ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
   ^^ \            WASHINGTON, D C. 20460
UBW
\
                                                            ADMINISTRATOR
                                   October 1,  1971
   MEMORANDUM

   TO       :   Monitoring Conference Participants

   SUBJECT:   Environmental Monitoring Conference at the
               Western Environmental Research Laboratory,
               October  13, 14,  and 15,  1971

   The attachment to this memorandum consists of:

      1.   Conference Agenda (including assignments)
      2.   Assignment of Participants to Workshops
      3.   Workshop Discussion Guide for Development
          of an Environmental Monitoring Program
          Within EPA

   To in sum the  success of this Conference,  you are  urged bo
   familiarize yourself with the entire content* of the Woikshop
   Discussion Guide.  ] look forward to a productive conference
   and the attainment of our objective to provide substantive
   inputs to the development of an overall environmental moni-
   toring program for the Environmental Protection Agency.
                            Willis B.  Foster
                            Deputy Assistant Adnn.inistrr.tor
                            for Monitoring
   Attachment

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                           MEMORANDUM CHANGE




          The second item in the attachment, "Assignment of




Participants to Workshops," is not included in this transmittal.




Instructions will be given at the conference.

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                            AGENDA FOR THE
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY MONITORING CONFERENCE

              Western Environmental Research Laboratory
                   Laboratory 1, Training Classroom
                          Las Vegas, Nevada
                     October 13. 14. and 15. 1971
Wednesday. October 13, 1971

9:00 a.m.  - Welcome - Dr. Melvin Carter, Director, Western Environmental
               Research Laboratory

             Opening Comments - Dr. Stanley M. Greenfield, Assistant
               Administrator for Research and Monitoring, and
               Mr. Willis B. Foster, Deputy Assistant Administrator
               for Monitoring

9:45 a.m.  - Organization and Functions of the Office of Monitoring ~
               Mr. H. Matthew Bills, Director, Analysis Division,
               Office of Monitoring (30 minutes)

             Office of Monitoring's Interaction With Other EPA Offices -
               Mr. Donald C. Holmes, Director, Techniques Division,
               Office of Monitoring (30 minutes)

             Office of Monitoring's Interaction With Other Federal
               Government Agencies, i.e., NOAA, Interior, etc. -
               Mr. George B. Morgan, Director, Coordination and
               Support Division, Office of Monitoring (30 minutes)

11:15 a.m. - Discussion

12:00 noon - Lunch

1:30 p.m.  - Current Monitoring Capabilities For:

               Air - Mr. Raymond Smith, Office of Air Programs (20 minutes)
               Water - Mr. George F. Wirth, Office of Water Programs
                  (20 minutes)
               Solid Waste - Mr. Lanier Hickman, Office of Solid
                 Waste Management Programs (20 minutes)

2:30 p.m.  - Discussion

3:00 p.m.  - Radiation - Mr. Charles Weaver, Office of Radiation
               Programs (20 minutes)
             Pesticides - Mr. E.L.J. Graiidpierre, Office of
               Pesticides Programs (20 minutes)
             Noise - Mr. Rudy Narrazzo, Office of Noise Abatement
               (20 minutes)

4:00 p.m.  - Discussion

4:30 p.m.  - Adjournment

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6:30 p.m.  - Cocktails and Dinner - Copper Cart, Las Vegas Blvd.
               South (across the street from the Westward Ho Motel)

8:30 p.m.  - Dinner Speech -"Regional Monitoring Needs" - Mr. Paul
               DeFalco, Regional Administrator, Region IX (tentative)
Thursday. October 14. 1971

9:00 a.m.  - Monitoring Needs For:

               Enforcement - Mr. Robert Schaffer, Office of General
                 Counsel and Enforcement (20 minutes)
               Research - Dr. Herbert Wiser, Office of Research
                 (20 minutes)

9:40 a.m.  - Discussion

10:00 a.m. -   Air - Mr. Raymond Smith (15 minutes)
               Water - Mr. George F. Wirth  (15 minutes)
               Solid Waste - Mr. Lanier Hiclcman (15 minutes)

10:45 a.m. - Discussion

11:00 a.m. -   Radiation - Mr. Charles Weaver (15 minutes)
               Pesticides - Mr. E.L.J. Grandpierre (15 minutes)
               Noise - Mr. Rudy Marrazzo (15 minutes)

11:45 a.m. - Discussion

12:00 noon - Lunch

1:00 p.m.  - Seven White Paper Reports

             1. An Integrated, Nationwide Environmental Monitoring
                Program for Short -Term Implementation - Mr. Keith
                Schwab, Region VIII, Denver

             2. Future Monitoring Program and Methods - Mr. Gary
                Gardner, Region III, Philadelphia

             3. Standardization of Methods and Equipment -
                Mr.  Richard Duty, Region VI, Dallas

             4. Early Warning Monitoring Network - Mr. Gary O'Neal,
                Region X, Seattle

             5. Requirements for Acquisition of Monitoring Data
                Especially Dealing With Compatibility and Quality -
                Mr.  Edward Fitzpatrick, Region 1,  Boston

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             6.  Development of a Quality Control Program - Mr.  Robert
                Bowden, Region V, Chicago

             7.  Monitoring Techniques (Remote and In-Situ) - Mr.  Gary
                Fisk, Region VII, Kansas City

             20  minutes each - 10 minute presentation and highlights
                               10 minute discussion

3:20 p.m.  - Break Up Into Six Working Panels

             1.  An Integrated, Nationwide Environmental Monitoring
                Program for Short-Term Implementation - Mr. Willis B.
                Foster, Chairman

             2.  Future Monitoring Program and Methods - Mr. Terry
                Davies, Chairman

             3.  Standardization of Methods and Equipment - Mr.  Dwight
                G.  Ballinger, Chairman

             4.  Early Warning Monitoring Network - Mr. H. Matthew
                Bills, Chairman

             5.  Standardized Monitoring Data Acquisition: Compati-
                bility Aspects and Standardized Monitoring Data
                Acquisitions: Quality Aspects - Mr. George B.
                Morgan, Chairman

             6.  Monitoring Techniques: Remote Sensing and In-Situ
                Techniques - Mr. Donald B..Holmes, Chairman

Friday, October  15, 1971

9:00 a.m.  - Six Panels Meet

12:00 noon - Lunch

1:00 p.m.  - Presentations - Three Panels Present Their Conclusions
               (30 minutes each)

2:30 p.m.  - Discussion

3:00 p.m.  - Presentations - Three Panels Present Their Conclusions
               (30 minutes each)

4:30 p.m.  - Discussion

5:00 p.m.  - "Program Profile" Wrap Up - Mr. Foster

5:30 p.m.  - Adjournment

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              WORKSHOP DISCUSSION GUIDE FOR DEVELOPMENT
               OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM
                            WITHIN EPA

                          FOREWORD

     Seven papers have been prepared to provide a frame of reference
for workshop discussion during this meeting.  The topics of these
papers are:
        Paper No. 1 - An Integrated, Nationwide Environmental
                      Monitoring Program for Short-Term Implementation
        Paper No. 2 - Future Monitoring Program and Methods
        Paper No. 3 - Standardization of Methods and Equipment
        Paper No. 4 - Early Warning Monitoring Network
        Paper No. 5 - Standardized Monitoring Data Acquisition -
                      Compatibility Aspects
        Paper No. 6 - Standardized Monitoring Data Acquisition -
                      Quality Control Aspects
        Paper No. 7 - Monitoring Techniques - Remote Sensing
                      and In Situ
     Each of these papers presents a section which addresses the overall
perspective of the problem in terms of scope and technical and organiza-
tional aspects.  The intent of this section is to stimulate meaningful
and constructive exchange during the workshop sessions.  Each paper also
piresents selected topics for discussion.  These should not be considered
ap constraints but should serve as a point of departure for deve.lopment
of Agency monitoring policies and programs.  The objective of each work-
shop is to prepare inputs along programmatic lines which can be integrated
into an overall Environmental Monitoring Program of the Environmental
Protection Agency.

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                            PAPER NO. 1


1.0  AN INTEGRATED NATION-WIDE MONITORING PROGRAM
     FOR SHORT TERM IMPLEMENTATION

     1.1.1  The Scope of a Short-Term Monitoring Program

            The short-term monitoring program is primarily an immediate

restructuring of the many, existing ongoing monitoring programs within

the Environmental Protection Agency.  The purpose is to merge and

coalesce these monitoring activities into a single program without

undesirable duplicities of effort, using the presently available

resources.  More effective use of available resources will allow

expanded coverage in some areas where serious gaps exist.

     Planning for a longer term program will continue in parallel with

the implementation of the short term program.

          1.1.1.1  Definition of Monitoring

                   The report of the Study of Critical Environmental

Problems (SCEP) resulting from a summer study in Williamstown, Massa-

chusetts, sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology*

describes monitoring as "systematic observations of parameters related

to a specific problem, designed to provide information on the charac-

teristics of the problem and their changes with time."  The report

continues that monitoring must provide warning of critical changes as

well as measurement of the present state of the environment ("baseline")
*Man's Impact on the Global Environment, Report of the Study of
 Environmental Problems (SCEP), The HIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.,
1970, p. 168.

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     The SCEP report describes three monitoring techniques*.   The

first is economic and statistical monitoring.  The authors state:

          "If we are concerned with predicting the accumulation
          of a pollutant in the environment, its rate of input
          must be known ...  If we are concerned with evaluating
          the effects of alternative control technologies on
          pollutant levels, we need quantitative information about
          the flow of materials which will be altered by control
          technology to include inputs, wastes, and end products
          at each stage of the process."

Measurement of resources as well as effluent levels are included in

this technique.

     The second technique relates to physical and chemical monitoring.

These methods are used:

          "to determine the amount of a contaminant in a sample
          of soil, water, air, or organism.  Physical methods are
          also used to determine a property of an environmental
          system as a whole, such as the refractive index or the
          albedo of the atmosphere. . .  The essence of good
          monitoring of this type is to measure what is needed,
          and no more, with the precision that is needed, and no
          more, and to maintain standards indefinitely.  Tradi-
          tionally, monitoring of this type is carried out in net-
          works of fixed stations.  The entire operation may be
          completed at these stations or a sample may be taken to
          a central laboratory for examination or analysis.  In
          either case, central coordination of methods and central
          standardization is necessary.  Monitoring is now extended
          to measurements on ships, aircraft, and satellites."

     The third technique described by the SCEP group is biological

monitoring.
*Ibid., pp. 168-172.

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          "Even though our interest in environmental pollution
          stems from our concern about its effects on living organisms,
          the concept of using such organisms either individually
          or as a population or species as tools to monitor the
          state of the environment is still a relatively untested one.
          Moreover, although the study of natural ecosystems has
          long been an important scientific activity in observation
          and evaluation, changes in these finely tuned systems have
          not yet been systematized to yield warnings about harmful
          contaminants.  Yet living organisms can serve as excellent
          quantitative as well as qualitative indices of the pollution
          of the environment.  Plants and animals are continually
          exposed and can act as long-term monitors that integrate
          all environmental effects to reflect the total state of their
          environmental milieu.  They can show the pathways and points
          of accumulation of pollutants and toxicants in ecological
          systems."

     A fourth technique is necessary to meet the requirements of

environmental monitoring, namely, social-aesthetic monitoring.  The

National Environmental Policy Act indicates that environmental quality

cannot be obtained through consideration of only the economic, physical

and biological parameters.  The home, work, leisure, and general

surroundings including housing conditions, urban sprawl, transportation

congestion, odors, noise, availability of mineral and fuel resources

as well as recreation areas and open space, all form a very real part

of the environment under consideration.

     For its purposes the Office of Monitoring has defined environmental

monitoring as:  "the systematic collection and evaluation of physical,

chemical, biological and related environmental data pertaining to

environmental quality, and waste discharges into all media.  It may be

performed through the operation of regional, nationwide and global

networks and special studies of individual areas and sites."

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     There are three basic types of monitoring systems which can be




established, depending on their intended use.  These are:




       •  a scientific system to support research programs —




          these are usually established on a specific problem




          basis to aid in the study of particular problem areas




          (e.g., establish cause/effect relationships, or support




          equipment development);




       •  a legal system to support surveillance, and enforcement




          programs — monitoring of noise in the vicinity of airports




          is a typical example;




       o  an operational system to support control and abatement and




          also aid in decision and policy making and dissemination of




          information to the public — the National Aerometric Data




          Bank (NADB) is an example of a system which supports control




          and abatement operations.  Properly extended and used in




          conjunction with the National Air Surveillance Network it




          could provide the basis for computing indices to support




          policy making, and disseminating information to the public.




     Except for the differences in the measurement grid and geographical




coverage there is no sharp distinction among these uses; to some degree,




all three types of systems may utilize elements from a common data base.




          1.1.1.2  Short Term and Long Term Needs




                   The mobilization of present monitoring activities




into a coordinated, operating environmental monitoring system is the

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immediate goal of the Office of Monitoring.  The objective is to meet




the short term high priority needs of EPA to fulfill its mission through




the use of existing resources, and supplemental resources to fill serious




gaps in such a program.  The time scale is to start implementation




immediately and have an operating system in the initial phases within




twelve months and full scale operation within twenty-four months.  A




key tenet of this sytem is to have data collected by the immediate users




of -the data (EPA Regional Offices, state and local environmental agencies,




industrial firms, environmental organizations, etc.), using standardized




methods of collection, and to transmit processed data upward through the




local, state, regional, federal heirarchy as coordinated information for




other uses.




     The planning to meet the long term needs for environmental monitoring




must proceed in parallel with the implementation of the short term system.




The long terra system will not only fill gaps in the short term system and




expand the capability to monitor the environment, but will provide the




basis for analyzing long term changes and trends in the environment in




both urban and rural background situations.




     1.1.2  Monitoring Needs




            a.  General Needs




                While the general requirements for monitoring can be




identified as providing information for:




                 (a)  the assessment of pollution effects on man and his




     environment,




                 
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               (c)  the establishment of ambient environmental quality and




     emission standards,




               (d)  the development of control strategies and regulations




               (e)  the evaluation of the effectiveness of adopted control




     procedures and preventative measures,




               (f)  the guidance of future development to minimize




     pollution impact on the environment by the use of modeling and




     planning.




           b.  Specific Needs




               The specific needs are categorized by the three types of




systems mentioned previously, i.e., scientific and research programs,




surveillance for enforcement, and operational programs.  The detailed




requirements for each are shown in Appendix A.




          1.1.2.1  Research and Scientific Information




                   Systems for obtaining information for better under-




standing the environment and the manner in which man interacts with it




are usually systems tailored to run specific experiments under controlled




environments.  A dense measurement grid around a bound geographical area




is typical for assessment of specific environmental problems.  Controlled




experiments with measurement of changes from a baseline during the course




of the experiment requires specific sensor arrangements.  Examination of




large numbers of biological and human specimens in controlled or uncon-




trolled conditions often requires examination of existing data in new




ways.  (See Appendix A).

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          1.1.2.2  Surveillance for Enforcement




                   Surveillance to provide information to expose violators




of environmental laws and regulations is necessary for both voluntary and




compulsory enforcement.  Systems for surveillance of this type must be




well calibrated and maintained to assure that they will have legal in-




tegrity.  Often these systems will be portable or mobile and will be




used on a strategic basis.  The systems must be as good or better than




the- adversaries in enforcement action.  (See Appendix A.)




          1.1.2.3  Operational Programs




                   Operational programs use widely dispersed grids of




measurement for determining the condition of the environment for control




and abatement and for obtaining information for administrative decision




making and planning.   (See Appendix A)




          1.1.2.A  Classification of Present Programs




     Table 1, shows a classification of existing EPA programs by the




classifications noted above.  The table is illustrative and is probably




not exhaustive.




     1.1.3  The Flow and Use of Monitoring Information




            The functional components associated with collection and




proper use of environmental data are:




            1.  Sampling System




            2.  Sensors and Measurement




            3.  Data Acquisition




            A.  Information Transmittal

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                               TABLE I

                    Present EPA Monitoring Programs
1.  Research and Scientific Information

    A.   Air

        o  Federal Facilities Air Quality Control Regional Studies
        o  Ecological and Surveillance Studies
        9  Agricultural and Material Effect Studies
        e  Economic and cost control studies
        9  Biological effects research studies
        o  Photochemical studies
        e  CAMP

    B.   Water

        o  Environmental Criteria and Standards
        o  Hydrologic Processes
        o  Chemical - Physical Identification of Pollutants
        o  Research - Ultimate Disposal Systems
        e  Mine Drainage
        o  Eutrophication Research
        o  Effects of Ocean Disposal with Corps of Engineers
        e  Gulf Breeze Estuaries Study

    C.   Solid Waste

        e  Recycling Process
        o  Composition Studies
        o  Heat Recovery - Incinerator System
        e  Hydrolysis and Pyrolysis Research
        a  Separation/Classification System
        o  Biodegradable Materials

    D.   Radiation

        e  Radiation Protection Standards Research
        0  Precipitation Netv/orks
        o  Human and Biological tissue
        e  Technical Support Programs in Office of Water Programs  (OWP)

    E.   Pesticides

        o  Chemical vs Bioenvironmental Methods
        e  Persistence Research
        o  Ecosystem Stability
        o  Bird monitoring

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    E.  Pesticides  (cont.)

       o   Pesticide  Transport Mechanisms
       o   Technical  Support Programs  in OWP

    F.  Noise

       o   EPA/NBS  Noise  Characteristics Study  for various devices.


2.  Surveillance and Enforcement

    A.   Air

        o  Technical Assistance to state and local programs

    B.   Water

        o  Regional  Office short  and long-term stream monitoring

        o  Cooperating Federal,  State,  and  local short and long-term
           monitoring

    C.   Solid  Waste

        o  Not  applicable

    D.   Radiation

        o  Technical Support Programs in OWP

    E.   Pesticides

        o  Technical Support Programs in OWP

    F.   Noise

        o  NSPI

3.  Operational Programs

    A.   Control and abatement

        1.   Air

            o   Air  Quality Data  Bank

               NASN
               Total Suspended Particulate Network
               Membrane Filter Sampling Network

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          Gas sampling network
          Precipitation network
          Mercury sampling network
          Radiation alert network
          Anderson impactor network

        e  Emission Data bank

2.  Water Quality Control Information System (STORET)

        •  Fish Kill Information
        e  Beach and Shellfish Bed Closings Information
        o  Water Quality Standards
        o  Water Quality Measurements
        e  Municipal Waste Inventory
        »  Municipal Waste Implementation Plans
        o  Municipal Waste Treatment Plant Operation and Maintenance
            Information
        e  Municipal Waste Treatment Construction Grants Needs  Assessment
        o  Municipal Waste Treatment Works Contract Awards
        «  Voluntary Industrial Waste Inventory
        o  Refuse Act Permit Program Industrial Waste  Information
        o  Industrial Waste Implementation Plans
        &  Federal Power Commission Therma Pollution Information
        9  Manpower and Training Information

3.  Solid Waste

        9  Survey of Community Solid Waste Products

4.  Radiation

        o  Pasteurized Milk Network
        a  Institutional Diet Network
        e  Surface Water Network (OWP)
        o  Radiation Alert Network (OAF)

5.  Pesticides

        o  Pesticides in water
        o  Pesticides in air
        •  Human tissue levels
        9  Fish kills (OWP)
                                 10

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6.  Noise

        e  NSPI

    B.   Administrative

        1.   Air
            o  Air Quality Indices
            o  State Emission Inventory Surveys

        2.   Water

            o  Pollution-Duration-Intensity Index (PDI)
            o  Priority Action Index

        3.   Solid Waste

            o  National Solid Waste Practices Data Network

        4.   Pesticides

            o  Interagency Data Exchange

        5.   Radiation

            o  NSPI

        6.   Noise

            o  NSPI
                                  11

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             5.  Storage and Processing




             6.  Interpretation and Analysis




             7.  Retrieval and Presentation




                 Relevant elements associated with these components




are outlined in the following subsections.  A more detailed discussion




is contained in'Papers 3, 5, 6, and 7 of this series.




          1.1.3.1  Sampling




                   The selection of a sampling grid,  sampling frequency




and accuracy, and overaging times are critical in setting up a monitoring




strategy.  This selection must precede the hardware and software selection




process, and must be responsive to the monitoring needs.




          1.1.3.2  Sensors and Measurement




                   For virtually every monitoring application it is




necessary to determine standard equipment specifications and methods of




measurement and analysis.  A balance should be achieved between initial




equipment costs and degree of automation and 9n-site data reduction which




will affect operating and maintenance costs.




     Quality control guidelines should be developed and implemented in a




uniform manner to insure that private, local and Federal authorities




maintain the same standards and standard methods.  Standard methods




and quality control are discussed in detail in papers No.  3 and No. 5.




          1.1.3.3  Data Acquisition




                   This element is concerned with preparation of data,




acquired from sensors or survey forms, for subsequent transmission and
                                 12

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storage.  Standard methods and formats should be utilized to the




maximum extent to enter data for subsequent distribution.  Procedures for




validation and requirements for local processing must be developed.




