^^ \            WASHINGTON, D C. 20460
                                   October 1,  1971

   TO       :   Monitoring Conference Participants

   SUBJECT:   Environmental Monitoring Conference at the
               Western Environmental Research Laboratory,
               October  13, 14,  and 15,  1971

   The attachment to this memorandum consists of:

      1.   Conference Agenda (including assignments)
      2.   Assignment of Participants to Workshops
      3.   Workshop Discussion Guide for Development
          of an Environmental Monitoring Program
          Within EPA

   To in sum the  success of this Conference,  you are  urged bo
   familiarize yourself with the entire content* of the Woikshop
   Discussion Guide.  ] look forward to a productive conference
   and the attainment of our objective to provide substantive
   inputs to the development of an overall environmental moni-
   toring program for the Environmental Protection Agency.
                            Willis B.  Foster
                            Deputy Assistant Adnn.inistrr.tor
                            for Monitoring

                           MEMORANDUM CHANGE

          The second item in the attachment, "Assignment of

Participants to Workshops," is not included in this transmittal.

Instructions will be given at the conference.

                            AGENDA FOR THE

              Western Environmental Research Laboratory
                   Laboratory 1, Training Classroom
                          Las Vegas, Nevada
                     October 13. 14. and 15. 1971
Wednesday. October 13, 1971

9:00 a.m.  - Welcome - Dr. Melvin Carter, Director, Western Environmental
               Research Laboratory

             Opening Comments - Dr. Stanley M. Greenfield, Assistant
               Administrator for Research and Monitoring, and
               Mr. Willis B. Foster, Deputy Assistant Administrator
               for Monitoring

9:45 a.m.  - Organization and Functions of the Office of Monitoring ~
               Mr. H. Matthew Bills, Director, Analysis Division,
               Office of Monitoring (30 minutes)

             Office of Monitoring's Interaction With Other EPA Offices -
               Mr. Donald C. Holmes, Director, Techniques Division,
               Office of Monitoring (30 minutes)

             Office of Monitoring's Interaction With Other Federal
               Government Agencies, i.e., NOAA, Interior, etc. -
               Mr. George B. Morgan, Director, Coordination and
               Support Division, Office of Monitoring (30 minutes)

11:15 a.m. - Discussion

12:00 noon - Lunch

1:30 p.m.  - Current Monitoring Capabilities For:

               Air - Mr. Raymond Smith, Office of Air Programs (20 minutes)
               Water - Mr. George F. Wirth, Office of Water Programs
                  (20 minutes)
               Solid Waste - Mr. Lanier Hickman, Office of Solid
                 Waste Management Programs (20 minutes)

2:30 p.m.  - Discussion

3:00 p.m.  - Radiation - Mr. Charles Weaver, Office of Radiation
               Programs (20 minutes)
             Pesticides - Mr. E.L.J. Graiidpierre, Office of
               Pesticides Programs (20 minutes)
             Noise - Mr. Rudy Narrazzo, Office of Noise Abatement
               (20 minutes)

4:00 p.m.  - Discussion

4:30 p.m.  - Adjournment

6:30 p.m.  - Cocktails and Dinner - Copper Cart, Las Vegas Blvd.
               South (across the street from the Westward Ho Motel)

8:30 p.m.  - Dinner Speech -"Regional Monitoring Needs" - Mr. Paul
               DeFalco, Regional Administrator, Region IX (tentative)
Thursday. October 14. 1971

9:00 a.m.  - Monitoring Needs For:

               Enforcement - Mr. Robert Schaffer, Office of General
                 Counsel and Enforcement (20 minutes)
               Research - Dr. Herbert Wiser, Office of Research
                 (20 minutes)

9:40 a.m.  - Discussion

10:00 a.m. -   Air - Mr. Raymond Smith (15 minutes)
               Water - Mr. George F. Wirth  (15 minutes)
               Solid Waste - Mr. Lanier Hiclcman (15 minutes)

10:45 a.m. - Discussion

11:00 a.m. -   Radiation - Mr. Charles Weaver (15 minutes)
               Pesticides - Mr. E.L.J. Grandpierre (15 minutes)
               Noise - Mr. Rudy Marrazzo (15 minutes)

11:45 a.m. - Discussion

12:00 noon - Lunch

1:00 p.m.  - Seven White Paper Reports

             1. An Integrated, Nationwide Environmental Monitoring
                Program for Short -Term Implementation - Mr. Keith
                Schwab, Region VIII, Denver

             2. Future Monitoring Program and Methods - Mr. Gary
                Gardner, Region III, Philadelphia

             3. Standardization of Methods and Equipment -
                Mr.  Richard Duty, Region VI, Dallas

             4. Early Warning Monitoring Network - Mr. Gary O'Neal,
                Region X, Seattle

             5. Requirements for Acquisition of Monitoring Data
                Especially Dealing With Compatibility and Quality -
                Mr.  Edward Fitzpatrick, Region 1,  Boston

             6.  Development of a Quality Control Program - Mr.  Robert
                Bowden, Region V, Chicago

             7.  Monitoring Techniques (Remote and In-Situ) - Mr.  Gary
                Fisk, Region VII, Kansas City

             20  minutes each - 10 minute presentation and highlights
                               10 minute discussion

3:20 p.m.  - Break Up Into Six Working Panels

             1.  An Integrated, Nationwide Environmental Monitoring
                Program for Short-Term Implementation - Mr. Willis B.
                Foster, Chairman

             2.  Future Monitoring Program and Methods - Mr. Terry
                Davies, Chairman

             3.  Standardization of Methods and Equipment - Mr.  Dwight
                G.  Ballinger, Chairman

             4.  Early Warning Monitoring Network - Mr. H. Matthew
                Bills, Chairman

             5.  Standardized Monitoring Data Acquisition: Compati-
                bility Aspects and Standardized Monitoring Data
                Acquisitions: Quality Aspects - Mr. George B.
                Morgan, Chairman

             6.  Monitoring Techniques: Remote Sensing and In-Situ
                Techniques - Mr. Donald B..Holmes, Chairman

Friday, October  15, 1971

9:00 a.m.  - Six Panels Meet

12:00 noon - Lunch

1:00 p.m.  - Presentations - Three Panels Present Their Conclusions
               (30 minutes each)

2:30 p.m.  - Discussion

3:00 p.m.  - Presentations - Three Panels Present Their Conclusions
               (30 minutes each)

4:30 p.m.  - Discussion

5:00 p.m.  - "Program Profile" Wrap Up - Mr. Foster

5:30 p.m.  - Adjournment

                            WITHIN EPA


     Seven papers have been prepared to provide a frame of reference
for workshop discussion during this meeting.  The topics of these
papers are:
        Paper No. 1 - An Integrated, Nationwide Environmental
                      Monitoring Program for Short-Term Implementation
        Paper No. 2 - Future Monitoring Program and Methods
        Paper No. 3 - Standardization of Methods and Equipment
        Paper No. 4 - Early Warning Monitoring Network
        Paper No. 5 - Standardized Monitoring Data Acquisition -
                      Compatibility Aspects
        Paper No. 6 - Standardized Monitoring Data Acquisition -
                      Quality Control Aspects
        Paper No. 7 - Monitoring Techniques - Remote Sensing
                      and In Situ
     Each of these papers presents a section which addresses the overall
perspective of the problem in terms of scope and technical and organiza-
tional aspects.  The intent of this section is to stimulate meaningful
and constructive exchange during the workshop sessions.  Each paper also
piresents selected topics for discussion.  These should not be considered
ap constraints but should serve as a point of departure for deve.lopment
of Agency monitoring policies and programs.  The objective of each work-
shop is to prepare inputs along programmatic lines which can be integrated
into an overall Environmental Monitoring Program of the Environmental
Protection Agency.

                            PAPER NO. 1


     1.1.1  The Scope of a Short-Term Monitoring Program

            The short-term monitoring program is primarily an immediate

restructuring of the many, existing ongoing monitoring programs within

the Environmental Protection Agency.  The purpose is to merge and

coalesce these monitoring activities into a single program without

undesirable duplicities of effort, using the presently available

resources.  More effective use of available resources will allow

expanded coverage in some areas where serious gaps exist.

     Planning for a longer term program will continue in parallel with

the implementation of the short term program.

  Definition of Monitoring

                   The report of the Study of Critical Environmental

Problems (SCEP) resulting from a summer study in Williamstown, Massa-

chusetts, sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology*

describes monitoring as "systematic observations of parameters related

to a specific problem, designed to provide information on the charac-

teristics of the problem and their changes with time."  The report

continues that monitoring must provide warning of critical changes as

well as measurement of the present state of the environment ("baseline")
*Man's Impact on the Global Environment, Report of the Study of
 Environmental Problems (SCEP), The HIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,
1970, p. 168.

     The SCEP report describes three monitoring techniques*.   The

first is economic and statistical monitoring.  The authors state:

          "If we are concerned with predicting the accumulation
          of a pollutant in the environment, its rate of input
          must be known ...  If we are concerned with evaluating
          the effects of alternative control technologies on
          pollutant levels, we need quantitative information about
          the flow of materials which will be altered by control
          technology to include inputs, wastes, and end products
          at each stage of the process."

Measurement of resources as well as effluent levels are included in

this technique.

     The second technique relates to physical and chemical monitoring.

These methods are used:

          "to determine the amount of a contaminant in a sample
          of soil, water, air, or organism.  Physical methods are
          also used to determine a property of an environmental
          system as a whole, such as the refractive index or the
          albedo of the atmosphere. . .  The essence of good
          monitoring of this type is to measure what is needed,
          and no more, with the precision that is needed, and no
          more, and to maintain standards indefinitely.  Tradi-
          tionally, monitoring of this type is carried out in net-
          works of fixed stations.  The entire operation may be
          completed at these stations or a sample may be taken to
          a central laboratory for examination or analysis.  In
          either case, central coordination of methods and central
          standardization is necessary.  Monitoring is now extended
          to measurements on ships, aircraft, and satellites."

     The third technique described by the SCEP group is biological

*Ibid., pp. 168-172.

          "Even though our interest in environmental pollution
          stems from our concern about its effects on living organisms,
          the concept of using such organisms either individually
          or as a population or species as tools to monitor the
          state of the environment is still a relatively untested one.
          Moreover, although the study of natural ecosystems has
          long been an important scientific activity in observation
          and evaluation, changes in these finely tuned systems have
          not yet been systematized to yield warnings about harmful
          contaminants.  Yet living organisms can serve as excellent
          quantitative as well as qualitative indices of the pollution
          of the environment.  Plants and animals are continually
          exposed and can act as long-term monitors that integrate
          all environmental effects to reflect the total state of their
          environmental milieu.  They can show the pathways and points
          of accumulation of pollutants and toxicants in ecological

     A fourth technique is necessary to meet the requirements of

environmental monitoring, namely, social-aesthetic monitoring.  The

National Environmental Policy Act indicates that environmental quality

cannot be obtained through consideration of only the economic, physical

and biological parameters.  The home, work, leisure, and general

surroundings including housing conditions, urban sprawl, transportation

congestion, odors, noise, availability of mineral and fuel resources

as well as recreation areas and open space, all form a very real part

of the environment under consideration.

     For its purposes the Office of Monitoring has defined environmental

monitoring as:  "the systematic collection and evaluation of physical,

chemical, biological and related environmental data pertaining to

environmental quality, and waste discharges into all media.  It may be

performed through the operation of regional, nationwide and global

networks and special studies of individual areas and sites."

     There are three basic types of monitoring systems which can be

established, depending on their intended use.  These are:

       •  a scientific system to support research programs —

          these are usually established on a specific problem

          basis to aid in the study of particular problem areas

          (e.g., establish cause/effect relationships, or support

          equipment development);

       •  a legal system to support surveillance, and enforcement

          programs — monitoring of noise in the vicinity of airports

          is a typical example;

       o  an operational system to support control and abatement and

          also aid in decision and policy making and dissemination of

          information to the public — the National Aerometric Data

          Bank (NADB) is an example of a system which supports control

          and abatement operations.  Properly extended and used in

          conjunction with the National Air Surveillance Network it

          could provide the basis for computing indices to support

          policy making, and disseminating information to the public.

     Except for the differences in the measurement grid and geographical

coverage there is no sharp distinction among these uses; to some degree,

all three types of systems may utilize elements from a common data base.

  Short Term and Long Term Needs

                   The mobilization of present monitoring activities

into a coordinated, operating environmental monitoring system is the

immediate goal of the Office of Monitoring.  The objective is to meet

the short term high priority needs of EPA to fulfill its mission through

the use of existing resources, and supplemental resources to fill serious

gaps in such a program.  The time scale is to start implementation

immediately and have an operating system in the initial phases within

twelve months and full scale operation within twenty-four months.  A

key tenet of this sytem is to have data collected by the immediate users

of -the data (EPA Regional Offices, state and local environmental agencies,

industrial firms, environmental organizations, etc.), using standardized

methods of collection, and to transmit processed data upward through the

local, state, regional, federal heirarchy as coordinated information for

other uses.

     The planning to meet the long term needs for environmental monitoring

must proceed in parallel with the implementation of the short term system.

The long terra system will not only fill gaps in the short term system and

expand the capability to monitor the environment, but will provide the

basis for analyzing long term changes and trends in the environment in

both urban and rural background situations.

     1.1.2  Monitoring Needs

            a.  General Needs

                While the general requirements for monitoring can be

identified as providing information for:

                 (a)  the assessment of pollution effects on man and his


               (c)  the establishment of ambient environmental quality and

     emission standards,

               (d)  the development of control strategies and regulations

               (e)  the evaluation of the effectiveness of adopted control

     procedures and preventative measures,

               (f)  the guidance of future development to minimize

     pollution impact on the environment by the use of modeling and


           b.  Specific Needs

               The specific needs are categorized by the three types of

systems mentioned previously, i.e., scientific and research programs,

surveillance for enforcement, and operational programs.  The detailed

requirements for each are shown in Appendix A.

  Research and Scientific Information

                   Systems for obtaining information for better under-

standing the environment and the manner in which man interacts with it

are usually systems tailored to run specific experiments under controlled

environments.  A dense measurement grid around a bound geographical area

is typical for assessment of specific environmental problems.  Controlled

experiments with measurement of changes from a baseline during the course

of the experiment requires specific sensor arrangements.  Examination of

large numbers of biological and human specimens in controlled or uncon-

trolled conditions often requires examination of existing data in new

ways.  (See Appendix A).

  Surveillance for Enforcement

                   Surveillance to provide information to expose violators

of environmental laws and regulations is necessary for both voluntary and

compulsory enforcement.  Systems for surveillance of this type must be

well calibrated and maintained to assure that they will have legal in-

tegrity.  Often these systems will be portable or mobile and will be

used on a strategic basis.  The systems must be as good or better than

the- adversaries in enforcement action.  (See Appendix A.)

  Operational Programs

                   Operational programs use widely dispersed grids of

measurement for determining the condition of the environment for control

and abatement and for obtaining information for administrative decision

making and planning.   (See Appendix A)

          1.1.2.A  Classification of Present Programs

     Table 1, shows a classification of existing EPA programs by the

classifications noted above.  The table is illustrative and is probably

not exhaustive.

     1.1.3  The Flow and Use of Monitoring Information

            The functional components associated with collection and

proper use of environmental data are:

            1.  Sampling System

            2.  Sensors and Measurement

            3.  Data Acquisition

            A.  Information Transmittal

                               TABLE I

                    Present EPA Monitoring Programs
1.  Research and Scientific Information

    A.   Air

        o  Federal Facilities Air Quality Control Regional Studies
        o  Ecological and Surveillance Studies
        9  Agricultural and Material Effect Studies
        e  Economic and cost control studies
        9  Biological effects research studies
        o  Photochemical studies
        e  CAMP

    B.   Water

        o  Environmental Criteria and Standards
        o  Hydrologic Processes
        o  Chemical - Physical Identification of Pollutants
        o  Research - Ultimate Disposal Systems
        e  Mine Drainage
        o  Eutrophication Research
        o  Effects of Ocean Disposal with Corps of Engineers
        e  Gulf Breeze Estuaries Study

    C.   Solid Waste

        e  Recycling Process
        o  Composition Studies
        o  Heat Recovery - Incinerator System
        e  Hydrolysis and Pyrolysis Research
        a  Separation/Classification System
        o  Biodegradable Materials

    D.   Radiation

        e  Radiation Protection Standards Research
        0  Precipitation Netv/orks
        o  Human and Biological tissue
        e  Technical Support Programs in Office of Water Programs  (OWP)

    E.   Pesticides

        o  Chemical vs Bioenvironmental Methods
        e  Persistence Research
        o  Ecosystem Stability
        o  Bird monitoring

    E.  Pesticides  (cont.)

       o   Pesticide  Transport Mechanisms
       o   Technical  Support Programs  in OWP

    F.  Noise

       o   EPA/NBS  Noise  Characteristics Study  for various devices.

2.  Surveillance and Enforcement

    A.   Air

        o  Technical Assistance to state and local programs

    B.   Water

        o  Regional  Office short  and long-term stream monitoring

        o  Cooperating Federal,  State,  and  local short and long-term

    C.   Solid  Waste

        o  Not  applicable

    D.   Radiation

        o  Technical Support Programs in OWP

    E.   Pesticides

        o  Technical Support Programs in OWP

    F.   Noise

        o  NSPI

3.  Operational Programs

    A.   Control and abatement

        1.   Air

            o   Air  Quality Data  Bank

               Total Suspended Particulate Network
               Membrane Filter Sampling Network

          Gas sampling network
          Precipitation network
          Mercury sampling network
          Radiation alert network
          Anderson impactor network

        e  Emission Data bank

2.  Water Quality Control Information System (STORET)

        •  Fish Kill Information
        e  Beach and Shellfish Bed Closings Information
        o  Water Quality Standards
        o  Water Quality Measurements
        e  Municipal Waste Inventory
        »  Municipal Waste Implementation Plans
        o  Municipal Waste Treatment Plant Operation and Maintenance
        e  Municipal Waste Treatment Construction Grants Needs  Assessment
        o  Municipal Waste Treatment Works Contract Awards
        «  Voluntary Industrial Waste Inventory
        o  Refuse Act Permit Program Industrial Waste  Information
        o  Industrial Waste Implementation Plans
        &  Federal Power Commission Therma Pollution Information
        9  Manpower and Training Information

3.  Solid Waste

        9  Survey of Community Solid Waste Products

4.  Radiation

        o  Pasteurized Milk Network
        a  Institutional Diet Network
        e  Surface Water Network (OWP)
        o  Radiation Alert Network (OAF)

5.  Pesticides

        o  Pesticides in water
        o  Pesticides in air
        •  Human tissue levels
        9  Fish kills (OWP)

6.  Noise

        e  NSPI

    B.   Administrative

        1.   Air
            o  Air Quality Indices
            o  State Emission Inventory Surveys

        2.   Water

            o  Pollution-Duration-Intensity Index (PDI)
            o  Priority Action Index

        3.   Solid Waste

            o  National Solid Waste Practices Data Network

        4.   Pesticides

            o  Interagency Data Exchange

        5.   Radiation

            o  NSPI

        6.   Noise

            o  NSPI

             5.  Storage and Processing

             6.  Interpretation and Analysis

             7.  Retrieval and Presentation

                 Relevant elements associated with these components

are outlined in the following subsections.  A more detailed discussion

is contained in'Papers 3, 5, 6, and 7 of this series.


