U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Region A
  345 Courtland Stieet, N. L.
  Atlanta, Georgia 30365-2^01
      U. S. A.
HB-2C. 1101 Market Street
Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
Tel:  (615) 751-7297
Fax:  (615) 751-7479

                       Poultry Environmental Issues and Impacts                  PWQ / 0

                    WATER QUALITY ISSUES (wgi)
                       Protecting the Environment and Water Quality                WQI / 1
                       What Is Water Quality                                    WQI / 2
                       Poultry Production and Water Quality                       WQI / 3
                       Understanding Water Quality Regulations                   WQI / 4

                    POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT (PWM)
                       Environmental Impacts of Poultry Waste                    PWM / 1
                       Planning Poultry Waste Management                      PWM / 2
                       Dry Waste Management                                 PWM / 3
                       Liquid Waste Management                               PWM / 4
                       Composting Waste Products                              PWM / 5
                       Putting Nutrient Management to Work                     PWM / 6
                       Economics of Transporting Poultry Wastes                  PWM / 7

                       An Overview of Poultry Mortality Management              PMM / 3
                       Bunal — A Disposal Method for Dead Birds                 PMM / 2
                       Incineration — A Disposal Method for Dead Birds            PMM / 3
                       Composting — A Disposal Method for Dead Birds            PMM / 4
                       Rendering — A Disposal Method for Dead Birds             PMM / 5

                       Site Selection for the Poultry Farmstead                       OEI / 1
                       Air Quality and Its Management                            OEI / 2
                       Preventing Fires in Manure/Litter Storage Structures            OEI / 3
                       Treatment Lagoons and Ponds                              OEI / 4
                       Controlling Struvire Buildups                              OEI / 5
                       Protection Against Pests, Predators, and Darkling Beetles         OEI / 6

                       Constructed Wetlands                                      AT / 1
                       Feeding Litter to Rudiments                                 AT / 2
                       Horticultural Uses of Litter                                 AT / 3

                    RESOURCE INFORMATION (RI)
                       Poultry Water Quality Consortium                             RI / 1
                       Southeastern Poultry & Egg Association                        RI / 2
                       USD A Sod Conservation Service                              RI / 3
                       Tennessee Valley Authority                                  RI / 4
                       U.S Environmental Protection Agency                         RI / 5
                       Directory of Poultry Associations                             RI / 6
                       Other Agencies Supporting the Poultry Industry                 RI / 7
                          USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
                          USDA Cooperative Extension Service
                       Directory of State Water Quality Agencies                      RI / 8

Another New Venture for Southeastern

Poultry  & Egg Association

^•^he environment and our natural resources form one of the cornerstones of
 JL our quality of life. Every industry, every company, every individual has a
giant stake in the environment.
   The poultry industry recognizes the significance of our natural resources and
the importance of conservation and the protection of  the environment. The
growth and progress of the U.S. poultry industry have been phenomenal. How-
ever, rapid advancement has brought challenges that are often too complex to be
solved easily or quickly. Answers are sometimes long-term and require deliber-
ate, progressive action. Some solutions are environmentally related.
   Southeastern Poultry & Egg  Association understands the challenges that
come with progress, particularly those that impact the environment. Industry
leaders who make up Southeastem's Board of Directors, in yet another new As-
sociation venture, teamed up with key federal agencies — USDA Soil Conserva-
tion Service, Tennessee Valley Authority, and U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency — to work on water quality issues related to the poultry industry The
Poultry Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort to identify and adopt
environmentally prudent uses of poultry by-products. The objective: to use by-
products as a resource.
   However, success requires teamwork: the combined efforts of people and or-
ganizations,  industry and government. No one is excluded from responsibility,
not farmers,  service providers, company management, or government officials
   This handbook is one part of a new and vital enterprise The goal is to consol-
idate information, ideas, and references to enhance water quality  As this joint
venture between industry and government continues, the handbook will be re-
vised and updated to include new technology and techniques that will ensure
the quality of water for everyone

                   K    N
                         The Poultry Water Quality Protection Handbook was prepared under the direc-
                         tion of the  Poultry Water Quality Consortium members, assisted by  Ed
                     Schwille. Liaison, with invaluable coordination provided by James M. Ransom,
                     Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama; Richard D. Urban, Tennes-
                     see Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee; Harvey I. Mack, USDA Soil Con-
                     servation Service,  Washington,  D.C.; Ira  H. Linville,  U.S. Environmental
                     Protection Agency, Atlanta, Georgia; and Richard D. Reynnells, Cooperative Ex-
                     tension Service, Washington, D.C. References to source material are shown on the
                     information sheets in the handbook.
                        Other major contributors who have given their time and knowledge to help
                     organize and write this handbook are the following:

                        Don Dalton, Southeastern Poultry & Egg Association, Tucker, Georgia
                        Peter Tidd, USDA Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.
                        Victor Payne, Jr., USDA Soil Conservation Service, Auburn, Alabama
                        F.E. Busby, Winrock International Institute, Morrillton, Arkansas
                        Stan Chapman, University of Arkansas, Little Rode
                        David Goldenberg, Pacific Egg & Poultry Association, Modesto, California
                        George Watts, National Broiler Council, Washington, D.C
                        Michael Quart, University of Florida, Gainesville
                        Gene Gregory, United Egg Producers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia
                        Kevin Almand, Gold Kist Company, Athens, Georgia
                        Lewis Carr, University of Maryland, Princess Anne
                        Sally Noll, University of Minnesota, St. Paul
                        Thomas A Carter, North Carolina State University, Raleigh
                        Larry Goff, USDA Soil Conservation Service, Nashville, Tennessee
                        Stuart Proctor, National Turkey Federation, Reston, Virginia
                        Charles Beard, Southeastern Poultry & Egg Association, Tucker, Georgia
                        Richard Strickland, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama
                        Tom McCasky, Auburn University,  Auburn, Alabama
                        Ellis Brunton, Tyson Foods. Inc . Spnngdale, Arkansas
                        Dwight Bond, ConAgra Broiler Company, Eldorado, Arkansas
                        Ken Tanji, University of California, Davis
                        Dov Weitman, U S Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington. D C
                        Anne Weinberg, U S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
                        ]. William Sarterfield, Delmarva Poultry Industry, Georgetown, Delaware
                        Dan Cunningham, University of Georgia, Athens
                        Alan Koepcke, De Kalb Poultry Research, De Kalb, Illinois
                        Bill Brown, Perdue Farms, Hurlock, Maryland
                        ] M. Vandepopuher, University of Missouri, Columbia

                        o   w
   Joe Berry, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater
   Dr. Charles Goan, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
   Charles Adams, and Staff, USDA Soil Conservation Service, Ft. Worth, Texas
   Vernon Rowe, Rowenvironmental, Pittsburg, Texas
   James Donald, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
   David Moffitt, USDA Soil Conservation Service, Ft. Worth. Texas
   John Kosco, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

   Special recognition is given to Rachel Reeder and Judith Taggart, JT&A., inc.,
Washington, D.C., for their invaluable  assistance  in writing and editing this
handbook and to Jessica Johnson for the design and typesetting.
   And, finally, our heartfelt thanks goes out to others too numerous to men-
tion, who contributed technical and general assistance to keep this handbook of
manageable proportions and practical use.
                                                                          ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  5

                  POULTRY  ENVIRONMENTAL
                  ISSUES  AND  IMPACTS
                     In the United States, poul-
                     try is a major source of
   agricultural income. In 1992, the industry con-
   tributed over $12 billion to the economy of this
   nation. During the same period, U.S. exports
   exceeded 207 million pounds of poultry prod-
   ucts, and  U.S. per capita consumption of poul-
   try  reached 37.3 pounds  per  annum. Some
   75,000 growers are involved in producing over
   6.4 billion broilers, 269 million layers, 69 billion
   eggs,  285 million  turkeys, and  20 million
   ducks, and recent estimates conclude that an-
   other half-million people  are  employed in
   hatcheries, live-bird processing plants, feed
   mills, and other allied operations serving the
   poultry industry. Both genetics and efficiency
   contribute to this magnitude of production.

      These figures, which  are projected to in-
   crease 5 percent each year into the future, are
   impressive,  however,  they  also come with a
   yearly legacy of some 20 million tons of poul-
   try manure and Litter, over 50 million dead and
   unused carcasses, and over 50 billion gallons of
   water from hatchery, layer,  and live-bird pro-
   cessing operations. These by-products must be
   safely disposed  of or used. The challenge is
   where and how to use these poultry wastes to
   benefit the grower and the environment.

      Traditional  uses  for  poultry by-products
   are  not always  sufficient  Expanded or new
   uses for poultry waste have been found, such
   as  enhanced   fertilizers,  horticultural  and
   mushroom growing medium, and  feed prod-
   ucts for Livestock, dogs, cats, and aquaculture.
   Indeed, a continuing search for additional uses
   is part of the challenge.

