WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES  18040 DAZ 04/72
Water  Quality Criteria  Data Book
              Volume 4
         An  Investigation into
      Recreational Water Quality
        US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

-------
          WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
The Water Pollution Control Research Series describes the
results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution
in our Nation's vjaters.  They provide a central source of
information on the research, development, and demonstration
activities in the water research program of the Environmental
Protection Agency, through inhouse research and grants and
contracts with Federal, State, and local agencies, research
institutions, and industrial organizations.

Inquiries pertaining to Water Pollution Control Research
Reports should be directed to the Chief, Publications Branch
(Water)', Research Information Division, R&M, Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC  20460.

-------
          Water Quality Criteria Data Book,  Vol.



             AN INVESTIGATION INTO RECREATIONAL

                         WATER QUALITY
                       Byron J. Mechalas
                      Kenneth K. Hekimian
                       Lewis A. Schinazi
                        Ralph H. Dudley
                        Prepared for

              Office of Research and Monitoring
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                   Washington,  D.C.  20460
                     Project #180^0 DAZ
                    Contract # 1^-12-539
                        April  19T2
For sale by the Superintendent of Docfuta^'ttflC Government Printing Office, Washington, B.C., 20402 - Price $3.

-------
                    EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Protection
Agency and approved for publication.  Approval does not signify
that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of
the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade
names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recom-
mendation for use.
                          11

-------
                             ABSTRACT


The Envirogenics Co., under sponsorship of the EPA,  has developed
a new technique for establishing firm criteria for health risks associ-
ated with recreational water bodies.  Initial analysis of data required
in this methodology has demonstrated that scientifically valid  stan-
dards for recreational water quality can be formulated that should
replace the present rather arbitrary standards.

The basis of the method is a mathematical treatment of medical dose-
response data in conjunction with the probability of exposure over a
period of time to a given level of the potentially harmful "factor" such
that a quantitative risk can be assigned to the recreational activity.
Once a public health jurisdiction has established an acceptable level of
risk (perhaps in association with Federal quality guidelines),  curves
produced by electronic data processing equipment can be used to ascer-
tain whether a particular water should be open to the public.

While sufficient data have been found on both the health effects and the
distribution of key factors to verify the effectiveness of the recommend-
ed procedure, informational gaps prevent the immediate adoption of the
system.  The gathering of information to establish realistic standards
for key health-oriented factors would be an undertaking that could be
accomplished in a relatively modest program.  Once the essential
information is obtained,  it will be possible to put into practice the new
Envirogenics-developed criteria  procedure with the most  critical
factors.  This advancement would be of great significance to the entire
field of water quality standards.

-------
                             CONTENTS


Section                                                          Page

  I      Conclusions                                                1

  II     Recommendations                                          3

  III     Introduction and Summary                                  5

  IV     Data Base                                                13

  V     The Factor to Criteria Conversion Methodology            31

  VI     Viruses as a Factor of Recreational Water Quality          39

  VII    Salmonella as a Factor  of Recreational Water Quality       67

  VIII   Total and Fecal Coliforms as Indicators of
         Recreational Water Quality                                95

  IX     Pesticides as a Factor of Recreational Water Quality     1 09

  X     Temperature as a Factor of Recreational  Water Quality  133

  XI     Oils as Factors of Recreational Water Quality            139

  XII    Chemical and Physical Factors of Recreational
         Water Quality                                           143

  XIII   Acknowledgments                                       153

  XIV   Appendices                                             155

  XV    Bibliography                                            185

-------
                    FIGURES
JNo.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Parameters of the Health/Hazard Relationship
in Recreational Water
Potential Recreational Water/Health Hazard
Relationships
General Investigation Plan
The Factor to Criteria Conversion
The Truncated and Enhanced Convolution Series
Schematic of the Methodology
Factors that May Affect Virus Survival in Water
Virus Capabilities Vector (C )
Virus Requirements Vector (R )
Criteria for the Presence of Virus in a
Recreational Water
Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms as Indicators
of Virus Risk
Some Epidemiological Parameters of Salmonellosis
in Man
 typhosa Capabilities Vector (Cp)
Salmonella - Other Capabilities Vector (C )
P
Criteria for the Presence of Salmonella in a
Recreational Water
Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms as Indicators of
Salmonella Risk
E. typhosa per Million Coliforms for
Varying Typhoid Fever Morbidity Rates
Relationship of Number of Salmonella to Coliform
in an Estuary
Expanded Portion of Figure 18 Curve
Various Parameters of the Pesticide-Water-Health
Page
8
9
15
33
35
36
41
57
61
65
66
68
83
85
91
94
98
104
106

Hazard Relationship                                    110
                      vi

-------
FIGURES (Continued)
No.
H^^^M^
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29-
30.
31.
32.

Distribution of Pesticide Residues by Chemical
Class, 1967-68
Pollutants in Ohio River Water - Total Chloroform
Extractables
Pollutants in Ohio River Water - Aromatic -Soluble
Fraction (Chlorinated Hydrocarbons)
Pollutants in Ohio River Water - Oxygenated
Compounds (Phosphates, Esters)
Relationship Between the Concentration of DDT in the
Bodyfat of Man and the Daily Dose
Increase in the Concentration of DDT in the Bodyfat
of Men with Continuing Intake
Temperature Distribution for the Ohio River
pH Distribution for the Ohio River
Relationship Between Secchi Disc Visibility and
Water Turbidity in the Illinois River
Turbidity Distribution for the Ohio River
Histogram Constructed from Raw Data for S. typhosa
S. typhosa Cp as Selected by BSTFIT
Page
117
122
125
127
129
131
138
146
149
152
179
182
         vii

-------
                              TABLES

 No.

  1.      Rationale for State Standards                             18

  2.      Summary of Total Coliform Standards for
         Bathing Waters                                          21

  3.      Summary of Fecal Coliform Standards for
         Bathing Waters                                          23

  4.      Summary of pH Standards                                24

  5.      Summary of Maximum Temperature Standards            26

  6.      Summary of Temperature Fluctuation Standards           27

  7.      Summary of Pesticide and Oil Standards                  28

  8.      Summary of Clarity Standards                            29

  9.      Human Enteric Viruses and Diseases                     40

10.      Frequency and Types of Enteric Virus Isolated from
         Sewage of the  City of Albany                             43

11.      Time in Days  for 99.9 Per Cent Reduction of
         Indicated Organism in Raw Sewage                       46

12.      Infection of Human Volunteers with Attenuated
         Poliovirus 1                                             49

13.      Infectivity of Enteroviruses  for Man by the Oral Route     49

14.      Viral Dose-Response of Humans                          51

15.      Virus Capability Vector (Cp) Using 25 Random Samples    58

16.      Virus Requirement Vector (Rq) Formulated from
         Melnick Data                                            60

17.      Limitation of Virus Exposure and the Resultant Risk
         to a Population                                          63

18.      Derivation of Equation to Describe Recreationist Risk
         as a  Function  of Virus Criteria                           64

19.      Ten Most Frequently  Reported Salmonella Serotypes
         from Humans                                            69

20.      Number of S_. typhi and_S_i paratyphi B in a Gram of
         Feces of Carriers                                       71
                                  vlii

-------
                       TABLES (Continued)



No.                                                            Page
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29-
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
Survival Data for Salmonella
S. typhosa Capabilities Vector (Cn)
S. - Other Capabilities Vector (Cp) for 69 Challenge
Cases
Salmonella Factor Requirements Data
Salmonella Total Requirements Vector (Rq) Using 25
Random Numbers
Truncated Convolution of Dose Effect and Factor Con-
centration Based on McCoy's Data (X1000)
Derivation of Equation to Describe Recreationist Risk
as a Function of Salmonella Criteria
Summary of Data from Studies of Bathing Water Quality
Occurrence of Salmonella and E. coli in a Estuary
Organic Phosphorus Pesticides
Toxicity to Humans of Chlorinated Pesticides
Average Incidence and Daily Intake of 15 Pesticide
Chemicals
Dietary Intake of Pesticide Chemicals
Pollutants in Ohio River Water - Total Chloroform
Extractables
Pollutants in Ohio River Water - Aromatics (Chlorinated
Hydrocarbons )
Pollutants in Ohio River Water - Oxygenated Compounds
(Organophosphorus Compounds, Esters, etc. )
Limits of Temperature Tolerance for Unclothed Humans
Temperature Distribution - Ohio River Water
pH Concentration Distribution - Ohio River Water
Turbidity Distribution - Ohio River Water
Summary of State Recreational Water Quality Criteria
77
82
84
87
89
90
92
101
103
112
114
118
119
123
124
128
136
137
145
150
156
                                  IX

-------
                      TABLES (Continued)

No.                                                           Page


42.   jS.  typhosa Raw Dose Response Data                       178

43.    Salmonella typhosa Capabilities Vector (Cp) Using          181
       25 Random. Numbers

44.    Summary of Salmonella - Other Dose - Response Data
       Input to BSTFIT                                         183

45.    Salmonella Total Requirements Vector (Rq)  Using
       25 Random Numbers                                     184

-------
                           SECTION I

                          CONCLUSIONS
 1.  The factor to criteria conversion methodology developed permits
    the assessment of risk to recreationists entering waters with
    various hazard distributions.

 2.  The methodology of utilizing medical dose response data and
    factor concentration in the water as inputs into a mathematical
    model objectively develops  risk curves.

 3.  The mathematical model developed for computer programming
    greatly facilities the handling of the collected data.

 4.  Water quality standards should be  based on acceptable levels
    of risks to the user population. These can then be translated
    into specific factor concentration requirements  for each water
    under an agency's jurisdiction.

 5.  Most State standards have no specific experimental foundation
    for their requirements.  Most refer to other standards to the
    experience of others,  or to one or two classical publications
    in the literature.

 6.  Contrary to several published views,  Salmonella typhosa is
    not a significantly more infective pathogen than are the other
    Salmonella species.

 7.  The total coliform or fecal coliform concentration in a water
    must be exceptionally high  (~8 x 10^ MPN/100 ml water)
    before a significant level of risk (1 case/ 1CP) is faced by a
    recreationist.

 8.  In a given polluted water, the virus-coliform ratio, rather
    than the Salmonella-coliform ratio, will probably be the
    determining parameter in the  setting  of coliform standards.

 9.  In general,  pesticides  cannot be considered significant recre-
    ational water hazards.   In most cases,  and especially for the
    chlorinated hydrocarbons,  the concentrations constituting risks
    are far in excess of water solubility.

10.  Temperatures between 60F and 93F can be considered as
    the range for ordinary recreational usage.  The recreationist's
    over-estimation  of his  own capabilities at water temperatures
    outside this range poses a real hazard.

-------
                           SECTION II

                      RECOMMENDATIONS
The present study has been able to arrive at several specific con-
clusions based on the available data.  The methodology can be con-
siderably strengthened by deriving additional data that can serve
either as basic inputs  into the methodology,  or to increase the
level of significance of the available information.

Basic to this analysis  of recreational water criteria is the assump-
tion that the average recreationist imbibes 10 ml of water during
his contact with the water. This figure is critical in deriving the
level of exposure and should be confirmed experimentally.

Data quantifying the concentrations  of Salmonella organisms in
waters were difficult to find.   Because the assumption that one
Salmonella organism in water constitutes a health risk is not a
valid one, more definitive studies of Salmonella distribution are
needed.

Very little is known about the Salmonella and total coliform or
fecal coliform ratios in polluted water.  Studies to determine
the relative distributions of these organisms in different types
of waters are recommended.

The methodology should be refined to consider factor interactions.
Specific recreational areas should be analyzed using the methodol-
ogy and long term epidemological studies.   Comparisons of actual
and predicted risks can then be made, thus establishing a basis
for quantifying factor interactions.

-------
                          SECTION in

                INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
The assessment of the risk of ill effect faced by a population
using various waters for recreational purposes has long been a
problem for regulatory agencies.   On the one hand, it was recog-
nized that several serious diseases were associated with contamin-
ated waters,  and on the other hand, there was only the most tenuous
of epidemiological evidence linking the use of such waters with
disease. Agencies charged with safeguarding the public health
have had to set standards for recreational waters, restricting
their use when a dangerous level of a disease factor was considered
to be exceeded. These standards were quite often based on infer-
ences drawn from, drinking water  standards.  The Envirogenics
Company has  undertaken an EPA-sponsored program to develop a
methodology for establishing more rational criteria for health
risks associated with recreational water quality (RWQ).

In order to meet RWQ standards,  it may be necessary that pollu-
tion sources be controlled.  In many cases, this will  involve
treatment  of influents being discharged into recreational waters.
Because the  costs associated with treatment are often high, it is
important  that the RWQ standards be carefully  defined so that
treatment  requirements do not become unachievable.   The RWQ
standards must also be based on criteria that permit  regulatory
agencies to estimate the level of user risk associated with recre-
ational water bodies covered by such standards.

Water quality criteria should be based on objective data that relate
concentration of organisms or chemicals to degree of risk.  Unfor-
tunately, this approach has not been followed in the past.   Most
RWQ standards are based on evidence of past fecal contamination
and are derived from drinking water quality standards. Such RWQ
standards have, however, withstood the test of time (60 years) and
have contributed to  the dramatic decline in water-borne bacterial
diseases.  Thus such standards cannot easily be abandoned by those
responsible for safeguarding the public health.

The demonstration that coliform organisms were indicators of
fecal contamination and the development of relatively simple
techniques for their detection resulted in the development of
microbiological water quality standards.  However, as the  more
dramatic and explosive type of epidemics that had come to  charac-
terize water-borne  infections decreased in occurrence, other
problems began to increase.  These new problems are  due  in
part to (1) the development of huge population centers that over-
stress  existing sanitation systems; (2) the introduction of an

-------
ever-widening spectrum of new chemicals that eventually end up
in water; (3) the continual reuse of water as it travels down a
stream course, resulting in a build-up of refractory materials;
and, (4) the development of sophisticated instrumentation and
epidemiological techniques that have identified previously unsus-
pected disease sources as being water-borne.

Epidemiologists have begun to question their previous thinking
on what constitutes evidence of a water-borne incident.  Many
infections and toxicities are sub clinical in nature,  producing only
relatively mild and brief illness.  Such incidents usually go unre-
ported, even though absenteeism from work and school results.
There is also evidence that water-borne agents may cause a few
direct disease cases among water  users who in turn act as
secondary sources of infection among the population at large.
The distribution patterns of such transmitted outbreaks are often
typical of water-borne epidemics and the true origin of the disease
is thus often not identified.

As  a consequence  of the overall  situation described above, the
protection of large populations can no longer be assured by relying
on past methods of standards setting. More direct cause and
effect  relationships between factor concentrations and adverse
reactions must be established.   This will permit the assessment
of the degree of risk incurred by water users  and will provide a  basis
for rational action by regulatory agencies. By setting RWQ  standards
on the basis of acceptable  risk levels, rather  than arbitrary factor
concentrations, the water  recreationist will be better protected.

The development of the cause-effect relationship into a concen-
tration versus risk formulation is  referred to in this report  as
the factor-to-criteria conversion.  The  first step required in
the development of the conversion  methodology was a detailed
description and consideration of the known parameters  of each
factor  involved in the study.  The pertinent parameters were
identified during the initial review of the available literature,
but quantification of parameters could not be  completed in the
first phase of the program, in that much of the useful information
is found in analogous studies throughout the literature or has to
be reworked before being used as input for the mathematical analysis.

Health risks  associated with primary contact use of recreational
water include infections transmitted by pathogenic microorganisms;
irritating,  allergic, and debilitating  responses to chemical and
physical factors; and injuries sustained as a consequence of  im-
paired visibility in turbid waters.  Such risks are dependent on
human, factorial,  and aquatic parameters, interacting with the
degree and type of exposure of the recreationist, as indicated in

-------
Figure 1.  A more detailed diagram (Figure 2) illustrates some of the
potential recreational water/health hazard relationships, and portrays
a complete view of the overall problem.  The list of diseases included
in the figure is based on literature citations for both drinking and re-
creation waters.   Note that Figure 2 distinguishes the sources of
contamination of the water as endogenous  or exogenous.   In the case
of recreational water endogenous  contamination, one assumes the
water to have been safe prior to the entrance of recreationists.
Exogenous pollutants include human, animal, industrial,  and agricul-
tural wastes, which  enter the water as sewage  or surface run-off.

Although Figure 2 presents an array of diseases potentially trans-
mitted by  the water route, relatively few of them are known  to pose
a serious  threat to the aquatic recreationist.  In general, the types of
diseases whose transmission has  been associated with primary body
contact  are  (1) eye,  ear, nose, and throat infections; (2)  skin diseases;
and (3) gastrointestinal disorders.  Because most persons swallow
only small amounts of water during swimming, and even  less during
other  water-associated activities, enteric infection by recreational
water is of much less significance than with drinking water.   Never-
theless, cases of  typhoid and other intestinal diseases, contracted
from  polluted water, have been reported in^the literature, and there
is growing concern that viral infections,  particularly infectious
hepatitis, may be contracted by bathing in sewage-polluted water
(Camp,  1963).

This study represents an attempt to quantify the risks to the recrea-
tionist on the basis of data already available in the literature.
Ideally, the needed criteria would be developed by exposing a user
population to various concentrations of the factors of interest in a
body of water.  The  incidence of adverse  reactions would then be
measured and the level of risk simply calculated.  Such studies of
course cannot be carried out.  An approximation of a controlled ex-
posure is  a  broad epidemiological study wherein the factor concen-
tration in a  water is measured and an accurate assessment is made
of the disease incidence in the affected population over an extended
period of time.  Studies of this type have been attempted in the past,
but they are of limited value for the purposes of this program.  In
the main,  they have  been designed with other than direct cause-effect
relationships in mind,  have been  too limited in scope, or have not
collected the type of information required for assessing risk versus
factor concentration function.

Faced with this lack of directly pertinent data,  the Envirogenics  Co.
undertook to develop a factor to criteria conversion methodology
that could utilize and build upon the available data base.  This study
undertook to evaluate the data available on nine selected factors that,
in each  case,  represented a varying spectrum of expected quantitative

-------
oo
       H
       a
       1-1
       ^
       3
       fl>
       ri-
       ft
    JO  H
8
a>
8-
U.

    (6
    11
       8,
       a>
       K
       a
cr

5
N
Hi
Cb


p

o'
01
tr
S'

%'
                            SKIN
                            DIVING
                                               INHALATION
                    SWIMMING
                                  WADING   INGESTION
                                       EXPOSURE
                                                        SKIN OR OTHER
                                                        ABSORPTION
                                                      TYPE
MAN
                                                                                         OTHER SOURCES OF HAZARD
HAZARD
IN WATER
                      1
               SUSCEPTIBILITY
                     IMMUNITY
                     TOLERANCE
                     AGE
                     SEX
                     PHYSICAL
                      CONDITION
                            I
                                                                         ILLNESS
                     OCCURRENCE AND/OR
                     CONCENTRATION
                SURVIVAL OR
                DEGR AD ABILITY
                                                                          NATURE OF WATER
                                                                          (LAKE, STREAM. ETC.)
                                                                 PHYSICAL
                                                                 CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                 J.
                                                                                    CHEMICAL
                                                                                    CHARACTERISTICS

-------
O
ct-
(t>
P
r*
H-
P
t-1

JO
(D
O   O
0   2
en   P
a
n
EC
ffi
(U
N
ID
H
        OTHER ROUTES
        OF TRANSMISSION
EXOGENOUS POLLUTANT
       SOURCE
             SEWAGE
             INDUSTRIAL WASTE
             ANIMAL WASTE
             HUMAN WASTE
                          X
                                                                     HUMAN DISEASE
                                                       ENTERIC
                                                       DYSENTERY
                                                       TYPHOID FEVER
                                                       PARATYPHOID
                                                          FEVERS
                                                       SALMONELUOSIS
                                                            OTHER.,

                                                            ANTHRAX
                                                            BRUCELLOSIS
                                                            CANCER
                                                            CHRONIC POISONING
                                                            DERMATOSES
                                                       GASTROENTRERITISALLERGIC REACTIONS
                                         INF. HEPATITIS
                                         POLIOMYELITIS
                                         CHOLERA
GOITER
LEPTOSPIROSIS
SCHISTOSOME DERMATITIS
TUBERCULOSIS
TULAREMIA
AMOEBIC MENINGO-
  ENCEPHALITIS
VENEREAL DISEASE
                 \
                                                       RECREATIONAL WATER
                 CHEMICAL FACTORS
                     PESTICIDES
                     OILS
                                                                                                                         OTHER ROUTES
                                                                                                                         xOF TRANSMISSION
                                                                                                                         EXOGENOUS POLLUTANT
                                                                                                                                SOURCE
                                                                                                        PESTICIDES
                                                                                                        AGRICULTURAL WASTE
                                                                           PHYSICAL STRESS OR INJURY
                                                    7
                                                                      HUMAN CONTACT
               INGESTION
               SKIN
               MUCUOUS
                 MEMBRANES
               INHALATION
                                                                                           PHYSICAL FACTORS
                                                  7
                                                                                                             TURBIDITY
                                                                                                             TEMPERATURE
                                                             BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
                                                             PATHOGENS
                                                             VIRUSES
                                                             RICKETTSIA
                                                             BACTERIA
                                                             FUNGI
                                                             ALGAE.
                 PROTOZOA
                 HELMINTHS
                                                                                 I
                                                                     ENDOGENOUS POLLUTANT SOURCE
                                                                                                         INDICATOR ORGANISMS
                                                                                                                 TOTAL COLIFORMS
                                                                                                                 FECAL COLIFORMS
                                                                                                                 FECAL STREPTOCOCCI

-------
information.  Data on these factors were collected from a variety of
sources, all of it was reviewed, and much of it was abstracted.   This
gleaning process resulted in sufficient material to  permit the develop-
ment of a model that would use current dose response data for
estimating risk in waters  containing various amounts of the factors
of interest.

Throughout the study, tentative models of the conversion methodology
were designed, modified,  and discarded in the attempt to accommodate
the available information.  This resulted in a shifting of emphasis to
what was considered as a  suitable data base; thus additional searching
was sometimes required.   This evolutionary type development cycle
resulted in the selection of a methodology that could accept raw dose
response data for a given  factor, along with information on factor
distribution, and output an assessment of risk.

A problem faced early in the program was the lack of sufficient data
directly linking recreational use of water to disease.  Thus a system
had to be developed that utilized information generated in non-water
related health programs.  Experiments were available from such
studies that related the dosage of a given factor to  disease incidence
in humans.  This then determined how many people could be expected
to become ill if they somehow acquired a stated dose of the factor,
whether from water, food, or other transmission modes.   There were
also available a limited number of reports from several pollution
monitoring agencies that presented the distribution of various factors
in a water.

By considering these two inputs - one derived from medical research,
the other from pollution monitoring - an estimate of risk to a re-
creationist using a given body of water could be made.  This risk was
based on calculating the frequency with which the recreationist would
encounter  a concentration of the factor sufficient to cause an adverse
reaction.  Once the basic  risk is derived, the effects  of selectively
limiting access to the water can be determined.  This series of trun-
cations of  the factor concentration results in a curve that  relates
factor concentration in a given water to probability of disease.

This model has been used to calculate the risks to a user  population
using waters containing Salmonella, viruses, and coliforms.  The
model is ready for testing in an epidemiological situation  to determine
whether the predicted incidence of ill effect coincides with observed
effects.

It is suggested that regulatory agencies base their water quality
standards  for a given factor on a "level of acceptable  risk" rather
than on a specific concentration limitation.  In that risk is dependent
on both population susceptibility and concentration distribution, no
                                 10

-------
single number could be universally applicable to all recreational
waters.  An agency responsible for meeting the RWQ standards that
were set to protect a population would meet the requirements by
determining the factor concentration in waters under their charge and,
by application of the conversion methodology, construct a risk curve
to set the appropriate numerical values to be monitored in each of
their waters.

The factor-to-criteria conversion methodology incorporates several
important features:

             The methodology requires relatively simple and under-
             standable inputs: dose-response data and factor concen-
             tration data.

             Data processing is greatly simplified and rapid through
             the use of computer programming.

             Research needs and priorities can be established.  The
             data requirements point out research deficiencies when
             information is  collated.

             The conversion is completely objective.

             The model is amenable to revision and the acceptance of
             new inputs.  Qualifying circumstances can be incorporated
             and evaluated.

             The model can be used as a predictive tool.

             A meaningful output is  obtained.  The  factor-risk curve
             is immediately useful for setting RWQ standards.

With the successful completion of the initial program, the project
should now be extended to exploit the features just discussed.  The aim
should be to make the methodology a dynamic instrument for pro-
tecting water quality and public health.  The availability of the factor
to criteria conversion methodology permits an objective estimate of
risk for  given hazard concentrations.  As will be demonstrated in the
following sections, merely carrying out the analysis on any given
factor produces new insights into the significance of some of the
published research.  For the first time a working tool has  been
developed that has the potential of establishing water quality criteria
on an objective and rational basis.   Its acceptance by public health
officials requires that confidence in the methodology be established
by expanding its analytical capabilities and  verifying its  predictions.
                                 11

-------
                           SECTION  IV

                           DATA BASE
LITERATURE COMPILATION

Meaningful mathematical analyses could not be initiated until certain
conditions had been met.  These conditions included the following:

             Identification of the relevant parameters of the factors

             Assembly of bibliographical references

             Acquisition of the pertinent literature

             Extraction of the relevant information contained therein

The parameters of importance for each of the nine selected factors
were derived from a study of basic reference books,  recent review
articles, the periodical literature, and an overview of related subjects
in abstract journals.

As a necessary pre-requisite  to the incorporation of information into
a mathematical model, a thorough literature search was conducted
to retrieve relevant data for analysis.  The emphasis was largely on
the recent literature with a view toward ultimately retaining only data
of informational value.

One of the major difficulties encountered in establishing direct cause-
effect relationships between RWQ factors and human reaction (parti-
cularly disease) is the fact that many of the pathogenic agents  of
concern have alternate routes of transmission,  and that most of the
definitive studies on these pathogens are concerned with disease
engendered by a route other than accidental water ingestion, inhala-
tion, or absorption.  Studies  on waterborne disease and drinking
water have limited application of the problem of the risk faced by the
recreationist who imbibes relatively small amounts of water during
water contact activities.

Nevertheless, such information may be quite useful (after extra-
polation) in areas where minimal direct data is  available with respect
to disease transmission and recreational water  quality.  Certainly,
many of the current RWQ standards and regulations have their origin
in studies on drinking water quality, and these bases had to be con-
sidered carefully to determine their applicability to the present
investigation.


                                13

-------
In order to attack the problem of a discriminating and systematic
literature search early in the program, a tentative work plan was
constructed as shown in the accompanying diagram (Figure 3).

The standard procedures of selecting descriptions, searching
literature indexes and abstract journals,  as well as re-examining
the references cited in reviews, were followed in the initial phases
of this study.  From the diagram it can be seen that the process is a
cyclical one,  one that was intended to include gradually most,  if not
all,  of the literature pertinent to the investigation.

It is estimated that approximately 20, 000 relevant titles were  scanned
for selection  of appropriate articles.   When possible, initially selected
titles were further screened by examination of abstracts before final
selection for  acquisition was made.   The  indexes and abstract journals
used were Index Medicus, Chemical Abstracts, International
Abstracts of Biological Science, Bibliography of Agriculture,  and
Readers Guide to Periodical Literature.  As the bibliography was
compiled, it was expanded by including the references  appearing in
articles as they were read and/or acquired.

From an original list of approximately 1000 selected titles,  about
750 were read and abstracted.  From, the 750 articles, books,
reports,  proceedings, and other sources, approximately 350 abstracts
were chosen for  reference and inclusion in the annotated bibliography.
It is believed that most of the pertinent and key literature  retrievable
by feasible search methods and descriptor usage has been identified,
either in the reference material, or secondarily through its references,
as far as the  basic purpose of the investigation is  concerned.  Con-
siderable useful material  may still be retrievable from the analogous
literature.

In addition to the manual methods  of literature retrieval used in this
study, the National Library of Medicine was  asked to use its
MEDLARS system to retrieve titles relative to the present task.  It
should be noted that the MEDLARS file gives access to titles indexed
only after 1963.  With the use of the descriptors supplied, a computer
run was made on all available literature (estimated to be about
750,000 titles).  From this run, 87 references were  received, of which
only 20 proved useful.  However,  in the specific area of toxicity of
pesticides to  man, some 300 titles were retrieved.


HISTORICAL BASIS OF STATE RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY
CRITERIA AND STANDARDS

The Federal and State Role in Water  Pollution Control

The present survey was conducted to review the water criteria and
                                14

-------
 *1
 H-
OQ
o
(D
 E?
 fD
 cn
 rr-
TO
O
y
T)
                           WATER-
                           ASSOCIATED
                           HEALTH RISKS
            SOURCES OF
            REC WATER
            POLLUTION
         RCC WATER
         USES/ACTIVITY
                           BASIC
                           INFORMATION
                                      RWQ
                                      FACTORS
                                                                       FACTOR
                                                                       HAZARD
                                                                       MAN
                                                                                                                 PROBABILITY
                                                                                                                 THEORY
                                                                                                                 RISK FUNCTIONS
                                                                                            DATA
                                                                                            EVALUATION
                                     FACTOR
                                     HAZARD
                                     COMMUNITY
INFORMATION
                           INITIAL
                           DESCRIPTOR
                           LIST
O
                                    DESCRIPTOR
                                    LIST
                                   INDEXES
                                                        LITERATURE
                                               DATA
                                               INDEX
                                               . FILE
                                                                                                  DATA
                                                                                                  EVALUATION
MATHEMATICAL
MODEL
                                                                                                                                                   FINAL
                                                                                                                                                   DESCRIPTOR
                                                                                                                                                   LIST
                                                                                                                                                   GLOSSARY
                                                                                                                                                   INDEX
                                                                                                                                             FINAL
                                                                                                                                             REPORT
        PERIODIC
        SUMMARY
        It REPORT
                                                                                                                                             FINAL CONCLUSION
                                                                                                                                               RECOMMENDATION
                                                      BIBLIOGRAPHY
                                                                                                 ANNOTATED
                                                                                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY

-------
standards set by the various states and territories for primary con-
tact situations in recreational waters.   The objective of the analysis
was'to investigate the parameters  of total coliforms, fecal coliforms,
pH,  temperature, clarity, pesticides,  and oils, and, most importantly,
to determine the rationale for the standards adopted.  This aspect
of the investigation was conducted by Montgomery Research,  Inc.! ,
Pasadena,  California, acting as subcontractor on the program.

In 1948,  the first Federal Water Pollution Control Act was passed as
Public Law 845,  80th Congress, although the Federal role in water
pollution control had been defined earlier in three acts  - the Rivers
and Harbors Act of 1899, the Public Health Service Act of 1912, and
the Oil Pollution Act  of 1924.  The  1948 Act provided for water
pollution control in the Public Health Service, as follows:  "In the
development of such comprehensive programs due regard  shall be
given to the improvements which are necessary to conserve such
waters for public water supply, propagation of fish and aquatic  life,
recreational purposes, and agriculture, industrial and other legiti-
mate uses. "

Comprehensive water pollution control legislation was  enacted  by the
84th Congress, and was  signed into law on July 9,  1956, as the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act,  Public Law 660.  This Act
extended and strengthened its 1948 precursor,  which expired on
June 30,  1956.  Further amendments to the Act in 1961 improved
and strengthened it by extending Federal authority to enforce  abate-
ment of pollution in intrastate as well as interstate or navigable
waters.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 660) was  further
amended by the Water Quality Act  of 1965 (PL 89-234), which declared
that it is "the  policy of Congress to recognize, preserve and protect
the primary resppnsibilities and rights of the States in preventing
and controlling water pollution, to support and aid technical research
relating to the prevention and control of water pollution, and  to
provide Federal technical services and financial aid. . . in connection
with these activities.  "

The  1965 Act  requires that "comprehensive programs shall be deve-
loped for eliminating  or  reducing the pollution of interstate waters
and tributaries thereof, " and retains the same wording as  quoted
above from the Act of 1948 in connection with comprehensive  pro-
gramming.  Research, investigations,  experiments,  demonstrations,
and studies relating to the causes,  control, and prevention of water
pollution of interstate or navigable waters in or adjacent to any state
or states.which endangers the health and welfare of any persons,  are
provided for in the Act.
                                 16

-------
To attain these ends by appropriate state legislation, the 1965 Act
specified that each state file a letter of intent and, after public
hearings and before June 30,  1967, adopt water quality criteria and
a plan for applying them to interstate waters within the state.  Such
criteria and plan,  if consistent with the Act, thereafter would be the
applicable interstate water quality standards.  In establishing such
standards, consideration was required to be given to their use and
value for public water supplies,  propagation of fish and wildlife,
recreational purposes, and agriculture, industrial,  and other legiti-
mate uses    (Mackenthun and Ingram,  1967).

The  following account describes  the results of state  compliance with
the provisions of the Act with respect to waters intended for recre-
ational use, and compares the criteria and standards developed by
the various jurisdictions.

Method of Conducting Survey

To investigate current state standards for recreational waters, a
letter of inquiry was sent to fifty states and eight territories  and dis-
tricts on July 10,  1969.  This letter is reproduced in Appendix A.
A second letter was sent October 14, 1969,  to those states  not
responding; telephone calls were also made in'some instances. At
the completion of  the study,  replies had been received from fifty
states and six districts or territories.  The various jurisdictions
forwarded copies  of their published water quality documents for
review.  The information developed from these documents  is pre-
sented in Table 40 of Appendix A.
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF CURRENT STATE STANDARDS

The rationale for the various state standards is compiled in Table 1.
Twenty-six states and territories  gave no information regarding the
basis for their standards.  However, it is assumed that all states
conducted public hearings in accordance with the State Administrative
Procedure Act. Nine states base  their criteria wholly or in part on
testimony and reports received at the public hearings.   Eleven states
followed recommendations by the FWPCA in establishing standards.

South Dakota's water quality criteria were developed by contract
between the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and the
South Dakota Department of Health.  Five factors formed the frame-
work within which the standards were constructed: important pollu-
tants,  natural water quality, existing and potential beneficial uses,
enforcement problems,  and Federal requirements (Barker, 1969).
Extensive studies were  conducted  before South Dakota's standards
were adopted.
                                 17

-------
                           TABLE  1

                  Rationale for state standards
       Basis

Review of testimony and reports
given at public hearings
Recommendations of FWPCA
Consideration of present condi-
tions,  contributing factors, and
quality requirements for speci-
fied uses

Specialized study conducted by
state in conjunction with FWPCA

Literature review, present
scientific knowledge, experience
and judgment

Consultation with neighboring
states

Recognition of criteria of other
states  or agencies
Good sanitary engineering
practice and consultation with
the affected parties

Past experience

Present and potential uses, and
existing water quality as
indicated by monitoring programs
      State or Territory

Alaska, Idaho, Iowa, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Carolina,
North Dakota, Ohio River Valley,
Oklahoma

Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia, Nevada,
North Dakota, Pennsylvania,
South Carolina,  Texas

Arizona,  Oklahoma
Georgia, South Dakota
Alabama, Hawaii, Michigan,
South Carolina, South Dakota,
Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin

Colorado, Ohio River Valley,
South Dakota

Kentucky (ORSANCO criteria),
Massachusetts (New England
State Water Pollution  Control
Commission)

Mississippi
Nebraska, Texas, Washington

Louisiana, Wyoming
                                 18

-------
                           TABLE 1

                  Rationale for state standards

                          (Continued)
       Basis

Professional knowledge of the
board's staff and judgment of
the board

Not given
      State or Territory

Texas,  Wisconsin
Arkansas,  California, Delaware
River Basin, Florida, Guam,
Illinois,  Indiana, Kansas,  Maine,
Maryland,  Minnesota, Montana,
New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New Mexico, New York, Ohio,
Oregon,  Puerto Rico, Rhode
Island,  Tennessee, Utah,  Vermont,
Virgin Islands,  West Virginia
                                19

-------
Two states adopted the criteria of another agency for their own state
use.  Kentucky accepted the Ohio River Sanitary Commission criteria,
and Massachusetts adopted the criteria of the New England State
Water Pollution Control Commission.

The Table 1 summary illustrates the very general character of the
bases used in developing the state RWQ criteria.   The survey did not
elicit any epidemiological  data, direct cause and effect relationships,
or statistical  studies to support the proposed limits'.  In  some cases,
bibliographies were contained in the documents, but specific reference
to their use in formulating the  criteria was not indicated.

Examination of the data on primary contact recreational  total coliform
standards shows that the most  commonly accepted standard is 1000/
100 ml, with one state being as restrictive as  50/100  ml, and others
as liberal as 5000/100 ml.  These  standards imply that an acceptable
risk for recreational waters has been assumed by the regulatory
agencies.  The rationale for the 1000/100 ml figure is apparently
based on field epidemiological  analysis and studies along the Ohio
River,  Lake Michigan, and Long Island Sound as reported by Stevenson
(1953), and comparisons of die off  rates for coliforms and enteric
pathogens made by Kehr and Butterfield (1943).  Of particular interest
here is the analysis of Streeter (1951), in which he used  the data of
Kehr and Butterfield to develop a procedure for calculating the risk
of typhoid infection for bathers in the  Ohio River.  Assuming a total
coliform count of 1000 coliforms per 100 ml, he determined the
chance of contracting typhoid from swimming daily for 90 days would
be 1 in 950.  Turning to the extremes represented by current state
standards, namely, 50/100 ml to 5000/100 ml, application of the
same methodology and conditions reveals a typhoid risk  range of
1/19, 000 to 1/150, which expresses more clearly the implication
of the coliform standards.   However,  the studies  of Moore (1959) on
the health risks in sewage-contaminated seawater indicated that the
incidence of illness among swimmers was much less than predicted
from Streeter's work.  This discrepancy needs to be resolved.  It
may be that the  use of the  fecal coliform as  an indicator  would be
more predictive  of risk than the total  coliforms used by  Streeter and
earlier workers.

Total Coliforms

Total coliform standards have  been adopted by 35  states  and territories,
The standards range from 5000/100 ml in Illinois and Virginia
(secondary contact), to 50/100 ml for Utah (see Table 2).  Between
the levels of 50/100 ml and 5000/100 ml lies an intermediate zone,
with the majority of states adopting a  standard of 1000/100 ml.
Eight of the states with a total coliform standard also have a fecal
coliform standard.  These states are  Colorado, Hawaii,  Idaho,  Iowa,
                                 20

-------
                           TABLE  2

              Summary of total coliform standards
                      for bathing waters
Total Coliforms
(Not to Exceed)

   5000/100 ml
   2400/100 ml


   1600/100 ml

   1000/100 ml
    500/100 ml

    240/100 ml

    200/100 ml

     50/100 ml
     State or Territory

Illinois,  Virginia (secondary
contact)

New York (boundary waters),
Virginia (primary contact)

Louisiana

Alaska,  California,  Colorado,
Connecticut, Delaware,
Florida, Hawaii, Indiana,
Massachusetts,  Michigan,
Minnesota,  Montana, Nevada
(for Colorado River), North
Dakota,  Ohio, Oklahoma,
Oregon, Pennsylvania,  Puerto
Rico, Rhode Island, South
Dakota,  West Virginia,
Wisconsin

Ve rmont

Idaho, New Hampshire

Arkansas

Utah
                                 21

-------
Michigan,  Pennsylvania,  Virginia, and Oklahoma.

Fecal Coliforms

Fecal coliform standards have been adopted by twenty-five states and
territories.  The range is from 1000/100 ml for Mississippi, Ten-
nessee, Alabama, Michigan (partial body contact),  and Georgia to
70/100 ml for the Virgin Islands (see  Table 3).  The Virgin Islands'
standard is for coastal waters and is the standard for shellfish areas.
The Wyoming fecal coliform standard specifies organisms not to
exceed a 95-percent confidence limit of the historical data.  The
intermediate zone for  the fecal coliform range is 200/100 ml.

There appears to be a trend toward the adoption of  fecal conforms
as the preferred method in determining safety of bathing waters.
Delaware measures fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci; in
addition to total coliforms.  The Water and Air Resources Commission
of Delaware "feels that fecal coliforms are a better indicator of
pollution than total coliforms" (Vasuki, 1969).  The state of  Georgia
has recently completed a  study for FWQA concerning fecal coliform
standards and will probably amend its  standards as a result  of the
study.  Kentucky, which recognized the ORSANCO criteria as the
basis for their standards,  has recently accepted the adoption of a
fecal coliform standard.  This action  was encouraged by the  FWQA
(Martin,  1969).  The ORSANCO water  quality criteria were revised
on May 15,  1969, to include a fecal coliform standard.  Pennsylvania
is the process of changing to a fecal coliform criterion for bathing
waters.  The standard being considered is similar to that recommended
by the FWQA (Bordman, I960).
The range of pH standards is illustrated in Table 4.   There are eleven
states with a minimum pH of 6. 0 for bathing waters.  Those states
are Alabama, Arkansas,  Delaware River  Basin,  District of Columbia,
Georgia, North Carolina, Louisiana,  Mississippi, South Carolina,
Tennessee,  and West Virginia.  Three states have a lower pH stan-
dard specifically set for swamp waters.  Georgia has a pH limit of
4. 5 for  swamp waters, North Carolina 4. 3, and South Carolina  5. 0.
There are two states  (Louisiana and  Montana) with a maximum pH
standard of  9. 5.  Within this range of values,  the majority of states
are generally not set with recreational water usage as the prime con-
sideration,  but rather in  consideration of  the other uses such as
propagation of fish life and domestic water supply.

Temperature

Waters  are  classified for multiple uses.   The temperature of a

-------
                        TABLE 3

           Summary of fecal coliform standards
                    for bathing waters
Fecal Coliforms
(Not to Exceed)

  1000/100 ml
  240/100 ml

  200/100 ml
   100/100 ml

    70/100 ml
      State or Territory

Alabama, Georgia, Michigan
(partial body contact), Missi-
ssippi,  Tennessee

District of Columbia, Maryland

Arizona, Delaware River Basin,
Guam, Hawaii, Illinois,
Missouri, Nebraska, New
Mexico, North Carolina,  Ohio
River Valley, Oklahoma,
Pennsylvania, South Carolina,
Tennessee (organized camps),
Texas

Colorado, Michigan

Virgin Islands

Fecal coliform standard for
Wyoming not to exceed a  95%
confidence limit of the historical
data.
                              23

-------
                           TABLE  4

                    Summary of pH standards
         pH Range

         6. 0 - 8.0

         6.0-8.5

         6. 0 - 9.0

         6.0-9.5

         6.5-8.0

         6.5-8.5

         6.5-8.6

         6.5-9.0

         6.5-9.5

         6.8-9.0

         7.0 - .3

         7.0-8.5

No reduction - 8. 0
Number of States

       1

       7

       2

       1

       4

      14

       1

       2

       1

       1

       1

       3

       1
         Number of states with minimum pH of 6. 0     11
         Number of states with minimum pH of 6. 5 ,    23
         Number of states with minimum pH of 6. 8      1
         Number of states with minimum pH of 7. 0      4

         Number of states with maximum pH of 8. 0      6
         Number of states with maximum pH of 8. 5     25
         Number of states with maximum pH of 9. 0      5
         Number of states with maximum. pH of 9. 5      2
                                24

-------
water is  considered more critical to domestic, industrial, and com-
mercial supply and to fish life than to primary contact recreational
use.  Temperature standards are, therefore, often set on the basis
of suitability for fish, with the same standards applied to recreational
waters.  The temperature standards that have been set are quite
varied as is shown in Tables 5 and 6.  The top of the scale for maxi-
mum temperature permitted due to effluents  is 96. 8F (Louisiana)
and 57.2 F as the lowest (Hawaii).  Fluctuations permitted above
ambient but below maximum are shown in Table 6 and range from
10. 0 F (Mississippi, Nebraska (summer maximum) and Georgia),  to
1.5 F  (Hawaii).

Pesticides and Other Toxic Substances

Forty-eight state and territory standards contain the phrase "Sub-
stances in concentrations or combinations which are harmful to
human, animal,  plant, or aquatic life are not permitted, " or its
equivalent.  Pesticides  are covered by this non-quantitative statement.
This phrase relieves water quality administrators of the problem of
dealing with a multiplicity of parameters.  The lack of sufficient data
on adverse effects of materials raises questions about threshold
effect levels and makes establishment of standards difficult.  Table 7
summarize these standards.  Two states do have quantitative stan-
dards for toxic materials.  Arkansas states the level of toxic subs-
tances shall not exceed 0. 1 of  the 48-hour median tolerance level
(Anon, 1967,  Arkansas).  South Dakota's standard reads "no con-
centrations greater than 0. 1 times the acute  (96 hr) median lethal
dose for  short residual compounds,  or 0. 01 times the acute median
lethal dose for accumulative substances" ( Anon, 1967, South Dakota).
Six states have no standard set at the time of this  survey (Rhode
Island, Florida, Pennsylvania, Virginia,  Wisconsin, and Wyoming).
Wyoming states in their  criteria literature that specific limits will
not be  established for toxic materials because  all  possible compounds,
combinations, and effects are not known  (Anon, 1968,  Wyoming).
The future will very likely see the formalization of standards in this
area for many states as  knowledge of toxic substances increases.

Clarity

Thirty-eight  states have non-quantitative statements concerning
clarity such as permitting no increase in turbidity that would impair
any usages specifically adopted for the water in question (see Table 8).
The standards that have  been adopted range from a high of 50 Jackson
Units (JU) - Arizona warm water streams - to 5 JU - Idaho and
Oregon.  Some states specify Secchi disc clarity in their standards
(Hawaii,  Nebraska,  Guam, and Tennessee).  Arizona,  Delaware
River Basin, Missouri,  Montana, Idaho, and Oregon use a Jackson
turbidity unit standard.  Minnesota specifies  a limit of 10, but does
not indicate whether reference is to JU or Secchi disc clarity.
                                 25

-------
                           TABLE 5
          Summary of Maximum Temperature Standards
Maximum Temperature,   F
	(due to effluents)	

          96.8
          95.0
          93.2
          93.0
          90.0
          87.0
          86.0
          85.0
          73.0


          70.0
          64.4

          57.2

Non-quantitative statements such
as: waters  shall be so protected
against controllable pollution,
including heat, as to be suitable
at all times for  usage  under the
waters classification.
No standard set solely for
recreational water protection.
          State or Territory

Louisiana
North Carolina

South Carolina, Georgia

Arizona, Iowa  (summer maximum),
Kentucky (summer maximum),
Mississippi, Tennessee

Alabama, District of Columbia,
Michigan, Missouri, New York
$ion-trout waters), North Dakota,
Virgin Islands

West Virginia (summer maximum)

Delaware River Basin

Connecticut, Guam

Iowa (winter maximum), Kentucky
(winter maximum). West Virginia
(winter maximum)

New York (trout waters)
Nevada (summer maximum, Colorado
River above Davis Dam)

Nevada (winter maximum, Colorado
River above Davis Dam)

Alaska, Maryland, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey,  Utah,
Vermont, Washington
Arkansas, California, Colorado,
Florida, Illinois,  Indiana, Kansas,
Maine,  Minnesota, Montana, New
Mexico, New York,  Ohio, Ohio
River Valley, Pennsylvania, Puerto
Rico, Rhode Island, South Dakota,
Texas,  Virginia,  Wisconsin, and
Wyoming
                                 26

-------
                         TABLE 6

       Summary of Temperature Fluctuation Standards
 Fluctuations Permitted Above
A-mbient but Below Maximum, F         Jgtate or Territory


          10.0                     Georgia, Mississippi, Nebraska
                                  (summer maximum)

           7. 0                     North Carolina

           5.4                     Louisiana

           5. 0                     Delaware,  Delaware River Basin,
                                  District of Columbia, Missouri,
                                  Nebraska  (winter maximum),
                                  New York, Oklahoma

           4. 0                     Connecticut
                                             /

           2. 0                     Idaho (when stream temperatures
                                  are 64 F and below), New York
                                  (summer in trout waters), Oregon

           1. 5                     Hawaii

                                  Alabama standard specified no
                                  more than  10% increase in temper-
                                  ature due to addition of waste
                                27

-------
                               TABLE 7

                  Summary of Pesticide and Oil Standards
             Standard

No standard set

Non-quantitative - statements such
as no  toxic materials in concentra-
tions harmful to human or wildlife.

Level of toxic substances shall not
exceed 0. 1 of 48 hour  median tol-
erance level.

No concentrations greater than 0. 1  '
times the acute (96 hr) median lethal
dose for short  residual compounds,
or 0. 01 times the acute median lethal
dose for accumulative substances.
Number of States

        6

       48
        1 (Arkansas)
        1 (South Dakota)
                                 28

-------
                               TABLE  8

                     Summary of Clarity Standards
          Standard
50 JU, warm water streams
10 JU, cold water streams
25 JU, warm water lakes
10 JU, cold water lakes

Maximum monthly mean 40 units;
Maximum 150 units.

Secchi disc determination shall not
be altered from natural condition
more than 10%.

Shall not exceed ZO turbidity units
due to effluents.

Shall not exceed 10 turbidity units
due to effluents.

Shall not exceed 5 turbidity units
above natural value.

Secchi disc clarity of 5 feet at all
times.

No standard given.

Non-quantitative statements  such
as no allowable increase in such
concentrations  that would impair
any usages specifically assigned
to the waters classification.
   State or Territory
Arizona
Delaware River Basin


Guam, Hawaii,  Nebraska



Missouri


Minnesota,  Montana


Idaho and Oregon


Tennessee


Virginia

38 States or Jurisdictions
                                  29

-------
SUMMARY

It is apparent that considerable variability still exists among the
standards promulgated for the various states,  despite Federal efforts
to achieve uniformity.  However, differing local conditions (physical,
political,  and economic) also play a role in setting standards.  The con-
cern here, however, is to discover the specific data that has served as
the  scientific basis for the standards.  In general, it is apparent that
additional source information is needed if the basis of the standards are
to be analyzed in depth.  Further investigation along these lines should
be pursued in future work,  as an adjunct to the search for current epi-
demiological data in selected areas.  Although intensive pursuit of the
data base may not produce significantly useful results in  most of the
areas of concern from the standpoint of cause-effect analyses,  additional
efforts to accumulate background information from the various health
departments would permit a more detailed interpretation of criteria
rationale  than the general information now in hand.
                                    30

-------
                            SECTION V

    THE FACTOR TO CRITERIA CONVERSION METHODOLOGY

The central objective of this program has been the development
of a procedure by which information on a given water quality factor
can be converted into criteria.  Once this  conversion is carried out
for various concentrations of the factor  of interest in a water,  the
degree of danger to a recreationist entering that water can be stated
as the likelihood of infection or harm.  A regulatory agency could
then use the criteria to set standards based on the concentration of
the factor in the water that produces a level of risk deemed acceptable
by the agency.

RATIONALE FOR  THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE  MODEL

As indicated in Section IV, water quality criteria have been
established based upon, among other things, the past experience of an
investigator,  epidemological information,  and even logical assump-
tions or carryovers from other types of work.  As can be recognized,
these methods are rather subjective and depend upon the expertise of
various individuals.

A more desirable approach is  to develop a  method of establish-
ing criteria by which the risk to an individual or population can be
assessed on a purely objective basis.  This can be done by determi-
ning the response of individuals to different quantities of the  factor in
question.  By exposing a large number of individuals to the factor, a
dose response curve can be prepared, based upon the probability that
a given dose of the factor will  produce an adverse effect.   This in fact
represents  a statement of the "capability" of the recreationist to
withstand a given challenge dose, and represents the first of the two
inputs necessary to determine  the risk to the recreationist.

In order to fully assess the risk an individual faces when  enter-
ing a given water,  it is also necessary to know the likelihood that he
will encounter a given  dose of  the factor in the water.  By knowing
how the factor is distributed through the water and the frequency of
occurrence of various  concentrations of that factor,  the probability
distribution for the factor in the water can be estimated.  The risk
faced by the recreationist is determined by  computing the probability
that the recreationist will encounter a concentration of the factor that
will likely result in a given adverse response.

DESCRIPTION  OF THE MODEL

A mathematical model was developed that  incorporates, on a
quantitative basis, the features discussed  above.   The dose-response
data, which represents the relationship between the amount of the
factor ingested and the number of people subsequently infected, are
                                  31

-------
converted into a probability density function.  This requires that the
type of distribution of the sampled population be determined.   This
probability distribution has been designated as the capabilities vector ,
C  .
 P
A  second probability distribution is determined that describes
the likelihood that a recreationist would encounter a given concentra-
tion of the factor when he enters a given body of water.  This represents
the requirement placed on the recreationist and has been designated
as the requirements vector, R .  These two probability distributions
are represented in Figure 4a. ^They make up the'fundamental informa-
tion that is required as input into the model.

The risk faced by the recreationist can be expressed as the in-
teraction of the two distributions.  This risk can be defined as the
probability that the water's requirement on the recreationist exceeds
that individual's capability  to withstand that challenge dose.  The pro-
bability of risk for a given  concentration of the factor is obtained by
computing the probability that R  (factor concentration in the water)
is  greater than C   (concentration of factor producing adverse re-
sponse).  This  is"obtained by deriving the probability density function
of the difference  (C  - R )  and then computing the probability that
(C - R  ) is negative or mat the requirement exceeds  the capability.
Thre risR that the concentration of the factor in this water (R  ) will
exceed the harmful dose (C ) and hence cause an adverse eflfect  is the
area under that portion of tKe probability  density function that is to
the left of zero (Figure 4b).  This convolution (subtraction) results in
the basic risk probability function describing the likelihood of infec-
tion faced by an individual entering a given water.  This risk can be
lessened by making certain decisions on limiting expose of the popu-
lation by various alternatives.

ANALYTICAL IMPLEMENTATION

It  is apparent that the form of the distribution of the dose-response
data and the factor-concentration data together determine the probab-
ility distribution of the convolution.  As a consequence, it is critical
that the frequency distribution of the sampled population be closely
approximated.  There are several commonly used methods for
fitting a  particular density  function to a sample (Korn & Korn, 1968).
The "Method of Maximum Likelihood, " which often involves complicated
computations,  is the more  accurate of those readily adaptable to this
program.  This method has been chosen to fit the data available on
the factors of interest to this program to  five possible statistical
distributions:  (1) normal,  (Z) exponential,  (3) gamma, (4) Weibull,
and (5) lognormal.

Once these distributions have been developed for the data at hand,
it  is necessary to test whether the assumptions made about each distri-
bution are reasonable.  That is, which .sample distribution most closely
approximates the  true population distribution?  The Kolmogorov-
Smirnov or  "d-test" for goodness of fit is one of many tests designed
for this purpose (von Alven,  1964).  By applying this test,  the most
probable distribution for the data at hand is selected from among the
five choices.
                                32

-------
OP
a
n
0>
H

01
PJ
o
o
n
P
o
o
 m

 CO
 O
 cc
 a.
                                          m
                                          O
                                          oc
                                          a.
CONCENTRATION OF FACTOR

         C^
                                         CONCENTRATION OF FACTOR

                                                  R_
               (a) THE TWO INDEPENDENT DENSITY FUNCTIONS
      -   0    + (Cp"V


  (Cp-Rq) DENSITY FUNCTION




(b) THE RESULTING CONVOLUTION
o
3

-------
An existing computer program, entitled BSTFIT by the author,  is
available that can perform a combination of fitting the input data into
all five possible distributions, and then performing the Kolmogorov-
Smirnov analysis  to select the most likely fit (Dudley, 1970).

RISK AS A FUNCTION OF CHANGING REQUIREMENTS

Once a convolution has  been carried out, the probability of infection
or adverse reaction of a population entering that water can  be stated.
However, it is important to know how much this risk to the population
would be reduced  if entry  to the water was banned whenever the factor
concentration exceeded a given level.  By closing a water at these
times,  the maximum exposure of a population is reduced and as
a consequence the risk should also be reduced.  The  setting of such
maximum limits truncates the factor concentration probability func-
tion (R distribution) and results in a modified or enchanced convolu-
tion (Frgure 5).

Regardless of where the factor concentration curve is truncated,
the area under the curve has  to remain constant.  The total area under
the curve after the convolution is carried out also remains  constant,
but the shape  of this latter curve  changes.  This results in  a tendency
of the curves  to shift to the right  of zero, resulting in a smaller area
to the left or risk portion of the curve.  By selectively truncating the
factor concentration distribution - by the setting of stricter and stricter
limits - a series of convolutions is obtained, each with a smaller risk
area.  The area of each risk  curve can then be plotted as risk versus
factor concentration and the confidence limits determined.  The factor
to criteria conversion is now complete.  The equation for the resultant
curve is then  derived.  The resultant polynomial of best fit is subjected
to an analysis of variance  and the confidence limits at the desired level
of significance determined.  This can then be presented as a plot of
risk vs factor concentration and used for selecting appropriate standards.

This process  is illustrated in Figure  5 where the basic Rq curve
is truncated at the mean plus 2 standard deviations (fJ.+ 2 a~ ) and at the
mean plus 1 standard deviation  (p- + la).  A truncation at the mean
would require that the water be denied to users 50% of the time,  a highly
undesirable situation.  The resultant series of convolutions results in
successively decreasing the risk  portion of each convolution.

In the determination of risk, a computer program,  RADOP, was
available for performing these calculations.  This program simul-
taneously carried out the series of successive truncations and the
corresponding convolutions, along with the confidence limits.  A third
program was  developed to fit the  data to various polynomials and this
was used to determine the type of equation that best describes the cri-
teria, along with the confidence limits.  A schematic of the computer
implementation of the entire methodology just discussed is  presented
in Figure 6.
                                34

-------
OJ
Ul
        OP
         PI
         ui
         H
         0"
         
-------
 hq
 f-
OQ

 n
 Crt
 O

 g"
 tr
 o
 P-
 o
 i'
 o
OQ
                          VOLUME INGESTED
       FACTOR 1
                           CAP ABILITIES Cp
                       I DATA         _.




                         REQUIREMENTS Rn
RAW DATA

VOLUME INGESTED
                           CAP ABILITIES Cp
RAWC
ATA
REQUIREMENTS R,
USE "MAXIMUM
LIKELIHOOD"
METHOD TO FIT
RAW DATA TO:
NORMAL
LOGNORMAL
EXPONENTIAL


WE (BULL
                                                                                   SELECT BEST
                                                                                   DENSITY
                                                                                   FUNCTION 8
                                                                                   KOLMOCOROV
                                                                                   SMIftNOV
                                                                                   GOODNESS
                                                                                   Of-f n TEST
                                                                                                            PERFORM ITERATIVE CONVOLUTION
                                                                                                            SEQUENTIALLY VARYING R
                                                                                                            STANDARDS            q
    IMPLCMENTATIOM      UTEMATURE SURVEY
    MANUAL             INTERVIEWS
                        cm VISIT*
                                                                BSTFIT  DIGITAL
                                                                COMPUTER PROGRAM
                                                                                                                                                           STANDARD
                                                                                               USE OF BODY OF WATER)
                                                                                                                                                             DENYING USE OF BODY
                                                                                                                                                             OF WATER)
                                                       RADOP  DIGITAL
                                                       COMPUTER PROGRAM
FEDEBAUSTATE/LOCAL OFFICIALS
TO USE THESE CURVES TO SELECT
STANDARDS FOR EACH FACTOR
INDEPENDENTLY

-------
APPLICATION TO STANDARDS SETTING

The end result is a graph or equation that presents the probability
of infection or adverse effect faced by a population entering a water con-
taining various concentrations of the factor of interest.  The responsible
regulatory agency must then decide on what it considers to be an accept-
able risk to the population for that particular factor and set the appropriate
standards (the maximum acceptable R ) to limit that risk.
                                37

-------
                           SECTION VI

 VIRUSES AS A FACTOR OF RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

During the past 15 years more than 100 new enteric viruses
have been discovered, largely through the use of tissue cultures.  All
of these "new" viruses are excreted in the feces of infected individuals
and can be readily demonstrated in urban sewage, particularly in the
late summer or early fall (see Table 9). Since these agents are  pre-
sent in sewage, they presumably can find their way into water supplies
or surface waters used for recreation and present a hazard of initiating
epidemics of water-borne diseases.  The relationship between the occur-
rence of viruses in recreational waters and the real or potential  hazard
of viral transmission as a consequence  of aquatic activity is a multi-
faceted problem,  and one which requires consideration of a variety of
interacting factors, some of which are indicated in Figure 7 (after
Prier & Riley, 1967).

