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LU
CD
Managers
Guide  to
Hiring  Under
Special  Appointing
Authorities
      Office of Administration
       Personnel Management Division

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This  Handbook was prepared  in the Personnel Management Division, Policies and Programs
Branch  The major work was done  by Zandra Kern  The Handbook was prepared for printing by
Terrlyn Curry.
                                      July 1987

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     r
     1       UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                 WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460
                                                                            OFFICE OF
                                                                         ADMINISTRATION
                                                                         AND RESOURCES
                                                                           MANAGEMENT
To:  All EPA Managers and Supervisors
  In my  role as Director of Personnel, I  often hear managers talk about how lengthy and
cumbersome the Federal hiring process is   I share your concerns about this, and want you to
know that EPA is encouraging 0PM to permit agencies more flexibility and streamlining in the
hiring process.

  However, many of you may be unaware that employees do not always have to be hired through the
traditional 0PM or merit promotion processes  This handbook will tell you about a number of
special  hiring  flexibilities that already  exist.   They allow you  to hire  individuals  in  less
than the  four to six weeks  it normally takes In some cases,  you can  virtually hire someone
overnight1

  This  handbook also  gives you  information about the  different appointing  authorities.  It
describes who  is covered by the authority, where you can find applicants, how they are  hired,
and  whether or not they count against your personnel ceiling.   We  hope it  expands your
personnel knowledge so that you can make recruiting and hiring decisions easier

  Your personnel office is always  available to help you in the hiring process.  Talk with them
about these special authorities. They will be happy to help


                                        Sincerely,
                                        Clarence Hardy
                                        Director of Personnel

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                                Table of Contents
I.  Appointments Without Compensation

    Student Volunteers         . .       ....          ...          	   1
    Unpaid Work Experience     ...           ...              	              1

II.   Noncompetitive Appointments

    Veterans Readjustment Appointments - VRA        	                	 3
    Disabled Veterans        ...                             	          3
    Former Peace Corps, Vista, Community Service Volunteers                  .       3
    Present and Former Peace Corps Staff .       	             ...      ...      4
    U S  Nuclear Regulatory Commission Employees                      	 4

III.  Excepted Service Appointments

    Professional Administrative Career Positions - PAC          	          .       .5
    PAC Special Hiring Programs       	            	       .         ..5
    Cooperative Education Program     . .      	              	6
    Federal Junior Fellowship Program	          	             6
    Students, and High School Science and Mathematics Teachers                 ..    6
    Stay-in-School Program.               	          	 6
    Summer Aides    	      	            . ?
    Severely Physically Handicapped Persons  	         	     7
    Readers, Interpreters, and Personnel Assistants                      	  7
    Mentally Restored     	          	                       8
    Mentally Retarded	       	               	 8
    Summer Employment - Mentally Retarded and Severely Handicapped Youths         8

IV.  Competitive Service Appointments

    Temporary Limited Appointments           . .         	  9
    Temporary Trial Appointments	                        	 9
    Term Appointments                               	             ... 9
    30-Day Special Need        	     .              	  10
    Worker-Trainee 	                                                 10

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                  APPOINTMENTS WITHOUT COMPENSATION