          1.1.3.4  Information Transmittal




                   The transmission of environmental information is a




system function which has a significant interface with the acquisition




element.  Standard transmission formats indicating time, location of




observation, parameter being measured and other relevant identifiers




should be utilized for all measurements.  Consideration must be given




to utilizing common facilities for data entry and transmissions at




regional sites.   Procedures should be developed for transmitting a




variety of data over common communication facilities.   This will require




development of collection and transmission schedules for sending data




from local sites and regions to central storage facilities.




          1.1.3.5  Storage and Processing




                   Data banks should be organized to allow use of




common data entry and maintenance software.  Some information will be




stored locally and pre-processed and aggregated for utilization at




higher organizational levels.  The nature of the aggregation must be




specified for each type of environmental data so that a proper balance




of fixed distribution of summary data to higher levels vs special




requests for detailed data is achieved.  The organization of data




files must allow for appropriate cross-referencing to permit effective




utilization and correlation of information about a specific pollutant




(e.g. trace substance, pesticides) with respect to its presence in




all environmental media (air, water, and land).






                                 13

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          1.1.3.6  Retrieval and Presentation




                   File maintenance systems  provide not only for entry




and maintenance of data files but for processing, retrieval and display




of output information.  Here again, maximum use should be made of




standard software packages such as MARK IV, Generalized Information




System (CIS), DM-1 and COGENT III.




     'Format and the manner of output must be geared to the specific




application.  In many research applications, computer printout in a




legible format showing statistical summaries, by time, location or




parameter is adequate.  For these purposes, rapid update of the data




bank (posting) is not as critical as rapid retrieval of the information




and minimum turnaround from request to receipt of output reports.  In




cases of episode monitoring, both rapid posting and rapid retrieval




and display are required.   In this case, integrated displays should be




developed for an Environmental Situation Room (see Paper No. 4).




          1.1.3.7  Interpretation and Analysis of Environmental Data




                   One of the most critical needs within the Environ-




mental Protection Agency is the capability to examine environmental




degredation in an integrated comprehensive manner across all media.




This involves the ability to develop pollution chain analyses, tracing the




movement of hazardous substances, trace metals, and other chemical




materials through environmental media, including their physical and




chemical transformations brought about by interaction with plants and




animals.  Sophisticated material balance models, transport and diffusion •




models and other research tools are required to be developed and applied






                                 14

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to gain an understanding of these related phenomena.  The needs of these




multi-media programs will provide specifications for integrated source




monitoring and correlations with concentration of substances in various




media and their related effects on many biota and materials.




     1.2  An Integrated Approach




          1.2.1-  The Underlying Philosophy




                 The basic tenets of an integrated approach to




environmental monitoring are:




          a.  Data is to be collected and analyzed by the primary user




              of the data.  As an example, air and water quality data




             for a locality are primarily collected by the local




             government involved.  Validation systems such as the




             Water Qiidlity Surveillance System and the National Air




             Surveillance Network are primarily the responsibility of




             the Office of Air Programs.




          b.  Data is to be obtained by standardized methods and




             formated in a manner prescribed by EPA.  The SAROAD




             and STORET format are examples.




          c.  The data collected by immediate users will be processed




              and transmitted to EPA operated data banks.  The trans-




              mission of data will move from localities to states,




              states to EPA regions, regions to EPA headquarters, etc,




              using common facilitating and formats where feasible.




              This is now done in the STORET system through use of




              104 terminals.




                                 15

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          d.  EPA Headquarters will receive  transmitted data.




              store these data In identified data  files which




              will have compatible formats.  The data files may




              or may not be on shared facilities.




          e.  Information obtained from analysis and processing




              will be transmitted back to data sources as well




              as to other interested parties.




          1.2.2  Use of Existing Structures




                 Two major monitoring systems presently exist in




EPA.  They are the National Aerometric Data Information System (NADIS)




operated by the Office of Air Programs and the Water Quality Control




Information System (STORET), operated by the Office of Water Programs.




Each of these systems have desirable attributes which should be




preserved to form the basis of an integrated system.




              1.2.2.1  The NADIS Concept




                       NADIS already has over.250 communities and all




states and territories providing air quality data in standardized




formats (SAROAD) to EPA on a quarterly basis.  The flow and means of




verification of this data  has been established and the cooperation of




all the states and nearly all localities has been obtained.  .The National




Aerometric Data Bank (NADB) is operational and is returning processed




information back to all contributors on a quarterly basis.  The NADIS




concept which is illustrated in Figure 1,  is not yet totally implemented




In terms of the state processing centers and transmission facilities, but




general agreement with states on setting up this system has been reached.




                                 16

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"50
                        FEDERAL
                        REGIONAL
                        AGENCIES
        50
           SAQiS
                                    APCO OPERATIONS
                                                    1
COMPUTER
{MADB)
CENTER


*^

        „ LOCAL
        I AGENCY,
        i=:        *
                                                                                    FEDERAL
                                                                                    USERS
                                                                                   i=5
                                                                           STATIONARY
                                                                            SOURCE
                                                                            INVENTORY
                                                                            DATA
OTHER
EPA
DATA
                               FIGURE  1  - KADIS  OVERVIEW

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It is felt that this represents considerable headway in obtaining




EPA/state/local coordination and should be preserved.




          1.2.2.2  Water Quality Control Information System (Figure 2)




                   The file structure and formats for this system




have provided means of storage and retrieval of water quality control




information.   The development of a river mile index specification




represent major efforts that must be preserved.  The file structure




and software for retrieval and use of information is now used by 104




terminal locations (24 are located in State Pollution Control Agencies) .




          1.2.2.3  Other Systems




                   As indicated in Table 1 other operational programs




in radiation and pesticide monitoring exist, but are aimed at monitoring




specific pollutants under particular conditions.  They do not exhibit




the general approaches inherent in the NADIS and STORET systems.




     Research and scientific information programs and enforcement




surveillance programs exist, but indicate an absence of coordination.




          1.2.3  Coordination with Other Information Systems




                 The various existing monitoring systems require




coordination with other systems both within and outside of EPA.




                              Intra-EPA




     It may be argued that transfer of data between air and water quality




data bases may be minimal since they have different statutory bases, but




it is now necessary to assure utilization of data in both data bases




in a compatible manner.  Many aspects of pesticides and radiation




monitoring interact with both air and water data and this coordination






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bSE
                                                           WATER QUALITY CONTROL INFORMATION SYSTEM

                                                                          (STORET)
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/
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PARAMETERS
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                                                                                        RETRIEVAL
                                                                                        AKD
                                                                                        ANALYTICAL
                                                                                        PROGRAMS
OFFICE OF WATER PROCRA.'-S
   WATER Ql.Ai.ir/ STA;OA.'U!S
   OIL & KAZA-UXlLS  KATERIALE
   BASIN PLA.T.:I:;G
   KANPOWE 4 TRAINING
   CONSTRUCTION' GRANTS
   STATE i LOCAL PROGRAMS
   TECHNICAL SUPPORT


OTHER EPA PROCRA."^

STATES
   WATER POLLUTIO:;  COSTPCL

OTHER FEDERAL USERS

CITIES

UNIVERSITIES


MANUFACTURING ASSOCIATIONS


INDUSTRIAL FI?«S


PRIVATE CITIZENS
                                                                               FIGURE 2

                                                              WATER QUALITY CONTROL INFORMATION SYSTEM
                                                                               (STORET)

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is necessary.  Solid waste data can impact both air and water




problems as well as land usage.  Noise data may possibly be related




to air quality in the meteorological sense.




     Analysis and interpretations of data across all data bases must




be possible then, through standardization of format and, perhaps, file




structures.




     Surveillance for enforcement may require close coordination since




correction of one type of violation may cause another type, (e.g.




effluents used to clean stack gases must also be disposed of elsewhere).




                       International and Global




     International transfer of information is presently being coordinated




by the Office of Monitoring.  Support of the upcoming Stockholm Conference




on the Global Environment is in progress.




     1.3  The Structure of a Monitoring System




          An overall EPA monitoring system is viewed as a meta-systera




consisting of many subsystems operating to serve their basic functions,




but coordinated through proper planning and design to provide sufficient-




standardization of methods, formats, and quality control to assure the




compatibility and validity of collected information to meet all major




needs for this information throughout EPA, local, state, and federal




governments and to serve the needs of the public at large.




          1.3.1  System Components




                 The major categorized components of the system are




indicated along with the various responsibilities associated with the




components.






                                  20

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          1.3.1.1  Research and Scientific Information Operation




                   The coordination of the wide variety of programs




already existing and the planning for new programs is the responsibility




of the Office of Monitoring.  The operation of those programs will be




undertaken by Offices of  Research and Monitoring, Media Programs, or




Categorical Programs if the programs are laboratory oriented.  Where




possible, Regional offices shall be responsible for field collection




of data, especially when the resources of local governments, states,




and private industry are involved.




          1.3.1.2  Surveillance for Enforcement Operation




                   The Office of Monitoring is responsible for




standardization and coordination of surveillance activities for




enforcement.  The deployment and operation of these activities will be




the responsiblity of the Regional Offices in coordination with the




Office of the Assistance Administrator for Envorcement and the General




Counsel.




          1.3.1.3  Operational Networks




          a.       Early Warning Networks




                   The Office of Monitoring will plan and coordinate




this network, but operation will be the responsibility of the Regional




Offices using the states, localities,  and private sector where feasible.




The maintenance of centralized data files and the processing of these




files will rest with the Office of Monitoring.




          b.       Abatement and Control Networks




                   The Office of Monitoring will coordinate the




                                  21

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planning and operation of the various abatement and control networks




to assure common use of available facilities and compatibility.




The Categorical and Media Program Offices will have the responsibility




for integrating and analyzing data collected.  The regional offices  will




be responsible for collecting the data and transmitting them upward  in the




hierarchy.  Local, state, and private resources will be coordinated  by




the Regional offices.




          c.         Administrative Information System




                     Planning information, development of indices, and




reports on the state of the environment will be the responsibility of




the Office of Monitoring.  Regional offices will supply inputs and be




responsible for implementation of reporting systems at the Regional




level.




          1.3.2  Basic Structure




                 A proposed structure for operational networks envisions




the use of a NADlS-like concept for the acquisition, preprocessing,  and




transmission of basic monitoring data with the possibility of upgrading




the capability of the Regional offices.  The STORET concept also provides




a complementary capability in the water area.




     The NADIS-like system would allow all types of environmental data




to be processed and transmitted upward in the hierarchy of users.  The




use of shared facilities and communication media is desired, but not




required when circumstances warrant departures.




     Data files such as NADB and STORET are prototypes of the files




envisioned with additional capability to obtain compatibility of files




                                  22

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where  desirable.   Separate  files  are to  be  maintained  for different net-




works  although  the facilities  for maintaining  the  files may or may not be




shared as determined by needs  and expense.




     The storage  and retrieval capabilities of the STORET system will




also prove  to be  of value in setting the new structure of an integrated




system.  Use of remote terminals  for data entry is also a desirable feature.




     The Clean Air Act as ammended allows EPA  to aid states and localities




in establishing air quality monitoring systems and reporting and trans-




mission facilities.  This enabling legislation makes the implementation




of the NADIS concept highly feasible as  has already been demonstrated.




          1.3.3   Responsibilities




                  Since monitoring  has to be carried out where the




responsibility for control rests,  monitoring networks will, for the




most part, be operated by State and  local agencies for pollutants where




standards have been promulgated and, where  necessary, augmented by




networks operated  by the regional  offices.   In certain situations the




enforcement, media and categorical  programs may be required to conduct




monitoring activities.  In addition, it  is  the responsibility of the




regional offices  to collect and analyze  the data from the monitoring




netiworks within the regions and to  carry out field studies to show com-




pliance with standards.  It is envisioned that most of the monitoring




will be carried out under the direct guidance  of the regional admin-




istrators.   Specific responsibilities for EPA  organizational entities




are indicated in Appendix B.
                                   23

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     1.4  The Short Term Monitoring Program Development

          The development of a short term monitoring program requires  the

means to establish programs with the optimum use of resources for:

          1.4.1  Research and Scientific Information

                 1.  Coordination of Experiments

                 2.  Identification of Gaps

                 3.  Common Use of Facilities and Sites

                 4.  Compatible Data Storage and Analysis

                 5.  Standardized Dissemination of Results

                 6.  Correlation Among Experiments

                 7.  Supervision and Standardization of Quality Control

          1.4.2  Surveillance for Enforcement

                 1.  Operation of the Permit Program Under 18 99 Act

                 2.  Regional Quick Response Teams
                     a
                 3.  Headquarters Standardization of Equipment  and
                     Methods and Quality Control

                 4.  Regional Technical Assistance to States and
                     Localities

                 5.  National Quick Response Teams for Special  Problems
                     (e.g.,  Episodes,  Spills,  Environmental Impact
                     Assessment)

          1.4.3   Operational Programs

                 1.  Establishment  of  Data  Acquisition Programs and
                     Coordination with Immediate Users of Data

                     a.   Local

                     b.   State

                     c.   Region

                     d.   Categorical and  Air  and Water Programs

                     e.   Coordination with  Other Agencies

                                 24

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2.  Office of Monitoring Operation of Special
    Verification Networks  for Assurance of Quality Control

3.  Common Communication System

4.  Shared Facilities when Feasible

5.  Separate, but  Compatible Data Files (may or may not
    be on same equipment)

6.  Standardized Reporting and Analysis Procedure - Designed
    to assure that Federal, State, and local officials can
    meet their statuatory  requirements and operation
    effectively

7.  Systems

    a.  Air

        Air Quality and Emissions Data (NADB)

        Effects Information

        Coordination with  Meteorology Data (NOAA)

    b.  Water

        Water Quality Control Information System (STORE!)

    c.  Radiation

        Coordination of Present Programs

    d.  Pesticides

        Coordination of Present Programs

    e.  Noise

        Planning for Noise Network

    f.  Gaps

        Identification and Planned Inclusion

8.  Adminstration Programs

    a.  Indices
                    25

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       Air, Water, Pesticides, Radiation, Noise,
       Solid Waste Practices, etc.

   b.  Inclusion of Solid Waste Practices Network

   c.  Management Information and Reporting System

       Control Rooms - Manual

       Headquarters

       Regions

9.  Coordinated Planning for System Expansion

    The System must be responsive and flexible to meet
    the changing needs of all programs.
                    26

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1.5  Suggested Discussion Topics

     1.  Is the definition of monitoring, including the categorization
of monitoring programs, suitable?

     2.  The proposed structure is a skeletal strawman.  Is it in the
right direction, and is it feasible?

     3.  What are the specific monitoring needs for each type of program
and what are the associated priorities?

     4.  Are the assignments of responsibilities for the program proper
and workable?

    .5.  Is the basic philosophy of the environmental meta-system
tenable?

     6.  What are proper organizational relationships (private, local
region, central) consistent with legal jurisdiction and resource constraints
to promote effective coordination and standardization of data collection,
transfer, and use?  What are the most critical problems in this area, and
what existing and new programs are required to resolve them?

     7.  What are the most critical limitations in promoting effective
utilization of current data resources within the agency?  What are the
best alternatives to deal with these limitations?
                                 27

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                         APPENDIX A




       DETAILED MONITORING NEEDS BY MAJOR CATEGORIES






1.  Research and Scientific Information




     Information gained by scientific research is used for:




a.  Setting standards - determination of health, biological,




    economic, and other environmental effects for specific




    pollutants and ecological systems.




b.  Environmental Impact Assessment - investigating the




    alternatives available for solving existing or potential




    environmental problems on a specific problem basis.




c.  Source - Receptor Relationships - determining the emission




    or effluent source relationship of specific pollutants to




    resultant environmental concentrations.  Includes modelling




    of the processes involved.  The interaction of pollutants,




    their decay and dispersion and dilution are included.




d.  New Threats - Early identification and quantification of




    new or newly recognized pollutants.




e.  Coordination of Scientific Information - A compatible system




    is required to assure effective dissemination, exchange,




    and utilization of available research information.  The substance




    of the information, not the program description is intended




    here.  The description of programs can be better handled by




    technical information centers or a clearing house such as




    recommended by the SEQUIP study.

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2.  Surveillance for Enforcement





a.    Legal Evidence of Violations




      Monitoring of emission, effluents and pollutant concentration




      to provide evidence of violations and the extent of the




      violation.




b.    Detection of Violations




      Initial detection of potential violations for subsequent




      investigation as above.




c.    Expert Testimony




      Providing information from expert witnesses, using the




      monitoring system capabilities and scientific information, for




      legal testimony.




d.    Utilization of Voluntary Information




      Effective  use of information received on a voluntary




      basis froip industry  such as provided by  the permit  program




      of the 1899 Refuse Act.





3.   Operational Programs




     1) Control and Abatement




        a-  Background, Ambient  and  Episode Monitoring Programs




            Measurement of environmental parameters and pollutants




            to  determine background  mode,  ambient conditions in a




            dynamic environment, and emergency  reporting during




            episodic environmental conditions.

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    b.  Early Warning Program




        A program to determine incipient adverse environmental




        conditions prior to their becoming major problems.




        This is a network that overlays the background, ambient




        and episode network although there may be some




        interaction.




2)  Administration and Planning




    a.  Environmental Trends




        Determination of long term trends in the environment




        such as changes in the albedo,  and upper atmosphere.




        The long term impact of identified changes will have




        major impact in program decisions that will affect




        the environment.




   b.    Environmental Indices




        Aggregated measurements for measuring general




        changes to the environment, for providing




        measures of program goal attainment, and for




        dissemination to the public sector.




   c.    Decision Making Information




        Measures of conditions of the environment that




        provide inputs to selection of  program alternatives




        for control and abatement.

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                             APPENDIX B

               EPA Organizational Responsibilities
                    for Monitoring Activities

A.  Regional Administrators
     To fulfill this monitoring function, the Regional administrators
should:
     1.  Identify regional monitoring needs required to satisfy
         program objectives;
     2.  Determine the most effective way to satisfy these needs,
         i.e.,  via state support or direct operations;
     3.  Direct the regional monitoring in accordance with guidance
         by office of monitoring and using standardized methods
         and procedures, providing guidance and supervision to State
         and local monitoring efforts performed through EPA support,
         and performing direct operations, such as sampling and laboratory
         analyses, necessary to augment the State and local efforts;
     4.  Perform special monitoring as assigned by Headquarters;
     5.  Perform specific short-term field studies to support  enforcement
         actions;
     6.  Assist State and local officials in their monitoring  activities;
     7.   Collect, review and evaluate regional environmental data needed
         for regional management and/or prescribed by Headquarters  and
         transmit data to EPA data bank in accordance with prescribed
         procedure;

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     8.    Identify to AARM monitoring needs that cannot be satisfied at




           the regional level (methods development, demonstration systems,




           national network)




     9.    Assist Monitoring Techniques Division in field testing methods




           and instruments designed for routine monitoring.





B.   Functional Offices







                With respect to monitoring, the Enforcement, Media and




      Categorical offices should:




      1.        Conduct source sampling activities related to their




                special requirements;




      2.        Conduct field studies to support policy planning and




                decision making;




      3.        Identify to DAAM national monitoring needs to support




                program objectives;




      4.        Operate environmental data storage, translation,




                and information presentation systems as requested by




                their programs and to be compatible with other EPA




                information systems;




      5.        Coordinate and assist, through the regional administrators,




                States and local users in the use of EPA information




                systems;




      6.        Perform analyses as part of the information system




                where required.

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C.  Office of Monitoring



               The Deputy Assistant Administrator for Monitoring should:




     1.        Develop and operate special monitoring programs for




               long-term trends, new or newly recognized pollutants




               and pollutants under consideration for future control;




     2.        Plan and develop appropriate guidelines for all monitoring




               systems;




     3.        Develop and standardize methodology for the collection




               and analysis of environmental samples and data handling




               and presentation;




     4.        Ensure validity and uniformity of environmental quality




               data so that it can be fully utilized within EPA's




               information systems;




     5.        Direct the operation of the U.S. portion of global and




               international monitoring networks;




     6.        Provide for technical training and special assistance to




               regional, State, and local personnel;





     7.        Provide a public education and information Program;




     8.        Provide support when requested to the enforcement




               elements of EPA;




     9.        Document the overall environmental quality including




               trends;




    10.        Provide an overview assessment of the agency's




               monitoring activities.

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                           PAPER NO. 2





2.0 FUTURE MONITORING PROGRAM AND METHODS




     2.1  Problem Perspective



          The first of this series of papers has described present




monitoring programs as those for which implementation actions could




be taken immediately with a resulting operational system available




any time from the present through the next two or three years.  This




paper considers future programs and methods to be those for which




operational needs will be satisfied five years into the future, and




beyond.  Plans for these programs must be prepared now and supporting




studies must be initiated immediately and revised on a continuing




basis to account for the dynamic nature of the environment and to




insure that available operational systems will meet requirements in




five years.




