TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
MANUAL
               Training
                  and
           Employment
                   in
          Environmental
               Service
Region 9
   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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                     TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE MANUAL
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for
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environmental
service
occupations
                 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE MANUAL
  Based on the experience gained in the implementation of
the WIN/EPA/DOL Interagency Agreement for the training
and employment  of people in environmental service occu-
pations during the year 1974.
                                     * *
             Prepared and published by
           SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, INC.
        Phoenix       Dallas       Norman



                      for the

       Office of Education and Manpower Planning
           Environmental Protection Agency
              Washington, D. C. 20460


                  November 1974

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           EPA REVIEW NOTICE
    This report has been reviewed  by the  Environmental
Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views
and policies  of the Environmental Protection Agency, nor
does mention of trade names or commercial products consti-
tute endorsement or recommendation for use.

          #  *             * *               * *

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                           CONTENTS

Section
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  ......................     "
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................    '"
FOREWORD  ............................    iv
PREFATORY NOTES .........................     v

   I.  INTRODUCTION  .......................     1

  II.  PILOT PROJECT CONCEPT  ...................     3
      Basic Plan of the Project  .....................     3
      Dissemination of Information About the Project  ...........     4

  III.  PILOT PROJECT ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION  .....     7
      Interagency Agreement  .....................     7
      National Project Organization  ...................     8
      State Program Organization   ...................    13
      Coordination With Federal Work Incentive Program  ..........    16
      Summary   ..........................    26

  IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ..........    27
      Scope of Manpower Development  .................    27
      Job Development  .......................    28
      Recruitment   .........................    39
      Support Services ........................    42
      Job Training Components  ....................    46
      Supervised Work Experience  ...................    49
      Permanent Employment .....................    50
      Evaluation  ..........................    51
      Summary  ..........................    52

   V.  NEW MANPOWER DESIGN  ...................    55
      CETA ............................    55
      Changes in WIN ........................    59
      Summary  ..........................    60

  VI.  MODELS OF PROPOSALS, PROGRAMS, AND AGREEMENTS FOR
          TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT ...............    62
       Introduction   .........................    62
      Project Proposal ........................    63
      Program for Training and Employment  ...............    75
      Subagreement for Training ....................    85
      Subagreement With WIN .....................    89

  VII.  MAJOR CONCERNS AND ACHIEVEMENTS IN TRAINING AND
          EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS  .................    93

 VIII.   USE OF THIS  MANUAL  ....................   97
       Job Development
       Trainee Recruitment
   IX.  ANNOTATED REFERENCES  ..................   1°3

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                  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS
                                                                     Page
National Organization for Training and Employment Project	10

Local Organization for Training and Employment Program	15

Flow Chart—How an AFDC Recipient Moves from Welfare Status into the
    Work Force	18

Example of Recruitment Mailing Piece—Maryland	31

Example of Recruitment Mailing Piece—Colorado	33

Example of Public Information Piece—EPA	35

Example of Bulletin Board Poster-EPA	37

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                         ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    The Environmental Protection  Agency wishes to acknowledge and thank the Denver
Regional Council of Governments, the North Central Texas Council of Governments, the
Louisiana State  Department of Education,  the Maryland State Department of Natural
Resources, and the South Carolina State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education
for their contributions and cooperation as Prime Sponsors in the WIN/EPA/DOL project
from which  this Technical Assistance Manual stems. The Project Directors and other staff
personnel with each of the five organizations made specific and substantial contributions to
the development of the information contained herein.
    The EPA also acknowledges and thanks the Employment Service organizations and the
Work  Incentive Program agencies in each of the five states for the technical help, advice, and
direct assistance given in the implementation of the training and employment programs. Too,
it  was from  the contacts with people in these organizations that much information for this
document was obtained.
     The material in this document is representative of training and employment in some of
the many facets of environmental control. Recognition is hereby  given to the units of
government, professional  associations, and  other agencies  that  are supporting training
efforts in environmental control, in particular, and public employment, in general.
     Dissemination of information by  means of this Manual should be most helpful in the
continuing programs in fields such as water utility and solid waste disposal. It is expected,
also, that with appropriate adaptations and interpretations the information will be useful in
other occupational fields such as pest control which is now of so much concern to state
departments of agriculture.
                                        in

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                                 FOREWORD
     In 1973, a joint project was developed by the Manpower Administration of the Depart-
ment of Labor and the Office of Education and Manpower Planning of the Environmental
Protection Agency for the purpose of training some 700 welfare recipients for environmental
service jobs. In this  project training and employment are now being offered in a wide range
of jobs in water purification and distribution, sewage treatment, garbage disposal, air pol-
lution control, and pest extermination. The trainee-workers are the employable recipients of
Aid to Families  with  Dependent  Children (AFDC)  enrolled in  the Work Incentive (WIN)
Program. To make  the experience  gained  in the pilot project available nationwide, this
Technical Assistance Manual was prepared for distribution to state and local officials. It is a
comprehensive manual for setting up and administering community programs to train welfare
recipients for environmental protection jobs.
     This Manual deals with the  training and employment of a unique group of people-
individuals from families who have been receiving Aid for Dependent Children. It presents
information derived from the experiences of employers, caseworkers, trainers, job developers,
and  others who have been involved in the training and  employment of people from the
rolls of WIN. The material  herein is being made available to  others in the hope that the
development of new programs of a similar nature will be made easier and more effective.

                                          George Pratt, Director
                                          Office  of Education and Manpower Planning
                                          U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                         IV

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                           PREFATORY  NOTES
     The aim of this  Technical Assistance Manual is to tell the unvarnished truth about a
unique and challenging program of employment and training. In effect, it is the story of how
welfare recipients  are being converted to wage earners by means of  the VVIN/EPA/DOL
interagency project. The valid and practical information in this Manual will take on value
when used by people engaged in the development and implementation of similar programs.
     In some ways, this Manual is an antidote for too  little understanding of the problems
that challenge people who administer or otherwise work in such programs. It is an attempt
to spell out which techniques really work and which are likely to backfire.
     Problems of training and employing people constantly change.  They  demand new
techniques and new tools to  achieve manpower  development goals. The organizations in
which  people work, the training and hiring methods, the workers who are trained, all differ
markedly from  decade to decade. The external forces such as national economics, levels of
employment, energy crises, and consumer prices exert strong influences on the workers, the
trainers, and the employers. Some of these changing variables are integrated in the explana-
tions and descriptions contained in this manual.
     With a view toward realistic helpfulness, practicality based upon experience, integration
of change, and  coverage of the whole job of training and employment, this Manual should
aid:
     * * *   The Administrator—as foundational information useful in day-to-day operation
                 and  control of a program.
     * * *   The  Training Coordinator or  Instructor—as a guide  for offering training  in
                 employment relationships and in related job abilities and skills.
     * * *  The  Welfare Caseworker—as a pilot approach to job development and recruit-
                 ment of people to train for and work in new environmental service jobs.
     *  * *  The  Supervisor or Foreman—as a reference of methods for handling new work-
                 ers and helping them to succeed in environmental jobs.
 In varying circumstances and in diverse kinds of training and work climates, caseworkers,
 instructors, and work supervisors endeavor to guide and help people. They perform a vital
 and unique role in the job recruitment-training-employment interface. In programs  such as
 the one dealt with in this Technical Assistance Manual, they do their  work  under difficult
 and complex circumstances.
     For these and other reasons, it is hoped that this Manual will add new insights into such
 urgent problems as dealing with women in the environmental work force, helping people who
 have been hindered from engaging in work, enticing employers who have need for workers
 but hedge on  hiring welfare  recipients,  eliminating the  obstacles that appear to  exist in
 certain career ladders, and  providing transportation to work when the public system is not
 adequate.
                                          John M. Ropes, Assistant Director
                                          Office of Education and Manpower Planning
                                          U. S. Environmental Protection Agency

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                                     SECTION I

                              INTRODUCTION

     In  the United States, in the past several years, there has developed a solid realization
that pollution of the environment is an urgent national problem. Continued industrialization,
increased population, and urbanization provide ever-mounting evidence that pollution will
become more critical even in the face of some rather substantial efforts to alleviate the
problem. Environmental pollution control systems, equipment, and facilities are being up-
graded and new equipment and facilities are being built at a rapid rate. Meaningful efforts
to protect the environment are underway at local, state, regional, and national levels.
     There are  major obstacles, however, in the way of solving the problem of pollution
control. One  of these is the shortage of trained manpower. The technical aspects of treating
water and wastewater, collecting and disposing of solid waste, controlling and exterminating
pests, cutting down the ill effects of automobile emissions, and so forth have resulted in a
need for trained people that is not now being met. In part the lack of trained manpower is
due to circumstances in which the kinds and patterns of job training have not been clearly
developed.
     The  training and employment of people for environmental protection occupations
should take three significant directions. First, there must be pre-employment or job-readiness
training to be  followed  by immediate employment in which there is continuing in-service
training. Second, there must  be upgrade kinds of technical training to enable people to take
steps up career ladders. Third, there must  be training by which people may acquire the
special and unique skills required for effective leadmanship, foremanship, and supervision.
Without these  kinds of training for employment in environmental service occupations it is
unlikely that the labor force can be developed to adequately control and protect our water,
land, and air  resources.
     There is importance attached to environmental manpower planning and development.
This is recognized by environmental control and regulatory agencies, by  state and national
associations, by educational agencies, and by both private and public organizations either
directly or indirectly involved with the operation and maintenance of environmental control
facilities. Large numbers of people are getting involved in the many activities required in the
accomplishment  of national environmental control objectives. Yet, the total effort lacks
cohesion and is falling  far short of meeting the need. This is largely true because the ap-
 proach remains piecemeal with efforts going off on tangents because there is no unified
approach.
     In manpower planning today there is understanding that the problem must be identified
and the objectives must be  established. Then, it is necessary to examine alternatives and
select the best approach to  manpower development. When the approach is determined, it
becomes a matter of implementation with proper monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of
programs. These are the classic steps toward manpower planning and development. These
steps and  the  techniques required  to execute  them are fundamentally the same for man-
power development in any field and at local, state, and national  levels. They are about the
same for the private company involved with  pest control as they are for the city government
that is much concerned about wastewater treatment.
      The far-reaching nature and scope of the environmental service needs for skilled man-
 power has only recently become apparent.  Thus, it should be expected that relatively few
 people are truly concerned about meeting those  needs.  An adequate nationwide  plan is
 lacking and  certainly the funding of training progams for substantial numbers of people
 will be slow  in coming.

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     It was a small group of people, working at the national level, who came up with the
WIN/EPA/DOL project on which this Manual is based. The outreach of the project has been
felt in twenty  or more states, in larger and lesser degrees. It will take much more  training
and the development of many more employment opportunities to bring about the desired
results in environmental manpower development. Perhaps, under the provisions of the
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) there will be  substantial gains. In a
few states, such as Connecticut and Louisiana, the possibilities under CETA are  now be-
coming apparent. In those states CETA funds for the fiscal year 1975 are being  directed
toward solving environmental manpower  problems. But, in accomplishing training and
employment of people in any field, under the auspices of CETA, the work must be  done by
state or local prime sponsors. The prime sponsors have no political power of their own. They
must depend for influence upon the governors, mayors, and county officials to whom they
are ultimately responsible. With "politics," the name of the game,  nationwide results in
terms of environmental manpower development may be  slow in coming. In  some states,
however, major programs with major outcomes will be in operation during 1975.

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                                    SECTION II

                      PILOT PROJECT CONCEPT

     A systematic plan with nationwide implications is needed to provide unemployed,
underemployed, and otherwise disadvantaged people with the basic general abilities and
some of the specific skills required  for entry into jobs in the environmental service fields.
Such a plan should be rooted in a unified conceptual approach to training for environmental
jobs. Of fundamental concern must  be the opening up of opportunities for employment in
non-traditional types of jobs. Too, there must be concern for keeping disadvantaged people
from being "tested  out" of jobs or in  other ways being  hindered from taking jobs in
environmental work units.
     The WIN/EPA/DOL Interagency Agreement, under which training is now  being given
in five states and under which this Technical Assistance Manual was produced, is an example
of a systematic plan such as is prescribed above. The Agreement was developed with nation-
wide implications. It was aimed at the training and employment of disadvantaged persons in
environmental  service jobs.  The "pilot" nature of the project became abundantly clear as
the  interface  relationships were  established  with  potential employers, WIN caseworkers,
WIN administrative personnel, AFDC recipient trainee-workers, training instructors, admin-
istrators, on-the-job supervisors, and others. The multiple challenges took shape early  and
the solving of many problems became the daily routine in each of the program sites.
     The  pilot project concept was defined at the outset and  has been fundamental to all
program operations. That concept is: To prepare AFDC recipients by means of innovative
curriculums and methodology for permanent employment in environmental service occupa-
tions that are in most instances new  or alien to the trainee-workers.

                                Basic Plan of the Project
      The Interagency Agreement stipulated that the development and control of the project
 should be at the national level, stemming from the Environmental Protection Agency. It was
 the WIN/DOL National Office that established the  makeup of the target population that
 should benefit from the training and employment opportunities. In terms  of operation of
 the program, it was state and/or local prime sponsors who became responsible. In effect,
 this was a unified conceptual approach from the outset.
      Prime sponsors in five states were initially chosen to provide geographic representation
 and difference in types of organizations. Both state and local types of organizations are
 among the prime sponsors. Also, there are many  different  characteristics of people in the
 target populations drawn from the five states.
      Fundamental to the  operational development of  the program in each state is the
 belief that "welfare" does not alleviate the despair and resentment of society  which result
 from unemployment, whatever  the cause  of that lack  of wage earning may be. Welfare
 provides the necessities of life but  adds nothing to a person's stature, nor does  it relieve the
 frustrations that  grow.  In  short, the price  of public assistance, such as AFDC, is loss of
 human dignity. Doing something about this became the task of each state or local prime
 sponsor organization.  The "doing" now consists of providing  a wide variety of training and
 employment  opportunities wherein the AFDC recipients  are matched up with  existing
 environmental service jobs.
      As implemented in the five states, the training and employment programs are similar
 in most  respects yet  substantially  different in certain ways. To illustrate:  in one state the
 major problem  is  locating and recruiting  AFDC  recipients to  enter training and  take

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environmental jobs. In sharp contrast, in another state, the major problem is development of
job opportunities for the significant numbers of AFDC recipients who are available. In the
first instance, much time and effort is required in working through the WIN organization to
"entice" people into accepting training and entering into employment. In the second in-
stance, much time and effort is required in working through public and private employing
units to "entice" employers to accept the AFDC recipients in non-traditional employment
circumstances. In both instances, people interactions, usually based on emotions rather than
reasoning, are at the crux of the problem.
     Uniquely, in this project, the original intent of training and placement of people in jobs
became relatively easy  to accomplish but only after the other aspects, job development and
recruitment, were implemented through much hard work and perseverance  on the part of
numerous individuals. As the challenges in job development and recruitment became appar-
ent, so did the realization that  the WIN/EPA/DOL project is unlike  other training and
employment programs. The program involves much more  than pre-job training with the
hope of placement. In contrast,  each job has to  be found—each trainee-worker has to be
recruited—the training  has  to be new and innovative—people  have to be factored into
supervised  work experiences—follow-up has to be done to ensure permanent employment.
Both the nature and the scope of this project extend far beyond the limits  of programs of
the  past, such as those under the auspices of  the Manpower  Development and Training
Act (MDTA).

                    Dissemination of Information About the Project
     This Technical Assistance Manual was prepared for the purpose of providing detailed
information covering the implementation of a WIN training and employment program. This
Manual contains pertinent instructions and guidelines for implementing all phases of a WIN
program. The material for it was derived from the  five ongoing state and  local programs
growing out of the national program under a WIN/EPA/DOL Interagency Agreement.
     The experiences in five states are the basis for material herein that is descriptive  of the
ongoing program. Those same experiences constitute the basis  for suggestions and recom-
mendations relative to future programs for training WIN people to fill environmental service
jobs. The intent of this document, then, is to show how the goals of both WIN and EPA can
be achieved through joint efforts with a unified approach.
     There are a variety of funding arrangements that may be developed through the  use of
federal, state, and local monies. There are many kinds of linkages that can be formed through
state agencies such as  environmental quality control councils, state departments of health,
state departments  of  agriculture, state  departments  of education, vocational-technical
training units, WIN  groups,  state  employment service units, and CETA units. In  particular,
funding for job slots,  such as the WIN-OJT and WIN-PSE  programs provide, may become
extremely  valuable in making training under  CETA useful where environmental service jobs
are available.
     The Office of Education and Manpower Planning of the EPA,  through its representa-
tives and special consultants, has had  contacts during 1974 with approximately 25 of the
States. People in environmental control agencies, departments of health, and other agencies
were contacted  with reference to the need for environmental training, job opportunities,
and general interest in the ways and means of better controlling the environment.
     During the visitations to various  states certain discoveries were made relative to the
WIN/EPA  approach to training  and  employment  in environmental service jobs. Certain
selected findings include the following:
     1. State, county, and local environmental quality agencies are generally  not knowledge-
        able concerning the WIN program.

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    2. Conference meetings, that  included state environmental quality agency and WIN
       officials,  were productive because questions and problems  were resolved  to  the
       mutual satisfaction of the various officials.
    3. The various state environmental quality agency directors expressed interest in having
       WIN program clients join the environmental labor force.
    4. The state and local environmental quality agency officials expressed the need for
       assessment studies and job development work in their respective governmental units.
       They stressed that funds must become available to staff the organization and admin-
       istration of joint WIN/EPA efforts.
Twelve states made up the group  from which letters professing interest in WIN/EPA pro-
grams were sent to  the EPA. The letters also requested additional information and, in
particular, sought sources of money for use in developing administrative arrangements under
which CETA training funds might be combined with WIN-OJT and WIN-PSE job slot funds
to make a joint WIN/EPA program work.
    Because this Technical Assistance Manual contains references to many of the problems
and challenges that have already  been  raised in numerous states, it is perhaps a good vehicle
for dissemination of  information about the WIN/EPA concept of training and  employment.
The Manual is comprehensive and  it is directed toward enabling local program officials to
solely promote, develop, and administer a WIN program. The remainder of this document,
then, is devoted to a description of the  pilot project organization and administration, to how
environmental service manpower may  be developed, to ways and means of establishing new
programs such as through CETA coordination with WIN, and, finally, to models of programs
and devices required to make training and employment programs effective.

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                                   SECTION III

                PILOT PROJECT ORGANIZATION
                       AND ADMINISTRATION
    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for execution of the
Federal environmental pollution control and abatement program. In exercising this responsi-
bility, the EPA has had to come to grips with the problem of building and maintaining skilled
manpower for the operation of pollution control facilities. To help in solving the manpower
problem, the  EPA has made its Office of Education and Manpower Planning (OEMP) the
focal and coordinating unit for developing training and employment programs. The OEMP
played a major role  in the  development  of the WIN/EPA/DOL Interagency Agreement
No. 99-4-0001-021.
     It should be noted that the OEMP is now encouraging environmental control agencies
in all of the states to lead the way in developing a broad base for training and employment
of people in environmental  service occupations. In particular, the OEMP effort is directed
toward providing  guidelines and assistance to CETA, WIN, Department of Health, Depart-
ment of  Agriculture, and other state agencies who may be providing training and employ-
ment required to meet the need for entry and upgrade workers in environmental jobs.

                               Interagency Agreement
     The  Environmental  Protection Agency, as the  National Grant Agency (NGA), in
cooperation with  the Department of Labor (DOL) agreed to establish and operate a project
to provide job training and placement assistance to welfare recipients enrolled in the Federal
Work Incentive Program. The participants in this project are those receiving Aid to Families
with  Dependent Children. The primary objective of this co-effort is to provide able-bodied
AFDC recipients  with opportunities for full-time career employment in the environmental
pollution control and abatement fields. Training programs were established and operated
initially in five states (Colorado, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina, and Texas). These five
programs got underway in 1974 with classes formed at several metropolitan locations during
the months of  February through June. Information is accumulating concerning the results,
mostly good, that are being achieved in the current operation of these programs.
      In this interagency project, the two principal participants, the EPA and the DOL, are
 seeking  the achievement of identical goals in training and employment of disadvantaged
 people. The EPA and the DOL, at the national level, establish the basic guidelines for train-
 ing and employment. The  EPA and  the DOL also define the parameters of funding and
 exercise control over costs.

 Environmental Protection Agency
      The EPA  became the National Grant Agency and the administration of the total pro-
 gram was delegated to its Office  of Education and Manpower Planning. The  OEMP has
initiated and  is performing the following functions:
      1. Selecting grant recipients who shall be the state or local sponsoring agencies.
      2. Assisting in development and execution of grant agreements between the NGA and
        the selected  grant recipients in accordance with  requirements of the  WIN/DOL
        National Office.
      3. Furnishing the technical personnel to promote, develop, and administer the training
        program for adult AFDC recipients for jobs in environmental services.

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    4. Providing technical assistance, as needed, to the state/local sponsoring grantees in
       carrying out the objectives of the WIN program, including guidance in setting up
       systems in  financial control and reporting, as required by  the WIN/DO L National
       Office.
In particular, the OEMP accepted responsibility for establishing needed methods of main-
taining solid accountability  for all relevant aspects of the training and employment to be
provided for approximately 700 trainee-workers.
     The broad role of the OEMP under the Interagency Agreement has involved the  pro-
motion,  development, and  administration of the "national" program  with  training and
employment centered in five states. The more specific duties of the OEMP are:
     1. Monitoring the individual grant programs bimonthly.
     2. Providing EPA/WIN representatives to function at local levels.
     3. Submitting summary monthly narrative activity reports to the WIN/DO L National
       Office staff by the 15th of each month.
     4. Submitting regular financial  reports to the DOL, as  designated by the WIN/DOL
       National Office.
In the performance of these duties, the OEMP staff has engaged in much communication
with personnel in each of the five states, has traveled extensively  in monitoring activities,
and has conducted quarterly conferences to expedite the overall implementation of the
training and employment program. The span of control of the OEMP staff currently extends
to more than 75 instructors, counselors, caseworkers, coordinators, data assistants, clerical
workers, and project directors in the five states.

WIN/DOL National Office
     To round out  the cooperative  aspects of  this national project,  the Federal Work
Incentive Program organization of the Department of Labor agreed to  encourage its  local
units in the five  states to recruit trainee-workers for training and  employment in environ-
mental occupations.  The trainee-worker recruits are people receiving financial help  and
other services rendered by the WIN II organization through Aid to Families with Dependent
 Children. It was  the DOL that  agreed to initially fund this project for the  training and
employment of 700 persons in  five states. The  expectation was that, as the pilot project
shaped up  and good results could be verified, funding would be provided for similar  pro-
grams in additional states and for continuation of all programs into the years ahead. Toward
that end, two  additional programs have been funded and are underway in Connecticut and
 Montana.
      The WIN/DOL National Office has initiated and is performing  the following functions:
      1. Programmatic reviewing of the individual state project proposals and modifications.
      2. Monitoring of the National Grant Agency's individual grants.
      3. Providing  technical assistance to both the NGA and its local sponsoring grantees.
 Along with other tasks the performance of  these functions has required maintenance of
 channels of communication and WIN/DOL representation at quarterly conferences of
 national and local staff personnel.

                              National Project Organization
      The EPA  (National Grant Agency), through its Office of Education and  Manpower
 Planning, has promoted, developed, and is now administering through local grant recipients
 the environmental training and employment program designed to:
      1. Provide remedial education and  skill training to approximately 700 adult welfare
        recipients (entry enrollees).
      2. Ensure the placement of these 700  individuals in  established budgeted  positions
        located in  selected  public and quasi-public  agencies performing  environmental
        services.

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The OEMP has selected for training grants those state and/or local project sponsors who, by
evaluation, met  the  criteria to effectively carry  out the goals and objectives of the WIN/
EPA/DOL program.  The OEMP has conveyed copies of negotiated state and/or local grant
proposals to the  Office  of Work Incentive  Programs, Manpower Administration, U. S.
Department of Labor.

Objective of Office of Education and Manpower Planning
     The edict under which the OEMP was  organized indicates that the objective of the
Office is:
     .... to assure the continuing availability of an adequate number of trained peo-
     ple to meet the present and projected needs of a national work force for pollution
     abatement and control.
Generally, the OEMP role is to stress planning, policy guidance, and assistance to states and
localities to staff their pollution control agencies and operating  units, upgrade the skills of
 environmental employees, and assist in developing state and local training programs.
     The promotion, development, and administration of the WIN/EPA/DOL project for
 the training and employment of 700 people constitutes a major effort toward fulfillment of
 the objective of the OEMP. In specific ways,  the OEMP provides a management overview of
 this national  project. The OEMP monitors and evaluates  the resources brought to  bear on
 environmental manpower problems in the local grant areas. The OEMP provides leadership
 in the planning, coordination, and evaluation of the manpower development activities. Of
 much importance is the help rendered by the OEMP staff in assessing needs,  formulating
 policies, developing guidelines, and identifying imbalances and critical need areas.

 WIN/EPA Project Staff
      Although  this WIN/EPA/DOL project is extensive in nature and broad in scope, it  is
 administered by  a  relatively small staff in Washington, D. C. The staff is indicated on the
 organization chart on the next page. The Director and the  Assistant Director of the Office of
 Education and Manpower Planning in the Environmental Protection Agency are, of course,
 directly responsible for the project. They exercise  authority over it. It is responsibility for
 the actual operation of the project that is  delegated or assigned to the WIN/EPA Project
 Director. It is the Project Director who really "runs with the project" in all of its detail. To
 more clearly define the national administration applied to this  project, the following pages
  include descriptions of each of the staff positions involved.
       Project Director—The national Project Director is responsible for developing, coordina-
  ting, monitoring, and evaluating all phases of the program within the established guidelines.
  The  Project Director  receives general administrative guidance from the OEMP.  The major
  responsibilities of the Project Director are:
       1. Developing and  implementing instruction and guidelines for program administration
         in cooperation with the WIN/DOL National Office.
       2. Initiating program adjustments and refinements to  meet  new developments and
         unforeseen requirements.
       3. Providing direct technical guidance and assistance on-site to state and local authori-
         ties in the administration and implementation of program goals.
       4. Developing, coordinating, and supervising program accounting procedures and fiscal
         controls, including the collection, tabulation, and analysis of program reports.
       5. Making regular  reports,  as required, to  the WIN/DOL  National Office on program
         progress, program evaluation, and financial  summaries.

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National Organization
for WIN/EPA/DOL
Employment and
Training Project
                                      NATIONAL  GRANT AGENCY
                                      (Office  of Education and Man-
                                      power Planning, Environmental
                                      Protection Agency)
                                      WIN/EPA PROJECT DIRECTOR
        PROGRAM MONITORS
                 (2)
ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT
PROGRAM
REPRESENTATIVES   (2)
                                            CLERK-TYPISTS
                                                  (3)
                                 (Organization of prime sponsors in seven states
                                  for field training and WIN support personnel)

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     6. Developing fiscal controls to ensure valid expenditures of public monies allocated to
       program administration.
     7. Representing, with approval of the OEMP Director, the OEMP in WIN/DOL meet-
       ings concerning program appraisal, new developments, and requirements.
     8. Initiating recommendations to higher officials for use in developing or modifying
       NGA policy and instructions.
Under guidance of the OEMP Director and Assistant Director, the national Project Director
supervises a staff consisting  of an  Administrative Assistant, three Program Monitors, two
Program Representatives, and three  Clerk-Typists.
     Administrative Assistant—Under the direct supervision of the national Project Director
the prime responsibilities of the Administrative Assistant are:
     1. Tabulating and  maintaining all project data submitted to the OEMP headquarters,
       such records to include enrollee  and training data, by individual, and all budget and
       fiscal data, by program.
     2. Preparing monthly project training summaries and financial data.
     3. Preparing and submitting program reports and data as requested or required by the
       National Grant Agency, Department of Labor,  Federal Work  Incentive Program,
        Separate Administrative Units, IMU, and/or Employment Service.
An important aspect of the work  of the Administrative  Assistant is the development of
arrangements and coordination of the activities for the quarterly conferences of local and
national staff personnel.
     Program Monitors—Under the  supervision of the national Project Director, two Program
Monitors are assigned to ensure fiscal and program compliance. Their primary duties entail
reviewing all phases of project operation and effectiveness, providing technical assistance
when required, and recommending and implementing changes for  improvement. Unless
otherwise directed, on-site, bimonthly monitoring visits are made to each ongoing project.
After each  monitoring visit, a narrative report  is prepared and submitted to the national
Project Director.
      Program Representatives—To  acquaint state and local officials with the objectives and
merits  of  the WIN/EPA approach to  training,  Program Representatives were employed
through the University of Oklahoma. Essentially, they fulfilled two goals: (1) to "sell" the
WIN/EPA plan for  training  to state and local communities and U. S.  employment agencies
 where WIN-OJT funds were available and (2) to obtain commitments from local employers
 to place WIN recipients in vacant environmental service jobs. These Program Representatives
 were not  responsbile  for administering subcontracts per se. They did provide assistance,
 guidance,  and  encouragement to  local organizations that  were considering how to most
 effectively utilize available funds for training and employment.
      In the performance of their functions, the Program Representatives were given consid-
 erable latitude with respect to visiting various states and localities  nationwide. Continuous
 travel was involved since their prime responsibilities were  performed at the local level.
      These Program Representatives made regular monthly progress  reports  and  special
 reports to the OEMP staff and the WIN/DOL National  Office. Their reports reflected the
 strong interest in training WIN recipients for environmental service occupations that exists
 in the nineteen states they visited over the six-month period.
      Clerk-Typists—The Clerk-Typists  assigned to  the WIN/EPA/DOL project  provide
 necessary secretarial, clerical, typewriting, filing, and other office support services. In partic-
 ular, their duties  entail clerical  service  support  to the  OEMP  staff who have project
 responsibilities.

