United States Department of the In-
terior/Stewart  L. Udall, Secretary/
Federal Water Pollution Control Ad-
ministration,    Northwest   Region/
Portland,  Oregon.
September 1968







The Basin
The Area
Present Population
The Economy
Future Population
Water Resources
Water Uses
municipal and industrial water
hydroelectric  power
Dissolved Oxygen Depletion
Bacterial Pollution
Thermal Pollution
Suspended Solids
Aquatic Growths
Toxic Substances

Waste Treatment
Water Quality Standards
FWPCA Activities
program grants
research  and demon-
stration grants
interstate enforcement
federal installations
public information
Other Federal Programs
financial assistance
land management and
51  Streamflow Management
52  changes in operation and
     maintenance schedules
52  changes to conserve
     irrigation water
53  changes in state water law
54  changes in public attitude
51  changes with future water
     resource development
57  Other Needs for Water
     Quality Maintenance
57   future waste treatment
59  pollution surveillance
59   other control needs
61   thermal pollution
62   research


16  The Study Area
18  Land Ownership and Use
20   Major and Minor Service Areas
20   Generalized Farming
23   Water Resource Projects
26   Estimated Runs of Salmon
     and Steelhead
34   Pollution  Problem Areas
35   Dissolved Oxygen Profile
36   Bacteriological Profile
37   Temperature Profile
44   Waste Production
58   Water Quality Monitoring

21   Projected Output
21   Projected Population
26   Anadromous Fish Activities
26   Sport Fishing Effort,
     Harvest and Expenditures
 34   Water  Quality Problem Areas
 64   Water  Resource Development
 65   Potential Reservoir
 66  Water Quality Criteria
 69  Fish Kills
 70  Major Waste  Loading Areas
 71   Current Waste Treatment Needs
 72  Additional  Waste
     Treatment Needs

1.  Hells  Canyon: the  deepest and narrowest velvety  gorge in  the  United States, encloses the
1,000 mile long Snake River


2.  Many rapids break  the Snake  River into white  water as the  river clashes  through the
canyon. While  landforms guarantee a limited threat  of  water pollution from  population and
industrial concentration,  water resource development of  the middle  Snake  could  end the
free-flowing of this  beautiful river.

 The  Snake  River is an  intensively
 used and highly  regulated river. As
 it sweeps across Idaho, turns north-
 ward to mark state  boundaries, and
 finally   bends  westward  through
 Washington, the waters of this river
 are  controlled, stored and diverted
 for  a multitude of  uses.  It  will be
 even more intensively used and more
 highly  regulated in  the   future as
 Idaho, in particular, grows in popula-
 tion and industrial  complexity. It is
 a large river that means many things
 to many people.

 To the  people  who live in  the Snake
 Basin,  the  Snake means  irrigation
 water to transform over three million
 acres of once-arid land into one of
 the Nation's most productive garden
 To sport and  commercial  fishermen
 who pursue salmon and steelhead, the
 Snake is the most important produc-
 tion area in  the Columbia River sys-
 tem  for anadromous  fish.

 To more than five  million visitors
 each year, the Snake  is a recreational
 playground  providing   swimming,
 boating, camping, and sightseeing.

 To people who enj oy all these uses,
 the Snake means  change—change to
accommodate a growing economy and
 population, change to improve water
 quality, and change  to assure more
efficient use of this valuable resource.

Water pollution threatens the present
and  future  use of the Snake River.
 Dense aquatic  growths, so heavy in
places that they clog irrigation canals,
flourish   throughout   the  Snake's
length. Fish  kills occur nearly every
 year. Bacterial contamination occurs
 below most major population con-
 centrations.  Some  portions  of the
 Snake   River    are    aesthetically

 An  opportunity—and a  challenge—
 is offered to the people of the Snake
 Basin to guide the course of intensi-
 fying uses as the economy undergoes
 expansion and change. If the present
 uses and the inevitable changes of the
 future are to be endured  without the
 burden of growing problems of water
 pollution, the people and  their repre-
 sentatives in government and industry
 must  institute prudent  action pro-
 grams—action programs  supported
 by a  public fully informed and aware
 of the  water quality  problems  and
 their alternative solutions.

 In the Snake River Basin, any mean-
 ingful action program requires hus-
 banding of  that water resource with
 management and regulation of the
 river's flow, giving full  recognition
 to, and provision for, all the  many
 water uses for which people value the

 Since the first permanent settlement
 of the Snake River Basin, the history
 of development and economic growth
 has centered in the use of  the river
 for irrigation and power production.
 Management and regulation of Snake
 River flows, suggested by custom and
 state  laws  which  grew out of that
 history, have established  these  uses
 as the paramount criteria governing
 utilization of this  most important of
all resources in the Snake Basin. Con-
tinuation  of these  historical  prac-
tices  to the  exclusion of considera-
tion  for  more  recent  and emerging
uses  can result in  significant losses

to the Pacific Northwest, to the Na-
tion and,  most importantly,  to the
people of the basin.

In the future, the Snake River  must
be  utilized to  accommodate   more
fully  the changing emphasis  among
the varied uses which will loom  large
as economic change  marches across
the length and breadth of the Snake
River Basin.

This  is  the  thrust of this  report:'
Better and more comprehensive man-
agement to accommodate changing
and multiple uses of the Snake River
water resources.
Although the importance of irrigation
and power as  present  and  future
cornerstones of the Snake Basin econ-
omy cannot  be minimized, new de-
mands   and   expectations  preclude
water  management programs   dedi-
cated solely to these  uses. The  goal,
to  be transformed into  a fact ac-
complished, must be a water manage-
ment program to adjust to the chang-
ing  diversity and intensity  of all
water  uses and water-use relation-
ships. Only through a prudent water
management program  of action, sup-
ported by the best practicable treat-
ment  of wastes prior to  discharge,
can  the damaging effect of water
pollution and resultant restricted use
be avoided. The right steps must be
taken beginning now.

This report summarizes the findings
of studies which have provided the
inpetus  to Federal-State water pollu-
tion control  planning in  the Snake
Basin since 1962. It tells  where pol-
lution  exists and why it exists. It
tells what corrective  action has al-
ready  been initiated. It  tells  what
further  steps must be taken to pre-
serve and enhance the  quality of
water resources  of the basin. And it
serves as a blueprint from which to
build future programs for the water
quality  essential to the  many  uses
and enjoyment of water in the Snake


1. Water quality in the  Snake River
Basin and its tributaries is presently
impaired for the  uses of municipal
water  supply,  water-contact  recrea-
tion, production of anadromous and
resident fish, and aesthetic enjoyment
in the  designated  areas.  Increasing
quantities of wastes from  municipal,
industrial, and  agricultural  sources
contribute to the restriction of water
use; however,  acceleration of water
pollution is largely the result of the
cumulative effects of these discharges
and management practices by which
a complex system of impoundments is
operated primarily for irrigation and
power purposes. Drastic modification
of natural flow patterns  when irriga-
tion water is being stored or diverted
too often reduces river flows and the
ability  of  the  river to  assimilate

2. Fish  kills, thermal pollution, and
bacterial contamination   are  water
quality   problems  common  to the
Snake. But the most chronic problem
jj the dense  aquatic growths  that in-
terfere with^the use of water for irri-
                           and  thai
ally— offensive  Many  impoundments
and both natural  and man-made in-
puts of nutrients make these growths
more prolific.

                         POLLUTION  PROBLEM AREAS
 3. A major step towards abating pol-
 lution in  the  Snake Basin  climaxed
 with  the  establishment  of   Water
 Qualify Standards by basin states and
 their  approval  by  the  Secretary  of
 the  Interior under the Water Quality
 Act  of 1065. The criteria portion  of
 the standards fixes objectives  design-
 ed to  upgrade polluted waters and  to
 protect waters  of  high quality.  They
 will  be  made  effective  through the
 implementation  plans which require
 secondary  treatment  or  its equiva-
 lent  for all  municipal and industrial
 wastes in 1()72. Thus, water  quality
 in most problem areas  will certainly
 be   improved.   However,  treatment
 alone  will not solve all  water  quality
 •I. Minimum  streamflows. established
 and maintained  lor water uses  re-
 quiring  good water quality, are  es-
 srritial In  water quality maintenam e
 In inert  expanding  multiple u*rs (if
 tin- Snake  Basin water resources. I n-
 less  management  programs  provide
"firm minimum  flows, iii-stream water
 uses such  as fishery and recreation
 will  be impaired, even  with a  high
 degree of  waste treatment. Total an-
 nual  flows  are  sufficient  in   most
 1 South  Fork Telon  R
  and Henry s Fork below
  the Telon R
 2 Snake River below
  Idaho Falls
 3. Snake River above
  American Falls Res
 4 Portneut River below
 5 American Falls
 6 Milner Reservoir

 7. Rock Creek

 8 Boise River
 9 Brownlee-Oxbow
10 Lewiston-Clarkslon
11 South Fork Palouse

 years to serve water quality, power,
 and irrigation if a management pro-
 gram can  be  designed  to  minimize
 wasteful spillage of flows, to coordi-
 nate reservoir releases,  and to con-
 serve irrigation water.

 5. Present thermal  pollution in the
 Snake Basin has resulted more from
 impounding  the free-flowing stream
 than from waste heat discharged to
 the river. High water temperatures in
 the lower Snake (a migratory route
 for anadromous fish) now  limit sal-
 mon  and steelhead production and
 at times actually delay  fish passage
 into the  lower  Snake  system,  the
 most  important production area for
 anadromous  fish  in  the Columbia
 Basin. Flow regulation  from future
 reservoirs may improve  the tempera-
 ture regimen of the  Snake; impacts
 on  water quality should, therefore,
 be a part of future project analyses.

 6. Ground water in the  upper basin
 is a valuable and largely  undeveloped
 resource consisting of almost 50 per-
 cent of  the  total  ground-water re-
 serves  in the Pacific  Northwest. The
 quality  of this underground reser-
 voir must be protected by proper dis-
 posal of low-level radioactive wastes
 from  the National  Reactor Testing
 Station  (NRTS) near Idaho  Falls,
 which  overlies  the  recharge  basin
 for the Snake River aquifer.




 1. The  most  critical  need  in  the
 Snake Basin, in addition  to  the  ac-
 tions already being taken  by pollu-
 tion control agencies, is the systematic
 management  of present  and  future
 water resource  development projects
 to reduce inefficient use of water and
 to  permit  all  beneficial  uses.  The
 Idaho Water Resources  Board,  the
 State  Reclamation  Engineer,   the
 Idaho Department  of Health and  tin-
 Bureau of Reclamation have  already
 made initial efforts in this  direction.
 Strengthening  and  coordination   <>f
 these efforts with  the efforts  of  the
 FWPCA. other  water  resource  agen-
 cies, and the water  users will expedite
 the following needed actions:

 (a I  Improvement  of   reservoir  op-
 erating  criteria  and  maintenance
 schedules  to  assist in providing a
 minimum  streamflow  from existing
 rcsci \oirs  for  water quality  to sup-
 port in-stream water uses  as  well  as
 In serve  the  needs for water  with-
 drawal nse<.
 (hi  Recommendations  for  modifica-
 tion  of existing statutes to  recognize
 ill-stream  water uses  as   beneficial
 uses of the stream  and to permit  the
 establishment of base flows for water
 quality control.

 (c)  Improvement of irrigation con-
 veyance  systems and methods  of  ap-
 plication to crops to reduce excessive
 diversions  and  promote more  effic-
 ient  use  of water.

 I d (  Evaluation  of  future water  re-
 source projects  with respect to their
 impact on  water quality and develop-
 ment  of predictive  tools to better  de-
 fine  problems  of  water quality and
 flow management. In particular, con-
 sideration of water quality control  in
 planning and design of future pro-
 jects  to  take  advantage of tempera-
ture  regulation  potential  could im-
 prove water quality.

2. In addition to on-going state pro-
grams, a number of actions by  State
 water  pollution   control  agencies
 would  contribute  greatly   to  water
 quality  maintenance in  the   Snake
 Basin. It is recommended, therefore.
that the states consider  the  following
needed actions:

 I a I Mandatory   certification   and
training of treatment plant operators
 —both municipal and industrial—to
 ensure the best  possible treatment
 plant operation.

 ib)  Establishment of  a waste  dis-
 charge permit system in  Idaho which
 would be  compatible with  those of
 Oregon and  Washington in defining
 the  nature and  quantity  of  wastes
 being  discharged and  to set treat-
 ment   requirements    for   specific
 (c)  Development of  regional organ-
 izations  of city-industrial  groups to
 plan,  finance,  and  operate  waste
 treatment facilities in the larger ser-
 vice areas.

 1111  Development of  regulations con-
 trolling wastes from concentrated ani-
 mal  populations such as feedlots and

 lei  Continued action  by  the State
 water  pollution  control agencies  to
 assure  the establishment  of basin-
 wide secondary  waste  treatment  by
 1(J(2 and  the development  of infra-
 state water quality standards.

 3. The  Federal government also has
 direct  responsibility  for controlling
 pollution  in the  Snake Basin. The
 following actions,  taken by the ap-
 propriate  agency,  are   a  necessary
 part of the overall effort of pollution

 I a)  Secondary   treatment,   or   its
 equivalent,  should be  instituted  at
 the following Federal installations as
 required by Executive Order  11288:

 Redfish Lake Recreation Area, USFS
 Island Park Recreation  Area, USFS
 Alturas Lake Recreation Area, USFS
 Elk  City  Ranger  Station,  USFS
 Powell Ranger Station,  USFS
 Bungalow Ranger Station,  USFS
 Musse.lshell Work Camp, USFS
 Slate Creek Ranger  Station, USFS
 Mountain Home  Air  Force  Base,
 Anderson Ranch  Dam.  USBR
 Black Canyon Dam,  USBR
 Black Canyon  Dam Power Plt,USBR
Cascade  Dam, USBR
 Deadwood  Dam,  USBR
Boise River Diversion  Dam,  USBR
Lucky Peak Dam, USAGE
Minidoka Dam & Headworks.USBR
Ice  Harbor  Dam, USAGE

  (b)  Federal agencies responsible for
  managing large portions of the basin
  or involved in construction activities
  should continue their efforts to im-
  prove erosion control practices that
  will  reduce sediment loads  to  the
  basin's streams.

  (c)  The Atomic Energy Commission
  should  assure  retention  of  radio-
  active wastes within the boundaries
  of the NRTS station  by eliminating
  discharges  to  groundwater  and by
  adopting  another  method  of treat-
  ment and  disposal that  would  re-
  duce the possibility of a contaminated
  ground-water  supply.  A monitoring
  system  that will provide  adequate
  warning  of impending  danger to
  ground-water and surface-water  sys-
  tems from present and  future waste
  disposal    practices   should    be

  (d)  Location of any  proposed ther-
  mal  power installation on the Snake
  River system should be reviewed to
  determine  effects of  wastes  on the
  receiving stream. Provisions for con-
  trol  and adequate treatment of ther-
  mal  discharge should be a prerequis-
  ite to such  location in order  to  pre-
  vent irreparable  damage to  selected
  stream reaches.

  4. Remaining actions  which  would
  improve  water quality may  be con-
  sidered the  joint  responsibility of
  State and Federal agencies. Coopera-
  tion  of all  levels of government to
  bring about the following would im-
  prove  the  basin's  water   quality
  management program:

  (a)  Control of aquatic  growths in
  the  Snake Basin. The responsibility
  for  this control extends  beyond the
  scope of any one agency or organiza-
  tion. More information about the na-
  ture, causes, and possible methods of
  controlling the excessive productivity
  of the river is critical  to the solution
  of the problem.  State,  Federal  and
  university efforts should be directed
  toward such research. The FWPCA,
  through its National Eutrophication
  Research  Program and its research
  grant program,  can offer assistance
  and  participation.

  (b)  Expansion of  cooperative  data
 collection  and analysis programs of
 both the State and Federal  govern-
 ments  to  provide  more complete
knowledge of  water quality  in the
Snake River system as a basis for
sound decisions  on flow  regulation
and waste treatment needs.

(c) Improvement   of   agricultural
practices to ensure the maximum pro-
tection  of the  waters of  the Snake
Basin from  adverse effects of  ferti-
lizers and  pesticides.  Careful selec-
tion  of  types of chemicals to be ap-
plied, determination of optimum ap-
plication levels and sanctions against
applications  that  occur within the
immediate  surface  drainage  of  a
watercourse are essential to a control
program. The control should be in-
stituted  through  education of  indi-
vidual farmers and through grower
contracts covering production condi-
tions  and quality specifications for
crops to be processed.



 (Major Physical Features)
                        THE STUDY AREA

   The  Basin
  The Snake River begins in the north-
  west  corner  of  Wyoming,   flows
  through southern Idaho where it re-
  ceives minor drainage from Utah and
  Nevada,  travels  northward  to  mark
  state boundaries between  Idaho and
  Oregon  and Idaho  and Washington,
  and then  flows through the Palouse
  hills to  the Columbia River  in  the
  State  of Washington. The  river  is
  over 1,000 miles long and drains an
  area of  nearly 108,000 square miles.
  As the largest tributary of  the Col-
  umbia River,  the Snake  River con-
  tributes  one-fifth of  the  total  dis-
  charge of the Columbia River system,
  about  33  million acre-feet of water
  each year.

  The Area
  Most of  the area  is mountainous, but
  it is the  lowlands of the Snake Plain
  and the  finger valleys like those of
  the Boise, Payette, and Weiser Rivers
  which  provide some of the world's
  most fertile farm areas and  which
  are  the   focus  of  the  agricultural
  economy  and the home of  most  of
  the population.

  Of the basin's  total  area, 42 percent
  is rangeland; 24 percent is  forest;  26
  percent is  agricultural land;  and the
  remaining 8 percent is divided among
  other uses. Land ownership  of the
  basin is 66 percent Federal, 4 percent
  state  and  local,  and  30  percent

  Present Population

  In 1965,  approximately 729 thousand
  people lived within the basin's  boun-
  daries. For analytical purposes, six-
  teen service areas or  urbanized-in-
  dustrialized locations have been de-
  fined. Over 65 percent of the  total
  population lives in these areas, most
  of which are located in  the Snake
  Plain.  Population growth  has been
  retarded  by rural emigration, but the
  larger  urbanized  areas have exper-
  ienced  very rapid population expan-
  sion in  the last two decades.
                                                       LAND DISTRIBUTION, OWNERSHIP AND  USE
                                                                                      .Si|nar<>  Mile*

Fe.lrr.il 45.J37.900      6*%

State ami  l.ural 2.04<).bllO  4%

Private 20.203. WO      30%
         Million AITM
             Id    24%
Agri.-iiltin.il      18    26%

3., 4. Processing uf  millions (if  tons  n{ potatoes each  year requires immense  amounts  of
water  and produces iuitir  amounts nf  wastes.  In  most  pUuiK  the  movements  of  the raw
materials  through the  factory is  conducted liy  using  water as the medium  nf  transport.