     The continuing effectiveness of overall EPA activities rests




largely on the ability to anticipate and resolve future potential




environmental problems before they reach the crisis stage.  This




places emphasis on the need for effective planning to provide




guidelines and specifications for industry cooperation in technology




development.   It will promote orderly and economic implementation of




control measures to improve environmental quality.  It can minimize




adverse consequences to the environment and economy (as well as to




the Agency's image)  from such incidents as the recommended shift




from phosphates to NTA to phosphates in laundry detergents.

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     Some broad objectives which EPA's future monitoring program




should attain are discussed below.




             Detection and Effects of New Pollutants




     This objective relates to identification of new pollutants




which are being emitted into all environmental media and the deter-




mination of acceptable levels based upon economic and health and




welfare effects.  This requires a concept of search sampling and




monitoring of media samples and correlation with epidemiological and




other effects.  New and improved analytical and pathological techniques




including variation in thresholds of human tolerances should be




employed for detection along with increased and systematic monitoring




of geological effects.  The same concept applies to changing acceptable




levels of known pollutants for which standards have been defined.




                 Integration of Monitoring Across




                       Environmental Media




     Data are required for development and application of ecological




models which test transport and effects of pollutants across




environmental media.  This is a difficult technical problem which




must be attacked by the Agency and poses a challenge to the proper




organization and implementation of an effective research and monitoring




effort.  Data monitoring requirements must be preceded by research




specifications of cross media models  (e.g. EQUIPS, Materials Balance,




Transport and Diffusion).

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               Support of Future Operational Needs





     Future monitoring requirements must be responsive to legislative




and anticipated technological developments.  For example, legislation




requiring permits for proper application of pesticides suggests




monitoring to determine the effectiveness of the control and application




procedures.  Similar requirements currently exist for discharging




effluents in streams; it is conceivable that in five or ten years




permits may be required for weather modification and advanced planning




should consider the potential impact on new monitoring needs.  The




development of environmental impact statements may dictate special




monitoring to assist in conducting proper technology assessments.




The Agency should continually review all statements with the intent of




identifying common data gaps and synthesizing new monitoring requirements.





     Three projects dealing with establishing requirements, performing




feasibility analyses of advanced techniques and performing advanced




development to further prove the merits of new monitoring techniques




and systems are discussed in the following paragraphs.




     2.1.1 Definition and Analysis of Advanced Monitoring Requirements




          Three primary objectives of this project are:





             1) determination of long term environmental monitoring




             needs and objectives,




             2) provision of the basis for defining and investigating




             new and advanced monitoring techniques,

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             3) definition of research requirements for proving




             new environmental monitoring techniques through




             conducting and supporting analytical studies and




             advanced development.





     The approach to realizing these objectives must begin with a




thorough review and appraisal of present monitoring activities and




developments.  This appraisal should categorize the types of monitoring




needs being served according to:




          1) research and scientific - standards development,




          environmental impact assessment, physical biological and




          chemical interactions




          2) enforcement surveillance - legal action, testimony,




          violations




          3) operational and administrative support - description




          of status and trends, policy guidance, program evaluation





     Gaps in these programs, along with a separation into present




and future needs should be made to provide a starting point for




projecting future requirements.  Other factors and information




sources requiring analysis to support these projections include:




          1) implications of current and pending legislation




          2) impact of population and industrial growth patterns




          3) new developments in industrial processes




          4) new developments in conventional and remote sensing




          technology

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          5)  reports of special governmental monitoring committees




          6)  economic and social projections




     Characteristic problem areas should be identified with each of




the projected needs.  These would relate to considerations such as:




a) identification of new pollutants;  b) changes in acceptable levels




of pollutant amounts and concentrations;  c) siting of sensors;




d)  measurement sensitivity and lower limits of threshold detectability




required for scientific, enforcement, or operational purposes;  e)




need for standardized techniques of measurement and analysis; and




f) need for specialized sensing (e.g. biological organisms).




     In all media and categorical areas there will be a need for




increased emphasis on source and effluent monitoring.  An important




consideration of this project is development of a means to insure




that proper communication of information to meet new monitoring




requirements occur between state/local and Regional groups on one hand




and between Regional and EPA central headquarters on the other.




Inputs to this program should also come from discoveries through




the early warning network (see the fourth paper in this series).




     Some perspective for future monitoring needs based upon specific




details of the current situation is presented in Appendix A at the




ead of the paper.



     2.1.2 Feasibility and Evaluation of Advanced Monitoring Techniques




           Based upon requirements and objectives of future monitoring




needs, proper systems management and planning requires that




feasibility of alternative monitoring" systems to satisfy the needs




be thoroughJy examined.

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      The  first phase of this project is-to develop a comprehensive




 survey of new concepts and techniques for environmental  monitoring by




 EPA,  other federal  agencies, academic institutions,  and  industry.




 This  survey will  be updated on  a continual basis  and will  provide




 an inventory  of new techniques  and concepts.   State  of the art  studies




 must  be conducted and awareness of developments must be  maintained




 (see  the  fourth paper in  this series).




      The  second phase will  match the potential of  these  concepts




 with  the  advanced monitoring requirements which will be  developed




 in parallel.   A set  of priorities  and  potential payoffs  for




 innovative  concepts  and techniques  will be documented and  reviewed




 by the  operational programs  of  EPA  on  a periodic basis.  This document




 will  be the basic development strategy for advanced  monitoring




 concepts.




      Specific  concepts  and  techniques  for innovative approaches to




 monitoring will be evaluated  against  the  strategy  and seed funds




 will  be provided  to  carry through  these selected projects  to




 determine feasibility of the  concept.  Parallel approaches to meet




 specific requirements will be pursued  through the  conceptual phase




when  this is warranted.  Criteria for establishing feasibility will




 include the economic impact and  costs and  technological considerations




 such  as compatibility with existing equipment and adaptability to a




wide  range of utilization.  Approaches for establishing feasibility




will  include paper studies, laboratory models and  testing,  and pilot




experiments.  Projects  for which feasibility of the conceptual phase

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is demonstrated will be forwarded to other research and monitoring




programs for further development.  Wide dissemination of the results




of these studies will be made as required.




     2.1.3 Advanced Development




          In order to meet a given future monitoring requirement, it




may be necessary to proceed initially along several avenues of approach.




At some point the choices will have to be narrowed down to that




concept (or two) which seems most feasible in terms of economics,




coverage,  flexibility, adaptability, etc.  The development phase then




deals with the initial testing and data validation of the prototype




equipment for the advanced technique(s) finally selected.




     Whereas many groups within and without EPA may be involved with




a particular advanced approach during the early stages (feasibility




and evaluation) of its progress, only those groups specifically




affected will continue to be  involved when the development phase




begins.  Depending upon available expertise and facilities, the




decision will have to be  made whether development will be carried




out by EPA personnel or by outside contractors.




     The development stage serves, in a sense, as the proving ground




for radically new concepts or some unique combination of existing




ideas and the transition should be made clear where advanced develop-




ment ends and engineering development begins.  The results of pre-




liminary field testing and development should provide detailed, hard




specifications as input for the implementation of engineering




development and full production by other appropriate branches of EPA.

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2.2 Suggested Ddscussion Topics




     a)  Develop a list of potential monitoring requirements which




        may be considered long-term based upon lack of current




        ability to satisfy them (e.g. low detection threshold




        requirements for specific pollutants related to health




        effects and other needs, such as enforcement).




     b)  What methods currently under development can satisfy these




        requirements?




     c)  What priorities can be assigned to the known long term




        requirements identified in a)?  What is the rationale?




        Do we need to investigate a rationale for priority




        assignment?




     d)  What approach can be taken to develop a manageable network




        of standard sites (parameters measured, frequency, method,




        etc.) for consistent monitoring and reporting of status




        and trends.  Consider proper gepgraphical distribution,




        and all media and categories.




        (Note:   Specific problems of selection of sites,  criteria




        for location etc.  should be considered in paper #3,




        Standardization of Methods and Equipment.   The .proposed




        discussion item here should concentrate on requirements




        for standardizations based upon end use e.g.  enforcement




        and surveillance,  scientific, administration and




        operation).






                            8

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e) Three projects (requirements, feasibility of advanced




   techniques and advanced development) have been described.




   Are these adequate for implementation of a continuing




   long term monitoring program?  Do you feel they are




   adequate as described?




f) What is the best way to insure that future monitoring




   requirements which are sent  from the field to a central




   focal point at headquarters  are properly disseminated




   to the appropriate EPA research and monitoring organi-




   zation on a continuing and timely basis?




g) VThat program and organizational approaches can be taken




   to insure that the Office of Monitoring develop an




   integrated system for source, concentration and effects




   monitoring across all environmental media?




h) VThat inputs are required to  determine the appropriate




   changes in the number of monitoring sites to meet




   future needs?

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                          APPENDIX A

        PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATION OF MEDIA AND CATEGORICAL
                        MONITORING NEEDS

     This appendix discusses some examples of the current situation

and potential monitoring needs for media and categorical program areas.


     A.I  Air and Water

          There are over 3,000 state and local air pollution measuring

sites in the United States in addition to the various Federal air

pollution networks shown in Table I.  Of six air pollutants for which

ambient standards have been issued by EPA, only two - S0? (sometimes

sulfation) and particulates - are monitored on an extended geographical

basis.

     The Continuous Air Monitoring Program (CAMP) operates at six

stations.  These sites monitor particulates, total oxidants, total

hydrocarbons, CO, S02, N02  and NO.   If the focus of this paper changes

from research to actual air quality determinations, then wider

geographic coverage is necessary.

     Air pollution of the upper atmosphere is an area of great concern,

especially with regard to the recent SST issue.  The collection of

accurate data and the formulation of reliable models are obviously

necessary steps in resolving this problem.  Except for essentially

ground level readings, very few data exist for regions above the order

of tens of meters.  (The AEG collects radioactivity data in the upper

atmosphere).  This lack points out the need for pollution vs. height

profiles.  The Smithsonian Institution has suggested the use of


                               10

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                             TABLE I

         PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS AND POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS

                OF FEDERAL AIR SAMPLING NETWORKS

     In addition to state and local stations EPA obtains air

pollution data from its own National Air Surveillance Networks (NASN)

Tills system comprises several different kinds of networks,  and their

present features are summarized below:

          o   Hi-Vol Network:  suspended particulates,  247  sites,
                   26 samples/site/year;

          e   Membrane Filter Network:  suspended particulates
                   (no glass filter interference), 50 sites

          o   Particle Size Network:  particle size distribution,
                   11 sites;

          o   Gas Sampling Network:  several gaseous pollutants,
                   197 sites, 26 samples/site/year;

          o   Precipitation Network:  dissolved air pollutants
                   in rainwater, 16 sites;

          o   Mercury Network:  airborne mercury, 53 sites,

          o   Condensation Nuclei Network:   one site;

          o   Radiation Alert Network (RAN):  airborne  radioactive
                   particles and radioactive contamination  of
                   rainwater, 73 sites,  continuous daily sampling;
                   this network may be phased out due to decreased
                   atmospheric nuclear testing.

          «   Pesticide Network:  airborne  pesticides,  12 sites
                   collecting but method for analysis has not
                   yet been developed; Future,  40-60 sites.
                                 11

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astronomical observatory data  (telluric -lines  and extinction




wavelengths) as a possible means  for obtaining long-term  (30-50




years) atmospheric pollution amounts.




     In order to determine relative contributions (e.g.,  power




plants and/or autos) toward air pollution, more emissions data need




to be collected from representative sources.   This will enable the




appropriate agencies to ascertain the effectiveness of various




con'trol programs.  Motor vehicle certification and recurring maintenance




may provide a challenge for development of more effective and lower




cost monitoring methods.




     Sometimes monitoring is performed too close to sources of




pollution which results in deceptively high, nonrepresentative




readings for computing an index for a locality.  More careful thought




needs to be applied in the selection of sites  for this purpose.  The




comments of this and the previous paragraph apply equally well to




water pollution monitoring.




     With regard to the surface waters of the  nation, there are




approximately 24,000 water quantity (hydrological data) stations and




10,000 water quality (chemical composition) stations which are




operated by local, state, or Federal (principally the Water Quality




Office, EPA, and the Geological Survey) agencies.  Quantity and quality




data are sometimes taken at the same site.  The Water Quality Office




intends to increase the stream miles covered by water quality monitors




from approximately 44,000 stream miles, 5,000  miles of Great Lakes





                                 12

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shoreline, and 4,000 miles of coastline .and estuaries to 100,000




stream miles, 60,000 miles of Great Lakes shoreline, and 12,000 miles




of coastline and estuaries by 1976.  These latter figures i~epresent




essentially total United States coverage.  There is, however, a large




disparity in the levels of effort at the various sites in terms of




the sampling frequency and the number of parameters measured.




     Water pollutants may be classified into physical (undissolved




solids, temperature, odor, sediment, oil, etc.) and chemical categories




(heavy metals, acids, bases, nutrients, pesticides, etc.).  Not only




are some of these substances toxic to human, fish, and plant life,




but various industries cannot tolerate them in their process water.




A more extensive mobile lab network is needed to provide annual or




biennial detailed chemical analysis of all major rivers and bodies




of water.  Aerial surveys and eventually satellite monitoring should




be utilized to augment the ground stations, particularly with regard




to the physical pollutants.




     For water as well as for air monitoring, serious consideration




should be given to careful selection of a subset of these sites to




serve as standard reference monitoring stations for adequate




geographical, urban, remote and pollutant coverage on a systematic




basis.




     Epidemics of gastrointestinal disease from public drinking




supplies are rare now, but the potential for such outbreaks is great,




and utilities cannot afford to become complacent and careless in




disinfection practices.  Untreated ground water, along with





                                 13

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distribution system difficulties, has been the most frequent cause of




recent outbreaks.  The waterborne epidemic of Salmonella typhiirmrium




involving 18,000 persons at Riverside, California, in May and June




of 1965 is such an example.




     The detection and identification of viruses is a much more




complicated procedure than that for bacteria, even if clams, oysters,




or other filter feeders are used to concentrate the virus particles.




There is no standard simple laboratory procedure for routine examin-




ation of water supplies for important pathogenic viruses.  Routine




virological examination of water would require an enormous drain on




resources as compared to bacteriological examination.




     It is therefore recommended, pending development of standard




routine methods for the detection and identification of pathogenic




viruses in water, that drinking water supplies be examined for




viral content during viral disease outbreaks.  Careful collecting of




detailed epidemiological information is required for proper analyses.




This is not by any means a routine monitoring task.




     A. 2 Pesticides and Hazardous Substances




          The dangerous effects of pesticides are a problem in all




three media.  The current minimal monitoring of pesticides in air is




conducted by EPA and by the FDA in eight northeastern states.  This




capability should be extended with the density of monitoring sites




being based upon proximity to areas of application (large agricultural




areas) and population density.  The Working Group on Pesticides




proposed in May 1970 that a program be initiated for monitoring airborne




pesticides at a minimum of 40 different locations in the country.




                                 14

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     Pesticide monitoring in water and on' land is performed much more




widely and more frequently than in air.  A number of governmental




agencies are involved in the National Pesticides Monitoring Program.




In general, the present networks seem adequate in terms of the number




of sites.  However, in view of the tremendous numbers of pesticides




on the market and the complex analysis procedures, a better knowledge




of regional sales statistics would enable technicians to know what




pesticides are most likely to occur, thus eliminating costly, un-




necessary testing.




     Monitoring of heavy toxic metals chlorinated hydrocarbons, organo-




phosphates, herbicides, halides, and dithiocarbonates which may




contaminate food supplies is essential; it is also necessary to




determine amounts acquired by other means, such as breathing and skin




contamination.  Low cost, rapid and accurate monitoring techniques are




required in these areas.




     A.3  Radiation




          Figure 1 shows that radioactivity in the atmosphere has




declined significantly since the cessation of significant atmospheric




nuclear bomb testing in the earth 1960's.  One should examine whether




the monitoring programs designed for measuring radioactive fallout




should be re-oriented in some way, consistent with national security.




     Recent court decisions relating to the necessity of AEC to file




complete environmental impact statements regarding power plant con-




struction suggests greater requirements for monitoring radioactivity




and water temperatures in the vicinity of power plants.   Since





                                  15

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                                                                                                  140
   CURVE        UNITS
AIR:  GROSS BETA  pCi/m3
WATER: TRITIUM   nCi/liter
MILK: Sr-90        pCi/liter
MILK: Cs-137       pCi/liter
                                                                                       SCALE
                                                                                                  120
                                                                                                  100
                                                                                                   80
                                                                                                   60
                                                                                                   40
                                                                                                   20
61
          62
                   63
                                       05
                                                65
                                               YEAR
                                                          67
       es
                           70
                                           FIGURE  1
                              SELECTED RADIOACTIVITY  TRENDS
                                     71

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indications are that the genetically significant dose (GSD) of




radiation from diagnostic x-rays and other non-therapeutic medical




sources has increased from 55 millirems currently, to approximately




65-90 millirems currently, a better means should be found for




monitoring and computing radiation dosage received by the population.




Also, the need for monitoring non-ionizing radiation should be




investigated.




     A.4  Solid Waste




          Information on solid wastes is most concerned with volume,




amounts, composition and source.  For planning purposes, the Office




of Solid Waste would like to know the composition of domestic and




industrial refuse in specific locations for large urban areas as vail




as for rural locations.  Often, monitoring consists of physical




sorting of garbage which is costly and time consuming and subsequent




recording of volume, composition, weight, etc.  Scales are sometimes




used in measuring loads at incinerator and landfills.  In cases of




industrial refuse, the data are likely to be obtained from sampling




surveys utilizing interviews or written questionnaires.  Future




monitoring programs in this area should concentrate on developing




effective standard techniques for cases where survey and questionnaire




are  the main monitoring methods available.  Are there other




methods, more mechanized, more reliable or less costly, of acquiring




these  data?  Certainly these alternatives should  be considered in




planning new monitoring programs.




     Recycling  data are important  for  economic  and  environmental





                                   17

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policy development and legislative studies.   A future monitoring




program should be concerned with  more  effective acquisition of




materials input and output data from recycling centers and national




trade associations (e.g. National Association of Secondary Materials




Industries, Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel,  National Solid Waste




Management Association).




     While it may be technically  possible to  apply IR photography




for determination of landfill composition,requirements are needed




for use of this kind of data by the Solid Waste Office in order to




develop effective plans along these lines.




     A,5 Noise




          Recently the problem of noise pollution has received a great




deal of attention, but an organized, carefully  conceived monitoring




program does not exist.  The Bureau of Community Environmental Manage-




ment has undertaken a few urban surveys, but  these are mostly subjective




and it would be difficult to make comparisons among cities on a year-




to-year basis.  The FAA is conducting monitoring in the vicinity of




airports to support noise abatement programs.  Also the Department




of Transportation has several studies underway  to determine the amount




and effects of higlway noise.   Since general noise monitoring is




relatively new, a modest survey program in a  few geographical locations




(e.g., selected SMSA's) with an extensive deployment of sensing sit.es




should be sufficient  until the problem is better understood.




     The EPA has recently contracted for studies to describe noise




sources  (construction equipment,  home appliances,  etc.)  according




                                 18

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to characteristics such as intensity, frequency, pitch and other




suitable factors.  Also, the National Bureau of Standards is providing




assistance to EPA to help prepare a report to Congress on the noise




control program.  The needs of this program should be sharply focused




on determination of monitoring research needs.  Low cost reliable devices




are required for monitoring, recording and analyzing noise signals




from various sources (urban streets, construction sites, office




buildings, home environment).




     A.6 Bipgeochemical Cycles




          There is much talk about ecocycles and many pictures are




drawn in ecology textbooks.  The processes are described as energy




transformations among physical, chemical and biological processes.




Relatively little is known about their measurements.  Biogeochemical




cycles, (such as nitrogen, water, oxygen, carbon, phosphorus) are




recognized to be fundamental to the support of life on earth.  These




cycles are complex and are not yet fully understood.  The amount of




material transported and the vastness of the geographic scope (i.e.,




the surface of the earth) render any monitoring attempts currently




impractical.  However, research into their functioning needs to be




continued, and monitoring of some limited portion of the cycles may




become possible in the future.
                                 19

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                              PAPER NO.  3








3.0  STANDARDIZATION OF METHODS AND EQUIPMENT




     3.1  Problem Perspective




          In general, the widespread use of an analytical method




usually indicates that the method is a reliable means of analysis




and this feeling of consensus tends to support the validity of the




test results reported.  This feeling of consensus is not always valid




however, for the method may not have received sufficient screening




to uncover possible imperfections.  A second but different pitfall




of "standard methods" in that when a method has been so designated




it tends to inhibit inquiries into the validity of the method.  There




is always room for improvement.  Conversely, the use of a little-




known technique forces the data user to place undue faith in the




judgment of the analyst.   Mien the analyst uses a "private" method




or one not commonly accepted in the field, he stands alone in




defining both his choice of the method and the result obtained.