 Management of the National Project
      Management of this WIN/EPA/DOL  training and employment project is the direct
 responsibility of the Office of Education and Manpower  Planning  of the Environmental
                                           11

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Protection Agency. It is the OEMP that must at all times exert leadership in terms of plan-
ning, operating, and controlling the various aspects of the total project. These aspects of the
required leadership permeate the project from the national level, to the state level, to the
classroom, to the job itself. In most instances, the leadership takes on person-to-person
relationships with good communications and full  understanding becoming vital in each of
the functional aspects.
     The personnel of OEMP  responsible for this  project cannot have person-to-person
relationships with  each trainee-worker. The leadership of the OEMP staff has its effect,
however, and is usually discernible in the contacts with trainee-workers that are made by the
job developers, the WIN caseworkers, the training  instructors,  the on-site work supervisors,
and others.
     Three  levels and several sublevels of  management are evident in this WIN/EPA/DOL
project.  The top level of management is exercised by the OEMP, the middle level by the
state or local program grantee, and the operating level of management by the people directly
charged  with the training and employment. Make no mistake,  however, in comparing these
levels of management. The only difference in the managerial requirements between the top
level exercised in Washington, D. C., and the operating level exercised in the classroom or on
the job is one of degree. The managerial cycle in this project has three functional elements,
all of which are performed by all managers or coordinators.  The functional elements are
planning, operating, and controlling.
     Planning—Planning involves looking ahead and formalizing a course of action both for
the immediate problems and for those on the  horizon. Planning is important at all of the
levels of management in this project, but planning and the policy making associated with it
are of more concern to the top level managers than to those  on the operations level. The
planning by the staff of OEMP began with  formulation of the Interagency Agreement. That
planning has continued into the establishment of programs in  seven states. It now involves
considerations relating to  continuation of  ongoing programs and the establishment of
additional programs in other states.
     The results of the planning by  the OEMP staff are evident in the  ongoing programs.
Adaptations and modifications in  the planning by the national staff are effected through
on-site  visitations and in the quarterly meetings of the national and local staff groups.  To
date the adaptions  and modifications have  been relatively few in number and rather easy to
make. Policies established by  the national staff have been easy to follow at the state and
local levels.
     Operating—Operations in this project consist primarily of the person-to-person  contacts
and the directions  required for getting things done—the training and employment of AFDC
recipients. Once the plan was  laid down hi Washington, the  job of carrying out the plan
became  one of organizing the  operations at  the local grant level. The operating processes
established  through cooperative actions are easy to understand and appreciate. It is making
those operations work through  people that becomes difficult in this project. There are
multiple person-to-person contacts required. Each  contact must be  carefully established and
nurtured over a period of time.
     While the OEMP staff has primary concern for the planning that went into this project,
the staff concern for operations is  not so immediate nor so deep. Through the planning and
controlling  management elements, the OEMP  staff tends to work around operations. The
staff helps in every way possible to guide the local person-to-person contacts but is more or
less helpless when it comes to doing much about such contacts. On the other hand, however,
the OEMP staff has performed extremely well in maintaining the basic operations contacts
between the national office and the administrative personnel in  the local  programs.  The
national office staff only  infrequently and informally has contacts with the AFDC recipient
trainee-workers, with  instructors, and with  work-site  supervisors.
                                         12

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     Con trolling—Controlling in the WIN/EPA/DOL project is  the  process of  observing
when things are out of line and taking the necessary action to bring them back under control.
The  necessary action usually involves measuring, restraining, or changing. The OEMP staff
has done these things very well in this project. The organizational structure of the project
has allowed for the delegation of authority for control to individuals at the top, middle, and
operational levels of management. At the top level, the OEMP staff has  been concerned
with guiding the development of local programs of training and employment and funding of
them. The staff has properly  maintained relations and good communications with the
WIN/DOL groups in Washington.
     In  each state  or local program, there has been concern for control of costs, numbers of
trainee-workers, effectiveness of instruction,  and so forth. At the national  level, of course,
such concern  has been multiplied by the number of programs and thus the nature of that
concern is  intensified and the scope  of it is extended. One of the primary control concerns
involves the current success or failure of the program and, at the same time, there is concern
for the  future funding and maintenance of  operations. In these regards, only the national
organization, the OEMP staff, has direct influences upon the outcomes.

                              State Program Organization
     In each of the  states there are  now groups having responsibilities connected with the
development of manpower and training programs. In each of the states there is at least one,
and often  more, group(s) having  particular responsibility for the coordination of resources
and programs for  the development of environmental manpower.  It is through some of these
groups  that state  and local programs were  established under the WIN/EPA/DOL national
project.
     The seven state programs  that have been established under the Interagency Agreement
were formulated either through state or local agencies with intent to provide the necessary
labor force to enhance and preserve the quality of air, water, and land through prevention,
control, and abatement  of pollution. In the seven states the organizations now  performing
as state or local grantees are:
      Colorado—Denver Regional  Council of Governments
      Connecticut—State Department of Environmental Protection
      Louisiana—State Department of Education
      Maryland—State Department of Natural Resources
      Montana—State Department of Health and Environmental Sciences
      South Carolina—State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education
      Texas—North Central Texas Council of Governments
 It is apparent that four different kinds of agencies have the responsibility for developing
 and operating the WIN/EPA programs in  the seven states. Only in Colorado and Texas can
 it be assumed that  the  organizations are similar in terms of the bases from which the pro-
 grams  stem.
      Each of the states or local  grantees indicated above is a significant and busy agency in
 its  own right. In each  case, the WIN/EPA training and employment program is only one,
 perhaps relatively small, facet  of the business of the agency. The program comes under the
 scrutiny and  control of the head  of the agency, but the operational management is delegated
 to  the local  Program Director. The program takes on  significance, is given direction, and
 becomes effective in relation to the efforts and leadership skills of that Program Director.

 State or Local Program Staff
      The  head of the state or  local program grantee agency is likely to keep informed about
 the WIN/EPA training and employment program. (S)he may place an immediate assistant in
                                         13

-------
general charge of the program and in control over the use of the funds provided for it; but,
the task of making the program fully operative is assigned to an individual designated as the
"Program Director." The Program Director then proceeds to employ a small staff, arranges
through subagreements to get the training done, and supervises the placement of the trainee-
workers in environmental jobs. The organization chart on the next page shows the deploy-
ment of personnel in the local grant program. The techniques and procedures for getting
things done are at least partially pictured in the job descriptions that follow.
     Program Director—The Program Director has overall supervisory responsibility for the
training and placement of AFDC  recipients as set forth in the agreement between the local
grantee and the National  Grant  Agency. (S)he works closely with various agencies and  in
particular  with the local WIN agency and employing organizations. This individual reviews
all training progress reports and financial statements before submitting them to the NGA
and/or the WIN/DOL National Office. (S)he supervises directly the work  of the Job De-
veloper, the Training Coordinator, and the Data Assistant. The Program Director negotiates
and  initiates subagreements as required in component parts  of the program.  (S)he monitors
all  training  activities  and oversees  the execution of budgetary, logistical, and other  pro-
cedures and policies.
     Job Developer—The Job Developer has overall responsibility  for developing environ-
mental jobs through contacts with employers in both the public and quasi-public  sectors.
(S)he  works closely with and provides a communications linkage  between  the WIN/EPA
program, WIN caseworkers, job trainers, employers, work supervisors, and trainee-workers.
In developing environmental jobs  (s)he is required  in  many  cases to  foster  changes  in
employer  attitudes and to negotiate changes in entrance standards and/or restructuring  of
jobs. The Job Developer engages in follow-up activities to maintain  employer acceptance  of
trainee-workers and is familiar with all aspects of the program including the training, ad-
ministration, wage reimbursement, and support services.
     Data Assistant—The Data Assistant is the "office manager" of the program under direct
supervision  of the Program  Director.  (S)he  is responsible  for collecting,  analyzing, and
tabulating  all  training and financial data in connection with the program. (S)he maintains
all enrollee training and placement records and progress reports. The Data Assistant prepares
regular reports, both training and financial, for submission to  the NGA and/or the WIN/DOL
National Office and maintains all records and accounts so that they may be readily available
for examination by the NGA Program Monitor.
     Training  Coordinator—The  Training Coordinator is responsible for determining the
needs  of trainee-workers while  they are in the training component of this program. (S)he
decides how those needs will be met, either through  classroom or on-the-job training.  The
Training Coordinator  works closely with the Job Developer to ensure coordination of the
needs of the trainee-workers and the needs of the potential employers. The main concerns  of
the  Training Coordinator are:  planning of the curriculum, development of instructional
materials, evaluation of training effectiveness, and continuous modification and restructuring
as needs change. The Training Coordinator's  intent is to provide the best possible training
and  to factor trainee-workers into supervised work experience  and  permanent employment
quickly  and easily.  At all times the Training Coordinator is involved with content and
methodology.  (S)he frequently assumes the role of the Instructor  to provide instruction  in
his/her areas of expertise or to demonstrate to  others how  the instructing should be done.
     Instructoi—The Instructor is  responsible for the day-to-day instruction required in the
program. (S)he may assist the Training Coordinator in the identification of training needs,
in developing materials, or in evaluating the effects of the  instruction. The Instructor fre-
quently functions as a "counselor" with regard to job training and personal problems of the
                                         14

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Local Organization
for WIN/EPA Training
and Employment
Program
                                                  STATE OR LOCAL
                                                  WIN/EPA PROJECT
                                                  GRANT RECIPIENT
     EMPLOYING
  ORGANIZATIONS
     PROGRAM DIRECTOR
                                      LOCAL WIN
                                      DIRECTOR
                            Job
                         Developer
 Training
Coordinator
 Data
Assistant
                                            Instructors
                                                                                                        WIN
                                                                                                     Caseworkers
                                         TRAINEE-WORKERS

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trainee-worker. One of the principle tasks of the Instructor is to make the trainee-worker
comfortable in the activities required for preparation for a job that is new or alien to the
individual. The Instructor may pave the way to employment by accompanying the trainee-
worker to the job site and helping to introduce him/her to the job.

Subagreements for Training
     It should  be noted here that the state or local grantees do not ordinarily have opera-
tional units for the offering of training in the relatively special aspects of environmental job
training.  They, therefore, enter into subagreements with training organizations to provide
that job  training.  In so doing the state or local grantee obtains additional administrative
and/or supervisory  kinds of support. The training organization that actually does the train-
ing has its  own administrative  and  supervisory personnel who enter the picture to help
ensure that the training and job placement are done in full accord with all requirements and
standards. Such supervisory help may be provided on a regular basis or it may be sporadic on
an "as needed" basis.

                    Coordination with Federal Work Incentive Program
     The Work Incentive Program has been a major national effort since 1968 to help peo-
ple on Aid to Families with Dependent Children become productive workers. Under the
Social Security Act (SSA), WIN has the tools it needs to bring job-related help to a signifi-
cant share of the Nation's welfare population.
     The WIN program offers job-finding aid to AFDC recipients who are ready to work and
services such as job training, counseling, medical aid, and child care to those who need such
help in order to get ready for work. WIN is operated jointly by the Department of Labor and
the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) through state employment ser-
vices (or other manpower agencies) and welfare agencies across the country.
     It is with the  substantial and ongoing program  of WIN that the effort to train and
employ some 700  welfare recipients for environmental  service occupations is coordinated.
The first plans for the WIN/EPA/DOL national project were formulated with representatives
of the three organizations in Washington, D. C. The operational development of the training
and employment programs in each of the seven states was coordinated with the state and/or
local programs of WIN. The fundamental nature of WIN is sufficiently unique to warrant a
description in  this Technical Assistance Manual. That description follows in this section.
Additional  material  about coordination with  WIN  appears elsewhere.  For example,  in
Section IV, Environmental Manpower Development, there are references to WIN in terms of
recruitment of trainee-workers, support services for them, and other component parts of the
total program of training and employment.

Functions of the WIN Organization
     The current  WIN II  program was created from  the  WIN I program  by  the 1971
Amendments  to the Social Security Act. WIN  II shares with its predecessor the goal  of
helping recipients of AFDC become economically self-sufficient through employment.
     The purpose of WIN is to assist AFDC recipients, registered with WIN on a mandatory
or voluntary basis, to enter meaningful employment which will increase their self-sufficiency
and, as a corollary, decrease their welfare  grants or  remove them from the welfare rolls
completely. WIN accomplishes  this through a  combination of employment-related man-
power and  social  services. A  maximum effort is made to  utilize existing manpower and
supportive services furnished through non-WIN funding sources.
     WIN II is jointly administered  by the Department of  Labor and the Department  of
Health, Education, and Welfare to assure that AFDC recipients receive the manpower and
                                        16

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supportive services needed for employment. This shared responsibility and close cooperation
exists at national, regional, state, and local levels. For example, HEW requires and funds in
each state welfare agency a separate administrative unit  (SAU) which is responsible for the
provision  of supportive services to WIN participants. At the national  and regional levels,
staffs from  the two  Departments are  collocated. Many state and  local offices also have
collocated all or part of their staffs.
     Approximately 330  WIN projects have been established  in locations in the United
States covering 75 percent of the AFDC population. With the exception of the State of New
Hampshire and the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, these are operated under the sponsor-
ship of  State  Employment Security (ES) agencies. WIN operates as  a separate unit and
generally has its own State Administrative Unit.
     WIN offers a series of activities and components through its legislation and regulations.
Please refer to the next page for a flow chart which depicts how the components fit together.
Specifics of the activities  and components that are pertinent to the WIN/EPA/DOL training
and employment program are described  here.

Registration of AFDC Recipients
     One  of the major requirements of the WIN legislation is that all AFDC recipients,
unless exempted by law, must register for employment and manpower services as a condition
for receiving AFDC benefits. These individuals are called "mandatory registrants." The only
AFDC recipients or applicants who are exempted from registration are:
     1. Those incapacitated or 65 and older.
     2. Those  living too far from a WIN project to participate effectively (measured by
       living more than two hours total daily commuting time from a participation site).
     3. Those caring for an incapacitated person in the home.
     4. Mothers with children under 6 years of age.
     5. Mothers, when an adult male relative in the home is registered with WIN.
     6. Children under 16, or those 16-21 who are in school full time.
Any  exempt person  may volunteer to participate in WIN  and a large number  do  so. A
mandatory registrant may  become exempt, and  vice versa, as the individual's status is
altered by changes in his/her personal or family circumstances.
     The  WIN legislation  also established  a priority of services for WIN  registrants.  De-
pending upon the degree  of  employability, those unemployed fathers in states which allow
unemployed fathers to receive AFDC benefits who do not quality for an exemption from
registration  are mandatory registrants  and must be served first, voluntary  registrants have
second priority, and other mandatory registrants have third.

Appraisal of Registrants
     Appraisal interviews are conducted to determine a registrant's appropriateness for WIN
participation  by determining  the degree of employability and  the  extent and type of
supportive service  needs.  Welfare agency staff assigned to  Separate Administrative Units
participate in  the appraisal interviews with WIN/ES staff. If during the appraisal interview it
is determined that a registrant is appropriate for WIN participation, an employability plan
(EP) is developed which maps out the  manpower and supportive service needs required to
enable  the  participant to reach  his/her career  goal. Specifically,  in  the  WIN/EPA/DOL
project,  mandatory registrants,  when  considered job ready by  the  local  WIN  appraisal
interviewers, are referred to the  training program  for entry job training and appropriate
employment in an environmental service job.
     A  mandatory registrant cannot refuse  without good  cause either to appear for an
appraisal  interview, participate  in  WIN, or to accept appropriate employment without
                                          17

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                                   ALL AFDC
                                    Recipients
         Not Registered
 yes
             \
                      \

                                KEY:
                                Decision point =

                                Program status =
                                           no
                                 Registered with
                                 WIN and regis-
                                   trant pool
                               Appraised for job skills
                              and need for supportive
                                     services
                   no
         Appropriate
        for WIN Partici-
            pation
                   yes
         -
WIN activities: orientation, job
 development, OJT, PSE, etc.
                  no
                                                                     33
                                                                     CD
                                                                     CD
                                                                     Q.
                                                                     m
                                                                     3
                                                                     o
                                                                     CD
                                                                     Q.
                                                                     cr
CD
i.
<
(Q
c
•o
CD"
CD
                                                                     O
                                                                     cr
                                                                     CD
                                                                     CD
                             Job Entry and WIN follow-up
                                   FLOW CHART
HOW AN AFDC RECIPIENT MOVES FROM WELFARE STATUS INTO THE WORK FORCE
                                        18

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jeopardizing his/her AFDC benefits (but this  will not affect the children's portion of the
grant). This legislatively mandated work test  takes on  significance in the WIN/EPA/DOL
project because it  is applicable to all  mandatory registrants  in  WIN regardless of their
involvement with any other program or activity.

Certification of Availability of Support Services
     When the WIN staff requests specific supportive services for  a  client, the SAU staff
must certify that these services are either available or not available at the time requested,
and if available, arrange for their provision. No certification occurs if the services needed are
not available.  (Certification is required by legislation to be completed within thirty days for
all unemployed fathers.)
     The certification  process  is  helpful to the state and/or  local Prime Sponsor  in the
WIN/EPA/DOL project. In many instances  supportive  service  needs  and their availability
have already been identified and substantiated by WIN. In some instances support services
already are being provided or  arranged for either partially or fully.

Orientation
     This component  is intended to familiarize participants with WIN and the world of
work and to help them develop job seeking skills. Orientation may last up to four weeks and
may include job search activities.
     Since the orientation component in WIN varies considerably from project to project,
and since state and/or local Prime Sponsors  of this WIN/EPA/DOL project also provide
 orientation, it is essential that both sponsors be aware of the content of the orientation that
 is provided to a  client  by the other program. The other orientation may include much more
 than just specific program information. This information allows both sponsors to structure
 the orientation for an individual enrolled in both programs in a complementary manner.

 Suspense
      This is the component  which gives WIN its greatest flexibility in coordinating with
 other manpower programs. Participants enter suspense when there is a manpower activity
 outside of the WIN program  that will help them expedite the completion of their employa-
 bility plan. Persons in suspense retain  their status as WIN participants.  If the activity or
 program to which the  participant is suspended pays its enrollees an incentive allowance and
 the cost of expenses related to the activity, then WIN does  not duplicate these payments. If,
 however, the activity to which the participant is suspended does not  make these payments,
 WIN will pay them. WIN also may provide  necessary supportive services, such as child care,
 counseling, etc.
      Consideration of the suspense status of the AFDC recipient is a good illustration of
 how linkages between programs are developed and how they  affect the individuals.  In this
 instance the linkages  that may  be developed  with the  programs of the Comprehensive
 Employment and Training Act (CETA) are important.
      As stated in Section 95.34(g) of the CETA regulations, an incentive allowance of $30
 per week shall be paid  to all  CETA enrollees receiving public assistance payments.  WIN
 participants suspended to CETA  would receive the CETA incentive allowance. In addition,
 all WIN participants  suspended  to CETA  activities and  services are subject  to the  same
 regulations and  privileges as  other CETA enrollees, except where  WIN legislation and regu-
 lations specifically have priority. Such instances are discussed in this Manual.
      When an  individual is  in the suspense component, (s)he is suspended for a specific
 activity [e.g., On-the-Job Training (OJT) or  Public Service Employment (PSE)]  not for a
 program (such as CETA). This is an important distinction for Prime Sponsors to be aware of,
                                           19

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since  a change of activities within CETA will require a corresponding change  in the in-
dividual's employ ability plan.
     In those locations where WIN participants in  the  WIN/EPA/DOL  project may be
suspended to CETA, the flow of information is greatly expedited by selecting certain staff
members in each program who can establish regular communications concerning the client's
progress. CETA Prime Sponsors also should  be aware that WIN information on suspended
participants, except some confidential counseling records, is available to the  CETA  spon-
sors upon request. Examples are test results, the employability plan, supportive service  needs,
financial status, etc.

 Institutional/Classroom Training
     This includes skill training as well as other classroom training such as basic education.
When WIN  provides training of any kind, it  is provided through a subcontract with another
organization. Normally, it is training for high-demand occupations,  which will enhance the
 placement  potential  of  participants who are less than job ready. WIN  legislation  sets a
 maximum of one year training for WIN participants.
      WIN is not in a position to meet all the training needs of WIN clients.  For example, the
 legislation requires that  one-third of all WIN/DOL  expenditures be for OJT and PSE. It,
 therefore,  is important  that WIN  sponsors secure various types of  institutional training
 from  other sources. The Secretary of Labor is mandated by the  Social Security Act to
 utilize all authority available under that or any other Act to assure that  such services and
 opportunities are provided to WIN registrants (SSA, Section 432d). It should be noted that
 this  component or activity  of WIN has not yet been utilized in connection with the WIN/
 EPA/DOL project.

 On-The-Job Training
      In WIN,  participants  may enter employment under a contract with  either private
 employers  or non-profit organizations. Under the terms of the contract the employer may
 be reimbursed for the cost of training the employee if a commitment to hire the employee
 is made at  the termination of the contract.  Linkages with this component of WIN are now
 in effect in each of the state and/or local programs of the WIN/EPA/DOL project.
      The WIN-OJT contracts  include a commitment to hire at the end  of the subsidized
 employment period. Thus, there  is application of the principle of "hire first, train later"
 that has long been successful in job training and employment. WIN requires that placement
 be the immediate goal.
       WIN-OJT contracts have a maximum duration of eighteen months. The minimum dur-
 ation of a  WIN-OJT contract is  four weeks. However, a state may increase the minimum
 length of time to eight weeks.
      A portion  of the salary  paid to WIN-OJT participants who are mothers on AFDC is
 disregarded when the amount of their AFDC benefits is computed. WIN pays two  dollars
 per day for training  related expenses to participants entering OJT until  they receive their
 first paycheck.
      WIN has a legislative requirement to expend one-third of WIN/DOL funds on WIN-OJT
 and  WIN-PSE each fiscal year.

 Public Service Employment
      In WIN, participants employed under a PSE contract are employed by local, county, or
 state governments or by non-profit organizations. The maximum salary that can be paid to a
 WIN-PSE  participant is $12,000. WIN also can fund up to 100 percent  of the employee's
 first-year salary, under special circumstances  75 percent of the second year, and 50 percent
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of the third. No subsidized  wages are allowed beyond the  third year. Here, again, is  a
component of WIN which is being used effectively in the WIN/EPA/DOL project.
    WIN pays two dollars per day for training related expenses to participants entering PSE
until they  receive their first paycheck. The SSA Amendments of 1971 specify that the
income disregard for AFDC mothers does not apply to WIN-PSE participants.
    WIN may fund no more than 20 percent of the  total PSE contracts for longer than one
year, with 100 percent wage reimbursement available to the employer the first year, 75 per-
cent the second year, and 50 percent the third year.
    Again, it should be noted that WIN has a legislative requirement to expend one-third
of WIN/DO L funds on WIN-OJT and WIN-PSE each fiscal year.

Full-time Employment
    This WIN component covers  the  first ninety days of permanent, unsubsidized, full-
time employment. It may occur  as a result of an individual's own efforts, through a direct
WIN placement,  or after a  period of  subsidized  employment (OJT or PSE) has ended.
Follow-up activities are carried out during the job entry period by the WIN staff to ensure
the smoothest possible transition into  employment by the participant. Supportive services
also are provided during the job entry period.

Supportive Services
     All of the above WIN manpower components (orientation, suspense, institutional, OJT,
PSE, and Job Entry) are complemented by the ongoing services of counseling, coaching, up-
grading, technical assistance,  and follow-up. Participants in these WIN components also are
eligible for, and may be provided with, when needed, the following supportive services:
     1. Child care
     2. Transportation
     3. Remedial medical assistance (health-related medical assistance)
     4. Vocational rehabilitation
     5. Housing
     6. Home management and other functional education
     7. Homemaker
     8. Family planning
 In the WIN/EPA/DOL project there is much evidence to support the view that without the
 support services  provided by WIN most AFDC recipients cannot gain access to employment.

 Joint Planning
     An understanding of the WIN program requirements, as well as its goals and emphases,
 is  important to  Prime Sponsors in planning programs in their areas. When  planning the
 coordination and linkages needed  to integrate their efforts with existing organizations and
 programs,  and when determining the optimum  program mix  for the area, the WIN compo-
 nents and activities are meshed successfully with many aspects of the WIN/EPA/DOL project.
      Initially, it is advisable  that both WIN and the Prime Sponsor jointly develop and be
 familiar with each other's plans of operation. By being aware of the services and components
 to be emphasized by the other program,  each  program will be in a better position to fill
 unmet needs of the common target population. Both programs also will be in a position of
 knowing the available services or components of the other program which they might utilize
 through formal or informal linkages to  the best advantage of their clients.
      To accomplish this joint development and familiarity, it is suggested that consideration
 be given to WIN representation  at all stages of the  planning process. WIN representation in
 planning sessions should result in:
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    1. Fuller awareness of WIN capabilities and duties under its own legislation.
    2. Utilization of WIN expertise  and previous experience in developing services  and
       activities.
    3. Effective coordination between the WIN/EPA/DOL program and WIN services. This
       is particularly important in working out reciprocal exchanges of client information
       and data, sharing of services, etc.
When WIN representation  and  participation is sought by the Prime  Sponsor, it becomes
logical in turn for the state or  local WIN organization to request similar representation of
the Prime Sponsor at WIN meetings. The reciprocal representation becomes invaluable to
both groups.
    One major juncture in the development of coordination with WIN involves information.
It is most helpful to have the information which WIN collects that profiles the AFDC popu-
lation in the Prime Sponsor's area. This data includes:
     1. Percent of male and female heads of household
     2. Racial composition
     3. Educational level
     4. Veteran status
     5. Economic status
     6. Needs for manpower and supportive services
Such  information about  the AFDC  population characteristics is important because the
Prime Sponsor's eligible population consists entirely of AFDC recipients.  This information
and a familiarization with  WIN's capabilities and limitations in serving this group is a starting
point for coordination of services to this important  target group.
     State and/or local Prime Sponsors, when planning their programs, should be mindful of
the financial advantages to local governments that  result from placing AFDC recipients and
general welfare recipients  in employment. Not only do those entering employment from
welfare become  taxpayers, but a  considerable savings to the community results from the
reduced or terminated welfare grants and related welfare support expenses.

Workers offered by WIN
     The strongest inducement any program can offer employers to hire its participants is the
prospect of getting good workers. What kind of workers does WIN offer?
     First, qualified workers. WIN refers participants to jobs, or to training and employment
such  as the  WIN/EPA/DOL program  offers,  only  after the  staff has appraised them and
determined that  they have the aptitudes, skills, and other qualifications needed to do the
work.
     Second,  workers who want to work—and are  seeking the job-related help they need to
do so. In a single year an estimated 300,000 people on family assistance are volunteering for
WIN. Since all are exempt from the program's work requirement, they are freely choosing
work over welfare. These volunteers are among the  first that WIN refers to jobs.
      Third, workers such as the recent WIN graduates who are rated by their employers as
good  job risks. A study of former participants now holding jobs was conducted in 1973 by
the Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. This study revealed:
     ***  Supervisors rated about 75 percent "either equal to or better than regular workers"
          in job performance, promptness, attendance, and co-worker relations.
     ***  Only 10 percent of all supervisors rated them below average in job performance.