      Protecting water quality, the environment,
   and the natural resources of this nation is a
commitment of the poultry industry and grow-
ers. The industry shares responsibility with
other segments of the agricultural community
and other human activities for nonpoint source
pollution: the pollution  that originates from
diffuse sources (e.g., stormwater runoff). Some
industry practices could contribute to point
source pollution: the pollution that issues from
a known or direct discharge (e.g., from the end
of a pipe).
   One must understand  the complexity  of
poultry  operations  when  addressing water
quality and  environmental issues. The indus-
try  can  be  separated  into hatchery, breeder,
broiler-roaster-Comish (meat types),  turkey,
egg, duck, and other poultry and live bird pro-
cessing operations. Each of these operations
produces either dry or Liquid waste and dead
birds  Environmental  awareness has  shifted
beyond  live-bird processing   plants  (offal,
feathers, and wastewater) to the grower
    As any poultry grower knows, the speed,
efficiency, and methods used to produce poul-
try and poultry products have changed drasti-
cally over the past 20 years  As a result of rapid
growth, most poultry are grown in confined
operations with limited use of water, except for
drinking water for the birds. The expansion of
ihe industry coupled  with  concentrating the
growing operations has created a unique chal-
lenge  — that of  proper  disposal of immense
quantities of waste. It is important for produc-
ers and others  to understand how  poultry
waste can pollute the environment. Each indi-
vidual operation  is different, yet many of the
problems can be  prevented  or  solved through
proper waste disposal methods and changes in
management and production methods during
the production cycle.

     It is important for producers to know (1)
 what is in the waste that must be disposed of;
 (2) how much waste is expected to be gener-
 ated; (3) what are the impacts of the waste on
 water  quality, the environment, and human
 health; (4) how these materials can get into the
 water*  and (5) how to manage the waste in an
 environmentally safe manner.
    The most overriding environmental issue
 facing growers today is the impact mat poultry
 waste  can have on  water  quality.  Potential
 water pollutants from on-farm poultry opera-
 tions can be classified as (1) nutrients and salts,
 (2) organic materials, (3) bacteria, and (4) vi-
 ruses. These pollutants originate from manure
 and litter and dead birds improperly handled.
 How the waste is disposed of, treated, or man-
 aged has a direct  influence on the cleanliness
 of surface and groundwater.
    Properly  managed  poultry  wastes from
 manure, litter, dead birds, and wastewater are
 profitable  farm  investments.   An  effective
 waste  management  plan provides  for  the
 proper collection, storage, handling, and use of
poultry waste. Products derived from wastes
reduce chemical fertilizer costs, improve soil
quality, and protect water resources, air qual-
ity, and human and animal health. Effective
waste management promotes a favorable pub-
lic attitude toward the industry.
    Disposing of dead birds is an increasing
problem. Daily numbers  and  poundage of
dead birds  can be dictated by the birds' age
and weight, the number of birds in the poultry
house, and climatic conditions.  Acceptable
methods of disposal include (1) burial, (2) in-
cineration,  (3) composting, and (4) rendering.
Burial pits  may have  severe  environmental
limitations  in areas of porus or fractured soils
that would allow  leaching of nutrients to
groundwater. Incineration  has some limita-
tions: the possibility of air pollution and fuel
and labor costs.
    Many progressive growers are switching to
composting or to rendering as preferred solu-
tions  from  an  environmental and economic
viewpoint.  A grower must choose a method
compatible  with his or her individual opera-
                                                                              T = thousand $
                                                                              M = million S
                                                                              B = billion S
Figure 1.—Poultry cash receipts (in dollars).
                                                                                   OVFRVIFW  7

    tion and company preference. Dead birds must
    be treated as a resource that can add value to a
    grower's operation. Improper methods of dis-
    posal are unacceptable  and  cannot be  con-
       State regulations and permitting require-
    ments vary from state  to state  and may be
    more stringent than national  regulations. In
    general, environmental needs are site specific
    and regional in nature. Local sources of infor-
    mation,  including industry associations, ap-
    propriate  state  agencies,  soil  and  water
    conservation districts, and the USDA Soil Con-
    servation and Cooperative Extension Service
    offices, should be consulted to ensure that  your
    waste management  plan complies  with all
    state and federal regulations.
       There is not a single best  or optimal ap-
    proach to protect or preserve water quality and
    the  environment.  Good waste  management
    practices are essential if the poultry industry is
    to continue to grow and thrive under today's
    environmental challenges.  The remainder of
    this  handbook  relates to the  management of
poultry wastes, mortalities,  and wastewater
Information  sheets  on these topics provide
management "guidance" to help poultry pro-
ducers make sound environmental decisions;
additional  fact sheets discuss other environ-
mental  issues  and  alternative  technologies,
and sources of assistance are provided in the
section on  Resource Information (RI). Produc-
ers are encouraged to seek assistance from the
appropriate state and federal agencies, private
consultants, and other professionals on how to
implement waste management techniques that
protect water quality and the environment.

  • Permission is hereby granted to growers, as-
  sociations, and others serving the poultry industry
  to reproduce this material for further distnbution
  The Poultry Water  Quality Consortium is a coop-
  erative effort of industry and government to iden-
  tify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products
  that will preserve the quality of water for every-
  one. The Poultry Water Quality Consortium does
  not discriminate against any person or group on
  the basis of race, color, sex, handicap, age, or na-
  tional ongin
       Other pages m this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further  distnbution. The Poultry  Water  Quality.  Consortium is  a cooperative  effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                                PWQ / 0 - 6/94
                               POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                         HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  •  Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

L   I   T  Y
U   E   S
               AND  WATER  QUALITY
                   >rotecting  natural re-
                   sources is a major goal
of the agricultural community in general, and
poultry  producers in  particular, who care
about the environment. The quality of our air,
soil, and water resources, the welfare of our
animals, and human health issues are impor-
tant to us and to our children; they are our con-
nection to the future. Water quality is the most
important environmental concern of the poul-
try industry.
    Environmental  protection  begins  with
awareness. We have to know what's at stake
when we read or hear about water quality and
conservation, or that high concentrations of ni-
trates or other contaminants have been found
in surface and groundwater. We need to under-
stand how the industry's waste management
affects water quality. Above all, we must be
able to assess the opportunities we have, as
private producers and as an industry, to meet
these environmental challenges head on

    Poultry growers and the industry must be
concerned about the  quality of  water that
comes into and flows from their farms or
plants The industry's first concerns are those
that everyone snares: Does the  water we use
support our  needs? Is it drinkable  (potable)
and palatable?  What does it cost to supply
water to our homes and businesses? Would ad-
ditional  costs for water treatment ensure its
safety for our use?

Where the Water Is
Water covers 70 percent of the earth's surface,
but only 3 percent of the earth's water is usable
by plants, animals, and humans. Usable water
exists either as surface water or groundwater.
     Surface water is the runoff that flows above
     ground through rivers, streams, and springs
     until it eventually drains into the sea or oceans.
     The land area that collects runoff in defined lo-
     cations is  called a watershed, and no matter
     how far one lives from the water, everyone
     lives in a watershed (see Fig. 1).
        Groundwater  is  water  that  percolates
     through the soil or enters the earth's subsur-
     face through sinkholes, permeable soils, and
     fractures in rock formations. The underground
     water formation is known as an aquifer within
     which the groundwater moves in  various di-
     rections. Some aquifers are  several hundred
     feet deep  while others lie near the surface of
     the earth.  The upper level of shallow aquifers
     is called the water table. It rises and falls de-
     pending on how dry or wet the season is, or
     how much groundwater is extracted for use

        Water is a renewable resource, therefore,
     surface and groundwater are constantly  being
     replenished But water can  also  be used up
     faster than it can be renewed or, in the case of
     groundwater, "recharged." Groundwater re-
     charge is enhanced by limiting runoff. Human
     activities  that speed runoff or add  contami-
     nates to surface and groundwater must be con-
     trolled.  Land  sediments,  animal  wastes,
     pesticides, detergents, oils, and  grease are
     some  of  the human  contributions to  poor
     water quality

     Understanding Water Pollution
     Strictly speaking, pure water does not exist.
     Even rainfall contains gases, dust,  ai\d ions ac-
     quired from the air. In fact, water (a molecule
     containing two hydrogen atoms and one oxy-
     gen atom) is a solvent; its ability to dissolve

