invertebrates, marine animals, mollusks, shell-
    fish, employment opportunities, human resources,  industries, management, fish
    management,  industrial production, benefits, labor, economic impact, Atlantic
    coastal plain, coastal plain,  regions, southeast U. S.

73.  "COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATIONS AND STUDIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT
    OF WATER RESOURCES", in WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CATALOG, Office
    of Water Resources Research, Department of the Interior,  Washington,  D.  C.,
    Vol. 1, February, 1965.

    This describes projects underway at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The
    "Water Resources Research Catalog" defines the scope of the subjects as follows:
    "Investigations and studies pertaining to land policies and western land development;
    consumption and production of electric power energy resources; laws pertaining
    to use and development of water, mineral, soil, forest, recreation, fish, and
    wildlife resources; competition for water between the natural basins as set forth in
    trans-mountain diversions; national needs for recreation facilities to meet national
    demands, use of groundwater resources; interregional cooperation for research
    and development of water resources; and similar problems. "
        H. P.  Dugan is responsible for the studies described.

    *WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT, water management (applied), land manage-
    ment, management, electric power demand, demand, electric power, electric power
    production, legislation, wildlife, animals, fish, competition, water allocation
    (policy),  recreation facilities, groundwater, subsurface waters, water types

74.  Conomos, T.  John and M.  Grant Gross, "MIXING OF COLUMBIA RIVER AND OCEAN
    WATERS, SUMMER", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
    ESTUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25, 1967,  pp.  486-516.  Department of Civil
    Engineering,  Stanford University, Stanford, California.

    This paper reviews recent work on the Columbia River estuary and the nearby
    Northeast Pacific Ocean. Particular attention is focused on circulation and mixing
    near the  river mouth and on those factors controlling the supply, distribution,  and
    utilization of plant nutrients (nitrate, inorganic phosphate, and reactive silicate) in
    this area during the summers of 1965 and 1966.  The processes discussed here will
    also affect  other substances discharged into the coastal ocean, making it possible,
    in some cases,  to predict their behavior by analogy with the known behavior of these
    naturally occurring materials.

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    *WATER CIRCULATION, *COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN,  *NUTRIENTS,
    *EUTROPHICATION, circulation, regions, river basins

75. CONSEQUENCES OF MAJOR SPILLS ON INDUSTRIAL USES OF SEAWATER,
    in MARINE, ESTUARIAN, AND RIPARIAN POLLUTION DISASTERS AND  THEIR
    CONSEQUENCES, Ocean Resources Subcommittee Meeting, December 11, 1967.
    National Security Industrial Association, Washington, D. C.

    The article classifies water shipments into three groups: (1) petroleum and by-
    products, (2) natural ores, and (3) foods.  Spillage of each type of cargo has a
    different effect on seawater; each effect is described.

    *INDUSTRIAL WATER,  *WATER POLLUTION SOURCES,  *SHIPS, *WATER
    POLLUTION EFFECTS, saline water, navigation, environmental effects, water
    types, transportation, oil industry, mineral industry,  industries, non-consumptive
    use, efficiencies,  water utilization,  transportation

76. CONSERVATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF NEW ENGLAND, THE
    PASSAMAQUODDY TIDAL POWER  PROJECT AND UPPER SAINT JOHN RIVER
    HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT, Department of the Interior, Washington,
    D. C., July, 1965.

    This report transmits to the President comments by various  Federal and State
    groups and individuals concerning the report of the Passamaquoddy-Saint John
    River Study Committee.  The latter report presents the findings of studies con-
    cerning the feasibility and desirability of the Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project
    and the Upper Saint John River Hydroelectric Power Development.

    *TIDAL ENERGY, *TIDAL POWERPLANTS, *HYDROELECTRIC  PLANTS,
    *NEW ENGLAND, *PROJECT FEASIBILITY, energy, electric powerplants,
    engineering structures,  industrial plants, powerplants, structures, afterbays,
    cost-benefit analysis, geographical regions, northeast U. S., feasibility,
    hydroelectric power, electric power, governments

77. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE  TO THE
    U. S. BALANCE  OF PAYMENTS, Committee of American Steamship Lines,
    Washington, D. C., June, 1963.

    During recent years, operations of the U. S.  Marchant fleet have contributed
    or saved foreign exchange expenditures totaling between 3/4 and one billion
    dollars per year.  The U. S. liner vessels presently carry less than 30 percent
    of the total cargo liner movement in our foreign trade.  It is  estimated that if
    their participation were increased to the 50 percent level, the U. S. Merchant
    Marine's favorable contribution to our balance of payments would be increased
    more than $250 million per year.
                                    J-30

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    *SHIPS, *ECONOMIC IMPACT, "TRANSPORTATION,  "BENEFITS, foreign
    trade, monetary benefits

78.  Cooper, G. W., HURRICANE DAMAGE  TO STRUCTURES,  Ocean Industry,
    Vol.  2, No. 10, October,  1967, pp. 30-34.

    These articles discuss various incidents of storm damage to offshore platforms
    and collision conflicts.

    "OFFSHORE PLATFORMS, *HURRICANES,  "DAMAGES, ocean waves, structures,
    engineering structures,  hydraulic structures,  waves (water), storms, tropical
    cyclones, accidents

79.  Cooper, R. A., S. B. Chenoweth.  and N. Marshall, CONDITION OF THE
    QUAHOG,  MERCENARIA MERCENARIA, FROM POLLUTED AND  UNPOLLUTED
    WATERS,  Chesapeake Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, Winter,  1964, pp.  155-160.

    The authors suggest that if environmental conditions which have been altered by
    pollution are beneficial to quahog clams, it is not evident from comparisons of
    the quality of meats from clams from polluted areas as opposed to clams from
    unpolluted areas.

    "CLAMS,  "WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS,  *ENVrRONMENTAL EFFECTS,
    pollutants,  water pollution, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna,
    benthos, commercial shellfish, invertebrates,  mollusks, shellfish, water quality,
    estuarine environment,  aquatic environment, environment

80.  Cootner, P. H., and G. O. Lof, "WATER DEMAND FOR STEAM ELECTRIC
    GENERATION", in RESOURCES FOR THE  FUTURE, 1965.  Johns Hopkins
    Press, Baltimore,  Maryland.

    This publication discusses technical and economic aspects of water demand for
    steam electric generation. Technical information on water demand and thermal
    pollution is presented.  Economic information is presented on water use including
    the economic factors involved in cooling tower technology. A regional model to
    calculate expected cooling water demand is developed.  The report does not deal
    specifically with saline water use for cooling.

    "ELECTRIC POWER,  "WATER DEMAND,  "COOLING  TOWER,  "THERMAL
    POLLUTION,  economic efficiency, steam, demand, water utilization, efficiencies,
    heated water, engineering structures, equipment, electric power production,
    water pollution
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81. Cory, Robert L., and John W. Nauman, TEMPERATURE AND WATER-QUALITY
    CONDITIONS FOR THE PERIOD JULY,  1963,  TO DECEMBER, 1965, PATUXENT
    RIVER ESTUARY, MARYLAND, Department of the Interior, Geological Survey,
    Washington, D. C., Open-File Report, 1967.

    Graphs and tables obtained from continuous records of surface-water temperature
    from five stations for the period July, 1963, through December, 1965,  and of
    surface,  salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity,  tide-stage, wind data, and bottom
    temperature from a single station are presented herein.
        Effects of power plant cooling water on water temperature were obvious at a
    station near the plant's discharge point.  Surface-water density at the Patuxent
    River Bridge varied from 1.0033 to 1.0127 with least change during the period
    May to September.  Salinity ranged from 3 to 16.5 parts per thousand.  Average
    salinity in the spring of 1965 was double that of spring 1964. Turbidity was high
    during the winter, and peak values were obtained during prolonged periods of high
    wind velocities.  Dissolved oxygen values ranged from 3.6 to 15.0 parts per
    million, and percentage saturation of oxygen from 49 to 144 percent.  The ex-
    treme tidal range was 5.7 feet; mean water levels were highest in summer and
    lowest in winter and spring.

    *MARYLAND, *WATER TEMPERATURE, *THERMAL POLLUTION,  *POWER-
    PLANTS, *PHYSICAL  PROPERTIES, DRIVERS, Atlantic coastal plain, Appala-
    chian Mountain region,  salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, tides, engineering
    structures, industrial plants, structures, cooling water,  water types, surface
    waters, regions, northeast U. S.,  geographical regions,  coastal plains, tempera-
    ture, water properties, water quality, winds,  chemical properties, density,
    bodies of water, running waters, streams

82. THE COST OF CLEAN WATER,  VOLUME T—SUMMARY  REPORT,  Federal
    Water Pollution Control Administration, Department of the Interior, Washington,
    D. C., January 10,  1968.

    This report to the Congress summarizes the national requirements for, and the
    cost of treating, municipal, industrial, and other effluent to attain adequate water
    quality standards.  Subject areas treated are (1) municipal pollution,  (2) industrial
    pollution, (3) water reduction methods, (4) thermal pollution, and (5)  other
    effluents including wastes from watercraft, oil pollution,  animal feedlots, acid
    mine drainage,  and other nonpoint sources.

    *WATER QUALITY,  *COSTS, *WATER POLLUTION TREATMENT, water
    pollution, water treatment, municipal wastes, wastes, industrial wastes, oil
    wastes, organic matter, ships,  acid mine water, water pollution sources,  acidic
    water, mine water, water types
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83.  Coulter, James B., MARINE SHIPPING INDUSTRY - EFFECTS AND IMPACTS
    ON THE CHESAPEAKE BAY, Governor's Conference on Chesapeake Bay, Wye
    Institute, Queen Anne's County, Maryland, September 12-13, 1968.

    Actions to be taken by State and Federal Governments regarding water pollution
    and shipping channel and harbor improvements in the Chesapeake Bay area are
    outlined.   Legislation is required to free the harbor  of pullutants such as floating
    litter,  sewage, and  industrial wastes.

    "-LEGISLATION, *WATER POLLUTION, "CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT, '^COM-
    MERCIAL FISHING, *MARYLAND, bodies of water, water sports, recreation,
    Navigation, dredging,  desilting,  sewage effluents, separation techniques, fishing,
    bays, oily water,  waste disposal, sewage disposal, effluents, industries, Appala-
    chian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical re-
    gions ,  northeast U.  S., regions, navigable waters

84.  Crever, F. E., THE  PROSPECTS FOR DUAL-PURPOSE PLANTS, Nucleonics,
    Vol. 23, No. 9, September,  1965, pp. 48-50.

    The author discusses  several economic and technical factors related to the eco-
    nomic  feasibility of dual-purpose desalination and power plants. Among his con-
    clusions are the following:
         1.  A common misconception exists that,  in combined plants, water is puri-
    fied with heat that the power-generation portion would otherwise reject.  In fact,
    water  can only be obtained at the expense of power.
         2.  There is little question that light-water reactors can supply energy for
    desalting at low cost in modest-size plants—about 100 million gallons per day.
    But when we start considering billion-gpd capacities, we find water transporta-
    tion over long distances becoming competitive.
         3.  The combined plant offers other advantages when both  products are
    needed and saleable.  The principal benefit  derives from decreasing unit cost of
    nuclear steam-generating equipment with increasing size.

    *DESALINATION, * EC GNOMIC FEASIBILITY, *NUCLEAR POWERPLANTS,
    *MULTIPLE-PURPOSE PROJECTS,  saline water, demineralization, separation
    techniques, water purification, water treatment,  powerplants,  engineering struc-
    tures,  industrial plants, structures,  water  types, municipal water, projects,
    dual purpose, feasibility, project feasibility, steam turbines, equipment, tur-
    bines,  electric powerplants

85.  Cronin, E. L. , CHESAPEAKE BAY WATER SUPPLY NEEDS - THE BIOLOGI-
    CAL POINT OF VIEW, presented to the Eleventh Meeting,  Susquehanna River
    Basin Study Coordinating Committee, Elmira,  New York,  1965.
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    The author discusses the potential effects of variations in the quantity and quali-
    ties of water flowing into the Chesapeake Bay from the Susquehanna River. Dis-
    cussed are such factors as changes in river flow upon salinity and,  in turn, on
    oysters and the troublesome sea nettle.  Also discussed are the potential effects
    on the spawning area in the Bay for striped bass, reportedly the greatest of such
    spawning areas in the entire world.

    *SALINITY, *OYSTERS, *BASS, *WATER QUALITY,  *RIVER FLOW, bodies of
    water, bays,  spawning, shellfish, animals, aquatic animals, acuatic life, fish,
    freshwater fish, pan fish, water properties, chemical properties, sunfishes,
    wildlife, benthic fauna, benthos, commercial shellfish, invertebrates, marine
    animals, mollusks, water levels,  channel flow, flow, streamflow

86.  Cronin, Eugene, THE CONDITION OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY, 32nd North
    American Wildlife  and Natural Resources Conference, San Francisco,  California,
    Transactions,  March 13-15, 1967, pp. 137-150.

    The author reviews the principal uses of the Chesapeake Bay and their outlook for
    the future:
        1.   Transportation - In 1964, 107,253,730 tons were handled by Baltimore
    and Norfolk.  Baltimore alone receives approximately 5,000 ocean-going ships
    per year.   Other uses are affected through transportation uses of the Bay, mainly
    through pollution by bilge pumping, overboard spillage, and channel deepening and
    maintenance.
        2.   Biotic Yield -  Oyster production has been decimated by excessive ex-
    ploitation  and other species have been reduced by tributary dams and pollution,
    but changes in gear have vastly increased the catch of menhaden soft shell clams
    and crabs.
        3.   Recreation and Esthetics.
        4.   Waste Disposal - The Baltimore-Washington area expects its population
    to double from 1960 to 1985.  There are three alternatives to the problem of waste
    disposal given -in the paper.
        5.   The author cites other changes in the Bay which are potentially damaging
    to the area:
            a.  Destruction and conversion of marshland;
            b.  Diversion and damming of tributaries;
            c.  Invasion of water plant and animal life;
            d.  Land  and shore erosion.

    *MARYLAND, *WATER VALUES, TRANSPORTATION,  *RECREATION, *BAYS,
    *AQUATIC PRODUCTIVITY,  *SANITARY ENGINEERING,  *STATISTICS,  *WASTE
    DISPOSAL, erosion, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal
    plains,  geographical regions, northeast U. S.,  regions, social values,  water
    utilization, water resources, navigable waters, commercial fishing, fishing,
                                     J-34

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    bodies of water, productivity,  efficiencies, engineering resources, effluents,
    animal ecology,  plant ecology, fishing, data collections, values, ecology

87.  Cronin, Eugene, "THE ROLE OF MAN IN ESTUARINE PROCESSES",  in ESTU-
    ARIES, No. 83,  1967, pp. 667-686.  American Association for the Advancement
    of Science, Washington, D. C.

    The effects of civilization on estuarine processes are described.  The study is
    divided into three major phases:
        1.  The physical, chemical, and biological processes which are unusually
    significant in the estuary and which might be modified by man.
        2.  How human activities have affected these processes beyond the normal
    range of variation present in the virgin estuary.
        3.  The possibilities for future management of estuarine processes for
    optimal achievement of human values from estuaries.
        Among specific examples  cited are:  Tampa Bay (Florida),  Lake Pontchar-
    train (Louisiana), Chesapeake Bay, and The Zuiderzee (Netherlands).

    *MANAGEMENT, *SOCIAL ASPECTS, resource allocation, Florida, Atlantic
    coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, Gulf coastal plain, regions,
    southeast U.  S., Louisiana, foreign countries

88. Crutchfield,  James A. , CATCHING UP IN SEA-FOOD MARKETING, Fishing
    News International, No.  4, January-March, 1965, pp.  67-69.

    Food producers in many fields are shifting toward the formation of larger firms
    that combine the operations of various stages of production and, thereby,  ensure
    quality and better consumer service.  The author finds, however, that the fishing
    industry has not taken advantage of the opportunities stemming from revolutionary
    changes in food marketing.  He points out that the traditional conservatism of the
    industry and its sluggish response to changes in technology and  consumer prefer-
    ence, may lead to the loss of its market position to competing protein foods.
        Most of the opportunities for cost reduction and product improvement call for
    integration of the catching, processing, and marketing channels leading from  the
    fisherman to the consumer.
        Linked with these kinds of integration are the mergers of firms manufactur-
    ing and distributing entirely different kinds of food products.  Such mergers offer
    four definite benefits to the firms involved: (1) several food products  marketed
    under one brand name produce a cumulative advertising effect; (2) processing
    many different lines through one plant evens out seasonal flows  and  makes for
    economy; (3) the merged firms can meet the inventory requirements of retailers
    and minimize the risk of stale stocks; and (4) the bigger the business, the greater
    its credit rating at  banks and lending institutions.
                                      J-35

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    "COMMERCIAL FISHING, *MARKETING, *FOODS, *ECONOMIES OF SCALE,
    fishing, industries, economic efficiency, fish handling facilities, facilities, in-
    dustrial production

89. Crutchfield, James A. ,  editor, THE FISHERIES:  PROBLEMS IN RESOURCE
    MANAGEMENT, 1965.  University of Washington Press, Seattle,  Washington.

    This book contains a series of papers and commentary on public policy issues in-
    volved in the management of fisheries resources.
        The three parts of the compilation focus on different aspects of the fisheries
    resource.  Part I provides a description of the physical setting within which fish
    and fishing industries exist and an analysis of the complex dynamics of fishery
    populations under human exploitation and regulation.  Part II relates the economic
    motivations of a commercial fishery to these physical characteristics to provide
    an explanation of the need for public intervention and a set of criteria for optimal
    use of the resource. The problems involved in translating these principles into
    administratively practical problems, an essential part of the political economy of
    resource management, are also considered in this section.  Part III examines a
    wide range of alternative objectives and  techniques of fishery conservation from
    the standpoint  of constitutional and international law and practice.

    •"COMMERCIAL FISHING, *FISH  MANAGEMENT, *ECONOMIC IMPACT,  *FISH
    POPULATION, legal aspects, natural resources, fishing, industries, fisheries,
    management, resource development, water resources development,  fish con-
    servation,  conservation, wildlife  conservation, aquatic populations,  population,
    political aspects,  regulation

90. Crutchfield, James A.,  Robert W. Kates, and W. R. Derrick Sewell, BENEFIT-
    COST ANALYSIS AND THE NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC PROGRAM, Natural
    Resources Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, July, 1967, pp.  361-375.

    This article is an evaluation of the monograph  "Economic Benefits from Oceano-
    graphic Research", published in 1964 by the National Research Council of the
    National Academy of Sciences.
        The evaluation concludes that, "While the  authors of the monograph are to be
    commended for a  courageous attempt to  develop an objective basis for appraisal
    of government research in a most difficult area, the results must be termed dis-
    appointing.  The disappointing results may be attributed to the inevitable softness
    of data and data sources in any field in which the distance between basic scientific
    research and commercially usable end products is as great as in oceanography.
    In part it reflects the unavailability of a  common yardstick to measure the value of
    commercially  usable outputs and of those outputs that may ultimately prove of in-
    calculable benefit in a material sense, but which for the moment simply represent
                                      J-36

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    additions of knowledge. But the study also suffers from errors in 'concept and
    fact to a degree not warranted by the present state of knowledge. "
        The article presents what the authors consider fallacies in the use of benefit-
    cost analysis.  The examples presented are typical of errors that could also be
    made  in relation to estuarine cost-benefit analysis if proper precautions were not
    taken.

    ""COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS,  *ESTIMATED BENEFITS, *ECONOMIC EFFI-
    CIENCY, cost-benefit theory, economic justification, benefits, oceanography,
    government finance

91.  Gulp,  Russell L. , and Ralph E. Roderick, THE LAKE TAHOE WATER RECLA-
    MATION PLANT, Water Pollution Control Federation,  Journal,  Vol. 38, No.  2,
    February,  1966, pp. 147-155.

    The authors describe the new tertiary sewage treatment plant of South Tahoe
    Public Utility District which produces a high quality, colorless,  odorless effluent.
    The article represents construction and operating cost estimates for plants of
    2.5,  10.0,  50.0, 100.0,  and 200.0 mgd capacity, and for varying degrees of
    treatment.  A principal conclusion is that "the total cost of providing the maxi-
    mum  quality tertiary treatment with this process would vary from 24^ to 37^/cap/
    month, depending on the  size of the treatment plant.  "This estimated cost is
    based upon an average estimated effluent volume of 100 gpd per capita. " The
    authors also conclude that "tertiary treatment provides an economic advantage
    over desalination as a source of water, since wastewater can be renovated for
    only 10-15  percent of the latest realistic  estimates of cost desalination".

    *TERTIARY TREATMENT,  *DESALINATION, * WATER REUSE, *TREATMENT
    FACILITIES, *COST COMPARISONS, waste water treatment, sewage treatment,
    waste treatment, demineralization, separation techniques,  water purification,
    water treatment, effluents

92.  Daiber, Franklin C. , TIDAL MARSH - CONFLICTS AND INTERACTIONS, Estu-
    arine  Bulletin, Vol.  3, No.  1, March,  1968, pp. 4-16.

    Salt marshes play an important role in the biotic economy of coastal waters.  Be-
    cause of conflicting uses their productivity has been reduced.  Graduate students
    of the University of Delaware conducted an ecological study of Canary Creek
    marsh to attempt to answer  some of the local problems in Delaware.

    Topics studied were: hydrographic features,  biochemical activity,  plant produc-
    tion,  quantities  of detritus,  zooplankton, estimation of the numbers of some of the
    non-planktonic invertebrates, and evaluation of the fisheries.  The ecological cycle
    in the marsh was described.
                                      J-37

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    * COMPETING USES, *SALT MARSHES, *DELAWARE, *ECOLOGY, efficiencies,
    marshes, wetlands, balance of nature,  biochemistry, coastal marshes, hydro-
    graphy, hydrologic aspects, geographical regions, regions, northeast U. S.,
    fisheries, invertebrates, animals, detritus, plankton, aquatic life,  zooplankton,
    aquatic animals, vegetation, Atlantic coastal plain coastal plains, water utiliza-
    tion

93. Davidson, Paul, F.  Gerard Adams, and Joseph Seneca, "THE SOCIAL VALUE OF
    WATER RECREATIONAL FACILITIES RESULTING FROM AN IMPROVEMENT IN
    WATER QUALITY:  THE DELAWARE ESTUARY", in WATER RESEARCH, 1966,
    pp. 175-211.  Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

    The authors examine the reasons for market failure in the case of water recrea-
    tional facilities and conclude that the water recreational potential of a river
    estuary connot be left to the private sector.  The benefits and costs of water
    recreational facilities were compared.  This approach involves empirical esti-
    mation of the  actual and potential useof  facilities  at various levels of water
    purity; it does not, however, solve the important question of valuation.  An
    empirical investigation was made  of the determinants of water recreational activ-
    ity using consumer survey data.  The results serve as the basis for an illustra-
    tion of a benefit and cost analysis  of water quality improvement for the Delaware
    River estuary.
        The study was exploratory in  nature,  and the empirical conclusions must be
    considered tentative.  The data point out the large volume of activity in water
    sports and the tendency for this  activity to grow substantially over the next thirty
    years.  The relation of certain social and economic population characteristics and
    their influence on recreational activity was delineated.  The impact of improve-
    ment of water recreational facilities has been measured.  The survey data do not
    record precisely the extent of activity and the factors that encourage and dis-
    courage use.

    *RECREATION, *SOCIAL VALUES, "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, *WATER
    QUALITY, *DELAWARE RIVER,  recreation demand, water sports, value, de-
    mand,  bodies of water, interstate rivers, rivers, running waters, streams, sur-
    face waters, water purification, water treatment

94. Davis, J.  H., "INFLUENCES OF  MAN  UPON COAST LINES", in MAN'S ROLE
    IN CHANGING THE FACE OF THE EARTH, 1956. University of Chicago Press,
    Chicago, Illinois.

    The article presents a general historical treatise on man's influence on coast
    lines.  Presented are approximate estimates of area reclaimed from the sea in
    the low countries.  Interesting conclusions are  given concerning the lack of adap-
    ability of marsh-ecoriomy-dependent ethnic groups in the low countries and in an
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    area of Great Britain to agricultural pursuits following drainage of marshlands.
    Brief consideration is given to development of coastal lands in Florida, shrink-
    age of the Caspian and Arab seas due to diversion of inflows,  and possible role
    of phosphate mining in "red-tides" in the Gulf of Mexico.

    "COASTAL MARSHES, *LAND RECLAMATION, "DRAINAGE EFFECTS, "DIVER-
    SION, deposition (sediments), sedimentary structures,  marshes,  wetlands,
    drainage, sedimentation,  coasts, agriculture, Florida,  Atlantic coastal plain,
    coastal plains, geographical regions, Gulf coastal plain, regions, southeast U. S.,
    Gulf of Mexico, bodies of water,  gulfs, surface waters, oceans, management,
    routing, water management (applied)

95.  Davis,  Robert K. , "PLANNING A WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:
    THE CASE  OF THE POTOMAC ESTUARY", in WATER  RESEARCH,  1966, pp.
    99-121.  Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

    The author describes a study of the cost of alternative systems for dissolved
    oxygen management in the Potomac Estuary being conducted by Resources for the
    Future, Inc.  He explains the theoretical basis and strategy of the study and pre-
    sents preliminary cost estimates of achieving a specified goal for dissolved
    oxygen by a number of alternative methods.

    "ALTERNATIVE COSTS, "MARYLAND, "VIRGINIA,  "WATER QUALITY,
    "WATER MANAGEMENT, "DISSOLVED OXYGEN, cost-benefit analysis, costs,
    Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographi-
    cal regions northeast U.  W. ,  regions, southeast U. W.  , management

96.  Davis, Robert K.  , SOME ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ADVANCED WASTE TREAT-
    MENT,  Water Pollution Control Federation,  Journal, Vol. 37, No.  12,  Decem-
    ber, 1965,  pp. 1617-1628.

    Research aimed at achieving least cost systems of obtaining a given water quality
    control  objective in the Potomac  Estuary is discussed.  Basic economic concepts
    involved in determining trade offs between flow augmentation and waste treatment
    are presented.  One principal conclusion is that higher  levels of waste treatment,
    together with low-flow augmentation, appear to have a place in the solution of
    water quality management problems of the sort represented by this illustrative
    case.  The study's view of the waste treatment process  is unconventional in
    nature,  in that it finds discontinuous  operation of certain processes in the plant
    and possibly more than one level of intensity of operation as desirable.  The
    reasons for this are substantial differences in capital costs and operating costs
    among the various processes.  The first concerns the advantages of substituting
    operating costs for capital costs, such as might be done in a choice between
    chemical precipitation and additional aeration capacity for the advanced treatment.
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    For sanitary engineers,  the study states the conclusion of interest is that in the
    design of treatment processes to respond to variations in pollution conditions
    there needs to be great weight attached to the advantages of processes which in-
    cur relatively high operating costs and relatively low capital costs.  Cost data are
    presented to support these conclusions.

    "WASTE WATER TREATMENT, "CAPITAL COSTS, "OPERATING COSTS,
    "WATER QUALITY CONTROL,  *FLOW AUGMENTATION,  costs, alternative
    costs, economic efficiency, methodology, quality control, control, waste treat-
    ment, regulation,  water treatment, Maryland, Virginia,  Appalachian Mountain
    region, Atlantic coastal plain, coatal plains, geographical regions, northeast
    U. S., regions, southeast U. W., flow control

97.  DEEDS AND DATA, Water Pollution Control Federation, Journal, Vol. 36, No. 4
    April, 1964, pp. 517-519.

    The article presents operating and maintenance cost experience for secondary
    sewage treatment facilities for plants of nine municipalities, with average dally
    sewage volume per plant in range of 0. 2 mgd to 51.6 mgd.

    "SEWAGE TREATMENT,  "OPERATING COSTS, maintenance costs, waste treat-
    ment, costs, sewage,  municipal wastes

98.  DELAWARE ESTUARY COMPREHENSIVE STUDY—PRELIMINARY REPORT
    AND FINDINGS, Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration, Department of
    the Interior, Washington, D. C.,  June 29,  1966.

    This is a preliminary report which consists of a general review of the Delaware
    Estuary Comprehensive Study together with the alternative water quality goals,
    costs, and benefits and control schemes that were considered.  The study covers
    the length of the Delaware River from Trenton, New Jersey, to Liston Point,
    Delaware.

    "WATER QUALITY CONTROL,  "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, "DELAWARE
    RIVER, northeast U.  S., New Jersey, employment, forecasting, ecology, con-
    trol, quality control,  bodies of water, interstate rivers,  rivers, running waters,
    streams, surf ace waters, Atlantic coastal plain, Delaware, economic prediction,
    coastal plains, geographical regions, regions

99.  DELAWARE RIVER MODEL STUDY REPORT NO.  2 - SALINITY TESTS OF EX-
    ISTING CHANNEL, Waterways Experiment Station, U. S. Army Corps of Engi-
    meers, Technical Memo No. 2-337, June,  1954.
                                     J-40

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    Salinity intrusion in the Delaware Estuary is reported for existing (1942) channel
    conditions.  The purposes of these studies were to determine:  (1) the effects of
    each principal factor known or believed to affect the nature and extent of salinity
    intrusion in the estuary, with a view toward arriving at a proper explanation for
    the increase in extent of salinity intrusion that has occurred in the prototype
    since about 1930; and (2) the effects of the proposed Incodel Plan, involving
    reservoir construction and operation to regulate the fresh-water discharge of the
    Delaware River above Trenton, on salinities throughout the estuary and especially
    in the critical reach between Philadelphia and the Delaware-Pennsylvanis state
    line.
        Descriptions of the prototype and the model and appurtenances, and a brief
    discussion of the hydraulic and salinity adjustment and verification are included
    in this  report for the convenience of the reader.  A  sufficient number of repre-
    sentative plates showing the agreement attained between model and prototype
    hydraulic and salinity phenomena are included herein to demonstrate that the
    model is  capable of accurately reproducing all pertinent phenomena of the pro-
    totype.

    *SALINE WATER INTRUSION, *DELAWARE RIVER, *MODEL STUDIES, reser-
    voir construction,  construction,  reservoir operation, discharge (water), fresh
    water,  water types, bodies of water, interstate rivers, rivers, running waters,
    streams, surface waters, management,  operations

100. THE DELTA PROJECT, Information Department of Ministry of Transport and
     Public Works, The Hague,  Netherlands, March, 1967.

     The Delta Project has two objectives:
         1.   to considerably shorten and strengthen the total length of coast and
     dykes washed by the sea;
         2.   to combat the salination of the  Dutch reaches of the rivers and adjoin-
     ing channels and so increase agricultural production.   Land reclamation is not
     the purpose of the project;  very little, if any, will be gained.
         Working methods and new techniques are discussed.