   Do  you  realize that many people would  work  for  free  just  to  get work experience7  Hiring
volunteers, whether they are students  or  handicapped individuals, are a good  way  to  get work
done  without  charge to  your  ceiling    Hiring  volunteers  may  also  help  you   meet your
organization's affirmative action goals
TYPE OF HIRE
                       PURPOSE
                                       HOW CAN I HIRE'
                                          WHERE CAN I
                                          FIND THEM?
                                                                                 ELIGIBILITY
                                                            FTE
                                                          CEILING'
STUDENT
VOLUNTEERS
To provide an oppor-
tunity for students
to acquire new skills/
training in a work
environment These
individuals provide a
service to the public
on a voluntary basis
An agreement must
be developed
between EPA and
the school outlining
the responsibilities
of all parties The
length of non-paid
service is deter-
mined as part of the
agreement
Educational institu-
tions, boards of
education, place-
ment offices, and
direct recruitment
A student must be
enrolled at least
half-time in a high
school, trade school,
technical or
vocational school
college or university
                                                                                                   No
UNPAID WORK
EXPERIENCE
To provide handi-
capped individuals
the opportunity to
receive on-the-job
training and actual
job experience which
is useful for their
future careers
An agreement is
developed between
EPA and the rehabil
itation center/
educational insti-
tute Length of
nonpaid service is
determined as part
of the agreement
State vocational
rehabilitation
agencies. Veter-
ans Administra-
tion, colleges/
universities
community work/
training programs,
and organizations
of/for disabled
The handicapped
individual must be
a client of a state
rehabilitation agency.
veterans placement
organization, or be
referred from an
institution that has
been state certified
                                                                                                   No

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                        NONCOMPETITIVE APPOINTMENTS

   These  are the individuals you  have been waiting  to hire  - those that  you can offer  the job to
today  and  have  them start to  work tomorrow1   The  individuals covered  by  these  special
authorities do not have to compete with the general public to be  hired   By simply establishing
that the  individual meets the  criteria  for  the appointment and/or is qualified for the  position
permits  you to  offer this  individual a job   And you never  thought the  personnel  process could
be so easy1
TYPE OF HIRE
                       PURPOSE
                                        HOW CAN I HIRE?
                                           WHERE CAN I
                                           FIND THEM'
                                                                                  ELIGIBILITY
                                                             FTE
                                                          CEILING?
VETERANS
READJUSTMENT
APPOINTMENTS
Since the Civil
War. veterans
have been given
preference for
government jobs
To recognize the
loss that is
suffered by those
who serve their
country m the
armed forces.
Congress enacted
laws to assist
veterans in Federal
employment
Veterans may be
noncompetitively
appointed at
grades GS/WG-9
and below, fora
period of two
years Appointees
may be noncompeti-
tively converted
to status appoint-
ments within 30 days
after completing 2
years of service
under this appoint-
ment.
Veterans' placement
offices or the
Veterans
Administration
Veterans must

 be a Vietnam Era
  veteran.

 not have completed
  more than 14 years
  of education, and

 agree in writing
  to pursue a training
  program
                                                                                                    Yes
DISABLED
VETERANS
PEACE CORPS,
VISTA,
COMMUNITY
SERVICE
VOLUNTEERS
To provide increased
opportunities for
veterans with ser-
vice connected
disabilities of 30%
or more
To provide
special
opportunities
for employment
to former
volunteers to
recognize their
contribution to
public service
Veterans must have
service connected
disability which is
documented by the
VA Initial appoint-
ment is temporary
and must last at
least 61 days
Appointees may be
converted to status
appointments
at any time

A present/former
Peace Corps, VISTA.
or Community
Service volunteer
may be appointed
noncompetitively to
a competitive service
position Normally.
the former volunteer
must be appointed
within a year from
the end of the
volunteer service
State vocational
rehabilitation
offices, veterans
outplacement
offices, and
community organi-
zations for
disabled persons
Direct recruit-
ment or through
paid advertise-
ment
Veterans must meet
the minimum quali-
fications for the job
                                                                                                    Yes
The Peace Corps
volunteer must
provide certifica-
tion of a full term
of satisfactory
volunteer service,
usually 2 years

The VISTA/Community
Service volunteer
must provide certi-
fication of a full
term of satisfactory
volunteer service,
usually I year
                                                                                                    Yes

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                        NOIMCOMPETITIVE APPOINTMENTS
                                            (Continued)
TYPE OF HIRE
PRESENT AND
FORMER PEACE
CORPS STAFF
                       PURPOSE
To provide
opportunities
for returning
Peace Corps
employees
                      HOW CAN I HIRE'
A present/former
Peace Corps
employee may be
appointed noncompe-
titively to a compe-
titive service
position  The
appointee is eligible
for 3 years after
separation from the
Peace Corps
   WHERE CAN I
   FIND THEM'

Direct recruitment
or through paid
advertisement
                                                                                  ELIGIBILITY
The Peace Corps
appointee must have
completed no less
than 36 months of
service on a contin-
uous basis, meet
the qualifications
requirements of the
job including any
written test, and
provide certification
that a full term of
satisfactory volunteer
service was completed
  FTE
CEILING?