U   A   L   I   T  Y
   Figure 1.—U.S. Watershed Regions (Brown and Caldwell).
   substances is essential to plant and animal life.
   Most of the  substances, elements,  or  com-
   pounds that we think of as pollutants are also
   found naturally in water: nitrogen, phospho-
   rus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium,
   bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, carbon dioxide,
   oxygen, and some heavy metals. But when one
   or more of these substances is found in exces-
   sive amounts, the  water's use is impaired and
   the water may be considered polluted.
      Potentially polluting  substances,  some-
   times called dissolved substances or solids, can
   be organic or inorganic, and they occur in nat-
   ural  interaction among the elements of earth
   and sky.  Their effects include color (or lack of
   clarity) and offensive taste and odor. They can
   be added to the water during industrial, agri-
   cultural,  silviculrural, land  development,  or
   other activities that serve human  needs and
   pleasures. In the poultry industry, for example,
   components  of  manure,  dead  birds,  and
   wastewater include nutrients that may be re-
   leased  to water through direct  discharge, ex-
   cessive  runoff from  the  land, or  leaching
   through the soil.
                   We expect,  then, to find some dissolved
               substances in water; however, water's proper-
               ties are degraded — its quality impaired — if it
               contains chemical, biological, physical, or  ra-
               diological substances in sufficient quantity to
               restrict its use. Water quality standards defined
               by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
               (EPA)  identify what substances must not  ap-
               pear in water and at what concentrations other
               substances may be permissible  under certain
               conditions.  Tests  or analyses  performed  on
               drinking water, surface, and groundwater il-
               lustrate the complexity of the issue.
                 • This  information sheet  has introduced the
                 topic of water quality. Poultry growers and others
                 should always check with local health agencies or
                 state departments of environmental protection or
                 similar agencies to ensure that they have access
                 to current water quality criteria and standards ap-
                 plicable to their location. Water quality criteria are
                 published in the Federal Register as they are de-

Q    U

 Kintzer, B.E  1990.  How poultry waste management can
   prevent contamination  of ground and surface water
   Pages 15*21 m Proceedings of the 1990 National Poultry-
   Waste  Management Symposium.  National  Poultry
   Waste Management Symposium Committee, Auburn
   University Printing Servke, Auburn, AL.
 National Pork Producers Council. 1992. Guide to Environ-
   mental Quality in Pork Production. National Pork Pro-
   ducers  Council, Environmental Task  Force,  Des
   Moines, IA.
 Truitt G.B Jr. 1990. Why address the problem' An over-
   view of the poultry system's response to major envi-
   ronmental issues. Pages 7-14 in Proceedings of the 1990
   National Poultry Waste Management Symposium. Na-
   tional Poultry Waste Management Symposium Com-
   mittee, Auburn  University Printing Service, Auburn,
    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving (he poultry industry to reproduce this matena! for
    further  distribution.  The  Poultry Water Qualrty Consortium  is a cooperative effort of industry  and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
    tor everyone                                                                      WQI /1 - 6/94
                               POULTRY WATER QUAUTY CONSORTIUM
                       HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297  •  Fax:(615)751-7479
                                                           PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND WATER QUALITY  3

                WHAT  Is  WATER  QUALITY
                   public domestic  water
                    supplies are regularly
tested or analyzed for pollutants or contami-
nants. The results can be obtained from local
health departments or appropriate state agen-
cies. Private water supplies or wells should
also be analyzed.
    The  most common tests for water quality
analyze  (1) pH (the level of hydrogen ions in
the water), (2) total alkalinity, (3) total hard-
ness, (4) salts, (5) chlorine, (6) dissolved oxy-
gen, (7)  metals, and (8) pathogens. Sometimes
water needs to be tested for heavy metals, such
as lead,  mercury, or zinc, or for toxins, such as
DDT or  Atrazine. In some areas of the country,
tests for radiological  contaminants may be
needed  The following parameters are used to
test water's chemical properties.

 * The measure of pH in water determines its
   acidic or alkaline quality on a relative scale
   (For  example, in a solution of hydrochloric
   acid, the pH is 3, for sodium hydroxide, it is
   12 ) In water, on a scale from 0 to 14, a pH
   measure of 7 is neutral, for drinking water
   for humans and animals, the desirable mea-
   sure of pH is 6 5 to 8

 * The total alkalinity of water is  a measure of
   its capacity to neutralize acidity, which is
   usually expressed in milligrams per liter of
   calcium carbonate (mg/L of CaCOs) Natu-
   ral waters  may have  less  than 50 or  as
   many as 500 mg/L of CaCOs). These varia-
   tions may be affected  by the rocks and soils
   that the water passes through. The alkalin-
   ity vanes  with pH  and  hardness,  but
   sudden  fluctuations  may  indicate  a con-

 * Water also  contains total dissolved sobds
   (TDS) and minerals. TDS represent the sol-
                      uble mineral or salt content of water, espe-
                      cially calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlo-
                      ride, sulfate, bicarbonate, and silica. These
                      substances, if excessive, can affect indus-
                      trial processes, and their presence in water
                      is frequently  associated  with  discharge
                      from industrial operations. TDS also affect
                      the germination and growth of plants and
                      the palatability of drinking water.  Some
                      minerals are desirable  for their beneficial
                      properties. Drinking water should not have
                      more than 500 mg/L of TDS and irrigation
                      waters may have up to 1,500 mg/L of solu-
                      ble minerals

                        Hard waters contain so much calcium and
                        magnesium that it is difficult to make
                        soaps  lather. When heated, hard water
                        forms  scale or deposits that we see on
                        cooking utensils and water pipes. Water
                        softening solves the hard water problem
                        but may increase the amount of sodium
                        in the  water — a possible danger to peo-
                        ple  on low  sodium  diets  Sodium  in
                        drinking  water should be limited  to
                        about  20 mg/L.

                        Total  iron  (suspended  and dissolved)
                        causes problems in water if it exceeds 0 3
                        mg/L. High iron levels impart a reddish
                        brown color to water or  a bad taste to
                        cooked foods and may restrict growth in

                        Chlorides in water should not exceed 250
                        mg/L; otherwise, the water may have a
                        salty taste. High chlorides may also indi-
                        cate pollution from sewage  or other

                        Sulfates, which should not exceed 250
                        mg/L, are caused by the leaching of nat-
                        ural   deposits of  magnesium  sulfate

Q   U
L   I   T   Y
       (Epsom   salts)   or  sodium   sulfate
       (Glauber's salt). These salts are undesir-
       able because of their laxative effects.

       Nitrates (NQs-) and nitrites (NOa-) pose
       health problems to animals and humans,
       including poultry. Their presence in sur-
       face or groundwater in large amounts
       may  indicate  mat  someone  has over-
       fertilized a field or allowed a septic tank
       system failure. Nitrate levels in drinking
       water should not exceed 10 mg/L; and
       nitrites, which convert to nitrates, should
       not exceed 1 mg/L.

   * Chlorine  gas  and  other chlorine com-
     pounds are powerful disinfectants and oxi-
     dizing agents. Chlorine should  be  limited
     in drinking water to no more than 0.05
     mg/L; however, there must be a small chlo-
     rine residual in  drinking water to assure
     that it is disinfected.

   * Dissolved oxygen (DO), which  is vital for
     aquatic life, can be a key test for water pol-
     lution. At DO levels below 3 mg/L, fish
     may become stressed  or die. Generally, in
     unimpaired  waters,   dissolved   oxygen
     ranges from 7 to 14 mg/L. However, DO
     levels approaching 14 mg/L on sunny days
     may indicate  high  density  algae  growth
     and possible nutrient enrichment (pollu-

      Usually among these parameters, only pH,
   total iron, DO, and nitrates/nitrites have refer-
   ence to poultry. Nevertheless, careful and com-
   plete monitoring of private water supplies and
   wells is a must because they provide drinking
   water for home and poultry operations. When
   the chemical properties of water exceed accept-
   able limits for intended uses, water quality is

   Biological Properties
   Private water supplies should  also be tested
   once or twice a year for any sign of coliform
   bacteria. The test for fecal coliform bacteria can
   differentiate  between  the bacteria found  in
   soils and  plants and  the bacteria found  in
   warmblooded animals. Common symptoms of
   coliform  bacteria in  humans are intestinal
   bloating and diarrhea.
                       Other bacteriological  tests can  identify
                   many kinds and numbers of bacteria in water,
                   but they do not separate harmful and harmless
                   bacteria. Tests for Fecal Streptococci, Shigella,
                   Salmonella, Staphylococci, and other bacteria
                   may be necessary under certain circumstances.
                   These tests are specific, time-consuming, and
                   expensive. They isolate bacteria that cause ty-
                   phoid fever, eye and ear infections, dysentery,
                   boils, or other skin diseases. There  are also
                   tests for viruses, protozoa, and parasites.
                       In  surface waters, aquatic vegetation and
                   microscopic animal and plant life may be stim-
                   ulated or retarded  by various water quality
                   factors  — pH, nutrients  (nitrogen and phos-
                   phorus),  and turbidity,  among  others. But
                   growth and decay cycles may have side effects
                   that adversely affect the water quality. Even
                   helpful  substances can  become  harmful  in
                   overabundance; for example, organic nitrogen
                   in animal wastes and soils can cause "nutrient
                   loading," which results in low DO levels and
                   eutrophication  (i.e.,  an  overly  productive

                    Physical Properties
                    Physical characteristics of water include  tur-
                    bidity, color, tastes, odors,  and temperature.
                    The presence of foam is an indicator of  dis-
                    solved organic substances, perhaps  raw sew-
                    age. Suspended particles may cloud the  water,
                    and dissolved substances may alter its odor or
                    taste.  Turbidity or  cloudy water may indicate
                    the presence of sediments, which reduce light
                    penetration. Color affects quality and can be
                    aesthetically displeasing. Taste and odors can
                    result from  dissolved  metals, gases,  or chemi-

                    Radiological Properties
                    Some  radioactivity in water,  food,  and air is
                    natural. However, if higher levels than usual
                    are suspected, the appropriate state agencies
                    should be notified.
                        Without efficient  management of poultry
                    waste  and  dead  birds,  poultry operations
                    could become a source of excess nutrients, dis-
                    ease-causing bacteria  or viruses, and dissolved
                     substances in our nation's surface and ground-
                     water supplies. Proper waste management will
                     enhance the quality of water for everyone.