Job Development Activities
     The area of job development activities is one of the most difficult yet important areas
in which coordination should be established. There are a number of aspects of job develop-
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ment activities that should be taken into consideration when the Prime Sponsor is develop-
ing coordination with WIN.
    Because the WIN/EPA/DOL and WIN regular programs share a common goal—provid-
ing suitable employment opportunities to economically disadvantaged and unemployed or
underemployed persons—it is critical that resources are not wasted,  and that employers are
not harassed by duplicative efforts in the area of job development. Moreover, when work
and training opportunities  become available, maximum exposure of these opportunities to
eligible high priority clients should increase the utilization of the opportunities.
     To avoid over saturation of the employment market by job developers, a major effort to
cooperate and communicate should be made by job developers from both programs. Since
job developers  normally  file reports regarding  employers contacted  and results of the
contacts, a regular exchange of specific information would help avoid needless duplication
of effort. The information could be compiled and exchanged  on a daily, semiweekly, or
weekly basis. If  this approach is utilized, it is  recommended that specific liaison persons be
designated. A further possibility is for the job developers from  both programs to meet on a
regular basis,  either weekly  or biweekly, to  formalize communication and exchange of
information.
     There are two ways of facilitating exchange  of information about job openings. First,
all jobs which are developed  by either program could be open to referral by both programs.
This would necessitate a central clearing point (e.g., ES Job Bank) for all referrals to ensure
that the employers do  not receive more job applicants than they may have requested. By
legislative requirements only AFDC recipients may be referred to jobs developed  by  WIN
job developers.  Second, job information could  be exchanged  after a period  of time has
elapsed if a job has not been filled by one program. This period of time may be specific (such
as three days or  a week) or may vary according to  the needs of the employers.

WIN Tax Credit for Employers
     An incentive to an employer (such as a  pest control  firm) to  hire WIN registrants is
provided by the Revenue  Act  of  1971 in the form of a  WIN Tax Credit. This incentive
gives the employer a  credit against total tax liability of 20 percent of the WIN employee's
first twelve months wages even if the employee were hired under an OJT contract.
     For example,  an employer who pays a WIN  registrant or participant $5,000 a  year can
 claim a tax credit for that year for each individual up to a  total of $25,000 plus half its tax
 liability  over $25,000 for each tax year.  Any amount over the ceiling can be  carried  back
 three years and then forward seven years.
     In the chart on  the next page, for an employer paying $200,000 in wages to WIN par-
 ticipants in 1974, the tax  credit of 20 percent would be $40,000.  Assuming, for example,
 that an  employer's tax liability (the amount of tax the employer owes) for 1974  was also
 $40,000, the 1974  allowable tax credit would be computed in the following manner:
     1. By claiming $25,000  plus 50 percent of any tax liability over $25,000.
     2. The tax  liability over $25,000 is $15,000 ($40,000 minus $25,000 equals  $15,000).
     3. 50 percent of the tax liability over $25,000 (or $15,000) is $7,500.
     4. In 1974, the employer can claim $32,500 as a tax credit ($25,000 plus $7,500)
        which leaves only $7,500 in taxes to pay from the original $40,000 tax liability.
     5. There also remains  $7,500 from  the original  $40,000 tax credit which may be
        carried over (or back) and claimed in another tax year.
      Additional information on  the employer's tax  credit  may be obtained from the
 Internal Revenue Service (and WIN).
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EMPLOYER'S TAX CREDIT               EMPLOYER'S TAX LIABILITY
in 1974 = $40,000                         in 1974 = $40,000
amount of credit allowed in 1974 =          $25,000 + 50% of liability over $25,000
                                          $25,000 + 1/2 ($40,000 minus $25,000)
                                          $25,000+ 1/2 ($15,000)
                                          $25,000 + $7,500
                                          $32,500
Employer who has earned a tax
   credit of                  $40,000
Can claim in 1974             32,500
                            $ 7,500 — Carried over to other tax years
Work Incentives
     AFDC recipients have many positive incentives for participating in WIN. A major one
is an "income disregard" that makes working more profitable than welfare alone. It works
like this: Instead of losing a dollar in AFDC benefits for every dollar she earns, a welfare
mother does not have the first $30 of her salary plus one-third of the remainder deducted.
In addition, her work-related expenses are not subtracted from her benefits.
     If, for example, a mother whose benefits are $250 a month goes to work for $300, the
following will not be subtracted from her benefits:  $30, plus one-third of the remaining
$270 (or $90), plus her work costs (say $2 a day for 20 working days or $40)—a total of
$160. Instead, only the balance ($140) is deducted, leaving her  $110 in benefits plus her
$300 wage. And her family will have $160 more each month than they received from welfare
alone.
     Besides the incentive to go to work, AFDC recipients have an inducement  to prepare
for work. People in training or certain other WIN activities receive an incentive payment of
$30 a month besides their regular assistance checks. In addition, WIN pays them at least $2
for each day they take training to cover expenses such as transportation and lunches.

Hearings and Adjudication
     Mandatory WIN registrants and/or participants must be placed in accordance with the
WIN legislative standards for appropriate employment. Mandatory WIN registrants/partici-
pants have  the right to refuse any employment which does not meet  WIN's appropriate
employment standards, without jeopardizing their AFDC benefits.
     If AFDC recipients feel they have good cause for refusing employment or WIN activities,
they may use the WIN hearings and appeals system set up to handle  these cases. CETA
Prime Sponsors must establish a hearing  system to resolve issues arising between it  and an
enrollee. A WIN participant, suspended to CETA, has the right to utilize the Prime Sponsor's
hearings system. This, however, does not deny the participant his/her rights under the WIN
adjudication system. Action taken by a Prime Sponsor may affect a mandatory WIN  partici-
pant's AFDC eligibility  by implication of refusal to participate. For example, the result of a
Prime Sponsor's hearing may  be the termination of an enrollee  from the CETA program.
While WIN  must abide by this decision, the WIN  project must further determine if the
mandatory  participant  is still eligible to receive AFDC benefits. This may involve the
participant in the WIN adjudication system.
     While neither program may be required  to participate in the total adjudication system
of the other, local sponsors may find it advantageous to invite representatives of the other
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program to attend meetings and conferences in order to assist in resolving participant dis-
putes at the earliest level. In WIN, if the dispute reaches a hearing level, a CETA representa-
tive will be requested to attend if the dispute originated as a result of CETA action.

Data Collection and Reporting
     In WIN, files are kept of all registrations  and all appraisal interviews. These records
document the employability potential of registrants and participants, and, for participants,
include  an individual  Employability Plan.  Participants' folders also contain information
about the various kinds  of manpower and supportive services needed  and/or provided,
counseling records, job development and employment information, and  (for those in Job
Entry) follow-up information.
     The local WIN projects submit detailed monthly reports. The MA 5-99 provides cumul-
ative data on the characteristics  of participants and terminees. The MA 5-98 (also submitted
monthly)  reports on  program activities and includes information not only on the various
components such as Job  Entry  but also such items as Job Entry Completion and Welfare
Savings. Welfare Savings reflect the amount by which the welfare grants were reduced as a
result of participants entering employment or refusing to participate without good cause.
     A minimal amount of participant information would be requested by WIN from Prime
Sponsors to whom WIN has suspended participants. This  would be necessary in order for
WIN to be cognizant of the status  of these individuals (i.e., whether they are still in the
activity to which  they were  suspended,  or  whether they  have  found employment or
terminated the activity).  This data, generally, would have been collected already by the
Prime Sponsors for their own use in filling out required reports.
     The  choice  of method to be  utilized for transmitting this  and other information
between Prime Sponsors  and  WIN projects would require an initial understanding about
specific needs and a  determination of whether it is being  collected already or will require
special documentation. If the information  is regularly collected by  the  program, it would
probably only be necessary  to establish a submission schedule. Depending on the  schedule
of the report needed, it could, for example, be regularly sent over on a biweekly or monthly
basis. In the case of special  data not needed to fill regular program requirements, informa-
tion might be submitted on a request basis. This would necessitate establishing a channel of
communication that  would be dependable  and preferably would involve establishment of
contact or liaison persons  in both programs.

Reliance on Employers
     Providing a practical alternative to welfare for the large and growing numbers depend-
ent on public aid is  one  of the Nation's most urgent problems. The WIN program has an
expanded service capacity  and some innovative approaches. But the  solution depends,
basically, on the support of the Nation's employers.
     Employers have a long tradition of service to their fellow citizens. Over the years they
have  generously  supported  hospitals, cultural  activities, jobs for veterans and the disad-
vantaged,  and many other worthy causes. For most of these actions the only return was the
satisfaction of performing a useful service. For offering opportunity to the welfare poor, the
intangible rewards  of helping others  are joined  with the returns of a  practical business
decision.  Every time an employer hires a person from the welfare rolls—
     ***  A man  or woman  acquires dignity and self-respect as a wage-earning citizen.
     ***  A community has one fewer family to support—and one more worker is contribu-
          ting his/her share of useful work.
     ***  An employer gains a productive worker and substantial savings in tax credit and
          other compensations.
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     As employers join  with  government in the WIN effort, all Americans will, in fact,
"win"—in lower taxes, better lives for the poor, and a more productive economic system.
The coordinated efforts  developed  by the  state and/or local Prime Sponsors of the WIN/
EPA/DOL project and the local WIN organizations already have done much in the achieve-
ment of the above goal.

Summation
     The purpose  of this relatively lengthy discussion of coordination with WIN has been to
aid the state and/or local Prime Sponsors and  training staffs in effectively establishing
working  relationships and solid linkages with WIN. Linking with WIN has provided many
advantages  to  the current - Prime  Sponsors in the WIN/EPA/DOL national project.  In
particular, the linkages have  maximized the provision of the  support services that are so
vital  to  implementation of  the overall environmental  manpower training and employ-
ment effort.

                                      Summary
     The description of the pilot organization and administration  presented in this section
points up the  major roles fulfilled  by the  national agencies, the EPA and  the DOL. More
specifically, there  is evidence of the substantial work done by  the Office of Education and
Manpower Planning in the EPA along with the WIN/DOL National Office. The Interagency
Agreement  was essential to the joint efforts in this project. And, continuation of the joint
efforts of OEMP and WIN are essential to continued factoring of people into environmental
service jobs. There will be in the future, however, much more reliance upon funding through
manpower revenue sharing than is true in this program.
     The OEMP in Washington, D.C., will continue to exert leadership and extend technical
assistance for the purpose of training and employment of the environmental work force.
But, local prime  sponsors of environmental manpower programs must be CETA organiza-
tions or  by subagreements draw funding of their programs from state and/or local CETA
appropriations. This causes an organization such as a "Governor's Environmental Quality
Control Council" to take on much importance. Such a Council must now promote, organize,
develop, administer, and seek out sources of funds and obtain these funds for training and
development of environmental manpower.
     The pattern for doing all of this is much like what was and is being done in the pilot
project. The channels and directions of communications are somewhat different. The end
results of similar kinds of coordination and cooperative efforts should be good.  The kinds
of trainees  and trainers, and the competencies they need, are  identical to the pilot group.
The continuing need in  the environmental manpower situation is for competent planners,
organizers,  administrators,  caseworkers,  instructors,  counselors, trainee-workers,  work
supervisors,  monitors, and evaluators.
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                                   SECTION IV

                  ENVIRONMENTAL MANPOWER

                              DEVELOPMENT

    Manpower, as used in this Manual, may be defined as "the collective strength or availa-
bility  for  work of the people  in any given  geographic area or field  of endeavor." The
WIN/EPA/DOL project is making two major  and  significant contributions  to  manpower,
thus defined. First, it is providing remedial education and skill training to  approximately
700 welfare recipients. This constitutes  a  substantial contribution toward the  building of
greater collective strength.  Secondly, the project  ensures the placement of  these 700
individuals in established positions in environmental  service occupations. This constitutes a
substantial contribution to building up their availability for work.

                           Scope of Manpower Development
    To accomplish the two tasks of this project, job training and job placement, requires a
human resources approach with multiple aspects of manpower development woven together
for strength and flexibility. What is required is the building of a "bridge" between the
people who need jobs and the jobs that need people. The base or foundation for that bridge
is training and the superstructure of that bridge is employment. Good training becomes
inconsequential if  the trained  person cannot  move  into satisfying employment. Also, the
employment loses its value if the person moves into the job without the required skills and
abilities that should have come from the training. Hence, at all times in each  individual case,
both  the  training and the employment  must be designed to contribute effectively to the
needs and desires of the particular WIN person moving from welfare to wage earning.
     The  full  scope of manpower development in this project  becomes most apparent in
terms of its multiple aspects or parts. These include, along with others, the following:
      1. Job development—securing of commitments  from employers to hire WIN people in
       environmental occupations.
      2. Recruitment—seeking of commitments from AFDC recipients to enter training and
       employment in environmental occupations.
      3. Support services-providing  the WIN  person with personal and social  services that
       will help him overcome problems that interfere with his training and job performance.
      4. Job training-developing in the trainee-worker the special abilities and job skills that
       will be required of him in the environmental service job.
      5. Supervised work experience—factoring the trainee-worker into the circumstances of
       actual work  with continued counseling and job coaching, along with on-the-job
       instruction and supervision.
      6. Permanent employment-recognizing  the  WIN  person as a  full-time, permanent
       employee.
      7. Evaluation-following up with activities to assure  continuing job  success tor the
        greatest possible number of participants in the program and measuring and judging
       the employment and training results.
      The force, influence, or impact of each aspect of manpower development upon each
 trainee-worker will vary. It is true, however, that each aspect must become evident in the
 growth of each participant if the maximum results in job efficiency and job satisfaction are
 to be obtained.
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                                  Job Development
     Employment in a suitable job is the  payoff to each person served by this program.
Retention of that job over a long period of time is the major goal of the person involved. It
should be apparent that development of the initial job  opportunity must be the first of
several steps in the sequential operation of this employment and training program. The need
for continual concern for job development is obvious.
     To ensure that job development is continually being accomplished in effective and ef-
ficient ways requires that responsibility for it be centered in one job category:
          Job Developer-^the Job Developer will  have overall responsibility for developing
     environmental jobs through contacts  with employers in  both  the public and private
     sectors. (S)he will work  closely with  and  provide a communications linkage between
     the WIN/EPA Training Program, WIN caseworkers, job  trainers, employers, worker
     supervisors, and trainee-workers. In developing environmental jobs (s)he will, in many
     cases, be  required to foster changes in employer attitudes and negotiate changes in
     entrance standards and/or restructuring of jobs. The Job Developer will be responsible
     for follow-up activities to maintain employer acceptance  and cooperation. (S)he must
     be familiar with all aspects of the program including the training, administration, wage
     reimbursement, and support services.
The individual hired to fill the Job Developer position  must energetically and  positively
pursue his/her primary tasks. Much depends on him/her.

Commitments to Hire WIN People
     The development of job  opportunities usually takes the form of locating job openings
with either private or public employers and then finding persons from the WIN rolls to fill
the openings. What is required first is the securing of commitments to hire from a number of
employing units willing to utilize the services of trained people from the WIN rolls.
     First and foremost, job development requires concerted  efforts to gain an agreement
from each potential employer to consider WIN  job candidates only on the  basis of their
ability to do the job and not on extraneous criteria such as race, age, sex, creed, or social
background. Second, job development may provide the opportunity  to induce employers to
reappraise and in some instances to  modify job entry requirements. This may be done in a
variety of ways, but the essential ingredient is  the availability  of backup services including
basic, remedial, and skills training, along with counseling and certain support services. All of
the services should be designed to make the job  candidate more competitive in the work situ-
ation.
     In working with both private  and public employers, the job developer performs the
following tasks:
     1. Finds environmental jobs through regular channels but most frequently by means of
        contact interview situations.
     2. Provides  communication and linkage between the WIN/EPA project, WIN casework-
        ers, job trainers, employers, work supervisors, and trainee-workers.
     3. Engages in salesmanship and negotiation  activities with employers to secure jobs for
        WIN people by modifying entrance standards or by restructuring jobs.
     4. Helps to change the attitudes and roles of employers by  involving and identifying
        them with the project.
     5. Performs follow-up services to help the WIN people gain occupational mobility.
Although there may be different emphases on one or more of these tasks and the division of
labor may differ from situation to situation, these are the essential reference points for job
development. Job development is accomplished primarily with  the employers and is oriented
toward creating job conditions in which people  from the AFDC rolls can work and develop.
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     In each local WIN/EPA project approximately 150 persons are to be helped into satis-
fying jobs. This means that 150 or more job opportunities or job openings must be developed.
These jobs must develop in the time frame of the project and continue to be available until
each of the 150 persons can be properly trained and fitted into  the environmental job
situation. All of these jobs should be "permanent" and provide "upward mobility" possibili-
ties.

Basic Principles of Job Development
     In developing job opportunities, in seeking to gain commitments to hire WIN people,
the Job Developer should be guided by the following principles:
     a. The jobs committed to this WIN/EPA program should meet environmental service
       needs.
     b. The jobs should  lead to regular employment in environmental occupational fields
       which are most likely to expand within the public and private sectors.
     c. The jobs should not be dead end but should contribute to career advancement and
       development of the employment potential of WIN  participants.  Opportunities for
       continued training should be available to support upward mobility.
     d. The jobs should  be with  organizations that  are contributing to the elimination of
       restrictive practices and institutional barriers which prevent the effective utilization
       of available manpower and  which  systematically  preclude large segments of the
       population from realizing their employment potentials.
These principles should prevail to ensure that the employment provided for WIN recipients
will help them achieve job success and personal satisfaction from wage earning.

Techniques of Job Development
     Before he begins to exercise his responsibilities  in interactions with employers, the Job
Developer must become thoroughly acquainted with the worker needs of those employers.
(S)he also must know the basic qualifications of the WIN people for whom (s)he is developing
jobs. (S)he must understand the nature and scope of the instruction that will be provided to
train the WIN  people for the jobs that are opened up for them. In particular, (s)he must be
acquainted with work in the environmental field and with the nomenclature of the jobs.
With this background of knowledge, the Job Developer can move into the accomplishment
of his/her work by means of the ordinary tested and reliable techniques for contacts with
employers.
     The three techniques of job development most commonly used are employer visits,
telephone contacts, and mail promotions. Generally, the telephone contacts and  mail pro-
motions are utilized  to supplement the visiting of employers.  The effective use of these
three techniques  requires careful  planning, efficient coordination, and proper  direction
toward the objective of obtaining employer commitments to hire WIN people for work in
environmental service jobs.
     Employer visits-Personal visits should be directed to those  employers who afford a
potential demand for the product of this program-the WIN person  recruited and trained for
 a particular environmental job. Visits should be used to establish working relationships with
 employers and to develop the commitments to hire. The employers visited in both private
 and public organizations range from top managers down to department heads, superintend-
 ents, supervisors,  and so  forth. Thus, the visits to any one organization (i.e., business or
 city) may be numerous and time consuming. The results of employer visits must be recorded
 and conveyed  to the WIN caseworkers who recruit the trainee-workers and to the instructors
 who develop the  training programs, instructional materials, and learning activities for the
 particular job categories.
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     Telephone contacts—The telephone technique is adaptable for use with employers with
whom the Job Developer has established good working relationships. It also may be useful
with the employer who has a potential demand for only one or two new hires and cannot
initially be contacted in person because of the time limitation or other factors. Because the
telephone contact technique is not as time consuming as the personal visit, it may often be
used more advantageously. Good judgment must be exercised in each decision as to whether
to first make the personal visit or use the telephone.
     In the case  of an employer who may question the appropriateness of hiring people
from the welfare rolls, a  personal visit is much more effective  than using the telephone.
Then, too, in a personal visit the  Job  Developer has an opportunity to discuss at some length
hiring requirements, making  of  job  adjustments, and how WIN people can be profitably
employed.
     Mail promotions—Mail promotion includes the use of bulletins, leaflets, mailing pieces,
personal letters, and so forth. The media used must be adapted in terms of expected job
categories, specifics of the training to be provided the WIN people, geographic locale, etc.
Certain materials prepared for use through the mail may very well be effective handouts in
personal visits. This is true when the material includes references to establishment of career
ladders, descriptions of typical  jobs, explanations  of the training components, and other
material that may  be of  interest  to the potential employer. Please refer to the pages that
follow for examples of mailing pieces.
      In summary, the primary task  of the Job Developer is to find job openings for people.
(S)he should use any and all techniques at his/her disposal in achieving that goal.

Complications in Job Development
      Most employers, private and public, recognize that they are not free agents in the
hiring process. They are restricted by Federal legislation and must provide minimum wages,
fair labor standards, and equal employment opportunities. State laws inhibit their activities
by the safety requirements necessary to meet Workmen's Compensation insurance standards.
In addition, local and national religious, female, and racial groups have taken strong stands
on equal employment and have launched effective  boycotts for  this purpose. Even though
employers are not free agents in hiring, they may put up screens to the employment of
people such as those from the AFDC lists.
      A critical element in job development involves the attitudes  of both employers and
employees. Does a particular organization willingly hire Negroes? Does a particular organiza-
tion willingly hire women to operate backhoes and wastewater plants—to work in jobs most
commonly held by men? Do other  workers appear to accept  these  groups willingly?
If the  organization has a collective bargaining  agreement,  is the union willing to make
necessary modifications in hiring and seniority standards? These questions actually point up
only a few of the concerns that  develop  out  of the attitudes  held  by employers and
employees.
      Although frequently relying upon  standards such  as high school graduation or the
passing of "civil service" examinations, most  employers are now  prepared to respond to
reasonable requests in job development for WIN people. Similarly, the attitudes of both
employers and employee groups tend to be more adjustable in the 1970's than in past years.
The Job Developer must exhibit positive attitudes and hack away at negative attitudes as
(s)he moves ahead in his/her work.
   Approaching the employer and supervisory personnel—Jobs develop within an organization,
a production unit, not outside of it. Jobs are developed by individuals, not institutions.
These two  facts should be kept firmly in mind when  working  with employers to develop
jobs. A large corporation or  a big city is a faceless institution which may or may not provide
                                          30

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                                     PROGRAM OUTLINE


                                            Employment1
   Work Experience:
           Skills of The
           Job Training:
Supervisor

Orientation and

Training:
                                         Job Related
                                         Education:
                                          Basis Remedial

                                          Education:
                                    Orientation:

                                      World of Work —

                                      To The Environment —
                                      To The Prospective Employer

-------
Take The Giant Steps  Which Will
Insure Proficient Entry Level Employees
for Environmental  Service  Occupation.
        Promotable
        Employees
                 Skills
                      Training-
                      Refined
                      Recruitment
 Today's major challenge, contrary to
 much you may have read or heard, lies in
 the area of people administration and
 fitting the right  person in the right job.
There are no easy steps for getting the
right person matched to the right job.
Many patterns of approach have been
tried with varying  degrees of
accomplishment.  Methods and even
objectives will change from employer to
employer.

There is now available a program which
can take the doubt out of entry level
employment. Specializing in
environmental service occupation and
support occupation we can assist you in
filling your entry level positions in the
area of  non-technical and technical
subprofessionals with guaranteed
proficiency.

Detach  and mail the card for more
information.
                                                        Name
Address
                                                                                                                Phone Number
                                                                                                                Occupations which we would be
                                                                                                                interested in discussing are checked:
WATER
D technicians
D instruction specialists
D superintendents
D grounds and maintenance
  people
G custodial people
D electricians
D repairmen
D inspection people
D truck foreman
D 'equipment operator
D laborers
O sample men
D dispatchers

WASTEWATER
D lift station operators
D tapping crews
D laborers
D mechanic
D electricians
O instrumentation specialist*.
d foremen
D superintendents
D lab technicians

SOLID WASTE
D operators
O heavy equipment operators
D toll takers
O scale operators
G collection laborers
O relay station operators
O superintendents
D clerical

STREET MAINTENANCE
Q surveyors
O maintenance operators
O bulldozer operators
D batch plant operators
D street sweeper operators
D asphalt layers
D numatic tool operators
D shrub and tree operators
D herbicide operators

PARKS
Q green house operators
D laborers
D painters
D trees and shrubs
D insecticide and herbicide
  specialists
D planter helpers
D superintendents

OTHERS
D vehicle towaway receiving
  clerks
D secretarial
D animal  control officers
"1 traffic control operators
O rough carpenters
D chemical laboratory
  technician
D lab tester II
D lab tester I
D water plant personnel, all
  occupations
D wastewater plant personnel,
  all occupations
D billing machine operator
D telephone operator
D meter reader
D water meter repairman
D inspection aides
D parks and recreation
  service personnel
D pipefitter helper
D air analyst
O exterminator
O weed control supervisor
O road and street repairman
O pipe fitter

 We Are Not Limited To The
       Above List

-------
                    SIGNIFICANT PROGRAM PROVISIONS

                      —Job availability upon completion of
                    training.
                      —Training tailored for specific job
                    descriptions.
                      —Trainee screening against job
                    requirements.
                      — Intensive classroom training coupled with
                    on-the-job work experience.
                      -Supervisory orientation to training
                    program objectives and operation.
                                    Environmental
                                          Services
                                       Manpower
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PROGRAM FUNDING

  The Environmental Services Training
program is funded as a pilot project through a
federal grant from the Environmental Protection
Agency in cooperation with the U.S.
Department of Labor.
  Trainees must be enrolled in the State Work
Incentive (WIN) program of the Colorado
Division of Employment. The trainee receives
incentive and supportive payments from the
Employment Division during his enrollment in
this program.
A Program  To Provide
 Trained Personnel To
  Local  Governments
          In The
     Denver  Region
                     TRAINING CONTRACTOR

                      The Denver Regional Council of Governments
                     has contracted with the firm of Skills
                     Development, Inc., Dallas, Texas, to provide
                     the actual training program. Skills
                     Development, Inc. is responsible for the training
                     facilities, material, curriculum and instructors
                     for the Environmental Services Training
                     Program.
                                    DENVER REGIONAL COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS


                                            1776 S. Jackson, Suite 200
                                             Denver, Colorado 80210

-------
INTRODUCTION

   Increasing environmental requirements from
the federal and state levels have created new
challenges for local governmental agencies. At
the same time, these requirements have opened
a new dimension of opportunities in a relatively
new environmental services career field.

   The Denver Regional Council of Governments
is sponsoring a pilot program to provide the
skilled manpower for this new career field
while, at the same time, providing an
opportunity to those selected individuals to
leave the welfare rolls and become productive
individuals.

   During the next 12-month period, up to 150
able bodied individuals, now receiving welfare
assistance through the Aid to Families with
Dependent Children Program, will be retrained
for new careers in environmental service
occupations with local governments.

   The EPA/WIN Program offers local
governments an opportunity to acquire trained
manpower for up to one year at no cost to the
local governmental agency. WIN Public Service
Contracts can be negotiated with the Colorado
Division of Employment under which the
employer can be reimbursed for 100 percent of
the wages and the employer's contribution for
fringe benefits for each participant in the
program.
    The preparation of this brochure was financed in part
    through a training grant from the U.S. Environmental
    Protection Agency, Office of Education and Manpower
    Planning.
OBJECTIVES

   The Environmental Services Training
 program of DRCOG is geared to providing for
 full-time environmental career employment to
 those selected individuals now receiving
 assistance through the Aid to Families with
 Dependent Children Program.