  The  Economy
  Agriculture dominates  the  regional
  economy. The farms  of the upper
  basin and  the Snake Plain  area  of
  the central  basin  produce irrigated
  row crops,  livestock, and dry farmed
  wheat. I nlike the diversified  agri-
  culture of the Snake Plain, which is
  dependent on  irrigation, farming  in
  the Palouse  country of the lower
  basin  produces mostly  wheat  and

  The basin has industrialized  rapidly
  over  the last   two decades.  Potato
  prore>»ini:.  sugar refining, and other
  t\|irs  of  food processing  have ex-
  panded  rapidly in  the  upper  and
  central basins, and the  lower basin
  has a  diversified  forest  products in-
  du>ti>.   Indicative  of   the  Snake
  Basin's importance to the economy of
  the Pacific Northwest and the Nation
  is the fact that about 25 percent of
  the Nation's potatoes and about 15
  percent of  the Nation's  sugar beets
  are gn.wn and processed within the
  the basin's boundaries.

  Economic projections for the Snake
  Basin  have  been  made,  based  on
  recent trends of production, and are
  intended  to provide a framework for
  quantitative  examination of  the fu-
  ture impacts on water quality. Food
  processing is expected to remain the
  principal  manufacturing  activity  for
  the region,  with the volume of pro-
     '1 potatoes continuing to increase
  at a  rapid  rate. Output  of canned.
  fro/en, and otherwise prepared foods.
  other  than potatoes and  animal  pro-
  ducts, is projected to achieve the most
  marked growth in  the future.  In  ad-
  dition,  phosphates  and  pulp   and
  paper may also be expected to under-
  go increased production.
                                                            SUBBASINS  AND SERVICE  AREAS
Lower Basin
  Middle Basin
     Upper Basin

Major Service  Areas
Minor Service Areas
                                              GENERALIZED FARMING  PATTERNS
                                                           Wh««t SPtot
                                                     rPoTi'ott, SuQ«r Bt«tt,
                                                     Ll-ivf«toch, Dry B»«n1
                                                     S»I« Bfltt. LIIIXOU
                                                     Wn«0t a Gtntral Farming
                                                        Mount »nt 8 Fortftf
                                                         Summer Grannf

Product or Process
Phosphate products
Wood pulp
Particle board
Sugar refining
Upper basin
Central basin
Potato processing
Upper basin
Central & lower basins
Milk products
Misc. canning & freezing
Projection Expressed in
tons/year output
tons/year output
tons/day capacity
tons/day capacity
tons/day capacity
tons/day capacity
million Ibs/yr output
million Ibs/yr output
production index
1 .020.000
1 350
POPULATION — 1965-2020
Thousand* of inhabitants
1965 1980 2000 2020
Upper Basin 2M
Onirtl Bairn 2M
Lower Bfttin ifil
Idaho F.II, $2
Pocatallo 47
Burley 24
T«,n Fans 40
Bon* 146
Ontario 34
(.•wiiton 3fl
Pullman 27
A* s. Basm Total Si
R*nbu'g 15
Rflby 9
Black toot IS
American Falls 4
Mountain Homa 12
Emma it 4
Bi**f to
La Grande 10
At V Bom Tola! 11
33 Uppe< Basin Communities 23
20 Caniral Ba»n Commumiias 19
44 Low*' Basin Commurutiat 40
At % Basm Total 11
Upper BkSin 65
Central Basm 51
Low*' Basin 44
Ai % Basin Total 22
r 934 7 1324
3955 571
345 0 4BT
1942 ?M
M6» W1
833 139
747 i?«
356 M
61 0 97
2030 313
357 57
55 2 90
34< 58
N (W8% 71
1025 135
174 22
11 ? 15
202 27
40 e
164 21
52 fl
134 17
134 17
% 110% 10
280 34
230 2*
476 M
% >0.5% 9
1467 126
S88 49
483 42
396 33
% 157% 9
% 77
% 9
% 7
% 5

                                                                        The economic projections presented
                                                                        in this report  are deemed adequate to
                                                                        project  impact  of developments on
                                                                        water  quality. Additional studies are
                                                                        under way by the Office of Business
                                                                        Kronornics  of  the  Department  of
                                                                        Commerce and  will  be  used in the
                                                                        Columbia  • North  Pacific   Region
                                                                        Framework  Study, which  is bein-;
                                                                        made  under the auspices of the  Paci-
                                                                        fic  Northwest  River  Basins Com-
                                                                        mission  and  the  Water  Resources
                                                                        Council. The  Idaho Water  Resource
                                                                        Board is making technically sophisti-
                                                                        cated studies  of agricultural,  munici-
                                                                        pal, industrial, and other water needs.
                                                                        Projections from these  studies  and
                                                                        those  of projects  proposed  by the
                                                                        Bureau of Reclamation and the Corps
                                                                        of  Engineers  will be evaluated as to
                                                                        their effects on  water quality  as part
                                                                        of the continuous planning process to
                                                                        provide  and  maintain water  quality
                                                                        for intended uses.

                                                                        Future  Population

                                                                        Based on projected output  and cur-
                                                                        rent  population  trends, the  popula-
                                                                        tion for the  basin was projected to
                                                                        2020.  It is  estimated  that  by that
                                                                        time there will be two million people,
                                                                        most of  whom will live in the major
                                                                        and minor service areas. The project-
                                                                        ed distribution  of future population
                                                                        continues the established pattern.

 5. Below  Milner Dam  a slim, uncharacteristic flow  passes down the natural channel  of  the
 Snake River. Through  the  irrigation  season little  water reaches  the  channel,  most  of  the
 flow of the Snake River being diverted to giant irrigation canals radiating out  from the dam.

                    WATER RESOURCE PROJECTS
                                        Includes: Reservoirs: 5,000 acre ft
                                               Power:  1.000 KW rated raparily
                                               Projects: Existing. Under Construction,
                                                      Authorized,  Licensed
 1. lei Harbor
 2. Loner Monumental
 3. Loiter Granite
 4. Lawistin
 5. Duorshak
 6. Asotin
 7. Penny Cl 11fs
 6. Grsngevi! le
 9. High HI. Sheep
10. fallowa Lak>
II. He Ms Canyon
18. Little Payette
20. Cascade
21. C. Ben Ro s
22. Crane Cre
           • k
12. Th
13. Has
15. Bro nlee
16. Oib m
17. Los
      I Valley
23. Paddock V
24. f i Mow Cr
25. Bully Cri
26. ifency Valley
27. Warn Spr ings
28. Owyhee
29. Black Canyon
30. Qesdwood
31. Afrovrock
32. Pleasant Y«lley
33. Swan Fal Is
34. Hnbbard
35. Lake Lowe II
36. Snckar Creek
37. Antelope
* .
C. ].  Strike
Little Caias
Anderson Ranch
Fish Creek
Little food
                       n Lakes
                        d (uppe
                        d (I owe
                        on Fall
                        on FalI
                        sand "Gp
                     IN ho f SB
 (I owe
                        on Falls Creek
                        hone Falls

  I I.
)  87.


                         s Fal Is
                      at: ill
                   Idaho Fal Is
                   (upper liddle lower)
                   Hud Lake
                   Asll on
                                                             ys Fork
Water  Resources
Although  at least  twenty-one  major
tributaries  may be distinguished, al-
most two-thirds of the  Snake's total
flow at the mouth  is  provided  by-
three  lower  basin  tributaries—the
Salmon,   Clearwater,  and  Grande
Ronde—which enter well  below  the
principal  concentrations  of popula-
tion. Streamflow  fluctuates  greatly
over the passage of the Snake with
stream   management strongly  influ-
encing  flow in about  two-thirds  of
the  total  drainage area.  At  Heise,
the  Snake  carries  about 4.7 million
acre-feet in the average year.  In  the
250 miles from Heise to Milner Dam,
irrigation   withdrawals  offset  tribu-
tary inflows of 4.6 million acre-feet.
At Milner, another 3.0  million acre-
feet are withdrawn, virtually  deplet-
ing  the river's  flow.  Below Milner,
substantial  inflows  from  tributary
springs  augment  mean flow  to  6.2
million  acre-feet at  King Hill.  The
flow of the Snake  is almost doubled
as it passes through the central basin
where it receives six important tribu-
taries;    of   these,   the   Malheur.
Owyhee, and Boise  are heavily  de-
pleted   by  irrigation   withdrawal.
while the  Payette,  Weiser, and Pow-
der  Rivers discharge substantial por-
tions of their waters to  the receiving
stream.  Averaging 11.8 million acre-
feet  as it   passes  from the  central
basin  at Brownlee  Dam,  the  Snake
flow triples in  the  terminal fifth  of
its course.

Occurrence of  low flows  critical  to
quality control is largely a function of
the   management  regimen  of   the
basin's  waters.  Low flows are most
frequently  the result  of withholding
water to build up  storage  for  irriga-
tion or of the actual diversion of a
significant  part  of a stream  to  the
fields. An exception to this rule exists
in  the  Palouse  River of  the lower
basin,  where naturally  low summer
flows  exist.  The  Portneuf River  of
the  upper  basin also  suffers from
intermittent  low  summer  flows.  To
encompass  both present water man-
agement capabilities  and  low flows
which may be anticipated to recur in
a  cycle of  dry  years,   hydrologic
analysis in this report has been based
upon  the  one-in-ten year  recurrence
of low flows.

Over  70  major  impounding  struc-
tures—existing,  under  construction,
or authorized—act to modify natural
flows  and hundreds  of  additional
project sites have been  studied. Ac-
tive storage  capacity of  these im-
poundments totals 11.6 million acre-
feet or about 35 percent of the aver-
age annual Snake  Basin  contribu-
tion to the Columbia River.  Through
the upper and central basins, regula-
tion is the principal determinant  of
streamflow; existing  or  authorized
storage  capacity  here  amounts  to
about 86  percent of average runoff.
Development has been directed large-
ly to the benefit of  irrigators. There
are 36 single-purpose irrigation dams
in  the basin,  and  15 multi-purpose
impoundments   include   irrigation
among their functions. The high level
of   irrigation   storage   capabilities
is  accompanied  by  corresponding
diversion capacity.   There  are 140
major gaged diversions  of the flows
of  the upper  and central  basins. A
substantial portion of the  total water
that  is  diverted  is  not  gaged,  par-
ticularly  in the central basin.

Flows  of  the  Snake  River  above
Milner   are   regulated   primarily
by four Bureau of Reclamation reser-
voirs—Lake Walcott, American Falls,
Palisades,  and  Jackson  Lake—with
active capacities totaling 3.8 million
acre-feet.  Over 97  percent of this
storage  is earmarked for  irrigation
use. and the regulation  of the  reser-
voirs  is designed primarily to bene-
fit irrigators.

There  is  no  systematized  body  of
rules  governing storage and release
decisions  relating to irrigation flows
except an agreement with  the Corps
of  Engineers to provide  flood control
on a  forecast basis. Actual practice
has been  to fill the  reservoirs in the
early  winter and allow surplus flows
to  spill in the  spring.  Stored flows
are then released as  needed for diver-
sion  during  the irrigation season.

The  actual  responsibility  of regula-
ting  storage  and  release  schedules
from  the reservoirs rests  with the
Bureau   of  Reclamation.   Once  the
water reaches the  stream,  a  water-
master,  elected by representatives of
the irrigation  districts, has the titular
 responsibility  of  regulating   diver-
 sions.  A unique group,   the  Com-

6. American Falls Dam and reservoir, filled  in this  photograph, provides 1.7 million acre-
feet of storage that is the key element in upper basin water management.  In late  summer
much of the broad, shallow reservoir is empty, after downstream irrigation withdrawals have
7. The  boat launching ramp of  a  private boating club  located at  American Falls  Reservoir
runs down to  dry dust in August. The  nearest  water—the channel of the  Snake  River—is
almost a mile  away.


                                                  vl J»—
8. Irrigation is the lifeblood to  the agriculture of the Snake Plain, but also
of pollution. Here ridge and furrow irrigation is used to grow sugar beets.
a major cause
                                                                                  mittee  of Nine,  made  up from the
                                                                                  membership of the districts, has the
                                                                                  responsibility of advising water com-
                                                                                  panies  with  regard to water distribu-
                                                                                  tion  questions.  The system  is ap-
                                                                                  parently operated much more inform-
                                                                                  ally  than  defined  responsibilities
                                                                                  would  indicate.  Storage and  release
                                                                                  decisions are often discussed with and
                                                                                  strongly   influenced  by  the   water-
                                                                                  master and  the  Committee of Nine.

                                                                                  Ground water is a valuable resource
                                                                                  in the Snake Basin. The estimated
                                                                                  supply of ground water  constitutes
                                                                                  well  over half of the Pacific North-
                                                                                  west's  total  ground-water reserves,
                                                                                  amounting  to  perhaps  160  million
                                                                                  acre-feet of recoverable storage and
                                                                                  11  million  acre-feet of annual  re-
                                                                                  charge. Principal  aquifers are in the
                                                                                  lowlands, with  the Snake Plain  in
                                                                                  the upper basin providing one of the
                                                                                  world's   outstanding   water-bearing
                                                                                  formations. Individual  wells situated
                                                                                  in this basaltic layer commonly yield
                                                                                  more than 1,000 gallons per  minute,
                                                                                  some have  achieved yields of  9,000
                                                                                  gpm. Ground-water problems include
                                                                                  hardness, local mineral  excesses, and
                                                                                  degradation of quality  as a result  of
                                                                                  irrigation and subsurface  disposal  of
 Water Uses

 Irrigation  far  outweighs any other
 use of Snake  River  waters. In  1965
 almost 3.4 million acres of the basin's
 lands were irrigated, an  increase of
 one and a half million acres over the
 level  existing  15  years  ago.  The
 economic  patterns that have  caused
 the Snake Basin to produce and pro-
 cess a steadily growing  portion  of
 the Nation's food  supply  maintain a
 steady pressure on irrigation capac-
 ity,  because   irrigation  is   a  pre-
 requisite to agricultural  production
 in the Snake Plain. The water needs
 imposed  by  the level  of irrigation
 development are enormous. The aver-
 age  water  diversion  rate  in the area
 has  been estimated at over four feet
 per  acre.  With  the  1967 level  of
 development, a total  demand of  15 to
 20 million  acre-feet is indicated. With
 potential irrigation  development,  an
 eventual water need  for irrigation
 purposes  of  up to 40 million  acre-
 feet would be required.

'-.J>  £.t
                , -. . &> T STT'WVS-

 Several distinct and significant fish-
 eries exist in the Snake Basin and are
 a  unique and  valuable resource of
 the area. Most  important of these in
 terms  of broad economic impact is
 the migratory salmon fishery of the
 lower  basin. The watershed's  resi-
 dent fish include salmonid and warm-
 water  game  fish. Both classes  are
 intensely sought by sport fishermen.
 The anadromous  fishery, in addition
 to being a source  of recreational fish-
 ing, is  also an important  source of
 the commercial salmon  catch of the
 Pacific  banks  and   the  Columbia
 River,   contributing   an  estimated
 eight million pounds annually. Qyer
 300,000  fish—abnnf  61  p«"Tpt  nf
the anadromous fish other than blue-
back  passing McNary  Dam—enter
the Snake system each year and make
the lower Snake the most important
production  area in  the  Columbia
River  system.  While summer runs
are the largest upstream  migration,
migrant salmon  utilize the waters of
the lower basin throughout the year.
By far the most important tributary
for fish  production is the Salmon

Resident  salmonids  abound  in the
Snake  River  Basin  and  provide  a
high quality game fishery. Trout of
various species occur throughout the
basin and Kokanee, a prized type of
landlocked salmon, is found in a few
lakes. Warm-water game fish, though
generally  considered less  desirable
than the salmonids,  are nevertheless
intensively  pursued by   sportsmen,
particularly in the reservoirs and in
those areas  which are suited to pro-
duction of salmonid fish.

 Municipal and Industrial
 Water Supply
There are roughly two hundred in-
dividual municipal water supply sys-
tems and an additional one hundred
industrial plants which provide their
own water  supplies  in  the   Snake
Basin.  These  cities  and   industries,
together  with  the  unincorporated
population of the basin, require over
360 million gallons of water a day
(mgd). Ground  water is  the princi-
pal source supplying municipal and
and industrial water requirements in
the basin;  over  70 jercent of the
municipal population is  served by
ground water  only, another 25 per-
                                                      ESTIMATED MAXIMUM RUNS OF SALMON
                                                              AND  STEELHEAD  TO THE
                                                               SNAKE RIVER SYSTEM *
 Columbia River
Put McNary Dam
                                                                                    Snake River
                                                                                                       % of Columbia
                                           Fall Chinook
                                           Spring Chinook
                                                                 Data Source: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Adults upstream
Spawning & egg
incubat ion
Juveniles in
Finger Hngs










i Sk
















Main st m & Salmon R.
Main st m & Grande Ronde R.
Main st m & tribs. below Oxbow Dam.
Tribs o Salmon R. & Snake R. below Oxbow Dam.
Redfish Lakes.
Tribs. below Oxbow Dam & main stem Snake R.
Main stem below Oxbow.
Redfish Lakes.
Grande Ronde R.
Tribs. of Clearwater, Salmon & Snake below Oxbow.

Main stem and tributaries.
                                           Species legend:  SCh—Spring Chinook; FCh—Fall Chinook; Sk—Sockeye; Coho--Coho; SH—Steelhead.
                                                             ANADROMOUS FISH ACTIVITIES

Study Areas
Salmon River
Grande Ronde River
Imnaha River
Snake River c/
Pine Creek
Asotin Creek
Other Tributaries

Resident Fish a/


71,500 290,000
86,000 243,000
a/ Includes immature anadromou
b/ Rate of S5.78 per
Circular 120,
s fish.

tures b_/
$ 413,270

angler-day derived from data
USDI. 1960


in Nation


Adult Anadr
tures £/
$ 635,800

al Survey of Hunting

omous Fis
• --



tures d/

and Fishing.

d/ No data available.
Source: r. S. Fish
nn,l VUJlife Service. Survey
of Middle Sn.ike :
asin. November 1964.

9. The  mailboat, Idaho  Queen, carries passengers  up  the  Snake  River where they  enjoy
          and fishing.
10. Hot,  dry summers  in the Snake Valley make  boating  and  recreation popular on  the
Snake  River.
cent is  served by a  combination  of
surface  and ground water, and only
four communities are served  li\  MII
face water alone. Most significant in-
dustrial  water users  have developed
adequate independent  ground-water
supplies, though  a few are served by
municipal   systems.  Ground-water
supplies  are  generally   of   suitable
quality  and require only disinfection.
Further  treatment is generally associ-
ated with surface sources.