Q   U
I   S   S   U
 Palmer, EL., J.J. Kotega, and RS WoodhuU  1972. Home
  Water Supply Treatment. Pamphlet. Reprint  Coopera-
  tive Extension Service, College of Agriculture and Nat-
  ural Resources, University of Connecticut, Stonrs.
 SheJton, T.B. 1971. Interpreting Water Quality  Analysis-
  What Do the Numbers Mean? Cooperative Extension
  Services of the Northeast States. Cooperative Extension
  Service, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
   Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
   further  distribution. The Poultry  Water Quality  Consortium is a cooperative effort  of  industry and
   government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone.                                                                     WQI / 2 - 6/94
                              POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                      HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  •  Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                               Tel: (615)751 -7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479
                                                                                  WHAT IS WATER QUALITY  3

               WATER  QUALITY
                  kvery year, the poultry in-
                  fdustry  produces  about
20 million tons of manure/litter, 50 million tons
of dead birds, and 46 billion gallons of waste-
water. What happens to these by-products can
be good or bad for the industry and for the envi-
   On the one hand, poultry wastes can do a
lot of good. They can be used as fertilizer, soil
enhancers, cattle feed, or energy. Poultry pro-
ducers can add value to these products — and
prevent them from contaminating surface and
groundwater — by using proven, acceptable
methods of collection, storage, handling, dis-
posal, and management.  All such beneficial
uses  depend on proper management. Without
such management, the value of the waste rap-
idly declines, resulting in its greater potential
for adversely  affecting the environment and
water quality
   To control and prevent pollution, poultry
growers need to understand how these values
can be enhanced and maintained and how the
wastes may contribute to point and nonpoint
source pollution. The  value in poultry by-
products  and their potential to cause water
pollution have the same  source. That is, the
wastes and dead birds contain elements of the
following categories: nutrients and salts, sus-
pended materials, products of biological reac-
tions, and microorganisms These elements can
be beneficial to the grower and other farmers,
or they can be harmful to the environment.

Nutrients and Salts
Poultry manure is a valuable nutrient for grain
and fiber crops, forage crops, fruits, and vege-
tables. However, if manure, litter, dead birds.
and/or wastewater are not properly protected,
water contamination can occur from the pre-
mature release of nitrogen and phosphorus
into the environment.
   Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient but,
in excess, it can be harmful. High concentra-
tions of nitrate (dissolved nitrogen) in drinking
water can affect human health, especially in in-
fants and children. Ammonia in small quanti-
ties is toxic to fish and aquatic organisms.
    When nitrogen and phosphorus concentra-
tions in waterbodies rise too high, algae and
rooted  aquabc plants take over, prematurely  -
aging and choking the waterbody and creating
undesirable conditions  — odors, offensive
taste, and discoloration — all of  which can
make the water unfit for consumption or recre-
ational and aesthetic use. Further, these eutro-
phic conditions can  kill  fish,  clog  water
treatment plant filters, and lead to the growth
of blue-green algae, a species that can be fatal
to livestock.
    Because nitrate-nitrogen is highly mobile,
it can  leach into groundwater and flow with
stormwater runoff into surface waters. If too
much  poultry manure and Utter are used  as
fertilizer, nitrogen and phosphorus concentra-
tions in nearby waters are likely  to be high
Soil erosion also increases the amount of phos-
phorus in surface waters. Excessive phospho-
rus  in sod, above 800 mg/L, may become
soluble and move into groundwater.
    Calcium and sodium salts are added  to
poultry feeds to help the birds maintain chemi-
cal balance and nutrition. Excess salts pass
through the animals and are eliminated in ma-
nure. Sometimes, when the waste accumulates,
 the salts  leach  into groundwater and  enter

    surface  water  through  unprotected  runoff.
    There they alter the water's  taste or harm
    freshwater plants and animals.

    Suspended Materials
    When suspended matter from poultry wastes
    reach surface water, the waterbody not only
    looks unattractive — the quality of the water
    invariably suffers. The suspended material re-
    duces the penetration of sunlight and therefore
    slows the production of oxygen.  The result is
    an oxygen demand that reduces  the levels of
    dissolved oxygen in the water. It also clogs fish
    gills, makes it difficult for sight-feeding fish to
    find food, and settles over fish spawning areas.

    Products of Biological Reactions
    In a natural environment, the breakdown of or-
    ganic matter, such as poultry waste, is a func-
    tion  of complex,  interrelated,  and mixed
    biological populations. All substances of ani-
    mal or vegetable origin contain carbon and are,
    therefore, organic. Organic matter is converted
    to simple compounds by naturally occurring
    microorganisms.  These  simple- compounds
    may  be other forms of organic  matter or they
    may be nonorgaruc compounds or gases, such
    as  nitrates, orthophosphates, ammonia,  and
    hydrogen sulfide. A biological reaction occurs
    when manure or other organic matter is added
    to water and aerobic organisms (oxygen re-
    quiring organisms)  begin the decaying proc-
    ess  The  bacteria consume  free  oxygen  and
    produce carbon dioxide gas. Under anaerobic
    conditions (without oxygen), methane, amines,
    and sulhdes are produced.

    Mic ro organisms
    Desirable and undesirable microorganisms live
    in our environment.  Animal waste is a poten-
    tial source of some 150 diseaselle
 Magette, W L , and R A WeismiUer  1991 Nutrient Man-
   agement for Water Quality Protection  BFS-3 Maryland
   Cooperative  Extension  Service, University of Mary-
   land, College Park
 U S Department of Agnculture 1992 Agricultural Waste
   Management Field Handbook, Part 651 Soil Conserva-
   tion Service Washington, DC
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects  Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further distnbutton  The Poultry  Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                                WQI73-6/94
                               POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                        HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297  • Fax:(615)751-7479

                         Q   U
                     te poultry industry
                     ows, so does concern
for water quality, conservation, and manage
ment of our natural resources. Growers have
individual and civic reasons for caring: you are
responsible, with other human beings, for the
earth's environment and — more personally —
you realize that you, your families, and neigh-
bors all drink the same water. Pollution is in-
tolerable whether it is detected in  your own
land and water, or after it has traveled many
miles downstream from the source. The arith-
metic is simple: good environmental steward-
ship reduces the costs of production, reduces
water  pollution, saves natural resources, and
makes good neighbors.

Changing Attitudes
It is important to note that most federal regula-
tions are delegated to states. In some few cases,
double jeopardy may exist — the effect of com-
bined  federal and state  regulations Because
states monitor water quality resources, poultry
owners must check with state and local agen-
cies before setting up compliance  programs
Often the states are more stringent than federal
enforcement requires. Engineering and gov-
ernment  consultants can help growers know,
understand, and comply with the regulations
in their area.

    Reasons to change personal attitudes to-
ward water use and conservation have less to
do  with regulation  than with management.
Growers want a good public image, cost reduc-
tions, efficiency, and compliance. Most opera-
tions have discovered a workable slogan and a
reasonable directive  in "pollution prevention
pays." Making pollution prevention changes
can bring a big return on investment; however.
they should also be made with an eye on the
best ways to protect the environment. For ex-
ample, we should

    * prevent the generation of wastes
      where possible;

    v recycle wastes that cannot be

    T pretreat wastes to eliminate
      possible contaminants; and

    v dispose of unusable wastes
      properly as a last resort.
    Water quality concerns for the poultry in-
dustry include

    * protection of water quality
      through management of soil
      erosion, waste, nutrients, and

    v the continuing availability of
      water in sufficient quantities for
      washing, making bnne, cooking,
      cooling, cleaning, processing,
      conveying, and sanitation; and

    * the safe disposal and use of
      wastewater and other wastes
    Management commitment and awareness,
scientific research and common sense, and in
some  cases, new installations and equipment
are needed to protect the availability and
quantity of OUT natural resources. The scope of
the problem is global, national, and industry-
wide;  cooperation among  agencies,  associa-
tions,  and individuals speeds the development
of technology and its transfer, and  creates a
participatory environment that encourages the
search for solutions.