 PROGRAM OPERATION

   The Environmental Services Training
 program functions in the following sequence:
   —Job commitments for program trainees are
 obtained from local governmental agencies,
 based on their individual personnel
 requirements.
   -Concise job descriptions are defined for
 each job slot.
   —Job descriptions are distributed to training
 instructors and WIN counselors.
   —Training instructors develop training aids
 and materials.
   -WIN counselors screen welfare recipients
 enrolled in the WIN program for potential
 training for available jobs.
   —Potential trainees are referred to employers
 who make the final selection of a trainee for
 each job.
   —Trainees attend 4 to 6 weeks of classroom
 training, including needed remedial
 instruction.
   —The trainee is sent to his future employer
 at no expense to the employer for up to 304
 hours of work experience training.
   —Instructors or Job Coaches visit trainees
 daily to monitor progress and assist with any
 pertinent problem. When required, trainees
 may be returned to classrooms for additional
 training.
   -When the trainee completes the program
 and  meets the employer's minimum standards
 for his particular position, he is placed on the
 employer's payroll as a full-time regular
 employee.
Name
Address
Phone Number
Occupations which we would be
interested in discussing are checked:
WATER
 Q technicians
 D instruction specialists
 D superintendents
 D grounds and maintenance
   people
 O custodial people
 O electricians
 D repairmen
 D inspection people
 D truck foreman
 D equipment operator
 D laborers
 D sample men
 n dispatchers

WASTEWATER
                       a pneumatic tool operators
                       D shrub and tree operators
                       D herbicide operators

                       PARKS

                       D green house operators
                       D laborers
                       D painters
                       D trees and shrubs
                       D insecticide and herbicide
                         specialists
                       D planter helpers
                       D superintendents

                       OTHERS
 D lift station operators
 D tapping crews
 D laborers
 D mechanic
 D electricians
 D instrumentation specialists
 D foremen
 n superintendents
 D lab technicians

 SO LID WASTE
                       Q vehicle towaway receiving
                         clerks
                       Q secretarial
                       O animal control officers
                       D traffic control operators
                       O rough carpenters
                       D chemical laboratory
                         technician
                       D lab tester 11
                       D lab tester I
                       D water plant personnel, all
                         occupations
                       D wastewater plant personnel,
n ooerators                a 11 occu pat io ns
D heavy equipment operators D billing machine operator
D toll takers              D telephone operator
D scale operators          D meter reader
D collection laborers        D water meter repairman
D relay station operators    O inspection aides
D superintendents         D parks and recreation
D clerical                  service personnel
                       D pipefitter helper
STREET MAINTENANCE D air analyst
                       n exterminator
D surveyors              p weed control supervisor
D maintenance operators    p road and street repairman
D bulldozer operators      Q  •   f itter
D batch plant operators
D street sweeper operators  We Are Not Limited To The
D asphalt layers

-------
GET Into  a CAREER  With a FUTURE
              MEN   and     WOMEN
          Can Train to Come up the Steps
                         in

                   GROWING
           LIFETIME CAREERS
          to  protect  public  health  and the
               community  environment
                              SteadV  Employment
                              Career  Growth
                              Increased Income
                         Job Placement
                         Work  Experience
                  Supportive  Services
           Classroom  Training
    Job Orientation
         Through the Combined Efforts of:

              LOCAL GOVERNMENT
            DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
             U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL
              PROTECTION AGENCY
             WIN PROGRAM CLIENTS
          EVERYONE BENEFITS




     To protect our environment and the health

of our citizens, many types of TRAINED workers

are needed to help.

     Starting in entry jobs, workers can learn

to do more difficult work to prepare for better

jobs.  The cities get more trained sub-profess-

ionals, giving better service.

     WIN clients get (free) training, support

services, job placement and work experience from

the Department of Labor, U. S.  Environmental

Protection Agency and  local governments.

     Each job plays an IMPORTANT part  toward a

cleaner and better community ENVIRONMENT in

AMERICA.

     Be a PART of the TEAM in a job with a

FUTURE.




    SEE YOUR W-I-N COUNSELOR TODAY
                    OPO 676-797
                                                          TYPES of WORK in  CITY  Services
WATER

G technicians
D instruction specialists
D superintendents
D grounds and maintenance
  people
D custodial people
D electricians
O repairmen
n inspection peopJe
Q truck foreman
Q equipment operator
Q housekeeping
D sample takers
D dispatchers
WASTEWATER

Q lift station operators
D tapping crews
D entry operators
D mechanic
C electricians
D instrumentation specialists
O foremen
Q superintendents
O tab technicians
                                                                                                                      SOLID WASTE
G operators

Q toll takers
D scale operators
n waste collectors
n relay station operators
O superintendents
Q clerical
                                                                                                                      STREET MAINTENANCE

                                                                                                                      D surveyors
                                                                                                                      D maintenance operators
                                                                                                                      D bulldozer operators
                                                                                                                      O batch plant operators
                                                                                                                      D street sweeper operators
                                                                                                                      D asphalt layers
D shfub and tree operators
D herbicide operators
PARKS


G green howse operators
O gardener helpers
D painters
D trees and shrubs
G insecticide and herbicide
  specialists
D planter helpers
Q superintendents


OTHERS

D vehicle towawaV receiving
  clerks
Q secretarial
Q animal control officers
D traffic control operators
D rough carpenters
D chemical laboratory
  technician
D lab tester I
O Jab tester II
Q water plant personnel, all
  occupations
Q wastewater plant personnel,
  all occupations
D billing machine operator
D telephone operator
O meter reader
Q water meter repairman
Q inspection aides
D parks and recreation
  service personnel
G pipefitter helper
Q air analyst
D exterminator
C] weed control supervisor
Q road and street repairman
Q pipe fitter


Jobs Are Not Limited To
  The Above List
       SEE YOUR W-I-N  COUNSELOR

-------
         GROWING
   LIFETIME CAREERS
              Open to
   those participating in the
      Aid to  Families  with
      Dependent Children
             Program
    to TRAIN for work with

      Public Employers

    Toward	


  • Job Security

  • Increasing Salaries

  • Satisfaction

  • Non-Seasonal  Work

  • Career Advancement

  • Helping  Community
SEE  YOUR W-I-N COUNSELOR
                                                    I
                                                    i

                                   HERE ARE SOME SAMPLES OF THE TYPE OF WORK

                                   NEEDED BY PUBLIC EMPLOYERS - - WITH A CHANCE TO

                                   WORK UP  TO BETTER JOBS.  There are many more -

                                   check the list and see your WIN COUNSELOR
 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OPERATORS

                               The trainee is
 provided instruction in:  knowledge of treatment
 plant design and operations, orientation in waste
 characteristics, methods of treatment and efflu-
 ent quality control, specific skills in operating
 a unit process (e.g.: sampling, testing, meter
 reading  and repair, and pump maintenance), skills
 in applied mathematics, communications and science,
 and insight into rewards of career growth through
 continued educational participation.


 WATER TREATMENT OPERATORS

                           The trainee is pro-
 vided instruction in:  knowledge of treatment
 plant  design and operation, orientation in water
 supply and water quality control, specific skills
 in operating a unit process, (e.g.: sampling, test-
 ing, meter reading and repair, pump maintenance),
 skills  in  applied  mathematics, communications and
 science,  and insight into rewards of career growth
 through  continued educational participation.

AIR POLLUTION PERSONNEL

                       Graduates of this program
 are qualified for various entry-level positions as
 inspectors, technicians or aides depending upon their
 individual backgrounds. Trainees receive classroom
 instruction and practical experience in areas such
 as visible-emissions evaluations, air pollution mon-
 itoring and  laboratory assistance.  These areas of
 instruction provide them with various knowledges,
skills and abilities  in the air pollution fields.
PEST CONTROL SERVICE TECHNICIANS

                                 The aim of this
program is to provide trained pest control techni-
cians for the pest control industry.  This training
program incorporates the National Pest Control Asso-
ciation's training materials and techniques for pest
control. The trainees are instructed in the follow-
ing areas:  selling a service, customer relations,
identification and control of pests, chemical use
procedures equipment use and maintenance.


SOLID WASTE PERSONNEL

                      Under the supervision of an
accredited  solid waste instructor, the trainees re-
ceive classroom instruction and practical experience
in the following areas:  solid waste characteristics,
methods of treatment, routing and collection, cost
analysis, management training and planning the  sani-
tary landfill (site selection and equipment operation).


CERTIFICATION

                        In states where State
Certification is required on certain jobs, every effort
will be made to enable the trainee to take the State
Certification examination upon completion of the
course.
      SEE YOUR W-I-N COUNSELOR

-------

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           be  a

           PROFESSIONAL
           in the environmental field
            THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY with
            THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR and your state WIN
            office offer training in career fields . . . including ;
       PESTICIDE
      APPLICATOR
             AIR POLUTION
               TECHNICIAN
WASTE WATER PLANT
OPERATOR
               SOLID WASTE
               TECHNICIAN
INTERESTED?
    CONTACT
     YOUR
     WIN
   COUNSELOR
 IMMEDIATELY

-------
jobs for the disadvantaged.  A sympathetic superintendent or personnel manager, however,
may be willing to take the action necessary to accommodate the WIN worker-trainee. To be
effective, the Job Developer should know both the organization and the individual represen-
ting it.  (S)he also must know the assets and the liabilities of the WIN people (s)he is trying
to place in environmental jobs.
     In making an approach, the Job Developer must establish that the WIN trainee-worker
can  make  a substantial  contribution to the organization's success. To do this (s)he has to
make specific suggestions about the work his/her clients can do and about how jobs may be
modified to suit their skills.
     Modifying hiring restrictions—Governmental organizations are more likely than private
firms to cooperate  in  modifying selection standards  so that  members of disadvantaged
groups  previously screened  out will  be hired. In most cases, it is relatively easy to develop
jobs at the entry level in a  city or county organization and to encourage upgrading of those
already employed to make more entry level jobs available.
     Where and  when specific skills are in  short supply, it becomes much  easier to place
qualified WIN worker-trainees in previously  restricted positions. In such cases. Negroes,
women  of all races,  high school dropouts,  and older  persons may be welcomed into jobs
previously denied them. The Job Developer should try  to be aware of such situations and to
make the most of the opportunities in them.
     Follow up  on  referrals—To be successful,  job  development must  be a continuing
function.  This requires  a constant relationship between the Job Developer and employers.
The best kind of relationship results when the WIN trainee-workers, for whom jobs have
been developed, perform satisfactorily in those jobs. If the  WIN person becomes a valuable
employee, the employer will probably be willing to hire another such person.
     Accordingly, the Job Developer must carefully follow up on his referrals. All placements
will not be successful  and in such cases the  Job Developer must be prepared to assist the
 employer  in resolving an unsatisfactory situation. This may be done by developing another
job for the misplaced  individual or by  coaching and more training to make his/her work
 acceptable.
      With effective follow-up proc'edures, the job  development process is completed. The
 total process takes on  significance as each job is developed, the worker-trainee moves into
 that job, and an  economic opportunity is provided for another AFDC recipient.

                                      Recruitment
      People receiving Aid to Dependent Children are not likely to seek jobs or training for
 jobs in the environmental service fields. They do not have access to information that will
 lead them to realize that such job opportunities exist. Nor do they have ways  of learning that
 environmental occupations are in line with their qualifications  and abilities to profit from
 training for the jobs. Thus, it is essential that through the WIN organization there will be
 developed in each locality a determined and carefully planned and executed program of out-
 reach  to  these  individuals. The  program must be such  that the people recruited will be
 effectively matched with the jobs that are developed for them.

 Trainee-Worker  Target Group
      In broad terms, the  target  group for this training  and employment project was pre-
 determined  The trainee-workers are drawn from the ranks  of the recipients  of AFDC.
 While the numbers  of  recipients of AFDC are large in many communities throughout the
 United States, the actual number that may be drawn into  the environmental services work
 force is limited. The limiting factor in most instances  consists of the obstacles in the way of
 people accepting training  and employment.  The AFDC client is ordinarily hmdered from
                                           39

-------
entering job training or accepting employment for one or more of the following reasons:
     1. Health problems.
     2. Responsibility for the care of young children.
     3. Lack of transportation to  the location where training is conducted or to the site
        where employment is available.
For these and other reasons, AFDC  clients are at a competitive disadvantage in seeking and
holding jobs.
     One of the major requirements of the WIN program is that all AFDC recipients, unless
exempted by law, must register for employment and manpower  services as a condition for
receiving AFDC benefits. These individuals are called mandatory registrants. The only AFDC
recipients or applicants who are exempted from registration are:
     1. Those incapacitated or 65 and older.
     2. Those living too far from a WIN project to participate effectively.
     3. Those caring for an incapacitated person in the home.
     4. Mothers with children under 6 years of age.
     5. Mothers, when an adult male relative in the home is registered with WIN.
     6. Children under 16, or those 16-21 who are in school full time.
It is interesting to note that the  reasons why an AFDC  client may be exempted by WIN
from registration for employment include the reasons why they  are generally at a competi-
tive disadvantage in the labor market. Any exempt person may become a voluntary registrant
for participation in WIN and, thus, become a member of the trainee-worker target group in
this training and employment program.
     It is for these mandatory and  voluntary registrants in WIN that job development efforts
are put forth as indicated in the  earlier sections of this Manual. When training and work
opportunties are developed in this program, there must be maximum exposure  and trans-
mittal of information about these opportunities to eligible WIN clients so that full utilization
is made of the jobs developed. Recruitment should be simultaneous with job development
whenever possible or follow immediately on the heels of it. Job  opportunities must not be
lost because recruitment efforts were too slow or otherwise ineffective.

Recruiters
     The recruiters in this program are the regular caseworkers in  the WIN organization. The
WIN  caseworkers have  always had the prime responsibility for placing  their clients in jobs,
if at all possible. They have a base of WIN procedures and regulations from which to recruit
and place clients. Even so, they must be oriented or trained with regard to the unique as-
pects of the WIN/EPA/DOL project and the employment of AFDC clients in environmental
service occupations. Each of them needs to learn about the operational aspects of the train-
ing program, the nature of employment in environmental service jobs, and the opportunities
and obstacles that  will be encountered by AFDC clients in moving into new jobs or jobs
alien to them. The recruiters need to learn how to frankly and accurately explain to clients
the nature of the jobs and the limitations in them. The recruiters must develop fully their
ability to effectively use the various means of recruiting, including the scheduling and par-
ticipation in trips to potential job sites.

Orientation to Environmental Employment
     Choice of a vocation is a common problem of most people but it  is intensified for
disadvantaged persons. Very often, the aspirations of the AFDC recipient are either too low
or too high. (S)he rarely has a clear  understanding  of the requirements in any job and cer-
tainly  not of the requirements for employment in nontraditional type jobs.  If the WIN
client has any concept of environmental employment, it is in terms of a job rather than a
career with advancement possibilities.
                                         40

-------
     In this WIN/EPA/DOL project it is essential that the horizons of the AFDC recipients
be broadened. Each individual in orientation sessions should be properly introduced to the
realities of employment in the various environmental service areas such as water, wastewater,
solid waste, street maintenance, pest control, parks and recreation, and so forth. This con-
stitutes for the individual the first step toward the making of an important career decision.
     As with most people-to-people activities, there is a special knack to orienting AFDC
recipients toward jobs in environmental service. Good  results in  orienting  people  toward
existing jobs are achieved when the caseworker accurately and enthusiastically relays infor-
mation to the potential trainee-worker about the nature and scope of such employment. At
this point, it may  be helpful to bring people from environmental employment into sessions
with clients so  that solid kinds of information  may be given. The caseworker must be
specific about what the trainee-worker will encounter in training for the job and in actual
performance of that job.  Even the jobs that have undesirable characteristics may be valued
by prospective hires if sufficient incentives are offered.  Such incentives as livable pay, good
fringe  benefits,  chances to develop marketable skills, and opportunities for upgrading and
advancement  do exist  in environmental  jobs;  but  these  incentives should be described
frankly and realistically. Charts, pictures, illustrated pamphlets, and other devices are useful
in the recruiting,  but the very  best of all such devices is the visit to one or more of the
environmental job sites.
     An  especially effective  way to  accomplish the orientation is  to make use of a person
who has been through the training and is currently enjoying success in a career occupation.
This person can show how success in training can be carried over to success in employment.
The person  who has been through it all will be one with whom the recruits can identify and
who is believable to them.

Selection of the Environmental Job
     Orientation to environmental employment, as described above, should make the AFDC
recipient  acquainted with the  training  and employment opportunities which are available
and  should help him evaluate the required job qualifications. Following this kind of orien-
tation, the AFDC recipient should be given further individual guidance and counseling that
will enable him to "select" the environmental field and  the particular environmental job for
which to be trained and employed.
     The entire recruitment process in this training and employment project is based on
selectivity. To illustrate,  in  a particular local program, the WIN caseworker may come up
with the names of 100 possible recruits for environmental employment. After due consider-
ation  that number may  be reduced to 50 who should be brought in for orientation in
environmental work. Following the group orientation there  should be interviews, assess-
ments, and careful  consideration of individual qualifications for particular jobs.  At this
point  it becomes  a matter of the individual WIN client picking out or "selecting" the job
(s)he wants to  train for and enter. The number of WIN people who actually seek  training
and employment at this point may be reduced to only the 20 to 25 who will constitute the
training group or class.
     This process of recruitment with its orientation and selection aspects must be repeated
for  each  assortment of environmental jobs  for which  each training group is formed. It is
obvious, then, that  the recruitment process is both complex and time consuming when a
training and employment program becomes operative for as many as 150 trainee-workers in
a particular metropolitan area.
     The potential trainee-worker should not be "snowed" into entering the WIN/EPA/DOL
training and  employment  program.  That  person,  however, should  be  enthusiastically
                                          41

-------
encouraged to enter employment and honestly informed of the true benefits offered by
employment  in an environmental service job. There are, of course, certain disadvantages in
such employment and these should not be ignored. BUT, is there any job today that does
not have both advantages and disadvantages?
     It  is at this selection stage  in  the recruitment  process that the WIN caseworker's
"inbred paternal  attitude" may become apparent. Some caseworkers find it difficult to turn
their  clients  loose to enter wage-earning status in society. The close personal relationships
developed between caseworkers and clients become protective in nature and scope. It may
become the belief of the caseworker that it is "dangerous" for the client to try to cope with
the world of work. The client also may develop the belief  that it is best to remain in the
"refuge of welfare." Like the natural parent,  however,  the caseworker must develop the
capacity to turn the dependent children loose to fend for themselves.
     In summary to  this point, with regard to environmental manpower development, we
have discussed job development and the process of recruitment. It should be noted, again,
that the AFDC  recipient recruited for training and employment in this WIN/EPA/DOL
project has a background that may be characterized by two or more of the following:
     *** School dropout
     *** Lacking in job skills
     *** History of dependence on welfare
     *** Minority group membership
     *** Physically, mentally, socially, or emotionally handicapped.
Ways must be developed to get around these characteristics or job selection by the AFDC
recipient is  useless.  When a  job with significantly more financial incentive than welfare
benefits and other subsidies has been chosen by the recipient, every possible effort must be
put forth to  help him get ready to enter that job. One approach to developing such readiness
in the AFDC recipient  is through the WIN support services offerings. These are discussed in
the next part of this section.

                                    Support Services
     Although it is  training  that  constitutes  the core of  manpower development in the
WIN/EPA/DOL project, the welfare recipients  require a variety of other services before the
training can  begin and  during the training period. Since these services focus on the special
needs and problems that interfere with training and work performance, they are referred to
as  "support" services. The support services are provided primarily to build up motivations
and to improve behavior relating to getting to and remaining in training or jobs. Also, the
support services may be helpful to the trainee-worker in his early efforts to adjust to the
conditions of work. It  is the WIN  organization that provides the support services. It is the
WIN  caseworker who is primarily responsible for delivery of those services.
     In this  particular  program of training and employment for disadvantaged people, the
most important support services are:
     1. Special counseling, focusing on problems connected with adjustment to work.
     2. Transportation assistance.
     3. Day care for children of trainee-workers.
     4. Medical, dental, and optometric aid.
     5. Minimal income subsidies.
Other services which may be important to some individuals are:
     1. Legal assistance.
     2. Advice on money management.
     3. Social counseling.
The support services are coordinated with the training and work activities. They are made
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practical and relevant to the alleviation of problems that interfere with full participation in
the training  and employment program. Support services are designed and maintained to
help the welfare person get into a job and to stay in that job and to help the individual
become job ready in the sense of being fully employable and becoming regularly employed.

Special Counseling
     It  is the WIN caseworker who does most of the special counseling in the program of
support  services. At  the time that concern develops for training and employment in an
environmental occupation, it is likely that the caseworker has already had a long experience
in dealing with the needs and problems of the particular welfare client. Thus, there is little
or no need for further assessment of individual needs and problems. It is simply a matter of
delivering the support services that will help the  person get into training and move on into
an  environmental occupation. The one-to-one relationship  already  established  is readily
extended to counseling that has almost immediate payout.
     Specifically, the special counseling delivered by the WIN caseworker may be aimed in
any one or more of the following directions:
     1.  Help the trainee-worker move into training and then into the job by  building self-
        confidence.
     2.  Help the  trainee-worker resolve personal  problems that  hinder training and/or
        employment,  such as transportation, child care, etc.
     3.  Help the trainee-worker understand and  deal with values and standards  relating to
        employment in environmental service occupations.
     4.  Help the trainee-worker to grasp fully and  take advantage of the opportunities in
        training for environmental service and employment therein.
     5.  Help the trainee-worker develop work habits that are new or which may seem alien.
The major need for counseling is early in the trainee-worker's training and employment but
a high  percentage of individuals need  some continuing kinds of guidance and assistance.
Their difficulties in maintaining a successful,  long-range work history often emerge weeks,
even months, after entry into the environmental training. Counseling should be available for
at least the first six months of employment.

Transportation Assistance
     Experience in the WIN/EPA/DOL project indicates that getting to and from work is a
major problem  for most disadvantaged trainee-workers. By locating the training center at or
near a point where bus  lines converge, it may be possible to alleviate the problem of getting
to  the training site. The location of the environmental  service jobs, however, may be more
remote from where most of the WIN trainee-workers live.  A trip by bus from  the inner city
to  the water or wastewater plant's location may represent an enormous expenditure of time
and money for the worker.
     Because they are  poor and unemployed, many AFDC recipients do not have cars or
have very  old and unreliable cars. Frequent breakdowns result in lateness and absence from
training and from work. Difficulties in car buying and car maintenance have to be overcome
before  regular  training and/or  work schedules may be kept. Here the work of the WIN
organization in helping  with transportation  takes  on great significance. In some places,
AFDC  recipients  must  continue in the WIN aid program because there are no satisfactory
solutions to the transportation problems that hinder their training and employment.
     In developing an approach to training and employment, the local program sponsor
 must ascertain  the details  relative to transportation. Do  the job candidates have cars? Is
 there adequate public  transportation?  Are there car pools to environmental job locations?
 Will relatively small  amounts of money be  sufficient to help individuals solve  their trans-
  portation problems?
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     For each local training and employment program,  use should be made of large-scale
maps to show the trainee-workers the fastest and cheapest ways to reach the training site
ahd the job locations. Such maps may help the WIN participant find his/her way about and
also relieve his/her anxiety in having to travel through unfamiliar parts of a city or suburb.
     In almost all cases in the WIN/EPA/DO L project it is necessary to make  cash payments
to the trainee-workers as reimbursement for transportation. Such payments must be con-
tinued until the trainee-worker is able to assume the full financial responsibility. The time
involved varies substantially among the trainee-workers.

Child Care
     Experience with disadvantaged women  in  training  and  work situations indicates that
absenteeism or late arrival is often caused by difficulties in finding a way to care for children
during the work day. In most communities, adequate and inexpensive day care facilities are
not available. Since most of the participants  in the WIN/EPA/DOL project are women, the
problem of child care looms large.
     Most of the WIN  trainee-workers rely on babysitters, or relatives, or they leave their
children with friends. When the friend or relative is ill or does not show up, the mother has
to stay with her child or children and cannot report to work. At times, the babysitter costs
are so high that the mother feels she is working only to  pay the sitter.
     The WIN II program helps to  alleviate the child  care problem by  allowing limited
subsidies to the trainee-workers until they become able to assume the full financial responsi-
bility. Since most mothers who need child care prefer that it be provided in their own homes
or in the home of neighbors or nearby relatives, only money is required  to fulfill  their
needs. In other instances, institutional child care may be useful. Again, the cost is really the
problem and that cost is generally higher than when the children are cared for in their homes.
     An assumption about WIN participants that often is made is that they lack responsi-
bility in their jobs because they have children at home about whom they must be contin-
ually concerned. Presumably, the lack of responsibility is reflected in excessive amounts of
absence, tardiness, and  general lack of attention paid to  the job. The evidence accumulated
in the WIN/EPA/DOL project, however, completely refutes these assumptions.
     The woman who is concerned  about her children is equally concerned about her ability
to provide for them by holding a job. She does have decisions to make—important decisions.
There are times when she must decide whether to go  to her job or stay  at  home with her
sick child. In such cases, she is certainly not displaying any lack of responsibility. She, in
fact, is demonstrating the best in responsibility. One must make comparisons when assigning
values to things or evaluating degrees of responsibleness among people. The man who calls in
on Monday to report that he is sick but really is on a fishing trip must have his responsible-
ness evaluated. It is too bad  that only a few organizations maintain the records required for
accurate evaluations.  Too often it is assumed that the man who is relatively free of family
obligations will be at his job more regularly than the woman who has relatively heavy family
obligations. The truth is that the circumstances are frequently the reverse.

Medical, Dental, and Optometric Aid
     The reports from this  WIN/EPA/DOL project do not stress  poor physical health,
although it is recognized as one of the hindrances to training and employment of the AFDC
recipients. It is the responsibility of the WIN II organization to provide aid to people with
vision impairments, to  those suffering problems of obesity, to those suffering from poor
nutrition, to those requiring dental treatment, and so  forth. In  some instances only the
medical and dental examinations are required. In other instances extensive medical workups
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and  treatments  are necessary. Eyeglasses are frequently needed along with the filling of
teeth.
     Some disadvantaged people have a high incidence of health problems, often because
they are inexperienced in finding resources  to alleviate those problems. Yet, only limited
medical and related assistance may be required. Many of the medical conditions encounter-
ed are chronic,  nondebilitating, and  not markedly influential  in determining  the trainee-
worker's ability to get or keep a job. The more or less standard procedures of the WIN II
organization  appear to be adequate for handling  such assistance needs. In general, such
services as diagnostic screening, immediate intervention  when necessary, and referrals for
long-term extensive treatment have been provided.

Minimal Income Subsidy
     In the  WIN/EPA/DOL  project  the trainee-workers are  provided  with a minimal
income subsidy  while in classroom training and during short periods of supervised work ex-
perience. This cash allowance is intended to  compensate or reimburse the WIN participant
for  daily transportation and lunch costs that  are  incurred in connection  with his/her
participation. In most instances, this means that the WIN trainee-worker receives $2.00  per
day  for training-related  expenses. This payment is continued  until the  trainee-worker re-
ceives his/her first paycheck as a regular employee.
     Perhaps the most significant  effect of this support service is in its psychological impact
upon the trainee-worker. No individual likes the idea of receiving $2.00 per day as a trainee-
worker when the pay of the regular worker is more than that amount per hour. Thus, there
is strong incentive toward getting into the "regular employee" category as quickly as possi-
ble.  Being on time, attending every day, and participating fully in other ways will get the
trainee-worker  into full  wage earning most rapidly. The  $2.00 per day becomes, in effect,
the dissatisfier kind of motivational influence. As such it encourages the trainee-worker to
get to full wage-earning status just as quickly as possible.

Other Support Services
     Because disadvantaged people often have  problems in  addition to those described
above, the WIN/EPA/DOL project provides help with legal matters, credit buying, general
financial management, and other kinds of social adjustments. In some instances the trainee-
workers are helped to better understand  and cope  with the law. In other instances individ-
uals are helped to make out  budgets and develop  plans for making equitable payments to
creditors. The evidence accumulated in this project to date indicates that most of the WIN
participants  have  not  had unusual emotional problems. While many problems are evident,
they are the kinds of problems that most people have as they  engage in training activities
and  move into new kinds of employment.
     In summary, with regard to support services,  the intent behind making them available
is to sustain  the training and employment program  that is required to yield full productivity
levels. At all times the support services should be related directly to the training and/or the
job.  Decisions  about which support services are needed should be individualized, with the
WIN caseworkers and  the trainees (when possible) sharing in the decisions concerning which
services they need.
     With  jobs  developed for potential  trainee-workers, with  recruitment for those jobs
accomplished, and with support services to reduce obstacles to employment, it is possible to
begin job  training for a  group  of people who actually have  reasonable expectations of
moving into  environmental service jobs.  The next part of this section pertains to the com-
ponents of that job training.
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                              Job Training Components
    Training for welfare recipients in this program is usually offered in four categories: (1)
Introduction to Environmental  Service, (2)  Basic and  Remedial Education, (3)  Training
Related to Environmental Occupations,  and (4) Training in  Specific Environmental Job
Skills. This section describes in some detail each of these four categories of the job training
component of the WIN/EPA/DOL project.
     Good training is a vehicle for assimilating workers into the circumstances of work in
ways that develop solid  attitudes  toward environmental service employment. The training
should include the fundamentals necessary for performing the job and  should help build
potential for realistic advancement opportunities. Good training gives support to the trainee-
workers' hopes that they can learn skills  that are salable in the environmental job market.
Good training gives support to their expectations that employment in environmental occu-
pations will  lead to economic security and upward mobility. Finally, good training  will
guide the trainee-workers in their responses  to learning and work assignments imposed by
supervisors under actual  work conditions at the job  sites. A key consideration in  all of the
training should be the trainee-workers' personal characteristics and learning styles.
     The  main goal of the training component is to offer the welfare recipient  (trainee-
worker) an opportunity  for a career in environmental service by preparing him with a body
of practical knowledge.This is supplemented, to the  extent required for each person,  with
basic and remedial education along  with broad training related to environmental occupations.
In providing opportunities for careers in environmental service, numerous efforts are made to
instill in each trainee-worker self-confidence and the ability to learn effectively.