Municipal and  industrial water  re-
quirements have  been projected by
applying the factors for use per capita
or  per  unit of  output  to  projected
population  and  output  levels.  The
demand  for municipal and  industrial
waters  in  the Snake  is  expected  to
increase more than threefold by 2O20.
amounting to 512 mgd by 1'JHU, 811T
mgd  by  2000.  and  1.110  mgd by
2020.  Municipal  and industrial  de-
mands are expected  to remain nearly
equal throughout the planning period.
\\ater  >upply needs  of  the Snake
Basin arc becoming increasingly con-
centrated.  At the present time.  o\er
three-fourths  of  the total municipal
and industrial requirements occur in
the  eight  major  service areas; and
this percentage  is  expected  to  in-
crease >teadil\.


The waters of the  Snake support  a
\ariet\  of t\pes  of recreation. Inten-
sil\  .if  use i< generally  unmeasured:
but  recreational sites are  numerous
and observation indicates that these
sites are  used  extensively.  Perhap-
the  most  obvious indication of the
generally  felt need  for  water-related
recreational sites is  the streamside
municipal park:  almost every town
has such a site.  Moating and swim-
ming are popular in the  river and the
reservoirs. In fact, the average num-
ber  of  \isitor days on  publicly  ad-
ministered  reservoirs offering  boat-
ing and swimming opportunities has
averaged 1.6  million in  recent years.
Sport fishing is  an even greater at-
traction  in the  basin than  boating.
The I .  S. Fish  and Wildlife Service
has  estimated that  the  anadromous

fishery  resource  of  the  lower basin
is   primarily  responsible   for ap-
proximately 2.7 million  angler days
of sport fishing in the Pacific North-
west.   Scattered  surveys  at  other
places   indicate  20.000  fisherman
days for  American  Falls  and  Pali-
sades Reservoirs,  and up  to 12,000
fisherman days for Wallowa Lake.
Outdoor  recreation contributes  sub-
stantially to the economy of the basin.
Each  fall the Twin Falls area  ex-
periences  an  influx of  hunters  in
pursuit of migratory waterfowl. The
high Wallowas in  Oregon  and  the
Clearwater drainage in  Idaho have
experienced considerable  recreational
development, with  guides  and  sup-
pliers serving the  large  numbers of
campers,  hikers,   fishermen,  and
hunters  who annually  make  use  of
the  outstanding forest  and water re-
sources of these areas.

Hydroelectric Power

A  number  of hydroelectric  power
dams  impound the Snake River and
its  tributaries, and construction  of
several mammoth  generating facili-
ties is scheduled before 1980. While
electric  power production  does  not
constitute a depletion of the resource.
it does have effects on  water quality.
Impounding  the waters  usually  has
both beneficial and detrimental qual-
ity-modifying effects,  while  the  op-
eration of turbines to meet integrated
power system schedules may  impose
irregularities in streamflow.


With completion of a  scheduled ser-
ies  of Columbia  and  Snake River
dams,  the Columbia's navigational
pool for  barge traffic  will extend to
Lewiston and Clarkston on the lower
Snake  River. Quality requirements
for navigation are  insignificant,  and
the quality effects of navigation are
generally  not  severe.   Accidental
spills, unregulated bilge pumping, and
 deposits of silt and sand from channel
 dredging, however, bear the potential
 for localized and intermittent quality
11. Capable of generating  more electricity than any  other plant in  Idaho  is the  450,000
kilowatt  Brownlee Dam powerhouse,  completed in  1959  by  Idaho Power  Company.  The
huge rockfill embankment that stores Snake River water for the powerhouse was the world's
second-highest such structure at the time of its  completion.

                                                                                  The importance of the aesthetic qual-
                                                                                  ity of water has been  demonstrated
                                                                                  by the inhabitants of the Snake River
                                                                                  Basin who have  concentrated beside
                                                                                  the Snake River and  a few  major
                                                                                  tributaries. All but two  of the larger
                                                                                  communities  of  the  basin—Nampa
                                                                                  and  Mountain  Home—are  located
                                                                                  along  the  banks  of  a river.  The
                                                                                  Snake  River has historically been—
                                                                                  and  continues to be—the main  east-
                                                                                  west  line of  passage  between  the
                                                                                  northern  Pacific Coast and the re-
                                                                                  gions of the Nation lying beyond the
                                                                                  Rockies. Thus, those who live in the
                                                                                  area and those  who pass through  it
                                                                                  are  constantly in view of  water.

                                                                                  Intensity  of  water-based  recreation,
                                                                                   increasing  prevalence of streamside
                                                                                   residence, and ubiquity of the stream-
                                                                                  bank park all testify to the  growing
                                                                                  appreciation   of  the  importance   of
                                                                                   water's presence to the social  well-
                                                                                  being  of  the basin's inhabitants. The
                                                                                  nature  of the physical environment
                                                                                   is recognized, locally  as well as na-
                                                                                  tionally, to be important in terms  of
                                                                                  community feeling, productivity, and
                                                                                   personal  satisfaction.
12. An unpolluted river, the Lochsa, exemplifies the scenic and recreational resources of the
non-irrigation watercourses of the  Snake  River  Basin.


 13.  Water skiers enjoy the placid  waters of  Wallowa  Lake, situated in the center of a vast
 recreational region east of La Grande.  Swimmers and fishermen are  also attracted  to the
 lake.  Nearby are  picnic and  overnight  camping  units, and  in  the  towering Wallowa Moun-
 tains is the  Eagle Cap Wilderness  Area,  which may be reached only by hiking or horseback.


                                       Water quality problems exist in the
                                       Snake River system in the form of
                                       impaired uses of water or of poten-
                                       tial  uses  lost because  of degraded
                                       water  quality. The  most dramatic
                                       problem has  been the  loss  to the
                                       fishery. Fish  kills  have  occurred at
                                       Milner Reservoir in 1960,1961, 1962,
                                       and 1966; at American  Falls Reser-
                                       voir; and in the Portneuf and lower
                                       Boise Rivers. In each case the cause
                                       has  been  a  combination   of  in-
                                       adequately  treated toxic  or  oxygen-
                                       demanding  wastes and  low stream-
                                       flows. The  fishery has also been af-
                                       fected by occasional high water tem-
                                       peratures in  the  lower  Snake,  pre-
                                       venting the migration of salmon up
                                       the system  for several weeks.

                                       Other problems have been less inten-
                                       sive  but  have also  resulted in  im-
                                       paired water use. For example,  the
                                       City of Twin Falls was forced to
                                       abandon its Snake River water supply
                                       as a result of tastes and odors associ-
                                       ated with decay of aquatic growths
                                        and  other   waste loads  in  Milner
                                       Reservoir.  Bacterial  contamination
                                       has also  made  water-contact recrea-
                                       tion undesirable in several  stretches
                                       of the river.

                                        The most  chronic problem in  the
                                        Snake River is the  damages caused
                                        by aquatic  growths which break loose
                                        from the  rocks  or  shallow stream
                                        beds and float downstream in rafts or
                                        sink in deep, slow-moving  pools to
                                        create bottom  oxygen  demand. Ir-
                                        rigators have suffered increased costs
                                        and inconvenience when these  dense
                                        masses of aquatic vegetation have in-
                                        terfered  with  water   transmission,
                                        recreationalists have abandoned cer-
                                        tain areas because  of  the  disagree-
                                        able appearance  of  aquatic growths,
                                        and the fishery  in American Falls
                                        Reservoir has been adversely affected
                                        by heavy algal blooms.

14. Milner  Reservoir was the  scene cif  recurring fish kills  in  the  early  nineteen-sixties,  the
result  of  tilt- discharge of untreated industrial  wa-te,.  streamflow  interruption  by  upstream
storage reservoir-, and  iiv cover.  •riiands  of fi-h  w.-r<- piled in  windrows tiluli..n  of  primary  waste  treatment  by  potato
processor* provid.-.l a  ihree-yeai  r.-lief  from  fi-h  kill-.  Uul in  the early  winter of   .966  a
fourth  massive  kill oivurred.

     Water   quality  problems  in  the
  Snake are best described in terms of
  the  water  quality  standards  which
  prescribe  the criteria  for  each  use
  and  serve  as  a  guide  in defining
  problem areas. A detailed  discussion
  of these criteria will not be presented
  in this report; a table in the appendix
  shows  the  specific  levels of criteria
  required  for each use  in  the  Snake
  Dissolved   Oxygen
  Dissolved  oxygen  (oxygen  held  in
  solution in a given amount of water)
  provides the  basic respiratory supply
  for  most  living   aquatic  organisms,
  including  not  only  fish  and   other
  higher  life forms but also the bacteria
  which consume organic matter. When
  oxygen  levels are depleted, fish and
  other  desirable   organisms  are  in-
  hibited  or  killed  and  the  stream  or
  reservoir  can be converted  into an
  odor-producing  nuisance.

  Instances   of low  dissolved oxygen
  occur   intermittently  in   the  South
  Fork Teton  River and  Henrys  Fork
  below the  Teton  River;  in the Boise
  River;  and in  American  Falls,  Mil-
  ner. and Brownlee Reservoirs. A gen-
  eralized dissolved oxygen  profile  of
  the main  stem  Snake under  summer
  and winter  conditions  shows severe
  depressions   occurring  at  Brownlee
  and Milner Reservoirs.  The levels  of
  oxygen are at times substandard  (be-
  low  5 ing/liter)  in other reaches  of
  the lower  river.  Levels in  irrigation
  drains and in the lower Boise  River
  have approached  zero. Fish kills have
  occurred  in  Milner and  American
  Falls Reservoirs   and  in  the  lower
  Boise River because of depleted oxy-
  gen  levels.

  The principal  causes  of  dissolved
  oxygen  problems  are the extreme low
  flows caused by the operation of stor-
  age  reservoirs,  by  irrigation  with-
  drawals,  and  by  untreated or  in-
  adequately  treated  wastes.  Because
  organic  wastes  also  use  up  oxygen
  when  they  decompose,   the   small
 quantity of oxygen which exists under
  low  flow  conditions is  quickly  de-
 pleted;  even  with a  high degree of
 waste treatment, enough water must
 be  available  to  assimilate  residual
 loadings to the stream.  The principal
 source of organic wastes  causing  dis-
 solved oxygen depletion is potato and
 sugar processing, but  inadequately
                        POLLUTION  PROBLEM AREAS

 1. South Fork Teton  R.
   and Henry's Fork below
   the Teton R.
 2. Snake River below
   Idaho Falls
 3. Snake River above
   American Falls Res.
 4. Portneuf River below
 5. American Falls
 6. Milner Reservoir

 7. Rock Creek

 8. Boise River
 9. Brownlee-Oxbow
10. Lewiston-Clarkston
11. South Fork Palouse
                         Problem Conditions
Low dissolved oxygen (DO)
High bacterial counts
Low 00.
High bacterial counts
                         High bacterial counts
Low pH. high POjt sludge
beds  &  high  bacterial

Aquatic growths. DO. de-
pression.  High  pesticide
levels  High sediment con-

Low winter DO.
High bacterial counts.
Aquatic growths.

Turbidity.  High bacterial
counts. Odor problems.

Low DO. Sludge beds.
High pesticide levels.
High bacterial counts.

Low DO. Aquatic growths

High bacterial counts.
High sediment concentra-
tions. High bacterial counts
Low DO.
Flow depletion due to irrigation withdrawals. Flow
interruption due to diversion structure maintenance.
Roger's Bros, potato wastes (Rexburg). Rexburg
municipal sewage.

Streambed dried by irrigators withdrawing water
prior to discharge from upstream reservoirs. Flow
interruption due to diversion structure maintenance.
Municipal and industrial wastes.

Blackfoot municipal wastes.
Phosphate processing by J. R. Simplot & FMO Co.
Septic tank drainage. Untreated dairy waste. Flood-
ed pastures.

High nutrient levels. Algal decomposition. Agricul-
tural runotf. Residual waste loads.
Municipal wastes—Burley. Heyburn. Food process-
ing waste—J. R. Simplot, Ore-Ida Foods. A &  P
Streamflow depletion due to irrigation storage.

Amalgamated Sugar Co.. leedlots. municipal wastes.
                                                Municipal & industrial waste.
                                                Flow interruption (or Lucky Peak Dam maintenance.
Algal decomposition. Residual wasteloads.

Inadequate municipal & industrial waste treatment.
Low (lows coupled with municipal waste discharge
from Moscow and Pullman.

                             Atailal.lr  Data  1<(62  .  I9bl>

15. Organic sludge  deposits, such as these on the Boise  River below Nolus, were common  a
le\> years  ago, a result of the discharge of untreated  wa«tr« "(  food processing.  Such sights
have largely disappeared  hum  tin-  Itni-r  Kivrr. but  are  not infrequent at other main Mem
Snake  locations in  the central  basin.

treated municipal  wastes contribute
to the problem, as do  decomposing
aquatic growths.

Bacterial  Pollution
The coliform  group  of bacteria  is
used  to  measure  the  bacterial  de-
terioration of water  quality because
these  bacteria  occur  in the  fecal
matter of all  warm-blooded  animals,
including man. Although these  may
also be found in plants or in the soil,
their presence in a body of water is
usually considered evidence of fecal
contamination.  Such  contamination
is an indication of a possible health
hazard  from  accompanying  patho-
genic  bacteria  and viruses and re-
stricts  the  use  of that  water  for
water-contact  recreation  or drinking
water  supplies.

In  general, coliform densities below
service areas  or  population  centers
in the Snake  Basin  are high  enough
that the  water  is considered unsuit-
able  for  water-contact  recreation.
High  bacterial  concentrations  are
found in  the Burley and Idaho Falls-
Shelley areas  and in the central basin
below the mouth of the Boise River.
The Boise River has consistently dis-
played  high bacterial counts.  Gener-
ally, levels above 1,000 MPN are con-
sidered  too high  for  water-contact

The cause  of bacterial pollution  in
the  Snake  Basin  poses  a  difficult
problem  of evaluation. Discharges of
sanitary  sewage are  unquestionably
responsible for many of the problems.
particularly below population concen-
trations.  However, a significant por-
tion of the problem is  derived from
the  large  animal  populations and
from runoff from the heavily irrigat-
ed agricultural basin.

Animal populations are concentrated
to  the extent that  their wastes exert
a distinct effect on water quality in
several stream  reaches.  Half  of the
basin's cattle  are found  within twenty
miles of  either  side of  the Snake and
Boise  Rivers  in  three areas:  (1)
along the Snake River between Lake
Walcott Reservoir and  the mouth of
the  Big  Wood (Malad)  River,  (2)
in  the lower Boise River Valley, and
 131  in  the  central  basin between
Adrian  and  the  head  of Brownlee
 Pool.   In these  three  areas  about
800.000  cattle—and significant num-
                                          I Median Most Probable  Number   No./100ml

                                          | Mean Membrane Filler    No./100ml
16. Thousands of beef animals are fenced into these  fields outside Burley, Idaho. Drainage
from  lands  containing such concentrated animal  populations constitutes  a  significant source
of  water pollution.

bers of  the other farm animals—are
clustered in about 5,300 square miles.
Their relative closeness to the rivers
in areas laced with irrigation drains
ensures that the wastes of these ani-
mals  constitute  a  significant  source
of bacteria.

Thermal  Pollution
Water temperature is  critical to the
anadromous and resident fisheries of
the Snake Basin and to the aesthetic
quality  of  many  of the  system's
streams. Anadromous  fish  require
relatively low  temperatures to mi-
grate, spawn,  and develop;  higher
temperatures  delay  migration,  ac-
celerate  disease,  and generally re-
duce the survival  rate of young fish.
In  addition,  high  temperatures  stim-
ulate  the  productivity  of  aquatic
plants,  act   as  a  catalyst  to  algal
blooms, and reduce  the  dissolved
oxygen resource of the stream.

High temperature levels—above the
68° F. criterion set for  anadromous
and resident fish—exist in the central
and  lower  main  stem  Snake River
each summer. High  water tempera-
tures also plague the many reservoirs
of  the system, particularly Brownlee.
where  stratification occurs  and top
 layers  are   thoroughly  warmed  by
 solar  radiation.  A  most  dramatic
 temperature  problem occurred in the
 fall of 1967 when  the Chinook salmon
 run remained in the cooler waters  of
 the Columbia River at the mouth  of
 the Snake for  almost a month until
 temperatures  in  the  lower  Snake
 River dropped  several degrees.

 The cause of temperature problems is
 related  to the  impoundment of the
 free-flowing stream  and the use  of
 the system  for irrigation. Flow  de-
 pletion  due  to  storage and diversion
 and the surface  return  of irrigation
 waters  warmed  on   fields  combine
 with   solar   radiation  to  increase
 temperature levels.

 Disposal of  cooling  waters  used  in
 nuclear power  generation may cause
 additional  thermal pollution  in  the
 Snake River system. Battelle-North-
 west  has proposed the  western side
 of American Falls Reservoir on the
 Snake River as  a typical  site  for a
 nuclear power installation. The  ad-
 dition  of any heat  burden to this
 stretch  of the river would raise water
 temperatures   even   higher   during
 summer months.

Suspended Solids
Sediment and suspended solids result
in turbid  conditions which  hamper
fish  spawning,  recreation,  and  the
aesthetic beauty of the river. In the
spring, turbidity is particularly no-
ticeable in the main stem in the lower
basin  and in lower basin tributaries
such as  the  Palouse,  Tucannon,  and
Asotin Rivers.  During periods  of
high runoff, sediment concentrations
reach  objectionable  levels  through-
out  the  basin.  Inorganic materials
are visible in the waters of the Port-
neuf  River below the J. R.  Simplot
phosphate -  processing  plant  near
Pocatello and result in thick, unsight-
ly bank  and bottom  deposits. In ad-
dition,  irrigation   returns   are  a
summer  source of localized turbidity.
Aquatic Growths
Perhaps the  most characteristic water
quality  problem of the Snake River
Basin is the excessive aquatic growths
which detract from the beauty of the
streams,  clog irrigation canals, and
eventually  die,  creating sludge de-
posits and  oxygen  demands. Thick
blooms  of algae make the waters  of
 the  upper and central  basins a char-
 acteristic   opaque  green.   Floating
 rafts  of algae  are  prevalent  on the
 surface  of the Snake and form cling-
 ing  slimes  where  they  adhere  to
rocks and banks.  As  these growths
die and  decay, they release nutrients
for new growths and become a prin-
 cipal  source of oxygen demand in the
 basin. They cause a noticeable  fluc-
 tuation  in  dissolved  oxygen  levels
during night and day  as the  plants'
 respiration  and  transpiration  pro-
 cesses  alternate. An  August  1967
 fish kill in American Falls Reservoir
 was   attributed  to   algal   oxygen

 The cause of these  excessive aquatic
 growths  is  related to  the high con-
 centrations  of  basic  nutrients—nit-
 rogen and phosphorus— in the Snake
 system.  The main  sources  of waste
 phosphorus in the basin are the J.  R.
 Simplot   Company  and  the  FMC
 Corporation near  Pocatello.  Phos-
 phate concentrations   rise   steadily
 through the upper  basin, then jump
 enormously at the head of American
 Falls  Reservoir, where the  Portneuf
 River deposits  these wastes.  In ad-
 dition,  natural phosphate  levels,  ir-
 rigation  return  flows,   municipal
 wastes,  animal  wastes, and the decay
17. Aquatic vegetation manifests itself throughout  the southern  sweep of the  Snake River
in  the form of  rooted  growths, uprooted and floating growths, algal  slime clusters,  and
water of  the color and  seeming consistency of pea soup.


of aquatic biota all contribute to the
nutrient  balance   which  stimulates
aquatic growths.