     *SHORE PROTECTION,  *SALINE WATER INTRUSION, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES,
     *AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, coastal engineering, dam construction,
     erosion, engineering, construction,  geographical regions,  regions

101. Denning, Rick A., FLOW OF SOLIDS-WATER MIXTURES IN HYDRAULIC
     DREDGING,  World Dredging and Marine Construction, Vol. 1,  No.  2,  Fall,
     1965, pp. 28-31.

     The author tries to show the relationship between Theological (flow) properties
     of solids-water mixtures to measures that can be taken during dredging,  such as

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     pressure drops and induced voltages. The objective is to determine the most
     economical pumping consistency.

     *DREDGING, *RHEOLOGY, *SEDIMENT TRANSPORT, *FLOW CONTROL,
     viscosity, physical properties, flow, control, sedimentation, sediment dis-
     charge, mixing

102.  Dial, Miller A. ,  "STATEMENT", in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S.
     ESTUARIES, Proceedings of the Georgia Public Meeting, Jekyll Island,
     Georgia, February 29, 1968, pp. 37-38.  Federal Water Pollution Control Ad-
     ministration, Department of the Interior,  S.  E. Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

     There are several causes of pollution which fall under the jurisdiction of the
     Georgia State Soil Conservation Act. Among these are: erosion of agricultural
     lands (contributing to silting of estuarine areas), .siltation of river waters by
     highway rights-of-way and urban developments, and nutrient enrichment in
     estuaries,  presumably from agricultural runoff.  Under the  protection of this
     act these kinds of pollution have been somewhat curtailed.
          Other practices such as landfill and diking are also controlled by this Act.

     *GEORGIA, *SEDIMENTATION,  *SOIL CONSERVATION, *RUNOFF, *SOIL
     EROSION,  rivers, cultivated lands,  sediment control, erosion,  conservation,
     silting, structures,  landfills,  control,  legislation, regulation, water pollution
     control, Appalachian Mountain region,  Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,
     geographical regions, regions, southeast U.  S., urbanization, dikes, earth-
     works, embankments, engineering structures, hydraulic structures

103.  Diamond, Henry L., THE POLITICS OF BEAUJTY,  Parks and Recreation,
     February,  1966,  pp.  138-154.

     The author notes that all factions of  society are becoming concerned about the
     quality of the country as  well as the quantity of its gross national product.
     Such issues as air and water pollution and urban blight are receiving widespread
     attention from legislature and citizenry. If the citizen wants government to
     represent his  interests,  however, he must involve himself in politics.   Two
     things are necessary for this involvement: (1) effective organization, and (2)
     information on issues.

     *AESTHETICS,  *GOVERNMEMTS, *WATER POLLUTION,  *URBAN RENEWAL,
     air pollution

104.  Different, Jack,  "STATEMENT", in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
     ESTUARIES, Transcript of Public Meeting, Biloxi, Mississippi, January 17,
     1968,  pp. 6-8.  Federal  Water Pollution Control Administration, Department of
     the Interior, S.  E. Region, Atlanta, Georgia.
                                      J-42

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     The Gulf Regional Planning Commission identifies four estuarine zones:
         "1.  Pascagoula River, with a drainage basin which contains densely de-
     veloped urban areas, industrial concentrations, and extensive marsh areas;
          2.  Biloxi Bay, surrounded for much of its length by urban development,
     a planned industrial area, and a major steam-generating electric power station;
          3.  Bay of St. Louis, also flanked  in part by urban development, only
     limited areas of which are adequately served by sanitary sewage collection,
     treatment, and disposition treatments;
          4.  Pearl River,  a major stream with a number of urban centers and indus-
     trial installations of its middle reaches."
         The regional Planning Commission is primarily concerned with the degrad-
     ing effects of estuarine pollution on (1) commercial fisheries, including shell-
     fish, (2) recreation, and (3) aesthetics, including real estate values.

     *STATE GOVERNMENTS, *PLANNING, *MISSISSIPPI, *GULF OF MEXICO,
     *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, water pollution control,  commercial fishing,
     recreation, fishing, industries, bodies  of water,  gulfs, surface waters, govern-
     ments, coastal plains, geographical regions, regions, Gulf coastal plain, south-
     east U. S.

105.  A DIRECTORY OF INFORMATION RESOURCES IN THE UNITED STATES:
     WATER, September, 1966.  National Referral'Center  for Science and Technol-
     ogy, Washington, D. C.

     This document lists organizations performing research or  collecting data on
     water-related subjects.  It is concerned with fresh water—the field of oceanog-
     raphy has been included.

     ^INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, *RESOURCES, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES,  publications,
     documentation

106.  Ditsworth,  George R., ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN COASTAL AND ESTUA-
     RINE WATERS:  BIBLIOGRAPHIC SERIES - VOLUME II.  COAST OF WASHING-
     TON, Federal Water Pollution Control  Administration, Northwest Region,
     Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory, Corvallis,  Oregon, August, 1968.

     Indexed herein are references to literature pertaining to the marine  waters of
     the State of Washington.  References to these papers,  most of which have been
     published since 1955, are indexed under one or more of the following headings:
     Marine  Biology, Fisheries,  Geology, Chemical and Physical Oceanography,
     Water Pollution, and Bibliographies, Literature  Surveys,  and Compilations.
                                     J-43

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      *BIBLIOGRAPHIES, *ESTUARINE ENVmONMENT, *WASHINGTON, aquatic
      environment, geographical regions, regions, Pacific coast region, Pacific
      northwest U.S., water pollution, aquatic life

107.  Dobbins, W. E., BOD AND OXYGEN RELATIONSHIPS IN STREAMS, Journal
      of the Sanitary Engineering Division, Vol.  90, No. SA3, June, 1964,  pp. 53-78.

      Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal in rivers by sedimentation and
      adsorption and the removal of oxygen by the benthal demand or plant respiration;
      plus, the addition of BOD along the stretch and the addition of oxygen by photo-
      synthesis have important effects  on the BOD and dissolved oxygen (DO)  profiles.
      The classical equations for the BOD and DO profiles along a natural stream are
      modified and extended to take into account various sources of oxygen supply and
      demand. Methods for evaluation of mathematical constants from field measure-
      ments are presented.  A theory for the mechanism of reaeration is presented,
      and the theoretical results are compared with measured values reported in the
      literature.

      *BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND, *DISSOLVED OXYGEN, *MATHEMATICAL
      MODELS, *PHOTOSYNTHESIS, *STREAMS, reaeration, aeration, benthos,
      chemical reactions, mathematical studies, bodies of water, running waters,
      model studies,  oxygen demand, photosynthetic oxygen,  oxygen requirements,
      rivers, gases, oxygen, surface waters, sedimentation, adsorption

108.  Dodson, R.  E.,  and S. F. Mulford, USE OF DISTILLED SEA WATER AT SAN
      DIEGO, American Water  Works Association, Journal, Vol. 57, September,
      1965, pp.  11-6-1112.

      The author describes the  operations af the  Point Toma, San Diego, plant for de-
      salination.  This plant was accepted by the Department of the Interior on March
      5, 1962. It  was dismantled in early 1964 and sent to the Guantanamo Naval
      Base in Cuba.
          The costs to the City of San Diego are  presented. These costs include water
      treatment and blending costs to reduce the  corrosive effect of the distilled water
      on the distribution system.
          Consumer reactions to the distilled water, as blended with regular  city
      water, were virtually non-existent.

      *SEA WATER,  *DISTILLATION, *MUNICIPAL WATER, "OPERATING  COSTS,
      ""CALIFORNIA, saline water systems, desalination,  saline water, demineraliza-
      tion, separation techniques, water purification, water treatment, water types,
      costs, geographical regions, Pacific coast region, regions, southwest U.  S.
                                     J-44

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109.  Dorfman, Robert, FORMAL MODELS IN THE DESIGN OF WATER RESOURCE
     SYSTEMS, Water Resources Research, Vol.  1, No. 3, 1965, pp. 329-336.

     New methods for designing water resource systems are being evolved as part of
     a general social tendency toward expressing social problems in the formal modes
     that have hitherto been restricted to scientific and engineering problems.  Two
     general models have been useful in the field of water resource development: the
     simulation model and the analytical model. In simulation models, temporal
     sequences of events are  reproduced on electronic computers on a time scale in
     which minutes  represent decades, leading to  convenient estimates of the con-
     sequences of design decisions even in complicated circumstances. In analytic
     models, consequences are expressed as explicit mathematical functions of de-
     sign variables. Simulations are awkward when a wide range of design decisions
     has to be evaluated; analytic models cannot be applied to practical problems
     without drastically simplifying them.   But the two methods can be used in  tan-
     dem,  with analytic models delimiting the range within which simulation is re-
     quired.

     *MODEL STUDIES, *DESIGN, *WATER RESOURCES, mathematical models,
     mathematical studies, analytical techniques,  simulation analysis, systems
     analysis, resources

110. DREDGE CLACKAMAS, Harbor News, No. 140, September, 1962, unpaged.

     The Clackamas is a large pipeline dredge run by the Portland,  Oregon, Port
     Commission to maintain the existing channel in the Columbia River.   Several
     large industrial areas have been developed on shore deposited spoil:
         1.  Swan  Island - airport and shipbuilding site.
         2.  River Gate industrial district.
         3.  Swan  Island Industrial Park - location of more than 50 firms.

     *DREDGING,  *OREGON, INDUSTRIES,  *LANDFILLS, land reclamation, land
     development, geographical regions, Pacific coast region, Pacific northwest
     U.  S., regions,  channel improvement, sediment control, control, land develop-
     ment

111. THE DUTCH TURN THE TIDE,  Fortune, Vol.  77, No. 3, March, 1968, pp.
     132-137.

     This  is a short discussion, with photographs, of the Dutch overhauling their
     system of dams and dikes to control the movement of fresh salt water through
     the delta (area 1,900 square miles).  Eighteen miles  of dams will cost $800
     million dollars. The damming will necessitate the relocation of a multimillion-
     dollar shellfish culture.
                                     J-45

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     *DAMS, *DIKES,  *COASTAL STRUCTURES,  *FLOW CONTROL,  land reclama-
     tion, structures, foreign projects, engineering structures, hydraulic structures,
     earthworks, embankments, retaining walls, walls, control, water control, com-
     mercial shellfish, animals,  aquatic animals,  aquatic life, invertebrates,  shell-
     fish, costs

112. Eaton, E. D.,  RESEARCH PROBLEMS IN WATER QUALITY AND RECREA-
     TION,  Conference on Water Quality and Recreation in Ohio, Water Resources
     Center, The Ohio State University,  Columbus, Ohio, June 15, 1966.

     About $107 million were budgeted for water resources research for the 1967-68
     fiscal year. There were two directions being pursued in research in water
     quality management:
         1.  To decrease the amount and potency of pollution reaching stream chan-
             nels,  and
         2.  To handle waste streams and receiving waters so as to minimize
             deleterious effects.
         Cost-benefit evaluations of recreation programs are more difficult to main-
     tain than an evaluation of the benefits of water quality management.  There are
     many problems involved in such an attempted  evaluation.

     *WATER QUALITY CONTROL, *RE CREATION, water resource development,
     control, quality control,  resource development, water pollution, water pollution
     effects, cost-benefit analysis, water management (applied, management

113. ECONOMIC BENEFITS FROM OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, National Academy
     of Sciences—National Research Council, Washington, D. C., Report No.  1228,
     1964.

     This report presents estimates of the economic benefits  that could result from
     oceanographic  research and compares these benefits with the cost of doing the
     research.  Six areas of benefits are treated;  (1) fisheries, (2) marine minerals,
     (3) marine recreation, (4) shipping  (5) sewage disposal, and (6) benefits that
     might result from better long-range weather forecasting. Specific estimates of
     these benefits are made and a cost/benefit analysis conducted in relation to each
     of the benefit categories.  A critical analysis of this publication by Crutchfield,
     Kates, and Sewell appears elsewhere in this bibliography.

     *COST-BENEFIT  ANALYSIS, "OCEANOGRAPHY,  *RECREATION,  *SEWAGE
     DISPOSAL,  TRANSPORTATION, *MINERALOGY, *FISHERIES, *WEATHER
     FORECASTING, forecasting, waste disposal

114. THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS  OF THE AMERICAN  MERCHANT MARINE,
     Committee of American Steamship Lines,  Washington, D.  C., June, 1963.

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     The contribution to the U.S. economy of the American Maritime Industry was
     estimated to be more than $3 billion in 1961.  This contribution is measured in
     terms of the money that flows into the economy through the hands of employees,
     stockholders,  government, suppliers, and others.  There were more than
     104,000 employees in the maritime industry in 1961, based on American steam-
     ship lines in the domestic and foreign trade, and private ship construction and
     repair yards.

     *SHIPS, *ECONOMIC IMPACT,  *BENEFITS, wages, construction,  transporta-
     tion, monetary benefits

115.  THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF UNITED STATES OCEAN PORTS, Maritime Ad-
     ministration,  U.  S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C., 1966.

     This study is the first of its kind in an attempt to portray the value of the port to
     the economic growth of the port community and its tributary territory. There
     are two tables presented in this publication.  One table contains the information,
     by each individual port, on domestic employment attributable to U.  S. export,
     the freight traffic and direct dollar value of cargo earnings for each port area.
     la addition, the table shows the passenger traffic of each port,  as well as the
     total number of vessels passing through the port. Another table presents data
     pertinent to ports and states relative to  port development expenditures, by type
     of terminal, between 1946 and 1962,  total Federal funds expended on port chan-
     nel improvements up to 1963, the cash value of port facilities,  and the proposed
     Federal channel improvement expenditures for 1965.

     *HARBORS, *EMPLOYMENT,  TRANSPORTATION,  *ECONOMIC  IMPACT,
     ships,  channel improvements, value, income, return (monetary), expenditures

116.  Edinger, John E., and John Geyer, HEAT EXCHANGE IN  THE ENVIRONMENT,
     Department of Sanitary Engineering and Water Resources, The Johns Hopkins
     University, Baltimore, Maryland, Project No. 49,  June 1, 1965.

     This report deals with the physics of heat transfer phenomena occurring in sur-
     face waters and is designed to assist engineers and scientists in carrying out
     temperature computations related to the heating and cooling of natural waters.
     In the initial chapters, known principles of meteorology, hydrodynamics, and
     heat transfer are used to develop general formulations for heat exchange between
     natural waters and the atmosphere.  The formulations are then applied to situa-
     tions in which temperature  predictions will prove useful to the power industry.

     *HEAT TRANSFER,  *HEAT BALANCE, *HYDRODYNAMICS,  *METEOROLOGY,
     thermal conductivity,  power plants, transfer, heat exchangers, equipment, cool-
     ing, fluid mechanics
                                     J-47

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117. Edinger, John Eric, and John C. Geyer,  "ANALYZING STEAM ELECTRIC
     POWER PLANT DISCHARGES", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL
     SYMPOSIUM ON ESTAUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25, 1967, pp.  462-
     485.  Department  of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford,
     California.

     The temperature distribution resulting from the advection, dispersion, and
     cooling of water from a steam-electric-powerplant condenser is analyzed for a
     station located on a peninsula  and discharging near the midpoint of a small
     estuary. A theoretical temperature distribution equation is developed and used
     to predict within a mile of the discharge point for various levels of operation.
     Temperatures are related to an equilibrium temperature toward which  water
     temperatures are  driven by meteorological conditions.

     *DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT, *EQUATIONS, "HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS,
     *WATER COOLING, *TEMPERATURE CONTROL, thermal pollution, water pollu-
     tion, cooling towers, cooling water, water types,  cooling,  powerplants, engi-
     neering structures, industrial plants,  structures,  electric powerplants, afterbays,
     estuarine environments,  aquatic environments,  environment

118. Elmore, H.  L., and W,  F. West, EFFECT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON
     STREAM REAERATION, Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division,  Vol.  87,
     No. SA6, November, 1961, pp. 59-71.

     A search of the literature indicated that the effect of water temperature on
     stream reaeration rates had not been definitively established.  A series of
     carefully controlled experiments reported by the authors established that the
     temperature coefficient and reaeration coefficient remained substantially
     constant over a wide range of turbulence  conditions and throughout the tem-
     perature range found in natural streams.

     *REAERATION, *WATER TEMPERATURE, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES, ^TURBULENCE,
     temperature

119. THE ENCLOSURE OF THE ZUIDERZEE  AND THE RECLAMATION OF POLDERS
     IN THE YSSEL-LAKE, Zuiderzee Polders Development and Colonization Authority,
     Zwolle, Netherlands,  1967.

     The economic significance of the reclamation works and the technical procedures
     of enclosure and reclamation operations are briefly described.  Among procedures
     described are dredging,  polder drainage, and soil shifting.

     *LAND RECLAMATION,  *SOIL MECHANICS, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES, coastal
     engineering,  drainage, agricultural engineering, engineering, dredging, geo-
     graphical  regions, regions
                                     J-48

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120. THE ENCLOSURE OF THE ZUYDERZEE AND THE RECLAMATION OF THE
     IJSSELMEER, Dienst Der Zuiderzeewerken, The Hague, Netherlands,  No. 37,
     November, 1967.

     This bulletin describes how the enclosure of the Zuiderzee and the reclamations
     in the Usselmeer were carried out.
         Benefits derived from this project are listed, and the progress reports of
     the individual polders are given.
         A set of maps illustrates operations  in various stages .of completion.

     *LAND RECLAMATION, ^BENEFITS, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES, coastal en-
     gineering, drainage, engineering, geographical regions, regions

121. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY FORA COMBINATION
     NUCLEAR POWER-DESALTING PLANT, Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco,
     California, January, 1966.

     This report  presents results of a study to determine the feasibility of a dual
     purpose electric-power generation and desalting plant for the Metropolitan
     Water District of Southern California.  The study concludes that 150 million
     gallons per day of desalted water can be produced by 1971 at a site cost
     (undelivered) of 21.9jd/thousand gallons.  A critical analysis of this report has
     been made by Milliman.  Reference to the Milkman publication also appears in
     this report bibliography.

     ^DESALINATION, *ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY, *NUCLEAR POWERPLANTS,
     *ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION, *CALIFORNIA, *WATER COSTS, fore-
     casting,  demineralization,  costs, geographical regions, Pacific coast  regions,
     regions, separation techniques, water purification, water treatment, feasibility,
     electric powerplants, engineering structures, industrial plants, powerplants,
     structures,  electric power,  southwest U.S.

122. Engle, J. B., THE MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH INDUSTRY, CURRENT  STATUS
     AND TRENDS, National Shellfish Association, Proceedings,  No. 56, May, 1966,
     pp. 13-21.

     Comparative information is provided on the internal status of commercial shell-
     fisheries in the United States.
         The oyster resource has not been adequately managed in the Chesapeake Bay,
     the area of greatest potential production, accounting for 50% of the total U.S.
     oyster production in this century.  Chesapeake  Bay oyster production today is
     only 10% of  that in 1900. Production, while declining in the Chesapeake region,
     and even more so in the Middle Atlantic and New England regions, has increased
     considerably in the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific regions.
                                     J-49

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          At certain regions, and during certain periods, poor management, or no
      management at all, has contributed to the decline.  In addition,  such elements
      as (1) pollution due to population increase and lagging sanitation improvements,
      (2) the "so-called improvements" of waterfronts for navigational,  industrial,
      and domestic purposes, and the control of headwater impoundments for power,
      flood-control and increased water requirements, and (3) the difficulties of
      controlling parasites and predators have contributed to the decline of production.
      One other significant factor is the sales competition from more  conveniently
      packaged and usable foods.
          The increase in production in the Gulf States has been stimulated by a drop
      in production in the northern areas, particularly the Chesapeake Bay.
          Clam production, including razor, soft shell and hard clams has increased
      somewhat.  Of the estuarine species, the hard clam is important economically
      to the Middle Atlantic and New England area primarily.  Many who formerly
      depended on oysters have converted to  hard clamming as a significant adjunct
      to their business.
          Soft-shell clam production has increased,  largely due to the hydraulic dredge
      recently developed in Maryland.  Clamming is relatively unimportant on the
      West Coast as far as total U.S. production.

      COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH,  *CLAMS, *OYSTERS,  *AQUATIC PRODUCTIVITY,
      ^ECONOMIC IMPACT, mollusks, fish management, productivity,  animals,
      aquatic  animals,  aquatic life,  benthic fauna, benthos, invertebrates, shellfish,
      marine  animals,  water pollution, water control, control, predation, animal
      parasites, bays,  bodies of water, Gulf of Mexico, gulfs, surface waters

123.  English, T. Saunders,  PRELIMINARY  ASSESSMENT OF THE ENGLISH SOLE
      IN PORT GARDNER, WASHINGTON, Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Journal, Vol. 39, No. 8, August, 1967, pp.  1337-1350.

      The biological effects of pollution in Puget Sound have been the subject of con-
      siderable dispute for many  years, and more recently the subject of considerable
      research effort.  This article presents preliminary results of research on the
      effects of a major sulfite paper mill submarine outfall on a single  important
      species of finfish, the English sole.  The author concludes that the multiple  use
      of Port  Gardner for receiving pulp and paper mill effluents and commercial
      trawling for English sole does not appear to be harmful to the fishery.  The
      shallow area near the deep-diffuser outfall appears to be a source  of young
      English sole  recruited to an increasingly productive commercial stock.  Unless
      some unexpected  discontinuity becomes apparent, the complete life cycle of the
      English sole  seems to be represented in Port Gardner.

      *PULP WASTES,  *COMMERCIAL FISH, *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS,
      *WASHINGTON, water pollution sources, trawling, • industrial wastes,  wastes,
      animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, fish,  wildlife, geographical regions,
      Pacific northwest U. S., regions, fishing, competing uses, efficiencies, water
      utilization

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124.  EQUIPMENT FOR A DIRTY JOB, Chemical Week,  Vol. 102, No. 7, February
     17, 1968, pp. 69-81.

     This article describes a variety of water pollution problems, as well as some
     equipment designed to alleviate these problems.  With regard to thermal pol-
     lution, it is stated that electrical generating plants using nuclear or fossil fuels
     were among the first to be tagged as thermal polluters.  However, a number
     of the process industries are also potential polluters, particularly if they are
     on small streams or form large industrial complexes that are highly geographi-
     cally concentrated.

     THERMAL POLLUTION, ^EQUIPMENT, water pollution, electric powerplants

125.  ESTUARIES: IRREPLACEABLE ENVIRONMENTS, Gulf Review, Vol.2, No. 1
     September, 1967, pp. 1-2.

     The article emphasizes the economic importance of estuaries and lists several
     current comprehensive studies on estuaries and estuarine zones.

     *ECONOMIC IMPACT, *GULF OF MEXICO, *REVIEWS, water resources develop-
     ment, bodies of water, gulfs,  surface waters

126.  Farragut,  Paul R., A RECONNAISSANCE STUDY OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY,
     Regional Planning Council, Baltimore, Maryland, Project No.  HUD:Md.,  p. 61.

     This report discusses water resource problems in the Chesapeake Bay, with
     primary focus on the tidal rivers of the Maryland western shore.  The topics
     discussed include erosion, sedimentation, tidal flooding, nutrient loading,
     pollution, plant and animal nuisances, and the importance of wetlands.  A
     list of agencies responsible for planning and management of the Bay, and an
     extensive bibiliography are included.

     *BAYS,  *WATER RESOURCES, *MARYLAND, *RIVERS, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES,
     planning, plants,  administration, resources, Appalachian Mountain region,
     Atlantic  coastal plain, coastal plain, geographical regions, northeast U.S.,
     regions, bodies of water,  running waters, streams, surface waters, erosion,
     sedimentation,  tidal effects,  eutrophication, water pollution, animals

127.  Faust, R. J., DESALINIZATION AND FUTURE WATER SUPPLY IN THE
     UNITED STATES, American Water Works Association, Journal, Vol.  54,
     No. 5, May, 1962, pp. 519-529.

     Desalinization is discussed as one alternative to providing fresh water supplies
     in the United States.  The article concludes that except for isolated cases, there
                                   J-51

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      is plenty of water. A distribution problem exists, but the main concern is to
      use present resources wisely.  The reuse of treated sewage in Baltimore,
      Maryland,  by Bethlehem Steel for industrial purposes is proposed as an
      example of wise water use.

      *DESALINATION, *WATER SOURCES, *RECLAIMED WATER, *WATER SUPPLY,
      demineralization, separation techniques, water purification, water treatment,
      supply

128.  FEASIBILITY REPORT ON THE APPLICATION OF DESALINATION TO SUP-
      PLEMENT THE FLORIDA KEY AQUEDUCT, The Fluor Corporation, Ltd.,
      Los Angeles, California,  March, 1965.

      The report discusses the feasibility of augmenting the water supply of the Florida
      Keys by several alternatives using desalination.

      *FEASIBILITY STUDIES, *DESALINATION, *FLORIDA, *WATER SUPPLY,
      supply,  demineralization, separation techniques, water purification,  water
      treatment,  Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, Gulf
      coastal plain, regions,  southeast U. S.

129.  FEDERAL ASSISTANCE IN OUTDOOR RECREATION, Journal of Son and Water
      Conservation, Vol. 18, No. 2,  March/April, 1963, pp.  57-60.

      Credit,  cost sharing, technical, educational, or research help in outdoor re-
      creation in offered to states and their polical subdivisions to organizations, and
      to individuals by a number of federal agencies.  Summaries of the various as-
      sistance programs available are given in this article.

      *RECREATION, ^GOVERNMENT SUPPORTS,  *LAND MANAGEMENT, "COST
      SHARING,  *CREDIT, federal government, recreation, governments, recreation
      demand, management

130.  FEDERAL  COURT DECISION JEOPARDIZES CURRENT EFFORTS TO SAFE-
      GUARD NATION'S ESTUARIES, Conservation Foundation Letter, April 22,
      1968, pp.  1-6.

      The article discusses the possible implications and repercussions of a Supreme
      Court decision denying the right to the Corps of Engineers of considering
      effects on natural resources when a dredging and filling permit is to be pro-
      cessed. The Corps of Engineers can deny permits only for reasons of impeding
      navigation.

      *DREDGING, * JUDICIAL DECISIONS, legal aspects, land reclamation, navigation
                                    J-52

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131.  FIRST WORLD CONFERENCE ON NATIONAL PARKS, June 30-July 7, 1962.
     National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C.

     Scientific, economic, and cultural values of national parks are analyzed by the
     delegates to the conference.  The preservation of wildlife in its natural habitat
     is discussed.  The public should be educated by the national parks to appreciate
     and preserve plant and animal life in its original habitat.
    u
     *NATIONAL PARKS, *WILDLIFE CONSERVATION, ^ECOLOGY, natural re-
     sources,  scenery, federal reservations, parks,  conservation

132.  FROM FISHERMAN'S PARADISE TO FARMER'S PRIDE,  1959. Netherlands
     Government Information Service, The Hague, Netherlands.

     This  is a chronicle of the enclosure and partial reclamation of the Zuiderzee,
     from which 550,000  acres of new land were created.  SocioEconomic benefits
     and costs of the project are presented.

     "LAND RECLAMATION, *DRAINAGE ENGINEERING, *BENEFITS, *COSTS,
     *FOREIGN COUNTRIES, coastal engineering shore protection, engineering,
     drainage, dikes, earthworks,  embankments,  engineering structures,
     hydraulic structures, structures, construction costs, farms,  geographical
     regions, regions

133.  FISHING FLEET TRIES TO CAST OFF THE PAST, Business  Week, October
     21, 1967, pp. 94-98.

     The author summarizes discussion held at arrecent Commercial Fisheries Ex-
     position.   Foreign competition in fishing fleets sales and import of fish,  and
     obsolescence in our  own industry is leading to a decline in fisheries production
     in the U.S. Such things as government subsidization and international control
     are seen as the  only hopes for the future.

     *COMMERCIAL FISHING, "COMPETITION, *GOVERNMENT SUPPORTS,
     competitive prices,  fishing, fisheries, water utilization,  efficiencies, prices,
     import, foreign trade, international commisions, marketing

134.  Fitt,  ACTION ON ILLEGAL DREDGING AND FILLING IN THE AREA OF
     HEMPSTEAD,  N.  Y., Estuarine Hearings, Subcommittee on  Fisheries and
     Wildlife Conservation of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries,
     House of Representatives, 90th Congress, Serial No'. 90-3, March 1967.

     The town of Hempstead,  New York, issued permits to dredge  navigable waters
     within the town limits.  In the first case, a permit was issued after work had
     begun; in the second case, the work was completed,  after which a letter was sent
     to the Corps of Engineers showing extent of the dredged area.
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          In general, punitive action is not taken for am infraction of this nature unless
      the work is found to be detrimental.  If corrective measures are called for, the
      Corps tries to have it done voluntarily.  If this fails,  the Department of Justice
      must take action.

      *DREDGING, "LANDFILLS, *LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, *LEGAL ASPECTS,
      *NEW YORK, federal government, navigable waters, bodies of water,  govern-
      ments, Appalachian Mountain region,  geographical regions, Great Lakes region,
      northeast U. S., regions

135.  Fitzpatrick, W. A.,  and S. Russell, MASSACHUSETTS MARINE  SPORT FISH-
      ERIES INVENTORY, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Game, December,
      1961.

      Figures are provided for the numbers and kins of sport-fishing facilities along
      the Massachusetts coast, the catch-per-unit effort, and the total sport-fishing
      pressure.

      *MARINE FISHERIES, *SPORT FHISHING, *MASSACHUSETTS, marine fish,
      creel census, geographical regions, New England,  northeast U. S., regions,
      fisheries, animals, aquatic life, aquatic animals, fish, marine animals, saline
      water fish, wildlife,  census,  fishing,  recreation, water sports, statistics,
      data collections

136.  Flemer,-David A., W. L. Dovel, H. T. Pfitzenmeyer, and D. E. Ritchie,
      Jr., BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SPOIL DISPOSAL IN CHESAPEAKE BAY,
      Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, Vol. 94, No. SA4, August,
      1968, pp. 683-706.

      Field studies were made on the biota of the upper Chesapeake  Bay under a
      design related to the shallow water disposal of channel sediments. No  gross
      effects were observed on the phyto-zooplankton fish, eggs, and fish larvae of
      adult fishes.  Some bottom animals were smothered over a wide area.  Several
      benthic species survived deposition and certain species began  repopulation soon
      after deposition.

