JULY 1-SEPTEMBER 3O, 1969

                QUARTERLY REPORT

       July 1  through September 30,  1969
   United States Department of the Interior
Federal  Water Pollution Control  Administration
     Northwest Region, Con/all is, Oregon
                 October 1969






Physiological Control Branch 	    15
Ecological Control Branch 	    20


Paper and Allied Products Research Branch 	    25
Food Waste Research Branch  	    28
Regional Research Studies 	    35





         Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
Consultation and Advisory Services
     A staff paper, "Research and Development in Systems for Electric
Power Generation," was transmitted to Headquarters August 20, as re-
quested by the Commissioner on his visit here July 26.
     NTPRP also supplied the Commissioner with comments on Mr. George
Rhame's suggestions on closed-cycle gas turbine generation. Mr. Rhame
is State Sanitary Engineer, South Carolina.
     In August, materials relative to "Review of permit applications
and siting studies for thermal electric power plants," were furnished
the Northeast Region.
     A staff paper on "Economic Aspects of Thermal Pollution Control
in the Electric Power Industry" was prepared at the request of the
Ohio Basin Region for presentation at a meeting with ORSANCO. A longer
version of the same paper has been reviewed and submitted to the
Regional  Office for clearance as a working paper.
     An inventory of "Status of Beneficial  Use of Waste Heat in the
U.S. and in Europe" was sent on September 2 to the Commissioner per

Sources of Heat Input to Water
     Starting on July 21  and continuing through August 8, a research
study was conducted on the banks of the Little Deschutes River, near

La Pine, Oregon, on the Cameron Cliff Ranch.   The study focused its
attention on two separate items:  (1) the loss of heat energy from rivers
due to evaporation, and (2) the use of covered ponds as devices to cool
heated water.  The surface of the study area  of the Little Deschutes
River was based on aerial photos  made August  1.
     Preliminary calculations have shown that the use of cooling ponds
which are covered (wholly or partially) by a  material that will prevent
the entrance of incoming solar radiation may  provide a means of cooling
without excessive evaporation losses. Three ponds, each 8 ft. in dia-
meter, were used.  Two of the ponds were heated electrically to simulate
the waste heat from a 1000 megawatt nuclear power plant, and the third
pond was used as an unheated control.  One of the heated ponds was
covered with a white, plastic material to retard evaporation and inhibit
the entrance of incoming radiation.  The amount of heat added to this
pond was scaled to simulate a 4000 acre prototype pond.  The second
heated pond was left uncovered, and the heat  added to it was proportioned
to a 2000 acre prototype pond.  All three ponds were mixed to ensure
uniform temperatures.  Weather data useful for both study objectives were
taken twenty-four hours a day and recorded automatically.  Information
on wind, air temperature, pond temperature, humidity, and long- and
short-wave radiation was collected in this manner.  In addition, periodic
measurements of pond evaporation were made.
     Preliminary evaluation of the data shows reasonable comparison
between computed and measured values, however, further refinements are
necessary in both the data reduction and computational techniques.

     The successful completion of the analysis of information generated
by the study will enable engineers to (1) make better predictions of
river temperatures for planning future power plant locations, and (2)
design cooling ponds which will prevent heated water from polluting
streams and lakes but will not evaporate large quantities of valuable
Effects of Heat Management on the Environment
     "Sampling Methods for Establishment of Biological Baseline at
Sites of Potential Thermal Pollution," a paper by Dr. Ronald Garton
and Dr. Ralph Harkins, has been completed and is in the process of
being reviewed.
     Studies were begun in July on effects of a floating hot water lens
on emergence of aquatic insects,
Effects of Temperature on Fresh and Marine Fish Species
     See Biological Effects Research Program Report, page 38.
Engineering and Cost Aspects of Heat Dissipation
     The computer program for a mathematical model for natural draft
cooling tower is being finalized.

Design Criteria for Heat Discharge Outfalls
     Decision was made to renovate the Carpenter Shop for use in
research in fluid dynamics.

     Mr, Rainwater participated as a speaker August 27 at the 8th Argonne
National Laboratory-AUA Faculty-Student Conference at Argonne, Illinois.
     NTPRP has formalized an orientation talk on thermal  pollution for
use in training courses of FWPCA, etc.
     Mr. Rainwater attended a meeting of the Interdepartmental Task
Force Charged with Identification of Power Plant Siting R & D, Knoxville,
Tennessee, September 11, 12.
     A meeting was held at the National Water Quality Laboratory in
Duluth on September 17 and 18 to review research activities and plans
re thermal pollution.  Those participating were staff of NWQL involved
in temperature requirements, Dr. J. F.  Allen, Acting Assistant Director
for Biological Sciences, FWPCA, and Messrs Rainwater, Garton and Bouck,
                       Grants and Contracts
     Assistance was provided Headquarters and the Northwest Regional
Office relative to a research proposal  on "Physical and Socio-Economic
Evaluation of Site Alternatives for Nuclear Power." Mr. Rainwater met
twice with principals of the proposer and representatives of the North-
west Region to discuss FWPCA interest in this area.
     On September 30, Mr. Rainwater and Mr. Christiansen attended a
meeting in the Regional Office with representatives from State of
Washington, AEC, utilities and Battelle Northwest concerning possible

cooperative research on the beneficial use of power plant condenser
effluent for agricultural purposes east of Cascades.
     Technical reviews of formal proposals for research grants, demon-
stration grants and contracts were provided for the following subject
     1.   Temperature Rise Resulting from Nuclear Reactor Cooling.
     2.   A Method of Claiming Useful Work from Heat Wasted in Large
          Power Plants.
     3.   The Applicability of Weather Station Data for Water Surface
          Energy Budget Calculations.
     4.   Subsurface Irrigation for Improved Water Use Efficiency and
          Heat Balance of Soils.
     5.   Experimental Investigation of Spray System for Atmospheric
          Heat Dissipation.
     6.   Thermal Effects of Three Species of Columbia River Trichoptera.
     7.   Thermal Pollution Reduction, Fossil-Fuel-Fired Superheaters
          for Nuclear Power Plants.
     8.   Analysis of Engineering Alternatives for Environmental Pro-
          tection from Thermal Discharges.
     9.   Non-Evaporative Cooling Towers.
     10.  Combined Waste/Heat Treatment.
     11.  Suggestion on Closed-Cycle Gas Turbine Generation.
     12.  An Evaluation of the Effects of a Heated Water Discharge, Lake
          Sinclair, Georgia.