Introduction to Environmental Service
     The  instruction, guidance, and self-help aspects of the introduction to environmental
service are programmed  to enable each trainee-worker to understand both the training and
work conditions in environmental employment. Each person is helped to best present him-
self or herself by means of neat and accurate completion of training and employment forms.
General ability, physical, and other examinations  are used to  help the individual assess his/
her potential for meeting the job requirements. Each trainee-worker learns about required
work habits and other personal requirements. (S)he is informed of the procedures, rules, and
benefits relating to environmental service occupations.  (S)he becomes motivated to respon-
sibly enter into both training and work.  (S)he is shown how, with increased earning power,
family obligations can better be fulfilled.
     The developing of long-lasting motivational forces is emphasized in the introduction to
environmental service. The trainee-workers who are high  school and grade school dropouts
find it hard to return to study activities. Extensive encouragement toward advancement
through training for environmental work is provided  for them.
     The  design  of the introduction to environmental service is intended to help the trainee-
worker to better see himself or herself as a person and as a worker entering an occupational
field in which chances for achievement are good.  The subject matter of this part of the job
training includes: definition of lines of authority in training and employment, consideration
of the several environmental  fields as areas of  employment, clarification of rights and
obligations  of environmental service workers, and evaluation of the advantages and disad-
vantages of specific jobs. It is in this introduction to environmental service that the climate
of the total training program is established and good rapport is first developed between the
trainee-workers and the instructor-counselors.

Basic and Remedial Education
     The  goal  of this part of the training component  is to help the trainee gain the basic
education required  in almost any work  situation:  communications; mathematics; science;
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and, for those who have not finished their high school education, general review and prepar-
ation for  the GED test.  The  basic and remedial education constitutes the groundwork
essential to learning how to do environmental service work.
     If the trainee has a good high school background, (s)he may devote little or no time to
basic and  remedial education. (S)he can move directly into the training related to environ-
mental occupations and the training in specific environmental job skills. The quick move to
related  and specific job  training is a substantial motivating force, particularly  when  the
trainee-worker is made aware that (s)he will gain more skill training than others do and will
be upgrading the potential for advancement in employment.
     The  trainee-worker may need basic and remedial education because (s)he is a school
dropout or suffers  from  poor  or ineffective schooling. When this is true, (s)he  should be
subjected  to learning materials and instruction that are correlated with the job to be entered.
Thus, (s)he may be motivated to learn because of job preparation motivations. At this point,
the individualized training program developed for each trainee takes on significance as the
trainee  participates in setting his or her own training goals and makes contributions to the
preparation of his or her own development plan.
     The  amounts  of basic  and remedial  education  delivered to each person will differ
substantially. Too, there  will be variations in the specific jobs that people move into. The
content of the  basic  and remedial education  will include concern for communications,
arithmetic, science, and aspects  of General Education Development (high school equivalency)
and will  continually be  adjusted in  terms of  the needs of each trainee. The content is
defined more specifically  in the following paragraphs.
     Communications—Communications includes reading, writing, speaking, listening,  and
techniques  of studying. The goals of the training in communications are: (1) to help the
trainee-worker extend and refine the ability to communicate and (2) to give direction to the
use of communication skills in environmental service work. Each person is helped in reading
for understanding and writing for clarity. Each person is helped to better relate his or her
speaking  to thinking in conversation. Each person is helped in learning how to listen with
perception. In  this context, proper techniques  for study and learning are developed  and
practiced. Applications of communication skills, individually and in groups, are in terms of
the  history of  environmental work,  economics  of  environmental  control, government
funding of environmental facilities, and staff training.
     Mathematics—The general purpose of instruction in mathematics is to assist the trainee-
worker in acquiring the  skills necessary to solve environmental job-related problems  and
problems of daily living that involve arithmetical thinking. The use of whole numbers,
fractions, and decimals is reviewed. The applications of mathematics are varied according to
the specific jobs  for which training is given.  Applications may  include measurements,
calculation of area and volume, percentages, work with money and time, and an introduction
to  graphs,  maps, and blueprints. The learning  is simplified  and made meaningful with ex-
amples of the  mathematics  for  the particular jobs for which the trainee-workers are pre-
paring. An effort is made to help the individual develop the ability to use mathematics as a
foundation for advanced  learning on the job or in an upgrade training program.
     Science—The  study  of science covers basic life science, physics, and chemistry.  It is
designed  to help the trainee-worker acquire a foundation for understanding the science as-
pects of  environmental service processes. The  content includes the fundamentals of plant
and animal life along with consideration of energy in machines and in electricity. In special
areas such as water and wastewater occupations, attention is given to organic and inorganic
constituents. Similarly, attention is  given  to the  disease and nuisance producing aspects,,
particularly in  the pollution control  kinds  of jobs. Development of the inquiry/discovery
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frame of reference is stressed in this segment of the basic and remedial education. There is
constant drawing out of direct experiences from the environmental service occupations.
     General Education Development—Review for the GED tests consists of improving test-
taking skills; improving facility in reading, vocabulary, grammar, spelling, arithmetic, and
problem solving; and, with help from the instructors, work at analyzing and answering
questions that involve reasoning, judgment, comparison, and evaluation. This segment of the
basic and remedial education is a concentrated approach to general learning for those persons
highly  motivated toward  obtaining  the  high  school equivalency diploma.  When in the
opinion of the instructor the trainee-worker is  ready to again, or for the first time, take the
GED test, the schedule for doing so is arranged.

Training Related to Environmental Occupations
     This part of the job  training component is vital for trainees in any field of environ-
mental service work. It consists of intensive training including the following content:
     1. First aid and accident prevention.
     2. Personal and job behavior.
     3. Safety in operations and maintenance.
     4. Care and use of tools.
     5. Basic technical aspects of the job.
     6. Materials handling.
     7. Personal money management.
This training is designed to help the  trainee-worker better understand himself or herself as
well as others and to help develop in each person a feeling of security. To the extent that
this training is related to a specific job, it helps the trainee-worker begin to "get the feel" of
particular environmental service jobs.
     In this aspect of the job training, as in other aspects, the learning atmosphere should be
non-threatening and motivational. Because of past school experiences, some individuals are
inhibited in learning. They expect to be embarrassed  and possess feelings of inadequacy.
Such people must be pulled into group discussions and at other times must be allowed to
work independently. The  instruction should involve a minimum  of lecturing and a maxi-
mum of learning-by-doing wherein each trainee-worker is assured of experiencing successes.
At  all  times the relationship  between the training and the environmental  occupations is
made  a major part  of  the  total training program by which people are prepared for  work
under the WIN/EPA/DOL project.

Training in Specific Environmental Job Skills
     This part of the job training component  consists of a combination of technical  class-
room  training and supervised  work experience.  The technical job skills training offered in
the  classroom covers the specific, in-depth, content required to prepare each trainee-worker
for a particular environmental job. The content  is determined from the job description and
information drawn  from the  work  supervisors. In some  instances the classroom may be
equipped with certain of the tools or equipment of the job. In other instances the hands-on
experience can be gained only at the job site.
     The job skills classroom training is closely  coupled with the supervised work experience.
The classroom instructor keeps in close contact  with the work supervisor in efforts to keep
the  learning immediately  applicable  in the job. The supervisor similarly draws from the
instructor ideas  and techniques for making the work experience most valuable. In most
instances,  in the WIN/EPA/DOL  training  project, the  trainee-worker moves from the
technical classroom training into an environmental job and does not return to the classroom.
After  beginning work (s)he  has a follow-up  kind of relationship with  the classroom
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instructor.  When  necessary, however, the trainee-worker does return to the classroom for
special attention of any of a number of types. (S)he may be placed in a training-working sit-
uation wherein (s)he is in the classroom one day a week and at work four days each week.
Other time schedules for coupling classroom learning and supervised work experience may
be developed. Only when capable of satisfactorily fulfilling the requirements of a job should
the trainee-worker  be  released completely to that job and removed from  the classroom
training circumstances.
     The nature  of the relationship between supervisors and members  of  the classroom
instructional team  should be made explicit  in this part of the job training. Supervisory
cooperation is fostered as the supervisors are  brought into the planning and program devel-
opment for all aspects of the program. Supervisory staff training is usually essential to the
success of the supervised work experience.

                              Supervised Work Experience
     Every trainee-worker should, upon completion of the classroom job training, find a
job waiting—a job that provides a supervised work experience. The trainee-worker should be
factored into that job with the help of a member of the staff of the job training unit. Each
individual, in fact, should be made to feel that (s)he is moving from one  friendly  group
(training unit)  to another friendly group (employing unit). Accompanied to the job site by
the training staff member, the trainee-worker is introduced to the job, to the supervisors,
and  to co-workers in a  way that  causes development of a liking for the new job before the
first day is over.  In effect, this is application of the idea that the trainee-worker is given a
"hand-up" toward satisfactory long-term employment. The trainee-worker,  however, must
not be made to feel that (s)he is being given a "hand-out."
     The WIN/EPA/DOL project recognizes that many new workers and others returning to
the labor force, regardless of color or background, are under varied kinds of pressures, real
and  imagined, in the environmental work situation.  These trainee-workers are not fully
aware of the spoken and unspoken expectations of their supervisors, their co-workers, and
the employing unit itself regarding work behavior, promptness in starting time, absenteeism,
and  so forth. From the traditional supervisor's point of view, some of the WIN people seem
to be overly sensitive  to supervision and prone to distort helpful criticism into hostile
attitudes.  Experience  in working with  the  WIN  trainee-workers  and special supervisory
training have solved this problem in the past year of the operation of this project.
     Conditions  of Supervised  Work—It is not possible to overstress the importance of
accepting nothing less than good performance and adherence to posted rules of conduct by
the trainee-workers. The primary rules and regulations must be thoroughly explained to the
trainee-workers as they are factored into their jobs. Although each trainee-worker is treated
as an  individual, with understanding and a reasonable attitude, there must be no relaxation
of standards which are applied equally to all employees. Experience indicates that  the great
majority of WIN trainee-workers have responded exceptionally well to this kind of treatment
in their jobs.  In any group, however, there are some people who cannot be reached by
training and employment techniques. In the WIN/EPA/DOL project the numbers terminated
from employment after counseling and some disciplinary action have been very small.
      Each trainee-worker should move into a full  work schedule. The individual should not
 have work "made" for him/her because of the "trainee" designation. (S)he should  be a full-
 time employee as soon as possible.  The work pattern should include enough work to keep
 the person from developing inefficient approaches to that work or laziness with respect to it.
 The amount of work should not be so great as to discourage the individual or make him/her
 feel inadequate  in comparison with other workers. Each trainee-worker should, through the
 supervised work  arrangement, become a fully competent, fully  productive worker in a
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minimum amount of time. The overall conditions of the supervised work should be condu-
cive to the development of individual confidence and self-sufficiency in each WIN person.
     Work Supervisor's Role—The leadership ability of the first-line foreman or supervisor is
an important key to the success of the WIN trainee-worker. The supervisor must have the
ability to lead, guide,  counsel, instruct, and discipline. The new environmental job is a
traumatic experience.  Negative attitudes are easily  formed and effective communication
must be  maintained if they are to be avoided. The supervisor must be a good listener. (S)he
must be honest  and let  the WIN  trainee-worker know exactly  "how  it is." Insincerity,
broken promises, and patronizing  attitudes alienate people from the welfare ranks very
quickly and permanently.
     Until an employee can relate readily to a foreman or supervisor, (s)he thinks of that
person as a disciplinarian, as someone who will punish. The supervisor must take whatever
time  is required to make the  trainee-worker understand why  (s)he is being rewarded or
reprimanded. The supervisor must be firm in counseling, guiding, and instructing. Laxness or
indifference on the part  of the supervisor will only prolong rehabilitation and inhibit  the
development of motivations.
     Instructions to the trainee-worker will have to be repeated and, perhaps, repeated again.
This must be done with patience and understanding. At all times, the trainee-worker must
be made to know what is expected and there must be follow up to ensure that work is done
properly. The  trainee-worker will identify with positive aspects of employment.  (S)he will
appreciate the  pat  on the back, will thus experience success, and will seek more of the same.
If the trainee-worker believes that (s)he is being accepted by the supervisor and co-workers,
(s)he will respond  in many good and satisfying ways. The trainee-worker will perform  the
tasks in  his/her job with enthusiasm and will perform them in accord with work standards
of the group.
     Again, it  should  be noted that the environmental service job, through which initial
supervised work experience will be  gained,  should be waiting for the trainee-worker when
the  classroom  training comes to an end. Every effort should be made to minimize for all
individuals  the gap between classroom training and entry into supervised work experience in
actual, full-time jobs. The training and employment program is operating most efficiently at
this point, if the individual completes  training on a Friday afternoon  and moves into super-
vised employment  the next Monday morning.

                                Permanent Employment
      As  indicated  in the previous pages, the manpower development program for environ-
mental employees  is designed to make people willing and able to demonstrate in supervised
work  experience situations the abilities and skills  that they have acquired by means of
classroom job  training. In turn, then, having further refined those skills and having extended
their abilities even  move in supervised work experience, they should move into the category
of permanent  employees, with expectations of long-term employment and opportunities for
advancement.  The  trainee-worker's craving for instant job success should be satisfied in the
designated  period  of supervised work experience. The craving  for a regular job  to be held
over a long period of time can be satisfied only by what is considered to be  permanent
employment.
      Properly  trained,  disciplined,  and motivated at his or her work, the welfare recipient
may outproduce the average worker.  The welfare recipient is likely to develop and demon-
strate great pride in work done in the work group and  in the employing organization.  The
good work supervisor knows this and  strives toward the achievement of job satisfaction for
each worker who comes to him/her out of a training and employment program  such as the
WIN/EPA/DOL project provides.
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     When the intent and design of manpower development are met fully, the outcome is a
"proficient worker" in a satisfying job. To further define what this means, let us consider the
worker in a maintenance or operations job category in an environmental service field. The
following elements should prevail:
     The proficient worker—
     ***Knows his/her tools and when to use each of them.
     ***Knows his/her job in terms of its parts and the sequences in which tasks should be
          performed.
     ***Is self-initiating. (S)he can see what needs doing and does it without being prodded.
     ***Can work independently except when it takes two or more to do the job.
     ***Understands his/her role in "production" and how quantity and quality standards
          are met.
     ***Relates well  to supervision. In turn,  (s)he is helpful to others with whom (s)he
          works.
The proficient worker is the product of both good training and good work experience. (S)he
is the product  of long-term employment  and  does  not become proficient overnight.
Available information  indicates, in fact, that in the best of training and employment pro-
grams, an individual requires from ten to fifteen months on a job  to become fully proficient.
Where training and/or  supervision of work are limited or haphazard, as long a period as two
and one-half years may be required for job  proficiency standards to be met by workers.
     At  this  point, it may be  well to point out that not all  of  the workers who enter
permanent employment from a program such  as the  WIN/EPA/DOL project will become
proficient. Nor will all of those who do become proficient have that proficiency recognized
through  increased wages, promotions, and so forth. In many instances the jobs will involve
routine tasks, housekeeping tasks, and other duties at relatively low levels. The abilities of
the worker may  not  be challenged on the job. Upgrading may  be difficult to  achieve and
few opportunities to lead or  become the foreman may arise. If  the picture in recruitment,
training, and placement is too "rosy," the worker may become discouraged with time. In
this respect, environmental service occupations are like most other jobs. There is some good
and some bad in every day. The worker needs to count up each day his percentage of success
and failure. After all, some games are won, some are lost, and some just get rained out.

                                      Evaluation
     The training and employment aspects of this program do not end with entrance into
permanent status in a  particular environmental service job. There are follow-up and evalua-
tion procedures that include an assessment of job adjustment (satisfaction, wages, upgrade
training  opportunities) and some feedback of difficulties encountered in bridging the gap
between training and placement in the job.
     Follow-up information should be as extensive and meaningful as possible. Job entrance
statistics are  not sufficient for really useful assessments of individual job successes or of the
total impact  of the program. Much follow-up data constitute the basis for accurate revisions
of curriculums and for improvements in the methods  and materials of training. Similarly, a
mass of follow-up information may lead to substantial improvements in job structuring,
recruitment,  hiring, and retention of people in jobs.
     The first classes  in job training under the WIN/EPA/DOL project were conducted in
Maryland beginning in February 1974. The follow-up and evaluation data has been accumu-
lating in that State for only  about seven months. The time for data to accumulate is much
less in each of the other six  states. This means that there has not  been time to adequately
develop evaluation patterns or decisions on the basis of substantial amounts of information.
Trends  are  developing and,  in  some situations, rather drastic changes in methods and
procedures have been made on the basis of limited data.
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     Perhaps importantly, there are numerous employing units that hired people out of the
first class in a particular state and are now hiring from the fifth and sixth classes. Repeat
business, of course, is evidence of the delivery of a good product or service. The number of
successful job placements of the AFDC recipients in the WIN/EPA/DOL project is growing
at a rapid rate.  And, employers are now beginning to point with pride to their participation
in the project. This is not the kind of data that will ultimately be available, but it is the kind
of data  required to build enthusiastic continuing efforts inside the project and interest and
desire to learn about it on the outside.
     In  training and employment programs offered under widely divergent circumstances in
several  states, it  may  be impossible to standardize an approach to measurement of the
"quality" of the programs. It may be impossible  to establish means of determining the
reliability and/or validity of quality-measuring devices. But, it  is already evident in this
WIN/EPA/DOL project that training does pay off. It is paying off through environmental
service  employment that puts  cash in  the hands  of former AFDC recipients. Too, it is
paying off in terms of personal achievements by people who in the past have achieved very
little. It is paying off in enabling individuals to live more useful lives. Stating the situation in
very basic terms,  the quality of the training and employment is pointed  up in people who
now have an incentive for "getting out of bed in the morning."

                                      Summary
     In  this section we have dealt extensively with the fundamental components of  man-
power development. Drawing on experience, we have  provided  technical assistance infor-
mation  relative to how to build on  the collective manpower strength of AFDC recipients. In
this section, we have demonstrated how to make AFDC recipients available for work in
environmental occupations.
     The material presented in this section was developed around three primary assumptions.
The first assumption was that a  project involving employability must have within it certain
guarantees of employment to ensure the motivation needed to make job training successful.
The second assumption was that numerous community resources must be mobilized and
coordinated (health, transportation, training, child care, social living) to produce an employ-
able individual  and to match that individual with an environmental job.  The third assump-
tion was that support services are needed for both employee and employer in facilitating job
adjustment and retention in a job for a relatively long period of time.
     These three  assumptions about manpower development mark a radical departure from
the  passive approach to  training and employment that has prevailed in recent years. In
essence, they  point up that manpower development  should be trainee-worker oriented
rather than employee oriented. This also recognizes that proper  orientation, primarily con-
cern for trainee-worker growth  and development, is at the core of any program designed to
convert a welfare recipient to wage-earning, tax-paying status.
     Manpower development should  be a continuous, organized, and  interrelated effort
with  component  parts  including  job development,  recruitment,  orientation,  selection,
training, support services, work  experience, permanent employment and evaluation. All of
these components should be built  on the premise that the skills and potentialities of people
on welfare  can be extended to fit the  patterns of employment in  environmental service
occupations. Where there are,  within  the structure  of employment, certain  causes of
unemployment and/or underemployment, these must  be dealt  with in  ways that reduce
their effect or eradicate them completely.
     In  some communities welfare recipients may be helped into employment  in environ-
mental  occupations by  traditional  methods and through ordinary processes. In other com-
munities, however, the  training and employment program for welfare participants must
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provide stimuli for changes in traditional patterns of manpower development. It is encour-
aging to note that a partial solution to filling the need for trained environmental workers,
which  is  one of the  major manpower problems of this decade, has been demonstrated by
the efforts thus far exerted in this WIN/EPA/DOL project.
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                                      SECTION V


                        NEW MANPOWER  DESIGN


     From the Nation's capital has come a clear mandate to decentralize and decategorize
Federal manpower programs. Responsibility for manpower growth and development has
been placed at the lowest practicable grovernmental levels. All of this has been done through
the Comprehensive Employment  and  Training Act of 1973 (CETA) which replaced the
categorical grant approach that prevailed for approximately eleven years under the Manpow-
er Development  and Training Act of 1962  (MDTA). CETA provides new funding mechan-
isms which result in new directions in manpower development. At present, CETA is subject
to both praise and condemnation. But, there is no doubt that CETA will be an essential and
major  source of funding  assistance in  the  future development and implementation of
programs for training and employment in environmental service fields.
     Since 1969  EPA  has been operating  several Interagency Agreements under funding
from the  U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare as well as the U. S. Depart-
ment of Labor. The EPA has helped to provide states with  funds to train people for lower
level environmental service jobs.  In fact, it is from this source that most of the funds for
environmental training in  the various states have come.  Other sources of some Federal
funds have been direct grants from HEW,  Civil Service Commission, Department of Agri-
culture, and others. With the new manpower design it is essential that Manpower Revenue
Sharing monies be allocated  under the  CETA plan in each of the states to provide for train-
ing and employment in environmental fields. Leadership by state agencies responsible for
environmental manpower will have to be vigorously exercised to ensure funding  of the
essential programs in each state.
     It is apparent that the role of the Office of Education and Manpower Planning of the
EPA is changing. No longer may a prime sponsor look to the EPA  for funding of an environ-
mental manpower program; but, a prime sponsor can still expect from the EPA major and
significant kinds  of technical assistance, guidance, and other kinds of help in the organiza-
tion and administration of programs. Most importantly,  however, funds  for training and
employment, in  most  instances,  must be  derived  solely from revenue sharing and other
monies within each state—and this usually under the auspices and with the coordination of
CETA.
     One of the  exceptions to the above continues to be the WIN program under Title IV
of the Social Security  Act. Money for some institutional training, for WIN-OJT slots, for
WIN-PSE slots, and for support services remains available for possible use in environmental
service job training and  employment.
     It should be noted that the Secretary  of Labor must allocate not less than 50 percent
of certain sums  appropriated for  WIN among the various states; but, he shall  allocate the
balance of the  sums not allocated in such manner  as he  determines will best serve the
objectives of the WIN program. He, therefore, has the authority to continue such programs
as those under WIN/EPA/DOL Interagency Agreement 99-4-0001-021 and may fund addi-
tional programs  similar in nature and  of  equal importance in environmental manpower
growth and development.

                                      CETA
     Rather than operate manpower programs project by project through separate sponsors,
the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act authorizes the Department of Labor to
make block grants to  local and state Prime Sponsors. These are the groups that plan and
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operate manpower  programs to meet local needs.  The objectives of this new design  for
manpower development are:
     1. To  unify efforts—including  public service  employment—under which federally
       supported manpower services  are  provided to unemployed  and underemployed
       persons who need job-related assistance.
     2. To free city, county, and state budgets from fund matching and maintenance of
       effort encumbrances, and to permit state and local planners and administrators to
       have flexibility in meeting manpower needs.
     3. To vest the power to shape manpower programs in those levels of government closest
       to the people who need assistance.
CETA is the result of ten years of groping toward a system that combines Federal resources
and  Federal standards with manpower programs designed  and operated locally to  meet
local  labor  market needs. Implementation procedures, however, do not  guarantee  that
programs will in fact be adapted to local needs.  All they guarantee is that local planners will
have their day. The planners may ignore or never  discover the needs such as those now
seemingly very apparent in environmental service fields.

Comprehensive Manpower Services
     Title I of CETA establishes  the program of  financial assistance to  state and local
governments for  comprehensive manpower  services. Among the purposes for which funds
may be used are:
     1. Recruitment, orientation, counseling, testing, placement, and follow-up services.
     2. Classroom instruction in occupational skills and other  job-related training such as
        basic education.
     3. Subsidized on-the-job training by public  and  private employers.
     4. Allowances for persons in training.
     5. Supportive services such as necessary medical  care, child care,  and help in obtaining
        bonding needed for employment.
     6. Transitional public employment programs.
The mix and design of manpower services provided under this broad umbrella is up to local
and state governments acting  as Prime Sponsors.  For this reason, it becomes extremely
important for organizations and agencies with any responsibilities in environmental man-
power development to let the  Prime Sponsors have  assessments of manpower needs  and
specific  information relative to particular jobs. Too, when funds have been allocated for
environmental training and employment, the organizations and agencies must give technical
assistance and other help in  curriculum development and  the  supervision of operating
programs. Please refer to the page that follows for an illustrative list of  the organizations and
agencies in any one state that might provide input for environmental training and employ-
ment.
     A significant  example of how a state agency with responsibility for environmental
control may become interactive with  CETA involves the field of pest control work. Under
the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972, the Departments of Agriculture
in various states are picking up responsibility  for developing programs of certification of
pesticide applicators  and execution of the certification  requirements.  Ultimately,  much
training will be required in many different areas of applicator certification programs. Funds
for training will be lacking unless CETA or other monies are made available for this special
purpose. It will take  extensive leg work by those responsible for pest control to convince
the  Prime Sponsors in CETA  that they should pick up any part of the check for such a
program of training and  employment. It is time now  for Prime Sponsors to be made aware
of the need for training, the need for  funds, the need for coordinated planning by various
groups to bring about fulfillment of shared goals relative to pest control.
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     ILLUSTRATIVE LIST OF  ORGANIZATIONS AND
   AGENCIES THAT MAY BE SOURCES OF INPUT FOR
     ENVIRONMENTAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT
Designated State Environmental Agencies
Department of Pollution Control
Department of Health
Department of Agriculture
Department of Wildlife Conservation
Department of Industrial Development
Water Resources Board
Conservation Commission
Corporation Commission
Other State Agencies With Environmentally Related Responsibilities
Highway Department                      Office of Energy Resources
Turnpike Authority                        Department of Tourism and Recreation
Department of Mines                      Department of Labor
Office of Community Affairs and Planning

Comparable Federal  Agencies in Operation Within the State
Environmental Protection Agency            Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Department of Agriculture                  Department of Interiors
Department of Commerce                   Department of Housing and Urban Development
Bureau of Mines                          Department of Labor
Bureau of Reclamation                     Department of Transportation

 Regional, District, County, and Community Sources
 Substate Planning Districts
 District Sanitarians
 Soil Conservation Agents
 Highway Departments
 Commercial Pesticide Operators
 Milk, Beverage, and Food Processors
 Air Pollution Source Permit Holders
 Radiation Users
 Private Haulers & Permit Haulers
 Utilities, Electric and Gas
 Conservation Districts
 County Agents
 County Commissioners
 City Mayors, Clerks, Personnel Officers
 Major Manufacturers
 Plumbing Companies
 Water Discharge Permit Holders
 Private Landfill Operators
 Private Hazardous Waste Operators
 Incinerator Operators
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Public Employment Program
     Title II of CETA provides for programs of transitional public service employment in
areas with a 6Vz percent or more unemployment rate for three consecutive months. Prime
Sponsors may be units of government qualified under Title I of the Act or Indian tribes on
Federal or state reservations.
     It is hoped that the unemployment rate will remain low and that most governmental
agencies will be only slightly concerned about Title II. Those involved with environmental
manpower, however, should remain aware of the possibilities herein. The public service
employment may be in environmental jobs as well as in other fields of work.

Special Federal Responsibilities
     Title III of CETA  provides Federal supervision of manpower programs for Indians and
for migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The Secretary of Labor also is authorized to provide
manpower services for certain other special  target groups with particular labor market
disadvantages.
     Title HI authorizes research, experimental and demonstration programs, evaluation of all
programs under the Act, the development of a labor market information system, and com-
puterized job  placement. Because  of the dimensions of the  multiple facets of manpower
service under this  Title, those responsible for environmental manpower should look into it
thoroughly.