      *EUTHROPHICATION, *SEDIMENTATION, *WATER QUALITY,  *WATER
      POLLUTION, *WASTE DISPOSAL, environment, aquatic environment, geo-
      graphical regions, coastal plains, Atlantic coastal plain, wildlife, estuarine
      environment, ecology, growth stages, fish, plants, streamflow,  water analysis,
      water chemistry, regions, larvae, phytoplankton, flow, channel flow, zooplankton,
      animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, plankton, analysis, sediment distribution,
      sediment transport
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137.  1966 FLORIDA TOURIST STUDY, Florida Development Commision, Tallahassee,
     Florida, 1966.

     This study surveyed the following topics:  destinations within Florida by county,
     number of visitors,  reasons for visiting Florida, m.ode of transportation^ dis-
     tribution of tourist dollar,  and tourist expenditures and tax collections.

    "^FLORIDA, TOURISM,  *STATISTICS, recreation,  recreation demand, economic
     impact, demand, data collections, return (monetary), transportation, Atlantic
     coastal plain, coastal plains,  geographical regions, Gulf coastal plain, regions,
     southeast U. S., expenditures

138.  Frederickson, William, Jr.,  PUBLIC SEASHORES:  THEIR ADMINISTRATION,
     Parks and Recreation, August, 1966, pp.  639-640.

     The great popularity of beaches for recreation activities has created challenges
     to the park administrator.
         Beachgoers are no longer satisfied to lie in the sun or wade in the surf. The
     city should provide recreation facilities on the beaches for more active visitors.
         One city, Los Angeles, has provided three recreation areas on its public
     beaches:  (1) children's areas, (2) athletic courts, and (3) areas for quiet recrea-
     tion such as picnicking.
         The response was gratifying, and the beaches are utilized as public re-
     creation centers year round.

     *BEACHES, *RECREATION FACILITIES,  *BEACH EROSION, *PARKS, *PUBLIC
     BENEFITS, *ADMINISTRATION, sands, benefits, California, geographical
     regions, Pacific coast region, regions, southwest U. S.

139.  Frisbie, Charles M., and  Douglas E.  Ritchie,  Jr.,  SPORT FISHING SURVEY
     OF THE LOWER POTOMAC ESTUARY, 1959-61,  Chesapeake Science, Vol. 4,
     No. 4,  December, 1963, pp.  175-191.

     A survey of the sport fishery  was conducted in a 265-square-mile area of the
     of the lower Potomac Estuary during the summer and fall of 1959, 1960, and
     1961. Fisherman interviews, postal card questionnaires, and aerial boat counts
     were used to determine angling pressure, rates of catch,  estimated harvest,
     species improtance,  and economic value of the sport fishery.

         The 1961 estimate indicated that 101,000 angler trips prodiced approximately
     1,200,000 fish weighing almost 642,000 pounds.  Party size averaged 3.0 anglers
     who fished approximately 4.5 hours  per trip and creeled 2.6 fish per manrour.

         During the five-month survey in 1961, an estimated $594,000 was  spent by
     Potamac Estuary anglers.  The average angular spent $5.80 on each of his
     29 mean yearly trips.
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      *SPORTS FISHING,  *SURVEYS, *FISH HARVEST, *BAYS, census,  fishing,
      recreation, water sports, Maryland, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal
      plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U. S., regions, Virginia,
      southeast U. S., statistics, data collections, creel census

140.  Fussell,  James R.,  and Richard G. Silvernail, THE IMPACT OF RECREATION
      ON COASTAL SOUTH CAROLINA, Business and Economic Review, Vol. 13,
      No. 1,  October,  1966, pp. 3-7.

      Coastal South Carolina is a rapidly developing recreation area.  It offers beaches,
      a mild climate, and  historical sites. The results of a survey conducted by the
      Bureau of Business and Economic Research indicated that:
         1.   The average tourist spent $81.87 over a 5.85-day vacation period on
             the coast;
         2.   Students comprised 38 percent of total visitiors;
         3.   Females comprised 64 percent of the student visitors.

      *TOURISM, *SOUTH CAROLINA, *RECREATION, statistics, data collections,
     beaches,  recreation demand, demand, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic
      coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions,  regions, southeast U. S.

141.  FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS OF THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA, U. S. Army
      Corps of Engineers for the Department of Commerce, December, 1959.  Office
      of Area Development,  Business and Defense Service Administration. Depart-
      ment of Commerce,  San Francisco, California.

      This is a comprehensive survey report of the San Francisco Bay and its tribu-
      taries.  The report includes projections of population, employment, land-use
      patterns, and estimates of reclaimable lands.

         Maps are included (22) showing the historical and present land-use patterns
      along the original coastline and on reclaimed lands.

      *LAND USE,  *LAND RECLMATION, *CALIFORNIA, *FORECASTING, *HUMAN
      POPULATION,  *HISTORY, reclamation, population, geographical regions,
      Pacific coast region, regions, southwest U. S., coasts

142.  Gatsoff, Paul S., "ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS OF OYSTERS IN RELA-
      TION TO POLLUTION", in BIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN WATER POLLUTION,
      Transactions of the  1959 Seminar, Report No. W60-3, 1959. Public Health
      Service,  Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

      The author describes ten major factors of oyster environment.  The factors  are
      grouped into two classes:   favorable or positive and destructive or negative.
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     The positive factors are: character of bottom, temperature, salinity, water
     movements, and food.  Only two of these factors, namely the character of
     bottom and food, are directly affected by pollution.
         The effects of industrial wastes upon the normal food chain and bottom
     environment of adult and larval oysters have been described in great detail.
     Many examples of estuaries, bays, and harbors are described which have
     been greatly affected by pollution.

     *FOOD CHAINS, *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, *ESTUARINE ENVIRON-
     MENT, *OYSTERS, *INDUSTRIAL WASTES, temperature, commercial shell-
     fish, invertebrates, marine animals, mollusks, shellfish, water properties,
     animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna, benthos,  bays, harbors,
     salinity, currents (water) temperature, beds, wastes, bodies of water,
     chemical properties

143.  Gameson, A. L. H., POLLUTION OF LONDON'S RIVER, New Scientist
     (London), Vol. 22, No.  389, April,  1964, pp. 295-298.

     The author presents a brief history and description of pollution conditions in
     the Thames estuary in the vicinity of London,  including principal findings of
     "a 15 year study of the causes and effects of variations  in pollution conditions
     between Teddington and the sea".  The findings discussed are from a major
     study report entitled "Effects of Polluting Discharges on the Thames Estuary",
     by the Thames Survey Commission and Water Pollution Research Laboratory.

     *FOREIGN COUNTRIES, *WATER POLLUTION, "HISTORY, water pollution
     sources, water pollution effects

144.  Gameson, A. L. H., M. J. Barrett, andW. S. Freddy, PREDICTING THE
     CONDITION OF A POLLUTED ESTUARY,  International Journal of Air and
     Water Pollution, Vol. 9, No. 10,  October,  1965, pp. 655-664.

     This paper discusses the salient features of a comprehensive study of the waste
     assimilation capacity of the Thames Estuary and two other estuaries in England.
     Field observations are compared with conditions predicted by a mathematical
     model. Thermal and organic pollution are considered.  Extremely good corre-
     lation is noted for dissolved oxygen.  Reasonably good correlation was also
     reported for the other parameters which were inorganic nitrogen,  oxidized
     nitrogen, ammonical nitrogen,  and temperature.

     *WASTE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY,  *THERMAL POLLUTION, *MATHEMATICAL
     MODELS, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES, * FORECASTING, * ORGANIC WASTES,
     mathematical studies,  model studies, water pollution, geographical regions,
     regions, regions,  dissolved oxygen, nitrogen compounds, water temperature,
     temperature, water properties, wastes
                                    J-57

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145.  Gameson, A. L. H., L. Hall, and W. S. Freddy, EFFECTS OF HEATED
      DISCHARGES IN THE TEMPERATURE OF THE THAMES ESTUARY II,
      Combustion, Vol. 32, No. 7, January, 1961, p. 37.

      The paper presents a mathematical model for Thames Estuary to evaluate the
      effect of heated discharges on the excess temperature of the estuary.  Effects
      of tidal movement, fresh water movement, process of longitudinal mixing,  and
      dispersion have been used in the model.  Three families of curves are, prepared
      to evaluate the temperature distribution at various sections of the estuary due
      to heat discharging sources at different points of the estuary.  Good correlation
      was achieved between calculated and observed results.

      ^MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *HEATED WATER, *THERMAL POLLUTION,
      heat transfer, mixing, mathematical studies,  model studies, regions, water
      pollution, water types, transfer, tidal effects,  fresh water, dispersion,
      foreign countries, geographical regions.

146.  The GENERAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE ALBEMARLE, Division of
      Community Planning of the Department of Conservation and Development,
      North Carolina, November,  1964.

      The Albemarle Area is a block of ten counties bordering Albemarle Sound in
      northeastern North Carolina.  In this report the major economic activities of
      the area are analyzed (agriculture, forestry, fisheries,  recreation).  Land
      use and land potential are studied, including an analysis of major crop pro-
      ductivity in the area.  Recreation and wildlife areas are pictured and
      characterized. Water and overland transportation are also described with
      development possibilities presented.

      *NORTH CAROLINA, *AGRICULTURE, *RECREATION, *FISHERIES,  *FORES-
      TRY, community development,  Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal
      plain, coastal plains,  geographical regions, regions,  southeast U. S., income,
      human resources, wildlife, animals, land use, crop production, transportation

147.  GENERAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA AND SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY
      STANDARDS, Water Resources Regulation 4.8, May 22, 1967.' Water Resources
      Commision and Department of Water Resources, Annapolis, Maryland.

      Pollution and types of pollution are defined in this law.  Specific waters in
      Maryland and standards to be exacted from these waters are listed in detail.
      The following water-use categories are indicated: (1) shellfish harvesting, (2)
      public or municipal water supply, (3) water contact recreation, (4) propagation
      offish,  other aquatic life and wildlife, (5) agrieultual water supply, (6) industrial
      water supply.
                                    J-58

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     *STANDARDS, *WATER QUALITY, *WATER POLLUTION, ^MARYLAND,
     *WATER LAW,  *WATER SUPPLY, *SHELLFISH, control,  legal aspects,
     Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,  supply,
     fish harvesting, fish, wildlife, geographical regions, regions,  northeast U. S.,
     animals,  aquatic animals, aquatic life, recreation.

148.  Gerard, Robert D., POTENTIAL FRESHWATER RESERVOIR  IN THE NEW
     YORK AREA, Science, Vol. 153, No. 3138, August 19, 1966, pp. 870-871.

     Estimates of the water budget of Long Island Sound suggest  that it could become
     the largest reservoir in the United States, with freshwater surplus equal to 12
     times the present needs of New York City.  The engineering aspects of this
     undertaking are within the scope of present technology.  The dam structures
     required to isolate  this area from the sea could serve as important highway
     links in place of highway-bridge projects presently under study.

     *NEW YORK, * RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION,  * FRESH WATER, *DAMS,
     Appalachian Mountain region, geographical regions, Great Lakes region,
     northeast U. S., water management, water types,  construction management,
     engineering structures, hydraulic structures,  structures, hydrologic budget,
     regions

149.  Gibbs, C. V., and G. W. Isaac,  METROPOLITAN SEATTLE'S DUWAMISH
     ESTUARY WATER QUALITY PROGRAM, Water Pollution Control Federation,
     Journal,  Vol. 40, No. 3, March, 1968, pp. 385-394.

     The Duwamish estuary study by the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle is the
     most comprehensive municipally sponsored water quality study in the Pacific
     Northwest. The historical development of  the river problem,  present water
     quality-monitoring efforts, and results of the investigations are presented.
     Data collected will be used to guide the formulation of plans for future
     pollution-control measures.

     *MONITORING, *RIVERS, "HISTORY, *WATER QUALITY CONTROL, *WASH-
     INGTON, bodies of water,  running waters, streams, surface waters,  water
     pollution control, control,  quality control,  geographical regions, Pacific coast
     region, Pacific northwest U. S., regions,  data collections, statistics

150.  Gibbs, Charles V., and  Ray H.  Bothel, POTENTIAL OF LARGE METRO-
     POLITAN SEWERS FOR DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, Water Pollution
     Control Federation, Journal, Vol. 37, No. 10, October, 1965, pp. 1417-1421.

     The authors present a discussion of the economic advantages of joint treatment
     of municipal and industrial effluents. Also  presented are construction and
     operating cost estimates for treatment plants of 1 mgd,  25  mgd, and 100 mgd
     daily capacity,  and for both primary and secondary treatment.
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      *WASTE WATER TREATMENT, -"OPERATING COSTS, TREATMENT FA-
      CILITIES,  *MUNICIPAL WASTES, sewage treatment,  waste treatment, in-
      dustrial wastes,  economies of scale, capital costs, wastes

151.  Giese, G. L., and J. W. Barr, THE HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY, A PRE-
      LIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF FLOW AND WATER-QUALITY CHARACTER-
      ISTICS, State of New York, Conservation Department,  Water Resources Com-
      mission, Bulletin No.  61, 1967.

      This report outlines the present level of knowledge of flow and water quality
      characteristics in the Hudson River estuary.

      *WATER QUALITY, *FLOW,  *HUDSON RIVER,  *NEW YORK, hydrologic as-
      pects,  tidal waters,  bodies of water, rivers,  running waters, streams, surface
      waters, Appalachian Mountain region, geographical regions, Great Lakes region
      northeast U. S.,  regions

152.  Gillespie, G. J., SAVE-THE-SALMON PROJECT ON THE ST. JOHN RIVER,
      Fisheries of Canada, Vol. 20, No. 4, October, 1967, pp. 9-11.

      The author describes a joint project between Canada's  Department of Fisheries
      and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission to conserve fish which
      would otherwise be destroyed by a power plant.  The author feels that the
      results of this project should have widespread consequences in regard to fish
      conservation practices.

      *SALMON,  "HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS, * MULTIPLE-PURPOSE PROJECTS,
      *FISH  CONSERVATION,  sport fish, fish hatcheries, fish management,  fish,
      migration,  electric powerplants,  engineering structures, industrial plants,
      powerplants, structures, afterbays,  animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life,
      fish, salmonids,  wildlife, conservation, wildlife  conservation, projects,
      management

153.  Glasgow, Leslie,  PRESENT AND FUTURE SPORT FISHERIES RESOURCES OF
      THE NORTHERN GULF  OF MEXICO, llth International Game Fish Conference,
      International Oceanographic Institute, New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov. 18-19,
      1966, pp. 15-18.

      Big game fishing is now  an important segment of Louisiana's economy,  and
      interest in  the sport fishing both offshore and in the estuaries is increasing.
      The author argues that industry and pollution along the Louisiana coast are
      taking  their toll of the land and water areas, which are valuable breeding
      grounds for organisms important to the sport fishery.  There are few data
      available on the effects of industry; however,  new research will focus upon
      this aspect.
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     *SPORT FISHING, *WATER POLLUTION, "LOUISIANA, *GULF OF MEXICO,
     resource development, fishing, recreation, water sports, coastal plains,
     geographical regions, Gulf coastal plain, bodies of water, gulfs, surface
     waters, regions, southeast U.S.

154.  Glenn, Thomas R., Jr., AN EFFECTIVE ESTUARINE POLLUTION ABATE-
     MENT PROGRAM, A Symposium on Estauarine Fisheries, American Fisheries
     Society, Special Publication No. 3, 1966, pp. 116-120.

     The author presents a general discussion of the creation, activities, and powers
     of the Interstate Sanitation Commission which was created by Compact between
     New York, New Jersey, arid Connecticut for the abatement of existing and the
     control of future pollution in the waters of the New York Metropolitan Area.

     *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, *NEW YORK, *NEW JERSEY, *CONNECTICUT,
     *INTERSTATE COMPACTS, pollution abatement,  legal aspects, legislation,
     administrative agencies, Appalachian Mountain region, geographical regions,
     Great Lakes region, northeast U.  S., regions, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal
     plains, New England, abatement

155.  Goodman, Gordon T., R. W. Edwards, and J. M. Lambert, editors,  ECOLOGY
     AND THE INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY, 1965. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

     This book is a compendium of papers delivered" at The British Ecological Society
     Symposium in Swansea, April 13-16, 1964. Chapters most relevant to estuary
     problems are:
         1.  A survey of Water Pollution Problems
         2.  Ecological Aspects of the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes to the Sea
         3.  The Ecology of Marine Fouling
         4.  Pollution and Fisheries

     *WATER POLLUTION,  ^RADIOACTIVE WASTES, *FOULING, ^ECOLOGY,
     *FISHERIES,  air pollution, sewage disposal,  thermal pollution, wastes radio-
     active waste disposal, waste disposal,  waste disposal, environmental effects,
     aquatic habitats, environment, habitats,* aquatic life.

156.  Gordon, H. Scott, THE ECONOMIC THERORY OF A COMMON-PROPERTY
     RESOURCE: THE FISHERY, Journal of Political Economy, Vol.  62, No. 2,
     1954, pp. 124-141.

     Gordon examines the economic theory of natural resource utilization in the
     fishing industry.  He suggests that exploitation of this resource is usually unprofit-
     able under unregulated private exploitation and proposes public (governmental)
     control of the industry to avoid problems of misallocation of effort.
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      *FESH MANAGEMENT, * FISHERIES, *REGULATION,  commercial fishing,
      economic efficiency, natural resources, management,  resources, govern-
      ments, fishing, industries

157.  Gove,  John W., STATEMENT BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON AIR AND
      WATER POLLUTION, April 17, 1968.  Committee on Public Works,  U. S.
      Senate, Washington,  D. C.

      The thermal effects of a large electric-generating plant on Chesapeake  Bay are
      discussed. The conclusion is that the effluent from the plant would be more pure
      than natural bay water, and the discharge of warm water would not be detrimental
      to the ecology of the Bay.  Instead, winter fisheries could be created.

      ^VIRGINIA, ^MARYLAND,  THERMAL POWE'RPLANTS, *HEATED WATER,
      *ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS,  southeast U. S., bays, Appalachian Mountain
      region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast
      U. S., regions, fisheries, commercial fisheries, benefits, electric power-
      plants,  engineering structures, industrial plants, powerplants, structures,
      temperature, water types

158.  Gottschalk, L. C., EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION ON NAVIGATION IN UPPER
      CHESAPEAKE BAY, The Geographical Review,  Vol. 35, No. 2,  1945,  pp.
      219-238.

      This is an historical outlook on the damages wrought by sedimentation on the
      harbors and channels of Chesapeake Bay. Tobacco cultivation not only  ruined
      topsoil in the area, but caused erosion which filled up reservoirs, channels,
      and harbors.  Many famous ports of colonial times now lie several miles
      inland surrounded by swamp land, and the rivers are totally unnavigable.
      The author concludes that harbor and channel maintenance is most successful
      when supplemented by an effective soil conservation program.

      ^SEDIMENTATION, *MARYLAND, *BAYS,  *SOIL EROSION,  *NAVIGATION,
      erosion control, erosion, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic  coastal plain,
      coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U. S., regions, control, soil
      conservation, conservation,  channels, harbors

159.  Gottschalk, L. C., SEDIMENTATION IN A GREAT HARBOR, Soil Conservation,
      Vol. 10, No.  1, 1947, pp. 3-12.

      This article is an historical review of sedimentation trends in the Baltimore
      harbor area since early 1800.  It is estimated that the Patapsco River and tri-
      butaries currently carry more than 16 million cubic feet of sediment into the
      harbor area each year.,
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     *SEDIMENTATION, *MARYLAND, *HARBORS, *RIVERS,  soil erosion,
     sedimentation rates,  rates, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal
     plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U.S., regions, erosion,
     history, bodies of water,  running waters, streams, surface waters.

160.  Gould,  David H. G.,  "STATEMENT",  in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
     ESTUARIES, Proceedings of the Georgia Public Meeting, Jekyll Island,
     Georgia, February 29,  1968, pp. 62-69.  Federal Water Pollution Control
     Administration, Department of the Interior, S. E. Region,  Atlanta, Georgia.

     Georgia has 2344 miles of tidal shoreline with a larger estuarine area than any
     other state.  The production of food for man and animal is twice that of the best
     farmland and 20 times that of the open sea.  The estuaries  support Georgia's
     commercial fisheries.  Here are some statistics:
         1.   Average wholesale value of landings and manufactured product -
             $25 million.
         2.   Number of manufacturing plants - 57.
         3.   Number of employees of manufacturing plants - 2000.
         4.   Amount of commercial landings of fish and shellfish in 1965 - 20
             million pounds.
         5.   Dockside value of commercial landings of fish and shellfish  -
             $4,100,000.
         6.   The catch by species is:
             a.   Shrimp - 8,589,000 pounds.
             b.   Blue crabs - 10,215,000 pounds.
             c.   Oyster meals - 248,000 pounds.
             d.   Roe shad- 350,000 pounds.
             e.   Miscellaneous edible fish - 300,000 pounds.
         Recreation is also a significant factor in the economy of the Georgia
     coastal area.  In 1960 approximately 167,000 persons participated in sport
     fishing, spending an average of $80 each.

     *ECONOMIC IMPACT,  ^COMMERCIAL FISHING, ^RECREATION, ^GEORGIA,
     *COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH,  sport fishing, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic
     life,  invertebrates, shellfish, mollusks, marine animals, benthos, benthic
     fauna, oysters, clams, fishing, industries,  Appalachian Mountain region,
     Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, regions, south-
     east U.S., water sports,  shrimp, crustaceans.

161.  GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRY & SCIENCE STUDY POTENTIAL OF SEAWEEDS,
     Fisheries of Canada, Vol. 19, No.  11,  May, 1967, pp.  3-4.

     At the present  time,  seaweeds along Canada's Atlantic coast are worth about
     $1 million per  year.  It is stated that the resource is under-utilized and has
     valuable possibilities as a cash crop.
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      *MARINE PLANTS, *AQUATIC PRODUCTIVITY,  *VALUE, marine fisheries,
      submerged plants, plants, aquatic plants, aquatic life, productivity, water
      utilization, fisheries, efficiencies, geographical regions, regions, Atlantic
      Ocean,  bodies of water, oceans, surface waters

162.  Green,  Bernal L., and H. A. Wadsworth,  CAMPERS, WHAT AFFECTS
      PARTICIPATION AND WHAT DO THEY WANT, Purdue University, Agricultural
      Extension Station, Lafayette, Indiana, Research Bulletin No. 233, December,
      1966, pp. 3-23.

      This study concerns the attractions and needs of camping as a recreation activity.
         The variables that tend to have a significant effect on participation in camp-
      ing are: (1) occupation, (2) age, (3) vacation,  (4)  education,  and (5) type of camp-
      ing outfit.  Generally speaking, persons classified as managers and laborers do
      the most camping, participation decreases with age, participation increases with
      days of paid vacation and education, and campers  with the more expensive types
      of camping outfits do the most camping.
         Consideration of price elasticity of demand is especially justified since the
      preferred product mix includes several recreational products rather than only
      one.  The produce mix (other recreational activities) preferred by campers on
      camping trips includes swimming, hiking,  fishing, playground facilities, and
      boating. These  five activities received 508 of 590 first-choice votes.  The water-
      based activities  (swimming,  fishing,  and boating)  received 346, or 59 percent, of
      the 590 first-choice votes. Each of the remaining names of recreational activities
      and facilities received few votes. These data indicate that the preferred product
      mix is water-based.

      *CAMPING, *STATISTICS, ^RECREATION DEMAND, recreation facilities, use
      rates, land management, recreation,  swimming,  water sports, data collections,
      fishing, boating, demand

163.  GULF OF MEXICO IS STILL BOOMING, Offshore, Vol.  27,  No. 7, June 20,  1967,
      pp. 60-69.

      The offshore oil potential of the Gulf of Mexico is  examined,  and
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164.  Gunter, Gordon, THE GULF OF MEXICO MENHADEN FISHERY IN RELATION
     TO THE SPORTS FISHERY, Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, Proceedings,
     Vol.  16, 1964.

     The author argues that the menhaden fisheries do not conflict with estuarine
     sport fisheries or other commercial fisheries because the fishing gear does not
     select for the other species of fish, nor does it destroy the estuarine habitat, as
     alleged.

     *SPORT FISHING, *FISHING GEAR, *GULF OF MEXICO,  *COMMERCIAL FISH-
     ING, *COMPETING USES, commercial fish, bodies of water,  surface waters,
     gulfs, fishing, recreation, water sports, equipment

165.  Gunter, Gordon, HOW DOES SILTATION AFFECT FISH PRODUCTION, National
     Fisherman, Vol. 38,  No. 3, April, 1957, pp. 18-19.

     The author, Director of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, presents a general
     discussion of the effects of siltation on fish production. He states that "it is my
     impression that biologists and conservationists are prone to assume that silting
     is all bad,  terrible, and destructive. This arises from the fact that we are
     naturally impressed by the bad side of a situation, especially if it is of catas-
     trophic nature, and if we  are ignorant of the beneficial aspects of the case."  He
     further states that he is not impressed by the objections to sedimentation caused
     by mudshell dredges.  "Mudshell dredges might actually do some good in that
     they stir up the bottom and bring up the nutrient salts such as phosphates which
     are buried in the sediments when they are deposited. In fact,  such  operations
     nave  roughly the same effect as plowing of the land." He concludes that "we know
     very  little  about sedimentation  or siltation and related matters".

     ^SEDIMENTATION, *SILTING, *FISH, sediments,  dredging, fish harvest,
     effects, animals, aquatic  animals, aquatic life,  wildlife,  phosphates,  phosphor-
     ous compounds, nutrients

166.  Gunter, Gordon,  and  Jack McKee, ON OYSTERS AND SULFITE WASTE LIQUOR,
     Pollution Control Commission of the State of Washington, February, 1960.

     Information dealing with the effects of sulfite wastes from pulp mills on the
     oyster industry of Washington is reviewed.  Recommendations are made to the
     Pollution Control Commission pertinent to the adaption of water quality standards
     for water on or near oyster beds.

     "OYSTERS, *WATER POLLUTION,  "INDUSTRIAL WASTES,  *SULFITE LI-
     QUORS, *PULP WASTES, *WASHINGTON, pollution abatement, ecology,  water
     pollution control, wastes, sulfur compounds, geographical regions,  Pacific
     coast region,  Pacific  northwest U. S., animals, aquatic animals, aquatic  life,
     benthic fauna, benthos, commercial  shellfish, shellfish,  invertebrates, marine
     animals, mollusks, regions, water quality,  standards


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167.  Gurnham, C. Fred? editor, INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTROL, 1965.
      Academic Press, New York.

      This is a basic text and reference work on the subject of industrial waste
      water treatment. It contains chapters on the industrial waste water control in
      the following industries:
         1.  Meat                          13.  Iron and Steel
         2.  Fish and fish products           14.  Nonferrous metals
         3.  Poultry and eggs                15.  Petroleum
         4.  Dairy products                  16.  Inorganic chemicals
         5.  Canned foods                   17.  Organic chemicals
         6.  Starch and starch products       18.  Metal finishing products
         7.  Sugar                          19.  Pulp and paper
         8.  Fermentation products          20.  Textiles
         9.  Coalmining                    21.  Leather
        10.  Metal mining                   22.  Power
        11.  Industrial mineral mining        23.  Atomic energy
        12.  Coke and gas                   24.  Transportation

      INDUSTRIAL WASTES, *INDUSTRIAL PLANTS, *WASTE WATER TREAT-
      MENT, *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, water pollution sources, buildings,
      engineering structures, structures, waste treatment, water treatment,
      industries

168.  HaUaday,  William B., ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE DELAWARE RIVER
      ESTUARY PROGRAM, presented to the American Association of Cost Engineers,
      1967 Annual'Convention, Cleveland, Ohio, July 10-12, 1967.

      The author brings out the various cost-benefit relations involved in the Delaware
      River Estuary.  He mentions the problem of emotion and politics often over-
      shadowing need and economic fact in water quality legislation.

      "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS,  *DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION,
      *DELAWARE RIVER, water quality, legislation, management,  interstate
      commissions, rivsr basin commissions,  bodies of water, interstate rivers,
      rivers, running waters,  streams, surface waters, political aspects, economics

169.  Hammond,  R. J., BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS AND WATER POLLUTION CON-
      TROL, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California,
      Miscellaneous Publication 13, 1960.

      This report presents the author's opinions regarding benefit-cost analysis as
      applied to water pollution control. The report delves into the history of
      benefit-cost analysis and presents a general discussion on its use for the
      analysis of water resource investment.  The author is, in general, pessimistic
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     about the value of benefit-cost techniques in relation to water quality control.
     An excellent bibliography is included in the report.

     "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, "BIBLIOG-
     RAPHIES,  direct benefits,  indirect benefits, economics, tangible benefits,
     intangible benefits, waste treatment, pollution abatement, benefits, control,
     abatement, water quality control, quality control

170.  Harleman, Donald R. F.,  Chok-hung Lee, and Lawrence C. Hall,  "NUMERI-
     CAL SOLUTION OF THE UNSTEADY, ESTUARY DISPERSION EQUATION",
     in PROCEEDINGS  OF THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE
     POLLUTION,  August 23-25, 1967, pp.  586-611.  Department of Civil
     Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

     The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model which accurate-
     ly describes the advective (horizontal) motion (including the tidal and fresh
     water flow) and the longitudinal dispersion term for a variable estuary of
     arbitrary geometry.  This extends previous studies which have assumed that
     the advective term is due solely to the fresh water discharge and which have
     ignored advection due to the tidal motion in an estuary.  The model developed
     requires numerical solution procedures.

     "MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *TIDAL EFFECTS, "FRESH WATER, "DIS-
     PERSION,  mathematical studies, model studies, water types, flow profiles

171.  Hartzog, George B.,  Jr., CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SEA-
     SHORE AND UNDERWATER AREAS FOR PUBLIC ENJOYMENT, Latin
     American Conference on Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources,
     International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources,
     San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina,  No. 3361-368, March 27-
     April 2,  1968.

     The acreage of seacoast available for public enjoyment is rapidly decreasing,
     due to three major factors:
         1.   Real estate speculation and private ownership of ocean front property;
         2.   Water pollution;
         3.   Coastal engineering (draining, dredging,  filling,  dam building).
         What land is left for public recreation should be scrupulously managed  to
     maintain the ecological balance,  as well as protect the interests of the seaside
     vacationer.
         Underwater parks are a recent development which can expand the recreation-
     al (and educational) use of a seaside park.