Several extensive reviews of the general subject of viruses and
water transmission have appeared in recent years, notably those of
Berg, etal(1967),  Chang, (1968), Clarke, et al  (1964),  and Grabow
(1968).

THE VIRUSES OF INTEREST

With the exception of the arboviruses  (arthroped-borne), virtually
all of the known viruses affecting man cause respiratory tract infections,
but only a proportion of them are able to pass through the acid barrier
of the stomach and multiply in the intestinal tract.  This is the main
site of multiplication of the  small enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and
reoviruses,  infection with which may be brought about by the ingestion
of virus-contaminated food or water,  or by downward spread from the
respiratory tract.  The prolonged excretion of the virus  in the feces
following infection causes fecal contamination to be a major factor  in
their spread (Chang,  1968; Poynter, 1968).

The human enteroviruses are a homogeneous group comprising
the polioviruses,  the coxsackie-viruses (groups A and BO, and the
echoviruses.  Most of these viruses produce disease only in a small
percentage of the individuals  they infect.  Low-level, asymptomatic
infections are difficult to detect, but may constitue an important  source
of many enterovirus epidemics not readily ascribable to water trans-
mission (Chang,  1968).  When associated with an illness, an enterovirus
may be capable of producing any of several clinical entities.  This  is
true also for many of the adenoviruses, some of which are associated
with a variety of  respiratory  diseases (e. g. , colds, influenza-like  ill-
nesses, bronchitis,  etc. ), and probably for members of the reovirus
(respiratory-enteric-orphan) group as well.  The adenoviruses,  although
usually associated with respiratory ailments,  are more  readily isolated
from the stools than from the throat secretions of infected individuals
(Berg, 1964).

The other virus (or, possibly, viruses) of concern is that causing

                                39

-------
                           TABLE 9

              Human Enteric Viruses and Diseases
                   (after Clarke, et al. 1964)
 Major subgroup
No. of Types
          Disease
Poliovirus


Coxsackie
    Group A
    Group B

Infectious Hepatitis
ECHO


Adenovirus
  2B
    6

    1 (?)
  28


  25
               Paralytic poliomyelitis,
               aseptic meningitis
Herpangina,  aseptic meningitis
Pleurodynia, aseptic meningitis

Infectious hepatitis
Aseptic meningitis,  "summer"
rash, diarrheal disease

Respiratory and eye infection
                              40

-------
     REQUIRED EVENTS FOR TRANSMISSION
     OF VIRUSES TO MAN BY WATER
           CONTAMINATION OF WATER
                 BY VIRUS
            SURVIVAL OF VIRUS IN
                 WATER
         USE OF WATER FOR DRINKING
                OR BATHING
INFECTION OF ANIMALS
             PRESENCE OF IMMUNITY/
                SUSCEPTIBILITY'
   FACTORS INFLUENCING VIRUS CYCLE
        AND SURVIVAL
  ELIMINATION OF VIRUS IN URINE,
  FECES, RESPIRATORY EXUDATE
  PROXIMITY OF ANIMALS TO WATER
  PRESENCE OF SECONDARY AGENTS SUCH
  AS INSECTS. AND INTERMEDIATE HOSTS
  WATER RUN-OFF FROM PASTURES
  TIME VIRUS IS IN WATER
  NATURE OF WATER (LAKE.
  STREAM. WELL)
  RATE OF WATER FLOW
  TEMPERATURE OF WATER
  CHEMICAL CONTENT OF WATER
  ORGANIC CONTENT OF WATER
   FILTRATION
-|  CHEMICAL TREATMENT
   DURATION OF WATER STORAGE

   VIRUS CONCENTRATION
                                                    METHOD OF VIRUS INFECTION
       Figure 7.   Factors That May Affect Virus Survival in Water
                          (After Prier  & Riley,  1967)
                                     41

-------
infectious hepatitis (IH).  This is the only known fecally-excreted virus for
which definite epidemiological evidence of water-borne transmission
has been found (Neefe and Stokes, 1945; Mosley,  1967).  It is also ex-
ceptional in that, so far,  no tissue cell-culture system has been estab-
lished enabling the IH virus to be isolated in vitro (Kissling,  1967).

CONTAMINATION OF WATER BY VIRUSES

Gelfand (1961) has summarized data that clearly show the sea-
sonal variation in incidence of enteric viruses in  fecal samples  and
sewage.  The peak incidence of isolations occurs  from July through
October, with August usually yielding the highest number of positive
samples.  Routine sampling yielded as high as 41. 5 per cent positive
sewage  samples in one  study (Clarke and Kabler,  1964).   Recovery
rates as high as 75 per cent have been reported,  however, from sewage
samples tested during a poliomyelitis epidemic (Wiley, et al 1962).

Fluctuations in the predominant type of enteric virus  detected in
sewage  frequently occurs (Kelly, et al,  1955,  1956,  I960).  These
changes are  said to reflect the epidemic infection in the community,
whether recognized or not,  at any given time.  Continuing surveillance
of virus in sewage has been suggested as an important means of moni-
toring the enterovirus infections of large populations  (Clarke and Kabler,
1964 and see Table 10).

Viruses occur at very low densities compared to  indicator bacteria,
such as the coliform group. It has been calculated (Clarke, et  al, 1964)
that in the United States the expected density of virus in sewage would
average about 500 virus units per 100 ml, and in  polluted surface water,
not more than 1 virus unit per 100 ml.  These authors determined that
the relative enteric virus density to coliform density in human feces i s
about 15 virus units for every  million coliforms (a 1 to 65,000 ratio).

Foliquet and Schwarzbrod (1965) collected 560 samples from vari-
ous water sources in Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, with 83 enterovirus
strains being recovered as follows:
                                  42

-------
                              TABLE 10


                 Frequency and Types of Enteric Virus*

              Isolated from Sewage of the City of Albany
                              1957
           1958
         1959
1960
Poll omy e liti s

    Type 1
    Type 2
    Type 3

Coxsackie Group B

    Type 3
    Type 4
    Type 5
ECHO
    Type 1
    Type 3
    Type 4
    Type 6
    Type 7
    Type 8
    Type 9
    Type 11
    Type 12
    Type 13
    Type 19
1/35
11/35
13/36
12/36
3/16
7/16
3/12
5/12
 8/35
10/35
 7/35
9/36
            3/36
            6/36
        10/16
3/35
2/35
2/35
9/35
1/36
3/36
7/36
5/36
1/36
1/36
1/16
2/16
1/16
1/12

1/12
The fractions indicate the number isolated (numerator) from the total
number of samples examined (denominator).

*
 Exclusive of Group A Coxsackie viruses, which are not listed.
                                 43

-------
          Drains:       64 positives of 245 samples (26.1%)

          Rivers:       11 positives of 214 samples (5. 14%)

          Tap Water:     8 positives of 101 samples (7.9%)

The initial concentration of enteroviru'ses in sewage has been estimated
to vary between 20 and 700 Plague-forming units (PFU) per 100 ml, with
considerable seasonal variations (Kelly and Sanderson,  I960; Clarke
et al, 1962).- The concentration of viruses in polluted rivers and streams
might be one to  two orders of magnitude lower.  Thus a monitoring
technique for enteroviruses in surface  waters  should be capable of
detecting as few as 1 to. 10 PFU/liter.

Paul and Trask  (1941) isolated poliovirus  from a heavily polluted
New England River.   These investigators  suggested that poliomyelitis
occurring down  river probably resulted from this water pollution.-
Toomey  et al (1945) recovered polioviruses from an Ohio creek by
direct inoculation of water samples into cotton rats.

Rhodes et al (1950) demonstrated  that poliovirus persisted in river
water for prolonged periods following its addition in a fecal suspension.

Coxsackievirus  A5 survived in spring water from extended periods;
viral concentration was found to be a function of temperature (Gilcreas
and Kelly, 1955).

Clarke et al (1956) and Chang et al (1958) maintained coxsackievirus
A2 in water from different rivers under various conditions for  long
periods.

Metcalf and Stiles (1956) isolated  coxsackievirus B4 and echovirus
9 from the eastern oyster in estuary waters as far  as 4 miles from the
nearest sewage  outlet.

At Bathurst, Australia,  (Wallace, 1958) clinically typical hepatitis
occurred in 6 of 19 students who drank raw water from the Macquarie
River.  The river was polluted by effluent from the city sewage works
located upstream.  During the 4 months preceding the outbreak among
the students, 10 cases of hepatitis were reported from this  community
of about  30, 000  and all these patients were served by city sewers  that
emptied  into the river.  Unfortunately,  the quantitative virus content of
the water could  not be determined,  since no laboratory method exists
for the propagation of IH virus.

Enteroviruses were isolated from Hudson River water 400 feet down river
from the Alaby  sewage plant outfall by  Kelly and Sanderson (1959).

The problem of isolating and enumerating enterovirus in surface waters
is a difficult one,  but improved methods now permit the sampling  of
                                44

-------
large volumes of water having low densities of virus contamination
(Shuval et al,  1967).

Survival of Virus in Water
Owing to the existence of many unknown factors affecting virus
survival in water, the differences in the survival times of different
enteroviruses observed in storage are not sufficient to indicate that
some enteroviruses  survive significantly longer than others.  Virus
survival in general is longer in treated or"clean" water or in grossly
polluted water than in moderately polluted water (Clarke, et al, 1964).

Coxsackie A2 virus survived 61 days in sewage held at 8C, and
41 days in sewage held at 2j3 C.  The virus survived more than 272 days
in distilled water held at 8 C and 41  days at 20 C.  However,  in the
moderately polluted  Ohio River  water, it survived only 16 days at 8 C
and only 6 days at 20 C.  Autoclaving the Ohio River water increased
the survival time to  longer than 171 days at 8  C and more than 102 days
at 20 C (Clarke,  et al, 1956).

Rhodes, et al, (1950) showed that poliovirus could still be demon-
strated in experimentally contaminated river water after  188 days
storage at 4 C, but could not be detected after storage at 216  and 315
days.   . ,.      .

Using well water known to have  been responsible for a water-borne
outbreak of infectious hepatitis, Neefe and co-workers (1945) were able
to infect human volunteers after the water had been stored for 10 weeks,
although there was a considerable prolongation in incubation time with
storage time.  It appears that only long storage  is effective in reducing
virus concentrations  significantly (Chang, 1968),  in the absence of direct
measures qf viral destruction.

Weber (1958) reported that IH virus remains virulent in ground water at
least a month.  The  virus  is quite heat-resistant, especially when suspended
in protein. Exposure to 56 C forSO minutes failed to render the virus
noninfective,  since 3 of 4 men who ingested it contracted the illness
(Havens, 1945).

Studies were made by Gilcreas  and Kelly (1945)  on the relative rates
of kill,and die-off of coliform bacteria and intestinal viruses by storage
in both fresh and salt water, by chlorination,  by  sewage treatment,
and by ultra-violet irradiation.   The intestinal viruses used in the tests
were Bact. coli  B bacteriophage, coxsackie virus,  and Theiler virus.
Their studies indicated that:

         (1)     The relative survival of coliform bacteria and viruses
in fresh water was almost the same  except that viruses survived for
much longer periods at low temperature.
                                 45

-------
         (2)     In salt water,  coliform bacteria died much more rapidly
than the viruses.

         (3)     Chlorination was found to be effective on both coliform
bacteria and viruses,  but subsequent studies by Kelly and Sanderson (1958)
indicated that stronger doses andlonger contact periods are required for
viruses.  In their investigation of five  strains of polio and  two strains of
Coxsackie virus, they found that 0. 3 mg/1 of free residual chlorine  for at
least 30 minutes of contact is required for 99. 9% inactivation,  and that
about 10 m.g/1 of combined residual chlorine for about 60 minutes is
required for 99. 7% inactivation.

         (4)     Ultraviolet light was found to be more effective on
viruses than on coliform bacteria.

         (5)     Sewage treatment by primary settling and trickling
filters at one plant showed about 90% reduction of coliforms, and about
80% reduction of phage and nearly 100% reduction of Coxsackie viruses.

Clarke and Kabler (1964) determined the  relative survival  times
in raw sewage of 4 enteric viruses and 3  bacterial indicators of pollution
(Table 11).  The test viruses,  with the exception of Coxsackie A9,
survived longer than did the 3 test bacteria.  All survival times were
markedly longer at 4 C than at 28 C.

                            TABLE 11

               Time in Days for 99. 9 Per Cent Reduction
                 of Indicated Organism in Raw Sewage
                                                 Temperature
Organism
28C
4C
Poliovirus 1
ECHO 7
ECHO 12
Coxsackie A9
Aerobacter Aerogenes
Escherichia coli
Streptococcus foecalis
17
28
20
6
10
12
14
110
130
60
12
56
48
48
                                 46

-------
Clarke, et al. (1964),  in an extensive study of enteric viruses in
water, concluded that  the survival times of enteric viruses and indicator
bacteria in water depend to a great extent on the nature of the water.
Viruses appear to survive longer in water that is relatively unpolluted or
grossly polluted.  Indicator bacteria (E, coli) survival times in surface
waters appear to be directly related to the pollution of the water; longest
survivals  occur in water with the greatest pollution.  Metcalf and Stiles
(1967) found that survival of viruses in estuary waters is  dependent on
temperature, pollution levels, and virus identity.  In their studies,  enteric
viruses survived in estuary water for 56 days in winter, and 32 days in
the summer.

Waterborne Transmission of Viruses
Opportunities for the spread of waterborne infections may be provided
either by recreational bathing facilities or by  public or private drink-
ing water supplies.  The presence of many bathers in a body of water
may provide suitable conditions for the spread of viruses.  Outbreaks
of sore throats and "pink eye, " accompanied by fever and caused
by adenovirus-3 in Washington, D. C. ,  in 1954 (Bell, J. A. , et al. ,  1955),
and by adenovirus-7 in Toronto, Canada,  in 1955 (Ormsby and Aitchison,
1955), were attributed to the use of swimming pools.  The spread of
vesicular exanthema,  caused by Coxsackie A16 virus, was correlated
with swimming by Robinson, et al, (1958).

Swimmers at two fresh-water beaches  along Lake Michigan showed
approximately twice the incidence  of gastrointestinal and ear and throat
infections as did non-swimmers.   A significantly higher incidence of
illnesses was reported one week after  persons had bathed in water con-
taining  2,300 coliform organisms per 100 ml,  in contrast to that observed
when the coliform-organism index was 43 (Stevenson,  1953).  The risk
of contracting infections, however, was not appreciably  greater for
bathers who swam in salt water contaminated  with sewage than it was
for those who swam in unpolluted water (Moore, I960).

When studying water as a possible route of transmission in out-
breaks  of viral diseases, Mosley (1967) could gather from the  literature
only 8 episodes  of poliomyelitis in which the water route could be pre-
sumed, and 50 episodes of infectious hepatitis in which the disease was
stated to be waterborne.  Only one of the  polio outbreaks was  considered
to be potentially waterborne by Mosley, however.   The massive 1955-56
waterborne epidemic of infectious  hepatitis in Delhi, India (Viswanathan,
1957), in which  more  than 28,000 cases were  reported,  is one of the
most often cited of the infectious hepatitis outbreaks.  The plant that
treated the water at Delhi apparently turned out a  safe supply when the
water was prechlorinated to a  free residual of 0. 7 mg/1. When sewage
backed up to the waterworks intake, however, sufficient ammonia was
present to destroy the free chlorine and to produce a low, combined
chlorine residual (Dennis,  1959).  The latter treatment nevertheless
rendered the water safe according to coliform testing  results,  but it
apparently did not destroy the  IH viruses.  The data on coliform organ-
                                 47

-------
isms reported by the new water treatment plant at Delhi would indicate
that under unusual circumstances the coliform index may be unreliable
for judging the adequacy of modern water treatment processes for destroy-
ing or removing  the IH virus,  and perhaps other enteric viruses (Clarke,
et al. ,  1964).  Representative source data for poliovirus and infectious
hepatitis outbreaks attributed to contaminated drinking water are con-
tained in the Appendix.

THE MINIMAL INFECTIVE DOSE

Malherbe and Strickland-Cholmley (1967) stated that experimental
transmission to human volunteers of the enteric viruses that have been
studied usually involves 10  TCID^- or more. It is generally recognized,
however,  that infection regularly follows the  oral administration of
10  TCIDj-rt of attenuated poliovirus strains,  and there is some
evidence Qiat as  little as  10 TCID5Q of attenuated poliovirus may cause
infection.

Plotkin and Katz (1967) reviewed the information available  concerning
the relationship between infectivity for tissue cultures and  infectivity
for man and animals of viruses administered by the oral, respira-
tory, or conjuncival routes.  These authors  contend that one infective
tissue culture dose is sufficient to infect man if it is placed in contact
with susceptible  cells. The relationship between one virus and one cell
is complicated in the intact host,  however, by a variety of  host defense
factors, which accounts for the variations observed in the amounts of
virus actually required to produce discernible infection in man (Beard,
1967).                 .              .

Since extracellular virus cannot reproduce itself, it seems unlikely
that the amount of virus of human origin in water sources can ever
be large, except at  times of major epidemics, but if small amounts
are capable of infecting,  then their presence  in food or water, however
dilute, assumes  importance (Poynter, 1968).

The available data is consistent with the view that the human subject
is not less susceptible than the tissue-culture.  Koprowski (Table 12)
has shown that 2 PFU's of attenuated poliovirus 1 produced infection
in 2 out of 3  subjects, while Plotkin and Katz (Table 13) infected two out
of three infants with 10 TCD5Q of attenuated  poliovirus 3, and obtained
evidence that even 1  TCD,-n of this  strain may be infective  for infants.
                                 48

-------
                       TABLE 12


Infection of Human Volunteers with Attenuated Poliovirus 1

               (after Koprowski, 1955'; 1956)
Dose (PFU)
0.2
2.0
20.0
200. 0
No. Infected/
No. Fed
0/2
2/3
4/4
4/4
Per cent
Infected
0.0
66.7
100.0
100.0
                       TABLE 13

    Infectivity of Enteroviruses for Man by the Oral Route

                  (after Plotkin & Katz, 1967)
    Virus
Dose
Result
Reference
Poliovirus 1 (SM)      2 PFU

Poliovirus 1 (SM)     20 PFU

Poliovirus 2 (P712)    100 TCD5Q

Poliovirus 3 (Fox 13)  10 TCD5Q
              2/3 infected

              1/2 infected

              Infection (no
              details)
              2/3 infected
             Koprowski
             (1955, 1956)
             Koprowski
             et al(1956),
             Sabin (1956)

             Plotkin & Katz
             (1967)
                              49

-------
Sabin found 10   TCD,.^ of poliovirus per gram of feces in human
stools.  Neefe,  et al (1945) estimated that there were 10  to 10
infectious doses of IH viruses per gram of feces  from human cases.
Other estimations of viral content in feces have been of the same
order of magnitude or less.

Exceedingly minute amounts of infective excreta  can cause infectious
hepatitis when taken xxrally.  Human volunteers have developed it
from as little as 10    dilution of infected feces  (Stinger, 1955).
According to Clarke and Chang (1959), a 30-minute  chlorine contact
period protected all of 12 volunteers, when the IH virus was suspended
in distilled water at room temperature, pH range 6. 7-6. 8,  and with initial
and final free chlorine residuals of 3. 25 and  0. 4  mg/1.

DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA

Virus Factor to Criteria  Conversion
A considerable amount of information has been reviewed dealing with
experimental virus infections using human volunteers.  Although many
of the reported studies were carried out for purposes other than to
determine infective dose (most were centered around vaccine develop-
ment), there were  sufficient base line experiments to provide inputs for
developing a dose effect curve.

Various ways of measuring the inoculum dose given to volunteers were
reported.  These included particle counts, : infective serum dilutions,
plaque forming units,  tissue culture units, and human infective doses.
The TCID,-_ dose was  most frequently reported or in some cases the
data reported could be used to calculate this dosage. The TCID,.-
represents the tissue  culture infective dose that effects 50 percent of the
roll tubes of the specified tissue cells when the usual 10 fold dilution
series is  carried out.   Effects may be reported as cytopathic effects
(CPE), or, more usually,  as the results of the hemadsorption test.

If one assumes that the cultured tissue cell responds in much the same
way as normal cells do in vivo  (and there is no reason to assume other-
wise) to an infection by a given virus, certain simplifications are possible.
By utilizing TCID,.- to measure inoculum dosage, the data are normalized
to a common base irrespective of differences  in infectivity of the various
viruses.   For example,  10  parti cles.jmay be  required to infect 50 percent
of the cultures with one  strain and 10 with another.  By reporting both
sets as 1 TCIDrrt dose however, this difference is canceled out and the
viruses can be grouped together for statistical purposes.  This was done
in the present study.  Data on volunteers, where the inoculum dose was
reported in units of TCID^Q,  were all grouped together in order to pre-
pare a dose effect curve for virus exposures, egg infective  doses were
assumed equal to tissue culture infective doses.  In this manner a/ table
was prepared listing  812 volunteer exposures ranging from 2 x 10  to
1 x 10"1 TCID50 does (Table  14).
                                 50

-------
                                                 TABLE 14
                                       Yiral Dose-Response of Humans
                Virus
      Parainfluenza 2
      Rhino virus

      Parainfluenza 2
      Rhino virus
      Adenovirus

      Hemadsorption 3
      Influenza
      Equine influenza
      Rhinovirus
      Inclusion conjunctivitis
      Inclusion blennorhea
      Parainfluenza 2
      Parainfluenza 3
      Adenovirus
      JH virus
      2060 virus
      Influenza
4 x 10'
4 x 10'
Dose,
TCID5()
2.0 x 106
6.3 x 105
3.2 x 105
2.0 x 105
1.6 x 105
1. 5 x 105
1.5 x 105
1.0 x 105
8.0 x 104
7.9 x 104
6. 3 x 104
6.0 x 104
4.0 x 104
2.0 x 104
1.5 x 104
1. 5 x 104
1.4 x 104
1.4 x 104
4
1. 0 x 10
Number
Infected
6/6
2/2
4/5
9/9
2/3
2/2
3/4
12/17
10/10
4/5
. 4/5
2/2
1/1
5/6
2/4
2/3
23/69
25/90
5/5
Route
Nasal




Nasal
Nasal

Nasal
Nasal





Nasal


Nasal
   Investigator
Taylor-Robinson
Gate
Taylor-Robinson
Taylor-Robinson
Gate
Hitchcock
Tyrrel
Kapikian
Knight
Knight
Gate
Jawetz
Jones
Taylor-Robinson
Tyrrel
Hitchcock
Jackson
Jackson
Knight

-------
                                              TABLE 14 (continued)
Ul
         Virus

Inclusion conjunctivitis
Rhinovirus
Adenovirus
Parainfluenza 2
Influenza
Influenza
Adenovirus
Parainfluenza 3
Coxsackie A,
        Coxsackie A
            21
            21
       Influenza
       Coxsackie A,
       Rhinovirus
       Inclusion conjunctivitis
       Coxsackie A_.
       Adenovirus
       Parainfluenza 2
       Coxsackie A_
                   C* J.
       Influenza
       Parainfluenza 1
            21
Dose.
TCID
6.0 x
3.2 x
2.5 x
2.0 x
1.9 x
1. 6 x
1. 5 x
1.2 x
1.0 x
832
790
676
630
600
500
250
200
160
158
150
 7
50
IO3
103
103
IO3
103
io3
103
io3
IO3











Number
Infected
3/3
4/4
2/2
0/3
3/3
0/3
1/2
3/6
2/3
1/1
7/7
5/6
17/32
2/2
8/9
0/2
0/2
2/2
0/1
3/5
Route


Nasal

Nasal
Nasal
Nasal



Nasal
Inhalation






Nasal

   Investigator

Jawetz
Gate
Hitchcock
Taylor-Robinson
Knight
Knight
Hitchcock
Tyrrel
Knight
Tyrrel
Knight
Couch
Gate
Jawetz
Knight
Hitchcock
Taylor-Robinson
Knight
Knight
Tyrrel

-------
                                             TABLE 14 (continued)
Ui
u>
         Virus

Adenovirus
Inclusion conjunctivitis
Poliovirus 3
Poliovirus
Coxsackie  A?1
Hemadsorption 2
Coxsackie  A_..
Rhinovirus
Rhinovirus
Inclusion conjunctivitis
Coxsackie  A,
       Coxsackie A
       Coxsackie A
       Coxsackie A
       Coxsackie A
       Rhinovirus
       Measles
       Coxsackie A
       Coxsackie A
       Rhinovirus
            21
            21
            21
            21
            21
            21
            21
Dose,
TCID5()
150
125
100
30-100
83
80
71
66
60
60
54
50
49
47
28
20
20
18
16
16
Number
Infected
1/4
4/4
4/4
7/9
2/2
25/32
4/4
1/1
1/1
5/6
2/2
2/2
2/3
3/4
2/3
1/1
28/31
2/4
1/3
5/5
Route






Inhaled
Inhaled
Inhaled

Inhaled

Inhaled
Inhaled
Inhaled
Inhaled

Inhaled
Inhaled
Inhaled
Investigator
Hitchcock
Jawetz
Plotkin & Katz
Gate
Reichelderfer
Reichelderfer
Couch
Gate
Gate
Jawetz
Couch
Knight
Couch
Couch
Couch
Gate
Okuno
Couch
Couch
Gate

-------
                                       TABLE 14 (continued)
         Virus

Adenovirus
Parainfluenza 1 (HA  1)
Parainfluenza 3
Inclusion conjunctivitis
Poliovirus 3
Measles
Measles
Measles
Measles
Coxsackie A_,
Inclusion conjunctivitis
Measles
Parainfluenza 1 (HA  1)
Inclusion conjunctivitis
Measles
Measles
Measles
Measles
Inclusion conjunctivitis
Measles
J * \J O \Z f
15
15
15
12.5
10
10
10
6. 0
6.0
6. 0
6.0
2.0
1.5
1.25
1.0
1.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.2
Number
Infected Route
0/2 Nasal
4/11
0/6
2/3
2/3
18/21 Inhalation
21/43
18/38
18/26
2/6
0/3
14/29
2/2
1/3
8/35
1/8
15/27
1/8
0/3
1/13
   Investigator
Hitchcock
Tyrrel
Tyrrel
Jawetz
Plotkin & Katz
Plotkin & Katz
Okuno
Okuno
Plotkin & Katz
Jawetz
Jawetz
Plotkin & Katz
Tyrrel
Jawetz
Plotkin & Katz
Okuno
Okuno
Plotkin Sc Katz
Jawetz
Okuno

-------
                                         TABLE 14  (continued)

                                        Dose,          ,.,.   ,
                                        TCID           Number
           Virus                        	50_        Infected    Route            Investigator

Measles                              0.2             1/7                       Plotkin & Katz
Measles                              0. 1             0/21                      Plotkin & Katz
Measles                              0. 1             0/23                      Okuno

-------
Development of the Dose Response Curve

The data from the infectivity studies with 812 volunteers resulted in
413 data points which were used to construct a dose response curve for
viruses.  When all 413 data points were used in the program, the data
scatter was such that a fit was not possible.

The fact that the dosages measured by tissue culture titration are
estimates of the dose fed rather than exact measures, a histogram was
constructed to order this data.   From the histogram,  25 points relating
dose fed to number of individuals infected were randomly selected
(Figure 8).  This represented the test sample that was to be used to
develop the capabilities vector (C  ) or the ability  of the population to
withstand a given challenge dose of virus.

In line with the methodology previously discussed, the probability
distribution of the sampled population was estimated.  The collected
information was analyzed using the BSTFIT computer program and the
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the lognormal distribution was
the most appropriate  (Table 15).

It is conceded that this method of sampling from a histogram does
not take full advantage of the potential of the available data.  It is
possible that the data  could be grouped according to different regions  of
the world reflecting varying susceptibility to different viruses in popula-
tion groups.  There may also be a varying regional susceptibility due to
the effectiveness of recent immunization programs.  An attempt should
be made to  see if such variances appear  in the data.  It may also be
argued that a population is in general susceptible to the viruses that
appear in its waters or else how could the viruses be maintained with-
out infections occuring?  Thus it can be proposed  that only the  viruses
to which the population is susceptible occur in the area's waters.  The
use of the TCD-p. as the measure of dosage would  compensate for region-
al differences by implying that each population responds to its indiginous
viruses and that infective doses  measured as TCD--. will not vary from
population to population.

Based on this best-fit analysis,  the data  were plotted as the lognormal
distribution using the 50% tissue culture  infective  dose (TCIDj-,.) vs
the percent cumulative probability of infection,  along with the 95%
upper and lower confidence limits.  This represents the C  vector,
as presented in Figure 8.                                "

Development of Virus  Distribution Vector for a Given Water Body

The virus requirements or distribution to be expected in a given polluted
water were developed from a study of a stream carried out by S. Grinstein,
J. Melnick, and C.  Wallis,  (1970).  The stream (Brays Bayou) passes
through a Houston, Texas,  residential area and a  10 mile stretch,  receiv-
ing various treatment plant effluents, was selected for study.  A map is
                                  56

-------
                      CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY (GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO,%)


    99.99  99.9 99.8   99  96  95  90   80  70 60  50 40 30  20   10   5       1  0.5      0.1  0.01
3
ee

>  105
ui
C
 ft*





t 103
u
   10
   10'1
26 RANDOM NUMBERS

SAMPLED FROM EMPIRICAL

DOSE-RESPONSE SURVEY
                             II     I  /I  I   I   I   I    I    I   I    I   I      II
    0.01     0.1    0.5 1.0      5   10   20  30 40 50 60 70  80   90   95   98 99   99.8 99.9   99.99


                        CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY (LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO,%)
                     Figure 8.   Virus Capabilities Vector (C  )
                                         57

-------
                      TABLE 15
              Virus Capability Vector (C )

                Using 25 Random Samples
  NAME OF
DISTRIBUTION
    "d"
STATISTIC
PROBABILITY
 DATA CAME
FROM CITED
DISTRIBUTION
Normal
   0.411
    0.000
Lognormal
   0. 116
    0.888
Exponential
Gamma
   0.735
   0.234
    0.000
    0. 129
                          58

-------
presented in the original article.  The data from collection points 10
and 11 were omitted because the stream broadens into a river at that
point.  The  samples from the sewage treatment plants were also
omitted because the samples were taken at the beginning of the treat-
ment process  and were not representative of effluent discharge.  In
all, 39 data points were used to develop the probability distribution of
viruses along  the stream's  course.

As in the previous analysis, a histogram of the data was prepared,
this time relating number of viral PFU per gallon to the frequency
of isolations of the  various  viral concentrations.   Twenty-five points
were selected at random from the histogram and a BSTFIT analysis
carried out.  For this particular  data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov
"d" test determined that a 3-parameter Weibull was the most appropri-
ate  representation of the sampled universe (Table 16).  This 3-para-
meter Weibull is a  recent advancement in the computer program (re-
placing a less exact,  2-parameter fit) and provides  the potential for
more accurate fitting of data.

The  3-parameter Weibull virus distribution is  presented in Figure 9
along with the upper and lower 95%  confidence  limits and the cumula-
tive histogram of the 39 data points.  This plot indicates that 80 or
more PFU/gal.  were present 50% of the time.  An estimate of the
virus risk in a given water  can be made by carrying out a convolution.

The  Convolution and Development of Risk versus Concentration
Criteria

The  two elements, host susceptibility (C  ) and factor concentration
distribution (R ), essential as inputs  into the methodology for assess-
ing  risk, are now available.  The two probability functions are operated
upon within the computer program and the probability density function of
the  difference, (C  - R  ),  determined.  The negative area of this convolu-
tion  (to the left of ahe zero point-see Figure 4) thus  represents the risk
to the recreationist.  At the same time,  the requirements vector  (con-
centration distribution in the water) is truncated at points  from 1  through
7 standard deviations (see Figure 5) from the mean to provide an evalua-
tion  of how much the risk is decreased as the entry to the  water is limited
whenever these levels are exceeded.  The results of this analysis are
presented in Table  17.   The term "basic" for the C vector implies that
the  dose response distribution was used as originally derived in the analysis
for  each truncation of R .
                       q
In carrying out the  convolution it  was assumed that a recreationist would
imbibe 10 ml  of water in the time he is exposed (Streeter,  1951).   From
the  analysis,  the polynomial equation describing the risk versus concen-
tration relationship was derived.  The analysis of variance for the various
polynomial fits selected the quadratic regression as the most applicable.
                                 59

-------
                   TABLE 16
 Virus Requirement Vector (Rq> Formulated from
Melnick Data (Measurement Stations  1, 2, 4, 6,  7,  9)
NAME OF
DISTRIBUTION
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
"d"
STATISTIC
0. 1632
0. 1012
0. 1038
0.0915
0.0764
PROBABILITY
DATA CAME
FROM CITED
DISTRIBUTION
0.250
0.819
0.794
0.900
0.977
                         60

-------
       CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY VIRUS MAY BE PRESENT
          (GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO, %)
                                                      0.3   0.2 0.1
CUMULATIVE HISTOGRAM USING
MELNICK'SDATA
                                                          99  99.9
       CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY VIRUS MAY BE PRESENT
             (LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO.%)
    Figure 9.  Virus Requirements  Vector (R  )


                        61  .

-------
This equation, presented in Table 18, was then used to prepare
the graph in Figure 10 displaying the risk to population using Brays
Bayou as a function of the virus  concentration.  The very narrow 95%
upper and lower confidence limits indicate that a true  physical re-
lationship exists and that the mathematical model is a good repre-
sentation of this relationship.

It will be noted that the virus data is in the form of PFU's, while
the original dose response curve was reported in terms of TCID,--.
The TCID-0 units  were converted over to PFU's according to the
method ofTJavis, et al (1968), where'PFU =  0.7  TCD5Q.  This con-
version was carried out to put the dose effect data into the same units
as reported for the water  concentration distribution.  The PFU-assay
is finding favor with pollution control authorities, who consider that
it is a  direct count of infectious  units and thus comparable to a bac-
terial plate count.

Examination of the information presented shows  that a linear extension
of the dose-response cuxve predicts a 0. 01% (1/10, 000) probability
of infection if 4. 7  x 10"  PFU (1 x 10   TCD5Q) are ingested.  For
a recreationist, this dosage would have to be contained in the 10 ml he
imbibes.

Using the distribution pattern evident in Brays Bayou in Houston as an
example, the convolution of the dose response data and of the varying
virus concentrations has been presented.   This reveals that in Brays
Bayou the  0. 01% risk level is at 6. 5 PFU/I (Figure  11).  In other words,
whenever 6. 5 PFU/1  are  detected at any of the sampling points on
Brays  Bayou a disease incidence of 1 case out of 10, 000 recreationists can
be expected.

This analysis is further extended by utilizing the coliform-virus relation-
ship for  polluted waters presented by Clarke et al (1964) and Sanderson
and Kelly (1961).  Although the information is based on a limited amount
of sampling and a  probability distribution has not been carried out, this
data is the best available at the present time.  These workers estimate
a ratio of approximately 50, 000  coliform bacteria per PFU.   This virus -
coliform ratio is plotted below the virus concentration in Figure 11 and
reveals that for a  1/10, 000 risk level of disease,  35,000 MPN coliform/100
ml can be tolerated in Brays Bayou.

The risk based on fecal coliforms can be similarly estimated if the fecal
coliform-total coliform relationships developed by Strobel (1968) for
Shellfish waters in New York is  assumed to hold  true in Brays Bayou.
By plotting this relationship in Figure 11, a fecal coliform count of about
18,000 MPN/100 ml presents a 1/10,000 risk of iUness due to virus.

This analysis is presented as an orientation to existing standards.  At
present the maximum amount of coliform organisms permitted by any
state for recreational waters is  5000 MPN coliform/100 ml.  However
it must be emphasized that for determining the actual  risk involved in
Brays Bayou, the virus-coliform and coliform-fecal coliform relationships
will actually have to be determined for that particular water. Once this
is done,  a chart similar to Figure 11 can be  constructed for that water.

                                 62

-------
                            TABLE 17


               Limitation of Virus Exposure and the
                    Resultant Risk to a Population
CONVOLUTION
C - R
p q
Virus (PFU)
Basic
i


















i
Basic
Virus (PFU)
x + 7 o-
x + 6 cr
x + 5 cr
X + 4 
-------
                                               TABLE 18


                            Derivation of Equation to Describe Recreationist Risk
                                        as a Function of Virus Criteria
             Equation of Polynomial Best Fit
                                                                      Analysis of Variance
   Y = -2. 7453- 10"3 + 1. 84965- 10"1 X -4. 3744- 10"2 X2
                                                                    F*
                                                                Calculated
                                                               13,171
                                                                               Minimum allowable
                                                                                   from table**
                                                                                 Level of significance
                                                                                   5%
5. 12
                                                                                              1%
10. 56
>:<#
F distribution, which is the distribution of the ratio of two variances.


From tables of critical values of F at 5% and 1% levels.  When the calculated value for F exceeds the
critical value,  the answer is  significant.

-------
20   40    60    80    100   120   140   160   180   200  220
             VIRUS CONCENTRATION. PFU/LITER
     Figure 10.  Criteria for the Presence of Virus
               in a Recreational Water
                        65

-------
        0.014
        0.012
        0.010
        0.008
        0.006
    o
    tn
        0.004
        0.002
                  10
                        4     6    8    10
                          VIRUS, PFU/LITER
                              i     I     I
20    30    40    50    60
COLIFORM, 103 MPN/100 ml
                       12    14
70
              0     5   10   15    20   25   30    35 40

                    FECAL COLIFORM, 103 MPN/100 ml
Figure 11.  Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms as Indicators
                        of Virus Risk
                          66

-------
                             SECTION VII

                   SALMONELLA AS A FACTOR OF
                 RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY


DISEASE AND ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS

Salmonella infections result from the  direct or indirect transmission
by a suitable vehicle of an infecting dose of species  of the genus
Salmonella  from an existing reservoir of infection  to a susceptible
individual.  These infections are of two types, namely, salmonellosis
proper and the enteric fevers.

Salmonellosis is  characterized by a sudden,  usually transient,
stormy gastrointestinal disturbance, following a short incubation
period.  The enteric fevers, which include typhoid and paratyphoid fevers,
are evidenced by a gastroenteritis similar to that produced by other
salmonella species,  as well as a generalized infection of the small
intestine,  involving  invasion of the blood stream, with all of the symp-
toms occasioned  by  septicemia.  The incubation period is usually long
(8-15 days).

Figure 12 is a diagrammatic representation  of some of the parameters
to be considered  in the case of Salmonella as a factor in recreational
water quality.

SOURCES OF INFECTION

Salmonellae fall  into three groups with respect to their distribution
and their relationship to human disease:

       (1)    The first group contains  those that are primarily human
pathogens and includes _S.  typhosa, (synonyms:  Bacterium typhosum,
Bacillis typhosus, Bacillus typhi abdominalis; Bacterium typhi,  Eber-
thella typhi, and  Salmonella typhi), _S.  paratyphi, _S. schottmuelleri, and
S_. hirschfeldii. Of these_S. typosa is the most important, because  of the
severity of the disease it produces.  S_. s chottmuelleri is the most  com-
mon in the United States, S_. paratyphi is occasionally  isolated, and S_.
hirschfeldii is very  rare.

       (2)    The second group is made up of organisms that are pri-
marily pathogenic for animals, including birds,  but which may occasionally
cause disease in  man.  It contains the  maj ority of the Salmonellae.  The
relative incidence of these species in human infections  varies in different
geographical areas,  and depends in large part on the number of person
involved in the particular outbreaks studied.

The  U.S.  Public  Health Service maintains routine surveillance of isola-
tions of Salmonellae reported by the various state health agencies.  Dur-
ing the period January to June, 1969,  the total number of Salmonella
isolations reported from humans  was 8, 645.  The ten most frequently
isolated serotypes are listed in Table  19, with total numbers reported
for the period.

                                67

-------
      OQ

       H
       (0
oo
       to
       o
       3
       (0
       (D
       g.
       O
       OQ
       *
       P
       3
       
-------
                       TABLE 19
       Ten Most Frequently Reported Salmonella
      Serotypes from Humans, January to June,  1969
    typhimurium                        2,453
    enteriditis                            819
    infant! s                               559
    heidelberg                            556
    newport                              546
    thprnpson                             489
    saint Paul                            383
    typhi                                 227
    blockley                              215
    derby                                142

(Source:  U. S.  Public Health Service Morbidity & Mortality
Report, 18:224,329).
                           69

-------
        (3)   In the third group are found those Salmonellae that are
 known to be pathogenic only for animals  or birds.  This group has rapid-
 ly diminished as more and more of these species have been found to cause
 disease in man.  S_. gallinarum, S. abortivoequina, and S_. abortusovis
 are the important organisms in this group.

 That Salmonellae are widely dispersed and occur frequently among  the
 various  species of lower animals is evident from the numerous reports
 in the literature.   This statement applies not only to the host-adapted
 types (the so-called "primary salmonellosis " of many species) but to
 the nonhost-adapted types as well.  Not  only do some types occur both
 in animals and man, but  there is a distinct correlation between the
 presence of the organisms in lower animals and in the human popula-
 tion in any given locality, although the methods whereby the organisms
 are transmitted from animals to man and vice  versa may vary from
 one region to another depending on environmental sanitation and habits
 of the population (Edwards, 1956;  1958).

 Thus, in order to appreciate fully the ramifications of the epidemiology
 of infections due to nonhost-adapted types of Salmonellae,  it is nec-
 essary to consider animal reservoirs of infection;  excretion of the bac-
 teria by human cases, convalescents, and carriers; the occurrence and
 survival of the organism in the environment; and the methods whereby
 they are transmitted among and between man and the lower animals.

 The Salmonelloses and enteric fevers (including typhoid) are outstanding
 examples of diseases that may be transmitted by individuals who, to all
 appearances, are normal and healthy, but are  dangerous because they
 harbor infectious agents.   In the case of typhoid fever,  many epidemics
 have been traced to persons who excrete typhoid bacilli in their feces,
 although they show no outward manifestations of the disease.  About
 one-third of the acute cases discharge typhoid  bacilli for 3 weeks after
 onset, and about 10%  for 8-10 weeks.  The latter group are classed as
 convalescent carriers.  Some typhoid cases may continue  to excrete
 the organisms for  several months, years, or their lifetime, to become
 chronic asymptomatic carriers.  Similar conditions  exist  in the case of
 the salmonelloses proper,  as evidenced by the frequency with which
 asymptomatic persons are revealed to excrete the  organisms in their
 feces.  The experiments of McCullough and Eisele (1951,  series of 4
 papers) demonstrated that symptomless  Salmonella infections  could be
 induced in human volunteers, as evidenced both by fecal excretion and
 rise in agglutinin titer.

 The significance of the carrier state to our  studies lies in the  fact that
 the occurrence of Salmoniella in recreational waters  that have been
 polluted by human or animal fecal matters is not always directly related
 to frank (symptomatic) disease in the human or animal populations con-
 tributing that factor,  and that epidemiological studies that do  not take
 into account the symptomless, carriers may fail to  reveal the source of
.infection (endogenous or  exogenous) derived from aquatic activity.  The
 carrier, however, continuously excretes very  large  numbers of pathogens
 in his feces and thus poses a threat to the population at large (Table 20).
                               70

-------
              TABLE  20

Number of S_.  typhosa and S_. paratyphi B
     in a Gram of Feces of Carriers




Carrier
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Typhoid
Known
Duration of
Carrier State
(Years)
3
3
3
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
Carriers



Number of organisms /g feces

S. typhosa
4, 500,000
4,000,000
550,000
45,000,000
2, 500,000
1,000,000
600,000
500,000
500
500
500
500

Bact. coli, etc.
7,000,000,000
7,000, 000, 000
1,400,000,000
5,000,000
20, 000, 000
100,000,000
700, 000, 000
300,000,000
300,000,000
450, 000, 000
120,000,000
650, 000, 000
Paratyphoid Carriers


Carrier
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Known
Tin i*z* ^"i rtn f\f
J-SU-L CvvAvil *J-i,
Carrier State
(Years)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
12
18
18
20
Number of organisms /g feces

S. oaratvohi B.
12,000, 000, 000
2,000,000,000
500,000, 000
300,000, 000
200,000,000
90,000,000
20,000,000
100,000
25,000, 000
50,000, 000
10,000,000
500,000

Bact. coli, etc.
1, 550,000,000
150,000,000
10, 000,000
8, 500,000
2,450,000
40,000,000
300,000,000
10,000,000
2,500,000,000
250,000,000
20,000, 000
110, 000, 000
                    71

-------
MODES OF TRANSMISSION

Outbreaks  of typhoid fever have been traced most often to drinking water
and milk supplies contaminated with S_. typhosa.  Other means of trans-
mission are flies, infected shellfish, infected food, fomites, and carriers,
although S_. typhosa is sharply distinguished from all  other Salmonellae
by its long-recognized association with water.  As human excremental
organisms  do not multiply in water but merely survive in ever-diminish-
ing numbers  (see below) for periods varying with the  condition of the
water, this association of S_. typhosa infection with water is another in-
dication that  the infecting dose of this serotype is smaller than that of
other serotypes (McCoy,  19&4).

In 1961, an outbreak of typhoid fever was reported from Australia  (Anon
(typhoid),  1961) that was traceable to swimming at a  contaminated  beach.
A nearby sewage plant effluent was implicated as the  source of infection
in a group  of ten persons.  In a five-year study of sea bathing water and
illness of bathers, the British Committee on Bathing  Beach Contamination
encountered small numbers of Salmonella in the high  proportion  of samples.
Although the  most frequently isolated Salmonella was S_. paratyphi  B,  a
total of 33  different species was  encountered (Moore,  1959; Khait,  I960).

In Argentina, Palazzolo,  et al (1954) isolated S_. newport, S_. typhimurium,
S_. muenster, S_.  bredeney,  S_.  monte video, and S_.  ana turn from children
suffering from  enteric disorders.  In a canal epidemiologically related to
the homes  of the children, they recovered 11 serotypes of Salmonella in
83% of the  samples taken,  six of which were identical with those  recovered
from the children.  Similarly, Steinigh (1953) recovered S_.  panama from
a harbor water in the neighborhood of a patient infected with the same  or-
ganism.

The reported instances of frank salmonellosis acquired from swimming
in polluted water are minimal, but the question that remains unanswered
is the amount of simple gastrointestinal upsets occurring, that might  be
traceable to Salmonellae.

OCCURRENCE AND SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA

Assembled below in semi-tabular form are reported  findings  relative
to the occurrence and survival of Salmonella in water.

      SOURCE                          FINDINGS

London Metro Board    In England, Salmonella typhosa has been
   (1931; 1957-8)        isolated frequently from sewage and polluted
                        waters  since 1927.  Following an outbreak of
                        paratyphoid fever in Epping  in 1931, S_.  schott-
                        muelleri was present in large numbers  in the
                        sewage and river water.  In 1958,  S_. schott-
                        muelleri identical with the strain isolated in
                         1931 was still present in Epping sewage and
                        sewage effluent. Salmonella were isolated

                                 72

-------
     SOURCE
                FINDINGS
Wilson
 (1928;  1933; 1938)

Green and Beard
 (1938)

Ruchhoft
 (1934)

Steward and Ghosal
 (1938)

Mom and Schaeffer
 (1940)
Rudolfs,  Falk and
Ragatzkie (1950)
Messerschmidt and
Wedemeyer (1951)
from 19 to 53 raw river water samples and
were identified as : s chottmuelleri,
typhimurium, enteritidis  var,  jena, anatum
braenderup,  and thompson.

Reported numerous isolations of S_. typhosa
from polluted waters and sewage.

Recovered S_. typhosa from 9 to 55 samples
of Palo Alto  sewage.

Isolated S_. typhosa from two samples of
Chicago activated sludge.

Isolated S_. typhosa from the river Hooghly
in India.

Reported an  extensive series of isolations
from sewage, sludge,  and river water at
Bandoeng,  Dutch East Indies.

In their literature review on the  occurrence
and survival of enteric pathogens and re-
lated organisms in water, sewage, etc. ,
these authors reported that:

(1)   E.  typhosa survived in distilled or
      sterilized waters a few weeks to a few
      months, and in polluted waters and
      sewage only a few days, usually a week
      or less.  That is, the survival times
      was in inverse relation to the degree of
      contamination.

(2)   The survival time was shorter in the
      summer than in the winter.: Survival
      time varied inversely with the  tempera-
      ture.

(3)   The zone of greatest  tolerance was pH 5. 0
      to 6.4  and increase of acid resulted in
      rapid mortality.

(4)   E. typhosa and other Salmonella survived
      for varying times in sewage and sludge,
      depending on conditions, and, in general,
      some of the organisms survived sewage
      treatment and were demonstrated in the
      effluent.

Reported that, at a point of discharge into
the Line River,  processed  sewage effluent
                                  73

-------
     SOURCE
                FINDINGS
Kapsenberg
  (1958)
McKinney, Langley
& Tomlinson  (1958)
Lendon and MacKenzie
  (1951)

Ferrarnola, et al
  (1954)
Palazzolo, et al
  (1954)
Broek and Mom
  (1953)
Richter
  (1956)
contained Salmonella in 21 of 45 samples
examined. Of 25 samples taken from the
river up to 3 miles below the outfall, 5
contained Salmonella.

Sampled the effluent of an activated sludge
treatment plant in Amsterdam  from August
1956 to March 1957, using the  Moore gauze-
swab technique.  From 3 to 9 of Salmonella
were isolated from each swab.   A total of
23 types was found.  S_. typhimurium and
S_. bareilly were always  present, S_. schott-
muelleri was recovered less frequently, and
S_. typhosa was isolated twice.

Studied the digested sludge from a 20-day
anaerobic digester and showed a 92.4 per-
cent decrease in S_.  typhosa, and a 84 per-
cent decrease after 6 days retention.

Isolated S_. typhosa from water of the
Wallington River,  Hants, England.

Identified 15 species of Salmonella from the
Mendoza River in Argentina.   Of 481 water
samples examined,  31.3 percent yielded
Salmonella.  The  predominent species were
S_. newport, meleagridis, oranienburg, and
typhimur ium.

Isolated 11 species of Salmonella from canal
waters in the City of Mendoza, Argentina. Some
83% of the water samples taken were positive
for Salmonella.  The most commonly occur-
ing species were S_. newport (58 . 3% of
samples), typhimur ium,  muenster, bredeney,
montevideo and ajiatum.  These  six species
were also isolated from children suffering
from enteric disorders with tiie same re-
spective frequency.

Repeatedly demonstrated S_. paratyphi and
S_. schottmuelleri from polluted ditch waters
in the community  of Waalwijk,  Netherlands.

Recovered S_.  newington, heidelberg, anatum.
urbana,  hull,  infantio, senftenberg,  and
schottmuelleri from sewage-polluted channel
waters in Buxtehude, Germany.
                                  74

-------
     SOURCE
                FINDINGS
Kraus and Weber
 (1958)
Popp
 (1957)
Shrewsbury and
Barson (1952)
Dunlop et al
  (1952)

Dunlop
  (1952)
Norman and Kabler
  (1953)
Denecke
  (1957)
Collet et al
  (1953)
Found that S_.  typhosa survived in impounded
surface water up to 26 days and S_. s chott-
muelleri was still present after 70 days.
Mortalities of bacteria were irregular and
were  affected by water composition and
temperature.

Found that Salmonella persisted in the River
Ober, Germany, for 15 to 21 miles below the
point  of sewage  discharge.

Reported that, when stored under laboratory
conditions, S_. typhosa could be detected in
tap water and in distilled water for 211 days
and in normal saline 153  days when the initial
inoculum was one billion  organisms per ml.

Isolated Salmonella from 8 of 11 sewage con-
taminated irrigation water samples.

From a series of 113 samples,  recovered
Salmonella from 23, representing 13 species,
including one S_.  typhosa.

Identified Salmonella from each of 4 South
Platte River water samples,  from 11 of 16
polluted irrigation waters,  and from 4 of 6
sewage samples.  Seven different types were
isolated from one sample of raw sewage,
6 types from a sample of treated  sewage,
and 8 types from one sample of irrigation
water.  The identified isolates comprised
16 types, the most prevalent being S_.  monte-
video, typhimurium,  bareilly, and newport.

Reported the presence of S_.  typhosa and
other Salmonellae in polluted irrigation
water in Germany.

Were able to isolate S_.  typhosa from the
water of a plant in Amsterdam, from August
1956  to March 1957, using the Moore gauze-
swab  technique.  From 3 to 9 Salmonella
were  isolated from each  swab.  A total of 23
types were found.  S_. typhimurium and S_.
bareilly were always present, S.  schott-
muelleri was recovered less frequently,
and S. typhosa was isolated twice.
                                  75

-------
      SOURCE                          FINDINGS

Darasse, et al           Recovered 5 serotypes (S_. fann, ouakam,
  (1959)                  rubislaw, urbana,  and salford) from tap water
                         in Dakar.  A cistern reservoir at the begin-
                         ning of the distribution system was  contamin-
                         ated by lizard droppings.

McKee and Wolf (1963) assembled the early data on the survival of
Salmonella pertinent to water pollution (Table 21).  Data such as that pre-
sented above reflect the persistent occurence in sewage-polluted sur-
face waters of Salmonella species that are potentially capable of pro-
ducing enteric infection in man.   These organisms have been demon-
strated to persist in the water for a few weeks  to a few months, de-
pending  on the pH, temperature,  and general condition  of the water.
In some cases, they have even been shown to survive sewage treatment.

SALMONELLA AND FECAL COLIFORMS

The relationship between fecal coliforms and various Salmonella species
has been alluded to  in the previous section.   Although quantitative
methods for estimating pathogenic bacteria  in water are still in the
development stage,  improved analytical techniques permit isolation of
Salmonella from waters of relatively low fecal contamination.

Data  obtained by Spino (1966) indicate that Salmonella were consistly
recovered in the Red River of the North when the fecal  coliform
levels were 1, 000 or more.  Studies on other river surveys  indicate
Salmonella could be detected occasionally for values as low as ZO  fecal
coliforms per  100 ml (West, 1966), and in one instance, when only four
fecal coliforms per 100 ml were detected (Gallagher, 1967).  The
uncertain recovery  of Salmonella below about 1,000 fecal coliforms  is
in part due to unpredictable Salmonella discharges, and in part to the
sensitivity limits for the best qualitative procedures available.

APPLICATION OF METHODOLOGY TO SALMONELLA FACTOR

Capability (C_) Vector
            p-i

The capability of humans to resist the pathogen Salmonella was de-
rived from published human dose-response  test data.  These tests
were  particularly relevant to the case of the water recreationist
because  the pathogens in the challenge dose  were ingested orally
arid subjected to  the action of the stomach acids.  S_. typhosa tends
to produce much more severe symptoms than the other Salmonella
and is generally  credited with  greater virulence.  For this  reason
the Salmonella factor was divided into two groups, S_. typhosa and
other Salmonella - (S. - other),  for this study.
                                    76

-------
                              TABLE  21
                      Survival Data for Salmonella
Type Organisms
  Reported

S. typhosa
(from McKee and Wolf, 1963)

       Media and
       Conditions
   Spring water
                         Synthetic well water,
                         PH 5.9, 5 -25C

                         Synthetic well water
                         pH 7, 9. 5 & 21C

                         Synthetic well water,
                         pH 8, 5 & 21C

                         Tap and distilled
                         wate r, qinno culum
                         1 X 10 /ml

                         Distilled water, ,
                         innoculvm 5 X 10  /ml

                         Distilled water   .,
                         innoculum 1 X 10 /ml

                         Water with humus
                         added
                         Water without humus

                         Water or sewage,
                         warm weather

                         Water or sewage,
                         cold weather

                         Fresh water

                         Sea water


                         Sea water

                         Sea water

                         Autoclaved sea
                         water
  Survival
   Time

10% survived
44 hours
                                   7 days


                                   77+ days


                                   196+ days



                                   211 days


                                   59  days


                                   494 days


                                   85-104 days

                                   58-69 days


                                   several days


                                   months

                                   4 days

                                   50-60% sur-
                                   vived 44 hours

                                  >30 days

                                  >32 days


                                   several days
                                   77

-------
                        TABLE 21 (continued)
Type Organisms
  Reported	

S_. typhosa
  (cont. )
E. typhosa
S. paratyphi
S.  paratyphi A


S.  paratyphi B
    Media and
    Conditions

Iblluted water

Shell  oysters

Within gut of Nema-
todes of Rhabditidae
family

Sea water, heat
sterilized

Sea water, raw

San Francisco Bay
10C

San Francisco Bay
filtered,  10C

Tidal water

Sea water

Imhoff tank
sludge

Spring water


Sea water
Tap water, aged
24 hours

Surface water

Autoclaved sea
water

Sea water, innoculum
 1 X 10 7 /ml

Tap water, aged
24 hours
  Survival
   Time

>4 days

 14-60 days



 3-4 days


 25 days

 9 days


 12-28 days


 14-34 days

>2-3 weeks

 14 days


 11 days

 10% sur-
 vived 44 hours

 50-60% sur-
 vived 44 hours


 29 days

 3 months


 several days


 2 months


 25% remain-
 ing in 29 days
                                 78

-------
                       TABLE 21 (continued)
Type Organisms
   Reported

S.  schottmuelleri
S.  enterifides
S.  typhiabdominalis
S.  typhimurium


Salmonella
Typhoid bacteria
    Media and
    Conditions

Sludge banks and
ditch water

Oysters 5 C

Spring water


Sea water
Tap  water, aged 24
hours, + 0. Zgrri/l
sterilized feces,
16-18C

Sea water
Soil and potato
(surface)

Carrot (surface)

Cabbage and Goose-
berries (surface)

Muddy waste water

Water, 0C

Water, 5C

Water, 10C

Water, 18C

Tap,  well and distilled
water

Sea water

Septic sewage

Excreta

Septic tanks
 Survival
    Time
 1. 5 years

 49 days

 10% sur-
 vived 44 hours

 50-60% sur-
 vived 44 hours
 multiplication

 few died in
 24 hours
 40+ days

 10+ days


 5+ days

 180 days

 9 weeks

 7 weeks

 5 weeks

 4 weeks

 2 weeks to
 80 days

 12-16 hours

 5 weeks

 10-84 days

>27 days
                                  79

-------
Type Organisms
  Reported

Typhoid bacteria
  (cont. )
Paratyphoid
bacteria
TABLE 21 (continued)


      Media and
      Conditions

  In gut of fish

  Carp

  Oysters

  Sea water
 Survival
   Time

7-9 weeks

4-6 weeks

9-42 days

21 days
                                   80

-------
Salmonella Typhosa C
	u:	 p

The dose response test data on human volunteers published by Hornick,
et al, is the most complete and quantitatively reliable body of data
dealing with this  subfactor.  In these  studies, human volunteers were
inoculated with graded doses of S_.  typhosa and the frequency  of in-
fection  (illness) noted.