     The need for standardization of methods .within a single lab-




oratory is readily apparent.  Uniform methods between cooperating




laboratories are also important in order to remove the methodology as




a variable in comparison or joint use of data between laboratories.




Uniformity of methods is particularly important when laboratories




are providing data to a common data bank, such as STORET, SAROAD,




SWIRS,  etc., or when several laboratories are cooperating in joint




field surveys.   The lack of standardization of methods within a




single agency raises doubts outside the agency as to the validity of

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 the  result  reported.   If  the  same  constituent  is measured by different




 analytical  procedures  within  a  single  laboratory or within several




 laboratories in  the same  agency, the  question is raised as to which




 procedure is superior, and why  the superior method is not used




 throughout.




     The physical and  chemical  methods used by the Environmental




 Protection Agency (EPA) should  be  selected using the following




 criteria:




     1.  The method should measure the desired constituent with




         precision and accuracy sufficient to meet the data needs




         of EPA in the presence of the interferences normally




         encountered in the media.




     2.  The procedure should utilize the equipment and skills




         normally available in  the average pollution control




         laboratory.




     3.  The selected methods to be used are in many laboratories




         or have been sufficiently tested to establish their




         validi ty.




     4.  The method should be sufficiently rapid to permit routine




         use for the examination of a large number of samples.




     The use of EPA methods in Agency laboratories provides  a common




base for combined data between program elements.   Uniformity




throughout EPA lends considerable support to the validity of the




results reported by the Agency.

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     Regardless of the analytical method used in the laboratory the




specific methodology should be carefully documented.  In some




pollution reports it is customary to state that Standard Methods




have been used throughout.  Close examination in many cases indicates,




however, that this is not strictly true.  In many laboratories the




standard method has been modified because of recent research or




personal preferences of the laboratory staff.  In other cases the




standard method has been replaced with a better one.  Statements con-




cerning the methods used in arriving at laboratory data should be




clearly and honestly stated.  The methods used should be adequately




referenced and the procedures applied exactly as directed.  When the




phrase "EPA Methods were used" is to be reported, the exact pro-




cedures as detailed in the methods manual should be followed.




     Knowing the specific method which has been used, the reviewer




can apply the associated precision and accuracy of the method when




interpreting the laboratory results.   If the analytical methodology




is in doubt, the data user may honestly inquire as to the reliability




of the result he is to interpret.




     As mentioned earlier, the advantages of strict adherence to




accepted methods should not stifle investigations leading to




improvements in analytical procedures.   In spite of the value of




accepted and documented methods, occasions do arise when a procedure




must be modified to eliminate unusual interference or to yield




increased sensitivity.   When modification is necessary, the revision




should be carefully worked out to accompUsh the desired result.



                                  3

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 It is advisable  to assemble  data  using both  the regular and the modified




 procedure to show the superiority of  the  latter.  This useful information




 can be brought to the attention of the individuals and groups responsible




 for methods' standardization.  For maximum benefit the modified procedure




 should be rewritten in the standard format so that the substituted procedure




 may be used throughout the laboratory for routine examination of samples.




 Responsibility for the use of a non-standard procedure rests with the




 analyst and his supervisor since  such use represents a departure from




 accepted practice.




    In field operations the problem of transport of samples to the




 laboratory or the need to examine a large number of samples to arrive




 at gross values will sometimes require the use of rapid field methods




 yielding approximate answers.  Such methods should be used with caution




 and with a clear understanding that the results obtained do not compare




 in reliability with those obtained using standard laboratory methods.




When deviations from standard methods have been used, they should be




noted and the results flagged when included in STORET, SAROAD, etc.,




along with the more reliable laboratory-derived analytical information.




The data user is entitled to know that approximate values have been




obtained (for screening purposes only) and that the results do not




represent the customary precision and accuracy obtained in the laboratory.

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           3.1.1  General Procedure for Developing Standard Methods




                  We recognize the importance of using the best




 available scientific methods throughout.  The use of legally valid,




 uniform,  precise, and accurate methods will yield important benefits




 in reliability, improved comparability of data from different sources,




 and in the consistency of relationships of the EPA with other Govern-




 mental Agencies and the private sector.




      The  Division of Monitoring Techniques is responsible for




 coordination and/or direction of all standardization activities




 within EPA to establish reference and standard methods.  This




 actJvity  will insure the development of measurement techniques




 which will accurately access the control of pollutants which have




 been determined to exhibit adverse effects on human health and




 welfare.




      The  pollution of our environment cannot be adequately measured




•or controlled without the use of methods which have been collab-




 oratively tested by qualified analysts to statistically determine




 their reliability and bias.   Such a method is defined as a




 Standard  Method.




      To insure comparability of all data while allowing some freedom




 of choice,  it is also necessary to establish some methods as Standard




 Reference Mechods.   Standard Reference Methods (SRM)  insure a basis




 upon which less precise but  more agile techniques may be tested.

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EPA will develop such SRM with the advise and assistance from other




agencies as required.




     Standard Methods should meet the following criteria:




     a.  Demonstrated utility in the laboratory and in the field.




     b.  Demonstrated freedom from known interferences.




     c.  Easily measured chemical and/or physical parameters.




     d.  Relatively inexpensive and available to all people who are




         required to use the method.




     e.  Demonstrated reliability through collaborative testing by a




         representative (but qualified) sampling of the user population.




     f.  Demonstrated reliable sensitivity for required pollutant




         concentration ranges.




     g.  Acceptable  (based on the above criteria) to the Administration




         and to the general user.




     When neither standard methods or standard reference methods are




available, measurement techniques which represent the best judgment of




an expert user-group should be established - Tentative Method or




Approved Method (EPA).




     The validity of all pollution measurements depend on strict




adherence to all aspects of standard or approved procedures^  the




proper use of primary/secondary, gaseous, liquid and solid standards




to calibrate the analytical methods and equipment, and the proper




handling of the data obtained.  EPA's standardization activities should




provide:   (a) primary and/or secondary gaseous, liquid and solid




standards;  (b) provide procedures for use in calibrating methods and

-------
equipment and establish equivalency between  the  Standard Reference




Method and other methods of choice;   (c) provide minimum performance




specification required for instruments  to measure a specific pollutant




or class of pollutants in ambient and sources;  (d) provide guidelines




for certification of analysts;  (e) provide assistance to groups




responsible for data handling guidelines, and  (f) establish control




charts to determine the validity of data generated using standard or




approved methods.




          3.1.2  Detailed Procedure for Development of Standards




                 Candidate methods for standardization are usually




obtained from operating divisions within the Environmental Protection




Agency and/or from the private sector.  These candidates methods are




received by the Division of Monitoring Techniques (MTD), for their




evaluation, collaborative test direction and promulgation.




     Methods recommended for standardization are subjected to the




following procedures:




     a.   Preparation Methods are first cast into a concise format




         using the decimal system and then extensively reviewed and




         revised by small groups of scientists who are expert in




         the area of interest.   MTD will be assisted in this effort




         by the Standardization Advisory Committee (SAC) (The SAC




         formerly represented all division within EPA),  and by the




         Intersociety Committee (Air Pollution Control Association,




         American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists,




         American Industrial Hygiene Association, American  Public Health

-------
    Association, American Society for Testing and Materials,




    American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Association of




    Official Analytical Chemists, and the American Chemical




    Society) as required.




b.  Preparation of Standard Reference Materials.  Before any




    analytical procedure can be properly evaluated, materials




    (pollutant species) must be developed.  The feasibility




    of using these materials for calibration and testing must




    be determined.  (This work is being done with EPA support




    by the National Bureau of Standards).




c.  Evaluation.  It can be assumed that the originator of a




    method can obtain usable results with "his" method even if




    on the spot changes are required.  Therefore, one of the most




    important steps in the Standardization process is an




    impartial evaluation in the laboratory and in the field by




    qualified and experienced scientists.




d.  Collaborative Testing. Participants in a collaborative test




    series should be representative of the ultimate users of the




    method.  Since pollution measurements are a matter of con-




    cern to many people, the users of the method will Include




    laboratories of the Federal government, state and local




    pollution control agencies, private industrial plants of




    many different types, universities, and basic research




    organizations as required.  To date, approximately 150







                              8

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 laboratories have indicated a willingness to participate in




 the collaborative testing of air pollution methods.   A majority




 of these are state and local air pollution control agencies,




 although the other types of laboratories  listed above are also




 represented.   The various laboratories  also vary in  size from




 one- or  two-man laboratories up to  large  organizations with a




 laboratory  staff of several dozen people.   A co]laborative




 study is usually done  by distributing samples to a group of




 laboratories  for analysis,  followed by  statistical analysis




 of the data to  provide the  desired  evaluation of the  method.




 This  procedure  has  been used by many organizations in the




 standardization of  various  methods  of measurement.  The




 American Association of Analytical  Chemists  (AOAC) and the




 American Society  for Testing and Ilaterials  (ASTM) have been




 especially  active in this field and  have published guides  to




 establishing  the  proper procedure for conducting collaborative




 or round-robin  tests of a proposed method.   A test program of




 this nature has not been conducted in the past  to evaluate




methods  for measuring  air contaminants, largely  because  of




difficulty  in providing  standard  samples to  a  group of




laboratories for analysis.




In collaboratively testing  for  air pollution measurements,  it




is desirable to develop  a system  for generating a test




atmosphere of known concentration.  Where this cannot be done,

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     a group of collaborators come together at a single location




     and sample a real atmosphere or source.  The primary




     disadvantage here is one of statistical validity.  Ideally, a




     collaborative test should indicate what each participant is




     capable of doing in his own laboratory, and not at some central




     location.  This method inevitably suffers from the fact that the




     results more nearly indicate an intralaboratory evaluation than




     an interlaboratory evaluation.




e.   Adoption.  Based on the statistical evaluation of the data




     from the collaborative tests, the Environmental Protection




     Agency will determine if these methods should be adopted as




     standard methods.  The Intersociety and other groups are free




     to use these data to decide which methods they choose to




     endorse.




f.   Promulgation.  Methods adopted as Standards by EPA will be




     promulgated to all state and local agencies to be used in




     implementing National Air Quality and Emission Standards, in




     the case of air, and like standard methods in the other media




     and categories.




g.   Quality Control.  Continuing subsequently to the adoption of




     each standard method, a quality control procedure will be




     established to insure the attainment of accurate data.  State




     and local laboratories, on a voluntary basis will be served.




     This is closely related to standardization of methods in that
                            10

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         it is the inverse of collaborative testing.  While collab-




         orative testing evaluates the reliability of methods, quality




         control evaluates the reliability of data from laboratories




         using the methods.




         3.1.3  Need for Standard Data Handling Practices




                Associated with these monitoring activities is a




massive accumulation of data which must be formatted and reduced for




quick assimilation.  Fortunately, there are a number of institutions




throughout the United States which have experience in data reduction




and analysis.  It would be advantageous for each region to avail




themselves of this already existing capability.  However, before




these channels of data processing are utilized, it is most important




that unified standards for formatting and data reduction be established.




The alternative to standardization in the realm of data management




would be utter chaos.  However, standardization of data management




practices will be a complex project since no standard guidelines exist




now.  To delay implementing this objective would only complicate an




already difficult task.  For this reason and also because data manage-




ment is so basic to remote and in-situ sensing operations, the




standardization of data management practices should receive the very




highest priority.




      Close coordination  between  the  standards  for data coding,  storing,




 retrieving,  analyzing and  summarizing and  the  monitoring techniques




 standard for sensing equipment and method  must be developed  and




 maintained.






                                 11

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         3.1.4  Specific Factors Relating to Standard Methods and Equipment




                The procedures described in the preceding paragraphs for




implementing measurement standards must consider the following factors:





     1.  Siting of sensors - develop criteria for each specific




         application




     2.  Measurement precision and accuracy




     3.  Calibration and maintenance




     4.  Averaging times and averaging methods




     5.  Measurement errors - bias and random




     6.  Data entry and reporting - editing and validation




     7.  Impact on data processing




     The definition and initiation of procedures, techniques and




equipment characteristics is a function of standard setting.  The




maintanance procedures relating to these factors is a function of




quality control.








     3.2  Suggested Discussion Topics




          3.2.1  Following the performance of the requirements analyses




suggested in  Section 7.0 for monitoring techniques  for all media and




categorical programs, a standardization program for such  techniques




could  be developed.  A standardization plan can be  started in air




pollution based on the output of  the contracted effort, "EPA Plan




for Air Pollution Measurement Techniques Development, Fiscal Year




1972-1977."
                                12

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          3.2.2  Derive a master standardization plan for use of




standard methods.  Pro's and Con's were addressed in the opening




remarks of this paper.




          3.2.3  Accelerate an international reference method exchange




agreement.




          3.2.4  Restructure the Standardization Advisory Committee,




the Intersociety Committee to aid in the across the board look at




standard methods.




          3.2.5  Bring in societies dedicated to remote monitoring




such as:




                  ° Instrument Society of America




                  0 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation




                  ° American Institute of Aeronautics and




                       Astronautics




                  o Institutes of Electrical and Electronic




                       Engineers




to start the standard method review.




          3.2.6  What defines a "correct" sampling site?  Develop a




framework for developing such a site standard.




          3.2.7  Should the standardization assignment for monitoring




and methods be combined with data management organizationally?
                                   13

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                             PAPER NO. 4




4.0  EARLY WARNING MONITORING NETWORK




4.1  Problem Perspective




     An early warning system should serve two fundamental needs.




The first is concerned with providing rapid and timely data for




phenomena which occur and cause immediate hazardous effects to man,




vegetation, animal species, and natural resources.  Examples of




these phenomena are episodes, oil spills and industrial or transportation




accidents (e.g. train wreck involving lethal gases).  The second need




relates to early detection, warning and awareness of events or dis-




coveries which could have potentially disastrous long-term effects on




the environment.  These phenomena are concerned with known facts such




as the build-up of C0« in the atmosphere, decline of solar radiation




as measured on earth and the discovery of high concentration of organic




mercury, lead, cadmium and other substances through awareness of rheir




effects on plants and animals at various locations; also, this second




need should somehow address the problem of receiving early awareness




of environmental hazards which may not yet be known at some specific




point in time.  A means for responding to these distinct needs is




discussed briefly in the following two subsections.




     4.1.1  Early Warning For Short-Term Episodes




            An early warning network to meet short-term episode needs




is characterized by rapid detection, reporting, communication, remedial




action and control response.  Elements of such a system must provide




for centralized display to support management for operational planning

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 and  control  as well  as  for rapid  dissemination of data and  operational




 instructions for effective and prompt local action.   This will  allow




 the  managers to  be aware  of tactical  developments and quickly draw




 upon resources under their control  (or request additional resources)




 to exercise  initiatives,  capitalize on auspicious developments  or take




 actions  to thwart unfavorable  developments.   One  solution to this




 problem  calls for operation of an Environmental Situation Room  (ESR),




 supported by  the necessary sensors, communications links, information




 processors and displays.   A functional depiction  of  an early warning




 subsystem in  support of abatement actions  is  shown in Figure 1.  The




 input measures and forecasts which  are routinely  collected  and  processed




 by local agencies, private sources  and Federal agencies normally would




 be stored in various central and  regional  processing centers to




 support routine  operations*  Special  techniques should also be  employed




 specifically  for rapid alert purposes.  For example,  the Radiation




 Alert Network provides gross measures  of radioactivity so that  changes




 would provide alerts for  more  detailed monitoring.   Also, the National




Weather Service  issues forecasts  relating  to alerts of prospective




 episode conditions and are distributed through the Weather  Service




 channels.  More  use  should be  made of  utilizing biological  techniques




 foij  early warning indication.  Water samples should  be taken routinely




 to determine the number and  types of organisms  present.  Frequently,




 a reduction in the number  of species indicates  presence of  toxic




 substances.

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  DM'A INPUT
 MEASUREMENTS
 AND FORECASTS


 WATER QUALITY
 AND QUANTITY
  AIR QUALITY
AIR POLLUTION
  EMISSIONS
METEOROLOGICAL
MEASUREMENTS
AND FORECASTS
  RADIATION
 HAZARDOUS
SUBSTANCES AND
  SPILLS
GEOPHYSICAL
AND UPPER
ATMOSPHERE
 BIOLOGICAL
 MEASUREMENTS
  OTHER ESV.
 MEASUREi-lEHTS
A
J
TECHNICAL
SPECIALISTS
INPUT DATA
FROM OTHER
 AGENCIES
ON-SITE
REPORTS
                                            -5-1
                                     ^L
                   ENVIRONMENTAL
                     SITUATION
                       ROOM
                       (ESR)
                                               ACTION
                                               VJECH. SUPPORT J
                                    (ACTIONS TAKEN \
                                    TECH. SUPPORT^/
                                             LOCAL CONSTRAINTS
                                      SELECTED
                                      ENVIRONMENTAL DAT
                                      CONTINGENCY PLANS

                                      OTHER
                                  DATA
                                  FOR LOCAL
                                 AUTHORITIES!
                                ^	^
                                                                l\( \
                                                                      LOCAL
                                                                      AUTHORITIES
                   ENVIRONM1
                     DATA  DA
                   ..            J
                   ^~-	'    FIGURE 1
               FUNCTIONAL DL1 .ci'JON OF EARLY WARNING SUB-SYSTEM
                         SUPP011TING ABATEMENT ACI10NS

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     Data obtained from these special techniques would be selected




routinely for analysis required to support the operation of the ESR.




Additionally, during critical episodes such as an oil spill, an accident




involving transportation of hazardous materials, an air pollution




episode or contamination of drinking water in a community, the




selection function would be enacted to tap relevant data during its




flow for normal operational use.  Also, special actions would be taken




to increase the surveillance of the affected area.  In the case of air




pollution incidents, for example, mobile monitoring stations might be




dispatched to measure emissions, ambient concentrations and pertinent




meterological parameters on a micro-level basis.  In the case of




accidents, mobile monitoring would also be enacted.  In all such instances,




on-site reports would be available to local authorities and to the ESR.




Information would be sent via teletype, data-phone and by normal telephone




communica tion.




     Situation managers in the ESR would have access to all incoming




relevant data as well as to technical specialists.  A data bank must




be maintained to contain the selected environmental data, contingency




plans and other technical support information.




     Contingency plans for a variety of possible scenarios should have




been prepared to allow maximum utilization of standard guidelines,




action alternatives and standard operating procedures which could be




responsive to a given situation.  This would assist in making prompt




decisions and avoiding issuance of conflicting instructions and other




inconsistencies likely to accompany an environmental crisis situation.

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The advantages of having available plans for a variety of situations




would increase the effectiveness of federal support, expedite




coordination among EPA, other federal agencies and local authorities and




promote implementation of proper abatement actions.  Direct actions




may be taken on a centralized basis; action options, advice and




coordinated instructions in any case would be issued in accordance with




administrative, legal and other jurisdictional constraints.




     Technical support data should be accessible to the ESR manager




as required.  This could include processed information in the form




of population data for major areas, location of key resources




and services and transportation facilities.  A file of such data should




be available in the ESR.  Any required data not in the file could be




obtained through coordination with other agencies and the local




jurisdiction involved.




     The ESR should be equipped with specially designed displays for




use during emergency situations.  A map of the area involved should




be available to the scale required by the situation.  A status board




indicating such items as actions taken (e.g. shutdown orders issued,




shutdown accomplished, population evacuated from area A), and




numerical parameters of interest should be provided, with capability




for interrogation of the ESR data bank.  The specifications for such




displays should be developed from a detailed requirements analysis.




     4.1.2  Early Detection of Long Term and New Environmental




            Hazards.




     The central feature of the operational concept presented for

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this subsystem (Figure 2) is an Environmental Intelligence

Analysis Center (ENVIAC).  The functions of this center would

consist of gathering and sifting through environmental intelligence

data, developing environmental models (taking into account activities

of other environmental research groups), applying these models and

conducting long-term environmental assessment studies.  The output of

this Center would:

            1) Provide warning reports of newly discovered potential
               environmental hazards

            2) Prepare plans for rapid implementation of detailed
               surveillance of specific pollutants in particular
               locations as a result of detection of a potential
               environmental hazard

            3) Perform special impact analyses

            4) Provide evidence for specific environmental policy
               recommendations.

     Results of items 1) and 3)  would be disseminated to research and

analysis groups within EPA as well as to other agencies and research

establishments.  Item 2) would be directed to the operational group

within EPA having responsibility for operating special surveillance

systems supporting ENVIAC (discussed below).  Technical back-up for

policy recommendations would be made available to EPA decision makers

and other policy groups (e.g. CEQ, OST).

     In addition to relying on its own analysts, the Center would be

supported by three major elements:

            1) Other Research and Analysis Groups

            2) Data from Special Surveillance Networks

            3) Bibliographic Dissemination Service.