     "RECREATION FACILITIES, "UNDERWATER,  "SEASHORES,  "LAND USE,
     "NATIONAL SEASHORES, natural resources, ecology, management, coastal
     engineering, engineering,  water pollution, parks, coasts, shores, resources
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172.  Hatch, Richard W., "ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: SEA AND SHORE",
      in THE MAINE COAST—PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES,  October, 1966,
      pp. 29-34.  Center for Resource Studies, Bowdoin College, Brunswick,
      Maine.
      The author identifies three stages of human development in which man affects
      the ecological balance of an estuary:  (1) agriculture, (2) industrial development,
      and (3) urbanization.
         The  immediate effects of those frequently-overlapping stages are listed:
         1. Agriculture: accelerated development of mud flats and tidal marshes,
      nutrient enrichment from manure causing algae growth, and pesticides.
         2.  Industrial development: toxic chemical pollutants, organic wastes
      with high oxygen demand, suspended organic matter, and thermal pollution
      causing increased bacterial activity.
         3.  Urbanization: dumping of domestic sewage, drainage, dumping of solid
      waste, filling, dredging, and highway construction.

      *WATER POLLUTION SOURCES, *MAINE, * URBANIZATION,  ^BALANCE OF
      NATURE, *INDUSTRIES, * AGRICULTURE,  geographical regions, regions,
      New England,  northeast U. S., coasts

173.  Hedgpeth, Joel W.,  "ASPECTS OF THE ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM", in
      MARINE,  ESTUARIAN, AND RIPARIAN POLLUTION DISASTERS AND THEIR
      CONSEQUENCES, Ocean Resources Subcommittee Meeting, December 13, 1967.
      National Security Industrial Association, Washington, D. C.

      Among Hie characteristics of the estuarine ecosystem are the occurrence of
      closely related species adjusted to the seasonal and nutrient cycles of the
      estuary,  the seasonal replacement of various mass species, and the integrating
      effect induced by large populations of benthic mollusks, especially oysters and
      mussels.  It is suggested that such a value as gross photosynthesis is not a good
      indicator in itself of the state of this complex system.  Factors causing the
      decline of productivity and ecological health of several major estuarine eco-
      systems are discussed; these declines are primarily due to such works of man
      as alteration of river flow, changing shorelines by filling, and pollution.

      *BALANCE OF NATURE, *ECOSYSTEMS, river flow,  water pollution effects,
      channel flow, water pollution, environmental effects, mollusks, animals,
      aquatic animals, aquatic life,  invertebrates, benthic fauna, benthos, flow,
      estuarine environment, aquatic environment, environment

174.  Heinemann, G.,  COOLING WITH SEAWATER,  Chemical Engineering, Vol. 70,
      No. 12, June 10, 1963, pp. 188-189.

      It is expected that the use of sea water for cooling should increase as the supply of
      fresh water becomes more and more limited.  This article discusses materials
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     for use in systems using sea water and water from tidal basins. The use of
     chlorine to prevent Hie growth of organisms in these systems is also discussed.

     "COOLING, *SEA WATER, *CHLOKINATION, cooling water, saline water,
     water types,  chemical reactions, tidal waters

175.  Hellier, Thomas R.,  Jr., and Louis S. Kornicker, SEDIMENTATION FROM A
     HYDRAULIC DREDGE IN A BAY,  Institute of Marine Science, Vol. 7, 1962,
     pp. 212-215.

     Red gravel was used to mark the movement of sediment after the dredging of a
     section of an intercoastal waterway near Arkansas Pass,  Texas.  The spoil was
     placed in "spoil banks".  Eighteen months later a negligible amount of silt had
     by-passed the spoil island or was eroded from the island.

     *DREDGING,  *SILTS, *SPOIL BANKS,  *SEDIMENT TRANSPORT, *GULF
     COASTAL PLAINS, channel improvement,  fine textured soils,  pervious soils,
     soil types, Texas, central U. S.,  coastal plains, geographical regions, regions,
     southwest U. S.,  inland waterways, channels

176.  Henderson, John M., "STATEMENT", in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
     ESTUARIES, Proceedings of the Georgia Public  Meeting, Jekyll Island, Georgia,
     February 29,  1968, p. 9.  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
     Department of the Interior, S. E.  Region,  Atlanta, Georgia.

     This  paper is concerned with filth-borne (enteric) disease occurrence and re-
     lated procedures and standards for determining the safety of estuarine waters for
     recreational use or shellfish growing. The term "filth-borne (enteric)" disease is
     intended to include all diseases contracted as a result of sewage pollution or other
     fecal pollution and not merely those diseases which are confined to the gastro-in-
     testinal tract of man.
         These two subjects, recreational water use  and shellfish production and con-
     sumption, have points in common and also distinct differences between them as
     they relate to human disease.

     *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, *ENTERIC BACTERIA, *DISEASES, *RECRE-
     ATION, "SHELLFISH, "COMMERCIAL FISHING, water quality, sewage bacteria,
     sewage effluents, bacteria, microorganisms,  plants,  effluents, aquatic animals,
     aquatic life,  animals, fishing, industries

177.  Hetling, L. J., A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE POTOMAC RIVER—
     WHAT IT HAS DONE AND WHAT IT CAN DO, 1966 Fall Meeting of the Interstate
     Commission on the Potomac River Basin,  St. Mary's City, Maryland, Federal
     Water Pollution Control Administration, CB-SRBP Technical Paper No. 8,
     September 22, 1966.
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      This paper presents the use of Thomann's mathematical model for comprehen-
      sive water pollution control program of the Potomac Estuary in Washington
      Metropolitan Area.  Various graphs show the dye,  chloride,  and dissolved
      oxygen distribution in the Upper Potomac Estuary.  The effect of BOD input
      removal upon the minimum dissolved oxygen level for three fresh water flow
      conditions is shown.

      *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *RIVERS,  *DYE RELEASES, ^CHLORIDES,
      "DISSOLVED OXYGEN, *DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, oxygen demand,
      mathematical studies, model studies, biochemical oxygen demand,  streams,
      bodies of water,  channel flow, streamflow,  running waters, surface waters,
      halides, water pollution control,  river flow, flow

178.  Hetling, L.  J., and R. L. O'Connell, A STUDY OF TIDAL DISPERSION IN
      THE POTOMAC  RIVER, 1966 Fall  Meeting of the Interstate Commission on the
      Potomac River Basin, St. Mary's City, Maryland, Federal Water Pollution
      Control Administration, CB-SRBP  Technical Paper No. 7, September 22, 1966.

      A dye tracer study was carried out for a 34-day period from June 10 to July 14,
      1965, to mathematically describe the fate of pollutants entering the tidal system.
      Thomann's mathematical model was used.  Dye loss rate, dye discharge rate,
      and dye concentrations along the estuary are plotted in various figures.  The
      dispersion coefficient varied along  the length of the estuary and is plotted
      against the distance in miles from Chain Bridge.

      *DYE RELEASES,  *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *TIDAL WATERS, ^TRACERS,
      *PATH  OF POLLUTANTS, mathematical studies, model studies, dispersion,
      geographical regions, coastal plains, Maryland, Virginia, Appalachian Mountain
      region,  regions, northeast U. S., southeast U. S., Atlantic coastal plain

179.  Hoffman,  Carl P., Jr., and Donald S. Fitzgibbon, REPORT ON THE 1961
      TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND SERVICE ACTIVITIES OF THE BUREAU
      OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES, Branch of Economics, Bureau of Commercial
      Fisheries, Washington, D. C., Report No.  544, June, 1962.

      The activities reported upon include (1) participation in regulatory proceedings
      and (2) negotiations with carriers to obtain improvements in transportation
      rates, services, and facilities for the fishing industry.  The research activities
      of the Transportation Section involve collection and analysis of financial and
      traffic data and study of the methods used in moving, terminal handling,  packing,
      and storing of fish and shellfish.  The work is carried on by the Transportation
      Section  staff, by other Government agencies, and by private firms working under
      contract.

      "TRANSPORTATION, COMMERCIAL FISHING, "FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,
      fishing, industries, data collections, statistics, financial analysis,  analytical
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     techniques, commercial fish,  animals,  aquatic animals, aquatic life,  fish,
     wildlife, commercial shellfish, invertebrates,  shellfish, costs,  regulation,
     negotiations, storage

180.  Hollis, Edgar H., "COMMERCIAL AND SPORT FISHERIES",  in PROBLEMS
     OF THE POTOMAC ESTUARY, January, 1964, pp. 23-27.  Interstate Com-
     mission on the Potomac River Basin, Washington, D. C.

     A general discussion of the fisheries of the Potomac Estuary is presented.
     The report contains estimates of the production capability of commercial
     fisheries,  their value to the Potomac River and its tributaries during recent
     years, and estimates of the number of people participating in the commercial
     fishery. Estimates of sport fishing usage and catch based on surveys conducted
     in 1960 and 1961 by the Natural Resources Institute are given.  It concludes that
     the commercial production of crabs and finfish in the Potomac Estuary is  of a
     sizeable magnitude and in all probability can be maintained at the existing or at
     a slightly increased level for a long period of time.  However, because of the
     economic conditions and trends generally prevailing in the inshore fishing in-
     dustry, prospects for increasing the production and values for commercial
     species in the Potomac Estuary do not appear as great as for the other resources.

     *MARYLAND, "VIRGINIA, *SPORT FISHING,  COMMERCIAL FISHING,
     *PRODUCTIVITY,  personnel, market value, Appalachian Mountain region,
     Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U.  S.,
     regions, commercial shellfish, crustaceans, invertebrates, fish,  shellfish,
     wildlife, southeast U. S.,  statistics, data collections, crabs,  finfish, fishing,
     industries, recreation, water sports, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life

181.  Holmsen, Andreas, THE RHODE ISLAND QUAHOG INDUSTRY—SOME ECONOM-
     IC ASPECTS, Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin,  No.  386,
     1966.

     The purpose of the study was to (1) examine the economics of handraking and
     dredging,  (2) describe the  dealer's functions and the competition in the industry,
     (3) analyze the price behavior in the market, including funds and seasonal
     variations in prices, and (4) to indicate more effective ways to utilize the
     resource.
         More people are engaged in handraking than in dredging, with all age  groups
     represented. One-third of the handrakers are over 50 years of age, although
     most are not employed full-time.  If, however, more areas were opened for
     power dredging, it would affect the labor force such that a significant number of
     people over 50 years old would have difficulty finding employment  elsewhere.
     The net return to the clammer from handraking is $2.84 per hour.
         Figures are provided  for power dredging but are not comparable with hand-
     raking figures because of the different methods used to obtain them.  This is due
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      primarily to variation in labor force.  The average return to a dredge boat
      owner is $41 per day.
          Possible ways to improve the industry are suggested,

      *RHODE ISLAND,  *CLAMS, *COST COMPARISONS, "HARVESTING,  commer-
      cial shellfish,  prices, environmental sanitation, animals, aquatic animals,
      aquatic life, benthic fauna,  benthos, invertebrates, mollusks,  shellfish,
      geographical regions, New  England, northeast U. S., regions, analysis,  cost
      analysis, mathematical studies, water pollution effects, water pollution.

182.  Holmsen, Andreas, and Joseph Stanislao, ECONOMICS OF QUAHOG DE-
      PURATION, Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 384,
      1966, pp. 1-36.

      This study deals with the technical and economic aspects of depuration, in-
      cluding the design of a processing plant, the design of equipment, and an
      analysis  of the economic feasibility of this method as compared with the present
      method of transplanting organisms from polluted to clean waters as these
      factors concern quahogs in  Rhode  Island. The cost of transplanting clams is
      discussed and compared with the cost of depurating a like number of clams.
      In addition,  a cost analysis is given for the development and operation of a com-
      plete depuration plant.  It is estimated that the cost of  depuration by use of
      ultraviolet light exclusive of other processing for a plant with a capacity of
      105,000 bushels per year,  which is Rhode Island1 s estimated annual yield in
      moderately polluted waters, is 25.46 per bushel, as compared to the cost of
      about $1.85. per bushel when the clams are transplanted to unpolluted water.

      *CLAMS, *RHODE ISLAND, *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, *COST COM-
      PARISONS,  cost analysis,  animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life,  benthic
      fauna, benthos, commercial shellfish, invertebrates, mollusks, shellfish,
      analysis, mathematical studies, water pollution, geographical regions, New
      England, northeast U. S.,  regions

183.  Howard,  R. S.,  "GEORGIA WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS STATE-
      MENT TO THE NATIONAL ESTUARINE STUDY REPORT", in CLEAN WATER
      FOR THE NATION'S ESTUARIES,  Proceedings of the Georgia Public Meeting,
      Jekyll Island,  Georgia, February  29, 1968, pp. 1-4.  Federal Water Pollution
      Control Administration, Department of the Interior, S. E. Region, Atlanta,
      Georgia.

      Georgia has 2000 square miles of  estuarine zone (including salt marshes) on
      115 miles of seacoast.
         Seafood production has declined drastically in the last 40 years due to con-
      tamination and pollution from sewage and industrial pollution.
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     The State Water Quality Control Board makes the following recommendations
     for the preservation of estuarine water quality:
         1.   Federal and state governments should clean up existing pollution from
     sewage and industrial wastes,
         2,   Undertake research on the effects of pollutants,  from sewage and in-
     dustrial wastes, on the marine biota of estuaries,
         3.   Investigate the possibility of blending certain waste discharges to off-
     set individual pollutional effects,
         4.   Conduct social and economic studies to develop the values of estuaries
     for various uses and for aesthetic considerations, and determine the practicality
     of the zoning concept as opposed to the multiple use philosophy,
         5.   Establish a pesticide monitoring and sampling program, especially
     through the spring and summer seasons,
         6.   Develop a shellfish and fish sampling program to study the effects of
     radiation and pesticides on fish, shellfish,  and other marine life, and
         7.   Determine the volume and patterns of flows in tidal basins.

     *WATER QUALITY CONTROL, *GEORGIA, *POLLUTION ABATEMENT,
     *SEWAGE TREATMENT,  INDUSTRIAL WASTES, LEGISLATION, radio-
     activity effects, fish, shellfish, water pollution treatment, water treatment,
     control,  quality control, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain,
     coastal plains,  geographical regions, regions,' southeast U. S., zoning,
     toxicity, pesticides, marshes, wetlands, abatement, waste treatment, tidal
     marshes, social values, wastes, economic impact,  values, aesthetics

184.  Howe, Henry,  SALT RIVERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS SHORE, 1951.  Holt,
     Rinehart, and Winston,  Inc.,  New York.

     The work begins with a geological description of the formation of the area. It
     chronologically traces the use of the facilities from the early settlement for
     economic activities such as shipping, milling, fishing, saltworks,  shipbuilding.
     It follows the rise to power of communities in given fields, e.g. New Bedford's
     whaling days.  Howe compares and parallels growth and development of several
     estuary-based community economies in Massachusetts.
         The existence of estuaries did not directly cause industrialism, but rattier
     stimulated its growth through the availability of water power,  inland water
     transportation, canal links, and manpower.
         The Merrimack River and Buzzards' Bay are studied in detail.

     *HTSTORY, *MASSACHUSETTS, INDUSTRIES,  *RIVERS, community de-
     velopment, economic life, geology, commercial fishing,  fishing, shores,
     ships, bodies of water,  running waters, streams, surface waters, geographi-
     cal regions,  New England, northeast U. S., regions

185.  Hull, C. H.  J., OXYGENATION OF BALTIMORE HARBOR BY PLANKTONIC
     ALGAE, Water Pollution Control Federation,  Journal, Vol. 35, No. 5, 1963,
     pp.  587-606.
                                    J-73

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      This paper discusses the contribution of photosynthesis to the oxygen balance
      and, hence, the waste assimilative capacity of an estuary.  A literature review
      is included.  A detailed report is given of the effect of photosynthesis upon the
      waste assimilative capacity of Baltimore Harbor.  Data were collected and
      analyzed indicating quantities of oxygen produced, but the results were not
      interpreted directly to provide a measure of overall waste assimilation capac-
      ity.  It was concluded, however, that the contribution of photosynthesis is
      greater than is that of reaeration.

      *PHOTOSYNTHESIS,  *REAERATION, *WASTE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY,
      "OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS,  *MARYLAND, self-purification,  water purifica-
      tion, water treatment, oxygenation, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic
      coastal plain,  coastal plains, geographical  regions, northeast U. S., regions,
      harbors

186.  Huston,  John W.,  THE  OYSTER AND THE  DREDGE OR "BEAUTY AND THE
      BEAST", World Dredging and Marine Construction, Vol.  4,  No. 2,  March,
      1968,  pp. 30-31.

      The author refutes complaints made by oyster fishermen on the effects of
      dredging on oyster beds.  Points covered are: toxicity, chemical changes,
      turbidity, effect on life  cycle, siltation,  and physiological irritation.

      "OYSTERS, "DREDGING, "ECOLOGY, "AQUATIC HABITATS, animals,
      aquatic animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna, benthos, commercial shellfish,
      invertebrates, marine animals,  habitats, environment, mollusks, shellfish,
      silting, sedimentation,  toxicity, turbidity,  physical properties, life cycles,
      physiological ecology

187.  Hutton, Robert F., Bonnie Eldred, Kenneth P.  Woodburn, and Robert M. Ingle,
      THE ECOLOGY OF BOCA CIEGA BAY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
      DREDGING AND FILLING OPERATIONS, PART I, Florida State Board of Con-
      servation Marine Laboratory, St.  Petersburg, Florida, March 21,  1956.

      This report contains sundry data relating to the physical and biological
      characteristics of Boca Ciega Bay, including temperature, rainfall, salinity,
      currents, pH of Bay waters, tides, tidal  bench works, listing and descriptions
      of flora and fauna, etc.  Also included are estimates of the number of tourist
      visits, tourist expenditures, and the number of lodging enterprises which
      accommodated tourists  (and presumably non-tourists also) in 1954.  Estimates
      of business volume of one bait-shrimp dealer, 17  boat dealers and boat repair
      shops, and four commercial fish dealers in the area are listed. Qualitative
      conclusions are reached regarding the effects of dredge and fill operations on
      resource values.
                                     J-74

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     *DREDGING,  *ECOLOGY, *BAYS, *FLORIDA,  *ECONOMIC IMPACT, land-
     fills, commercial fishing, sport fishing, bodies of water, Atlantic coastal
     plain,  coastal plains, geographical regions, regions, southeast U. S., fishing,
     industries, recreation, water sports, aquatic animals,  aquatic plants, animals,
     aquatic life, plants,  tourism, water properties, value

188.  Hynes, H. B. N., THE BIOLOGY OF POLLUTED WATERS, 1960. Liverpool
     University Press, Liverpool, England.

     This comprehensive treatment of the biology of polluted waters "has summarized
     and codified the information that is available".  The book is largely limited to
     fresh water,  and gives very little consideration to the biology of polluted
     estuarine waters. With regard to estuarine waters the author concludes that,
     "Apart from the effect on migratory fishes there is little detailed information
     on the biological consequences of estuarine pollution".  The book was  evidently
     written for ready comprehension of the basic principles by the lay reader, and
     would provide an admirable basic text for the subject of water pollution.

     *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, *BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES, *ECOLOGY,
     water pollution, aquatic environment, aquatic microbiology, impaired water
     quality, pollutants, water quality, environment, microbiology, aquatic plants,
     aquatic life, plants,  aquatic animals, animals, aquatic habitats, habitats

189.  ttes, R. B.,  CULTIVATING  FISH FOR FOOD AND SPORT IN POWER-STATION
     WATER,  New Scientist, No.  324,  January,  1963.

     The beneficial uses of thermal pollution for fish culture and recreational use
     are discussed.  The possibility of raising of a number of non-indigenous species
     and ornamental fish in heated effluent is discussed.  The author  argues that
     British waters are generally too cold during the winter  season to closely approach
     optimum productivity of fish  growth.

     THERMAL POLLUTION, *BENEFICIAL USE,  CHEATED WATER, *WASTE
     WATER (POLLUTION), *FISH STOCKING, thermal power, fish  farming, water
     sports, sport fishing,  water  pollution, foreign countries, geographical regions,
     regions, water types,  effluents, liquids, liquid wastes, wastes,  agriculture,
     stocking, fish establishment, recreation, fishing

190.  INDEX OF SELECTED OUTDOOR RECREATION LITERATURE, VOLUME II,
     Department of the Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Washington, D. C.,
     Report No. 7000-70847, March, 1968.

     This is a compilation of abstracts of articles, books, conference proceedings,
     directories, documents, reports,  speeches, yearbooks, and bibliographies of
     outdoor recreation literature.

     *ABSTRACTS, *RECREATION,  documentation, bibliographies
                                    J-75

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191. INLAND WATER-BORNE COMMERCE STATISTICS 1965, The American
     Waterways Operators, Inc., Washington,  D. C., June, 1967.

     The data in this report on commodities transported over the inland waterways
     of the U. S. (including Chesapeake Bay, Delaware River, James River, and
     Potomac River) are compiled from statistics issued by the waterborne com-
     merce statistics center of the Army Corps of Engineers.
          Included are reports on 27 major waterways showing the lengths of the
     navigable sections, controlling depths, comparisons of the total annual
     traffic for the last five years, and the net tons of major commodities
     transported in 1965.
          This report is issued annually.

     DRIVERS,  *TRANSPORTATION, *STATISTICS,  *INLAND WATERWAYS,
     bays, data collections, channels

192. INTERIM REPORT ON GROSS PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF
     OVERBOARD SPOIL DISPOSAL, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Natural
     Resources Institute, University of Maryland, Ref. No. 67-34, May, 1967.

     This interim report describes the effects associated with 1966 channel
     dredging in Chesapeake Bay. The effects considered were on geology and
     hydrography, phytoplankton, benthos, zooplankton,  fish eggs and larvae, and
     adult fish.  Observed effects of the disposal were summarized by the authors
     as:
          1.   Fine sediments from the channel were released in shoal water, over
     similar sediments, as a semi-liquid mixture.
          2.   Sediments were spread over an area at least five times as large as
     the designated disposal area.
          3.   There was a highly localized release of nutrient chemicals, roughly
     equivalent to a sewer outfall from a town of about 10,000 people.
          4,   No gross effect was observed on the microscopic plants and animals
     in the water, nor on the eggs and larvae of fish, nor on adult fish held in
     cages near the outfall or caught near the area.
          5.   Some bottom animals were smothered over a wide area, so that a
     significant loss occurred.  Some species survived deposition, and certain
     species began repopulation soon after deposition.

     *SEDIMENTS, *DREDGING, *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS,  * AQUATIC
     PLANTS, * AQUATIC ANIMALS, sediment control,  growth stages,  fish eggs,
     channel improvement, hydrography, geology, phytoplankton, zooplankton,
     larvae,  eggs, fish, bays, bodies of water, Maryland, Appalachian Mountain
     region,  sediment discharge, control, Atlantic coastal plain,  coastal plains,
     geographical regions, northeast U. S., regions, hydrologic aspects, aquatic
     life, plankton, plants, animals, benthos
                                    J-76

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193.  INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL PASSAMAQUODDY TIDAL
     PROJECT, International Joint Commission of the Passamaquoddy Tidal
     Project,  Docket No. 72, April,  1961.

     This report presents the detailed results of an investigation by the International
     Joint Commission of the Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project.
         In finding that the Passamaquoddy tidal power project is not economically
     feasible, the  Commission recommended that development of the project be viewed
     as a long-range possibility having better prospects of realization when other
     energy resources available are  exhausted.  The Commission points out that the
     economic feasibility of the project may be affected by future changes in the costs
     and benefits considered in the present evaluation of the project.  Consideration
     of the desirability of crediting the tidal project with certain public benefits that
     have not been included in the economic feasibility determination presented in
     this report was identified as a possibility.
         The Commission also recommends that this report be made available to
     interested parties as a valuable source of relevant engineering and economic
     data for use in any future study  of the possibilities for development of the
     international  tidal power potential of Passamaquoddy Bay.

     *ELECTRIC POWER, *COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, *TIDAL POWERPLANTS,
     *ECONOMIC  FEASIBILITY, tidal energy, energy, electric powerplants, engineer-
     ing structures,  industrial plants,  powerplants, structures, feasibility, indirect
     benefits, benefits

194.  Isaac, GaryW., and Curtis P.  Leiser, SEATTLE'S EFFORTS IN RESTORATION
     OF BAYS AND ESTUARIES, 32nd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources
     Conference, San Francisco, California, Transactions,  March 13-15, 1967, pp.
     127-137.

     Citizens in the Seattle area, which is comprised of 14 cities, initiated the
     legislation and voted into being a metropolitan municipal  corporation,  specifi-
     cally to deal with the pollution problem, but able also to expand to alleviate
     other regional difficulties as they would arise.
         An operating treatment agency and four engineering firms composed a master
     plan which is detailed in this paper.  The cost of the plan was estimated at
     $125,000,000.
         The pollution control program will continue in three  major parts:
         1.   Emission controls applied to industrial waste discharges at the source.
         2.   Treatment plant control and monitoring by personnel attached per-
     manently to plant operations.
         3.   A separate force to monitor the receiving waters for biological nutrient
     and physical parameters.
                                     J-77

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      * WASHINGTON, *SEWAGE TREATMENT, *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL,
      Pacific northwest U. S., civil engineering, waste treatment,  engineering,  algae,
      plants, control, pollution abatement, abatement, Pacific coast region, regions,
      geographical regions, bays, bodies of water.

195.  Jeffries, H.  P., ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RARITAN BAY,
      A POLLUTED ESTUARY, Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 7, 1962, pp.
      21-31.

      Temperature, salinity,  dissolved O2, PO4-P, and NO3-N in Raritan Bay,
      New Jersey,  were determined over a 16-month period.  Each reflects the
      circulation pattern in which sea water floods along the northern shore, enters
      a region of mixing with river discharge in the head of the bay,  and then ebbs
      out along the southern shore. A combination of rich nutrient supplies arising
      from natural and domestic sources, plus a sluggish circulation, efficient
      nutrient regeneration mechanism, and scarcity of macroscopic algae combine
      to form an estuarine environment capable of supporting extremely dense plank-
      ton populations.

      *SALINTTY,  "DISSOLVED OXYGEN, "NUTRIENTS,  *NEW JERSEY, "WATER
      CIRCULATION^ temperature, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographi-
      cal regions,  northeast U. S., circulation, eutrophication

196.  Jenkins, Allston, TESTIMONY - PHILADELPHIA CONSERVATIONISTS, INC.,
      Estuarine Hearings, Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation of
      the Committee  on Merchants Marine and  Fisheries,  House of Representatives,
      90th Congress, Serial No. 90-3, March,  1967.

      Five  case histories of estuarine despoliation in the Delaware River estuary are
      presented.  Case histories discussed include:  (1) construction for refineries,
      (2) dock and berthing facilities,  (3) acquisition of land for a refinery tank farm
      and unloading facilities, and (4) acquisition of land for constructing a nuclear
      energy plant.

      *DREDGING, "ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT, "INDUSTRIAL PLANTS, "IN-
      DUSTRIAL WATER, "DELAWARE RIVER, electric powerplants, powerplants,
      aquatic environment, environments, conservation, buildings,  engineering
      structures,  structures,  docks, nuclear powerplants, bodies of water,  inter-
      state  rivers, rivers, running waters, streams, surface waters, Delaware
      River Basin Commission, interstate commissions, river basin commissions,
      water types

197.  Jenkins, William A., "U. S.  COAST GUARD REPORT OF WAKE ISLAND
      OIL SPILL", in MARINE, ESTUARIAN, AND RIPARIAN POLLUTION DISAS-
      TERS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES, Ocean Resources Subcommittee Meeting,
      December 12, 1967. National Security Industrial Association, Washington, D. C
                                    J-78

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     The Wake Island oil spill is described in great detail.  All the repercussions
     of this disaster are discussed: (1) air pollution, (2) shoreline pollution, and
     (3) small boat harbor pollution.
         The problem was alleviated by the passage of a typhoon which scoured
     away much of the polluted area.

     *OIL WASTES,  *DISASTERS, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES,  *WATER POLLUTION,
     beaches,  air pollution,  environmental effects, geographical regions, regions,
     organic matter, wastes

198.  Jensen,  P.  T., and P.  G. Swartzell, CALIFORNIA SALMON LANDINGS,
     1952 THROUGH 1965, Fishery Bulletin,  Vol. 135, 1967, pp.  43-57.

     Trends in landings and dollar values of salmon landed both commercially and
     by sport fishermen in California ports are provided for the years 1952-1965,

     *SALMON,  *MARKET VALUE,  *FISH HARVEST,  *CALIFORNIA, commercial
     fishing,  sport fish, fishing, industries, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic
     life, fish, wildlife, sport fishing,  recreation, water sports,  salmonids, in-
     come, return (monetary),  value, geographical  regions, Pacific coast region,
     regions,  southwest U. S.

199.  Kalman,  P., ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF GAME  FISHING ON THE NORTHERN
     GULF OF MEXICO, llth International Game Fish Conference (1966),  Proceed-
     ings, August, 1967, pp. 19-29.

     The author states that the national average expenditure for salt water fisher-
     men is $96.00 annually, or $8.34 per fishing day. Approximately 22  percent of
     the angler's dollar is spent on bait, guides, and fee for charter boats.  Equip-
     ment other than fishing gear accounts for 26.9  percent.  Transportation to and
     from the fishing grounds accounts for about 14.7 percent, and food and lodging
     total about 15.2 percent. Fishing gear accounts for 11 percent of the dollar and
     licenses  and fees make up 5 percent.  Dollar values are provided for  most of
     the Gulf States.
         The  author also presents information on expenditures by salt-water fisher-
     men and  charter boat operators which is virtually unavailable elsewhere in the
     literature.  This includes:  charter boat fees; charter boat expenses,  i. e.,
     costs of boats, engines, maintenance, fuel, labor, bait, and insurance; sales
     of fish by charter boat operators;  and expenditures per fish-catch for deep sea
     sports fish.

     *SPORT  FISHING, *COST ANALYSIS, *GULF  OF MEXICO,  recreation, marine
     fisheries, fishing, fisheries, water sports, fishing gear, analysis, mathemati-
     cal studies, equipment, boats, bodies of water, gulfs, surface waters
                                     J-79

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200. Kastrop, J. E.,  and J. Scott, INDUSTRY OUTLOOK/DIRECTION 1968,
     Petroleum Engineer, Vol. 40, No. 1, January, 1968, pp. 49-61.

     United States demand figures for oil and gas are related to known reserves.
     Drilling rig figures are tabulated showing types and numbers, depths and
     costs.  Problems and location costs are discussed.

     *OIL INDUSTRY, *OIL RESERVOIRS, *DEMAND, "COSTS, secondary re-
     covery  (oil), flooding, injection, industries, drilling, natural gas, gases,
     organic compounds

201. KEEPING OIL OUT OF THE SEA,  Ocean Industry, Vol. 2, No. 11, November,
     1967, pp. 10-16.

     The authors discuss various sources of oil pollution: tankerballast and bilges,
     tanker disasters, sunken tankers,  natural oil seeps. Also discussed are various
     means of combating oil spillage and ways of improving oil transporting.