Another  factor  compounding  the
problem is  the system  of  impound-
ments  on the Snake  River. When a
free-flowing  stream is  changed into
a  series of  pools,  the aquatic en-
vironment  becomes more susceptible
to algae and  other plant productivity.
Temperature, stratification, and de-
tention time  all  serve to increase bio-
logical productivity.

Toxic Substances
Toxics have resulted in intermittent
water  quality   problems at  several
points   in  the  basin.   Highly acid
waste  discharges  to  the  Portneuf
River  have been reported to result  in
a pH low enough  to kill fish. A brief
survey of  incidence  of pesticides  in
the Boise River by the USGS during
the  summer  of  1965   showed  that
concentrations   of dieldrin  in the
lower  river were at a level generally
intolerable  to   fish.  Fall   1964 fish
kills at C. J. Strike Reservoir were
attributed to pesticides when  chlorin-
ated hydrocarbons \vere found  in the
fish.  Dead  fish in  American Falls
Reservoir in 1966 also showed lethal
levels  of pesticides. Thus the evidence
that  there is  a  continual, and not al-
ways sublethal. presence of pesticides
in the  waters passing through  major
agricultural  areas  of  the watershed
continues to  accumulate.

The  Atomic  Energy  Commission's
 National   Reactor  Testing  Station
 INRTS I at  Arco.  Idaho dispose-*  of
low-level liquid radioactive wastes by
discharging to  ponds for seepage into
the ground or  by discharging  direct-
ly to the ground beneath the NRTS.
Since  a  major portion of NRTS lies
within  the  ground-water  recharge
area   for  the  Snake   River   Plain
aquifer, the  most productive aquifer
in the I nited  States and the  largest
ground-water reserve in the Pacific
Northwest, the potential for ground-
water  contamination  has concerned
water  resources agencies  since  the
installation  was  established.  The
 monitoring system maintained by the
 AEC has not shown dangerous levels
 of radioactivity  in ground water ex-
 cept  direct!) below  the installation.
 The FWPCA has recommended, how-
ever, that  injection  of  these  wastes
be   eliminated  to  safeguard  the
ground-water  reservoir—so vital  to
the State of  Idaho and to the Pacific-
 18. Tile National Reactor Testing Station near Idaho Falls is  lite world's largest anil most ad-
 vanceel niu-lear testing  complex.  The cooling towers shown are an example  of  adequate
 treatment of waste heat. Low  level radioactive wastes at this  station are injected directly
 into the ground water and could threaten the Snake Plain aquifer.

 19. The  use of high quality  water extends beyond  the  bounds of  physical contact with the
 resource. Here towering cliffs channel spectacular rapids and provide scenic  enjoyment.


                                          The  existing  programs  to  control
                                          water pollution  in  the  Snake  River
                                          Basin range from energetic state ac-
                                          tivities to Federal financial assistance
                                          to  broad interagency planning. Pri-
                                          mary responsibility rests with  the
                                          state agencies: other programs  are
                                          designed to offer assistance and pro-
                                          vide  capabilities beyond the scope of
                                          state water pollution control budgets.
                                          The  following  section  summarizes
                                          the  many activities  directed toward
                                          abating pollution in the Snake Basin.

                                          Waste Treatment

                                          Cities,  states.  Federal  agencies, and
                                          industries have exerted increasing ef-
                                          forts in recent years to control  pollu-
                                          tion  in the Snake River Basin. Initi-
                                          ally  the principal  pollution control
                                          efforts  were  made by  cities  and
                                          states in developing and  improving
                                          facilities  for   the  treatment   of
                                          municipal wastes.  As the industrial
                                          activities in the basin  grew, indus-
                                          tries  joined in pollution  control ef-
                                          forts. Three factors have led to the
                                          growth of treatment capabilities:  (11
                                          public  awareness  of the  threat  of
                                          water pollution has  created a climate
                                          of  opinion  favorable  to  advancing
                                          waste treatment; (21 energetic activi-
                                          ties of state agencies have  provided
                                          the impetus for  programs to control
                                          waste discharge; and  (3)  Federal
                                          construction grants  have helped  to
                                          make treatment plants  available  to

                                          Before  1954 the Snake River  Basin
                                          was  largely agricultural;  the   only
                                          points in the stream system receiving
                                          concentrated wastes were  those at or
                                          below  municipalities.   After  1954,
                                          however , there was a rapid increase
                                          in  industrial activities in the basin.
                                          with  concurrent  increases in popula-
                                          tion  density and waste production.
                                          Consequently,  more than  half of'the
                                          existing municipal treatment facilities
                                          were constructed after 1959. Between
                                          1959 and 1965  the  total  population
                                          served  with municipal  waste  treat-
                                          ment facilities rose  from 88.000  to
                                          over  380,000. Although pollution was
                                          not entirely  prevented  by this  ener-
                                          getic construction program, greater
                                          problems  would  have  occurred  in
                                          many more  areas if action had  not
                                          been  taken.

                                          Treatment  facilities  for   industrial
                                          wastes  also have been increased and

20.  Under construction  here,  the  Nampa,  Idaho sewage  treatment  plant provides secondary
waste treatment  for the City of Nampa, for the giant Amalgamated  Sugar Company refinery
at Nampa  (clarified  wastes  are  piped through  the conduit crossing  Indian Creek),  for the
General Foods  Company  vegetable freezing  plant,  for  the Western Idaho  Potato  Growers
potato  processing plant, and  for several  smaller food processing firms.  The combined  treat-
ment facility achieves a considerably higher  than average waste  reduction  efficiency  while
lessening construction and operating costs  of  waste treatment  for  all participants  in  its use.

improved  in  recent  years.  Indus-
trial  waste  treatment  has,  for  the
most part, come into being since 1960
and,  because of the complex nature
of industrial wastes,  lags  somewhat
behind  municipal  waste  treatment.
Through  the combined  efforts  of
state pollution  control agencies and
industries and  despite the  problems
of having  to develop new, specific
treatment methods for potato, sugar
and other food-processing wastes, the
overall level of industrial waste treat-
ment  has  risen  rapidly.   Although
there are still problems to  overcome,
many technical obstacles to effective
treatment have  been  solved  with
commendable competence  and  in-
genuity   by  state  and   industrial

Total organic  wastes  generated  in
 1967  were  equivalent to  that pro-
 duced   from a  population  of  6.4
 million  people*;  after   treatment
 about 2.6 "rmTlion population equiva-
 lents (P.E.) were discharged to the
 basin's  streams—a reduction of  al-
 most 60 percent. Of the  discharged
 load, over 90 percent or~2mnillion
 P.E. were from industrial  sources,  of
 which half emanated from potato pro-
 cessing. A summation of major waste
 loading sources by area can be found
 in the appendix. Seventy-five percent
 of the basin's discharged wastes occur
in the Idaho Falls, Burley, Twin Falls,
and Lewiston service areas.

Water  Quality

 The  concept of  water  quality  stan-
 dards is not a new idea to the Pacific
 Northwest  states.  Water quality ob-
 jectives were established and adopted
 in 1952 by an  interagency group,
 the Pacific Northwest Pollution Con-
 trol  Council. This group, consisting
 of representatives of both Federal and
 state agencies, established criteria for
 evaluating water quality requirements
 for the  uses occurring in the Snake
 Basin. These criteria were revised in
 1959, 1965,  and 1966 to account for
 changes in water uses and  waste load-
 ings. The  objectives provided  the
 basis for  the  formulation  of water
 quality standards as required by  the
 Federal Water Pollution Control Act
 as  amended by the  Water  Quality
 Act  of  1965.	
 * Population equivalent equal to 0.17 lb.-5-
   day biochemical oxygen  demand per
   person  per  day.
21. The Amalgamated Sugar Company's  Paul, Idaho  refinery achieves  a  reported  waste
reduction efficiency equal  to  that  of  secondary treatment through use of an  ingenious
system of  primary treatment and waste water  recycling.
                       1967 WASTE PRODUCTION
                                                               Equivalents  (Ft)


The adoption of water quality  stan-
dards by the Snake River Basin states
is probably the most  significant ac-
tion taken in recent years  to combat
pollution. Water quality standards are
composed of two  parts: the criteria
designed  to protect  present  and fu-
ture water uses of interstate waters
through   establishment  of  quality
levels  which  must  be maintained;
and a  plan of implementation which
outlines the necessary pollution abate-
ment procedures which will be taken
within the next five years to ensure
that these criteria  are  met on a con-
tinuing basis. In addition to pollution
control programs  for  domestic and
industrial wastes, the implementation
plans have recognized other pollution
problems such  as combined  sewer
overflows, agricultural waste waters,
vessel  and marina pollution, animal
feedlots,   land   erosion,  and   mine
drainage. As an added  impetus to the
standards program, the Secretary of
the Interior and most  states have in-
stituted a basic policy requirement
for all water quality standards which
states that the highest  and best  prac-
ticable  treatment  available   under
existing  technology  will be  applied
for all sources  of  pollution. In addi-
tion, the Secretary has stated that all
standards will contain  an  anti-degra-
dation provision which ensures that
interstate waters whose existing  qual-
ity is better than the established stan-
dards  as  of the date on which such
standards became effective  will be
maintained  at  that   existing   high
quality. These very important consid-
erations will ensure a  forward-thrust
program  of pollution control and
tend to enhance the quality of our
water resources.

Water quality  standards  for Idaho,
Oregon,   Washington   and  Nevada
have been substantially approved by
the  Secretary of the Interior.  Stan-
dards  for Wyoming and  Utah are
currently under review by the Secre-
tary. Once the standards  are accept-
ed  by the  Secretary,  they  become
Federal as well as state standards.

As part of the formal adoption pro-
cedure, public hearings were held in
each state to solicit public  view of
the proposed standards and to enlist
the support of various citizen groups
and public agencies for  established
water  uses  and criteria.   Comments
and suggestions from  these groups
 and other Federal agencies  were in-
 corporated  into  each water  quality
 standards  package. A copy  of the
 complete  set  of  each state's water
 quality standards is available to the
 public upon request from the follow-
 ing state agencies: Oregon State Sani-
 tary  Authority,  Washington  Water
 Pollution Control  Commission,  and
 the Idaho State Board of Health.

 Minimum  waste  treatment  require-
 ments calling  for secondary treat-
 ment  of  all  municipal  wastes  and
 secondary  treatment,  or  its  equiv-
 alent, of all  industrial  wastes have
 been established  in all water quality
 standards for  the interstate waters of
 the Snake River Basin. The plan of
 implementation emphasizes that such
 degree of treatment will  be placed in
 operation at the  majority of projects
 by 1972. Waste  treatment needs for
 the   basin   and  established  time
 schedules for  meeting these needs as
 outlined in the  state water  quality
 standards  implementation  plans are
 summarized in the appendix.

 FWPCA Activities
 The Federal Water Pollution Control
 Administration  has  provided assis-
 tance in the pollution control  activi-
 ties  in the Snake  River Basin. The
 Administration,  as directed by Con-
 gress in the Federal Water Pollution
 Control Act. is dedicated to a  strong
 program  of  pollution control  and
 abatement throughout the  Nation.
 The   Pacific   Northwest   Regional
 Office of the Administration provides
 these  functions   in the Snake River
 Basin. A description  of the  actions
 taken by the Regional Office  to con-
 trol  pollution  in  the  Snake  River
 Basin is provided below.

 Construction Grants
 With the enactment  of  the  Federal
 Water Pollution  Control Act,  revised
 in 1965. the Federal government pro-
 vided  for  a  Federal sewage treat-
 ment works construction grants pro-
 gram to help finance  the building of
 local  sewage  treatment  plants. The
 Federal government recognized that
 wastes  discharged from  municipal
 sewers are one of the major causes
 of water pollution. The rapid  growth
of population and its continuous trend
 toward urban centers have  resulted
 in a tremendous  increase in  the vol-
 ume of such wastes.
Since the 1956 Act,  a total of 111
Federal grants have  been  made  in
the Snake River  Basin to help com-
munities build needed  sewage treat-
ment facilities. Grant funds involved
in these projects have totaled  over
$6 million in support of total eligible
project expenditures in excess of $21
million. Almost three-fourths of the
111 grant projects have already been
completed and placed  in operation.
The  remaining projects  are either
under  construction or preparing  to
go  under construction in  the  very
near future.

The construction  grants section of the
Federal Act has  been  amended three
times since its initial passage in 1956.
The  trend of financial assistance has
provided   greater  flexibility  and
broader  coverage each time the Act
has  been amended. Today's  legisla-
tion allows  municipalities to  qualify
for a basic  Federal grant of 30 per-
cent of the eligible cost of a project.
A grant of  40 percent can  be made
in those states which agree  to match
the basic 30  percent  Federal grant.
The  Federal grant may be  increased
to 50  percent if the state  agrees to
pay  at least 25 percent of the project
cost and if  enforceable water quality
standards have been  established for
the waters into which  the project dis-
charges. A  grant may be  increased
by 10 percent—to 33. 44, or 55 per-
cent,  as appropriate—if the  project
is certified  by an appropriate metro-
politan or regional planning agency
as conforming with a  comprehensive
metropolitan area plan.

The States  of Washington  and Ore-
gon have enacted legislation to quali-
fy their municipalities for considera-
tion  for the  higher Federal grant per-
centages. The State of Idaho has not
yet  considered cost-sharing  legisla-
tion  to  achieve higher  Federal grant
percentages. Oregon and Idaho have
provisions  for  tax  allowances   on
waste treatment facilities.

Program Grants

Section 7 of the Water Pollution Con-
trol Act  authorizes an appropriation
of $10 million  annually for  fiscal
years 1968  through 1971 for grants
to state and  interstate agencies  to
assist them  in meeting the costs  of
establishing  and  maintaining  ade-
quate  pollution  control  programs.
Each state  is  allotted  $12.000, and

the remainder of the  funds is dis-
tributed on the basis of population,
financial need, and  the extent of the
water  pollution problems facing the

By June 1968, the fiscal  1968 alloca-
tion  to states of  the Snake  River
Basin  totaled  $255,886, distributed
as follows: Idaho,  $41,337; Oregon,
$91,445; Washington, $123,104.
Research  and
Demonstration  Grants
The Federal Water Pollution Control
Act authorizes  the  Federal  Water
Pollution Control Administration  to
conduct research directed toward con-
trolling water pollution problems.  It
also provides  for grants to public  or
private  agencies  and  individuals
demonstrating  new  and  improved
methods of water pollution control.

Major water quality problems in the
Snake River  Basin  have been at-
tributed  to the large waste loads dis-
charged by its many  potato-process-
ing  plants.  Federal   research  and
demonstration grants have, therefore,
been aimed at new methods of provid-
 ing treatment for such wastes.

 The FWPCA Pacific Northwest Water
 Laboratory at Corvallis has been par-
 ticipating in pilot plant  studies  for
 the  secondary  treatment of  potato
 wastes at Burley, Idaho for the 1966-
 67  and   1967-68  potato-processing
 season  in cooperation with  the State
 of Idaho and the Idaho Potato Pro-
 cessors Association. This research  is
 aimed  at demonstrating  successful
 secondary treatment of potato wastes
 through primary treatment and either
 completely mixed anaerobic lagoons
 followed by  mechanically aerated la-
 goons in series or mechanically aer-
 ated lagoons alone.

 The  demonstration grant  program  is
 also  involved  in  the   problem  of
 potato  wastes through a grant  to the
 R. T. French Company for demonstra-
 ting  full-scale  aerobic   secondary
 treatment of potato-processing wastes
 with mechanical aeration. The grant
 of about  $480,000  of  the  $700,000
 total cost  will cover two years  of op-
 eration.  It is hoped  that the study
 will  demonstrate aerobic biological
 treatment of potato  wastes, develop
22. Sediment  control structure  in  small  draw.  Flagstaff watershed improvement  project,
Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. By means of sharp-crested weir and crest gage, peak water
flows can  also be calculated. Extensive contouring and grass seeding  has been  done in  this
area to reduce surface runoff, erosion, and  stream sedimentation.

design criteria  for  such  treatment
plants, and establish construction and
operation costs.

Further  research  on potato  wastes
might include methods for  secondary
treatment  of  potato  starch  plant
wastes and treatment of  solids  re-
sulting   from  secondary  treatment
plants  developed for potato wastes.

Other  research  applicable  to  the
Snake River  Basin  should include
the study  of wastes from feedlots,
water  quality impacts  of  irrigation
return flows, and water quality as-
pects  of algal ecology.

Interstate  Enforcement
Despite  efforts  by cities,  states and
industries  to control and  to prevent
pollution, serious pollution problems,
as described previously, have develop-
ed  in the basin. Increased efforts to
combat these problems have stimulat-
ed  increased involvement of the Fed-
eral government in pollution matters
of  the basin. Significant elements of
the involvement include the calling of
a "Conference in the Matter of Pollu-
tion of  the Interstate Waters  of the
Snake   River  and   its  Tributaries
 (Idaho-Washington),"  on  January
15, 1964.

Results  of the conference were  in-
creased  awareness  of  the need to
correct  pollution-creating  problems
in  the Lewiston-CIarkston area  and
the development of a plan of action
to  correct the existing pollution. En-
suing action led  to some improve-
ment in waste treatment practices and
plans  to  improve  other practices
 when the Lower  Granite  project  is

  Federal Installations
There are over 800 Federal installa-
tions in the Snake River Basin, rang-
ing from a complex  industrial-re-
search operation of the Atomic Ener-
 gy  Commission  to Forest  Service
campgrounds and local post  offices
 in small  towns.  Wastes  from these
 installations have a significant im-
 pact  on  the  water quality   of  the
 Snake   River  Basin.  Under   Execu-
 tive Order 11288, these installations
 have been ordered  to  literally clean
 house as an example to others in the
 basin and to the  rest of the  Nation.
The  Order  directs each  agency  to
present to the Bureau  of the Budget
each year a phased and orderly plan
that  shows measures  and  facilities
needed by the agency to correct  or
prevent pollution.  These plans are
reviewed by the FWPCA and project
priorities are established on the basis
of the severity of the pollution prob-
lem  in regard to legitimate  water
uses, enforcement actions, and applic-
able water quality standards. Second-
ary treatment or its equivalent is the
minimum treatment that is acceptable
under the order for all projects.