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 SPECIAL
 SURVEILLANCE
 NETWORKS:
   BIOLOGICAL
   GEOPHYSICAL
	OTHERS	
             RESEARCH AND
              ANALYSIS
               GROUPS
              A
              ENVIRON-
               MENTAL
             DATA BANKS
                                        DISCOVERIES
                                         PUBLICATIONS,
                                           REPORTS
                                         BIBLIOGRAPHIC
                                         DISSEMINATION
                                            SERVICE
                                            ENVIRONMENTAL
                                            INTELLIGENCE
                                              ANALYSIS
                                               CENTER
  ENVIRONMENTAL
     INPUTS
  (SEE  FIG.  1)
  INPUTS
  FROM
  GLOBAL
.MONT TORT MP,

                           FIGURE 2

    FUNCTIONAL DEPICTION OF EARLY DETECTION SUBSYSTEM FOR
   ACTIONS  PERTAINING TO LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
                                                                    WARNING

                                                                     REPORTS
   PLANS FOR

   DETAILED
   SURVEILLANCE
                                                                    SPECIAL
                                                                    IMPACT
                                                                    ANALYSES
ENVIRONMENTAL
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
                                                                                               DECISION
                                                                                                GROUPS

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 ENVIAC would  also  have access to other Federal environmental




 data banks  and  would receive inputs from global monitoring sites.




      Research and  analysis  groups will provide two  types  of output.




 Discoveries of  potential  hazards, either through field  experimentation




 or  data analysis,  should  be immediately sent  to ENVIAC.   Other  publi-




 cations and reports  prepared by  the environmental research community




 pertaining  to new  environmentally oriented  scientific discoveries




 should  be classified and  disseminated  to the  Center  through a




 Bibliographic and  Dissemination  SERVICE.  This  service  should also




 provide inputs  regarding  pertinent research in  - progress.  The recently




 completed Study of Environmental Quality Information Programs (SEQUIP)




 for  the Office of  Science and Technology made some specific recommendations




 to  this  effect.   These are  described in Appendix A to this  paper.




     The SEQUIP Committee recommended  that  the  Science  Information




 Exchange of the Smithsonian  Institution and the National  Technical




 Information Service  be combined  for  this purpose.  The  Center for Short




 Lived Phenomena, also of  the Smithsonian Institution, currently collects




 and selectively disseminates information relating to new  discoveries




 and field observations for  a variety of  subject  categories.  The MITRE




 Corporation, in its monitoring system  study for  the CEQ suggested a




 Scientific Environmental  Research  Volunteer in  Cooperative Effort




 (SERVICE) Group  to report on new  and potentially  significant environ-




mental developments.  The SEQUIP  Committee  also  recommended that




various centers  of environmental  research allow  scientists some time
                                  8

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to classify and report on new findings.  Better coverage of




environmental material in secondary journals is also suggested.




There appears to be wide interest in establishing and accomplishing




such a system to meet these needs.  All that appears to be required




is strong leadership and competent management to launch and conclude




the design and implementation effort.




     Special surveillance networks (including necessary laboratory




resources) should be established to provide direct environmental data




specifically tailored to support ENVIAC's mission.  Data from these




networks, which could also be made available to other research groups,




would measure parameters such as CO., atmospheric turbidity and solar




radiation and other geophysical and upper atmospheric pollution data.




In addition, elements of this network would consist of biological




monitoring organisms (indicators, sentinels, bio-assay, detection




and accumulation) for detection of quantities of key pollutants.  Since




there are 2.5 million known chemical compounds and 500 new chemical




compounds introduced annually into the environment by industrial




countries, there is certainly a problem in selecting the specific




substances to be monitored.  One possibility is to classify substances




on ithe basis of similar chemical properties and monitor specific




representatives in each class.  In this way, if subsequent research




indicates that another (unmonitored) substance in the class has




hazardous environmental characteristics it may be that the representative




of the class which was being monitored would have transport character-




istics and other properties which were similar to the substance being

-------
monitored.  In this case, some further clues may be available




about the possible intermedia properties of the newly detected




hazardous substance.




     Any substance chosen for monitoring should be measured in air,




water and land, as well as in possible species in which it might




concentrate.  Correlations should be performed by ENVIAC to attempt




to relate concentrations to effluent amounts.  Requirements for the




surveillance networks include standard methods of analysis and




provision of timely dissemination of results to interested specialists.




Immediate reporting capability is generally not required.  There should




be sufficient flexibility in the surveillance networks to receive




instructions from ENVIAC for increased surveillance for areas of




specialized interest, as dictated by results of intelligence




evaluation and other pertinent findings.




     A.2  Suggested Discussion Topics





          a) What are possibilities for early detection and measurements




             of environmental hazards (e.g. mercury)?  The previous




             section indicated the problem of millions of candidates




             for monitoring.  Do the specific suggestions offered




             treat the problem adequately?  How can they be improved?




          b) What relationships must be established among local,




             private and Federal (Regional and Central) groups?




             What role will each one play?




          c) Develop an overall concept of collection, transmission




             and dissemination of earJy warning environmental data.




             Show input types and sources, functions, outputs and the
                                    10

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   needs which are satisfied.  Show how new industrial




   processes would be integrated into such a system.




d) What is the proper role for EPA in the development of




   the bibliographic component of an early warning system?




e) What specific changes, and extensions would you offer




   with respect to the proposed Early Warning System




   Operational Concept?  For example, what is the




   interface between the two subsystems described? What




   are the constituents of the special surveillance




   networks proposed?
                        11

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                               APPENDIX A-

               REVIEW OF STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
      INFORMATION PROGRAMS  (SEQUIP) IN  THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
1 - INTRODUCTION

     This Appendix presents a review of the subject document which
was prepared under the direction of Dr. Henry Kissman of the National
Library of Medicine, who served as chairman of the SEQUIP committee.
Thirteen members constituted the committee representing HEW, AEC,
Departments of Interior and Agriculture, National Bureau of Standards,
NOAA, Defense Documentation Center, EPA and the Library of Congress.
The report consists of general findings of the committee and special
sections on information technology, water pollution, air pollution,
solid waste management, environmental effects of radiation and
agriculture chemicals.  It also consists of a directory of general
information programs and public health information programs as well
as a directory of environmental pollution information and data
programs.  While the task of the committee, as specified by OST ,
was to investigate broad environmental quality programs, only
environmental pollution was considered in the report to limit the
scope.  The report states, however, that activities associated with
data collection and information systems are generally applicable to
programs outside the environmental area.

     The objectives of the committee's study were threefold:

     1.   Report on studies of scientific and technical information
         activities in federal agencies concerned with environmental
         projects and improvement.

     2.   Describe generalized information programs (e.g. national
         libraries, clearing house) which serve the environmental
         quality field.

     3.   Assess whether the support activities are sufficient and,
         if not, determine how they can be improved.

     This Appendix summarizes the major recommendations offered in
the report.

2 - RECOMMENDATIONS

2.1 General

     1.   OMB promote data and information exchange withJn the
Federal  establishment by developing procedures for cost recovery.

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     The committee felt that duplication exists in data and services
because operators of information systems are reluctant to offer
services outside of their own organizations, because of lack of
resources.

     2.  CEQ create in EPA a NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND
INFORMATION DATA SERVICE (MEPIDS).

     Inside of EPA this group would pull together the networks absorbed
by EPA., promote standards, coordinate R&D, develop data in the technical
environmental areas and answer queries within the agency.  Outside of
EPA this group would initiate network operations to interface with
other environmental data batiks, provide information relating to types
and status of R&D projects, respond to requests, and work with the
National Bureau of Standards and coordinate the information with other
agencies.

     3.  This group should take into account: requirements of future
economic growth and the global aspects of pollution monitoring.

     4.  The National Bureau of Standards be assigned responsibility
for developing;

         a.  standards relating to software development and operation
of data banks.

         b.  environmental assessment technology including modeling
and simulation.

         c.  clearing house activities.

         d.  systems analysis teams to aid agencies in establishing
the necessary interface.

     It was proposed that a major part of the fundings for this effort
be provided by EPA and NOAA.  Dr. David Freeman, Chief, Separation
and Purification Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, and Dr.  David
Wagman, Institute for Materials Research were the National Bureau of
Standards representatives on the Committee.

     5.  Continue workshop and symposia activities via a formal
mechanism to be established by the Council on Environmental Quality
or COSATI.

     This recommendation is offered to stimulate communication among
those concerned with environmental information programs.

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     6.  The National Referral Center of the Library of Congress
develop tools for improved access to technical information in the environ-
mental quality field.

     It was specifically recommended that LC publish a directory of
U.S. Information Resources in the Environmental Quality Area.

     7.  A single government-wide clearing house be established
to consolidate the activities of such groups as the Science Information
Exchange (SIE) of the Smithsonian Institution and the Technical Infor-
mation Service of the Department of Commerce.

     It was further recommended that OMB establish guidelines and
enforce government wide mandatory input requirements for standardization
on an agency wide basis.

     8,  A national environmental early warning system for monitoring
environmental pollution be incorporated as part of the Center for Short
Lived Phenomena of the Smithsonian Institution.

     9.  Establish a Hazardous Materials Information Center to be
operated by the Coast Guard and DOT.

     The center would collect information on hazardous materials,
cover procedures of handling, and methods of detoxification.

    10.  A new COSATI panel on environmental quality information
and data systems be established to follow up on these recommendations and
to extend the SEQUIP study into other non-pollution environmental areas
(e.g. wetlands, urban environmental sources).

2.2 Bibliographic Services

     Fourteen recommendations of a bibliographic nature dealing with
data dissemination services, clearing house operations, document indexing,
preparation of dictionary and thesaurus and preparation of abstracts were
presented.   These are not detailed in  this Appendix.

2,3 Water Pollution

     The report mentioned that the Office of Water Data Coordination
and the Office of Water Resource Research currently provides a "sinew
for an effective federal wide interagency data and information network
in the water resource aspects of environmental pollution".  STORET
was mentioned as a data resource but no comments were made regarding
its current effectiveness.

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2.4 Air Pollution

     !•  Use existing programs as a basis for satisfying new needs.

     Tliis recommendation is generally similar to that offered by the
MITRE Corporation in a study performed for CEQ.

     2.  Unite pollution monitoring with the meteorological data
collection system.

     This recommendation has a significant impact on siting and data
storage.  The report pointed out, however, that a technical unification
did not necessarily imply organizational consolidation for operation
and administration of the networks.

     3.  Expand and optimize air pollution sampling networks.

     4.  Institute administrative and legislative steps required
to promote Items 2 and 3.

     5.  Compatibility with and accessibility to existing data banks
be a required consideration in the design of federally built or supported
data banks.

     6.  Archival problems and uses be a required consideration in
the design of future monitoring programs.

     7.  High priority be given to the development of data bank
directories  and inventories of data sources.

     8.  Initiate a study to determine how to improve secondary
literature covered in the field of pollution.

     The SEQUIP Committee felt that much information about pollution
appeared in  secondary journals relating to other disciplines such as
chemistry, physics,  oceanography and climatology.

2.5 Solid Waste

     1.  Expand the resources in the SOLID WASTE INFORMATION
RETRIEVAL SYSTEM of EPA.

     2.  Greater emphasis be placed on social and  behavioral science
aspects of the solid x^aste problem.

     3.  Establish centers for analysis,  evaluation and consolidation
of diverse data in the solid waste field.

-------
     Professionals at these centers would devote part time to these
activities.

2.6 Radiation

     The multiplicity of data sources (e.g. AEC, Federal Radiation
Council, Bureau of Radiological Health) is considered to be a healthy
situation by the committee.  They recommend strengthening the supported
programs and promote intercommunication among them.

2.7 Agricultural Chemicals

     1.  A clearing house for pesticide information be formally
established in the TOXICOLOGY information programs of the National
Library of Medicine.

     2.  Programs on the long term effects of pollutants on man
should adopt the approach of the pesticide committee within EPA which
emphasize epidemiological research.

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                               PAPER NO. 5


5.0  STANDARDIZED MONITORING DATA ACQUISITION - COMPATIBILITY
       ASPECTS

5.1  Problem Perspective

       Considering the variety of subjects and the extent of complex

interactions which comprise the environment, it is understandable

why so many governmental agencies representing various disciplines are

concerned with one form or another of environmental monitoring.  The first

step in eliminating incompatibilities and duplication in a nationwide

environmental network is to determine who is gathering what kinds of

data.  At present the National Referral Center (NRG) in the Library

of Congress has the task of directing inquirers;  particularly those

from outside federal agencies, to locations within the government which

might supply various forms of environmental data.   In many cases the

NRC has information relating to the published output of a particular

agency but not the types of raw data that may be involved.  An effort

should be made to ensure that NRC's referral banks are up-to-date and

as complete as possible.

       5.1.1  Siting

            The selection of sampling locations (siting) depends on the

specific objectives to be met including a) establishment of existing

or baseline information, b) trends, c) standards compliance, d) docu-

mentation of violations, e) forecasting, f) planning and management

purposes, and g)  scientific research.  The selection of a monitoring

site is also a function of the parameter of primary concern.  For

                                   -1-

-------
instance, when monitoring a particular effluent source in a river,




a station immediately below the mixing zone is best suited for




temperature data.  On the other hand, the best location to measure




dissolved oxygen or bacterial levels may be farther away from the




source where more complete mixing has occurred.  Ail well and good




if these sites monitor the parameter(s) for which they were designed.




Often, however, practical constraints dictate that a site designed




or located for one purpose (or parameter) also monitor for others.




Incompatibilities arise when trying to compare or aggregate data




from say, a site well located to monitor dissolved oxygen along with




similar data from a site not so designed.




     5.1.2  Sensors




          With regard to sensing devices an obvious requirement is




that the sensor and its attendant recording equipment be mechanically




and/or electronically compatible.  With regard to data requirements




when using sensors of the same design and make, the only problem is




to make certain that they are calibrated to the same reference stan-




dards.  Monitoring for a given parameter using sensors based on




different designs or analytical techniques requires intercalibration




to ensure comparability and proper interpretability of the results.




The concept of such calibration measures is covered in paper 3.




     5.1.3  Processing




          Compatibility in relation to the processing of data will




be understood as those functions necessary to get the raw data




from the sensor into a form suitable for computer input.  The

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 availability  of  data in a clearly defined and well  documented  format

 is  the basis  of  an effective processing system.   All  too  often data

 are recorded  in  a format that is complicated, confused, incomplete,

 and insufficiently documented.   When such data leave  the  immediate

 care of the person responsible for recording them,  their  utility

 is  effectively lost.   Selection of a format need not  constrain an

 agency in any way, particularly if data are recorded  in machine-

 readable form, since the data can then be reproduced  with very

 little difficulty into a variety of forms and formats.  For  example,

 an  agency could  use one format for certain internal records  and

 another format  (such as SAROAD*) for interchange of data  with  other

 agencies both within and outside EPA.

           Most processing of data will require that data  be  machine-

 readable, either on cards or magnetic tape.  If certain monitoring

 groups can not afford this,  their data can be sent  in on  forms, and

converted in the  most effective manner.           The  directions for

 filling out such forms should be kept as simple as  possible  and

 examples of how  to complete  the forms are advisable.

           Certain types of information are fundamental to most

 poUlution monitoring and are typified by the following SAROAD

 checklist of  data requirements:
 *  SAROAD Users Manual,  Office of Air Programs, EPA, Research Triangle
    Park,  N.C.  (July 1971).
                                   -3-

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                         a)   Site  identification form
                         b)   Pollutants measured
                         c)   Sampling methods  (e.g.,  Saltzman,
                             West  Gaeke)
                         d)   Instruments
                         e)   Units in which the  measurements are
                             expressed
                         f)   Decimal point location
                         g)   Date  of reading
                         h)   Time  of reading
                         i)   Sampling frequency
                         j)   Averaging time (duration of sample)
                         k)   Identification of any special codes
                         1)   Special instructions to persons using
                             data
Although the above list  was  designed specifically for the monitoring
of ambient air pollution, many of the items apply to other areas of
pollution as well.  Certainly for those elements which are common
to several programs EPA  should establish agency-wide guidelines
for common reporting practices.  These guidelines should also address
the proper form for items which are unique to a monitoring program
in a particular office.
          There seems to be  a lack of cooperation among computer
manufacturers in terms of data and programs from one machine being
acceptable to another.   Even within the same company incompatabilities
                                  -6-

-------
exist depending upon whether a second or third generation machine




is being used.   Some of these problems are software related while




others pertain to hardware.  The following is a list of items, in




addition to the above listing of data requirements, which will facil-




itate conversions from one system to another:




     Punched Cards




              a)   Identification of any unusual formats,  characters,




                  or punching.




              b)   Sequence of data cards (e.g., sort sequence, order-




                  ing , arrangement).




              c)   Identification of machine on which cards were




                  generated.




     Magnetic Tape




          Hardware related




              a)   Reel identification




              b)   File number




              c)   Recording density (556,  800, or 1600)




              d)   Number of tracks (7 or 9)




              e)   Parity (odd or even)




              f)   Recording code (ASCII or EBCDIC)




          Software related




              g)   Record length (in number of characters)




              h)   Second type (fixed or variable length)




              i)   Blocking factor (in number of records/block)
                                 -5-

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              j)  Description of file contents




                    - indicate parameters observed




                    - number of sites reported




                    - years spanned




                    - approximate number of records




              k)  Description of file format (record layout)




                    - indicate format identification numbers used




                      and observation time intervals




              1)  Description of file sort sequence




                    - identify individual fields




                    - indicate major to minor ordering




                    - for each field indicate whether ascending




                      or descending




          The software problems can often be resolved by programmers




at the data processing center.  Even so, correction of such incompati-




bilities is time consuming and should be kept at a minimum.  The hard-




ware problems can be solved with clever programming in conjunction




with the necessary conversion hardware.  Since not all computer




centers are so equipped, perhaps one computing facility in each




region could be equipped and designated to handle such chores.




     5.1.3  Commonality of Language and Unitis




         At the present time there exists no dictionary, glossary,




or thesaurus of terms used in the overall environmental field.  This




is largely because environmental quality is not a formal scientific
                                 -6-

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discipline, but a label given to a variety of activities that cut




across the normal boundaries of science.  Moreover, in many areas,




problems require not only technical data but also economic, legal,




political and social data.




          The problem of terminology inconsistency is compounded when




exchanging information with foreign institutions.  Given the global




nature of environmental pollution, such exchanges will become in-




creasingly important.  Already, many countries have made considerable




contributions to our knowledge (e.g. Sweden, Japan).  An excellent




service is provided by the Water Pullution Research Board of Great




Britain with its monthly issues of Water Pollution Abstracts.




          Even within a single discipline there are differences as




to the use of various terms.  A notable example is in the field of




chemistry and the use of several names for the same compound (i.e.,




methanethiol vs. methyl mercaptan).  The Chemical Abstract Service




Registry System has identified and coded some 1.5 million compounds




(about 250,000 additions annually) and this program should be promoted




on a widescale basis.




          The diversity of units of measurement in use by different




disciplines and organizations can lead to confusion and misinterpre-




tation.  Concentrations in water may be expressed in terms of ppm,




milligrams/liter, milliequivalents/liter, molarity normality, or




percent by weight or volume.  Another problem concerns the use of the




British vs. metric system of units.  To decide to convert to the






                                  -7-

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metric system at this relatively early stage in environmental monitor-


ing might make sense in light of a)  facility of exchange with most

foreign institutions, and b)  the fact that this country itself may

eventually go metric and later more intense confusion would be

averted.  A year ago the Office of Air Programs suggested a plan for

adopting the metric system and phasing out British units and espec-

ially mixed units.  Judging by the fact that recent legislation on

automobile emissions  vas based on grams of pollutant per vehicle

mile, a redoubled effort on an EPA-wide basis is necessary.  The

transition should occur gradually to allow personnel to become

accustomed to the new system and for equipment modifications to be


made.

          Conversion from one set of units to another is generally

a simple (but time consuming) formality involving multiplying by some

factor.  In some cases, however, conversion can be a nuisance.  Some
                                                             3
conversions require auxilliary information (e.g. ppm to ug/m needs

temperature and pressure data to be done correctly) which may or

may not be available.  If it is not available, it might be neglected

or assumed which can lead to the introduction of errors.  Often there

is a  tendency for, say, state agencies to use their own terminology

even  when filling out federal forms.  A rather extreme example concerns

a certain state which uses its own state oriented latitude/longitude

system in completing SAROAD  forms.  A more common incompatibility


occurs  when states use their own pollutant and/or site location code
                                    -8-

-------
numbers.  In the area of water quality the STORE! system is trying




to unravel the problem of listing of site locations either by "river-




mile" or latitude vs. longitude.