Based on these studies,  a histogram was constructed in which each step
of the histogram represented an average of the data points of volunteers
ill at  each concentration of challenge  dose  (the details of this  analysis
and a discussion of some of the essential assumptions is presented in
Appendix B).

Twenty-five pseudo-random numbers  were generated, and samples
were  obtained from the histogram.  These samples were input to the
BSTFIT program.  The results of this analysis are shown in  Table
22.  This table represents the maximum likelihood estimates of the
parameters describing the normal,  lognormal, exponential, Weibull,
and Gamma distributions.  Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness
"or" fit (or "d")test, itcanbe established that the lognormal probability
density function is the best description of the universe from which the
dose response sample was drawn.

Figure  13 shows  the lognormal distribution selected by BSTFIT, along
with the upper and lower  95% confidence intervals.

Salmonella - other,  C

The S_. -other C  density function is based upon work published by
McCullough ana Eisele in 1951 dealing with strains of S_. bareilly,  S. new-
port,  S. anaturn I, II, and III,  S. meleagridis I, II,  and III, S.  derby,
and S.~puilorum I, II, III, and TV.  Thus groups  of the Kaufrrian-^Wnlfe
Scheme B,  C,, D, and E, the majority of the groups significant to
humans, were covered.  As in the  case of S_. typhqsa^ the pathogens
were fed to the volunteers and thus  the results are directly applicable
to the case of recreation water quality. These tests were performed
in a way to emphasize the detection of a "minimum effective dose. "
They were  conducted in a manner quite similar to "step stress  testing
to malfunction. "  Thus the dose  response data could be input  to BSTFIT
directly without recourse to sampling from a histogram.

The results of the analysis  are shown in Table 23.  Once again the log-
normal  probability density function  has been  selected at the 5% level of
significance.  This probability density function is shown graphically in
Figure  14, along with its upper  and lower  95% confidence limits.
Appendix B presents the complete analysis.

The BSTFIT analysis of the available  Salmonella data challenge some
commonly held concepts on Salmonella infectivity.  The idea  that S_.
typhosa is much more infectious than  the other Salmonella species is
seriously challenged.  The  percent  of population becoming ill can be
compared for the two groups of Salmonella.

                              81

-------
       TABLE 22
typhosa Capabilities Vector (C )
  Using 25 Random Numbers



        (Input Data)

Name of
distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull

"ti"
Statistic
0.538
0.191
0.936
0.2981
-
Probability
that data came
from cited
distribution
0 +
0.317
0 +
0.0235
-
           82

-------
                      99.99    99.999.8    99 98    95   90    80  70  60 50  40  30   20     10   5     2   1  0.5  0.20.10.05  0.01
oo
OJ
       TO
       I 01
cr
o
tn
PS

O
        O
        H
        o
                   10
                                                                                                      DOSE RESPONSE

                                                                                                      HISTOGRAM
                                                                        LOWER 95% CONFIDENCE

                                                                               LIMIT
UPPER 95% CONFIDENCE

         LIMIT
                        0.01  0.05 0.1 0.2  0.5  1   2
                                             5    10    20   30 40  50  60  70  80    90   95    98  99


                                            CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY (LESSTHAN OR EQUAL TO.%)
                                                                                                                99.8 99.9     99.99

-------
        TABLE 23
-other Capabilities Vector (C )
                            P

for 69 Challenge Cases

Name of
distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull

ii 11
Statistic
0.3926
0.1636
0.6589
0.2818
0.5578
Probability
that data came
from cited
distribution
0 +
0.0497
0 +
0.0000348
0 4-
             84

-------
00
(Jl
      OQ
       
       H
       O
       CO
       f"
       i  -

       3
       o
P

i

O
rt
tr
(B
H

O
                                            CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY {GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO,%)
       0)
       en
       (D
       O
       pt-
       O
       i-i
                 P     99.99   99.999.8    99  98    95   90    80  70  60  50 40  30  20    10    5     21   0.5  0.20.10.05  0.01
                        0.01  0.05 0.1 0.2  0.5  1   2     5   10    20   30  40 50  60 70   80     90   95    98   99


                                                  CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY (LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO, %)
                                                                                                            99.8 99.9   99.99

-------
       Population
      Becoming 111        _ Organ! sms Ingested
S. typhosa
8 x 106
1 x 105
1 x 103
S. -other
5 x 107
5 x 105
1 x 104
          50

          10

           1

It is obvious from the comparison that reports stating that one to ten
S_.  typhosa organisms constitute an infective dose are unrealistic
(Kehr, 1943).

A more important result of this study is the similarity of dosages for
the two Salmonella groups, indicating that,  in general, infectivity for
the various Salmonella is rather similar.  This will permit handling the
entire Salmonella factor  as a single group in future analysis.

Requirements (R_) Vector
                q-<

The formulation of the Requirements  (R ) Vector for the Salmonella
requires quantitative measurements on me  distribution of the pathogens
in the waters of interest.  The  probability distribution of Salmonella in a
water would be evaluated for the likelihood  that a recreationist would
encounter a given number of Salmonella while in the water.

It is remarkable that nowhere in this  country are the number of
Salmonella per volume of water routinely counted and indeed it is
almost impossible to uncover any estimate  of Salmonella numbers
in natural waters of any type.   In almost all cases where this factor
is  measured, the results are determined in binary form (presence or
absence of Salmonella),  and sometimes additional studies are performed
to  identify the strain(s) present.

A study representing estimates of Salmonella concentration in an estuary
was conducted by McCoy (1964) in England.   His findings are reproduced
here as Table 24.   It will be noted that these results  are  categorized
in  terms of MPN (most probably number) per liter, a form sometimes
used to report the presence  of coliform bacteria.  The use of binary
tests to predict  the number of coliform bacteria in a  sample has been
discussed in the literature for many years.   The validity of the method-
ology rests  on the favorable comparison of test results using known
or true mean densities inoculated into appropriate fermentation tubes
and the MPN predictions  calculated from the number of tubes showing
positive growth.

The numbers shown in Table 24 may be very low.  Bucyowska (McCoy,
1964) indicates that quantitive measurements in Polish coastal waters
                                    86

-------
             TABLE 24





Salmonella Factor Requirements Data
(from McCoy, 1964)
MPN
org /liter
0
1-9
10
20
35
50
70
90
120
161
230
No. of
Samples
152
85
66
35
13
9
8
6
4
5
3
Percent
Positive
38.8
21.6
16.8
8.9
3.3
2.3
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.3
0.8
Cum.
Percentage
38.8
60.4
77.2
86.1
89.4
91.7
93.7
95.2
96.2
97.5
98.3
              87

-------
showed that  "... a large number of these samples  contained 1, 000
Salmonella per litre. " In the 392 samples examined by McCoy, 240
or 61. 2% had at least 1 MPN Alter Salmonella.

Consideration should also be given the fact that saline water Salmonella
recoveries are consistently lower than in fresh water and that the percent
recovery using various enrichment media that  depend on a selective
toxicant (e. g., tetrathionate) has not been worked out. However, it is
quite likely that the relative distribution of sample count versus percent
positives reported by McCoy is an accurate estimate and that on this
basis a probability distribution can be carried  out.  Accordingly,  the
numbers in the table were scaled up by factors of 10  and 10   to bring
the MPN count up to a range that could be expected to be present
during an actual outbreak.

Next, it was assumed that a recreationist will  ingest  10 ml of water
(Streeter,  1951), although there is really no statistical basis for this
assumption;  because it does seem to be a conservative estimate, the
MPN numbers were again adjusted upward by an order of magnitude.

However, as discussed earlier, the  C  fits had inherent in their histo-
grams the  assumption that the cited  challenge doses was actually the lower
end of the class interval (see Appendix B).  Since this assumption could
be considered unconservative,  the R   data were increased by two orders
of magnitude.                       ^

In summary, then:

      j>._ - total (R  ) = MPN (Salmonella)/liter  x 10 ml ingested
                         1 liter
                         1000 ml
                      (for compatibility with C  data)

When more information is made available on the requirements vector,
some of these assumptions may prove to be unnecessary.

Just as in the C  analysis,  a histogram was sampled using 25 random
numbers and the sample input to BSTFIT.  The Kolmogorov-Smirnov
goodness of fit test selected (Table 25) a Weibull as the preferred dis-
tribution.  It should be noted that all four maximum likelihood best fits
were very  poor,  reflecting a  significant lack of confidence in the data.
The  improvement in the accuracy of measurement of the requirements
vector is an area in which fruitful research can and should be performed.

The  BSTFIT density function for the Salmonella factor was converted
to S. typhosa and S. -other by ratioing the Salmonella R  density function
by 5% and 95% respectively, based on the frequency of isolation of the
various species (Moore,  1900).  The results of  the convolution analysis,
as discussed in the next section, showed that the subdivision of the
factor  Salmonella into S.  typhosa and S. -other was a needless refinement.
                                88

-------
                             TABLE 25
              Salmonella Total Requirements Vector (R  )

                       Using 25 Random Numbers

Name of
distribution
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull

"d"
Statistic
0.364
0.360
0.359
0.359
Probability
that data came
from cited
distribution
0,00265
0.00307
0.00317
0.00319
The two probability distributions, dose effect and factor concentration,
were used to develop the basic risk curve by determining their interaction.
The basic convolution was then truncated to develop the risk versus
factor  concentration criteria.

Truncation of the basic curve - equivalent to criteria - reduces the
risk as the R  cut-off point approaches the mean.  In Table 26 the basic
untruncated convolution can be seen to yield a  probability (risk) of illness
of 0.000423 (4/10,000) for S. tvohosa and 0.001208 (1/1.000) for  S.-other.
This indicates that there is only a small difference, if any, in the infect-
ivity of the two Salmonella groups.

The results of the convolutions carried out on the two groups of
Salmonella using the two different R  sets (McCoy x 1,000 and McCoy x
100, 000) were examined to determine the relationships between the two
Salmonella sub-factors.  This is illustrated in Figure 15.

The equation  of the risk-concentration relationship was next developed.
Attempts were made to fit both decimal and logarithmic  functions to
the risk-concentration data and from the analysis of variance to select
the most probable fit.  The linear regression was selected as the most
descriptive polynomial and this form, presented in Table 27, was used
in preparing the dose vs risk curve in Figure 15,  along with the 50% confi-
dence  limits.

The wide spread in the data as compared to the virus  analysis indicates
that more work is required on this factor.  The most  probable area
of uncertainty is in the frequency distribution of the Salmonella concen-
 tration in the water (R  vector).
The analysis was based on only one

89

-------
                                               TABLE 26


                             Truncated Convolution of Dose Effect and Factor

                                Concentration Based on McCoy's Data (x 1000)
S. typhosa

CONVOLUTION
(C R )
v p q
Basic














I
Basic
Basic
x. + So-
x -f 4o-
x -f 3-l/2o-
x -fr 3ff
x -f 2-l/2cr
x + 2cr
x + l-l/2o-
x 4- Icr
x * l/2o-
x
CRITERIA
(Truncation
point of Rq
organism/1
None
6,079
4,982
4,437
3,891
3,346
2,801
2,255
1,710
1,165
619

P
(Illne s s )
0.000423
0.000233
0.000192
0.000172
0.000151
0.000131
0.000110
0.000089
0.000068
0.000046
0.000025


CONVOLUTION
(C - R )
v p q
Basic







i
Ba







r
sic
Basic
5E -i- So-
x 4 4o-
x + 3-1/20-
X + 3(T
x + 2-l/2o-
x + 2cr
x + 1-1/20-
x + la-
x -t- l/2o-
X
S.- other

CRITERIA
(Truncation
point of Rq
organism/1
None
115,391
94,665
84,303
73,940
63,578
53,215
42,852
32,490
22,127
11,764


P
(Illness)
0.001208
0.000809
0.000691
0.000628
0.000561
0.000492
0.000419
0.000343
0.000265
0.000183
0.000099
vC
o

-------
               10
  OQ
  H
  (D
   n
?a
P.  S
ft
i-i
   O
   MI

   Cfl
          w
          E
              1.0
              0.1
              0.01
             0.001
                                                                                 10
                                                                                                 10y
                                      SALMONELLA CONCENTRATION, ORGANISMS/LITER

-------
                                                 TABLE 27


                              Derivation of Equation to Describe Recreationist Risk
                                       as a Function of Salmonella Criteria
             Equation of polynomial best fit
             Analysis of/variance
N>
                                                              F*
                                                          Calculated
           Log  Y=  -14.1365 + 0.61049 Log  X
1,037
                          Minimum allowable
                             from table**
                                                                                Level of  significance
                                                                                5%
                                         1%
4.12
7.42
               *.
                F  distribution, which is the distribution of the ratio of two variances.

               [<
                From tables of critical values of  F  at 5% and 1% levels.  When the calculated value for  F
                exceeds the critical value, the answer is significant.

-------
study of  Salmonella  distribution (McCoy, 1964) and several assumptions
had to be made oeiore this data could be used.  The need for additonal
surveys is  strongly emphasized.  The lumping of the S_.  typhosa dose-
response data with the other Salmonella may also contribute to the lower
confidence  levels.  However, until more distribution data is available,
this view can only be regarded as being speculative.

The analysis is nonetheless important in that it does quantify the risk to
a population using a given water contaminated with Salmonella.  The risk
of ill  effect of 2 cases/10, 000 population at a count of 10, 000 Salmonella
organisms  per liter does not appear unreasonable.  There is now suffi-
cient  information on hand to justify considering criteria based on esti-
mating the  actual number of Salmonella in a recreational water.

An analysis of the Salmonella data similar to that carried out for the
viruses can be prepared.  This would demonstrate the application of the
methodology to control risk in a population.  If one case of illness per
100, 000 population is selected as the standard, the concentration require-
ments for Salmonella,  coliform', and fecal coliform  can be determined.

In this case,  the estuary  studied by McCoy will be used as the example.
From the convolution ot the dose-response data and the factor distribution
it is determined that a concentration of 80 MPN Salmonella /liter constitutes
a 1/100, 000 risk of illness.   In this  case,  the  Salmonella-coliform ratio is
derived from actual studies  carried out in the  estuary by McCoy (1964).
This relationship is presented in Figure 16 below the Salmonella concen-
trations and below this the fecal coliform-coliform relationships developed
by Strobel  (1968) are also presented.  From the  figure we can conclude that a
risk 1/100, 000 for developing illness due to Salmonejla is probable when
counts of 8 x 10  MPN coliforms/100 ml or 6. 9 x 10  MPN fecal coliforms/
100 ml are present at the various sampling points.

The State standards of 5000  MPN coliform/100 ml presents less than
1/1 x 10 risk of illness, which is clearly negligible.  This could explain
the almost complete lack of epidemiological evidence for Salmonella in-
fections even when recreationists use heavily polluted waters  (Moore, 1954;
McCoy,  1964; Flynn, 1965).  In the  two analyses presented it is obvious
that the virus criteria will dominate and serve as the basis  for standards
setting.
                                  93

-------
                      0.100
vO
        CTQ
        c
        l-i
        n
        o
        I  

        K
        o

     0  h
       3
     Cn en
        ^
        (D

        O
     co  O

     5^ P


        o1
        H
                      0.010
o

M  0.001

E
  0.0001
                            10
           ,-1
10"
1               102


 SALMONELLA/LITER
103
104
        CL
        i-"
        n

        P>
        rr
        O
        N
        cn
                           103
                         4.9 x 102
                          10*
                        5.8 x 103
                  105              106

                 COLIFORM. MPN/100 ml
                6.5 xlO4          7.0 xlO5


               FECAL COLIFORM, MPN/100 ml
                                 107
                               7.2 x 106
                 108
               7.1 x 107

-------
                               SECTION VIII

   TOTAL, AND FECAL COLIFORM AS INDICATORS OF RECREATIONAL
                              WATER QUALITY

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

The fecal coliform test to detect pollution by warm-blooded animals has
been proposed as a better bacteriological measurement of public health
hazards in stream pollution investigations, in sewage treatment systems,
and in bathing water than the traditional total coliform bacterial procedure.
The fecal coliform is gradually gaining acceptance as a routine supple-
mentary determination (Geldreich, 1967).

THE BACTERIA OF INTEREST

Most bacteria in water are derived from contact with air, soil,  living
and decaying plants or animals, and the fecal excrement from warm
and cold-blooded animals.   Present interest is  in those species  or
groups that can be considered a hazard to public health.

The pollution of water with fecal matter may add a variety of intestinal
pathogens having the potential of causing human or zoonotic disease.

While it is recognized that harmful contamination of outdoor bathing
beaches may be caused by sewage, by the dumping of refuse , or by
the individual bathers  themselves, the  transmission of disease by bathing
waters has not  been  established as a major public health hazard (Stevenson,
1953; Moore, 1959).  The condition of bathing waters varies from day to
day and season to  season,  and it may be altered by:

         (1)    Fixed sources of pollution

         (2)    Incidence of disease among the local  population

         (3)    The bathing load

         (4)    Physical factors ,  such  as  wind, weather,  and temperature

         (5)    Composition of the water

Other important questions must be answered, including:

         (1)   How important is the small amount of water  swallowed while
              bathing as an etiological factor?

         (2)   Which diseases are transmissible by  bathing water?

         (3)    To  what degree are diseases  contracted at beaches through
               exposure to infected water, infected people,  and infected
              appurtenances ?
                                   95

-------
Pathogens

The most common genera of pathogenic organisms found in .water are
Salmonella, Shigella,  Vibrio, Mycobacterium, Pasteurella, and
Leptospira, as well as certain enteric and respiratory viruses.  Although
these pathogens have been found, a wide variety of media and methods are
necessary to detect  them.  Recent studies  of Salmonella detection in
sewage (Dunlop,  1957), irrigation water (Dunlop,  et al,  1951;  1952),
river water (Spino,  1966) and tidal waters  (Brezenski, et al, 1965) pro-
duced promising techniques that permit the isolation of these pathogens
from waters with relatively low coliform densities.  For example,
Salmonella were isolated from the Red River of the North when the
coliform density was 2, 200/100 ml and the fecal coliform level was 220/
100 ml.  According  to Geldreich (1966), the use of these organisms
as pollution indicators may not be desirable.  The intervals between
sampling, pathogen  detection, and condemnation of a water supply
would result in an exposure risk to the  consumer  or recreationists;
moreover, failure to demonstrate pathogenic  organisms does  not
always ensure a safe water.

Indicator Organisms

Studies on the origins of fecal coliforms and fecal  streptococci have
generated renewed interest in these groups as better indicators of
pollution by warm-blooded animals than the traditional coliform proce-
dure used.in water pollution studies.

To be of value, a biological indicator of contamination or pollution must
satisfy the following criteria (Fair and  Geyer,  1956;  McCarthy, 1961):

         (1)   It must be a reliable measure of the potential presence of
              specific contaminating organisms,  both in natural waters
              and in waters that  have been subjected to treatment.
              To meet this requirement, the indicator organism  or
              organisms must react to the natural aquatic environment
              and to treatment processes,  including disinfection, in
              the same way, relatively, as do the contaminating  organ-
              isms.

         (2)   It must be present in numbers that are relatively much
              larger than those of the contaminating organism whose
              potential presence it is to indicate.  Otherwise, detection
              of the contaminating organism itself would serve a more
              useful purpose.

         (3)   It must be readily  identified by relatively simple analyti-
              cal procedures.

         (4)   It must lend itself  to numerical evaluation as well as qualita-
              tive identification.
                                96

-------
 The Total Coliform Group

 Coliform bacteria have traditionally been the bacteriological tool used
 to measure  the occurrence and intensity of fecal contamination in water
 pollution investigations for nearly 60 years,  largely because they meet
 the criteria outlined above.  During this time, a mass of data has been
 accumulated to permit a full evaluation of the sensitivity and the specifi-
 city of this bacterial pollution indicator.

 As defined in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-
 water (APHA, 1965),  "the coliform group includes all of the aerobic and
 facultative anaerobic,  Gram-negative, non-spore-forming,  rod-shaped
 bacteria which ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at
 35  C. " From this definition,  it becomes immediately apparent that  this
 bacterial grouping is somewhat artificial in that it embodies a hetero-
 geneous collection of bacterial species, having only a few broad charac-
 teristics in  common.  Yet for practical applications to  surface water
 pollution studies,  this grouping of selected bacterial species, termed
 the total coliform group, has proved to be a workable arrangement;.

 The total coliform group merits consideration as an indicator of pollution
 because these bacteria are always present in the normal intestinal tract
 of humans and other warm-blooded animals  and are eliminated in large
 numbers in  fecal wastes.  Thus the absence of total coliform bacteria is
 evidence of  a bacteriologically safe water.

 The relationship between the bacterial quality of bathing water and the
 incidence of illnesses  in swimmers, as compared with non-swimmers,
 was studied  by Streeter  (1951).  His analysis is based on:

         (1)    The incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid in a region

         (2)    The morbidity - mortality ratio

         (3)    The relationship between these diseases  and other
              enteric infections

         (4)    The ratio of coliforms to pathogens

         (5)    The frequency of swimming

         (6)    The assumption that 10 ml of water will be swallowed
              by each bather each day.

         (7)    The probability that this ingestion will cause illness

Streeter  (1951) used the findings of Kehr and Butterfield (1943) as a
basis for an analysis of the rationality of various proposed bathing water
standards, as viewed from the standpoint of water-borne disease hazards.
Kehr and Butterfield (1943) reviewed a number of studies in England, Indonesia,
and California, where  the successful enumeration of both coliforms and
typhoid and para-typhoid organisms was carried out in sewage and sewage-
polluted waters at the  time of outbreaks of these enteric diseases.  They
derived a correlation between  the morbidity rates from typhoid fever in
different areas and the ratios of E.  coli to E. typhosa in the sewage and
sewage-polluted waters of the  areas (see Figure 17).
                                 97

-------
vO
oo
       OQ
        c
        H
     173
        en
     hcj (D
     CD
     O  3
     N  ^
        O
        ^

        
-------
The following account is an extract of Streeter's study on bacterial
objectives for the Ohio River, and is quoted because the  reasoning con-
tained therein has indirectly formed the basis for most,  if not all, of
the state total coliform standards.

"According to U.S.  Census mortality  reports for various diseases, the
average typhoid mortality rate for seven Ohio River states in the years
1945-47 was 0. 4 per 100, 000 (as compared with a rate of 0. 2 per 100, 000
in the U.S. Registration Area).   Assuming a morbidityrmortality ratio
of 10 to 1, this would indicate a morbidity rate  of 4 per 100, 000, or
0.04 per 1000." From Kehr and Butterfield's curve, the corresponding
ratio of E.  typhosaiE. coli in the sewage and sewage-polluted waters of
such an area would be about 170, 000 coliforms  for each E_.  typhosa
organism.  This, of course, is  an extremely low infection ratio for
typhoid fever, but nonetheless measurable according to the  Kehr-
Butterfield results.                                   ,

In order  to apply these data to an evaluation of the typhoid hazard in the
bathing waters  of an area,  it is  necessary to assume the average volume
of water  ingested per bather per day.   For the purposes  of estimate,
let this volume be assumed as  10 ml,  which probably would be high for
trained swimmers,  and low for children.

Now let:

     R = The number of coliforms per single E. tvphosa in the  bathing
          water

     B = The number of bathers per day

     V = The volume of water, in ml ingested per bather per day

     C = The average coliform content of the bathing water per ml

Then, the chance of exposure (P ) of (B) bathers to a single E. typhosa
on any day is:

                               P  = BVC/R
                                e

and the exposure interval,  in days, between successive ingestions of a
single organism is:

                            I  = 1/P = R/BVC
                             e       e

For illustration, let us assume R = 170, 000; V = 10 ml,  and C = 10 per
ml or 100 per  10 ml.   Then the chance that a single bather would be
exposed to ingestion of one  E. typhosa organism would be:

                               p =  1/1,700
                                 e
During a 90-day bathing season, if he bathes every day,  his risk of
exposure will be 90/1700,  or 1/19.
                                  99

-------
Kehr and Butterfield estimated that about two percent  of persons exposed
to ingestion of a single 1C.  typhosa organism  actually contract the disease.
On this basis, it may be estimated that the bather's risk of contracting typhoid
fever during a 90-day  season would be 1/19 x 1/50, or 1/950.

A fundamental assumption here is the estimate that one E.  typhosa ingested
will  infect two percent of the exposed subjects.  Based on the dose response
curve (Figure 13) developed from actual S.. typhosa ingestions by human
volunteers it is apparent that more than 1000 S_. typhosa must be ingested
to give a two percent probability  of illness.  Because the two types of typhosa
are of roughly the same virulence, the early work of Kehr and Butterfield,
probably overestimates the infectivity of E.  typhosa.

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON HEALTH/WATER QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS

Epidemiological and statistical studies of populations that have been
bathing or swimming in contaminated waters provide a direct approach
to assessing recreational water quality.   The number  of such investiga-
tions has been limited to only three in the  United States. A study of  this
type was made for the U.S.  Public Health Service by Stevenson et al
(1953). These workers undertook a series of field studies of selected
population groups swimming in waters of different bacterial quality to
determine the relationship between incidence of illness  among swimmers
and the coliform density of the water. Table 28 summarizes some of the
basic data collected.

The  results  indicate that illness  occurrs more frequently among swimmers
than non-swimmers.  This observation is  not surprising in view of the fact
that  water is an abnormal  habitat for man,  regardless  of its quality.  The
results also showed that when total illnesses among swimmers and non-
swimmers were compared, except as noted below, there appeared to be
no significant correlation between illness Incidence and quality of the
water in the areas studied.

It might also be of interest to note that among swimmers, eye,  ear,  nose,
and throat ailments represented  more than half of all the illnesses re-
corded, gastrointestinal disturbances about 20%,  and skin irritations
the remainder.  Eye,  ear,nose,  and throat ailments represented an  even
higher percentage,  68 percent, of pool-swimmer  illnesses.

Stevenson et al (1953)  actually found a specific correlation between illness
incidence and quality of water in  two  instances.  In the first case, rates
were measured for several days  following three-day periods of high  and
low bacterial concentrations at one beach on Lake Michigan.  It was  ob-
served that illness frequency was significantly higher among swimmers
when the water had an average coliform density of 2300 per 100 ml than
when the average density was 43  per  100 ml.

In the second instance, swimming in  the Ohio River when the "median
coliform density" was 2700 per 100 ml appeared to have caused a signi-
ficant increase in gastrointestinal illness, although the  total number of
illnesses was small (Smith and Woolsey, 1951).
                                100

-------
                           TABLE 28
     Summary of Data from Studies of Bathing Water Quality
                     (after Stevenson, 1953)
             Coliform Concentration,
                MPN per 100 ML
No. of Illnesses per 1000
     Person-Days
Water Body
Lake
Lake
Ohio
Pool
Tidal
Tidal
Michigan
Michigan
River

Water
Water
Location Median
Chicago I
Chicago II
Kentucky
Kentucky
New Rochelle ,
N. Y.
Ma mar one ck ,
91
190
2700
<3
610
253
Minimum
9. 1
23
230
-
<30
<30
Maximum
3
24
160

460
' 460
,500
, 000
, 000
-
,000
, 000
Among
Swimmers
7.
8.
8.
13.
5.
6.
1
3
8
8
3
2
Among
Non- Swimmers
3
5
7

3
3
. 7
. 6
.4
-
. 3
. 3
N.Y.

-------
Stevenson et al (1953) point out that these two cases do not constitute
conclusive evidence of correlation between illness and bathing water quality,
because the numbers of individuals and days  involved were so few.

A subsequent study was conducted by USPHS  personnel on Long Island
Sound to determine the relationship between illness and bodily exposure
to contaminated salt water.

This investigation gave no evidence that variation in water quality of the
sort encountered is capable of producing marked differences in the amount
of illness experienced by swimmers.   The  data from this study were of
sufficient internal consistency to indicate that significant effects  would
have shown up had they existed.

An intensive epidemiological investigation was conducted by Moore, and
his  committee on bathing beach contamination,  in England and Wales
(1954;  1959).  Extensive bacteriological  and  epidemiological studies were
made over a period of five years in relation to more than 40 popular
bathing beaches, the waters of the great  majority of which were subject
to contamination with sewage.  The median presumptive coliform
counts varied from 40 to  25, 000 per 100  ml;  as many as 40 percent of
the samples  contained over 10,000 coliforms per 100 ml.  In addition
to coliform bacteria, determinations were  made for members of the
Salmonella group, of which 33 different species were isolated.

The general  conclusions of the Moore committee were that bathing in
sewage-polluted water carries only a negligible risk to health, and,
where the risk is present,  it is probably associated with chance
contact with  intact aggregates  of infected fecal material.  In the
entire study, there were  only  four cases of paratyphoid fever that
could possibly have been attributed to bathing in infected sea water.
In each case, however, the bathing area was contaminated with visible
fecal material.  The committee indicated that unless the water is so
fouled as to render the bathing beach esthetically revolting, it would
seem that public health requirements are reasonably well met by the
present British  policy of improving grossly unsanitary beaches and
preventing as far as possible  the pollution  of the waters with undisinte-
grated fecal matter.  The extreme view of  the British workers is not
shared by American public health authorities.

In order  for  the coliform test to continue as a useful criterian of health
risk from polluted waters, it must be quantitatively related to the
presence of pathogens. This  requires that the relative distribution of
pathogens and coliforms in a given water be determined and a correlation
calculated.   The basic data required to carry out this analysis was
fortunately available  from the  studies of  McCoy (personal communication).
He simultaneously estimated that  numbers  of coliforms and numbers of
Salmonella, present in an estuary over a given period of time.  This
information is presented in Table 29,  The data and the calculated
regression line are presented  in Figure 18. The equation for the  line,, in
this case a quadratic regression,  was determined to be:
                                     102

-------
                              TABLE 29

                  Occurrence of Salmonella and E. coli in
                          an Estuary
(MPN Salmonella and E. coli I (xlO~ ) Normalized for Flow of 1 MGD)
Date

Aug 1/2 Sal.
E. coli I
8/9 Sal.
E. coli I
15/16 Sal.
E. coli I
22/23 SaJ.
E. coli I
29/30 N. G.


Sept 5/6N. G.
^J2/13 Sal.
E. coli I
19/20 Sal.
E, coli I
26/27 Sal.
_E. coli I
Oct 3/4 Sal.
E. coli I
Time
1000-
9.
1.
1.
1.
1.
0.
14.
2.




>164.
29.
25.
1.
1.
1.
<1.
< 0.
1500 1600-2100
96
83
58
10
96
176
7
65





5
6
15
78
96
66
30
6.
1.
2.
22.
0.
14.
1.




>164.
11.
38.
7.
3.
1.
1.
0.
66
299
58
85
5
176
7
62





35
5
05
57
96
66
666
MGD
Corre
tion
2200-0300 0400-0900
0.
>28.
9.
8.
1.




98.
2.
6.
0.
3.
1.
1.
0.
66
299
58
5
8
6
82
02




3
93
41
256
57
23
66
666
0.
0.
9.
0.
1.
0.




37.
11.
38.
4.
1.
1.
<1.
0.
66
299
58
634
8
176
47
59




7
35
5
44
78
23
66
30
(
(
1
(
/
\
/
<
/
\


1



0

0
r
i
ID
f
f>
f
0
f
~Q
i
/
I1
f
1
f-
1
1 \
. 6oy
i \
.63,1
1 \
. 02J
rss)
1
.68
1
762"
1 <
.61
1 \
56/
1 \

1 \
.60;
                                 103

-------
    *J
    H'
   CfQ



    CD

    t
    00
    CD
o  sr
o   5.
H-"  H-

?  


31
(-"
P   o
    l-h
M  3

I  I
(U   H
    en
    P
    i

    3
    o

    0)
rl-

O
                                                                         456


                                                                              106E.coli/100ml
                                                                                                                                               10
11

-------
         Y = -4. 1 x 10'2 + 1. 07 x 10'5 X - 6. 55 x 10~3 X 2


This equation was used to calculate the relationship at low levels of
coliform number and the expanded lower portion of the curve is  present-
ed in Figure 19.  The scatter of the data at the low end of the curve
prevented a more accurate estimate of the slope and it was not possible
to bring the cuve through the origin.

The curve in Figure 19 predicts a/concentration of 10 Salmonella organ-
isms/100 ml for an MPN of 1 x 10  coliform/100 ml,  a figure that is^not
too different from Kehr  and Butterfield's estimate of 6 S_. typhosa/10
coliforms.   This information was then superimposed on the risk curve
for Salmonella  shown in Figure  16.

Based on the above analysis, it is concluded that the criteria for total
coliform, as an indicator of health risk,  have in the past been very
conservatively  estimated.  It is  of little  wonder that the value and reliability
of the coliform test, as  an indicator and predictor of disease hazards in
recreational, has been seriously questioned.  Past epidemiological evidence
did not very often fit the facts.

As noted above, the very recent literature seriously challenges the value
of the coliform test as an indicator of hazard to water recreationists.
The studies of Moore (1959) and of McCoy (1964) indicate that there is
very little hazard from Salmonella when heavily polluted water (by present
standards) is used for recreation.  Flynn (1965) in Australia flatly states
that there is no  relationship between  coliform count and disease resulting
from swimming and feels that the coliform criteria,  as presently consti-
tuted, do not in any way reflect actual health risks in recreational waters.

The application of the methodology to the health risk associated with coli-
form concentration reveals the weakness of present methods of criteria
setting and at the same time offers a way of establishing a  meaningful
coliform index.   By basing the  correlation of the Salmonella and coliform
factors as their frequency distribution in a given water, a true picture
of the indicator  role of E. coli  can be derived.  This  could then be super-
imposed  on the risk curve of the factors  of interest,  virus  and Salmonella,
and realistic coliform criteria  that are directly related to the level of risk
then derived.

It is interesting to note from the examples given that it is the  risk of
virus infection  that will pertain in the establishment of "safe" coliform
levels.  In contradiction to traditionally  held views,  the probability of
a virus infection increases more rapidly than does the risk from
Salmonella.

Fecal Coliforms

Unfortunately,  some strains included in  the total coliform group have a
wide distribution in the environment but  are not common in fecal
material.  To further complicate the problem, some  coliforms  surviving
sewage chlorination may increase, exponentially within one or two days'
travel downstream (Evans, et al, 1968).  This phenomenon,  known as

                                   105

-------
OQ
 C
 n
 0)
 I?
13
 Pu
 n
 o
 n
 rt-
 H-
 O
 3

 O
 l-h
OQ

 i-<
 rt
 00

 O
                 E
                
I
a.
      10 
                         5 x 104      105
                                                                                  E.coli/100ml

-------
aftergrowth,  is associated with the Aerobacter aerogenes portion of the
total coliform group.  This organism can grow with very minimal
nutrients and does not require the complex amino acids  or other additives
that are necessary for E.  coli and other fecal coliform strains.  Thus,
A. aerogenes is the most responsive coliform bacteria to the stimulation
by available nutrients and the associated factors of favorable tempera-
ture,  pH, and chelation  of toxic metal ions by various colloids present
in the polluted water.

Other indicator systems have been proposed from time to time,  including
certain pathogenic bacteria, anaerobic spore-formers,  and total bacteria
population.   For a variety of reasons,  these indicator systems have not
been found to be satisfactory.   However,  recent investigation into the
fecal  coliform sub-group of the total coliform bacteria has shown promise
for improving the bacteriological tools used to detect evidence of fecal
pollution (Geldreich, 1966).

By definition, the fecal coliform group is composed of organisms that
ferment lactose and produce gas within 24 hours at 44. 5 C and is more
inclusive than the ++--IMViC strain, E_. coli, type I.  The detection of
fecal  coliform bacteria by confirmation of all positive presumptive tubes
in EC medium at 44. 5 C,  or by the  membrane filter procedure with
M-FC (Geldreich, etal,  1966) at 44.  5C is known as  the elevated
temperature test.  In the evaluation  of results,  all coliforms from the
feces of warm-blooded animals are  considered  fecal coliform strains.

In studies on the occurrence of fecal coliform in the environment,
the elevated  temperature procedure  was shown  to have had a 96. 3%
correlation with coliforms from such fecal  sources as humans,  cows,
pigs,  sheep, chickens, turkeys, and ducks  by Geldreich and collabora -
tors  (1962).  Research on the occurrence in the environment of fecal
coliform bacteria from dogs, cats,  and various rodents, including
rabbits,  chipmunks, and mice, indicated a 94. 5% correlation of the
test with fecal origin of these coliform organisms (Geldreich, 1965).
This type of pollution could  be a major source of the fecal organisms
found in residential storm-water runoff and in bathing beach water.

If one assumes that fecal coliforms  make up about 15% of the total
coliform count (Spino,  1968), then an analysis similar to that of Streeter
can be made for the fecal coliforms.  In Streeter's work he proposed
a Salmonella /coliform ratio of 1/170,000; 15%  of this figure would give
a Salmonella/fecal coliform ratio of 1/25,000.   Using this  ratio as a
basis, and calculating the risk associated with typical state standards
of 1000/100 ml for fecal coliform, a risk of infection of If 150 is
predicted.  Obviously this high level of risk would be intolerable;
it is,however, incompatible with epidemiological evidence  as to disease
incidence.

This type of evidence sheds doubt on the validity of fecal coliform
standards with respect to assessing the risk of infection with enteric
disease.  From a review of the published literature,  it  is apparent


                                    107

-------
that fecal coliform standards are correlated with total coliform inci-
dence, and not to Salmonella or disease incidence.  By assuming a
constant ratio of TC/FC in water, and setting standards accordingly,
the usefulness  of fecal coliforrns as an indicator is jeopardized.  What
is urgently needed are more quantitative studies on Salmonella /fecal
coliform ratios before realistic risk situations  can be established.

Strobel (1968) examined the relationship between fecal coliforrns  and
coliforms for several embayments located on Long Island,  New York.
The data demonstrated that this relationship varies  with the source of
pollution, level of treatment provided, characteristics of the receiving
waters, and precipitation on the watershed.  He concluded that the
correlations  should be specific for each given water of interest.  This
fits in with one of the  main  tenets of the methodology developed in this
program in that the factor distributions should be established for each
water of interest as part of the monitoring program.

As an example of this type  of analysis, the data developed by Strobel
for Hempstead Bay was used in Figure 11 and Figure  16 to demonstrate
the use of fecal coliforms  for establishing risk  criteria.  The super-
imposing of the various factor concentrations on the abscissa of the risk
curve permits  the correlation of new or complementary standards with
traditional criteria.

SUMMARY

The traditional concept of using levels of total coliform densities to des-
cribe bacteriological acceptability of water bodies has  been questioned
by many because the presence of coliforms  may result from causes other
than fecal pollution.  Because fecal coliform densities  result from pollu-
tion by man and other warm-blooded animals, they are more directly
indicative of the  probable presence of the associated enteric pathogens.
However, summarized data from several stream surveys reported
over the past few years show little apparent correlation between
quantities of total or fecal coliform and the  probable isolation of such
pathogens as Salmonella and viruses.  Salmonellae were isolated by
Spino (1966) at total coliform densities of less than 1000/100 ml and
fecal coliform densities of  less than 150/100 ml.  The  total  coliform
density of 1000/100 ml has traditionally been acceptable for recreation-
al waters in many states.

The  analysis of available data on Salmonella and virus infectivity  along
with their relationship to the indicator organisms strongly suggests  that
present  coliform criteria  are very conservative.  The setting of unnecess
arily stringent standards makes the chance  of acquiring a disease so
small that when an infection does occur it is merely a chance event.
This would account for the wide data scatter and apparent unreliability
of disease-organism concentration relationships.  Once the proper
criteria are established, the  coliform analysis will in all probability
develop into a reasonable predictor of health risk.
                                   108

-------
                            SECTION IX

PESTICIDES AS A FACTOR OF RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

In presenting the following account of representative information on
pesticide/health/environment relationships, the objective has been to
develop the thesis that the recreationist enters contaminated water with
an acknowledged body burden of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides,  and
that the principal risk he faces may be the raising of his tissue and blood
levels to a degree that ultimately results in a clinical expression of a
toxic  effect.  Human contact with the  environment represents a spectrum of
both intensity and duration of exposure to pesticides, with the general
public on the lower end of the scale.  People ingest and absorb  small
amounts of pesticides as  residues in foods, and receive further exposure
to pesticides applied in their homes and gardens for pest control
purposes.

The degree of additional health hazard that is posed by the ingestion
of minimal amounts of pesticide-contaminated water by the aquatic
recreationist is a matter that awaits resolution.  Although no direct
evidence in the literature of acute poisoning or chronic-ill effect
attributable to primary contact recreation could be found, consider-
able data are available concerning the relationships between human
health and pesticides in the general environment.

Figure 20 illustrates various parameters that should be considered when
assessing the hazard faced by the aquatic recreationist as a consequence
of exposure to pesticide-polluted water.   These parameters include:

      (1)     The concentration of pesticides in the general environment,
             which serves as the potential source of contamination of
             water.

      (2)     Routes  of entry into the water environment.

      (3)     Known or suspected concentrations of pesticides in water.

      (4)     Persistence and/or degradation of the pesticide in the
             water environment.

      (5)     Potential  physiological hazards  to man.

The following account represents a sampling  of available information on
,;(!) the acute and chronic toxicity of pesticides to man, (2) the amount of
pesticides in the diet,  (3) the pesticide concentration in surface water,
and (4) the epidemiology  of pesticide  exposure.
                                     109

-------
   oro
   C
   P)
ffi J
P  3
IS  H
P)  3
4  CD
a sr
1
   CD
   I
   CD
   4
   I
   PESTICIDE CONCENTRATION
   IN AIR AND SOIL
          DIRECT
          APPLICATION
\
                RUN-OFF
                INDUSTRIAL WASTE
                GROUNDWATER
                 PESTICIDE CONCENTRATION
                 IN WATER
                                   INGESTION
                                   INHALATION
                                               DERMAL CONTACT
          EFFECT OF pH. TEMP.,
          DISPERSING AGENTS
                                             NATURAL DEGRADATION
                              AQUATIC BIOTA
                              CHRONIC ACCUMULATION
                              ACUTE EFFECTS
TOXIC EFFECT ON MAN
      CHRONIC
      ACUTE
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARD
OBSERVATIONAL DATA
(BODY BURDEN)
EXPERIMENTAL DATA
(MAN AND ANIMALS)
                                                                  HOMOLOGOUS OR
                                                                  ANALOGOUS TO
                                                       TOXIC EFFECT ON MAN
                                                             CHRONIC
                                                             ACUTE

-------
 ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

 The organic phosphorus insecticides (parathion, Chlorthion, demeton,
 diazinon, Dipterex, malathion, tetraethylpyrophosphate (TEPP)) are
 among the most toxic to man of the commonly used agricultural chemicals.
 The organic phosphorus insecticides are all cholinesterase inhibitors.
 Parathion is one of the most dangerous to humans.   Between 1947, when
 parathion was first introduced, and 1959, there were 100 parathion deaths
 in the United States.  Japan has averaged 336 parathion deaths annually
 for several years and 100 deaths  due to this insecticide occurred in
 India in 1958.  In the same year,  there were 67 deaths in Syria and
 20 in Jordan (Hayes, I960).  It should  be pointed out that malathion is
 the least toxic of the organic phosphorus group.

 Ordinarily there is little, if any,  risk  from residual concentrations of
the organic phosphorus  insecticides if they are used properly.  Quinby
 and Lemon  (1958) have reported mild parathion poisoning in over 70
 workers, however, who handled recently sprayed fruit or other crops.
 Absorption  in these cases was dermal, which probably accounted for
 the mildness of the reaction.

 The toxicity of the organic phosphorus  insecticides is directly related
 to the amount  the normal cholinesterase level is lowered in the body.
 Generally,  outward symptoms do not appear until the serum cholin-
 esterase level is lowered by about 30%  of normal.  This,  of course,
 varies with individuals.  Persons chronically exposed to organic
 phosphorus  compounds may reach an equilibrium situation wherein
 their cholinesterase level remains at some lower level.   An accidental
 added exposure may then result in much more severe effects than
 a normal individual would experience at the same dose level.

 Although numerous human volunteer studies have been carried out with
 the various  pesticides, most such work has been conducted at con-
 servatively low exposure levels to avoid permanent damage to the
 subjects. This type of testing is  suitable for  establishing safe levels,
 but does not provide information on dangerous limits.  Dependence
 for this latter type of information is thus placed on cases of accidental
 poisonings or suicides. In both cases,  it is rarely possible  to compute
 the ingested doses with any accuracy.

 Several cases of poisoning have occurred that did allow estimation of
 the dosages ingested.   These reports,  along with reported exposures
 of volunteers,  are summarized in Table 30.  A plus-minus system is
 used to record effects  since in many cases different types of clinical
 evaluations  were used  (serum cholinesterase, urine, or the clinicians
 description of the symptoms). In many cases, only the dosage ingested
 was reported and the weights of the subjects were not reported.  This
 data was divided by 70 to derive a mg/kg dosage for an "average" man.
                                 Ill

-------
         TABLE 30

Organic Phosphorus - Pesticides
Dosage % Effect on
mg/kg Decrease Humans * Material
1.6
0.73-1.
1.3
0.84
0. 34
0.34
0.32
0.21
0. 16
0. 15
0. 12
0. 10
0. 10
0. 10
0. 10
0.097
0.081
0. 081
0.075
0. 065
0.061
0. 060
0.056
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.04
0. 032
0.025
0.016
0.014
0. 0034
0.0020
M
4
_
-
l  I parathion
fl parathion
a TEPP
malathion
+++ TEPP
25
-
" -
_'
_
_
-
33
_
15
33
_
10-15
_
-
-
77
77 -
- *
15
-
-
-
_ . :
 -
25
25
-
++ malathion
+ malathion
malathion
malathion
+ Delnav
+ EPN
r~l parathion
+++ parathion
+ -dioxathion
+ methyl parathion
++ parathion
EPN
+ parathion
Delnav
+ parathion
parathion
+++ schraden
+++ schraden
parathion
+ demeton
dioxathion
parathion
parathion
parathion
parathion
+ schraden
+ dime fox
dimefox
* Legend:
+
+
++ =
+++. -
a =
baseline change
1-25%
25-50%
over 50%
death

% reduction in
cholinesterase


                                 , Reference
                            Goldblatt 1950
                            Seifert 1954
                            Grob & Harvey 1949
                            Mattson & Sedlar 1962
                            Grob & Harvey 1949
                            Moeller & Rider 1962
                            Moeller & Rider 1962
                            Moeller & Rider 1962
                            Mattson & Sedlar I960
                            Weir &c Kelber 1962
                            Moeller & Rider 1962
                            Kagaratnam et al I960
                            Eds on et al 1964
                            Trawley et al 1963
                            Moeller & Rider 1962
                            Edson 1957
                            Moeller & Rider 1962
                            Moeller & Rider 1962
                            Weir &:  Keller 1962
                            Edson 1957
                            Moeller & Rider 1961
                            Edson et al 1964
                            Edson et al 1964
                            Rider 1958
                            Moeller  & Rider 1962
                            Trawley et al 1963
                            Moeller  & Rider 1961
                            Edson 1957
                            Rider 1958
                            Edson 1957
                            Edson et al  1964
                            Edson et al  1964
                            Edson et al  1964
            112

-------
In spite of these drawbacks,  Table 30 serves a useful purpose by show-
ing a graded response from the high dosages  of approximately 1 mg/kg',
which is always fatal,  down to relatively safe dosages below 0. 05 mg/kg.
Malathion shows up as one of the safer organic phosphorus insecticides
while  schraden is seen to be extremely toxic. The other interesting feat-
ures of this table is the rather narrow range  between no effects  and extreme
toxicity (e. g. ,  0. 03 mg/kg (safe) - 0.1 mg/kg (death) for parathion) for
these  compounds.  This may require a more  liberal than usual safety
factor  since any appearance of symptoms is a dangerous situation.

Although the organic phosphorus insecticides exhibit their toxic effects
over a rather narrow range, there is  a wide  difference  in the toxicity
between different compounds.  This is further complicated, from the
viewpoint of RWQ criteria, by the broad spectrum of solubilities - from
the fully water  miscible systemics, schraden and dimefox.,  to the almost
insoluble parathion,  TEPP, etc.  Fortunately, however, most organic
phosphorus insecticides have a relatively short life time in a water en-
vironment, being quickly  hydrolyzed to innocuous materials.  As will be
pointed out later, these pesticides would cause mass fish kills in a water
long before human toxic levels can occur.  This would serve as a strong
warning to humans to stay out of such water.

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON INSECTICIDES

Insecticides in  the chlorinated hydrocarbon group include DDT,  BHC (and
lindane), chlordane, chlorobenzilate,  TDE (DDD),  Dilan, aldrin, dieldrin,
endrin, heptachlor, and its  epoxide,  toxaphene,  and methoxychlor.  Two
notable members of this group are DDT and BHC.  Fortunately, these two
insecticides have produced no authenic cases of poisonings (Barnes, 1958;
Hayes,  I960) from ingestion of treated foods. However, there  have
occurred several cases of accidental poisonings and attempted suicides.
The problem of accurately assessing the dosage ingested is very difficult
in most of these cases.

Hsieh (1954) reported an  incidence of accidental poisoning from DDT,
involving eleven persons  who had eaten contaminated pork dumplings.
This study is noteworthy  in that the author went into an, elaborate process
to determine the amount of DDT ingested by each individual.   This  was
reported along  with the severity of clinical symptoms.

Studies with volunteers have generally been carried out at relatively
low dosages.  The effect  of exposure has shown considerable individual
variation with a graded response increasing in severity as  dosage is
increased.  The volunteer studies and cases  of accidental poisonings
or suicides where the dosage ingested can be calculated are presented
in Table 31.  Three deaths were reported but in each case there appears
to be  confusion as to whether the death was pesticide induced or caused
by pulmonary edema  resulting from the solvent used to dissolve the pesti-
cide.  A plus-minus scale is used to rank severity of intoxication since the
                                    113

-------
                        TABLE 31
   Toxicity to Humans of Chlorinated Pesticides
Pesticide Concentration
Pesticide
DDT
DDT
BHC
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
DDT
methoxychlor
methoxychlor
methoxychlor
methoxychlor
methoxychlor
methoxy chlo r
dieldrin
dieldrin
dieldrin
Legend: H
*#**
mg/kg Severity
500.0 B
285.0 *#*#
180.0 B
120. 5 **#*
105.0 EL
41.9 ***
37.2 ***
28.9 ***
20. 0 ***
20. 0 ***
18.4 **
17.5 **
16.3 *
16.0 ***
13.5 *
11.1 0
10.3 0
10.0 *
9.5 **
7.1 0
6.7 0
6.7 0
6.0 *
6.0 *
5.1 0
3.38 *
3.37 0
2.0 0
1.0 0
0.5 0
0.5 0
0.21 0
0.05 0
0.01 0
= death
cysnosis
vomiting
                            Baden-Steel - see Stammers (1947)
                            Hayes - 1954
                            Kwocjek 1950 - in Durham
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Hill & Robinson - Stammers (1947)
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Velbinger
                            Hayes 1955
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Hsieh  1954
                            Hayes 1959
                            Velbinger
                            Neal, Sweeney, etc. 1946
                            Neal,  Sweeney, etc. 1946
                            Hayes 1955
                            Velbinger
                            Neal 1946
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Velbinger
                            Hsieh 1954
                            Hayes 1959
                            Hsieh  1954
                            Hayes
                            Domenjers
                            Stein 1965
                            Stein 1965
                            Stein 1965
                            Hayes 1956
                            Hunter 1967
                            Hayes
                            Hunter 1967
       ***

       *
       0
 heart convulsions
 tremor, convulsions, malaise
 headache
no reaction
                      114

-------
description of symptoms is in part a subjective judgment of the attend-
ing physician.

Although DDT is stored in body fat and the effects are therefore  cumula-
tive, no case of chronic poisoning analogous to that produced by arsenic,
lead,  or mercury have been described for DDT or related insecticides
(Hayes, I960).  However,  there have been a few cases reported in the
literature of agricultural poisonings  with dieldrin, aldrin,  and endrin.
Dermal exposure to dieldrin has led  to epileptoid convulsions  in man,
although the effects have generally been transitory.

Because of the low water solubility of most of the chlorinated  hydrocarbon
they cannot be considered an important source of hazard to water  recrea-
tionists.   It would be almost impossible for a  recreationist to ingest
the smallest dose (6. 0 mg  DDT/kg) shown on Table 31 as producing an
effect. If an individual is to ingest  6. 0 mg DDT/kg,  a 70 kg man would
require a  total intake of 420 mg.  This in turn would have to be contained
in the 10 ml assumed to be  normally ingested  during recreational  activi-
ties.  The required concentration in  the water would have to be 42 g/1.
This if far above the solubility limit  of about  1-10 p.g/1 for  DDT.

These levels  are, of course, far above any concentrations  monitored
in natural waters.   Because this factor was not considered of  importance
to recreational waters, a convolution was not  carried out.

CHRONIC TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES

Two types of injury must be considered in assessing the health hazards
of pesticide residues.  The first is the possibility of an acute  illness
resulting from residues ingested on a single day or in a few days.  The
second is  the long-term effects that may accrue after ingesting small
quantities of residues  daily for  many years.  On the basis of documented
knowledge of the effect of various pesticides on experimental animals
and on man, and of the levels  of the chemicals present as residues on
food products, illness from short-term, exposure would not be expected
to occur.  This conclusion is supported by epidemiologic evidence.
There have been no known cases of illness in the United States from
insecticide residues on foods when formulations have been used according
to directions  (Hayes I960).  However, there have been several instances
in which insecticides used improperly on foods have led to  acute poisoning
soon after ingestion.   Improper use may include excess application of
the insecticides, and/or inadequate treatment of the produce to remove
the insecticides  prior  to marketing (Durham,  1963).

PESTICIDES  IN THE DIET

Of great importance for public health is a knowledge of the amount of
pesticide residues on foods and how much is actually consumed by the
general population.   Indeed, pesticides ingested with food provides
                                 115

-------
a background level of intake that may mask the added exposure to the
population from water related recreational activities.

The DDT and DDE content of a group of complete, prepared meals from
restaurants and institutions were determined by Walker and his co-
workers (1954).  A total of 179 individual portions of food,  representing
86 different items, was included in the 18 restaurant and 7 institu-
tional meals tested.  Fifty food portions  contained no detectable DDT.
However, DDT was found to be present in detectable but very small
quantities in all meals tested. Generally, those foodstuffs  cooked in
fat,  and those containing meat or butter were found to have a higher
DDT content than other foodstuffs.  The DDE content of the various
foods tested was roughly proportional to  the DDT content.   If, in one
day,  an individual had consumed the three meals  that contained the
largest amounts  of DDT, his  total DDT intake would have been 0. 388
mg.   The average DDT intake, based on  all meals tested,  was 0. 184
mg/day.  This amount is equivalent to a  DDT dosage of about 0. 002
mg/kg   - day for a man of average size (70 kg) or to a DDT concentra-
tion  of about 0. 31 mg/kg in the total dry diet.  It was felt that no meal
tested contained enough DDT to be considered a toxicological hazard on
the basis of the  estimated  chronic oral toxicity of the compound.

Hayes,  et al (1956) determined the DDT and DDE content of 16 meals
and found the  average DDT intake to be 0. 202 mg, as compared with an
average daily DDE intake of 0. 050 mg.  Other studies  by Hayes (1958)
and Durham (1961) revealed similar results.

Figure 21 and Table 32 (extracted from Duggan and Lips comb, 1969)
are presented to illustrate the average incidence  of pesticide residues
in representative food samples and to indicate the calculated daily
intake of a 70 kg man.  Table 33 was prepared by the above authors to
compare these values with the acceptable daily intake proposed for some
significant pesticide chemicals by the Food and Agricultural Organization
of the United Nations and the  World Health Organization Export Committee
on Pesticide Residues.  Acceptable daily intake is defined as "the daily
dosage of a chemical which,  during an entire lifetime,  appears to be with-
out appreciable  risk on the basis of all the facts known at the time.  'With-
out appreciable  risk1 is taken to mean the practical certainty that  injury
will  not result even after a lifetime of exposure. "

Examination of the tables reveals that no acceptable daily intake value
was  exceeded during the four years of the referenced study, and the
calculated daily dietary intake for practically all pesticide chemicals is
one order of magnitude or  more below that considered safe by the
FAO/WHO Expert Committee.  The average daily intake of all chlorin-
ated organic pesticide residues was 0. 0013 mg/kg of body weight.  The
average dietary intake for  all organic phosphorus compounds was
0. 0001 mg/kg of body weight.
                                 116

-------
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
4 -07
uT
 0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
n m

I





^^ ^^
11.2%
3.4%
15.5%


69.8%



I
\
\
\
\\
"^ *%\
^^ 
-------
                                                       TABLE 32

                                Average Incidence and Daily Intake of 15 Pesticide Chemicals
                                          (After Duggan and Lips comb, 1969)

DDT
DDE
TDE
Dieldrin
Lindane
Heptachlor
epoxide
BHC
Malathion
Carbaryl
Aldrin
2, 4-D
Diazinon
Kelthane
PCB
Endrin
1965
Percent
Positive
Composites*
17.5
31.5
19.4
18.5
15.8

13.4
6.5
-
7.4
5.6
4.2
-
0.5
1.4
2.8
Daily
Intake,
mg
0. 031
0.018
0. 013
0. 005
0.004

0. 002
0. 002
-
0. 15
0.001
0. 005
-
0.003
0. 001
0. 001
1966
Percent
Positive
Composites**
37.3
33.0
25.7
21.3
12.3

12.0
6.0
5.3
2.7
3.7
3.0
3.0
3.7
3.3
2.0
Daily
Intake ,
mg
0.041
0. 028
0.018
0.007
0.004

0.003
0. 004
0.009
0. 026
0. 002
0.002
0.001
0.002
0.006
0.001
1967
Percent
Positive
Composites***
38.6
31. 1
28.9
15.3
10.6

8.9
8.9
3.6
1. 1
3.3
1.7
0.3
5.6
2.2
1.7
Daily
Intake ,
mg
0.026
0.017
0.013
0.004
0.005

0.001
0. 002
0.010
0.007
0.001
0. 001
0.001
0.012
0.001
0. 001
1968
Percent
Positive
Composites***
49.2
37.5
31. 1
15.6
15.3

13. 1
9.7
1.9

3.9
0.6
0.3
4.7
1.9
1. 1
Daily
Intake,
mg
0. 019
0.015
0. Oil
0. 004
0. 003

0. 002
0.003
0. 003

0. 001
0.001
0. 001
0. 010
0. 001
0. 001
00
                * 216 composites  examined
               ** 312 composites  examined
              *** 360 composites  examined
                  NOTE; Sampling was done bimonthly beginning in June and ended in April of the years shown.