                   The selection of a sampling grid,  sampling frequency

and accuracy, and overaging times are critical in setting up a monitoring

strategy.  This selection must precede the hardware and software selection

process, and must be responsive to the monitoring needs.

  Sensors and Measurement

                   For virtually every monitoring application it is

necessary to determine standard equipment specifications and methods of

measurement and analysis.  A balance should be achieved between initial

equipment costs and degree of automation and 9n-site data reduction which

will affect operating and maintenance costs.

     Quality control guidelines should be developed and implemented in a

uniform manner to insure that private, local and Federal authorities

maintain the same standards and standard methods.  Standard methods

and quality control are discussed in detail in papers No.  3 and No. 5.

  Data Acquisition

                   This element is concerned with preparation of data,

acquired from sensors or survey forms, for subsequent transmission and

storage.  Standard methods and formats should be utilized to the

maximum extent to enter data for subsequent distribution.  Procedures for

validation and requirements for local processing must be developed.

  Information Transmittal

                   The transmission of environmental information is a

system function which has a significant interface with the acquisition

element.  Standard transmission formats indicating time, location of

observation, parameter being measured and other relevant identifiers

should be utilized for all measurements.  Consideration must be given

to utilizing common facilities for data entry and transmissions at

regional sites.   Procedures should be developed for transmitting a

variety of data over common communication facilities.   This will require

development of collection and transmission schedules for sending data

from local sites and regions to central storage facilities.

  Storage and Processing

                   Data banks should be organized to allow use of

common data entry and maintenance software.  Some information will be

stored locally and pre-processed and aggregated for utilization at

higher organizational levels.  The nature of the aggregation must be

specified for each type of environmental data so that a proper balance

of fixed distribution of summary data to higher levels vs special

requests for detailed data is achieved.  The organization of data

files must allow for appropriate cross-referencing to permit effective

utilization and correlation of information about a specific pollutant

(e.g. trace substance, pesticides) with respect to its presence in

all environmental media (air, water, and land).


  Retrieval and Presentation

                   File maintenance systems  provide not only for entry

and maintenance of data files but for processing, retrieval and display

of output information.  Here again, maximum use should be made of

standard software packages such as MARK IV, Generalized Information

System (CIS), DM-1 and COGENT III.

     'Format and the manner of output must be geared to the specific

application.  In many research applications, computer printout in a

legible format showing statistical summaries, by time, location or

parameter is adequate.  For these purposes, rapid update of the data

bank (posting) is not as critical as rapid retrieval of the information

and minimum turnaround from request to receipt of output reports.  In

cases of episode monitoring, both rapid posting and rapid retrieval

and display are required.   In this case, integrated displays should be

developed for an Environmental Situation Room (see Paper No. 4).

  Interpretation and Analysis of Environmental Data

                   One of the most critical needs within the Environ-

mental Protection Agency is the capability to examine environmental

degredation in an integrated comprehensive manner across all media.

This involves the ability to develop pollution chain analyses, tracing the

movement of hazardous substances, trace metals, and other chemical

materials through environmental media, including their physical and

chemical transformations brought about by interaction with plants and

animals.  Sophisticated material balance models, transport and diffusion •

models and other research tools are required to be developed and applied


to gain an understanding of these related phenomena.  The needs of these

multi-media programs will provide specifications for integrated source

monitoring and correlations with concentration of substances in various

media and their related effects on many biota and materials.

     1.2  An Integrated Approach

          1.2.1-  The Underlying Philosophy

                 The basic tenets of an integrated approach to

environmental monitoring are:

          a.  Data is to be collected and analyzed by the primary user

              of the data.  As an example, air and water quality data

             for a locality are primarily collected by the local

             government involved.  Validation systems such as the

             Water Qiidlity Surveillance System and the National Air

             Surveillance Network are primarily the responsibility of

             the Office of Air Programs.

          b.  Data is to be obtained by standardized methods and

             formated in a manner prescribed by EPA.  The SAROAD

             and STORET format are examples.

          c.  The data collected by immediate users will be processed

              and transmitted to EPA operated data banks.  The trans-

              mission of data will move from localities to states,

              states to EPA regions, regions to EPA headquarters, etc,

              using common facilitating and formats where feasible.

              This is now done in the STORET system through use of

              104 terminals.


          d.  EPA Headquarters will receive  transmitted data.

              store these data In identified data  files which

              will have compatible formats.  The data files may

              or may not be on shared facilities.

          e.  Information obtained from analysis and processing

              will be transmitted back to data sources as well

              as to other interested parties.

          1.2.2  Use of Existing Structures

                 Two major monitoring systems presently exist in

EPA.  They are the National Aerometric Data Information System (NADIS)

operated by the Office of Air Programs and the Water Quality Control

Information System (STORET), operated by the Office of Water Programs.

Each of these systems have desirable attributes which should be

preserved to form the basis of an integrated system.

      The NADIS Concept

                       NADIS already has over.250 communities and all

states and territories providing air quality data in standardized

formats (SAROAD) to EPA on a quarterly basis.  The flow and means of

verification of this data  has been established and the cooperation of

all the states and nearly all localities has been obtained.  .The National

Aerometric Data Bank (NADB) is operational and is returning processed

information back to all contributors on a quarterly basis.  The NADIS

concept which is illustrated in Figure 1,  is not yet totally implemented

In terms of the state processing centers and transmission facilities, but

general agreement with states on setting up this system has been reached.


                                    APCO OPERATIONS


        „ LOCAL
        I AGENCY,
        i=:        *
                               FIGURE  1  - KADIS  OVERVIEW

It is felt that this represents considerable headway in obtaining

EPA/state/local coordination and should be preserved.

  Water Quality Control Information System (Figure 2)

                   The file structure and formats for this system

have provided means of storage and retrieval of water quality control

information.   The development of a river mile index specification

represent major efforts that must be preserved.  The file structure

and software for retrieval and use of information is now used by 104

terminal locations (24 are located in State Pollution Control Agencies) .

  Other Systems

                   As indicated in Table 1 other operational programs

in radiation and pesticide monitoring exist, but are aimed at monitoring

specific pollutants under particular conditions.  They do not exhibit

the general approaches inherent in the NADIS and STORET systems.

     Research and scientific information programs and enforcement

surveillance programs exist, but indicate an absence of coordination.

          1.2.3  Coordination with Other Information Systems

                 The various existing monitoring systems require

coordination with other systems both within and outside of EPA.


     It may be argued that transfer of data between air and water quality

data bases may be minimal since they have different statutory bases, but

it is now necessary to assure utilization of data in both data bases

in a compatible manner.  Many aspects of pesticides and radiation

monitoring interact with both air and water data and this coordination


                                                           WATER QUALITY CONTROL INFORMATION SYSTEM

   WATER Ql.Ai.ir/ STA;OA.'U!S








                                                                               FIGURE 2

                                                              WATER QUALITY CONTROL INFORMATION SYSTEM

is necessary.  Solid waste data can impact both air and water

problems as well as land usage.  Noise data may possibly be related

to air quality in the meteorological sense.

     Analysis and interpretations of data across all data bases must

be possible then, through standardization of format and, perhaps, file


     Surveillance for enforcement may require close coordination since

correction of one type of violation may cause another type, (e.g.

effluents used to clean stack gases must also be disposed of elsewhere).

                       International and Global

     International transfer of information is presently being coordinated

by the Office of Monitoring.  Support of the upcoming Stockholm Conference

on the Global Environment is in progress.

     1.3  The Structure of a Monitoring System

          An overall EPA monitoring system is viewed as a meta-systera

consisting of many subsystems operating to serve their basic functions,

but coordinated through proper planning and design to provide sufficient-

standardization of methods, formats, and quality control to assure the

compatibility and validity of collected information to meet all major

needs for this information throughout EPA, local, state, and federal

governments and to serve the needs of the public at large.

          1.3.1  System Components

                 The major categorized components of the system are

indicated along with the various responsibilities associated with the



  Research and Scientific Information Operation

                   The coordination of the wide variety of programs

already existing and the planning for new programs is the responsibility

of the Office of Monitoring.  The operation of those programs will be

undertaken by Offices of  Research and Monitoring, Media Programs, or

Categorical Programs if the programs are laboratory oriented.  Where

possible, Regional offices shall be responsible for field collection

of data, especially when the resources of local governments, states,

and private industry are involved.

  Surveillance for Enforcement Operation

                   The Office of Monitoring is responsible for

standardization and coordination of surveillance activities for

enforcement.  The deployment and operation of these activities will be

the responsiblity of the Regional Offices in coordination with the

Office of the Assistance Administrator for Envorcement and the General


  Operational Networks

          a.       Early Warning Networks

                   The Office of Monitoring will plan and coordinate

this network, but operation will be the responsibility of the Regional

Offices using the states, localities,  and private sector where feasible.

The maintenance of centralized data files and the processing of these

files will rest with the Office of Monitoring.

          b.       Abatement and Control Networks

                   The Office of Monitoring will coordinate the


planning and operation of the various abatement and control networks

to assure common use of available facilities and compatibility.

The Categorical and Media Program Offices will have the responsibility

for integrating and analyzing data collected.  The regional offices  will

be responsible for collecting the data and transmitting them upward  in the

hierarchy.  Local, state, and private resources will be coordinated  by

the Regional offices.

          c.         Administrative Information System

                     Planning information, development of indices, and

reports on the state of the environment will be the responsibility of

the Office of Monitoring.  Regional offices will supply inputs and be

responsible for implementation of reporting systems at the Regional


          1.3.2  Basic Structure

                 A proposed structure for operational networks envisions

the use of a NADlS-like concept for the acquisition, preprocessing,  and

transmission of basic monitoring data with the possibility of upgrading

the capability of the Regional offices.  The STORET concept also provides

a complementary capability in the water area.

     The NADIS-like system would allow all types of environmental data

to be processed and transmitted upward in the hierarchy of users.  The

use of shared facilities and communication media is desired, but not

required when circumstances warrant departures.

     Data files such as NADB and STORET are prototypes of the files

envisioned with additional capability to obtain compatibility of files


where  desirable.   Separate  files  are to  be  maintained  for different net-

works  although  the facilities  for maintaining  the  files may or may not be

shared as determined by needs  and expense.

     The storage  and retrieval capabilities of the STORET system will

also prove  to be  of value in setting the new structure of an integrated

system.  Use of remote terminals  for data entry is also a desirable feature.

     The Clean Air Act as ammended allows EPA  to aid states and localities

in establishing air quality monitoring systems and reporting and trans-

mission facilities.  This enabling legislation makes the implementation

of the NADIS concept highly feasible as  has already been demonstrated.

          1.3.3   Responsibilities

                  Since monitoring  has to be carried out where the

responsibility for control rests,  monitoring networks will, for the

most part, be operated by State and  local agencies for pollutants where

standards have been promulgated and, where  necessary, augmented by

networks operated  by the regional  offices.   In certain situations the

enforcement, media and categorical  programs may be required to conduct

monitoring activities.  In addition, it  is  the responsibility of the

regional offices  to collect and analyze  the data from the monitoring

netiworks within the regions and to  carry out field studies to show com-

pliance with standards.  It is envisioned that most of the monitoring

will be carried out under the direct guidance  of the regional admin-

istrators.   Specific responsibilities for EPA  organizational entities

are indicated in Appendix B.

     1.4  The Short Term Monitoring Program Development

          The development of a short term monitoring program requires  the

means to establish programs with the optimum use of resources for:

          1.4.1  Research and Scientific Information

                 1.  Coordination of Experiments

                 2.  Identification of Gaps

                 3.  Common Use of Facilities and Sites

                 4.  Compatible Data Storage and Analysis

                 5.  Standardized Dissemination of Results

                 6.  Correlation Among Experiments

                 7.  Supervision and Standardization of Quality Control

          1.4.2  Surveillance for Enforcement

                 1.  Operation of the Permit Program Under 18 99 Act

                 2.  Regional Quick Response Teams
                 3.  Headquarters Standardization of Equipment  and
                     Methods and Quality Control

                 4.  Regional Technical Assistance to States and

                 5.  National Quick Response Teams for Special  Problems
                     (e.g.,  Episodes,  Spills,  Environmental Impact

          1.4.3   Operational Programs

                 1.  Establishment  of  Data  Acquisition Programs and
                     Coordination with Immediate Users of Data

                     a.   Local

                     b.   State

                     c.   Region

                     d.   Categorical and  Air  and Water Programs

                     e.   Coordination with  Other Agencies


2.  Office of Monitoring Operation of Special
    Verification Networks  for Assurance of Quality Control

3.  Common Communication System

4.  Shared Facilities when Feasible

5.  Separate, but  Compatible Data Files (may or may not
    be on same equipment)

6.  Standardized Reporting and Analysis Procedure - Designed
    to assure that Federal, State, and local officials can
    meet their statuatory  requirements and operation

7.  Systems

    a.  Air

        Air Quality and Emissions Data (NADB)

        Effects Information

        Coordination with  Meteorology Data (NOAA)

    b.  Water

        Water Quality Control Information System (STORE!)

    c.  Radiation

        Coordination of Present Programs

    d.  Pesticides

        Coordination of Present Programs

    e.  Noise

        Planning for Noise Network

    f.  Gaps

        Identification and Planned Inclusion

8.  Adminstration Programs

    a.  Indices

       Air, Water, Pesticides, Radiation, Noise,
       Solid Waste Practices, etc.

   b.  Inclusion of Solid Waste Practices Network

   c.  Management Information and Reporting System

       Control Rooms - Manual



9.  Coordinated Planning for System Expansion

    The System must be responsive and flexible to meet
    the changing needs of all programs.

1.5  Suggested Discussion Topics

     1.  Is the definition of monitoring, including the categorization
of monitoring programs, suitable?

     2.  The proposed structure is a skeletal strawman.  Is it in the
right direction, and is it feasible?

     3.  What are the specific monitoring needs for each type of program
and what are the associated priorities?

     4.  Are the assignments of responsibilities for the program proper
and workable?

    .5.  Is the basic philosophy of the environmental meta-system

     6.  What are proper organizational relationships (private, local
region, central) consistent with legal jurisdiction and resource constraints
to promote effective coordination and standardization of data collection,
transfer, and use?  What are the most critical problems in this area, and
what existing and new programs are required to resolve them?

     7.  What are the most critical limitations in promoting effective
utilization of current data resources within the agency?  What are the
best alternatives to deal with these limitations?

                         APPENDIX A


1.  Research and Scientific Information

     Information gained by scientific research is used for:

a.  Setting standards - determination of health, biological,

    economic, and other environmental effects for specific

    pollutants and ecological systems.

b.  Environmental Impact Assessment - investigating the

    alternatives available for solving existing or potential

    environmental problems on a specific problem basis.

c.  Source - Receptor Relationships - determining the emission

    or effluent source relationship of specific pollutants to

    resultant environmental concentrations.  Includes modelling

    of the processes involved.  The interaction of pollutants,

    their decay and dispersion and dilution are included.

d.  New Threats - Early identification and quantification of

    new or newly recognized pollutants.

e.  Coordination of Scientific Information - A compatible system

    is required to assure effective dissemination, exchange,

    and utilization of available research information.  The substance

    of the information, not the program description is intended

    here.  The description of programs can be better handled by

    technical information centers or a clearing house such as

    recommended by the SEQUIP study.

2.  Surveillance for Enforcement

a.    Legal Evidence of Violations

      Monitoring of emission, effluents and pollutant concentration

      to provide evidence of violations and the extent of the


b.    Detection of Violations

      Initial detection of potential violations for subsequent

      investigation as above.

c.    Expert Testimony

      Providing information from expert witnesses, using the

      monitoring system capabilities and scientific information, for

      legal testimony.

d.    Utilization of Voluntary Information

      Effective  use of information received on a voluntary

      basis froip industry  such as provided by  the permit  program

      of the 1899 Refuse Act.

3.   Operational Programs

     1) Control and Abatement

        a-  Background, Ambient  and  Episode Monitoring Programs

            Measurement of environmental parameters and pollutants

            to  determine background  mode,  ambient conditions in a

            dynamic environment, and emergency  reporting during

            episodic environmental conditions.

    b.  Early Warning Program

        A program to determine incipient adverse environmental

        conditions prior to their becoming major problems.

        This is a network that overlays the background, ambient

        and episode network although there may be some


2)  Administration and Planning

    a.  Environmental Trends

        Determination of long term trends in the environment

        such as changes in the albedo,  and upper atmosphere.

        The long term impact of identified changes will have

        major impact in program decisions that will affect

        the environment.

   b.    Environmental Indices

        Aggregated measurements for measuring general

        changes to the environment, for providing

        measures of program goal attainment, and for

        dissemination to the public sector.

   c.    Decision Making Information

        Measures of conditions of the environment that

        provide inputs to selection of  program alternatives

        for control and abatement.

                             APPENDIX B

               EPA Organizational Responsibilities
                    for Monitoring Activities

A.  Regional Administrators
     To fulfill this monitoring function, the Regional administrators
     1.  Identify regional monitoring needs required to satisfy
         program objectives;
     2.  Determine the most effective way to satisfy these needs,
         i.e.,  via state support or direct operations;
     3.  Direct the regional monitoring in accordance with guidance
         by office of monitoring and using standardized methods
         and procedures, providing guidance and supervision to State
         and local monitoring efforts performed through EPA support,
         and performing direct operations, such as sampling and laboratory
         analyses, necessary to augment the State and local efforts;
     4.  Perform special monitoring as assigned by Headquarters;
     5.  Perform specific short-term field studies to support  enforcement
     6.  Assist State and local officials in their monitoring  activities;
     7.   Collect, review and evaluate regional environmental data needed
         for regional management and/or prescribed by Headquarters  and
         transmit data to EPA data bank in accordance with prescribed

     8.    Identify to AARM monitoring needs that cannot be satisfied at

           the regional level (methods development, demonstration systems,

           national network)

     9.    Assist Monitoring Techniques Division in field testing methods

           and instruments designed for routine monitoring.

B.   Functional Offices

                With respect to monitoring, the Enforcement, Media and

      Categorical offices should:

      1.        Conduct source sampling activities related to their

                special requirements;

      2.        Conduct field studies to support policy planning and

                decision making;

      3.        Identify to DAAM national monitoring needs to support

                program objectives;

      4.        Operate environmental data storage, translation,

                and information presentation systems as requested by

                their programs and to be compatible with other EPA

                information systems;

      5.        Coordinate and assist, through the regional administrators,

                States and local users in the use of EPA information


      6.        Perform analyses as part of the information system

                where required.

C.  Office of Monitoring

               The Deputy Assistant Administrator for Monitoring should:

     1.        Develop and operate special monitoring programs for

               long-term trends, new or newly recognized pollutants

               and pollutants under consideration for future control;

     2.        Plan and develop appropriate guidelines for all monitoring


     3.        Develop and standardize methodology for the collection

               and analysis of environmental samples and data handling

               and presentation;

     4.        Ensure validity and uniformity of environmental quality

               data so that it can be fully utilized within EPA's

               information systems;

     5.        Direct the operation of the U.S. portion of global and

               international monitoring networks;

     6.        Provide for technical training and special assistance to

               regional, State, and local personnel;

     7.        Provide a public education and information Program;

     8.        Provide support when requested to the enforcement

               elements of EPA;

     9.        Document the overall environmental quality including


    10.        Provide an overview assessment of the agency's

               monitoring activities.