     13.  An Economic Analysis of Thermal  Pollution Abatement Costs
          in the Electric Power Industry.
     14.  Thermal Plume Dispersion.
     15.  Temperature Distribution as a Result of Heat Addition in a
          Water Reservoir.
     16.  Diffusion of Thermally Buoyant Water Jets into a- Moving Water
     17.  Possible Control of Thermal Pollution by Biological Means.

                        Reports and Papers
     Dr. Garton presented a talk on the National Thermal Pollution
Research Program to personnel in the South Central Regional Office. He
also attended the American Fisheries Society 99th Annual Meeting in
New Orleans, Louisiana, September 10-13.
     A report, "Survey of Large-Seale Heat Rejection Equipment," pre-
pared as part of FWPCA's Contract with Dynatech R/D Company on the
subject of "A Survey and Economic Analysis of Alternate Methods for
Cooling Condenser Discharge Water in Thermal Power Plants," was received
and distributed to all Regions and to individuals in Headquarters.
               Plans for the Second Quarter, FY 1970
     The experimental phase of the cooperative research with USGS will
be undertaken at Colorado State University, Ft, Collins, Colorado, and
completed as planned if sufficient program funds are available. Drafts of
two research papers will be written for possible publication in professional

     Analysis of data from Little Deschutes field study.
     The paper "Sampling Methods for Establishment of Biological Base-
line at Sites of Potential Thermal Pollution," will be reviewed and
distributed during the second quarter.
     Distribution of paper, "Economic Aspects of Thermal Pollution
Control in the Electric Power Industry," will also be made.


        Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
     Atmospheric reaeration rates were measured on the Yaquina estuary
about 4-6 miles above Toledo, Oregon, under varying tidal, salinity,
and temperature conditions.  Rates observed are similar in magnitude to
rates reported in literature.
     The proposed study of atmospheric reaeration rates on Galveston
Bay was indefinitely postponed due to budget limitations.
     Working drawings for an in situ radioactivity counter are being
Analysis of Dredge Spoils
     The benthic respirometer was employed in the Duwamish River estuary
to compare with the results obtained previously from Bellingham Bay.
Samples of the bottom were taken for element analysis and oxygen uptake
measurements at the laboratory.

NAS-NAE State of the Art Report
     Working groups of the National Academy of Science Committee on
Oceanography and the National Academy of Engineering Committee on
Oceanographic Engineering met at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, July 7-12, to
review drafts of working papers for the report on Management of Wastes
in the Coastal  Environment. D. J, Baumgartner, M. H. Feldman, and

R. J. Call away represented the National Coastal Pollution Research Pro-
gram. A summary of information obtained from FWPCA Pollution Surveillance
Branch and from each coastal Regional Office concerning projects now
underway and problems requiring attention in the near future was sub-
mitted to a steering committee for their information and utilization in
assembling a final report.  The assembled recommendations and individual
reports on physical, chemical and biological aspects will be compiled
into the final report by the steering committee,

Kraft Mill Outfall Plumes
     Kraft mill outfall wastes are being traced by means of a fluores-
cence procedure.  Samples obtained by the Oregon State University Civil
Engineering Department from the effluent plume of a paperboard mill at
Eureka, California, and from the mill pond piping, were analyzed and
compared with spectra obtained from other kraft process wastes.
Columbia River Estuary Temperature Model
     Schematization of the lower 28 miles of the Columbia was completed
in July.  This section constitutes the  'estuary1 proper.  In August
the hydraulic portion and input data on this program were turned over to
the Regional Office for conversion to the IBM 360 system.  Work con-
tinued on the testing of the heat budget section.
     Using a one-hour time step, the complete temperature model was
run in September on the simplified estuary system (five junctions, four

channels).  Progress was hampered somewhat during the month because of
breakdowns originating at the computer center.   Work continues on a
user's manual.

Estuarine Diffusion of Pollutants
     A 188-page report was received from Tracor, Austin, Texas, covering
the proceedings of the June 24 Annapolis  conference for preparation of
a state of the art report on estuarine water quality modeling.  Individual
chapters are now in preparation, to be reviewed at the next technical
meeting, tentatively scheduled for mid-November.  A five-week extension
was granted to extend the fall conference on estuary modeling to mid-
November and the delivery of the final report to January 1, 1970, due
to the fact that some chapter authors have not been able to meet the
original deadline for their first drafts.

Ocean Outfalls
     State of the art report number one has been reviewed and is in .
the final stages of revision.  This report covers the basic theoretical
development of relationships necessary for the design of an outfall
system.  Hydraulic model studies are continuing.

Design of Barge Disposal Systems
     The state of the art report on barge waste disposal has reached
the stage where an outline and abstracts of a large number of pertinent
articles have been completed.

     Hydraulic model studies and several trial experiments have been
completed.  Use of the videotape system was investigated and appears
to have considerable merit in recording data from these experiments„
Slug release mechanisms have been constructed for future experiments
that will also allow a determination of the effects of shape on the
mixing and dispersion of slug releases of waste materials.

Equipment and Instrumentation
     The Request for Proposal for development and demonstration of
equipment and methodology for tracing solids discharged to the marine
environment has been completed and an advertisement for bidder quali-
fications has been placed in the Commerce Business Daily.
     Development of in situ conductivity probes for use in hydraulic
model studies is being delayed by construction of conductivity probes
and purchase of carrier preamplifier and power supply.  These instru-
ments will not be available until February 1970 at the earliest.
     Bids were solicited for construction of a circular hydraulic
model tank to supplement the present facilities for simulation studies
on waste discharge processes and mixing zones.

                       Grants and Contracts
     Technical reviews were provided on applications and proposals for
research grants and contracts related to the following subjects:
     1.    Baseline Water Quality Study of the Alaskan Arctic Estuarine
     2.    Thermal  Plume Dispersion.