5.2  Suggested Discussion Topics




     a)  What is the most effective method for promoting program




         awareness and reducing duplication of effort in the




         various areas of environmental monitoring?




     b)  How can the selection of computer hardware and software




         be optimally  coordinated so as to reduce incompatibilities




         between systems?  Can the cooperation of computer manu-




         facturers be enlisted?




     c)  Whar kind of coordinating group should be established to




         ensure the commonality of language and units used in




         environmental monitoring?  Who should be involved in such




         a group and what would be EPA's role?
                                 -9-

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                              PATER NO. 6




6.0  STANDARDIZED MONITORING DATA ACQUISITION - QUALITY CONTROL ASPECTS




6.1  Problem Perspective




          Quality control implies the maintenance of certain prescribed




standards of performance or output.  Various techniques and models




may be employed to assure that quality is designed into a system




and/or may be regained if the system should deviate unacceptably from




its expected performance.  It is sometimes difficult to separate the




functions of standardization and quality control.  In these papers




the former will concern itself primarily with the design and setting




of specifications for equipment and procedures (see paper 3) while




the latter involves assuring the quality and reliability of data




produced as a result of these procedures.  Quality control, then,




provides for the implementation and continued integrity of




standardization.  Even within these guidelines there is some degree




of interplay and feedback which makes overlap inevitable.




          With regard to the paragraphs below, it should be borne in




mind that the comments apply not only to monitoring functions "v/ithin"




EPA (including states and regions) but also to contributing groups




outside of EPA such as universities, industries, and other federal




agencies.  Within the realm of environmental monitoring there are




several areas where quality control may be applied such as personnel,




equipment, data, and procedures.  It should be noted that quality control




applies not only to these component aspects by themselves but also to




their interrelationships and functioning as a whole system.  The




following is a proposed outline of functions to be performed by an

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integrated approach to quality control.




     6.1.1  Definition of Goals and Objectives of_ a. Monitoring Program




               The degree to which quality control is to be applied




throughout a program will depend upon the end uses of the data.  Therefore,




the first step is to define the goals and objectives of a program which,




when taken in light of those from other programs, helps establish the




bounds of the quality control effort.




     6.1.2  Guidelines for Establishing a_ Monitoring Network




               In the setting up of a monitoring network quality control




plays an important part in the implementation of and assuring the adherence




to guidelines in the following areas:




               a)  Site location - whether a site is chosen on a




          random basis, as part of a grid, a combination of these two




          ideas, or specifically for a stated purpose depends upon




          the use of the data and the parameter(s) measured.  Quality




          control relates to siting in that it is necessary to




          periodically review siting criteria in light of changing




          legislation, population and industrial shifts, technological




          advances in monitoring equipment, etc.  Adjacent construction




          projects could require the relocation of a given site.




               b)  Type of station - data requirements dictate whether




          a station should monitor continuously, gather information




          integrated over a specific time period, or provide grab




          samples to be analysed in  the  lab.  Are che procedural




          specifications being adhered to?  For instance, in the  case

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of grab samples, are the samples taken from the same location




every time, same time of day, etc.?




     c)  Selection of instrumentation and methods -




instrumentation and methods needs will change as the state-




of-the-art progresses and quality control should see that




these changes are incorporated.




     d)  Averaging time to be consistent with standards -




if regulations require, say, an 8 hour sampling period,




quality control should see to it that this time period is




not violated beyond certain tolerances.




     e)  Sampling frequency - in the case of annual averages




of SC>2> adequate coverage may be maintained with intermittent




sampling at frequencies calculated statistically for desired




levels of precision and related to the degree of pollution.




Quality control might suggest a different sampling frequency




if the ambient conditions changed significantly.




     f)  Instrument maintenance and calibration - with regard




to a particular piece of equipment once the desired accuracy,




precision, sensitivity, and range have been specified, it is




the job of the quality control program to insure that these




attributes be maintained throughout its operation.   The




initial calibration and subsequent recalibrations should




be performed according to a schedule deemed necessary for




a particular piece of equipment.  Obviously there will be




unscheduled malfunctions and repairs requiring recalibration.

-------
Quality control should have the responsibility for approving
manuals for maintenance and calibration and updating the
texts of "standard methods."
     The dependability of a piece of equipment will be taken
not in terms, necessarily, of its accuracy, but rather with
regard to its amount of operational time vis a vis the time
it is inoperable due to some breakdown.  A certain amount of
downtime is to be expected for routine preventive maintenance
and proper scheduling can insure an uninterrupted flow of data;
i.e., nighttime maintenance for pollutants which are most
serious during the day or borrowing standby equipment.
     However, unscheduled downtime can result in data gaps
which may impair analysis and interpretation.  In order to
better understand and minimize such breakdowns, careful
maintenance logs should be kept indicating such items as type
of failure, probable cause, time, date, frequency of mal-
function, ease of repair, etc.
     With regard to the proper functioning of equipment there
are certain external conditions whose quality should be
maintained.  These include air conditioning for temperature -
sensitive equipment, constant line voltage, insurance against
power outages or brownouts especially during critical episodes,
special shielding, insulation, or isolation of the housing
for equipment, and the use of high quality laboratory chemicals
and reagents.
g)  Questionnaires and surveys -  In the case of such areas
as solid waste management and epidemiological studies where
dat'a are derived mainly from questionnaires and surveys rather
                        4

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          than physical measurements or chemical analysis, quality




          control implies adherence to reliable polling methods and




          survey techniques and proper statistical analyses and




          interpretation of results.





     6.1.3  Training




               The effectiveness of the most carefully designed equipment




and procedures can be seriously reduced in the hands of unqualified




personnel who are not capable nor properly motivated.  Providing good




job descriptions is a necessary step for weeding out unqualified




applicants.   Educational programs are then promoted to communicate




skills, methods, ideas, objectives, and attitudes.  In order to measure




an employee's knowledge and determine what training is needed, a series




of test questions can be designed to be answered by employees in specific




areas.




               Such training can take place on two levels:




               a)  Formal training - in the classroom or at seminars




          where theory and lab applications are taught primarily from




          the textbook with some supplemental laboratory work.




               b)  On-the-job-training - in an EPA or accredited state




          laboratory with an emphasis on the practical aspects of




          monitoring.




               It may be desirable to provide a program of requalification.




This may be necessary when a person's performance (competence and attitude)




seem to be waning.  Moreoever, changing demands (new equipment, procedures,




regulations) often alter requirements of skill and knowledge and increase

-------
training needs.  Not only does proper training enhance the quality of




the data, but it also helps to cut down on the damage and abuse of




instruments.




     6.1.4  Laboratory Certification




               To ensure comparability of data, a uniform degree of




excellence should be expected from the various governmental and private




laboratories  providing input to EPA monitoring activities.  A certification




program with  periodic reviews, while not an absolute guarantee of excellence,




is a necessity towards establishing a common denominator of quality




with regard to




               a)  Compentency of personnel




               b)  Adequacy of facilities




               c)  Use of proper analytical methods




               d)  Uniformity of data handling procedures




     6.1.5  Calibration Standards





               The quality control program should insure that reference




standards for calibration, developed to EPA's specifications, are cer-




tified by the National Bureau of Standards.  For EPA to enforce standards




which it certified itself would present a conflict-of-interest situation.




               Calibration techniques and degree may differ for a




particular type  of equipment depending upon whether it is designed for




use in the field or in the laboratory.  For field instruments calibration




can take place either on-site or at some central laboratory.  For the




former there is  less downtime involved (if necessary tools are readily




available) and less chance of damage in transit.  On the other hand,

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more sophisticated calibration equipment and better trained personnel




are generally available at a central lab where calibration is a major




function.   The dc '^ion should be based upon such factors as the




fragility of equi:;nent, availability of on-site redundant monitoring,




and the degree of calibration required.




               The question of calibration has special significance




during an episode, or emergency condition.  For instance, during an air




pollution episode, there are several stages of increasing severity




where different kinds of pollutant emitters may be required to curtail




or shut down their operations.  Since these shutdowns can be very costly




to a company, they should be based on the best of information.  A




false alarm could result in a lawsuit being brought against the EPA.




Given the fact that air pollution episodes are somewhat predictable




because certain meteorological conditions must prevail, there is time




for emergency recalibrations to be made on site by special federal




teams or by qualified local personnel.




               Calibration standards are necessary in order to make




interlaboratory calibrations using corroborative, or round-robin, testing.




This may be the preferred method for assuring international cooperation




of certain countries where EPA field teams may not be invited due




to diplomatic considerations.




     6.1.6  EPA Field Teams




               In additon to mailing similar samples to different labs




for corroborative testing, it is desirable to have field  teams of




highly trained experts visit the various  labs on  a periodic and/or

-------
random basis.  Since the number of these teams is small, they may be




limited to providing interregional and interagency calibrations only.




Similar teams could be established by the states, and trained by EPA,




to satisfy their own needs.  Since the experience and exchange of




techniques and information would be valuable, the EPA field teams would




be sent to foreign labs on request of the host country.




               EPA field teams would be able to perform dynamic calibrations




(DC) on instruments where it is desirable not to shut down the equipment




and this feature (DC) is not inherent to the equipment.   This situation




might occur during the air pollution episodes mentioned earlier.




     6.1.7  Data Handling and Verification




               Although this topic is discussed elsewhere (see paper 5),




a few remarks are in order here.




               Proper validation and editing procedures should be




defined and maintained to insure quality contol of data entering the




data banks, regardless of source.  This might require establishing




special units to handle data obtained from sources outside EPA.






               In the validation and verification of data, one must




be able to discern whether a marked change in data values indicates




a real change in the phenomenon or quantity being measured,  an




equipment or human error, or a set of random events.  Various statistical




methods are available which should help straighten out such  problems.




Another verification technique involves the use of redundant equipment




or a completely different, but equally reliable, method.  Spot checks




on data using mobile laboratories is useful in this regard.






                                   8

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               An important aspect of quality control related to data




handling concerns the publication of data.  Typographical errors




or ambiguous sentences can impair any good results of the previous




efforts.  Competent editors with technical training can catch serious




errors which may creep into this last stage of data formulation.




However, in the event that errors from any part of the total




data gathering process get through and are discovered, records of




such discrepancies must be maintained in order that corrective




action and follow-up may be accomplished.






     6.1.8  Methodologies. Procedures, and Instrumentation to Meet




Future Needs




               Present quality control measures are by and large based




on retrospect.  The quality control program should address possible




future needs in terms of new or impending legislation, technical




improvements in monitoring, population growth, pollution forecasts,




and technological shifts (e.g. nuclear vs. fossil-fueled power or




the production of a new class of chemicals).

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                The  calibre  of data from all  sources  should be of  the

 same  high  calibre and mechanisms  should be devised to  assure compliance.

 While coordination  of quality control  programs  may take  time and

 require  compromises  among various governmental  groups, adequate legis-

 lation could provide the impetus  to do so.   A more difficult problem

 arises when trying  to enlist  the  cooperation of groups outside the government,

 such  as  universities and industries.   Since  much of  a  university's

 monitoring efforts may be supported by Federal  funds,  financial

 pressures  can be brought forth.   There may also be an  incentive for

 a  university to become a certified lab.   Industry participation is

 on a  more  or less voluntary basis and  providing for  acceptable

 compliance could prove difficult.   A workable method (e.g. penalties

 or incentives, working through  trade associations, etc.) must be found -
 hopefully  short of legislation.

 6.2   Suggested Discussion Topics

           a)  How can  the quality  of voluntarily  supplied data from

 private sources be enhanced?  What  is  the most effective and least

 costly method to insure that such  data are in compliance with

 guidelines and standard methods?

          b)  How can EPA most effectively control the development

 and specification of Federal quality control guidelines for data

 for which it has enforcement jurisdiction and responsibility?  What

 are the required procedures  for interface with groups such as

private industry,  the National Academy of Engineering,  and the National

Bureau of Standards?

          c)   What  are the specific areas of  environmental data for
                                  10

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which EPA has primary responsibility?  What are the areas of interface




where EPA should exercise a coordinating f-unction?




          d)  What mechanisms can be established now to anticipate




future quality control requirements?
                                  11

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                            Paper No. 7






7.0  MONITORING  TECHNIQUES




     7.1.0  Problem Perspective




     7.1.1  Monitoring Techniques, General




            The theme of this paper is the state-of-the-art in moni-




toring techniques for all forms of pollution for which EPA has




responsibility.  Such a theme natural]y invites a wide range of




possible discussion topics.  In order to bound the problem it has




been assumed that monitoring techniques is synonymous with cwo areas




of concern only.  The first area is the monitor in which questions of




detectors, calibration circuits, signal conditioning and on-site




recording are included.  The second area of concern is the experimental




method.  Data transmission, data processing, storage and retrieval,




data analysis and data reporting are a part of monitoring techniques but




are not discussed in this paper.




     Both in-situ and remote monitoring techniques are addressed in this




paper.   In-situ monitors is that general class of monitors that sense




only the condition at the point at which the monitor is placed.  Ail other




environmental monitoring techniques are defined as remote techniques.




     In this paper all discussions of in-situ versus remote monitoring




requirements, have been presented equally in order to engender the




selection of the better method as soon as practicable.




     In-situ monitors while generally simpler than remote monitors have




several shortcomings.  In-situ monitors generally require separate




sensing elements for each pollutant constituent.   Also, since the

-------
radius of comprehension of such sensors is small, a considerable




number of monitoring sites is required in order to understand the




areal extant of the polluted area.




     While most remote monitors are not yet developed sufficiently




for operational use, they do lend themselves to the sensing of areal




coverage questions well.  Such monitors are generally more expensive




and complex than in-situ sensors but because of the large areal




coverage capabilities of remote monitors, the investment in these




monitors should prove to be cost effective.  Remote monitors thus can




be directed to cover wide areas of interest to EPA and will be of great




value for supporting the Agency's role in surveillance of environmental




quality.  Thus a few properly placed remote monitoring systems on




platforms capable of reasonable deployment may logically be looked upon




as a very likely monitoring technique of the near future.  The optimum




mix of both in-situ and remote sensors is the kernel of our concern.




     7.1.2  Organization Considerations




            Inherent in the expeditious development of an effective




monitoring technique is the manner in which the system is designed,




developed and administered.  The objectives of overall monitoring




system as a whole are:




     a.  To produce information on environmental levels, trends and




         patterns of components  (solid, liquid or gaseous), trace




         metals and nonmetals in all urban and non-urban areas of the




         U. S.

-------
     b.   Identification and quantification of new or newly recognized




         pollutants.




     c.   Increase the basic understanding of the source-receptor




         relationships, pollutant interactions and decay processes.




     d.   To develop a bank of environmental data for use by Federal,




         State, local agencies and the general public.




     Such a monitoring system requires interaction among the ten EPA




regional offices, the Enforcement, Media and Categorical offices of




EPA;- and the Office of Monitoring of EPA.  EPA may request the




assistance of other Federal, national and international organizations




in the development of environmental monitors.




     The major responsibility in EPA for the development of monitoring




techniques rests with the Office of Monitoring.  This organization in




turn directs and/or coordinates the development of all EPA monitoring




techniques.




     7.1.3  State-of-the-Art in Monitoring Techniques




            The integrated nationwide environmental monitoring pro-




gram - short term and long term (discussed in papers No. 1 and 2) are




constructed on the foundation of realizeable techniques in the time




framework selected.  The systems tradeoffs and the optimum system depend




fundamentally and to a large degree on the state-of-the art (SOA)




of monitoring techniques.  Data transmission and handling techniques




today generally outstrip the capability in producing reliable, accurate




monitoring techniques.

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     For ease of discussion of the SOA of monitoring techniques, the


discussion below is structured along the following lines.  For each


media or category, the first breakdown is by Use, listed as follows:


     a)  Ambient


     b)  Emission sources - stationary


     c)  Emission sources - mobile


     d)  Natural processes (meteorology, hydrology)


     e)  Effects (biological, societal, economic)


Remote techniques are contained within each Use area.


            7.1.3.1  Techniques for Air Pollution Monitoring


                     The development of all monitoring requirements


and the analysis of all techniques to satisfy each requirement is


the first and fundamental step in the design of the monitoring


system.  Such a requirements analysis has been performed by the


Office of Air Programs with the support of the Esso Research &

                   *
Development Company  in the time period covering fiscal years 1972


through 1977.  Sixth-three tasks for monitor development and ninety-


two tasks for methods development were developed with the requirements


in each of the areas of Use in Table 7-1-1.'


     Review of the status in the development of air pollution moni-


toring at any time, depicted in Table 7-1-1, points out clearly that
*EPA Plan for Air Pollution Measurement Technique Development Fiscal

   Years 1972-1977, First Draft, July 1971, CPA 22-69-154.

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                                             TABLE 7-1-1

             AIR POLLUTION MONITORING TECHNIQUES - STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT AS OF JULY 1972

AhUlJiMl
AIR
QUALITY
SOURCE -
STATIONARY
SOURCES -
MOBILE
METEOR-
OLOGY
EFFECTS

S
M
S
M
S
M
S
M
S
M
RESEARCH
3
3
1
2
0
3
0
0
0
1
DEVELOPMENT
10
6
12
7
10
15
4
0
2
1
TEST AND
EVALUATION
5
6
7
20
3
2
0
0
0
0
COLLABORATIVE
TESTS
4
4
1
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
PROMULGATION
1
7
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

TOTAL
23

21

13

4

2

63

26

44

20

0

2
92
S - MONITORS

M - METHODS
  Reference:   Air Pollution Measurement  Technique  Development
                Fiscal Years 1972-1977,  First  Draft  July  1971,
                CPA 22-69-154

-------
the efforts to produce  promulgated methods  and monitors is an involved

process.  The comprehension of  the state-of-the-art in over one hundred

and fifty areas covering five different Use areas requires a considerable

effort.  Methods and monitors already  promulgated are not included in

Table 7-1-1.

               7.1.3.1.1  Additional Information on Remote Monitors
                          for Air Pollution Assessment

                          It is interesting to note that of the sixty

odd sensor programs approximately fifteen percent arc remote monitors.

Air pollution surveillance has  several promising and interesting new

techniques.  Included among the instrumentation proposed for detecting

air pollutants are infrared sensors, derivative spectrometry, dis-

persive correlation spectrometry, laser technology and assorted

electro-optical techniques.

               7.1.3.1.1.1  Active Remote Techniques - Laser Based

                            At the present time the Environmental

Protection Agency is monitoring over 10 atmospheric pollutants

throughout the United States.  In general, over 90 percent of these

pollutants are in a gaseous state in concentrations that vary between

0.01-10 ppm for molecules and 0.01-10 ppb for metal vapors.   Progress

in monitoring air quality has been impeded in the past by a lack of

techniques for detecting pollutants in three dimensions over large

expanses of the atmosphere with sufficient resolution in time and

space to permit qualitative and quantitative sensing in real time.

However, the advent of the pulsed laser coupled with radar techniques

                                6

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(lidar) marked the beginning of major progress in quantitative remote


sensing of the atmosphere.  More recently, other techniques previously


enumerated have also taken on a major importance in the field of air


quality surveillance.  As a result, a wide range of applications have


been explored with increasingly sophisticated techniques.  In many of


these applications, lasers are used as atmospheric illuminators in


preference to other light sources because the monochromaticity of the


laser allows discrimination against background noise through the use


of narrow band filters.  In addition, the high peak power and narrow


pulses yield good signal-to-noise ratios and range resolution, even


for low cross-section scatterers.  Practical laser systems now range


in peak pulse power to several hundred megawatts.  Pulse widths are

              —ft
as short as 10~  seconds and pulse repetition rates are as high as


1000 pps.  However, not all the desired characteristics of frequency,


power, pulse width, pulse repetition rate, coherence, beam divergence,


efficiency, and compact size are available in the same laser.


     Since all molecular air pollutants have characteristic


absorption spectra throughout the electromagnetic spectrum,it should


be possible to detect these pollutants through absorption spectroscopy


techniques.  However, these techniques have not  been practical in


the past because the small absorptions (caused by the low concentration


of most pollutants) have made it necessary to use very long path length


absorption cells.  In addition, data collection  was very slow due to  the


limited source strength available from conventional light sources.  The •

-------
recent introduction of  a number of different types of IR lasers has




made remote sensing of  air pollutants  a practical reality and demon-




strated that these techniques have adequate sensitivity to detect




pollutants at the concentrations found in city air.




     In order to utilize these intense sources to measure the very




weak IR absorptions produced by air pollutants, it is necessary to




detect the resonance absorption of the gas rather than the attenuation




of the beam as it passes through the sample since the attenuation




will be very small for  reasonable path lengths and will be hard to




detect.  Other techniques employed for detecting air pollutants




include Mie and Rayleigh scattering, Raman back scattering, and




angular scattering phenomena involving polarization effects.




     Because of specific molecular interaction, absorption and back-




scattering, electro-optic techniques employing lasers have the unique




capability of identification of atmospheric gases.  In addition to




studying the properties of the gaseous components of the atmosphere,




the distribution, intensity, and dynamics of precipitation, clouds,




and aerosol particles are also potentially available for study.