                           PAPER NO. 2


     2.1  Problem Perspective

          The first of this series of papers has described present

monitoring programs as those for which implementation actions could

be taken immediately with a resulting operational system available

any time from the present through the next two or three years.  This

paper considers future programs and methods to be those for which

operational needs will be satisfied five years into the future, and

beyond.  Plans for these programs must be prepared now and supporting

studies must be initiated immediately and revised on a continuing

basis to account for the dynamic nature of the environment and to

insure that available operational systems will meet requirements in

five years.

     The continuing effectiveness of overall EPA activities rests

largely on the ability to anticipate and resolve future potential

environmental problems before they reach the crisis stage.  This

places emphasis on the need for effective planning to provide

guidelines and specifications for industry cooperation in technology

development.   It will promote orderly and economic implementation of

control measures to improve environmental quality.  It can minimize

adverse consequences to the environment and economy (as well as to

the Agency's image)  from such incidents as the recommended shift

from phosphates to NTA to phosphates in laundry detergents.

     Some broad objectives which EPA's future monitoring program

should attain are discussed below.

             Detection and Effects of New Pollutants

     This objective relates to identification of new pollutants

which are being emitted into all environmental media and the deter-

mination of acceptable levels based upon economic and health and

welfare effects.  This requires a concept of search sampling and

monitoring of media samples and correlation with epidemiological and

other effects.  New and improved analytical and pathological techniques

including variation in thresholds of human tolerances should be

employed for detection along with increased and systematic monitoring

of geological effects.  The same concept applies to changing acceptable

levels of known pollutants for which standards have been defined.

                 Integration of Monitoring Across

                       Environmental Media

     Data are required for development and application of ecological

models which test transport and effects of pollutants across

environmental media.  This is a difficult technical problem which

must be attacked by the Agency and poses a challenge to the proper

organization and implementation of an effective research and monitoring

effort.  Data monitoring requirements must be preceded by research

specifications of cross media models  (e.g. EQUIPS, Materials Balance,

Transport and Diffusion).

               Support of Future Operational Needs

     Future monitoring requirements must be responsive to legislative

and anticipated technological developments.  For example, legislation

requiring permits for proper application of pesticides suggests

monitoring to determine the effectiveness of the control and application

procedures.  Similar requirements currently exist for discharging

effluents in streams; it is conceivable that in five or ten years

permits may be required for weather modification and advanced planning

should consider the potential impact on new monitoring needs.  The

development of environmental impact statements may dictate special

monitoring to assist in conducting proper technology assessments.

The Agency should continually review all statements with the intent of

identifying common data gaps and synthesizing new monitoring requirements.

     Three projects dealing with establishing requirements, performing

feasibility analyses of advanced techniques and performing advanced

development to further prove the merits of new monitoring techniques

and systems are discussed in the following paragraphs.

     2.1.1 Definition and Analysis of Advanced Monitoring Requirements

          Three primary objectives of this project are:

             1) determination of long term environmental monitoring

             needs and objectives,

             2) provision of the basis for defining and investigating

             new and advanced monitoring techniques,

             3) definition of research requirements for proving

             new environmental monitoring techniques through

             conducting and supporting analytical studies and

             advanced development.

     The approach to realizing these objectives must begin with a

thorough review and appraisal of present monitoring activities and

developments.  This appraisal should categorize the types of monitoring

needs being served according to:

          1) research and scientific - standards development,

          environmental impact assessment, physical biological and

          chemical interactions

          2) enforcement surveillance - legal action, testimony,


          3) operational and administrative support - description

          of status and trends, policy guidance, program evaluation

     Gaps in these programs, along with a separation into present

and future needs should be made to provide a starting point for

projecting future requirements.  Other factors and information

sources requiring analysis to support these projections include:

          1) implications of current and pending legislation

          2) impact of population and industrial growth patterns

          3) new developments in industrial processes

          4) new developments in conventional and remote sensing


          5)  reports of special governmental monitoring committees

          6)  economic and social projections

     Characteristic problem areas should be identified with each of

the projected needs.  These would relate to considerations such as:

a) identification of new pollutants;  b) changes in acceptable levels

of pollutant amounts and concentrations;  c) siting of sensors;

d)  measurement sensitivity and lower limits of threshold detectability

required for scientific, enforcement, or operational purposes;  e)

need for standardized techniques of measurement and analysis; and

f) need for specialized sensing (e.g. biological organisms).

     In all media and categorical areas there will be a need for

increased emphasis on source and effluent monitoring.  An important

consideration of this project is development of a means to insure

that proper communication of information to meet new monitoring

requirements occur between state/local and Regional groups on one hand

and between Regional and EPA central headquarters on the other.

Inputs to this program should also come from discoveries through

the early warning network (see the fourth paper in this series).

     Some perspective for future monitoring needs based upon specific

details of the current situation is presented in Appendix A at the

ead of the paper.

     2.1.2 Feasibility and Evaluation of Advanced Monitoring Techniques

           Based upon requirements and objectives of future monitoring

needs, proper systems management and planning requires that

feasibility of alternative monitoring" systems to satisfy the needs

be thoroughJy examined.

      The  first phase of this project is-to develop a comprehensive

 survey of new concepts and techniques for environmental  monitoring by

 EPA,  other federal  agencies, academic institutions,  and  industry.

 This  survey will  be updated on  a continual basis  and will  provide

 an inventory  of new techniques  and concepts.   State  of the art  studies

 must  be conducted and awareness of developments must be  maintained

 (see  the  fourth paper in  this series).

      The  second phase will  match the potential of  these  concepts

 with  the  advanced monitoring requirements which will be  developed

 in parallel.   A set  of priorities  and  potential payoffs  for

 innovative  concepts  and techniques  will be documented and  reviewed

 by the  operational programs  of  EPA  on  a periodic basis.  This document

 will  be the basic development strategy for advanced  monitoring


      Specific  concepts  and  techniques  for innovative approaches to

 monitoring will be evaluated  against  the  strategy  and seed funds

 will  be provided  to  carry through  these selected projects  to

 determine feasibility of the  concept.  Parallel approaches to meet

 specific requirements will be pursued  through the  conceptual phase

when  this is warranted.  Criteria for establishing feasibility will

 include the economic impact and  costs and  technological considerations

 such  as compatibility with existing equipment and adaptability to a

wide  range of utilization.  Approaches for establishing feasibility

will  include paper studies, laboratory models and  testing,  and pilot

experiments.  Projects  for which feasibility of the conceptual phase

is demonstrated will be forwarded to other research and monitoring

programs for further development.  Wide dissemination of the results

of these studies will be made as required.

     2.1.3 Advanced Development

          In order to meet a given future monitoring requirement, it

may be necessary to proceed initially along several avenues of approach.

At some point the choices will have to be narrowed down to that

concept (or two) which seems most feasible in terms of economics,

coverage,  flexibility, adaptability, etc.  The development phase then

deals with the initial testing and data validation of the prototype

equipment for the advanced technique(s) finally selected.

     Whereas many groups within and without EPA may be involved with

a particular advanced approach during the early stages (feasibility

and evaluation) of its progress, only those groups specifically

affected will continue to be  involved when the development phase

begins.  Depending upon available expertise and facilities, the

decision will have to be  made whether development will be carried

out by EPA personnel or by outside contractors.

     The development stage serves, in a sense, as the proving ground

for radically new concepts or some unique combination of existing

ideas and the transition should be made clear where advanced develop-

ment ends and engineering development begins.  The results of pre-

liminary field testing and development should provide detailed, hard

specifications as input for the implementation of engineering

development and full production by other appropriate branches of EPA.

2.2 Suggested Ddscussion Topics

     a)  Develop a list of potential monitoring requirements which

        may be considered long-term based upon lack of current

        ability to satisfy them (e.g. low detection threshold

        requirements for specific pollutants related to health

        effects and other needs, such as enforcement).

     b)  What methods currently under development can satisfy these


     c)  What priorities can be assigned to the known long term

        requirements identified in a)?  What is the rationale?

        Do we need to investigate a rationale for priority


     d)  What approach can be taken to develop a manageable network

        of standard sites (parameters measured, frequency, method,

        etc.) for consistent monitoring and reporting of status

        and trends.  Consider proper gepgraphical distribution,

        and all media and categories.

        (Note:   Specific problems of selection of sites,  criteria

        for location etc.  should be considered in paper #3,

        Standardization of Methods and Equipment.   The .proposed

        discussion item here should concentrate on requirements

        for standardizations based upon end use e.g.  enforcement

        and surveillance,  scientific, administration and



e) Three projects (requirements, feasibility of advanced

   techniques and advanced development) have been described.

   Are these adequate for implementation of a continuing

   long term monitoring program?  Do you feel they are

   adequate as described?

f) What is the best way to insure that future monitoring

   requirements which are sent  from the field to a central

   focal point at headquarters  are properly disseminated

   to the appropriate EPA research and monitoring organi-

   zation on a continuing and timely basis?

g) VThat program and organizational approaches can be taken

   to insure that the Office of Monitoring develop an

   integrated system for source, concentration and effects

   monitoring across all environmental media?

h) VThat inputs are required to  determine the appropriate

   changes in the number of monitoring sites to meet

   future needs?

                          APPENDIX A

                        MONITORING NEEDS

     This appendix discusses some examples of the current situation

and potential monitoring needs for media and categorical program areas.

     A.I  Air and Water

          There are over 3,000 state and local air pollution measuring

sites in the United States in addition to the various Federal air

pollution networks shown in Table I.  Of six air pollutants for which

ambient standards have been issued by EPA, only two - S0? (sometimes

sulfation) and particulates - are monitored on an extended geographical


     The Continuous Air Monitoring Program (CAMP) operates at six

stations.  These sites monitor particulates, total oxidants, total

hydrocarbons, CO, S02, N02  and NO.   If the focus of this paper changes

from research to actual air quality determinations, then wider

geographic coverage is necessary.

     Air pollution of the upper atmosphere is an area of great concern,

especially with regard to the recent SST issue.  The collection of

accurate data and the formulation of reliable models are obviously

necessary steps in resolving this problem.  Except for essentially

ground level readings, very few data exist for regions above the order

of tens of meters.  (The AEG collects radioactivity data in the upper

atmosphere).  This lack points out the need for pollution vs. height

profiles.  The Smithsonian Institution has suggested the use of


                             TABLE I



     In addition to state and local stations EPA obtains air

pollution data from its own National Air Surveillance Networks (NASN)

Tills system comprises several different kinds of networks,  and their

present features are summarized below:

          o   Hi-Vol Network:  suspended particulates,  247  sites,
                   26 samples/site/year;

          e   Membrane Filter Network:  suspended particulates
                   (no glass filter interference), 50 sites

          o   Particle Size Network:  particle size distribution,
                   11 sites;

          o   Gas Sampling Network:  several gaseous pollutants,
                   197 sites, 26 samples/site/year;

          o   Precipitation Network:  dissolved air pollutants
                   in rainwater, 16 sites;

          o   Mercury Network:  airborne mercury, 53 sites,

          o   Condensation Nuclei Network:   one site;

          o   Radiation Alert Network (RAN):  airborne  radioactive
                   particles and radioactive contamination  of
                   rainwater, 73 sites,  continuous daily sampling;
                   this network may be phased out due to decreased
                   atmospheric nuclear testing.

          «   Pesticide Network:  airborne  pesticides,  12 sites
                   collecting but method for analysis has not
                   yet been developed; Future,  40-60 sites.

astronomical observatory data  (telluric -lines  and extinction

wavelengths) as a possible means  for obtaining long-term  (30-50

years) atmospheric pollution amounts.

     In order to determine relative contributions (e.g.,  power

plants and/or autos) toward air pollution, more emissions data need

to be collected from representative sources.   This will enable the

appropriate agencies to ascertain the effectiveness of various

con'trol programs.  Motor vehicle certification and recurring maintenance

may provide a challenge for development of more effective and lower

cost monitoring methods.

     Sometimes monitoring is performed too close to sources of

pollution which results in deceptively high, nonrepresentative

readings for computing an index for a locality.  More careful thought

needs to be applied in the selection of sites  for this purpose.  The

comments of this and the previous paragraph apply equally well to

water pollution monitoring.

     With regard to the surface waters of the  nation, there are

approximately 24,000 water quantity (hydrological data) stations and

10,000 water quality (chemical composition) stations which are

operated by local, state, or Federal (principally the Water Quality

Office, EPA, and the Geological Survey) agencies.  Quantity and quality

data are sometimes taken at the same site.  The Water Quality Office

intends to increase the stream miles covered by water quality monitors

from approximately 44,000 stream miles, 5,000  miles of Great Lakes


shoreline, and 4,000 miles of coastline .and estuaries to 100,000

stream miles, 60,000 miles of Great Lakes shoreline, and 12,000 miles

of coastline and estuaries by 1976.  These latter figures i~epresent

essentially total United States coverage.  There is, however, a large

disparity in the levels of effort at the various sites in terms of

the sampling frequency and the number of parameters measured.

     Water pollutants may be classified into physical (undissolved

solids, temperature, odor, sediment, oil, etc.) and chemical categories

(heavy metals, acids, bases, nutrients, pesticides, etc.).  Not only

are some of these substances toxic to human, fish, and plant life,

but various industries cannot tolerate them in their process water.

A more extensive mobile lab network is needed to provide annual or

biennial detailed chemical analysis of all major rivers and bodies

of water.  Aerial surveys and eventually satellite monitoring should

be utilized to augment the ground stations, particularly with regard

to the physical pollutants.

     For water as well as for air monitoring, serious consideration

should be given to careful selection of a subset of these sites to

serve as standard reference monitoring stations for adequate

geographical, urban, remote and pollutant coverage on a systematic


     Epidemics of gastrointestinal disease from public drinking

supplies are rare now, but the potential for such outbreaks is great,

and utilities cannot afford to become complacent and careless in

disinfection practices.  Untreated ground water, along with


distribution system difficulties, has been the most frequent cause of

recent outbreaks.  The waterborne epidemic of Salmonella typhiirmrium

involving 18,000 persons at Riverside, California, in May and June

of 1965 is such an example.

     The detection and identification of viruses is a much more

complicated procedure than that for bacteria, even if clams, oysters,

or other filter feeders are used to concentrate the virus particles.

There is no standard simple laboratory procedure for routine examin-

ation of water supplies for important pathogenic viruses.  Routine

virological examination of water would require an enormous drain on

resources as compared to bacteriological examination.

     It is therefore recommended, pending development of standard

routine methods for the detection and identification of pathogenic

viruses in water, that drinking water supplies be examined for

viral content during viral disease outbreaks.  Careful collecting of

detailed epidemiological information is required for proper analyses.

This is not by any means a routine monitoring task.

     A. 2 Pesticides and Hazardous Substances

          The dangerous effects of pesticides are a problem in all

three media.  The current minimal monitoring of pesticides in air is

conducted by EPA and by the FDA in eight northeastern states.  This

capability should be extended with the density of monitoring sites

being based upon proximity to areas of application (large agricultural

areas) and population density.  The Working Group on Pesticides

proposed in May 1970 that a program be initiated for monitoring airborne

pesticides at a minimum of 40 different locations in the country.


     Pesticide monitoring in water and on' land is performed much more

widely and more frequently than in air.  A number of governmental

agencies are involved in the National Pesticides Monitoring Program.

In general, the present networks seem adequate in terms of the number

of sites.  However, in view of the tremendous numbers of pesticides

on the market and the complex analysis procedures, a better knowledge

of regional sales statistics would enable technicians to know what

pesticides are most likely to occur, thus eliminating costly, un-

necessary testing.

     Monitoring of heavy toxic metals chlorinated hydrocarbons, organo-

phosphates, herbicides, halides, and dithiocarbonates which may

contaminate food supplies is essential; it is also necessary to

determine amounts acquired by other means, such as breathing and skin

contamination.  Low cost, rapid and accurate monitoring techniques are

required in these areas.

     A.3  Radiation

          Figure 1 shows that radioactivity in the atmosphere has

declined significantly since the cessation of significant atmospheric

nuclear bomb testing in the earth 1960's.  One should examine whether

the monitoring programs designed for measuring radioactive fallout

should be re-oriented in some way, consistent with national security.

     Recent court decisions relating to the necessity of AEC to file

complete environmental impact statements regarding power plant con-

struction suggests greater requirements for monitoring radioactivity

and water temperatures in the vicinity of power plants.   Since


   CURVE        UNITS
WATER: TRITIUM   nCi/liter
MILK: Sr-90        pCi/liter
MILK: Cs-137       pCi/liter
                                           FIGURE  1
                              SELECTED RADIOACTIVITY  TRENDS

indications are that the genetically significant dose (GSD) of

radiation from diagnostic x-rays and other non-therapeutic medical

sources has increased from 55 millirems currently, to approximately

65-90 millirems currently, a better means should be found for

monitoring and computing radiation dosage received by the population.

Also, the need for monitoring non-ionizing radiation should be


     A.4  Solid Waste

          Information on solid wastes is most concerned with volume,

amounts, composition and source.  For planning purposes, the Office

of Solid Waste would like to know the composition of domestic and

industrial refuse in specific locations for large urban areas as vail

as for rural locations.  Often, monitoring consists of physical

sorting of garbage which is costly and time consuming and subsequent

recording of volume, composition, weight, etc.  Scales are sometimes

used in measuring loads at incinerator and landfills.  In cases of

industrial refuse, the data are likely to be obtained from sampling

surveys utilizing interviews or written questionnaires.  Future

monitoring programs in this area should concentrate on developing

effective standard techniques for cases where survey and questionnaire

are  the main monitoring methods available.  Are there other

methods, more mechanized, more reliable or less costly, of acquiring

these  data?  Certainly these alternatives should  be considered in

planning new monitoring programs.

     Recycling  data are important  for  economic  and  environmental


policy development and legislative studies.   A future monitoring

program should be concerned with  more  effective acquisition of

materials input and output data from recycling centers and national

trade associations (e.g. National Association of Secondary Materials

Industries, Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel,  National Solid Waste

Management Association).

     While it may be technically  possible to  apply IR photography

for determination of landfill composition,requirements are needed

for use of this kind of data by the Solid Waste Office in order to

develop effective plans along these lines.

     A,5 Noise

          Recently the problem of noise pollution has received a great

deal of attention, but an organized, carefully  conceived monitoring

program does not exist.  The Bureau of Community Environmental Manage-

ment has undertaken a few urban surveys, but  these are mostly subjective

and it would be difficult to make comparisons among cities on a year-

to-year basis.  The FAA is conducting monitoring in the vicinity of

airports to support noise abatement programs.  Also the Department

of Transportation has several studies underway  to determine the amount

and effects of higlway noise.   Since general noise monitoring is

relatively new, a modest survey program in a  few geographical locations

(e.g., selected SMSA's) with an extensive deployment of sensing sit.es

should be sufficient  until the problem is better understood.

     The EPA has recently contracted for studies to describe noise

sources  (construction equipment,  home appliances,  etc.)  according


to characteristics such as intensity, frequency, pitch and other

suitable factors.  Also, the National Bureau of Standards is providing

assistance to EPA to help prepare a report to Congress on the noise

control program.  The needs of this program should be sharply focused

on determination of monitoring research needs.  Low cost reliable devices

are required for monitoring, recording and analyzing noise signals

from various sources (urban streets, construction sites, office

buildings, home environment).

     A.6 Bipgeochemical Cycles

          There is much talk about ecocycles and many pictures are

drawn in ecology textbooks.  The processes are described as energy

transformations among physical, chemical and biological processes.