     3.   Estuan'ne Ecology Research.
     4.   Physical Factors Affecting Oregon Coastal  Pollution.,
     5.   Abundance and Distribution of Mercury in Watersheds and
          Estuaries of  the Gulf of Mexico.
     6.   Marine Waste Disposal and Sea Urchin Ecology.
     7.   Use of Carbon to Define Water Quality in Galveston Bay Study.
     8.   Studies on the Chemistry and Microbiology of Pollution in
          Selected Marine Areas of Southern Puerto Rico.
     9.   Correlated Studies of Vancouver Lake - Hydraulic Model Study.
     10.  Correlated Studies of Vancouver Lake - Water Quality Prediction
     11.  A Computer Simulation Model or Systems Approach to Equilibrium
          Compositions of Chemical Reactions.
     12.  Containment and Collection of Oil on the Open Sea.
     13;  Engineering Study of Design Criteria for Floating Booms.
                         Areas of Concern1
     Extensive delays in securing renewals for extramural research
projects have caused some strained relationships with our university
colleagues, and possibly with our Headquarters program representative.
Improved methods for review and approval of initial  and renewal appli-
cations need to be developed.

               Plans for Second Quarter. FY 1970
     It is planned to continue reaeration rate studies and to work on
in situ radioactive tracer experimental equipment.

     The user's manual for the Columbia River model will  be completed
and distributed for review.
     The second conference on the state of the art report for estuary
modeling will be held and the final  report from TRACOR will be reviewed.
     Continue work on ocean outfalls, design of barge disposal systems,
and equipment and instrumentation as discussed above.

                    910101/1601  and 910102/1601
     Dr. Bartsch participated as a witness on eutrophication  in the
reconvened Lake Superior Enforcement Conference held in Duluth, Minne-
sota, September 30 and October 1.
     Mr, Maloney presented a paper entitled,  "Research  to Save America's
Lakes," before the 66th National Meeting of the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers in Portland, Oregon, on August 26.
     On August 6 and 7 Dr, Bartsch met with representatives  of the
Southeast Region, the Florida State Air and Water Pollution  Control
Commission, and the Florida State Game and Fresh Water Fish  Commission
relative to eutrophi cation problems in Lake Apopka,
     On August 18 Dr, Bartsch presented a talk "The  Technology Avail-
able and Need to Control Eutrophication" at the Save the Lakes Sym-
posium, held in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota.
     On August 26 Dr. Bartsch presented the paper "Accelereated Eutro-
phi cation of Lakes—Ecological Response to Human Activities"  at the
Symposium on Ecological and Evolutionary Implications of Environmental
Pollution at the XI International Botanical Congress held in  Seattle,
     A. R. Gahler attended the National Meeting of the American
Chemical Society in New York in September and conferred with  NERP

     On September 9 Dr. Bartsch presented a talk "Let's Fight Eutrophi-
cation" at the Annual South Dakota Water and Wastewater Conference held
in Sioux Falls.
        Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
Algal Assay Procedures Section
     The evaluation of Selenastrum capricornutum as a test organism in the
batch and continuous-flow test of the Provisional Algal Assay Procedure
was continued.  A series of tests, employing samples from three lakes in
Oregon, were conducted.  The following table shows the basic nutritional
characteristics of the test waters and the seven-day algal growth responses,
Clear Lake
Triangle Lake
Woahink Lake
PAAP Medium
Tot. C
Tot. N
Tot. P
7-day growth
Response cells/ml
S. capricornutum
     In general, the algal growth response correlates well  with the nutrient
content of the water.  In Triangle Lake, algal  growth appears to be phos-
phorus limited, and in the case of Woahink Lake, both phosphorus and
carbon appear to be limiting.
     A series of carbon-14 "bottle test" algal  assays was also conducted
in conjunction with the Cline's Pond study and  the Shagawa Lake project.

Assays were conducted on samples from the aerated (destratified) and
non aerated portions of Cline's Pond.  Assays were also conducted on
Burntside River water, the main tributary to Shagawa Lake; on Shagawa
Lake water; and on secondary sewage effluent.  Phosphorus spikes were
made to both Burntside River water and Shagawa Lake water.
     When samples of water from the aerated side of Cline's Pond were
subjected to the static PAAP test, a substantially greater amount of
algal growth resulted than when samples from the non aerated side were
subjected to the same test. The amount of algal growth appears to be
directly correlated with the phosphorus present.  It is interesting to
note that in the natural environment, the opposite was true with respect
to algal growth; that is, the non aerated side supported a heavy growth
of algae while there was no apparent algal growth in the aerated portion.
Under natural conditions the heavy algal growth in the non aerated portion
depleted the water of its phosphorus, and this was apparent in the chemi-
cal analysis and laboratory assay.
     The results also suggest that both Burntside River and Shagawa
Lake waters are phosphorus-limiting for algal growth.  While neither
of these waters supported good algal growth, spiking with 0.02 mg P/S.
increased algal growth significantly. Phosphorus additions greater than
0.02 mg/J, did not have any additive effect on promoting algal growth.
     Eight continuous-flow chemostats were set up to compare the growth
response of S_.  capricornutum with and without aeration and ventilation
under both continuous lighting and a 12-hour photoperiod. All cultures
were maintained in a steady-state for over 30 days.  The highest level

of growth was obtained in the chemostats  being aerated from the bottom
of the reactor and on a 12-hour photoperiod.   In all  chemostats the pH
rose rapidly with an increase in algal  growth-
     The effects of ventilation and aeration  upon the growth of
S_. capricornutum were also investigated under carbon-14 "bottle test"
conditions employing natural lake waters  and  PAAP medium.  Results
suggest that neither ventilation nor aeration has little effect upon
algal growth in natural lake waters (carbon/nitrogen  ratio >24), but
dramatically increased growth response in PAAP medium (carbon/nitrogen
ratio = 0,5),  The results obtained in these  experiments and those
obtained in the continuous-flow experiments indicate that carbon is
limiting for algal growth in the PAAP medium.