Job Corps
      Title IV of CETA consists of the provisions of Title I-A, "Job Corps," of the Economic
Opportunity Act which were transferred to this Act. The purpose is to assist young persons
who neeB and  can benefit from an unusually intensive program operated in a group setting
to become more  responsive, employable, and productive citizens. There is no questioning
the fact that the training and employment stemming from the Job Corps may involve envir-
onmental service jobs in fields such as water and  wastewater  treatment, pest control, auto-
mobile emission control, and sanitary landfill  operation.

 National Commission for Manpower Policy
      Title V of CETA establishes  the Commission to be made  up of the heads of certain
 federal agencies, state  and  local elected officials involved in manpower  programs, persons
 served by manpower programs, representatives of other concerned groups, and members of
 the general public. It is  obvious that people concerned about the need  for environmental
 manpower development should "infiltrate" the Commission to provide essential input. This
 is especially true since the Commission is identifying  the Nation's manpower needs and
 goals, doing research,  evaluating the effectiveness of federally assisted manpower develop-
 ment programs, and reporting annually to the President and the Congress.

 General Provisions
      Title VI of  CETA contains provisions  applicable  to all programs such as definitions,
 conditions governing  work and training, prohibitions against discrimination and political
 activities, and the  like.  It  is no more or less applicable to training and employment in
 environmental service jobs than in any other occupation.
      It  took approximately eleven years under  MDTA to bring Federal manpower policy
 competence to its present relatively high level, and there is still much to be learned  at the
 local level where  the action is now concentrated. There is, however, a base of experience in
 most sizable  communities, a Federal  capability  to draw upon, and a  body of technical
 assistance and training competence in and out of government.

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     Environmental manpower has been the concern of EPA only since 1969 and only now
are real concerns developing in many state and local situations. It  will be helpful if the
process of learning manpower techniques and procedures can be shortened under CETA.
For the environmental fields this will happen if both the suppliers and the users of environ-
mental  manpower  are  aggressive  in  their demands for carefully designed training and
employment  plans and effectively  executed  programs.

                                    Changes  in WIN
     The Federal Work Incentive Program (WIN I) got underway approximately eight years
ago as a part of the  Nation's broader Social Security  program. WIN II was created  from
WIN I by 1971 Amendments.  The constant goal of these programs has been to help recipi-
ents of AFDC become economically self-sufficient through employment. That this can be
done is being amply demonstrated in the WIN/EPA/DOL Project described in this document.
At this point the reader may wish to refer back to the material on Coordination with WIN
in Section III.
     Now there are proposals before Congress that will bring  about certain changes in WIN
operations, presumably to increase the efficiency of certain practices and procedures. It is
probably  correct to assume that the  new rules and  regulations for the operation of WIN
programs in  the  various states will be implemented on January 1, 1975, according to the
present plan. The "Notice of Proposed Rulemaking" for WIN was disseminated by means of
the Federal Register, Vol. 39, No. 182—Wednesday, September 18, 1974.

Proposed New Regulations
     The DOL and HEW are jointly proposing  new WIN regulations. They are designed to
better implement the WIN program and, in particular,  to improve the job development and
placement systems.  Of  significance to  environmental  training and  employment, with
coordinated CETA and WIN efforts, are the following changes:
     1. The  WIN registration function is transferred  from the local welfare  staff to  the
        local WIN  sponsor (generally the employment service). This will assist new WIN
        registrants to use the job referral services located at local WIN sponsor offices.
     2. A job search activity is added for AFDC recipients registered for WIN, but not yet
        certified  by the state welfare agency for participation in WIN, and for individuals
        who  are certified but who are not actively engaged in a WIN component.
      3. The WIN sponsor will assume the function of deregistering all individuals from WIN.
        This change places both  registration for WIN  and deregistration from WIN in the
        same administrative unit.
      4. A new Intensive  Manpower Services Component has been  added as an option to
        current WIN programs. This new component is intended to provide structured,
        intensive employment services, and the development  of job seeking skills to individ-
        uals certified for WIN training.
 The Assistant Secretary of Manpower  in DOL and the Administrator of the Social and
 Rehabilitation Service in HEW together form  the WIN National Coordination Committee.
 These two individuals are responsible for the effective national administration of WIN.

 State and Local WIN Plans
      Planning of WIN operations will continue very much in the same way as in past years.
 State WIN plans will be formulated on an  annual basis  through joint efforts of the state
 WIN  sponsor and the state welfare agency. The state  WIN plan will include a summary of
 the data in the local WIN plans.
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     A state or local WIN sponsor may, through agreements with public or private agencies
or organizations, carry out a variety of activities and programs, including but not limited to:
     1. Public service employment programs.
     2. Intensive manpower services programs.
     3. On-the-job training programs.
     4. Work experience programs.
     5. Job search programs.
As always in WIN, the supportive services component will continue to be extremely helpful
in enabling disadvantaged individuals to participate in job search activities, accept employ-
ment, or receive manpower training under the WIN program.

WIN Coordination with CETA
     Under the new WIN regulations, it should be somewhat easier in 1975 and thereafter
to establish  coordination and linkages between WIN prime sponsors and CETA prime spon-
sors. Linking WIN  with CETA  has  many  advantages that result in more  efficiency and
effectiveness in the provision of manpower  services. Maximizing of results is important to
those responsible for environmental  manpower development, as well as to others, because
funds for such purposes are now limited and may be limited further in the years ahead.
     It is important for WIN and CETA prime sponsors to jointly identify certain significant
elements in the design of an effective delivery  system for training and employment. Some
of these key elements are:
     1. WIN is still a categorical manpower program sponsored  by the DOL. It operates in
       over 300 jurisdictions under a different legislative and funding base than CETA.
     2. Having related goals, both programs offer tremendous potential to complement and
       support each other, but also have the potential for costly duplication of services to
       their target populations.
     3. The general CETA target population entirely encompasses the  WIN population.
     4. The legislation and regulations for both programs  specify the need for cooperative,
       joint action.
     5. The placement of AFDC recipients and general welfare recipients in employment
       can result in substantial welfare savings to local governments.
     6. The Revenue Act  of 1971  provides  for a tax credit to employers  who hire WIN
       registrants, whether they are hired from the WIN program or from CETA.
To  ensure effective coordination and cooperation, the prime sponsors of WIN and CETA
should  formulate and operate under subagreements which spell out good practices and
procedures.

                                      Summary
     The realities of manpower planning and development are challenging and at times even
frightening. The manpower budget becomes  a significant amount of  money as it is focused
on  a limited target group in  a particular jurisdiction. In effect, that budget takes on a
tremendous political clout.
     Under  CETA state and local manpower planners probably  can exercise control over no
more than two-fifths of the funds available for employability and employment programs for
the disadvantaged. The remaining  portion of such funds still remains in the hands of the
long-established  agencies such as the employment service, public and private schools, labor
unions, vocational rehabilitation agencies, and  welfare agencies. In the aggregate, the funds
for support services, training,  and employment of disadvantaged people loom  large. The
funds constitute major items in the budgets of  governmental  units at all levels: Federal,
state, and local.
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     A promising potential advantage of planning under the "new manpower design" is the
coupling of services and service deliverers in ways that were rare under the national pro-
gramming of MDTA. For many years institutional training has been viewed as an education-
al  responsibility of HEW, whereas on-the-job training was to be done only through the
employment service, an arm of DOL. The very desirable mix of institutional training with
on-the-job training was only seldom  accomplished  because it required crossing of agency
lines.
     Today, agencies and organizations are being urged  to cross lines and to engage in
coordinated approaches to training and employment. This necessitates, however, much more
input from many sources and new lines of communication must be established at the same
time that the old lines are being used more effectively. People  who  are responsible for
environmental manpower planning and development must be  connected into the old and
new lines of communication and they must keep those lines busy. In the political pattern
now prevailing in training and employment programs, political techniques must  be used.
Measures must be taken to ensure that the "environmental voice" will  come through loud
and clear.
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                                 SECTION VI
                      MODELS OF  PROPOSALS,
             PROGRAMS AND AGREEMENTS FOR
                  TRAINING AND  EMPLOYMENT
                                  Introduction
    The development of a program of training and employment in environmental service
occupations must begin with a plan. The plan must be based on a purpose, a fundamental
underlying concept, and an approach that elicits solid support from numerous sources.
    The next major step involves the preparation of an environmental manpower project
proposal. The person(s) doing this job should have competence in proposal writing. But, of
more importance is thorough understanding of the components of good job training and of
the nature and scope of environmental kinds of work.  A model of a project proposal is
provided here. It is a relatively short proposal, easy to read, yet with all needed basic
information.
    Most  prime sponsors are not tooled up to perform the job development, training, and
placement aspects of a manpower project. It often, therefore, becomes most appropriate for
them to get these things done through subcontractors. Since most governmental units have
their own  particular formats for requests for proposals, no model is presented here. But, the
response to a request for a proposal is shown here in a model for training and employment.
     Once a subcontractor is selected for doing various aspects of the work in a particular
project, a subagreement should be executed to  insure compliance with all specific details.
Similarly,  arrangements with the WIN  organization should be formalized in a relatively
simple subagreement. Both of these kinds of subagreements are illustrated here with models.
     It is hoped that the models of a proposal, of a program, and of two subagreements will
be useful. It is certain that the early aspects of development of the WIN/EPA/DOL Project
were more difficult to accomplish because of the absence of such guideline documents and
 materials.                                                                  .    ,
     Please study the models presented on the following pages and review them again and
 again as your training and employment program is organized and made operative.
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                           MODEL
                   PROJECT PROPOSAL
Submitted to:
Project Director:
By:
             (Name)
            (Signature)
  (Title)
(Telephone)
             (Date)
                                             (Address)
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                                PROGRAM DESIGN

                              (Proposed Prime Sponsor)
in cooperation with the State WIN Program, various Manpower Area Planning Council groups,
and others proposes to establish and operate a statewide program to provide job training and
placement assistance for   (State) welfare recipients enrolled in the Federal Work Incentive
Program (WIN).
     This program will include as components training, job development, and placement of
participants to meet the environmental services personnel needs of the private sector, state
government, and units of local government.
                     SUBSTANTIATION OF MANPOWER NEEDS

     The need for an expanded environmental manpower development program within the
 State of 	 has been  authenticated and  verified  by two  recent studies. A
 feasibility  study  by Program Representatives functioning under the WIN/EPA/DOL Inter-
 agency  Agreement determined that there is within the State a "substantial need for entry
 level personnel in various environmental or environmentally-related occupations and that
 WIN clients, with proper training, would be excellent candidates for these jobs." Another
 study, funded  by the	— determined that there is a significant
 and substantial continuing need for manpower development in  the environmental occupa-
 tions. State agencies contacted relative to this proposal were receptive and enthusiastic.
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                                  INTRODUCTION

     The	(Proposed Prime Sponsor)	js responsible for planning and
coordinating the State's  overall manpower development and training program. One of the
more important goals of this activity is to enhance and preserve the quality of the State's air,
water,  and land through prevention, control,  and abatement of pollution to assure and
sustain  an  environment  of adequate quality for all beneficial uses. To  meet the critical
shortage of skilled environmental workers for the operation of pollution control facilities
such as water and wastewater treatment  plants, sanitary landfills and solid waste disposal
plants,  and pest control units, the 	(Proposed  Prime Sponsor)	 is
coordinating a variety  of programs and  resources toward development of a sound environ-
mental manpower training program.
     Recently enacted laws in  environmental protection and pressing needs for additional
law enforcement and fire protection as well as other public services that need to be delivered
in both urban and  rural  areas  make it  mandatory that this manpower  development be
intensified. Without aid, many of the smaller counties and  municipalities do not have the
resources to train or hire individuals to deliver the needed services. In many instances the
tax base has been severely eroded  by recent inflation and is now inadequate to meet the
needs. Increased effectiveness of existing manpower development programs would alleviate
many of the existing manpower needs in the areas of environment and public service.
     The program, as described in this proposal, will be accomplished through a partnership
with the    (Proposed Program Sponsor)	f tne staie WIN Program, various Manpower
Area Planning Council groups,  and  units of local government. Linkages with existing man-
power  training and development programs will  be established,  thereby  bringing a more
efficient combination of resources to bear on the goals of both manpower development and
environmental quality.
     It is anticipated that a large portion of this program will be operated in conjunction
and simultaneously with CETA Programs.  The CETA and WIN guidelines  will be such that
the programs  can be linked to obtain  greater  utilization of job development and training
resources. It will be possible to utilize administrative personnel, program advisory commit-
tees, and, in some instances, the instructors and job developers for both programs.
     Where possible, this  program  will be linked  with  other manpower programs such as
WIN-PSE,  WIN-OJT, and  Title II PSE. This will provide the added advantage of coupling
classroom  job-related/job-skills training with the wage reimbursement aspects of the other
programs. The "disadvantaged" criteria used  to select the trainees make the programs com-
patible and, through this linkage, both will be strengthened.
     In summation, the  costs of  conducting environmental/public service training will
obtain  maximum benefits through  linkages of several programs, and, for a majority of the
total program, administrative costs will be  reduced through the linkages with other programs.
 (See Appendix A for Budget.)
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                     PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND OBJECTIVE

     The intent of this program is to establish and operate a project to provide job training
and  placement assistance to  welfare recipients enrolled in the Federal Work Incentive
Program (WIN). Participants in this project will be receiving Aid to Families with Dependent
Children (AFDC).
     The period of performance of the proposal herein is twelve months from the date of
the execution of  an agreement. A one-month refinement period is  proposed at the com-
mencement of the twelve-month  period to provide sufficient time to initiate job develop-
ment and to contact, interview, and prepare enrollees for formal classroom training.
     The primary objective  of this project is to provide able-bodied AFDC recipients an
opportunity for full-time career employment in the environmental fields. To further careers
of project  participants, sponsors  will endeavor to place  graduates of this program in other
EPA sponsored training programs that lead to higher levels of responsibility and pay.

                                SCOPE OF PROGRAM

     The      (Proposed Prime Sponsor)	 shali promote,  develop,  and
administer  a program designed to:
     1. Provide remedial education and skill training to approximately _Jnumber)   a(jult
       welfare recipients (entry enrollees). (See Appendix B for possible occupations.)
     2. Facilitate  the placement  of  the   (number)  individuals in established budgeted
       positions located in  selected public and quasi-public agencies as well as in selected
       private firms administering environmental programs and/or performing environmental-
       related services.

                       CONCEPT OF PROGRAM OPERATIONS

     The Training Program Director through his/her Job Developer/Placement Coordinator
will work closely with each local WIN director and accomplish the following:
     1. Screen available WIN recipients for those employable in the environmental field.
     2. Identify and secure  job commitments from employers in the environmental career
       field.
     3. Where possible, place trainees in WIN-OJT, WIN-PSE, or Title II PSE slots.
     4. Advise the training consultant of training requirements.
The Training Consultants will accomplish the  following:
     1. Work closely with the Program Director and the Job Developer to pattern classroom
       training and work supervision to the needs of the individuals and the employers.
     2. Based on  inputs from the Job Developer and the Program Director, develop training
       plans that will  provide the  highest  degree of efficiency in terms of facility  and
       instructor resources.
     3. Keep the Program Director advised of follow-up and counseling activities.
     4. Assist the Program Director in job development and follow-up activities.

                                     TRAINING

     Upon certification, trainees will enter a period of orientation. They will be introduced
to the various areas of environmental services including pest control, water and wastewater
treatment, and solid waste collection and disposal.
     Trainees will be tested for GED's and  encouraged  to obtain the GED where needed.
                                          66

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Family  and job counseling will be given during the first week to determine the employ-
ability of trainees and  to obtain for the placement personnel a complete  profile  on the
trainee to assist in placement in a position he or she may be able to fill.
     Tests may include Wide  Range Achievement, GED, aptitude, and others  suited to
specific jobs. Slides, movies,  and  audio-visual presentations will  be used to introduce
trainees to  the tasks they  may be expected to perform. Talks and question-and-answer
sessions will be given by local officials or supervisors to permit  the trainee a first hand
knowledge  of  rules, regulations, salaries, fringe benefits, and promotional opportunities.
Remedial and Basic Education will follow the orientation using the class placement made
during the week of orientation. The time in this training will normally be three weeks with
emphasis  on related education and  job skills which meet the needs of the individual and the
requirements of the job available. The mathematics necessary to perform a given task, basic
science, and other courses will be given during this period.
     During this three weeks, the continuing job development efforts will ensure placement
of those with employable skills. Personal interviews will be obtained for each  trainee thought
to be able to work. Placement efforts will attempt to link qualified trainees  with an author-
ized WIN-OJT, WIN-PSE, or Title II PSE slot. When placed and for the first five days on the
job, the work experience will be supervised closely by the classroom instructor in coopera-
tion with the foreman or supervisor.
     Trainees may go on the  payroll of an employer  after  the first week, but placement
efforts  will be continuous and become more intensified  as the  training progresses.  It
is expected that most will be placed in the segment of training after the third week.
     Job  coaching and  counseling at the work site will continue  on a weekly basis for a
period of six weeks after placement to ensure a proper adjustment to the work environment.
     Supervisory training  will  be  offered to  the job instructors  who may be first-time
supervisors, foremen, or leadmen who will be directly responsible for the OJT phase of the
program.
     In their training they will be given an overview of the program with class schedules
given them. This will permit them to coordinate the classroom and OJT and to reduce con-
flicts in classroom and OJT. They  will be encouraged to give input into the program and to
coordinate the training with the classroom instructor.

                            STAFFING AND WIN SUPPORT

      This program will require the following staff personnel (see following page for organi-
 zation chart):
                         Program Director   .  .  1
                         Job Developer ....  1
                         Data Assistant ....  1

                                  Staff Job Descriptions
 Program Director
      The Program Director will have overall supervisory responsibility for administering the
 training  program.  (S)he will work closely with  the directors of the local agencies involved
 with CETA and WIN and who are responsible for various aspects of the reporting system as
 well as the WIN office in implementing all phases of the program. (S)he will be responsible
 for reviewing  all training progress  reports and financial statements required by CETA, WIN,
 and other agencies. (S)he will have primary responsibility for administering the programs
 outside MAPC areas where linkages with other programs probably will not exist. (S)he will
 be  responsible for negotiating and initiating grants,  as appropriate,  in execution of the
                                          67

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ORGANIZATION CHART
        Job Developer
                                              (Proposed Prime Sponsor)
                                           (Sponsor's Administrative Agent)
                                             Training Program Director
Data Assistant
Training Consultant
                                                      Training
                                                     Coordinator
                                          Instructors
                        Counselors

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training program and will monitor closely all training efforts. Assisted by the Job Developer
and the Data Assistant, (s)he will oversee all budgetary, logistical, and technical procedures
and policies. (S)he will coordinate linkages between CETA, WIN-OJT, WIN-PSE, and Title
II PSE so that training and wage reimbursements utilization are optimized.

Job Developer
     The Job Developer will have overall  responsibility for developing environmental jobs
through contracts with employers in both the public and private sectors. (S)he will work
closely with and  provide a communications linkage between the training program,  WIN
caseworkers, job trainers, employers, worker supervisors, and trainee-workers. In developing
environmental  jobs  (s)he will  be required in many cases to  foster changes in employer
attitudes and to negotiate changes in entrance standards and/or  restructuring of jobs. The
Job Developer  will be responsible for follow-up activities to maintain employer acceptance
and  cooperation.  (S)he must  be familiar with  all aspects  of the  program including the
training, administration, wage reimbursement, and support services.

Data Assistant
     The Data Assistant  is the program "office manager" under direct supervision of the
Program Director. (S)he  is directly  responsible for collecting,  analyzing, and tabulating all
training and financial data in connection with the training program. (S)he will maintain all
enrollee training and placement records and progress reports.  (S)he will be responsible for
making regular reports,  both training  and financial.  (S)he also will be responsible for
administrative support for grants, staff, and per diem matters. (S)he shall maintain all project
records and accounts so that they may be readily available for examination by monitors.

                          TRAINING PROGRAM  STRUCTURE

     This program is designed to accommodate   (number)  trainees per year.  Costs for
WIN  supportive services, required by law, regulation, necessity, or otherwise, shall be borne
by the U. S. Department of Labor and/or WIN agency.
     The normal  training time for  each group will be  dependent upon the job occupation
and skill level  to  be  obtained. It is  anticipated that each group would complete the trainee/
worker cycle in three to four months.  (See Program Model on  the following page.) Some
better educationally endowed trainees  may  complete formal training in a shorter  time;
 others, with lower  entry level attributes, may take longer. Under  no  circumstances will a
 person be permitted to remain in the training program longer than four months.
      Enrollees are to be placed in  jobs commensurate with their abilities, skills, and apti-
 tudes. All enrollees  normally  will be employed in permanent positions at the end  of the
 program cycle.
      The training format  essentially will  be on-the-job  training  coupled to job-related
 classroom instruction. Classroom hours will be  (number)  hours but may vary depending
 upon the type of occupation, the  complexities of related instructional material, and the
 feasibility of adapting institutional-type training to "hands on" experience. In no instance
 will the combined training components exceed an 8-hour day including normal comfort and
 dining periods provided other regular employees. In addition, the classroom instructor may
 grant special time off for students  to attend and participate in local WIN activities  where
 such attendance may be deemed appropriate and in the best interest of the individual.
                                          69

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                             TRAINING-EMPLOYMENT SCHEDULE

                 Approximately  (number)   Trainees Per Class —  (number)   Total
                                        Training Weeks


c

c

c

c

c



Mass

;iass

lass

Mass

;iass

Class


1

2

3

4

5

6
1

A










2












3

B










4












5












6












7

C

A








8












9



B








10












11












12












13

D

C

A






14












15





B






16












17












18












19



D

C

A




20












21







B




22












23












24












25





D

C

A


26












27









B


28












29












30












31







D

C

A
32












33











B
34












35












36












37









D

C
38












39












40












Phase Key:  A.  Orientation
           B.  Basic Education—Job-Related Training—Job-Skill Training
           C.  Placement—Supervised Work Experience—Additional Classroom Training as Necessary
           D.  Permanent Employment
     Note: Above schedule is depicted as encompassing 40 weeks; 52 weeks may be necessary to
           allow for initial start-up time program slippage and class schedule adjustments.

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                        STAFF AND INSTRUCTOR TRAINING

     Staff and  instructor training will be the responsibility of the Program Director. Plans
for such training shall be developed to ensure qualified staff and instructors are available to
conduct the skills training courses. Technical assistance will be needed from time to time
from the headquarters staff of the Environmental Protection Agency.

                                COST ACCOUNTING

     Cost accounting will be in accord  with  generally  accepted accounting principles and
practices.  The accounting records supporting monthly invoices shall be available for inspec-
tion and/or audit by the Department of Labor. Extraordinary or unusual costs incurred in
training will be fully supported by documentation and be subject to review. Such documen-
tation includes such items as purchase orders, purchase  requests, contracts, invoices, billing
receipts, and other legal or business papers giving evidence to purchase or disbursement for
services or material. Invoice and fiscal reporting will be in accordance with requirements and
procedures established for use in GET A.

                            RECORD AND DATA KEEPING

     Specific records covering enrollee training in three prime areas will be maintained:
                        1. Enrollee Data
                        2. Training Progress Data
                        3. Financial  Data
In support of recordkeeping, a system of files, folders,  and  tally sheets will be maintained
for  each  enrollee and  training course.  Monthly  status reports and  enrollee data  will be
submitted on or before the fifth of the  month following the period covered by the report.
Invoicing  and  financial  records will  be subject to review at any time during monitoring
visits and  other review as deemed appropriate.
                                         71

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                                   APPENDIX A

                                      Budget

Program Administration
       Staff Salaries
         Program Director                               $12,000
         Data Assistant (one-half time)                      4,000
       Fringe Benefits                                    1,750
       Travel and Per Diem                                2,125
            Total Program Administration                          $ 19,875

Training and Placement
       Direct Costs:
         Staff Salaries                                  $52,650
         Fringe Benefits                                  6,580
         Staff Travel and Per Diem                         3,320
         Equipment and Supplies                          8,000
         Other Direct Costs                               7.050
            Total Direct Costs                           $77,600

       Indirect Costs:
         General and Administrative (22.5%)
            and Overhead                                17.460
            Total Training                                          95,060

                 Total Federal Funds Requested                    $114,935

 Matching State Funds
       Communications                                $    500
       Classroom Equipment                               1,500
       Classroom Space (three locations)                     5,000
       Office Equipment                                  2,000
       Office Space                                       3,000
                 Total Matching State Funds                          12,000

                     TOTAL CONTRACT                        $126,935
                                        72

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                                  APPENDIX B

                         Occupational Titles and Dot Codes
    Training will be conducted, but not limited to, the following occupational titles and
codes:
                Chemical Laboratory Technician          022.281.014
                Laboratory Tester II                    029.281.018
                Laboratory Tester I                     029.381.034
                Stenographer (Public Works)             202.388.014
                Clerk-Typist (Public Works)              209.388.022
                Clerk-General (Public Works)             209.588.018
                Grounds Keeper                        407.884.010
                Billing Machine Operator                214.488.010
                Clerk-Coding                           219.388.074
                Telephone Operator                    235.862.026
                Meter Reader                          239.588.018
                Order Clerk II (Public Works)            249.368.070
                Machine Operator                      619.885.070
                Maintenance-Mechanic Helper            638.884.010
                Water Meter Repairman                  710.281.078
                Water and Sewer Foreman               862.138.018
                Maintenance Man—Sewer and Water       862.381.038
                Pipefitter Helper                       862.884.046
                Truck Driver (Light)                    906.883.029
                Truck Drive Helper                     906.887.010
                Turn-Off and Turn-On Man              954.884.010
                Sewage Plant Operator                   954.782.018
                Water Treatment Plant Operator          954.782.026
                Senior Sewage Plant Operator            955.130.014
                Sewage Plant Operator                   955.782.018
                Sewage Plant Attendant                 955.885.010
                Air Analyst                            012.281.010
                Smoke Tester                          012.281.014
                Solid Waste Disposal Plant Operator       955.782.014
                Solid Waste Collector                   909.887.014
                Weed Control Supervisor                096.168.022
                                        73

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                            MODEL

             PROGRAM FOR TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT
                            A PROGRAM
                                FOR
                         ADULT VOCATIONAL
                             TRAINING
                                 in

                  Environmental Services and Related Fields
                          A PROPOSAL
Presented to:	(name of prime sponsor)
B .	       (name of training consultant organization)
                                 75

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                                 I  INTRODUCTION

       (Name of Consultant Services Organization)      is pleased to submit this proposai
to the (name of Prime Sponsor)	We believe that   (Consultant)	is
well qualified to provide the training, materials and services described in RFQ No	
dated  (date and year)	
     	(Consultant)	js  a learning-oriented and training-centered organization. It
specializes in furnishing materials, supplies, programs, equipment, personnel, and premises
under diverse kinds of organizational and administrative arrangements, both public and
private.
     	(Consultant)      was organized in   (year)   Qur objective is to provide our
customers with a systems approach which is relevant to the training needs of modern society.
We are confident that we have demonstrated our capability to accomplish this objective.
     We train men and women from many backgrounds through skill development programs
and systems designed  to meet specific requirements of employers. The training is  tailor-
made to improve on-the-job performance.     (Consultant)	approaches training as a
complete  system involving the needs of  the  trainee and his/her employer. Emphasis is
placed on continuous development of good training equipment and techniques.
     	(Consultant)	  operates under subagreements  with both private industry
and governmental agencies for operation of training programs for the disadvantaged.
     These  programs pull together most support services needed by the disadvantaged to
make them employable. The services include orientation, basic remedial education, job-
related  education,  and on-the-job  training. Combined with these training elements are
assistance for counseling, transportation, medical and  dental services, child care  assistance,
and  necessary  tools of the trade and safety equipment. There is training for  on-the-job
supervisors  to make them  aware of the needs of the trainees and more familiar with the
content of the programs.
       (Consultant)	operates or has recently operated special training centers in:  	
(names of training locations)	
These centers provide services and training programs to industry through both private and
government funding arrangements.
     We point with pride at the success with which we have been able to prepare the un-
employed, underemployed, and disadvantaged for productive employment in our modern
society.