Relatively little is known about their measurements.  Biogeochemical

cycles, (such as nitrogen, water, oxygen, carbon, phosphorus) are

recognized to be fundamental to the support of life on earth.  These

cycles are complex and are not yet fully understood.  The amount of

material transported and the vastness of the geographic scope (i.e.,

the surface of the earth) render any monitoring attempts currently

impractical.  However, research into their functioning needs to be

continued, and monitoring of some limited portion of the cycles may

become possible in the future.

                              PAPER NO.  3


     3.1  Problem Perspective

          In general, the widespread use of an analytical method

usually indicates that the method is a reliable means of analysis

and this feeling of consensus tends to support the validity of the

test results reported.  This feeling of consensus is not always valid

however, for the method may not have received sufficient screening

to uncover possible imperfections.  A second but different pitfall

of "standard methods" in that when a method has been so designated

it tends to inhibit inquiries into the validity of the method.  There

is always room for improvement.  Conversely, the use of a little-

known technique forces the data user to place undue faith in the

judgment of the analyst.   Mien the analyst uses a "private" method

or one not commonly accepted in the field, he stands alone in

defining both his choice of the method and the result obtained.

     The need for standardization of methods .within a single lab-

oratory is readily apparent.  Uniform methods between cooperating

laboratories are also important in order to remove the methodology as

a variable in comparison or joint use of data between laboratories.

Uniformity of methods is particularly important when laboratories

are providing data to a common data bank, such as STORET, SAROAD,

SWIRS,  etc., or when several laboratories are cooperating in joint

field surveys.   The lack of standardization of methods within a

single agency raises doubts outside the agency as to the validity of

 the  result  reported.   If  the  same  constituent  is measured by different

 analytical  procedures  within  a  single  laboratory or within several

 laboratories in  the same  agency, the  question is raised as to which

 procedure is superior, and why  the superior method is not used


     The physical and  chemical  methods used by the Environmental

 Protection Agency (EPA) should  be  selected using the following


     1.  The method should measure the desired constituent with

         precision and accuracy sufficient to meet the data needs

         of EPA in the presence of the interferences normally

         encountered in the media.

     2.  The procedure should utilize the equipment and skills

         normally available in  the average pollution control


     3.  The selected methods to be used are in many laboratories

         or have been sufficiently tested to establish their

         validi ty.

     4.  The method should be sufficiently rapid to permit routine

         use for the examination of a large number of samples.

     The use of EPA methods in Agency laboratories provides  a common

base for combined data between program elements.   Uniformity

throughout EPA lends considerable support to the validity of the

results reported by the Agency.

     Regardless of the analytical method used in the laboratory the

specific methodology should be carefully documented.  In some

pollution reports it is customary to state that Standard Methods

have been used throughout.  Close examination in many cases indicates,

however, that this is not strictly true.  In many laboratories the

standard method has been modified because of recent research or

personal preferences of the laboratory staff.  In other cases the

standard method has been replaced with a better one.  Statements con-

cerning the methods used in arriving at laboratory data should be

clearly and honestly stated.  The methods used should be adequately

referenced and the procedures applied exactly as directed.  When the

phrase "EPA Methods were used" is to be reported, the exact pro-

cedures as detailed in the methods manual should be followed.

     Knowing the specific method which has been used, the reviewer

can apply the associated precision and accuracy of the method when

interpreting the laboratory results.   If the analytical methodology

is in doubt, the data user may honestly inquire as to the reliability

of the result he is to interpret.

     As mentioned earlier, the advantages of strict adherence to

accepted methods should not stifle investigations leading to

improvements in analytical procedures.   In spite of the value of

accepted and documented methods, occasions do arise when a procedure

must be modified to eliminate unusual interference or to yield

increased sensitivity.   When modification is necessary, the revision

should be carefully worked out to accompUsh the desired result.


 It is advisable  to assemble  data  using both  the regular and the modified

 procedure to show the superiority of  the  latter.  This useful information

 can be brought to the attention of the individuals and groups responsible

 for methods' standardization.  For maximum benefit the modified procedure

 should be rewritten in the standard format so that the substituted procedure

 may be used throughout the laboratory for routine examination of samples.

 Responsibility for the use of a non-standard procedure rests with the

 analyst and his supervisor since  such use represents a departure from

 accepted practice.

    In field operations the problem of transport of samples to the

 laboratory or the need to examine a large number of samples to arrive

 at gross values will sometimes require the use of rapid field methods

 yielding approximate answers.  Such methods should be used with caution

 and with a clear understanding that the results obtained do not compare

 in reliability with those obtained using standard laboratory methods.

When deviations from standard methods have been used, they should be

noted and the results flagged when included in STORET, SAROAD, etc.,

along with the more reliable laboratory-derived analytical information.

The data user is entitled to know that approximate values have been

obtained (for screening purposes only) and that the results do not

represent the customary precision and accuracy obtained in the laboratory.

           3.1.1  General Procedure for Developing Standard Methods

                  We recognize the importance of using the best

 available scientific methods throughout.  The use of legally valid,

 uniform,  precise, and accurate methods will yield important benefits

 in reliability, improved comparability of data from different sources,

 and in the consistency of relationships of the EPA with other Govern-

 mental Agencies and the private sector.

      The  Division of Monitoring Techniques is responsible for

 coordination and/or direction of all standardization activities

 within EPA to establish reference and standard methods.  This

 actJvity  will insure the development of measurement techniques

 which will accurately access the control of pollutants which have

 been determined to exhibit adverse effects on human health and


      The  pollution of our environment cannot be adequately measured

•or controlled without the use of methods which have been collab-

 oratively tested by qualified analysts to statistically determine

 their reliability and bias.   Such a method is defined as a

 Standard  Method.

      To insure comparability of all data while allowing some freedom

 of choice,  it is also necessary to establish some methods as Standard

 Reference Mechods.   Standard Reference Methods (SRM)  insure a basis

 upon which less precise but  more agile techniques may be tested.

EPA will develop such SRM with the advise and assistance from other

agencies as required.

     Standard Methods should meet the following criteria:

     a.  Demonstrated utility in the laboratory and in the field.

     b.  Demonstrated freedom from known interferences.

     c.  Easily measured chemical and/or physical parameters.

     d.  Relatively inexpensive and available to all people who are

         required to use the method.

     e.  Demonstrated reliability through collaborative testing by a

         representative (but qualified) sampling of the user population.

     f.  Demonstrated reliable sensitivity for required pollutant

         concentration ranges.

     g.  Acceptable  (based on the above criteria) to the Administration

         and to the general user.

     When neither standard methods or standard reference methods are

available, measurement techniques which represent the best judgment of

an expert user-group should be established - Tentative Method or

Approved Method (EPA).

     The validity of all pollution measurements depend on strict

adherence to all aspects of standard or approved procedures^  the

proper use of primary/secondary, gaseous, liquid and solid standards

to calibrate the analytical methods and equipment, and the proper

handling of the data obtained.  EPA's standardization activities should

provide:   (a) primary and/or secondary gaseous, liquid and solid

standards;  (b) provide procedures for use in calibrating methods and

equipment and establish equivalency between  the  Standard Reference

Method and other methods of choice;   (c) provide minimum performance

specification required for instruments  to measure a specific pollutant

or class of pollutants in ambient and sources;  (d) provide guidelines

for certification of analysts;  (e) provide assistance to groups

responsible for data handling guidelines, and  (f) establish control

charts to determine the validity of data generated using standard or

approved methods.

          3.1.2  Detailed Procedure for Development of Standards

                 Candidate methods for standardization are usually

obtained from operating divisions within the Environmental Protection

Agency and/or from the private sector.  These candidates methods are

received by the Division of Monitoring Techniques (MTD), for their

evaluation, collaborative test direction and promulgation.

     Methods recommended for standardization are subjected to the

following procedures:

     a.   Preparation Methods are first cast into a concise format

         using the decimal system and then extensively reviewed and

         revised by small groups of scientists who are expert in

         the area of interest.   MTD will be assisted in this effort

         by the Standardization Advisory Committee (SAC) (The SAC

         formerly represented all division within EPA),  and by the

         Intersociety Committee (Air Pollution Control Association,

         American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists,

         American Industrial Hygiene Association, American  Public Health

    Association, American Society for Testing and Materials,

    American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Association of

    Official Analytical Chemists, and the American Chemical

    Society) as required.

b.  Preparation of Standard Reference Materials.  Before any

    analytical procedure can be properly evaluated, materials

    (pollutant species) must be developed.  The feasibility

    of using these materials for calibration and testing must

    be determined.  (This work is being done with EPA support

    by the National Bureau of Standards).

c.  Evaluation.  It can be assumed that the originator of a

    method can obtain usable results with "his" method even if

    on the spot changes are required.  Therefore, one of the most

    important steps in the Standardization process is an

    impartial evaluation in the laboratory and in the field by

    qualified and experienced scientists.

d.  Collaborative Testing. Participants in a collaborative test

    series should be representative of the ultimate users of the

    method.  Since pollution measurements are a matter of con-

    cern to many people, the users of the method will Include

    laboratories of the Federal government, state and local

    pollution control agencies, private industrial plants of

    many different types, universities, and basic research

    organizations as required.  To date, approximately 150


 laboratories have indicated a willingness to participate in

 the collaborative testing of air pollution methods.   A majority

 of these are state and local air pollution control agencies,

 although the other types of laboratories  listed above are also

 represented.   The various laboratories  also vary in  size from

 one- or  two-man laboratories up to  large  organizations with a

 laboratory  staff of several dozen people.   A co]laborative

 study is usually done  by distributing samples to a group of

 laboratories  for analysis,  followed by  statistical analysis

 of the data to  provide the  desired  evaluation of the  method.

 This  procedure  has  been used by many organizations in the

 standardization of  various  methods  of measurement.  The

 American Association of Analytical  Chemists  (AOAC) and the

 American Society  for Testing and Ilaterials  (ASTM) have been

 especially  active in this field and  have published guides  to

 establishing  the  proper procedure for conducting collaborative

 or round-robin  tests of a proposed method.   A test program of

 this nature has not been conducted in the past  to evaluate

methods  for measuring  air contaminants, largely  because  of

difficulty  in providing  standard  samples to  a  group of

laboratories for analysis.

In collaboratively testing  for  air pollution measurements,  it

is desirable to develop  a system  for generating a test

atmosphere of known concentration.  Where this cannot be done,

     a group of collaborators come together at a single location

     and sample a real atmosphere or source.  The primary

     disadvantage here is one of statistical validity.  Ideally, a

     collaborative test should indicate what each participant is

     capable of doing in his own laboratory, and not at some central

     location.  This method inevitably suffers from the fact that the

     results more nearly indicate an intralaboratory evaluation than

     an interlaboratory evaluation.

e.   Adoption.  Based on the statistical evaluation of the data

     from the collaborative tests, the Environmental Protection

     Agency will determine if these methods should be adopted as

     standard methods.  The Intersociety and other groups are free

     to use these data to decide which methods they choose to


f.   Promulgation.  Methods adopted as Standards by EPA will be

     promulgated to all state and local agencies to be used in

     implementing National Air Quality and Emission Standards, in

     the case of air, and like standard methods in the other media

     and categories.

g.   Quality Control.  Continuing subsequently to the adoption of

     each standard method, a quality control procedure will be

     established to insure the attainment of accurate data.  State

     and local laboratories, on a voluntary basis will be served.

     This is closely related to standardization of methods in that

         it is the inverse of collaborative testing.  While collab-

         orative testing evaluates the reliability of methods, quality

         control evaluates the reliability of data from laboratories

         using the methods.

         3.1.3  Need for Standard Data Handling Practices

                Associated with these monitoring activities is a

massive accumulation of data which must be formatted and reduced for

quick assimilation.  Fortunately, there are a number of institutions

throughout the United States which have experience in data reduction

and analysis.  It would be advantageous for each region to avail

themselves of this already existing capability.  However, before

these channels of data processing are utilized, it is most important

that unified standards for formatting and data reduction be established.

The alternative to standardization in the realm of data management

would be utter chaos.  However, standardization of data management

practices will be a complex project since no standard guidelines exist

now.  To delay implementing this objective would only complicate an

already difficult task.  For this reason and also because data manage-

ment is so basic to remote and in-situ sensing operations, the

standardization of data management practices should receive the very

highest priority.

      Close coordination  between  the  standards  for data coding,  storing,

 retrieving,  analyzing and  summarizing and  the  monitoring techniques

 standard for sensing equipment and method  must be developed  and



         3.1.4  Specific Factors Relating to Standard Methods and Equipment

                The procedures described in the preceding paragraphs for

implementing measurement standards must consider the following factors:

     1.  Siting of sensors - develop criteria for each specific


     2.  Measurement precision and accuracy

     3.  Calibration and maintenance

     4.  Averaging times and averaging methods

     5.  Measurement errors - bias and random

     6.  Data entry and reporting - editing and validation

     7.  Impact on data processing

     The definition and initiation of procedures, techniques and

equipment characteristics is a function of standard setting.  The

maintanance procedures relating to these factors is a function of

quality control.

     3.2  Suggested Discussion Topics

          3.2.1  Following the performance of the requirements analyses

suggested in  Section 7.0 for monitoring techniques  for all media and

categorical programs, a standardization program for such  techniques

could  be developed.  A standardization plan can be  started in air

pollution based on the output of  the contracted effort, "EPA Plan

for Air Pollution Measurement Techniques Development, Fiscal Year


          3.2.2  Derive a master standardization plan for use of

standard methods.  Pro's and Con's were addressed in the opening

remarks of this paper.

          3.2.3  Accelerate an international reference method exchange


          3.2.4  Restructure the Standardization Advisory Committee,

the Intersociety Committee to aid in the across the board look at

standard methods.

          3.2.5  Bring in societies dedicated to remote monitoring

such as:

                  ° Instrument Society of America

                  0 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation

                  ° American Institute of Aeronautics and


                  o Institutes of Electrical and Electronic


to start the standard method review.

          3.2.6  What defines a "correct" sampling site?  Develop a

framework for developing such a site standard.

          3.2.7  Should the standardization assignment for monitoring

and methods be combined with data management organizationally?

                             PAPER NO. 4


4.1  Problem Perspective

     An early warning system should serve two fundamental needs.

The first is concerned with providing rapid and timely data for

phenomena which occur and cause immediate hazardous effects to man,

vegetation, animal species, and natural resources.  Examples of

these phenomena are episodes, oil spills and industrial or transportation

accidents (e.g. train wreck involving lethal gases).  The second need

relates to early detection, warning and awareness of events or dis-

coveries which could have potentially disastrous long-term effects on

the environment.  These phenomena are concerned with known facts such

as the build-up of C0« in the atmosphere, decline of solar radiation

as measured on earth and the discovery of high concentration of organic

mercury, lead, cadmium and other substances through awareness of rheir

effects on plants and animals at various locations; also, this second

need should somehow address the problem of receiving early awareness

of environmental hazards which may not yet be known at some specific

point in time.  A means for responding to these distinct needs is

discussed briefly in the following two subsections.

     4.1.1  Early Warning For Short-Term Episodes

            An early warning network to meet short-term episode needs

is characterized by rapid detection, reporting, communication, remedial

action and control response.  Elements of such a system must provide

for centralized display to support management for operational planning

 and  control  as well  as  for rapid  dissemination of data and  operational

 instructions for effective and prompt local action.   This will  allow

 the  managers to  be aware  of tactical  developments and quickly draw

 upon resources under their control  (or request additional resources)

 to exercise  initiatives,  capitalize on auspicious developments  or take

 actions  to thwart unfavorable  developments.   One  solution to this

 problem  calls for operation of an Environmental Situation Room  (ESR),

 supported by  the necessary sensors, communications links, information

 processors and displays.   A functional depiction  of  an early warning

 subsystem in  support of abatement actions  is  shown in Figure 1.  The

 input measures and forecasts which  are routinely  collected  and  processed

 by local agencies, private sources  and Federal agencies normally would

 be stored in various central and  regional  processing centers to

 support routine  operations*  Special  techniques should also be  employed

 specifically  for rapid alert purposes.  For example,  the Radiation

 Alert Network provides gross measures  of radioactivity so that  changes

 would provide alerts for  more  detailed monitoring.   Also, the National

Weather Service  issues forecasts  relating  to alerts of prospective

 episode conditions and are distributed through the Weather  Service

 channels.  More  use  should be  made of  utilizing biological  techniques

 foij  early warning indication.  Water samples should  be taken routinely

 to determine the number and  types of organisms  present.  Frequently,

 a reduction in the number  of species indicates  presence of  toxic



                                               VJECH. SUPPORT J
                                    (ACTIONS TAKEN \
                                    TECH. SUPPORT^/
                                             LOCAL CONSTRAINTS
                                      ENVIRONMENTAL DAT
                                      CONTINGENCY PLANS

                                  FOR LOCAL
                                ^	^
                                                                l\( \
                     DATA  DA
                   ..            J
                   ^~-	'    FIGURE 1
                         SUPP011TING ABATEMENT ACI10NS

     Data obtained from these special techniques would be selected

routinely for analysis required to support the operation of the ESR.

Additionally, during critical episodes such as an oil spill, an accident

involving transportation of hazardous materials, an air pollution

episode or contamination of drinking water in a community, the

selection function would be enacted to tap relevant data during its

flow for normal operational use.  Also, special actions would be taken

to increase the surveillance of the affected area.  In the case of air

pollution incidents, for example, mobile monitoring stations might be

dispatched to measure emissions, ambient concentrations and pertinent

meterological parameters on a micro-level basis.  In the case of

accidents, mobile monitoring would also be enacted.  In all such instances,

on-site reports would be available to local authorities and to the ESR.

Information would be sent via teletype, data-phone and by normal telephone

communica tion.

     Situation managers in the ESR would have access to all incoming

relevant data as well as to technical specialists.  A data bank must

be maintained to contain the selected environmental data, contingency

plans and other technical support information.

     Contingency plans for a variety of possible scenarios should have

been prepared to allow maximum utilization of standard guidelines,

action alternatives and standard operating procedures which could be

responsive to a given situation.  This would assist in making prompt

decisions and avoiding issuance of conflicting instructions and other

inconsistencies likely to accompany an environmental crisis situation.

The advantages of having available plans for a variety of situations

would increase the effectiveness of federal support, expedite

coordination among EPA, other federal agencies and local authorities and

promote implementation of proper abatement actions.  Direct actions

may be taken on a centralized basis; action options, advice and

coordinated instructions in any case would be issued in accordance with

administrative, legal and other jurisdictional constraints.

     Technical support data should be accessible to the ESR manager

as required.  This could include processed information in the form

of population data for major areas, location of key resources

and services and transportation facilities.  A file of such data should

be available in the ESR.  Any required data not in the file could be

obtained through coordination with other agencies and the local

jurisdiction involved.

     The ESR should be equipped with specially designed displays for

use during emergency situations.  A map of the area involved should

be available to the scale required by the situation.  A status board

indicating such items as actions taken (e.g. shutdown orders issued,

shutdown accomplished, population evacuated from area A), and

numerical parameters of interest should be provided, with capability

for interrogation of the ESR data bank.  The specifications for such

displays should be developed from a detailed requirements analysis.