Physiology Section
     Studies to determine the optimum concentration of nitrogen (as
nitrate) for the growth of SK capricornutum were continued.  The
results show that the optimum nitrogen concentration is 1.6 mg N/fc
and the optimum N:P ratio is 16:1 by weight.
     Experiments were made to evaluate the use of Tris buffer  (tris
(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane) to maintain pH during algal growth in
the PAAP culture medium.  The optimum concentration for pH control
was CL01M Tris and Tris concentrations much above this were toxic to
S_. capricornutum.  The medium buffered with 0.01M Tris maintained a
pH of 7.5 ± 0.2 pH units during algal growth whereas the pH of

unbuffered medium increased to 10.4 after three to four days.   When
the alga was grown in a chemostat in unbuffered PAAP medium at a  seven-
day retention time, algal  growth reached a concentration of 5  x 10
cells/ml after four days.,   As the pH reached 10.5 growth declined.
When the pH was readjusted to 7.5 and 0.01M Tris buffer added, the cell
concentration increased to 1.6 x 10  cells/ml  in 24 hours with a  pH
increase to 8.0.  The cell concentration finally reached a steady-state
at 3 x 10  cells/ml with no further rise in pH.
     Because of suspected  aluminum toxicity to algae in connection with
the tertiary treatment pilot plant at the Shagawa Lake project, a
series of assays were made to determine the toxicity of aluminum to
the blue-green alga, Anabaena flos-aquae.  While 0.2 mg Al/£ was  only
slightly toxic, there was   no algal growth above a concentration of
0.5 mg Al/£.
Aquatic Plant Control Section
     Bacterial cultures which have been isolated and had indicated some
apparent anti-algal activity in preliminary assays have failed to display
any significant algal control properties when assayed on a larger scale,
                       Grants and Contracts
     Technical reviews of  preproposals and proposals for research grants,
demonstration grants, and  contracts were provided for the following

     1,   Heterotrophic Nutrition of Fresh Water Plankton Algae.
     2.   Eutrophication Workshop, S.E.
     3,   Ecology and Physiology of Blue-Green Algae.
     4,   Contribution of Humic Acids from Land Drainage and Their Effects
          on Phytoplankton Growth.
     5.   Biological Effects of Heavy Metal Pollution.
     6.   Removal of Algal Nutrients by Activated Algae.
     7.   Development of Decision Criteria for Evaluating the Techno-
          logical and Economic Effectiveness of Alternative Algal Bloom
          Management Methods.
               Plans for the Second Quarter, FY 1970
     Evaluation of the Provisional Algal Assay Procedure, emphasizing
natural waters at various trophic levels, will be continued.  Emphasis
will be on evaluating the continuous-culture method as a means of
assessing algal growth kinetics in comparison with the batch-culture
     Studies relating to the nutritional and environmental requirements
of the PAAP test species as well as to other algal species will con-
     Cultures of the blue-green algal viruses LPP-1 and SM-1 have been
received from the R. A. Taft Water Research Laboratory. Methodology
relating to the use of phycoviruses to control blue-green algae will
be developed at this laboratory; a program to screen phycoviruses for
their ability to attack nuisance algae will be initiated when practical.

        Status of Projects  and Significant Accomplishments

Nutrient Control  Section
     After the mechanical difficulties  encountered last quarter  were
resolved, aeration of the experimental  section of Cline's Pond was
resumed and continued uninterruptedly throughout July,  August, and
September.  Little, if any, leakage past the plastic curtain  was detected.
Chemical and physical stratification were rapidly destroyed  in the  aerated
section, which thereafter remained in a completely mixed condition.  The
non aerated control section remained stratified, with severe  oxygen
depletion in the deep water.  A dense bloom of Anabaena occurred in  this
section, whereas blue-greens disappeared from the aerated portion of the
pond.  The aeration appears to have achieved considerable oxidation  of
the sedimentary organic layer, which has become much reduced in  thickness.
     Waldo Lake was sampled once each month,  Physical-chemical  measure-
ments reveal a condition of extreme oligotrophy.  For example,  total
solids are less than 5 mg/Jl, and conductivity less than 5 micro  mhos.
Secchi disc transparency is in excess of 30 meters.  Bottom  sediment
samples were taken in August for analysis of interstitial water, and a
detailed bathymetric survey was made in September-
     Analysis of sediment and aquatic-weed samples from Sal lie  Lake,
Minnesota, has continued, and chemical  analysis of fish from that lake
is being undertaken to obtain some estimate of nutrient removal  through
fish harvesting.

Sediment-Water Interchange Section
     Laboratory and field work this quarter have emphasized nutrient
inhibition and prevention of sediment-water interchange.   Addition of
Boliden aluminum sulfate pellets to lake water in aquaria brings about
drastic reductions in phosphorus and algal  growth.   The resultant floe
which forms on the sediment, however, supports dense growths of blue-
greens.  Similar results were described in  last quarter's report.
     One of the six experimental pools made by Plasti-Steel Corporation
was delivered in August and installed in Upper Klamath Lake.  These
pools are made of reinforced PVC and have a capacity of 16,400 gallons.
They are open at the bottom.  Boliden aluminum sulfate pellets were
added to the water in the installed pool at a rate of 50 mg/i.  No
biological effects have been observed; coagulation of Apham'zomenon
did not occur.  Dissolved oxygen appeared to be partially depleted,
     Characterization of Lake Erie sediments has continued, and a pro-
gram of sediment studies is being developed in cooperation with the
Shagawa Lake project.
Shagawa Lake Project
     Algal growth stimulation experiments were carried out in 8, 100,
and 150,000 gallon in-lake basins.  In the  two smaller basins, water
from Burntside Rivec (the major input to Shagawa Lake) was mixed with
secondary sewage from the Ely municipal plant, and with Waterboy and

deionized effluent from the tertiary treatment pilot plant.  Basins con-
taining unaltered Burntside water and Shagawa Lake water served as con-
trols.  All basins were inoculated with Shagawa Lake phytoplankton.   In
all instances, concentrations of secondary effluent as small  as 2% were
found to strongly stimulate algal growth, whereas, no stimulation
resulted from addition of effluents from the tertiary treatment pilot
plant.  In spiking experiments utilizing P, N, and P •+ N, stimulation
was achieved only when both P and N were added to Burntside  River water.
     In the 150,000 gallon basins, Shagawa Lake water was mixed with
various concentrations of secondary sewage, Waterboy, and deionized
effluent.  Secondary sewage at concentrations of 5 and 20% produced
greatly increased algal standing crops.
                       Grants and Contracts
     Reviews of preproposals and proposals for grants and contracts were
provided for the following subjects:
     1.   Evaluation and Demonstration of Irrigation Methods and
          Practices to Reduce Contamination in Irrigation Waste Waters.
     2.   Development of a Eutrophication Control Program Utilizing
          Systems Analysis.
     3.   Phosphorus in Aquatic Ecosystems, Model Experiments.
     4.   Correlated Studies of Vancouver Lake - Water Quality Pre-
          diction Study.
     5.   Correlated Studies of Vancouver Lake - Hydraulic Model Study,