       Difficulties encountered in the 1950s and
    1960s often resulted from an absence of water
    quality standards and  confusing, contradic-
    tory,  or nonexistent national  effluent  limita-
    tions. These difficulties have been remedied by
    national legislation and regulations that are
    often administered by the states. Federal legis-
    lation for controlling water pollution that has
    developed over the past two decades illus-
    trates the national commitment to develop and
    implement a strategy that will lead to cleaner
    air and  water.

    Point  and Nonpoint Source
    For best management, water pollution sources
    are divided  into two groups depending on
    their  point of release. Point source pollution
    has a known origin, such as a  pipe or storage
    tank.  Nonpoint sources of pollution are dis-
    persed,  harder to  pinpoint, and cumulative.
    They  include land uses, such as human activi-
    ties, that are potentially significant because
    they occur in high densities. Agriculture, min-
    ing, forestry, septic and other  waste disposal
    systems, and urban runoff are examples of
    nonpoint source pollution.

       Poultry growers must know how to man-
    age point and nonpoint sources because waste
    handling and disposal may contribute to non-
    point sources of pollution; while concentrated
    animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including
    some  large  poultry houses, are regulated as
    point  sources of pollution. Federal law  gener-
    ally forbids point source discharges, that is, the
    discharge of any pollutant or  contaminate to
    "waters of the United States."  States adminis-
    ter the federally mandated National Pollutant
    Discharge Elimination System  (NPDES) pro-
    gram. This  program  requires  dischargers to
    have  an operating permit before discharging
    potentially  contaminated   wastewater  into
   streams, ponds, waterways, sinkholes,  drain-
   age ditches, or groundwater.

      Practices that protect surface water include
   diverting off-site drainage around the feeding
   facility  and  constructing storage for manure
   and process-generated wastewater. Adequate
    runoff storage should be included in the de-
   sign.  Lagoons or holding  ponds  should be
   built to hold a 25-year, 24-hour duration storm
I  T   Y
I  S   S   U
 Managing Nonpoint Source
 The extent and importance of nonpoint sources
 have been more fully realized in the last dec-
 ade. But nonpoint sources are so diffuse that
 they are usually assessed locally on a stream-
 by-stream basis and controlled  by best man-
 agement practices (BMPs). BMPs are routine
 methods of animal and crop farming that also
 control stormwater. That is, they are farming
 methods that control or eliminate the poten-
 tially harmful effects of agriculture on runoff.
 Compliance Issues
 Water quality legislation has teeth. Section 309
 of the Clean Water  Act  establishes criminal
 penalties for failure to comply with the regula-
 tions. The threat of prosecution can be a first
 step in forcing compliance; the charges  can
 range from minor infringements or negligent
 actions  (lightly  punished) to  more  serious
 charges of conscious violations and knowing
 endangerment.  Knowing and willful  endan-
 germent and outright falsification are the most
 serious charges

    In short, point source wastewaters that
 leave a poultry house  or plant must  comply
 with the national effluent levels  A prerreat-
 ment program may be necessary Some poultry
 operations have discovered that running their
 own pretreatment plants, though expensive,
 can  be  more efficient than other methods of

    The U S  Environmental Protection Agency
 now uses audits  to determine how and why
 publicly owned treatment  works are not in
 compliance. Recent  regulations (in 40 C R F
 Part 403) concern  pretreatment.

     * Pollutants that would interfere
       with the operation of the publicly
       owned treatment works or cause
       fire or explosive hazards are not

     * No pH levels  lower than 5.0 are

     T Solid or viscous pollutants are

     * High levels of biological oxygen
       demanding substances (BOD) are
       regulated as are oils, grease, and
       toxic gases.

    The  poultry  industry  should,  therefore,
take an active part in pretreatment programs.

Current Developments
The Clean Water Act was amended in 1987 and
is  scheduled  for further  amendment  and
reauthorization in 1994 or 1995. The original
legislation (and NPDES program) was mainly
concerned with industrial  wastes;  the  later
amendments have placed, and will continue to
place, more emphasis on controlling nonpoint
sources of pollution (urban and agricultural

    Since 1987, nonpoint source pollution has
been recognized as a major contributor  to sur-
face and groundwater contamination. In addi-
tion, permits have been required since 1972 for
concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Poultry growers and processors should be
concerned beyond the short-term availability
of water resources.'But a change in our attitude
about  water  use depends  on  cooperation,
knowledge, and commitment to quality, effi-
ciency, and environmental protection.
                                                    • Federal regulations are administered in most
                                                    cases by the states, whose regulations and per-
                                                    mitting requirements vary and may be more strin-
                                                    gent than  national  regulations. Please consult
                                                    local sources of information, including  industry
                                                    associations, state departments of environmental
                                                    protection and public health, and USDA Soil Con-
                                                    servation Service  and Cooperative  Extension
                                                    Service offices, to ensure that your waste man-
                                                    agement activities comply with all regulations and

                                                  Carawan, R.E. 1992. Update on federal wastewater regu-
                                                    lations. Pages 84-101 in J.P. Blake, J.O Donald, and P.H
                                                    Patterson, ed.. Proceedings 1992  National  Poultry
                                                    Waste Management Symposium. National  Poultry
                                                    Waste Management Symposium Committee  Auburn
                                                    University Printing Service, Auburn, AL
                                                  Gleichert, G.C., E.W.  Brunton, and K. Whitmire. 1992
                                                    Corporate Management Commitment to Waste and En-
                                                    vironmental  Management. Panel. Pages 19-32 in Pro-
                                                    ceedings 1992 National Poultry  Waste Management
                                                    Symposium.  National  Poultry Waste Management
                                                    Symposium  Committee  Aubum University  Printing
                                                    Service, Aubum, AL
                                                  33 U S C §1251 et seq (Title 33, Section 1251 of the U S
                                                    Code is correlated to §101 of the Federal Water Pollu-
                                                    tion Control Act [1972|  It  is entitled "Congressional
                                                    Declaration of Coals and Policy ")
                                                  US. Department of Agriculture 1992 Agricultural Waste
                                                    Management Field Handbook, Part 651 Soil Conserva-
                                                    tion Service,  Washington, DC
    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
    further  distribution  The  Poultry Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort  of  industry  and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
    for everyone.                                                                 WQI / 4 - 6/94
                             POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                      HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN  37402-2801
                              Tel: (615) 751-7297  •  Fax:(615)751-7479
                                                            UNDERSTANDING WA TEfi QUALITY REGULA TIONS  3

                POULTRY WASTE
                   gricultural  activities,
                   including the produc-
tion of poultry wastes, may be increasingly
responsible  for  contributing excess nutri-
ents (especially  nitrogen and phosphorus)
to our water  resources. Nutrient manage-
ment planning in conjunction with land ap-
plications can  reduce or  eliminate this
excess and contribute to more productive
farming by helping farmers apply only as
much nutrient to the  soil as the plants can
use. Most problems can be controlled if the
grower knows how nutrients and soil inter-
act and plans accordingly.
    Nitrogen,   phosphorus,  and  potassium
move through cycles on a farm. As nutrients,
they go from crops  to animals (in feed) to the
soil (waste applications) and back again to
other  crops  If the cycle holds,  everything
works as it should. But if too many of these nu-
trients are already  in  the soil or too much
waste is applied  to the land, they can move
with the soil into surface water or through the
soil into groundwater  until their presence in
the water reaches unacceptable levels, that is,
is sufficient to impair water quality
Of the three major nutrients in poultry waste,
nitrogen is the most complex and likely to con-
tribute to environmental problems. Most  of
earth's nitrogen exists as nitrogen gas in the at-
mosphere (see Fig. 1). It can be transformed
into inorganic  forms by lightning or into or-
ganic forms by plants, such as soybeans, al-
falfa, or  clovers.  Nitrogen  can  also be
transformed into inorganic forms (commercial
fertilizers) by energy intensive processes.
   Most of the nitrogen  found in animal
wastes is organic nitrogen. A smaller amount
of the nitrogen in litter is ammonium. Organic
nitrogen can be mineralized or converted by
soil bacteria into inorganic nitrogen, the form
in which nitrogen is available to plants. Exces-
sive organic and ammonium forms of nitrogen
are transformed in the soil into nitrate nitrogen
(that is, into water soluble nitrogen).