  Yes
U.S. NUCLEAR
REGULATORY
COMMISSION
(NRC)
EMPLOYEES
To provide
employment
opportunities
to non-temporary
employees of
the NRC. in
accordance with
their agreement
with 0PM
Non-temporary
employees may be
noncompetitively
appointed to a
competitive service
position if
appointed without
a break in service
Direct recruitment
                   Candidates must
                   meet the qualifica-
                   tion requirements of
                   the job.
                      Yes

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                        EXCEPTED SERVICE APPOINTMENTS

   This section covers some of the major special emphasis programs in the excepted service  What
makes  these programs so different  is  that candidates who  meet the  eligibility requirements do
not  have  to  compete  with others in  order to  be appointed, nor do they have  to pass a civil
service  examination    In  addition  to  being  able  to hire  qualified  employees  quickly,  hiring
individuals in some of these programs may help  you to meet your affirmative action goals
TYPE OF HIRE
PROFESSIONAL
AND ADMINIS-
TRATIVE
CAREER (PAC)
POSITIONS
     PURPOSE
Since the abolish-
ment of the PACE
examination in
1982. PAC positions
have been estab-
lished to allow
agencies to hire
professional and
administrative
staff at the entry
levels, GS-5/7
  HOW CAN I HIRE'
PAC appointments are
made in accordance
with the EPA/OPM
agreement EPA's
agreement covers
these positions

Environmental Protec
   tion Specialist
Personnel Management
   Specialist
General Clerical and
   Administrative
Management  Analyst
Program Analyst
Logistics Management
Financial Management
Budget Analyst
Paralegal Specialist
Public Affairs  Specialist
Writer-Editor
Financial Analyst
Technical Information
   Specialist
Inventory Management
   Specialist
   WHERE CAN I
   FIND THEM'

Direct recruit-
ment, particularly
through colleges/
universities and
professional
organizations
                                                                                 ELIGIBILITY
Candidates are hired
at the GS-5/7 levels
only  They must
meet all qualification
requirements for the
position, and be rank
in accordance with
specific job-related
criteria
  FTE
CEILING'

  Yes
PAC SPECIAL
HIRING
PROGRAM
To eliminate any
adverse impact
resulting from
the abolishment
Of the PACE
examination by
establishing
the outstanding
scholar and the
bilmgual/bicul
tural programs
OUTSTANDING
SCHOLAR  college
graduates who
obtained a 35GPA
on a 4 0 scale for
all undergraduate
courses completed
towards a
baccalaureate degree.
or who stand  in the
upper 10% of their
baccalaureate
graduating class

BILINGUAL'
BICULTURAL
applicants who have
the required level
of oral Spanish
language proficiency
and/or the requisite
knowledge of
hispanic culture,
and are qualified for
PAC positions m which
interaction with the
public or job per-
formance would be
enhanced by bilingual''
bicultural skills
Direct recruit-
ment through
colleges or
universities
Candidates may be
be noncompeti-
tively appointed
at the GS-5/7
level They must
meet the minimum
qualification
requirements
   Yes

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                        EXCEPTED SERVICE APPOINTMENTS
                                              (Continued)
TYPE OF HIRE
     PURPOSE
 HOW CAN I HIRE?
   WHERE CAN I
   FIND THEM'
    ELIGIBILITY
  FTE
CEILING?
COOPERATIVE
EDUCATION
PROGRAM
FEDERAL
JUNIOR
FELLOWSHIP
PROGRAM
STUDENTS, AND
HIGH SCHOOL
SCIENCE AND
MATHEMATICS
TEACHERS
 STAY-IN-
 SCHOOL
 PROGRAM
To allow students
to attend college
on a full time
basis while
engaging in
periods of study-
related work. This
program is designed
to be a recruiting
mechanism to attract
college students
to careers in the
Federal government.