6.   Eutrophic Lake Reclamation by Physical  and Chemical  Manipula-
7.   Comments on Review of locks Island Reservoir Project.
8.   Data Requirements for Prediction of Eutrophication.
9.   Proposal to Joint Task Force, Research  on Natural  Lakes and
     Impounding Reservoirs Directed Toward Gaining and  Understanding
     of the Causes of Eutrophication, for Research Activities
     Committee of the Task Force Meeting on  August 11,  1969.
10.   Developing of an Ecologic Model for Eutrophying Streams and
     Estuarial Systems.
11.   Development of Techniques for Predicting Eutrophication in
     Natural and Artificial Impoundments.
12.   Upwelling and Nutrient Transport in Stratified Lakes and
13.   Water Quality Prediction Study and Hydrauli.c Model Study.
14.   Nitrogen Release from Sediments of Reservoirs Experiencing
     Water Level Fluctuations.
15.   Reversal of Eutrophication through Artificial Aeration of
16,   Water Quality and Circulation Studies Across Lake  Michigan
     and Seasonal Factors Controlling Eutrophication, Part I:
     Development of Equipment,
17.   Biological Studies Relating to Water Quality in the
     Guadalupe River, Texas.

                          Areas of Concern
     Loss of intermittent employees will result in a cutback in research
programs.  Little progress was made in the effort to establish lake
restoration demonstration programs,  Lack of travel funds, resulting in
inability to visit potential sites, has been a major block.

               Plans for the Second Quarter, FY 1970
     Field work on Cline's Pond and Waldo Lake will terminate in
November.  The rainfall collection-analysis program will become active.
Laboratory work on uptake of nutrients by rooted aquatics and nutrient
transport in stratified aquatic systems will be carried on.  Completion
of these studies is expected by the end of the fourth quarter. Several
visits will be made to Upper Klamath Lake to obtain experimental samples.
Analysis of sediments from Shagawa Lake will begin, and more samples
from Lake Erie will be obtained.
    .Efforts will continue in the area of lake restoration programs.
Detailed planning will be completed and possibly at least one trip to
potential sites will be made.

        Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
Polymers in Waste Treatment
     The laboratory phase of this project has been concluded and Mr.  Tyo
has been transferred to Consolidated Laboratory Services (CLS).   The
draft of the report, "Polymers in Primary Treatment,"  for this project
has been reviewed and suggestions for rewrite returned to Mr.  Tyo=
Dependent on final  results and availability of manpower, some field
applications may eventually become possible.

Nutrients in Waste Treatment
     We have continued laboratory and special investigation support of
this project in cooperation with Crown-Zel lerbach at Lebanon, Oregon.
Dr. Willard devotes about one-half time to this pursuit*  Mr. Drotts
has recently been assigned to aid Dr, WilMrd in some of the biological
investigations.  The objective is to determine optimum nutrient levels
for biological treatment of pulp mill waste*

Microsieve Applications to Pulp and Paper Wastes
     The purchase of a pilot Beloit microsieve was concluded at end of
FY 69 and delivery is expected soon.  Delivery and backwash pumps are
still required.  If manpower is available, test work can be conducted
at several pulp and paper mills in the vicinity of Corvallis to deter-
mine applicability of such equipment.

Characterization of Sludge Loads from Aerated Lagoons
     Some small amount of work on this project has been completed at the
Lebanon project.  Earlier work loads on CLS restricted BOD work.   This
project should be enlarged to cover Springfield and Halsey.  Laboratory
manpower reductions will probably further reduce analytical capabilities
for this work.
                       Grants and Contracts
     Monitoring and review of research and demonstration grants and
contracts continued to occupy the great majority of time in Paper and
Allied Products Research Branch.   All projects listed in last quarter's
report are still active.  Several have approached the termination stage;
their status is as follows:
     1.   Robertson Pulp and Paper Laboratory, Raleigh,  North Carolina,
          WPRD 115-01-68.  A draft of the final report has been reviewed
          and returned to the grantee for rewrite.
     2.   Beet Sugar Development Foundation, Longmont, Colorado, WPRD
          43-01-67.  Two working days, with project personnel, were
          devoted to organizing the initial report draft.  Not all
          field work had been completed.  The final draft of this report
          is expected in the near future.
     3.   Georgia Kraft Company, Rome, Georgia, WPRD 117-01-68.  The
          final draft report for this project has been received and
          returned to the grantee with corrections to be included in
          the final copy.

                         Areas of Concern
     The program continues to suffer from a serious manpower shortage.
Most effort continues to be expended on research grants and contracts.
Very little resources are available to continue in-house research.  It
is questionable whether manpower will be available for the microsieve
project to permit adequate PNWL field activity.
     Budget restrictions will seriously curtail travel for this fiscal
year.  Present allowances will restrict both Pacific Northwest industry
contacts and necessary administrative and technical participation in
grant and contract activities in general.
               Plans for the Second Quarter, FY 1970
     1.   Continue administrative and technical supervision of assigned
grants and contracts.
     2.   Continue cooperative aspects of Lebanon project with Crown-
Zellerbach Corporation.
     3.   Within budget limitations, embark on a field program employ-
ing the Beloit microsieve at local area mills and continue or enlarge
on the sludge characterization studies in connection with aerated
lagoon discharge.

        Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
     The final report on secondary treatment of potato processing wastes
is still being reproduced.
     The 19th Potato Utilization Conference in Big Rapids, Michigan, was
attended.  Grant sites in Presque Isle, Maine, and Grand Forks, North
Dakota were visited.
     A meeting of National Canners Association personnel and pineapple
processors from the Island of Oahu was attended.  Discussions centered
around pollution problems  in the area of Honolulu resulting from
activities of three pineapple processors.
     An Engineering Committee (Idaho Potato Processors Association)
meeting was attended.  Results from last year's pilot plant work on
secondary treatment of potato process'ing wastes were presented and
plans for this year's work were discussed.
     Program personnel participated in the dedication of The R. T.
French Company waste treatment facility (Grant No. WPRD 15-01-67).
     Following an extended acclimation period the two small-scale,
laboratory anaerobic trickling filters were fed vegetable processing
wastes.  During July, unit number 1 was fed at a rate which resulted
in an average detention time of 5.7 days; unit number 2 had an average
of 7.4 days.  COD reductions averaged 95 and 96 percent, respectively,
and suspended solids were reduced by 81 and 88 percent, respectively,,

     Two pilot plants were installed at the United Flav-R-Pac  Cannery
in Salem, Oregon, (the waste source for the laboratory anaerobic  units).
The first unit consists of a 32,000 gallon lagoon (diameter  -  25  ft.,
depth = 9 ft.) that contains a 1  hp floating surface aerator and  tube
settlers.  This pilot plant will  be used to check the feasibility of
using an aerated lagoon as an aerobic digester as well as  an activated
sludge system.  No suspended solids will be wasted intentionally.
Cannery waste following screening through 20 mesh screens  is currently
being fed at a 2 gpm rate.  Both  nitrogen and phosphorus are being
added to maintain a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1.
     The second pilot plant system incorporates a Rotating Biological
Contactor (RBC),.  The RBC was obtained following the termination  of a
research contract on treatment of combined sewer overflow,  This  sys-
tem consists of a primary clarifier, the RBC "aeration unit,"  and
secondary clarifier,  Volume of the primary clarifier is 100 gallons and
for the secondary, 150 gallons.  The "aeration unit" is 14 inches deep,
18 inches wide, and 12 feet long.  It contains 10 rows of 32 discs each.
The discs are one foot in diameter and spaced at one-half inch center
to center.   Both the direction and speed of rotation of the discs can
be controlled by valves and the hydraulic drive system. As the shafts
are rotated about 50 percent submerged in the liquid, a microbial  film
absorbs and oxidizes dissolved organics and the rotation of the discs
also aerates the liquid-  This pilot plant will operate at various
organic loads in parallel with the aerated lagoon facility.

                       Grants and Contracts
     The following grant proposals and preproposals were received for
     1.   Investigation of Electroxidation as a Method of Reducing
          the Pollutional  Load of Food Processing Liquid Wastes.
     2.   Ground Disposal  Study.
     3.   Pilot Plant Installation for Use of Fungi Imperfect! on
          Vegetable Wastes.
     4.   Optimization of Bio-Chemical Waste Treatment Techniques.
     5.   Winery Wastewater-Characterization and Treatment.
     6.   Vermont Cheese Industry Pollution Abatement Project.
     7.   Elimination of Odors in Sugarbeet Transport Water Clarifier
     8.   Pollution Abatement and By-Product Recovery in Shellfish
     9.   Reduction of Salt Content of Food Processing Liquid Waste
     10.  Waste Treatment Facility at a Cheese Producer.
     11.  Pre-Treatment Industrial Waste from Poultry Processing
     12.  Process Upgrading and Utilization of Potato Solid Wastes as
     13.  Biological Treatment of Wastes from Processing of Sweet Whey.
     14.  Combined Municipal/Industrial Waste Treatment Facility.

     15.   Treatment of Waste Sludges with Emphasis on Nutrient Enrich-
     During the  quarter, the following grants were awarded:
     1.    Full-Scale Demonstration and Evaluation of Potato  Dry and Wet
          Caustic Peeling Process, Western Potato Service, Inc.  FWPCA
          Grant  = $396,574.  Total  Project Cost = $1,148,331.
     2.    Pilot  Plant Installation for Use of Fungi Imperfect! on
          Vegetable Wastes,  Green  Giant Company, LeSueur, Minnesota.
          FWPCA  Grant = $49,742.    Total  Project Cost = $72,860.- •
     3.    Waste  Treatment Facility, Kent Cheese Company, Mel rose Park,
          Illinois.  FWPCA Grant  = $45,006.  Total Project Cost =
     4.    Development and Demonstration of an Ultrafiltration.Plant
          for the Abatement  of Pollution from Cottage Cheese Whey,
          Crowley's Milk Company,  Inc., Binghamton, New York.  FWPCA
          Grant  = $495,856.  Total  Project Cost = $914,081.
     5.    Controlled Treatment of  Combined Potato Processing - Municipal
          Waste  by Anaerobic'Fermentation, Aerobic Stabilization Process,
          City of Grand Forks, North Dakota.  FWPCA Grant Supplement =
     These grants bring the  total  number to 33 in the Food Waste Research
Branch in the assigned area  of responsibility.  They have a total esti-
mated project cost of over $14,500,000 with FWPCA grant monies of