   Losses of nitrogen from the cropping sys-
tem can occur as a result of surface runoff and
leaching. Surface runoff can move dissolved
nitrogen (especially narrate), ammonium rutro- •
gen attached to eroding soil particles, and or-
ganic nitrogen contained in organic or plant
residues into streams and lakes. Nitrates move
with the soil or leach  through  well-drained
soils past the root zone into the groundwater

    High  levels  of  nitrate  can  be toxic  to
human health, especially newborns  Nitrate
can reduce the blood's  capacity to cam' oxy-
gen or cause internal suffocation  Scientists tell
us that too much nitrate can affect the  weight,
feed conversion, and performance of poultry
Too  much  nitrogen  in  surface water can kill
fish and cause the water to be less productive
 Poultry  wastes   also  contain  significant
 amounts of phosphorus (Fig. 2) Phosphorus,
 bke nitrogen, is essential for plant and animal
 growth, however, if  it is used improperly,
 phosphorus can  also contribute to  environ-
 mental and water quality problems It can be a
 major  cause of water quality degradation in
 surface waters.

      Plant and
Ammonia gas  rainfall,
                                        Nitrogen gas

                      Manure, Litter,
                                                                        Nitrogan fixation
   Figure 1.—The nitrogen cycle.
       Phosphorus exists in either dissolved or
   solid  form. Dissolved  phosphorus  usually
   exists  as  orthophosphates,  inorganic  poly-
   phosphates, and organic phosphorus in the
   soil. Phosphorus in the solid form is referred to
   as particulate phosphorus and may be com-
   posed  of  many chemical forms.  Particulate
   phosphorus comes  in four classifications:

    ^ adsorbed phosphorus, which  attaches to
      soil particles;

    ^ organic phosphorus,  which is found in
      dead and living materials;

    T precipitate  phosphorus, which is mainly
      fertilizer that has reacted with calcium, alu-
      minum, and iron in the soil; and

    * mineral phosphorus,  the  phosphorus in
      various soil minerals.

       Approximately  two-thirds  of the  total
   phosphorus in  soil is inorganic phosphorus;
   the remaining one-third is organic. Both forms
   are involved  in transformations that release
                   water-soluble phosphorus (which can be used
                   by plants) from solid forms, and vice versa.
                      Phosphorus-laden  soil moves via runoff
                   into rivers, lakes, and streams, where  it  can
                   cause excessive plant and algae growth, which
                   in horn depletes the dissolved oxygen content
                   in the water. Phosphorus-enriched waters con-
                   tribute to fish kills and the premature aging of
                   the waterbody. In the end, the beauty and use
                   of the waters are seriously curtailed. Even rela-
                   tively small soil losses may result in significant
                   runoff leading  to high nutrient depositions in
                   the water.

                      Controlling soil erosion and proper land
                   application of  phosphorus-containing wastes
                   will greatly reduce the amount of phosphorus
                   in water. Care must also be taken  to prevent
                   soluble phosphorus from leaching into ground-

                      Applying poultry waste to the land at rates
                   based on supplying the nitrogen needs of grain
                   or cereal  crops  can  lead  to a phosphorus
                   buildup in the soil. Planting forage crops in ro-
                   tation with grain crops will help remove excess
                   phosphorus. Maintaining soil pH at the recom-
                   mended level is also an effective and econorru-

                                                            Removed by
                                   P in naMncotporated
                                                                            P attached
                                                                            to eroded
                                                                            soil lost in runoff
P tnnaiOi uta&ons
m soil profile
                         bound mnuenbbd
                         roots, plant
                         v icli tftftCncQ r
                         for wfaocpoon se

—f-— * *^ •»
DtoohedP. .
avaUalile F)
HjPQi t BFO4



, /


Attached P
P loosely
bound to

and as
and other*

lost through
Figure 2.—Abbreviated phosphorus cycle.
 cal practice  for maximizing phosphorus  effi-
 ciency  Crops use phosphorus most efficiently
 when the soil pH is between 6.0 and 7 0

    Soil phosphate levels are an important con-
 sideration in calculating poultry litter applica-
 tion rates Land applications should be made
 only to soils that do not already contain exces-
 sive  phosphate levels. An  analysis  or  test
 should be conducted  on each waste source
 prior to land application to determine proper
 phosphorus application rates.
 Potassium in poultry waste is a soluble nutri-
 ent equivalent  to  fertilizer potassium.  (Ex-
 creted  as unc acid, it is combined with the
 feces, and referred to as excreta.) It is immedi-
 ately available to plants when it is applied. Po-
 tassium is fairly mobile but does remain in the
 soil to help supply plant needs, for example.
                                                strong stems, resistance to disease, and the for-
                                                mation and transfer of starches, sugars,  and
                                                oils. Excessive amounts of potassium can in-
                                                hibit or restrict the growth of some plants at
                                                certain stages of development. Small amounts
                                                of potassium may be leached to groundwater,
                                                especially in sandy soils,  however, potassium
                                                or potash is usually not a  threat to water qual-
                                                ity or considered a pollutant
                                                Heavy Metals and Trace Elements
                                                Heavy metals and trace elements, such as cop-
                                                per,  selenium, nickel,  lead,  and  zinc,  are
                                                strongly adsorbed to clay soils or complexed
                                                (chelated)  with soil  organic  matter,  which
                                                reduces  their  potential  for  contaminating
                                                groundwater. However, excessive applications
                                                of organic waste containing high amounts of
                                                heavy metals or trace elements can exceed the
                                                adsorptive capacity  of  the soil and increase
                                                the potential for groundwater contamination.    I
                                                           ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF POULTRY WASTE  3

   POULTRY      WASTE      MANA  GEM  E  N  T
   Surface water contamination is a potential haz-
   ard if poultry wastes are applied to areas sub-
   ject to a high rate of runoff or erosion.

   Dissolved salts, mainly sodium, in high con-
   centrations  interfere with plant growth and
   seed  germination, and may limit the choice of
   plant species that can be successfully grown.
   Poultry waste with low salt content and a high
   carbon to nitrogen ratio can improve soil water
   intake, permeability, and structure.

   Using Litter Nutrients Wisely
   High nitrate levels in groundwater and high
   phosphorus levels in surface water may be an
   indication that too much litter or  fertilizer is
   being applied on too little land. Yet the fact
   that poultry litter is high in nutrients  is pre-
   cisely its value.  The nutrients in this resource
   make it an excellent soil conditioner and fertil-
   izer.  Growers can maximize the  benefits of
   having this  resource and help protect their
   local  water resources from high nutrient levels
   by planning and operating an effective nutri-
   ent management system.

       Application  practices will  vary with  the
   area's  cropping practices,  topography,  and
   other environmental and economic conditions.
   Waste and  soil  testing are  the simplest and
   most important aspects of  nutrient  manage-
ment. They help farmers monitor the nutrient
supply to guarantee that it is sufficient and ad-
equately controlled to produce  the best crop
yields and maintain water quality.


Bandel, V.A. 1988. Soil Phosphorus- Managing It Effec-
  tively. Fact Sheet 513. Cooperative Extension Service,
  University of Maryland, College Park.

Cartel; T.A., and R.E. Sneed. 1987. Drinking Water Quality
  for Poultry. PS&T Guide No 42. Cooperative Extension
  Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

Fulhage, C D. 1990. Reduce Environmental Problems with
  Proper Land Application of Animal Wastes WQ201
  Cooperative Extension Service, University of Missouri,

Goan, H.C., and J. Jared. 1991. Poultry Manure — Proper
  Handling and Application to Protect Our Water Re-
  sources. PB 1421. Cooperative Extension Service, Uni-
  versity of Tennessee, Kjnoxvilte.

Keeney, D.R., and R.F. Follett 1991. Overview and Intro-
  duction. Chapter 1. In Managing Nitrogen for Ground-
  water Quality and Farm Profitability  Proceedings. Soil
  Science Society of America, Madison,  WI.

Killpack, S, and D  Buchholz  1991 What Is Nitrogen'
  WQ251 University Extension, University of Missoun,

U S Department of Agriculture  1992. National Engineer-
  ing Handbook 210, Part 651. In Agricultural Waste
  Management Field Handbook Soil Conservation Serv-
  ice, Washington, DC

Wells, K.L., G W. Thomas, J.L Sims, and MS Smith 1991
  Managing Soil Nitrates for Agronomic Efficiency and
  Environmental Protection  AGR-147 Cooperative Ex-
  tension Service, University of  Kentucky, Lexington
       Other pages m (his handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
       further  distnbution.  The Poultry  Water  Quality  Consortium is  a cooperative effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                                   PWMM-6/94
                                POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                         HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                 Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

                   I evelopments   within
                   'the  poultry  industry,
changes in land use patterns, and increasing
restrictions or regulations on the disposal of
poultry  waste have significantly altered the
industry's attitudes  about this  immense re-
source. Over 50 million tons of poultry waste
are produced each year. Because production is
concentrated in very small geographic areas,
waste management planning is extremely im-
   Historically, poultry growers applied poul-
try waste to their farms as much to dispose of
the material as to use it for fertilizer. Difficul-
ties with this practice increase with the supply
for several reasons:

 T Less cropland  is  farmed  today than 20
   years ago, and  more poultry operations
   exist today

 * Other resources  (wastewater,  composted
   residential waste, and  sludge)  are  also
   being used for land applications, which in-
   creases competition for the remaining crop-
   lands and pastures.