     *WATER POLLUTION SOURCES,  *OILY WATER, *OIL WASTES, *SHIPS,
     oil industry, industries, organic matter, wastes, transportation, oil

202. Kelleher, Thomas F.,  "BOAT AND MARINA WASTES", in PROBLEMS OF THE
     POTOMAC ESTUARY,  January, 1964, pp. 60-63. Interstate Commission on
     the Potomac River Basin, Washington, D.  C.

     Estimates are given for the number of marinas presently in operation in the
     U. S.,  their business volume, and the number of people participating in
     recreational boating.  Efforts of the "boating fraternity" to obtain better
     pollution control through legislation, research and development, and educa-
     tion are described. A list of conclusions regarding desirable water-quality
     control programs involving pleasure boats and marinas is included.  One signifi-
     cant conclusion is that state and local laws must be sufficiently uniform to per-
     mit boat owners and operators to travel from state to state without being chal-
     lenged on waste treatment equipment aboard.

     *MARYLAND, "VIRGINIA, *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, *MARINAS,
     *RECREATION WASTES, LEGISLATION,  *WATER QUALITY CONTROL,
     water pollution sources, recreation facilities, boating, Appalachian Mountain
     region,  Atlantic  coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast
     U.  S., regions,  southeast U. S., recreation, wastes, water sports, control,
     quality control, income

203. Kelley,  D. W., and Jerry L. Turner, FISHERIES PROTECTING AND  EN-
     HANCEMENT WITH WATER DEVELOPMENT OF THE SACRAMENTO-SAN
     JOAQUIN ESTUARY, A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries, American Fisher-
     ies Society, Special Publication No. 3, 1966, pp. 78-82.'
                                    J-80

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     The development of a water plan through the joint efforts of biologists and
     engineers, ".. .that appears compatible with other uses of the estuary and
     that provides opportunities to protect and perhaps enhance the fisheries re-
     sources" is presented.  The plan relates to the transfer of Northern
     California waters to Southern California, with respect to water  in transit
     through the delta area.  The estuary and its fish and fisheries are described.
     Estimates are presented of gnmiql sport-fishing expenditures, sport-fish
     catch, and angler days in the estuary and adjacent areas.

     *CALIFORNIA,  *WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT, *ESTUARIES,
     sport fishing, geographical regions, Pacific coast region, regions,  southwest
     U. S., fishing, recreation, water sports, resource developmen , bodies of
     water, area redevelopment, conservation,  natural resources, resources,  re-
     clamation, coastal engineering, engineering, social participation, water
     utilization,  coastal plains, surface waters

204.  Kenney,  Nathaniel T., CHESAPEAKE COUNTRY, National Geographic,  Vol.
     126, No.  3, September,  1964,  pp.  370-411.

     This article lightly covers social and economic forces behind the development of
     Chesapeake Bay.

     *MARYLAND, * HISTORY, *SOCIAL IMPACT, *ECONOMIC IMPACT, *BAYS,
     Appalachian Mountain region,  Atlantic coastal plain,  coastal plains, geographi-
     cal regions, northeast U. S.,  regions,  social aspects, bodies of water

205.  Kerri, Kenneth D.,  A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR WATER QUALITY CONTROL,
     Water Pollution Control Federation, Journal,  Vol. 39,  No.  5,  May, 1967,
     pp. 772-786.

     The author proposes formation of an association to study the problem of waste
     discharges with an objective of achieving and maintaining water quality objec-
     tives at a minimum  cost of waste treatment.  He argues that such an association
     might provide a smooth transition from current American practice  to a  water
     pollution control system based on economic analysis. Arguments with quantita-
     tive conclusions based on operation of a model of the Willamette River in Oregon
     are given.  Advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and the idea is com-
     pared briefly with German practice. While based on river basin analysis, the
     concepts involved should be applicable to estuaries, at least in part.

     *WASTE WATER TREATMENT, * ORGANIZATIONS, *COST COMPARISONS,
     *OREGON, systems analysis,  economic efficiency,  economies of scale, water
     quality control, quality control, foreign countries, geographical regions,
     Pacific coast region, Pacific northwest U.  S., regions, control
                                     J-81

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206. Kerri,. Kenneth D., AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO WATER QUALITY CON-
     TROL, Water Pollution Control Federation,  Journal, Vol.  38, No. 12,
     December, 1966, pp. 1883-1897.

     The author presents an economic model designed to produce the minimum
     cost of achieving a water quality objective by analyzing costs of treating
     waste discharges and the natural purification capacity of the receiving waters.
     The model determines the degree of treatment required of each waste discharge
     in order to achieve a desired water quality objective at the minimum cost to all
     discharges in the affected region.
          Actual input and output data are given for its use on the Willamette River
     in Oregon, and the  costs of meeting given dissolved oxygen objectives by
     various alternatives and constraints are compared.  Stream standards are
     found to be far superior to effluent standards in terms of total costs of
     obtaining a given DO objective.
          While the model relates to a river, the concepts  involved in the model are
     relevant to estuaries to a substantial degree.

     *WATER MANAGEMENT (APPLIED),  *WATER QUALITY  CONTROL, "OREGON,
      *WASTE WATER TREATMENT, *MODEL STUDIES,  methodology, waste dis-
     posal,  control,  quality control, management, geographical regions,  Pacific
     coast region, Pacific northwest U.  S., regions, waste treatment, water treat-
     ment.

207. Ketchum, B. H., DISTRIBUTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA AND OTHER
      POLLUTION IN TIDAL ESTUARIES, Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 27,
      No. 11, November, 1955, pp. 1288-1296.

      This paper presents a method for predicting the distribution of coliform
     bacteria and other pollutants in estuaries. It discusses the distribution of
     conservative pollutants, those which do not change with time, and nonconserva-
     tive or "time variable" pollutants.  The author demonstrates that the steady-
     state distribution of a conservative pollutant is directly related to the distribu-
     tion of fresh and salt water, and that Hie distribution can be derived from the
     results of a  salinity survey of the estuary.
          Pollutants which decay or decrease with time are less concentrated
     everywhere  in the estuary than are the concentrations of conservative pollu-
     tants.  Like  the conservative pollutant, the upstream concentration of a non-
     conservative pollutant can be reduced by a downstream displacement of the
     outfall.  In contrast to the conservative pollutant,  the downstream concentration
     can be reduced by an upstream displacement of the outfall.  Mathematical re-
     lationships for predicting pollutant concentrations in terms of relevant param-
     eters are provided.
                                     J-82

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     ^POLLUTANTS,  *TIDAL WATERS, *OUTLETS, *COLIFORMS, *FORE-
     CASTING, *DISTRmUTION PATTERNS, mathematical models, mathematical
     studies, model studies, salinity, chemical properties, water properties,
     bacteria, plants, microorganisms

208.  Ketchum, B. H., THE FLUSHING  OF TIDAL ESTUARIES, Sewage and In-
     dustrial Wastes,  Vol. 23,  No. 2,  1951, pp. 198-209.

     The author presents a method for calculating the effective dilution of fresh
     water entering an estuary.  A means for determining the ratio of fresh-to-salt
     water at any location in the estuary is also presented. This ratio yields
     selected physical characteristics of the estuary, the rate of river flow,  and
     the position of the tide. The author's analysis indicates fallacies inherent in
     the tidal-prism theory. The author neglects, however, the effects of stratifi-
     cation and due to density differences resulting from salt concentration and
     temperature gradients.

     *DILUTION, *SALINE WATER, *MATHEMATICAL STUDIES, *FRESH
     WATER, mixing, saline water-freshwater interfaces, boundaries (surfaces),
     interfaces,  river flow, tides, water types,  channel flow, flow, stream flow

209.  Ketchum, Bostwick H., THE EXCHANGES OF FRESH AND SALT WATERS
     IN TIDAL ESTUARIES,  Journal of Marine Research,  Vol.  10, No. 1, 1951,
     pp.  18-38.

     An empirical theory is presented which describes the exchanges between various
     parts of an estuary as a result of tidal oscillations, and which permits the calcula-
     tion of the average distribution of fresh and salt water within the estuary.  The
     characteristics of the estuary used in the calculation are the mean range of tides,
     the river flow, and the topography. The calculated distributions of river water
     are compared with three different  estuaries,  Raritan River and Bay,  Alberni
     Inlet, and Great Pond.  The theoretical results correspond closely with observed
     distributions of salinity and fresh water in all three estuaries.

     *DISPERSION, *SALINITY, * MATHEMATICAL STUDIES,  *SALINE WATER-
     FRESHWATER INTERFACES, surface waters,  river flow, channel flow,
     stream flow, inlets (waterways), bodies of water,  running waters, streams,
     New Jersey, Washington, bays, ponds, lakes, Massachusetts,  chemical
     properties, topography, Atlantic coastal plain,  coastal plains,  geographical
     regions, northeast U. S., regions, New England, water properties, boundaries
     (surfaces),  interfaces, tides

210.  Ketchum, Bostwick, H., MARINE POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN THE NORTH
     ATLANTIC AREA,  Biological Problems in Water Pollution, Transactions,
     No. W60-3, 1959, pp. 212-217.
                                    J-83

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      The purpose of this article is to "discuss briefly the effect of the location of an
      outfall within an estuary in terms of the dilution potential available and to
      introduce some of the problems involved in evaluating the disposal of liquid
      wastes at sea1'.  It makes a basic distinction between conservative and time
      variable pollutants.  Sea disposal is discussed at some length, with partic-
      ular reference to barging industrial effluent (a solution of ferrous sulfate in
      10 percent sulfuric  acid) for disposal in the bight off New York City.  Findings
      by another investigator show that one effect of such disposal was "a concentration
      of bluefish on the boundaries of the disposal area which has, during the past ten
      years, developed a  fishery which did not previously exist".  A general con-
      clusion of the author is that "the direct introduction of pollutants into coastal
      water outside the limits of estuaries offers the advantages of maximum potential
      dilution and minimal return to the estuary. Increased sea disposal seems one
      inevitable result of  the popular demand for the recovery of recreation facilities
      and natural resources within the estuaries."

      *WATER POLLUTION, *WASTE DILUTION, *ATLANTIC OCEAN,  outlets, waste
      dilution, waste dumps, waste disposal, pollutants, water pollution, oceans,  bodies
      of water, surface waters, industrial wastes, wastes, Appalachian Mountain
      region, geographical  regions,  Great Lakes region, northeast U.S., regions,
      New York

 211.  Kindsvater, C.E.,  "STATEMENT", in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
      ESTUARIES, Proceedings of the-Georgia Public Meeting, Jekyll Island,  Georgia,
      February 29,  1968, pp. 39-42. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
      Department of the Interior, S.E.  Region,  Atlanta, Georgia.

      Since there is much to be learned about the unique problems of an estuarine
      resources management program,  a large part of such a program must consist
      of research.   Estuarine development may be divided into the following research
      areas:  (I) hydrologic, hydraulic, and geologic factors involved in the develop-
      ment of the physical characteristics; (2) biologic and chemical factors, which
      influence the physical as well as their ecological characteristics; (3) specific
      man-made pollutional factors and effects; and (4) socioeconomic and institutional
      factors resulting from man's occupance of estuarine regions andliis utilization
      of their resources.

      *RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT, *ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT, *ECOLOGY,
      water resources development,  resources development, water pollution control,
      control, water pollution effects, water pollution sources, hydrologic aspects,
      geologic investigations, biocontrol, control, chemcontrol,  social needs

212.  Kinne, O., THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON MARINE AND
      BRACKISH WATER  ANIMALS—I. TEMPERATURE,  Oceanographers and Marine
      Biologists Annual Review,  Vol. 1, No. I,  1963, pp. 301-340.
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     The current literature is reviewed with regard to the effects of temperature and
     salinity on marine and brackish water animals.  It is an ecological approach
     that includes relevant physiological data but excludes purely biochemical or
     biophysical aspects.  It is noted that a complex correlation exists between
     salinity and temperature, since various antagonistic and synergistic effects
     have been identified.  An extensive bibliography is provided.

     *SALINITY, ^TEMPERATURE, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES,  *BRACKISH-WATER  FISH,
     *MARINE FISH, ecology, environmental effects, chemical properties,  water
     properti.es, water pollution,  marine animals,  animals,  aquatic animals, aquatic
     life,  fish, saline water fish,  wildlife

213.  Klein,  Louis, RIVER POLLUTION n, CAUSES AND EFFECTS, 1962.  Butter-
     worth and Company,  Washington, D.C.

     The causes of river pollution and the nature of the various kinds of pollution
     and their effects upon rivers are described.  The international chapter on river
     pollution is well-documented by the variety of countries from which these ref-
     erences emanate, namely: Great Britain,  Germany,  Holland, Belgium, France,
     Switzerland, Denmark, USSR,  U.S.A., Argentina,  Japan, South Africa,
     New  Zealand, and Israel.

     *WATER POLLUTION, *RIVERS, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES,  water pollution
     sources, water pollution effects, bodies of water,  running waters, streams,
     surface waters, geographical regions, regions

214.  Klein,  Louis, RIVER POLLUTION HI, CONTROL,  1966.  Butterworth  and
     Company, Washington, D.C.

     Volume ffl of River Pollution deals with control and prevention of river pollu-
     tion.   The chapter on the  pollution of tidal and coastal waters deals with the
     significance  and effects of growing pollution at beaches and estuaries.  Modern
     aspects of the control of pollution in a large estuary,  based upon the treatment
     of sewage and industrial wastes, are also described.  The present status of
     pollution and hopes for the future in relation to the growing shortage of water is
     described in great detail.

     *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, *POLLUTION ABATEMENT, *RIVERS,
     sewage treatment, industrial wastes, control, abatement, tidal waters, coasts,
     beaches, bodies of water, running waters, streams,  surface waters

215.  Kneese, Allen V., SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF WATER QUALITY
     MANAGEMENT, Water Pollution Control  Federation, Journal, Vol. 36, No. 2,
     February, 1964, pp.  254-262.
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      The author lists the following concepts as useful in defining the nature of water
      quality management:
          1.   A region approach is involved.
          2.   Multipurpose use is an essential element.
          3.   Comprehensiveness is essential.
          4.   A systematic search for alternatives should be involved.
          5.   Flexible adaptation to existing conditions is necessary.
          An important element in analysis of water quality alternatives is imputing
      values to water quality levels for various uses since many of the benefits
      derived from enhancement of water quality are not measured in the open market.
      Difficult problems in  imputing values occur with recreation, public health, and
      the general amenities.  Techniques with promise in terms of evaluating recrea-
      tion are  under study.  Public health is a more difficult problem.

      *WATER QUALITY CONTROL, *SOCIAL ASPECTS, *VALUES, *SOCIAL
      VALUES, water policy, water pollution, water pollution effects, recreation,
      public health, benefits,  cost-benefit analysis, evaluation, control,  quality
      control

216.  Kneese,  Allen V., WHAT ARE WE LEARNING FROM ECONOMIC STUDIES OF
      WATER QUALITY, Engineering Progress, Vol.  XXI, No. 6, June, 1967,
      pp.  5-18.

      The author maintains that "economics" is often defined only in narrow terms
      relating to financial returns. In water resource terms the results are often the
      assumption that certain benefits fall in the social realm, but are not economic in
      nature.  The author maintains that it is often possible to impute economic values
      to so-called social benefits and thus evaluate them rigorously.
          A review of economic studies on water quality le^ds the author to the fol-
      lowing conclusions:  (1) Industrial costs relating to water intake are surprisingly
      insensitive to the quality of intake water, (2) Poor water intake quality does result
      in extra costs for municipal use, but these costs are usually small in relation
      to the cost of upstream treatment, (3) Some evidence exists that reasonable
      values assigned to recreational use would justify increased treatment, at least in
      one  area studied, (4)  Too much emphasis is being placed on physical  considera-
      tions in water quality management and not enough on economics.
          The problems of  institutional arrangements needed to implant optimum
      standards are also discussed.

      *WATER POLICY,  *WATER QUALITY, *COSTS, INDUSTRIAL WATER,
      *INDIRECT BENEFITS, institutional constraints, water pollution effects,
     economic efficiency, benefits, social aspects,  social values, values, water
     types,  constraints, cost analysis, analysis,  mathematical studies, cost
     comparisons, economic impact, recreation
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217.  Knetsch,  Jack L., OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMANDS AND BENEFITS,
     Land Economics, Vol. 39, No. 4,  1963, pp. 387-396.

     The author uses a hypothetical example to demonstrate the construction of
     demand curves for recreation sites. The  analysis is extended to include
     the effects of time of travel and the availability of close substitutes.
         Total recreation value is broken into two sources. The first source
     represents user benefits which people receive from visits to the area.  The
     second source is the capital investment in land near the recreation site.
     (Land value benefits could be substantial in the case of provate recreation
     facilities along estuarine shorelines).  Effects of fee collection are also
     incorporated into the analysis.

     *RECREATION DEMAND, *MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, *INVESTMENT,
     *PUBLIC BENEFITS,  *VALUE, recreation, economic impact, benefits,
     demand,  analysis, land, property  values,  shores

218.  Knetsch,  JackL., and Robert K. Davis,  "COMPARISONS OF METHODS
     FOR RECREATION EVALUATION", in WATER RESEARCH, 1966,
     pp.  125-142. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore,  Maryland.

     Methods of evaluating the benefits  from outdoor recreation are reviewed.
     The only methods supported by the authors are those which are based on
     the concept of willingness to pay for services provided.   Three such tech-
     niques are elaborated upon:
         1.  Interview methods, designed to measure recreationists1 willingness
     to pay higher prices for using a recreation site.
         2.  Use of an interview method to establish willingness to drive
     additional distances for recreation.
         3.  Use of a travel-cost method to establish willingness to incur
     travel costs as actually measured  by a count of automobiles at a
     recreation site.
         The three methods gave comparable results when tested on the same
     recreation area.

     *RECREATION DEMAND, "BENEFITS, *COST ANALYSIS, recreation,
     evaluation, recreation facilities

219.  Koch, Pierre, "DISCHARGE OF WASTES INTO THE SEA IN EUROPEAN
     COASTAL AREAS", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL
     CONFERENCE ON WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT,
     University of California at Berkeley,  1959, 1960.  Pergamon Press,  New York.

     The author summarizes information on discharge methods and pollution problems
     in the marine disposal of effluents. Most European countries are covered in this
     article.  The information is based on reports from experts in these countries.
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      *WASTE DISPOSAL, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES,  *COASTS, *WATER
      POLLUTION EFFECTS, *OCEANS, sanitary engineering, engineering,
      environmental engineering, geographical regions, regions, bodies of
      water, surface waters

220.  Koenig, Louis, ECONOMIC BOUNDARIES OF SALINE WATER CONVERSION,
      American Water Works Association, Journal, Vol. 51, No. 7, July, 1959,
      pp. 845-862.

      The author discusses a methodology to select those conditions under which
      saline water conversion might be economical.  Conclusions are reached in
      relation to the situations where saline water might be an economical alternative.
      The author concludes,  "Saline water conversion is, under present conditions
      (1959), likely to find a  market where relatively small production units are
      involved.. .if saline water conversion is ever to make a major contribution
      to water supply, conversion research should seek methods which give a greater
      slope to the capacity-cost curve."

      *DESALINATION,  *COST ANALYSIS, *ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY, demineraliza-
      tion,  saline water, separation techniques, water purification, water treatment,
      water types, analysis,  mathematical studies, feasibility

221.  Kolessar, M.A., "SOME ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF DISPOSAL OF
      SEDIMENTS DREDGED FROM BALTIMORE HARBOR", in PROCEEDINGS OF
      THE INTER-AGENCY SEDIMENTATION CONFERENCE,  1963,  Miscellaneous
      Publication No. 970, June,  1965, pp. 613-618.  Department of Agriculture,
      Washington,  D.C.

      The soft sediments in the Chesapeake Basin are easy to dredge, but large land
      areas within reasonable distances to channels are not available.  The author
      discusses a means for  simulating settling characteristics of spoil so as to
      predetermine the amount of material a particular site can contain.

      *DREDGING, *SEDIMENT DISTRIBUTION, *HARBORS, *MARYLAND, landfills,
      sediment control, control, Appalachian Mountain region,  Atlantic coastal plain,
      coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U.S., regions

222.  Kollar, K.L., and August F.  Volonte,  REGIONAL CONSTRUCTION REQUIRE-
      MENTS FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER FACILITIES 1955-1967-1980,
      U. S. Department of Commerce, Business and Defense Services Administration,
      Water Industries and Engineering Services Division, October, 1967.

      This study provides historical construction-cost data from 1955 to 1966 and a
     projection of requirements from 1967 to 1980.  Population projections and waste-
     water investment requirements by major census regions are given.  A breakdown
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     by investment requirements for collection systems, treatment plants, and
     treatment plant equipment is included.

     *WASTE WATER TREATMENT, INVESTMENT, *FORECASTING,
     *CONSTRUCTION COSTS, waste treatment, water treatment, costs,
     treatment facilities

223.  Kothandarman, Veerasamy, PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF WASTE WATER
     TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEM, Department of Civil Engineering,
     University of Illinois, Urbana,  Illinois,  Research Report No. 14, June, 1968.

     This work attempts to predict dissolved oxygen deficits in a stream with known
     initial conditions by taking into account the variatipns in deoxygenation and
     reaeration coefficients.  A hypothetical stream situation is used to establish
     the significance in predicting dissolved oxygen deficit.  Statistical models are
     formulated and tested for the variations in these  coefficients using published
     data.  Simulation techniques using the Monte Carlo method are employed in
     predicting the probabilistic variation in dissolved oxygen deficits for known
     initial conditions, and the results are verified with the survey data observed
     for the Ohio River-Cincinnati Pool reach.   The predicted results using
     probabilistic model are found to agree with the observed values within practical
     limits and give more consistent results than conventional methods.

     *OXYGEN SAG, *REAERATION, *OXYGENATION,  *STATISTICAL MODELS,
     mathematical models, probability, biochemical oxygen demand, oxygen
     demand, aeration, mathematical studies, model  studies,  waste water treat-
     ment,  waste treatment, water treatment

224.  Krutilla, J. V.,  "THE PUBLIC INTEREST IN PRESERVING NATURAL
     AREAS",  in THE MAINE COAST—PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES,
     October, 1966, pp. 8-12. Center for Resource Studies,  Bowdoin College,
     Brunswick, Maine.

     There is a decreasing availability of natural resource commodities except at
     increasing real cost.  The problem is generating interest in maintaining
     reserves of natural resources,  whether fossil fuel or camping grounds.  The
     public should support the maintenance of reserves, because if they do not
     enjoy these resources at present they will be holding the option to do so in the
     future. This "option demand" is an investment.

     *NATURAL RESOURCES, *MAINE, "CONSERVATION, recreation, geographical
     regions, New England, northeast U.S., regions,  resources
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225. Krutilla, John V., SEQUENCE AND TIMING IN RIVER BASIN DEVELOPMENT,
     Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, D.C., February,  1960.

     This publication discusses the importance of treating the sequence of project
     development within a river basin as an element to aid in the maximizing of sys-
     tems benefits.  It emphasizes treatment of the river basin system as a whole,
     rather than a series of independent projects.

     *RIVER BASINS, *TIMING,  *SEQUENCE, *WATER RESOURCES DEVELOP-
     MENT, cost-benefit analysis, economic feasibility, regions,  resource
     development, feasibility, project benefits, benefits

226. Krutilla, JohnV., and Otto Eckstein, MULTIPLE-PURPOSE RIVER
     DEVELOPMENT STUDIES EN APPLIED ECONOMIC ANALYSIS.  Johns
     Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

     This book is divided into two parts—the first develops a mathematical model
     for assessing water resource investments; the second applies the model to
     two actual and one proposed water resource investment.  The first part dis-
     cusses, at length, the issue of the interest rate that should be used in analyzing
     government financed investments.

     *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *ENVESTMENT, *WATER RESOURCES,
     *MULTIPURPOSE PROJECTS, cost-benefit analysis, costs, cost analysis,
     mathematical studies, analysis, model studies, interest, resources, projects

227. Laborde,  Alden J.,  PROBLEMS OF A DRILLING CONTRACTOR, Ocean
     Industry,  Vol. 2, No. 4, April, 1967, pp. 22-25.

     The author discusses various problems and costs associated with oil rig
     operations.  He gives a breakdown of certain operating costs: insurance,
     interest, etc.

     *OFFSHORE  PLATFORMS,  *OIL WELLS,  *OPERATING COSTS, *D RILLING,
     oil industry,  oil fields,  industries, engineering structures, hydraulic structures,
     structures

228. Lackey, James B.,  "NUTRIENT AND POLLUTANT RESPONSE OF ESTUARINE
     BIOTAS", in  PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SUMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE
     POLLUTION, August 23-25,  pp. 188-217.  Department of Civil Engineering,
     Stanford University, Stanford, California.
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     The behavior of microbiota—algae and protozoa—as affected by commercial,
     recreational, and metropolitan uses of estuarine waters are outlined. Some
     of the findings presented at the symposium are as follows:
         1.  Estuaries and bays are of great economic and recreational value, for
     nurseries, fishing grounds, shellfisheries,  crustacean production, boating,
     and bathing.
         2.  Human activity often modifies their preferred ecology by adding
     nutrients or  pollutants.
         3.  The suspended (plankton) microscopic plants and animals, and those
     of the interface  (benthos) are most easily studied qualitatively and quantitatively.
         4.  Some pollutants, such as silt,  sharply reduce the microscopic
     populations.
         5.  The role of the engineer with regard to estuarine studies is that of
     seeing that adequate biological studies are made, so that he in turn can design
     and construct the necessary treatment plants and outfalls which will prevent
     overenrichment or pollution.

     *NUTRIENTS, *MARINE MICROORGANISMS, *POLLUTANTS, recreation,
     water sports, environment, aquatic  environment, estuarine environment, water
     quality,  sewage bacteria, environmental effects,  aquatic life,  aquatic micro-
     organisms, microorganisms, seston, invertebrates,  shellfish, waste disposal,
     sewage disposal, water chemistry,  ecology, water pollution, water pollution
     control, control, algae, plants, commercial fishing,  fishing,  industries,
     commercial  shellfishing, animals, aquatic animals

229.  Lager, John A., and George Tchobanoglous, "USE OF HYDRAULIC AND
     MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR DETERMINING EFFLUENT DIFFUSION IN
     SOUTH SAN  FRANCISCO BAY", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYM-
     POSIUM ON  ESTUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25, 1967, pp. 384-422.
     Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

     Studies are reported summarizing the use of a physical hydraulic model and a
     mathematical model for assessing the waste assimilative capacity of San
     Francisco Bay.   Specific effects studied include initial mixing and dilution,
     waste dispersion, and decay of waste material in the  estuary.   The model
     studies were directed toward assessment of dissolved oxygen and BOD.  It
     was concluded that the mathematical model  yielded more reliable results than
     did the hydraulic model.

     CALIFORNIA,  *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *WASTE ASSIMILATIVE
     CAPACITY,  *HYDRAULIC MODELS, *MATHEMATICAL STUDIES,  *MODEL
     STUDIES, *WASTE DILUTION, southwest U.S., Pacific coast region, regions,
     geographical regions, biochemical oxygen demand,  dissolved oxygen, oxygen
     demand, bodies of water, bays, diffusion, effluents,  mixing, waste disposal,
     dispersion, degradation (decomposition), water pollution
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230.  Lamb, James C., m,  ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SALINE-WATER CONVERSION,
      American Water Works Association, Journal, Vol. 54, No. 7, July,  1962,
      pp.  781-788.

      The purpose of this paper is to review the basis for costs which have been
      presented for both conventionally treated and desalted water supplies and to
      discuss several factors which must be considered in any definite comparison
      of these costs.
          Among the points noted by the author are the following:
          1.   Cost of desalting by distillation is not greatly affected by concentration
      of salts.  On the other hand,  electrodialysis and several other processes are
      affected by concentration.  These processes seem particularly suited to de-
      salting brackish waters.
          2.   The only practical way of comparing desalination costs to the costs of
      other fresh water sources is on the basis of the cost on an additional increment
      of fresh water added at a specific location, both estimates to include all times
      of expense.
          3.   Desalting may play an important role on a local level, but it is not
      anticipated that saline-water conversion will supplement national water resources
      to a significant degree in the foreseeable future.

      *DESALINATION, *ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY, *DISTILLATION,  *ELECTRO-
      DIALYSIS, *BRACKISH WATER, costs,  feasibility, demineralization, separation
      techniques, water purification, water treatment, dialysis, membrane processes,
      saline water, water types

231.  Langbein, W. B., andW. G. Hoyt, WATER FACTS FOR THE NATION'S
      FUTURE, 1959. The Ronald Press, New York.

      This book focuses on fresh water data-collection programs in the United States
      and  discusses the uses of these data in relation to the Nation's water problems.
      Estuary considerations are not specifically treated.

      *DATA COLLECTION,  *STATISTICS, hydrological data,  fresh water, United
      States,  geographical regions, regions

232.  Lauff,  George H., editor, ESTUARIES,  Publication No. 83,  1967. American
      Association for  the Advancement of Science, Washington, B.C.

      This is a  collection of 71 papers presented at an estuarine converence.  Most of
      the articles deal with physical and biological,  rather than economic,  aspects of
      estuaries. Two articles deal with the problem of defining estuaries. Sundry
      articles relate to salinity, circulation, sedimentation, geomorphology, micro-
     biota, nutrients, ecology, and physiology. Several articles deal with estuarine
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     fisheries, including those of the Gulf Coast of the United States, West Africa,
     Indian Ocean Coastal Zone, and Europe.  The article by J. L. McMugh,
     entitled "Estuarine Nekton", provides excellent perspective on the general topic,
     and is abstracted elsewhere in this bibliography.  Four articles related to
     estuarine pollution, including "The Role of Man in Estuarine Processes" by
     L. Eugene Cronin, which provides good general perspective on past and
     present human influences on physical and biological processes in estuaries.
     The book contains an extensive supplemental bibliography with references
     through 1966.

     *WATER POLLUTION,  *WATER PROPERTIES, *ESTUARINE FISHERIES,
     *FOREIGN WATERS,  *NEKTON,  *BIBLIOGRAPHTES,  sedimentation, nutrients,
     geomorphology,  ecology, fisheries, United States, geographical regions, regions,
     Indian Ocean, bodies of water, oceans, surface waters, coasts, salinity,
     chemical properties, water types,  animals,  aquatic  animals, aquatic life, seston

233.  Leffel, R. Ernest, "ESTUARINE POLLUTION OF THE CHAO PHRAYA RIVER
     AT BANGKOK, THAILAND",  in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
     ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25,  1967, pp. 370-383.   Department
     of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford,  California.