     Current status of grants which have been assigned a project officer
in the Food Waste Research branch is as follows:
     1.   Cannery Waste Treatment by Lagoons and Oxidation Ditch,
Melbourne Water Science Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.  Although
the second year's operation was started in April 1969, no progress  reports
have been received on this year's activities.
     2.   Aerobic Secondary Treatment of Potato Processing Wastes with
Mechanical Aeration, "ir.e R. T. French Company, Shelley, Idaho.  Con-
struction of the full-scale facilities was completed and a formal dedi-
cation held on September 27, 1969.  The system will  be closely monitored
throughout this processing season.
     3.   Pollution Prevention by Aeration of Fruit Processing Wastes,
Snokist Grbwers, Yakima, Washington.  A draft of the final report on
this project has been reviewed and is currently being reworked prior to
final approval for'reproduction.
     4.   State of Art, Sugarbeet Processing Waste Treatment, Beet
Sugar Development Foundation, Fort Collins, Colorado-  The literature
survey is still underway,  A questionnaire was sent to each sugarbeet
processor in the United States and a selected group of European pro-
cessors.  This will be followed up with site visits in selected instances
to verify the information and fill in the voids,
     5.   Water Pollution Abatement in the United States Seafoods
Industry: State of the Art, Oregon State University, Con/all is, Oregon.
The literature review is approximately 50 percent complete.  Nearly

two months were spent visiting seafood processors and related research
organizations in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Michigan, and
     6.   Complete Aerobic Treatment of Combined Domestic and Indus-
trial Wastes with Mechanical Aeration, City of Dallas, Oregon.  Construc-
tion of the full-scale facilities has been completed and the testing
program initiated.
     7.   Full-Scale Demonstration and Evaluation of Potato Dry and
Wet Caustic Peeling Processes, Western Potato Service, Inc.,. Grand
Forks, North Dakota.  Equipment has been ordered for conversion of
three full-scale peeling lines to "dry caustic" peeling. 'Sampling
and analyses plans are currently being prepared.
     8.   Anaerobic-aerobic Sugar Beet Waste Treatment, Beet Sugar
Development Foundation, Fort Collins, Colorado,  As yet the first
draft of the final report has not been completed.  Grantee was given
a 60-day extension for completion of this report.
     9.   Status and Research Needs for Potato Waste Waters, Uni-
versity of Washington, Seattle, Washington.  The first draft of the
final report is complete except for the section on Research Needs
which will be completed shortly.
     In addition to item 3 above, final report drafts have been
reviewed on the following:
     1.   Treatment of Alkaline Wastes from Potato Processing,
Vahlsing, Inc., Easton, Maine.

     2.   Cannery Waste Treatment by the Kehr Activated Sludge Process,
FMC Corporation, Santa Clara, California.
     3.   Integrated Treatment of Liquid Wastes from Food Canning
Operations, National Canners Association.

                         Areas of Concern
     The Branch continues to suffer as a result of borrowed positions
and money.  Grant monitoring has been less than minimal and the condition
worsens as additional grants are awarded.
               Plans for the Second Quarter, FY 1970
     1.   Continue grant monitoring and reviewing,,
     2.   Continue pilot plant operation if money and manpower permits.

        Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
Aerated Lagoon Treatment of Food Processing Wastes
     The final report is in the process of reproduction and should be
available for distribution later in October.
Waste Treatment at Recreational Areas, Project No. 0970r2Q8-11
     A draft of the final report on Evaluation of Extended Aeration
Treatment at Recreation Areas was reviewed and is being revised accord-
ing to recommendations of the review committee.

Log Handling and Storage, Project No. 0970-208-12
                                                *       ,
     Field work has been completed for thfs project.- Analysis of
biological data is proceeding as scheduled but will be hampered in
the future because of personnel limitations.  A shift of emphasis -has
required reduction of staff assigned to this project.

Animal Feedlot Waste Disposal. Project No. 0970-208-15
     A project proposal is presently being drafted following extensive
discussions with the State and Federal agencies concerned, as well as
with individual feedlot operators, and the Idaho Cattlemerr "Feeders
Association to determine the requirements of the study.
                         Areas of Concern
     Limited funds and positions have been assigned to the Food Wastes
and Paper and Allied Products Research areas, so these are being

strongly supported by the Regional Research Studies personnel.  Budgetary
restrictions have dictated reduction of temporary employees and elimination
of all but most urgent expenditures for travel and equipment.  Projects
requiring travel or new equipment will be held in abeyance and new projects
will be developed which can be accomplished without travel or new equip-
ment.  Also, publication of reports will be held to a minimum.
                        Reports and Papers
     The final report of the Storm and Combined Sewer Contract 14-12-128
is in final preparation and a draft will be available in mid-October.
Data are being evaluated and a report prepared on Pilot Plant Treatment
of Steam Vat Condensates,

               Plans for the Second Quarter. FY 1970
Waste Treatment at Recreation Areas, Project No. 0969-208-11
     The final report will be revised and reviewed.  It is planned to
complete this project during the second quarter FY 70.

Log Handling and Storage, Project No, 0969-208-12
     Biological effects data will be evaluated.

Animal Feedlot Waste Disposal. Project No. 0970-208-15
     The project proposal will be prepared and reviewed and study
initiated to the extent permitted by budgetary limitations.

     Work will proceed on the Regional Status Report on Pesticides.
     As existing projects are completed, new projects will be developed
within limits imposed by existing personnel and budget.


         Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
Thermal Pollution Studies
     1.   Tissue Enzyme Studies:
          Research phases were deactivated as planned to allow the
installation and testing of temperature and photoperiod controlling
equipment, and the diversion of manpower to the adult salmon studies
at Bonneville.
     2.   Simulation of Adult Sockeye Salmon Migration Through Elevated
          Adult sockeye were collected from the fish trap at Bonneville
Dam and 31 were acclimated to and held at 50°F, 62°F, 68°F (legal maxi-
mum temperature) and 72°F.  None of the fish survived 72°F for longer
than one week, or 68°F for longer than three weeks.
          Disease was the principal cause of death as affected by
temperature, confinement, and pre-existing gas embolism (bubble disease)
when these fish were removed from the supersaturated Columbia River.
Antibody incidence and titer levels were determined on surviving fish,
as were: (1) weight loss; (2) organosomatic indices for gonads and
livers; (3) geriatrophy; and (4) other parameters.  These data await
further analysis.
          A parallel study compared the suitability of using rainbow
trout instead of adult salmon for these tests.  The results demonstrate
that rainbow trout could not be used as substitutes for adult sockeye
salmon in these and perhaps other pollution-oriented tests.