 * We know now mat valuable nutrients — ni-
   trogen, phosphorus, and potassium — are
   squandered and water resources are threat-
   ened if land applications of waste are over-
   done or misapplied

 * Regulations regarding waste management
   are now enforced by many states.

   Concern  for water quality has been a major
catalyst for the upsurge of interest in new ap-
proaches to land application. Today's growers
are finding that poultry waste planning  in-
creases farm production, protects the environ-
ment, and lowers costs.
                                            An Integrated Approach
                                            Traditionally, poultry growers have efficiently
                                            disposed of these wastes as soon as possible by
                                            spreading the manure or litter on croplands or
                                            pasture. Now growers plan for its ultimate
                                            use, and waste management begins inside the
                                            poultry house. Along with the grower's objec-
                                            tives, for example, flock  health,, production,
                                            and odor control; today's waste management
                                            planning must also protect water quality and
                                            contribute to a profitable farm operation. Inte-
                                            grating these broad objectives requires many
                                            growers to develop other options in addition
                                            to land application

                                                Thus, to be  profitable and to protect our
                                            natural resources — air, soil, water, plants, and
                                            animals — poultry growers must plan their
                                            waste  management  practices carefully The\
                                            must base application rates and timing on soii
                                            test results and crop removal needs along with
                                            an analysis or estimate of the nutrients con-
                                            tained in the manure or litter

                                                Poultry waste management  planning be-
                                            gins before actual production and may have as
                                            many as six steps or functions {Fig 1)

                                                The first step is to understand the waste
                                            management process. What are these wastes'
                                            How much does a particular operation  pro-
                                            duce on an annual basis? Where or  how can
                                            these wastes be used? The second step, once
                                            the quantity and quality of the  wastes have
                                            been determined, is to put efficient collection
                                             methods in place.

                    | Collection |
     | Storage [*"   j  Transfer [,    '| Treatment |

                    I Utilization |
      For a apecfflc *y*tam iheaa function* may be combined,
      repeated, eliminated, or arranged aa neoMsary.
    Figure 1.—Steps in an animal waste management
    planning system.
       The third and fourth steps are to have ade-
    quate storage facilities and the ability to trans-
    fer or  move the waste from  the point of
    collection to the appropriate point of use. In
    some cases, a fifth step is included to deter-
    mine whether biological, physical, or chemical
    treatment of the wastes is needed to reduce the
    potential for pollution or to prepare the wastes
    for final use.

       The sixth and final  step in the waste man-
    agement plan is to use the wastes — normally,
    for land application as a fertilizer and soil im-
    provement or as a feed ingredient — in accor-
    dance with the nutrient  management  plan
    Growers will usually have identified sufficient
    land on which  to apply the waste before pro-
    duction begins  If enough land does not exist,
    other uses must  be assigned  or additional
    lands located for disposal.

    The  Benefits of Nutrient
    Nutrient management planning  begins when
    the poultry waste  management  plan has pro-
   ceeded from conservation and  protection to
   the actual use of these products for land appli-
   cations or energy and feed production. Nutri-
   ent  management  planning   matches  the
   nutritional requirements of the soils, crops, or
   other living things with the nutrients available
   in the manure or litter, thereby preventing nu-
trient imbalances, health risks, and surface and
groundwater contamination.

    Nutrient management recognizes the nitro-
gen, phosphorus, and  potassium content of
poultry waste, which is its value; and increases
this value by matching  the nutrients available
in the resource with the nutrients needed in the
application.  This planning  also  reduces  dis-
posal and handling costs. Nutrient manage-
ment planning makes it possible to use poultry
manure to replace commercial fertilizers or at
least to reduce their use — thereby reducing
the costs of nutrients associated with, crop pro-
duction. Nutrient management also minimizes
the potential harmful effects that overapplica-
tion can have on the environment.

    An essential goal of nutrient  management
is to make sure that any poultry waste, espe-
cially manure or litter, is used  safely and effec-
tively. Nutrient management is, in fact, the key
to using this waste as a beneficial by-product.
To obtain maximum benefit and prevent possi-
ble contamination of surface and groundwater,
the  following management  principles  and
practices can be applied.

  *  Develop  and apply a  Resource Manage-
    ment System, an Animal  Waste Manage-
    ment System,  a Nutrient  Management
    Plan, or similar  program.  Assistance  is
    available from the local offices of the  U.S
    Department of Agriculture's Soil Conserva-
    tion Service, the Cooperative Extension
    Service, or state departments of agriculture

  T  Find out Lf your  state uses nitrogen as  a
    basis for land application  requirements. If
    not, is phosphorus a concern in your area7

  T  Analyze poultry waste regularly to monitor
    major nutrients and pH levels. Proper soil
    pH will  help maximize  crop  yields, in-
    crease nutrient use, and promote decompo-
    sition of organic matter.

  *  Apply only as much fertilizer (nutrients) as
    the crop can use.

  T  Calibrate equipment and apply waste uni-

  T  Incorporate poultry waste into the soil  if
    possible  to  reduce runoff,  volatilization,
    and odor problems.

  T Do not spread poultry waste on soils that
    are frozen or subject to flooding, erosion, or
    rapid runoff prior to crop use.

  * Spread poultry waste during specific grow-
    ing seasons or as scheduled for maximum
    plant uptake and to minimize runoff and

  ^ Use proper storage methods prior to land

  T Maintain a vegetative buffer zone between
    the  field of  application  and  adjacent
    streams, ponds, lakes, sinkholes, and wells.

  * Follow approved conservation practices in
    all fields.

  ^ Be considerate of neighbors and minimize
    conflicts when transporting or land-apply-
    ing poultry waste.

    Training, technical assistance, and in some
cases, financial aid are available to help grow-
ers and crop farmers identify problems and de-
velop solutions for using poultry waste in their
specific regions  The Soil Conservation Service
and Cooperative Extension Service, for exam-
ple, have developed work sheets for  animal
waste  management systems  that  will  help
growers  make  production estimates,  obtain
soil and manure analyses, and make economi-
cal and practical use of the organic resources
generated on the farm These agencies and oth-
ers can help  growers design facilities and de-
velop overall resource management plans.

Bell, D 1982  Marketing Poultry Manure University of
  California, Cooperative Extension, Riverside.
Cabe Associates, Inc. 1991. Poultry Manure Storage and
  Process: Alternatives Evaluation Final Report. Project
  100-286. University of Delaware Research and Educa-
  tion Center, Georgetown.
Department of  Natural Resources  and Environmental
  Control. 1989. Poultry Manure Management: A Supple-
  ment to Delaware Guidelines  Cooperative Bulletin 24
  Delaware Cooperative Extension. University  of Dela-
  ware, Newark
Fulhage, C 1992. Reduce Environmental Problems with
  Proper Land Application of Animal Wastes  WQ201
  University Extension, University of Missouri, Colum-
Margette, W.L., and R.A. WeismiUer 1991 Nutrient Man-
  agement for Water Quality Protection. Bay Fact Sheet 3
  Cooperative Extension Service, University of Mary-
  land, College Park.
Missouri Department of Natural Resources. 1993. Obtain-
  ing  a DNR Letter of Approval for a Livestock Waste
  Management  System. WQ217. University  Extension,
  University of Missouri, Columbia

Swanson, M.H. No date. Some Reflections on Dried Poul-
  try Waste University of California Cooperative Exten-
  sion, Riverside
U.S Department of Agriculture 1991 Improving and Pro-
  tecting Water Quality m Georgia     One Drop at  a
  Time Soil Conservation Service, Athens, GA
US Department of Agriculture  1991 Improving water
  quality by managing animal waste SCS WQ3 in Water
  Qualify and Quantity for the 90's  Sod Conservation
  Services, Washington, DC.
	 1992  National Engineering Handbook  210, Part
  651, in  Agricultural Waste Management Field Hand-
  book Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC
U S Environmental Protection Agency 1993 The Water-
  shed Protection Approach  A  Project Focus Draft  As-
  sessment   and   Watershed   Protection    Division
  Washington, DC

Zublena. J 1993 Land Applications  Nutrient  Manage-
  ment Plan  Presentation Poultry Waste Management
  and Water Quality Workshop  Southeastern Poultrv
  and Egg Association, Atlanta, GA
    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
    further  distribution  The  Poultry Water  Quality  Consortium is a cooperative  effort of  industry and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
    for everyone                                                                    PWM12- 6/94
                              POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                      HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                               Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479
                                                                   PLANNING POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT   3

                DRY  WASTE  MANAGEMENT
*                    well-planned  waste
                    management system
will account for all wastes associated with a
poultry agricultural enterprise throughout the
year, from the production of such wastes to
their use. It is likely that the more integrated
the  waste management  system  is with the
grower's other management  needs, such as
production, marketing, pest control, and con-
servation, the more profitable the farm will be.