To provide career-
related summer and
vacation employment
for outstanding
high school seniors
and handicapped
students who need
earnings to attend
college

To provide assis-
tance to scientific.
professional or
technical employees
through the tempo-
rary employment of
high school and
college students,
and high school
science and math-
ematics teachers
To benefit needy
students who are in
high school or who
are continuing
their education
immediately after
high school and
who demonstrate a
need for earnings
to continue their
education
EPA may noncom-
petitively appoint
associate,
baccalaureate, or
graduate students
who are enrolled
in their school's
cooperative educa-
tion program The
school must have a
formal agreement
with EPA
Graduating high
school seniors
must be nominated
by a designated
school official,
be in the upper
10% of their class.
and plan to attend
college

Students and
teachers may be
appointed without
regard to competi-
tive procedures
Appointments may
only be made at the
GS-7 or equivalent
and below. Total
employment may
not exceed 1040
working hours a
year

Students may be
appointed without
regard to competi-
tive procedures.
Students are limited
to 20  hours a week
while school is in
session and may
work  up to 40 hours
a week during
vacation periods
Appointments are
not made between
May 13 and August
31
Direct recruitment
through colleges
and universities
Local high schools.
Direct recruitment
from colleges and
high schools
 Direct recruitment
 through state
 employment service
 private and public
 welfare agencies.
 high school and
 college counselors.
 and youth help
 organizations
Students must be
enrolled in their
school's cooperative
education program;
must meet citizenship
requirements, and
may not be the
children of EPA
employees
Students must
demonstrate a need
for earnings (except
severely disabled
students) and be US
citizens Students
are initially
appointed at the
GS-2

Candidates must
be bona fide
students at high
schools/colleges/
universities who
are pursuing courses
related to the field
in which employed
                                                                                                       Yes
                                                                                                       No
                                                                                                       Yes
 Student must

  be a US citizen;

  beat least 16
   years of age,

  demonstrate a
   need for income
   to stay in school
   (mentally retarded
   or severely physi-
   cally handicapped
   are exempt).

  be enrolled on a
   full time basis;
   and

  maintain an accept-
   able school stand-
   ing.
                                                                                                        No

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                         EXCEPTED SERVICE APPOINTMENTS
                                              (Continued)
TYPE OF HIRE
     PURPOSE
  HOW CAN I HIRE?
                                                                WHERE CAN I
                                                                FIND THEM?
                                                                  ELIGIBILITY
                                                               FTE
                                                            CEILING7
SUMMER AIDES
SEVERELY
PHYSICALLY
HANDICAPPED
PERSONS
READERS,
INTERPRETERS,
PERSONAL
ASSISTANTS
To provide
summer jobs for
economically
disadvantaged
youths  This
program is
specifically
designed to
provide tempo-
rary jobs for
young people
from low income
families  or for
youths who need
income from
summer jobs to
return to school

To assist handi-
capped persons
to obtain, retain,
and advance in
employment consis-
tent with their
skills
To provide the
handicapped
individual with
the assistance
they need to
perform their
work
Appointments are
made without
regard to compet-
itive procedures
Appointments are
only made between
May 13 and
September 30 each
year Appointments
are not-to-exceed
700 actual  work
hours
Appointments are
made without
regard to compet-
itive procedures,
and are certified
by state vocational
rehabilitation
centers, the Veterans
Administration or a
university which
specializes in
training of handi-
capped persons
Employees may be
converted to compet-
itive status after
2 years of success-
ful performance
without a break in
service of more
than 30 days