-------
                                           TABLE 33
                              Dietary Intake of Pesticide Chemicals
                               (After Duggan and Lips comb,  1969)
Compound
Aldrin
Dieldrin
Total
Carbaryl
DDT
DDE
TDE
Total
Gamma BHC (Lindane)
Bromide *
Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
Total
Malathion
Parathion
Diazinon
BHC
Kelthane
Endrin
All chlorinated organics
All organophosphates
All herbicides
FAO-WHO
Acceptable
Daily Intake
^
-
0. 0001
0. 02
-
-
-
0.01
0. 0125
1. 0
-
-
0. 0005
0.02
0. 005
0. 002
-
-
-
-
-

Daily Intake, mg/kg Body Weight
1965
0. 00001
0. 00008
0. 00009
0. 0021
0. 0004
0. 0003
0.0002
0. 0009
0. 00007
0.39
0. 000003
0. 00003
0. 000033
_
-
_
0. 00003
0.00004
0. 000009
0. 0012
-
0. 00012
1966
0. 00004
0. 00009
0. 00013
0. 0005
0.0005
0. 0003
0. 0002
0. 0010
.0. 00006
0. 22
-
0. 00005
0. 00005
0.0001
0. 00001
0. 00002
0. 00004
0. 00015
0. 000004
0. 0016
0. 00014
0. 00022
1967
0. 00001
0. 00005
0. 00006
0. 0001
0. 0004
0. 0002
0. 0002
0.0008
0. 00007
0.29
0. 000001
0. 00002
0. 000021
0. 0002
0. 00001
0. 000001
0. 00003
0. 00018
0. 000004
0. 0012
0. 00025
0. 00005
1968
0.00001
0. 00005
0. 00006
_
0. 0003
0. 0002
0. 0002
0. 0007
0. 00004
0.41
0. 000001
0. 00003
0. 000031
0. 00004
0. 000001
0. 000001
0. 00004
0. 0001
0. 00001
0. 0011
0. 00007
0. 00006
f.
 Total bromides present include naturally occurring bromides.
NOTE:  Sampling -was done bimonthly beginning in June and ended in April of the years shown.

-------
 PESTICIDES IN WATER

 Pesticides may enter the water supply by direct, intentional applica-
 tion; by inadvertent drift into water from adjacent spraying operation;
 or, perhaps more commonly,  by leaching of pesticide-treated areas
 within a watershed (Durham, 1963).

 Fortunately, the great susceptibility of fish to many of these insecticides
 gives an easy clue to significant contamination of streams.  For example,
 endrin is  toxic to certain species of fish at concentrations of less  than 1
 ppb.  The toxicity of toxaphene to fish is of the same order of magnitude
 as that of endrin. The presence of many other chlorinated hydrocarbon
 pesticides at concentrations as low as a few parts per billion may  be
 detected by their effect on fish.   The  carbamate  insecticide,  Sevin,
 and the organic phosphorus compound, Guthion,  also fall within this
 range of toxicity to fish.  The latter group of insecticides is not very
 important as water pollutants, however, due to their relatively rapid
 hydrolysis rates (Johnson,  1968).

 The U. S.  Public Health Service instituted a nation-wide survey of
 fish kills  as a means of detecting water pollution, utilizing the high
 toxicity of the newer synthetic pesticides to fish  as the indicator of
 insecticide  content.   In the first four  months of the survey (June - Sept-
 ember I960),   more than 200 individual reports  of fish kills were
 received.  In 76  cases (38 percent), agricultural chemicals were im-
 plicated as  the etiological agent (Cottam, I960).

 Nicholson (I960) made a very thorough  study of the pesticide content of
 a river system that  drains a 400  square-mile cotton-farming area of
Alabama in which pesticides, particularly toxaphene,  DDT,  and lindane,
were intensively used.  Toxaphene (maximum level 0. 0004 mg/1) and
lindane (maximum level 0. 00075  mg/1) were  detected in the  stream.
 DDT was  not detected.  The level of pesticides in the water was not de-
 creased by the municipal water-treatment process. Toxaphene was
 found in the water all year long, but heaviest concentrations coincided
with application to fields.  The contamination was general throughout
the watershed.  The insecticides  apparently ran  off the land surface
and dissolved in the water.   No effects of these pesticides on the aquatic
life of the stream were noted.

 The U. S.  Geological Survey,  in cooperation with the EPA, is currently
 operating a  pesticides monitoring network, which is part of a program
for continuous surveillance of pesticides in surface waters at selected
 sites throughout the U.S.  Manigold and Schultz (1969) reported on the
most recent findings in certain selected western  streams.  They pre-
 sented data  from a network of 20  sampling  stations.  Compounds deter-
mined included the chlorinated insecticides aldrin, DDD, DDE, DDT,
dieldrin,  endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and lindane.  Also
 studied were the chlorinated herbicides, 2, 4-D,  2, 4, 5-T and silvex.
                                   120

-------
All of these were detected at one time or another.  DDT was the most
frequently occurring insecticide,  and 2, 4-D was the most commonly
found herbicide.  The  amounts observed were small; the maximum con-
centrations  of DDT and 2, 4-D were 0. 12 and 0. 35/^g/liter, respectively.
Concentrations were highest in the water samples that contained appreci-
able amounts of sediment.

Other evidence presently available would indicate that pesticide residues
may be present, although at extremely low levels (in the range of 0. 001
mg/1) in streams draining watersheds that have been treated with chlorina-
ted hydrocarbon pesticides.  At a concentration level of 0. 001 mg/1, an
individual's average daily intake of two  liters of water would represent
only about 0. 002 mg of residual insecticide.  According to present
knowledge,  the amount of even the most toxic pesticide would be signi-
ficantly below the level that is hazardous on an acute or subacute basis
(Durham, 1963).

The carbon filter-chloroform extract technique has  often been used to
monitor selected waters  for various organic chemical groups.  Although
the method does not identify specific pesticides, it does quantify various
classes of compounds  that include most of  the pesticides.  This method
gives an analysis of the total contamination of the water by different
chemical groups and permits the  establishment of general criteria
instead of a series  of individual pesticide values.

An example of such a program is the National Water Quality Network
of the Public Health Service.  The Ohio River from Huntington, West
Virginia, to Cairo, Illinois, was selected for analysis, with October
1957 to September  1958 being the time span covered.  Most of the
pesticides of concern would appear in the chloroform extracts from the
carbon columns, the chlorinated hydrocarbons in the aromatic fraction
and the organic  phosphorus compounds in the oxygenated-compounds
fraction.

Figure 22 presents the distribution of total chloroform extractables in
the river.  A histogram of the data was prepared, and points selected
randomly from the histogram were used as inputs into the BSTFT pro-
gram.   The Gamma distribution was selected as the most likely  repre-
sentation of the  sampled  universe (Table 34), although the probabilities
are also high that Weibull or lognormal distributions would also be
acceptable.

A similar analysis was carried out for  the aromatic fraction.  Here the
3-parameter Weibull distribution was selected from the data in Table
35 as presented in  Figure 23.  The highest level of 48/ig/l is about 70%
of water saturation and occurs at the asymptotic portion of the curve.

The cumulative  frequency distribution for oxygenated compounds is
                                  121

-------
fO
    
        (B
        H

        I


        H
        o
               1.00
               0.90
       OQ
       Cs)
o?
jr a

t~~' d

i  ST
O  R
i^n -^
O  M
>1

3  3'

H O
    &  g   
                     100
                                  150
200                250               300

   CHLOROFORM EXTRACTABLES.^g/LITER
                                                                                                                350
                                                                                                                               400

-------
                          TABLE 34
               Pollutants in Ohio River Water -
               Total Chloroform Extractables
Name of
Distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
"d"
Statistic
0.224
0. 155
0.343
0. 127
0. 134
Probability
Data Came
From Cited
Distribution
0. 755
0. 982
0.240
0.999
0.997
Conclusion:  It is not unreasonable to assume that the
             Gamma distribution (c = 90. 167, $  = 67. 630,
             a = 1. 9510) best represents the universe from
             which the data were sampled
                                   123

-------
                  TABLE 35
         Pollutants in Ohio River Water -

     Aromatics (Chlorinated Hydrocarbons)
Name of
Distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
"d"
Statistic
0.327
0. 173
0.248
0.227
0. 165
Probability
Data came
from Cited
Distribution
0.291
0.951
0.637
0.740
0.967
Conclusion:
It is not unreasonable to assume that
the Weibull distribution /c = 4. 000, e =
8.7775, K = 8.077 x 10   ) best represents
the universe from which the data were
sampled.

-------
IV

Ul
        (TQ
        c
     pj
     n
     o
H
H-

3
     ffi
O
n
ft>

cr
c
H-.
o
JO
         a
         >i
         o
         3
         n
         i
           HI
           o
           z
           111
           oc
           tr

           o
           o
           o
           u.
           o

           u
        D


        D
        O
                     1.00
                    0.90
                     0.80
                     0.70   
                     0.60
0.50
           0.40
                     0.30
                     0.20
                     0.10
                                             12       16        20        24       28        32       36


                                                            AROMATIC FRACTION SOLUBLES. ^g/LITER
                                                                                                        40
                                                                                                                     44
                                                                                                                                   48

-------
 presented as a log normal distribution in Figure 24 based on the analysis
 in Table 36.

 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

 A review of the literature indicates that the problem of chronic effects
 in man of continued ingestion or absorption of minute amounts of chlor-
 inated hydrocarbon pesticides has not been satisfactorily resolved.  It
 is true that for  each commerically available pesticide,  long-term experi-
 ments have been performed in rats,  dogs,  and other animals.  Such
 experiments in  rats have included study of the progeny  for three gener-
 ations. Similar feeding experiments have been carried out in dogs
 for periods as long as two years.  Zapp (1965),  however, points out
 that in spite of the fact that no effects have been seen in the dogs and
 in three generations of rats with daily doses many times that to which
 humans are constantly subjected, there is still doubt that the results
 can be projected to man or  be extrapolated to a  whole lifetime  of exposure
 in man.

 There exists  significant data that imply the innocuousness in man
 of prolonged small doses of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides.
 Hayes, et al (1956) measured the effect of known repeated oral doses
 of DDT in man, where human volunteers were fed either 3. 5 or 35
 mg of DDT per  day.  This was about 20 and 200 times,  respectively, as
 much as Walker,  et al (1954) found in the normal diet.  No complaints,
 symptoms,  or laboratory findings suggestive of toxic effects of retained
 pesticides were found in these subjects after 18 months of continuous
 intake. In another approach, Stein and Hayes (1964) investigated by
 questionnaire over 2, 000 employees  who worked in direct contact with
 pesticides for many years.   They found no greater incidence or degree
 of illness among those involved, than in relatives or other employees
who  had no special exposure to  pesticides.   Additional studies  of this
nature are reviewed by Durham (1963),  and more recently by Yeary
 (1966) (see Figure  25).

Hoffman,  et al  (1967) engaged in a different attempt at evaluating the
potential chronic toxicity of chlorinated pesticides.  They determined
the extent of storage of these pesticides in the fatty tissues of 994
men and women who died of a variety of diseases, for 688 of whom
 complete autopsy records were available.  An attempt was made to
find  the degree of correlation between the fat-pesticide  levels and
the presence or absence of pathological changes in the various  organ
and tissues.  The principal pesticide found was DDT, 72. 2% of which was
in the form of its more innocuous derivative, DDE.  The sum of DDT
and DDE averaged 9. 6 mg/kg with a  standard deviation  (SD) of 7 mg/kg.

Hexachlorcyclohexane (BHC,  HHC), in the form of its X-isomer, lindane,
or one or more  of the  other isomers, showed an average concentration
in human tissue of 0. 48 mg/kg with a standard deviation of 0. 54 mg/kg.
There were 35 inordinately high values for DDE plus DDT and  11 for
hexachlorcyclohexane.  These probably represented intakes from sources
other than foods.  If they were omitted, the mean for DDE plus DDT

                                 126

-------
    N
    I-1-
   era


    CD

    ro
O  o
o  

3  &
O  P
o  p
^5  
u-  
o   o
01   ._
'O   PO


I  i'
CD   H
01


M  ft
01   CD




^  O
   OQ

    rt

    0
   ft

   CL
                    1.00
                    0.90   
                                                          3.5                              4.0


                                                            OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS./jg/LITER
4.5

-------
                                              TABLE 36

                                    Pollutants in Ohio River Water -

                      Oxygenated Compounds (Organophosphorus Compounds, Esters, etc. )
00
Name of
Distribution
Normal
Lognormal
'Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
t'd"
Statistic
0.260
0. 178
0.312
0.218
0. 186
Probability
Data came
from Cited
Distribution
0.577
0.937
0.344
0.784
0.914
                              Conclusion:  It is not unreasonable to assume that   ^
                                           the Lognormal distribution (y - 3. 8431, cry =
                                           5.0716 x 10" ) best represents the universe
                                           from which the data were  sampled.

-------
   10,000
I
2
O
O
u.
o-
DC

Z
UJ
U
    1000
100
                                      OMEAN

                                      I STANDARD ERROR
                                        OF MEAN
                     0.1            1.0           10.0     36.0

                          DAILY DOSE OF DDT, mg/day
     Figure 25.  Relationship Between the Concentration of DDT

                 in the Bodyfat of Man and the Daily Dose

-------
would be 8. 8+; 5. 5 mg/kg, and for hexachlorcyclohexane 0. 44 _+ 0. 26 mg/kg.

Dieldrin was not present in 103 samples of 221 analyzed for this pesti-
cide.  The remaining values ranged from 0. 01  to 1. 39 mg/kg.  The mean
for the 221 samples was 0. 14 jf 0.20 mg/kg.  Heptachlor epoxide was
found in 472 of 505 specimens,  the mean being  0. 16 _+ 0. 11 mg/kg.

 There did not appear to be any evidence of increased body burden of
DDT products in the general population since 1951, as compared with
previous studies (Quimby, 1965; Dale & Quinby, 1963: Hoffman, et al
1964).  The levels for-specimens in the  above study obtained in 1964
through 1966 were lower than those obtained from persons who died in
1962 and 1963.  A statistical survey of the pathological changes  in the
tissues examined in the 688 autopsies showed that there was  no ;i.~:-,meant
correlation between the levels of DDE plus  DDT and hexachlorcyclo-
hexane in the  fat and presence or absence of abnormalities in these tis-
sues.  The authors concluded that their  findings were in accord  with
other evidence that the amounts of DDT  products and hexachlorcyclo-
hexane stored in the fat of the general population had not proved harmful.

The effect on  animals, including man, of the various pesticides  studied.
seems to follow a normal dosage response curve, meaning that small
amounts are probably harmless while larger doses may produce poison-
ing.  Although a number of the common pesticides, including DDT, are
stored in the body, this  storage is  not indefinitely cumulative (Figure 26).
With tolerated doses of DDT, man approaches storage equilibrium in
about one year,  and does not store any more of the compound regardless
of how long the dosage is continued.

As already stated,  the chronic effects of exposure to chlorinated hydro-
carbons are ill-defined.   It is doubtful that the very low concentrations
found in waters  would significantly raise the body burdens.  However,
instances can occur wherein large amounts of pesticides are released
into a water and although below the acute level could bring about transi-
tory increases in body burdens.

There is no information available to indicate  how great a body burden
an individual can withstand before toxic effects  become  evident,
although doses 7,500 times greater than that to which the general popula-
tion are exposed have been used.  This data would be useful since a series
of curves relating  dietary intake to equilibrium levels could then be con-
structed and used to establish the chronic intake level.
                                 130

-------
   1000
    500  
  i
  8
                                         DOSAGE RATE

                                       35 mg DDT/MAN-DAY
                                       3.5 mg DDT/MAN-DAY
               100     200      300      400

                       TIME OF TREATMENT. DAYS
500
600
Figure 26.  Increase of the Concentration of DDT in the Bodyfat
                  of Men with Continuing Intake
                               131

-------
                            SECTION X


TEMPERATURE AS A FACTOR OF RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

Temperature is  another factor that is important to the recreationist.
Man's survival is endangered at both extremes of the temperature scale.
Within a given temperature range, 60 -  85F, man can function rather
comfortable over long periods of time.  As the temperature diverges
from each end of this range, certain effects are frequently observed.
These initially range from purely subjective discomfort to subtle changes
in the efficiency of performing simple tasks.  As the temperature stress
increases,  a higher  order of psycho-physiological disturbances occur
with an increased frequency of errors and further  reduced efficiency
in task performance. At  the furthest temperature extremes, there is a
definite loss in work capacity with a physiological  strain on the heart
and circulatory system and other  effects on water  and salt balance
regulation in the body.  These disturbances may culminate in shock and
even  death.

HIGH TEMPERATURES

Body heat balance is a physiological requirement for comfort and
health.  Under normal conditions, the rate of heat production (metabolism)
is just balanced  by the heat loss to the environment.  An increase in
heat production brought on by exercise must be compensated for by an
equal increase in heat loss.  In water, this excess heat would normally
by carried off by conduction.  If the water temperature is above  skin tempera-
ture, heat that is generated through activity will cause the body tempera-
ture to increase. This rise in body temperature can be accommodated
by reestablishing a heat balance at the elevated temperature.  Although
a moderate body temperature rise is acceptable, any substantial increase
is accompanied by severe strain (Belding and Hatch,  1956).

Haldane (1905) defined the limit of endurance as the most extreme heat
exposure that can be withstood without an abnormal rise in body temp-
erature.  Later  work demonstrated that the effective temperature for
heat tolerance is related to ambient temperature,  humidity,  and air motion
for different levels of activity.  By analogy to an unclothed worker in a
moisture saturated environment,  a swimmer expending about 1200 Btu/hr
would have a safe maximum water temperature limit of 85 F.

Eichna,  et al (1945)  carried out an extensive study to determine the
upper heat limits for acclimatized working men.  In applying this  study
to water recreations, one can assume that the information developed
for a completely water saturated air environment would be applicable to a
sswimmer.  On this basis, men are capable of prolonged hard work at
temperatures between 91  F and 94 F.   However,  the work is inefficient,
the men lose alertness and vigor and may become  mild heat casualties.
Moderately hard work (1ZOO Btu/hr) at temperatures of 94 F and above
leads  rapidly to  total disability in most men, with  excessive, and often
disturbing physiologic changes.  Temperatures below  91 F were consi-
dered relatively compatible environments for most men.  Experience with

                               133

-------
military personnel exposed to warm water continuously over several hours
indicates that 85F is a safe maximum limit (NTAC,  1968).

LOW TEMPERATURE

A similar set of tolerances is observed for cold water temperatures.
Here the critical problem is to maintain body temperature. In cold water,
body heat is lost primarily by conduction from the inner organs through the
trunk.   Exposure of the limbs plays a relatively minor role in overall heat
loss.  A lowering  of the body temperature to 74-77  F is considered
lethal.

Keatinge (1969) carried out several extensive studies on human survival
in cold water.  He carried out controlled experiments and also investi-
gated the cause of death and history of the victims (124) deaths) of the
cruiseship Lakonia.

In several instances where drowning was reported as the cause of death,
it was obvious that exposure to cold was more probably responsible.
Keatinge reports finding victims of ship sinkings in 59 F water wearing
adequate life preservers, their  faces held above water,  who were dead
in the 11/2 hours it took a rescue ship to reach them.  He concludes
that many of the victims of ship sinkings  	 Titanic, Lakonia, Andrea
Doria, etc  actually succumb  to cold exposure.

Many factors  exert significant influences on the length of time individuals
can survive exposure to  cold water.  Among some of the most important
is the amount of clothing worn,  obesity of the victims, and the amount of
exercise.  The amount of clothing worn in the water, far from hindering
survival, aids considerably in preserving body heat.  An unclothed man
of average build is rendered helpless after 20  - 30 minutes in water at
41F and after 1 1/2-2 hours at 59F.  With thick conventional  clothing
the corresponding times are 40  - 60 minutes at  41 F and 4 to 5 hours at
59F.
                                                                  o
Shipwreck victims have been found dead after 6  hours exposure at 64 F
and one hour at 32F.  An individual can survive indefinitely in water
at 68  F.  The amount of fatan individual has increases the tolerance
to cold temperatures.  There are reports of well-clothed, obese men
surviving many hours at 32 F.  Keatinge has developed a formula based
on estimating the amounts of fat an individual has in selecting candidates
to become  skin divers.

A surprising finding of Keatinge's studies was that,  contrary to earlier
opinion, exercise in the  water increases  the loss of body heat and corres-
pondingly decreases survival time. This is reflected in frequent reports
of drownings of expert swimmers who  tried to reach shore after  a sinking,
while those v/ho remained  in the water near the  lost ship survived until
rescued.
                                134

-------
A careful study of reported drowning cases carried out by Press, et al
(1969) seems to bear out much of the above as regards  survival in cold
waters.  They  report 299 cases out of  874 drownings,  or 34% occurred
in waters that were listed as very cold (assumed to be below 68F).
In addition,  a much higher percent of those succumbing in cold water
were  considered  to be good swimmers.

In summary, it may be stated that man will survive  in water only over
a rather limited temperature range, having very little  tolerance above
and below this  range  (Table 37).  Individual differences may mitigate
the  effects somewhat but not to the extent that is reported for some of
the  other factors. It is  obvious from this study that the "safe" tempera-
ture range for  normal recreational activitesswimming, diving, water
skiingis between 68 F and 85 F.

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION FOR TEMPERATURE (RQ VECTOR)

The temperature distribution for  the Ohio river, using data obtained
from the same sampling stations  that acquired the pesticide data,
was determined.   The temperatures for the time period tested ranged
from 33  F to 78  F.   As expected, the  low points occurred in January
through March.  The exponential  distribution was the best fit for the
available data  (Table 38).  This distribution is presented in Figure
27.   If 68 F is selected as the safe limit for swimming, the river
would be available for such use only about 30% of the time.  This avail-
ability probably fits in rather well with actual practice, in that it
essentially  encompasses only the summer months.
                                135

-------
                              TABLE 37

      Limits of Temperature Tolerance for Unclothed Humans
       in Saturated Environments (high temperatures) or
              Submerged in Water (low temperatures)
    Temperature
                           Effects
95 +
35
Leads to total disability of most men after
one hour of moderate effort.  Excessive
physiological changes.
94
34
Incapable of sustained work effort.   High
incidence of heat casualties.
91
33
Carry out moderate work with difficulty,
inefficiently, and ineffectively.
85
68


64
30
20
18
                         rt
     CO
Carry out moderate work for prolonged
periods of time.
Can survive almost indefinitely in water.
Reports of death after six hours in the
water
59
15
Most men rendered helpless after  1 1/2-2
hours exposure.
41


32
 0
             Helpless after 20 - 30 minutes exposure.
Death in less than one hour for clothed
individuals.
                                136

-------
                                                  TABLE 38

                                    Temperature Distribution - Ohio River Water
OO
Name of
Distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
I'd"
Statistic
0. 190
0. 194
0.185
0. 212
0. Z15
Probability
Data came
from Cited
Distribution
0.461
0.442
0.498
0.331
0.316
                              Conclusion:   It is not unreasonable to assume
                                            that the  exponential distribution
                                            (8 = 6. 5158 x 10" ) best repre-
                                            sents the universe from which
                                            the data were sampled.

-------
oo
00
TO


 0>

 -j


 H

|

 (t
 H
        O
        H"
        to
        rt-
        >t
        i-"
        cr
        O
        3
        0)

        O
                  UJ
                  O

                  UJ
                  (L
                  tc.


                  
           O

           I
           UJ

           3
           UJ
           DC
           U.
           Ul
           5

           o
                       0.10
                                                                       10                     15

                                                                           TEMPERATURE, C
                                                                                                                                   25

-------
                           SECTION XI

    OILS AS FACTORS OF RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

Oily substances that might be found in surface waters are derived from
three sources: petroleum and its refined or waste products; animal and
vegetable fats, usually discharged with  sewage effluents; and essential
oils, consisting of terpenes, aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and
lactones.

In general, there is a lack of toxicological data in the literature on the
effects of ingestion or dermal sensitivity  of such substances for humans
exposed to them during primary contact recreation.  The following sum-
mary presents the results of analogous  studies, demonstrating the po-
tential hazards that may exist,  provided the required conditions of
factor  concentration and persistence are present.

GENERAL TOXICOLOGY

Crude  petroleum is a  complex mixture of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic,
aromatic mono-and polycyclic, and heterocyclic  compounds.   The various
types are classified according to the predominant component or distilla-
tion residue as paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic,  or asphaltic.

Toxicity of industrial  solvents, particularly benzene, has been reviewed
by Candura (1968), and of mineral oils to the skin by Lajhancova (1968).
Organic solvents are capable of dissolving sebum and of penetrating the
skin.   Solvent dermatitis is a common industrial hazard.  Solvents can
enter the dermal lymphatics through fissures and lacerations and cause
chemical lymphangiitis.  Benzene,  toluene,  and xylene may cause severe
toxic systemic effects when absorbed through the skin or inhaled (Fisher,
1967).  Older people with dry skin are particularly prone to the effects
of solvents.  It is not uncommon to observe people who work with solvents
to have been  engaged in their particular occupation for  two or more decades
and then  sustain cutaneous injury.   The insoluble oils that are used to  lubri-
cate cutting tools and  that contain petroleum oil,  small amounts of vege-
table oil,  chlorine compounds,  sulfur, and inhibitors are responsible
for  most cases (Pillsbury, 1957).

If ingested, gasoline may  cause inebriation, vomiting,  vertigo,  fever,
drowsiness,  confusion, and cyanosis.  On inhalation it can cause intense
burning in the throat and lungs  and possibly bronchopneumonia (Stavinoha,
1966).
The acute oral LDen for rabbits fed kerosene is 28 g/kg.  In humans, defatt
ing of the skin canT.ead to irritation and infection.  Inhalation of high concen
trations of kerosene will cause headache, drowsiness,  and even coma.

Mineral oil or liquid paraffin is a colorless, oily liquid that is practi-
cally tasteless and odorless even when warmed, and is insoluble in water.
                               139

-------
Aspiration may cause lipoid pneumonia (Stavinoha, 1966).

Cyclohexane,  a naphthene, is insoluble in water and has a pungent
solvent odor,  especially when impure.  The lethal atmospheric concen-
tration in air for mice is about 2 percent (vol. /vol. ).  In humans, high
concentrations may act as a narcotic and skin irritant (Stavinoha,  1966).
The acute oral LOrn of benzene in rats is 5. 7 g/kg.  It has been used
medicinally in treating leukemia,  polycythemia vera,  and malignant
lymphoma.   Acute toxicity symptoms in humans are irritation of mucous
membranes, restlessness,  convulsions, excitement, and depression.
Death may follow from respiratory failure.  Chronic symptoms are bone
marrow depression, aplasia, and (rarely) leukemia.  It may be absorbed
in harmful amounts through the skin (Stavinoha,  1966).  The alkyl-
benzenes such as toluene, xylene, and mesitylene are less toxic than
benzene.

Biphenyl is used on oranges  as a fungistat.   The acute oral LE>   in rats
is 2.2 g/kg. In experimental animals,  CNS depression,  paralysis, and
convulsions have been observed on administration of biphenyl (Stavinoha,
1966).

Naphthalene occurs in the higher boiling fractions of aromatic petroleums
(Dunstan, 1958). It is ordinarily obtained from coal tar, in which it is
the most abundant constituent.  Poisoning may occur by ingestion of
large doses.  Symptoms are nausea,  vomiting,  headache, diaphoresis,
hematuria,  hemolytic anemia, fever, hepatic necrosis,  convulsions,
and coma.   No LD   is  given (Stavinoha, 1966) for mammals.

Anthracene and phenanthrene are 3-ring condensed aromatic hydrocarbons
found in coal tar and combusion products.   Phenanthrene can cause photo-
sensitization of skin and is considered a potential carcinogen (Stavinoha,
1966).   Compounds with four or more highly condensed rings such as
pyrene, benzopyrene, perylene, and  dibenzanthracene are carcinogenic.
No data were found on the acute toxicity of these compounds.

Skin absorption rates for toluene,  toluene-water mixtures (200-600 mg/1),
styrene, styrene-water mixtures (66. 5-269 mg/1), and xylene have been
found to be, respectively,  14-23,  0.175-0.6, 9-15,  0.04-018, and
4.5-9.6 mg/cm - hr (Dutkiewicz, 1968).   The same author dosed rats
under anesthesia orally with 0. 2 ml of n-hexane or n-octane.  Convulsion and
death from asphyxiation occurred within a few seconds after hydrocarbon
entered the lungs following volatilization in the stomach.  Cardiac arrest,
respiratory paralysis, and asphyxia rather than pulmonary edema or
hemorrhage were found to be the causes of death.  The hydrocarbons
are sufficiently volatile to evaporate  at body temperature and displace
air in the lungs.  With higher (Cj^-C,,) hydrocarbons, death is due to
progressive pulmonary  edema ana hemorrhage and occurrs after sever-
al hours.   There is a sharp break in  mortality between C, . and C, , com-
pounds.  The difference  in response may be due  to differences in the rate
of spread in deeper lung structures,  since the viscosities are similar and
                              140

-------
all are readily aspirated.  Olefinic and acetylenic hydrocarbons give simi-
lar results.

Lengthening of the alkyl chain in alkylbenzenes decreases their toxicity to the
endothelium.  With petroleum distillates,  mortality decreases sharply
with  an increase in viscosity from 39 to 59 SSU at 100C.  Hydrocarbon
aerosols sprayed directly into  the mouth do not present the same aspiration
hazard as the  liquid because the droplets do not coalesce to form a pool.
It is  generally held that if a child lives 24 hours after aspirating a hydro-
carbon substance, he is then out of danger (Gerarde,  1963).

In South Africa,  the most common cause of chemical reaction in the lungs
of infants and  children is paraffin, which is widely used  for cooking,
lighting,  and heating.  In a series of 61  patients ranging in age from 9
months to 19 years of age, 20 underwent X-ray examination of the chest
when first seen and  of these  12 showed lesions,  mostly in the lower lobes.
Of 10 patients  admitted to the hospital, all improved rapidly and were discharg-
ed within three to seven days.   There were no deaths.   There was no evi-
dence of lasting  changes in the lungs in thirty of these patients a year after
the paraffin ingestion occurred (Kossick, 1961).
                                        3
Inhalation  of air containing 50-200 mg/m  of xylene by mice over a
period of 12 months  increased erythrocytes, hemoglobin, total plasma
protein,  urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, and activity of the acetyl-
choline-mediating system.  Decompensation occurred during the final four
months.  Xylene is apparently  highly toxic and present permissible concen-
trations  should be decreased (Kashin, 1968).

Median atmospheric lethal concentrations in mg/1 of various hydrocarbons
to mice were found to be isoprene, 157; butadiene,  270;  isobutylene, 415;
butane, 680; 2-methyl-1-pentene, 127; 2-methyl-2-pentene,  130; and styrene,
21. 0; for rats, isoprene, 180;  butadiene,  285; isobutylene, 620; butane, 658;
2-methyl-l-pentene,  115; 2-methyl-2-pentene, 114; and styrene, 118.   Ex-
posure periods were two hours for mice and four hours for rats.  There was
a distinct correlation between brain  concentrations and toxicity for all sub-
stances studied.  In cats, concentrations of hydrocarbon were highest in
nervous  tissue containing white matter, and in perinephric and hypodermic
fat.  Presence of hydrocarbon in the medulla oblongata results in respira-
tory  arrest and death in acute intoxication (Shugaev, 1969).

CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS

Although fractions of catalytically cracked petroleum boiling above
371C have been shown to be carcinogenic to mice by skin application,
a study of paired groups of 1077 exposed and unexposed  employees  of
three refineries showed no relation  of degree of  exposure to occurrence
of skin tumors.  Skin tumors occurred in four "potentially exposed"
subjects. It is questionable  whether data  on  skin cancer in mice can be
extrapolated to humans.  During the  12-year observation period, 45 neo-
plasms occurred in  the control group and 46 in the exposed group (Wade,
1963).  In a similar study of 462 asphalt workers in petroleum refineries


                               141

-------
and 379 controls,  one case of lung cancer occurred in the control group
and skin cancer in two workers and four controls.  Carcinoma of the
stomach occurred in one worker and carcinoma of the colon in a control.
No cases of lung disease were classed as advanced,  severe,  or incapaci-
tating.  Dermatitis that occurred was localized and transient.  In surveys
of highway construction, roofing, trucking, and insurance industries,
State Boards of Health, and Highway Commissions, only five cases of
illness were attributed to asphalt contact, and none involved tumors
(Baylor, 1968).

The  carcinogen!city of benzo (a) pyrene and benzo (a) anthracene applied
to the skin of mice was enhanced by a factor of 1000 when n-dodecane was
used as solvent in comparison to carcinogenicity  of the  same substances
in decalin.  The carcinogenicity was also increased when n-dodecanol or
1-phenyldodecane  was used as solvent.  These  results indicate that cer-
tain long-chain hydrocarbons  may play the decisive role in determinging
the carcinogenic potency of a  mixture. The importance of the  concentra-
tion of the initiator may be relatively minor although its presence in
minute amounts is apparently necessary (Bingham, 1969).

SUMMARY

Contamination  of recreational waters with oily  substances may occur
as a  result of oil drilling operations  in coastal  waters,  seepage from natural
underwater oil deposits, discharge of fuel tank contents of ships, either
accidentally or deliberately, and discharge of industrial wastes. Al-
though the presence of oily substances would make the water esthetically
unattractive because of odor and fouling of equipment and bodies of bathers,
and the possibility exists that recreationists might still use the water.  Toxi-
city of oily substances by ingestion  or skin absorption or by inhalation
of vapors is relatively low except in the case of aromatics.  The possibility
of lung injury following ingestion of a gross amount of floating crude petro-
leum followed by vomiting and aspiration into the lungs  must be considered.
Skin irritation, either caused directly by contact  with the oil or by the use
of petroleum solvents to remove it, is also a factor.  Skin irritation by oil
is increased in mixtures with brine (Gage, 1963). Light monolayer films
which may not  be visually  detectable could coat the entire body of a swimmer
entering the water.  These could magnify toxicity effects.
                             142

-------
                             SECTION XII

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS OF RECREATIONAL WATER
                             QUALITY

The amount of information available relating the factors of pH, tempera-
ture,  and clarity to ill-effect in recreation water was found to be more
limited than for the other factors of interest.  Consequently,  these
items have been combined in  a single section.  In general, it may be
stated that the criteria recommended by  the National Technical Advisory
Committee (NTAC) on  Water Quality Criteria represent the most likely
conclusions to be drawn from available data, and the views represented
by the group have been largely used as the basis for this section.

E. W. Mood {NTAC,  1968) has reviewed the literature  on  the relation
between pH and aquatic activity,  and explored the bases for the establish-
ment  of criteria for those properties of water that may cause eye irrita-
tion to bathers  and swimmers.  Since his review contains  a concise and use-
ful account of the relation of pH to recreation water, and little supplemental
information was encountered  in our survey, its  major points are brought
out below.

Knowledge about the characteristics of water that may  cause irritation
to the eyes of swimmers has  been developed through research efforts
of ophthalmologists and others  in connection with investigations on the
preparation of ophthalmic solutions.  Since  the ideal non-irritating solu-
tion should have physico-chemical properties similar to tears,  studies
were  undertaken initially to determine the chemical composition of lacri-
mal fluid, particularly of its  hydrogen-ion concentration,  or pH, its buffer
capacity,  and its toxicity. Although early studies of the hydrogen-ion con-
centration of tears revealed values  ranging  from 6. 3 to 8. 6, Hind and
Goyan (1947; 1949) found that lacrimal fluid has a pH of approximately
7.4.

Lacrimal fluid is only weakly buffered and has the capacity to bring the
pH of an unbuffered solution from as low as 3.5 or as high as 10. 5 to within
tolerable limits in a very short time.  However, if the pH of a solution
in direct contact with the eyes is lower than 7. 3 or higher than 7. 5, pain
may be elicited.

Since the most sensitive part of  the body that may come in contact with a
given water is  the eye,  the toxicity or salt concentration is another import-
ant aspect.  Early studies by Hind and Goyan (1947) showed that a sodium
chloride equivalent range of 0. 5 to  2. 0 percent  concentration was well toler-
ted.   Later,  Riegelmann, et  al  (1955) and Riegelmann and Vaughan (1958)
suggested that  the range be narrowed to  the equivalence of between  0. 7
to 1. 5 percent sodium chloride.

Seawater has a sodium chloride  equivalent tonicity of 3. 5  percent.  It is
                                143

-------
mildly irritating to most swimmers but in normal recreational activity,
exposure is limited.  Concentrations higher than 3. 5 percent NaCl are
rarely encountered.  Thus, Mood (1968) concludes that tonicity of recreation
waters is of much less importance than the hydrogen-ion concentration
and the buffer capacity in preventing or reducing eye irritation to
bathers and swimmers.

"In summary, when water quality standards are proposed for swimming,
bathing,  and other similar uses, consideration should be given to those
physico-chemical properties  that may cause or  contribute to eye irrita-
tion,  if  principal importance is the hydrogen-ion concentration with
codependence upon the  buffer capacity of the water.   Ideally, the pH
of the water should be approximately the same as lacrimal fluid, which
is about  7. 4 for most people; a range of pH values from 6. 5 to 8. 3 can
be tolerated under average conditions.  If the recreation water is rela-
tively free of dissolved solids and has  a very low buffer capacity, pH
values from 5. 0 to 9. 0 should be acceptable.  However, for recreation
water having pH less than 6. 5 or greater than 8. 3, waste discharge
standards  should include prohibition against releases that will increase
the buffer  capacity of the receiving waters and yet maintain the pH
below 6. 5  or greater than 8. 3.  Tonicity standards do not seem to have
any practical value  "  (NTAC, 1968).

The distribution of pH values for the Ohio River,  using data from the
same sampling  stations and over the same time periods as for the pesti-
cide and temperature studies, was analyzed.  The Weibull distribution
most closely approximated the sampled universe  (Table 39); this is repre-
sented in Figure 28.  The pH values ranged from 6. 8 to 7. 7.  These are
well within the values that can be safely tolerated by recreationists.

CLARITY (TURBIDITY)

Clarity in recreational waters is highly desirable from the stand-
point of visual appeal,  recreational enjoyment,  and safety.  Variation in
natural conditions make it difficult to set absolute criteria for this
factor.   However, natural conditions  taken into account,  turbidity attri-
butable to human activity should nonetheles s be  controlled in recreation
waters where feasible.

For primary contact recreation waters, clarity has been recommended
to be such that a Secchi disc  is visible at a minimum depth of four feet.
In "learn to swim" areas, the clarity should be such that a Secchi disc
on the bottom is visible. In diving areas, the clarity shall equal the
minimum  required by safety  standards, depending on the height of the
diving platform or board   (NTAC, 1968).

The Secchi disc is a device used to measure visibility depths in water.
The upper surface of a circular metal plate, 20 centimeters in diameter,
is divided into four quadrants and so painted that two quadrants directly
opposite each other are black and the intervening ones white.  When
suspended to various depths  of water by means  of a graduated line,
                               144

-------
                                             TABLE 39

                           pH Concentration Distribution - Ohio River Water
Ul
Name of
Distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
"d"
Statistic
0. 1256
0. 118
0.595
0. 164
0. 107
Probability
Data came
from Cited
Distribution
0.910
0.942
0. 000
0.656
0.976
                            Conclusion:
It is not unreasonable to assume
that the Weibull distribution   ,
"c = 6.7135, 8  = 4.9604 x 10" ,
  = 1. 7902) best represents the
universe from which the data
were sampled.
                                          &

-------
00

 (2
 H
 a

 M
 00
 ffi


 2
 0)
 rt-
 i-l

 cr
 o
 0
 cr
 a

 O
 tr
 (t
 i-i
                                                                                                                                                                                            77

-------
its point of disappearance indicates the limit of visibility.  If it is then
raised until it reappears and the average of the two depths is taken as
the Secchi disc transparency.

Light penetration into waters is extremely variable in different water
bodies. Clarke (1939) pointed out that the  diminution of the intensity
of light in its passage through water follows a definite mathematical
formula.  The relationship between the depth of water and the amount of
light penetrating to that depth is  semilogarithmic.  Even the clearest
waters impede the passage of light to some extent; light passed through
100 meters  of distilled water is reduced in intensity to one to two percent
of its incident value.

The principal factors affecting the depth of light penetration in natural
waters include suspended microscopic plants and animals, suspended
mineral particles,  stains that impart a color, detergent foams,  dense
mats  of floating and suspended debris, or a combination of these factors.

Beeton (1958) made 57 paired photometer and Secchi disc measurements
at 18  stations in Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron.  He found that the average
percentage transmission  of  surface  light  introduced,  at the  Secchi
disc depth,  was 14. 7 percent. Verduin (1956) made simultaneous deter-
minations with the Secchi disc and submarine photometer during August
1955, on Lake  Erie.  The Secchi disc readings in meters were plotted
against the depth associated with one percent of the  surface light.  A
line drawn by inspection through the scatter diagram suggests that an
approximate estimation of the euphotic zone can  be obtained by multiply-
ing the Secchi disc readings by five.  Riley (1941) used a factor of three.
Verduin (1956) computed a factor of 2. 5 using the data of Bursch (1955).
Rawson (1950)  lists a factor of 4. 3 when the Secchi disc reading  is about
one meter.

The maximum Secchi disc reading reported for Lake Tahoe, California-
Nevada, was 136 feet at one station on April 4, 1962 (McGauhey,  et al
1963).  A minimum Secchi disc reading of 49 feet was recorded  in Emerald
Bay of Lake Tahoe on May 21, 1962.  In contrast, the Secchi disc disa-
ppeared in three feet in Lake Sebasticooke, Maine,  during a July 1965
study.  In areas with less dense algal growths, the readings were increased
to eight feet.  Beetan (1965) recorded the average Secchi disc  depth for
Lake Superior  as 32. 5 feet;  Lake Michigan,  19. 6 feet; and Lake  Erie,
14.6 feet    (Mackenthun and Ingram,  1967).

The Jackson candle turbidimeter (Standard Methods  for the Examination
of Water and Wastewater, 12th Edition,  1965) is  the standard instrument
for making measurements of turbidity.  Field determinations are made
with direct  reading colorimeters calibrated for this test and results  are
expressed as Jackson Turbidity  Units (JTU).

Buck (1955), investigating various fishery waters, observed that maxi-
mum production occurred in farm ponds where the average turbidity was
less than 25 JTU.  Between 25 and 100 JTU, fish yield dropped and in
                               147

-------
muddy ponds of over 100 JTU, the yield was only 18 percent of clear ponds.

Walton (1961) analyzed data from three waterworks treating water by
chlorination only.   Coliform organisms were detected in one water that
averaged 10 JTU with an occasional reading of 100 JTU.  No coliforms
were detected in the chlorinated waters with 0 to 5 JTU.

Wang and Brabec (1969) reported on the "Nature of Turbidity in the
Illinois River".  They presented a graph tht related Secchi disc visi-
bility to water turbidity in JTU.  This is  presented in Figure 29.

An analysis of the turbidity readings  along the sampling points of the
Ohio River, as previously discussed,  is presented in Table 40. The
lognormal distribution presented in Figure 30 shows the very wide range
of turbidities (15 to 750 scale units) within these data.
                                148

-------
    0.08
   0.07
u
00

OT
0.06
U
U
UJ
0.05
   0.04
   0.03
                   50          100          150


                         WATER TURBIDITY. JTU
                                                     200
 Figure 29.
           Relationship Between Secchi Disc Visibility and

             Water Turbidity in the Illinois River
                              149

-------
                 TABLE 40

  Turbidity Distribution - Ohio River Water
Name of
Distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
"d"
Statistic
0.260
0. 104
0. 178
0. 125
0.223
Probability
Date came
from Cited
Distribution
0. 134
0.981
0.548
0.913
0.271
Conclusion:  It is not unreasonable to assume that
             the Lognormal distribution (y =  4.4566,
             ay- 1. 0928) best represents the universe
             from which the data were sampled.

-------
TO
 UJ
 o
 cr
 M

 O-
 I-1-
 f^




 d
 H*
 CA
 o
 3
 O


 o'

 
           1.00
          0.90   
           0.10
               3.0
                            3.5
4.0
4.5
                                                                        5.0
5.5
                                                          6.0
6.5
7.0
                                                       LOGe TURBIDITY. SCALE UNITS

-------
152

-------
                               SECTION XIII

                         ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This program was carried out under the direction .of Dr. Byron J.
Mechalas as program manager.  Dr.  K. K. Hekimian was respon-
sible for the development of the conversion methodology and was  ably
assisted by Envirogenics  Consultant Dr. R. H. Dudley, who developed
the mathematical model and the computer techniques used in the  program.

Dr. Lewis A.  Schinazi carried out the search of the literature, and
preparation of abstracts for documenting the data base.  Dr. Carl Rambow
(now deceased) of Montgomery Research was a subcontractor for the
survey of pesticides and state standards.

Mr.  E.  M. Wilson was  of considerable assistance in editing and  organiz-
ing the final report.

The support of the program by the Environmental Protection Agency
was the encouragement and interest of Dr. J. Frances Allen and Mr.
Walter H. Preston is gratefully acknowledged.
                             153

-------
                               SECTION XIV

                               APPENDIX A

INTRODUCTION

To investigate current criteria and promulgated standards for recreational
waters, a letter of inquiry was sent to fifty states and eight  territories and
districts.  This survey -was  conducted by Montgomery Research, Inc. ,
Pasadena,  California,  subcontractor to  The Envirogenics Co. on this program.
The text of the letter used is as follows:

    "Our firm, together with Aerojet-General Corporation  of El Monte, has
    contracted with the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration to
    evaluate the relationships between (a) certain water quality parameters,
    and (b) recreational uses of water.  Part of this study involves review
    of state standards for recreational water quality for those  parameters
    listed below:

              Total coliforms           pH
              Fecal coliforms           Temperature
              Viruses                   Clarity
              Salmonella                Pesticides
              Oils

    I would appreciate receiving copies  of any documents giving limiting values
    of these parameters as  adopted by your state, the date  of adoption,  and
    any pertinent remarks you may wish to make.  Particularly desired are
    the bases on which the limitations were established, or their  sources.

    I realize that some of this information is  contained in the water quality
    standards submitted to  the United States Government in compliance with
    the Clean Water Act.  However, in  most cases it is impossible to derive
    the needed information  from these Standards because they apply to many
    different bodies of water of which few, if  any, are used for recreation
    and no other purpose.   It,  therefore,  becomes  necessary to request this
    information directly.

    Your cooperation in providing  this information will be greatly appreciated.
    It will enable us to complete our study and derive  conclusions that will be
    meaningful and useful in the future in establishing or modifying criteria.  "

Replies were received from the fifty states and six of the districts in the form
of published water quality documents. After a thorough review of the  documents,
the data relevant to the factors of interest were tabulated and are  compared in
Table 41.   Summaries  of data on the various factors have been presented as
Tables  1-8 in the main body of the text.

The various documents from which the data were derived have been listed in
Bibliography C  of Section XV.
                                   155

-------
                                                                                    TABLE  41

                                                        Summary  State Recreational Water Quality Criteria
                        State
                     Alabama
                     Alaska
Ul
Agency Date Current
Responding Standards
Adopted

Water May 5, 1967
Improvement
Commission







Department of June 20,1967
Health and Revised No-
Welfare vember 10,
1967



State Depart' July, 1968
ment of Health,
Division of
Water Pollution
Control













Bacterial pH
Total Col i forms Fecal Co li forms
Not to Exceed Not to Exceed
No standard set J 0007 100 ml as a 6.0-8.5

during May
through Septem-
ber, nor exceed
this value in an)
two consecutive
ample* col-
lected during
these months.
1000/100 ml No standard 6.5-8.5
average, with set
20% of samples
not to exceed
this number.
No sample
shall exceed
2400/100 ml.
mean of 200/ 100
more than 10'pof
the tot al s ample 8
during any 30-day
period exceed
400/100 ml. For
waters other than
primary contact
value shall not
exceed a geomet-
ric mean of IOOO/
100 minor shall
more than 10% of
the samples during
any JO-day period
exceed 20OO/ 100ml.
Temperature
Shall Not Be
Increased

More than 10%

wastes nor shall
these wastes
cauae the tem-
perature to
exceed 90*F.



Numerical
standard not
set.





93*F















Pesticides Clarity Rationale and
and Oils Remarks


Non-quantitative"1 Non-quantitative- Criteria based on

fie knowledge.
experience and
judgement





Non-quantitative* Non-quantitative Public hearings
were he Id and
all reports.
written and
verbal were
reviewed be-
fore standards
adopted.
streams: 10 .TV cnt criteria is
25 TU ^ * considL rations
lakes-. 10 Jt" cold ditiona. con-
water lakes. tributing factors
and quality re-
quirements for
specified uses.









                    'The term non-quantitative refers to area* where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free from, and shall not be present in
                    quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                     TABLE  41
                            State
                       Arkansas
Agency
Responding

Pollution Con-
trol Commission





Date Current
Standards
Adopted

July23, 1964






Bacterial
Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms
Nqt to Exceed Not to Exceed
200/lOOrnlin No standard set
more than 20%
of the samples
tested, nor shall
plea contain
more than 5007
JOO ml.
pH T ernpe r ature
Shall Not Be

6. 0-9. 0 No standard set






Pesticides
and Oils

The levelof toxic
substances shall
not exceed 0, 1
of 48-hr median



                                                                                                                                                                      Clarity
                                                                                                                                                                 Non-quantitative *
Ul
                                         Department of
                                         Public Health,
                                         Bureau ofSani-
                                         tary Eng Sneering
                                                          1958
1000/100 ml. pro-  No standard set
videdthat not more
than 2 Wo of the
samples at any
sampling station
in any 30-day
period, may
exceed 1000/
100ml, and pro-
vided further that
no single sample
when verified by
a repeat sample
taken within48
hrs shall exceed
10.000/100 ml.
No stan-
dard set
                                                                                                                          No  standard set    Non-quantitative*
                                                                                                                                                                 Non- quantitative';:
Dcparment of March 1,
Public Health, 1967
Water Pol-
lution Control
Division






1000/100 ml as
a monthly average
nor exceed this
number in more
than 20% of the
samples exa-
mined during
any month nor
exceed Z400/
100 ml in a
single sample.
100/100 ml and
fecal strepto-
coccus count
shall not ex-
ceed 20/100
ml. Both of
these limits
to be an average
of 5 consecutive
samples within
a month.
                                                                                                                6. 5-8,
                                                                                                                          No standard set    Non-quantitative-'    Non-quantitative-
                                                                                                                                                                                        Rationale  and
                                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks
                                                                                                          Waters covered
                                                                                                          by criteria are
                                                                                                          Interstate streams
                                                                                                          any bathing place
                                                                                                          at a lake, pond
                                                                                                          or stream,
Waters covered
by criteria are
public beaches
and public water
contact sports
areas ofIhe
ocean waters
and bays.
                                                                                                          Basic standards
                                                                                                          were prepared
                                                                                                          after a number  of
                                                                                                          conferences with
                                                                                                          the 7 States lo-
                                                                                                          cated within the
                                                                                                          Colorado River
                                                                                                          Basin.  Standards
                                                                                                          for body contact
                                                                                                          sports  based on
                                                                                                          recommendations
                                                                                                          of Fcdc r al Au-
                                                                                                          thorities.  All
                                                                                                          Colorado surface
                                                                                                          waters are classi-
                                                                                                          fied for body
                                                                                                          contact sports.
                        *The term non-quantitative  refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases.such as required for safety,  essentially free from, and shall not be present in
                        quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human,  plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                          TABLE 41
                               Slate
                           Connecticut
                           Dela
Ul
00
                          Delaware
                          River Basin
                          District of
                          Columbia
                                               Agency
                                             Responding
                   Date Current
                    Standards
                     Adopted
                              Bacterial
                                           State Department  Not given
                                           ol Health, En-
                                           vironmental
                                           Health Services
                                           Division
                                            State Board of
                                            Health, Bureau
                                            of Environ-
                                            mental Health
                  March,  1968
Delaware River
Basin Commis-
sion,  Water
Quality Branch
                  March,  1968
 Department of
 Public Health.
 Water Quality
 Control Division
January 17,
                                                                              Total Conforms
                                                                              Not to Exceed
                                                      Fecal Coliforms
                                                      Not to Exceed
                  A median of IODO/ No standard set
                  100 ml nor more
                  than 2400 in more
                  than 20% of the
                   ample  collected.
                  1000/lOOml during No standard set
                  any month of the
                  recreation season;
                  nor exceed thU
                  number in more
                  than Z0% of the
                  samples examined
                  during any such
                  month; nor exceed
                  2400/JOOmt on any
                  day in areas desig-
                  nated by the Com-
                  mission for water
                  contact recreation.
                                                         pH
                                                                        6.5-8,0
                                                                        6. 5-8.
                                   No standard set
                                                                             No standard set
Effluent standard   6. 0-8. S
effective disinfec-
tion means the
treatment of wastes
such that the num-
ber of organism* re-
maining after treat-
ment does not exceed
200/JOOmlasa
geometric average,
nor 1000/100 ml in
mo re than 10% of the
 ample  taken over
a pe riod of 30 con-
secutive days.

240/100 ml in 90%  6.0-8.5
of the sample* col-
lected each month.
(not applicable during
or immediately fol-
lowing periods of
rainfall)
  Temperature
  Shall Not Be
   Increased
Not to exceed
85-F or raise
the normal
temperature of
the receiving
water more
than 4*F.

Not to exceed
5 -F above
normal for
the locality,
with  maxi-
mums speci-
fied for given
waters.
                                                                Shall pot exceed
                                                                5 *F above the
                                                                average daily
                                                                temperature
                                                                gradient dis-
                                                                played during
                                                                1961-66 period.
                                                                or a maximum
                                                                of 86'F.
                                                                                     Pesticides
                                                                                     and Oils
                                                                                                           Clarity
                                                                                                    Non-quantitative *    Non-quantitative *
                                                                                                    Non-quantitative*    Non-quantitative^
                  Non-quantitative*
                                      Maximum monthly
                                      mean 40 units,
                                      maximum 150
                                      units
                                                                Not to exceed      Non-quantitative*   Non-quantitative"
                                                                90T. No increase
                                                                in natural water
                                                                temperature caused
                                                                by artificial heat in-
                                                                puts shall exceed
                                                                5*F after reasonable
                                                                mixing.
                                                                                         Rationale and
                                                                                            Remarks
                                                                                       Standards were
                                                                                       guided by recom-
                                                                                       mendations which
                                                                                       appear in "Report
                                                                                       of the Committee
                                                                                       on Water Quality
                                                                                       Criteria".

                                                                                       Standards recom-
                                                                                       mended by the
                                                                                       FWPCA for
                                                                                       recreational
                                                                                       waters were
                                                                                       adopted, All
                                                                                       vvatc r* of the
                                                                                       state covered
                                                                                       by criteria.
Not given.
                                                          Numerical values
                                                          of the criteria
                                                          were principally
                                                          derived fromthe
                                                          report of the
                                                          National Technical
                                                          Advisory Commit -
                                                          tee on  Water
                                                          Quality Criteria.
                          ''The term non-quantUative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases  such as required for safety, essentially free from, and shall not be present in
                          quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                     TABLE  41
                            State
                        Florida
                        Georgia
cn
Agency Date Current
Responding Standards
Adopted

Department of None given
Health and
Rehabilitative
tier vice 5









State Water Currently
Quality unde r
Control review
Board










Bacterial

Total Coliforms
Not to Exceed
1000/100 ml
Survey of natural
bathing area* shall
consist of a mini-
mum of three
bacteriological
ample* collected
from the proposed
bathing area daily
for the first three
day* of each week
for three consecu-
tive weeks.
No standard
set













Fecal ColUorms
Not to Exceed
No standard set












Not to exceed a
mean of 1 , 000
per 100 ml based
on at least four
samples taken
over a 30-day
period and- not
to exceed 4,000
per 100 ml in
more than 5
percent of the
samples taken in
any 90-day
period*
pH Temperature Pesticides Clarity
Shall Not Be and Oils
Increased

No stan- No standard set No standard set No standard set
dard set











6.0-8.5 Presently being Non- Non-
( swamp studied. Current quantitative* quantitative*
waters standard is a
may max. of93.2*F
have with a max. of
pH of 10 *F rise above
4.5) natural but
below 93.2'F
allowable.





                                                                                                                                                                                       Rationale and
                                                                                                                                                                                         Remarks
                                                                                                                                                                                    Not given
                                                                                                         The State of
                                                                                                         Georgia has corn-
                                                                                                         plated a study
                                                                                                         with the FWPCA
                                                                                                         on fecal coliform
                                                                                                         standards. This
                                                                                                         study will prob-
                                                                                                         ably result in
                                                                                                         the following fecal
                                                                                                         coliform stand-
                                                                                                         ards being
                                                                                                         adopted:
                                                                                                         Marine waters:
                                                                                                           100/100 ml MPN
                                                                                                         Reservoirs:
                                                                                                           300/100 ml
                                                                                                         Streams:
                                                                                                           500/100 ml
                        Guam
                                         Water
                                         Pollution
                                         Control
                                         Commission
                                                          April,  1968
No standard
set
Shall not exceed
an arithmetic
mean of 200/100
ml nor exceed
400/100 ml in
more than 1 01V of
samples  during
any 30-day
period.
                                                                                                                7.0-8.3
Shall not exceed
8S*F due to in-
fluence of other
than natural
conditions.
Non-
quantitative*
Visibility shall
not be  reduced
by more than
I 0% of normal
values as
measured by
secchi disc
                                                                                                                                                                                    Not given
                           "The term non-quantitative refers to arras where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety,  essentially free from,  and shall not  he present in
                           quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human,  plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                               TABLE   41
     State
 Hawaii
  laho
Agency Date Current
Responding Standard!
Adopted

Department of January 26,
Health 1968










State Board of September.
Health 1968












Bacterial
Total Coliform
Not to Exceed
Median not to ex-
ceed 1000/100 ml
nor shall more
than m of the
Z400/100 ml.







E40/IOO ml
with 20% of the

exceed 1000/
100 ml.









Fecal Coliforma
Not to Exceed
Arithmetric
average of ZOO/
1 00 ml during
any 30-day period
than 10% of the
samples exceed
400/lOOmlinthe
same imeperio




50/100 ml with
t e sam-

200/100 ml.










pK Temperature Pesticides
Shall Not Be and Oils
Inc reased

Should not Temperature of Non- quantitative*
vary more receiving waters

unit from more than 1. 5" F
conditions condition s .
but not
lower than
higher
than 8. S
from other
than nat-
ural causes.
6. 5-9. 0 No measurable in- Non-quantitative*

tion not 66 *F or above or
to be more than 2 *F
more when streamtcm-
than 0. 5 peratures are
unit. 64 *F or less.






Clarity


Secchi disc or
secchi disc equi-

tinction coef-
ficient" deter -
minators shall
not be altered
from natural
than 10%.




Not to exceed
5 JU,











Rationale and
Remarks


Criteria baaed
upon the best
curre'Mty''4ivail- 
able data.








Public hearings
were held with
testimony re-
ceived on the pro-
posed water
quality standards.
Testimony given
at these hearings
was considered
and utilized,
where possible ,in
the development
of the final
standards.
*The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety,  essentially free from,  and shall not  be
present in quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human,  plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                             .TABLE  41
    State
Indiana
Agency
Responding


Sanitary
Water Board















Stream Pol-
lution Control
Board











Date Current Bacterial pH Temperature Pesticides
Standards
Adopted Total Coliforms
Not to Exceed
March 7, 1967 5000/ 100 ml as a
monthly average,
nor rxcced this
than 20% of the
samples exa-
mincdduring
any month, nor
exceed 20. OOO/
1 00 ml in more
than 5% of such
samples.