Other  Federal  activities must also
comply with Executive Order  11288
to reduce pollution from such activ-
ities to the lowest practicable level.
The head of each Federal department,
agency,  or establishment  must con-
duct a review of loan,  grant, and con-
tract  practices  of his own  organiza-
tion to determine what water pollu-
tion  requirements set forth  in  the
order  must be met  by borrowers,
grantees, or contractors. As a result
of such  reviews,  pollution  control
practices are  incorporated in many
programs  involving Federal  partici-
pation. Urban renewal projects now
require the construction  of separate
storm  and sanitary   sewer systems
rather than combined  sewers. The
nationwide highway construction pro-
gram,  financed with  Federal funds
and administered by  the Bureau of
Public Roads,  is now  being conduct-
ed in accordance with practices aim-
ed at  preventing  water  pollution
either  during construction or during
periods  of operation and mainten-
ance.  The  various agencies  consult
with the Federal Water Pollution Con-
trol Administration in  an effort to
ensure  maximum consideration  of
water  quality  in  their activities.

 Public Information
 The public information  program of
 the Federal Water Pollution Control
 Administration is designed  to pre-
 sent facts about water pollution con-
 trol  to  the news media,  interested
 groups  and  organizations, and  the
 public in general. The program serves
 the public's right to  know what the
 FWPCA is doing and  trying to ac-
 complish.  It  also serves those who
 need particular information in order
 to participate effectively  in  water
 pollution  control programs.
Under the Water Pollution  Control
Act, the  Secretary of the Interior is
charged  with the  responsibility  of
preparing comprehensive programs in
cooperation with  the states to elimin-
ate  pollution of interstate  waters.
Under the direction of the Secretary,
the  FWPCA has  been  conducting
studies in the Snake Basin to develop
a program to delineate water supply
and water quality  requirements for
the present and the future.

 The FWPCA also  has the responsi-
bility  of  participating in the Water
Resources Council Task  Force Study
 of  the Columbia-North Pacific Re-
gion. Such participation adds to the
 awareness of all Federal and  state
 agencies  concerning  water  quality
 and pollution control problems and
 the importance of water quality con-
 trol in  the planning  of land  and
 water  resource development  projects.

 Since  enactment of the  flow regula-
 tion amendment to the Federal Water
 Pollution Control Act in 1961, over
 20 construction agency projects have
 been  reviewed  by  FWPCA in  the
 Snake River Basin.  Each  has  been
 examined for its  water quality regula-
 tion capability and/or its diversion-
 ary and land waste impact on  water
 quality.  A list of potential  reservoir
 developments can  be found in  the

 Most  recently, the  FWPCA  has been
 involved with   other  bureaus and
 offices of the Department of the In-
 terior in studying the resources po-
 tential of the Middle Snake River.
 The study included several alterna-
 tive  hydropower dam and  reservoir
 sites, including High Mountain Sheep,
 Appaloosa,  and  Pleasant  Valley.
 Each alternative  was  evaluated  to
 determine  its beneficial and  detri-
 mental effects on all water  uses.

 In addition to the water quality data
 collected under programs of the state
 pollution control agencies,  the  U. S.
 Geological  Survey,  the agencies of
 the  Department of  Agriculture, the
 state  and  Federal  fishery  agencies,
 and  the colleges  and  universities,
 FWPCA has maintained monitoring
 stations on the Snake River at Payette
 in the central basin and at  Wawawai
 and Ice Harbor in the lower basin

 23. Automatic water quality monitors.
 maintained by the FWPCA, provide a
 continuous record of such criteria as
 dissolved oxygen and  temperature. The
 most  recent  installation  in the Snake
 Basin has been at Milner Reservoir.
and has made several seasonal sur-
veys  to  identify water quality con-
ditions,  waste sources, and  correct-
ive measures  required to  achieve de-
sired water quality.

Other Federal Programs

 Financial  Assistance
 In  addition  to  construction  grants
 made available through the FWPCA,
 other Federal agencies assist states
 and local communities in funding for
 facilities to  handle domestic wastes.
 The  Department of Housing and Ur-
 ban  Development is able  to make
 loans for  water  and sewer facilities;
 the  Department  of  Commerce  can
 provide grants and  loans for public
 works   in   economically  distressed
 areas;  and  the  Farmers  Home Ad-
 ministration  can  provide  grants and
 loans for water supply  and waste
 treatment and disposal  systems  for
 rural communities.

 Land  Management
 and Construction
 One of  the  undesirable  impacts  on
 water quality is production of  sedi-
 ment  and  resultant turbidity  from
 construction activities such  as those
  of the  Federal Highway  Administra-
  tion, Bureau of Public  Roads, De-
  partment of Defense, Bureau of Re-
  clamation, Forest Service,  Soil  Con-
  servation Service, and other agencies
  involved  in  disruption of the surface
  soils. Guidelines have been  developed
  by each agency to control production
  of  unwanted  sediment.   Executive
  Order  11288 requires  agencies  in-
  volved  in construction  activities to
  prevent pollution  from  their activ-

  Even more  significant in the Snake
  Basin are the effects on water quality
  resulting from  management  of land
  and  water  resources under  Federal
  ownership.  Since about 67 percent of
  the basin is owned by  the  Federal
  government,  the responsibility, also
  covered  by  Executive  Order 11288,
  of taking the lead in improving  water
  quality through  better   management
  rests in  Federal hands.  The various
  land   management  agencies  have
  developed   required  treatment  and
  management procedures to  reduce the
  impacts  on  water quality  from land
A few examples of ongoing programs
typify the concern  of  land manage-
ment agencies for water quality. The
Agricultural Research  Service has a
watershed study on Reynolds Creek
designed to identify the meteorolog-
ical, soil,  water,  and management
relationships.  In  addition, a labora-
tory facility is located at Twin Falls
to research soil, water, and plant re-
lationships. Two  areas of  concern
are  the high sediment  yields from
erosion  of the Snake Plains in  the
upper  and central  Snake basins and
the Palouse soils in the lower basin,
which are the subject of  studies  by
the  Agricultural  Research  Service,
Soil Conservation  Service,  Agricul-
tural Extension Service,  and Wash-
ington  State  University at Pullman,
Washington.  Because  of the large
percentage   of   rangeland,  erosion
control by reseeding, grazing control,
 removal of brush  by  herbicides and
 road building practices of the Forest
 Service and Bureau of Land Manage-
 ment  are  important.  The Vale Pro-
 ject, under  the  sponsorship of  the
 Bureau of Land Management, is a
 good example of developing a system
 involving  irrigation to provide vege-
 tation  for soil stability as well as for
 forage for both domestic animals and

 The  Corps  of  Engineers  provides
 specifications in  construction  con-
 tracts to minimize adverse effects on
 water   quality   and  fishlife.   The
 Bureau of  Public  Roads  under  the
 Federal Highway Act  of 1966  has
 developed, with the assistance of the
 Soil Conservation Service, guidelines
 for  minimizing  erosion effects  on
 streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Most
 of  the  basin is  included in soil  and
 water  conservation   districts,   and
 there  are five small watershed  pro-
 jects completed under P.L. 566  with
  Soil  Conservation  Service sponsor-
  ship;   many  more  are  in various
  stages  of planning and investigation.


  24.,  25. The Boise River  in  spring  and in  winter:  the  point is  immediately below th<- City
  of Boise, a major waste  source. Contraction of winter flows as a result of upstream reservoil
  storage and dam maintenance has been a prime  cause  of stream pollution.

Many actions—both state and Feder-
al—have already been taken to abate
pollution in the  Snake Basin. Other
actions are planned and will be made
effective through the state implemen-
tation plans which require secondary
treatment of all  municipal and  in-
dustrial wastes by 1972. These actions
will  certainly improve water quality
in  most problem areas.  But  these
programs are directed principally to-
ward one  phase  of  water  pollution
control—waste treatment.  And waste
treatment  alone  will not  solve  the
existing  or future  problems of water
quality  in the Snake Basin.

The need that remains is  an action
program, instituted by the  state and
Federal  governments  as   partners,
which   will  guarantee   minimum
streamflows  necessary  to  maintain
the  water quality required for  full
utilization of the water resource.

This chapter  describes the essential
elements of such a program. It enum-
erates how present use and manage-
ment have denied the necessary mini-
mum flows; it prescribes the adjust-
ments  which  must  be made to ac-
commodate all water uses; it recog-
nizes some of the difficulties in mak-
 ing  these  changes;  and   it details
 other measures  required  for present
 and  future water quality mainten-
Management Program

 Flow management is the key to  any
 meaningful program for present  and
 future  water quality  control in the
 Snake  Basin because the river is in-
 tensively developed  and highly regu-
 lated  by  impoundments.   Minimum
 streamflows are essential  for  main-
 taining water quality even  with a
 high  degree  of  waste   treatment.
 Secondary treatment can be expected
 to lessen  oxygen demand from  or-
 ganic  materials  by 85  percent or
 more with reductions nearing  100
 percent achieved  with some methods
 of  advanced waste  treatment.  But
 even if the wastes are provided com-
 plete treatment, including removaj of
 nutrients, minimum  streamflows will
 stiirbe required to assimilate residual
 waste loads and other organic loads
 from  uncontrollable sources.

 Water quality has been  largely neg-
 lected in the operating regimen of the
present  regulatory system. Require-
ments  for  irrigation,  power  pro-
duction, and local flood control have
generally been met without reference
to possible effects on water quality.
Consequently,    radical   alterations
have  been imposed  on  the  natural
flow pattern of the Snake River sys-
tem with two  significant detrimental
effects on quality: winter  flows  are
sorely diminished as reservoirs  are
filled for  the  irrigation  season; and
summer flows are radically depleted
at points below irrigation diversions.

The  history  of  development   and
economic  growth in  the  Snake  Basin
has centered in the  use  of the river
for irrigation  and power production.
The laws and the customs founded on
this heritage  have established man-
agement  and   regulation  practices
which use the river for these purposes.
Early reservoir operation schedules,
established  before the  expansion of
water resource  development  and be-
fore  the  technology  of  predicting
low  flows had advanced, were de-
signed to fill  reservoirs early in the
winter as insurance against unexpect-
ed low flows in the spring.  Spring
flows were  then spilled  during  most
years. But while the science of fore-
casting drought flows by use of com-
puters has advanced and while water
uses patterns have changed, bringing
recreation,  fisheries,  and aesthetic
enjoyment into prominence, the old
laws  and customs  of  operation  re-
main. Although the importance of
irrigation and power as present and
 future  cornerstones of  the  Snake
Basin economy  cannot be minimized,
 water management  programs cannot
be dedicated solely to these uses. The
 continued expansion  of  the  Snake
 Basin economy  will depend  on the
 full utilization of its water resource.

 What is  needed is a  management
 program,  supported  by  legislative
 changes,  which  recognizes the need
 for,  and  the  value of, minimum
 stream  flows   for  water   quality

 Such management programs are al-
 ready being  explored  by the  Idaho
 Water Resources Board, the  State
 Reclamation Engineer,  and the Idaho
 Department of Health. Under the pro-
 posed network analysis,  water quality
 needs  would  be  considered   along
 with  other water needs.  It  is  par-

ticularly appropriate that Idaho take
the lead in developing a management
program for the Snake since most of
the  basin  is within that state  and
since  the  impoundments so  critical
to the management  system are all in
Idaho. The responsibility of develop-
ing  a  program, however,  does not
rest entirely with the State of Idaho.
Federal agencies, in  particular the
Bureau  of  Reclamation  and  the
FWPCA of the Department  of the
Interior, are in a  position  to lend
valuable  assistance  to  the  State's
efforts. The Bureau of Reclamation
controls most  of the  existing reser-
voirs  in the basin  and  is  planning
much of the future development; and
the  FWPCA  has  been  closely in-
volved with water  quality  mainten-
ance in the Snake  since 1962. Co-
ordination  and  cooperation  among
these  and  other state and  Federal
agencies is essential  to formulate and
establish a  new  streamflow manage-
ment program for  the Snake  Basin.
The   new   program   will  require
changes—changes which  will  lead to
better and more efficient use  of the
water resource.

Changes in Operation and
Maintenance  Schedules
The  quickest  and  most economic
means  of providing minimum  flows
for  water  quality maintenance is to
change present reservoir operational
procedures.  Under  present levels of
water  resource  development  and
waste  loadings, minimum required
flows could be  maintained  in most
problem  areas  by  simply  altering
reservoir filling schedules to  allow
base flows to pass during the fall and
winter. The reservoirs would not fill
as quickly but, nevertheless,  would
 fill  with  spring flood  waters  that
normally are allowed  to spill.

 Specific operating criteria—a system-
 atic  scheme which considers  water
 quality in  operational  schedules—
 must  be   established  to  minimize
 wasteful spillage. The techniques  to
 forecast flow patterns are developing
 rapidly and can be applied to reser-
 voir operation in  the Snake  Basin.
The  Idaho Water  Resources Board,
 the  Bureau  of Reclamation, and the
 FWPCA are all working on models,
adaptable  to  the  computer,  which
 will better define the river's flow and
drought probability and relate stream-
flow,  wasteloadings,   and  water
quality. Use of such tools will permit
a more systematic  operation of ex-
isting reservoirs to serve all uses with-
in the annual water budget. Past flow
records show  the value of improved
operation. In the  last twelve years of
record, including several moderately
dry years, flows passing Milner Dam
have been more than adequate both
to maintain  water  quality  and  to
furnish the allocated irrigation water.
But  because  of  present  regulation,
these flows did not occur on the re-
quired  time  schedule  and  spring
flows were wasted as they spilled over
upstream storage reservoirs.  If some
flow had  been allowed to  pass  up-
stream reservoirs in the fall and win-
ter,  spring flood flows would have
filled the  reservoirs, thus  providing
for   both  instream  and withdrawal

Reservoir maintenance and coordina-
tion  of reservoir  releases  and diver-
sions are other management practices
which  have  prevented  stream  flow
maintenance. When flows are cut off
so structures may be repaired, water
quality  suffers drastically.  If  large
diversions are made  before the re-
leased water  reaches the point of di-
version, flows are  also  interrupted.
Both practices must be changed  as
part of a  management program  to
maintain flows for water quality.

Provision  of minimum  flows  for
quality   through   operational  and
maintenance  changes in existing res-
ervoirs is particularly appropriate to
Milner  Pool  and  the  lower  Boise
River. In neither  case is it necessary,
under present conditions,  for water
to come from storage; sufficient flow
is available in all but the most critical
years  with  prudent water  manage-
ment above  Milner Dam  and  with
physical  alterations  to Lucky Peak
Dam to allow passage  of  flow  past
diversions in times of  maintenance.
Streamflow  regulation  requirements
also  exist in the  Snake River above
American Falls Reservoir and on the
South  Fork  of the Teton  River.  In
both streams, water quality  has been
degraded when flow was interrupted
for  maintenance  of  diversion struc-
tures or when large scale  irrigation
diversions have  occurred  before  up-
stream storage reservoirs began their
release. In  all of the problem areas,
alteration   of schedules  and  pro-
cedures in a manner that would recog-
nize water quality requirements would
do   much  toward   correcting  the
Changes to Conserve
Irrigation Water
The second element  of the proposed
management program for the Snake,
and perhaps of equally high  priority
as  the  first one, is  conservation  of
irrigation  water.  Streamflows  for
water quality can be substantially in-
creased by improvement of irrigation
conveyance systems  and methods  of
application  to  reduce excessive div-
ersions and to promote more efficient
use on the  fields.

During the 1065 irrigation  season,
diversions by the upper Snake Basin's
62  irrigation companies amounted to
6.55  million acre-feet of water—an
average of 6.5 acre-feet per acre. The
maximum  withdrawal per irrigated
acre was 15.7 acre-feet and the major-
ity  of irrigation companies used more
than  the  average application.  Even
considering  the  substantial  losses
that  often  occur  in  transmission,
these  figures  are inordinately  high.
Experience  elsewhere indicates that
when  careful  application and  trans-
mission procedures  are used,  ridge
and  furrow irrigation  on  the soil
types  that exist in the  basin should
require withdrawals  of no more than
4  to  4.5  acre-feet  per  acre and
sprinkler  irrigation  should  require
even  less.

Irrigation   withdrawals   of  these
dimensions  contribute   to   water
quality degradation  for  at least two
reasons:  they  unnecessarily deplete
the stream; and they cause signifi-
cant  increases  in  sediment, mineral,
and nutrient loads.  Such diversions
reflect again the customs that develop-
ed when there was plenty of water and
few competitive  uses in the Snake
Basin,  thus  allowing  the  use  of
water  without  regard  to   the   re-
quirements  of other users.  The  in-
creasing water resource  development
in  recent  years and  the  development
of  recreation and tourism as import-
ant industries necessitates changes to
reduce losses  in canals  and ditches
and to promote better and more  ef-
ficient application of water to  the
land—if less water needs to be with-
drawn from the  stream, more  water
is available for these other expanded

 2n. Ridge  and  furrow irrigation m.-thnil- arr  thr  norm  in  Snake  Basin agricultural areas.
 When rnmpareil in -prinklrr irrigalinn.  (lie praili.r  i- wa-trtnl  in  it-  u-e ..I water, fai ili-
 late- rrosion, and  promotes leaching.
 7. Sprinkler irrigation i- l.,-in» u-.-il on al  l.-a>t half of the  lands currently lieing brought
undiT  irrigation in ihr Snak.- Kiu-r  l!a-m.  Though  equipment n.-t- -ir.- high, mer-all <"-!-
an- Ir--  than lhn-r ..f ridge anil  furrow inilh.nl- in . a-r-  wlu-n-  pumping i c.-t- for  wal.-r
deliveries ar.- -ignifirant.  Th.-  nn-thod i- in !»•  pr.-l.-rn-.l.	  Inr it- t-ffr.-t  in  , mi
walt-r anil h> r.-a-.m nf tin- lr--n ilamagf In watrr qualil\ il inflirt-.
 Present regulation of diversions can
 be improved  by complete  gaging  of
 all  diversions.  Conveyance  systems
 should  guarantee  that the  gaged
 withdrawal is drlivrml  to the farmer
 and not lost riinnitr through evapora-
 tion  and  seepage.  To  mlui-r  such
 losses,   canals  should  be   lined   or
 closed  system transmission and pipe-
 lino should  be substituted  for open
 canal systems.