     4.1.2  Early Detection of Long Term and New Environmental


     The central feature of the operational concept presented for

this subsystem (Figure 2) is an Environmental Intelligence

Analysis Center (ENVIAC).  The functions of this center would

consist of gathering and sifting through environmental intelligence

data, developing environmental models (taking into account activities

of other environmental research groups), applying these models and

conducting long-term environmental assessment studies.  The output of

this Center would:

            1) Provide warning reports of newly discovered potential
               environmental hazards

            2) Prepare plans for rapid implementation of detailed
               surveillance of specific pollutants in particular
               locations as a result of detection of a potential
               environmental hazard

            3) Perform special impact analyses

            4) Provide evidence for specific environmental policy

     Results of items 1) and 3)  would be disseminated to research and

analysis groups within EPA as well as to other agencies and research

establishments.  Item 2) would be directed to the operational group

within EPA having responsibility for operating special surveillance

systems supporting ENVIAC (discussed below).  Technical back-up for

policy recommendations would be made available to EPA decision makers

and other policy groups (e.g. CEQ, OST).

     In addition to relying on its own analysts, the Center would be

supported by three major elements:

            1) Other Research and Analysis Groups

            2) Data from Special Surveillance Networks

            3) Bibliographic Dissemination Service.

             RESEARCH AND
             DATA BANKS
  (SEE  FIG.  1)

                           FIGURE 2




 ENVIAC would  also  have access to other Federal environmental

 data banks  and  would receive inputs from global monitoring sites.

      Research and  analysis  groups will provide two  types  of output.

 Discoveries of  potential  hazards, either through field  experimentation

 or  data analysis,  should  be immediately sent  to ENVIAC.   Other  publi-

 cations and reports  prepared by  the environmental research community

 pertaining  to new  environmentally oriented  scientific discoveries

 should  be classified and  disseminated  to the  Center  through a

 Bibliographic and  Dissemination  SERVICE.  This  service  should also

 provide inputs  regarding  pertinent research in  - progress.  The recently

 completed Study of Environmental Quality Information Programs (SEQUIP)

 for  the Office of  Science and Technology made some specific recommendations

 to  this  effect.   These are  described in Appendix A to this  paper.

     The SEQUIP Committee recommended  that  the  Science  Information

 Exchange of the Smithsonian  Institution and the National  Technical

 Information Service  be combined  for  this purpose.  The  Center for Short

 Lived Phenomena, also of  the Smithsonian Institution, currently collects

 and selectively disseminates information relating to new  discoveries

 and field observations for  a variety of  subject  categories.  The MITRE

 Corporation, in its monitoring system  study for  the CEQ suggested a

 Scientific Environmental  Research  Volunteer in  Cooperative Effort

 (SERVICE) Group  to report on new  and potentially  significant environ-

mental developments.  The SEQUIP  Committee  also  recommended that

various centers  of environmental  research allow  scientists some time

to classify and report on new findings.  Better coverage of

environmental material in secondary journals is also suggested.

There appears to be wide interest in establishing and accomplishing

such a system to meet these needs.  All that appears to be required

is strong leadership and competent management to launch and conclude

the design and implementation effort.

     Special surveillance networks (including necessary laboratory

resources) should be established to provide direct environmental data

specifically tailored to support ENVIAC's mission.  Data from these

networks, which could also be made available to other research groups,

would measure parameters such as CO., atmospheric turbidity and solar

radiation and other geophysical and upper atmospheric pollution data.

In addition, elements of this network would consist of biological

monitoring organisms (indicators, sentinels, bio-assay, detection

and accumulation) for detection of quantities of key pollutants.  Since

there are 2.5 million known chemical compounds and 500 new chemical

compounds introduced annually into the environment by industrial

countries, there is certainly a problem in selecting the specific

substances to be monitored.  One possibility is to classify substances

on ithe basis of similar chemical properties and monitor specific

representatives in each class.  In this way, if subsequent research

indicates that another (unmonitored) substance in the class has

hazardous environmental characteristics it may be that the representative

of the class which was being monitored would have transport character-

istics and other properties which were similar to the substance being

monitored.  In this case, some further clues may be available

about the possible intermedia properties of the newly detected

hazardous substance.

     Any substance chosen for monitoring should be measured in air,

water and land, as well as in possible species in which it might

concentrate.  Correlations should be performed by ENVIAC to attempt

to relate concentrations to effluent amounts.  Requirements for the

surveillance networks include standard methods of analysis and

provision of timely dissemination of results to interested specialists.

Immediate reporting capability is generally not required.  There should

be sufficient flexibility in the surveillance networks to receive

instructions from ENVIAC for increased surveillance for areas of

specialized interest, as dictated by results of intelligence

evaluation and other pertinent findings.

     A.2  Suggested Discussion Topics

          a) What are possibilities for early detection and measurements

             of environmental hazards (e.g. mercury)?  The previous

             section indicated the problem of millions of candidates

             for monitoring.  Do the specific suggestions offered

             treat the problem adequately?  How can they be improved?

          b) What relationships must be established among local,

             private and Federal (Regional and Central) groups?

             What role will each one play?

          c) Develop an overall concept of collection, transmission

             and dissemination of earJy warning environmental data.

             Show input types and sources, functions, outputs and the

   needs which are satisfied.  Show how new industrial

   processes would be integrated into such a system.

d) What is the proper role for EPA in the development of

   the bibliographic component of an early warning system?

e) What specific changes, and extensions would you offer

   with respect to the proposed Early Warning System

   Operational Concept?  For example, what is the

   interface between the two subsystems described? What

   are the constituents of the special surveillance

   networks proposed?

                               APPENDIX A-


     This Appendix presents a review of the subject document which
was prepared under the direction of Dr. Henry Kissman of the National
Library of Medicine, who served as chairman of the SEQUIP committee.
Thirteen members constituted the committee representing HEW, AEC,
Departments of Interior and Agriculture, National Bureau of Standards,
NOAA, Defense Documentation Center, EPA and the Library of Congress.
The report consists of general findings of the committee and special
sections on information technology, water pollution, air pollution,
solid waste management, environmental effects of radiation and
agriculture chemicals.  It also consists of a directory of general
information programs and public health information programs as well
as a directory of environmental pollution information and data
programs.  While the task of the committee, as specified by OST ,
was to investigate broad environmental quality programs, only
environmental pollution was considered in the report to limit the
scope.  The report states, however, that activities associated with
data collection and information systems are generally applicable to
programs outside the environmental area.

     The objectives of the committee's study were threefold:

     1.   Report on studies of scientific and technical information
         activities in federal agencies concerned with environmental
         projects and improvement.

     2.   Describe generalized information programs (e.g. national
         libraries, clearing house) which serve the environmental
         quality field.

     3.   Assess whether the support activities are sufficient and,
         if not, determine how they can be improved.

     This Appendix summarizes the major recommendations offered in
the report.


2.1 General

     1.   OMB promote data and information exchange withJn the
Federal  establishment by developing procedures for cost recovery.

     The committee felt that duplication exists in data and services
because operators of information systems are reluctant to offer
services outside of their own organizations, because of lack of


     Inside of EPA this group would pull together the networks absorbed
by EPA., promote standards, coordinate R&D, develop data in the technical
environmental areas and answer queries within the agency.  Outside of
EPA this group would initiate network operations to interface with
other environmental data batiks, provide information relating to types
and status of R&D projects, respond to requests, and work with the
National Bureau of Standards and coordinate the information with other

     3.  This group should take into account: requirements of future
economic growth and the global aspects of pollution monitoring.

     4.  The National Bureau of Standards be assigned responsibility
for developing;

         a.  standards relating to software development and operation
of data banks.

         b.  environmental assessment technology including modeling
and simulation.

         c.  clearing house activities.

         d.  systems analysis teams to aid agencies in establishing
the necessary interface.

     It was proposed that a major part of the fundings for this effort
be provided by EPA and NOAA.  Dr. David Freeman, Chief, Separation
and Purification Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, and Dr.  David
Wagman, Institute for Materials Research were the National Bureau of
Standards representatives on the Committee.

     5.  Continue workshop and symposia activities via a formal
mechanism to be established by the Council on Environmental Quality

     This recommendation is offered to stimulate communication among
those concerned with environmental information programs.

     6.  The National Referral Center of the Library of Congress
develop tools for improved access to technical information in the environ-
mental quality field.

     It was specifically recommended that LC publish a directory of
U.S. Information Resources in the Environmental Quality Area.

     7.  A single government-wide clearing house be established
to consolidate the activities of such groups as the Science Information
Exchange (SIE) of the Smithsonian Institution and the Technical Infor-
mation Service of the Department of Commerce.

     It was further recommended that OMB establish guidelines and
enforce government wide mandatory input requirements for standardization
on an agency wide basis.

     8,  A national environmental early warning system for monitoring
environmental pollution be incorporated as part of the Center for Short
Lived Phenomena of the Smithsonian Institution.

     9.  Establish a Hazardous Materials Information Center to be
operated by the Coast Guard and DOT.

     The center would collect information on hazardous materials,
cover procedures of handling, and methods of detoxification.

    10.  A new COSATI panel on environmental quality information
and data systems be established to follow up on these recommendations and
to extend the SEQUIP study into other non-pollution environmental areas
(e.g. wetlands, urban environmental sources).

2.2 Bibliographic Services

     Fourteen recommendations of a bibliographic nature dealing with
data dissemination services, clearing house operations, document indexing,
preparation of dictionary and thesaurus and preparation of abstracts were
presented.   These are not detailed in  this Appendix.

2,3 Water Pollution

     The report mentioned that the Office of Water Data Coordination
and the Office of Water Resource Research currently provides a "sinew
for an effective federal wide interagency data and information network
in the water resource aspects of environmental pollution".  STORET
was mentioned as a data resource but no comments were made regarding
its current effectiveness.

2.4 Air Pollution

     !•  Use existing programs as a basis for satisfying new needs.

     Tliis recommendation is generally similar to that offered by the
MITRE Corporation in a study performed for CEQ.

     2.  Unite pollution monitoring with the meteorological data
collection system.

     This recommendation has a significant impact on siting and data
storage.  The report pointed out, however, that a technical unification
did not necessarily imply organizational consolidation for operation
and administration of the networks.

     3.  Expand and optimize air pollution sampling networks.

     4.  Institute administrative and legislative steps required
to promote Items 2 and 3.

     5.  Compatibility with and accessibility to existing data banks
be a required consideration in the design of federally built or supported
data banks.

     6.  Archival problems and uses be a required consideration in
the design of future monitoring programs.

     7.  High priority be given to the development of data bank
directories  and inventories of data sources.

     8.  Initiate a study to determine how to improve secondary
literature covered in the field of pollution.

     The SEQUIP Committee felt that much information about pollution
appeared in  secondary journals relating to other disciplines such as
chemistry, physics,  oceanography and climatology.

2.5 Solid Waste

     1.  Expand the resources in the SOLID WASTE INFORMATION

     2.  Greater emphasis be placed on social and  behavioral science
aspects of the solid x^aste problem.

     3.  Establish centers for analysis,  evaluation and consolidation
of diverse data in the solid waste field.

     Professionals at these centers would devote part time to these

2.6 Radiation

     The multiplicity of data sources (e.g. AEC, Federal Radiation
Council, Bureau of Radiological Health) is considered to be a healthy
situation by the committee.  They recommend strengthening the supported
programs and promote intercommunication among them.

2.7 Agricultural Chemicals

     1.  A clearing house for pesticide information be formally
established in the TOXICOLOGY information programs of the National
Library of Medicine.

     2.  Programs on the long term effects of pollutants on man
should adopt the approach of the pesticide committee within EPA which
emphasize epidemiological research.

                               PAPER NO. 5


5.1  Problem Perspective

       Considering the variety of subjects and the extent of complex

interactions which comprise the environment, it is understandable

why so many governmental agencies representing various disciplines are

concerned with one form or another of environmental monitoring.  The first

step in eliminating incompatibilities and duplication in a nationwide

environmental network is to determine who is gathering what kinds of

data.  At present the National Referral Center (NRG) in the Library

of Congress has the task of directing inquirers;  particularly those

from outside federal agencies, to locations within the government which

might supply various forms of environmental data.   In many cases the

NRC has information relating to the published output of a particular

agency but not the types of raw data that may be involved.  An effort

should be made to ensure that NRC's referral banks are up-to-date and

as complete as possible.

       5.1.1  Siting

            The selection of sampling locations (siting) depends on the

specific objectives to be met including a) establishment of existing

or baseline information, b) trends, c) standards compliance, d) docu-

mentation of violations, e) forecasting, f) planning and management

purposes, and g)  scientific research.  The selection of a monitoring

site is also a function of the parameter of primary concern.  For


instance, when monitoring a particular effluent source in a river,

a station immediately below the mixing zone is best suited for

temperature data.  On the other hand, the best location to measure

dissolved oxygen or bacterial levels may be farther away from the

source where more complete mixing has occurred.  Ail well and good

if these sites monitor the parameter(s) for which they were designed.

Often, however, practical constraints dictate that a site designed

or located for one purpose (or parameter) also monitor for others.

Incompatibilities arise when trying to compare or aggregate data

from say, a site well located to monitor dissolved oxygen along with

similar data from a site not so designed.

     5.1.2  Sensors

          With regard to sensing devices an obvious requirement is

that the sensor and its attendant recording equipment be mechanically

and/or electronically compatible.  With regard to data requirements

when using sensors of the same design and make, the only problem is

to make certain that they are calibrated to the same reference stan-

dards.  Monitoring for a given parameter using sensors based on

different designs or analytical techniques requires intercalibration

to ensure comparability and proper interpretability of the results.

The concept of such calibration measures is covered in paper 3.

     5.1.3  Processing

          Compatibility in relation to the processing of data will

be understood as those functions necessary to get the raw data

from the sensor into a form suitable for computer input.  The

 availability  of  data in a clearly defined and well  documented  format

 is  the basis  of  an effective processing system.   All  too  often data

 are recorded  in  a format that is complicated, confused, incomplete,

 and insufficiently documented.   When such data leave  the  immediate

 care of the person responsible for recording them,  their  utility

 is  effectively lost.   Selection of a format need not  constrain an

 agency in any way, particularly if data are recorded  in machine-

 readable form, since the data can then be reproduced  with very

 little difficulty into a variety of forms and formats.  For  example,

 an  agency could  use one format for certain internal records  and

 another format  (such as SAROAD*) for interchange of data  with  other

 agencies both within and outside EPA.

           Most processing of data will require that data  be  machine-

 readable, either on cards or magnetic tape.  If certain monitoring

 groups can not afford this,  their data can be sent  in on  forms, and

converted in the  most effective manner.           The  directions for

 filling out such forms should be kept as simple as  possible  and

 examples of how  to complete  the forms are advisable.

           Certain types of information are fundamental to most

 poUlution monitoring and are typified by the following SAROAD

 checklist of  data requirements:
 *  SAROAD Users Manual,  Office of Air Programs, EPA, Research Triangle
    Park,  N.C.  (July 1971).

                         a)   Site  identification form
                         b)   Pollutants measured
                         c)   Sampling methods  (e.g.,  Saltzman,
                             West  Gaeke)
                         d)   Instruments
                         e)   Units in which the  measurements are
                         f)   Decimal point location
                         g)   Date  of reading
                         h)   Time  of reading
                         i)   Sampling frequency
                         j)   Averaging time (duration of sample)
                         k)   Identification of any special codes
                         1)   Special instructions to persons using
Although the above list  was  designed specifically for the monitoring
of ambient air pollution, many of the items apply to other areas of
pollution as well.  Certainly for those elements which are common
to several programs EPA  should establish agency-wide guidelines
for common reporting practices.  These guidelines should also address
the proper form for items which are unique to a monitoring program
in a particular office.
          There seems to be  a lack of cooperation among computer
manufacturers in terms of data and programs from one machine being
acceptable to another.   Even within the same company incompatabilities

exist depending upon whether a second or third generation machine

is being used.   Some of these problems are software related while

others pertain to hardware.  The following is a list of items, in

addition to the above listing of data requirements, which will facil-

itate conversions from one system to another:

     Punched Cards

              a)   Identification of any unusual formats,  characters,

                  or punching.

              b)   Sequence of data cards (e.g., sort sequence, order-

                  ing , arrangement).

              c)   Identification of machine on which cards were


     Magnetic Tape

          Hardware related

              a)   Reel identification

              b)   File number

              c)   Recording density (556,  800, or 1600)

              d)   Number of tracks (7 or 9)

              e)   Parity (odd or even)

              f)   Recording code (ASCII or EBCDIC)

          Software related

              g)   Record length (in number of characters)

              h)   Second type (fixed or variable length)

              i)   Blocking factor (in number of records/block)

              j)  Description of file contents

                    - indicate parameters observed

                    - number of sites reported

                    - years spanned

                    - approximate number of records

              k)  Description of file format (record layout)

                    - indicate format identification numbers used

                      and observation time intervals

              1)  Description of file sort sequence

                    - identify individual fields

                    - indicate major to minor ordering

                    - for each field indicate whether ascending

                      or descending

          The software problems can often be resolved by programmers

at the data processing center.  Even so, correction of such incompati-

bilities is time consuming and should be kept at a minimum.  The hard-

ware problems can be solved with clever programming in conjunction

with the necessary conversion hardware.  Since not all computer

centers are so equipped, perhaps one computing facility in each

region could be equipped and designated to handle such chores.

     5.1.3  Commonality of Language and Unitis

         At the present time there exists no dictionary, glossary,

or thesaurus of terms used in the overall environmental field.  This

is largely because environmental quality is not a formal scientific

discipline, but a label given to a variety of activities that cut

across the normal boundaries of science.  Moreover, in many areas,

problems require not only technical data but also economic, legal,

political and social data.

          The problem of terminology inconsistency is compounded when

exchanging information with foreign institutions.  Given the global

nature of environmental pollution, such exchanges will become in-

creasingly important.  Already, many countries have made considerable

contributions to our knowledge (e.g. Sweden, Japan).  An excellent

service is provided by the Water Pullution Research Board of Great

Britain with its monthly issues of Water Pollution Abstracts.

          Even within a single discipline there are differences as

to the use of various terms.  A notable example is in the field of

chemistry and the use of several names for the same compound (i.e.,

methanethiol vs. methyl mercaptan).  The Chemical Abstract Service

Registry System has identified and coded some 1.5 million compounds

(about 250,000 additions annually) and this program should be promoted

on a widescale basis.

          The diversity of units of measurement in use by different

disciplines and organizations can lead to confusion and misinterpre-

tation.  Concentrations in water may be expressed in terms of ppm,

milligrams/liter, milliequivalents/liter, molarity normality, or

percent by weight or volume.  Another problem concerns the use of the

British vs. metric system of units.  To decide to convert to the


metric system at this relatively early stage in environmental monitor-

ing might make sense in light of a)  facility of exchange with most

foreign institutions, and b)  the fact that this country itself may

eventually go metric and later more intense confusion would be

averted.  A year ago the Office of Air Programs suggested a plan for

adopting the metric system and phasing out British units and espec-

ially mixed units.  Judging by the fact that recent legislation on

automobile emissions  vas based on grams of pollutant per vehicle

mile, a redoubled effort on an EPA-wide basis is necessary.  The

transition should occur gradually to allow personnel to become

accustomed to the new system and for equipment modifications to be


          Conversion from one set of units to another is generally

a simple (but time consuming) formality involving multiplying by some

factor.  In some cases, however, conversion can be a nuisance.  Some
conversions require auxilliary information (e.g. ppm to ug/m needs

temperature and pressure data to be done correctly) which may or

may not be available.  If it is not available, it might be neglected

or assumed which can lead to the introduction of errors.  Often there

is a  tendency for, say, state agencies to use their own terminology

even  when filling out federal forms.  A rather extreme example concerns

a certain state which uses its own state oriented latitude/longitude

system in completing SAROAD  forms.  A more common incompatibility

occurs  when states use their own pollutant and/or site location code

numbers.  In the area of water quality the STORE! system is trying

to unravel the problem of listing of site locations either by "river-

mile" or latitude vs. longitude.