     Sources of pollution in the Chao Phraya River at Bangkok, Thailand,  are outlined.
     A mathematical model is presented for calculating dissolved oxygen relationships
     in the estuary. It is stated that pollution conditions in  the Chao Phraya estuary
     do not conform to assumptions employed in the development of previous formula-
     tions of oxygen'sag relationships.

     *WASTE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY,  *DISSOLVED OXYGEN,  *MATHEMATICAL
     MODELS, *WATER POLLUTION,  *FOREIGN COUNTRIES,  oxygen sag, mathe-
     matical studies, model studies, rivers, bodies of  water, running waters, streams,
     surface waters

234.  Lefler, Hugh Talmage,  and Albert Ray Newsome,  NORTH CAROLINA, THE
     HISTORY OF A SOUTHERN STATE, 1954.  University of North Carolina Press,
     Chapel Hill,  North Carolina.

     This  study is concerned with why the coastal area  of North Carolina did not
     develop in the same manner as such regions as Massachusetts and New Jersey.
     The author gives three major reasons:
        1.  The treacherous coast and lack of good ports were  major factors in
     diverting English colonization to the Chesapeake region after the failure of the
     Raleigh colonies at Roanoke Island. When permanent settlement of North
     Carolina began almost a century later, the absence of good harbors retarded
     colonization direct from Europe, and consequently the  colony was settled largely
     "as an overflow from other colonies".  These same geographic factors operated
     throughout the nineteenth century.
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          2.   The prevailing regime of isolation and self-sufficiency bred inertia,
     provincialism,  conservatism,  individualism, ignorance, and prejudice as
     characteristics of the people.
          3.   Economic dependence upon neighboring states, particularly Virginia,
     induced intellectual and political dependence.
          Hence the author concludes,  "No phase of life escaped the paralyzing effect
     of nature's curse on poor transportation."

     *TRANSPORTATION, "COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, *HISTORY,
     *NORTH CAROLINA, navigation, economic life, Appalachian Mountain region,
     Atlantic coastal plain, coastal  plains, geographical regions, regions,  southeast
     U.S., harbors, coast

235. Lehmann, Richard A., THE PRINCIPLES OF WATERFRONT RENEWAL:
     A SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCE IN FIFTY AMERICAN CITIES, Landscape
     Architecture, Vol. 56, No. 4,  July, 1966, pp. 286-291.

     The conclusion reached in this summary is that good waterfront renewal
     projects should contain these aesthetic goals: (1) physical access, (2) visual
     access, (3) historic preservation, and  (4) site identity.

     *CITY PLANNING,  *AESTHETICS, *SHORES, *HARBORS, landscaping,
     planning

236. Leighton, D., I. Nusbaum, and S. Mulford,  EFFECTS OF WASTE DISCHARGE
     FROM POINT LOMA SALINE WATER CONVERSION PLANT ON INTERTIDAL
     MARINE LIFE, Water Pollution Control Federation, Journal, Vol. 39, No. 7,
     July, 1967, pp. 1190-1202.

     The effects of thermal and brine discharges from the Point Loma,  California,
     desalting plant are described.  After a few months of operation, it became
     evident that the effluents were  having a deleterious effect on at least some of
     the organisms,  both plant and animal, which inhabit the intertidal zone. The
     effects were restricted to the area covered by the effluent streams and under
     low tide conditions.  The authors conclude that the experience at Point Loma
     provides a clear warning that waste discharge problems would have to be
     resolved before there could be serious contemplation of considerably larger
     distillation plants.

     *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, *DESALINATION,  CALIFORNIA, *WASTE
     DISPOSAL, *INTERTIDAL AREAS, "AQUATIC LIFE, regions, demoralization,
     separation techniques, water purification,  water treatment,  geographical regions*
     Pacific coast region, southwest U.S., thermal pollution, water pollution, brines,
     saline water,  water types
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237.  Levine, Max, Henry Minette, and Ralph H. Tanimoto, "CHARACTERISTICS
     AND EXPEDITIOUS DETECTION OF BACTERIAL INDICES OF POLLUTION
     OF MARINE BATHING BEACHES",  in PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTER-
     NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRON-
     MENT, July 22-25, 1959, pp.  11-28.  Pergamon Press, New York.

     The coliform index, as presently employed, does not  appear to be a realistic
     measure of the hazard from enteric disease nor the aesthetic qualities of
     saline bathing beaches.  Indicator organisms more strictly characteristic of
     the intestinal flora of man and  animals, such as Streptococcus faecalis and
     E. coli, are considered to be more reliable measures of sewage pollution of
     marine bathing waters.
         The E. coli index, or the ratio of the E. coli to the coliform index,
     probably constitutes the most practicable criterion of sewage pollution of
     marine bathing beaches  at this time.
         The membrane filter technique, employing BALE, ECM, Endo, and
     MacConkey broths at appropriate concentrations and temperatures,  should be
     studied as a means for determining the E. coli index.

     *MEASUREMENT, *COLIFORMS, *PUBLIC HEALTH,  *BEACHES,
     *POLLUTANT IDENTIFICATION, *SEWAGE BACTERIA, swimming, recrea-
     tion facilities, recreation, water pollution sources, water pollution effects,
     water  sports, municipal wastes,  surface waters, bodies of water, bacteria,
     microorganisms, plants, E.coli, pathogenic bacteria, streptococcus,  aerobic
     bacteria, enteric bacteria, oceans

238.  Liebman,  Jon C., and David H. Marks, "A 'BALAS' ALGORITHM FOR ZONED
     UNIFORM TREATMENT", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
     ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION,  August 23-25, 1967, pp. 44-59.  Department of
     Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

     The  problem of finding appropriate treatment levels for waste discharges located
     along an estuary on which quality standards are imposed is complex. The
     uniform treatment method is expensive and inequitable.  A cost-minimization
     model (a mathematical model of the physical characteristics of the water body
     employed) is efficient, but inequitable.  For example, industrial plants A and B
     located next door to each other have similar products and wastes, but the cost-
     minimization solution may require A to treat while B does nothing, because the
     unit  cost of treatment is lower at A due to more  efficient operation. Thus, A
     bears the entire brunt of being more efficient while B pays nothing.
         A zoned solution is  proposed wherein waste  producers are divided into
     categories,  and treatment levels are found which minimize the cost-subject to
     the requirement that all members of the category provide the same treatment.
     A branch-and-bound algorithm is developed to obtain the solution.
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      *MATHEMATTCAL MODELS, "WATER POLLUTION TREATMENT, *WASTE
      DISPOSAL, *WASTE TREATMENT, *COST SHARING, zoning, regulation,
      mathematical studies, model studies

239.  Livingstone, Robert, Jr., A PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH KWIC
      INDEX ON THE ECOLOGY OF ESTUARIES AND COASTAL AREAS OF THE
      EASTERN UNITED STATES, Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife
      Service, Washington, D.C., May,  1965.

      This bibliography, which contains more than 5,470 references, is an initial
      effort to bring together references on the ecology of estuaries  and coastal
      water of the eastern United States, and stresses the period 1900-60.  It is
      the starting point for the compilation of a more comprehensive list of the
      future.

          The bibliography is in two parts:  (1) the complete entries listed alphabetically
      by authors and (2) a KWIC index (keyword-in-context) to significant words
      relevant to title and context.

      *BffiLIOGRAPHIES, *ECOLOGY, *DOCUMENTATION, *COASTS, environment,
      southeast U.S., northeast U.S.

240.  Lockett, John B., "PHENOMENA AFFECTING IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOWER
      COLUMBIA ESTUARY AND ENTRANCE", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTER-
      AGENCY SEDIMENTATION CONFERENCE, 1963, Miscellaneous Publication
      No.  970,  June,  1965, pp. 626-668.  Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

      This article gives an historical account of efforts to maintain a channel through
      the Columbia River entrance.  Jetties were used with some success to confine
      entrance  flows to alter sediment disposition.   These jetties have been rebuilt
      and  some dredging has been required.  Disposal was off-shore.
          The article reviews more recent scientific analysis which has been conducted
      on sediment movement and estuarine hydraulics.

      *CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT, *OREGON, *COLUMBIA RIVER, *JETTffiS,
      dredging, bodies of water, interstate rivers,  rivers, running waters,  streams,
      surface waters, sediment distribution, sediment control, dikes, earthworks,
      embankments, engineering structures, hydraulic structures,  structures,
      coastal structures, sediment transport,  sedimentation

241.  Loucks, D. P., C. S. Revelle, and W. R. Lynn, LINEAR PROGRAMMING
      MODELS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, Institute of Management Science,
      Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, December, 1967, pp. B166-B181.
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     Two linear programming models are presented for determining the amount of
     waste water treatment required to achieve at minimum cost any particular set
     of stream dissolved oxygen standards within a river basin.  Derived from the
     generalized Streeter-Phelps differential equations used to describe the rates of
     dissolved oxygen depletion and recovery of streams,  these  models are adaptable
     to any river basin configuration.  They can be used not only in determining system
     costs for various quality standards but also for measuring the cost sensitivity to
     changes in the design stream and wastewater flows and treatment facility location.
     An example illustrates the use of these models.

     *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *LINEAR PROGRAMMING, *WASTE WATER
     TREATMENT,  *DISSOLVED OXYGEN, * RIVER BASINS, *COSTS, cost-benefit
     analysis, waste treatment, water treatment,  optimization,  mathematical
     studies, model studies, regions, water pollution control, control

242.  Ludwig, Harvey F., and Ben Onedera, SCIENTIFIC PARAMETERS OF MARINE
     WASTE DISCHARGE, International Journal of Air and Water Pollution, Vol.  7,
     No. 2/3, May,  1963,  pp.  159-172.

     The article presents a discussion of a study undertaken by Engineering-Science,
     Inc., on behalf of the California State Water Pollution Control Board,  for the
     "assembly, collation, and critical review of the sizeable mass of marine monitor-
     ing data accumulated over the past decade, both for 'open' coastal waters and for
     'restricted1 waters such as estuaries  and bays".  It presents conclusions on the
     meaningfulness and usefulness of specific types of measurements employed,  the
     effects of monitoring program findings on design of treatment facilities, and the
     significance of information voids.

     *WATER POLLUTION, *ECOLOGY, *DATA  COLLECTIONS,  *TREATMENT
     FACILITIES, monitoring, aquatic productivity, plant growth, nutrients,
     productivity, water treatment

243.  Maass, Arthur, BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS: ITS RELEVANCE TO PUBLIC
     INVESTMENT DECISIONS, Quarterly Journal of Economics,  Vol. LXXX, No. 2,
     May, 1966, pp.  208-226.

     The author states that "the major limitation of benefit-cost analysis,  as it has
     been applied in the United States, is that it ranks projects and programs in terms
     of economic efficiency".  He maintains that economic efficiency is not the only
     goal of public programs, and that the  other goals, such as income redistribution,
     should be explicitly recognized and integrated into formal project analysis.  The
     author states that trade-offs among the relevant benefit variables must be sought
     and suggests that establishment of such trade-offs is possible.
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      "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, *PUBLIC BENEFITS,  *INVESTMENT, social
      values, feasibility studies, feasibility, economic efficiency, value, social
      impact, social aspects, benefits

244.  Mac Kichon, K.  A., and J. C. Kammerer, ESTIMATED USE OF WATER IN
      THE UNITED STATES, 1960, Geological Survey Circular 456, Washington,
      D.C., 1961.

      This document provides analysis of water use data originating from several
      sources.  Tables provide estimates of saline water used by the electric power
      industry.- Another provides data by water resources region, e.g.,  Chesapeake,
      Ohio, etc.   The  report states that the use of saline water was doubled between
      1955 and 1960.

      *WATER UTILIZATION, *ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY,  *SALINE WATER,
      *STATEJTICS, geographical regions, efficiencies,  regions, industries, water
      types, data collections

245.  MacMn, J.  G.,  and S. H. Hopkins, STUDIES ON OYSTER MORTALITY IN
      RELATION TO NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS AND TO OIL FIELDS IN
      LOUISIANA, Institute of Marine Science, Publications, Vol. 7, July, 1962,
      pp. 1-131.

      Field studies showed that oysters had a consistently high mortality rate throughout
      the warmer half of the year in the study area, and that mortality rate increased
      with salinity increase within this area.
         Within oil fields,  the amounts of unsaponifiable carbon tetrachloride
      extractives were highest (up to 5.8 percent) in mud samples taken near bleed-
      water outlets and other known centers of pollution,  and were correlated with high
      (up to 0.00578 percent) "pentane and heavier hy&rocarbons" as measured
      independently by a commercial laboratory. "Hydrocarbon" content of mud and
      water was no higher in areas of high oyster mortality than in areas of low mortality.
      Bacteriological studies showed that crude oil and its fractions were rapidly
      destroyed by bacteria living in Louisiana bay muds.
         It was concluded that oil production factors of the kinds tested could not be
      responsible for the  oyster mortalities spread throughout the large area where
     damage was claimed.

     *OYSTERS, *OIL WASTES, *MORTALITY, southeast U.S., regions, Gulf
     coastal plain,  animals, benthos,  aquatic animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna,
     commercial shellfish,  invertebrates,  marine animals, mollusks, shellfish,
     geographical regions, coastal plains,  Louisiana, organic matter, wastes, oil
     industry, industries, water pollution, salinity,  chemical properties, water
     properties, water temperature, temperature
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246.  Maehler,  Claude Z., and Arnold E. Greenberg, "IDENTIFICATION OF
     PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IN ESTUARINE WATERS", in PROCEEDINGS OF
     THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25,
     1967, pp. 517-536. Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University,
     Stanford,  California.

     The increased concern about spills of petroleum products in the estuarine
     environment has brought about increased demands for analytical methods of
     identifying pollutants and their sources. A number of qualitative comparative
     procedures have been described which establish the clear recognition of petro-
     leum products in water;  These procedures are capable of demonstrating char-
     acteristics of petroleum materials peculiar to individual lots,  but analysis
     should generally include several of the  techniques. They are therefore useful
     in comparing oil spills with reference samples.
        A simple sequential scheme is presented which includes gas chromatographic
     analysis of vapor space gas and solvent extraction followed by infrared spectro-
     photometric and paper  chromatographic examinations.

     *OIL WASTES, *POLLUTANT IDENTIFICATION, *ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES,
     *GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY,  *SPECTROPHOTOMETRY,  *WATER ANALYSIS,
     wastes identification, organic matter, wastes,  estuarine environment,  aquatic
     environment, environments, water quality,  analysis, gases, water pollution
     control,  control, water pollution sources, chromatography, photometry, water
     vapor

247.  MAN AND THE ESTUARY, Conservation Foundation Letter, April 22, 1968,
     pp. 8-11.

     The economic benefits  and uses of the estuary are listed. The article maintains
     that the benefits of estuaries are fairly easy to measure, but the economic losses
     from abuses of this resource are harder to assess.  Some data on economic
     losses from dredging,  filling,  and pollution of estuaries are given.

     *COSTS,  *BENEFITS,  *ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, water pollution effects,
     dredging

248.  Manning,  J. H., THE MARYLAND SOFT SHELL CLAM INDUSTRY AND ITS
     EFFECTS ON TIDEWATER RESOURCES, Maryland Department of Research and
     Education, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory,  Solomons, Maryland, Report
     No. 11, January,  1957.

     This report is a summary of information on the effects of hydraulic dredging on the
     soft shell clam industry in Maryland.  Although operational costs of the dredge are
     high, its use made soft shell clams a million dollar resource from 1952 when
     dredging was first allowed to 1957 when the report was written.
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      *CLAMS, *MARYLAND, *NATURAL RESOURCES,  *COMMERCIAL FISHING,
      *DREDGING, economic impact, mollusks, invertebrates, commercial shellfish,
      benthos, benthic fauna, aquatic life, aquatic animals, animals, fishing,
      industries, resources, operating costs, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic
      coastal plain, coastal plains,  geographical regions,  northeast U. S., regions

249.  Manning, J. H., A SUMMARY REPORT ON MARYLAND'S COMMERCIAL
      FISHERIES, 1957-1966, Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs, Annapolis,
      Maryland, 1967.

      This document reports the values of Maryland's commercial fisheries from
      1957 through 1966.  The landed value of Maryland's commercial fisheries
      products reached an all-time high of $14,012,000 in 1966, with oysters account-
      ing for 56 percent.
          The value of Maryland's manufactured fisheries products reached
      $39,000,000 in 1966.
          Data are provided on the number of people employed in the fisheries
      industry.
          Maryland now leads the U.S. in oyster production and can be expected
      to do so for several years.

      *COMMERCIAL FISHING, *COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH, *FISH HARVEST,
      *MARKET VALUE, *MARYLAND,  oysters,  animals, aquatic animals, aquatic
      life, invertebrates, shellfish,  benthic fauna, benthos, marine animals,
      mollusks, value, income, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic  coastal
      plain,  coastal plains,  geographical regions,  northeast U. S., regions, employment

250.  Mansueti, R. J., EFFECTS OF CIVILIZATION ON STRIPED BASS AND OTHER
      ESTUARINE BIOTA IN CHESAPEAKE BAY AND TRIBUTARIES, Gulf and
      Caribbean Fisheries Institute, Proceedings, Vol. 14, 1962.

      The author states that the effects of civilization, some harmful, some wasteful,
      have not materially reduced the potential productivity of the Chesapeake estuary.
      The hypothesis is advanced that civilization and striped bass are compatible in
      that increasing fertilization by man may be directly responsible for the unusual
      increase in number and magnitude of dominant year classes.  The problem of
      excessive and uncontrolled mineral fertilization in estuaries is discussed in
      relation to striped bass and other biota.

      *STRIPED BASS, *AQUATIC PRODUCTIVITY,  *FERTILIZER, *MARYLAND,
     marine fish, estuarine environment, environmental effects,  productivity, sport
     fisheries, nutrient requirements, fisheries, Atlantic coastal plain, Appalachian
     Mountain region,  animals, aquatic animals,  aquatic life, fish,  marine animals,
     saline water fish, sea basses,  wildlife, agricultural chemicals, bay, regions,
     northeast U. S.,  geographical regions, coastal regions
                                    J-100

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251. Mansueti,  R. J., and E. H. Hollis, STRIPED BASS IN MARYLAND TIDEWATER,
     National Resources Institute, University of Maryland, Solomons,  Maryland,
     Educational Series No. 61, February, 1963.

     A summary of research conducted on the striped bass in Maryland over a ten-
     year period from 1953 to 1963 is presented. While most of the material concerns
     the biology of the fish, the most important and valuable fish in Maryland, informa-
     tion on commercial landings from 1887 through 1962 is provided.
         Beginning in 1959, annual commercial catches of striped bass became very
     high, averaging about 4,000,000 pounds per year.   The retain values were as
     high as $900,000 annually at the peak of production.
         Economic surveys of the sport fishery in Maryland indicate variable expen-
     ditures and investments. The Potomac survey showed the daily cost per fisherman
     to range from $1.50 per day to $35.00 per day in the large cruiser-type fishing
     boats.
         A discussion of present-day conservation and  management methods as well
     as suggestions for future management and improvement of the fishery are given.

     'MARYLAND, *STRIPED BASS, *COSTS,  *FISH CONSERVATION, sport fishing,
     commercial fishing, fishing, Atlantic coastal plain,  Appalachian Mountain region,
     coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U. S., regions, animals, aquatic
     animals, aquatic life,  fish, marine animals, marine fish, saline water fish,  sea
     basses, wildlife, animal physiology, competition,  conservation, surveys,
     statistics,  data collections

252.  Margolis, Julius, SECONDARY EFFECTS,  EXTERNAL ECONOMICS, AND THE
     JUSTIFICATION OF PUBLIC INVESTMENT, The Review of Economics and
     Statistics,  Vol. 39,  No.  3, August, 1957, pp. 284-291.

     This article discusses secondary benefits and external economies in relation to
     Bureau of Reclamation policies and programs.

     *COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, "INDIRECT BENEFITS, *FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,
     costs,  benefits, governments

253.  MARINE, ESTUARIAN, AND RIPARIAN POLLUTION DISASTERS AND THEIR
     CONSEQUENCES, Ocean Science and Technology Advisory Committee, Ocean
     Resources  Subcommittee Meeting, December 12-13, 1967.  National Security
     Industrial Association, Washington, D.C.

     This meeting,  which covered water pollution disasters, was held in three parts:
        Part I.   Description of disaster and consequences.
        Part n.  Technical capabilities for countermeasure.
        Part HI.  Contingency program for prevention  and response.
        Papers with examples and suggestions were given within each category.
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      *WATER POLLUTION,  *DISASTEES, *WATER POLLUTION TREATMENT,
      water treatment

 254.  MARINE RESOURCES AND ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1966,
      House of Representatives, 89th Congress, 2nd Session, Report No. 1548,
      May 24, 1966.

      This act defines the limits and guidelines for the exploitation of marine resources.

      *LEGAL ASPECTS, *WATER RESOURCES,  resources, legislation

 255.  MARINE SCIENCE AFFAIRS.. .A YEAR OF  TRANSITION, Report of the President
      to the Congress on Marine Resources and Engineering Development, February,
      1967.

      This document is the initial report by the Marine Sciences Council to the President
      and puts forth steps taken to meet the objectives of the  Marine Resources and
      Engineering Development Act of 1966.

      A brief section, "Man's Uses of the Shoreline", discusses estuary problems and
      refers to the planned scale model of the Chesapeake Bay to be built by the Corps
      of Engineers.

      *LEGISLATION, *FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, legal aspects, water resources,
      resources, bays, bodies of water, coasts, governments

 256.  MARITIME AGENCY STATUS, CHANNEL PROBLEMS CREATED BY HUGE
      SHIPS CONCERNS OF AAPA, Traffic World, Vol. 131, No. 14,  September 30,
      1967, pp. 25-29, 100-105.

      This report on the annual convention of the American Association of Port
      Authorities covers three economic issues:  (1) the advantages of specialized
      ports, (2) the limitations to harbor and channel deepening, and (3) the importance
      of efficient use of land loading and transportation facilities.

      *CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT, *HARBORS,  *SHIPS, transportation

257.  Markowski, S., OBSERVATIONS ON THE RESPONSE OF SOME BENTHONIC
      ORGANISM TO POWER STATION COOLING,  Journal of Animal Ecology,
      Vol. 29,  No.  2, 1960, pp. 349-357.

      The author reports observations made on the settling of benthonic organisms
     on experimental slabs placed in the intake and in the outfall water of the power
     station located at the Cavendish Dock. Data indicate that outfall area is more
                                     J-102

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     conducive to growth as the benthonic forms appear earlier than in the intake.
     No algae growth was found in the intake, but there was very prolific growth in
     the outfall.  Specific composition of benthonic invertebrates were similar in
     both intake and outfall slabs.  In addition,  denser animal populations were
     found in the intake than in the outfall.  General characteristics of the environ-
     ments and the factors introduced by the power station into the aquatic medium
     are discussed.

     *POWERPLANTS, ""THERMAL POLLUTION, *TEMPERATURE, *COOLING
     WATER, chemical properties, ecology,  salinity, benthos,  aquatic life, algae,
     plants, water properties, water temperature, outlets, hydroelectric plants,
     electric powerplants, engineering structures, industrial plants, structures,
     afterbays, water types, intakes

258.  Marshall, A. R., PRACTICES AFFECTING SOUTH ATLANTIC AND GULF
     COAST MARSHES AND ESTUARIES - DREDGING AND FILLING, U. 8. Bureau
     of Sport Fisheries, Vero Beach, California, 1967.

     Direct and indirect effects of dredging and filling on the fish and wildlife
     resources of Florida's estuarine and freshwater habitats are discussed.
        Aspects of the problem discussed include:  direct destruction of swamp,
     marsh,  and bay bottom habitat in the immediate project area; destruction of
     spawning and nursery habitat by siltation; reduction of light penetration;
     creation of anaerobic bottom conditions; reduction of nutrient outflow from
     marshes and swamps.
         Specific examples are cited for Boca Ciega Bay, Tampa Bay, Biscayne
     Bay,  Indian River, and St. John's River.

     *MARSHES,  *LANDFILLS, *DREDGING, *AQUATIC HABITATS, *FLORIDA,
     *FISH, silts, habitats,  environment, food chains, food habits, breeding,
     spawning, natural resources, wetlands,  conservation, wildlife,  animals,
     wildlife  conservation, bays, bodies of water, bayous,  Atlantic coastal plain,
     coastal plains, geographical regions, Gulf coastal plains, regions,  southeast
     U.S.,  animal behavior, behavior, resources

259.  Marts,  M. E., and W.  R.  D. Sewell, THE CONFLICT BETWEEN FISH AND
     POWER RESOURCES IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, Association of American
     Geographers, Annals,  Vol. 50,  No. 1, March, 1960, pp. 42-50.

     This article discusses the relative economic values of fishing and electric power
     industries and the difficulties inherent in attempting to resolve the conflict.
     Foremost among the factors which tend to perpetuate the problem are  (1) the
     historic importance of the fishing industry in the  Pacific Northwest, (2) inappro-
     priate comparisons of values of fish and power,  (3) increasing costs for preserving
     the fisheries, and (4) the time required to study the biological aspects of the problem.
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          Compromise alternatives to the mutual use of the water resource are given.
      These include (1) fishing regulation, (2) sanctuary stream programs, (3) the
      development of runs on non-power streams, and (4) the development of alternative
      fisheries and the provision of alternative occupations for fishermen.

      *ELECTRIC POWER, *COMMERCIAL FISHING, *PACIFIC NORTHWEST
      U.S., *COMPETING USES, *VALUE, appraisals, hydroelectric plants, regula-
      tion, employment opportunities, geographical regions, regions, fisheries,
      costs, efficiencies, water utilization, fish conservation, conservation, wildlife
      conservation, fishing, industries, electric powerplants, engineering structures,
      industrial plants, powerplants, structures, afterbays

 260.  MARYLAND: A GUIDE TO THE OLD LINE STATE, 1940. Oxford University
      Press, New York.

      This is a comprehensive guide to the state of Maryland which focuses on
      Chesapeake Bay and its effect on the development.of the economic and social
      life of the State from the earliest settlement to the era immediately preceding
      World War II.

      *fflSTORY, *MARYLAND, *SOCIAL IMPACT, *VIRGINIA, *ECONOMIC
      IMPACT, Appalachian Mountain region,  Atlantic coastal plain,  coastal plains,
      geographical regions, northeast U.S., regions, southeast U.S., social aspects,
      bays,  bodies of water

 261.  MARYLAND, ITS RESOURCES,  INDUSTRIES, AND INSTITUTIONS,  1893.
      Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

      This late nineteenth-century compilation provides an inventory of the resources,
      industries,  and institutions of the Maryland of 1£90.  Some historical background
      is included in the description of these institutions and economic activities.

      *HISTORY,  *MARYLAND, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain,
      coastal plains, geographical regions, northeast U. S., regions

262.  Massmann,  William H.,  THE FISHERIES—A NEGLECTED ASPECT OF
      ESTUARINE RESEARCH, 29th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources
     Conference, Transactions, March 9-10,  1964, pp. 337-352.

     The author states that the bulk of marine sport fish of the Atlantic and Gulf
     coasts are dependent on estuaries for either spawning, nursery, or feeding
     grounds,  but there has been little research on the management of estuarine fishes.
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         Striped bass and Atlantic shad research has uncovered basic information, but
     most questions regarding management remained unanswered.  Further detailed
     life history,  ecological and behavior studies, information on fish population
     dynamics are needed for important estuarine dependent coastal fishes (flounders,
     weakfish, spotted seatrout, and others).  Information is also needed on effects of
     environmental factors and engineering structures on fish populations.  Basic
     studies on the fishes in estuaries should ultimately result in methods for mini-
     mizing or compensating for damage to these waters.  The use of artificial reefs
     by sport fishes needs to be clearly evaluated.  Catch regulations, where needed,
     should be based on the results of biological  studies,  and their effects should be
     thoroughly evaluated.

     *SPORT FISH, *FISH MANAGEMENT,  *ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS,
     *ESTUARINE FISHERIES, life history studies, management, fisheries, fish
     hatcheries,  ecology,  animals, aquatic animals,  aquatic life,  fish, wildlife

263.  Maton, Gilbert L., E. R. Christie,  and M. J. Tenzer, A PERSPECTIVE OF
     REGIONAL AND STATE MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES,  A QUESTION-
     NAIRE SURVEY, STATISTICS AND OBSERVATIONS, John I. Thompson and
     Company, Washington,  D.C., for Institute of Public Administration, PB 177765,
     February 29,  1968.

     This report contains a summary of data derived from questionnaires sent by the
     authors to qualified representatives of each of the  states and territories of the
     Unites States bordering on the coasts or Great Lakes.  The purpose of the report
     was to present information concerning the organization and function of  state,  local,
     and regional governmental agencies involved in marine environmental activities,.
     These activities were classified into six functional areas:  (1) recreation,
     (2) commercial fishing and living resources, (3) waste disposal, (4) non-living
     resources, (5) maritime commerce, and (6) conservation.
        Observations:  The state executive structure for'marine environment
     activities is a diffuse policy and planning network loosely connected but with
     enough interaction among the cognizant agencies to permit the essential and
     critical programs to happen.   State governments understand the significance
     of the marine environment and are making good policy  decisions, but they take
     too long to do so.  The states fear federal intervention in areas which have tradi-
     tionally been in state control,  such as sports,  commercial fishing,  pollution, and
     conservation.  A bibliography associated with this  study is cited elsewhere in this
     compilation (Report No. PB 177764).

     *FISH CONSERVATION, *WATER POLLUTION, *FEDERAL-STATE WATER
     RIGHTS CONFLICTS, *FEDERAL JURISDICTION, *STATE JURISDICTION,
     structures, hydraulic structures, engineering structures, water treatment,
     water purification, separation techniques, harbors,  marinas, breakwaters,  shore
     protection, marine animals, marine fish, marine fisheries, commercial fishing,
                                    J-105

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       sport fishing, commercial shellfish, saline water fish, wildlife, conservation,
       wildlife conservation,. aquatic plants, plants, demineralization, shellfish,
       invertebrates, industries, fishing,  marine plants, recreation, desalination,
       industrial wastes, wastes, recreation facilities, fisheries, animals, aquatic
       animals, aquatic life, fish, water sports

 264.  McCabe, J. S.,  ORGANIC POLLUTION OF NEW YORK HARBOR APPLICATION,
       Water Pollution  Control Federation, Journal, Vol. 34, No. 10, 1962, pp. 987-998.
                                                                                \

       The relation between pollution and dissolved oxygen in the New York Harbor is
       reviewed.  Field sampling programs and analytical studies are included in the
       review.  Reference is made to a study conducted in 1960 which developed a
       mathematical model for predicting the dissolved oxygen profile from the city
       line on the Hudson River to the Narrows.