Appointments are
made without
regard to compet-
itive procedures
However, since
readers, interpre-
ters, and personal
assistants must be
compatible with
the handicapped
person, the employee
should be involved
in the selection
process
                                                            State employment
                                                            agencies or local
                                                            high schools
State vocational
rehabilitation
offices, colleges
and universities,
veterans' outplace-
ment offices, and
community organ-
izations of/for the
disabled
Services can some
times be provided
by EPA employees
on an "as needed"
basis  EPA may
also employ outside
applicants who may
be paid by a non-
profit organization,
the handicapped
employee, or by
state rehabilitation
funds  State employ-
ment agencies.
vocational rehabili-
tation offices and
educational insti-
tutes for the deaf
are sources to
consider
                    Youth must be at
                    least 16 years of
                    age and must meet
                    the economic
                    criteria required
                    by 0PM
                       No
Severely handi-
capped persons must
be certified by an
authorized handi-
capped resource
Yes
Employees may serve
on a full-time,
part time or inter-
mittent basis but
may only perform
work which is
directly related
to providing reading/
interpreting/personal
assistance to the
handicapped
employee
Yes

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                         EXCEPTED SERVICE APPOINTMENTS
                                              (Continued)
TYPE OF HIRE
                        PURPOSE
                       HOW CAN I HIRE?
                       WHERE CAN I
                        FIND THEM'
                                                                                     ELIGIBILITY
                                                                                     FTE
                                                                                  CEILING?
MENTALLY
RESTORED
To provide the
mentally
restored person
with the oppor-
tunity to
update skills
and to establish
a successful
performance
record
Prior approval of the
Office of Personnel
Management is
required  A trial
appointment of up
to 700 hours may
be given initially
Persons are limited
to 2 years of service
under this authority
State vocational
rehabilitation
agencies, veterans
placement offices.
community indepen-
dent living centers
The employee must
have 0PM approval
and meet these
conditions-  a
documented history
of mental illness
within the past 2
years, be certified
by a state or VA
vocational rehabili-
tation counselor;
and be unemployed
as a result of
the illness.
Yes
MENTALLY
RETARDED
To promote and
ensure full
consideration of
the mentally
retarded for
employment in
positions where
they meet the
necessary perfor-
mance requirements
or in positions
where requirements
can be modified
Appointments can
be made noncom-
petitively without
prior approval by
0PM  Appointments
have no time limit-
ations  Certifica-
tion from a state
vocational rehabil-
itation center
is required
State vocational
rehabilitation
agencies or
advocacy organiza-
tions for the
mentally retarded
Employees must be
certified as
having the ability
to perform the
duties of the
position, be phys-
ically qualified
to perform the
job, and be
socially competent
for the work
environment.
Yes
SUMMER
EMPLOYMENT
FOR MENTALLY
RETARDED AND
SEVERELY
PHYSICALLY
HANDICAPPED
YOUTHS
To provide handi-
capped persons
with valuable
work experience
Many of these
youths have a
limited perspect-
ive about career
choices due to
lack of exposure
to the work
environment
Appointments may be
made under the
Summer Announce-
ment or under a
700-hour temporary
appointment if
applicants meet
0PM requirements
Severely physically
disabled youths
who are certified
by a state voca-
tional rehabili-
tation or VA
counselor do not
have to meet the
0PM qualifications
requirements
State vocational
rehabilitation
agencies, state
employment offices,
private and public
welfare agencies.
high school and
college counselors,
and community
organizations for
the disabled
Mentally retarded
youths may be
appointed upon
certification by
a state vocational
rehabilitation
counselor

Severely handi-
capped and mentally
retarded youths are
exempt from the
needs criteria and
the restrictions on
employing sons and
daughters
Yes

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                     COMPETITIVE SERVICE APPOINTMENTS