                     7.1.2.1.1.2  Passive Remote Techniques




                                  The techniques cited above using




lasers as atmospheric illuminators are examples of active remote




sensing techniques.   In contrast to this approach other investigators




are concentrating on passive methods which require highly sophisticated




correlation techniques for detecting atmospheric pollutants.   Until






                                 8

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recently the passive approach centered on dispersive elements such as




gratings and prisms for separating the information content of incoming




signals.  This method had the disadvantage of requiring long integration




times since incoming signals were usually faint.  More recently, tech-




niques have been developed, based on interferometric principles, that




carry out correlation in real-time.  These devices correlate against




the fourier transform of the spectrum rather than the spectrum itself.




The correlation interferometer may prove to be particularly suitable




for application in the infrared due to its large light throughout this




region and the fact that almost all gases have complex and characteristic




spectral signatures in this region.  Instruments of the correlation




interferometer type have also been constructed for use in the UV and




visible portions of the spectrum and correlation masks have been pre-




pared for many common air pollutants such as S0_, N0_, NO and some of




the halogens.




                    7.1.3.1.1.3  Derivative Spectrometry




                                 Still another powerful analytical




technique for detection of air pollutants is the derivative spectro-




meter.  This instrument offers an  alternate approach to the detection




and measurement of substances by measuring the gradient (derivative)




of absorbivity or reflectivity with wavelength.  This approach has




proven very effective for the detection  of weak spectral  features




because the derivative of the proven spectrum exhibits much more




structure than is immediately apparent in the absorption  or reflectance'




spectrum itself.

-------
      Derivative spectra may be obtained by derivative densitometry

 of spectrograms or by computer processing of recorded spectra.  An

 alternative approach is the electromechanical or electronic differen-

 tiation of the output of a scanning monochromator.   A fourth technique

 is wavelength modulation during spectral scanning employing simultaneous

 wavelength modulation at high frequency over narrow spectral regions

 with wavelength scanning at a lower rate.

      The sensitivity of the derivative spectrometric technique to

 faint absorption features makes it valuable for the detection and

 identification of trace gases in the atmosphere.  Care must be taken,

 however, to compensate for the derivative features due to Fraunhofer

 lines where detecting atmospheric pollutants using backscattered

 sunlight.

                     7.1.3.1.1.4  STARTAP Approach

                                  Another remote technique for deter-

 mining atmospheric pollution on a global scale is the approach given
                        •if
 the acronym of STARTAP.   It is based on the extinction of light

 from astronomical bodies.  Preliminary research has indicated that

analysis of stellar and solar spectrograms shows promise for identifying

various molecular species and atmospheric pollutants.  Analysis of

atmospheric -extinction  data indicates a very good correlation  with

atmospheric aerosol and particulate  levels.  With use of observations  on

 *Proposal  for Project STARTAP (Standardized Techniques for Atmospheric
      Research through Astronomical Procedures), P-321-7-71, Smithsonian
      Institution, July 1971.


                                 10

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file at observatories, it has become possible, for the first time,

to determine global trends in particulate loading during several

decades.  The approach makes use of these data and specifies the

potential exploitation of unique astronomical observing techniques as

a means of providing atmospheric pollution data that may be otherwise

unobtainable.

               7.1.3.1.2  Additional Information on In-Situ Monitoring
                          Techniques for Air Pollutants

                          Pollutants can generally be referred to as

particulates (either suspended or settled) and gases.  Particulate

matter below 20u in diameter is considered suspended particulate

(with special attention being paid to those below O.lu and respirable

fraction).  Currently, the prime measurement approach for total

suspended particulates is the high-volume sampler, which merely draws

air past a filter, where the suspended particulate is captured.  The

filter is then analyzed gravimetrically.  Analyses for metals, soluble

ions, cations,  anions, etc. are made by chemically analyzing portions

of the filter paper.  For the measurement of the respirable fraction,

inertial devices are used.  Various photometric devices, such as the

nephelometer and Volz sunphotometer, are used for aerosol measurement.

     For measurements of gaseous pollutants, several general principles

or techniques are used.  These include, but are not limited to, the

following:
                                  11

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     Cheniluminescence relies on the flourescence caused by the




chemical reaction of a pollutant gas on a surface treated with a




suitable dye (rhodamine B in the case of ozone monitors).  The light




emitted from the surface is collected in a photomultiplier tube,




the resulting current being proportional to the concentration of the




pollutant gas.




     Colorimetry relies on a color change in a liquid reagent,




caused by the absorption of an atmospheric contaminant.  In some




cases, this color change is noted by eye; but in most instruments,




the fluid is passed through a flow colorimeter that measures




absorption at a fixed wavelength.  The resultant color change is




proportional in intensity to the concentration of the contaminant.




     Conductimetry involves the absorption of an atmospheric con-




taminant in a liquid reagent (the contaminant must be an electrolyte




in solution) and subsequent measurement of the electrolyte conductivity,




which is then related to the concentration of contaminant in the




sample gas.  In sulfur dioxide sensors, the gas is absorbed in a




deionized water-based reagent.  This absorption produces an acid




whose conductance can be measured with a conductivity cell.  The





 change in conductivity is proportional to the sulfur dioxide




 absorbed.




      Coulometry involves a reaction between the atmospheric




 pollutant  being measured and a substance within an electrolytic




 cell.   This reaction produces  a change in the electromotive force,




 which is related to the pollutant concentration.
                                   12

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     Flame ionization is used to measure the concentration of




organic compounds in the atmosphere.  The air sample is burned in




a hydrogen-oxygen flame, causing the carbon atoms in the organic




material to become ionized.  The ions are collected, and the




measured charge is then proportional to the organic-pollutant




concentration in the air stream.




     Flame photometry determines pollutant concentrations by




measuring the intensity of the visible and ultraviolet spectra




emitted by pollutant molecules when the sample gas stream is




burned.




     Gas chromatography relies on the difference in mobility of




different molecular species traversing a column of packing material.




If a gas sample is introduced at one end of the column, the




molecular species move through the column at different rates and




appear at the end of the column sequentially, where they can be




identified by a variety of techniques, including flame photometry.




     Infrared spectroscopy determines the concentration of gaseous




pollutants by measuring the absorption of electromagnetic energy




by the characteristic vibrational excitations of the pollutant




molecules.  This approach can be used by both remote and in-situ




monitoring techniques.




     Microwave spectroscopy can determine the concentration of any




gaseous nollutant with a dinole moment bv measuring the absorption




of electromagnetic radiation by the characteristic rotational
                                   13

-------
 excitations of  the  pollutant  molecules.   This  approach  can  be used by




 both  remote and  in-situ  monitoring techniques.




      Nondispersive  infrared  (NDIR)  involves  the  absorption  of infrared




 radiation by an  atmospheric contaminant.  An infrared source, usually




 Nichrom  filaments,  generates  two  parallel beams  of  infrared radiation.




 One beam traverses  a sample cell,  and  the other  traverses a comparison




 cell  containing  a nonabsorbing  gas.  The  emergent radiation from both




 beams is directed to a detector cell,  which  consists of two gas-filled




 compartments separated by a flexible diaphragm.  An interrupter, or




 "chopper," located  between the  radiation  source  and the cells alternately




 blocks radiation to the  sample  cell and to the comparison cell.  When




 the infrared beams  are equal, then equal  amounts of radiation are entering




 the detector cell and a  "zero"  or background reading is recorded.  When




 the gas  to be analyzed is introduced into the sample cell, it absorbs




 (and reduces) the radiation reaching the  detector via the sample beam.




 The beams, therefore, become of unequal strength, thus causing the




 detector gases to expand or contract and  the diaphragm to move in response.




 This movement, when amplified,  gives an indication of the concentration of




 the sample gas.   The NDIR approach can be used by both remote and in-situ




monitoring techniques.




     Most of these methods, especially the uet-chemical ones,  have




numerous drawbacks.   One overall deficiency of prime concern is the




excessive failure rate of almost all air sampling instruments.   While much




attention has been given to their accuracy,  specificity, and similar




characteristics  little progress has been made in improving the reliability-







                                  14

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of sensor operation and for the integration of the monitoring techniques




into a regional system.




     7.1.3.2  Monitoring Techniques for Water Quality.  A requirements




analysis similar to the analysis for air pollution, discussed in Section




7.1.3.1, can be produced for the water quality field.  Some of the water




pollution parameters of interest are shown in Table 7-1-2 and require




precision for measurement of some nineteen of these quantities shown in




Table 7-1-3.



     The state of the art in in-situ water quality monitoring techniques




has not been assembled for this paper.  A digest of remote monitors is




included below.




     7.1.3.2.1  Remote Monitors for Water Quality.  The remote surveil-




lance of water surfaces has a history almost as old as the camera itself.




Practically speaking, however, it was the scientific developments during




and after World War II which placed remote sensing of land and water




areas on a sound footing with the development of heat sensitive, or IR,




film and radio frequency sounding techniques, .or radar.  More recently,




other technological advances have broadened the scope of remote sensing




instrumentation to include spectrometric, radiometric, passive microwave,




multispectral and other selected techniques.




     Historically, the primary basic sensor used for remote surveillance




of water and land surfaces has been the camera and it is likely to remain




so for some time because it is still the easiest, cheapest, simplest, and




most versatile of remote sensors.  Infrared film can readily distinguish
                                  15

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                             TABLE  7-1-2

                          WATER POLLUTANTS
 OXYGEN DEMANDING WASTES

*BOD
 TOC
 MBAS
*Nitrates & Nitrites as N
*Phosphorus

 INFECTIOUS AGENTS

 Microbiological
*Coliform
*Fecal Coliform

 PLANT NUTRIENTS

 MBAS
*Nitrates & Nitrites as N
-'Phosphorus

 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC

 Chemical Exotics and Pesticides
*Insecticides
*Herbicides
 CCE
 Oil and Grease

 INORGANIC AND MINERAL SUBSTANCES
 INORGANIC AND MINERAL SUBSTANCES (Cont'd)

*Lead
 Manganese
*Mercury
 Nickel
*Nitrates & Nitrites as N
*Phosphorus
 Selenium
 Silver
 Sulfate
 Strontium
 Tellurium
 Thallium
 Uranyl Ion
 Vanadium
*Zinc
 Cyanide
 Tin

 SEDIMENTS

*Turbidity
 Total Residue
 Filtrable Residue
 Total Dissolved Solids
 Hardness as CaCOo

 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS
 Aluminum
 Ammonia as N
 Antimony
 Arsenic
 Asbestos
 Barium
 Beryllium
 Boron
*Cadmium
 Chlorine
*Chroraium (hexavalent)
 Cobalt
 Copper
 Dissolved Oxygen
*Fluoride
 Hardness as
 Calcium
 Magnesium
 Molybdenum
 Iron
*Gross Beta
*Radium-226
*Strontium-90
 Thorium
 Uranium

 VIII,  Thermal

 Effluent heat content or
 temperature rise of effluent.
    Initial set of pollutants
    to be monitored
                                    16

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                           TABLE 7-1-3

     PARAMETERS OF CURRENT INTEREST FOR WHICH SENSORS DO MOT EXIST*
RANGES OF
CONCENTRATION
DESIRED
mg/1
PARAMETER
Organic nitrogen
Ammonia nitrogen
Nitrate nitrogen
Nitrite nitrogen
Inorganic phosphorus
Organic phosphorus
COD
**•
MBAS
Acidity or alkalinity
Hardness
Sulfate
Phenols
Calcium
Cyanide
Manganese
Zinc
Sodium
Potassium
Copfler
L M
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-0.1
0-2
0-2
0-50
0-1
0-250
0-250
0-100
0-0.5 0-5
0-100
0-0.1 0-1.0
0-0.5
0-2
0-100 0-500
0-10 0-100
0-0.5
H
0-10
0-10
0-10
0-2
0-20
0-20
0-500
1-10
0-1000
0-1000
0-1000
0-50
0-1000
0-10
0.5
0-10
0-5000
0-1000
0-5.0
PRECISION
DBS IRABLE
mg/I
L
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
1
J_
0.01
b
5
2
0.01
2
0.005
0.01
0.01
2
0.5
0.01
M H
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.5
0.5
10
0.1
50
50
20
0.1
20
0.05 0.5
0.1
0.5
10 100
5 50
0.1
** tfethylene blue active substances.
  'Green,  R.  S.,  Monitoring Water Quality for Pollution Control,  presented at
   12th Annual Analytical Instruments Division (AID) Symposium, Instrument
   Society of America,  on May 11, 1966, at Houston, Texas.

'JJOTE:  Since this paper was presented, decelopuents have been made in sensors
for nitrate, sulfate* sodium, potassium, and calcium.
                                   17

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between vegetation, bare land surfaces and water as can other conventional




color and black and white films, and in addition it lends itself to evalu-




ating thermal pollution, and to some extent, the biological productivity of




lakes and streams.  Photographic techniques have successfully been used in




detecting underwater outfalls, plumes of light-colored effluents resulting




from municipal waste treatment discharges, downstream eutrophication from




waste discharges, and land drainage wastes which may include leaves and




trash washed into streams and whose biological reduction by natural pro-




cesses may induce deoxygenation.  In addition, algae and other biological




activity can be imaged very distinctly in IR film.




     7.1.3.2.1.1  Multiband Camera.  Representative of this class of




instrument is the multiband camera.  The synoptic multiband camera system




combines the taking of a photograph of a very large scene along with the




ability to discriminate between objects in that scene.  This results from




differences in reflecting the various optical wavelengths from sunlight




illumination.  Stereo images complete this capability.




     The synoptic multiband camera system has uses in many applications




areas for remotely monitoring water quality and land use conditions.




Functional examples include multispectral photographic studies to identify




coastal water radiance, water color, wave refraction, algal blooms,




sedimentation and water luminance among others.




     From identification of these parameters it is expected that several




dynamic processes will be delineated, viz., coastal currents, biological




communities, refraction patterns from shoaling waves and breaking surf,




sea ice, etc.  In addition, it should be possible  to chart river effluent
                                  18

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discharge patterns, shallow water sediment migrations, coastal topography,




beach erosion, and shoreline changes.  Exanunation of relationships




between seasonal/climate changes and sea surface state for use in




oceanographic forecasting should also be possible from these experiments.




     These analyses are made possible because spectral differences in




reflection have been shown to correlate closely with compositional and




textural properties of material types thus providing a means of




discrimination.  Multiband (or multispectral) photographic techniques have




been employed recently with considerable success for such discrimination




from NASA, USDA, and USGS aircraft.




     Other instruments operating in different regions of the electro-




magnetic spectrum have more recently been proposed for remote sensing of




water and land surfaces.  Most of these are still in development or




being used in field trials by NASA, USDA, USGS, and DOD as well as in-




vestigators in the Private Sector.  Some of the more promising of these




techniques are briefly described below and illustrated with specific




examples.




     Closely allied to photographic techniques'in that the medium of




record is  film (or other heat sensitized surface) are multispectral line




scanners which generally operate in spectral bands between 0.35u and 15u.




This class of instruments is  most useful in detecting heated effluents




from power plants, industrial processes, monitoring surface temperatures




of rivers, lakes, and streams and has been highly effective in detecting




oil slicks in coastal waters  and lakes.   These instruments have the




great advantage of operating  during the day or night since the thermal




IR region  (>3u)  is an emissive region and does  not depend on the sun's
                                  19

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 reflected energy.   Generally,  these  instruments  are  more  costly  to
 operate and maintain  and  frequently  require  a  computer  to analyze the
 raw data.
      In contrast  to cameras  and  line scanners, radiometers, both micro-
 wave  and IR are non-imaging  sensors  which measure  emitted or  reflected
 electromagnetic energy and display this  information  on  a  strip chart or
 magnetic tape.  They  operate in  the  same spectral  domain  as multispectral
 imagers as well as  at microwave  frequencies  and  are  useful in recording
 spectral signatures of various objects and providing surface  temperature
 measurements.
     .Considerable success has been obtained  by NASA's Ames Research Center,
 for example, in detecting oil slicks through use   of a  radiometer and
 spectroradiometer they have  developed.   Based on the fact  that ordinary
 sea water reflects  blue-green  (0,45-0.50u) light most effectively and
 has almost no reflectance at UV  (0.38u)  or red (0.6u) wavelengths while
 oil, on the other hand, has  its  highest  reflection at 0.38u and 0.60u,
 the oil spills stood out dramatically at these wavelengths.   In addition,
 it was discovered that the polarization  of light reflected from the oil
 differed by about 25 percent from that reflected from the water.
     Microwave radiometers have  also been used for detecting  oil spills
 and have also been  employed  for  detecting sea ice, surface temperature,
 and salinity.
     The passive microwave imager, in contrast to the radiometer,
 constructs a picture of a viewed surface such that the light  and dark.
 intensities displayed on the image are related to the amounts of micro-
wave energy radiated by the objects  in the scene.  This  is similar to
 photography but requires specialized apparatus to receive and record
 the longer, invisible wavelengths involved which  are emitted by all
 objects as a result  of their temperatures.

                                  20

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     The passive microwave imager has  the potential for providing EPA




with complete stereoscopic brightness  temperature maps of lakes, streams,




oceans, etc.  This information helps describe the large surface areas




that can be rapidly covered by aircraft or spacecraft.  Surface features




detectable by this technique include surface temperatures and roughness,




temperature gradients, and water-ice interfaces, among others.  A lengthy




list of exemplary applications for this instrument is presented in the




March 1966 Prospectus for the Natural  Resources Program published by




NASA.




     One passive microwave imager commonly used for remote sensing




utilizes state-of-the-art receivers having internal-noise outputs of about




1°K.  On this basis temperature differentials of approximately 3°K wJ11 be




detectable with a probability greater  than 0.9.  Estimates of anticipated




temperature differentials to be encountered based on surface element




differences in roughness and/or dielectric constants point toward expected




differentials of 8°K or more.




     One of the newer passive microwave imaging systems was developed by




NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center.   This instrument, operating at 10.69 GHZS




uses a two-dimensional phased array antenna to achieve scanning transverse




to the flight path.  The instrument converts microwave signals to elec-




trical signals which modulate the control grid of a fluorescent tube.




The varying light signals on the face of the tube are recorded on 35 mm




black and white film.   The great advantage of this imager, as with other




microwave devices, is its all weather operational capabilities.  A




disadvantage is its poorer spatial resolution compared with conventional




photographic syste;ns.   However, this instrument should be useful in




monitoring large scale environmental changes during periods of inclement




weather when other instruments are rendered inoperable.





                                  21

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      In summary,  the passive microwave imager provides an essential




 remote  sensor  component  for monitoring environmental factors  related  to




 water surfaces  yielding  such information-as  thermal maps, surface




 structure,  and  inference on sub-surface features down to  tens  of centimeters




 depending on moisture or conductive content.




      7.1.3.2.1.2   Altimeter/Scatterometer.   Another useful sensor  operat-




 ing  in  the  microwave region is  the  radar altimeter/scatterometer.  This




 radar instrument  produces  onboard magnetic tape  records whose  informational




 content  contains  both measurements  of  the distance  of the instrument




 platform to the Earth (altimetry),  and the radar reflection properties of




 the  Earth's surface  structures  at various angles of elevation  from the




 vertical or nadir direction (scatterometry).   This  remote sensor operates



 at radio wavelengths  of  about 3 centimeters.




      An  alternate pulse  of  4 microseconds width  supplies  the information




 on the radar reflection  properties  of  ground  surfaces; technically, the




 scatter  cross-section of the ground  structure illuminated out  to an




 angle of 60° from the vertical.




      By  comparing  records of a  succession of  pulses  as the  aircraft moves




 forward, a  given  patch of ground is  viewed at diffex-ent angles so  that




 one  can  also derive  how  a given ground  element changes its  scatter




 ability with various  aspect  angles of  illumination.




      In  addition,  the  altimeter/scatterometer is  capable  of transmitting




 and  receiving horizontal and vertical polarizations.  These are radio




waves which generate  electrical voltages which arc maximum  in a direction




horizontal or vertical to the ground respectively.   Such  capability will




aid  considerable in  interpreting water  surface roughness.
                                  22

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     7.1.3.2.1.3 Sidelooking Airborne Radar .   Still another radar sensor




is the sidelooking radar which in  addition to being a day/night sensor,




is capable of functioning in all types of weather as well since it can




operate at microwave frequencies which are located in the atmospheric




windows.  Although this sensor was not specifically designed for pollu-




tion detection, it is nevertheless effective in monitoring strip and




pit mining operations as well as other large scale features of land and




water surfaces.  For example, sidelooking radar can also be used to




monitor extent and changes in large industrial waste ponds and detecting




oil spills.








     7.1.3.3 Monitoring Techniques for Noise.   Noise is generally defined




as "unwanted sound," but there is no generally accepted definition of




sound pollution.  Among the characteristics of sound that enter into




its becoming noise are intensity, frequency, intermittency, inappropriate-




ness, interference with the task of the hearer, unexpectedness and




masking effect of other sounds.  In addition,  culturally associated




preferences of the hearer enter into judgments about noise.   Thus, while




many people would no doubt agree that life is  becoming noisier, few are




able to suggest quantitative methods for characterizing the noisiness




of their environment.
                                  23

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     The effects of noise can be though of in terms of a physiological-

psychological dichotomy.  The major physiological effect of exposure to

loud sound is an impairment of hearing, either permanent or temporary.