June 13, 1000/100mlaa
1 967 monthly average
during any month
of the recreational
season, nor ex-
ceed this number
in more than 20 To
of the samples
examined during
any month of the
recreational
season, nor
cxcced240n/10f)
ml on any day.
Shall Not Be and Oils
Fecal Coliforms  Increased
Not to Exceed
For primary con- Notspeci- Not specifically Non- Quantitative*

shall not exceed a given for tionat waters.
200/1 00 ml, nor tional
shall more than waters.
100% of the total
samples during
any 30-day period
exceed 400/1 00 ml.
For secondarycon-
shall not exceed a
geometric mean
of 1000/100 ml
nor shall the y equal
100 ml in more
than 10% of the
samples.
No standard set No stan- No standard set Non-quantitative-
dard act












                                                                                                                                              Clarity
                                                                                                                                                               Rationale and
                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks
                                                                                                                                         Non-quantitative*   Not given.
                                                                                                                                         Non- quantitat ive :
                                                                                                                                                            All reservoirs and
                                                                                                                                                            lakes shall he
                                                                                                                                                            maintained for
                                                                                                                                                            whole body contact
                                                                                                                                                            recreation.
                                                                                                                                                            Streams to be pro-
                                                                                                                                                            tected are the
                                                                                                                                                            Ohio River. Wa-
                                                                                                                                                            bash Hiver where
                                                                                                                                                            it forms a boun-
                                                                                                                                                            dary with Illinois,
                                                                                                                                                            the St.  Joseph
                                                                                                                                                            River  inElkart &
                                                                                                                                                            St.  Joseph
                                                                                                                                                            Counties  fr St.
                                                                                                                                                            Joseph River  in
                                                                                                                                                            Allen County.
-The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety,  essentially free from,  and shall not be present in
quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human,  plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                   TABLE 41
                          State
                      Iowa
  Agency
Responding
                                      Water
                                      Pollution
                                      Control
                                      Commission
                                      State Dept.
                                      of Health
Date Current
 Standards
  Adopted
                                                       1968
to
                                                                       Total Colt forms
                                                                        Not to Exceed
                                                   Fecal Coliforma
                                                    Not to Exceed
                                  1,000/100 ml as
                                  a monthly aver-
                                  age nor exceed
                                  this value in more
                                  than 20%  of the
                                  samples in any
                                  one month nor
                                  exceed Z.400/
                                  100 ml in any
                                  one sample.
                                  These figures are
                                  used as guides
                                  until suitable
                                  indices are
                                  developed.
                                    No standard
                                    set
                                                                                                              pH
                                                                                                            6.8-9.0
 Temperature
 Shall Not Be
   Increased
Not to exceed
93*F during
May through
Nov., and not
to exceed 73*F
during Dec.
through
April.
Pesticides
and Oils
Non-
quantitative
                                                                                                                                                                 Clarity
Non-
quantitative
                    Rationale and
                       Remarks
Information re-
ceived by other
state age/icies
presentations at
public  hearing*
was  used by the
Commission for
establishing
recreational
standards. Coli-
form standards
are used as
guides only,  AB
studies have
shown high bac-

tions associated
with land runoff,
and  public health
studies to  date
have shown little
direct correla-
tion between
coliform concen-
trations and
water-borne
diseases.
                         *The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standard* are specified in phrases such as required for
                         quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.
                                                                                         afety,  essentially free from, and shall not be prevent in

-------
                                                                                                      TABLE  41
                      Kansas
                      Kentucky
OO
Agency
Responding


Department of
Health, Environ-
mental Health


Water Pollu-
tion Control












Department of
Health, Bureau
Health








Date Current Bacterial
Standards
Adopted Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms
Not to Exceed Not to Exceed
January 1,1968 1000/1 00 ml - No standard set
survey work and
professional
used to the great-
possible.
June 9, 1969 1000/100 ml aa No standard set
a monthly arith-
nor exceed this
number in more
than ZO^c of the
samples exa-
mined during
any month, nor
exceed 2400/
100 ml on any
day.



1968 There is a vary- No standard set
ing range for rec-
Range is from 70/
1 00 ml for some
waters, 230/100
ml for some
waters, 542/100
ml for some
waters, and JbOO/
1 00 ml for major-
ity of waters.
pH



6. 5-8.5




No values
below 5.0
9. 0 and
preferably
between
6. 5 and
8.5 (ex-
cepted
from
Dept. of
Interior
approval
to be re-
vised).
Value s
vary for
differ-
ent wa-
ters
range -
6.0-
9.5




Temperature
Shall Not Be
Increased

No standard set




Not to exceed
93 F at any
the months
of May through
November it
not to exceed
73'F at any
time December
through April
(to be revised)




Not to be raised
more than 3" C
ambient water
temperature,
nor to exceed
36* C,





Pesticides
and Oils


Non - q uantitati ve *




Non- quantitative4













Non -quantitative*










                                                                                                                                                                      Clarity
                                                                                                                                                                                        Rationale and
                                                                                                                                                                                         Remarks
                                                                                                                                                                  Non-quantitative^  Not given.
                                                                                                                                                                  Non-quantitative*
When these stan-
dards were ini-
tiated the
Kentucky Water
Pollution Con-
trol Commis-

the ORSANCO
criteria with
slight modifi-
cations as the
basis of their
proposed  criteria
                                                                                                                                                                  Non-quantitative*  Criteria based on
                                                                                                                                                                                     present and po-
                                                                                                                                                                                     tential uses of
                                                                                                                                                                                     Louisiana waters
                                                                                                                                                                                     and the existing
                                                                                                                                                                                     water quality
                                                                                                                                                                                     indicated in data
                                                                                                                                                                                     accumulated
                                                                                                                                                                                     through moni-
                                                                                                                                                                                     toring programs
                                                                                                                                                                                     of various
                                                                                                                                                                                     agencie s.
                        *The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in  phrases such as required for safety,  essentially free front, and shall not be present in
                        quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                 TABLE  41
     State
Maine
                    Agency
                  Responding
                 Water and Air
                 Environmental
                 Improvement
                 Commission
Date Current
 Standard*
 Adopted
                                                    Total Coliforms
                                                     Not to Exceed
                                  Fecal Coliforms
                                   Not to Exceed
October 7, 196?  No single n-    No standard set
                 dard sample col-
                 lected from a
                 public bathing
                 beach shall show
                 a maximum of
                 over 10 confirm-
                 ed B. Coli per
                 ml.  When a
                 ingle sample
                 how* over 10,
                 but less than 30
                 per ml, a repeat
                 sample shall be
                 immediately
                 taken.  If any
                 ingle sample
                 shows 30 or more
                 B. Coli per ml,
                 the beach shall be
                 closed until water
                 quality is shown to
                 be satisfactory.
Maryland
                 Department of
                 Health, Division
                 of Water and
                 Sewerage
                                    April, 1969
   PH
No stand-
ard set
            Tcmpe rature
            Shall Not Be
              Increased
Pesticides
 and Oils
                                                     Clarity
Rationale and
 Remarks
           No standard set    Non-quantitative*    Non-quantitative*  Not given
                                                     No standard set
                                   Z40/100 ml.
                                   When the fecal
                                   coliform organ-
                                   ism density ex-
                                   ceeds this value
                                   the bacterial qua-
                                   lity shall be con-
                                   sidered acceptable
                                   only If  a second
                                   detailed sanitary
                                   survey and eval-
                                   uation discloses
                                   no  significant
                                   public health risk.
                                                                                        6.5-8.5
           Maximum* vary
           for different wat-
           ers.  No speci-
           fic standard  for
           recreational use.
                              Non-quantitative*   Non-quantitative*  Not given
*::The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free from, and shall not be present in
quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human,  plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                    TABLE  41
                          State
                      Massachusetts
                      Michigan
in
Agency Date Current Bacterial
Responding Standards
Adopted Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms

Water Resources February 17,1967
Commission









Department of Interstate stan-
Natural Resources dards adopted
June 28, 1967
Intrastate stan-
dards adopted
January 4, 1968








Not to Exceed Not to Exceed
1000/100 ml
during any mon-
thly sampling
period, nor 2400/
1 00 ml in more
than 20% of sam-
ples examined
duriag such
period.


Total body con-
tact- 1000/100 ml
nor shall 20% of
the samples ex-
amined exceed
5000.
Partial body_ con-
tact- 5000/100 ml
nor shall 20 ft of
the samples ex-
amined exceed
10rOOO.


Mo stanoara sec









Total body con-

average for the
same ten conse-
cutive samples
exceed 100/100
ml.
Partial body con-
tact- geometric
average for the
same ten conse-
cutive samples
shall not exceed
1000/100 ml.
pH Temperature Pesticides
Shall Not Be and Oils
Increased

cept where the
increase will not
ex eed the recom-
m nded limit on
th most sensitive
re eiving water
us . In no case
ra se the normal
w er temperature
m re than 4 F.
Maintain- 90' F maximum Non- quantitative *

a range of
6.5-8,5
with maxi -
muni in-
duced var-
ation of 0, 5
unit within
this range.




                                                                                                                                                                    Clarity
                     Rationale and
                       Remarks
                                       Minnesota Pol-
                                       lution Control
                                       Agency
                                                          August 3,  1967   1000/100 ml
                                                                                              No standard set 6.5-8.0    No standard act    Non-quantitative*
Non-quantitative*   Limits are
                   based on New
                   England Inter-
                   state Water
                   Pollution Con-
                   trol Commis-
                   sion  standards
Non-quantitative*   Standards based
                   on information
                   gained from re-
                   view of current
                   literature,  ex-
                   isting standards
                   and present wa-
                   ter quality  data,
                   and testimony
                   given at public
                   hearings.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Not given.
                      =The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free from,  and shall not be  present in
                      quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                               TABLE  41
     State
 Mississippi
                    Agency
                  Responding
                 Mr and Water
                 Pollution Con-
                 trol Commia-
Date Current                Bacterial
 Standards
 Adopted      Total Conforms     Fecal Coliforms
                Not to Exceed       Not to Exceed
                   PH
                                    March 1968
                                                    No standard set
 Missouri
                 Water Pollution
                 Board
                                   June,  1968
                                                    No standard set
                                   1000/100 ml as   6.0-8.5
                                   a monthly aver-
                                   age value, nor
                                   exceed this num-
                                   ber in more than
                                   20% of the samples
                                   examined during
                                   any month nor ex-
                                   ceed 2400/100 ml
                                   on any day.

                                   A geometric mean 6.5-8.5
                                   of 200/100 ml nor
                                    hall more than 10%
                                   of total samples
                                   during any 30 day
                                   period exceed
                                   400/100 ml.
                            Temperature
                            Shll Not Be
                              Increased
                  Pesticides
                   and Oils
                                                                     Clarity
                            Shall not be in*    Non-quantitative*
                            creased more than
                            10* F above the
                            natural prevailing
                            background temp-
                            erature,  nor  exceed
                            a maximum of 93"
                            F after reasonable
                            mixing.
                            Effluents shall
                            not elevate or
                            depress aver-
                            age  temperature
                            more than 5F.
                            Maximum tem-
                            perature due to
                            effluent 90' F.
                                                                                                                     Non-quantitative*
                     Rationale and
                      Remarks
                                      Non-quantitative*  Standards based
                                                        on good sanitary
                                                        engineering
                                                        practice and
                                                        consultation with
                                                        the affected
                                                        pa rtie s.
                                     Shall not exceed
                                     20 turbidity
                                     units due to
                                     effluents.
                  Public hearings
                  were held to
                  establish the
                  uses of the wa-
                  ters of the
                  state and to
                  gather infor-
                  mation to be
                  used in the de-
                  velopment of
                  water quality
                  standards to
                  protect these
                  uses.
                 Department of
                 Health, Division
                 of Environmental
                 Sanitation
                 Department of
                 Health, Water
                 Pollution Con-
                 trol Agency
October 5. 1967  1000/100 ml
                 with not more
                 than 20% of the
                 samples ex-
                 ceeding this
                 value.

January, 1969    No standard set
                                                                       No standard set  6. &-9. 5    No standard  set   Non-quantitative*
A geometric
mean of 200/
100 ml based
on at least
five  samples
per 30 day
period and shall
not exceed 400/
1 00 ml in more
than 10% of the
samples.
                                                                                       6.5-9.0
Shall not ex-
ceed 5*F over
normal tem-
perature of
water from May
to October and
not more than
1 0"F from Nov-
ember to April.
Maximum rate
of change lim-
ited to Z'F
per hour.
                                                                                                                     Non-quantitative*
                                                                  Increase in
                                                                  naturally oc-
                                                                  curing turbi-
                                                                  dity shall not
                                                                  exceed 10JCU.
In no case shall
turbidity caused
by waste water
impart more
than a 10% in-
crease in tur-
bidity to the re-
ceiving water.
                                                                                                                                                          Not given
Standards based
on testimony
received at
public hearings
ind on reflec-
tion of past
experience.
*The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such aa required for safety, essentially free from, and shall not be present in
quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                             TABLE  41
Nevada
                   Agency
                  Responding
                 Division of
                 Health,  Bureau
                 of Environmen-
                 tal Health
New Jersey
New Mexico
  Date Current                Bacterial
   Standards
   Adopted       Total Coliforms     Fecal Coliforms
                  Not to Exceed       Not to Exceed
                                                                                           PH
New Hampshire;
                 Water Supply
                 and Pollution
                 Control Com-
                 mission
July,  1967       1000/100 ml if
                 Fecal Strepto-
                 cocci are less
                 than 100 or  5000/
                 100 ml if Fecal
                 Streptococci are
                 less than ZO.
                 (Criteria for
                 Colorado River
                 only, other  stan-
                 dards set for
                 Lake Tahoe.)

January,  1969    340/100 ml
May 1,  1967
                                                   No standard set
                 Department of
                 Health, Water
                 Pollution Con-
                 trol
                 Health and Social   March, 1968    No standard set
                 Services Depart-
                 ment*  Environmen-
                 tal Services Div-
                 sion
                                                                       No standard set  7.0-8.5
                            Temperature
                            Shall Not Be
                             Increased
                            Not more than
                            18"C  summer or
                            I4C  in winter,
                            ZO'C  below
                            Davis Dam.
                   Pesticides
                     and Oils
                                                                                                                      Non-quant itative*
                                                                                                                                             Clarity
Rationale and
  R e ma rk s
No standard set  6.5-8.0    Any stream tern-   Non-quantitative*
                            perature increase
                            associated with
                            the discharge of
                            treated sewage,
                            waste, or cooling
                            water shall not be
                            such as to appre-
                            ciably interfere
                            with the uses as-
                            signed to this
                            class.

No standard Set  6.5-8.5    Noil-quantitative*  Nt>n-quantitative*
                                      Non-quantitative"  "Guidelines for
                                                         formulating water
                                                         quality standards
                                                         for the waters of
                                                         the Colorado
                                                         River System"
                                                         are incorporated
                                                         as a supplement
                                                         to the standards.
                                                                                                                                         Non-quantitative-  Not given
                                     The geometric
                                     average of five
                                     consecutive
                                     daily samples
                                     collected under
                                     similar condi-
                                     tions should not
                                     exceed 200/100
                                     ml.
                 Not spe-
                 cific for
                 waters
                 used for
                 body con-
                 tact
                 sports.
Not specific for
recreational use
of waters.
                                                                                                                     N on -quantitative*
                                      Non-quantitative*   It is anticipated
                                                         that the water
                                                         quality criteria
                                                         may be amend-
                                                         ed the end of
                                                         1969.

                                      Non-quantitative'-   Not given
*The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free from, and shall not be present in
quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human,  plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                  TABLE 41
                         State
                                        Agency
                                       Responding
                                     Department of
                                     Health
                   Date Current                Ba
                    Standards
                    Adopted     Total Coliforms
                                   Not to Exceed

                 November,  1968 For Boundary
                                 waters - 2400/
                                 100 ml MPN
                                 median value.
00
                    North Carolina
Department of
Water and Air
Resources
                                                      January 30, 1968 No standard set
                     North Dakota
 Department of    May, 1967
 Health,  Division
 of Water Supply
 and Pollution
 Control
                                                                        1000/100 ml
rial

Fecal Coliforms
Not to Exceed
No standard let

















An average of
200/100 ml on
at least 5 con-
secutive sam-
ples examined
during any 30
day period and
not to exce*d
400/100 ml in
more than 20T<
of the samples
examined during
any 30 day per-
iod. (Applica-
ble only May -
September. )
No standard set

PH



6.5-8.5

















Shall be
normal
for the
waterf
of the
area.
which
range
between
6.0-8. 5.
except
swamp
watnrs
may have
a low of
4.3.
6. 5-9.0

Temperature Pesticides
Shall Not Be and Oil!
Increased

Streams -Non- Non-quantitative*
Trout Waters
Maximum 90 'F
with temperature'
change not to ex-
ceed 5'F above
natural in 50% of
area to a maxi-
mum of 85 *F.
Trout Waters
No discharge at
a temperature
over 70'F. Maxi-
mum increase
June through
Sept. 2'F, Oct.
through May
5*F over normal.
Not to exceed Non-quantitative*
7*F above the
ambient stream
or water tem-
perature, and
in no case
exceed 95' F.









Not to fxc.i'od Non-quantitative;^
90' F.
                                                                                                                                                                 Clarity
   Rationale anc
     Remarks
                                                                                                                                                            Non-quantitative*  Not given
                                                                                                                                                             Non-quantitative*
Standards esta-
blished follow-
ing public hear-
ings.
                                                                                                                                                             Non-quantitative:''
 Adopted stan-
 dards arc based
 on the results of
 public hca rings
 and following,
"Guidclinc-a for
 KsUblU.iing Wa-
 ter Quality Stan-
 dards for Inter-
 state Waters."
                     sTIiu term non-quantitative refer* to areas where standards arc specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially tree from, and shall not be present in
                     quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human,  plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                TABLE  41
Ohio Hiver
Valley
                   Agency
                  Responding
Ohio River
Valley Water
Sanitation
Commission
                   Date Current                 Bacterial
                    Standards
                     Adopted      Total Coliforms
                                    Not to Exceed
                                   1967
                                    1967
                  Department of    1968
                  Health,  Environ-
                  mental Health
                  Services
                                                    No standard set
Fecal Coliforms
 Not to Exceed

200/100 ml as
a monthly geo-
metric  mean
based on not
less than five
sample s pe r
month,  nor ex-
ceed 400/100 ml
in more than
107t of all sam-
ples taken  dur-
ing a month.
                                                                                            PH
No stan-
dard set.
                            Temperature
                             Shall Not Be
                              Increased
                              Pesticides
                               and Oils
                                                                                                                                                Clarity
                                         Rationale and
                                           Remarks
                                                                                                     No standard Set    Non-quantitative*
1000/1 00 ml as a
monthly average
nor exceed thia in
more than 20% of
the samples exa-
minedduring any
month nor exceed
2400 per 100ml on
any day.
1000/100 ml as a
monthly average
during the recre-
ational season,
nor exceed this
number in more
than 20% of the
samples examined
during any one
month, nor exceed
2400/100 ml on
No standard set. No stan-
dard set.







A geometric 6., 5-8, 5
mean of 200/
1 00 ml nor
shall more
than 1 0% of
the total sam-
ples during
any 30 day
period exceed
400/100 ml.

No standard set








Changes in tem-
perature from
other than natur-
al sources shall
be limited to a
maximum of 5"F
with specific
maximums set
for various fish
propagation
areas.
                    Non-quantitative*  Member states
                                       are; Illinois,
                                       Indiana,  Ken-
                                       tucky,  New  York,
                                       Pennsylvania,
                                       Virginia,  West
                                       Virginia and
                                       Ohio.  The sig-
                                       natory  States
                                       conducted public
                                       hearings and re-
                                       ceived  testimony.
                                       Committees were
                                       established and
                                       recommendations
                                       for  standards
                                       made.  All me ru-
                                       be r  states sub-
                                       mitted  quality
                                       standards and
                                       plans for their
                                       implementation.

Non-quantitative -   Non-quantitative*  Not Riven.
                                                                                                                        Non- quantitative
                                                                                                                                            Non-quantitative-
                                                                                                                                              Public hearings
                                                                                                                                              held in accord-
                                                                                                                                              ance with State
                                                                                                                                              statute s.  Cur-
                                                                                                                                              rent water qual-
                                                                                                                                              ity anrt history
                                                                                                                                              of State  waters
                                                                                                                                              re-viewed before*
                                                                                                                                              standards adopted
 '-The- term non-quantitative refers to areas
 quantities which cause the water to be toxic  to human, plant or aquatic life
                                                    any day except dur -
                                                    ing periods of
                                                    storm run off.
                                             here standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free from, and  shall not be present

-------
                                                                            TABLE  41
Oregon
                   Agency
                  Responding
                 Oregon State
                 Sanitary
                 Authority
  Date Current
   Standards
    Adopted
                                  June 1, 1967
Pennsylvania
                 Department of
                 Health, Divi-
                 sion of Water
                 Quality
Not given
Bacterial pH

Total Coliforrns
Not to Exceed
Average concen-
tration 1000/100
ml with IQ% of
the samples not
to exceed 2400/
1 00 ml.


1000/100 ml as
an arithmetic
value, not to ex-
ceed 1000/100 ml
in more than two
pies nor exceed
2400/100 ml in
more than one
sample. (For the
period 9/16 to
5/14 of any year
not to exceed
5000/100 ml as a
monthly average
value, nor exceed
this number in
more than 20fc of
the samples col-
lected during any
month; nor exceed
20,000/100 ml in
more than 5% of
the samples.)

Fecal Coliforrns
Not to Exceed
No standard set 6. 5-6. 5



A log mean of No stan-
200/100 ml in dard set
any five or solely

for a 30 day creation-
shall more than protec-
10% of the total tion.
samples during
any 30 day per-
iod show a den-
sity of more than
400/100 ml.











Temperature Pesticides
Shall Not Be and Oils
Increased

Maximum in- Non- quantitative*
crease per-
mitted 2"F
with specific
temperature
maximums
stated or in-
dividual waters.
No standard set No standard act
solely for re-
creational water




















Clarity Rationale and
Remarks


Not to exceed Caters covered by
5 JTU above criteria are Goose
natural back- Lake, Grande Ronde
ground values. River, Walla Walla
River, Columbia Ri-
ver, Snake River,
Klamath River, and
Willamette River.
No standard set Pennsylvania is
currently in the
process of chang-

water quality cri-
from total coli-
forms to fecal
coliforms stand-
ard shown on
table. The fecal
coliform stand-
ard is similar to
that recommend-
ed by the Federal
Water Pollution
Control Admini-
stration.






"'The term non-quantitative  refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free  from, and shall not be present in
quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                            TABLE  41
Puerto Rico
                   Agency
                  Responding
                 Department of
                 Health
Date Current                 Bacterial
 Standards
  Adopted     Total Coliforms      Fecal Coliforms
               Not to Exceed       Not to Exceed
                                                                                          pH
                                  June.  1967
Rhode Island
South Carolina
                 Department of
                 Health
                 Board of Health
                 Pollution Con-
                 trol Authority
                                  Not given
           Temperature
           Shall Not Be
             Increased
Pesticides
 and Oils
                                                                                                                                            Clarity
Rationale and
  Remarks
               1000/100 ml as a
               monthly median
               value.  Counts in
               excess of this
               shall not be pre-
               sent in more  than
               20/( of the sam-
               ples examined in
               any one  month,
               nor exceed 2400/
               1 00 ml on any day.
                                                   ing value for bath-
                                                   ing waters.
                                  March,  1967     No standard set
                                                                      No standard set
No stan-
dard set
                                                                                                  No standard set    N on -quantitative*
                    Non-quantitative*  Because of the
                                      scarcity of sur-
                                      face water re-
                                      sources, and the
                                      high population
                                      density all sur-
                                                                                                                                                           fa
                                                                                                                                                           classified as
                                                                                                                                                           sources of pub-
                                                                                                                                                           lic water supply
                                                                                                                                                           systems.  Only
                                                                                                                                                           coastal waters
                                                                                                                                                           have a specific
                                                                                                                                                           classification for
                                                                                                                                                           recreational
                                                                                                                                                           usage.
No standard set

A geometric
mean of 200 /
I 00 ml nor
shall more than
1 O^c of the total
samples during
any 30 day per-
iod exceed 400/
100 ml.

No stan-
dard set
Range be-
tween 6.0-
8.0, ex-
cept that
swamp
wate r s
may
range
from
5.0-8.0.
No standard s<

Not to exceed
93.2'F as a
result of heat-
ed liquids.






                                                                                                                     No standard set
                                                                                                                                        No standard  set   Not given
                                                                                                                     Non-quantitative*   Non -quantitative*
                                                                                                                       Standards de-
                                                                                                                       rived from  pre-
                                                                                                                       vious standards
                                                                                                                       and Federal Wa-
                                                                                                                       ter Pollution
                                                                                                                       Control Admini-
                                                                                                                       stration guide-
                                                                                                                       lines.  Also
                                                                                                                       puided by cur-
                                                                                                                       rent pertinent
                                                                                                                       technical publi-
                                                                                                                       cations.
-The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are  specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free from, and shall not be present in
quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                  TABLE 41
                           State          Agency           Date Current                Bac
                                        Responding         Standards
                                                            Adopted    Total Coliforms
                                                                         Not to Exceed

                      South Dakota     Department of  February 16, 1967  1000/100 ml as a
                                       Health.  Water                     monthly average;
                                       Pollution Con-                     nor exceed this
                                       trol Section                       value  in more
                                                                         than 20% of the
                                                                         sample* ex-
                                                                         amined in any
                                                                         one month nor
                                                                         exceed 2400/100
                                                                         ml on any one
                                                                         day during the
                                                                         recreation sea-
                                                                         son.
ro
Department of
Public Health.
Stream Pollution
Control Hoard
                                                        May 26, 1967     No standard set
irial

Fecal Coliform*
Not to Exceed
No standard set














Standard for
recreation, not
to exceed 1000/
100 ml in any
two consvcutivc
samples May -
September.
Standard for
waters used for
recreation by
pH Temperature
Shall Not Be
Increased

No stan- No standard set
dard set













Within a shall not exceed
range of 93" j\
6.0-9.0
and shall
nut fluc-
tuate more
than 1.0
unit in
this ranjzc
OVIT a
pnriod of
Pesticides
and Oils


No concentrations
greater than 0. 1
times the acute
(96 hr) median le -
thai dose for
short residual
compounds, or
0.01 times the
acute median
lethal dose for
accumulative sub-
stances or Sub-
stances with resi-
dual life exceed-
ing 30 days.
No n- quantitative*









Clarity



Non-quantitati\














Natural swim-
any or^ani/.ecl
camp shall
have- 4 Secchi
diac clarity of
5 feet at all
tinu-s.



                                                                                            organised camps 24 hours.
                                                                                            specify - F.C.
                                                                                            not to exceed goo-
                                                                                            metric (Log) aver-
                                                                                            age of 200/100 nil
                                                                                            for any five con-
                                                                                            secutive samples
                                                                                            collected on sep-
                                                                                            arate days, nor
                                                                                            shall more than 2
                                                                                            of any  :> consecu-
                                                                                            tive samples col-
                                                                                            lected  on separate
                                                                                            days exceed 1000/
                                                                                            100 ml.
                                                                                                                                            Rationale and
                                                                                                                                              Remarks
based on liter-
ature studies
including McKee
and Wolf, "Water
Quality Criteria,"
2nd edition and
U.S. Geological
Survey, "Water
Quality efforts
for South Dakota.'
The criteria
proposed by
neighboring
States were also
considered.

Mol given
                      -!The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are  specified in phrases such as required for safety, *sst>ntially  free from, and shall not be present in
                      quantities which cause the water to be toxic  to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                               TABLE 41
Utah
Agency
Responding


Texas Water
Quality Board














State Division
of Health












Department of
Water Resource:







Date Current Bacterial pH
Standard*
Adopted Tulal Coliormi
Not to Exceed
June, 1967 No stands nl yet















November, 1968 SO/1 00 ml arith-
metical mean
except that 207r
of all samples
collected in any
month may ex-
ceed this stan-
dard if no more
than 5; of all
samples collect-
ed in the same
month exceed a
density of 100/
1 00 ml.
May 29, 1*?67 A median value of
i 500/100 ml for a
minimum of five
samples collected
during any 30 day
pc riod, individual
daily value shall
not exceed 2500/
100 nil.

Fecal Collforms
Not to Exceed
A geometric No &tan-
mean of less dard set
than ZOO/100 solely for
ml and not recrea-
more than I07r tional wa-
of the samples te r pro-
duri.ig Any JO tcction.
tlay p.;ri jJ should
exceed 400/1 )0
ml. This policy
is advisory onl/
and does not
limit the respon-
sibilities of
local health
agencies.
No standard set 6. 5-8. 5













No standard set No reduc-
tion but
allowable
inc rease
to 8. 0
units.



Tumperaturi: Pesticide a
Shall Not Re ami Oils
Increased

No standard set Non-quantitative*
solely for recrea-
tional water pro-
tection.












Waters shall IK- Non-quantitative''
so proli'ftod
against cunfrol-
lable pollution
including heal,
as to be suit. A bio
at all times lor
usapo under the
watc r B classifi-
cation.




No allowable in- Non-qiuintitativr*
c r*'a s^' (.-Ntcpt a s
may be consistent
%vitli fish am! wild
life liabktai.




                                                                                                                                                  Clarity
                                                                                                                                                                    Rationale and
                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks
                                                                                                                                              Non-quantitative*  Values of the
                                                                                                                                                                 various para-
                                                                                                                                                                 meters in the
                                                                                                                                                                 Texas  water
                                                                                                                                                                 quality require-
                                                                                                                                                                 ments  are based
                                                                                                                                                                 on historical
                                                                                                                                                                 data, knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                 gleaned from
                                                                                                                                                                 testimony pre-
                                                                                                                                                                 sented  at 30
                                                                                                                                                                 public hearings,
                                                                                                                                                                 professional
                                                                                                                                                                 knowledge of the
                                                                                                                                                                 Hoards staff and
                                                                                                                                                                 judgement of the
                                                                                                                                                                 Board,

                                                                                                                                              Non-quantitative*  Nut yivcn
                                                                                                                                              No change other    This criteria
                                                                                                                                              than tlmt caused    covers class IS
                                                                                                                                              by natural con-     i,,l rastale walor*.
                                                                                                                                              (fitiorts.            t."oliform critc ria
                                                                                                                                                                 for interstate
                                                                                                                                                                 waU'rsi used for
                                                                                                                                                                 bfilhinn sets a
                                                                                                                                                                 limit of 1000/100
                                                                                                                                                                 ml lotal cohforin
                                                                                                                                                                 el on sit y .
;1'Tlie term non-quantitative  n-fc-rs (o areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety,
quantities which cause the water to In1 toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.
                                                                                                                                        md shall not bv present in

-------
                                                                           TABLE 41
      Slat*          Agency           Date Current
                   Responding         Standard!
                                       Adopted     ToUl Collform.
                                                    Not to Exceed
                                                                   Bacterial
                                                                                            PH
                                                                         Fcal Coliforms
                                                                          Not to Exceed
                                                                                                    Temperature
                                                                                                     Shall Not Be
                                                                                                      Increased
                     Pesticides
                      and Oils
                                                                        Clarity
                                                                        Rationale and
                                                                          Remarks
Virginia
                  State Water
                  Control Board
                                 1969
                                                  For Primary
                                                  Contact
                                                  Not to exceed
                                                  2,400/100 ml ma
                                                  a monthly Average
                                                  value; nor to ex-
                                                  ceed this number
                                                  In more than 20%
                                                  of the samples
                                                  examined during
                                                  any month not ap-
                                                  plicable during or
                                                  immediately fol-
                                                  lowing periods of
                                                  rainfall.

                                                  For Secondary
                                                  Contact
                                                  Not to exceed
                                                  5.000/100 ml.
Primary Contact

No standard set
No
standard
given
                                                                      Secondary
                                                                      Contact^i_raj
                                                                      1.000/100 ml
No standard
given
No standard
given
No standard
given
Based on informa-
tion available  in the
literature with the
further philosophy
that all waters
would not  be satis-
factory for primary
contact recreation
and on this basis^
specified areas
were designated
for recreational
use.
Virgin Islands    Office of the    January 16,1969
                 Commissioner
                 of Health
                                                 No standard  set
                                                                    70/100 ml as a
                                                                    monthly median
                                                                    value.
                                                                                     7.0-8.5
                            Not to exceed
                            90" F at any time
                            nor as  a result
                            of waste dis-
                            charge to be
                            more than 4* F
                            above natural
                            during  fall, win-
                            ter or spring
                            nor 1* 5* F above
                            natural during
                            summer.
                                              Non-quantitative*
                                                Non-quantitative*  Criteria covers
                                                                  coastal waters.
*Thc term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards arc specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially free from, and shall not be present in
quantities which cause the  water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.

-------
                                                                                                     TABLE  41
                           State
                       Washington
-J
Ul
                       West Virginia
Agency Date Current
Responding Standards
Adopted

Water Pollution Proposed cri-
misflion adopted.















Department of May, 1 9&8
Health






Bacterial

Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms
Not to Exceed Not to Exceed
240/100 ml with No standard set
the samples ex-
ceed inc 1000/1 00
ml when asso-
ciated with any
fecal source,
The State Health
Department is
advocating that
these figures be
changed to a me-
dian value of 50
with less than 10%
of the samples ex-
ceeding Z30/IOO ml
when associated
with any fecal source.

1000/1 00ml an a No standard set
monthly average
this number in 20%
of the sample* ex-
amined during any
month, nor exceed
2400/100 ml on any
day.
pH Temperatu re Pesticide s
Shall Not Be and Oils
Increased

No me a- No measurable Non-quantitative1''
change natural condi-
tural con-
ditions.













6. 0-8. 5 Not to exceed Non-quantitative*
87* F at any time
May - November,
and not to exceed
73' F at any time
during months of
December - April.

Clarity Rationale and
Remarks


Turbidity shall The State of
over natural con- not have a single
State Health De- of recreation for
partmcnt suggests either the intra
that this be chang- or inter state wa-
ed to no turbidity tcrs* The criteria
over natural con- listed is proposed
ditions. criteria for lakes.
Basic water qual-
ity data collected
over a period of
years and avail-
able research per-
tinent to Washing-
ton State waters
was used as a
basis for standards
Non-quantitative* Criteria covers
intra state waters
classified cate-
gory A for water
contact recreation.



                       "The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety, essentially frco fron
                       quantities which cause the water to be toxic to human, plant or aquatic life.
                                                                                                                                                           and  shall not be present in

-------
                                                                           TABLE 41
     State
                   Agency
                 Responding
Date Current
 Standard*
  Adopted
                 Department of   June, 1967
                 Natural Resource*
Wyoming
                 Department of   June 27, 1967
                 Health and Social
                 Services, San-
                 itary Engineering
                 Services
Bacterial pH

Total Conforms
Not to Exceed
Arithmetic aver-
age of 1000/1QQ
ml and a maxi-
mum not exceed-
ing 2500/100 ml
during the re-
creational season,
For partial body
contact - arith-
metic average
5000/100 ml with
no more than I of
the samples ex-
ceeding 20, OOOf
100 ml.


No standard set
















Fecal Coliforma
Not to Exceed
No standard set No stan-
dard let














While sample 6. 5-8. 5
ulatcd no indi-
vidual cample
hall exceed
95% confidence
limit of the his-
torical average;
provided that in.
no case will the
geometric moan
of the last five
consecutive sarti-
1000 ml which
ever is the le'ast.


Temperature Pesticides Clarity Rationale and
Shall Not Be and Oils Remark!
Increased

No standard set No standard set No standard set Criteria based on
available scien-
tific knowledge
and have been re-
ferred for com-
ment to health
authorities, fish
and wildlife biol-
ogists and other
interested pro-
fessional persons.
As knowledge in-
dards will be mod-
ified to reflect
such increased
knowledge.
No standard set Non-quantitative* Non- quantitative':' Bacteriological
will not be cat a- to all interstate
blished for toxic waters, however.
material as all as a general
possible com- policy, the Board
pounds, combina- of Health condi-
tion* and effects dcrs only rcscr-
are not known. voirs and lakes
suitable for full
body contact
sports, Stan-
dards based on
existing quality
and existing
sources of pol-
lutants.
  ;;'The term non-quantitative refers to areas where standards are specified in phrases such as required for safety,  essentially free from, and shall not bp present in
  quantities which cause the water to be toxic tu human,  plant vr aquatic life.

-------
                             APPENDIX B

      ASSUMPTIONS AND DETAILED EXAMPLES OF THE METHODOLOGY

Salmonella typhosa C
             	p

The summary of the raw dose response test data on human volunteers
published by Hornick, et al (1966, 1970) is shown on Table 42.

To identify the probability density function which best described the universe
of human capabilities from which these test subjects were drawn,  it was
necessary to make certain assumptions:

        1.      The "exact" number of S_. ..ty_p_hos_a was not measured but rather
               "estimated" (Hornick, 1966).  For this analysis  it was assumed
               that the number identified was the minimum of the class inter-
               val; e. g. , no less than 10, S_.  typhosa were fed as the challenge
               dose.  Just how accurate this assumption is probably will not
               be known until further tests are performed.  This point will
               be discussed further in the section dealing with the  R  vector.

        2.      There is  reasonably good and sufficient data to permit at-
               tempts to identify the universe  from which the published data
               were sampled.  Thus, the nine data points associated with
               the 10  challenge dose was given even weight with the 220
               data points associated with the  10  challenge dose,  etc.

        3.      It was further assumed that the universe from which the pub-
               lished data were sampled can be  described by one of five well
               known probability density functions, as has already been dis-
               cussed: normal,  lognormal, Weibull, Gamma, or  exponential.
               This is particularly important, because there is a paucity of
               data at the lower  end  of the dose-response capability.  Thus,
               this low end will be obtained by extrapolation using  the equa-
               tion for the probability density function selected.

        4.      An upper limit at which certain illness would occur was as-
               sumed to be 10    S_. typhosa or three orders of magnitude
               greater than the test data for the amount of S_. typhosa requir-
               ed to cause 98% illness.

Based on the foregoing assumptions, a histogram was constructed for  the
sample consisting of the published data  as  shown by the solid line in Figure
32.  It can be seen that each step of  the histogram represents an average
of the data points of volunteers ill at each concentration of challenge dose.

The construction of the histogram also involves the first of the  previous
assumptions,  that each class interval starts at the cited challange dose. This
assumption is unconservative because it increased each class interval  on
the concentration of factor axis.   An "unconservative" assumption might be
to distribute  the class interval equally on either side of the class mark.  This
                                 177

-------
              TABLE 42
S_. typhosa Raw Dose Response Data*
 (After Hornick,  et al,  1966,  1970)


Test

(a)




(b)



(c)


i


S. typhosa
Strain
Quailes




Quailes
Zermatt
TY2V

Quaile s




Challenge
Dose
Concentration
103
105
107
108
109
107

107
107
JO5
107
109


Number of
Volunteers Sick
@ Concentration
0
32
16
8
40
16

6
2
28
15
4

I
Total Number
of Volunteers
Challenged
@ Concentration
14
116
32
9
42
30

11 ;
6
104
30
4

              178

-------
  100
   90
    80
ui

1  70
o
iu
CO

O

I

  60
O

UJ
I  50
cc
z
D


   40
O
a*
   30
   20
    10
                 (c)4/4

                   O
               ASSUMED

               UPPER

               LIMIT

                    X
                                                           (a) 8/9
              J
                                                                         (a) 40/42
                               DATE SOURCE: SEE TABLE 42
(b) 16/30

(a) 16/32
                                                           i
            (b)
6/11
          (c) 15/30
                                                             Kb)  2/6
                                        (c) 28/104,
                                    {a} 0/14

                            I     I     II
                                                  (a) 32/116
                     10  101   102   103  10*  105   106   107   108   109  1010 1011  1012



                                NUMBER OF S. typhosa CAUSING SICKNESS



          Figure 31.   Histogram Constructed From Raw Data for S.  typhosa
                                             179

-------
might also be an over-conservative assumption.  Be cause of the ambiquity
of the "estimation process, " the entire class interval above the class mark
is the same as stating that a larger concentration of challenge dose is re-
quired to make the same percent of volunteers ill.  As,  however, this
unconservatism is  removed by the definition of the requirements R  for
the Salmonella factor, it is  discussed in that section  of the  report.

Twenty-five pseudo-random, numbers were generated, and samples were
obtained from the histogram of Figure 32.  These samples  were input to
the BSTFIT program.  The  results of this analysis are shown in Table
43.  This table presents  the maximum likelihood estimates  of the para-
meters describing  the normal, lognormal, exponential,  Weibull, and Gamma
distributions.  Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit (or "d")
test,  it can be established that the lognormal probability density function
(ff  = 3. 894,  y = 16. 39) is the best description of the universe from which
the dose response samples was drawn.   The relationship between the histo-
gram (dash-dot line), the 25 samples drawn from it (  (T)     (1)    ), and
the lognormal distribution selected by BSTFIT is shown in Figure 33.

The curves in Figures 32 and 33 were plotted on rectilinear cartesian
coordinate paper.  Figure 13 in the text shows the lognormal distribution
selected by BSTFIT plotted  on "lognormal probability" paper.  On this
type plot, the density function appears as a  straight line. The upper and
lower 95% confidence intervals are also shown on this figure.

Salmonella - other, C_
	1	p

The S_.  -  other C density function is  based  upon work published by McCullough
and Sisele in 195*1  dealing with strains  of S_. bareilly, S. -newport, _S.  ana turn
I, II and III,  S_. meleagridis  I. II and III, _S.  Derby. and_S.  pullorum I,  H, in
and IV.   Thus groups of the Kaufman-White Scheme B, C.,  C~, D,  and E,
the majority of the groups significant to humans, were covered.  As in the case
of.L  typhosar the pathogens were  fed to the volunteers;  thus the results are
directly applicable to the case of recreation water quality.  These tests were
performed in a way to emphasize the  detection of a "minimum effective  dose. "
They were conducted in a manner quite similar to "step stress testing to mal-
function. "  Thus the dose response data could be input to BSTFIT directly
without recourse to sampling from a histogram.

The input to BSTFIT is shown in Table  44.  The results  are shown in   Table
45.  once again the lognormal probability density function has been selected
(y = 17. 86, oy= 3. 698) at the 5% level  of significance.  This  probability density
function is shown graphically in  Figure 14 in the text, along with its upper and
lower 95% confidence limits.
                                180

-------
                                                 TABLE 43
                    Salmonella typhosa Capabilities Vector (Cp) Using 25 Random Numbers
Name of
Distribution
Normal

Lognormal

Exponential


Weibull
Density Function
a \- 1 o X/x-5?>i2
0X/2TT e 2~\  /
 2
f / x i * l (log x-y)
Cy^TT 2 \ Ty /
where y = log x
f(x) = 9e ~6x
i ,Q-1 r / M
1 ~v-r*1 1  i ^v > r* 1 1
f(^;)~ x-c c;j i-j[x-cj

(x,= 8le2XMeXp[-e2^j
Maximum
Likelihood
Estimation of
Parameters
3T= 4. Oil x 1010
ir O rvrtn  i nil
" - .. UUU x 1(J
y=16. 39
y - 3. 894
(best distribution)
0= 2.393 x lO'11
,^= 6.066 x 1011
6=0. 06613
c= 1. 0 x 105
No reasonable
fit possible
Iteration




	

29
	
"d"
Statistic
0. 538

01 01
 JL 7l
0.936

0. 2981
	
Probability
that data came
from Cited
Distribution
0 +

051 7
. J-L 1
0 +

0. 0235
	
00

-------
     1.0
     0.9
     0.8
     0.7
     0.6
X
VI

O   0.5
CO
00
O    0.4
oc
a.
    0.3
    0.2
    0.1
                                HISTOGRAM OF 25
                                RANDOM NUMBERS
                                SAMPLED FROM
                                EMPIRICAL DOSE-
                                RESPONSE EXPERIMENTS

                                        LOGNORMAL
                                        DISTRIBUTION
                                        SELECTED BY
                                        BSTFIT	
                                                              HISTOGRAM OF
                                                              EMPIRICAL
                                                              DOSE-RESPONSE
                                                              EXPERIMENT
                              1C2       104       106       108

                              NUMBER Oh S. typhosa CAUSING SICKNESS
                                                                     10
                                                                      ,10
10
  ,12
               Figure  32.  S. typhosa C  As Selected By BSTFIT
                                       182

-------
            TABLE 44
Summary of Salmonella-other Dose
 Response Data Input to BSTFIT
(After McCullough and Eisele, 1951)
Concentration
of Challenge
Dose
0.125 x 106
0.152 x "
0. 385 x "
0. 587 x "
0. 695 x "
0. 860 x "
1. 275 x "
1. 350 x "
1. 70 x "
4.675 x "
7. 675 x "
10. 0 x "
10.0 x "
15. 0 x "
20.0 x "
24. 0 x "
41. 0 x "
44. 5 x "
50. 0 x "
67.25 x "
1.280 x 109
3. 975 x "
6. 750 x "
7. 640 x "
10. 0 x "
16. 0 x "
Strain
S. bareilly
S. newport
S. newport
S. anatum I
S. bareilly
S. anatum. I
S. anatum III
S. newport
S. bareilly
S. anatum III
S. meleagridis III
S. meleagridis II
S. meleagridis III
_._ derby
S. meleagridis II
S. meleagridis I
S. meleagridis^ II
S. anatum II
S. meleagridis I
S. anatum II
S. pullorum IV
S. pullorum IV
S. pullorum II
S. pullorum III
S. pullorum I
S. pullorum I

No. of
Volunteers
Ill/group of 6
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
3
4
4
1
1
2
3
2
1
5
1
4
4
3
2
4
1
6
6
               183

-------
                                                 TABLE  45




                    Salmonella Total Requirements Vector (Rg) Using 25 Random Numbers
Name of
Distribution
Normal
Lognormal
Exponential
Gamma
Weibull
Density Function
See TABLE 43
See TABLE 43
See TABLE 43
See TABLE 43
See TABLE 43
Maximum
Likelihood
Estimation of
Parameters
Not a reasonable fit
y = -2. 076
ffy = 6. 198
8 = . 0774
 = 22. 90
a = 0. 568
& = 0
^1 = 0. 599
#2 = 0.283
(preferred distr. )
Iteration
	
	
	
27
	
"d"
Statistic
	
0.364
0.360
0.359
0. 359
Probability
that data came
from Cited
Distribution
	
0. 00265
0. 00307
0. 00317
0. 00319
00

-------
           SECTION XV
          BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.   GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
                185

-------
                          BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.    Allen,  L.  A., J. Grindley, and E.  Brooks, "Some Chemical and
     Bacterial  Characteristics of Bottom Deposits from Lakes and
     Estuaries," J. Hyg.  (Camb.), j>l;185-192 (1953).

2.    Allen,  L.  A., M.A. F.  Pierce, and H. M.  Smith,  "Enumeration
     of Streptococcus faecalis,  with particular reference to polluted
     waters,"  J. Hyg.  (Camb.), ^:458-465 (1953).

3.    Allen,  L.  A., S. M.  Pasley,  andM.A.F. Pierce,  "Some Factors
     Affecting the Viability of Fecal Bacteria in  Water,  " J. Gen.
     Microbiol. , 7;36-46 (1952).

4.    vonAlvin, W. H.  (1946),  Ed. Reliability Engineering, pp 171-172,
     Prentice Hall Book Co., New Jersey (1970).

5.    American Public Health Association, Report of the Committee on
      Bathing Places, Am. J. Pub.  Health,  12:121-3 (1922).

6.    American Public Health Association, Report of the Joint Committee
      Bathing Places of  the A. P. H.A.  and the Conference of State Sani-
     tary Engineers, Am.  J. Pub. Health,  ^3:40-49 Year Book (1933).

7.    American Public Health Association, Progress report of the Joint
      Committee on Bathing Places of the Conference of State Sanitary
     Engineers and the Public Health Engineering Section of the A. P. H. A. ,
     Am. J. Pub. Health,  ^6:209-220, Year Book (1936).

8.    American Public Health Association, Progress report of the Joint
     Committee on Bathing Places, Am.  J.  Pub. Health, 30:50-51
     Year Book (1940).

9.    American Public Health Association, Recommended Practice for
     the  Design,  Equipment, and Operation of Swimming Pools and
     Other Public Bathing  Places,  New York, A.P.H.A. (1949).

10.  American Public Health Association, Ibid,  10th ed., (1957).

11.  American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the
     Examination of Water and Wastewater, A.P.H.A.  12th ed. , New
     York (1965).

12.  American  Society  of Civil Engineers Public Health Activities
     Committee "Coliform Standards for Recreational Waters, "
     J. Sanit. Eng. Div. SA-4  (1963), SA-1  (1964), SA-2(1964),
     SA-5 (1964).

13.  American  Society  of Civil Engineers "Engineering  Evaluations of
     Virus Hazard in Water, " J. Sanit. Eng. Div.  SA-1, 111-161,
     (1970).

14.  American  Water Works Association, "Viruses in Water, Com-
     mittee Report," J. A.W.W.A. 6,  491-494 (1969).


                                186

-------
15.    Anderson,  E.  S. ,  N. S.  Galbraith, and C. E. D.  Taylor, MAn Out-
      break of Human Infection due to Salmonella typhimurium, phage-
      type 20a, Associated with Infection in Calves,11  Lancet,  i:854-858
      (1961).

16.    Anderson,  J.  R. ,  "A Study of the Influence of Cyanuric Acid on
      the Bactericidal Effectiveness of Chlorine. "  Am.  J. Pub.  Health,
      j>5_: 1629-1637  (1965).

17.    Andre, D.  A., H. H. Weiser,  and G. W. Melaney, "Survival of
      Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Farm Pond Water, " J. Am. Water
      Work Assoc., _59_:503-508 (1967).

18.    Andrewes,  C. H. , and A. C. Allison,  "Newcastle Disease as a
      Model for Studies of Experimental Epidemiology, " J. Hyg. ,  Camb. ,
      5^:285-293 (1961).

19.    Anon. , "Typhoid Fever in Minneapolis and Gastroenteritis in
      Milwaukee," J. Am.  Water Works Assoc. ,  3J_:374-383  (1939).

20.    Anon. , "An Investigation of the Efficacy of Submarine Outfall
      Disposal of Sewage and Sludge, " California State Water Poll.
      Cont.  Bd. , Pub.  No. 14, Sacramento (1956).

21.    Anon. , "Carbon Chloroform Extract (CCE) in Water, "Subcom-
      mittee on Organic Chemicals of AWWA Committee 8930P. , J. Am.
      Water Works Assoc. , _54:223-227 (1962).

22.    Anon. , "Microbiological Content of Domestic Waste Waters Used
      for Recreational Purposes, " California Water Quality Control
      Board, Pub. No. 32, 50pp., Sacramento (1965).

23.    Armstrong, R. W. , "Environmental Factors Involved in Studying
      the Relationship Between Soil Elements and Disease, " Amer. J.
      Pub. Health, _54:1536-1544  (1964).

24.    A. S. C. E. ,  "Coliform Standards for  Recreational  Waters, " Pro-
      gress Report  of the Public Health Activities Committee, Sanitary
      Engineering Division, J. San.  Eng. Div. , Proc. Am. Soc.  Civil
      Eng. ,J9:SA4, 57-94, (1963).

25.    Askew, J.  B. , R. F. Bott, R. E.  Leach, and B.  L.  England,
      "Microbiology of Reclaimed Water from Sewage for Recreational
      Use at Santee, California, " Am. J. Pub. Health,  55:453-462
      (1965).

26.    Bartley,  C. H. , and L.  W. Slanetz,  "Types and Sanitary Signifi-
      cance of Fecal Streptococci Isolated  from Feces,  Sewage and
      Water, " Am.  J. Pub. Health, J5(): 1545-1 552  (I960).

27.    Beard, J.  W. , "Host-virus Interaction in the Initiation of Infection, "
      In Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route  (edited  by G.  Berg),
      John Wiley &  Sons, New York, p. 167-192 (1967).


                                187

-------
28.   Beard, P.  J. ,  "The Survival of Typhoid in Nature, "  J. Am.
      Water Works Assoc., ^30:124-131  (1938).

29.   Beard, P.  J. ,  and N. F.  Meadowcroft,  "Survival and Rate of
      Death of Intestinal Bacteria in Sea Water,11  Am. J. Pub.  Health,
      ^5:1023-1026 (1935).

30.   Barbaro, R. D. Carroll,  B. J. ,  Tebo, L. B. and Walters, L. C. ,
      "Bacteriological Water  Quality of General Recreational Areas in
      the Ross Barnett Reservoir," J.  WPCF  4J_, 1330-1339 (1969).

31.   Beeton, A.  M. , "Relationship Between Secchi Disc Readings and
      Light Penetration in Lake Huron," Trans. Am. Fish Soc. ,
      87:73-79 (1958).

32.   Begbie,  R.  S. , and H.  J. Gibson, "Occurrence of Typhoid-
      Paratyphoid Bacilli in Sewage," Brit. Med. J. , 2_:55-56 (1930).

33.   fielding, H. S. and Hatch, T.  F. ,  "Index for Evaluating Heat
      Stress in Terms of Resulting Physiological Strains," Am. Soc.
      Htg. & Air  Condition. Engrs. , Transactions 62^, 213-236(1956).

34.   Bell, J.  A. , W. P. Rowe, J.  L. Engler, R. H. Parrott, and
      R.  J. Huebner, "Pharyngo-Conjunctival Fever:Epidemiological
      Studies of a Recently Recognized Disease Entity, " J. Am. Med.
      Assoc.,  J_5J7:1083-1092  (1955).

35.   Berg, G. ,  "The Virus Hazard in Water Supplies, "  J.  New Eng.
      Water Works Assoc., 78^:79-104 (1964).

36.   Berg, G. ,  "Die Virusubertragung auf dem Wasserweg, " Arch.
      fur Hyg. und Bakter. , _14_9:310-335 (1965) W65-28.

37.   Berg, G. ,  "Virus Transmission by the Water Vehicle, I. Viruses,11
      Health Lab. Sci., 2:86-89 (1966).

38.   Berg, G. ,  "Virus Transmission by the Water Vehicle, II. Virus
      Removal by Sewage Treatment Procedures," Health Lab. Sci. ,
      _3:90-100 (1966).

39.   Berg, G. ,  "Virus Transmission by the Water Vehicle, in.
      Removal of Viruses by Water Treatment Procedures, " Health
      Lab. Sci.,  _3-170-181  (1966).

40.   Berg, G. , Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route. John
      Wiley & Sons, New York,  289 pp.  (1967).

41.   Berg, G. , S. L. Chang, and E. K. Harris,  "Devitalization of
      Microorganisms by Iodine, " Virology, 22:469 (1964).

42.   Berg, G. , R. B.  Dean,  and D. R. Dahling,  "Removal of Polio -
      virus I.  from Secondary Effluents  by Lime Flocculation and
      Rapid Sand  Filtration, "  J. Am. Water Works Assoc. , 60:193-198
      (1968).                                               

                                188

-------
43.   Berg, G. , D.  Berman, S. L. Chang, and N.  A. Clarke, "A
      Sensitive Quantitative Method for Detecting Small Quantities of
      Virus in  Large Volumes of Water," Am. J. Epidemiol. ,
      j83_:196-203 (1966).

44.   Berg, G. , G,  Stern, D.  Berman,  and N. A.  Clarke,  "Stabiliza-
      tion of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Primary  Wastewater Effluents
      by Inhibition of Microbial Growth,11 J.  Water Poll.  Cont.  Fed.,
      _38_:1472-83 (1966).

45.   Bernstein, I.  L. ,  and R. S.  Sofferman, "Sensitivity of Skin and
      Bronchial Mucosa to Green Algae, " J.  Allergy, _38:166-173 (1966).

46.   Berry, A. E. , and A.  V. Delaporte, "Standards and Regulations
      for Quality of  Water in Bathing Places, " J. Am.  Water Works
      Assoc.,  !33;195-200 (1941).

47.   Black, A. P.  and S. A. Hannah, "Measurement of Low Turbidities,"
      J.  Amer. Water Works Assoc. , 7:901-916 (1965).

48.   Booth, R. L. ,  J. N. English, and G. N. McDermott,  "Evaluation
      of  Sampling Conditions in the Carbon Adsorption Method, " J.  Amer.
      Water Works Assoc. ,  7:215-220  (1965).

49.   Borneff,  J. , "Cancerogene Substanzen in Wasser und Boden,  IV. ,
      Arch, fur Hyg. und Bakteriol. ,  _144:249-262 (I960).

50.   Borneff,  J. and R.  Fischer,  "Cancerogene Substanzen in  Wasser
      und Boden, VIII.  Untersuchungen an Filter-Aktiokahle Nach
      Verwendung im Wasserwerks, " Arch,  fur Hyg. und Bakteriol. ,
      J_46:14-16 (1962).

51.   Borneff,  J. and R.  Knerr, "Cancerogene Substanzen in Wasser
      und Boden, III. Quantitative  Ermittlungen zur Laslichkeit,
      Filtration, Adsorption und Eindringtiefe," Arch, fur Hyg. und
      Bakteriol., 144:81-93  (I960).

52.   Breed, R. S. ,  E.  G.  D. Murray,  and N. R.  Smith, Sergey's
      Manual of Determinative  Bacteriology, 7th  ed. , The Williams
      and Wilkins Co. ,  (1957).

53.   Brezenski, F.  T. ,  R.  Russomano, and P.  Defalco, Jr.,  "The
      Occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella  in Post-chlorinated and
      Non-chlorinated Sewage  Effluents  and Receiving Waters, " Health
      Lab. Sci. , 2^40-46 (1965).

54.   Broek, J. C.  H. ,  and C. P.  Mom, "Contamination of Polder
      Water with Salmonella paratyphi as a Consequence of the Dis-
      charge of Sewage, " Leeuenhoek ned. Tydschr. , JL_9_:363 (1953);
      Water Poll. Abst. , 27:1514 (1954).
                                 IftQ

-------
55.   Browning, G.  E., and J.  O. Mankin,  ''Gastroenteritis Epidemic
      Owing to Sewage Contamination of Public Water Supply,1' J. Am.
      Water Works Assoc. , ^8:1465-1470 (1966).

56.   Bruch, H. A. , W. Ascoli, N.  S. Scrimshaw, and J. E. Gordon,
      "Studies  of Diarrheal Disease in Central America.  V.  Environ-
      mental Factors  in the Origin and Transmission of Acute Diarrheal
      Disease in Four Guatemalan Villages, "  Am.  J. Trop. Med. Hyg. ,
      ^2:567-579 (1963).

57.   Brunner,  G. ,  "Fish as Carriers of Bacteria, " Vom Wasser
      (Ger.) 1949, _T7:9-20,  J. Am.  Water Works Assoc., 44:82
      (1952,  abst.).

58.   Buczowska,  Z. , "Research on the  Bacteriological Pollution of
      Coastal Waters,"  Bull. Inst. Marine Med. Gdansk.,  10:141-150,
      Bull.  Hyg. (1960), .35_:426 (1959).

59.   Buczowska,  Z. , "Tubercle Bacilli in the Sewage and in Sewage -
      Receiving Waters, Bull. Inst.  Marine Med. in Gdansk. ,  16:49-56
      (1965).

60.   Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Recreation Trends,  Supt.
      of Documents,  U.  S. Govt.  Printing Office, Washington,  D. C.
      (1967).

61.   Burns, C. ,  "Infectious Hepatitis: Its Incidence in Leister and
      General Epidemiology, " J. Roy. Soc. Health, 5_:144-148 (1965).

62.   Bursche,  E. M. , "Beitrage zur Frage des 'Krautschwundes1 in
      H2S-Oscillatorien-Seen, "  Zeit. Fisch., 4_:53-99 (1955).  (Cited
      by Mackenthun and Ingram, 1967).

63.   Butterfield,  C.  T. , "Observations  on Changes in Numbers of
      Bacteria in Polluted Water,"  Sewage Works J., j>:600-6l5 (1933).

64.   Butterfield,  C.  T. , and E.  Wattie,  "Influence of pH and Tempera-
      ture on the Survival of Coliform and Enteric Pathogens When Ex-
      posed to  Chloramine, "  Pub. Hlth.  Rep., 6^:157-192 (1946).