5.2  Suggested Discussion Topics

     a)  What is the most effective method for promoting program

         awareness and reducing duplication of effort in the

         various areas of environmental monitoring?

     b)  How can the selection of computer hardware and software

         be optimally  coordinated so as to reduce incompatibilities

         between systems?  Can the cooperation of computer manu-

         facturers be enlisted?

     c)  Whar kind of coordinating group should be established to

         ensure the commonality of language and units used in

         environmental monitoring?  Who should be involved in such

         a group and what would be EPA's role?

                              PATER NO. 6


6.1  Problem Perspective

          Quality control implies the maintenance of certain prescribed

standards of performance or output.  Various techniques and models

may be employed to assure that quality is designed into a system

and/or may be regained if the system should deviate unacceptably from

its expected performance.  It is sometimes difficult to separate the

functions of standardization and quality control.  In these papers

the former will concern itself primarily with the design and setting

of specifications for equipment and procedures (see paper 3) while

the latter involves assuring the quality and reliability of data

produced as a result of these procedures.  Quality control, then,

provides for the implementation and continued integrity of

standardization.  Even within these guidelines there is some degree

of interplay and feedback which makes overlap inevitable.

          With regard to the paragraphs below, it should be borne in

mind that the comments apply not only to monitoring functions "v/ithin"

EPA (including states and regions) but also to contributing groups

outside of EPA such as universities, industries, and other federal

agencies.  Within the realm of environmental monitoring there are

several areas where quality control may be applied such as personnel,

equipment, data, and procedures.  It should be noted that quality control

applies not only to these component aspects by themselves but also to

their interrelationships and functioning as a whole system.  The

following is a proposed outline of functions to be performed by an

integrated approach to quality control.

     6.1.1  Definition of Goals and Objectives of_ a. Monitoring Program

               The degree to which quality control is to be applied

throughout a program will depend upon the end uses of the data.  Therefore,

the first step is to define the goals and objectives of a program which,

when taken in light of those from other programs, helps establish the

bounds of the quality control effort.

     6.1.2  Guidelines for Establishing a_ Monitoring Network

               In the setting up of a monitoring network quality control

plays an important part in the implementation of and assuring the adherence

to guidelines in the following areas:

               a)  Site location - whether a site is chosen on a

          random basis, as part of a grid, a combination of these two

          ideas, or specifically for a stated purpose depends upon

          the use of the data and the parameter(s) measured.  Quality

          control relates to siting in that it is necessary to

          periodically review siting criteria in light of changing

          legislation, population and industrial shifts, technological

          advances in monitoring equipment, etc.  Adjacent construction

          projects could require the relocation of a given site.

               b)  Type of station - data requirements dictate whether

          a station should monitor continuously, gather information

          integrated over a specific time period, or provide grab

          samples to be analysed in  the  lab.  Are che procedural

          specifications being adhered to?  For instance, in the  case

of grab samples, are the samples taken from the same location

every time, same time of day, etc.?

     c)  Selection of instrumentation and methods -

instrumentation and methods needs will change as the state-

of-the-art progresses and quality control should see that

these changes are incorporated.

     d)  Averaging time to be consistent with standards -

if regulations require, say, an 8 hour sampling period,

quality control should see to it that this time period is

not violated beyond certain tolerances.

     e)  Sampling frequency - in the case of annual averages

of SC>2> adequate coverage may be maintained with intermittent

sampling at frequencies calculated statistically for desired

levels of precision and related to the degree of pollution.

Quality control might suggest a different sampling frequency

if the ambient conditions changed significantly.

     f)  Instrument maintenance and calibration - with regard

to a particular piece of equipment once the desired accuracy,

precision, sensitivity, and range have been specified, it is

the job of the quality control program to insure that these

attributes be maintained throughout its operation.   The

initial calibration and subsequent recalibrations should

be performed according to a schedule deemed necessary for

a particular piece of equipment.  Obviously there will be

unscheduled malfunctions and repairs requiring recalibration.

Quality control should have the responsibility for approving
manuals for maintenance and calibration and updating the
texts of "standard methods."
     The dependability of a piece of equipment will be taken
not in terms, necessarily, of its accuracy, but rather with
regard to its amount of operational time vis a vis the time
it is inoperable due to some breakdown.  A certain amount of
downtime is to be expected for routine preventive maintenance
and proper scheduling can insure an uninterrupted flow of data;
i.e., nighttime maintenance for pollutants which are most
serious during the day or borrowing standby equipment.
     However, unscheduled downtime can result in data gaps
which may impair analysis and interpretation.  In order to
better understand and minimize such breakdowns, careful
maintenance logs should be kept indicating such items as type
of failure, probable cause, time, date, frequency of mal-
function, ease of repair, etc.
     With regard to the proper functioning of equipment there
are certain external conditions whose quality should be
maintained.  These include air conditioning for temperature -
sensitive equipment, constant line voltage, insurance against
power outages or brownouts especially during critical episodes,
special shielding, insulation, or isolation of the housing
for equipment, and the use of high quality laboratory chemicals
and reagents.
g)  Questionnaires and surveys -  In the case of such areas
as solid waste management and epidemiological studies where
dat'a are derived mainly from questionnaires and surveys rather

          than physical measurements or chemical analysis, quality

          control implies adherence to reliable polling methods and

          survey techniques and proper statistical analyses and

          interpretation of results.

     6.1.3  Training

               The effectiveness of the most carefully designed equipment

and procedures can be seriously reduced in the hands of unqualified

personnel who are not capable nor properly motivated.  Providing good

job descriptions is a necessary step for weeding out unqualified

applicants.   Educational programs are then promoted to communicate

skills, methods, ideas, objectives, and attitudes.  In order to measure

an employee's knowledge and determine what training is needed, a series

of test questions can be designed to be answered by employees in specific


               Such training can take place on two levels:

               a)  Formal training - in the classroom or at seminars

          where theory and lab applications are taught primarily from

          the textbook with some supplemental laboratory work.

               b)  On-the-job-training - in an EPA or accredited state

          laboratory with an emphasis on the practical aspects of


               It may be desirable to provide a program of requalification.

This may be necessary when a person's performance (competence and attitude)

seem to be waning.  Moreoever, changing demands (new equipment, procedures,

regulations) often alter requirements of skill and knowledge and increase

training needs.  Not only does proper training enhance the quality of

the data, but it also helps to cut down on the damage and abuse of


     6.1.4  Laboratory Certification

               To ensure comparability of data, a uniform degree of

excellence should be expected from the various governmental and private

laboratories  providing input to EPA monitoring activities.  A certification

program with  periodic reviews, while not an absolute guarantee of excellence,

is a necessity towards establishing a common denominator of quality

with regard to

               a)  Compentency of personnel

               b)  Adequacy of facilities

               c)  Use of proper analytical methods

               d)  Uniformity of data handling procedures

     6.1.5  Calibration Standards

               The quality control program should insure that reference

standards for calibration, developed to EPA's specifications, are cer-

tified by the National Bureau of Standards.  For EPA to enforce standards

which it certified itself would present a conflict-of-interest situation.

               Calibration techniques and degree may differ for a

particular type  of equipment depending upon whether it is designed for

use in the field or in the laboratory.  For field instruments calibration

can take place either on-site or at some central laboratory.  For the

former there is  less downtime involved (if necessary tools are readily

available) and less chance of damage in transit.  On the other hand,

more sophisticated calibration equipment and better trained personnel

are generally available at a central lab where calibration is a major

function.   The dc '^ion should be based upon such factors as the

fragility of equi:;nent, availability of on-site redundant monitoring,

and the degree of calibration required.

               The question of calibration has special significance

during an episode, or emergency condition.  For instance, during an air

pollution episode, there are several stages of increasing severity

where different kinds of pollutant emitters may be required to curtail

or shut down their operations.  Since these shutdowns can be very costly

to a company, they should be based on the best of information.  A

false alarm could result in a lawsuit being brought against the EPA.

Given the fact that air pollution episodes are somewhat predictable

because certain meteorological conditions must prevail, there is time

for emergency recalibrations to be made on site by special federal

teams or by qualified local personnel.

               Calibration standards are necessary in order to make

interlaboratory calibrations using corroborative, or round-robin, testing.

This may be the preferred method for assuring international cooperation

of certain countries where EPA field teams may not be invited due

to diplomatic considerations.

     6.1.6  EPA Field Teams

               In additon to mailing similar samples to different labs

for corroborative testing, it is desirable to have field  teams of

highly trained experts visit the various  labs on  a periodic and/or

random basis.  Since the number of these teams is small, they may be

limited to providing interregional and interagency calibrations only.

Similar teams could be established by the states, and trained by EPA,

to satisfy their own needs.  Since the experience and exchange of

techniques and information would be valuable, the EPA field teams would

be sent to foreign labs on request of the host country.

               EPA field teams would be able to perform dynamic calibrations

(DC) on instruments where it is desirable not to shut down the equipment

and this feature (DC) is not inherent to the equipment.   This situation

might occur during the air pollution episodes mentioned earlier.

     6.1.7  Data Handling and Verification

               Although this topic is discussed elsewhere (see paper 5),

a few remarks are in order here.

               Proper validation and editing procedures should be

defined and maintained to insure quality contol of data entering the

data banks, regardless of source.  This might require establishing

special units to handle data obtained from sources outside EPA.

               In the validation and verification of data, one must

be able to discern whether a marked change in data values indicates

a real change in the phenomenon or quantity being measured,  an

equipment or human error, or a set of random events.  Various statistical

methods are available which should help straighten out such  problems.

Another verification technique involves the use of redundant equipment

or a completely different, but equally reliable, method.  Spot checks

on data using mobile laboratories is useful in this regard.


               An important aspect of quality control related to data

handling concerns the publication of data.  Typographical errors

or ambiguous sentences can impair any good results of the previous

efforts.  Competent editors with technical training can catch serious

errors which may creep into this last stage of data formulation.

However, in the event that errors from any part of the total

data gathering process get through and are discovered, records of

such discrepancies must be maintained in order that corrective

action and follow-up may be accomplished.

     6.1.8  Methodologies. Procedures, and Instrumentation to Meet

Future Needs

               Present quality control measures are by and large based

on retrospect.  The quality control program should address possible

future needs in terms of new or impending legislation, technical

improvements in monitoring, population growth, pollution forecasts,

and technological shifts (e.g. nuclear vs. fossil-fueled power or

the production of a new class of chemicals).

                The  calibre  of data from all  sources  should be of  the

 same  high  calibre and mechanisms  should be devised to  assure compliance.

 While coordination  of quality control  programs  may take  time and

 require  compromises  among various governmental  groups, adequate legis-

 lation could provide the impetus  to do so.   A more difficult problem

 arises when trying  to enlist  the  cooperation of groups outside the government,

 such  as  universities and industries.   Since  much of  a  university's

 monitoring efforts may be supported by Federal  funds,  financial

 pressures  can be brought forth.   There may also be an  incentive for

 a  university to become a certified lab.   Industry participation is

 on a  more  or less voluntary basis and  providing for  acceptable

 compliance could prove difficult.   A workable method (e.g. penalties

 or incentives, working through  trade associations, etc.) must be found -
 hopefully  short of legislation.

 6.2   Suggested Discussion Topics

           a)  How can  the quality  of voluntarily  supplied data from

 private sources be enhanced?  What  is  the most effective and least

 costly method to insure that such  data are in compliance with

 guidelines and standard methods?

          b)  How can EPA most effectively control the development

 and specification of Federal quality control guidelines for data

 for which it has enforcement jurisdiction and responsibility?  What

 are the required procedures  for interface with groups such as

private industry,  the National Academy of Engineering,  and the National

Bureau of Standards?

          c)   What  are the specific areas of  environmental data for

which EPA has primary responsibility?  What are the areas of interface

where EPA should exercise a coordinating f-unction?

          d)  What mechanisms can be established now to anticipate

future quality control requirements?

                            Paper No. 7


     7.1.0  Problem Perspective

     7.1.1  Monitoring Techniques, General

            The theme of this paper is the state-of-the-art in moni-

toring techniques for all forms of pollution for which EPA has

responsibility.  Such a theme natural]y invites a wide range of

possible discussion topics.  In order to bound the problem it has

been assumed that monitoring techniques is synonymous with cwo areas

of concern only.  The first area is the monitor in which questions of

detectors, calibration circuits, signal conditioning and on-site

recording are included.  The second area of concern is the experimental

method.  Data transmission, data processing, storage and retrieval,

data analysis and data reporting are a part of monitoring techniques but

are not discussed in this paper.

     Both in-situ and remote monitoring techniques are addressed in this

paper.   In-situ monitors is that general class of monitors that sense

only the condition at the point at which the monitor is placed.  Ail other

environmental monitoring techniques are defined as remote techniques.

     In this paper all discussions of in-situ versus remote monitoring

requirements, have been presented equally in order to engender the

selection of the better method as soon as practicable.

     In-situ monitors while generally simpler than remote monitors have

several shortcomings.  In-situ monitors generally require separate

sensing elements for each pollutant constituent.   Also, since the

radius of comprehension of such sensors is small, a considerable

number of monitoring sites is required in order to understand the

areal extant of the polluted area.

     While most remote monitors are not yet developed sufficiently

for operational use, they do lend themselves to the sensing of areal

coverage questions well.  Such monitors are generally more expensive

and complex than in-situ sensors but because of the large areal

coverage capabilities of remote monitors, the investment in these

monitors should prove to be cost effective.  Remote monitors thus can

be directed to cover wide areas of interest to EPA and will be of great

value for supporting the Agency's role in surveillance of environmental

quality.  Thus a few properly placed remote monitoring systems on

platforms capable of reasonable deployment may logically be looked upon

as a very likely monitoring technique of the near future.  The optimum

mix of both in-situ and remote sensors is the kernel of our concern.

     7.1.2  Organization Considerations

            Inherent in the expeditious development of an effective

monitoring technique is the manner in which the system is designed,

developed and administered.  The objectives of overall monitoring

system as a whole are:

     a.  To produce information on environmental levels, trends and

         patterns of components  (solid, liquid or gaseous), trace

         metals and nonmetals in all urban and non-urban areas of the

         U. S.

     b.   Identification and quantification of new or newly recognized


     c.   Increase the basic understanding of the source-receptor

         relationships, pollutant interactions and decay processes.

     d.   To develop a bank of environmental data for use by Federal,

         State, local agencies and the general public.

     Such a monitoring system requires interaction among the ten EPA

regional offices, the Enforcement, Media and Categorical offices of

EPA;- and the Office of Monitoring of EPA.  EPA may request the

assistance of other Federal, national and international organizations

in the development of environmental monitors.

     The major responsibility in EPA for the development of monitoring

techniques rests with the Office of Monitoring.  This organization in

turn directs and/or coordinates the development of all EPA monitoring


     7.1.3  State-of-the-Art in Monitoring Techniques

            The integrated nationwide environmental monitoring pro-

gram - short term and long term (discussed in papers No. 1 and 2) are

constructed on the foundation of realizeable techniques in the time

framework selected.  The systems tradeoffs and the optimum system depend

fundamentally and to a large degree on the state-of-the art (SOA)

of monitoring techniques.  Data transmission and handling techniques

today generally outstrip the capability in producing reliable, accurate

monitoring techniques.

     For ease of discussion of the SOA of monitoring techniques, the

discussion below is structured along the following lines.  For each

media or category, the first breakdown is by Use, listed as follows:

     a)  Ambient

     b)  Emission sources - stationary

     c)  Emission sources - mobile

     d)  Natural processes (meteorology, hydrology)

     e)  Effects (biological, societal, economic)

Remote techniques are contained within each Use area.

    Techniques for Air Pollution Monitoring

                     The development of all monitoring requirements

and the analysis of all techniques to satisfy each requirement is

the first and fundamental step in the design of the monitoring

system.  Such a requirements analysis has been performed by the

Office of Air Programs with the support of the Esso Research &

Development Company  in the time period covering fiscal years 1972

through 1977.  Sixth-three tasks for monitor development and ninety-

two tasks for methods development were developed with the requirements

in each of the areas of Use in Table 7-1-1.'

     Review of the status in the development of air pollution moni-

toring at any time, depicted in Table 7-1-1, points out clearly that
*EPA Plan for Air Pollution Measurement Technique Development Fiscal

   Years 1972-1977, First Draft, July 1971, CPA 22-69-154.

                                             TABLE 7-1-1















  Reference:   Air Pollution Measurement  Technique  Development
                Fiscal Years 1972-1977,  First  Draft  July  1971,
                CPA 22-69-154

the efforts to produce  promulgated methods  and monitors is an involved

process.  The comprehension of  the state-of-the-art in over one hundred

and fifty areas covering five different Use areas requires a considerable

effort.  Methods and monitors already  promulgated are not included in

Table 7-1-1.

       Additional Information on Remote Monitors
                          for Air Pollution Assessment

                          It is interesting to note that of the sixty

odd sensor programs approximately fifteen percent arc remote monitors.

Air pollution surveillance has  several promising and interesting new

techniques.  Included among the instrumentation proposed for detecting

air pollutants are infrared sensors, derivative spectrometry, dis-

persive correlation spectrometry, laser technology and assorted

electro-optical techniques.

       Active Remote Techniques - Laser Based

                            At the present time the Environmental

Protection Agency is monitoring over 10 atmospheric pollutants

throughout the United States.  In general, over 90 percent of these

pollutants are in a gaseous state in concentrations that vary between

0.01-10 ppm for molecules and 0.01-10 ppb for metal vapors.   Progress

in monitoring air quality has been impeded in the past by a lack of

techniques for detecting pollutants in three dimensions over large

expanses of the atmosphere with sufficient resolution in time and

space to permit qualitative and quantitative sensing in real time.

However, the advent of the pulsed laser coupled with radar techniques


(lidar) marked the beginning of major progress in quantitative remote

sensing of the atmosphere.  More recently, other techniques previously

enumerated have also taken on a major importance in the field of air

quality surveillance.  As a result, a wide range of applications have

been explored with increasingly sophisticated techniques.  In many of

these applications, lasers are used as atmospheric illuminators in

preference to other light sources because the monochromaticity of the

laser allows discrimination against background noise through the use

of narrow band filters.  In addition, the high peak power and narrow

pulses yield good signal-to-noise ratios and range resolution, even

for low cross-section scatterers.  Practical laser systems now range

in peak pulse power to several hundred megawatts.  Pulse widths are

as short as 10~  seconds and pulse repetition rates are as high as

1000 pps.  However, not all the desired characteristics of frequency,

power, pulse width, pulse repetition rate, coherence, beam divergence,

efficiency, and compact size are available in the same laser.

     Since all molecular air pollutants have characteristic

absorption spectra throughout the electromagnetic spectrum,it should

be possible to detect these pollutants through absorption spectroscopy

techniques.  However, these techniques have not  been practical in

the past because the small absorptions (caused by the low concentration

of most pollutants) have made it necessary to use very long path length

absorption cells.  In addition, data collection  was very slow due to  the

limited source strength available from conventional light sources.  The •

recent introduction of  a number of different types of IR lasers has

made remote sensing of  air pollutants  a practical reality and demon-

strated that these techniques have adequate sensitivity to detect

pollutants at the concentrations found in city air.