 Application of (he water to the land
 is  equally  important  to its  efficient
 tisr. The fact that  a  fe\s  of the laruci.
 newer  irrigation projects in  the basin
 lia\c been extrenielx  economical  in
 their   use  of  water  is significant.
 These  projects employ  the  use  of
 sprinkler   methods   of  application.
 \\hile  the i nst nf  sprinkler equip-
 ment  has  retarded  the widespread
 adoption of this method In establish-
 ed irrigators.  it has  notable advan-
 tages  that have  led  to its use  on
 newly  irrigated land.  Careful sprink-
 ling obtains  equivalent  yields with a
 third less water than  ridge and  fur-
 row application, a method  practiced
 l>> about .'!()  percent  of the  basin.
 Sprinklers  can  be used  on  hillsides
 and broken country while  ridpe  and
 furrow  irrigation  requires  a gentle,
 regular gradient.  And perhaps  most
 importantly,    sprinklers    minimize
 leaching and  reduce  the amount  of
 eroded   material, nutrients,  and bac-
 teria that  find  their  way   to  the
 streams  due  to  land  overflow   or

 As the  Snake Basin  adjusts to  the
 changing  times and a diverse enm-
 omy. the  conservation  of  irrigation
 water occupies a critical  place  in the
 order of requirements for  maintain-
 ing  minimum slreamflows  for  water
 quality  in the Snake system.

Changes in State
Water Laws
 Modification  of the reservoir manage-
 ment  svsietn   of  the  upper  Snake
 River  to provide  minimum  stream-
 flows for water quality has  been pro-
 posed as an  economical and reason-
able .solution  to mam  of the Snake's
water pollution problems. Yet these
changes conflict sharply  with  pre-
vailing  interpretations  of the western
water   rights  doctrine and  Idaho's
water law.

Idaho's  water  law  traces to an  1881
irrigation enactment  of the territorial

 legislature that largely  expresses an
 underlying assumption that water is
 basically  an  agricultural-industrial
 tool. All surface  and ground waters
 are  constitutionally defined  to be
 public waters and  the  constitution
 provides ". . -that the right to divert
 and  appropriate  the unappropriated
 waters of any natural stream to bene-
 ficial uses, shall never be denied . ."
 Beneficial  uses  recognized  by  the
 constitution  are  domestic,  mining,
 agriculture, and milling—having that
 order of priority  of allocation estab-
 lished in the event of shortage. Power
 is  recognized  as  a non-withdrawal

 Clearly  the  constitution  does not
 recognize the establishment  of  in-
 stream water rights for water quality
 as  beneficial. As  late as  1965,  in an
 Act  establishing  the  Idaho  Water
 Resources Board, the statute  reads:
 "Subject to the primary use of water
 for the beneficial uses now or here-
 after  prescribed  by law,  minimum
 streamflow for aquatic  life and the
 minimization  of  pollution  shall be
 fostered  and  encouraged  and  con-
 sideration  shall  be  given  to the
 development and  protection of water
 recreation facilities." The implication
 is  that if there  is plenty of  water
 to  satisfy all  beneficial  uses listed,
 minimum flows  for water quality
 will be encouraged.

 Like  the reservoir operation  and
 maintenance  schedules  and  the  in-
 efficient  use of irrigation water, this
 water law reflects the past. It should
 be modified to recognize the necessity
 of  minimum streamflows for instream
 uses and the water quality needed to
 support those  uses.

 Such a modification will not be easy,
 but without  the change there is not
 now, and never will be, any assurance
 that the Snake will remain a river in
 the  true  sense   of  the  word.  No
 matter how  much  holdover storage
 is  developed to provide flow for in-
 stream uses, that flow could be ap-
 propriated and removed, leaving the
 stream dry.

 The change in the Idaho water law to
 recognize instream uses as beneficial
 uses of water and to permit the es-
 tablishment of firm, undeniable base
 flows  is the  third  element of  the
 basin's proposed  water management
program, giving legal basis  to the
other changes prescribed.  But while
the modification of the law will re-
quire time—time to inform the people
and their representatives of the need
and impact of the change or the con-
sequences of no change—other uses
must be served through management.
The right  to the use  of  water does
not mean that the use cannot be regu-
lated so other users can benefit from
the same water  resource.
Changes in
Public Attitude
By  far  the  most important task in
establishing a new management pro-
gram for the Snake water resources
is convincing the people of the basin
that  changes are  essential to their
present  and future economy and that
the proposed changes will not damage
or inconvenience their present activ-
ities. It  is easy to understand the con-
cerns of irrigation and mining in-
terests to whom  water is so necessary
for existence; these industries, along
with  power, have  made  the  Snake
Basin what  it is today. The purpose
of the  proposed  management  pro-
gram is not to  sacrifice these  uses—
ample water will be made available to
serve and expand these cornerstones
of  the   Snake's  economy.  But  the
people  involved in these  same in-
dustries must recognize the shifting
emphasis in water use patterns and
relationships and  the  importance of
these new uses to the  basin's present
and future well-being.

In  recent  years, the basin has sup-
ported  runs of various  species  of
fish which, combined  annually, con-
tribute   over 8  million  pounds  of
commercial fish and over 2.7 million
angler  days of  sport  fishing; these
uses will expand with establishment
of minimum flows. Recreation, par-
ticularly in the upper basin,  is be-
coming bigger each year—and it will
one day be a major resource  in the
region if water quality is maintained.
And most important, people and in-
dustry  are coming to  the basin, at-
tracted  either by the aesthetic  quali-
ties  of  the  region  or by  the  avail-
ability of water.

The opportunity—and the  challenge
—is  offered to the   people  of the
Snake Basin to  guide the course  of
intensifying  uses as  the  economy
undergoes expansion  and change. If
the basin economy is  to  grow with-
out  the  burden  of growing water
pollution problems,  the  people  and
their  representatives in  government
and  industry must  adjust their  atti-
tudes which put water as basically an
agricultural - industrial tool.  They
must  recognize that a management
program which  accommodates the
full utilization of the water resources,
minimizing  waste and inefficiency,
will not only make the expansion of
instream water uses possible but will
also   improve withdrawal  uses,  in-
creasing the  potential  for  future

Achievement of good water manage-
ment and the flows needed to support
all  uses can only succeed with the
support of  the people,  fully informed
and  aware  of  the  basin's problems
and  their solutions.
Changes With Future
Water Resource
Future  regulation,  developing to  a
point far beyond  that existing today,
will  impose  even stronger require-
ments  for  consideration  of water
quality  in the planning and manage-
ment of the Snake system. Planning
for  future  development and  flow
regulation is a fifth element essential
to  the  basin's  water management

Although  sufficient  water  is  now
available through the  system to pro-
vide  water quality protection, future
storage  developments  will  diminish
that protection. Ambitious proposals
for additional water development and
management  include:  a  series  of
power  and navigation dams which
will  convert the  lower basin into  a
series of deep, slow-moving pools;
subsurface storage  of  flood flows in
the  upper  basin; inter-basin diver-
sions; and carry-over  storage in the
upper basin to  provide for a dry
period   equal  to  the  1931-1942

Some 23 reservoir  projects with  a
total  storage capacity  of 8.4 million
acre-feet or about 25  percent of the
total  Snake Basin  runoff appear  to
be  feasible under current economic
conditions.  Potential projects in the
central  and upper basins would store
6.5 million acre-feet—about half the
average runoff from these two basins.

Additional reservoir  projects  are in
various  stages   of   planning, and
several large-scale irrigation projects,
which would  utilize both surface and
ground-water supplies, are being in-
vestigated. In addition to the increas-
ing storage capabilities and  result-
ant increases in irrigation, there have
been proposals for future inter-basin
diversions to the southwest  from the
Columbia River watershed, including
the Snake system.

The effects of  future water  resource
developments in  which water quality
impacts are ignored are obvious; the
problems  created by past   manage-
ment of the  Snake River regulatory
system   will   intensify,  and  water
quality  will  deteriorate throughout
the basin. Increased  storage capaci-
ties will allow  flow  curtailments for
longer periods;  more irrigated acre-
age will result in increased comsump-
tive  water  use,  further   depleting
downstream flows;  inefficient  irriga-
tion practices will add nutrients, salts,
and  organics  to basin streams, fur-
ther degrading   water  quality; and
impoundments, located primarily for
one  use,  will  have increasing detri-
mental effects on water quality.

As holdover storage is developed with
construction  of  Lynn Crandall and
other  smaller  dams,  and  with em-
placement of the  various   facilities
envisaged  in  the  Southwest  Idaho
Water Development  Project, guaran-
teed flows for water quality protec-
tion  will  have  to  be  maintained
through the inclusion of water quality
as a project  function in Federal res-
ervoirs.  Essentially complete control
of Snake River flows will be possible
under  the level of  development con-
sidered and proper utilization of stor-
age capacity could result in consider-
able  benefit to  present  and  future
water  quality.  By recognizing down-
stream  flow  requirements and water
quality impacts  in  project  develop-
ment plans and  by  providing water
quality control  storage when needed
in future storage developments, high
quality water can be maintained  in
most areas of the Snake Basin. Close
coordination  between  construction
agencies  and  water quality  manage-
ment agencies is required  as future
development is planned. Each project
must be evaluated  for both  its good
and bad  impacts on water quality
and water use.  Storage  to  provide
minimum streamflows or a project's
design  and  operation  to  improve
water quality are two facets of future
development which must be consider-
ed  by  the  proposed  management

Specific  storage requirements  and
quality  impacts have been  made  by
the FWPCA in cases where planning
is well advanced. In  some cases these
needs are presented  as an alternative
to changes in management  or to ad-
vanced  waste  treatment. In  others,
the flows and storage required  are
necessary with proposed development
and increased waste loadings. In a
third category are the quality impacts
and benefits which could be derived
from future developments, both public
and private.
Places  in  which  minimum stream-
flow requirements  or  regulation  for
quality  control could be provided out
of  proposed  storage  reservoirs  in-
clude the South Fork  Teton River,
the  upper  Snake  River  from   the
Idaho-Wyoming  border  to  Milner
Dam, the middle Snake, the Portneuf
River, the Boise River, the Grande
Ronde River, Palouse River and  the
Payette River. Water quality control
studies  of  individual  reservoir  de-
velopment  proposals  have been con-
ducted  by the FWPCA in several of
these areas  to  determine  minimum
flows required to maintain acceptable
quality   conditions. In  most  areas,
proper  management  of  the existing
regulatory  system   would  provide
flows to maintain satisfactory quality
under present loadings. Under future
waste  loadings and  flow  conditions
imposed by future reservoir develop-
ment,  however, proper  management
alone  will not  satisfy  flow require-
ments, and reservoir releases specific-
ally for water quality control will be
required.  Flow   regulation   needs,
based on maintaining quality under
low flow conditions expected to recur
on a l-in-10 year frequency interval
have been computed for several of the
problem areas  mentioned above.
Because  of the  absence  of  gaging
records on South Fork  Teton, it has
not been  possible  to  determine in-
cremental flows required on a l-in-10
year frequency interval to  maintain
acceptable DO concentrations in the
reach below  Rexburg.  Computations
of the  dissolved oxygen profile of
the reach indicate that  about 11,000
acre-feet annually should  be allowed
to pass Rexburg under projected 1980
loading conditions.  If management of
present flows is not  changed,  this
11,(XX)  acre-feet  annually  could be
provided  from upstream storage ear-
marked especially  for  water  quality
control.  Teton Reservoir,  which  is
presently  under construction  by the
U.  S.  Bureau  of  Reclamation,  is
ideally  located to provide  this stor-
age.  Unfortunately,  water  quality
control has not  been  included  as a
project function in  this 315,000 acre-
foot reservoir development, and un-
less the storage can be secured  from
this  reservoir in  the future, alterna-
tive   means  of  maintaining  South
Fork  quality must  be  utilized.

In the Portneuf Basin,  water  quality
deficiencies that may  be  alleviated
by flow regulation  occur  in Portneuf
River  between the mouth  of Marsh
Creek  and the  town  of  Pocatello.
Marsh Creek  Project, a 40,000 acre-
foot  reservoir  development  under
consideration by the  U.  S.  Army
Corps of  Engineers, could regulate
runoff to maintain flows  in Portneuf
River. An estimated 3,600 acre-feet
of storage at Marsh Creek site would
be required in the  Portneuf River  to
maintain  summer  flows above the
20 cfs required to  maintain satisfac-
tory quality  for  fishery  and recrea-
tion purposes.

Flow requirements  to  maintain dis-
solved oxygen levels above 75 percent
saturation or no less  than 5 mg/1
based  on a 600 cfs minimum flow  in
Milner Reservoir have  been comput-
ed for projected 2020 waste loadings,
assuming  that ill-plant controls and
waste  treatment  will be  provided  to
remove 90 percent of the oxygen de-
mand. The computations indicate that
600 cfs would barely  maintain dis-
solved  oxygen concentrations  at 5.0
mg/1  under  ice cover conditions and
2020 loadings. Dissolved  oxygen con-
centrations would  approach 75 per-
cent   of   saturation   during   some
months with minimum flows of 600

 cfs. At  no time, however, would  dis-
 solved  oxygen standards  criteria be
 met with  flows below 600 cfs. Lower
 treatment  efficiencies  attainable  by
 present methods  dictate an  immed-
 iate  need  for the  600 cfs minimum
 flow through Milner Pool. Even with
 improved  treatment levels  expected
 to be implemented  within  the  next
 few  years,  minimum streamflows of
 600  cfs will be required  because of
 the growth of raw waste production.

 As an  alternative  to  adjusting  the
 management system  and in order to
 evaluate  conditions  imposed  by  fu-
 ture water  resource  projects, storage
 requirements to  maintain  600   cfs
 minimum flow through Milner Reser-
 voir have been estimated. The amount
 of water  needed,  based on a  l-in-10
 year  recurrence interval under exist-
 ing regulation practice,  is an estimat-
 ed  1 10.000 acre-feet annually.  This
 volume is the actual amount needed
 in  Milner  and  does not reflect  in-
 stream  losses  or  carryover  require-
 ments  which would  increase the re-
 quired  storage  -purr  substantially.
 I'nlisade- and American rail* \'<
 \oir.- are  ideal sources of flow regula-
 tion for the Milner reach. The space
 in these  reservoirs is completely al-
 located to other purposes I primarily
 irrigation i. however, and it is doubt-
 ful that any reallocation of storage for
 water quality could  be  accomplished
 in these  existing developments.  The
 most likely potential source of quality
 control storage  is Lynn  Crandall  Res-
 ervoir  (1.620.000 acre-feet I which is
 now  in  the  planning stages.  Other
 reservoir sites  no\\  under investiga-
 tion  that  could  furnish this storage
 are  Granite Creek   (430,000 acre-
 feet) and Alpine (878,000 acre-feet).

 Water  quality control studies of the
 Hoise  Basin were  conducted in  con-
 nection with the Corps  of Engineers'
 investigation of the potential Twin
 Springs  Reservoir   1000.000  acre-
 feet i.  Flows required  to  maintain
 minimum dissolved  oxygen 'levels to
 support proposed  uses  of the lower
 Boise  River under  2020 waste load-
 ing conditions {about 100 cfs I could
 be  provided  by  an  annual draft-on-
 storage of 98.000 acre-feet.
 Flow regulation in  the  South Fork
 and  main stem  Palouse Rivers could
 be used to alleviate  low DO and as-
 sociated  quality deficiencies  caused
28. The gateway  to Hells  Canyon and  the middle  Snake where private  and  public power
groups vie for the chance to build hydro power projects. Planning of am  projects mu»t con-
sider impacts on quality  and  the pos.j|ijlit\  ,,( regulating  temperature  with  cold water

by land  drainage  and treated waste
discharges from the cities of Moscow
and  Pullman.  Storage  in  the  Pot-
latch Reservoir site on the main stem
Palouse  River  could  be  released
downstream to control quality in the
main stem  Palouse, but some means
of transporting flows  from  the reser-
voir  to the headwaters of  the South
Fork Palouse would  be  required to
alleviate  the  effects of the Moscow-
Pullman  waste discharges.  Prelimin-
ary studies  indicate that an annual
draft-on-storage of about 56,000 acre-
feet would be  required to maintain
DO levels in  the South Fork  Palouse
River above 6.5  mg/1  under  pro-
jected 2020  loading  conditions.  Be-
cause of the high cost of transporting
quality  control flows to  the South
Fork Palouse Basin, however, it ap-
pears some  alternative means of at-
taining  quality objectives, such  as
tertiary  treatment   of   collectable
wastes   or   transporting  of  these
wastes  to  the main stem  Palouse
River,  would be  more  economical.

Water quality control studies of the
Grande Ronde River Basin were con-
ducted in connection  with  the Corps
of Engineers' investigation of flood
control storage at the lower Grande
Ronde and Catherine  Creek reservoir
sites. About  15,000 acre-feet of  stor-
age space for  water  quality control
would  be   required  in  Catherine
Creek  Reservoir  to  maintain   DO
levels above  6 mg/1 in  Catherine
Creek and the Grande Ronde River
below  Catherine  Creek  under 2020
waste loading conditions.

Studies on the resources potential of
the middle Snake River have recently
been conducted by the U.  S. Depart-
ment of  the Interior. These studies
were  initiated because of the  pro-
posed  High  Mountain  Sheep  Dam,
a  private power  project of~"Pacific
Northwest   Power Company.   This
study evaluated the impacts of  sev-
eral  alternative potential  dam   and
reservoir sites between the  existing
Hells Canyon  Dam  and the conflu-
ence of the Grande Ronde River with
the Snake on other uses of the Snake
River and the Columbia River. Three
reservoir  sites — Appaloosa, High
Mountain Sheep, and  Pleasant Valley
—were considered.