65.   Butterfield,  C.  T., E.  Wattie, S. Megregian, and C. W. Chambers,
      "Influence of pH and Temperature on the Survival of Coliforms
      and Enteric Pathogens When Exposed to  Free Chlorine, " Pub.
      Hlth. Rep., J58:1837-1866 (1943).

66.   Byrd,  O. E. , H. M. Malkin, G.  B. Reed, and H. W. Wilson,
      "Safety of Iodine as a Disinfectant in Swimming Pools, " Pub.
      Hlth. Rep., 28:393-397 (1963).

67.   Champ, T. R. ,  Water  and Its Impurities,  Reinhold Pub.  Corp. ,
      New York, 355 pp. ,  (1963).
                              190

-------
68.    Carlson, G. F. ,  Jr. ,  F.  E. Woodard, D. F.  Wentworth, and
      O. J.  Sprone, "Virus Inactivation on Clay Particles in Natural
      Waters,"  J.  Water Poll.  Cont. Fed., 40:R89-106 (1968).

69.    Carlucci,  A. R. , and D.  Pramer,  "Factors Affecting the Survival
      of Bacteria in Sea Water, "  Appl. Microbiol. ,  _7:388-92 (1959).

70.    Carswell, J. K. , J. M. Symons,  and G. C. Robeck, "Research
      on Recreational Use of Watersheds and Reservoirs, " J. Am.
      Water Works Assoc. ,  6_1_:297-304 (1969).

71.    Gate,  T. R. , R.  B.  Couch, and K. M. Johnson, "Studies with
      Rhinoviruses in Volunteers: Production of Illness,  Effect of
      Naturally Acquired Antibody,  and Demonstration of a Protective
      Effect Not Associated with Serum Antibody, "  J. Clinical Investi-
      gation 43_, 56-67 (1964).

72.    Gate,  T. R. ,  R. B. Couch, W. F. Fleet, W.  R. Griffith, P. J.
      Gerone, and V.  Knight, "Production of Tracheobronchitis in
      Volunteers with Rhinovirus in a Small-Particle Aerosol. " Am.
      J, Epidem.  8J_,  95-105 (1965).

73.    Chambers,  C.  W. and  N. A.  Clarke, Health Aspects of Poultry
      Waste Disposal,  Proc. 2nd, Nat.  Symposium  on Poultry Waste
      Management,  Lincoln,  Nebraska, pp.  193-212 (1964).

74.   Chang,  S. L. ,  "Viruses, Amebas, and Nematodes in Public Water
      Supplies," J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. , j^:288-296  (1961).

75.   Chang,  S. L. ,  "Waterborne Viral Infections and Their  Prevention, '
      Bull.  Wld. Hlth. Org. , 38^:401-414 (1968).

76.   Change, S.  L. , and P. W.  Kabler, "Free-Living Nematodes in
      Aerobic Treatment Plant Effluent, "  J.  Water Poll. Cont. Fed.,
      3:1256-61  (1962).

77.   Chang,  S. L. ,  G. Berg,  N. A. Clarke, and P.  W. Kabler,  "Sur-
      vival,  and Protection Against Chlorination, of Human Enteric
      Pathogens in Free-living Nematodes Isolated  from Water Supplies,
      Am. J. Trop.  Med. Hyg. ,  ^:136-142 (I960).

78.   Chang,  S. L. , R. E. Stevenson, A.  R. Bryant, R. L.  Woodward,
      and P.  W. Kabler, "Removal of Coxsackie and  Bacterial Viruses
      in Water  by Flocculation, " Am. J. Pub.  Hlth., 48:51-61; 159-169
      (1958).

79.   Chase,  F. E. ,  and M. L. Wright, "Salmonella in Dried Eggs, "
      Food Ind. ,  JJ8:968 (1946).  See also: "The Occurrence and Distri-
      bution of  Salmonella Types in Fowl.   I. Isolation from  Hen's
      Eggs," Can.  J.  Res., 24F:77-80 (1946).
                                   191

-------
80.   Chernukka, Y. G. ,  and E. V. Karaseva,  "Leptospira Infection of
      Serotype Lora (Australis Group) found in the U. S. S. R.,11 Trop.
      Geogr. Med., ^.22-25 (1965).

81.   Chin, T. D. Y., W. H. Mosley, S. Robinson,  and C. R.  Gravelle,
      "Detection of Enteric Viruses in Sewage and Water, " in Trans-
      rms_sion__p_ Viruses  by the Water Route, G.  Berg.,  ed. ,  John Wiley
      and Sons, New York,  pp.  389-400  (1967).

82.   Clark, H. S. , and P. W.  Kabler,  "Reevaluation of the Significance
      of the Coliform Bacteria, 11 J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. ,
      6^931-936 (1964).

83.   Clark, H. F. , P. W. Kabler, and E. E. Geldreich, "Advantages
      and Limitations of the Membrane Filter Procedure, " Water and
      Sewage Works, J_04:385-387 (1957).

84.   Clark, H. F. , E. E.  Geldreich, H.  L. Jeter,  and P. W. Kabler,
      "The Membrane Filter in Sanitary Bacteriology,11 Pub. Hlth.
      Rep.,  66:951-977 (1951).

85.   Clark, H. F. , E. E.  Geldreich, P.  W. Kabler, R. H.  Bordner,
      and C.  B. Huff,  "The Coliform Group.  I.  Boric Acid-Lactose
      Broth Reactions of  Coliform IMViC types," Appl. Microbiol. ,
   :   ^5:396-420 (1957).

86.   Clark, R. N., "The Transmission of Disease by Sewage, "
      Sewage Works J., Jji: 1139-1146 (1946).

87.   Clarke, G. L. , "The Utilization of Solar  Energy by Aquatic
      Organisms," Prob. Lake Biology, A. A. A. S. Publ.,  10:27-38
      (1939).

88.   Clarke, N. A. , and S. L. Chang,  "Enteric Viruses in Water,"
      J. Am. Water Works Assoc. , 5^:1299-1317 (1959).

89.   Clarke, N. A. and  P. W. Kabler, "Human Enteric Viruses in
      Sewage," Health Lb.  Sci., 1:44-50 (1964).

90.   Clarke, N. A. , R.  E. Steventson, and P.  W. Kabler, "Survival
      of Coxsackie Virus  in Water and Sewage, "  J. Am.  Water Works
      Assoc.,  48:677-682 (1956).

91.   Clarke, N. A., et al, "Human Enteric Viruses:  Source, Survival,
      and Removability in Waste Water," J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed. 
      34:249-255 (1962).

92.   Clarke, N. A. , G.  Berg, P. W. Kabler,  and S.  L. Chang,
      "Human Enteric Viruses in Water: Source,  Survivability, and
      Removability, " In W. W.  Eckenfelder,  ed. , Advances in Water
      Pollution Research, Proc. Int. Conf. London,  September, 1962,
      Vol. 2, Pergamon,  London, p. 523-536 (1964).
                               192

-------
93.    Clarke, N. A., R.  E. Stevenson, S.  L. Chang,  and P.  W. Kabler,
      "Removal of Enteric Viruses from Sewage by Activated Sludge
      Treatment,1'  Amer. J. Pub. Hlth. , 5J_:1118-1129 (1961).

94.    Coetze, O. J., "Comments on Sewage  Contamination of Coastal
      Bathing Waters,11  South African Med.  J. , .315:261-269 (1961).

95.    Collet,  E. , R. Johnston,  L. F. Ey, and C.  C. Croft, "Isolation
      of Salmonella typhosa from Well Water by the  Membrane Filter
      Technic, " Am. J. Pub. Health,  3:1438 (1953).

96.    Comley, H. H. , "Cyanosis in Infants Caused by Nitrates in Well
      Water,11 J. Amer.  Med. Assoc. , _1_2_9:112-116 (1945).

97.    Cooke,  W. B. , "Fungi  in Polluted Water and Sewage, "  Sew. Ind.
      Wastes, ^6:539-49,  661-74, 790-94 (1954).

98.    Cottam, C. ,  "Pesticides and Water Pollution,"  Proc. Nat. Conf.
      on Water Poll., Washington, D.  C. , p. 222 (I960).

99.    Cox, C. R. ,  "Waterborne Gastroenteritis, " J.  Am.  Water Works
      Assoc., _31_:489-501 (1939).

100.  Cox, C. R. ,  "Acceptable Standards for Natural Waters Used for
      Bathing," Proc.  Am. Soc. Civil Engrs. , 77:Sep.  74 (1951).

101.  Cruickshank,  R. , "Diarrheal Disease, " Milbank Mem. Fund
      Quart.  Suppl., 43_:215-7,  240-57 (1965).

102.  Cuthbert, W.  A., J. J. Panes, and E.  C. Hill, "Survival of
      Bacterium coli Type I and Streptococcus faecalis in Soil, "
      J.  Appl. Bacteriol. , _18_:408; Bull, of Hyg. , 3^:552 (1955 and
      1956, respectively).

103.  Dale, W. E. , and G. E. Quinby, "Chlorinated Insecticides in the
      Body Fat of People in the U.S.," Science, ^42:593-595 (1963).

104.  Dambach, C.  A., "Recreational Use of Impounding Reservoirs, "
      J.  Am. Water Works Assoc.,  4_8:517-524 (1956).

105.  Dammin, G.  J. ,  "The  Pathogenesis of Acute  Diarrheal Disease
      in Early Life., "  Bull.  Wld. Hlth.  Org. , ^J_:29-32 (1964).

106.  Darasse, H. , L. Le Minor, and M.  Lecomte, "Isolement de
      Plusiers Salmonella dans une Eau de Distribution, " Bull.  Soc.
      Pathol. Exot. , 52:53 (1959).

107.  Dauer, C. C. , "1951 Summary:  Food and Waterborne Disease
      Outbreaks," Pub. Hlth. Rep., ^7_:1089-1098 (1952).

108.  Dauer, C. C. , "I960 Summary of Disease Outbreaks and a
      10-Year Resume, " Pub.  Hlth.  Rep.,  76:915-922 (1961).
                               193

-------
109.   Dauer,  C.  C., and D. J. Davids, "1958 Summary of Disease
       Outbreaks,11 Pub. Hlth.  Rep., 74:715-721 (1959).

110.   Dauer,  C.  C. , and G. Sylvester,. "1953 Summary of Disease
       Outbreaks," Pub. Hlth.  Rep. 69:538-546 (1954).

111.   Davis,  B. D. , R.  Dulbecca, H. N. Eisen, H.  S. Ginsberg,
       and Wood,  W. B. , Jr. ,  Principals of Microbiology and Immu-
       nology, pp 661-671, Harper and Row, New York (1968).

112.   Deaner, D.  G. and K. D. Kerri,  "Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms, "
       J. Am. Water Works Assoc. , 465-468 (1969).

113.   de Capito,  T., 11Isolation of Salmonella from Flies, n Amer. J.
       Trop.  Med.  Hyg., J^:892-903 (1963).

114.   Dedie,  K. ,  ''Organisms in Sewage Pathogenic to Animals,1I
       Stadt Hygiene,  6^:177-185 (1955).

115.   Delos,  J. S. , "Bacterial Survey of Streams and Bathing Beaches
       at Cleveland,11 Sew. Ind. Wastes, ,22_:l6l8-l625 (1950).

116.   Denecke, K. , "Investigations on the  Detection of Pathogenic
       Bacteria in Irrigation with Sewage,11 Arch.  Hyg., Berl., 141:624
       (1957).

117.   Dennis, J. M. ,  and A. Wolman, "1955-56 Infectious Hepatitis
       Epidemic in Delhi, India" J. Am. Water Works Assoc. ,
       jilt 1288-1295 (1959).

118.   Dias, F. F. , "Studies on the Bacteriology of Sewage, "  J.  Indian
       Inst. of Sci., ^5_:36-48 (1963).

119.   Dias, F. F. and  J. V.  Bhat,  "Microbial Ecology of Activated
       Sludge. I. Dominant Bacteria,"  Appl.  Microciol.,  12:412-417
       (1964).                                           ~~

120.   Dias, F. F. and J. V. Bhat,  "Microbial Ecology of Activated
       Sludge.  II.  Bacteriophages, Bdellovibrio,  Coliforms,  and
       Other Organisms." Appl. Microbiol., j_3:257-26l (1965).

121.   Ditton,  R.  B. , "The Identification and Critical Analysis of
       Selected Literature Dealing  with the  Recreational Aspects of
       Water  Resources  Use, Planning and  Development, " Research
       Report No.  23, Univ.  of Illinois Water Resources Center,
       Urbana (Research Report to Office of Water Resources  Research,
       U.S. Dept.  of Interior) (1969).

122.   Dixon,  F. R. , and L. J. McCabe,  "Health Aspects of Waste-
       water Treatment,"  J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed., 36:984-989
       (1964).                                        ~
                               194

-------
123.    Dubois, T. ,  "Pollution of Swimming Bath Water,  Epidemiologi-
       cal Aspects and Purification Problems, M Arch.  Beiges. Med.
       Soc. ,  13:1; Bull. Hyg. ,  London _3:790  (1955); Water Poll. Abs. ,
       8:2633, (1955).

124.    Dudley, R.  H. , The Economics of Reliability,  Dissertation,
       Univ.  of Southern Calif. ,  Los Angeles (1970).

125.    Duggan, R. E. , and G.  Q. Lipscomb, "Dietary Intake of Pesti-
       cide Chemicals in the United States (II), June 1966-April 1968,"
       Pest.  Monit.  J., 2^:153-162 (1969).

126.    Dunlop, S. G. , "The Survival of Pathogenic Organisms in
       Sewage," Public Works, j$8;80-81 (1957).

127.    Dunlop, S. G. , R.  M. Twedt, and W.  L.  Wang,  "Salmonellae
       in Irrigation Waters, " Sewage  and Ind. Wastes,  23:1118-1122
       (1951).

128.    Dunlop, S. G., R.  M. Twedt, and W.  L.  Wang,  "Quantitative
       Estimation of Salmonella in Irrigation Waters, "  Sewage and
       Ind. Wastes,  24:1015-1020 (1952).

129.    Dunsmore, H. J. ,  "Criteria for Evaluation of Environmental
       Health Progress," Amer. J. Pub. Hlth. ,  ^4:7-10 (1964).

130.    Durham,  W.  F. , "Pesticide Residues in Foods in Relation to
       Human Health,"  Residue Reviews, _4:34-81 (1963).

131.    Duuren, F. A. von,  "Removal  of Microorganisms from Water.
       I.  Introduction,  Water-borne Disease  and the Microorganisms
       Involved," Water and Wastes Engr. ,  JH_:321-335; (1967); Water
       Poll.  Abst. (Brit.) .4^:1157 (1968).

132.    Dyadichev, N. R., "The Survival and Multiplication of Typhoid,
       Paratyphoid and Dysenteric Bacteria in Water, "  Hygiene and
       San. (USSR),  24_:11 (1959) (ex McKee, 1963).

133.   Eaton, R. D. P.,  "An Outbreak of Infectious Hepatitis, " Can.
       J.  Pub. Hlth., _52;297-303 (1961).

134.   Eaves, G. N. and  J.  O. Mundt, "Distribution and Characteri-
       zation of Streptococci from Insects,"  J. Insect. Pathol.,
       2:289-298 (I960).

135.   Edwards, P. R. /'Salmonella and Salmonellosis, " Ann. N. Y.
       Acad. Sci. , 6^:44-53 (1956).

136.   Edwards, P. R. ,  "Salmonellosis: Observations  on Incidence
       and Control, " Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.,  7:598-6l3 (1958).

137.   Edwards, P. R. , and W. H. Ewing,  Identification of Entero-
       bacteriaceae, Burgess  Pub. Co., Minneapolis,  425 pp. (1962).


                               195

-------
138.   Eichna, L. W., and Shelley, W.  B. ,  "The Upper Limits of
       Environmental Heat and Humidity Tolerated By Acclimatized
       Men Working in Hot Environments, "J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 27,
       59-84 (1945).

139.   Eliassen, R. , "Challenges in Research and Development,11
       J. Water Poll. Cont.  Fed.,  35:267-274 (1963).

140.   Eliassen, R. , and R. H.  Cummings, "Analysis of Water-borne
       Outbreaks,11 1938-45, J.  Am. Water Works Assoc. , 40:509-515
       (1948).

141.   Emanuel, M.  L,. , I. M. Mackerras,  and D. J. W. Smith, "The
       Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in North Queensland, " J. Hyg. ,
       2:451-484 (1964).
                  (
142.   Emili, H. ,  and P. S.  Tomasic,  "The Health Aspects of Polluted
       Water with Special Reference to the Epidemiology of Water-
       borne Infections, " Water Pollution in Europe, Fourth European
       Seminar for Sanitary Engineers, 22^47-69 (1954).

143.   England,  B. ,  R.  E. Leach,  B.  Adame, and R. Shiosaki,
       1(Virologic Assessment of Sewage Treatment at Santee,
       California.  In Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route,
       John Wiley  &  Sons, New York, pp. 401-417 (1967).

144.   Ettinger, M.  B. , "Proposed Toxicity Screening Procedure for
       Use in Protecting Drinking-water Quality," J. Amer. Water
       Works Assoc., _52_:689-694  (I960).

145.   Ettinger, M.  B. , "Sociological and Technological Factors in
       Developing Water Quality Criteria,1'  Pub. Health Rep. ,  78;398-
       402  (1963).

146.   Evans, F. L., III, E. E. Geldreich, S. R.  Weibel,  and
       G. G.  Robeck, "Treatment of Urban Storm Water Runoff,"
       J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed.,  40:R162-170 (1968).

147.   Fair, G. M., and J.  C. Geyer,  "Elements of Water Supply and
       Waste-Water  Disposal, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1965).

148.   Falls, J. A. (ed.), Exercise Physiology,  Academic Press,
       New York, 471 pp. (1968).

149.   Faulkner, J. A., "Physiology of Swimming and Diving. " In
       Falls, J. A., Exercise Physiology, Academic Press, New York,
       pp. 415-446 (1968).

150.   Faust, S. D. ,  "Pollution of the Water Environment by Organic
       Pesticides," Clin.  Pharm.  Ther. , J5:677-686 (1964).

151.   Feigin, R. D. , "Salmonella Everywhere,  Epidemologic Diag-
       nostic and Therapeutic Dilemmas, " Clinical Pediatrics,


                               196.

-------
152.   Ferramola,  R. ,  R. A.  Leiguardia,  E. M. Ansiaume,
       O. A. Peso, and A. Z. R. Palazzolo, "Study of the Contamina-
       tion of Surface Waters by Bacteria of the genus Salmonella, "
       Rev. abr. Sanit. Nac. ,  B.  Aires, _33_:94 (1954).

153.   Flynn, M. J. and Thistlethwayte, D. K. B. , "Sewage Pollution
       and  Sea Bathing" Int.  J.  Water Poll. _9:641-653 (1965).

154.   Foliquet, J. M, , and L,. Schwartzbrod,  "Research on Viruses
       Found in  Sewage and Drinking Water in Meurthe and Moselle.
       I. Purposes, Methods and Preliminary Results,  Rev.  Hyg. et
       Med. Soc., _n:137-l62  (1965).

155.   Foster, D. H. ,  "Factors Influencing Bathing  Water Quality, "
       Thesis,  Tufts  University (1968).

156.   Fraser, M.  H. ,  W.  B.  Reid and J.  F. Malcolm,  "The Occur-
       rence of Coli- erogenes Organisms  on Plants, " J. Appl.
       Bacteriol. , j_9:301-309  (1956).

157.   Freitag,  J.  L. ,  "Outbreak of Dysentery, " Health News,
       7:4-10 (1960).

158.   Gaines, S. , U. Achavasmith,  M.  Thareesawat, and C. Duangmani,
       "Types and Distribution of Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli in
       Bangkok,  Thailand,  "Amer, J. Hyg.,  80:388-394  (1964).


159.   Galbraith, N. S., "Pet Foods and Garden Fertilizers as Sources
       of Human  Salmonellosis, " Lancet, i:372-4 (1962).

160-.   Galton, M. M., "The Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in the
       United States," Pub.  Hlth.  Rep.,  _74:141-148 (1959).

161.   Garber, W. F. , "Bacteriological  Standards for  Bathing Waters "
       Sewage and Industrial Wastes,  2^:795-804 (1956).

162.   Garber, W. F. , "Critical Evaluation of Objectives and Standards'
       of Bathing Water  Bacteriological Quality. " In  Public Health
       Hazards of Microbial Pollution of  Water, Proc.  Rudolfs Research
       Conference, Rutgers,  New Jersey, pp. 463-542  (1961).

163.   Garrido-Morales, E. , and O. Costa  Mandry, "Typhoid Fever
       Spread by  Water from a Cistern Contaminated  by a Carrier "
       J. Prevent. Med., 5^:351-358 (1931).

164.   Geldreich,  E. E. , "Detection and Significance  of Fecal Coliform
       Bacteria in Stream Pollution Studies, "  J.  Water Poll.  Cont. Fed. ,
       37:1722-1726  (1965).
                              197

-------
165.    Geldreich, E. E. , "Sanitary Significance of Fecal Coli Forms
       in the Environment, " U. S. Dept. Interior,  FWPCA Publication
       WP-20-3, 122 pp. (1966).

166.    Geldreich, E. E., "Status of Bacteriological Procedures Used
       by State and Municipal Laboratories for Potable Water Exami-
       nation, " Health Lab.  Sci., 4:9-16 (1967).

167.    Geldreich, E. E., "Origins of Microbial Pollution in Streams, "
       In Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route, G. Berg, Ed. ,
       John Wiley & Sons, New York (1967).

168.    Geldreich, E. E. , "Fecal Coliform Concepts in Stream Pollution, "
       Water and Sewage Works,  _!L4:R-98, 107-110 (1967).

169.    Geldreich, E. E., and H.  F. Clark, "Distilled Water Suitability
       for Microbiological Application, " J. Milk and Food Technol. ,
       28^:351-358 (1965).

170.    Geldreich, E. E., and N.  A. Clarke, "Bacterial Pollution
       Indicators in the Intestinal Tract of Freshwater  Fish," Appl.
       Microbiol., _14_:429-437 (1966).

171.    Geldreich, E. E., H. F. Clark, and C. B.  Huff, "A  Study of
       Pollution Indicators in a Waste Stabilization Pond," J. Water
       Poll.  Cont.  Fed., 3^:1372-1379 (1964).

172.    Geldreich, E. E., H. L. Jeter,  and J.  A.  Winter,  "Technical
       Considerations in Applying the Membrane Filter Procedure, "
       Health Lab. Sci., 4:113-125 (1967).

173.   Geldreich, E. E., P. W.  Kabler, andH. F. Clark, "A Simpli-
       fied Eosin Methylene Blue Agar, " Pub. Health Lab. ,  14:78-83
       (1956).

174.   Geldreich, E. E. , B. A. Kenner, and P. W. Kabler, "Occur-
       rence of Coliforms,  Fecal Coliforms and Streptococci on
       Vegetation and Insects, " Appl. Microbiol.,  J_2:63-69  (1964).

175.   Geldreich, E. E., H. F. Clark, C. B.  Huff, and L.  C.  Best,
       "A Fecal  Coliform-Organism Medium for the Membrane Filter
       Technique," J. Amer.  Water Works Assoc. , jT7:208-214  (1965)

176.   Geldreich, E. E., P. W. Kabler, H.  L. Jeter,  andH.  F. Clark,
       "A Delayed Incubation Membrane Filter Test for Coliform
       Bacteria in Water, " Am.  J. Public Health, 45_:1462-1466 (1955).

177.   Geldreich, E. E., L. C. Best, B. A. Kenner, and D. J. van
       Donsel, "The Bacteriological Aspects of Stormwater Pollution, "
       J. Water Poll.  Cont.  Fed., 40:1861-1872 (1968).
                             198

-------
178.   Geldreich, E. E. , R.  A. Bordner,  C.  B. Huff,  H. F. Clark,
       and P. W.  Kabler,  "Type Distribution of Coliform Bacteria in
       the  Feces of Warm-Blooded Animals, !1 J. Water Poll. Cont.
       Fed. , _34:295-301 (1962).

179.   Geldreich, E. E. , H.  F. Clark, P. W.  Kabler, C. B. Huff,
       and R. H.  Bordner,  1fThe Coliform Group.  II.  Reactions in
       EC  Medium at 45C. ,1t Appl. Microbiol. , _6:347-355  (1958).

180.   Geldreich, E. E. , C.  B. Huff,  R.  H. Bordner,  P. W. Kabler,
       and H. F.  Clark, "The Faecal Coli-Aerogenes Flora of Soils
       From Various Georaphical Areas,11 J. Appl.  Bacteriol. ,
       2jx87-93 (1962).

181.   Geldreich, E. E. , "Applying  Bacteriological Parameters to
       Recreational Water Quality, " J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. ,
       62^:113-120 (1970).

182.   Gelfand, H. M. ,  "The Occurrence in Nature of the Coxsackie
       and ECHO Viruses, " Progr. Med.  Virol. , 2*193-201 (1961).

183.   Gevandan,  P. ,  and J.  Tamalet, "Etude  sur  la Pollution des
       plages et Baignades  sur le Littoral Mediterraneen, "  Riv.
       d'Hyg. Med. Sociale,  4_:270-276 (1956).

184.   Gilcreas, F. W. ,  and S. M. Kelly, "Significance  of the Coliform
       Test in Relation to Intestinal Virus Pollution of Water, " J. New
       Eng. Water Works Assoc., _68;255-277 (1954).

185.   Gilcreas, F. W. ,  and S. M. Kelly, "Relation of Coliform-
       Organism Test to Enteric Virus Pollution, " J. Am.  Water
       Works Assoc. , 7:683-694  (1955).

186   Gillespie,  R. W. , and J. Ryno, "Epidemiology of Leptospirosis, "
       Amer. J. Pub. Hlth. , _53_:950-955 (1963).

187.   Gilliam, A. G. , "Epidemiology in Noncommunicable Disease, "
       Pub. Hlth. Rep., ^}:907-913  (1954).

188.   Glantz, P. J.  and G. E. Krantz, "Escherichia coli Serotypes
       Isolated from Fish and Their  Environment, " Health Lab. Sci. ,
       ^:54-63 (1965).

 189.   Goldberg,  H. S. , et al. ,  "Leptospirosis in  Random and Select
       Populations," Arch.  Environ. Hlth., _HD:21-23 (1965).

 190.   Gordon,  J.  E. ,  "Medical Ecology and the Public Health, "
       DSW-560Amer. J. Med. Sci.,  ^3^:337 = 359 (1958).

 191.   Gordon,  J.  E. ,  and T. H. Ingalls,  "Progress of Medical Science--
       Preventive Medicine and Epidemicology: Acute Diarrheal Disease,1
       Amer. J. Med.  Sci.,  ^413:345-65  (1964).


                               199

-------
192.   Gordon,  J. E. ,  M. Pehar and N.  S. Scrimshaw, "Acute
       Diarrheal Disease in Less Developed Countries," Bull. Wld.
       Hlth. Org. , 21:29-32 (1964).

193.   Gorman, A.  E. , and A.  Wolman, "Waterborne Outbreaks in
       the U.S. and Canada and Their Significance,"  J. Arner. Water
       Works Assoc.,  3^:225-232 (1939).

194.   Grabow, W. O. K. , "The Virology of Wastewater Treatment, "
       Water Research, 2^:675-701 (1968).

195.   Gray,  J.D.A. ,  "The Isolation of B. paratyphosus B  from
       Sewage," Brit. Med. J. , Jhl42-149 (1929).

196.   Green, C. E. ,  and P. J. Beard,  "Survival of E. typhi in
       Sewage Treatment Plant Processes, " Am. J.  Pub.  Health,
       2^:762-781 (1938).

197.   Green, D. M. ,  "Waterborne Outbreak of Viral Gastroenteritis
       and Sonne Dysentery, "  J.  Hyg.  (Camb. ),  66:383-389 (1968).

198.   Greenberg, A.  E. "Survival of Enteric Organisms in Sea Water,"
       Pub. Health Rep. , J71_:77-89  (1956).

199.   Greenberg, B. , "Persistence of Bacteria in the Developmental
       Stages of the Housefly.  1. Survival of Enteric Pathogens in the
       Normal and Aseptically Reared Host, " Amer. J.  Trop. Med.
       Hyg.,  J5:405-411, 412-622 (1959).

200.   Greenberg, B. , "Experimental Transmission  of Salmonella
       typhimurium by Houseflies to Man, " Amer. J. Hyg., 80:149-156
       (1964).

201.   Grinstein, S. ,  J. L.  Melnick, C. Wallis, "Virus Isolations
       from Sewage and from a Stream Receiving Effluents of Sewage
       Treatment Plants,"  Bull.  Wld.  Hlth. Org., 42:291-296 (1970).

202.   Hagan, T. L. ,  M. Pasternack,  and G.  C. Scholtz, "Water-
       borne  Fluorides and Mortality, "  Pub. Hlth. Rep. , 69:450-454
       (1954).

203.   Haldane,  J. J. , "The Influence of High Air Temperatures,"
       J. Hyg. _5:494 (1905)  cited by Hatch,  T.  F. , in Industrial
       Hygiene and Toxicology, F. A. Patty, Ed. Interscience,  N. Y.
204.   Halliday, C. H. , and M.  D.  Beck, "Typhoid Fever Epidemic,
       Santa Ana, California," J. Prevent. Med.,  2^49-60 (1928).

205.   Hanes,  N. B. , and R. Fragola, "Effect of Seawater Concentra-
       tion on  Survival of Indicator  Bacteria," J. Water Poll.  Cont.
       Fed., 39:97-104  (1967).
                              200

-------
206.   Hanes, N. B. , G.  A. Delaney, and C. J. O'Leary,  "Relation-
       ship Between Escherichia coli, Type 1,  Coliform and Entero-
       cocci in Water, M J.  Boston Soc.  Civil Engr. , j>2_:129-132 (1965).

207.   Hanes, N. B. , W.  B. Sarles, and G. A. Roblich, "Dissolved
       Oxygen and Survival of Coliform Organisms and Enterococci, "
       J. Am. Water Works Assoc. , 5^:441-450 (1964).
                                        'j
208.   Hanks, T. G. , "Literature Survey of Solid Waste/Disease
       Relationships,"  Final Report to the  Office of Solid Wastes, U.S.
       Public Health Service, Aerojet-General  Report No.  3337 (1967).

209.   Hansen, H. G. ,  and B.  B. Berger,  "Where Does Research Stand
       in Water Pollution Control,1' J.  Water Poll.  Cont. Fed.,
       J53:477-484 (1961).

210.   Hardy, A. V., "Diarrhoeal Diseases of  Infants and  Children--
       Mortality and Epidemiology,11 Bull.  Wld. Hlth. Org. , 21;309-319
       (1959).

211.   Harvey, R. W.,  and W. P.Phillips, "An Environmental Survey
       of Bakehouses and Abattoirs for Salmonellae,11 J. Hyg,  (comb.),
       j>2:93-103 (1961).

212.   Hatch, T. F. , "Heat Control in  the Hot Industries," in Industrial
       Hygiene and Toxicology, Frank A. Patty, Editor, Interscience,
       N.  Y. (1958).

213.   Havens, W.  P.,  Jr., !Properties of the Etiologic Agent of
       Infectious Hepatitis," Proc. Soc. Exp.  Biol. Med. ,  58:203-212
       (1945).

214.   Hayes, W.  J. , W. F. Durham,  and C.  Cueto, Jr.,  "The Effect
       of Known Repeated Oral Doses of Chlorphenothane (DDT) in Man, "
       J. Am. Med. Assoc., JJ>2_:890-897 (1956).

215    Hayes, W.  J. , Jr.,  G.  E.  Quinby,  K.  C. Walter, J. W. Elliott,
       and W. M.  Upholt, "Storage of DDT and DDE in People with Dif-
       ferent Degrees of Exposure to DDT,11 Am. Med.  Assoc.,  Arch.
       Ind. Health, JjJ:398-406 (1958).

216.   Healy, W. A, , and R. P. Grossman, "Waterborne Epidemic at
       Keene, N. H., " J. New Eng. Water Works Assoc. ,  75:37-43
       (1961).

217.   Healy, W. A.  and  R. P. Grossman,  "Typhoid is Still Water-
       borne, "  Water Works Engr., 114:38-41 (1961).

218.   Heath, C. W. , A.  D. Alexander, and M. M.  Galton,  "Lepto-
       spirosis in the United States," New Eng. J.  Med. ,  273:857-864
       (1965).
                                201

-------
 219.    Hedstrom,  C. E. , and E.  Lycke, "An Experimental Study on
         Oysters as Virus Carriers,11  Amer.  J.  Hyg. , _79.:134-142  (1964).

 220.    Hendricks, C. W. , "Bacterial Multiplication in Clear Mountain
         Water,"  Dissertation Abst. ,  27:4231 (1967); Water Poll. Abst.
         (Brit.), 4_1_:196 (1968).

 221.    Hersey, D. F.  and E.  D. Shaw,  '''Viral  Agents in Hepatitis,1f
         Lab. Invest., j_9:558-572 (1968).

 222.    Heukelekian,  H. , and M. Albanese, "Enumeration and Survival
         of Human Tubercle Bacilli in Polluted Waters, "  Sew. Ind.
         Wastes, 28:9-19; 1094-1102 (1956).

 223.    Heukelelian,  H. , and H. B. Schulhoff, "Studies on Survival of
         B.  Typhosus  in Surface Waters and Sewage, "  Bulletin No. 589,
         New Jersey Agric.  Exp. Station  (1935).

 224.    Hind,  H.  W. ,  and F.  M. Goyan,  "A New Concept of the Role of
         Hydrogen-ion Concentration and  Buffer Systems in the Prepara-
         tion of Ophthalmic Solutions,1' J. Am. Pharm. Assoc.. (Sci.  Ed.),
         .313:33-41  (1947).

 225.     Hind,  H.  W. ,  and F.  M. Goyan,  "The Hydrogen-ion Concentra-
         tion and Osmotic Properties of Lacrimal Fluid,"  J. Am. Pharm.
         Assoc. (Sci.  Ed.),  .38_:477-479 (1949).

 226.     Hitchcock,  G. , D. A. J. Tyrell, and M. L. Bynoe,  "Vaccination
         of Man with Attenuated Live Adenovirus,11  J. Hyg.  Comb.
         J5:277-282 (I960).

 227. ,    Hoadley,  A, W. , "The Occurrence and  Behavior of Pseudomonas
         aeruginosa in Surface Waters. Dissertation Abs. ,  27:4231;
         Water Poll. Abs.,  (Brit.),  41:551  (1968).

 228.     Hoadley,  A. W. , "On the Significance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
         in Surface Waters," J.  New Eng. Water Works Assoc. ,  82:99-111
         (1968).

229.     Hodges, R. E. , "The Toxicity of Pesticides and Their Residues
         in Food, " Nutrition Rev. ,  2_3:225-230 (1965).

230.     Hoffman, W. S., W. I.  Fishbein, and M. B. Andelman,  "Pesti-
         cide Content of Human Fat Tissue, " Arch.  Environ. Health,
         _9:387-394 (1964).

231.     Hoffman, W. S. , H. Adler, W. I.  Fishbein, and F.  C.  Bauer,
         "Relation of Pesticide Concentrations in Fat to Pathological
         Changes in Tissues," Arch. Environ. Health, J_5:758-765 (1967).

232.     Hong,  et al, "Cardiac Rhythm During Diving, " J.  Appl.  Physiol. ,
         23:18-22 (1967).
                               202

-------
233.   Hornick, R. B. , T.  E.  Woodward, F. R. McCrumb,
       M. J. Snyder, A. T. Dawkins, J. T. Bulkeley,
       F.  De La Macorra,  and F. A.  Carozza, "Study of Induced
       Typhoid Fever in Man.  I.  Evaluation of Vaccine Effectiveness,11
       Trans. Assoc.  of Am. Physicians, J7_9_:36l-367 (1966).

234.   Hornick, R. B. , S.  E. Greisman, T. E. Woodward,
       H.  L. Dupont, A. T. Dawkins, and M.  J. Snyder,  "Typhoid
       Fever:  Pathogenesis and Irrtmunologic Control, 1t New Eng. J.
       Med. 283.  13:686-691 (1970).

235.   Horstmann, D. , "Epidemiology of Poliomyelitis and Allied
       Diseases,11 Yale J.  Biol. Med., _3_6:5-26 (1963).

236.   Huebner, R. J., J. A.  Bell, W.  P.  Rowe,  T.  G. Ward,
       R.  G. Suskind,  J. W. Hartley, and R. S. Paffenbarger, Jr. ,
       "Studies of Adenoidal-Pharyngeal-Conjunctival Vaccines in
       Volunteers," J. Amer. Med.  Assoc., 159:986-989 (1955).

237.   Hueper, W. C. , "Carcinogens in the Human Environment,"
       Arch. Path., J71_:237-267, 355-380 (1961).

238.   Hueper, W. C. , and W. W. Payne,  "Carcinogenic Effects of
       Adsorbates of Raw and Finished Water Supplies,  "Amer. J.
       Clin. Path., ^?:475-481 (1963).

239.   Hutchison,  D. ,  R. H. Weaver, and M.  Scherago, "The Incidence
       and Significance of Micro-organisms Antagonistic to E. coli in
       Water, " J. Bact. , 4_5_:29-40 (1943); Water Pollution Abst. ,
       _1_6: (March, 1943).

240.   Hueper, W. C. , and W. W. Payne,  "Observations on the Occur-
       rence of Hepatomes  in Rainbow Trout, "  J. Nat. Cancer Inst. ,
       2^7:1123-1143 (1961).

241.   Insalata, N. F. , S.  J. Schulte, and J. H. Berman, "Immuno-
       fluorescence Technique for Detection of Salmonellae in Various
       Foods," Appl. Microbiol., J^lUS-l 149 (1967).

242.   Jackson, G, G. , H.  F.  Dowling, and W.  J. Mogabgab, "Infectiv-
       ity and Interrelationships of 2060 and JH Viruses in Volunteers,  "
       J.  Lab & Clin. Med., _55:331-341.

243.   Jellison, W.  L. , D. C. Epler, E. Kuhns, and G. M.  Kohls,
       "Tularemia in Man from a Domestic Rural  Water Supply, "  Pub.
       Health Rep., 5:1219-1225 (1950).

244.   Jenkins, S. H.  "Sewage, Trade Wastes and River Pollution, "
       Soc. Chem. Ind. ,  London, 4_6:40-51 (1961).

245.   Jensen, K. A. ,  and K.  E.  Jensen, "Occurrence of Tubercle
       Bacilli in Sewage,  and Experiments on Sterilization of Tubercle
       Bacilli Containing Sewage with Chlorine, " Acta Tuberc. Scand. ,
       _16;.217-230 (1942).


                               203

-------
246.    Jeter,  H.  L. , E. E. Geldreich, and H.  F. Clark, "Type Dif-
        ferentiation of Coliform Organisms with Membrane Filter
        Technique," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. , _4_6:386-394 (1954).

247.    Johnston,  J. M. , "Parathion Poisoning in Children, " J. Pediat.,
        42:286-291 (1953).

248.    Johnston,  M. A., and F. S.  Thatcher, "Selective Inhibition of
        Escherichia coli in the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium  by
        Phenethyl B-d-galactopyranoside, " Appl.  Microbiol. ,  15;1223-
        1228 (1967).

249.    Joyce,  G. , and H. H. Weiser, "Survival of Enteroviruses  and
        Bacteriophage in  Farm Pond Waters, " J. Am.  Water Works
        Assoc., _5_2:491-501 (1967).

250.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  1lBacterial Parameters  of Water Quality.  In
        Water Quality Measurement and Instrumentation, " Proc. of the
        I960 Seminar R.  A. Taft San.  Engr. Center, Cincinnati (1961).

251.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  "Purification and Sanitary Control of Water
        (potable and waste),11 Ann.  Rev. Microbiol.,  16:127-138 (1962).

252.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  "Bacteria can be a Nuisance, " Chem. Eng.
        Prog., 52:23-25  (1963).

253.    Kabler, P.  W.,  "Microbial Considerations in Drinking Water, "
        J.  Am. Water Works Assoc., (hll73-1180 (1968).

254.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  H. F. Clark,  and N.  A. Clarke, "Pathogenic
        Microorganisms  and Water-borne Disease,"  In Proc. Rudolfs
        Research Conf. on Public Health Hazards of Microbial Pollution
        of  Water,  Rutgers, New Brunswick, N.  J. , pp  9-56 (1961).

255.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  H. F. Clark, and E.  E. Geldreich, "Sanitary
        Significance of Coliform and Fecal Coliform Organisms in
        Surface Water,1I  Pub. Hlth. Rep., _79.:58-65 (1964).

256.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  and J. F.  Kreissl, "Biological and Radiological
        Properties of Water, " Farmstead Water Quality Improvement
        Seminar (Conf.  Proc.  5-7  Oct.  1966) Am. Soc. Ag.  Eng.,  St.
        Joseph, Michigan (1966).

257.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  and H. F.  Clark,  "Coliform Group and Fecal
        Coliform Organisms as Indicators of Pollution in Drinking
        Water."  J.  Am.  Water Works Assoc., J52_: 1577-1582 (I960).

258.    Kabler, P.  W. ,  S.  L. Chang, N.  A. Clarke, and H. F. Clark,
        "Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in Water Supplies," Univ.  111.
        Bull. Circular 81,  Bull., 61:72-78(1963).
                               204

-------
259.   Kapikian, A. Z. , R. M. Chanock,  T. E. Reichelderfer, T. G.
       Ward,  R. J. Huebner, and J. A. Bell, "Inoculation of Human
       Volunteers with Parainfluenze Virus Type 3, " J. Amer. Med.
       Assoc.,  ^78^:537-541  (1961).

260.   Kapsenberg, J.  G., "Salmonellae in Treated Sewage, " Nederl.
       Tijdachr. v. Geneesk, 102:863 (1956).

26l,(   Karalekas,  P.  C. ,  and J.  P. Lynch,  "Recreational Activities
       of Springfield, Mass., Water Reservoirs, Past and Present, "
       J. New Eng. Water Works Assoc.,  79.:18-21  (1965).

262.   Kay, L.  A., "The Construction and Operation of Open-Air
       Swimming Pools and Bathing Places, " Canad. J. Pub. Health,
       5J^:411-423  (I960).

263.   Keatinge, W. R.,  "Death After Shipwreck, " Brit.  Med.  J.
       ,2:1537-1541 (1965).

264.   Keatinge, W. R. ,  "Survival in Cold Water: The Physiology and
       Treatment  of Immersion Hypothermia and of Drowning, " 135 pp.
       Oxford,  Blackwell Scientific Publications, London (1969).

265.   Kehr,  R. W. , and C.  T.  Butterfield, "Notes on the Relation
       Between Coliforms and Enteric Pathogens, " Pub.  Health Rep. ,
       j>8_:589-607  (1943).

266.   Kehr,  R. W. , W.  C. Purdy,  J.  B.  Lackey, O. R. Placak, and
       W.  E.  Burns, "A Study of the Pollution and Natural Purification
       of the Scioto River, " Pub. Health Bull.  No.  276, Govt. Print.
       Off. (1941).

267.   Kelly,  C. B. , and W.  Arcisz, "Survival of Enteric Organisms
       in Shellfish, " Pub. Hlth. Rep.,  9:1205-1210 (1954).

268.   Kelly,  S. M. "Detection and Occurrence of Coxsackie Viruses
       in Sewage," Am. J. Pub. Hlth. , _43_: 1532-1539 (1953).

269.   Kelly,  S. M., and W.  W.  Sanderson, "Chlorination of Polio
       Virus,"  Science, _12:560-563 (1957).

270.   Kelly,  S. M., and W.  W.  Sanderson, "The Effect of Chlorine in
       Water  on Enteric Viruses," Am. J. Pub. Hlth., 48:1323-1334
       (1958).

271.   Kelly,  S. , and W. W. Sanderson, "The Effect of Sewage Treat-
       ment on  Viruses, " Sewage and Ind. Wastes,  31:683-699 (1959).

272.   Kelly,  S. , and W. W. Sanderson, "Density of Enterovirus in
       Sewage,"!. Water Poll.  Cont.  Fed., J32;1269-1273 (I960).
                               205

-------
273.   Kelly,  S. M. , and W. W. Sanderson,  "The Effect of Chlorine in
       Water  on Enteric Viruses.  II.  The Effect of Combined Chlorine
       in Poliomyelitis and Coxsackie Viruses," Am.  J. Pub. Hlth. ,
       50:14-20 (1966).

274.   Kelly,  S. M., and W. W. Sanderson,  "Enteric Viruses in Wading
       Pools,  "Pub. Hlth. Rep., ^6:199-207  (1961).

275.   Kelly,  S. and M. E. Clark, and M.  B. Coleman, "Demonstration
       of Infectious Agents in Sewage, "  Amer. J. Pub. Hlth., 45;1438-46
       (1955).

276.   Kelly,  S. M. , W.  W. Sanderson,  and  C. Neidl,  "Removal of
       Enteroviruses from Sewage by Activatied Sludge, " J. Water
       Poll. Cont.  Fed., _3_3:1056-1063 (1961).

277.   Kelly,  S. J. Winser, and W. Winkelstein, Jr. , "Poliomyelitis
       and Other Enteric Viruses in Sewage, " Amer. J. Pub.  Hlth. ,
       7:72-77 (1957).

278.   Kenner, B. A.,  H. F. Clark, and P.  W. Kabler, "Fecal Strepto-
       cocci.  H.  Quantification of Streptococci in Feces," Am.  J. Pub.
       Hlth.,  J50:1553-1565 (I960).

279.   Kenner, B. A.,  H. F. Clark, and P.  W. Kabler, "Cultivation
       and Enumeration of Streptococci in Surface Waters, " Appl.
       Microbiol., WS-ZQ (1961).

280.   Khait,  K. B. , "Pollution of Littoral Waters and Sanitary Measures
       to Protect Them," Hyg.  and Sanit., Moscow, ji5_:6-9 (I960); (cited
       byMcKee,  1963).

281.   Kiefer, D.  M.,  "The Future Business," Chem.  Eng. News,
       August, pp. 62-75 (1969).

282.   Kissling, R. E., Laboratory Status of the Infectious Hepatitis
       Virus.   In Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route (edited
       by G.  Berg), John Wiley, New York (1967).

283.   Kling,  C. ,  "In Search of Poliomyelitis Virus in Drinking Water, "
       Intern.  Bull. Econ. Med. Res. and Public Health, A40;l6l-175
       (1939-40).

284.   Knight, V. , P.  J. Gerone,  W. R. Griffith, R. B. Couch,  T. R.
       Gate,  K. M. Johnson,  D. J. Lang, H.  E. Evans, A. Spickard,
       and J.  A. Kasel, "Studies in Volunteers with Respiratory Viral
       Agents," Conf.  on Newer Respiratory Disease Viruses. Amer.
       Rev. Resp.  Dis.  *^ (Sept.  Suppl. ):135-143 (1963).

285.   Knight, V., Moderator,  Combined Clinical Staff Conference at
       the National Institutes of Health,  "New Research on Influenza:
       Studies With Normal Volunteers. " Annals of Internal Med.
                    (1965).

                               206

-------
286.   Koprowski, H. , S. African Med. J. , 29:1134 (1955); (cited by
       Plotkin and Katz,  1967).

287.   Koprowski, H. , Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. ,  5^:440 (1956): (cited
       by Plotkin and Katz,  1967).

288.   Korn,  G.  A. , and T. M.  Korn, Mathematical Handbook, McGraw-
       Hill, N. Y., (1968).

289.   Kraus, P. , and G. Weber, "Investigations on the Viability of
       Pathogenic Organisms in Water Supplies and Surface Water, "
       Zbl. Bakt. , I.,  J_71;509-523 (1958).

290.   Kristensen, M. , and K. Skadhange, "Disinfection of Drinking
       Water  with Hydrochloric Acid, " Acta. Pathol. Microbiol. Scand.
       (Den.), 4^:216-226 (1957).

291.   Krugman,  S. , R.  Ward, and J. P. Giles, "The Natural History
       of Infectious Hepatitis," Am. J. Med.,  _32:717-728 (1962).

29?.   Lamb,  G.  A., T. D. Y. Chin,  and L. E.  Scarce,  "Isolation of
       Enteric Viruses from Sewage and River Water in a  Metropolitan
       Area," Amer. J.  Hyg., 80:320-327 (1964).

293.   Langmuir,  A, D. , "The Surveillance of Communicable Diseases
       of National Importance, " New Eng.  J. Med., 268:182-192  (1963).

294.   Lanbusch, E. J. , "Rationale and Accomplishments of Chlorine
       Disinfection.  In Public Health Hazards  of Microbial Pollution of
       Water, Proc. Rudolfs Research  Conference, Rutgers, New Jersey,
       pp. 543-610 (1961).

295.   Lattanzi,  W.  E. ,  and E.  W. Mood, "A Comparison of Entero-
       cocci and Escherichia coli as Indexes of Water Pollution, " Sew.
       Ind. Wastes,  23^1154-60; C. A.  4^:2723  (1951).

296.   Lee, D. ,  J. M. Symons, and G. G. Robeck, "Watershed Human-
       Use Level and Water Quality, " J. Amer. Water Works Assoc.,
       ^:412-422 (1970).

297.   Lehr,  E.  L., and C. C.  Johnson,  Jr. ,  "Water Quality of Swim-
       ming Places.  A Review, "  Pub. Health Rep. , _6_9_: 742-748  (1954).

298.   Leininger,  H. V. , and L. S. McClesky,  "Bacterial Indicators of
       Pollution in Surface Waters," App.  Microbiol.,  j_: 119-130 (1953).

299.   Lendon, N. C. , and R. D.  MacKenzie,  "Tracing a Typhoid
       Carrier by Sewage Examination, " Sanitarian, Lond. ,  59:306
       (1951).

300.   Lennox, M. ,  R.  Harvey, and S.  Thomson,  "An  Outbreak of Food
       Poisoning due to Salmonella typhimurium,  with Observations on
       Duration of Infection, " J.  Hyg.  (Camb.) _5^:311-320 (1954).


                               207

-------
301.   Litzky, W. , W. L. Mallmann, and C. W. Fifield, "Comparison
       of the Most Probable Numbers of Escherichia coll and Enterococci
       in River Waters/' Am. J. Pub.  Hlth., 5:1049-1055 (1955).

302.   Lobel, H. O. ,  and R.  F.  Robinson, "Epidemiologic Aspects of
       an Outbreak of Infectious  Hepatitis in Albany, N. Y. , " Amer.  J.
       Pub. Hlth., j>5_:1176-1182 (1965).

303.   Loften, C. B. , S. M.  Morrison, and P.  D. Leiby, "The Entero-
       bacteriaceae of Some Colorado Small Mammals and Birds, and
       Their Possible Role in Gastroenteritis in Man and Domestic
       Animals, " Zoonoses Research, Jj227-293  (1962).

304.   London Metropolitan Water Board, 1931; 1957-58.  Cited by
       Kabler, et al., 1961.

305.   Lord, S. M. ,  Jr., "Bacterial Indices of Bathing Water Quality, "
       Thesis, Tufts University  (1968).

306.   Lopez, S. R. ,  "A Waterborne Epidemic  of Typhoid Fever, 11
       Puerto Rico Health Bulletin, _4:l-8 (1940).

307.   Lund, E. ,  C.  E. Hedstrom, and N. Jantzen, "Occurrence of
       Enteric Viruses in Waste-water After Activated Sludge Treatment,"
    :   J. Water Poll. Contr.  Fed.,  41_:l69-174 (1969).

308.   Lynn, W. R. , "Systems Analysis for Solid Waste Problems, 11
       Proc. Nat. Conf.  on Solid Waste Disposal, Amer. Pub. Works
       Assoc. Special Report, 2^9_:69-74 (1964).

309.   Mack,  W. N. ,  J.  R. Fry, B.  J. Riegle, and W. L.  Mallmann,
       "Enterovirus Removal by Activated Sludge  Treatment," J. Water
       Poll.  Cont.  Fed., 34:1133-1139(1962).

310.   Mackenthun,  K. M. , and  W. M.  Ingram, Biological Associated
       Problems in Freshwater Environments,  U. S. Dept.  of the
       Interior, Fed.  Water Poll.  Cont. Adm. , 287pp. (1967).

311.   Magath,  T.  B. , "Water Transmission of Infections with Special
       Reference to Amebiasis, 11 J.  Am. Water Works Assoc. ,  27:63-77
       (1935).                                  ,

312.   Malherbe, H.  H. , and M. Strickland-Cholmley, "Quantitative
       Studies on Viral Survival  in Sewage Purification Processes.  In
       Transmission of Viruses  by the Water Route, (edited by G. Berg),
       John Wiley & Sons, New York (1967).

313.   Mallmann, W.  L. , "Water Quality Yardsticks, " J. Am.  Water
       Works Assoc. , 4_5:917-925  (1953).

314.   Mallmann, W.  L. , "Critical Evaluation of Enterococci. "  In
       Public Health Hazards of  Microbial Pollution of Water,  Proc.
       Rudolfs Research  Conf. ,  Rutgers, New Jersey, pp.  181-199
       (1961).


                                208

-------
315.    Mallmann, W.  L. ,  and W.  Litsky, "Survival of Selected Enteric
        Organisms in Various Types of Soils, " Am.  J.  Pub. Health,
        4^:38-43 (1951).

316.    Mallory, A., E.  Belden, and P. Brachman,  "The Current
        Status  of Typhoid Fever in the United States and a description
        of an Outbreak," J.  Inf. Dis., _U9:673-676 (1969).

317.    Manigold, D. B., and J. A. Schultze, "Pesticides in Water:
        Pesticides in Selected Western Streams - A Progress Report, "
        Pest.  Monit. J. , 3_:124-135 (1969).

318.    Mason, J. O. ,  and W.  R. McLean, "Infectious Hepatitis  Traced
        to the Consumption of Raw Oysters,  an Epidemiologic Study, "
        Amer. J. Hyg. ,  J75_:90-lll  (1962).

319.    Maxcy, K. F. , "Principles and Methods of Epidemiology. "  In
        Rivers and Horsfall, Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man,
        Lippincott (1959).

320.    Maynard, J. E. , "Infectious Hepatitis at Fort Yukon, Alaska--
        Report of an Outbreak,  1960-61," Amer.  J. Pub. Hlth. ,
        j53_:31-39 (1963).

321.    McCabe,  L.  J. ,  and T. W. Haines,  "Diarrheal Disease Control
        by Improved Human Excreta Disposal, " Pub. Hlth.  Rep. ,
        J72_: 921-928 (1957).

322.    McCarthy, J. A. , "Critical Evaluation of Coliform  Organisms,
        In Public Health  Hazards of Microbial Pollution of Water, Proc.
        Rudolfs Res. Conf. ,  Rutgers,  New Jersey,  pp.  123-164(1961).

323.    McCoy,  J. H. , "River Pollution:  Bacteriological Aspects and
        Their Significance, " J. Roy. Sec. Hlth., 8^:154-162  (1963).

324.    McCoy,  J. H. , "Salmonella in  Crude Sewage Effluent and Sewage-
        Polluted Waters, " Adv. Water Poll.  Res.,  J_:205-226 (1964).

325.    McCoy,  J. H. , "Salmonella in  Crude Sewage, Sewage Effluent
        and Sewage-Polluted Natural Waters, " Advances in  Water
        Pollution Research,  B.  A.  Southgate, Ed. ,  The MacMillan Co. ,
        N. Y. , pp 206-226,  see especially Table I,  page 207, (1964).

326.    McCoy,  J. H. , "The Isolation of Salmonella, " J. Appl.  Bact. ,
        2^:213-224 (1962).

327.    McCullough, N.  B. , and C. W.  Eisele, "Experimental Human
        Salmonellosis.  I.  Pathogenicity of  Strains of Salmonalla
        meleagridis and  Salmonella anatum obtained from Spray-dried
        Whole Egg." J.  Inf. Dis.,  88^:278-289 (1951).
                                209

-------
328.   McCullough, N. B. , and C.  W. Eisele, "Experimental Human
       Salmonellosis.  II.  Immunity Studies Following Experimental
       Illness with Salmonella Meleagridis and Salmonella ana turn. ,
       J. Immunol. , 6_:595-608 (1951).

329.   McCullough, N. B., and C. W.  Eisele, "Experimental Human
       Salmonellosis.  III. Pathogenicity of Strains of Salmonella
       newport, Salmonella derby,  and Salmonella bareilly Obtained
       from Spray-Dried Whole Egg," J. Inf. Dis. , 9_:209-213 (1951).

330.   McCullough, N. B. , and C.  W. Eisele, "Experimental Human
       Salmonellosis.  IV. Pathogenicity of Strains of Salmonella
       pullorum Obtained from Spray-Dried Whole Egg, " J. Inf. Dis. ,
       89:259-265 (1951).

331.   McGaughey,  P. H. , "Study on Protection of Water Resources of
       Lake Tahoe Basin (1963);  (cited by Mackenthun and Ingram,
       1967).

332.   McKee, J. E. ,  100 Problems in Environmental Health, Jones
       Composition Co. and Kirby Lithograph Co. , Washington,  D. C. ,
       185 pp. (1961).

333.   McKee, J. E. ,  "The Impact of Industrial Wastes on the Water
       Quality Equation, " Paper presented at the Conf.  on Practical
       Solutions to the Water Quality Equation,  Santa Ana River Basin
       Water  Poll. Cont.  Bd. ,  17 October, 1963.

334.   McKee, J. E. ,  "Water Pollution  Control, " Trusts and Estates,
            2-45 (1964).
 335.   McKee,  J. E. and H.  W. Wolf, Water Quality Criteria, 2nd ed. ,
       The Res. Agency of Calif. ,  State Water Quality Cont. Bd. , No.
       3-A, Sacramento, 548 pp. (1963).

 336.   McKinney, R. ,  H. E. Langley, and H.  P. Tomlinson,  "Survival
       of Salmonella typhosa During Anaerobic Digestion, "  Sew. Ind.
       Wastes, .30:1469 (1958).

 337.   McLean, D.  M. ,  "Contamination of Water by Viruses, "  J. Amer.
       Water Works Assoc. , _56:585-591 (1964).

 338.   McLean, D.  M. ,  "Transmission of Viral Infections by Recreational
       Water." In Transmission of Viruses  by the Water Route,  John
       Wiley & Sons, New York,  pp.  25-36 (1967).

 339.   McMicael, F. C. , and J.  E. McKee, "Report on Waste Water
       Reclamation at  Whittier Narrows, " W.  M. Keck Lab. Env. Hlth.
       Eng. , Calif. Inst.  Tech. , Pasadena,  also State Water Quality
       Control Board,  Sacramento, Calif. (1965).
                                210

-------
340.   Melnick, J. L. ,  and R.  P. Dow,  "Poliomyelitis in Hidalgo
       County, Texas, 1948. Poliomyelitis and Coxsackie Virus from
       Flies," Amer. J. Hyg. , _5J3:288-309 (1953).

341.   Melnick, J. L. ,  and L.  J. Penner, "The Survival of Polio-
       myelitis and Coxsackie Viruses Following  Their Ingestion by
       Flies," J.  Exp. Med. , ^6:255-271 (1952).

342.   Melnick, J. L. ,  J.  Emmons,  J. H.  Coffey,  and H.  Schoof,
       "Seasonal Distribution of Coxsackie Viruses  in Urban Sewage
       and Flies," Amer. J. Hyg., J59.:l64-184 (1954).

343.   Merrell, J. C. and P.  C. Ward,  "Virus Control at the Santee,
       Calif., Project," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. ,  60:145-153
       (1968).