     In order to utilize these intense sources to measure the very

weak IR absorptions produced by air pollutants, it is necessary to

detect the resonance absorption of the gas rather than the attenuation

of the beam as it passes through the sample since the attenuation

will be very small for  reasonable path lengths and will be hard to

detect.  Other techniques employed for detecting air pollutants

include Mie and Rayleigh scattering, Raman back scattering, and

angular scattering phenomena involving polarization effects.

     Because of specific molecular interaction, absorption and back-

scattering, electro-optic techniques employing lasers have the unique

capability of identification of atmospheric gases.  In addition to

studying the properties of the gaseous components of the atmosphere,

the distribution, intensity, and dynamics of precipitation, clouds,

and aerosol particles are also potentially available for study.

             Passive Remote Techniques

                                  The techniques cited above using

lasers as atmospheric illuminators are examples of active remote

sensing techniques.   In contrast to this approach other investigators

are concentrating on passive methods which require highly sophisticated

correlation techniques for detecting atmospheric pollutants.   Until


recently the passive approach centered on dispersive elements such as

gratings and prisms for separating the information content of incoming

signals.  This method had the disadvantage of requiring long integration

times since incoming signals were usually faint.  More recently, tech-

niques have been developed, based on interferometric principles, that

carry out correlation in real-time.  These devices correlate against

the fourier transform of the spectrum rather than the spectrum itself.

The correlation interferometer may prove to be particularly suitable

for application in the infrared due to its large light throughout this

region and the fact that almost all gases have complex and characteristic

spectral signatures in this region.  Instruments of the correlation

interferometer type have also been constructed for use in the UV and

visible portions of the spectrum and correlation masks have been pre-

pared for many common air pollutants such as S0_, N0_, NO and some of

the halogens.

            Derivative Spectrometry

                                 Still another powerful analytical

technique for detection of air pollutants is the derivative spectro-

meter.  This instrument offers an  alternate approach to the detection

and measurement of substances by measuring the gradient (derivative)

of absorbivity or reflectivity with wavelength.  This approach has

proven very effective for the detection  of weak spectral  features

because the derivative of the proven spectrum exhibits much more

structure than is immediately apparent in the absorption  or reflectance'

spectrum itself.

      Derivative spectra may be obtained by derivative densitometry

 of spectrograms or by computer processing of recorded spectra.  An

 alternative approach is the electromechanical or electronic differen-

 tiation of the output of a scanning monochromator.   A fourth technique

 is wavelength modulation during spectral scanning employing simultaneous

 wavelength modulation at high frequency over narrow spectral regions

 with wavelength scanning at a lower rate.

      The sensitivity of the derivative spectrometric technique to

 faint absorption features makes it valuable for the detection and

 identification of trace gases in the atmosphere.  Care must be taken,

 however, to compensate for the derivative features due to Fraunhofer

 lines where detecting atmospheric pollutants using backscattered


             STARTAP Approach

                                  Another remote technique for deter-

 mining atmospheric pollution on a global scale is the approach given
 the acronym of STARTAP.   It is based on the extinction of light

 from astronomical bodies.  Preliminary research has indicated that

analysis of stellar and solar spectrograms shows promise for identifying

various molecular species and atmospheric pollutants.  Analysis of

atmospheric -extinction  data indicates a very good correlation  with

atmospheric aerosol and particulate  levels.  With use of observations  on

 *Proposal  for Project STARTAP (Standardized Techniques for Atmospheric
      Research through Astronomical Procedures), P-321-7-71, Smithsonian
      Institution, July 1971.


file at observatories, it has become possible, for the first time,

to determine global trends in particulate loading during several

decades.  The approach makes use of these data and specifies the

potential exploitation of unique astronomical observing techniques as

a means of providing atmospheric pollution data that may be otherwise


       Additional Information on In-Situ Monitoring
                          Techniques for Air Pollutants

                          Pollutants can generally be referred to as

particulates (either suspended or settled) and gases.  Particulate

matter below 20u in diameter is considered suspended particulate

(with special attention being paid to those below O.lu and respirable

fraction).  Currently, the prime measurement approach for total

suspended particulates is the high-volume sampler, which merely draws

air past a filter, where the suspended particulate is captured.  The

filter is then analyzed gravimetrically.  Analyses for metals, soluble

ions, cations,  anions, etc. are made by chemically analyzing portions

of the filter paper.  For the measurement of the respirable fraction,

inertial devices are used.  Various photometric devices, such as the

nephelometer and Volz sunphotometer, are used for aerosol measurement.

     For measurements of gaseous pollutants, several general principles

or techniques are used.  These include, but are not limited to, the


     Cheniluminescence relies on the flourescence caused by the

chemical reaction of a pollutant gas on a surface treated with a

suitable dye (rhodamine B in the case of ozone monitors).  The light

emitted from the surface is collected in a photomultiplier tube,

the resulting current being proportional to the concentration of the

pollutant gas.

     Colorimetry relies on a color change in a liquid reagent,

caused by the absorption of an atmospheric contaminant.  In some

cases, this color change is noted by eye; but in most instruments,

the fluid is passed through a flow colorimeter that measures

absorption at a fixed wavelength.  The resultant color change is

proportional in intensity to the concentration of the contaminant.

     Conductimetry involves the absorption of an atmospheric con-

taminant in a liquid reagent (the contaminant must be an electrolyte

in solution) and subsequent measurement of the electrolyte conductivity,

which is then related to the concentration of contaminant in the

sample gas.  In sulfur dioxide sensors, the gas is absorbed in a

deionized water-based reagent.  This absorption produces an acid

whose conductance can be measured with a conductivity cell.  The

 change in conductivity is proportional to the sulfur dioxide


      Coulometry involves a reaction between the atmospheric

 pollutant  being measured and a substance within an electrolytic

 cell.   This reaction produces  a change in the electromotive force,

 which is related to the pollutant concentration.

     Flame ionization is used to measure the concentration of

organic compounds in the atmosphere.  The air sample is burned in

a hydrogen-oxygen flame, causing the carbon atoms in the organic

material to become ionized.  The ions are collected, and the

measured charge is then proportional to the organic-pollutant

concentration in the air stream.

     Flame photometry determines pollutant concentrations by

measuring the intensity of the visible and ultraviolet spectra

emitted by pollutant molecules when the sample gas stream is


     Gas chromatography relies on the difference in mobility of

different molecular species traversing a column of packing material.

If a gas sample is introduced at one end of the column, the

molecular species move through the column at different rates and

appear at the end of the column sequentially, where they can be

identified by a variety of techniques, including flame photometry.

     Infrared spectroscopy determines the concentration of gaseous

pollutants by measuring the absorption of electromagnetic energy

by the characteristic vibrational excitations of the pollutant

molecules.  This approach can be used by both remote and in-situ

monitoring techniques.

     Microwave spectroscopy can determine the concentration of any

gaseous nollutant with a dinole moment bv measuring the absorption

of electromagnetic radiation by the characteristic rotational

 excitations of  the  pollutant  molecules.   This  approach  can  be used by

 both  remote and  in-situ  monitoring techniques.

      Nondispersive  infrared  (NDIR)  involves  the  absorption  of infrared

 radiation by an  atmospheric contaminant.  An infrared source, usually

 Nichrom  filaments,  generates  two  parallel beams  of  infrared radiation.

 One beam traverses  a sample cell,  and  the other  traverses a comparison

 cell  containing  a nonabsorbing  gas.  The  emergent radiation from both

 beams is directed to a detector cell,  which  consists of two gas-filled

 compartments separated by a flexible diaphragm.  An interrupter, or

 "chopper," located  between the  radiation  source  and the cells alternately

 blocks radiation to the  sample  cell and to the comparison cell.  When

 the infrared beams  are equal, then equal  amounts of radiation are entering

 the detector cell and a  "zero"  or background reading is recorded.  When

 the gas  to be analyzed is introduced into the sample cell, it absorbs

 (and reduces) the radiation reaching the  detector via the sample beam.

 The beams, therefore, become of unequal strength, thus causing the

 detector gases to expand or contract and  the diaphragm to move in response.

 This movement, when amplified,  gives an indication of the concentration of

 the sample gas.   The NDIR approach can be used by both remote and in-situ

monitoring techniques.

     Most of these methods, especially the uet-chemical ones,  have

numerous drawbacks.   One overall deficiency of prime concern is the

excessive failure rate of almost all air sampling instruments.   While much

attention has been given to their accuracy,  specificity, and similar

characteristics  little progress has been made in improving the reliability-


of sensor operation and for the integration of the monitoring techniques

into a regional system.  Monitoring Techniques for Water Quality.  A requirements

analysis similar to the analysis for air pollution, discussed in Section, can be produced for the water quality field.  Some of the water

pollution parameters of interest are shown in Table 7-1-2 and require

precision for measurement of some nineteen of these quantities shown in

Table 7-1-3.

     The state of the art in in-situ water quality monitoring techniques

has not been assembled for this paper.  A digest of remote monitors is

included below.  Remote Monitors for Water Quality.  The remote surveil-

lance of water surfaces has a history almost as old as the camera itself.

Practically speaking, however, it was the scientific developments during

and after World War II which placed remote sensing of land and water

areas on a sound footing with the development of heat sensitive, or IR,

film and radio frequency sounding techniques, .or radar.  More recently,

other technological advances have broadened the scope of remote sensing

instrumentation to include spectrometric, radiometric, passive microwave,

multispectral and other selected techniques.

     Historically, the primary basic sensor used for remote surveillance

of water and land surfaces has been the camera and it is likely to remain

so for some time because it is still the easiest, cheapest, simplest, and

most versatile of remote sensors.  Infrared film can readily distinguish

                             TABLE  7-1-2

                          WATER POLLUTANTS

*Nitrates & Nitrites as N


*Fecal Coliform


*Nitrates & Nitrites as N


 Chemical Exotics and Pesticides
 Oil and Grease


*Nitrates & Nitrites as N
 Uranyl Ion


 Total Residue
 Filtrable Residue
 Total Dissolved Solids
 Hardness as CaCOo

 Ammonia as N
*Chroraium (hexavalent)
 Dissolved Oxygen
 Hardness as
*Gross Beta

 VIII,  Thermal

 Effluent heat content or
 temperature rise of effluent.
    Initial set of pollutants
    to be monitored

                           TABLE 7-1-3

Organic nitrogen
Ammonia nitrogen
Nitrate nitrogen
Nitrite nitrogen
Inorganic phosphorus
Organic phosphorus
Acidity or alkalinity
0-0.5 0-5
0-0.1 0-1.0
0-100 0-500
0-10 0-100
0.05 0.5
10 100
5 50
** tfethylene blue active substances.
  'Green,  R.  S.,  Monitoring Water Quality for Pollution Control,  presented at
   12th Annual Analytical Instruments Division (AID) Symposium, Instrument
   Society of America,  on May 11, 1966, at Houston, Texas.

'JJOTE:  Since this paper was presented, decelopuents have been made in sensors
for nitrate, sulfate* sodium, potassium, and calcium.

between vegetation, bare land surfaces and water as can other conventional

color and black and white films, and in addition it lends itself to evalu-

ating thermal pollution, and to some extent, the biological productivity of

lakes and streams.  Photographic techniques have successfully been used in

detecting underwater outfalls, plumes of light-colored effluents resulting

from municipal waste treatment discharges, downstream eutrophication from

waste discharges, and land drainage wastes which may include leaves and

trash washed into streams and whose biological reduction by natural pro-

cesses may induce deoxygenation.  In addition, algae and other biological

activity can be imaged very distinctly in IR film.  Multiband Camera.  Representative of this class of

instrument is the multiband camera.  The synoptic multiband camera system

combines the taking of a photograph of a very large scene along with the

ability to discriminate between objects in that scene.  This results from

differences in reflecting the various optical wavelengths from sunlight

illumination.  Stereo images complete this capability.

     The synoptic multiband camera system has uses in many applications

areas for remotely monitoring water quality and land use conditions.

Functional examples include multispectral photographic studies to identify

coastal water radiance, water color, wave refraction, algal blooms,

sedimentation and water luminance among others.

     From identification of these parameters it is expected that several

dynamic processes will be delineated, viz., coastal currents, biological

communities, refraction patterns from shoaling waves and breaking surf,

sea ice, etc.  In addition, it should be possible  to chart river effluent

discharge patterns, shallow water sediment migrations, coastal topography,

beach erosion, and shoreline changes.  Exanunation of relationships

between seasonal/climate changes and sea surface state for use in

oceanographic forecasting should also be possible from these experiments.

     These analyses are made possible because spectral differences in

reflection have been shown to correlate closely with compositional and

textural properties of material types thus providing a means of

discrimination.  Multiband (or multispectral) photographic techniques have

been employed recently with considerable success for such discrimination

from NASA, USDA, and USGS aircraft.

     Other instruments operating in different regions of the electro-

magnetic spectrum have more recently been proposed for remote sensing of

water and land surfaces.  Most of these are still in development or

being used in field trials by NASA, USDA, USGS, and DOD as well as in-

vestigators in the Private Sector.  Some of the more promising of these

techniques are briefly described below and illustrated with specific


     Closely allied to photographic techniques'in that the medium of

record is  film (or other heat sensitized surface) are multispectral line

scanners which generally operate in spectral bands between 0.35u and 15u.

This class of instruments is  most useful in detecting heated effluents

from power plants, industrial processes, monitoring surface temperatures

of rivers, lakes, and streams and has been highly effective in detecting

oil slicks in coastal waters  and lakes.   These instruments have the

great advantage of operating  during the day or night since the thermal

IR region  (>3u)  is an emissive region and does  not depend on the sun's

 reflected energy.   Generally,  these  instruments  are  more  costly  to
 operate and maintain  and  frequently  require  a  computer  to analyze the
 raw data.
      In contrast  to cameras  and  line scanners, radiometers, both micro-
 wave  and IR are non-imaging  sensors  which measure  emitted or  reflected
 electromagnetic energy and display this  information  on  a  strip chart or
 magnetic tape.  They  operate in  the  same spectral  domain  as multispectral
 imagers as well as  at microwave  frequencies  and  are  useful in recording
 spectral signatures of various objects and providing surface  temperature
     .Considerable success has been obtained  by NASA's Ames Research Center,
 for example, in detecting oil slicks through use   of a  radiometer and
 spectroradiometer they have  developed.   Based on the fact  that ordinary
 sea water reflects  blue-green  (0,45-0.50u) light most effectively and
 has almost no reflectance at UV  (0.38u)  or red (0.6u) wavelengths while
 oil, on the other hand, has  its  highest  reflection at 0.38u and 0.60u,
 the oil spills stood out dramatically at these wavelengths.   In addition,
 it was discovered that the polarization  of light reflected from the oil
 differed by about 25 percent from that reflected from the water.
     Microwave radiometers have  also been used for detecting  oil spills
 and have also been  employed  for  detecting sea ice, surface temperature,
 and salinity.
     The passive microwave imager, in contrast to the radiometer,
 constructs a picture of a viewed surface such that the light  and dark.
 intensities displayed on the image are related to the amounts of micro-
wave energy radiated by the objects  in the scene.  This  is similar to
 photography but requires specialized apparatus to receive and record
 the longer, invisible wavelengths involved which  are emitted by all
 objects as a result  of their temperatures.


     The passive microwave imager has  the potential for providing EPA

with complete stereoscopic brightness  temperature maps of lakes, streams,

oceans, etc.  This information helps describe the large surface areas

that can be rapidly covered by aircraft or spacecraft.  Surface features

detectable by this technique include surface temperatures and roughness,

temperature gradients, and water-ice interfaces, among others.  A lengthy

list of exemplary applications for this instrument is presented in the

March 1966 Prospectus for the Natural  Resources Program published by


     One passive microwave imager commonly used for remote sensing

utilizes state-of-the-art receivers having internal-noise outputs of about

1°K.  On this basis temperature differentials of approximately 3°K wJ11 be

detectable with a probability greater  than 0.9.  Estimates of anticipated

temperature differentials to be encountered based on surface element

differences in roughness and/or dielectric constants point toward expected

differentials of 8°K or more.

     One of the newer passive microwave imaging systems was developed by

NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center.   This instrument, operating at 10.69 GHZS

uses a two-dimensional phased array antenna to achieve scanning transverse

to the flight path.  The instrument converts microwave signals to elec-

trical signals which modulate the control grid of a fluorescent tube.

The varying light signals on the face of the tube are recorded on 35 mm

black and white film.   The great advantage of this imager, as with other

microwave devices, is its all weather operational capabilities.  A

disadvantage is its poorer spatial resolution compared with conventional

photographic syste;ns.   However, this instrument should be useful in

monitoring large scale environmental changes during periods of inclement

weather when other instruments are rendered inoperable.


      In summary,  the passive microwave imager provides an essential

 remote  sensor  component  for monitoring environmental factors  related  to

 water surfaces  yielding  such information-as  thermal maps, surface

 structure,  and  inference on sub-surface features down to  tens  of centimeters

 depending on moisture or conductive content.
   Altimeter/Scatterometer.   Another useful sensor  operat-

 ing  in  the  microwave region is  the  radar altimeter/scatterometer.  This

 radar instrument  produces  onboard magnetic tape  records whose  informational

 content  contains  both measurements  of  the distance  of the instrument

 platform to the Earth (altimetry),  and the radar reflection properties of

 the  Earth's surface  structures  at various angles of elevation  from the

 vertical or nadir direction (scatterometry).   This  remote sensor operates

 at radio wavelengths  of  about 3 centimeters.

      An  alternate pulse  of  4 microseconds width  supplies  the information

 on the radar reflection  properties  of  ground  surfaces; technically, the

 scatter  cross-section of the ground  structure illuminated out  to an

 angle of 60° from the vertical.

      By  comparing  records of a  succession of  pulses  as the  aircraft moves

 forward, a  given  patch of ground is  viewed at diffex-ent angles so  that

 one  can  also derive  how  a given ground  element changes its  scatter

 ability with various  aspect  angles of  illumination.

      In  addition,  the  altimeter/scatterometer is  capable  of transmitting

 and  receiving horizontal and vertical polarizations.  These are radio

waves which generate  electrical voltages which arc maximum  in a direction

horizontal or vertical to the ground respectively.   Such  capability will

aid  considerable in  interpreting water  surface roughness.

------- Sidelooking Airborne Radar .   Still another radar sensor

is the sidelooking radar which in  addition to being a day/night sensor,

is capable of functioning in all types of weather as well since it can

operate at microwave frequencies which are located in the atmospheric

windows.  Although this sensor was not specifically designed for pollu-

tion detection, it is nevertheless effective in monitoring strip and

pit mining operations as well as other large scale features of land and

water surfaces.  For example, sidelooking radar can also be used to

monitor extent and changes in large industrial waste ponds and detecting

oil spills.

 Monitoring Techniques for Noise.   Noise is generally defined

as "unwanted sound," but there is no generally accepted definition of

sound pollution.  Among the characteristics of sound that enter into

its becoming noise are intensity, frequency, intermittency, inappropriate-

ness, interference with the task of the hearer, unexpectedness and

masking effect of other sounds.  In addition,  culturally associated

preferences of the hearer enter into judgments about noise.   Thus, while

many people would no doubt agree that life is  becoming noisier, few are

able to suggest quantitative methods for characterizing the noisiness

of their environment.

     The effects of noise can be though of in terms of a physiological-

psychological dichotomy.  The major physiological effect of exposure to

loud sound is an impairment of hearing, either permanent or temporary.