The temporary effect, measured as a temporary shift in hearing threshold,

is similar to the phenomenon of not being able to see well in a darkened

room after having entered from a well-lighted area.  After long-term

exposure to excessive noise levels, the threshold shift can become

permanent, and the individual becomes "hard of hearing."

     Other physiological effects are pain, alternations in respiration

circulation, basal metabolic rate, and muscle tension.^  Many of these

are doubtless coupled to psychological effects such as nervousness,

anxiety, increased irritability and insomnia.  Yet other psychological

effects are related to the aesthetic qualities of sound.  Indeed, as

sounds are added to a quiet environment, the distinction between noise

and acceptable sound is likely to be made on aesthetic grounds.  Thus,

a baby crying in the next apartment or a dog barking across the street

will probably be considered disturbing noise, while the profusion of

bird, cricket and other animal calls at dusk would be welcomed by many

people.

     With so many types of attributes, some quantifiable, others so

dependent on cultural and personally variable standards ami responses,

an jail-inclusive index of noise and sound quality of the environment is

indeed an elusive goal.  One method for calculating an index on the

basis of average or reasonable life styles is described in the reference
      Breyssee, Peter A., "Sound Pollution - Another Urban Problem,"
The Science Teacher,  April 1970, pages 29-34.
                                  24

-------
below .   The approach is quite general and adaptable to change in


emphasis.  The specific exposure values and limits, while based on informa-


tion from the technical literature, are not rigidly prescribed and can


be adjusted to conform to expert consensus without invalidating the over-


all approach.  For further details on a new but within the state-of-


the-art noise monitor see "he reference below.


     7.1.3.4  Radiation.  Radioactivity can occur for air, land and


water.  However, this section deals only with those types of radiation


which are capable of injuring man and/or his environment.  These include


alpha and beta particles, protons, neutrons, cosmic radiation, gamma


rays, X-rays, and -microwaves.  Man is constantly exposed to radiation,


both natural and man-made.  Natural radiation derives from cosmic radia-


tion and naturally radioactive uubstances in the earth and instructural


materials.  Man-made sources include weapons fallout, color TV sets,


nuclear power plants, medical uses, kitchen appliances and radar hardware.


     The situation regarding radioactive pollution is somewhat unique


in that great foresight was involved at the dawn of the nuclear age in


terms of strict legislation and a sense of moving forward with caution.


Extensive studies, monitoring, and data collection have been performed


by the Atomic Energy Commission and branches of HEW for a number of


years.


     With regard to the overall annual radiation dose which the average


man receives, by far the biggest contribution is that of naturally

                                         *
occurring background radiation (reference, next page) for which he is not


responsible and cannot reduce appreciably.  Medical treatment, including
      "Monitoring the Environment of the Nation," Appendix A-2,

Mitre MTR 1660, April 1971, pages 91-106.
                                   25

-------
dental, diagnostic, and therapeutic uses, accounts for a somewhat

smaller amount with radioactive pollution also providing a relatively

small portion.

     Nevertheless, considering the trend toward installing more nuclear

power plants and the still uncertain long-term and synergistic effects

of radiation, it is necessary to maintain a strong monitoring capa-

bility in this area.  The United States has good cooperation with

Mexican and Canadian authorities with regard to their monitoring activi-

ties.

     7.1.3.4.1  Monitoring Networks and Quantities/Substances Sampled.

Contained in Table 7-1-4 are the names of a number of radiation monitor-

ing networks.  The monitoring techniques are contained in the four

references listed below.

     Information on the monitors and methods has not been performed but

it is believed that most networks have been built using AEC approved

hardware and procedures.

     A unified requirements analysis similar to the analysis for air

pollution monitoring techniques should be considered.

     7.1.3.5  Monitoring Techniques for Pesticides.  In order to trace

and assess the movement of pesticides throughout the environment, it
       *  "Radiation Biology," Allison P.  Casarett,  Prentice Hall (1968),

      **  "Radiation Surveillance Networks," WASH-1148,  Robert E. Allen
          (Nov.  1969).

     ***  National and  International Environmental Monitoring
          Activities—A Directory, Smithsonian Institution,  (Oct. 1970).

    ****  "Modifications of  Environmental  Surveillance Network
          Operations,"  Bureau of  Radiological Health (May  18, 1970).
                                  26

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                            TABLE 7-1-4

            Monitoring Networks & Quantities Sampled
  Media
    or
Category
AIR
    Netv/ork
      or
    Agency
     Sampled Quantities & Substances
Radiation Alert
Network, APCO/EPA

Health & Safety
Network, AEC

International
Atomic Energy
Agency, IAEA

Some IQSY sites
in U.S.

NOAA
TSP, gross a , gross /? , plutonium.pre-
precipitation & tap water

Plutonium, other radionuclides
                                 Hydrogen isotopes (deuterium & tritium
                                 and oxygen -18
                                 Cosmic radiation
                                 Gamma radiation
WATER       Tritium
            Surveillance
            System

            Bureau of
            Commercial
            Fisheries

            Geological
            Survey & Water
            Quality Office/
            EPA

            Bureau of
            Radiological
            Health
                     Surface water, precipitation monitoring,
                     gross $ , tap water
                     Radionuclides  in estuaries and
                     marine environment


                     Radionuclides ,   gross oc , gross
                     Drinking water
LAfJD
Soil Conservation
Service

Health & Safety
Lab, AEC
Strontium 90
                                 All radioactive contaminants on land
EFFECTS -   Pasteurized Milk
  FOOD      Network/EPA

            Institute of Total
            Diet/EPA
                     Radiochemical analysis of milk,
                     gamma scan       "     "    "
                     Monthly food and annual water sampled.
EFFECTS
  HUMAN
Human Bone Network

Alaskan Survey
                                 Cesium - 137
                                   27

-------
 is  necessary  to measure residues  in  the physical media  themselves,  as

 well  as  in human and  animal  tissues.   Programs  for such measuring in

 soil, water,  and air  are discussed.

     7.1.3.5.1   Soil.   Soil  is  the natural  receptacle for  pesticides

 which are applied to  crops;  residues  stored here can be carried into

 the atmosphere  attached to particulates,  and  into the hydrosphere by

 runoff.  It also is a source  of pesticides  for  soil organisms which

 can concentrate  them  and which  in turn serve  as  food for higher organisms

 (NPMP) .  For example,  Hunt  found in  1965 that  in DDT-sprayed elm

 environment, total pesticide  residues  (dry  weight) accumulated from

 9.9 ppm  in soil  to 140.6 ppm  in earthworms  to 443.9 ppm in adult robin

 brains (Hunt) .

     The U.S. Department of Agriculture conducts  a soil pesticide moni-

 toring program which is  part  of the National Soil Monitoring Program,

 sponsored by the  Federal Committee on  Pest  Control.  The major objective

 of  this program,  as determined  in 1968, has been  to derive a reasonably

 reliable estimate of pesticide  levels  in United  States soils with

 reference to land use.   This  includes:

     1.   determination of levels  of pesticide residues in soils on

         major land-use  areas and, through periodic samples,

         detection of changes in  these  levels;
            National Pesticide Monitoring Program, Report of the Monitoring
Panel, June, 1970.

     2Hunt, Effects of Pesticides on Fish and Wildlife, U.S. Department
of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Circular 226, 1965.


                                   28

-------
     2.  determination of pesticide residue levels in crops grown




         on treated soils;




     3.  determination of pesticide residues in runoff water of




         certain agricultural lands;




     4.  determination of the concentration of certain pesticides




         at various depths in the soil.




Two major land uses were included—cropland and noncropland.  Ten-acre




sites were randomly selected at the rate of one site per 40,000 acres




of cropland and one site per 400,000 acres of noncropland.  That rate




of sampling yielded 9,468 cropland sites and 3,822 noncropland sites




(about 13,300 cotal).   All soil samples were analyzed for chlorinated




hydrocarbon insecticides and arsenic, and analyses for other pesticides




were made on the basis of records of their use.  Other determinations




(crop levels, runoff water level, soil profile studies) were made at




selected sites.  The sampling schedule was planned to cycle in 4 years;




ie.,one-fourth of the sites (3,325) were to be sampled each year.




     When initiated in FY 1968, only 6 states were sampled.  In FY 1969.,




cropland was sampled in 43 states and noncropland in 10 states.  In




FY 1970, cropland was sampled in 35 states.  Because of lack of funds,




the program had to be redirected in FY 1971, and only a small portion




(corn and cotton belts) of the original monitoring efforts were con-




tinued.  The Monitoring Panel of the National Pesticides Monitoring




Program does not feel that under the reduced effort the objectives of




the program can be met, and recommends adequate financing and full




initiation of the monitoring program (MPMP).  Pesticides pose environ-




mental problems of which we are probably only beginning to feel the







                                  29

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effects and monitoring of these substances in soil, water, air, and
tissue, is an area we cannot afford to neglect.  Financing must be pro-
vided to bring the program up to standards the Monitoring Panel considers
adequate, and then data obtained can be used in an index of changing
residue levels.  Monitoring of residues in soil organisms, particularly
earthworms and beetles, and correlation of this data with soil residues,
might also be useful.
     7.1.3.5.2  Water.  A National Monitoring Program for the Assessment
of Pesticide Residues in the Hydrologic Environment has  been designed
in accordance with the objectives of the National Pesticides Monitoring
Program of the  Federal  Committee on Pest Control, subsequently
reorganized under the President's Cabinet Committee on the Environment.
It represents a revision of an earlier program initiated in 1967 by
the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (now Water Quality
Office) and the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves sampling of both
water and bottom sediments.   Water samples are to be collected four times
a year, and sediment samples twice a year, from 161 sites chosen at
random from hydrologic units within the 20 major drainage basins defined
by the Water Resources Council.   Under the plan, analysis will be made
for the following chlorinated insecticides and herbicides:
         ALDRIN        HEPTACHLOR            2,4-D
         CHLORODANE    HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE    2,4,5-T
         DDD           LINDANE               SILVEX
         DDE           MALATHION
         DDT           METHYL PARATH10N
         DIELDRIN      PARATHION
         ENDRIN        TOXAPHENE
                                  30

-------
High, median, and low pesticide levels for the major drainage areas


will be reported in the Pesticides Monitoring Journal.  Correlation of


pesticide levels with other hydrologic data should be attempted.


     A request has been made for funding of this program as part of the


National Water Data Network implementation in the 1972 fiscal year by


the U.S. Geological Survey under Bureau of the Budget Circular A-67 (NPMP)


Once again, this is an area of crucial importance.  As more and more


toxic materials are being released into our environment, we must have


some way of assessing the buildup of these materials, and correlating


such buildup with levels in biota, as well as with geographical regions


and sources.  It is recommended that such funding indeed be carried


through, and that data on these insecticides be correlated with data


on residues in fresh-water fish.


     7.1.3.5.3  Air.  The atmosphere has been recognized as one of the


major routes by which DDT is carried to the oceans and thus becomes


widespread throughout the environment (SCEP) _   xhe Monitoring Panel


of the National Pesticides Monitoring Program has recommended that air


sampling be conducted in a minimum of 40 to 60 separate areas of the


country, with boundaries of these areas determined on an arbitrary


basis, such as longitude-latitude, and with sampling sites within each


area selected and operated according to a random design (NPMP).   Moni-


toring of air over coastal regions might be particularly useful.  Funding


for such a program must be provided if an adequate picture of the spread


of these substances in the environment is to be obtained.   Such data,
     1
      SCEP, Man's Impact on the Global Environment, Report of the Study
on Critical Environmental Problems, sponsored by the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1970.
                                  31

-------
when obtained, could be used in an environmental index, and should also

be correlated with that derived from other programs (soil, water, tissue

residues).

     Monitoring techniques for pesticides are more logically concerned

with the methods used in the air and xjater media programs and the programs

of FDA and DOA.  Again it is suggested that a uniform review be performed

of all involved agencies and a combined requirements analysis be performed.

Automated techniques will be difficult to develop but should not be down-

graded for that reason.

     7.1.3.6  Monitoring Technique for Solid Waste.  The days when com-
munities could count on-the ready availability of disposal sites for their

solid wastes have nearly passed for many areas, and the problem will soon

catch up with others.  Open dumping is not only unaesthetic and hazardous

to health (harborage and food source for insect and rodent pests,

polluting of runoff water, pollution of air when burned, etc.), but land

suitable for such outright destruction is becoming scarce.  Even the more

benign practice of sanitary landfill (area or trench methods) is said

to require about one acre per 10,000 people per year.   As cities expand

there is a very real shortage of new acreage available which is within

economic hauling distance of the cities.  Deep ravines have greater

capacity, but their supply, too, is limited.  While incinerators

generally offer an efficient and hygienic means of disposing of combusti-

ble waste, they produce ash which must be hauled away and disposed of

elsewhere, and if not outfitted with proper emission control devices,

incinerators can contribute significantly to air pollution.

     At the other side of the picture are the wastes being disposed of.

Our technology, productive capacity, and inherent system of economic
       Benarde, Melvin A.,  "Our Precarious Habitat," W. W. Norton &
 Co. Inc., New York  1970, page  357.

                                  32

-------
 incentive encourage the disposal rather than the re-use  of many items.




 Few are designed for degradability after their prescribed useful lives,




 since so many items are fabricated of relatively inert plastics, metals




 and glasses.




      Increased per capita consumption of materials also adds to the




 rate of growth of the solid waste problem.   Degradable solid wastes can




 become especially troublesome when they are generated in too great




 concentrations for natural decomposition processes to assimilate them.




 On the other hand, large quantities of concentrated wastes have the




 potential value of permitting economies of scale when they are treated




 artificially, especially if there is a market for the end-product of




 the treatment.




      Yet another dimension of the problem is the rising labor and capital




 costs associated with collection and disposal of solid waste.  Trash




 collection and sanitation personnel demand and receive higher wages re-




 flective of their increased status and critical importance in the scheme




 of community processes.   More demanding treatment requirements and




 shortages in disposal sites are driving up the unit costs of solid waste




 management.   The premium on extracting nonrenewable resources f-rom the




"waste stream" must surely increase.  Thus,  there are bound to be funda-




 mental readjustments in solid waste management practices, just based on




 these conventional economic considerations  alone.




      Simple mass balance considerations suffice to illustrate that the




 amount of any type of waste discharged at the end of a waste stream is




 equal to the amount input to the system plus amounts generated within




 the system by conversion of other types (assumed negligible except for




 incinerator ash) less-those amounts reclaimed from the waste stream for







                                   33

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recycling or other re-use.  The parameters chosen below to characterize




solid waste issues are generally reflective of these input-output con-




siderations and their associated costs.




     7.1.3.6.1  Materials Balance Parameters.  In a broad sense, the




materials balance story of solid waste can be told by filling in the




matrix of Table 7-1-5.  The source categories are intended to be complete




as well as mutually exclusive, and likewise for the disposal categories.




Each of these sets of categories is amenable to restructuring or other




modification without changing the overall meaning of the parameters.




The various cells of the matrix contain the amounts of solid waste from




a given source (index = ra) disposed in a particular way (index = n).




The interesting measures of amount are weight Wrm, volume Vmn. and,




perhaps, combustion energy content Hmn.  Weights expres&ed in tons or




thousands of kilograms per year for municipalities, states, regions and




industrial sectors should be adequate.  Similarly, volumes, expressed




in cubic meters per year  or hectare-meters per year, are expressive of




the amount of volume that solid wastes take up.  Where the average




energy content of the different sources of waste is a meaningful number,




a rough indication of the energy picture can be assembled as well.  It




is anticipated that the "industrial" category would have to be subdivided




into several constituent groups of similar materials before energy content




figures would be meaningful.  Units of energy content are kilocalories




per kilogram, or, perhaps, kilowatt-hours per 1000 kilograms (metric ton).

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                                                   TABLE 7-1-5

                                         MATERIALS BALANCE AND COST PARAMETERS
RESIDENTIAL
CO:"IERCIAL &
INSTITUTIONAL:
        COLLECTED
       UXCOLLECTED
INDUSTRIAL
:!IN IXG
 DEMOLITION
 WASTES
 AGRICULTURAL
SEWAGE TREATMENT
    RESIDUE
 DEAD AMIMALS
 TOTAL
 WEIGHT T'Jir.n
        Vnn
•j ENERGY CONTENT Ham
' COST OF COLLECTION CCinn
 COST OF DISPOSAL

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     For further details concerning the mass balance method for monitoring

solid waste procedure, see reference below.   Monitors per se for solid

wastes are non-existent other than weight, volume, distance, and heat

content devices or estimation procedures.

     Networks for data gathering are discussed in the reference below

along with suggested forms of data aggregation.

     7.1.4  Platforms  In order to obtain some initial remote sensing

data it would be desirable to station a light aircraft in each of the

ten EPA Regions equipped with a metric camera, 1R Scanner and possibly

other unsophisticated sensors.  Such an instrumented platform would

perform many useful functions, including qualitative monitoring of

environmental parameters whenever contingency factors so required.

     Where broader and systematic monitoring of environmental quality

is desired, EPA Headquarters will assign larger and more fully instrumented

aircraft which can acquire quantitative data and provide standard data

products to each region.  The Western Environmental Research Laboratory

is being considered as a facility which could provide these extended

services in the Western United States.  At least one other such facility

with aircraft capability will be necessary East of the Mississippi River.

DOD, with its many aircraft already equipped with sophisticated sensors

such as side-looking radar, multiband cameras and multi-spectral scanners,

could provide EPA with an interim capability for monitoring environmental

degradation provided an agreement with the DOD can be arranged.

     The Regional Offices should also be cognizant of the many remote

sensing projects already underway by NASA, USGS, USDA, NOAA, and DOD which
       Monitoring the Environment of the Nation."  Mitre MTR 1660,
April 1971.   Appendix A-3, pages 149-160.
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are acquiring remote and in-situ sensor data.  These include aircraft
flights such as U--2, P-3, C-130 and RB57, and spacecraft programs such
as ERTS and Skylab (See five references below).
          0  ERTS - General Electric Space Division
          0  ERTS - Ground Data Handling System,
             NASA Preliminary Description
          0  Aircraft Remote Sensing Systems,
             NASA/HSC - 04165, May 1971.
          0  Skylab A-EREP Users Handbook
             NASA/MSC, February 1971.
          0  Memorandum to ERSPRC from NASA,
             ERTS Simulation Tests Areas with U-2 Aircraft.
In addition, NASA's Earth Observations Office will operate a Data
Collection System (DCS) employing in-situ sensors which relay data to
satellites for retransmittal to ground stations once the Earch Resources
Technology Satellite is launched in March 1972.
     7.2.0  Suggested Discussion Topics
     7.2.1  Make all remote monitoring techniques, vehicles, data
transmission, data processing and data analysis research and development
planning and funding a function to be performed at the Office of Monitoring
level for the present.  This should include all satellite, aircraft, ground
and water borne mobile and fixed stations where the information gathered
includes remote and in-situ monitoring networks.  Data gathering by remote
monitoring may be delegated to the Federal regional offices at some later
date when such systems are more operational in nature.  A logical alter-
native to this suggestion is to establish 2 or 3 sub-national remote
monitoring centers within the Office of Monitoring such centers could be
loaned to tha  10 regional offices as required.
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     7.2.2  Devise specifications  for all monitoring techniques




within the EPA organization but delegate and support monetarily the




monitor and/or method development  in outside agencies where possible.




     -  Satellite and aircraft sensors when feasible (including ground




        stations, when practicable) to NASA and/or DOD.




     -  Radiation sensor development to AEC and HEW, when feasible.




     -  Noise sensors development  to DOT and DOC, when feasible.




     -  Retain air, water, pesticide and solid waste sensor




        development in EPA.




     -  Hydrologic and meteorologic sensor development




        to DOC, when feasible.



          7.2.3   Review the delegation for monitoring  techniques




 development  in light  of the Ash  Federal Government Reorganization




 Plan in  order  to  minimize  the disturbances which  will  occur  during




 the  process  of  this major  Federal  reorganization.




          7.2.4    Devise sociologic and economic monitoring  techniques




 (monitor  and methods) within EPA with  committee support  from  OMB,




 HEW, HUD,  DOC,  DOT.




          7.2.5    Develop a plan  for the monitoring techniques required'




 for  5  to  10  environmental  indices.  Select indices and techniques  on




 the  basis  the  ability to produce public displays  by  July 72.   Use  the




 NOAA network for  dissemination of  these indices in addition to the




 normal channels of communication to the public through the 10 regional



offices.  Devise a  method for measuring  the public  acceptance of the




indices release.
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     7.2.6  Place special emphasis on the generation of monitoring




techniques which can sense the national and global trends of




pollution.  Develop a plan for this service.  Should this service be




separate and distinct from the service performed by 10 EPA regional




offices?
                                   39

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