344.   Merrell, J. C. ,  W.  F.  Jopling, R. F.  Bott, A. Katko,  and
       H. E.  Pinter,  Santee Recreation Project:  Final Report.  U.S.
       Dept.  of Interior, Fed.  Water Poll.  Cont.  Adm. , Pub. No.
       WP-20-7,  165 pp. ,  (1967).

345.   Messerschmidt,  T. , and R. Wedemeyer,  "Der Nachweis von
       Typhus und Paratyphusbacterien in Stadtischem Abwasser,"
       Zentralbl. Bakt. I.  Abt. Orig. , J_5_6_:489 (1951).

346.   Metcalf, T. G. ,  and W.  C.  Stiles, "The Accumulation of Enteric
       Viruses by the Oyster,  Crassostris veiginica. " J.  Inf. Dis. ,
       jJ_5:68-&3, (1965).

347.   Metcalf, T. G.,  and W.  C.  Stiles, "Survival of Enteric Viruses
       in Estuary Waters and Shellfish.   In Transmission of Viruses by
       the Water Route  (edited by G.  Berg), John Wiley &;  Sons, New
       York.   (1967).

348.   Metzler, D.  F. , R.  L.  Gulp,  H.  A. Stoltenberg,  R.  L.  Woodward,
       G.  Walton, S.  L. Chang,  N. A. Clarke, C.  M. Palmer, and
       F. M. Middleton, "Emergency Use of Reclaimed Water for
       Potable Supply at Chanute, Kansas, " J. Am. Water Works Assoc. ,
       _50:1021-1057 (1958).

349.   Meyer,  T. R. , R. Phillips, H. E. Lind,  and L,. M. Board, "A
       Milk-borne Typhoid Outbreak  Traced to Dairy Water  Supply, "
       J. Milk Tech., 4:123; J.  Am. Water Works  Assoc.,  35:240
       (1943  Abst.) (1941).

350.   Meynell, G. G. , and J. Maw, "Evidence for a Two-Stage Model
       of Microbial Infection, " J. Hyg.,  Camb. ^:273-279 (1968).

351.   Meynell, G. G. , and E. W. Meynell,  "The Growth of Micro-
       organisms in vivo with  Particular Reference to the Relation
       Between Dose and Latent Period, " J.  Hyg. ,  Camb.,  56:323-346
       (1958).
                                 211

-------
352.    Meynell, G.  G. ,  and T. Williams, "Estimating the Date of
        Infection from Individual Response Times, " J. Hyg. ,  Camb. ,
        5:131-134 (1967).

353.    Minkus, A.  J.,  ''Recreational Use of Reservoirs,11 J. New Eng.
        Water Works Assoc. ,  J79:32-40 (1965).

354.    Mom,  C. P. , and C. O. Schaeffer, "Typhoid Bacteria in Sewage
        and in Sludge, "  Sewage Works J., _12:715-725 (1940).

355.     Mood, E. W. , "Development and Application of High-Free
        Residual Chlorination  in the Treatment of Swimming Pool Water, "
        Am. J. Pub.  Health, 43_:1258-64.  C. A.  7:12712 (1953).

356.    Mood, E. W. , "The Role of Some Physico-Chemical Properties
        of Water as Causative Agents of Eye Irritation of Swimmers.  In
        Water Quality Criteria, FWPCA Nat. Tech. Advisory Committee
        Report, (1968).

357.    Moore, B. ,  "A Survey of Beach Pollution at a Seaside Resort,"
        J. Hyg., Camb., _5,2:71-86 (1954a).

358.    Moore, B. ,  "Sewage Contamination of Coastal Bathing Waters,  "
        Bull. Hyg., 9:689-704 (1954b).

359.    Moore, B. ,  "The Risk of Infection Through Bathing  in Sewage-
        Polluted Water. "  Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Waste Disposal in the
        Marine Environ. , Univ. California,  Berkeley, 22-25 July 1959
        (1959).

360.    Moore, B. ,  "Sewage Contamination of Coastal Bathing Waters
        in England and Wales.  A Bacteriological and Epidemiological
        Study," J.  Hyg., Camb.,  5^7:435-472 (1959).

361.    Moore, B. ,  "The Risk of Infection Through Bathing  in Sewage-
        Polluted Waters.  In Waste Disposal in the Marine Environment,
        Proc.  1st Int. Conf.,  ed.  by E. A. Pearson,  Pergamon Press,
        New York (I960).

362.    Morris, W. , and R. H. Weaver, "Streptococci as Indices of
        Pollution in  Well Waters, "

363.    Mosely, J.  W. , "Infectious Hepatitis in Clearfield County, Pa. ,
        A Probably Waterborne Epidemic, " Am.  J. Med. ,  26;555-562
        (I959a).

364,    Mosley, J.  W. , "Water-borne Infectious  Hepatitis, " Med. Prog.,
        26-:703-707; 748-753  (1959b).

365.    Mosley, J.  W. , "Transmission of Viral Diseases by Drinking
        Water. " In Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route,  John
        Wiley & Sons, New York,  pp.  5-24 (1967).
                               212

-------
366.   Mosely, W. H. , J. F.  Speers,  and T. D. Y. Chin, "Epidemic-
       logic Studies of a Large .Urban Outbreak of Infectious Hepatitis, "
       Aer. J. Pub. Hlth. , .53: 1603-1617 (1963).

367.   Murtaugh,  J. ,  and R.  L. Bunch,  "Sterols as a Measure of Fecal
       Pollution,11 J.  Water Poll.  Cont.  Fed., _39_:404-409  (1967).

368.   Muss,  D. L. ,  "Are our Criteria  for Bathing Water  Pollution
       Valid?" Civil Eng. , _33:37-39 (1963).

369.   Nakamura,  M. , R. L.  Stone, and J.  E. Krubsack,  "Survival
       of Shigella in Sea Water, " Nature,  203_:213-214 (1964).

370.  National Technical Advisory Committee  on Water Quality Criteria,
      Water Quality Criteria,  Report of National Technical Advisory
      Committe to the Secretary of Interior  (1969).

371.   Neefe,  J. R. ,  and J. Stokes, Jr., "An  Epidemic of Infectious
       Hepatitis Apparently due to a Waterborne  Agent. Epidemiologic
       Observations and Transmission Experiments in Human Beings,"
       J. Am. Med. Assoc., _12:1063-75 (1945).

372.   Neefe,  J. R. ,  J. Stokes, Jr., J.  B. Baty, and J. G. Reinhold,
       "Disinfection of Water  Containing Causative Agents  of Infectious
       (Epidemic) Hepatitis,"  J. Am. Med. Assoc., 128:1076-1080
       (1945).

373.   Neefe, J. R. ,  J. Stokes, Jr., J. B.  Baty, "Inactivation of the
       Virus  of Infectious Hepatitis in Drinking Water," Am. J. Pub.
       Health, .37:365-372 (1947).

374.   Norman, N. N. , and P. W. Kabler, "Bacteriological Study of
       Irrigated Vegetables," Sew. and Ind.  Wastes,  2^:605-615  (1953).

375.   Novick, A.  "Growth of Bacteria," Ann. Rev.  Microbiol. ,
       9^97-110 (1955).

376.   Nussbaum,  I., and R.  M0  Garver, "Survival  of Coliform
       Organisms  in Pacific Ocean Coastal Waters," Sew.  Ind. Wastes,
       27:1383-1395 (1955).

377.   Okun,  D. A. ,  et al. , "A Review  of the  Literature of 1964 on
       Wastewater and Water  Pollution Control:  Industrial Wastes, "
       J. Water Poll, Cont. Fed., 37^735-799 (1964).

378.   Okuno, G.  "Vaccination with Egg Passage Measles  Virus  by
       Inhalation, " Am.  J. Dis. of Children, J_a3:211-214  (1962).

379.   Orlob, G.  T. , "Viability of Sewage Bacteria in Sea Water,"
       Sew. Ind. Wastes, 2^:1147-1155  (1956).

380.   Ormsby, H. L., "An Interim Report on Ocular Disease due to
       APC Viruses in Ontario,"  Canad. J.  Pub. Hlth., 46:500-515
       (1955).
                                213

-------
381.    Ormsby, H. L. and W. S. Aitchison, "Pharyngo-Conjunctival
        Fever due to Swimming Pool Contact, " Canad.  Med. Assoc.  J. ,
        ^3:864-872 (1955).

382.    Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Committee,  Outdoor
        Recreation for America, U.S. Govt. Printing Office,
        Washington, D. C. , 246pp. (1962).

383.    Palazzolo,  A.  Z. R. , E.  M. Ansiaume,  R.  H.  Leiguardia, and
        O. A. Peso, "Investigation of Bacteria of the Genus Salmonella
        in Canal Water;  Its Relation to Intestinal Disorders Among
        Children," Rev.  abr.  Sanit. Nac. ,  B.  Aires, _33_:128 (1954).

384.    Parker, M. T. , "Human and Animal Sources of Gastrointestinal
        Infection,   (a)  The Spread of  Some Bowel Infections from Human
        Sources," J.  Roy. San. Inst. , 74:847-855

385.    Paul, J. R. ,  and H. T. Gardner, "Epidemiological Aspects  of
        Hepatitis in U. S.  Troops in Germany, 1946-50, " Amer. J. Med.,
        8:565-580 (1950).

386.    Paul, J. R. ,  and J.  D. Trask, "Poliomyelitis Virus in Sewage, "
        Science, ^0:258-259 (1939).

387.    Paul, J. R. ,  and J.  D. Trask, "The Virus of Poliomyelitis in
        Stools and Sewage, " J.  Am. Med. Assoc., JJ_6:493-497 (1941).

388.    Pearson, E. A. ,  "An Investigation of the Efficacy of Submarine
        Outfall Disposal of Sewage and Sludge, " Publication No.  14,
        State Water Pollution Control Board, Sacramento,  California
        (1956).

389.    Petersen, N. J. , and V. D. Hines,  "The Relation of Summer-
        time Gastrointestinal Illness to the Sanitary Quality of the  Water
        Supplies in Six Rocky Mountain Communities, "  Am. J. Hyg. ,
        7^:314-320 (I960).

390.    Plotkin, S. A. ,  and M.  Katz,  "Minimal Infective Doses of
        Viruses for Man by the Oral Route, " Transmission of Viruses
        by the Water Route (edited by G.  Berg),  John Wiley 8c Sons,
        New York (1967).

391.    Plotkin, S. A., D.  Cornfeld and T.  H. Ingalls,  Am. J. Dis.
        Children,  J_l_0:381 (1965);  Cited  by Plotkin and Katz, 1967.

392.    Popp, L. ,  "Vorfluter:  ein Reichhaltiges salmonellen Reservoir.
        (Receiving Waters: Abundant Salmonella reservoirs),  Zbl. Bakt. ,
        I. Abt. Orig. , 6:90-94 (1956).

393.    Poynter, S. F.  R. , "The Problem of Viruses in Water, " J.  Soc.
        Water Treat, and Exam.  (Eng. )  17_: 187-204 (1968).
                               214

-------
394.   Pozkanzes, D. ,  and W. Baldenkopf, "Waterborne Infectious
       Hepatitis Epidemic  from a Chlorinated Municipal Supply, " Pub.
       Health Repts. , _76_:745-755 (1961).

395.   Presnell, N.W. , W. Arcisz, and C.  B.  Kelly,  "Comparison of
       the MF and MPN Techniques in Examining Sea Water, "  Pub.
       Hlth. Rep., ^9.:300-304 (1954).

396.   Press,  E. , "An Interstate Drowning Study, " Am.  J. Pub. Health,
       J5:2275-89  (1968).

397.   Prier,  J. E. , and R.  Riley,  "Significance of Water in Natural
       Animal Virus Transmission. "  In  Transmission of Viruses  by
       the Water Route (edited by G. Berg),  John Wiley & Sons, New
       York (1967).

398.   Quinby,  G. , and A. B. Lemraon, "Parathion Residues as a
       Cause of Poisoning  in Crop Workers," J.  Am.  Med. Assoc. ,
       166:740-746 (1958).

399.   Quinby,  G.  E. ,  W.  J.  Hayes, Jr., J. F. Armstrong, and
       W. F. Durham,  "DDT Storage in the  United States Population, "
       J. Am. Med. Assoc. ,  191:175-179  (1965).

400.   Ravenholt,  R. T. , and S. P. Lehman, "History, Epidemiology
       and Control of Typhoid Fever in Seattle, " Medical  Times,
       92:342-353  (1964).

401.   Rawson,  D.  S. ,  "The Physical Limnology  of Great Slave Lake, "
       J. Fish.  Res. Bd. ,  Canada,  8^:1-66 (1950).

402.   Reichelderfer,  T. E. , R. M. Chanock,  J. E.  Craighead,
       R.  J. Huebner,  H.  C.  Turner, W.  James, T. G.  Ward,
       "Infection of Human Volunteers with Type  2 Hemadsorption
       Virus," Science, 128:779-780 (1958).

403.   Rent, A.  I. ,  "The Viability of Some Bacteria of the Intestinal
       Group in Water Containing Humus, " Zdravoochr.  Beloruss. ,
       1:54-61; Water Poll. Abst. ,  31:144-150  (1958, abst. ).

404.   Rhodes, A. J. ,  E. M. Clarke, D.  S.  Knowles, A. M. Goodfellow,
       and W.  L. Donahue, "Prolonged  Survival of Human Poliomyelitis
       Virus in Experimentally Infected River Water, " Can. J. Pub.
       Hlth., 4J_:146-157,  (1950).

405.   Richardson, N.  J. ,  and V. Bokkenheuser, "Salmonellae and
       Shigellae in a Group of Periurban South African Bantu School
       Children,"  J. Hyg.  (Camb. ), j6l_:257-263 (1963).

406.   Richter,  Jr. ,  "Salmonellen im Vorfluter;  ein Ortliches  Abwasser-
       problem, " Stadthyg. ,  7:101 (1956).
                               215

-------
407.   Riegelmann, S. , and D. G. Vaughan, Jr. , "A Rational Basis
       for the Preparation of Ophthalmic Solutions.  Part I.  J. Am.
       Pharm. Assoc. , (Pract.  Pharm. Ed.), J_9:474-477 (1958).

408.   Riegelmann, S. , D. G. Vaughan, Jr. , and M. Okumoto, "Com-
       pounding Ophthalmic Solutions," J.  Am. Pharm. Assoc. (Prac.
       Pharm. Ed.),  J_6:742-746 (1955).

409.   Riley,  C.,  "Plankton Studies. IV.  Georges Bank, "  Bull.
       Bingham Oceanogr. Coll.,  7^:1-73 (1941).

410.   Ritter, C., I.  F. Shull, and R.  L.  Quinley,  "Comparison of
       Coliform Group Organisms with Enterococci from Well Waters, "
       Am. J. Pub. Health, 46^:612-620 (1956).

^     Rittenberg, S.  C. ,  "Studies on Coliform Bacteria Discharged
       from the Hyperion  Outfall," Final Bacteriological Report,  130 pp.
       Allan Hancock  Foundation for Sci. Res. , Univ.  So. Calif. ,  Los
       Angeles (1956).

412.   Rivers, T.  M. and F. L.  Horsfall, "Viral and Rickettsial
       Infections in Man, " Lippincott (1959).

413.   Robeck, G. G., N. A.  Clarke, and K. A. Dostal, "Effectiveness
       of Water Treatment Processes in Virus Removal," J. Amer.
       Water Works Assoc.,  54_:1275-1290 W62-49 (1962).

414.   Robinson,  C. R. , F. W.  Doane, and A.  Rhodes,  "Report of an
       Outbreak of Febrile Illness with Pharyngeal Lesions and
       Exanthem:  Toronto,  Summer 1957. Isolation of a Group A
       Coxsackie Virus, "  Can.  Med. Assoc.  J. ,  79^:615-622 (1958).

415.   Robinson,  J. ,  "The Estimation of Carrier Rate from Amebic
       Surveys," J. Hyg., Camb. , ^6:531-539 (1968).

416.   Robinson,  R. A., and K. I. Loken,  "Age Susceptibility and
       Excretion of Salmonella typhimurium in Calves, " J. Hyg. ,
       Camb., 6^:207-216 (1968).

417.   Rosen, G. "Human Health, Community Life, and Rediscovery
       of the  Environment, " Amer. J.  Pub. Hlth. ,  54_:l-6 (1964).

418.   Roseberry, D. A., "Relationship of Recreational Use to Bacte-
       rial Densities  of Forrest Lake, " J. Am.  Water Works Assoc. ,
       56:43-59 (1964).

419.   Rosenstein, B. J. , "Shigella and Salmonella Enteritis in Infants
       and Children," Bull, Johns Hopkins Hospital, JJ_5:407-41 5 (1964).

420.   Ruchhoft,  L. C., "Studies on the Longevity of Bacillus typhosus
       (Eberthella typhi) in Sewage Sludge, " Sewage Works J. ,
       6:1054-1062 (1934).
                               216

-------
421.   Rudolfs, W. ,  L. L. Falk, and R. A.  Ragatzkie, "Literature
       Review on the Occurrence and Survival of Enteric, Pathogenic,
       and Related Organisms in Soil, Water,  Sewage, and on Vegeta-
       tion,  I. Bacterial and Virol  Diseases, " Sewage and Industrial
       Wastes, 2,2:1261-1375 (1950).

422.   Ruskin,  J. , and J. S. Remington, ''Immunity and Intracellular
       Infection:  Resistance to  Bacteria in Mice Infected with a Pro-
       tozoan, "  Science,  160:72-73 (1968).

423.   Russell, F. E. , and P. Kotin, "Squamous papilloma in the
       White Croaker," J. Natl. Cancer Inst. , _l:857-86l (1957).

424.   Sabin, A.  B. ,  "Behavior of  Chimpanzee-Avirulent Poliomyelitis
       Viruses in Experimentally Infected Human Volunteers, "  Am.  J.
       Med. Sci., 230:1-8 (1955).

425.   Sabin, A.  B. ,  "Cause and Control of  Fatal Infantile Diarrheal
       Disease,1'  Am.  J. Trop. Med. Hyg. , _12,:556-66 (1963).

426.   Sanderson, W.  W. , and S. Kelly,  "Discussion of Paper,  "Patho-
       genic Microorganisms and Waterborne Disease, " In Public
       Health Hazards of Microbial Pollution of Water, Proc. Rudolfs
       Res.  Conf., June  1961, Rutgers, New Brunswick, N. J.  , pp.
       57-72 (1961).

427.   Saphra,  I. , and J. W.  Winter, "Clinical Manifestations of
       Salmonellosis in Man, " New Eng. J.  Med.,  256:1128-34 (1957).

428.   Savage,  W. , "Paratyphoid Fever: An Epidemiological Study, "
       J. Hyg.,  Camb. , 42_:393-405 (1942).

429.   Scott, W.  J. , "Classification of Inland and Shore Waters, " Sew.
       Works J. ,  ^4:1064-1072  (1942).

430.   Scott, W.  J. , "Sanitary Study of Shore Bathing  Waters,"  Conn.
       Health Bull.,  6J>:1-50 (1951).

431.   Scott, W.  J. , "Recent Sanitary Study of Shore Bathing Waters, "
       Conn. Health Bull., ^7_: 139-148 (1953).

432.   Scott, W.  J. , "A Two-Year Study of  Shore Bathing Waters,"
       Conn. Health Bull., _71_:111-130 (1957).

433.   Sherman,  J. N. , C.  F. Niven, and K.  L.  Smiley, "Streptococcus
       salivarius and Other Non-Hemolytic Streptococci of the Human
       Throat," J. Bact.  , 45-249 (1943).

434.   Sherwood,  H. P. ,  "Some Observations on the Viability of Sewage
       Bacteria in Relation to Self Purification of Mussels, " Proc.  Soc.
       Appl. Bacteriol. ,  15:21-35  (1952);  Water Poll. Abst. , 27_:1528
       (1954, Abst.).
                               217

-------
435.   Shimkin, M., B. K.  Koe, and L. Zechmeister, "An Instance of
       the Occurrence of Carcinogenic Substances in Certain Barnacles, "
       Science, JJ_3:650-651 (1951).

436.   Shrewsbury, J. F. D. , and G. J. Barson,  "A Note on the Abso-
       lute Viability in Water of >. typhi and the Dysentery Bacilli, "
       Brit. Med.  J.,  (1952):954; (abst.) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. ,
       46:72 P&R (1954).

437.   Shrewsbury, J. F. D. , and G. J. Barson,  "On the Absolute
       Viability of Certain Pathogenic Bacteria in a Synthetic Weil-
       Water, " Jour. Path, and Bact. , _74:215-223 (1957).

438.   Shulman,  N. R. "Hepatitis-Associated Antigen, " Amer.  J. Med.
       49:669-692  (1970).

439.   Shuval, H.  I. ,  S.  Cymbalista, B. Fatal,  and N. Goldblum,
       "Concentration of Enteric Viruses in Water by Hydro-Extract!on
       and Two-Phase Separation, " In Transmission of Viruses by the
       Water Route, G. Berg, ed. , John Wiley and Sons,  New York,
       pp.  45-55 (1967).

440.   Slanetz, L. W. ,  'The Detection and Use of Enterococci as
       Indicators of Water Pollution. In Public Health Hazards  of
       Microbial Pollution of Water, Proc. Rudolfs Research Conf. ,
       Rutgers, New Jersey, pp.  200-234(1961).

441.   Slanetz, L. W. , and C.  H.  Bartley, "Numbers of Enterococci
       in Water, Sewage and Feces Determined by the Membrane Filter
       Technique with an Improved Medium, " J.  Bacteriol. , 74:591-595
       (1957)."

442.   Slanetz, L. W. , and C.  H.  Bartley, "Survival of Fecal Strepto-
       cocci in Sea Water, " Health Lab. Sci. ,  2^:142-149  (1965).

443.   Smith,  H.  W., "The Isolation of Salmonellae from the Mesen-
       teric Lymph Nodes and Faeces of Pigs,  Cattle, Sheep, Dogs,
       and Cats, and from Other Organs of Poultry, " J. Hyg. (Camb.),
       J57_:266-273 (1959).

444.   Smith,  H.  W., "The Effect of Feeding Pigs on Food Naturally
       Contaminated with Salmonellae, " J. Hyg.  (Camb.), 58:381-389
       (I960).

445.   Smith,  R.  S. ,  and T. D. Woolsey,  "Bathing Water Quality and
       Health.  II.  Inland River. " U.S. Public Health Service,
       Environmental Health Center, Cincinnati, Ohio (1952).

       Smith,  R. S. ,  T.  D. Woolsey, and A. H.  Stevenson, "Bathing
       Water Quality and Health.  I. Great Lakes, " U.S.  Public
       Health  Service, Environmental Health Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
       (1951)
                               218

-------
447.   Smith,  R. S. ,  C. E. Sponagle, E.  E. Geldreich, L. J. McCabe,
       and T.  D. Woolsey,  "Bathing Water Quality and Health.  III.
       Coastal Water, " U.S.  Public Health Service, R. A. Taft Sani-
       tary Engineering Center,  Cincinnati, Ohio (1950).

448.   Spino,  D.  F. ,  "Elevated Temperature Technique for the Isola-
       tion of  Salmonella from Streams, " Appl. Microbiol. ,  14:591-596
       (1966).

449.   Stein, W.  J. ,  and W. J. Hayes, Jr.,  "Health Survey of Pest
       Control Operators, " Indust. Med.  Surg. ,  33:549-555 (1964)

450.   Steiniger, F. , "Salmonella panama in Harbor Water Polluted by
       Sewage," Arztl. Wschr. , _2:42-60, (1952);  Water Poll. Abst. ,
       27:2314 (1954).

451.   Steiniger, F. , "Fish as Carriers  of Bacteria,"  Desinfekt.  u.
       Gesundtheitswes. 46:36-48,  (1954); Water Poll.  Abst., 28:2348
       (1955).                                                 ~

452.   Stevenson, A.  H. , "Water Quality Requirements for Recreational
       Uses/' Sewage Works  J. ,  21;! 10-119 (1949).

453.   Stevenson, A.  H. , "Studies of Bathing Water Quality and Health,"
       Am.  J. Pub. Hlth. ,  43^:529-538 (1953).

454,   Stewart,  A. D. , and S. C. Ghosal,  "On the  Value of Wilson and
       Blair's Bismuth Sulfite Medium in the Isolation of Bact.  typhosum
       from River Water, " Ind.  J.  Med.  Res., 25:591 (1938).

455.   Stokinger, H.  and  R.  L. Woodward, "Toxicologic Methods  for
       Establishing Drinking Water Standards,  " J. Amer. Water Works
       Assoc., _50:515-529  (1958).

456.   Si-rc-i-rer,  H. W. , and E. B.  Phelps, "A Study of the Pollution
       and Natural Purification of the Ohio River, " U. S. Public Health
       Service Bulletin Nos.  143,  146(1925).

45^.   Streeter,  H. W. , "A Formulation of Bacterial Changes Occurring
       in Polluted Water, "  Sewage Works J. , _6:208-215 (1934).

458.   Streeter,  H. W. , "Tendencies in  Standards  of River and Lake
       Cleanliness,"  Sew.  Works J. , jS:721-727 (1934).

459.   Streeter,  H. W. , "Limits  of Pollution Loading for Water Puri-
       fication Systems, "  J.  Am. Water Works Assoc. , ^_7:1-15 (1935).

460.   Streeter,  H. W. , "Limiting Standards of Bacterial Quality  for
       Sources of Purified Water  Supplies, " J. Am.  Water Works
       Assoc., 27;:1110-1120  (1935).

461.   Streeter,  H. W. , "Standards of Stream  Sanitation," Water  and
       Sewage, ^4:61-68 (1946).


                               219

-------
462.    Streeter, H. W. , "Bacterial-Quality Objectives for the Ohio
        River.  A Guide for the evaluation of sanitary condition of
        waters used for potable supplies and recreational uses, "  Ohio
        River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, Cincinnati, 26 pp.
        (1951).

463.    Strobel, G. A. , "Coliform-Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Tidal
        "Waters,11!. San. Eng. Div. , Proc.  Am. Soc.  Civil Eng. ,
        ^4:SA4)641-656 (1968).

464.    Taylor,  F. B. , J. H. Eagen,  H.  F. D.  Smith, and R.  F.  Coene,
        "The Case for  Water-Borne Infectious Hepatitis," Am. J. Pub.
        Health, _56_:2093-2100  (1966); Water Poll. Abst. (Brit.) 41:150
        (1968).

465.    Taylor-Robinson, D. ,  "Para-Influenza and Virus Infections in
        Adult Volunteers,"  J.  Hyg. Camb. , i6j_:407-417 (1963).

466.    Thompson, S. ,  "The Number of Bacilli Harboured by Enteric
        Carriers," J.  Hyg.,  Camb.,  52:67-70 (1954).

467.    Thompson, S. ,  "The Number of Pathogenic Bacilli in Intestinal
        Diseases," J.  Hyg.,  Camb., _53_:217-224 (1955).

468.    Tomkin, R.  B. , H.  H. Weiser,  and G. W.  Malaney, "Salmonella
        and Shigella in Untreated Pond Water, "  J. Am. Water  Works
        Assoc., _55_:592-596 (1963).

469.    Tonney, F. O. , and R.  E.  Noble,  "Colon-Aerogenes Types of
        Bacteria as Criteria of Fecal Pollution, " J. Am. Water Works
        Assoc., 24_:1267-1272 (1932).

470.    Tonney, F. O. , and R.  E.  Noble,  "The Relation of Direct
        Bacterial Coli  and Bacterial Aerogenes Counts to Sources of
        Pollution," J.  Am.  Water  Works Assoc., ji2_:488-495  (1930).

471.    Toomey,  J.  A., W. S. Takas, and H. M.  Weaver,  "Isolation
        of Poliomyelitis Virus from Creek Water by Direct Trans-
        mission to the  Cotton  Rat, " Am.  J.  Dis. Child.,  70;293-302
        (1945).

472.    U. S.  Dept. Health,  Education,  & Welfare, Bureau of State
        Services, National Water Quality Network Annual Compilation
        of Data Oct. 1,  1957-Sept.  30,  1958.

473.    U.S.  Public Health Service, "Diseases of Animal Origin or
        Common to Man and Animals in the United States, "  USPHS,
        U.S.  Dept. HEW, Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta,
        Georgia,  11 pp.  (1963).

474.    Vaccaro, R. F. ,  M. P. Briggs, C.  L. Carey, and B.  H.
        Ketchum,  "Viability of Escherichia Coli in Sea Water,  " Amer.
        J. Pub. Health, 40:1257-1265  (1950).


                               220

-------
475.    van der Holden, J. , and  E.  Szenberg, "Leptospira Infections in
        Rats in Israel, "  Trop. Geoz. Med. ,  l6_:371-384 (1965).

476.    van der Schaaf, A. , and J. C. Atteveld, "Frequency of
        Salmonellae in Effluents of Modern Plants  for Sewage Treat-
        ment and Possibilities for Improvement, "  J.  Microbiol. and
        Serology (Neth. ),  3J_:221  (1965) (ex. McKee, 1963).

477.    van Oye, E. ,  ed. , The World Problem of Salmonellosis, Mono-
        graphic Biological (den Haag) (1964).

478.    Van Donsel, D. J. , E. E. Geldreich, and N.  A. Clarke,
        "Seasonal Variations in Survival of Indicator Bacteria in Soil
        and Their Contribution to Storm-Water Pollution," Appl.
        Microbiol., J_5:1362-1370 (1967).

479-    Vaughan, R. D. and G. L.  Harlow,  "Report on Pollution of the
        Detroit River, Michigan, Waters of Lake Erie, and Their
        Tributaries,"  U. S. Dept. Health,  Educ. and Welfare,  Div.
        Water Supply  and Poll. Cont. , Washington, B.C. (1965).

480.    Veldee, M. V. , "An Epidemiological Study of Suspected Water-
        borne  Gastroenteritis," Am. J. Pub.Health,  ,21_:1227-1235  (1931).

481.    Verduin, J. ,  "Primary Production in Lakes, " Limnology and
        Oceanography, J_:85-91 (1956).

482.    Verhoestraete, L. J.  , and R. R. Puffer,  "Diarrheal Disease
        with Special Reference to the Americas,"  Bull.  Wld. Hlth.  Org. ,
        19:23-51, (1958).

483.    Viswanathan,  R. ,  et al. , "Infectious Hepatitis in Delhi (1955-56):
        A Critical Study, " Ind.  J. Med. Res., ;45_: January,  1957 Supple-
        mentary number.

484.    Walker, K. D. , M. B. Goette, and G.  S.  Batchelor, "Dichloro-
        diphenyltrichlorethane and Dichlorodiphenyldichlorethylene  Con-
        tent of Prepared Meals, " J. Agric. Food Chem. , 2^1034-1037
        (1954).

485.    Wallace,  C. ,  and J.  L. Melnick,  "Detection  of Viruses in
        Large Volumes of Natural Waters by Concentration on Insoluble
        Polyelectrolytes, " Water Res. 4:787-796 (1970).

486.    Wallace,  E.  C. ,  "Infectious Hepatitis:  Report of an Outbreak,
        Apparently Waterborne," Med. J. Australia, 45_:101-102 (1958).

487.    Walton, G.,  "Survey  of Literature Relating to Infant Methemoglobi-
        nemia due to Nitrate-Contaminated Water," Amer. J. Pub. Hlth.,
        4Jj986-96  (1951).

488.    Wang, W.  L. L. ,  S.  G.  Dunlop,  and P. S. Munson, "Factors
        Inflencing the Survival of Shigella in Wastewater and Irrigation
        Water," J. Water Poll.  Cont.  Fed.,  3^:1775-1781 (1966).

                                221

-------
489.   Weber,  G. , "Salmonella in Water, " Zentr. Bakteriol. , 163:312
       (1957).  Reported in J. Am. Water Works Assoc. ,  50:68 (P&R)
       June 1958, taken from Water Pollution Abstracts.

490.   Wedman,  E.  E. , "Epidemiology--A Prerequisite to the Eradi-
       cation of Animal Disease, " J. Amer.  Vet. Med. Assoc. ,  147:
       1550-5 (1965).

491.   Weibel, S. R., R. J. Anderson, and R.  L. Woodward,  "Urban
       Land Runoff as a Factor  in Stream Pollution, " J. Water Poll.
       Cont.  Fed.,  3^:914-924  (1964) (W64-23).

492.   Weibel, S. R. , F. R. Dixon,  R. B. Weidner,  and L. J. McCabe,
       "Water-Borne Disease Outbreaks, 1946-60," J. Amer. Water
       Works Assoc., _5_6:947-58 (1964).

493.   Weibel, S. R., R. B. Weidner, A. G. Christiansen,  and  R.  J.
       Anderson, "Characterization,  Treatment, and Disposal of Urban
       Stormwater, " 3rd Int. Conf.  on Water Poll. Res. ,  Munich, pp.
       1-15 (1966).

494.   Werner, S.  B. ,  P.  H. Jones,  W. M.  McCormack, E. A. Ager,
       and P. T. Holme, "Gastroenteritis Following  Ingestion of Sewage-
       Polluted Water, " Am. J. Epidemiol., 82_:277-285 (1969).

495.   Weston, A.  D. ,  and G. P. Edwards,  "Pollution of  Boston Harbor, "
       Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil Engrs. , j65_:383-390 (1939).

496.   Whatley,  T.  R. , G.  W.  Comstock, H. J.  Garber,  and F. S.
       Sanchez,  Jr. , "A Waterborne Outbreak  of Infectious Hepatitis
       in a Small Maryland Town, " Am. J.  Epidem. , 7:138-151 (1968).

497.   Wiesner Report,  "Use of Pesticides, " U.S. Govt.  Printing
       Office (LC63-61540) PR  35. 8:ScI 2/P43, May  15, 1963 (1963).

498.   Wiley, J. S. , "Pathogen Survival in Composting Municipal Wastes,'
       J. Water  Poll. Cont. Fed., ,34:80-90 (1962).

499.   Wiley, J. S., T. D. Y.  Chin,  C. M.  Gravelle,  "Enterovirus in
       Sewage During a Poliomyelitis Epidemic, " J. Water Poll. Cont.
       Fed., 34:168-178 (1962).

500.   Wilson, W. J.,  1928; 1933; 1938, "Studies on Enteric Bacteria
       in Sewage and Water, " cited by Kabler,  et al. ,  1961.

501.   Wolff, J.  W. , "The Relation of Animal  Hosts  of Parasitic Lepto-
       spires in the Netherlands with Human Leptosoirosis,1I Trop.
       Geog. Med., _U2-8 (1965).

502.   Wolfe, H. R.,  W. F.  Durham, K. C. Walker, and J. F.
       Armstrong,  "Health Hazards of Discarded Pesticide  Containers,"
       Arch. Environ.  Hlth., 3:45-51 (1961).
                                222

-------
5G3.   Woodward, R. L. , "Significance of Pesticides in Water Supplies.
       J. Am Water Works Assoc. , 52:1367-1372 (I960).

504.   Woodward, R. L. , "Review of the Relation of Water Quality and
       Simple Goiter,11  J. Amer.  Water Works Assoc. , 55;887-896
       (1963).

505.   Wang, W., and D. J.  Brabec,  "Nature of Turbidity in the Illinois
       River,"  J. Amer.  Water Works Assoc.  (Sept),  460-464 (1969).

506.   Yeary,  R. A. , "Public Health Significance of Chemical Residues
       in Foods," J. Am. Vet. Assoc., _149:145-150 (1966).

507.   Zapp, J. A. , Jr. , "The Toxicologic Evaluation of  Low-Level
       Long Term Exposure  of Pesticides in Man, " In Research in
       Pesticides, Academic Press,  Inc. , New York,  pp.  305-313
       (1965).

508.   ZoBell,  C. E. , "The  Occurrence of Coliform Bacteria in Ocenic
       Water,"!. Bact. , 42:284-292(1941).
                                 223

-------
B.    BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PESTICIDES AND OILS
                      224

-------
                           BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.     Adlung, K. G. ,  "The Toxicity of Insecticidal and Acaricidal
      Agents to Fish, " Naturwissenschaften,  44_:471 (1957).

2.     Akhmedov, B. K. ,  and V. B. Danilov,  ''Morphological, Patho-
      logical, and Histochemical Changes in the Organs of Rats During
      Long-Term Exposure to Metaphos and Carbophos  (Malathion)
      Vapors," Med.  Zhur. Uzbek,  17:8; C.  A.  71:69633s.

3.     Aldridge, W. N. ,  Biochem.  J.  53:110,  in O'Brien, Insecticides,
      p.  71 (1953).

4.     Aldridge, W. N. ,  Biochem.  J.  53:117; in O'Brien, Insecticides,
      p.  71 (1953).

5.     Andrews, G.  C. , and A.  N.  Domonkos, Diseases of jthe Skin,
      W.  B. Saunders Co. 69-75 (I960).

6.     Anon. , "Toxic Effects of Benzene Hexachloride  and its Principal
      Isomers," Amer. Med. Assoc.  147:571 (1951);  in McKee,
      Wajter^Quality Criteria,  p. 360.

7.     Anon. , "Outlines of Information on Pesticides, Part 1, Agricul-
      tural Fungicides,"  J.  Amer. Med.  Assoc. 157:237 (1955); in
      Water Quality Criteria,  p. 389.

8.     Anon. , "Sacramento River Water Pollution Survey, " Appendix B.
      Water Quality Bui.  No.  Ill, Calif.  Dept.  of Water Resources,
      p.  87 (1962).

9.     Anon., "Pace Quickens for DDT Restrictions, "  Chem. Eng.
      News, 48(4):32-3 (1970).

10.   Anon., "HEW,  USDA Hold Firm; 2, 4-D Ruling  Postponed, "
      Chem. Eng. News 48(7):11-12 (1970).

11.   Anon. , Report of the Committee on Water Quality Criteria,
      Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,  234 pp (1968).

12.   Anon., "Methoxychlor Carcinogenic,11 Food-Drug-Cosmetic Law
      Jour. , J_3:4-6 (1958).

13.   Anon. , "Vietnam Defoliant Seen Causing Birth Defects," London
      Sunday Times,  quoted by Los Angeles Times, Nov.  30 (1969).

14.   Anon. , "Bacterial-Quality Objectives for the Ohio River, "  Ohio
      River Valley Water  Sanitation Commission (1951).
                              225

-------
15.   Anon., ''Monitoring Agricultural Pesticide Residues, 1965-1967.
     A final Report on Soil, Crops,  Water, Sediment, and Wildlife in
     Six Study Areas, " Agricultural Research Service.  U.S.D.A. ,
     ARS 81-32,  (1969).

16.   Anon. , "Pesticides and Public Health, " Pesticides Program,
     National Communicable Disease Center, Publ.  Health Service,
     U. S.  Dept.  Health, Educ. Welf.  16 pp. (1967).

17.   Anon. , "Water Quality Criteria,1' Report of the National Tech-
     nical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Interior, 234
     pp. (1968).

18.   Anon., "Pa rathion Poisoning, " J. Amer. Med. Assoc. ,  171:2126
     (1959).

19.   Anon. , "Pesticide Levels Low in West Coast Fish, "  Chem.  &
     Eng.  News,  42:71 (1964).

20.   Anon. , "Pesticide Residue Problems Probed, " Chem.  & Eng.
     News, 4^:32-33 (1964).

21.   Antommaria, P.,  "Airborne Particulates in Pittsburgh: Asso-
     ciation with  p,  p'-DDT," Science, 150:1476-77 (1965).

22.   Antonyuk, O. K. ,  "Some Data From a Primary Toxicological
     Study of the  Herbicides  Dachal and Zectran, "  Gig. Toksikol.
     Pestits. Klin. Otravlenii (4):244-5 (1966); C. A. 69;42940m.

23.   Ariens, A. Th. ,  E. M.  Cohen, E. Meeter, and O. L. Wolthuis,
     "Reversible Necrosis in Striated Muscle Fibers of the Rat After
     Severe Intoxication with Various Cholinesterase Inhibitors, "
     Ind. Med. Surg. ,  37:845-7 (1968).  C.  A. 70:85817q.

24.   Arterberry, J. D. , R.  W. Binifaci,  E. W. Nash, and G. E.
     Quinby, "Potentiation of Phosphorus Insecticides by Pheno-
     thiazine Derivatives, " J. Amer.  Med. Assoc., 185:110-112.
      185:110-12 (1962).

25.    Bailey,  T. E. , and J. R. Hannum,  "Distribution of Pesticides
     in California, " J. San. Engr.  Division, 3:27-43 (1967).

26.    Ball,  W. L. ,  J. W.  Sinclair, M. Crevier, and K. Kay,  "Modi-
      fication of Parathion's Toxicity for Rats by Pretreatment with
      Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides, " Can. J. Biochem.
     Physiol. , _32_:440-445 (1954).

27.    Bann, J. M. ,  T. J.  Decino, N.  W.  Earle, and Y. P. Sun,
      J. Agr. Food Chem. , _4:937; in O1 Brien, Insecticides,  p. 140
      (1958).

28.    Baroni, C. , G. J. von  Esch, and U. Saffioti,  "Carcinogenesis
      Tests of Two Inorganic Arsenicals, " Arch. Environ. Health,
      _7:668-73 (1963).

                               226

-------
29.    Baylor, C. H. ,  and N. K. Weaver, "A Health. Survey of Petro-
      leum Asphalt Workers, " Arch.  Environ. Health, _1_7:210-14 (1968).

30.    Beard, R.  L. , J.  Econ. Entom. ,  42_:292; in O'Brien, Insecti-
      cides,  p.  149  (1949).

31.    Bengelsdorf, I., "DDT Turns Body's Guardians Into Indiscrimi-
      nate Killers,11 Los Angeles Times,  Dec.  4,  (1969).

32.    Berlin, M. , L.  G. Jerksell, and H. von  Ubisch, "Uptake and
      Retention of Mercury in the Mouse Brain,"  Arch. Environ.
      Health, 12:33-42 (1966).

33.    Biden-Steele,  K. ,  and R. E. Stuckey, Lancet p.  235 (August 17,
      1946).

34.    Bingham, E. , and H. L.  Falk,  "Environmental Carcinogens.
      The Modifying Effect of Cocarcinogens on the Threshold
      Response," Arch. Environ. Health, _lJ?:779-83  (1969).

35.    Bingham, E. , A.  "W. Horton, and R. Tye, "The Carcinogenic
      Potency of Certain Oils, 11  Arch. Environ. Health, 19:449-51
      (1965).

36.    Bland, W. F.  , and R. L. Davidson, Petroleum Processing Hand-
      book, McGraw-Hill, New York  (1967).

37.    Bloom, S. C.  , and S.  E.  Degler, "Pesticides and Pollution, "
      Environmental Management Series, Bureau of National Affairs
      (1969).

38.    Bogusz,  M. ,  "Activity of Certain Enzyme Systems in Agricul-
      tural Workers Exposed to Organophosphorus Insecticides," Pol.
      Tyg. Lek. ^3_:786-9; C. A. 70:27974c (1968).

39.    Boyd,  E. M. , and C. J. Krijnen, "Toxicity of  Captan and Protein
      Deficient Diet, " J.  Clin.  Pharmacol. J. New Drugs, 8:225-34;
      C.  A.  69:26259r (1968).

40.    Breed, A. W. ,  and J. J.  Lichty, "DDT  and Dieldrin in Rivers;
      AReport of the National Quality Network,"  Science, 14:899-90
      (1963).

41.    Breidenbach,  A. W. ,  "Pesticide Residues in Air and Water, "
      Arch.  Environ.  Health, _Hh827-30 (1965).

42.    Breidenbach,  A. W. ,  and J. J. Lichtenberg, "DDT and Dieldrin
      in Rivers: A  Report of the National Water Quality Network, "
      Science, _14J_:899-901 (1963).

43.    Brooks,  G. T. , Nature,  186:96;  in O'Brien, Insecticides, p.  141
      (1960).
                              227

-------
44.   Brooks, G. T.,  and A.  Harrison, Biochem. Pharmacol. , 13;827;
      in O'Brien, Insecticides, p. 144 (1964).

45.   Brooks, G. T. ,  A.  Harrison, and G. T. Cox,  Nature, 197;311;
      in O'Brien, Insecticides, p. 143-4(1963).

46.   Brown, A. W.A.  , Insect Control By Chemicals, Wiley, New York
      (1951).

47.   Bulla, C. D.,  III, and E.  Edgerley, Jr., "Photochemical Degra-
      dation of Refractory Organic Compounds, "  Jour.  Water Pollution
      Control Federation, 4(3:546-56 (1968).

48.   Campbell, J.  E. , L. A. Richardson, and M.  L. Schafter, "Insec-
      ticide Residues in the Human Diet, " Arch.  Environ. Health,
      Hh831-6 (1965).

49.   Candura,  F, , "Pathogenesis of Poisoning by Industrial Solvents
      (With Special Regard to  Benzene), " Ann. Med.  (Milan), 12:112-6;
      C. A. 6jh79953u (1968).

50.   Case, R.  A. M.  , "Toxic Effects  of 2, 2-bis(p-Chlorphenyl)
      1, 1, 1, -Trichlorethane (DDT) in Man, "  Brit. Med. J. ,  842-845
      (Dec.  15, 1945).

51.   Casida, J. E. ,  and  K.  B.  Augustinsson, Biochem.  Biophys.  Acta. ,
      _36:411; in O'Brien,  Insecticides, p. 97 (1959).

52.   Casida, J. E.,  K.  B. Augustinsson, and G.  Johnson, J.  Econ.
      Entomol. , _53_:205; in O'Brien,  Insecticides,  p.  97 (I960).

53.   Ceretoo,  F. ,  and A. M. Cosseddu,  "Prolonged Administration of
      Parathion to Lactating Sheep.   I.  Cholinesterase Activity, Hema-
      tocrit Value, and Histopathological Picture  of Treated Animals, "
      Vet. Ital. , 2:3-31; C. A. J71_:59154x (1969).

54.   Chang, S.  C. ,  and C. W.  Kearns, J. Econ.  Entom. , _57_:397; in
      O'Brien, Insecticides, p.  171  (1964).

55.   Chernov,  O. V. , and I.  I. Khitsenko, "Blastomogenic Properties
      of Some Derivatives of Dithiocarbamic Acid (Herbicides, Zineb
      and Ziram), Vop. Oncol. , j_5:71-4; C. A. 71:21105u (1969).

56.   Chin,  Y. , and C, Tant,  "The Effect of DDT on Cutaneous Sensa-
      tions in Man, " Science,  103:654 (1946).

57.   Cleveland, F.  P.,  "Summary of Work on Aldrin and Dieldrin
      Toxicity at the Kettering Laboratory," Arch.  Environ. Health,
      ^3:195-8 (1966).

58.   Cohen, J. M., L. J. Kamphake,  A. E. L/emke,  C. Henderson,
      and R.  L..  Woodward, "Effect of Fish Poisons on Water Supplies.
      Parti. Removal of  Toxic Materials,"  Jour. Amer. Water Wks.
      Ass.  52^1551 (I960).

                             228

-------
59.   Cohen, J. M. ,  G. M.  Rourke, and R.  L.  Woodward, "Effect of
      Fish Poisons on Water Supples.  II.  Odor Problems, " Jour.
      Amer. Water Wks. Ass.,  53:49-62  (1961).

60.   Cohen, J. M. ,  and C. Pinkerton, "Widespread Translocation of
      Pesticides by Air Transport and Rainout, " Adv.  in Chemistry
      Series No. 60,  ACS (1966).

61.   Cohen, A.  J. ,  and J.  N.  Smith,  Nature, 189:600; in O'Brien,
      Insecticides, p. 140-1  (1961).

62.   Cueto, C. , andJ.H.U. Brown, "Chemical Fractionationation of
      Adrenocorticolytic Drug," Endocrinology, J^2_:326-333 (1958).

63.   Cueto, C. , J. H.U. Brown, and A. P.  Richardson, Jr., "Biolog-
      ical Studies of Adrenocorticolytic Agent and Isolation of Active
      Components,"  Endocrinology, 62:334-9 (1958).

64.   Curley, A. ,  M. F. Copeland,  and R. D. Kimbrough, "Chlori-
      nated Hydrocarbon Insecticides in Organs of Stillborn and  Blood
      of Newborn Babies, " Arch.  Environ. Health,  JL_9_:628 (1969).

65.   Curley, A. ,  and L. K. Garretson, "Acute Chlordane Poisoning.
      Clinical and  Chemical Studies,"  Arch. Environ.  Health,  18;211-15
      (1969).                                                 ~~

66.   Czerkinski, S.  N. ,  Protection of Surface Waters From Pollution
      by Industrial Waste Waters.  Lit. Ber. Wass. Abwass. Luft.
      Boden, -4:98; in McKee, Water Quality Criteria p. 368 (1955).

67.   Dale, W.  E.  , M.  F.  Copland, and W.  J.  Hayes, Jr. , "Chlorinated
      Insecticides in  the Body Fat of People  in India, "  Bull.  World
      Health Organ.,  33:471  (1965).

68.   Dale, W.  E.  , T.  B. Gaines,  and W. J. Hayes,  Jr. ,  and G. W.
      Pearce,  "Poisoning by DDT: Relation Between Clinical Signs and
      Concentration in Rat Brain," Science,  142:1474-6 (1963).

69.   Dale, W.  E.  , and G. E. Quinby,  "Chlorinated Insecticides in the
      Body Fat of People in  the United States, " Science, 142:593-5
      (1963).

70,   Dangerfield,  W.  G. , "Toxicity of DDT to Man, "  Brit. Med. J.
      p. 27 (Jan. 5, 1946).

71.   Davies, J. E. ,  W. F.  Edmundson,  N. J. Schneider, and
      J. C, Cassady, "Pesticides in People, " Pest. Monit. J. ,
      _2:80-85 (1968).

72.   Davis, J. E. ,  J.  H. Davis,  D. E. Frazier, J. B. Mann,  and
      J. C. Welke, "Urinary p-Nitrophenol Concentrations in Acute
      and Chronic  Parathion Exposures, "  Organic Pesticides in the
      Environment, Advances in Chemistry Series,  American Chem-
      ical Society, ^Ch67-78  (1966).


                               229

-------
73.   Davis, K. J. ,  and O. G. Fitzhugh, "Tumorigenic Potential of
      Aldrin and Dieldrin for Mice, " Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. ,
      4:187-9 (1962).

74.   Dean, E.  L. ,  "Progress Report on Water Quality Criteria,"
      Jour. Amer. Water Wks.  Ass., _54:1313-35 (1962).

75.   Denes, A. ,  "Problems of Food Chemistry Concerning Residues
      of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, " Naehrung, _6_:48 (1962).

76.   Dinman,  B.  D. ,  "Acute Combined Toxicity Due to DDVP and
      Chlordane," Arch. Environ. Health, _9:765-69 (1964).

77.   DuBois, K. P. ,  "Insecticides, Rodenticides, Herbicides, House-
      hold Hazards, " Postgrad. Med. , _24_:278 (1958).

78.   DuBois, K. P. ,  "Low-Level Organophosphate Residues in the
      Diet," Arch. Environ. Health, _1C):837-41  (1965).

79.   Duggan, R.  E. ,  H. C. Barry, and L. Y.  Johnson, "Pesticide
      Residues in  Total-Diet Samples,1' Science, 151:101-4 (1966).

80.   Duggan, R.  E. ,  and G.  Q. Lipscomb,  "Dietary Intake of Pesti-
      cide Chemicals in the United States (II) June 1966-April 1968,"
      Pest.  Monit. J., 2:153-162 (1969).

81.   Dunstan, A.  E. , A.  W. Nash, B.  T. Brooks,  and H. Tizard,
      eds.   The Science of Petroleum,  Oxford Univ. Press, London,
      v. 2,  935-1057 (1938).

82.   Durham, W. F. , "Pesticide Exposure Levels in Man and
      Animals, " Arch. Environ. Health, _Hh842-6 (1965).

83.   Durham, W. F. , "Physiological Effects of Pesticide Use, "
      Jour.  Amer. Water Wks.  Ass., 7:1311-18 (1965).

84.   Durham, W. F. , J.  F,  Armstrong,  and G. E. Quinby,  "DDT
      and DDE Content of Complete Prepared Meals, " Arch. Environ.
      Health, _H:641-7 (1965),

85.   Durham, W. F., "Pesticide Residues in Foods in Relation to
      Human Health, "  Residue Reviews, 4^:34-81 (1963).

86.   Durham, W. F. , J.  F.  Armstrong,  and G. E. Quinby,  "DDA
      Excretion Levels, " Arch. Environ.  Health, J_l_:76-79 (1965).

87.   Durham, W. F., J.  F,  Armstrong,  W. M. Upholt,  and
      C. Heller, "Insecticide Content of Diet and Body Fat of
      Alaskan Natives,11 Science,  134:1880 (1961).
                             230

-------
88.   Dutkiewicz, T. , and H.  Tyras, "Skin Absorption of Toluene,
      Xylene, and Styrene by Man, " Brit.  Jour. Ind. Med. , 25:243;
      C.A. ^9.:79980a (1968).

89.   Earle, N. W. , J.  Agr. Food Chem. ,  11:281; in O'Brien,
      Insecticides, p. 141 (1963).

90.   Edmundson, W. F. , and J. E. Davies,  "Occupational Dermatitis
      From Naled, " Arch. Environ. Health, _1^:89-91 (1967).

91.   Edson, E.  F. , "The Effects of Prolonged Administration of Small
      Daily Doses of Parathion in the Rat,  Pig and Man,"  Report -
      Fisons Pest Control Ltd. (1957); Cited in Hays Annal N. Y.  Acad.
      Sc. ,  160 (1969).

92.   Edson, E.  F. , et  al. , "No-Effect Levels of Three Organophosphates
      in the Rat, Pig and Man, "  Food Cosmet. Toxicol. , 2^:311-316 (1964).

93.   Ellis, E. ,  Chemistry of Petroleum Derivatives, " Reinhold Pub.
      Co. , New York (1934).

94.   Emerson, T.  E.,  G. M. Brake, and L.  B. Hinshaw,  Can.  J.
      Physiol.  Pharmacol. , 42_:41; in O'Brien,  Insecticides, p.  137

95.   Epstein,  E. , and W. J.  Grant, "Chlorinated Insecticides in Run-
      Off Water as Affected by Crop Rotation, " Soil Sci.  Soc.  Amer.
      Proc. , 32:423-6; C.A.  _6j}:43013y (1968).

96.   Falk, H. L. ,  S. J.  Thompson, and P. Kotin,  "Carcinogenic
      Potential of Pesticides, " Arch. Environ.  Health, J_0:847-58 (1965).

97.   Faust, S. D. , "Pollution of the Water Environment by Organic
      Pesticides," Clinical Pharmacoloty and Therapeutics, 5:677 (1964).

98.   Faust, S. D. , and O. M. Aly, "Water Pollution by Organic Pesti-
      cides, " Jour.  Amer. Water  Wks. Ass.,  6;267-79 (1964).

99.   Fisher, A., Contact Dermatitis, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia
      (1967).      	

100.  Fitzhugh, O. G. ,  and A. A.  Nelson,  "Chronic Oral Toxicity of
      DDT," J. Pharmacol. Exp.  Therap. , 89,:18-30 (1947).

101.  Frawley,  J. P., R. Weir, T. Tusing, K. P. DuBois, and J.  C.
      Calandra, "Toxicologic Investigations on Delnav, " Toxic. Appl.
      Pharmacol., 5^:605-624 (1963).

102.  Fukushima, M., "Histopathological Effects of Naphthalene  on
      Rabbit Spleen," Showa Igakkai Zasshi, 28:144-51; C.A.  69:75292e
      (1968).                                                 ~~
                               231

-------
103.    Funckes, A.  J. , G.  R. Hayes,  Jr.,  and W. V. Hartwell,
       "Urinary Excretion of Paranitrophenol by Volunteers Following
       Dermal Exposure to Parathion at Different Ambient Tempera-
       tures, " Ag. and Food Chem. ,  _l_^:455-457 (1963).

104.    Gage, S. D. , "The Control of Oil Pollution in Rhode Island, "
       Jour. Boston Soc.  Civil Eng.  , jLh237(1924); in J. E.  McKee,
       Water Quality Criteria, p. 232  (1963).

105.    Ganelin, R. S. ,  C. Cueto, and G. A. Mail, "Exposure to
       Parathion,1' Jour.  Am. Med.  Ass., JJS8_:807-10 (1964).

106.    Ganelin, R. S. ,  G. A. Mail,  and C.. Cueto, Jr. ,  "Hazards
       of Equipment Contaminated With Parathion, " Arch. Environ.
       Health,  8^:826-28 (1964).

107.    Gatrilevskaya,  L.  N. , V.  P.  Laskina, and E. V.  Faidysh,
       "Experimental Basis for the Permissible Concentration of Sevin
       in Reservoir "Waters, " Prom. Zagryazneniya Vodoemov (8):33-45;
       C.A. jL9:34978q  (1967).

108.    Gerarde, H.  W. , "Toxicological Studies on Hydrocarbons.  IX.
       The Aspiration Hazard and Toxicity of Hydrocarbons and Hydro-
       carbon Mixtures, "  Arch.  Environ.  Health, _6:329-41 (1963).

109.    Gianotti, O. , R. L.  Metcalf,  and R. B.  March, Ann. Entomol.
       Soc.  Am., 42:588; in O'Brien,  Insecticides,  p.  139  (1956).

110.    Glauser, S. C. , E. M. Glauser, and B.  F. Rusy, "Influence of
       Gas Density and Viscosity on  the Work of Breathing, " Arch.
       Environ. Health, JJ?:654-60 (1969).

111.    Gleason, M.  N., R. E. Gosselin, H. C. Hodge,  and R. P.  Smith,
       Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products,  Williams and
       Wilkins, Baltimore (1969).

112.    Goldblatt, M. W. ,  "Organic Phosphorus Insecticides and the
       Antidotal Action of Atropine, " Pharm.  J. ,  164:229-233 (1950).

113.    Gol'dshtein, N.  I., "Normalization of Saifos (Menazon) in Reser-
       voirs, " Gig. Toksikol. Pestits. Klin.  Otravleni No.  4_:298-9;
       C.A. 9:51l63n (1966).

114.    Goldwater, L. J., M. B.  Jacobs, and A. C. Ladd,  "Absorption
       and Excretion of Mercury in Man, I.  Relationship of Mercury in
       Blood and Urine, " Arch.  Environ. Health,  4:537-41 (1962).

115.    Goldwater, L. J. , M. B.  Jacobs, and A. G. Ladd,  "Absorption
       and Excretion of Mercury in Man.  IV. Tolerance to Mercury, "
       Arch. Environ.  Health,  7:568-73 (1963).
                               232

-------
116.   Goldwater,  L.  J. and M. M. Joselow,  1'Absorption and Excre-
       tion of Mercury in Man.  XIII.   Effects of Mercury Exposure on
       Urinary Excretion of coproporphyrin and Delta-Aminolevulimic
       Acid,11 Arch. Environ.  Health,  15:327-31 (1967).

117.   Gold-water,  L.  J. , A. C. Ladd, and M. B. Jocobs, 1lAbsorption
       and Excretion of Mercury in Man.  VII.  Significance of Mercury
       in Blood," Arch. Environ.  Health, W35-41  (1964).

118.   Goldwater,  L.  J. , and A. Nicolau, "Absorption and Excretion
       of Mercury in Man.   IX.  Persistence of Mercury in Blood and
       Urine Following Cessation of Exposure," Arch.  Environ. Health,
       J.2:196-8 (1966).

119.   Gontea, I., N. Nicolau, and E. Bistriceanu,  "Influence of Chronic
       Toluene Poisoning on Vitamin C in the  Rat, "  Igiena,  17(2)65-8;
       C.A. j69:75281a (1968).