                               II  SCOPE OF SERVICES

        (Consultant)     win pr0vide the (prime sponsor)	with the staffi facilities,
teaching materials, audio-visual aids, and other services or materials necessary to provide all
training, counseling, and on-the-job follow-up to train not less than  (number)	adult
welfare recipients in the environmental service and associated fields.
         (Consultant)     wjjj assjst jn the placement of these trained individuals  in estab-
lished  budgeted positions located in public, quasi-public,  or  private sector agencies admin-
istering environmental programs or performing environmental services.
        (Consultant)     win ^^^ thp(P"me sponsor)in obtaining trainees for the  program.
        (Consultant)      wjjj prepare and print  (number)      copies of a brochure descrih-
ing the Environmental Services Training Program.
        (Consultant)      wjij prepare and maintain a file of enrollee data, trainee progress
                                          76

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reports, and financial data as prescribed by the Program Director. A report will be prepared
at the conclusion of the  training period which will summarize  the activities, progress and
final disposition of each trainee.
     A more detailed discussion of each  item in this scope of services may be found in
Section IV.
     In the performance of the contracted services  (Consultant)	makes the  follow-
ing Non-Discrimination Declaration.
          In  connection  with  the performance of work  under this Agreement,
          (Consultant)  agrees  not  to discriminate against  any  employee or
          applicant  for employment because of race, religion,  color or natural
          origin. The aforesaid provision shall include, but not be limited to, the
          following: employment, upgrading, demotion or transfer, recruitment
          or  recruitment  advertising, layoff or termination, rates of pay or other
          forms of compensation and selection for training, including apprentice-
          ship.  (Consultant)  agrees to  post  hereafter in conspicuous places,
          available for employees and applicants for employment, notices to be
          provided by the contracting officer  setting forth the  provisions of the
          non-discrimination  clause.  (Consultant)  further agrees to insert the
          foregoing provision  in all subagreements hereunder, except subagree-
          ments for standard commercial supplies or raw materials.

                                    Ill SCHEDULE

     The work prescribed in the Scope of Services will begin immediately upon receipt of a
fully executed Agreement and will be completed (number)— months  after  the date of the
Agreement or as authorized by amendment(s) to this document.
     The first class is tentatively  scheduled to begin two weeks after the date of the Agree-
ment. This start date, however, is dependent upon the lead time required for the recruitment
of trainees.
     A proposed schedule is presented on the page that follows. Under this plan one class of
approximately   (number)    trainees will be  started at intervals  of  six weeks until  all
   (number)     classes have been enrolled. Here again, this schedule may be modified some-
what to accommodate the supplying of trainees and/or employer's needs  for job applicants. A
final schedule that meets the approval of the  Program Director will be prepared during the
first week after this Agreement is executed.

                          IV PROPOSED TRAINING PROGRAM

Objective
     The objective of this training program  is to provide able-bodied welfare recipients the
necessary training and counseling  which  will lead to an opportunity for full-time career
employment in the environmental protection fields.

 Training Program Structure
     The structure of the program related to the actual training of persons  enrolled can be
divided  into several general areas; employee training, counseling, job coaching, supervisory
 training, and administrative services.
      Orientation. The  instruction, guidance,  arid  self-help aspects  of the  orientation are
 programed  to enable the trainees to adjust to both training  and work conditions. Each
 trainee is helped to best present  himself/herself by means of neat and accurate completion
                                          77

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                                           TRAINING PROGRAM MODEL
                                            TRAINEE/WORKER CYCLE
           JOB DEVELOPMENT
             SCREENING AND
              ORIENTATION
oo
      INTRODUCTION TO
ENVIRONMENTAL EMPLOYMENT,
   BASIC EDUCATION, JOB-
   RELATED TRAINING, AND
     JOB-SKILL TRAINING
                                                                   JOB COACHING,
                                                                FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES,
                                                              AND FURTHER CLASSROOM
                                                               TRAINING AS NECESSARY
                                PLACEMENT AND
                                FACTORING INTO
                                 SPECIFIC JOBS
                        This complete cycle, as depicted above, would involve a time frame of three to four months
                        for a specific group. As many as eight separate groups could be involved during the twelve-
                        month program period.

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of training and employment forms. General ability, physical, and other examinations are
used to assess the potential of trainees for meeting their job requirements. Each trainee
learns  about the work habits  and other personal requirements. (S)he is informed of the
procedures, rules, and benefits relating to public service work. (S)he is motivated to respon-
sibly enter into his/her training and his/her work. (S)he is shown how, with increased earn-
ing power, there can be better fulfillment of family obligations.
     Motivation is emphasized  in the orientation of trainees. Many of the trainees are high
school and grade school dropouts. They find it hard to return to study activities, so exten-
sive encouragement toward advancement through training is provided.
       (Consultant)      wjn) during orientation,  test each trainee in  order to gather
adequate information about the trainee so that the  instructors can better assist him/her in
developing career plans. Also,  the test will provide  information  as to which subjects upon
which to tutor those trainees that require a GED.
     The  principal  test used is the Wide Range Achievement Test. Other tests  include the
SRA reading, arithmetic, and spelling. (Consultant)     has other tests available for the  indi-
vidual  trainee that  may need  additional testing and evaluation as an aid to training and/or.
placement. Some of the tests included in this series are: (1) Slosson Drawing Coordination,
Test, (2) Gates Reading Survey, (3) Shipley-Hartford, (4) Culture-Fair, and (5) 16 P.F. The
results of the testing are recorded  in the trainee's permanent file and are available to instruc-
tors and job placement personnel.
     Five major modules of content are covered in the  orientation:  (1) introduction to
staff, facilities, and program; (2)  improvement of relationships with  others; (3) manpower
development through training; (4) background of  environmental  protection services as a
major area of employment;  and (5) job counseling to establish employability of trainees and
obtain a personal profile for placement personnel.
     Basic and Remedial Training. The goals of this component  of the training program are
to help the trainee  gain the basic education required in almost any work situation:  com-
munications; mathematics;  science; and, for those who have not finished their  high school
education, a general review and preparation for the GED test.
     Communication  includes reading,  writing, speaking, listening, and  techniques of
studying. Use of whole numbers,  fractions, and decimals is reviewed. Applied mathematics
is varied according  to the specific job descriptions,  but may include  measurement, calcula-
tion of area and volume, percentages, work with money and time, and an introduction to
graphs, maps, and blueprints. The study of science  covers basic  life  science, physics,  and
chemistry; all related to the science of environmental pollution control. Review for the GED
test  consists  of improving test-taking skills;  improving facility  in reading,  vocabulary,
grammar,  spelling,  arithmetic, and problem solving; and, with  help from  the  instructors,
work at analyzing  and  answering  questions that involve reasoning, judgment, comparison,
and evaluation.
     Job-Related Training. This component is vital for trainees in any field of environmental
service work. It consists of intensive training in (1) first aid  and  accident prevention; (2)
personal and job behavior to help the trainee  better understand himself/herself and others
and  to help him/her develop a feeling of security; and, (3) the basic technical  aspects and
requirements of the trainee's job classification.
     Job-Skills Training. The  job-skills training component covers  the specific, in-depth
technical training required to prepare each trainee for  a  particular job. The content  is
determined from the job description and data drawn from work supervisors.
     The job-skills  training is closely coupled with the supervised  work experience.  The
classroom instructor keeps  in close contact with the work supervisor in efforts to keep the
learning   immediately  applicable   in the job.  The  supervisor  similarly draws from the
instructor ideas  and  techniques  for  making  the work experience  most valuable.
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     On-the-Job Training. Coupled on-the-job training is followed up by specialists who
visit the job sites  and assist the trainees in relating classroom training to the actual work
situations. The specialist works closely with the trainee's  supervisor in providing learning
reinforcement associated with specific job skills. The curriculum for each job category is
developed in  close  association with the participating department and major department
heads.
     Counseling/Job Coaching. The purpose of counseling and job coaching in the proposed
training  program is  to illuminate the problems  of  the trainee and to develop interactions
that will help support preparation for a job and long-term retention of that job.
     The counseling component of a training  program provides help to the trainees in
reaching solutions to occupational  and training problems. Job coaching helps to coordinate
the training and the work potential of each trainee-worker. Guidance and aid are given in
terms of absence and  tardiness, illness and  accident, and transportation to and from work.
Counseling is done at both the training and job  sites. The  counselor will work closely with
the WIN caseworker to assist in guiding the trainee and his/her family in meeting financial,
family, and community responsibilities.
      The counseling is designed to permeate the total program:  orientation, basic education,
job-related training, job-skills training,  on-the-job training,  even the coffee  break. The
counseling is done in the classroom, in the conference room, at the job site, and other places
where one trainee or a few trainees meet with one or more counselors.
      Supervisory  Training. The purpose of supervisory  and human relations training is to
help supervisors, foremen, counselors,  instructors, and administrators in the joint efforts to
promote the personal  growth and job capabilities of trainee-workers.
      The  supervisory  component of a training program will provide attitudinal development
for  foremen, supervisors, and others working  with the  trainees. The supervisor  will be
briefed  on what is expected of him/her, on the  policies and procedures relating to the goals
 of the  training  program, on his/her responsibility to the trainee-worker, and on the extent
 of his/her authority over the worker  in training. Specific presentations  will deal with the
 characteristics of the  trainee-worker population, needs of certain trainees, social-psychology
 aspects of the supervisor-worker relationship, and guidelines for providing on-the-job training.

 Staff and Instructor Training
      A  most vital element of a successful training program is the availability of an adequate-
 ly trained and motivated staff of administrative and  instructional personnel. A program of
 this  nature and extent requires that each person involved understand such critical aspects as
 the objectives of the  program, how the program operates, the complex and sometimes deli-
 cate relationship between the training staff, the WIN staff, the trainee,  and the employer
 staff. Each of  the  administrative  personnel must have some familiarity with the technical
 and  training areas and  the training personnel  must be cognizant of the procedure  and
 records required of the administrative staff.
      To meet this need  the (Consultant)   has established an extensive staff and instructor
 training program ready for presentation early in the agreed upon program time frame. This
 training will be  presented  in cooperation with the  Program  Director who has the direct
 overall responsibility for this  training. Some  of the  training sessions may actually be
 conducted by the Program Director.
      The curriculum for these  initial sessions is devoted  to the purposes, definitions, pro-
 gram mechanics, and  personnel responsibilities as spelled out in the WIN Program  Handbook.
 Each staff member will be issued an outline of the handbook and all pertinent sections will
 be  covered in detail during the presentation. As this training progresses to the point that all
                                            80

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staff members  understand how the WIN program  operates, the technical staff will begin
presentations regarding the training curriculum that has been developed. Special consultants
will be employed to conduct sessions on techniques for teaching adults and solving special
problems  associated with training the  disadvantaged. These  initial training sessions will
prove extremely valuable when the training actually begins.
     As part of a continuing training program all instructors and  selected administrative
staff will also attend the supervisory training classes. This serves a dual purpose of additional
training in the functioning of the program, and at the same time, will aid in the development
of a  close working relationship  between the instructors and the work supervisors of the
trainees.
     Special staff training sessions will be scheduled during the entire program. The occasion
for a special session will be related to one or more factors such as: the beginning of each new
class, receipt of new program guidelines,  recap of monitor visits, and WIN meetings.
     All staff and instructor training will be conducted with the close cooperation of the
WIN Program Staff. Hopefully some of these sessions will be conducted by WIN personnel.

Training Plan
          (Consultant)     proposes  to   conduct (number)    classes  of  approximately
   (number)  trainees each. However, if it  is necessary  to include a wide range of skills in
any one class, it may be necessary to divide the classes  into smaller units.
     The  complete training plan covers a  (number)   week period and includes  (number)
hours in the classroom and     (number) hours of supervised work experience. While this
amount of training is available to each trainee, it is  expected that all  trainees will be em-
ployed  prior to completing the entire program. For instance, a trainee with a proficiency in
a job skill might be placed in supervised work experience after only one week  in the class-
room. Another person, with no job skills, might not be eligible for work experience until the
end of the eighth week. Every effort will be  made to employ all trainees by the end of the
tenth week.
     Ordinarily, the first 40 hours of  instruction are  in the classroom and are used for
orientation. The  next 120  hours may also be classroom time, divided between basic,
remedial,  job-related, and job-skill training. The  portion of time actually used for each type
of training will be determined by the amount of basic and remedial training each trainee
requires. The quantity of this training will be less for those trainees who have high school
certificates or the equivalent. However,  for planning purposes, the division is usually about
40 hours  for basic and remedial training and 80 hours for job-related and job-skill training.
Please refer to the next page for details of what is ordinarily the context of a good training
curriculum.
     The  trainees that need GED will be tested at the end of the second week so that those
who do not pass all parts of the test may have the final portion of their basic and remedial
training concentrated in the areas where  it is most needed.
      Most trainees will spend 100 percent of their time in the classroom the first four to six
weeks.  The final weeks  of the training program will be devoted to supervised work ex-
perience as  an  introduction to regular full-time,  permanent  employment. At the end of the
tenth week, all trainees should be placed in regular full-time employment.  (Consultant) wm
make every effort to provide quality training that  is relevant to the manpower needs of the
State of	We cannot, however, guarantee that each trainee entering the program
will actually be placed.

Job Placement
      The  ultimate purpose of this program is to obtain gainful employment in the environ-
mental  services fields for unemployed persons eligible for  the WIN Program.  (Consultant)
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                                                        RECOMMENDED TRAINING PATTERN
Subject
Phase I
Orientation
Phase 11
Basic Remedial Training
Phase III
Job-Related Training
Phase IV
Job Skills
Phase V
OJT
Water
                  Introduction
                  Goals & Objectives
                  Relationships with Others
                  Manpower Development
                     through Training
                  Water Utility
                  Group Counseling
                           Communications
                           Money Management
                           Mathematics
                           Science
                           General Education Development
                           Individual Counseling
                                    First Aid
                                    Accident Prevention
                                    Job & Personal Behavior
                                    Water Understanding
                                    Individual Counseling
                           Water Works Operation
                           Construction & Operation
                           Safety on the Job
                           Job Skills
                           Individual Counseling
                           Determined for each
                              trainee by his
                              specific job
                           Individual Counseling
Waste-
Water
Introduction
Goals & Objectives
Relationships with Others
Manpower Development
   through Training
Sewerage Works Operation
Group Counseling
Communications
Money Management
Mathematics
Science
General Education Development
Individual Counseling
First Aid
Accident Prevention
Job & Personal Behavior
Wastewater Understanding
Individual Counseling
Water Works Operation
Construction & Operation
Safety on the Job
Job Skills
Individual Counseling
Determined for each
   trainee by his
   specific job
Individual Counseling
Parks &           Introduction
Recreation        Goals & Objectives
                  Relationships with Others
                  Manpower Development
                     through Training
                  Parks & Recreation Opera
                     tion and Development
                  Group Counseling
                           Communications
                           Money Management
                           Mathematics
                           Science
                           General Education Development
                           Individual Counseling
                                    First Aid
                                    Accident Prevention
                                    Job & Personal Behavior
                                    Parks & Recreation
                                       Understanding
                                    Individual Counseling
                           Parks & Recreation Operation Determined for each  .
                           Construction & Operation       trainee by his
                           Safety on the Job              specific job
                           Job Skills                   Individual Counseling
                           Individual Counseling
Solid
Waste
Introduction
Goals & Objectives
Relationships with Others
Manpower Development
   through Training
Solid Waste Disposal
Group Counseling
Communications
Money Management
Mathematics
Science
General Education Development
Individual Counseling
First Aid
Accident Prevention
Job & Personal Behavior
Nature & Diversity of
   Solid Waste
Individual Counseling
Methods of Processing
   Solid Wastes
Safety on the Job
Job Ski I Is
Individual Counseling
Determined for each
   trainee by his
   specific job
Individual Counseling
Street             Introduction
Maintenance       Goals & Objectives
                  Relationships with Others
                  Manpower Development
                     through Training
                  Street & Road Maintenance
                  Group Counseling
                           Communications
                           Money Management
                           Mathematics
                           Science
                           General Education Development
                           Individual Counseling
                                    First Aid
                                    Accident Prevention
                                    Job & Personal Behavior
                                    Highway, Street & Road
                                       Maintenance
                                    Individual Counseling
                           Methods of Repair
                           Safety on the Job
                           Construction & Maintenance
                           Job Skills
                           Individual Counseling
                           Determined for each
                              trainee by his
                              specific job
                           Individual Counseling

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has had extensive experience in working with  the personnel departments of both govern-
mental and industrial employers in training and placing entry level persons from the ranks of
the unemployed  and underemployed. Experienced ^consultant) personnel will survey the
governmental and industrial employers in the (state)	^^ for job siots. This survey will
be  conducted prior to the beginning of the first class and will continue throughout the
program.  By this method, the  training can be tailored to meet job requirements that are
known to exist. It also allows for a smooth transition from the training program to employ-
ment.
     The job placement cycle will be repeated with each class of trainees. (Consultant)^
work closely with the State Employment service in developing the job slots for the trainees.
Trainees will receive classroom instruction in job application and interviewing during the
orientation  period.  They  will  receive individual counseling prior to  a job interview and
where possible debriefing  following  the interview. Where  possible, employers will be con-
tacted to  establish reasons why an applicant could not be  placed.  This information will be
used to help prepare for future job interviews.

Program Staff
     This section outlines  the duties and responsibilities of the  (Consultant)staff that will
be  used in the training program. The actual qualifications  of (Consultant's)  personnel are
presented in Section V. (Note: To  maintain anonymity Section  V was omitted from this
Manual.)
     Supervisor:  The supervisor is actually a management  level person on the (Consultant)
staff. (S)he is assigned to  this project for about 20 percent of his/her time. His/her duties
are similar  in many respects  to the Program Director except that they relate to only the
 (Consultant) staff. It is his/her responsibility to see that qualified personnel are assigned to
the program. (S)he establishes a budget for the  (Consultant) staff that will permit successful
completion of the program within available funding. (S)he has the overall responsibility for
training materials. (S)he maintains close coordination with  the Program Director and the
advisory committee to assure that the jConsultant)staff js  providing a training program that
meets the program objectives and the needs of the local communities.
     Training Coordinator: The training coordinator is responsible for determining training
needs and for deciding how those needs will be met, either through classroom or  on-the-job
training.  It is expected that the training coordinator will work closely with employers in
fulfilling  his/her function. The  coordinator supervises  the  work of the training staff and at
times participates with them in  classroom situations. His/her main concerns are: (I) planning
and developing  materials  for  the courses; (2) evaluating the  effectiveness of  instruction
during and at the end  of each,  phase; and (3) modifying those courses in light of the evalua-
tion. His/her basic responsibility is to get  the best possible training for the trainee-workers
and (s)he will do this by determining not only the  content  of  the  courses but also the
method used to teach the content.
     Instructors: The  instructors' responsibility  is to help each trainee-worker in the pro-
gram. They will also assist the  training coordinator in his/her duties (of identifying training
needs, developing materials and evaluating the training) because being closest to the trainees,
they will have the best idea  of what the trainees need and how they will respond. Because
of the nature of the training,  it is  expected that the instructors will function partially as
counselors, in conjunction and coordination with the Job Coach-Job Counselor, in  those
areas which relate to performance in the training program.
      The "Total Concept" and shared functions become clear at this point, for the training
 coordinator and instructors will  be sharing the function of  the training  segment of the
                                          83

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program and they will also share the responsibility of counseling with the Job Coach-Job
Counselor.
     Job  Coach-Job Counselor: We see the Job  Coach-Job  Counselor  function as one
position rather than two. To establish close day-to-day relationships with the trainee-workers
is one of his/her main functions. Through this (s)he comes to know them and their problems
and  they come  to trust him/her. And it is within that relationship of trust that the coun-
seling can have the best chance of success. The Job Coach-Job Counselor will work closely
with the instructors, for all will be  performing a similar function (perhaps related to differ-
ent aspects) of guiding the trainee-worker to a realistic view of himself/herself and his/her
social environment.
     The Job Coach-Job  Counselor also has the responsibility for interacting with the
supervisors concerning any problems which arise. (S)he  provides a  line of feedback to the
work supervisor and the employer  unit, and  therefore aids in  gaining complete acceptance
of the program and in developing  rapport.

Reports
     (Consultant)  win submit a narrative report to the (Prime bponsor)— each mOnth.
This report will  discuss the status of all training classes,  recruiting and placement progress,
and special items of interest that occur during the daily operation of the program.
     Upon completion of the training period,  (Consultant) wm prepare a summary report of
the  milestones achieved,  wage progress and status, and final disposition of each trainee-
worker who entered the program. This statistical report will be  accompanied by a generalized
final narrative report which will contain a summary of program achievement.

                                V QUALIFICATIONS

     In responding to an RFP, the consultant services organization should provide informa-
tion relative to:
     1. How the organization was established and how it  operates.
     2. Post training experience record in public service and private programs.
     3. Qualifications of personnel who will be involved in this program.
     4. Information on special aspects that uniquely qualify  for this program.
Section V is, in effect, omitted here because to provide such information would destroy the
anonymity in this model program for adult education in environmental occupations.
                                          84

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          MODEL SUB AGREEMENT  FOR TRAINING


                                   AGREEMENT

                     BY AND BETWEEN  (Training Consultant)
                            AND THE (Prime Sponsor)

     THIS  AGREEMENT,  entered into  this __ day of _	___-, 19-—, by and
between the iPrimeSponsor) (herein called the "Sponsor") and(Traming Consultant )(herein
called the "Consultant").
    WHEREAS, the Sponsor desires to engage the Consultant to render certain professional
services herein described in connection with the training as set forth in Contract No. 99-4-
0001-021-007, a copy of which is made part of this agreement.
     NOW, THEREFORE, the parties do mutually agree as follows:
     1. Employment of Consultant.
          The Sponsor hereby agrees  to engage the  Consultant and the Consultant hereby
     agrees to perform the services specified in item 2 below.
     2. Scope of Services.
          The Consultant shall provide the material  and services below in compliance with
     all applicable laws and regulations of the State of	 •
          (a) The Consultant will provide the Sponsor with the staff,  facilities, training
          materials,  audio-visual aids, and other services or materials necessary to provide
          all training, counseling, and on-the-job supervision to train not less than Lnum CT) .
          adult welfare recipients in the environmental services and associated fields.
          (b) The Consultant will assist in the  placement  of these trained  individuals in
          established budgeted positions located in public,  quasi-public, or private sector
          agencies  administering  environmental  programs  or  performing environmental
          services.
          (c) The Consultant will assist the Sponsor and the State  Employment Service to
          obtain trainees for the program.
          (d) The Consultant will prepare and maintain a file of enrollee data, trainee pro-
          gress reports, and financial data as prescribed by the Program Director.
      3. Personnel.
           (a) The Consultant represents  that he has, or will  secure at his own  expense, all
           personnel required in performing the services under this Agreement.
           (b) All of the services required  hereunder will be performed by the Consultant and
           none of the work or services  covered  by this Agreement shall be subcontracted
           without the prior written approval of the Sponsor.

       4. Time of Performance.
           The services of  the Consultant are to commence as soon as practicable alter the
       execution of this contract and shall be undertaken and completed in  such sequence as
       to assure their completion in light  of the purpose of the Agreement,  but in any event,
       all of the services hereunder shall be completed on or before J™™2	,	months
       after the date of execution.
                                          85

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5. Compensation.
     The Sponsor agrees to pay the Consultant the total sum of $	for all
of the services described in Section 2. The total sum to be paid to the Consultant shall
include  reimbursement  for travel,  training supplies, and instructional development as
specified in the Agreement.

6. Method of Payment.
     The  Sponsor will pay to the  Consultant the  amount set forth in Section  5
which shall constitute full and complete compensation for the Consultant's services
hereunder. Payment to  the Consultant by the  Sponsor will be made monthly, except
as specified below, provided herewith that no money will be due and payable here-
under until such monies have been received by the Sponsor from the funding source.
     The Sponsor recognizes that there are extraordinary expenses in the start-up of a
training program of this magnitude. Therefore, the Consultant may submit an initial
billing which includes the regular  monthly billing plus  20 percent of the contracted
amount to cover the unusual expenses.

7. Termination of Agreement for Cause.
     If  at any time the Sponsor's Project Director determines that the Consultant's
services are not meeting the conditions of this Agreement, the program design, or the
Environmental Protection Agency's requirements; or if the Project Director  determines
that the services being provided by the Consultant are substandard, the Sponsor shall
notify the  Consultant  of the termination  of the Agreement by giving immediate
written notice to the Consultant.  In that event the Consultant shall close all work and
suspend all  project activities within five (5) days and all payments due on or after that
date shall be withheld from the Consultant. The Sponsor shall immediately notify a
Review Committee of this action  and request a hearing at which both the Sponsor and
the Consultant shall present their grievances.
     The  Review Committee shall consist of the (Prime Sponsor)	3^ representa-
tives  designated  by the Regional Directors of the Department of Labor, the Environ-
mental  Protection Agency, and the Department of  Health, Education, and Welfare,
provided these agencies are not already represented in the professional development
task force. The decision of a Review Committee will be final.
     If  the Review  Committee decides in favor  of the  Sponsor, the  Consultant's
services will be terminated effective fifteen (15)  days after receipt of the Sponsor's
notification and no payment will be made for any activity performed after that time.
     If  the Review  Committee decides in  favor of the Consultant, services will be
resumed in  accordance with the terms of the Agreement and payment will be made to
the Consultant without any reduction in the amount of the Agreement regardless of
suspension of services during the Review Committee hearing.

8. Changes.
     The  Sponsor may, from time to time, require changes in  the scope of services of
the Consultant to be performed hereunder. Such  changes, including any increase or
decrease in  the amount of the Consultant's compensation, which are mutually  agreed
upon by and between the Sponsor and the Consultant, shall be incorporated in written
amendments to this Agreement.
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    9. Equal Employment Opportunity.
         There shall be no discrimination against any employee who is employed in the
    work covered by this Agreement, or against any applicants for such employment be-
    cause of race, color, religion,  sex, or natural origin. This  provision shall include but
    not be limited to the following: lay off or termination; rates of pay or other forms of
    compensation; and selection for  training, including  apprenticeship. The  Consultant
    shall insert a similar provision  in all subagreements for services covered by this Agree-
    ment.

    10. Offices Not To Benefit.
         No member of or delegate to the Congress of the United States of America,  and
    no resident Commissioner, shall be admitted to any part  thereof,  to any benefit to
    arise herefrom.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Sponsor and the Consultant have executed this agreement as
of the date first written above.