   Most Federal employees obtain employment through the usual Federal selection procedures  These
procedures  require  applicants to  successfully participate in a  civil service  examination given
by the Office of Personnel Management before being eligible to be  hired, or they must compete
under the Agency's Merit Promotion process
TYPE OF HIRE
TEMPORARY
LIMITED
APPOINTMENT
TEMPORARY
TRIAL
APPOINTMENT
TERM
EMPLOYMENT
     PURPOSE
To provide you with
flexibility to deal
with workload peaks
It can be very
effective in program
areas where employ-
ment reductions and/
or operations are
being cut back
To facilitate the
employment of
persons with
severe physical
handicap, the
mentally restored,
and the mentally
retarded
To fill positions
that are of a
project nature,
will last longer
than one year but
no longer than
four, and will
terminate upon
completion of the
project
  HOW CAN I HIRE?
In order for a candid-
ate to be selected for
a temporary position,
(GS-12 and below) he/
she must first compete
through EPA's competi-
tive process  Appoint-
ments may be made for
up to one year and may
be extended in incre-
ments of one year up
to a total of four years

Appointments are
made without regard
to competitive
procedures

Total employment
may not exceed 700
actual work hours
during a consecutive
12 month period
Only the hours the
employee actually
works are counted
(including overtime)
Legal holidays and
paid or unpaid leave
do not count
 WHERE CAN I
  FIND THEM?

Civil Service
registers and
direct recruit-
ment
Vocational
rehabilitation
agencies, com-
munity organi-
zations and
veterans employ-
ment programs
                                                                                 ELIGIBILITY
Candidates must
meet the quali-
fication require-
ments of the job
  FTE
CEILING?

  Yes
Candidates must
either meet the
qualification
standards or be
certified by a
state vocational
rehabilitation or
VA counselor
Appointment of
mentally restored
individual requires
0PM approval
   Yes
In order for work to
be considered of a
protect nature, it must
meet the following
conditions

 it cannot be accom-
plished by the
regular work force.

 it is to be completed
withm a specified
time frame that is
appropriate for a
term appointment.
Selections are
generally made
from civil ser-
vice registers
However, in the
absence of
eligibles on an
appropriate
register, 0PM
can authorize an
agency to make
appointments
without the prior
approval of 0PM

Candidates must
meet the quali-
fication require-
ments of the job











                                                            Yes
                                        it is not part of the
                                         normal workflow of
                                         the organization,
                                         and

                                        it is generated by a
                                         circumstance or sit-
                                         uation which is not
                                         continuing

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                     COMPETITIVE SERVICE APPOINTMENTS
                                             (Continued)
TYPE OF HIRE
     PURPOSE
  HOW CAN I HIRE?
  WHERE CAN I
   FIND THEM?
                                                                                  ELIBIGILITY
                      FTE
                   CEILING?
30-DAY
SPECIAL NEED
To meet any
legitimate need
that cannot be
served through
appointment under
some existing
authority.
Special need appoint-
ments may be made
directly without the
use of competitive
procedures

Appointments may
not exceed one
month  Extensions
may be made for
one additional
month with prior
0PM approval. No
person can be
appointed more
than once during
any twelve
consecutive month
period.

This authority may
not be used for an
individual about
to complete the
examining, referral
or other competitive
process
                                                           Direct recruitment
                   Candidates must
                   meet the qualifi-
                   cation require-
                   ments of theiob
                                                                                                    Yes
WORKER-TRAINEE
PROGRAM
To facilitate
the recruit-
ment, hiring
and development
of low-skilled
and disadvan-
taged persons
Appointments under
the worker-trainee
program may only
be made at the
GS-1, WG-1.WG-2
or equivalent levels

Trainees may be
promoted and/or
reassigned to other
positions up through
GS-3andWG-4or
equivalent grades
m the Federal Wage
System

Worker-trainees
who satisfactorily
complete 3 years of
service may be con-
verted noncompeti-
tively to career
status.
State Employment
Offices. 0PM Job
Information
Centers, or any
other appropriate
source
The only qualifi-
cation require-
ments are interest
in and willingness
to do simple,
routine work.
                                                                                                    Ves
                                                  10

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