120.   Good,  E.  E., and G. W. "Ware, "Effects of Insecticides on Re-
       production in the Laboratory Mouse. IV. Endrin and Dieldrin, "
       Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. , _14_:201-3; C.A.  ^70:86554p (1969).

121.   Gowdey, C. W., A. R.  Graham,  J. J. Seguin, and G. W.
       Stavraky, Can.  J. Biochem. Physiol., _32_:498; in O'Brien,
       Insecticides, p. 136-7  (1954).

122.   Gowdey, C. W. , A. R.  Graham,  J. J. Seguin, G.  W. Stavraky,
       and R.  A.  Waud, Can.  J. Med. Sci. ,  30:533; in O'Brien,
       Insecticides, p. 136-7  (1952).

123.   Gowdey, C. W, , and G. "W.  Stavraky,  Can. J. Biochem. Physiol.
       _33_:272; in O'Brien,  Insecticides,  p. 136-7 (1955).

124.   Green, R. S. ,  C. G. Gunnerson, and J.  J.  Lichtenberg, "Pesti-
       cides in Our National Waters," Publ. Amer. Ass. Advan. Sci.
       85:137-56; C.A. J70:31501p (1967).

125.   Grob,  D. , and A. M. Harvey, "Observations of the Effect of
       Tetraethyl Pyrophosphate (TEPP) in Man and on its Use in the
       Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis, " Bull.  Hopkins Hosp. ,  84:532-
       567 (1949).

126.   Gunther,  F. A., W. E. Westlake,'and P. S. Jaglan, "Reported
       Solubilities of  738 Pesticide Chemicals in Water," Residue Rev.
       2:(1968).

127.   Halpern,  L. K., W. E. Wooldridge, and R.  S. Weiss, "Appraisal
       of the  Toxicity of the Gamma Isomer of Hexachlorocyclohexane in
       Clinical Usage, " Arch. Derm, and Syph. , 62^:648-650 (1950).

128.   Hanlon, J.  J. ,  "Letters to the Editor, "  Arch. Environ.  Health,
       12:676  (1966).
                               233

-------
129.    Hapke, H.  J. , "Toxicology of the Herbicide Simazine, " Berlin
       Muenchen Tierarztl. Wochenschr. ,  8_l_:301-3; C.A. 69:85621a
       (1968).

130.    Harris, P. L. ,  "Prolonged Ingestion of Liquid  Petrolatum, " J.
       Am. Med.  Ass., _18J:1041 (1964).

131.    Hartwell, W. V.,  G.  R. Hayes,  Jr., and A. J. Funckes,
       "Respiratory Exposure to Volunteers of Parathion, " Arch.
       Environ. Health, 8^:820-25 (1964).

132.    Hathaway,  D.  E. , "The Biochemistry of Dieldrin and Telodrin,"
       Arch. Environ.  Health, JJ_:380-8 (1965).

133.    Hayes, G.  R. , A. J.  Funckes, and  W.  V. Hartwell, "Dermal
       Exposure of Human Volunteers to Parathion, " Arch.  Environ.
       Health, j3:829-33 (1964).

134.    Hayes, "W.  J. ,  Jr.,  "Occurrence of Poisoning  by Pesticides, "
       Arch. Environ.  Health, 9^:621-5  (1964).

135.    Hayes, W.  J. ,  Jr. ,  "Review of the  Metabolism of Chlorinated
       Hydrocarbon Insecticides Especially in Mammals, " Ann.  Rev.
       Pharmacol., _5:27 (1965).

136.    Hayes, W.  J. ,  Jr.,  "Monitoring Food  and People  for Pesticide
       Content, "  Scientific Aspects of Pest Control, Publ. No. 1402
       National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council,  314-
       342 (1966).

137.    Hayes, "W.  J. ,  Jr.,  "Sweden Bans  DDT," Arch. Environ.
       Health, Jji:872 (1969).

138.    Hayes, "W.  J.,  Jr.,  W. E.  Dale, and R. L. LeBreton,  "Storage
       of Insecticides in French People, "  Nature,  199:1189-91 (1963).

139.    Haves. W.  J. ,  Jr.,  W. F.  Durham, and C. Cueto, "Effects of
       Known Repeated Oral Doses of Chlorophenothane (DDT) in Man,"
       J. Amer. Med.  Assoc. , ^62:890-7  (1956).

140.    Hayes, W.  J.,  Jr. ,  and C. I. Pirkle,  "Mortality From Pesti-
       cides in 1961,"  Arch. Environ.  Health, _L2:42-55 (1966).

141.    Hayes, W.  J. ,  Jr.,  G. E. Quinby,  K.  C. Walker, J. W.  Elliot,
       and W. M.  Upholt, "Storage of DDT and DDE in People With
       Different Degrees of Exposure to DDT," A.M.A. Arch. Ind.
       Health, JjJ:398-406 (1958).

142.    Hayes, W. J. ,  Jr.,  "Pesticides and Human Toxicity, "  Annal.
       N. Y. Acad. Sci., j_6_CI:40-51 (1969).

143.    Hayes, W. J. ,  Jr. ,  "Toxicity of Pesticides to  Man: Risks From
       Present Levels," Proc. Roy. Soc.  London, 1676:101-127 (1967),
                               234

-------
144.    Hill,  K.  R. , and G. Robinson,  "A Total Case of DDT Poisoning
       in a Child,"  Brit. Med. J. 845-846 (Dec.  15,  1945).

145.    Hodges,  R. E. , "The Toxicity of Pesticides and Their Residues
       in Food,"  Nutrition Reviews, 2_3:225  (1965).

146.    Hoffman, W. S. , W. I.  Fishbein,  and M. B. Andelman,  "The
       Pesticide Content of Human Fat Tissue," Arch.  Environ. Health,
             94 (1964).
147.   Hoffman, W.  S. , W. I.  Fishbein,  and M. B. Andelman,  "Pesti-
       cide Storage in Human Fat Tissue," J.  Am. Med.  Assoc. ,  188:
       819 (1964).

148.   Hoffman, W.  S. , H.  Adler, W. I.  Fishbein, and F. C.  Bauer,
       "Relation of Pesticide Concentration in  Fat to Pathological
       Changes in  Tissues," Arch.  Environ. Health,  L5_:758-765 (1967).

149.   Holden,  A.  V.,  "A Study of the Absorption of 14C-Labeled DDT
       From Water by  Fish," Ann.  Appl. Biol. , _50:467-477 (1962).

150.   Holmberg,  R. E. ,  and V. H. Ferm,  "Interrelationships of
       Selenium, Cadmium, and Arsenic  in Mammalian Teratogenesis, "
       Arch. Environ.  Health,  J_8:873 (1969).

151.   Hoogendam, I, J.P. J. Versteeg,  and M. de Vlieger,  "Nine
       Years' Toxicity Control in Insecticide Plants," Arch. Environ.
       Health, JJh441-48 (1965).

152.   Hoover,  A.  W. , and L.  J. Goldwater,  "Absorption and  Excre-
       tion of Mercury in Man.  X.  Dental Amalgams as  a Source of
       Urinary  Mercury, " Arch.  Environ. Health, JL2:506-8 (1966).

153.   Hruban,  Z.  , S.  Schulman, N. E.  Warner, K.  P. DuBois,
       S. Bunnag,  and  S.  C. Bunnag,  "Hypoglycemia  Resulting From
       Insecticide  Poisoning, "  J. Am. Med. Assoc.,  184:590-2  (1963).

154.   Hsieh, H. C. , "DDT Intoxication in a Family of Southern
       Taiwan," Indust. Hyg. Occup.  Med., J_0:344-346 (1954).

155.   Hucker,  H.  B. , J. R. Gillette, and B.  B. Brodie,  J. Pharmacol.
       Expt. Therap. ,  129:94;  in  O'Brien, Insecticides, p. 155 (I960).

156.   Hunter,  C.  G. ,  "Allowable Human Body Concentrations of
       Organochlorine  Pesticides, " Med. Lav., _5_9_:577-83; C.A. 71:
       21158p (1968).

157.   Hunter,  C.  G. ,  and J. Robertson,  "Pha r ma co dynamics of
       Dieldrin (HEOD).   I.  Ingestion by Human Subjects for 18
       Months," Arch. Environ,  Health,  15:14-26 (1967).
                              235

-------
158.    Hunter, G. G., J. Robinson, and K. W. Jager, "Aldrin and
       Dieldrin.  The Safety of Present Exposures of the General
       Populations of the United Kingdom and the United States, " Food
       Cosmetol. Toxicol. , JS:781-7; C.A. 69.:9907h (1967).

159.    Hunter, C. G., J. Robinson, and M.  Roberts,  "Pharmacodyna-
       mics of Dieldrin (HEOD).  II.  Ingestion by Human Subjects for
       18-24 Months and Post-Exposure for Eight Months,1( Arch.
       Environ. Health,  18:12-21 (1969).

160.    Hutterer,  F. , F. M. Klion, A. Wengraf, F. Schaffner, and
       H. Popper, "Hepatocellular Adaptation and Injury.  Structural
       and Biochemical Changes Following Dieldrin and Methyl Butter
       Yellow,"  Lab. Invest., 2,0:455-64; C.A. J70:114135y (1969).

161.    luchi, I.,  Bull. Yamaguchi Med.  School, _6:1; in O'Brien,
       Insecticides,  p.  66 (1958).

162.    Ivanova-Chemishanka,  L. , G. Dimova, N. Mosheva-Izmirova,
       M. Sheitanov, "Changes in Thyroid Gland After a Month of  In-
       toxication with Zineb, " Khig. Zdraveopazvane, J_l_:555-9; C.A.
       JH_:48654j  (1968).

163.    Jaakmes,  V., "Experimental Data for the  Hygienic  Basis of
       Permissible  Concentrations of Gasoline Produced From Shale
       Oil," Tr. Tsent. Inst.  Usoversh. Vrachei, 103;23-7; C.A. 69:
       69521n (1967).

164.    Jacobs, M. B. ,  and L. J. Goldwater, "Absorption and Excre-
       tion of Mercury in Man. VIII.  Mercury Exposure From House
       Paint- A Controlled Study on Humans," Arch. Environ.  Health,
       _U:582-7 (1965).

165.    Jacobs, M. B. ,  A. C.  Ladd, and  L.  J.  Goldwater,  "Absorption
       and Excretion of Mercury in Man.  III.  Blood  Mercury in Rela-
       tion to Duration of Exposure," Arch.  Environ. Health, 6^634-7
       (1963).

166.    Jacobs, M. B. ,  A. C.   Ladd, and  L.  J.  Goldwater,  "Absorption
       and Excretion of Mercury in Man.  VI.  Significance of Mercury
       in Urine," Arch. Environ. Health, j>:455-63 (1964).

167.    Johnston,  J.  M.  , "Parathion Poisoning in Children, "  J.  Pediat. ,
       42:286-291 (1953).

168.    Jones, A. T. , and E.  O.  Longley, "Mercury Exposure in a
       Jewelry Molding Process, " Arch. Environ.  Health, 13:769-75
       (1966).

169.    Joselow, M.  M., and L. J. Goldwater,  "Absorption and Excre-
       tion  of Mercury  in Man. XII. Relation Between Urinary Mercury
       and Proteinuria, " Arch. Environ. Health, _L5:155~8 (1967).


                              236

-------
170.   Joselow, M. M. , L.  J. Goldwater, A.  Alvarez, and J. Herndon,
       "Absorption and Excretion of Mercury in Man.  XV.  Occupa-
       tional Exposure Among Dentists, " Arch.  Environ. Health,  17:
       39-43 (1968).

171.   Joselow, M. M. , R.  Ruiz, and L. J. Goldwater,  "Absorption
       and Excretion of Mercury in Man. XIV.  Salivary Excretion of
       Mercury and its Relation to Blood and  Urine Mercury, " Arch.
       Environ. Health, 17:35-7  (1968).

172.   Judah, J. D. , Brit. J. Pharmacol. , 4:120; in O'Brien, Insecti-
       cides, p.  125 (1949).             '

173.   Kanagaratnam, K. , W. H. Boon, and T. K. Hoh, "Parathion
       Poisoning From Contaminated Barley," Lancet J_: 538 -542 (I960).

174.   Kailin,  E.  W. , "Pesticide Storage: How Much Change? " J. Am.
       Med. Assoc. , _19J_:188 (1965).

175.   Kashin, L.  M. , I.  L. Kulinskaya, and L. F.  Mikhailovskaya,
       "Changes in Animals Under the Influence of Small Concentrations
       of Xylene," Vrach. Delo (8):109-12; C.A. ^9:85107n (1968).

176.   Katz, M. ,  et al. , "Biology: A Review of the Literature of 1964.
       Waste Water and Water Pollution Control," J. Water Poll. Contr.
       Fed., T7:899-905  (1965).

177.   Kay,  J. H. , R.  J.  Palozzolo, and J. C. Calondra, "Subacute
       Dermal Toxicity of 2,4-D. "  Arch. Environ.  Health, 11;648-51
       (1965).

178.   Kay,  K. ,  "Effect of Pesticides on Enzyme Systems in Mammals.
       Organic Pesticides in the  Environment," Advances in  Chemistry
       Series, American Chem.  Society, 60:54-66 (1966).

179.   Keane,  W.  T. , Jr.,  and M. R. Zavon, "Validity of a  Critical
       Blood Level for Prevention of Dieldrin Intoxication, "  Arch.
       Environ. Health, J_9:36-44; C.A.  J71_:59115k (1969).

180.   Khokhol'kova, G. A., and A. G.  Pestova, "Accumulation and
       Distribution of Diptal (Trichloroallyl Diisopropylthiocarbamate)
       in Rats Following Inge stion," Vrach.  Delo 99-102; C.A. 71;
       59941b (1969).

181.   Kleinman,  G. D. ,  I. West, and M. S.  Augustine, "Health Hazards
       of Pesticides, "  J.  Amer. Med. Assoc.,  181:332-33 (1962).

182.   Klimmer,  O. R. , "Application of Organotin Fungicides in Agri-
       culture With Regard to Toxicity, " Pflanzenschutzberichte,
       37(4-6):57-66; C.A. ^9:18227p (1968).
183.   Koch,  R.t B. , "Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides: Inhibition
       of Rabbit Brain ATPase Activities, "  J. Neurochem. , jj>;269-71;
       C.A. 70:76733g (1969).

                              237

-------
184.    Kojima, K. ,  and R.  D. O'Brien, Unpublished Observations; in
       O'Brien, Insecticides, p. 71, (1966).

185.    Kossick, P., "Paraffin Poisoning, " S. Africa Med. J. , 35:112;
       in J. Amer. Med.  Assoc. ,  176:462 (1961).

186.    Krueger, H.  R. , and R. D. O'Brien,  J. Econ.  Entom. ,  52:1063;
       in O'Brien, Insecticides, p.  74-5 (1959).

187.    Kunkle, S.  H. , and J. R. Meiman, 11Water Quality of Mountain
       "Watersheds, " Colorado State University Hydrology Paper No.
       21:53 (1967).

188.    Kurbat, N. M. , 1'Effect of Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates on the
       Blood and Hematopoietic Organs of Animals,11 Zdravookhr.
       Beloruss., 2^:49-51; C.A.  71:48683t (1968).

189.    Kutakov, K. V. , "Comparative Sanitational-Toxicological
       Features of Thiophosphoric Acid Esters in Connection with
       Water Reservoir Sanitation,11 Gig. Sanit. , _33_(12):13-18; C.A.
       70:70915w (1968).

190,    Ladd, A. C., L. J.  Goldwater, and M. B. Jacobs, "Absorption
       and Excretion of Mercury in Man.  V.  Toxicity of Phenylmer-
       curials," Arch. Environ.  Health, 9:43-52 (1964).

191.    Laguna, W. D. , "Chemical Quality of Water, Brookhaven
       National Laboratory and Vicinity New York, " U. S. Geological
       Survey Bulletin 1156-D, Washington,  U.S. Govt. Printing  Office,
       73 (1964).

192.    Lai, P., and F. Virdis, "Prolonged Administration of Pa rathi on
       to Lactating Sheep.  II.  Lambs and Dogs  Fed Milk and Meat of
       Treated Sheep, " Vet. Ital. ,  20(1-2):32-47; C.A. 7J^:59155y (1969).

193.    Laug, E. P., F. M.  Kunze, and C. S. Prickett, "Occurrence of
       DDT In Human Fat and Milk, " A.M. A.  Arch. Ind. Hygiene,
       3:245-6 (1951).

194.    Laug, E. P., A. A. Nelson,  O. G.  Fitzhugh, and F.  M. Kunze,
       "Liver Cell Alteration and DDT Storage in the Fat of the Rat
       Induced by Dietary Levels of  1 to 50 ppm DDT,"  J. Pharmacol.
       Exper.  Therap., 98:268 (1950).

195.    Laws, E.  R., Jr., A.  Curley,  and F. J.  Biros, 1tMen With
       Intensive Occupational Exposure to DDT," Arch. Environ.
       Health, J_5:766-65  (1967).

196.    Lazutka, F. A. , A.  Vasilauskene, and Sh. G. Gefen, "Toxi-
       cological Evaluation of the Insecticide, Nicotine Sulfate,11  Gig.
       Sanit.,  34:30-3; C.A. 71:21151f (1969).
                             238

-------
197.   Leeling, N. C. ,  and J. E.  Casida, J.  Agr. Food Chem. ,  14:281;
       in O'Brien, Insecticides, p. 99 (1966).

198.   Lehker, G. E. , "Dictionary of Insecticides and Their Uses,11
       Modern Sanitation and Building Maintenance, _n)(3):13 (1958).

199.   Lehman, A.  J. ,  "A Toxicological Evaluation of Household
       Insecticides, " Assn. Food Drug Offic. ,  U. S. , Quarterly Bull. ,
       18:3 (1954).

200.   Lejhancova, M. , "Damage to Skin by Mineral Oils," Prac.  Lek. ,
             l64-8; C.A. 9:29928u (1968).
201.   Lichtenstein, E. P., "Persistence and Behavior of Pesticidal
       Residues in Soils.  Their Translocation Into Crops," Arch.
       Environ.  Health, _Hh825-6 (1965).

202.   Lichtenstein, E. P. , K. R.  Schulz, R. F. Skrentny, and Y.
       Tsukano, "Toxicity and Fate of Insecticide Residues in Water, "
       Arch.  Environ. Health, J^:199-212 (1966).

203.   Liebenow, W. ,  E.  Weber, and B. Schmidt,  "Attempted Suicide
       With Metiram, a Fungicide Similar to Antabuse, " Muenchen.
       Med. Wochenschr. , _L10:1238-41; C.A. /?:26250c (1968).

204.   Lindahl, P.  E. ,  and K. E. Oberg,  Exptl. Cell. Res.,  23:228;
       in O'Brien Insecticides, p. 162 (1961).

205.   Loiselle, D. W. , "The Use  of Chemical Weed Killers on Public
       Water Supply Watersheds, "  Jour. New Engl. Water Wks. Ass.
       ^7:140 (1953).

206.   Lutz-Ostertag,  Y.  , R. Meiniel, and H.  Lutz,  "Effect of Para-
       thion on the Development of Quail Embryos, " Compt.  Rend.
       Acad.  Sci. ,  Paris  Ser. D, ^68:2911-13; C.A. J7J_:48625a (1969).

207.   Mackenthun, K. M. , W. M. Ingram, and R. Porges,  "Limno-
       logical Aspects of Recreational Lakes, " Publ. Health Service
       Publ. No. 1167, 176 pp (1964).

208.   Maier-Bode, H. , "DDT in Body Fat of Humans, " Med. Exp. ,
       j_:146 (I960).

209.   Main,  A. R. , "The Role  of A-Esterase in the Acute Toxicity of
       Paraoxon, TEPP,  and Parathion, "  Can.  J.  Biochem. Physiol.
       ^34:197-216 (1956).

210.   Mamyan, D,  B. , "Primary  Toxicological Characteristics of
       the Herbicide Diuron, " Zh.  Eksp.  Klin. Med., 8^4):46-50;
       C.A. J70:114073b (1968).

211.   Manigold, D. B. ,  and  J.  A. Schulze,  "Pesticides in Water, "
       Pest. Monit. J. , 3_:124-135 (1969).


                              239

-------
212.   Mattson, A. M. , and V. A. Sedlak, "Measurement of Insecti-
       cide Exposure, "  J. Agric.  Food Chem. , 8^:107-110 (I960).

213.   Matsumura, F. ,  and C. T. "Ward, "Degradation of Insecticides
       by the Human and Rat Liver,1f Arch.  Environ. Health,  13:257-
       61 (1966).                                             

214.   McKee, J. E. , "Report on Oily Substances and Their Effects on
       the Beneficial Uses of Water," Pub. 16, State Water Pollution
       Control Board, Sacramento, California (1956).

215.   McKee, J. E. , and H.  W. Wolf, "Water Quality Criteria, "
       Calif. State Water Qual. Control Board Publ.  No.  3-A (1963).

216.   McKennis, H., L. B. Turnbull,  and E. R. Bowman,  J. Amer.
       Chem. Soc. , 8j_:3951; in O'Brien,  Insecticides,  p. 155  (1959).

217.   Menusan, H. , J. Econ. Entom. ,  41:302; in O'Brien,  Insecti-
       cides, p.  149 (1948).

218.   Mezentzeva,  N. V.,  "Zinc Diisopropyl Dithiocarbamate,"
       Toksikol. Nov. Khim.  Veshchestv,, Vnedryaemkh. Rezin.
       Shinnuyu Prom., 127-31:C.A. 71:48676t (1968).

219.   Middleton, F. M. , and J.  J.  Lichtenberg, "Measurements of
       Organic Contaminants in the Nation's  Rivers," Ind. Eng.  Chem.
       ^2_:99A-102A (I960).

220.   Mikhailov, N. E., "Experimental Basis for Permissible Con-
       centrations of Monuron and Diuron in  Reservoir Waters, "
       Prom. Zagryazneniya Vodoemov (8):72-4; C.A.  69:18215h
       (1967).

221.   Milby, T.  H.,  and W.  L. Epstein, "Allergic  Contact Sensitivity
       to Malathion,"  Arch. Environ.  Health, 9:434-7  (1964).

222.   Milby, T.  H.,  F. Ottoboni, and H. W. Mitchell, "Parathion
       Residue Poisoning Among Orchard Workers, " J. Am. Med.
       Assoc.,  ^82:351-356 (1964).
                         I
223.   Miller, C. W. , W.  E.  Tomlinson, and R. L. Norgren, "Per-
       sistence of Parathion in Irrigation Waters," Pest. Monit.  J. ,
       J_:47-48 (1967).

224.   Mitchell, L. E. , "Pesticides: Properties and Prognosis.
       Organic Pesticides in the Environment, "  Advances in Chemistry
       Series, Am. Chem. Soc., 60:1-22 (1966).

225.   Mkhitarian, A. M., Izv. an.  arm. SSR ser. tekn. nauk. 16
       No.  4.  23-21.  Monthly Index Russ. Ace.  16  1964. No. 10.
       3108 (1963).
                                 240

-------
226.   Moeller,  H. C., and J.  A. Rider, "Studies on the Anti-
       cholinest erase Effect of Parathion and Methyl Parathion in
       Humans,11 Fed. Proc.,  20:434 (1961).

227.   Moeller,  H. C.,  and J.  A.  Rider,  "Threshold of Incipient
       Toxicity of Systax and Methyl Parathion,11 Fed. Proc. ,
       22_:189 (1962).

228.   Moore, E.  W., Water and its Relation to Disease,  Ghap. 28,
       pp. 809-910.

229.   Morgan,  D. P.,  and C.  C. Roan, "Renal Function in Persons
       Occupationally Exposed  to Pesticides, " Arch. Environ.  Health
       _12:633-6  (1969).

230.   Murphy,  S. D., and K.  L.  Cheever, "Effect of Feeding Insecti-
       cides, " Arch.  Environ.  Health,  17:749-58; C.A. 70:10583b
       (1968).                          ~~              ~~

231.   Nabb, D. P., W.  J. Stein, and W. J. Hayes, "Rate of Skin
       Absorption of Parathion and Paraoxon, " Arch. Environ.
       Health, J^:501 (1966).

232.   Nakatsugawa, T. , N. M. Tolman, and P. A. Dahm, "Degra-
       dation of  Parathion in the Rat, "  Biochem.  Pharmacol. ,  18;
       1103-14;  C.A.  J4:21147j (1969).

233.   Narahashi, T.  , J.  Cellular COmp. Physiol.,  59:61; in O'Brien,
       Insecticides, p. 168-9 (1962).

234.   Neal, P.  A.,  T. R.  Sweeney,  S. S.  Spicer,  and  von Oettinger,
       "The Excretion of DDT  2, 2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-l, 1, 1,
       trichloroethane  in Man Together with Clinical Observations, "
       Public Health Repts., <6l_:403'-409 (1946).

235.   Gochfield, M. , "Marine Contamination by Pesticides, " New
       England!,  of Med. , 28(3:899-900 (1969).

236.   Nicholson,  H.  P. ,  "Water  Contamination by Pesticides, "
       J. Southeast Sect.,  Amer.  Water Wks. Assoc., ^2_:8-20; C.A.
       69:109637p (1968).

237.   O'Brien,  R. D. , Insecticides.  Action and Metabolism, Aca-
       demic Press, New York, p. 108 (1967).

238.   O'Brien,  R. D. , Insecticides.  Action and Metabolism, Aca-
       demic Press, New York, p. 291-306 (1967).

239.   Olefir, A. I., and V. Kh. Vinogradova, "Embryotropic Effect
       of' the Pesticides Sevin and  Cyram, " Vrach.  Delo (ll):103-6;
       C.A.  ^0:19205n (1968).
                              241

-------
240.   Ortelee, M.  F. ,  "Study of Men with Prolonged Intensive Occu-
       pational Exposure to DDT,11 AMA Arch.  Industr. Health, 18:433-
       40 (1958).

241.   Ottoboni, A. , "Effect of DDT on Reproduction in the Rat, "
       Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. , _14:78-81; C.A. 70;86553n (1969).

242.   Pallade, S., C. Popovici,  G. Rotaru, E.  Gabrielescu,  and
       M.  Dorobantu, "Action of Aldrin on Liver, " Med. Lav.,
       59^:346-56; C.A. ^70:19192f (1968).

243.   Pelikan, Z. , K. Halacka, M. Polster, and E. Cerny, "Long-
       Term Poisoning in the Rat From Small Doese of Heptachlor,1I
       Arch.  Belg.  Med.  Soc. Hyg. Med.  Leg., ,2_6:529-38; C.A.
       JH_:2474x (1968).

244.   Perron, R. C. , and B. F. Barrentine, "Human Serum DDT
       Concentration Related to DDT Exposure, " Arch. Environ.
       Health, ^0:368-376 (1970).

245.   Perry, A. S. , A. M.  Mattson, and A. J. Buckner,  J.  Econ.
       Entomol. , j>l_:346; in O'Brien, Insecticides, p.  140  (1958).

246.   Perry, A. S. , S.  Miller, and A. J. Buckner, J. Agr.  Food
       Chem. ,  J_l:457; in O'Brien, Insecticides, p. 129 (1963).

247.   Pestova, A.  G. ,  "Toxicity of Diptal and Avadex (Diallate), "
       Gig. Toksikol. Pestits.  Lkin. Otravlenii (4):H>6-9;  C.A.
       7:2642e (1966).

248.   Peterson,  J. E. ,  and W.  H.  Robinson, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
       jb:321; in O'Brien,  Insecticides,  p.  126 (1964).

249.   Petty, C. S. , A. Hedmeg, W. H. Reinhart, E.  J. Moore,  and
       L. P.  Dunn, "Organic Phosphate Insecticides - A Survey of
       Blood Cholinesterase  Activity of Exposed Agricultural Workers
       in Louisiana 1957, "Am. J. Publ. Health, 42_:62-9 (1959).

250.   Pillsbury, D. M., W. B. Shelley,  and A.  M. Kligman,  Derma-
       tology, W. B.  Saunders Co., Philadelphia,  1277 (1957).

251.   Pinto, S. S.  , and B. M.  Bennett, "Effect of Arsenic Trioxide
       Exposure on Mortality, " Arch. Environ. Health, JT:583-91
       (1963).

252.   Polishuk,  Z.,  M. Wassermann, D. Wassermann, Y.  Groner,
       S. Lazarovici, and L. Tomatis, "Effect of Pregnancy on
       Storage of Organochlorine Insecticides, " Arch.  Environ.
       Health,  20:215-217 (1970).

253.   Popadopoulos, N. M.  , and J. A. Kiatzios,  J. Pharmacol.
       Exptl. Therap. ,  140:269; in O'Brien, Insecticides,  p.  155-6
       (1963).
                              242

-------
254.   Princi, F. , and G. H.  Spurbeck, "A Study of Workers Exposed
       to the Insecticides Chlordan,  Aldrin,  Dieldrin," Arch. Ind.
       Hyg. Occup. Med. ,  3:64-72 (1961).

255.   Przezdziecki,  Z. ,  J.  Bankowska,  W. Malewska, and T.  Janicka,
       "Subchronic Toxicity of Zineb, Maneb. and Captan, " Rocz.
       Panstw. Zakl.  Hig. ,  jJCh!33-40 (1969).

256.   Proklina-Kaminskaya,  T. L. , "Effect of Sevin and TMTD on
       the Activity of  Mitochondrial  Oxidative Enzymes,11 Farmakol.
       Toksikol.  (Kiev)  144-6; C.A. JH:69654z (1968).

257.   Proklina-Kaminskaya,  T. L. , 11Efect of Carbamates on  Tissue
       Respiration and the Activity of Cytochrome Oxidase  and Succi-
       nate Dehydrogenase in Rat Liver, " Farmakol.  Toksikol.  (Kiev)
       153-5; C.A. 7J^:69655a (1968).

258.   Quinby,  G. E.  , J.  F. Armstrong, and W. F. Durham, "DDT
       in Human Milk, " Nature 207:726-28 (1965).

259.   Quinby,  G. , and G.  B. Clappison, "Parathion Poisoning, "
       Arch.  Environ. Health .3:538-42 (1961).

260.   Quinby,  G. E.  , W. J.  Hayes, Jr. ; J. F. Armstrong,  and
       W. F. Durham, "DDT Storage in the U.S. Population,"
       J. Amer.  Med. Assoc. , J_9J_: 10 9 -13 (1965).

261.   Quinby,  G. E.  , and A. B.  Lemmon,  "Parathion Residues as a
       Cause of Poisoning in Crop Workers," J.A.M.A.  166:740-748
       (1958).

262.   Quinby,  G. E., W. J.  Hayes, J. F.  Armstrong, and W.  F.
       Durham,  "DDT Storage in the U. S. Population, " J.  Amer.
       Med. Assoc.,  _19J_:175-9  (1965).

263.   Quinby,  G. E.  , and G. M.  Doornink, "Tetraethyl Phrophosphate
       Poisoning  Following Airplace Dusting, " J. Amer. Med. Assoc. ,
       191:95-100.

264.   Read,  S. ,  and  W. P. McKinley, "DDT and DDE Content of
       Human Fat," Arch. Environ. Health, _3:209-11 (1961).

265.   Rider,  J.  A.,  H.  C.  Moeller, E.  J. Puletti, and J. I.  Swader,
       "Toxicity of Parathion, Systox,  Octamethylphosphoramide, and
       Methyl Parathion, "  Toxicol.  Appl. Pharmacol. , 14:603-11;
       C.A. JH:2517P (1969).

266.   Robeck, G. G. , K. A.  Dostal,  J.  M. Cohen, and J. F. Kreisel,
       "Effectiveness of Water Treatment Processes in Pesticide
       Removal," J.  Amer.  Water Wks.  Assn., 57:1729-32 (1959).
                              243

-------
267.   Robinson, J. , and C. G.  Hunter, "Organochlorine Insecticide
       Content of Human Adispose Tissue in Southeastern England, n
       Brit.  J.  Industr. Med.  22^:220-9 (1965).

268.   Robinson, J. , and C. G.  Hunter, "Organochlorine Insecticides:
       Concentration in Human Blood and Adipose Tissue,:1729-32 (1959).

270.   Rudd, R. L, , and R. E.  Genelly, "Pesticides:  Their Use and
       Toxicity in Relation to Wildlife, " Calif.  Dept. of Fish and Game,
       Game Bull.  No. 7; in McKee, J. E., Water Quality Criteria, p.
       362 (1956).

271.   Ryazanova,  R, A. ,  "Health Evaluation of Agricultural Products
       Treated  With Ziram and Zineb,11   Vop.  Gig. Pitan.  32-8; C. A.
       71:2469z (1967).

272.   Ryzhenko, S. M., "Toxicity of Tselatox  (Zelatox), " Gig.  Toksikol.
       Pestits.  Klin. Otravlenii (4):257-9; C.A. 9_:42942p (1966).

273.   Sartwell, P. E., Preventative Medicine  in Public Health,  9th ed.
       Appleton, Century,  Craft., 809-810(1965).

274.   Sax, N.  I. ,  Dangerous  Properties of Industrial Materials,
       Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York (1963).

275.   Seifert, P. ,  "Giftmord mit E-605 an Einem Sangling, " Arch.
       Toxikol., Jj>:80 (1954).

276.   Selby,  L. A. , K.  W. Newell, C. Waggenspack, G. A. Hauser,
       and G. Junker,  "Estimating Pesticide Exposure in Man as
       Related to Measurable Intake," Amer.  J. Epidem.,  89:241-253
       (1969).                                            ~~

277.   Shibley,  G.  J. ,  "Volatile Liquid Petroleum Distillates, " J. Amer.
       Med. Assoc., 186:93 (1963).

278.   Shugaev,  B.  B., "Concentrations of Hydrocarbons in Tissues as
       a Measure of Toxicity, "  Arch.  Environ. Health, 18:878-82;
       C.A. J71_:47776p (1969).

279.   Simmons, S. W. , "Living Labs That Study How Pesticides Affect
       Man," FDA Papers (5) 13-16 (1969).

280.   Smith, O. M. , "The Detection of Poisons in Public Water Supplies, "
       Water Wks. Eng.,  rj_:iz^3' Water Poll.  Abs. J, Jan. 1945 (1945).

281.   Smith, R. B. ,  Jr.,  "Safe Use of Pesticides in Food Production,"
       Arch. Environ.  Health,  9:634-8 (1964).
                                244

-------
282.   Springer, P.  F. ,   North Carolina Pesticide Manual,  North
       Carolina State College,  Raleigh, p. 87; in McKee,  Water
       Quality Criteria, p. 367 (1957).

283.   Stammers,  F. M.  G. ,  and F. G. S. Whitfield,  "The Toxicity
       of DDT to Man and Animals, " Bui. Entomol.  Rsch. , 38:1-73
       (1947).

284.   Stavinoha, W.  B. ,  J. A. Rieger, Jr. , L. C.  Ryan, and P. W.
       Smith,  "Effects of  Chronic Poisoning by an  Organophosphorus
       Cholinesterase Inhibitor on Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine
       Content of the Brain, "  Organic Pesticides in  the Environment,
       Advances in Chemistry  Series, Amer. Chem. Soc. , 60;79-88
       (1966).

285.   Stecher, P. G. ,  ed. ,  The Merck Index,  8th ed. , Merck and Co. ,
       Rahway, N. J. (1968).

286.   Stein, A. A., D. M. Serrone, and F.  Coulston, "Safety Evalua-
       tion of Methoxychlor in  Human Volunteers, " Toxic. Appl.
       Pharmacol. ,  7_:499 (1965).

287.   Sternburg, J. , and C. W. Kearns, "Presence of Toxins Other
       Than DDT in the Blood of DDT-Poisoned Roaches, " Science
       116:144 (1952).

288.   Stevenson, D.  E. ,  and A. I.  T.  Walker; "Hepatic  Lesions Pro-
       duced in Mice by Dieldrin and Other Hepatic Enzyme-Inducing
       Compounds," J. Eur. Toxicol. ,  2^83-4; C.A. 7Jh6896p (1969).

289.   Stoner, H. B. ,  Nature, 172:1044; in O/Brien, Insecticides,
       p. 297 (1953).

290.   Tanimura, T., T. Katsuya, and H. Nishimura, "Embryotoxicity
       of Acute Exposure  to Methyl  Parathion in Rats and Mice," Arch.
       Environ.  Health, 15:609-13 (1967).

291.   Tarrant,  K. R. , and J. O'G. Tatton, "Organochlorine Pesticides
       in Rainwater in the British Isles," Nature,  219:725-7 (1968).

292.   Taylor, F.  B. , "Significance of Trace Elements in Public,
       Finished Water Supplies, " J. Amer. Water Wks. Assoc. ,
       Jx5:6l9-23 (1963).

293.   Terada et al, "Arsenic  Poisoning From Water Pollution, "
       J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 181:803 (1962).

294.   Tinsley, I.  J. , "Interaction  of Dieldrin  with Thiamine, " Proc.
       Soc.  Exp. Biol. Med.,  ^22:463-5; C.A.  J70:27977 (1968).

295.   Tischler, N. , J. Econ. Entom. , ^8_:215; in O'Brien,  Insecticides,
       p.  161  (1936).
                                 245

-------
296.   Treon,  J.  F., and F. P. Cleveland, J. Agr. Food Chem. ,
       3.:402 (1955).

297.   Tzukamoto, M. , Botyu-Kagaku 24:141; in O'Brien, Insecticides,,
       p. 129 (1959).

298.   Van der Weij,  H.  G. , "Developments and Investigations in the
       Chemical Control of Aquatic Weeds in the Netherlands,"  Proc.
       Brit. Weed Contr. Conf.,  8th 1966,  3^835-41; C.A. jn_:29405n
       (1966).

299.   Van Horn,  W.  M. , "Possible Stream Pollutional Aspects of
       Mill Antiseptics, " Paper Trade Jour.  117:24,  33; in McKee,
       Water Quality Criteria,  p.  217 (1943).

300.   Van Horn,  W.  M. , and R. Balch,  TAPPI_38:151; C. A.  4_9_:7853;
       in McKee,  Water  Quality Criteria, p. 217 (1955).

301.   Villeneuve, D. C., G. Mulkins, K. A. McCully and W. P.
       McKinley,  "Inhibition of Beef Liver Hydrolytic Enzymes  by
       Organophosphorus Pesticides.  Comparison of the Effect of
       Several Pesticides and Their Oxons on the Inhibition Response, "
       Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. , 439-47; C. A.  70:85805j (1969).

302.   von Frank, A. J., "Where Are Water Quality Standards Heading?"
       Water and  Wastes Eng. , 6/5): 16-18.

303.   Vrochinskii, K. K. ,  S. S. Grebenyuk, and A. L.  Burshtein,
       "Contamination of Water Reservoirs With Pesticides, " Gig.
       Sanit. ,  33U l):69-72; C.A.  ^0:22783e (1968).

304.   Wade, L,. ,  "Observations  on Skin Cancer Among Refinery
       Workers," Arch. Environ. Health, 6:730-5 (1963).

305.   Warren, M. C., J. P. Conrad,  J. J. Bocian,  and M. Hayes,
       "Clothing-Borne Epidemic, " J.  Amer.  Med. Assoc. , 184:266-8
       (1963).

306.   Wasserman, M. ,  M. Gon,  D. Wasserman,  and L. Zellermayer,
       DDT and DDE in the Body  Fat of People in Israel,"  Arch. Environ.
       Health, _!Jh375-9 (1965).

307.   Weibel, S.  R. ,  R. B. Weidner,  J. M. Cohen,  and A.  G.
       Christiansen, "Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Rainfall
       and Runoff, " J. Amer. Water Wks.  Assoc., ^:1074-84  (1966).

308.   Weir, P. A. , and C. H. Hine,  "Effects of Various Metals on
       Behavior of Conditioned Goldfish, " Arch. Environ.  Health,
       2:45-51 (1970).

309,   Welch,  R.  M. , and J. M.  Coon, "Studies on the Effect of
       Chlorcyclizine and Other Drugs  on the Toxicity of Several
       Organophosphate Anticholinesterases, " J. Pharmacol.  Exptl.
       Therap. , ^43:192 (1964).

                               246

-------
310.   West,  I., ."Pesticides as Contaminants," Arch.  Environ.
       Health, 9.:626-33 (1964).

311.   West,  I., "Biological Effects of Pesticides in the Environment,
       Organic Pesticides in the Environment," Advances in Chemistry
       Series, Amer. Chem. Soc.,  60:47-53 (1966).

312.   Wheatley,  G. A. , and J. A. Hardman, "Indications of the Presence
       of Organochlorine Insecticides in Rainwater in Central England,"
       Nature, 207:486-7 (1965).

313.   Whitmore, F.  C. , Organic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. ,  Van Nostrand,
       New York (1951).
                                                 *
314.   Wigglesworth, V. B. , "A Case of DDT Poisoning in Man, " Brit.
       Med. J. p.  517 (April 14, 1945).

315.   Wolfe,  H.  R. , et al. , "Health Hazards of  Discarded Pesticide
       Containers," Arch. Environ. Health, 3^:45-51  (1961).

316.   Zamfir, Gh. , V.  Nastase,  M. Srainer,  S.  Freund, L. Alexa,
       S. Apostol, and N. Topala, Igiena _1_7:405-13; C.A.  71:21152g
       (1968).

317.   Zavon, M. R. ,  "Danger of Pesticides to the Liver," J.  Amer.
       Med. Assoc., j_9j_:419 (1965).

318.   Zavon, M. R. ,  C. H. Hine, and K.  D. Parker,  "Chlorinated
       Hydrocarbon Insecticides in the  Human Body Fat in the United
       States," J. Amer. Med. Assoc.,  193:837-9 (1966).
                              247

-------
     C.    BIBLIOGRAPHY OF STATE




RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY DOCUMENTS
                  248

-------
                            BIBLIOGRAPHY


1.    Anon.  Alaska State Plan Water Quality Standards.  Dept of Health
     and Welfare, 6-40 (1967).

2.    Anon.  Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters in Arizona,
     State Dept. of Health,  1-55(1968).

3.    Anon.  Water Quality Criteria.  Water Improvement Commission
     State of Alabama,  9-11 (1967).

4.    Anon.  Outdoor Bathing Places.  Arkansas State Board of Health,
     4 (1964).

5.    Anon.  Regulation No. 2.  State of Arkansas Pollution Control
      Commission, 1-7  (1967).

6.    Anon.  Laws and Regulations Relating to Ocean Water-Contact
      Sports Areas.  State of California Dept.  of Public Health,  176
      (1958).

7.    Anon,  Water Quality Standards for Colorado.  Colorado Dept. of
      Health, 4 (1968).

8.     Anon.  Water Quality Criteria.   Connecticut State Dept. of Health,
      2-4.

9.     Anon.  Water Quality Standards.  Delaware Water and Air Resources
      Commission State of Delaware, 1-33 (1968).

10.   Anon.   Basin Regulations  - Water Quality. Delaware River Basin
      Commission,  1-8 (1968).

11.   Anon.   Revised Water Quality Criteria and Uses.  District of
      Columbia, 1-4 (1968).

12.   Anon.   Rules of the  State Board of Health. Florida Sanitary Code,
      21-36.

13.   Anon.   Standards  of Water Quality for Water of the Territory of
      Guam.  Water Pollution Control Commission.  Territory of Guam,
      7-8 (1968).

14.   Anon.   Public Health Regulations.  Dept. of Health, State  of
      Hawaii, Chap.  37-A,  1-8  (1968).

15.   Anon.   Rules and Regulations for the Establishment of Standards
      of Water Quality. Idaho State Board of Health, 2-5 (1968).

16.   Anon.   Rules and Regulations for Standards of Water Quality for
      the Interstate Waters of Idaho.   Idaho State Board of Health,  1-9
      (1967).

                                249

-------
17.   Anon.  Implementation, Enforcement and Surveillance Plan.
      Idaho Department of Health (1967).

18.   Anon.  Rules and Regulations SWB-7-15.  "Water Quality Standards.
      Illinois Sanitary Water Board (1968).

19.   Anon.  Regulations SPC4-9.  Stream Pollution Control Board,
      State of Indiana (1967).

20.   Anon.  Regulations SPCIR, Water Quality Standards for Waters
      of Indiana.  Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board,  1-4 (1967).

21.   Anon.  Tri-State Compact for Pollution Abatement.  Interstate
      Sanitation Commission, 4-5 (1941).

22.   Anon.  River Basin Water Quality Criteria.  Kansas State Board
      of Health,  1-76 (1968).

23.   Anon.  Water Quality Standards for Interstate Waters.  Water
      Pollution Control Commission.   (1969).

24.   Anon.  Water Quality Criteria and Plan for Implementation.
      State of Louisiana, Louisiana Stream Control Commission,  7-85.
      (1968).

25.   Anon.  Rules and Regulations of the Department of Health and
      Welfare Relating to Swimming Pools and Bathing Beaches.  Dept.
      of Health and Welfare,  1-7.  (1956).

26.   Anon.  Water and Air Environmental Improvement Commission,
      Revised Statutes  of 1964.  3-48.  (1967).

27.   Anon.  Water Resources Regulation 4. 8.  State of Maryland Water
      Resources Commission and Dept. of Water Resources,  1-11.
      (1969).

28.   Anon.  Water Quality Standards.  Commonwealth of Massachusetts
      Water Resources Commission.  Division of Water Pollution Con-
      trol, 1-4.  (1967).

29.   Anon.  Summary of Comments  on the Corrections to the Proposed
      Water Quality Criteria and Plans for Implementation for Michigan
      Waters.  State  of Michigan Water Resources Commission, 25-41.
      (1967).

30.   Anon.  Water Quality Standards for Michigan Waters.  State of
      Michigan Water Resources Commission, Dept.  of Conservation,
      6-21.   (1967).

31.   Anon.  Water Quality Standards for Michigan Intrastate Waters.
      Michigan Water Resources Commission, Dept.  of Conservation,
      18-21.   (1968).
                              250

-------
32.    Anon.   State of Mississippi Water Quality Criteria for Inter-
       state and Coastal Waters.  Mississippi Air & Water Pollution
       Control Commission, 1-5.(1968).

33.    Anon.   State of Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Act.
       Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control  Commission.  8-9.
       (1966).

34.    Anon.   A Guide for the Design and Operation of Public Bathing
       Places.  Dept. of Public Health and Welfare  of Missouri,  Division
       of Health, 11. (1967).

35.    Anon.   Lower Mississippi River Basin, Southwest Lower
       Mississippi Water Quality Standards. Missouri Water Pollution
       Board.  (1968).

36.    Anon.   Upper Mississippi River Basin,  Southwest Lower
       Mississippi Water Quality Standards. Missouri Water Pollution
       Board.  (1968).

37.    Anon.   Upper Mississippi Water Quality Standards.  Missouri
       Water Pollution  Board.  (1968).

38.    Anon.   Salt River and Tributaries,  Mississippi River Tributaries
       and Des Moines  River,  Water Quality River.  Missouri  Water
       Pollution Board.   (1968).

39.    Anon.  White River Basin Southwest - Lower Mississippi  Water
       Quality Standards.  Missouri Water Pollution Board.  (1968).

40.    Anon.  Grand (Neosho) River Basin Southwest  - Lower
       Mississippi Water  Quality Standards.  Missouri Water Pollution
        Board.   (1968).

41.    Anon.  Missouri River Basin, Water Quality Standards.
       Missouri Water  Pollution Board.   (1968).

42.    Anon.  Osage-Gasconade River Basin, Missouri River Basin
        Water Quality Standards.  Missouri Water Pollution Board.  (1968).

43.    Anon.  Grand-Chariton River Basin, Missouri River Basin Water
       Quality Standards.  Missouri Water Pollution Board. (1968).

44.    Anon.  Minor Missouri River Tributaries Water Quality Standards.
       Missouri Water Pollution Board.   (1968).

45.    Anon.  Big Blue  River Water Quality Standards.   Missouri Water
       Pollution Board.  (1968).

46.    Anon.  Water Quality Criteira.  State of Montana Water Pollution
        Control Council, 1-11.  (1967).
                                 251

-------
47.    Anon.  Water Pollution Control Act.  State of Nebraska Chap. 71,
       Article 30,  Statutes of Nebraska.  (1967).

48.    Anon.  "Water Quality Standards.  Water Pollution Control
       Council, 3-11.  (1969).

49.    Anon.  Water Pollution Control Regulations.  Bureau of Environ-
       mental Health, 13-61.  (1967).

50.    Anon.  State of New Hampshire, Laws Relating to the Water
       Supply and Pollution Control Commission.  Water Supply and
       Pollution Control Commission.

51.    Anon.  Rules and Regulations Establishing Classifications to be
       Assigned to the Waters of This State and Standards of Quality to
       be Maintained in Waters so Classified.   New Jersey  State Dept.
       of Health.   (1967).

52.    Anon.  New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission Ammend-
       ments  to the Water Quality Standards.  Water Quality Control
       Commission, 1-5.   (1968).

53.    Anon.  Water Quality  Standards.  New Mexico Water Quality
       Control Commission.   (1967).

54.    Anon.  Classifications and Standards of Quality and Purity for
       Waters of New York State. New York State  Dept. of Health,
       506-507.  (1968).

55.    Anon.  Classifications and Water Quality Standards Applicable to
       the Surface Waters of North Carolina.  Dept. of Water and Air
       Resources,  10-11.

56.    Anon.  Water Quality  Standards for Surface  Waters of North
       Dakota.  North Dakota State Dept. of Health.  (1967).

57.    Anon.  ORSANCO Nineteenth Yearbook. Ohio River  Valley Water
       Sanitation Commission, 12-29.  (1967).

58.    Anon.  Bacterial-Quality Objectives for the  Ohio Rover.  Ohio
       River  Valley Sanitation Commission, 21-26.  (1951).

59.    Anon.  Oklahoma's Water Quality Standards.  Oklahoma Water
       Resources Board.  (1968).
                  )
60.    Anon.  Oklahoma Public Bathing Place Interpretive Code.
       Environmental Health Services, State Dept.  of Health.  (1965).

61.    Anon.  Standards for Public Water Supply Facilities.  Environ-
       mental Health Services, State Dept. of Health,  Oklahoma.  (1964).

62.    Anon.  Rules of the Georgia Water Quality Control Board.  Water
       Quality Control Board, 15-23.  (1965).

                               252

-------
63.    Anon.  Georgia Water Quality Control Act.  Water Quality Con-
       trol Board.  (1966).

64.    Anon.  Fourth Annual Progress Report - 1968.  Georgia Water
       Quality Control Board.  (1968).

65.    Anon.  Iowa Water Pollution Control Law.  Iowa Water Pollution
       Control Commission.  (1966).

66.    Anon.  Water Pollution Control Progress Report.  Iowa Water
       Pollution Control Commission.   (1968).

67.    Anon.  Water Quality Criteria and Plan for Implementation and
       Enforcement for the Surface Waters of Iowa.  Water Pollution
       Control Commission,  9-15.  (1967).

68.    Anon.  Oregon Administrative Rules, CH 334.  State Sanitary
       Authority,  1-29.  (1967).

69.    Anon.  Act No. 142,  Water Pollution Control Act.   Dept.  of
       Health, Puerto Rico.  (1950).

70.    Anon.  Sanitary Regulations No. 127,  128, 129,  131.  Dept.  of
       Health, Puerto Rico.  (1967).

71.    Anon.  Water  Classification - Standards System for the State of
       South Caroline.  South Carolina Pollution Control Authority,
        1-8.  (1967).

72.    Anon.  Classes and Standards for Tidal Salt  Waters.  South
        Caroline Pollution Control Authority,  1-3.  (1967).

73.    Anon.  Water  Quality Standards for the Surface Waters  of South
        Dakota.  South Dakota Committee on Water Pollution, 1-28.
        (1967).

74.    Anon.  General Water Quality Criteria for the Definition and
        Control of Pollution in the Waters of Tennessee.  Tennessee
        Stream Pollution Control Board,  4-5.   (1967).

75.    Anon.  Regulations Governing the Construction,  Operation and
       Maintenance of Organized Camps in Tennessee.  Tennessee Dept.
        of Public Health, 6-7.   (1966).

76.    Anon.  The State of  Texas Water Quality Requirements,  Vol.  1,
        Inland Waters.  Texas Water Quality Board.  (1967).

77.    Anon.  The State of  Texas Water Quality Requirements,  Vol.  2,
        Coastal Waters.  Texas Water  Quality Board.  (1967).

78.    Anon.  Code of Waste Disposal Regulations - Part II - Standards
        of Quality for  Waters of the State.  Utah Water Pollution Control
        Board,  1-12.   (1968).

                                  253

-------
79.    Anon.   Chap. 7 - Water Pollution Control.   Water Quality
       Standards for Coastal Waters of the Virgin Islands.  Office of
       the Commissioner of Health.  (1968).

80.    Anon.   Water Use Classes,  Standards of Quality and Technical
       Guidelines for Intrastate Waters.  State of  Vermont Dept.  of
       Water Resources.  (1967).

81.    Anon.   General Policy,  Water Use Classes and Standards  of
       Quality for Intrastate Waters.  State of Vermont Dept.  of Water
       Resources.  (1967).

82.    Anon.   A Regulation Relating to Water Quality Standards for
       Interstate and Coastal Waters of the State of Washington.  Water
       Pollution Control Commission,  1-7.  (1967),

83.    Anon.   Information Bulletin Public Hearings on Proposed Water
       Quality Standards for Intrastate Waters.  Washington State
       Water Pollution Control Commission.  State of Washington.  (1969).

84.    Anon.   A Proposed Regulation Relating to Water Quality Standards
       for Interstate Waters.  Water Pollution Control Commission,
       State of Washington, 3-8.  (1969).

85.    Anon.   State of West Virginia Administrative Regulations, Water
       Quality Criteria on Inter- and Intrastate Streams.  Division of
       Water Resources, 12-55.  (1965).

86.    Anon.   Implementation Plan for West Virginia Water Quality
       Standards.  Division of Water Resources.  (p968).

87.    Anon.   Wisconsin Water Quality Standards. Resource  Develop-
       ment Board,  1-3.   (1968).

88.    Anon.   Minnesota Administrative Rules and Regulations,  WPC
       1-21.  Minnesota Pollution Control  Agency. (1968).

89.    Anon.   Water Quality Standards for Interstate Waters in
       Wyoming.  Wyoming Dept. of Health, 5-14.  (1968).

90.    Barker, Blaine B. Water Pollution  Control Section.  South
       Dakota Department of Health.  Personal Communication.  (1969).

91.    Boardman, Richard M.   Pennsylvania Department of Health.
       Division of Water Quality.  Personal  Communication. (1969).

92.    Boes,  Robert J.  Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission.
       Personal Communication.   (1969).

93.    Brinck, Claiborne W.  Division of Environmental Sanitation.
       State of Montana.  Personal Communication.  (1969).
                               254

-------
 94.    Filipi, T. A.  Nebraska Water Pollution Control Council.
       Personal Communication.  (1969).

 95.    Garner, L.  M.  Missouri Division of Health.  Personal
       Communication. (1969).

 96.    Glenn, Thomas R.  Jr. Interstate Sanitation Commission.
       Personal Communication.  (1969).

 97.    Gregory,  E. G.  Bureau of Environmental Health.  State of
       Nevada.  Personal Communication.  (1969).

 98.    Harmeson,  Donald K.  Bureau of Environmental Health.   State
       of Delaware.  Personal Communication.  (1969).

 99.    Kinniburgh, Richard S.  Water Supply and Pollution Control
       Commission.  State of New Hampshire.  Personal Communica-
       tion.  (1969).

100.    Long, Emory G.   Texas Water Quality Board.  Personal
       Communication.  (1969).

101.    Martin, Walter C.   Kentucky State Water Pollution Commission.
       Personal  Communication.  (1969).

102.    Miller, Robert S.  Bureau of Water Supply. Missouri Division
       of Health.  Personal Communication.  (1969).

103.    Ongerth, H. J.   Bureau of Sanitary  Engineering.   Personal
       Communication.  (1969).

104.    Peterson, Norman L.  North Dakota Department of Health.
       Division of  Water Supply and Pollution Control.  Personal
       Communication.  (1969).

105.    Pine, Roland E.  Washington State Water Pollution Control
       Commission.  Personal Communication.   (1969).

106.    Plews,  Gary.  Recreation and Housing Section.  Washington
       State Department of Health.  Personal Communication.

107.    Poole,  B. A.   Stream Control Board.  State of Indiana.
       Personal Communication.  (1969).

108.    Quisenberry, Walter  B.   Department  of Health, Hawaii.
       Personal Communication.  (1969).

109.    Rhame, George A.  Pollution Control Authority.   South
       Carolina State Board  of Health.  Personal  Communication.
       (1969).

110.    Rice, R.  G.  Department of Public  Health.  State of Michigan.
       Personal Communication.  (1969).


                                255

-------
111.   Rozich, Frank J.  Water Pollution Control Division.  State of
       Colorado Department of Health.  Personal Communication.
       (1969).

112.   Schraufnagel, Francis H.  Bureau of Standards and Water Sur-
       veys.  State of Wisconsin Department of Natural  Resources,
       Personal Communication.  (1969).

113.   Segessor,  Ernest R. New Jersey State Department of Health.
       Personal Communication.  (1969).

114.   Shea, W.  J.  Rhode Island Department of Health. Personal
       Communication.   (1969).

115.   Speiser, Arnold.  Water Quality Control Division. District of
       Columbia.  Personal Communication.  (1969).

116.   Trygg,  John E.  Louisiana State Department of Health.  Personal
       Communication.   (1969).

117.   Vasuki, N. C. State of Delaware Water and Air Resources
       Commission.  Personal Communication.  (1969).

118.   von Frank, A.  J.  Where Are Water Quality Standards Heading?
       Water and Wastes Engineering/Industrial.  16-18.  (1969).

119.   Williamson,  Arthur E.  Sanitary Engineering Services.   Wyoming
       State Department of Health.  Personal Communication.   (1969).

120.   Woodhull,  Richard S.   Environmental Health Services Division.
       State of Connecticut.  Personal Communication.   (1969).
                                256

-------
1

5
Accession Number
n Subject Field & Group
05C
SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
INPUT TRANSACTION FORM
Organization
        Envirogenics Co. , Division of Aerojet-General Corp. , El Monte,  California
     Title
        Water Quality Criteria Data Book, Vol. k
        AN INVESTIGATION INTO RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY,
10

Authors)
Mechalas,
Hekimian,
S china zi,
Dudley, R
B. J.
K. K.
L.A.
. H.
16

21

Project Designation
iQokO DAZ
Note
 22
     Citation
 23
Descriptors (Starred First)

   * Recreation, * Public Health,  # Standards, Salmonella, Viruses,  Pesticides,
     Beaches, Mathematical Models, Risks,  Temperature,  Hydrogen Ion
     Concentration
 25
     Identifiers (Starred First)
        * Quality Criteria
 27
     Abstract
            A new technique has been developed for establishing firm criteria for health
        risks associated with recreational water bodies.  The basis of the method is a
        mathematical treatment of medical dose-response data in conjunction with the
        probability  of exposure over a period of time to a given level of the potentially
        harmful factor, such  that a quantitative risk can be assigned to the recreational
        activity.  Once  a public health jurisdiction has  established an acceptable level
        of risk,  curves produced by electronic data processing equipment can be used
        to ascertain whether a particular water should  be open to the public.  (Wilson-
        Envirogenics)
Abstractor
        E. Milton Wilson
                         nstitutton
                         Envirogenics Co. ,  Division of Aerojet-General Corp.
       (REV. JULY 1969)
                                              SEND TO: WATER RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION CENTER
                                                     U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                                     WASHINGTON. D. C. 20240

                                                                             * GPO: 1969-359-339
  
-------