       *WATER POLLUTION,  *DISSOLVED OXYGEN, *HARBORS, *NEW YORK,
       *SAMPLING, *ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES, mathematical models, mathematical
       studies, model studies,  Appalachian Mountain region, geographical regions,
       Great Lakes region, northeast U. S., forecasting,  regions, Hudson River, bodies
       of water, rivers, running waters, streams, surface waters, on-site investiga-
       tions

 265.  McCallum, Gordon E.,  "WATER QUALITY IN THE POTOMAC ESTUARY", in
       PROBLEMS OF THE POTOMAC ESTUARY, January,  1964, pp. 5-10.  Interstate
       Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Washington, B.C.

       This is a short general discussion of past uses and goals of pollution control in
       the Potomac Estuary.  Implications of population growth for future  investment
       requirements for pollution control in the Washington, D.C. area are discussed.
       Population projections for 1985 and 2010 are given.  The implied biochemical
      oxygen demand loading resulting after 90 percent BOD reduction in  1985 by
      treatment plants  is estimated.

      *WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, *FORECASTING, *BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN
      DEMAND,  *HUMAN POPULATION,  *DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, *GROWTH
      RATES, Virginia, Maryland,  population, Appalachian  Mountain region,  Atlantic
      coastal plain, coastal plains,  geographical regions, northeast U.S., regions,
      southeast U.S., oxygen demand, cities, water quality,  rates

266.  McCarty, James  C., and Howard S. Harris, "THE FUTURE OF AN ESTUARY",
      in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION,
      August 23-25, 1967, pp.  335-369. Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford
      University,  Stanford, California.
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     This paper discusses existing and future water quality in San Francisco Bay and
     outlines means to cope with pollution's adverse effects on beneficial uses of the
     Bay water.  A mathematical model is employed to predict future water quality
     in terms of total nitrogen and total dissolved solids.  Current nitrogen levels
     of 2 mg/liter are expected to rise to 7 mg/liter by 1990. Four means of con-
     trolling future water quality are defined: (1) control of water at the source,
     (2) collection and treatment of water, (3) conveyance of wastes, and (4) regula-
     tion of streamflow.  It is concluded that a major obstacle to the implementation
     of any control program will be coordinating the diverse interests of the many
     agencies concerned with water quality in San Francisco Bay.

     *WATER QUALITY, *NITROGEN,  'DISSOLVED SOLIDS, *MATHEMATICAL
     MODELS, *WATER QUALITY CONTROL, "CALIFORNIA, southwest U. S.,
     regions, control, quality control, gases, Pacific coast region, geographical
     regions, water control, mathematical studies, model studies, beneficial use,
     streamflow, channel flow, flow, waste treatment, water treatment

267.  McCrone, A. W.,  THE HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY: HYDROLOGY,  SEDI-
     MENTS AND POLLUTION,  The Geographical Review, Vol. 56,  No. 2,  1966,
     pp. 175-189.

     A study was conducted of a  70-mile section of the Hudson River estuary from
     Kingston to Dobbs  Ferry. The broad purpose was to observe hydrology and
     pollution and to obtain and analyze samples of river-bottom sediments from
     the Hudson estuary for radiological and associated geological and biological
     studies.  The purpose was to identify the radioactive pollutants in the river and
     to determine the effects of their accumulation in the bottom muds and in
     organisms such as fish.
        Twenty-six sampling stations yielded 180 samples during the summer  of
     1964.  Additional samples were taken from a severely polluted part of the
     river near Mechanicsville and from the Mohawk River near Crescent. Samples
     were taken of surface water,  bottom  water, and bottom mud.  Readings were
     taken of salinity, temperature,  and pH. Fathograms were recorded at key
     river cross sections.  Bottom sediments were dried and analyzed for particle
     size and oxidizable organic matter.  Minerals were identified microscopically,
     and cation exchange capacities and other chemical properties were determined.
     Radiation counts were made on sections taken of bottom  core-samples.  It  was
     concluded that radioactivity concentrated in the Hudson River fish is insignificant
     in so far as public health is concerned.

     'POLLUTANT IDENTIFICATION, 'SEDIMENTS,  'RADIOACTIVITY, 'HUDSON
     RIVER, 'RADIOACTIVITY  EFFECTS, chemical  properties,  water properties,
     aquatic life, wildlife, temperatures,  public health, bodies of water, rivers,
     running waters, streams, animals, aquatic animals,  cation exchange, ion
     exchange, separation techniques, surface waters, salinity,  river beds, stream-
     beds, beds,  fish,  water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration.
                                  J-107

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268. McCullough, C. A.,  and J. D. Vayder, "BELTA-SUISUN BAY WATER
     QUALITY INVESTIGATION",  in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYMPO-
     SIUM ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25, 1967,  pp.  676-709.
     Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

     Water quality tests were made to assess the present water quality of the
     Delta-Suisum Bay {San Francisco,  California). A mathematical model was
     superimposed on the hydraulic model to predict conditions resulting from
     changes in the location and quantities of water released into the Delta.
     Fluorescent dye tracers were used to determine the impact of waste discharges
     at sensitive locations in the bay.
          It was concluded that saline intrusion and other water quality control
     problems could be controlled by releases of fresh water from storage areas
     located in points around the Delta.

     *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *DYE RELEASES, *WATER QUALITY CONTROL,
     ^CALIFORNIA, *TRACERS, geographical regions, Pacific coast regions, re-
     gions, southwest  U.  S., bays, bodies of water, tracking techniques, path of
     pollutants, mathematical studies, model studies,  deltas, water pollution,
     waste disposal, water pollution control, control

269. McHugh, J. L., "ESTUARINE NEKTON", in ESTUARIES, 1967,  pp.  581-620.
     American Association for the Advancement of Science,  Washington, D.  C.

     The general physical characteristics, as well as the biological parameters and
     distribution,  of nektonic organisms in estuaries are described.  A discussion of
     estuarine fisheries is provided, giving figures on commercial landings and
     dollar values.  The role of man as  a predator in estuaries is discussed.

     *ESTUARINE  FISHERIES, *NEKTON, *MARKET VALUE, *FISH HARVEST,
     estuarine environment,  aquatic habitats, bays, animals, aquatic animals,
     aquatic life, seston,  aquatic environment, environment, fisheries, value,
     habitats, ecology, competition, productivity

270. McHugh, J. L., "MANAGEMENT OF ESTUARINE FISHERIES", in A SYMPO-
     SIUM ON ESTUARINE FISHERIES,  NINTH ANNUAL MEETING,  Supplement
     No. 3, 1966, pp.  133-153. American Fisheries  Society,  Atlantic City, New
     Jersey.

     Almost 2/3 (by value) of the U. S. commercial catch and most of the marine
     sport fish catch is composed of species that spend at least a part of their lives
     within land-bound estuaries.  Dominance  of estuarine species is especially
     great in catches along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Around 1960,
     the sport fish catch was approximately 11 percent of the weight of the total
     commercial catch. In 1960 a catch of 590 million pounds of sport fish was
                                    J-108

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     estimated.  For sport fishing, value is measured in money spent by the
     fishermen in pursuit of this recreation; for the commercial fisherman, value
     is measured by the dollar return on his catch.
         There is a need for research into the problems of management and use con-
     flict of estuarine fisheries.

     *ESTUARINE FISHERIES, "COMMERCIAL FISHING, *SPORT FISHING,
     *VALUE, sport fish, commercial fish, fish management, animals, aquatic
     animals, aquatic life, fish, wildlife, water utilization, efficiencies,  fishing,
     industries,  recreation,  water sports, evaluation, coasts, competing uses

271.  McKean, R. N., EFFICIENCY IN GOVERNMENT THROUGH SYSTEMS
     ANALYSIS,  1966.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

     This book presents a general discussion of the theory and practice of benefit-
     cost analysis.  Of special interest are the discussions regarding the nature of
     benefits.  McKean takes the view that the value of the incremental output, ,not
     the incremental value of the industry's output, is what should be considered a
     benefit.  He concludes that secondary benefits should be included in the estimate
     of benefits only  if unemployment would otherwise exist.  A five-page bibliog-
     raphy is included.

     *COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, * SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, *BENEFITS, '"BIBLIOG-
     RAPHIES, direct benefits,  indirect benefits,  government finance

272.  McKee, Jack Edward, and Harold W. Wolf, editors, WATER QUALITY CRITE-
     RIA, 2nd edition, State of California,  State Water Quality Control Board,
     Sacramento, California, Publication No. 3-A, 1963.

     The technical and scientific literature pertaining to water quality is evaluated.
     An extensive bibliography of 3,827 references is included.

     *WATER QUALITY, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES, water analysis, water properties,
     analysis

273.  McKee, Paul W.,  "SEDIMENT", in PROBLEMS OF THE POTOMAC ESTUARY,
     January,  1964,  pp. 40-46.  Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin,
     Washington, D.  C.

     The control of erosion resulting from urban development has been largely
     ignored.  This report presents some data to show the sediment yields  of various
     areas in Maryland.  Sediment yields from construction sites are from three to
     100 times the average yield from rural areas.
                                   J-109

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     *SOIL EROSION, *SURFACE RUNOFF,  *CONSTRUCTION, *URBANIZATION,
     *MARYLAND, erosion, sediment discharge, sediment control,  runoff, surface
     drainage,  drainage, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain,
     coastal plains, geographical regions,  northeast U. S., regions

274. McKee, Paul W., STATEMENT BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON AIR AND
     WATER POLLUTION, April 17, 1968.  Committee on Public Works, U. S.
     Senate,  Washington, D. C.

     The Department of Water Resources has requested investigation of the following
     topics:
         1.  Projection of electric power  needs, cooling needs, and cooling water
     requirements for Chesapeake  Bay through year 2010.
         2.  Optimal locations for future power plants considering all water uses
     involved.
         3.  The best plant design and operation for all environmental protection.
         4.  A review of the water uses and an estimate  of the effects on them by
     the discharge of heated water.
         5.  The benefit to other uses of water by proper development of energy
     sources.

     THERMAL POLLUTION, *VIRGINIA, *MARYLAND,  *ELECTRIC POWER
     INDUSTRY, *DESIGN, *FORECASTING, *WATER UTILIZATION, engineering
     structures, industrial plants, structures, control, water pollution,  industrial
     water, water types, industry, sites, bays,  efficiencies, southeast U.  S.,
     Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains, geographi-
     cal regions,  northeast U. S., regions, cooling water,  powerplants, water re-
     quirements

275. McNatt, E. M., SEISMIC EXPLORATION AT SEA, Ocean Industry, Vol. 2,
     No. 6, June, 1967, pp. 30-33.

     Problems involved in seismographic exploration at sea include: too little depth
     penetration,  too much noise, too little resolving power, and too high a cost.
         Present offshore seismic exploration survey costs per mile are roughly
     one-third of those on land.

     *EXPLORATION, *SEISMIC STUDIES,  *GEOPHYSICS, geologic formations,
     remote  sensing, sounding,  sub-surface investigations, analytical techniques,
     costs

276. McNulty, J. K., ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SEWAGE POLLUTION IN BIS-
     CAYNE BAY, FLORIDA: SEDIMENTS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF BENTHIC
     AND FOULING MACRO-ORGANISMS, Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol. 11,
     No. 3, 1961, pp. 394-447.
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     Harmful and fertilizing effects of sewage in Northern Biscayne Bay, Florida,
     were established by the quantitative distribution of benthic and fouling macro-
     organisms.  Harmful effects, as indicated by absence of benthic life, were
     limited to within 200 yards of sewage outfalls, in greater than average depths.
     Fertilizing effects,  as measured by abundance of benthic  life, were most
     pronounced in a narrow band roughly 200 to 600 yards from sewage sources
     in shallow water with good tidal circulation and where the bottom consisted of
     firm sandy mud.  The fouling organisms in highly polluted waters (greater
     than 10,000 MPN) were mainly tubiculous amphipods.

     *BENTHOS, *WATER 'POLLUTION, *FLORIDA, invertebrates, amphipoda,
     fouling, stream biology,  ecology, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,
     geographical regions, Gulf coastal plain, animals, crustaceans,  sewage dis-
     posal,  plants,  bacteria, sewage disposal, plants,  bacteria, sewage bacteria,
     regions, southeast U. S., marine microorganisms, aquatic life,  aquatic
     microorganisms, microorganisms, seston, outlets, aquatic animals

277.  MEASURING THE IMPACT OF THE WATERBORNE COMMERCE OF THE
     PORTS OF VIRGINIA ON EMPLOYMENT, WAGES, AND  OTHER KEY IN-
     DICES OF THE VIRGINIA ECONOMY, 1953-1965,  Bureau of Population and
     Economic Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville,  Virginia,
     January, 1967.

     This study is concerned with measuring the effects of selected economic com-
     ponents resulting from, and generated by, the waterborne commerce that
     flows through the ports of Virginia. The economic components used are em-
     ployment, wages, state and local taxes, business  and industrial activities.
     Because most of the port activity in Virginia occurs in the ports of Hampton
     Roads,  the findings of this study were based primarily on the waterborne
     commerce at Hampton Roads.  This report is the  twelfth  of a series undertaken
     by the University of Virginia for the Virginia  State Ports  Authority and pub-
     lished annually since 1957.

     "HARBORS, *VIRGINIA,  *ECONOMIC IMPACT, employment, wages,  taxes,
     transportation, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal
     plains,  geographical regions, regions,  southeast U. S., industries

278.  Metcalf, T. G., and W. C. Stiles, VIRAL POLLUTION OF SHELLFISH  IN
     ESTUARY WATERS, Journal of the Sanitary Engineering  Division, Vol.  94,
     No.  SA4, August, 1968, pp. 595-609.

     Enteroviruses appear in oysters following pollution of estuary waters by waste-
     treatment plant effluents. Primary treatment, with or without chlorination,
     and stabilization pond effluents are regular contributors of enterovirus.  In-
     creased levels of chlorination accompanied by prolongation of retention time
                                   J-lll

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      lead to a reduction in the number of viral isolations made from treated effluents.
      Enterovirus occurs in oysters collected from seawater containing less than 70
      Coliform median MPN per 100 ml. Reduction of viral pollutants to undetectable
      levels in oysters by depuration in estuary waters requires three to six days.
      Depuration efficacy was adversely affected by large numbers of viral pollutants
      in oysters, by water temperature falling below 10 C,  or both.

      "OYSTERS, *WATER POLLUTION, *ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTS, *SHELL-
      FISH, marine animals,  invertebrates, commercial shellfish, benthos, benthic
      fauna, fish, microorganisms, sewage treatment, sanitary engineering, public
      health, sewage disposal, engineering, environmental  engineering, mollusks,
      chemical reactions,  chlorination, viruses,  wildlife, aquatic environments,
      environment, waste treatment, waste disposal, animals, aquatic animals,
      aquatic life

 279.  Middleton, Arthur Pierce, TOBACCO COAST, A MARITIME'HISTORY OF
      CHESAPEAKE BAY IN THE COLONIAL ERA, 1953.  The Mariners Museum,
      Newport News, Virginia.

      This comprehensive history covers all uses of Chesapeake Bay and the activi-
      ties related to it from the time of the earliest exploration to the Revolutionary
      War.  It is heavily documented and is reputed by Maryland historians to be the
      best existing history of Maryland.

      *HISTORY, *MARYLAND, *BAYS, Appalachian Mountain region,  Atlantic
      coastal plain, coastal plains,  geographical regions, northeast  U. S., regions

 280.  Mihursky,  J. A.,  ON POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTIVE USES OF THERMAL ADDI-
      TIONS TO  ESTUARIES,  BioScience, Vol. 17,  No. 10, November, 1967,
      pp.  698-702.

      Thermal loading of an estuary, common in highly industrial areas, can cause
      damage in  some ecosystems.  It can also be used constructively, however, to
      maintain warm temperatures for the development of food items for commer-
      cially important species, and to stimulate growth of commercially important
      fish and shellfish.

      "THERMAL POLLUTION, *BENEFICIAL USE, "COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH,
      *COMMERCIAL FISH, "BENEFITS, water pollution, animals,  aquatic
      animals, aquatic life, invertebrates,  shellfish, fish, wildlife,  heated water,
      water types, water temperature,  temperature, water  properties,  fish food
      organisms, ecology,  ecosystems

281.  Mihursky,  J. A., and V. S. Kennedy, "WATER TEMPERATURE CRITERIA TO
      PROTECT AQUATIC LIFE", in A SYMPOSIUM ON WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
      TO PROTECT AQUATIC LIFE, American Fisheries Society, Transactions,
      Special Publication No. 4, Supplement to Vol. 96,  No. 1,1967, pp. 20-32.
                                   J-112

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     This paper discusses the ecological significance of temperature in the aquatic
     habitat and attempts to use the principles discussed as standards of judgment
     concerning temperature regulations that may be necessary for preserving
     aquatic life in areas where the temperature regimes may be changed due to
     thermal pollution.
        Three ecosystems are discussed:  (1) cold-water  salmonid streams,
     (2) warm-water centrarchid environments, and (3) estuaries.

     THERMAL POLLUTION,  *WATER TEMPERATURE, ^REGULATION,
     commercial fish, salmonids, environmental gradient, ecology, limiting
     factors, aquatic habitat, habitat, temperature,  animals,  water pollution,
     fish, aquatic animals,  aquatic life,  wildlife, ecosystems

282.  Milliman, J. W., "THE ECONOMICS OF WATER PRODUCTION USING
     NUCLEAR ENERGY",  in WATER PRODUCTION USING NUCLEAR ENERGY,
     1966, pp. 49-73.  The  University of Arizona Press, Tucson,  Arizona.

     The economics of saline water conversion is discussed,  with special empha-
     sis being placed upon (1) alternatives to saline water conversion and (2) the
     economic issues involved in combined nuclear water and power facilities
     and the Bechtel Study of the feasibility of a combined water and power plant
     for Southern California.
        The author outlines the economic analyses that have been associated with
     combined nuclear water-power plants in general, and  is particularly critical
     of the Bechtel Study.
        Among the major points and conclusions reached by the author are the
     following:
        1.  All known desalinization processes are capital intensive,
        2.  Even the most optimistic costs related to desalinization are not low
     when compared to current water costs and to other water source alternatives,
        3.  Dual purpose (power and water) plants achieve cost savings, but low
     costs are sensitive to stable outputs of both water and power,
        4.  Cities near sea-coasts, which have no obvious fresh water alterna-
     tives and which can absorb large blocks of power, would seem to be the best
     prospects for large-scale combination nuclear-desalting plants.

     *DESALINATION PLANTS, *ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY, *CALIFORNIA,
     *NUCLEAR POWERPLANTS, desalination, saline water, costs,  financial
     feasibility, economic justification, economics,  Pacific coast regions,
     electric powerplants, industrial plants,  southwest U.  S., geographical
     regions,  regions, demineralization, separation techniques, water purifica-
     tion, water treatment,  buildings, engineering structures, structures, power-
     plants, water types
                                   J-113

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 283. Mitchell, C. L., FISH PROTEIN CONCENTRATE SEEN POSSIBLE NEW
      INDUSTRY,  Fisheries of Canada, Vol. 19, No. 11, May, 1967, pp. 12-15.

      The author states that a fish protein concentrate industry in both Canada and
      the U. S. will develop shortly. Canada will be able to compete favorably with
      the U. S. in marketing FPC because it is estimated that the market prices of
      FPC in Canada and the U. S. will be $300/ton and $400/ton, respectively.
      FPC production costs are itemized.

      *COMMERCIAL FISHING,  *PROTEINS, *FISH HANDLING FACILITIES,
      *OPERATING COSTS, *FOODS, fish management, fisheries, production
      costs, fishing, industries, facilities,  management, pricing, competitive
      prices, prices, competition, marketing,  industrial production, costs,
      foreign countries, geographical regions,  regions

 284. Mock, C., IMPORTANCE OF GULF ESTUARIES AND PROBLEMS FACING
      OUR FISHERY RESOURCES, llth International Game Fish Conference  (1966),
      Proceedings, August, 1967, pp. 66-68.

      The author states that the value of the sport fisherman to the American
      economic system probably exceeds that of the commercial fishery, and will
      in the future.
          It is estimated that the renewable fishery resources of Gulf coastal waters
      yield 1/2 billion pounds of fish and shellfish; 90 percent of this is from five
      estuarine-dependent species.
          The author argues that industrial and urban development in Texas will
      have or has had four major effects on estuaries:
          1.  Direct alteration or destruction of habitat
          2.  Reduction of tidal exchange between Gulf and estuary
          3.  Past or possible future depletion of fresh water to the bay oyster
          4.  Continuing deterioration of water quality through pollution.
          The author feels that the future of the Texas estuary appears to be an
      escalation of these  problems.

      *VALUE, *GULF OF MEXICO, ""COMMERCIAL FISHING,  *SPORT FISHING,
      *WATER POLLUTION, *URBANIZATION, estuarine fisheries, recreation,
      gulfs, fish, central U. S.,  commercial fish, commercial shellfish, Texas,
      aquatic habitat, environment,  tidal effects, coastal plains,  geographical
      regions, mollusks, benthic fauna, benthos, marine animals, oysters,
      fisheries, fishing, industries, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life,
      invertebrates, shellfish, water sports, bodies of water, surface waters,
      resources, wildlife, Gulf coastal plain, regions, southwest U. S.

285.  Mock, Cornelius R.,  NATURAL AND ALTERED ESTUARINE HABITATS OF
      PENAEID SHRIMP, Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, Proceedings,
      Vol. 19, 1966, pp.  86-98.
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     This study demonstrates what can happen to a shrimp nursery area when it
     is altered by bulkheading.  Two areas were chosen—one adjacent to an
     unaltered vegetative shore and the other near a concrete bulkhead.  Both had
     similar hydrology and sediment types, but differed in the amount of organic
     detritus in the bottom sediments and in water depth.  Intensive sampling over
     a ten-month period produced 2.5 times more brown shrimp (Penaeus Aztecus)
     and fourteen times more white shrimp (P. Setiferus) from the natural habitat
     than the bulkheaded area.  This preference for the unaltered habitat depended
     on the physical rather than the hydrologic characteristics of the habitat.

     *SHRIMP, *HABITATS, *BULKHEADS, *ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS,
     *AQUATIC PRODUCTIVITY, land reclamation, animals, aquatic animals,
     aquatic life, commercial shellfish,  crustaceans, invertebrates, shellfish,
     environment, aquatic habitats, engineering structures, structures, hydraulic
     structures,  walls, ecology, productivity

286.  A MODEL LAND DEVELOPMENT CODE,  Tentative Draft No.  1, American
     Law Institute, April  24, 1968.

     This is a draft of proposals concerning the legal status of the planning process.
     The general conclusion is that there are some techniques of regulation that a
     governing body should not be able to use unless there is written evidence of
     forethought  (i.e., written plans).
        The proposed code is divided into 12 articles.  The following is a summary
     of the code:
        1.   It grants power to local government to control land development.
        2.   It specifies  the content of a land development plan.
        3.   It specifies  the ways a locality can regulate development by zoning,
     architectural review, and eminent domain.
        4.   Compensation to land owners for loss of value because of coming under
     a  new plan (e.g., zone changes from industrial to urban).
        5.   It suggests the standardization of procedures within the state for all
     permits for land development.

     *LAND DEVELOPMENT, *GOVERNMENTS,  *LEGISLATION,  *PLANNING

287.  MODERN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS—HOW MUCH DO THEY COST,
     U. S. Public Health Service, Washington, D. C., 1964.

     This study is based on a tabulation of design and cost information for 1504
     sewage treatment projects  constructed under the PL-660 program.  Treatment
     processes covered include: (1) Imhoff-tank plants,  (2) Imhoff-type plants,
     (3) primary treatment—separate sludge digestion plants, (4) stabilization
     ponds,  (5) activated sludge plants,  (6) trickling filters—separate sludge
     digestion plants, and (7) trickling filters—Imhoff-type plants.
                                   J-115

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      *SEWAGE TREATMENT, *COSTS,  "TREATMENT FACILITIES, *SLUDGE
      TREATMENT, *FILTERS, operation and maintenance, design,  equipment

288.  Moffett, A. W.,  THE SHRIMP FISHERY IN TEXAS,  Texas Parks and Wild-
      life Department, No. 50, 1957.

      Commercial shrimping is the most valuable sea fishery in the United States.
      At present, the Texas fleet lands about 64 million pounds of shrimp worth more
      than $25 million per year. The bait shrimp industry alone is a multimillion
      dollar enterprise.  Although production  is high, the shrimp supply is unstable.

      *SHRIMP, *TEXAS,  *SUPPLY,  ^FISHERIES, *MARKET VALUE,  *BAIT
      FISHING,  commercial shellfish,  Gulf of Mexico, animals, aquatic animals,
      aquatic life, crustaceans, invertebrates, shellfish, gulfs, bodies of water,
      surface waters,  central U. S., coastal plains, geographical regions, Gulf
      coastal plain, regions, southwest U. S., value, baits

289.  Moore, B.,  "THE RISK OF INFECTION THROUGH BATHING IN SEWAGE-
      POLLUTED WATER", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL
      CONFERENCE ON WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT,
      July 22-25,  1959, pp. 29-38. Pergamon Press,  New York.

      Based on medical histories of gastro-enteritis, paratyphoid, and poliomyelitis
      of patients in seaside resorts, there seems to be little relation between in-
      fection and ocean swimming. While enteric fever has been frequently caused
      by sewage-polluted shellfish, swimming in sea-water into which sewage has
      been discharged is not a serious public health risk provided outfall sites have
      been chosen with reasonable care.

      *PUBLIC  HEALTH,  *SWIMMING, *INFECTION, *WATER POLLUTION,
      *SEWAGE DISPOSAL, *OCEANS, water types, diseases, shellfish, animals,
      aquatic animals, aquatic life, beaches,  municipal wastes, enteric bacteria,
      wastes, seawater, saline water,  water pollution effects,  water pollution
      sources, waste disposal, recreation, water sports, outlets, surface waters,
     "bodies of water, bacteria microorganisms, plants

290.  Morgan, Robert, WHEN DOES A FISHERY BECOME UNECONOMIC,  World
      Fishing, No. 14, December,  1965,  pp.  73-74, 77.

      The author identifies the basic elements affecting optimum fishing rate as:
      (1) biological—both the elements affecting organic productivity and the rate of
     withdrawal by fishing or by mortality from other causes; and (2) economic—
     elements affecting both the cost of catching and demand.  Changes in any  of these
     elements will change the optimum effort of fishing necessary to yield the  greatest
     difference between total economic input  and output.
                                   J-116

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        The purpose of this article is to point out that, in any consideration of
     overfishing or in any consideration of what is the best or optimum effort,  every
     consideration should be given to economic factors (costs and prices), as well
     as to biological factors.
        The author admits that many simplifications were made,  especially in re-
     gard to the biological elements, in order to achieve a concise demonstration of
     the relations between the two elements.
        The relations are illustrated with a diagram in which effort in standard
     vessel units is plotted against value and cost per week.  The basic curve is
     that of total  weight caught in relation to total effort expended, each taken as
     to an average over a period of time.

     *FISH MANAGEMENT,  ^EXPENDITURES,  *DEMAND,  fishing, management,
     commercial fishing, industries, productivity, withdrawal

291.  Morison, Samuel E.,  MARITIME HISTORY OF MASSACHUSETTS, 1921.
     Houghton-Mifflin Company, Boston and New York.

     The author says that,  although maritime Massachusetts enjoyed no natural
     advantage over other sections of the Atlantic coast, her apparent liabilities
     were converted into assets. The economic development of Merrimack River
     and Buzzards' Bay communities is analyzed.  The interplay of human in-
     genuity and natural resources is stressed.

     *COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, *ECONOMIC LIFE, *MASSACHUSETTS,
     *HISTORY,  human resources, natural resources, geographical regions,  New
     England, northeast U.  S., regions, resources

292.  Morris, S. B., OUTLOOK FOR ECONOMIC USE OF FRESH  WATER FROM
     THE SEA, Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, June, 1961, pp.
     15-26.

     The prospects for desalination systems in the United States are analyzed. The
     author is pessimistic except in special instances and along the Texas Gulf Coast.

     *ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY, *DESALINATION, *TEXAS,  central U.  S., coastal
     plains,  geographical regions, Gulf coastal plain, regions, southwest U. S.,
     feasibility,  demineralization, separation techniques, water purification,  water
     treatment

293.  Moss, F., RELATIONS BETWEEN SPORT AND COMMERCIAL  FISHERMEN,
     llth International Game Fish Conference (1966), Proceedings, August, 1967,
     pp. 69-74.
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      The author states that sport fishing should be considered an industry by
      virtue of its dollar value, number of participants, and size of catch.  Some
      of the conflicts between sport and commercial fishermen are discussed and
      some solutions are suggested.

      *SPORT FISHING,  "COMMERCIAL FISHING,  *INCOME,  *SIZE,
      PETITION, recreation, fishing, water sports, industries
*COM-
 294.  Napier,  Jeff W., "STATEMENT",  in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
      ESTUARIES, Transcript of Public Meeting, Biloxi,  Mississippi, January
      17,  1968, pp. 22-30. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
      Department of the Interior, S. E. Region,  Atlanta, Georgia.

      Estuaries are highly suitable areas for pleasure boating for several reasons,
      including:  accessibility to urban areas and historical sight-seeing value.
      Estuaries also provide sheltered waters and a variety of fish species.
          An estimated 40 million people go boating every year, and boat owners
      are estimated to spend about  $3 billion annually. Boating has been growing at
      an annual rate of more than five percent.
          Napier contends that sewage from pleasure boats is a highly negligible
      source of pollution, particularly in comparison to particular industrial plants.

      *RECREATION,  *BOATING,  *RE CREATION WASTES, * SPORT FISHING,
      *WATER POLLUTION, water quality, recreation facilities,  wastes,  water
      sports,  sport fish, animals,  aquatic animals,  aquatic life, fish, wildlife

 295.  THE NATIONAL VALUE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY, Chesapeake Bay
      Authority Conference at Regional Advisor's Office, Baltimore,  Maryland,
      1933.

      A series of reports is presented on the economic resources  and problems  of
      the Chesapeake Bay. The need for interstate cooperation isirecognized and
      discussed.