The  study concluded that  only the
Appaloosa  site with  a  re-regulating
reservoir would meet the acceptable
criteria for balanced multiple-purpose
development  in  the  middle  Snake
River.  Although  the  annual energy
generation  from  this project  would
be slightly less than that from  the
other proposals, the  Appaloosa Dam
and Reservoir have the capability to
improve  water quality and  thus  the
anadromous  fish passage  and  pro-
duction  of the  lower and middle

Principal  water  quality  benefits
would  be streamflow  regulation  for
temperature improvement. The power
penstocks for the Appaloosa power-
plant would be served by multi-level
intake  structures which  could  with-
draw  water   from  selected depths
within the  reservoir for  temperature

The foregoing discussion on flow reg-
ulation  to  provide minimum stream
flows for water quality shows only a
few  alternatives  for  the  basin's fu-
ture water resource development. It
does point out, however,  a  fifth and
last element of the proposed manage-
ment  program—that, as  future  de-
velopments are planned, the  water
quality   impacts,  both  positive and
negative,  must   be    considered.
Through proper  coordination and
planning,  future development  can
improve water quality by providing
storage  for minimum flows and  by
regulating   temperature   with   cold
water releases from  purposefully de-
signed projects.
Other Needs for Water
Quality Maintenance
Although streamflow management is
the key to  water quality maintenance
in the Snake  Basin, other needs do •
remain.  Most of these are  planning
needs required to keep pace with the
expanding  population and  economy
with their attendant waste production.
As the basin becomes more complex
pollution control agencies  must in-
stitute systematic methods to control
pollution and expand  control to en-
compass all forms of pollution.
Future Waste  Treatment
Waste treatment requirements will
maintain a constant pressure on facil-
ities into the  foreseeable  future. Con-
tinued construction and expansion of
treatment facilities at  rates equal to
or exceeding those of the last decade
will  be required  in  the  future, even
after  the  present  treatment  needs
have  been  met. Additional  plants
will have to  be built as a result of
three  kinds of processes—municipal
and  industrial growth, plant obso-
lescence, and  higher treatment level

Growth of population and  industry
will involve a steady rise in the level
of waste production. The oxygen de-
mand  of  municipal  and  industrial
wastes  is  anticipated  to rise three-
fold  during the period from 1960 to
2020  in spite  of a  considerable in-
crease  in  manufacturing  efficiency
that  should lead to  a  noticeable de-
cline  in  the  waste-to-product ratio
for almost every significant class of

Replacement of plant and equipment
will  become an increasingly  signifi-
cant element in assessing waste treat-
ment requirements after 1980. Aver-
age plant life for conventional plants
is about twenty-five years; well-main-
tained  waste  stabilization  ponds,  a
treatment  method  prevalent  in  the
basin,  may  be expected  to operate
efficiently for  a somewhat  longer
period.  Thus  extensive plant  con-
struction that occurred in the  late
nineteen-fifties  and early  nineteen-
sixties  indicates the need  for exten-
sive  replacement  by  the  nineteen-

The need  for treatment beyond the
level  of  secondary  depends  almost
entirely on the availability  of  stream-
flow to assimilate residual wastes.  If
dependable base  flows can  be  es-
tablished and maintained, the cost of
advanced  waste treatment may  be
foregone. On  the other hand, if flows
are allowed  to  diminish when reser-
voirs are filling and when irrigation
water is being diverted, tertiary treat-
ment  of  municipal and  industrial
wastes  being  discharged to the Boise
River and to Milner Pool  may be
necessary. There will also be a rapid-
ly developing need for some form of
advanced  waste treatment in a  por-
tion of the Palouse  River watershed.
The growth in population of the cities
of Moscow and Pullman will almost
inescapably involve the two  cities in
expanded  waste control investments.
Availability   of water  to  augment
streamflow is  slight  and  extremely
expensive. In addition to the advanc-
ed waste treatment mentioned above,

 other  needs may  arise in  locations
 where flows are depleted. New indus-
 tries locating in the Snake Basin will
 have to face the high cost of advanced
 treatment if base streamflows are not

 TROL   DISTRICTS.  Pollution  of
 water courses tends to occur at speci-
 fic points and  the conditions which
 result in  pollution  tend  to be as-
 sociated with concentrations of waste
 sources.  The traditional method of
 dealing with the problem has been to
 require  that every polluter remove
 his   own  pollutants.   Thus  every
 municipality and every industry  is in
 the  position of negotiating  with the
 regulatory authorities with respect to
 its own waste handling responsibili-
 ties.  The  obvious  alternative is the
 banding together of a group of waste
 producers in a metropolitan area or
 watershed pollution control organiza-
 tion to  achieve a higher degree of
 joint   financial,   operational,   and
 political  competence in dealing  with
 their waste handling problems. Ideal-
 ly, such  an organization should be
 based upon the physical boundaries
 of a drainage  area and  should  in-
 clude both municipalities and the in-
 dustries in that area.

 The most obvious advantage in the
 creation   of  such  pollution control
 districts is that it  spreads the finan-
 cial burden of providing  sewerage
 and  waste  treatment  requirements
 over a broad base. Substantial econ-
 omies of  scale  are available in  both
 construction and  operation  of waste
 treatment plants and a larger popu-
 lation and financial base permits the
 maintenance of a  managerial   and
 technical  competence  that  is   often
 beyond the means  of single communi-
 ties or  industries. The district ap-
 proach allows orderly programming
 of capital investment and accommo-
 dates itself to an  optimal disposition
 of waste handling requirements  that
 rise  with  urban  and   industrial

 The  desirability   of   consolidating
 waste handling requirements  of  a
 group of communities and industries
 has been recognized by the Congress,
 which has provided several substan-
 tial financial incentives  for such pro-
 grams.  If  water  quality  standards
                                              Q Proposed Station with
                                                 Priority Numbers

                                              | Existing Stations

                                              A U.S.G.S. Caging Stations
                CD  A
                                         29. This riverside feedlot near Ontario, Oregon is typical of many in the Snake River Basin.
                                         Wastes of  farm animals are considered to be the  principal  source  of the high bacterial
                                         counts  found in much of  the Snake River.

are in  effect for  the  stream  into
which  the  project would discharge,
and if the project is part of a regional
plan,  the  Federal  government  will
provide 55 percent of the cost of
treatment  works construction when
the state provides 25 percent or more
of the cost.

highly  desirable  and   inexpensive
management  measure that  could be
extended immediately is a  program
to upgrade the skills of  both munici-
pal and industrial  waste  treatment
plant   operators.  There  are  wide
differences in the levels of  efficiency
achieved among similar groups of
treatment plants and a major element
in the disparity is differences in skill
and  interest among operators.  Im-
proved  pay scales, certification and
pay  for achievement of recognized
levels of skill (presently existing  in
the States of Washington, Oregon,
and   Idaho)  and  frequent   short
courses and  advisory  inspection all
serve  a useful purpose in developing
a  higher level of competence among
operators. Mandatory certification of
treatment  plant  operators  —  both
municipal  and  industrial  —  would
greatly improve the  efficiency  of
waste  treatment plants.

Pollution Surveillance
A major need  in  controlling water
pollution  in  the Snake is  expanded
water quality data and waste loading
information. These are the basic in-
puts required to manage and main-
tain water quality.

MONITORING. Water quality moni-
toring is the joint  responsibility  of
the states, the FWPCA, and the USGS
in the Snake Basin.  Each agency has
its own area of responsibility, and a
coordinated program of surveillance
is presently being explored.

Water quality monitoring  should in-
clude  periodic  sampling  at  points
which are critical in terms of  their
potential  for pollution  or  for  their
value  in  interpreting  behavior  of
streams. Surveillance stations, placed
to measure changing  water quality
through the passage of  the  Snake
River and situated  so their data can
be correlated with U. S. Geological
Survey  flow  gaging  stations,  are
necessary  to  provide  the  constant
overview needed to operate the qual-
ity  management  program.  Stations
should be installed in a fashion  that
recognizes  the significance of  par-
ticular stream points and  the para-
meters measured  designed  for those
points. The  adjacent map shows ex-
isting and desirable  sites for such a
system to provide a basic  informa-
tion framework for the Snake Basin.

SYSTEMS.  A waste discharge  per-
mit system is a useful tool necessary
for the operation of a water quality
management program  in  the Snake
River Basin. The advantages  of the
permit as a source  of control  and
enforcement are  obvious.  Through
the inventory of allowable discharges,
the water quality management agency
has at all times a knowledge of the
types and characteristics,  including
volume, of  wastes being  discharged
to streams.  It is able, then, to calcu-
late waste treatment requirements and
to review the performance of waste
sources relative to.  what  is allowed
under  the terms  of  the permit. En-
forcement is simplified because evi-
dence of the breach of the conditions
of the permit constitutes evidence  of
non-compliance with the laws of the
issuing state and the regulations  of
the issuing  authority. While Oregon
and Washington already have permit
systems,  Idaho has  yet to establish
such a system.

Other Control  Needs
Some of the more serious water pollu-
tion problems of the Snake are be-
yond the  reach of conventional pro-
cedures of  waste control.  These in-
clude animal wastes, erosion, aquatic
growths,  and  commercial  toxins.
Remedies  for  these pollutants  are
not as clearcut  but  are  just  as im-
portant in maintaining water quality.

The concentration of large numbers
of animals into limited space provides
opportunities for brief, intense point
waste loadings that  have high pollu-
tional capabilities. There are perhaps
a dozen  feedlots in the  watershed
that hold two thousand or more ani-
mals at  a  time,  at  least  twice that
many  which  can accommodate five
hundred animals or more. Assuming
that  the  cattle-to-human  waste ratio
of 6.4:1  holds true,  a  feedlot with
2,000 animals provides the oxygen-
demanding  waste equivalent  of  a
city  of about 13,000 people.

Fences should be interposed between
watercourses  and  feedlots,   dairies
improved pastures, and other loca-
tions where large numbers of animals
are  gathered  relative  to  a given
amount  of land. Simple  retaining
structures between such animal habi-
tats  and  watercourses should also  be
provided in  order  to  limit  direct
surface drainage and allow wastes to
decompose  through  soil  processes.
At some places  it may  be  preferable
to collect runoff from cattle holding
facilities  in order  to provide waste
treatment  or  to collect the concen-
trated materials for use as manure.

 EROSION   CONTROL.    Erosion
 stands high among factors that seri-
 ously  lessen  water  quality in large
 portions  of the Snake River Basin.
 It constitutes the principal kind of
 pollution  of  the  Palouse  watershed
 and is  demonstrated in  greater  or
 lesser degree through much  of  the
 agricultural area of the Snake River
 Basin.  Desert  soils  without  vegeta-
 tive cover  are among the  most diffi-
 cult to manage as sources of erosion
 and consequent  sedimentation   of
 streams. Bureau of Land  Manage-
 ment  programs to  provide  suitable
 forms of  vegetation and  install  ap-
 propriate  use possibilities for such
 lands are  unquestionably of great
 utility in  regard to  erosion  control.
 Soil stabilization practices also have
 a high  priority in  management of
 lands administered by the U. S. For-
 est  Service. The success of its effort
 has  been  of  high  importance  in
 limiting erosion in forested portions
 of the watershed.

 Erosion from agricultural lands pre-
 sents a far  more difficult prolem. The
 institutional framework does not  ex-
 ist to effect changes in the practices
 of thousands of individual  farmers.
 To  devise  incentives for soil conser-
 vation procedures is beyond the scope
 of this  report,  but it is appropriate
 to point out  that the Soil Conserva-
 tion Service has an  active incentive
 program  to  encourage  good land
 management practice. Very meaning-
 ful  control of erosion and  sedimenta-


 30., 31. Development of control methods to rid the Snake River of aquatic growths that flourish
 throughout its length is the major research need in the watershed.
tion is possible by resorting to simple
techniques such  as avoiding  excess
application and surface  runoff of ir-
rigation waters, deep-chisel  plowing,
and well-considered  crop  rotations.

Control of erosion from construction
activities  may  be instituted through
State standards for construction prac-
tices that would require use of such
techniques as  mulching,  terracing.
limiting area of surface scarring, and
use  of sedimentation  ponds. Stan-
dards  can be expressed in quantita-
tive terms and performance gaged by
inspection. Even  in  the absence of
state  controls,  it  is  possible  to  in-
corporate  such requirements  in  all
construction  contracts let by Federal
agencies  or  performed on  Federally
administered land.

TION.  The most chronic problem of
the Snake River Basin is the prolific
aquatic growths   which  characterize
the entire system.  Limited  knowledge
of the ecology  of the stream system
imposes severe restrictions on controls
procedures. Research must be depend-
ed  upon  to provide any long range
answers to control. However, several
means  of partial  control might  be

The natural level of phosphates in the
river is extremely high and. because
nutrient control is extremely expen-
sive, it would not seem logical to in-
stitute  phosphate  controlling  addi-
tions  to  waste  treatment   facilities
until  a  thorough study  of stream
ecology  indicates  that  such  proced-
ures would help the problem.

Direct  control  of aquatic biota can
be  approached  in several   fashions.
The most obvious is harvesting of
the materials where they are concen-
trated  in ponds,  irrigation returns
and slow-moving stream reaches. The
procedure would  have the effect of
both  removing the aquatic growths
themselves and preventing  the pro-
duction   of  additional   phosphorus
that occurs if growths are allowed to
decay  in  the water.

A more likely  solution is  to attempt
to control aquatic weeds through in-
troduction of  forage  fish.  Tilapia
mossambica, a  small weed forager of
African origin, has been found to be
spectacularly effective in controlling

growths in Texas ponds. The fish is
resistant to wide swings in tempera-
ture,  so is well suited to the climatic
environment. Moreover, it might con-
stitute  a very  desirable addition  to
the ecological system of  the southern
sweep of the Snake  River. By  func-
tioning  as a link in the food chain
for larger fish,  the  forager would
have  the effect of allowing the water
mass  to support  a larger population
of game fish and perhaps contribute
to the  size and growth  rate of such
TOXICANTS.  Eliminating the entry
of  commercial  poisons—pesticides
and herbicides—to  watercourses  is
another high priority  pollution con-
trol requirement that  can only  be
met through application procedures.
Careful selection of types of poisons
that are  applied,  determination   of
optimum application levels, and sanc-
tions  against applications that occur
within the immediate  surface  drain-
age of a watercourse are all desirable.
In  view  of the demonstrated  defic-
iencies of  the  process of  educating
individual  farm operators to accept
procedures that do not result  in  an
immediate  personal  profit,  it  would
appear that  the  most  likely avenue
of approach  in instituting  such pro-
cedures would  be through food pro-
cessors. These  consumers of agricul-
tural  products  customarily  issue ex-
tremely tight grower contracts, cover-
ing production conditions and quality
specifications for a crop which they
agree to  purchase.  Control  of  pesti-
cide applications could be  included
among the conditions  of such con-
tracts, with  a  probable  immediate
impact  on  procedures.   Certainly
negotiations and  persuasion directed
to a few dozen processors would  be
easier  to undertake  than approaches
to  tens   of   thousands  of  farm

Thermal Pollution
High water temperatures in the lower
Snake River  have already been cited
as  detrimental  to migration of ana-
dromous fish.  These and other high
temperatures in the Snake system are
caused by  the  many  impoundments
and the spreading of large quantities
of  irrigation water  over the  fields,
thus exposing  huge  surface areas  to
solar  radiation.
32. The FWPCA's Pacific Northwest Laboratory at Corvallis, Oregon  is engaged in research
relative to the water quality problems of the Snake.

With the projected need for electrical
power and with the limited head re-
maining for hydropower development
in the Snake, future power needs will
almost certainly be met by nuclear
reactor  generation  of   electricity.
Nuclear energy means waste heat to
be dissipated—more heat than a coal
burning plant  of  comparable  size
must  dissipate. And nuclear energy
means the risk, small though it may
be, of releasing one of the deadliest
forms of pollution  on  earth—radio-
active wastes.

Actions are  already  underway  to
protect the environment from waste
heat and  radioactivity.  State water
resource agencies and state pollution
control agencies are involved in de-
termining the  location  and control
measures required  for nuclear ther-
mal plants. Federal agencies, includ-
 ing the FWPCA,  are  studying the
 impact of such development  on the
 air and water environment.

   These actions must  be expanded
 and strengthened to protect the high
 quality waters of the  Snake  and to
 eliminate  any further burden to  the
 lower Snake temperature  regimen.
 Specific  cooling facilities  must  be
 prescribed prior to the  installation
 of any thermal nuclear plant in  the
 Requirements  for  research that  is
 definitely aimed at  the problems of
 the Snake River watershed are fairly
 well defined. While many of the water
 quality difficulties  of the  area are
 common to much of the Nation and
 should  benefit from the  application
 of principles  derived from research
 in other areas, several types  of in-
 vestigation directed  to specific Snake
 River conditions should be instituted.

 The most obvious area for research,
 and one which should have top prior-
 ity,  is  that  of investigation of  the	
 sources of nutrients for, andTnethods"'
 t6~contcoJL the p'roflOCtton" of, aquatic-
 biota. Some very limited suggestions
 as to methods  of control have been
 provided  in   this  report.   But  the
 most chronic water quality problem
 of  the watershed remains  a matter
 beyond  existing control capabilities.
 Research capabilities of universities,
private firms  and state and Federal
agencies  should be  directed toward
this  investigation. The  FWPCA  can
offer valuable assistance through its
National  Eutrophication   Research

In  the  event that  water  diversion
plans are considered for the Colum-
bia River, examinations of the water
quality  effects should  also  be con-
ducted,   considering  Snake  River
diversion points in conjunction with
other Columbia River System sources
of water. All Federal and state agen-
cies concerned with the multiple use
of the Snake Basin would participate
in such a study.