                                          SUBCONTRACTOR:

                                          By:.
                                              (Name of Consultant Organization)
ATTEST:
                                          CONTRACTOR:
                                              (Name of Prime Sponsor)
                                         87

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               MODEL SUBAGREEMENT WITH WIN
                                   AGREEMENT

Parties
A      (Name of Prime Sponsor)	   g    (Name of Employment Service)

(Name of Authorized Representative)        (Name of Authorized Representative)
Title:	   Title:	
Address:	  Address:.
Telephone:_	  Telephone:.
     The	- here-in-after referred to as the
"prime sponsor" will provide training in environmental services for authorized participants
from the    (state)     Work Incentive Program, 	State Employment Service,
here-in-after referred to as "WIN."
     NOW, THEREFORE, the parties do mutually agree as follows:
     1. Services to be Performed
          Individual participants will be authorized for training under this Agreement only
     upon prior approval in  writing  from the State Supervisor of WIN. A copy of the auth-
     orization for each participant  will be forwarded to the Prime Sponsor and will be
     attached to and made part of this Agreement.
          Participants will be assigned  on  an individual basis for up to five months of
     training for jobs developed by the Prime Sponsor with agencies involved in environ-
     mental services.  The training  will be  geared to individual  needs but  in general will
     consist of orientation, classroom instruction, and supervised hands-on training.
     2. Terms of Payment
          There will be no cost to  the WIN organization for any of the above training.
     3. Special Provisions
          The Prime Sponsor will maintain and submit  to a  designated  representative of
     WIN weekly attendance and biweekly evaluation  reports  on each participant. The
     Prime Sponsor will notify WIN immediately if a participant is absent two consecutive
     days.
          After consultations between  designated staff  members of WIN  and the Prime
     Sponsor a participant may be terminated if he fails to maintain WIN standards or the
     Prime Sponsor's standards or when termination serves the best interests of the participant.
          Unless amendment, suspension, or nullification of this Agreement is initiated by
     either party by written  notice, this Agreement will be in effect from on or about  (date)
     through  (date)
     4. General Provisions
          This Agreement is made subject to and incorporates by reference all the "General
     Provisions" attached hereto.
          The attached copy of General Provisions is from the U.S. Department of Man-
     power Administration Manual and it is mandatory that it be appended to all agreements
     of this nature.
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         Whenever the terms Secretary, Contracting Officer, or Government are used in the
     general and special provisions, they shall for the  purpose of this Agreement be con-
     strued to mean employment service or state unless otherwise clearly indicated  in the
     context. (See attached copy of General Provisions.)
         This Agreement shall be governed by, subject to, and construed according to all
     the laws of the State of	. The Prime Sponsor will comply with all appli-
     cable Federal, State, and local laws.
         No waiver, alteration, or modification of any of the provisions of this Agreement
     shall  be binding on the	State Employment Service unless evidenced by
     a duly authorized representative of the	State Employment  Service.
ACCEPTED:
A    (Name of Prime Sponsor)	  R    (Name of Employment Service)
Ry.      (signature)	  Ry.      (signature)
     (typed name of representative)              (typed name of representative)
Title:	-  Title:.
Date:	         .-	  Date:.
                                    CERTIFIED:
                     Date:
                     By:
                          (name)
                          State Director, WIN
                                          90

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                        GENERAL PROVISIONS

     AGREEMENT AND SUBAGREEMENT REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
                    MANPOWER ADMINISTRATION MANUAL
                          U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Contract Work Hours Standard Act—Overtime Compensation
     This Contract, to the extent that it is of a character specified in the Contract Work
Hours Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-330), is subject to the following provisions and to all
other applicable provisions and exceptions of such Act and the regulations of the Secretary
thereunder:
     (a) Overtime Requirements. No Contractor or Subcontractor contracting for any part of
the Contract Work which may require or involve th e employment of laborers or mechanics
shall require or permit any laborer or mechanic in any workweek in which he is employed
on such work to  work in excess of eight hours in any calendar day or in excess of forty
hours in such workweek  on work subject to the provisions of the Contract  Work Hours
Standards Act unless each laborer or mechanic receives compensation at a rate not less than
one  and one-half  times his basic rate of pay for all such hours worked  in excess  of eight
hours in any calendar day or in excess of forty hours in such workweek, whichever is the
greater number of overtime hours.
     (b) Violation—Liability  for Unpaid Wages—Liquidated Damages. In the event of any
violation of the provisions of paragraph (a), the Contractor and Subcontractor responsible
therefore shall be liable to any affected employee for his  unpaid wages. In addition,  such
Contractor  and Subcontractor  shall be liable to the United States for liquidated damages.
Such liquidated damages shall be  computed with  respect to  each individual laborer or
mechanic employed in violation of the provisions of paragraph (a) in the sum of $10 for
each calendar day on which such employee was required or permitted to be employed on
such work  in excess of eight hours or in excess of the standard workweek  of 40 hours
without payment of the overtime wages required by paragraph (a).
     (c) Withholding for  Unpaid Wages and Liquidated Damages. The Contracting Officer
may withhold from the Contractor, from any monies payable on account of work performed
by the Contractor or Subcontractor, such sums as may administratively be determined to be
necessary to satisfy any liabilities of such Contractor  or Subcontractor for unpaid wages and
liquidated damages as provided in the provisions of paragraph (b).
                                        91

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                                   SECTION VII
                         MAJOR CONCERNS AND
                ACHIEVEMENTS  IN TRAINING AND
                       EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS
     The circumstances surrounding the preparation of this Technical Assistance Manual
were such that it was deemed inappropriate to attempt to formulate particular conclusions
about the  pilot WIN/EPA/DO L  project or to define within narrow limits how future
programs should operate. It was deemed appropriate, however,  to set forth some of the
major concerns in the pilot programs in the five states and to indicate things that have been
achieved in the relatively few months that the programs have been in operation.
     Since the initial planning of the project got underway in April of 1973, it is correct to
report that some of the material in this section is based on experiences gained over a period
of eighteen months. The concerted efforts to provide training and employment to disad-
vantaged people have  been  squeezed into only  nine  months, immediately prior to this
writing. The pilot  project will remain operative for approximately three more months, at
which time the projected number of trainee-workers will have completed the training and
will have been factored  into full-time employment.
     It is  truly possible only to present here some generalized  statements relative to the
major concerns that have permeated the pilot project. The achievements that now appear to
be evident are those that are outcomes of the challenges within each area of major concern.
The major concerns discussed here include:
     1. Functional relationship
     2. Development of job opportunities
     3. Recruitment of trainee-workers
     4. Building of staff competence
     5. Training program structuring and adaptation
     6. Counseling and  follow-up
While the discussions that follow  are concise, even brief, they do relate to very important
aspects of training and employment.
     1.  Functional relationship—The WIN  organization is, by definition, the sole source of
trainee-workers for the environmental service training and employment. It is, therefore,
extremely  important that an  effective  working relationship be maintained between the
entire prime  sponsor staff and the entire WIN staff at each place the AFDC recipients are
processed. When this project was initiated, there were no specific national or state guidelines
for accomplishing  the development of the required functional relationship. The relationship
had  to  be hammered out at the  state and local levels in the region served by each prime
sponsor. This has been accomplished in five states and the significance of this achievement
must not be underrated.
     Prime sponsor personnel have had to learn about the problems and concerns of the WIN
caseworkers who fulfilled roles as recruiters and counselors. And, the WIN personnel have
had  to  learn  the  objectives, the  methods, and the content  of  the  environmental service
training and employment programs in order to do an effective job of recruiting. For the
most part these people have learned what  was required to accomplish the joint  effort, but
rest assured it has not  been an  "overnight" process. Space does not allow itemization of all
that has been involved in developing the smooth-working, functional relationship that now
exists. But, there  is considerable  material in Sections III and IV that bear directly on this
matter.
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     2. Development of job opportunities—There are several basic and fundamental elements
relating to this area of major concern. First, job slots or opportunities have to be located
for the AFDC recipients. This is accomplished only through many hours spent in conversa-
tions and conferences with potential employers. The job development process is complicated
by the political make-up of governmental employing  units and the management patterns in
private business firms. Who do you contact first? Whose toes are you most likely to step on?
The approach that is good with one organization will not work with another. Repeated
visits are invariably necessary to  establish the intent and expectations of the training and
employment program and to develop acceptance of it.
     The second element in  the development of job  opportunities arises after a job slot or
job vacancy is found. This element involves  selling the  employer on the need for training a
person to fill that job. Many employers who want workers are not at all certain that it is
necessary to train people to perform work. In the pilot project, at each of the five locations,
effective presentations have been  developed to overcome certain views held by potential
employers and to cause them to want workers with good  qualifications including a  back-
ground of training for specific jobs.
     A  third aspect of  the development of job opportunities involves influencing the em-
ployer to accept women in jobs that have traditionally been held only by men. Here, again,
time has been devoted  to overcoming the objections of those employers who hold the so-
called "discriminatory" views.
     Another element that makes  job development somewhat difficult to accomplish is the
fierce competition that sometimes arises. There are other programs designed to serve the
minority and disadvantaged  segments of the population. These programs include the Con-
centrated Employment Program;  the Operation Service,  Employment, and Development
Program for Chicanes; the Opportunities Industrialization Center; and others. Some of these
programs have been in  existence for a considerable period and have either been established
as reliable sources of workers or have completely  "turned  off" employers to the hiring of
the disadvantaged. In some instances, the WIN/EPA  programs have been forced to abandon
the large cities and proceed to develop "track records" for job development in the smaller
outlying political  subdivisions of those cities. This has been done with considerable success.
Small communities have been helped that might not otherwise have had training and  em-
ployment programs.  It should be noted that there is some "stretching" of the  training
dollars when the smaller communities are included.
      Please  note  that even the programs developed under the Comprehensive Employment
and Training Act have some adverse effects on the development of job opportunities through
the WIN/EPA approach. This is usually due to the "wait and see" positions taken by  per-
sonnel  departments in  various governmental units.  This problem now  seems to be near a
solution. Most of the CETA prime sponsors are finding that  any  additional source through
which jobs may be developed for AFDC recipients should be encouraged.
      In summary, techniques have been developed  so that now  good results are generally
achieved in the seeking out of job opportunities. Potential future employers are now known
and good rapport has been established with many of them. The employers who have been
assisted in meeting their needs for workers  are now  enthusiastic supporters of the program.
One such employer was recently asked by this writer  whether he wanted additional numbers
of workers  from the  WIN roles. His response was  firm and direct: "You better believe it!"
The  former AFDC recipients now working for him were equally firm and direct. Their
responses to questions indicated  a desire to remain off of welfare for both economic and
self-satisfaction reasons.
      3. Recruitment of trainee-workers—A major concern in this  project at all locations has
been the fact that most environmental and environmentally-related jobs have traditionally
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been held by men. For  this reason women are likely to feel that such jobs are new and
therefore alien to them.  In a large number of cases the environmental jobs, at least on the
surface, are not attractive to women. Yet, the vast majority of WIN  enrollees are women,
and in the WIN/EPA programs they must be trained and employed in environmental jobs.
Over the past eight months materials have been prepared, presentations have been made, and
methods by which WIN  caseworkers may be assisted have been implemented. Recruiting of
women to train for and be employed in environmental services jobs can now be rated as
"successful." While this subject is only briefly handled here, it is expanded upon in Section
VIII.
     4. Building of staff competence—When the pilot project got underway there were few
people available with the kinds of competence required for immediate effectiveness. Indi-
viduals had knowledge of environmental service but knew very little about WIN. Conversely,
the WIN administrators and caseworkers knew  almost nothing about environmental service.
All of the people employed to staff the training and employment program had certain skills
and  knowledges but they could  not be effective participants in the program until they
acquired certain additional competencies. In the process of defining and solving many of the
problems in the overall project, there also has been an  effective and continuous development
of specially trained staff.
     Administratively, the prime sponsors, the Office of Education and Manpower Planning
of EPA, the  state and local  WIN groups, and the job training organizations have  all contri-
buted to the planning and expediting of growth in staff competence. Today, the number of
people prepared to work effectively  and efficiently in the  training and employment of
AFDC recipients by means of the WIN/EPA approach approximates 100 individuals in five
states. These people are  now relatively knowledgeable and possess competencies with regard
to job development, trainee-worker recruitment,  job training, job placement, and other
aspects of the total pattern of training and employment of AFDC recipients for environ-
mental service occupations. More than 100 people with a common background  of experi-
ence, constitutes a substantial clout with which to meet and overcome future challenges and
problems in this area of endeavor. This, then, is one more accomplishment of the WIN/EPA/
DOL pilot project.
      5. Training program structuring and adaptation—The development and modification of
environmental service training programs has  been continuous  and extensive, under the
guidance of the Office of Education and Manpower Planning of the EPA, since early in 1970.
The  structuring of new training programs and the adaptation  of  old  ones are  additional
accomplishments of the pilot  project.  For example,  there is now available a  program of
training for the Pest Control Serviceman that consists of 23  modules, ranging in  length from
2 to  20 classroom hours. These modules deal  with orientation to pest  control  work, basic
 preparation  for that work, job-related training for the  specific  occupations,  and skills
preparatory training. In addition, there is a plan for as much as 800 hours of supervised work
experience.  The practice in making this training program work effectively is now being
accumulated by several instructors in at least three states.
      Quite  good training program outlines and learning materials have  been available for a
number of years for the preparation of workers in some environmental  fields, such as water
and wastewater. But, even in these two instances, in the pilot project, there was need for
 modifications of existing programs in terms of both content and length of training modules.
 In particular, the program mix of institutional (classroom) training and work experience had
 to be worked out on an individual employer basis. In a few instances, the program mix was
determined largely on the basis of the need of each individual employee.
      In summation, it is recognized that training program structuring and modification are
 continuing tasks. As a result or outcome of the pilot project, there is now available a wide
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range of materials and experience to draw upon. It is now possible, therefore, to handle the
continuing task of structuring and adapting or modifying with greater ease than ever before.
The techniques and procedures for  so doing have been developed and practiced. The tools,
devices, and other materials are readily available. And, the employer  and trainee-worker
needs are already defined or can quickly be isolated and defined in each situation. The major
challenge  now is to disseminate knowledge of the best ways  to  develop  environmental
service training programs and materials from the five states to all other states.
     6.  Counseling and follow-up—In the pilot project it has become clear that, after the
trainee-workers are factored into supervised work experience, there must be follow up on
the technical and job-related problems. This is  the direct responsibility of the Prime Sponsor
administrative staff and is usually delegated to the staff of the training organization. If the
training and employment program  is to  achieve a high level of job retention, the trainee-
workers also must be assisted with a multitude of personal problems. This assistance usually
can be delivered only by means of individual and small-group counseling and job coaching. In
the pilot  project, the counseling, job coaching, and  other follow-up activities have  been
effectively done  by the training organizations. The patterns set and the results represent
another kind of accomplishment of  the project.
     It is  necessary, in order to  meet the challenges and to solve the problems in the above
areas of concern, to establish an effective network of  communications. This included  com-
munications between EPA, prime sponsor, training consultant, WIN—state and local—, job
developer, recruiter, instructor, counselor, employer,  work supervisor,  trainee-worker, and
so forth. The communicating involved much reading, a lot of writing, considerable fast  talk-
ing, and intense kinds of listening. The  actions in  communicating were accomplished by
telephone, through the mail, person-to-person conferring, group meetings, four scheduled
and structured conferences, and many hours  of social kinds of contacts. The social aspects
were designed to "break the  ice" and establish the comfortable  working relationships that
have been so vital to the success of the project. The communication system that is presently
operational may well be one of the  most significant accomplishments of the pilot project for
training and employment of AFDC recipients in environmental service occupations.
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                                  SECTION VIII

                         USE OF THIS  MANUAL
     This  publication presents information about a current pilot project along with ideas
about how manpower development is changing with revenue sharing under Federal appropri-
ations. In  effect, it is a "how to" kind of publication in terms of the operation of a certain
kind of training and employment program. At  the same time,  suggestions are made for
future  programs in varying circumstances and with much less clearly defined techniques and
practices.  In particular, in Section V there is a discussion  of the new design for manpower
development.
     The material herein should be of significant interest and help to state and local area
manpower planners.  It should be useful to any  individual promoting or actively pursuing
ways and  means of training and employing people in  environmental service occupations.
The  information may be read and studied by people trying to develop certain competencies.
It might well form the basic content for seminars or group training sessions. Excerpts from
this publication may be copied and distributed to people  who need only bits or pieces of it
and do not want to be hampered by having to exercise  their own discretion over what they
read.
     In the pilot project two components were dovetailed to make the foundation or base.
The  EPA  wanted people in environmental service occupations and, guided by assessments,
surveys, and so forth, was motivated toward job development. The WIN organization wanted
AFDC recipients in jobs and their desire to help  individuals was motivated toward recruit-
ment.  From these two motivations the pilot project was born. From two  of the program
components, job development and recruitment, many problems have arisen to each of the
five locations.
     Environmental job development for AFDC recipients  and recruitment of the AFDC
recipients  for training and employment in  environmental  service jobs are two counteracting
kinds of problems. It is certain in the world today that "for every  action there is an equal
reaction." This is very much true in the pilot project. First  you have action, the locating of a
job slot. Then there must be the reaction,  the locating  of a AFDC  person to fill that job
slot.
     At any particular time at a particular program location, there is either a shortage of job
slots or a  shortage of recruits. When jobs are available the  recruits are not, or vice versa. The
actions and reactions should be equal but never are. Thus, the  challenges and problems are
constant in the training and employment programs when only these two components are
considered.
     To point up as sharply as possible the need to handle each component of training and
employment  by means of in-depth approaches  and methods, the job  development and
recruitment components again are discussed here. The  material is drawn directly from the
experiences  of  one organization, Skills Development,  Inc., whose staff  members did job
development work  and  interacted with  WIN  caseworkers in the  accomplishment  of
recruiting.

                                  Job Development
     There are several important  aspects  involved in  the job development portion of a
training and employment program like or similar to the WIN/EPA program.
     1. Job slots must be located. Basically, this is accomplished through many, many hours
of face-to-face  meetings  with  a wide variety  of municipal and political entities, usually at
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several levels within each entity. This seemingly straight forward task is extremely compli-
cated by the political makeup of each employer. Who do you  contact first? Mayor? City
Manager? Personnel Manager? Department Head? The  techniques that are successful with
one group may not work with another. In many cases it takes repeated visits to establish the
intent to involve, in the proper sequence and to the necessary extent, each level of govern-
ment.
     Quasi-public and private employers present many  of the same job development prob-
lems. Political jealousy and competition are not  as intense as in the case of municipalities but
there still exists the  problem of contacting the proper person with the initiative and/or
authority to make a firm job commitment.
     2.  Employers  must be sold on the  need  for training.  This, surprisingly enough, also
becomes an aspect of job development. The program permits training and job placement in a
variety  of skill levels. The fact  is,  however, that employers are reluctant to hire new em-
ployees above the entry level. The reason for this is simply that it creates problems with the
existing employees and staff. This concern has been borne  out in several instances where
positions above the entry level have been filled with the trained WIN clients.  In many cases
this problem exists at the entry  level due to jealousy of other employees at the same level
and is created by the fact that the WIN clients have received training and are better qualified
for promotions. This  points out a pressing need for  a method of providing upgrade training
as an integral part of the job development package.
     Resentment of WIN clients by co-workers and  by some leadmen and supervisors is an
important factor in job retention. While supervisory training, if it can be provided at the
proper  (lowest)  level,  can help alleviate much of this type of  discrimination, it is difficult to
eliminate rumors and  excessive undesirable job assignments.
     Civil service systems eliminate many of the above job development and placement
problems. However, the very nature of civil service systems usually makes it unwieldy,  if
not  impossible,  to  place disadvantaged  persons. The basic problem  here is  that after the
trainees pass the test it is necessary that they go on a roster and await actual employment
for an  unspecified  length of time  until the persons above them on the roster  have been
placed.
     All of the  above problems and concerns come into play  to  some extent during job
development and are  directly related to the reaction of  many  potential employers: "Why
the need for training?" Their point is that since the skill levels are usually  low for entry
positions and since there is no  upgrade training for older employees they see  no need for
training in  the  first  place.  This objection usually  can be  effectively overcome through
discussions  of retention, safety, and equipment damage,  especially  if specific facts and
figures are available.
     One other  significant job development problem related to  the classroom training is the
time span required by this  part of the  program. For  a variety of reasons  employers are
reluctant to commit  jobs for the  future, even the  immediate  future. When they have an
immediate need they  want to fill the position now!  And many employers are very reluctant
to analyze their turnover rates and the associated cause factors in sufficient  detail to make
reliable estimates of future  needs.  Even in cases where they actually do this analysis, some-
times with  assistance from training program personnel,  the number of job  slots they will
commit to this program is well below the best estimate of their actual need.
      3. The  reluctance to hire women must be overcome. This is another important consid-
eration as employers are sometimes reluctant to hire women in jobs traditionally held by
men. The majority of both  environmental and environmentally-related entry-level jobs are
traditionally held  by men.  In fact, most of the existing environmental work force is men.
The prejudice against women filling these positions  exists to some extent at all levels of job
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development. The most intense resistance is usually encountered at the line supervision and
leadman levels. While personnel directors and other administrators are not usually adamant
about moving women into these positions in principle, they are very reluctant to force their
line supervision into acceptance. In fact, it has been proven that job  retention is almost
impossible where heavy pressure is applied to obtain placement.
     So many  times the initial reaction is  that the work is too heavy or too dirty or too
complicated and, in the case of mobile crews, there are no restroom facilities. Usually these
initial adverse reactions can be overcome by conducting a detailed task analysis. In most
cases, it becomes immediately apparent that their objections are not well-founded.
     The more difficult  problems related to this type of employer  reluctance to employ
women is mixing work crews and, even more important, mixing night shift crews, especially
where small crews are required. In these instances there may be some concern about actual
relationships that might develop between  the male  and female employees. But, the real
concern is related to the community reaction and especially to the  reaction of the families of
the employees involved. It appears that the extent of  employer concern in this area  is not
justified,  but  it is  something that a job developer must cope with  in most cases  where
shift work and mobile crews are involved.
     The problems related  to nontraditional employment require  a high degree of  under-
standing, salesmanship, and patience in alleviating these employer concerns. There is one
argument which must never be used  alone—"It is  illegal  for you to discriminate against
women for these jobs." Job development is salesmanship, not law enforcement.
     4. Some employers are hesitant to become involved in "government"programs. There
seems  to be two principal reasons  for this reluctance.  One  results  from experience with
trainees or placements from other, sometimes poorly  conducted, government programs. The
other  is the fear of paper work and government involvement in daily business or work
activities. Usually the objections can be overcome by a detailed explanation of the WIN/EPA
program and its operation.
     5. Some employers object to hiring AFDC recipients. This occurs in a few cases simply
because the WIN clients are on welfare and this fact alone brands them as "people who are
lazy and do not want to  work." Here it is important that the job developer knows from
firsthand experience the actual facts about the WIN  clients. Only by reference to favorable
facts and figures and firsthand examples  can the job developer begin to eliminate this form
of prejudice.
     6. Transportation is a continuing problem. Most of the WIN  clients must depend upon
public  transportation to get to  their jobs. A  good  many of the environmental jobs (i.e.,
water  and wastewater treatment plants)  are  located on the periphery of the metropolitan
areas and are  not served by public  transportation.  Even in  areas where transportation  is
available, it is not operated with sufficient regularity to provide  adequate  coverage during
 late shifts and on weekends.
     If given the opportunity, the  job developer can assist the WIN personnel in screening
 clients for  personal transportation  and can be effective in establishing car pools between
 trainees and on-board employees. There are cases where the WIN organization refuses to
 recruit trainees when no transportation is available. In this case, the job developer's hands are
 tied and (s)he loses the job slots that have been developed.
     7. Shift work creates problems. Since all WIN clients are receiving AFDC payments, it is
 necessary to solve problems of child care. This is usually accomplished by the state welfare
 department for the day-shift training program and  throughout subsequent job placement.
 However, the late shifts present unique child  care problems. Often the job developer can
 assist  in arriving at a satisfactory solution. It is important for the job developer to alert WIN
 personnel to a special shift work schedule in advance  of the recruiting.
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     The task of the job developer is a difficult and often very frustrating one. As stated
above, (s)he must be a salesman for the program and, as such, (s)he must thoroughly under-
stand the operation of the program, its strong points and its limitations.
     The job developer must travel extensively and meet with all  the potential employers.
While letters and phone calls are effective means of introduction and securing appointments,
the only way to secure firm job commitments is through personal contact with employers.
     Once the job slots have been commited, the next step is to secure the pertinent infor-
mation relating to each position. This information must include such items as a detailed job
description, wage rates, work hours and  shift information, fringe benefits, and the career
ladder afforded by  the job. In addition to having a written job description the job developer
should become familiar with  the actual tasks to be  performed and the conditions at the
work site. All this information then must be given to the WIN personnel for trainee recruit-
ment. It often  happens that it becomes a function of the job developer to "sell" the potent-
ial trainees on  the positive aspects of the particular job. This is especially true in the case of
the nontraditional jobs.

                                  Trainee Recruitment
     The only  source of  trainees for entry into the WIN/EPA program  is from  the WIN
program. The WIN  personnel are responsible for working with the state welfare organization
to certify the  eligibility of their clients.  They also have the responsibility for direct job
placement  of their  clients. This involves their caseworkers or counselors in job development,
recruitment, counseling,  and placement. It was naturally assumed that they also would
perform the recruiting function to  obtain trainees for the WIN/EPA classes. It soon became
apparent, however, that they were unable to supply a sufficient number  of trainees to fill
the WIN/EPA program classes.
     There  are three primary reasons underlying this  inability  to produce the required
number of trainees. First, there sometimes exists an internal problem between WIN and the
state welfare organization in certifying a sufficient number of AFDC recipients to meet the
needs of both the  WIN and  the WIN/EPA program for qualified clients. Since this is an
internal problem the WIN/EPA personnel can contribute little to its solution. Second,  the
WIN counselors in  many  cases do not understand the WIN/EPA program. They were unable
to explain  to perspective trainees the advantages of participating in this program. Much of
this difficulty has been eliminated  by group discussions sessions between the WIN/EPA job
developers, instructors, and counselors and the WIN job developers and  counselors.
      It usually requires several meetings  of this type before a good  working relationship
develops to the point of a significant  increase in the number of qualified trainees referred to
the WIN/EPA  classes. It is important each time a new type of job is developed to sit down
with the WIN counselors and  convey to them all pertinent information  relating to the job so
that they can do an effective job in their discussions with prospective trainees. This brings
up the third major problem in trainee recruitment. This involves convincing the prospective
trainees that it is to their advantage to accept training for nontraditional types of employ-
ment. The  jobs in environmental fields traditionally are held by men. The jobs usually in-
volve outside work, work with tools and machines, work in mobile crews, and shift work.
      The vast  majority of WIN clients are women. It is true that there are a few women who
are immediately enthusiastic  about employment in these jobs, but the majority of them do
not identify with  this type of work. The women want traditional women-type jobs. They
are easy to recruit  for  jobs  as clerks, typists, nurse aids, and even food service employees.
Initially they will reject such jobs  as wastewater plant operator,  pesticide applicator, parks
maintenance, and fire hydrant maintenance. For the most part, the WIN  counselors do not
identify with  these jobs either. This makes it difficult for them  to effectively present the
trainee with significant advantages to  accepting training for these jobs.
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     It is at this point that the WIN/EPA job developers and instructors must step in and
provide expert assistance. This is  where the job developer again must become a salesman.
(S)he must know the advantages of this type  of employment. (S)he must convey these to
the prospective trainee in a positive and enthusiastic manner. It has been demonstrated
many times that a good presentation and a thorough discussion of all aspects of the job will
double and even triple the percentages of trainees accepting the training for these nontradi-
tional positions. One point of caution in this approach is that the presentation must be
honest and cover all aspects of the job including the negative ones. If this is not done, it
becomes almost impossible to retain the trainee  on  the job after she has  completed the
the training. The secret is to present all the facts, accentuate the positive, and be enthusiastic.
     In summary, it appears now that under CETA and other manpower programs there will
be  coordination  of all components  of training  and  employment.  Job development and
recruitment will be tied closer to  classroom training than in the past. In turn, the classroom
training  will  be  tied  closer to supervised  work  experience and follow-up in permanent
employment.  If these things remain true, then much of  the material in this Manual will be
useful well into the future.

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                                   SECTION IX

                    ANNOTATED  REFERENCES

Reid, George  W. and  Adams,  Gay. Environmental Manpower  and Its Training Needs.
       Norman, Oklahoma: Bureau of Water and Environmental Resources Research,The
       University of Oklahoma,  1974. 497 Pages.
       Divided into three phases along with two supplements, this is a study of the overall
       manpower and training needs in Oklahoma in twelve different environmental cate-
       gories.  As an analysis of both private and public employment, it provides a pattern
       for how compilations of similar data might be developed for other states and/or for
       the entire Nation.

U.S. Department of Labor. Manpower Administration. Breakthrough  for Disadvantaged
       Youth. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1969. 256 Pages.
       An organized presentation of the experiences of 55 experimental and demonstration
       projects conducted under the Manpower Development and Training Act. This is an
       analysis of the successes and the limitations of  certain innovative approaches to the
       training and  employment of youth.

U.S. Department of Labor.  Manpower Administration. CETA Coordination with  WIN: A
       Guide  for Prime Sponsors Under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
       of 1973. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1974. 42 Pages.
       Prepared to  guide prime sponsors in the development of programs under  CETA, it is
       designed to show  how  coordination and  linkages  may  be  effectively  established
       between CETA and WIN.  Stress is upon how duplication of efforts may be avoided,
       while both quality and quantity of services are enhanced.

 U.S. Department of Labor. Manpower Administration. Manpower Magazine. Washington,
       D.C.: Government Printing Office.
       This official monthly journal of the Manpower Administration is "must" reading for
       instructors,  caseworkers, administrators, job supervisors, and others involved inthe
       training and employment of disadvantaged persons. The up-to-date presentations
       with lively illustrations  make meaningful reading about diverse manpower  develop-
       ment programs.

 U.S. Department of Labor. Manpower Administration. Productive Employment of the
       Disadvantaged: Guidelines for Action. Research and Development Findings No. 15.
       Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office,  1973. 190 Pages.
        Presents material and case examples of hiring and training hard-to-employ, disad-
        vantaged workers. Summarizes and distills  the most important  lessons learned by
        private employers involved  in the National Alliance of Businessmen (NAB) JOBS
        program.

 U.S. Environmental  Protection  Agency.  Office  of Education and Manpower  Planning.
        Guidelines  to  Career Development for Waste  Water Plant Personnel. Washington,
        D.C.,  1973. 100 Pages.
        Presents guidelines directly applicable to most functions and job responsibilities that
        exist in wastewater plants today. Explains how definitions of jobs, specific modules
        of training, and instructional methodology may be built into a training delivery
        system for a family of environmental service jobs.

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