      "HISTORY,  *MARYLAND, ""VIRGINIA, *BAYS, *VALUE, "INTERSTATE,
      resources, Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal
      plains, geographical regions, northeast U. S., regions, southeast U. S.

296.  Naylor,  E., "EFFECTS OF HEATED EFFLUENTS UPON MARINE AND
      ESTUARINE ORGANISMS", in ADVANCES IN MARINE BIOLOGY, Volume 3,
      edited by Frederick S. Russell, 1965,  pp. 63-104.  Academic Press,  London
      and New  York.

      The biological effects of heated effluents on estuarine life are discussed. The
     growth in volume of heated effluents from power plants in estuarine areas is
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     indicated.  It is suggested that there may be many situations where siting
     power plants in estuaries could be beneficial to the marine environment, as
     well as other situations where such would be detrimental.

     *POWERPLANTS, "THERMAL POLLUTION,  *ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT,
     *GROWTH RATES,  engineering structures, industrial plants,  structures,
     aquatic environment, environment, rates

297.  Nelson, ThurlowC., SOME ASPECTS OF POLLUTION,  PARASITISM, AND
     INLET RESTRICTION IN THREE NEW JERSEY ESTUARIES,  Estuaries,
     No. 83, 1967, pp. 203-211.

     Since the oyster is a very sensitive biological indicator of conditions and is
     the best scientifically-known of all marine animals, the author uses the
     history of the oyster population in three New Jersey estuaries to illustrate
     the effect of nature  and man on the ecology of the estuaries.

     *HISTORY, *PARASITISM, *ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT, *WATER POL-
     LUTION EFFECTS, *OYSTERS, *NEW JERSEY,  *ECOLOGY, commercial
     shellfish,  pathology, aquatic environment, environment, animals, aquatic
     animals, aquatic life, benthic fauna,  benthos, invertebrates,  marine animals,
     mollusks,  shellfish, Atlantic  coastal plain, coastal plains, geographical
     regions, northeast  U. S., regions, obstruction to flow

298.  Newcombe, Curtis  L., and Paul S. Dwyer, AN ANALYSIS OF THE VERTI-
     CAL DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE IN A DICHOTHERMIC LAKE OF
     SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN, Ecology, Vol. 30,  No.  4, October, 1949,
     pp. 443-449.

     Analysis of vertical water movement in Sodon Lake, Michigan, has been
     presented.  Role of change of temperature with time, between depths six to
     18 feet show exponential relationship, while depths below 27 feet show very
     slight temperature  change. Coefficient of turbulence was found to be 1.81
     square meters per month.  The effect of density-differences induced by
     surface temperatures during  seasonal transitions probably penetrates to
     about the mid-depth; and,  in this connection, wind action is believed to play
     a secondary role varying in importance with the season.

     *MICHIGAN, *THERMOCLINE, TURBULENCE, *WATER CIRCULATION,
     *DENSITY STRATIFICATION, surface waters, standing waters, bodies of
     water,  lakes, mathematical models,  turbidity currents,  central U.  S.,
     geographical regions, winds, circulation,  stratification, regions, Great
     Lakes region, mathematical studies, model studies,  currents (water),
     density currents, temperature
                                   J-119

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299.  Newell, G. E., "POLLUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF ANIMALS IN
      ESTUARIES",  in THE EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON LIVING MATERIAL,
      edited by W. B. Yapp, Vol. 8, 1959, pp. 61-69. Institute of Biology,
      London, England.

      The author provides a very brief and general discussion regarding the
      effects of pollution upon the marine biota in estuaries based upon observa-
      tions  in England and Wales.

      *WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS, *FOREIGN COUNTRIES, *MARINE
      ANIMALS, ecology, environmental effects, animals, aquatic animals,
      aquatic life, geographical regions, regions

300.  Nitsos, R. J., and Reed, P. H.,  THE ANIMAL FOOD FISHERY IN
      CALIFORNIA, 1961-1962, California Fish and Game, Vol. 51, No. 1,
      1965, pp. 16-25.

      Trawling produced 3.8 million pounds of fish in 1961 and 1.8 million pounds
      in 1962.  These fish, some 60 species,  are utilized primarily by the fur-farm
      industry.

      *FISHERIES, *FURBEARERS, *TRAWLING, *FISH, "CALIFORNIA, pro-
      duction, fishing, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, wildlife, geographical
      regions, Pacific coast region, regions, southwest U. S., statistics, data
      collections

301.  Nobe, Kenneth C., EMERGING NATIONAL POLICIES GOVERNING OUTDOOR
      RECREATION IN FEDERAL WATER DEVELOPMENT  PROJECTS, Journal of
      Soil and Water, Vol. 19, No. 2, March-April, 1964, pp. 61-66.

      The author states that a wide divergence among the policies of federal agencies
      affecting outdoor recreation components of multiple-purpose water development
      projects existed until quite recently.  Now emerging is a more uniform national
      policy that recognizes outdoor recreation as a full partner in these projects.
      But a major job remains; translation of existing and emerging policy into pro-
      cedures that will result in sound project formulation.  The evolution of new
      recreation policies and their practical implications are discussed in this
      article.

      *RECREATION,  *FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, "MULTIPLE-PURPOSE PROJ-
      ECTS, *WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT, land management, projects,
      resource development, management

302.  OCEANOGRAPHY—THE EMERGING SCIENCE OF THE SEA, Hayden Stone,
      Investment Research Department, October,  1967.
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     Present markets in the oceanography field and their future projections (1977)
     are described. In-depth analysis is made of offshore petroleum field and
     its related companies.

     *OIL INDUSTRY, *DESALINATION, *OCEANOGRAPHY, *ECONOMIC
     PREDICTION, *COMMERCIAL FISHING, mining, fishing, oceans, bodies
     of water,  surface waters,  industries,  exploitation, oil fields,  forecasting,
     demineralization, separation techniques, water purification, water treatment,
     oil reservoirs

303.  O'Connor, D. J., AN ANALYSIS OF THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION
     IN THE EAST RIVER, Water Pollution Control Federation, Journal,  Vol. 38,
     No.  11, November, 1966,  p. 1813.

     A mathematical model is presented to relate the change in dissolved oxygen
     levels along the length of the East River from the Upper Bay to Long Island
     Sound.  The BOD input data from treatment plant effluents are tabulated.
     Calculated and observed dissolved oxygen and BOD in the East River are
     plotted.

     *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *DISSOLVED OXYGEN,  *RIVERS,  *NEW YORK,
     oxygen demand,  biochemical oxygen demand,  analysis, bodies of water, treat-
     ment facilities, northeast  U. S.,  regions, running waters, streams, surface
     waters, effluents, Appalachian Mountain region,  geographical regions, Great
     Lakes region

304.  O'Connor, D. J., ESTUARINE DISTRIBUTION OF NONCONSERVATIVE SUB-
     STANCES, Journal of the  Sanitary Engineering Division, Vol. 91, No.  SA1,
     February, 1965, pp. 23-42.

     The application of various mathematical methods to the determination of water
     quality and pollution conditions in estuaries is demonstrated.  Many  of the
     estuaries of the eastern coast of the United States are characterized by uni-
     formity over the vertical and lateral planes.  This condition,  reducing the
     basic equations to a one-dimentional problem, is analyzed for three  common
     coordinate systems that describe the geometry of the various  estua'ries.
     Various types of spatial and temporal inputs are  considered.  The final
     equations are used to define the longitudinal distribution of various noncon-
     servative substances in the estuaries  of the Delaware, the East,  and the James
     Rivers.   Data from both model tests and field surveys are provided for com-
     parison with the predicted profiles.

     *MATHEMATICAL MODELS,  *WASTE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY,  *WATER
     QUALITY, *DELAWARE RIVER, rivers,  mathematical studies,  model studies,
     bodies of water, interstate rivers, running water,  streams,  surface waters
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305. O'Connor, D. J., ORGANIC POLLUTION OF NEW YORK HARBOR -
     THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS, Water Pollution Control Federation,
     Journal, Vol. 34, No. 9, September,  1962, p. 905.

     The author presents a mathematical treatment of dissolved oxygen in the
     Hudson River and Upper Bay with respect to BOD loading from the various
     waste treatment plants.  There is a good agreement between the observed
     values of dissolved oxygen and BOD to those obtained by using the mathe-
     matical model. Minimum dissolved oxygen occurred at the battery.

     *MATHEMATICAL STUDIES,  *BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND, *DIS-
     SOLVED OXYGEN, *NEW YORK, *HUDSON RIVER, TREATMENT
     FACILITIES, oxygen demand, Appalachian Mountain region,  Great Lakes
     region, streams, bodies of water, rivers, surface waters, running waters,
     northeast U. S., regions, geographical regions,  harbors

306. O'Connor, D.  J., OXYGEN BALANCE OF AN .ESTUARY,  Journal of the
     Sanitary Engineering Division, Vol. 86,  No. SA3, May, I960,  pp. 35-55.

     The dissolved-oxygen profile of rivers depends on the concentration of the
     organic material, its rate of oxidation, and the resulting rate of reaeration.
     The inter-relationship among geophysical and biochemical factors is described
     by a differential equation under a steady state condition.  The proposed formulas
     defining the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decay and oxygen balance in an
     estuary agree reasonably with the observed data from the Delaware and James
     Rivers. The dissolved-oxygen profiles are more consistent  and in better
     agreement than the BOD decay for these examples.

     *BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND,  *DISSOLVED OXYGEN, ^MATHEMATICAL
     MODELS, *DELAWARE RIVER, surface waters, streams, running waters,
     rivers, reaeration, bodies  of water, interstate rivers, mathematical studies,
     model studies,  organic matters, aeration, aquatic plants, aquatic life,  plants,
     oxygen demand

307. Odum,  Eugene P., "STATEMENT",  in CLEAN WATER FOR THE NATION'S
     ESTUARIES, Proceedings of the Georgia Public Meeting, Jekyll Island, Georgia,
     February 29, 1968, pp.  7-18.  Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration,
     Department of the Interior, S. E. Region,  Atlanta, Georgia.

     The importance of secondary waste treatment is  stressed.  It is further stressed
     that the natural high fertility and usefulness of estuaries "dictates that use and
     management should be based,  as far as possible, on the concept of utilization
     of existing resources without changing the biological productivity and the basic
     flow pattern of the system". On the average, an acre of estuary is worth $500
     and should be put to more valuable uses than landfill (where dry land is available)
     or open sewers for raw wastes.
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        As a basis for future planning, the author proposes a pattern of use zones
    which have been developed by the State of Georgia.  These use regions are:
        1.  Industrial zones—subjected to extensive modification,  where pollution
    control and maintenance of water quality are of paramount concern,
        2.  Natural-use zones—where the basic pattern of landscape remains
    undisturbed and recreation, fishing, seafood production, etc.,  are the primary
    objectives, and
        3.  Research zones.

    *ZONING, *GEORGIA,  *WATER QUALITY CONTROL, *SEWAGE TREATMENT,
    *ECOLOGY, *ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN, regulation, property values, water
    pollution control,  water pollution treatment, water treatment, waste treatment,
    natural resources, resources,  fish harvest, fishing, industries, Appalachian
    Mountain region,  coastal plains,  geographical regions, regions, southeast U. S.,
    value, quality control,  control, recreation, recreation facilities

308. Odum, Eugene P., "THE URGENT NEED FOR LANDSCAPE ZONING OF THE
    ESTUARINE REGION ACCORDING TO ECO-SYSTEM PRINCIPLES",  in CLEAN
    WATER FOR THE NATION'S ESTUARIES, Proceedings of the Georgia Public
    Meeting, Jekyll Island, Georgia, November 29, 1968, p. 4. Federal Water
    Pollution Control  Administration, Department of the Interior, S. E. Region,
    Atlanta, Georgia.

    The article is a "plea for a package of three basic approaches in regard to
    estuaries:
        1.  Consideration of the estuarine landscape as one major ecological
    system  (ecosystem) with inter-dependent components and functions;
        2.  Recognition by professionals and the public alike of the basic
    ecological laws that result in conflict between 'man1 and 'nature1 as the first
    step in resolving multi-purpose conflicts;
        3.  Need to establish immediately a ground -swell of public opinion for
    landscape zoning as the only practical solution to desired multiple use objec-
    tives which must involve both preservation and use."

    *ECOSYSTEMS, *MULTIPLE PURPOSE, "ZONING, *COMPETING USES,
    water utilization,  regulation, efficiencies

309. Odum, Howard T.,  "ANALYSIS OF DIURNAL OXYGEN CURVES FOR THE
    ESSAY OF REAERATION RATES AND METABOLISM IN POLLUTED MARINE
    BAYS", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE  ON
    WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT, July  22-25, 1959, pp.
    547-555.  Pergamon Press,  New York.

    Studies were conducted in coastal marine waters  in south Texas to assess the
    effect of pollution upon photosynthesis and reaeration through analysis of
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     diurnal oxygen curves. Results of previous studies are summarized.  Data
     from a field sampling program are presented, but no major conclusions are
     drawn.

     *PHOTOSYNTHESIS, *REAERATION, *DISSOLVED OXYGEN,  *WATER
     POLLUTION EFFECTS, Texas, central U. S., coastal plains, geographical
     regions, Gulf coastal plain, regions, southwest U. S., chemical reactions,
     diurnal

310. OIL SPILL RELIEF SEEN SOON, Oceanology International, Vol. 2, No.  6,
     September/October,  1967, p. 20.

     This article discusses several oil pollution sources and related means of com-
     bating oil spillage.

     *WATER POLLUTION SOURCES, *OIL INDUSTRY, *OIL WASTES, *WATER
     POLLUTION CONTROL,  oil wastes, industries, organic matter, wastes, oil,
     control

311. OIL SPILLAGE STUDY; LITERATURE SEARCH AND CRITICAL EVALUATION
     FOR SELECTION OF PROMISING TECHNIQUES TO CONTROL AND PREVENT
     DAMAGE, Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratories,  Rich-
     land, Washington, Report to Department of Transportation, United States Coast
     Guard, AD 666289,  November 20,  1967.

     A literature review and evaluation of the state of technology of prevention and
     control of major oil spillage on water. The restoration of the shore face and
     waterfowl habitats and the effects of oil pollution and defensive measures on
     aquatic life are also discussed. Specific areas of study summarized in the re-
     port include: technical aspects of tank vessel design as related to prevention of
     oil spillage, destruction or recovery of open sea oil slicks, protection and
     cleaning of the shore face and estuaries, and the effects of oil pollution and
     treatment agents on marine flora and fauna.

     *DISASTERS, *OIL,  *WATER POLLUTION, *BEACHES, *OILY WATER, water
     pollution effects, water pollution treatment, water treatment, oceans, bodies of
     water, surface waters, wildlife, land reclamation, aquatic life, wildlife  habitats,
     environments, habitats, waterfowl, animals, birds

312. Okubo, A.,  HORIZONTAL DIFFUSION FROM AN INSTANTANEOUS POINT
     SOURCE DUE TO OCEANIC TURBULENCE, Chesapeake Bay Institute, Johns
     Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, Report No. 32, 1962.

     In this paper the author discusses horizontal turbulent diffusion  of a patch of a
     diffusive substance released from an instantaneous point-source in the sea.
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         In Part I, a systematic derivation of some proposed concentration dis-
     tributions for a patch is developed on the basis of a non-Markov hypothesis
     combined with knowledge of the rate of mean square dispersion. A new
     proposal for the concentration distribution is also presented.  The solutions
     of others are critically discussed in comparison with available information
     about horizontal diffusion in the sea.
         In Part n, a re-examination is made  of the relations between the variance
     of the distribution and diffusion time and between the coefficient of eddy dif-
     fusion and the scale of the phenomenon, using accumulated data.  In addition
     to this, some speculation about the two-dimensional horizontal energy spectrum
     of oceanic turbulence is presented.

     *DIFFUSION, *OCEAN CIRCULATION, TURBULENCE, mathematical models,
     eddies, circulation, movement,  energy, water circulation, mathematical studies,
     model studies, currents  (water) turbulent flow, 'flow

313.  Okubo,  A.,  A REVIEW OF THEORETICAL MODELS OF TURBULENT DIF-
     FUSION IN THE SEA,  Chesapeake Bay Institute, Johns  Hopkins University,
     Baltimore, Maryland, Report No. 30, 1962.

     A comprehensive survey of theoretical models for turbulent diffusion in the
     sea is presented.  In the introductory sections, the author describes results
     of some recent observations of turbulent structure in the sea and points out some
     fundamental  concepts which are necessary for the treatment of turbulent diffusion
     in the sea.  Material presented in later sections falls into two parts:  (1) Some of
     the important statistical properties associated with particle displacement in a turbu-
     lent velocity field are discussed without having information about the probability
     distribution functions. (2)  A systematic derivation of some proposed concentra-
     tion distributions for a patch of diffusive substance is shown on the basis of a
     non-Markov  hypothesis combined with a knowledge of the rate of mean dispersion.
     Also some theoretical models for the mean concentration of substance released
     from a continuous fixed source are presented in comparison with available in-
     formation.  In addition to these, the author reviews briefly an empirical approach
     to the general problem of turbulent diffusion in the sea,  where the dependence of
     the vertical coefficient of diffusion on the  stratification  of water is emphasized.

     *MATHEMATICAL MODELS,  *DIFFUSION, TURBULENCE, *OCEAN CIR-
     CULATION,  mixing, dye releases, turbidity currents,  radioactivity, stratifica-
     tion, water circulation, mathematical studies, model studies, analytical
     techniques,  currents (water),  density currents,  circulation, movement

314.  Olson,  Theodore A., and Fredrick J.  Burgess,  editors, POLLUTION AND
     MARINE ECOLOGY, 1967.  John Wiley and Sons,  New York.
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     This book contains the published proceedings of the "Conference on the Status
     of Knowledge,  Critical Research, Needs, and Potential Research Facilities
     Relating to Ecology and Pollution Problems in the Marine Environment".
     Various papers were presented under the following broad topics:
         Part I.      Man's Resources in the Marine Environment
         Part n.     Dynamics of the Littoral Marine Community
         Part ffl.    Ecological Systems
         Part IV.    Energy Transfer
         Part V.     Interactions Between the Biota and the Chemical-Physical
                     Environment
         Part VI.    Parameters of Marine Pollution.

     *ECOLOGY, *WATER POLLUTION, *LITTORAL,  *ENERGY TRANSFER,
     *HUMAN RESOURCES, *ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, transfer, resources

315. "OPTIMIZING COMBINATIONS OF OUTDOOR RECREATION AND OTHER
     ALTERNATIVE ENTERPRISES", in WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CATALOG,
     Office of Water Resources Research, Department of the Interior, Washington,
     D. C., February, 1965.

     This is a project description from the "Water Resources Research Catalog".  The
     objectives listed are:  "(1) To determine types of outdoor recreational opportunities
     suitable for private investors having different levels of management ability and
     other contributory resources.  (2) To evaluate the optimum allocation of resources
     among relevant outdoor recreational and other land-using alternatives for selected
     cases  and typical ownership situations."
         The work proposed is described as follows:  "Cost and return data will be
     collected from selected outdoor recreational enterprises.  These data and other
     secondary enterprise data will be analyzed using existing linear programming
     models to estimate optimum allocation of available resources for specific and
     general land ownership situations.  Description analyses will also be made of
     management functions with particular attention focused on unique management
     abilities and requirements necessary for the successful operation of outdoor
     recreation enterprises."
         The project was conducted at Purdue University under Contract No.
     AG-IND-MS-1354. J. G. Callahan is conducting the research.

     *OUTDOOR RECREATION,  *RESOURCE ALLOCATION, *MODEL STUDIES,
     *COMPUTER MODELS, multiple purpose projects, water policy, projects,
     management

316. Orlob, G. T., R. P. Shubinski, and K. D. Feigner, "MATHEMATICAL MODEL-
     ING OF WATER QUALITY IN ESTUARIAL SYSTEMS", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE
     NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE POLLUTION, August 23-25,  1967,
     pp. 646-675.  Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford,
     California.
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     This paper presents the theoretical and practical bases for the development of
     a mathematical model for digital computer simulation of quality changes,  con-
     centrating on the distribution in space and time of conservative constituents.
     It carries forward from an initial study aimed at providing the means for
     characterizing estuarial hydrodynamic behavior and utilizes a digital model
     of an estuartial network which was developed and verified for the Sacramento-
     San Joaquin Delta. This model was extended in a subsequent  study for the
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration as a part of its comprehensive
     investigation of the San Joaquin Master Drain and its effects on water quality in
     San Francisco Bay and the Delta.  It formed the basic building block for the
     quality model reported in this paper.

     *MATHEMATICAL MODELS,  *WATER QUALITY, *CALIFORNIA, *COMPUTER
     MODELS, mathematical studies, model studies, water quality control,  geographi-
     cal regions,  Pacific coast region, regions, hydrodynamics, fluid mechanics

317.  Panlik,  G. J., "DIGITAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES",
     in POLLUTION AND MARINE ECOLOGY, edited by T. A. Olson and F. J.
     Burgess,  1967, pp. 67-85.  Inter science Publishers, New York.

     This article describes the use of digital-computer simulation for ecological
     studies.  The author believes that simulation techniques could be beneficially
     applied to ecological problems,  but that they have not yet found such application
     except in selected instances.
          The author describes various models and their application as well  as the
     differences between analytical solutions and simulation approaches. Simulation
     languages of potential use in modeling ecological systems  are discussed.

     *ECOLOGY, *MODEL STUDIES, *DIGITAL COMPUTERS, ^SIMULATION
     ANALYSIS,  computer models,  computers, equipment, instrumentation,
     systems analysis

318.  Pannell, J.  P. M., A. E. Johnson, and J. E. G. Baymont, AN INVESTIGATION
     INTO THE EFFECTS  OF WARMED WATER FROM MARCHWOOD POWER
     STATION INTO SOUTHAMPTON WATER, The Institution of Civil Engineers,
     Proceedings, Vol. 23, September, 1962,  pp. 35-62.

     One of the principal conclusions of this research was that the tidal currents
     move the warm water for considerable distances in a layer below the cold
     fresh water and above cold salt water.

     THERMAL POLLUTION, *THERMAL POWERPLANTS,  *HEATED WATER,
     *FOREIGN WATERS,  thermal stratification, electric powerplants, engineering
     structures,  industrial plants, powerplants, structures, water pollution, water
     types
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319. Parkhurst, John D.,  Lester A. Haug, and Malcolm L. Whitt, OCEAN OUT-
     FALL DEiSIGN FOR ECONOMY OF CONSTRUCTION, Water Pollution Control
     Federation, Journal,  Vol. 39, No. 6, June,  1967, pp. 987-993.

     Design requirements  for submarine outfalls for disposal of metropolitan sewage
     wastes are described.  Specification data and costs of construction are given for
     five major submarine outfalls on the Pacific Coast of the United States, with
     overall lengths ranging from 3,650 feet to 22,000 feet, and with design capacities
     ranging from 240 mgd to 600 mgd.

     *OUTLET WORKS, * PACIFIC COAST REGION, *DESIGN CRITERIA,  *SEWAGE
     DISPOSAL, conveyance structures, conduits, construction  costs,  capital costs,
     engineering structures, hydraulic  structures, structures, waste disposal, costs,
     geographical regions, regions, design

320. PASSAMAQUODDY-ST. JOHN—HEARING BEFORE A SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE
     COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS, U. S. SENATE,  1964.  U. S. Government
     Printing Office,  Washington, D. C.

     This report presents statements made and reports read into the record relating
     to a Senate hearing on August 12, 1964, concerning the Passamaquoddy-St. John
     project.
         A supplemental report on the project from the Department of the Interior is
     reproduced in whole. The report states that: "The recommended benefit-cost
     ratio of the Passamaquoddy Dickey project is 1.47 to 1, of  which the Dickey
     and Lincoln School benefit-cost ratio is 2.25 to 1 and the Passamaquoddy tidal
     power projects benefit-cost ratio is 1.04 to 1.. .These benefit-cost ratios
     were determined for  a 100-year period of analysis with interest at three per-
     cent.

     "TIDAL ENERGY, *  COST-BENEFIT RATIO, *TIDAL POWERPLANTS, *COST-
     BENEFIT ANALYSIS, electric power, electric powerplants, engineering
     structures, industrial plants, powerplants, energy

321. Patrick, Ruih, STATEMENT BEFORE THE  SUBCOMMITTEE ON AIR AND
     WATER POLLUTION, April 17, 1968. Committee on Public Works, U. S.
     Senate, Washington,  D. C.

     Dr. Patrick's statement is a description of a program of studies carried out
     in the vicinity of electric generating plants in Chesapeake Bay to determine the
     condition of the estuaries (Monocacy and Patuxent rivers) before the plants
     began to operate, particularly in reference to ecological conditions.  Fifteen
     pages of tables accompany the statement.
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     "VIRGINIA,  *ECOLOGY, "MARYLAND, "ELECTRIC POWERPLANTS,
     Appalachian Mountain region, Atlantic coastal plain, coastal plains,
     geographical regions, northeast U. S., bays, southeast U. S.,  regions,
     engineering  structures,  industrial plants, powerplants, structures, bodies
     of water

322.  Pearson, E. A., editor, PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL
     CONFERENCE ON WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT,
     University of California at Berkeley, 1959,  1960. Pergamon Press, New
     York.

     Papers were presented in the following subject areas:  (1) public health,  (2)
     effects on marine biota, (3) design consideration, (4) nearshore oceanography,
     (5) receiving water analyses, and (6) estuarine hydrography.

     "WASTE DISPOSAL, "HYDROGRAPHY, "WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS,
     environmental sanitation, water analysis, foreign countries, public health,
     design, oceanography, aquatic life, engineering, environmental engineering,
     hydrologic aspects, analysis, geographical regions, regions

323.  Pearson, Erman,  "TRACER METHODOLOGY AND POLLUTIONAL ANALYSIS
     OF ESTUARIES",  in PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CON-
     FERENCE ON WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT, July 22-25,
     1959, pp. 556-567.  Pergamon Press,  New York.

     The general estuarine pollution problem is reviewed with respect to classical
     approaches, particular solutions, and specific technical considerations and
     limitations.  A rational approach to the problem includes resolution of the
     waste space-concentration distribution, determination of eddy diffusivity co-
     efficients and residence time of the waste in the estuarine system.
         The need for and justification of the use of tracers is presented and
     practical tracers are discussed.  It is concluded that Orzan (dried spent sul-
     fite waste liquor solids) is the most economic and technically feasible tracer
     that might be used in estuarine pollution studies.  Details are presented relative
     to tracer characteristics and methodology,  field techniques, and data analysis.
     The use of tracer techniques for resolution of the relative pollutional contribu-
     tion of a single waste being discharged into a complex of discharges is described.
     A general graphical solution for  computing the quality of non-conservative waste
     present in an estuarine  system at steady-state is presented for varying first-
     order rate constants and for a considerable range in residence time.

     "TRACERS, "DIFFUSION, "WASTE  DISPOSAL,  "ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES,
     "SULFITE LIQUORS, waste dilation,  effluents, currents (water), mathematical
     models, tracking, techniques,  water  pollution, mathematical studies, model
     studies.
                                    J-129

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324. Pence, George D., Jr., JohnM. Jeglic, and Robert V. Thomann, "THE DE-
     VELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A TIME-VARYING DISSOLVED OXYGEN
     MODEL", in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ESTUARINE
     POLLUTION, August 23-25, 1967, pp.  537-585.  Department of Civil Engineer-
     ing, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

     A one-dimensional time-varying mathematical model for the simulation of dis-
     solved oxygen in an estuary is developed along with a numerical integration pro-
     cedure for computer solution.  Some applications of the model are presented,
     including a verification of one year of data and several control scheme simula-
     tions.  Application of the model to variables other than oxygen and other hy-
     draulic regimes is discussed briefly.

     *DE3SOLVED OXYGEN, *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *MODEL STUDIES,
     *COMPUTER MODELS, mathematical studies

325. Picton, Walter L., WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENTS CAPITAL INVEST-
     MENT VALUES 1900-1975, Water and Sewerage, Industry and Utilities Division,
     Business and Defense Services Administration, Department of Commerce,
     Washington, D. C., June, 1959.

     Estimates of actual investment in 1954, deficiencies in investment in 1954,
     projections of investment to 1975, and obsolescence during the 1954-1975 period
     are presented.  Categories include: water supply and treatment, water utilities,
     hydro power, thermal power,  industrial and miscellaneous water works, rural
     domestic, irrigation, navigation, flood control,  waste collection and treatment,
     sewerage utilities, industrial  and miscellaneous wastes, and rural domestic.

      *INVESTMENT, *FORECASTING, *WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT,
     water utilization, resource development, water supply, supply, water treatment,
     thermal power, waterworks,  utilities,'irrigation, navigation, flood control,
     control, water control, waste disposal,  industrial wastes, wastes, domestic
     wastes, farm wastes

326. Pillay, T. V.  R.,  LAND RECLAMATION AND FISH  CULTURE IN THE DEL-
     TAIC AREAS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA, Progressive Fish-Culturist,  Vol. 19,
     No. 3, July, 1957, pp. 99-103.

     A general description is given of an estuarine land reclamation method. The
     method employs tidal flows in the delta of the Ganges River in India and requires
     almost 15 to 20 years to reclaim land suitable for joint production of rice and
     fish.
                                   J-130

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     *LAND RECLAMATION,  *FISH FARMING,  *TIDAL EFFECTS, *FOREIGN
     WATERS, *DELTAS, rice, fish, agriculture, agronomic crops,  cereal crops,
     crops, field crops,  streams,  surface waters, grasses,  monocots,  plants, ani-
     mals, aquatic animals, aquatic life, wildlife, water types, rivers, bodies of
     water, running waters

327.  Pincus, L., J.  C. Thomas, and J. A. Hansen, MARINE SPORTFISHING  SUR-
     VEY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA PIERS AND JETTIES,  1963, California Fish
     and Game, Vol.  53, No. 2, 1967,  pp. 88-104.

     The authors supply statistics on the number of people using piers and jetties for
     recreational fishing. Since a  considerable number of people are using these
     piers and jetties, it is recommended that pier-development programs be con-
     tinued .

     *SPORT FISHING, *PIERS, *JETTIES, CALIFORNIA, recreation, fishing,
     water sports, engineering structures, coastal structures, geographical regions,
     Pacific coast region, regions, southwest U. W.,  statistics, data collections

328.  PLAN DEVELOPING FOR UNDERWATER PARKS, Parks and Recreation, Vol.
     3, No. 9, September,  1968, pp. 11-12.

     A survey is being conducted along the coast of California to investigate its re-
     sources , geological features,  and the destruction of animal life in the tidal
     pools.  The survey is part of a plan to create a series of underwater parks in
     the state. Underwater sports an