A more  limited but locally  signifi-
cant requirement exists to investigate
the  effect of  induced recharge on
quality of groundwater. At least two
areas of extensive  ground-water re-
charge  are proposed in connection
with projects of the Bureau of Re-
clamation. One would require diver-
sion of  flood  waters  of  the Henrys
Fork for storage in the aquifer of the
Snake Plain.  The other would occur
through the operation of the  South-
western   Idaho Water Development
Plan as a result of the introduction
of great  volumes of irrigation water
to previously arid lands  in the  area
of Mountain Home and on the south
bank of the Snake. While such opera-
tions will probably be beneficial, only
their quantitative aspects have  been
considered  at this  time. Effects on
ground-water quality should be dili-
gently considered and forecast,  most
logically by  the  U.  S.  Geological


Number ol Storage Structures
Existing 35
Under Construction 1
Authorized 1
Total Structures 37
Active Storage. Acre-Feet
Existing 5,173,000
Under Construction 315.000
Authorized 100.000
Total Storage 5.588.000
Generating Capacity. Kilowatts
Existing 390.700
Under Construction 22.000
Authorized 30.000
Total Power Capacity 442.700
Purposes, Number of Structures
Irrigation 17
Power 13
Multi-Purpose* 7
Other Multi-purpose —
" Including Irrigation













1 Granite Creek
2. Alpine
3 Crow Creek
4 Lynn Crandall
5. Warm River
6, Ashtoo Enlargement
7. Teton Creek
8 Dr.ggs
9 Btacklool Enlargement
10 Marsh Creek
11 Jordan Creek
12 Twin Springs
13 Gold Fork
14 Garden valley
15 Lost Valley Enlargement
16 Monday Gulch
17 Hardman
18 Dark Canyon
19 Appaloosa
20. High Mountain Sheep
21 Challis
22 Lower Grande Ronde
23 (Catherine Creek
24 Potlatch
Storage (1000 AF|
Total Active
470 430
1.073 878
27 245
1.620 1.620
140 75
49 40
7 6
50 35
38 38
40 40
100 100
600 490
102 80
2.400 2.400
20 20
35 35
14 12
12 10
2413 1.500
3.600 2.700
106 106
220 220
83 83
160 160
Hoback R
Snake R
Crow Ck
(Salt R Basm)
Snake R
Henrys Fork
Henrys Fork
Telon Ck
Teton R
Blackfoot R
Marsh Ck
(Portneuf Basin)
Jordon Ck
(Owyhee Basm)
Boise R
Gold Fk R
(Payette Bas.nt
Lost Creek
(W Fk Weiseo
Little Weiser R
oil-stream site
So Fk Burnt R
Burnt R
Snake R
Snake R
Chalhs Ck
(Salmon Basm)
Grande Ronde R
Catherine Ck
(Grande Ronde Basm
Palouse R
River Mile
S9443 H 124
S9172-Sall R
400-CCkH 0
S 837 4-M F 44 0
S 8374 HF 204.
T64 LTCk132
S8374 HF204-
S 751 2-B780
S 736 0-P 32 7-
S 392 3 O 117 5
S391 3-B1030
S 365 6 P 72 7-
S 365 6 P 759
S351 8-W762-
W F W 120-L C
S 351 8-W 45 0-
L W154 MG 1 2
S 3277. B 640-
SFB 8-
S 189 1
S 1687 GR 174-
C Ck 28 4
Data Source
USBR Recon - Jackson Lk
Replacement. April 1967
Same as No 1
USBR Feas -Upper Star
Valley. June 1965
Same as No 1
USBR-USACE Joint Report
Upper Snake River Basin
Same as No S
USBR Recon-Alta Project
March 1964
Same as No 5
USACE Design Memo No 2
Blacklool Res Modification.
Sept 1966
Current USAGE Investiga
USBR Recon-Upper Owy-
hee Project June 1965
Same as No 5-USACE In-
vestigation in 1966
USBR Fea» -Souihwest
Idaho Water De* Project
June 1966
Same as No 13
Same as No 13
Same as No 13
USBR Investigations
Same as No 17
Current U S Dept ol the
Interior Investigation
Same as No 19 - Alternate
USBR Feas - Challis Ck
Division August 1963
USACE Investigations
Same as No 22
USACE & USBR investiga-


- Snake River -
Within Wyoming:
( pr opo sed)
South boundary of
Yellowstone National
Park to the Wyoming-
Idaho State line.
Within Idaho;
line (R.M. 918) to
the Oregon-Idaho
State line (R.M.
Adjacent to Idaho:
Oregon-Idaho border
(R.M. 407) to Hells
Canyon Dam (R.M.
Hells Canyon Dam
(R.M. 247) to the
State line (R.M.
In and adjacent
to Oregon:
Within Washington:
Mouth to Washington-
Idaho-Oregon State
Dissolved Oxygen
Not less than j6
ppm at any time.
percent of satura-
low or less than
100 percent of sat-
uration in spawn-
spawning, hatching,
and fry stages of
salmon id fishes.
(Exception: five
ppm at Milner Dam
based on a minimum
stream flow of 600
cfs at this point).
Same as above.
Same as above.
Not less than 21
percent of satura-
tion at seasonal
low or less than
95 percent of sat-
uration in spawn-
spawning, hatching,
and fry stages of
salmon id fishes.
Organisms of the Coliform
Croup Where Associated
with Fecal Sources
(Total Coliform)
Collform counts shall not
exceed 1000 per 100 ml (Most
Probable Number! as an
arithmetical average of the
last five consecutive sam-
ples ; nor exceed this num-
ber in more than 20 percent
of the samples; nor exceed
2,400 per 100 ml in any one
sample. Organisms of the
fecal coliform group shall
not exceed 200 per 100 ml.
as an arithmetic average of
the last five consecutive
samples, nor exceed this num-
ber in more than 20 percent
of the samples, nor exceed
480 per 100 ml in any one
coliform bacteria (MPN or
exceed 1000 per 100 milli-
liters, with 20 percent of
samples not to exceed
2 400 per 100 milllliters.
Same as above.
Same as above with the
following exception:
Average concentration of
collform bacteria shall
not exceed 240 per 100
milliliters for the lower
Snake River (R.M. 170-139).
Average concentrations of
coliform bacteria (MPN or
equivalent MF using a rep-
resentative number of sam-
ples) shall not exceed
1000j>er 100 ml, with 20
exceed 2400 per 100 ml.
Total coliform organisms
shall not exceed median
values 240 per 100 ml with
less than 20 percent of
samples exceeding 1000 per

(Negative Logarithm of
the Hydrogen- Ion Cone.)
Maintained within the
range of 6.5 to 8.5.
pH values shall not fall
outside the range of 7.0
shall not be more than
0.5 pH unit.
Same as above.
Same as above.
pH values shall not fall
outside the range of 7.0
to 9.0.
pH shall be within the
range of 6.5 to 6.5 with
an Induced variation of
less than 0.25 units.

4° F. of the monthly
average water tempera-
ture as determined from
measurements of monthly
will heat be discharged
in amounts which will
result In water temper a-
the propagation and sus-
tenance of indigenous
aquatic life.
No measurable increase
when stream temperatures
are 68 F. or above, or
more than 2° F. increase
when stream temperatures
are 66° F. or less.
when stream temperatures
are 70° F. or above, or
more than 2 F. increase
when river temperatures
are 68 F* or less.
No measurable Increase
when stream temperatures
are 68° F. or above or
more than 2 F. increase
are 66° F. or less.
No measurable Increase
when river temperatures
are 70 F. or above, or
more than 2 F. Increase
when river temperatures
are 68° F. or less.
shall be permitted which
results in water tempera-
tures exceeding 68° F.
nor shall the cumulative
be permitted in excess
110 (t=permlsaive
f tm -,„._ increase)
™ T-15 (T=resulting
water temper-
(Certain short-term
activities specifically
authorized by the pollu-
tion control agency may
be permitted)
Not more than a 15 tur-
bidity unit increase
when the receiving water
or more than a 10 percent
bidity is over 150 tur-
bidity units.
No objectionable tur-
bidity which can be
traced to a point source.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Turbidity shall not
exceed 5 JTU above nat-
ural background values.
Turbidity shall not
exceed 5 JTU over
natural conditions.

                                                                 GENERAL CRITERIA
    Toxic Materials
No toxic, corrosive,  or
other deleterious sub-
stances of other than
natural origin in con-
centrations or combi-
nations which are
toxic to human, ani-
mal, plant, or aquatic
No toxic chemicals of
other than natural origin
in concentrations found
to be of public health
significance or adversely
affect the use indicated.
Same as above.
Same as above.
No wastes shall be dis-
charged or activities con-
ducted which cause the
creation of toxic or
other conditions that ar
deleterious to fish or
other aquatic life or
affect the potability of
drinking water or the
palatabillty of fish or
Shall be below those of
public health signifi-
cance, or which may cause
acute or chronic toxic
conditions to the aquatic
biota, or which may
adversely affect any
water use.
                             Tastes and Odors
Essentially free from
substances of other than
natural origin which
produce taste, odor, or
color that would: (a)
Import an unpalatable or
off-flavor in fish flesh.
(b) Visibly alter the
natural color of the
water, or import color
to skin, clothing, ves-
sels or structures,  (c)
Produce detectable odor
at the site of use.  (d) .
Directly or through
interaction with chemi-
cals used in treatment
import undesirable taste
or odor to the finished

No deleterious substances
of other than natural
origin in concentrations
that cause tainting of
edible species or tastes
and odors to be imported
to drinking water sup-
                          Same as above.
                          Same as above.
                          No wastes shall be dis-
                          charged or activities
                          conducted which cause
                          the creation of tastes or
                          odors that are deleteri-
                          ous to fish or other
                          aquatic life or affect
                          the potability of drink-
                          ing water or the palata-
                          billty of fish or shell-
Aesthetic values shall
not be impaired by the
presence of materials or
their effects, excluding
those of natural origin,
which offend the senses
of sight, smell, touch
or taste.
Radioactive material of
other than natural origin
shall not be present In
any amount which reflects
failure in any case to
apply all controls which
are physically and econo-
mically feasible.  In no
case shall such materials
exceed the limits estab-
lished in the 1962 PHS
Drinking Water Standards
or 1/30(166 hour value)of
the values for radioactive
substances specified in
the "National Bureau of
Standards Handbook 69."
Radioactive materials of
other than natural origin
shall not be present in
any amount which reflects
failure in any case to
apply all controls which
are physically and eco-
nomically feasible.  In
no case shall such mater-
ials exceed the limits estab-
lished in the 1962 PHS
Drinking  Water Standards.
                                                     Same as above.
                                                     Same as above.
                           No wastes shall be dis-
                           charged or activities
                           conducted which cause
                           radio-isotope concentra-
                           tions to exceed maximum
                           permissible concentrations
                           in drinking water, edible
                           fishes or shellfishes,
                           wildlife. Irrigated crops,
                           livestock and dairy pro-
                           ducts or pose an external
                           radiation hazard.
Radioactive concentrations
shall be below those of
public health significance,
or which may cause acute
or chronic toxic condi-
tions to the aquatic
biota, or which may ad-
versely affect any water
                                                                                              Aesthetic Values
Essentially free from substances of
other than natural origin that will set-
tle to form sludge, bank or bottom
deposits.  Free from floating debris,
oil, grease, scum, and other floating
materials of other than natural origin
in amounts sufficient to be unsightly.
No floating or submerged matter not
attributable to natural causes.  Excess
nutrients of other than natural origin
that cause visible slime growths or
other nuisance aquatic growths.
                                                                                   Same as above.
                                                                                   Same as above.
No wastes shall be discharged or activi-
ties conducted which cause the formation
of appreciable bottom or sludge deposits
or the formation of any organic or In-
organic deposits deleterious to fish or
other aquatic life or injurious" to public
health, recreation or industry; or which
cause objectionable discoloration, tur-
bidity, scum, oil slick or floating solids,
or coat the aquatic life with oil films;
or which cause aesthetic conditions offen-
sive to the human senses of sight, taste,
smell or touch.

Aesthetic values shall not be impaired
by the presence of materials or their
effects excluding those of natural
origin, which offend the senses of
sight, smell, touch or taste.
                                                                           The Oregon  standards estab-
                                                                           lish a list of guide con-
                                                                           centrations of dissolved
                                                                           chemical  substances which
                                                                           shall  not  be  exceeded.
                                                                           (See  the Oregon Standards
                                                                           for this list).

 33. Milner Reservoir,  winter,  1966  — the  fourth  fish kill  in  seven years at Milner  to  be
 caused  by improper water  management  and inadequate waste  treatment.

Dec. 9, 1960
Dec 20, 1960
Nov. 8-9, 1961
Mar. 19, 1962
Feb. 5, 1963
June 11, 1964
June 25, 1964
June 20, 1964
April 27, 1965
May 6, 20, 27, 1966
June 7, 1966
Nov. 20-25, 1966
April 1, 1967
April 4, 1967
Mar. 28-Apr. 10, 1967
Aug. 1967
Apr. 3, 1968
Milner Res.
Murtaugh Lk.
Milner Res.
Hagerman State
Fish Hatchery
Riley Creek
Milner Res.
Boise R. Irri-
gation Ditch
Snake R.
Strike Res.
Boise R.
Bowen Creek
Teton R.
Portneuf R.
S. Fk. Teton R.
Milner Res.
Boise R.
Drain Ditch
Snake R.
Billingsley Cr.
Snake R.
American Falls
Boise R.
Source of
Potato Process-
ing Plants
FWS Hatchery
at Hagerman
Food Processing
Glue Waste
Sheep Spraying
D.O. 1 ppm
Copper Sulfate
Lube oil
Low D.O.
High Temp.
pH 3
Low D.O.
D.O. 0.5
Low D.O.
Low D.O.
Type Fish
Killed %
Game Trash
1 99
25 75
2 92
6 forage
100 —
_ 100
2 98
! 99
2 98
100 —
! 99
4.5 95-5
_ 100
100 —
6 94
100 —
10 90
2 98
of Effects
3 miles
650 acres
12 miles
1'/2 miles
2 miles
5 miles
5 miles
1 mile
4 miles
2 miles
7 miles
10 miles
14.4 miles
26 days
20 days
19 days
6 hrs.
30 days
2 days
1 day
4 hrs.
4 days
5 days
Vi hr.
10 days
14 days


Repeat of 1960 kill
Treatment at FWS hatchery
responsible for kill at
downstream state hatchery


                             MAJOR WASTE LOADING AREAS 1967
Service Area
Rogers Bros. Food Prod.
St. Anthony Starch Co.
Idaho Fresh Pak - Lewisville
Idaho Falls
Rogers Bros. Co.
Utah Idaho Sugar Co.
R. T. French Co. - Shelley
American Potato Corp.
J. R. Simplot Co.
American Falls
Idaho Potato Growers
Lamb & Weston
Ore-Ida Foods Corp.
J. R. Simplot Co.
Twin Falls
Amalgamated Sugar Co.
Twin Falls
Boise B
J. R. Simplot - Caldwell
Amalgamated Sugar Co. - Nyssa
Ore-Ida Foods - Ontario
La Grande
Potlatch Forest Industries
Service Area Total
Raw Waste
of Basin
of Area




       City or Industry
City of Jackson
Primary   Secondary
Roger Brothers - Rexburg                       1970
Idaho Fresh Pak - Lewisville                     1970
City of Idaho  Falls                             1971
U & I Sugar Company - Idaho Falls                1969
Roger Brothers - Idaho Falls           1968      1971
Idaho Potato Growers - Idaho Falls     1968      1971
Idaho Potato Foods - Idaho Falls                1972
RT French - Shelley                  1968      1972
Idaho Supreme - Firth                 1968      1972
American Potato Company - Blackfoot   1968      1972
City of Blackfoot                               1972
Idaho Potato Starch Company - Blackfoot         1972
St. Anthony Starch Company -  St.  Anthony       1972
City of Pocatello                               1973
City of Aberdeen                              1969
Idaho Potato Growers - Aberdeen                1969
Idaho Potato Starch Co. - Aberdeen              1969
Kraft Foods Co. - Aberdeen                     1969
City of Rupert                                 1968
Kraft Foods Co. - Rupert                        1968
Magic Valley  Foods -  Rupert                    1968
City of Paul                                    1969
City of Heyburn                                1970
J. R. Simplot  Co. - Heyburn                     1970
Ore-Ida Co. - Burley                            1970
A & P Co. - Burley                             1970
Amalgamated Sugar Co. - Twin Falls    1969
Independent Meat Co.  - Twin Falls              1968
Magic Valley  Co. - Twin Falls                   1973
City of Twin Falls                              1973
Bertie's Poultry - Twin Falls                     1973
Swift & Co. - Twin Falls                        1973
Young's Dairy - Twin  Falls                      1973
Idaho Frozen Foods -  Twin Falls                1973
City of Jerome                                 1969
Ida-Gem Dairy -  Jerome                        1969
King of Spuds - Jerome                        1969
City of Glenns Ferry                             1968
        City or Industry

City of Wilder
Northwest Boise Sewer District
Swift & Co. - Boise
Star Sewer District
J.  R. Simplot - Caldwell
City of Notus
City of McCall
City of Donnelly
City of Cascade
Gem Canning - Emmett
City of Payette
City of Cambridge
Wells and Davies - Payette
City of Weiser
City of Salmon
City of Craigmont
City of Orofino
City of Lewiston
Lewiston Orchards - Lewiston
Seabrook Farms,  Inc. - Lewiston
Smith Foods, Inc. - Lewiston
Potlatch  Forests, Inc. -  Lewiston
Wai Iowa

Adrian School and Adrian Homes
City of Nyssa
Pioneer Meat - Ontario
Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. - Ontario
Meats, Inc. - Clarkston
City of Clarkston
Bristol Packing Co. - Clarkston
Town of Asotin
City of Colfax 1/
City of Palouse
Primary  Secondary
                                                        * Plant expansion or modification
                                                       ** New plant or modification
                                                       1/ Under construction


Armour Meat Co. (Buhl)
B & L Meat Packers (Buhl)
Bryants Packing Co. (Burley)
Custom Packing Co. (Rupert)
Farrer Meat Co. (Rexburg)
Gabriel Packing Co. (Gooding)
Gibson Bros. Meat Co. (Burley)
Grimes Custom Slaughter House (Nampa)
H. H. Keim Packing Co. (Nampa)
Hillcrest Packing Co. (Nampa)
Hopkins Packing Co. (Blackfoot)
Idaho Falls Animal Prod. (Idaho Falls)
Idaho Falls Meat Co. (Idaho Falls)
Idaho Hide & Tallow Co. (Twin Falls)
Johnson Bros. Meat Packing (Nampa)
Kraft Cheese Co. (Ririe)
Kraft Food Co. (Carey)
Liberty Packing Co. Boise)
Mickelsens Packing Co. (Blackfoot)
Nampa Animal Products (Nampa)
Nampa Packing Co. (Nampa)
Nankafell Slaughter House (Nampa)
National Reactor Test Station

Owyhee Meat Packers (Homedale)
Peoples Meat Packing Co. (Rupert)
Seddon Meat Processing (Filer)
Stockmans Meat Packing Co. (Gooding)
Tiffany Slaughter House (Nampa)
Vans Packing Plant (Boise)
Wattenbarger Meat Prod. (Shelley)
Redfish Lake Recreation Area
Island Park Recreation Area
Alturas Lake Recreation Area
Elk City Ranger Station
Powell Ranger Station
Bungalow Ranger Station
Musselshell Work Camp
Slate Creek Ranger Station
Mountain Home Air Force Base
Anderson Ranch Dam
Black Canyon Dam
Black Canyon Dam Power Plant
Cascade Dam
Deadwood Dam
Boise River Diversion Dam
Lucky Peak Dam
Minidoka Dam & Headworks
Ice Harbor Dam

Existing Treatment

No system
No system

Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
No system
No system
No system
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Secondary (munic.)
Special processes
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Septic tank
Waste >?
5 €
BUJ .« 01

1200 1200
6000 6000

4000 3000
1000 700
500 300
250 200
500 400
7500 5000
500 300
200 100
3200 2400
300 150
750 500
1000 500
1250 1000
2000 1000
400 300
1000 1000
1000 1000
800 800
750 500
500 400
300 200
250 150

500 400
500 300
500 300
10000 6000
200 100
1500 900
500 500

Receiving Stream

Big Wood River
Big Wood River

Deep Creek
Deep Creek
Snake River
Main Drain
Snake River
Little Wood River

Indian Creek
Indian Creek
Indian Creek

Snake River
Snake River
Rock Creek
Indian Creek
Snake River
Little Wood R.
Eagle Drain
Indian Creek
Indian Creek
Indian Creek

Snake River
Main Drain
Drainage Ditch
Little Wood R.
Indian Creek
Boise River
Snake River
Collection system & trmt
Collection system & trmt
Collection system & trmt
Connect to city
Treatment plant
Treatment plant
Industrial trmt plant
Septic tank & drainfield
Septic tank & drainfield
Septic tank & drainfield

Recommended Action

Collection & Secondary
Collection & Secondary

Improved efficiency
Improved efficiency
To city sewer
To city sewer
Improved efficiency
Eliminate deep well

Improved efficiency



3, 4
IDCD — Idaho Department of Commerce
and Development
OSHC — Oregon State Highway
FWPCA — Federal Water Pollution Con-
trol Administration
AEC — Atomic Energy Commission
USBR — U. S. Bureau of Reclamation
IPC — Idaho  Power Company
IFGD —Idaho Fish and Game Department
SCS — Soil Conservation Service
BLM — Bureau 'of Land Management
USFS — U. S. Forest  Service