The temporary effect, measured as a temporary shift in hearing threshold,

is similar to the phenomenon of not being able to see well in a darkened

room after having entered from a well-lighted area.  After long-term

exposure to excessive noise levels, the threshold shift can become

permanent, and the individual becomes "hard of hearing."

     Other physiological effects are pain, alternations in respiration

circulation, basal metabolic rate, and muscle tension.^  Many of these

are doubtless coupled to psychological effects such as nervousness,

anxiety, increased irritability and insomnia.  Yet other psychological

effects are related to the aesthetic qualities of sound.  Indeed, as

sounds are added to a quiet environment, the distinction between noise

and acceptable sound is likely to be made on aesthetic grounds.  Thus,

a baby crying in the next apartment or a dog barking across the street

will probably be considered disturbing noise, while the profusion of

bird, cricket and other animal calls at dusk would be welcomed by many


     With so many types of attributes, some quantifiable, others so

dependent on cultural and personally variable standards ami responses,

an jail-inclusive index of noise and sound quality of the environment is

indeed an elusive goal.  One method for calculating an index on the

basis of average or reasonable life styles is described in the reference
      Breyssee, Peter A., "Sound Pollution - Another Urban Problem,"
The Science Teacher,  April 1970, pages 29-34.

below .   The approach is quite general and adaptable to change in

emphasis.  The specific exposure values and limits, while based on informa-

tion from the technical literature, are not rigidly prescribed and can

be adjusted to conform to expert consensus without invalidating the over-

all approach.  For further details on a new but within the state-of-

the-art noise monitor see "he reference below.  Radiation.  Radioactivity can occur for air, land and

water.  However, this section deals only with those types of radiation

which are capable of injuring man and/or his environment.  These include

alpha and beta particles, protons, neutrons, cosmic radiation, gamma

rays, X-rays, and -microwaves.  Man is constantly exposed to radiation,

both natural and man-made.  Natural radiation derives from cosmic radia-

tion and naturally radioactive uubstances in the earth and instructural

materials.  Man-made sources include weapons fallout, color TV sets,

nuclear power plants, medical uses, kitchen appliances and radar hardware.

     The situation regarding radioactive pollution is somewhat unique

in that great foresight was involved at the dawn of the nuclear age in

terms of strict legislation and a sense of moving forward with caution.

Extensive studies, monitoring, and data collection have been performed

by the Atomic Energy Commission and branches of HEW for a number of


     With regard to the overall annual radiation dose which the average

man receives, by far the biggest contribution is that of naturally

occurring background radiation (reference, next page) for which he is not

responsible and cannot reduce appreciably.  Medical treatment, including
      "Monitoring the Environment of the Nation," Appendix A-2,

Mitre MTR 1660, April 1971, pages 91-106.

dental, diagnostic, and therapeutic uses, accounts for a somewhat

smaller amount with radioactive pollution also providing a relatively

small portion.

     Nevertheless, considering the trend toward installing more nuclear

power plants and the still uncertain long-term and synergistic effects

of radiation, it is necessary to maintain a strong monitoring capa-

bility in this area.  The United States has good cooperation with

Mexican and Canadian authorities with regard to their monitoring activi-

ties.  Monitoring Networks and Quantities/Substances Sampled.

Contained in Table 7-1-4 are the names of a number of radiation monitor-

ing networks.  The monitoring techniques are contained in the four

references listed below.

     Information on the monitors and methods has not been performed but

it is believed that most networks have been built using AEC approved

hardware and procedures.

     A unified requirements analysis similar to the analysis for air

pollution monitoring techniques should be considered.  Monitoring Techniques for Pesticides.  In order to trace

and assess the movement of pesticides throughout the environment, it
       *  "Radiation Biology," Allison P.  Casarett,  Prentice Hall (1968),

      **  "Radiation Surveillance Networks," WASH-1148,  Robert E. Allen
          (Nov.  1969).

     ***  National and  International Environmental Monitoring
          Activities—A Directory, Smithsonian Institution,  (Oct. 1970).

    ****  "Modifications of  Environmental  Surveillance Network
          Operations,"  Bureau of  Radiological Health (May  18, 1970).

                            TABLE 7-1-4

            Monitoring Networks & Quantities Sampled
     Sampled Quantities & Substances
Radiation Alert
Network, APCO/EPA

Health & Safety
Network, AEC

Atomic Energy
Agency, IAEA

Some IQSY sites
in U.S.

TSP, gross a , gross /? , plutonium.pre-
precipitation & tap water

Plutonium, other radionuclides
                                 Hydrogen isotopes (deuterium & tritium
                                 and oxygen -18
                                 Cosmic radiation
                                 Gamma radiation
WATER       Tritium

            Bureau of

            Survey & Water
            Quality Office/

            Bureau of
                     Surface water, precipitation monitoring,
                     gross $ , tap water
                     Radionuclides  in estuaries and
                     marine environment

                     Radionuclides ,   gross oc , gross
                     Drinking water
Soil Conservation

Health & Safety
Lab, AEC
Strontium 90
                                 All radioactive contaminants on land
EFFECTS -   Pasteurized Milk
  FOOD      Network/EPA

            Institute of Total
                     Radiochemical analysis of milk,
                     gamma scan       "     "    "
                     Monthly food and annual water sampled.
Human Bone Network

Alaskan Survey
                                 Cesium - 137

 is  necessary  to measure residues  in  the physical media  themselves,  as

 well  as  in human and  animal  tissues.   Programs  for such measuring in

 soil, water,  and air  are discussed.   Soil.   Soil  is  the natural  receptacle for  pesticides

 which are applied to  crops;  residues  stored here can be carried into

 the atmosphere  attached to particulates,  and  into the hydrosphere by

 runoff.  It also is a source  of pesticides  for  soil organisms which

 can concentrate  them  and which  in turn serve  as  food for higher organisms

 (NPMP) .  For example,  Hunt  found in  1965 that  in DDT-sprayed elm

 environment, total pesticide  residues  (dry  weight) accumulated from

 9.9 ppm  in soil  to 140.6 ppm  in earthworms  to 443.9 ppm in adult robin

 brains (Hunt) .

     The U.S. Department of Agriculture conducts  a soil pesticide moni-

 toring program which is  part  of the National Soil Monitoring Program,

 sponsored by the  Federal Committee on  Pest  Control.  The major objective

 of  this program,  as determined  in 1968, has been  to derive a reasonably

 reliable estimate of pesticide  levels  in United  States soils with

 reference to land use.   This  includes:

     1.   determination of levels  of pesticide residues in soils on

         major land-use  areas and, through periodic samples,

         detection of changes in  these  levels;
            National Pesticide Monitoring Program, Report of the Monitoring
Panel, June, 1970.

     2Hunt, Effects of Pesticides on Fish and Wildlife, U.S. Department
of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Circular 226, 1965.


     2.  determination of pesticide residue levels in crops grown

         on treated soils;

     3.  determination of pesticide residues in runoff water of

         certain agricultural lands;

     4.  determination of the concentration of certain pesticides

         at various depths in the soil.

Two major land uses were included—cropland and noncropland.  Ten-acre

sites were randomly selected at the rate of one site per 40,000 acres

of cropland and one site per 400,000 acres of noncropland.  That rate

of sampling yielded 9,468 cropland sites and 3,822 noncropland sites

(about 13,300 cotal).   All soil samples were analyzed for chlorinated

hydrocarbon insecticides and arsenic, and analyses for other pesticides

were made on the basis of records of their use.  Other determinations

(crop levels, runoff water level, soil profile studies) were made at

selected sites.  The sampling schedule was planned to cycle in 4 years;

ie.,one-fourth of the sites (3,325) were to be sampled each year.

     When initiated in FY 1968, only 6 states were sampled.  In FY 1969.,

cropland was sampled in 43 states and noncropland in 10 states.  In

FY 1970, cropland was sampled in 35 states.  Because of lack of funds,

the program had to be redirected in FY 1971, and only a small portion

(corn and cotton belts) of the original monitoring efforts were con-

tinued.  The Monitoring Panel of the National Pesticides Monitoring

Program does not feel that under the reduced effort the objectives of

the program can be met, and recommends adequate financing and full

initiation of the monitoring program (MPMP).  Pesticides pose environ-

mental problems of which we are probably only beginning to feel the


effects and monitoring of these substances in soil, water, air, and
tissue, is an area we cannot afford to neglect.  Financing must be pro-
vided to bring the program up to standards the Monitoring Panel considers
adequate, and then data obtained can be used in an index of changing
residue levels.  Monitoring of residues in soil organisms, particularly
earthworms and beetles, and correlation of this data with soil residues,
might also be useful.  Water.  A National Monitoring Program for the Assessment
of Pesticide Residues in the Hydrologic Environment has  been designed
in accordance with the objectives of the National Pesticides Monitoring
Program of the  Federal  Committee on Pest Control, subsequently
reorganized under the President's Cabinet Committee on the Environment.
It represents a revision of an earlier program initiated in 1967 by
the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (now Water Quality
Office) and the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves sampling of both
water and bottom sediments.   Water samples are to be collected four times
a year, and sediment samples twice a year, from 161 sites chosen at
random from hydrologic units within the 20 major drainage basins defined
by the Water Resources Council.   Under the plan, analysis will be made
for the following chlorinated insecticides and herbicides:
         ALDRIN        HEPTACHLOR            2,4-D
         DDD           LINDANE               SILVEX
         DDE           MALATHION
         DDT           METHYL PARATH10N
         ENDRIN        TOXAPHENE

High, median, and low pesticide levels for the major drainage areas

will be reported in the Pesticides Monitoring Journal.  Correlation of

pesticide levels with other hydrologic data should be attempted.

     A request has been made for funding of this program as part of the

National Water Data Network implementation in the 1972 fiscal year by

the U.S. Geological Survey under Bureau of the Budget Circular A-67 (NPMP)

Once again, this is an area of crucial importance.  As more and more

toxic materials are being released into our environment, we must have

some way of assessing the buildup of these materials, and correlating

such buildup with levels in biota, as well as with geographical regions

and sources.  It is recommended that such funding indeed be carried

through, and that data on these insecticides be correlated with data

on residues in fresh-water fish.  Air.  The atmosphere has been recognized as one of the

major routes by which DDT is carried to the oceans and thus becomes

widespread throughout the environment (SCEP) _   xhe Monitoring Panel

of the National Pesticides Monitoring Program has recommended that air

sampling be conducted in a minimum of 40 to 60 separate areas of the

country, with boundaries of these areas determined on an arbitrary

basis, such as longitude-latitude, and with sampling sites within each

area selected and operated according to a random design (NPMP).   Moni-

toring of air over coastal regions might be particularly useful.  Funding

for such a program must be provided if an adequate picture of the spread

of these substances in the environment is to be obtained.   Such data,
      SCEP, Man's Impact on the Global Environment, Report of the Study
on Critical Environmental Problems, sponsored by the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1970.

when obtained, could be used in an environmental index, and should also

be correlated with that derived from other programs (soil, water, tissue


     Monitoring techniques for pesticides are more logically concerned

with the methods used in the air and xjater media programs and the programs

of FDA and DOA.  Again it is suggested that a uniform review be performed

of all involved agencies and a combined requirements analysis be performed.

Automated techniques will be difficult to develop but should not be down-

graded for that reason.  Monitoring Technique for Solid Waste.  The days when com-
munities could count on-the ready availability of disposal sites for their

solid wastes have nearly passed for many areas, and the problem will soon

catch up with others.  Open dumping is not only unaesthetic and hazardous

to health (harborage and food source for insect and rodent pests,

polluting of runoff water, pollution of air when burned, etc.), but land

suitable for such outright destruction is becoming scarce.  Even the more

benign practice of sanitary landfill (area or trench methods) is said

to require about one acre per 10,000 people per year.   As cities expand

there is a very real shortage of new acreage available which is within

economic hauling distance of the cities.  Deep ravines have greater

capacity, but their supply, too, is limited.  While incinerators

generally offer an efficient and hygienic means of disposing of combusti-

ble waste, they produce ash which must be hauled away and disposed of

elsewhere, and if not outfitted with proper emission control devices,

incinerators can contribute significantly to air pollution.

     At the other side of the picture are the wastes being disposed of.

Our technology, productive capacity, and inherent system of economic
       Benarde, Melvin A.,  "Our Precarious Habitat," W. W. Norton &
 Co. Inc., New York  1970, page  357.


 incentive encourage the disposal rather than the re-use  of many items.

 Few are designed for degradability after their prescribed useful lives,

 since so many items are fabricated of relatively inert plastics, metals

 and glasses.

      Increased per capita consumption of materials also adds to the

 rate of growth of the solid waste problem.   Degradable solid wastes can

 become especially troublesome when they are generated in too great

 concentrations for natural decomposition processes to assimilate them.

 On the other hand, large quantities of concentrated wastes have the

 potential value of permitting economies of scale when they are treated

 artificially, especially if there is a market for the end-product of

 the treatment.

      Yet another dimension of the problem is the rising labor and capital

 costs associated with collection and disposal of solid waste.  Trash

 collection and sanitation personnel demand and receive higher wages re-

 flective of their increased status and critical importance in the scheme

 of community processes.   More demanding treatment requirements and

 shortages in disposal sites are driving up the unit costs of solid waste

 management.   The premium on extracting nonrenewable resources f-rom the

"waste stream" must surely increase.  Thus,  there are bound to be funda-

 mental readjustments in solid waste management practices, just based on

 these conventional economic considerations  alone.

      Simple mass balance considerations suffice to illustrate that the

 amount of any type of waste discharged at the end of a waste stream is

 equal to the amount input to the system plus amounts generated within

 the system by conversion of other types (assumed negligible except for

 incinerator ash) less-those amounts reclaimed from the waste stream for


recycling or other re-use.  The parameters chosen below to characterize

solid waste issues are generally reflective of these input-output con-

siderations and their associated costs.  Materials Balance Parameters.  In a broad sense, the

materials balance story of solid waste can be told by filling in the

matrix of Table 7-1-5.  The source categories are intended to be complete

as well as mutually exclusive, and likewise for the disposal categories.

Each of these sets of categories is amenable to restructuring or other

modification without changing the overall meaning of the parameters.

The various cells of the matrix contain the amounts of solid waste from

a given source (index = ra) disposed in a particular way (index = n).

The interesting measures of amount are weight Wrm, volume Vmn. and,

perhaps, combustion energy content Hmn.  Weights expres&ed in tons or

thousands of kilograms per year for municipalities, states, regions and

industrial sectors should be adequate.  Similarly, volumes, expressed

in cubic meters per year  or hectare-meters per year, are expressive of

the amount of volume that solid wastes take up.  Where the average

energy content of the different sources of waste is a meaningful number,

a rough indication of the energy picture can be assembled as well.  It

is anticipated that the "industrial" category would have to be subdivided

into several constituent groups of similar materials before energy content

figures would be meaningful.  Units of energy content are kilocalories

per kilogram, or, perhaps, kilowatt-hours per 1000 kilograms (metric ton).

                                                   TABLE 7-1-5

                                         MATERIALS BALANCE AND COST PARAMETERS

     For further details concerning the mass balance method for monitoring

solid waste procedure, see reference below.   Monitors per se for solid

wastes are non-existent other than weight, volume, distance, and heat

content devices or estimation procedures.

     Networks for data gathering are discussed in the reference below

along with suggested forms of data aggregation.

     7.1.4  Platforms  In order to obtain some initial remote sensing

data it would be desirable to station a light aircraft in each of the

ten EPA Regions equipped with a metric camera, 1R Scanner and possibly

other unsophisticated sensors.  Such an instrumented platform would

perform many useful functions, including qualitative monitoring of

environmental parameters whenever contingency factors so required.

     Where broader and systematic monitoring of environmental quality

is desired, EPA Headquarters will assign larger and more fully instrumented

aircraft which can acquire quantitative data and provide standard data

products to each region.  The Western Environmental Research Laboratory

is being considered as a facility which could provide these extended

services in the Western United States.  At least one other such facility

with aircraft capability will be necessary East of the Mississippi River.

DOD, with its many aircraft already equipped with sophisticated sensors

such as side-looking radar, multiband cameras and multi-spectral scanners,

could provide EPA with an interim capability for monitoring environmental

degradation provided an agreement with the DOD can be arranged.

     The Regional Offices should also be cognizant of the many remote

sensing projects already underway by NASA, USGS, USDA, NOAA, and DOD which
       Monitoring the Environment of the Nation."  Mitre MTR 1660,
April 1971.   Appendix A-3, pages 149-160.

are acquiring remote and in-situ sensor data.  These include aircraft
flights such as U--2, P-3, C-130 and RB57, and spacecraft programs such
as ERTS and Skylab (See five references below).
          0  ERTS - General Electric Space Division
          0  ERTS - Ground Data Handling System,
             NASA Preliminary Description
          0  Aircraft Remote Sensing Systems,
             NASA/HSC - 04165, May 1971.
          0  Skylab A-EREP Users Handbook
             NASA/MSC, February 1971.
          0  Memorandum to ERSPRC from NASA,
             ERTS Simulation Tests Areas with U-2 Aircraft.
In addition, NASA's Earth Observations Office will operate a Data
Collection System (DCS) employing in-situ sensors which relay data to
satellites for retransmittal to ground stations once the Earch Resources
Technology Satellite is launched in March 1972.
     7.2.0  Suggested Discussion Topics
     7.2.1  Make all remote monitoring techniques, vehicles, data
transmission, data processing and data analysis research and development
planning and funding a function to be performed at the Office of Monitoring
level for the present.  This should include all satellite, aircraft, ground
and water borne mobile and fixed stations where the information gathered
includes remote and in-situ monitoring networks.  Data gathering by remote
monitoring may be delegated to the Federal regional offices at some later
date when such systems are more operational in nature.  A logical alter-
native to this suggestion is to establish 2 or 3 sub-national remote
monitoring centers within the Office of Monitoring such centers could be
loaned to tha  10 regional offices as required.

     7.2.2  Devise specifications  for all monitoring techniques

within the EPA organization but delegate and support monetarily the

monitor and/or method development  in outside agencies where possible.

     -  Satellite and aircraft sensors when feasible (including ground

        stations, when practicable) to NASA and/or DOD.

     -  Radiation sensor development to AEC and HEW, when feasible.

     -  Noise sensors development  to DOT and DOC, when feasible.

     -  Retain air, water, pesticide and solid waste sensor

        development in EPA.

     -  Hydrologic and meteorologic sensor development

        to DOC, when feasible.

          7.2.3   Review the delegation for monitoring  techniques

 development  in light  of the Ash  Federal Government Reorganization

 Plan in  order  to  minimize  the disturbances which  will  occur  during

 the  process  of  this major  Federal  reorganization.

          7.2.4    Devise sociologic and economic monitoring  techniques

 (monitor  and methods) within EPA with  committee support  from  OMB,


          7.2.5    Develop a plan  for the monitoring techniques required'

 for  5  to  10  environmental  indices.  Select indices and techniques  on

 the  basis  the  ability to produce public displays  by  July 72.   Use  the

 NOAA network for  dissemination of  these indices in addition to the

 normal channels of communication to the public through the 10 regional

offices.  Devise a  method for measuring  the public  acceptance of the

indices release.

     7.2.6  Place special emphasis on the generation of monitoring

techniques which can sense the national and global trends of

pollution.  Develop a plan for this service.  Should this service be

separate and distinct from the service performed by 10 EPA regional