     3.   Simulation of Adult Coho Salmon Migration Through Elevated
          Because of disease problems described above, a crash program
was completed to further modify the adult salmon testing facilities at
Bonneville.  This included expansion of the water supply, ultraviolet
sterilization of recycle water, and modification of other features.
          Adult coho were collected and assigned to the same temperature
regime as used on adult sockeye. The experiment is proceeding according
to plan.
          A parallel study of adult coho passage time in the lower Columbia
River and the concurrent weight loss at high river temperatures was
conducted using hatchery return jack coho salmon.  The study will  be
repeated at lower temperatures depending on the availability of funds,
manpower, test fish, and river conditions.
Waste Treatment Studies
     1.   Determination of spatial requirements for natural  spawning:
          The spatial requirements for salmon spawning are being deter-
mined as a necessary requisite to the testing of pollution effects to
salmon reproduction.  Adult coho mating pairs are being held in
various sized enclosures to determine the minimum space that allows
natural spawning.
     2.   Effects  of pollutants on salmon fertilization:
          Plans, facilities, and materials for surveying the effects
of industrial  wastes on fertilization of salmon eggs have been

completed.  Methanol has been selected as the reference toxicant and
coho salmon will be the test species.  Fertilization and incubation
will be as before.
     3.   Pesticide levels in adult Pacific salmon (West Coast):
          Specimens have been collected, frozen, and shipped as
requested by Dr. Howard Johnson, Michigan State University.

                         Areas of Concern
Highway Safety
     The distance, frequency of travel, and subsequent fatigue from
resulting labor at the Bonneville test site (144 miles one way) has
produced several close calls on the highway.  Considerable concern
is hereby expressed for this situation.

Fail-Safe Protection
     The Bonneville test site has relatively no fail-safe protection.
As a result, any one of several problems could arise and cause the
death of the fish, hence delay the completion of the experiment for
one year.  For example, a large bird (blue heron) struck the main
power lines and caused a power outage for the second time this year
(from 2:15 a.m. until 5:00 a.m.), but the extremely cold water con-
tained sufficient oxygen to sustain the fish until power was resumed.
     Although the current budget may not accommodate these needs, it
is recommended that funds be expended for—an alarm system and an

emergency power supply.  Perhaps the best precaution would be to move
the facility closer to the staff so that it can respond quickly to
emergencies when they arise.
               Plans for the Second Quarter, FY 1970
  •-  thermal effects tests on adult coho salmon will be completed
with their spawning and subsequent determinations of survival and gamete
     Levels of selected enzymes will be determined among various tissues
of juvenile salmon that were held at various temperatures.
     Fertilization of salmon eggs will be conducted in various industrial
wastes to determine gametocidal properties.


        Status of Projects and Significant Accomplishments
     The Pollution Surveillance sampling of streams for the purpose of
determining the k rates for dissolved oxygen resources has been com-
pleted.  A complete nitrogen balance was monitored in conjunction with
dissolved oxygen depletion to differentiate between carbonaceous and
nitrifying demand.  A computer program to-calculate the k, 1, and H
(developed by Gannon, University of Michigan) was used.
     A significant fnroad was made into the backlog of analyses by  •
the end of the quarter.
     Assistance was given to the Environmental Quality Control •
Commission, State of Oregon in the area of microbiological analyses.
The state agency is monitoring the Willamette River to identify
sources of 'microbiological inputs.  Cooperation is continuing with
the National Council for Stream Improvement on fecal coliform deter-
mination in paper pulping wastes.
     All forms of nitrogen are, being analyzed on samples shipped
from Shagawa Lake.  The samples are preserved with mercuric-'chloride
on collection and shipped to Corvallis by airmail.

Automated Analytical System
     Cadmium reduction of nitrate to nitrite is now used for deter-
mination of nitrate.  This procedure has increased the sensitivity
of the determination of nitrate.  The reducing column lasts for

only one day but a sufficient number of columns are prepared at one
time to effectively handle the determination.
     The use of E.D.T.A.-sodium citrate-acetone in the phenol hypo-
chlorite ammonia reaction has produced an increase in sensitivity so that
0.01 mg/1 of ammonia nitrogen can be 'detected.
     The equipment from Ely, Minnesota has been set up to handle silica
and phosphate analyses.  A Westronics recorder is used with a Beckman B
and a Beckman DB spectrophotometer combined with Technicon equipment to
produce an adequate, functional, automated system.
     Difficulty is still being experienced in the" automated Kjeldahl

Gas Chromatographic Analysis - Oil Analysis
     The Portland laboratory has processed the first three groups of
Pollution Surveillance samples and the first set of samples from the
Alaska, North Slope Study for chlorinated pesticides.  Oil-Grease
analyses have been completed 'on samples from the North Slope Study.
The number of samples from oil 'spills in the Northwest area has

     All field work has been completed on the log storage study.
Samples are now being examined and biological interpretations are
being made.

                          Areas of Concern
     There is a long delay in acquiring parts for repair of  equipment.
Two gas chromatographs and a carbonaceous analyzer are not usable  be-
cause of delays.
     The main area of concern is the high turnover rate of temporary
and intermittent employees.  During this quarter we have lost  five,  well-
trained people.  Four of the five have been replaced and are undergoing
training.  Three of the four replacements have come to us with excellent
education and training.

Direct Training
     "Water Quality Surveys" training course was presented July 21-25,
1969, for 24 students.
     "Freshwater Pollution Ecology" training course was presented
September 15-19 for 23 students.  Five applicants cancelled.
     A staff member completed a reconnaissance trip to Alaska in pre-
paration for future training courses to be held there.

Cooperative Area Manpower Planning System
     The City of Portland subcontracted with the FWPCA for funds to
train 40 waste treatment plant operators, effective September 22, 1969.
                                                     ' /
     The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle subcontracted with the
FWPCA for funds to train 20 waste treatment plant operators, effective
October 1, 1969.
     Approximately 120 hours of teaching assistance and support were
provided the Sewage Treatment Plant Operator training course at Linn-
Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon.

Public Relations
     Tours were provided for approximately 35 individuals during the
quarter.  Four hundred twenty five publications ("Showdown," "Needed,
Clean Water," etc.) were provided elementary class teachers for use

in water pollution studies,   Two films were loaned  for viewing by 305
students of high school  health classes.
               Plans for the Second Quarter, FY 1970
     "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment Operation,"  October
13-17, Anchorage.
     "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment Operation,"  November
17-21, Corvallis.
     One week of biology training and one week of membrane  filter
training will be provided U. S. Geological Survey employees from
December 8-19, 1969.