Kinds of Poultry Waste —
Manure and Litter
Poultry wastes are  handled  differently de-
pending on  their consistency, which may be
liquid, slurry, semisohd, or solid.

    The total solids concentration of manure
depends on  the climate, weather, amount of
water  consumed  by the birds, type of birds
produced, and their feed; it can be increased by
adding litter or decreased by adding water
Thus, poultry waste systems can be either liq-
uid or dry  Liquid waste management is ex-
plained in an additional fact sheet contained m
this handbook (PWM-4)

    Within   the  poultry industry,  broiler,
roaster, Cornish hen, pullets, turkey, and some
layer operations are dry; live bird processing,
some layer, and most duck and goose opera-
tions are liquid. In most dry operations, the
birds are grown on floors covered with bed-
ding materials. The  manure collected from
ducks, geese, and large high-rise layer opera-
tions is usually pure or raw manure, unmixed
with litter. But it may be mixed with water
during deanout. Dry and liquid wastes require
different  collection,  storage, handling,  and
management systems

    The amount  of  manure  produced by  a
given  flock  of poultry can  be roughly  esti-
mated from the amount of feed the birds eat.
Table 1 can be used to estimate how much
fresh manure and manure dry matter will be
produced by various species and numbers of
birds. Roughly, it is estimated that 20 percent
of the feed consumed by poultry is converted
to manure.

Manure  mixed with a bedding material  is
called litter. The composition of litter varies,
depending on how the  chickens were fed, age
and size of birds, the presence of moisture, the
age and type of the litter itself, frequency of
cleanout, and conditions of storage. Its compo-
sition can be estimated from analyses that have
already been made on  similar types of waste,
but all litter should be analyzed at least once a
year for nutrient content. Litter moisture in a
well-managed house generally ranges from 25
to 35 percent  Higher moisture levels in litter
result in greater weight and reduced levels of
    Diminished productivity and  income are
the almost certain outcomes of an improper or
failed animal waste  management  system
Good management has two" goals lo reduce
the production of Utter and to make the best
use of the btter that is produced
    How much litter is  produced varies widely,
depending  on the  producer's management
style, feedstocks, number of cleanouts, climatic
conditions, and bird genetics. However, broil-
ers may produce up to  one ton of litter per year
per 1,000 birds, or about 81 cubic feet of Litter
for each 1,000 birds. The  bedding materials,
manure, and used feed in the litter have nutri-
ent value for land  applications, but may also
be  useful in other  ways — for example, as a
fuel source, as an ingredient in compost, or as
beef cattle feed.

   Table 1.—Approximate manure production by poultry.
    Type of
Marketer  Animals/          eaten
aduttttve  1000 to           /animal
wt/antmal  animal           (Ib/growtng  /animal (Ib/yr
(to)      unit      Flocks/yr period)     (Ib/yr)  /animal)*
                           67-          8         9
                                  Manure     Animals
                           Feed   dry matter   to supply   Nutrient content
                           eaten   produced    1 ton dry   of dry manure

    Layer4       4
    Layer, heavy  7
77/52 wk
90/52 wk
15/20 wk
 9/7 wk
18/10 wk
60/20 wk
19/7 wk
18/18 wk
 8/18 wk
 3/12 wk
100 40-70  40

80  40-70  60

100  40   20

120  40   50
    Note: Pounds of teed at 11 to 13 percent moisture x 0.20 = pounds of manure dry matter. Fresh manure is 75 to 80 percent
    moisture. Manure can be atr-dned in the poultry house toaslowasl5to25 percent moisture
    •Figure may vary with animal, ration, and season.
    "Column 8 is obtained by dividing 2000 pounds by the value in column 7
    'Figure may vary plus or minus 50 percent depending on animal, ration, and manure handling.
    "Single Comb White Leghorn.
    •Adult turkeys may vary from 12 to 36 pounds per txrd bve body weigfn
       Litter that is saturated with water is called
   cake. This litter  must be removed  from the
   house between flocks; it  must  be prevented
   from mixing with stormwater and becoming
   overly wet, and  it must be dried to prevent
   odor. Good management practices will reduce
   the  production of cake  — for example, by
   checking  for  water leaks  in  the house  and
   keeping the house at an even temperature
       Litter that has not  become  saturated  in
   water can be left in the house between flocks If
   the cake is properly removed  from the house,
   total cleanouts can be delayed — sometimes
   for as long as two years or more.
       Weight and volume of litter will depend on
   type of bedding  material used, depth of bed-
   ding to start with, amount of cake removed or
   present, and length of time between complete
   cleanouts. The quality of litter depends on the
   method of removal, whether the matenal was
   raked or stirred  between  flocks, and manner
   and  length of storage.
                                      Outdoor or Open Range
                                      Fields, pastures, yards, or other outdoor areas
                                      are used as ranges for chickens, turkeys, ducks,
                                      or game birds  Such areas must be located and
                                      fenced so that manure-laden runoff does not
                                      enter surface water, sinkholes, or wells These
                                      operations may be required  to have a  dis-
                                      charge permit from the appropriate state regu-
                                      latory agency

                                      The best  method  for  managing manure de-
                                      pends on the type  of housing used, dry or liq-
                                      uid collection,  and  the way  the  housing  is
                                      operated.  Misuse  of poultry manure  can re-
                                      duce  productivity, cause flies, odor, and aes-
                                      thetic  problems;  and  pollute  surface  and
                                      groundwater.  Poultry manure  can  produce
                                      dust and release harmful gases such as carbon
                                      dioxide, hydrogen sulh'de, methane, and am-
                                      monia. Fresh manure is troublesome if it gets
                                      too wet.

    Fresh manure can be handled in either dry
or liquid form. Aerating or drying of manure
requires  ventilation.  Ventilation can be
achieved naturally (through proper housing
design) or mechanically (through equipment)
Aeration produces a low odor product of 15 to
25 percent moisture. Because it has less odor
and weight, it is less expensive to  haul, con-
tains more nutrients, and can be stored more
    Liquid manure contains about 95 percent
moisture and consequently weighs  more than
twice as much as dry manure. The trend within
the industry is to avoid liquid waste handling
operations and use the more convenient dry
systems. Manure that is between 30 and 60
percent moisture is sticky, difficult to scrape,
and more likely to break cleaning equipment.

Storage Facilities
Dry litter from broiler operations and dry ma-
nure from a layer operation are best stored
under a roof or in covered stacks. These stor-
age facilities have five essential  features:

     * sufficient capacity to hold the
       waste until it can be applied to
       land or transported off the farm,

     * adequate conditions of
       temperature and humidity to
       permit storage of the waste until
       it is needed,

     T a concrete or impermeable clay
       base to prevent leaching to

     T proper location to avoid runoff to
       surface waters or percolation to
       groundwater, and

     * ventilation and containment  for
       effective air quality and  nuisance
    Thus, the ideal storage design is a roofed
structure with an impermeable earthen or con-
crete floor. This design keeps the litter dry, uni-
form in quality, and easy  to  handle; it also
minimizes fly and odor problems. Manage-
ment plans that allow for proper storage

     T save water,

     * improve bird quality.
    •» improve the production

    ^ reduce the amount of ammonia
      released from litter,
    * reduce the volume of cake,

    ^ extend the time between

    * increase the product's value and
      flexibility, and

    * prevent pollution of adjoining

Kinds of Storage Facilities
Generally, storage facilities can be open, cov-
ered,  or lined (permanently  lined, in some
cases); or they can be bunkers or open-sided
buildings with roofs. Perhaps the most com-
mon facilities for collecting and storing poultry
litter include floors, pits, dry-stack buildings,
or covered outdoor storage facilities with im-
permeable earthen, or concrete flooring.

Floor Storage
Most  broiler, roaster, Cornish hen, pullet, tur-
key, and small layer operations raise birds on
earthen or concrete floors covered with bed-
ding material  (Fig. 1). A layer of wood shav-
ings,  sawdust, straw, peanut or nee  hulls, or
other suitable bedding material is used as a
base before birds are housed  Wet litter — that
is, cake — is removed after each flock A com-
plete  clean-out can be done after each flock or
once every 12 months or longer, depending on
the producer's requirements. Slat or wire floor
housing, used mainly for breeder flocks, can be
handled the same way.  Floor storage is  the
most  economical method to store  litter Care
must be taken not to  leave foreign matenal
such  as wire, string, light bulbs,  plastic, or
screws in the litter

Dry  Stack Storage
Temporary storage of litter in a roofed struc-
ture  with a compacted earthen  or concrete
floor  is an ideal management method (Fig 2)
Large quantities  of  waste can be  stored and
kept  dry for long periods of time. To prevent
excessive heating or spontaneous combustion
of wastes, stacks should not exceed 5 to 8 feet
                                                                       DRY WASTE MANAGEMENT  3

       o  u
         R  Y
                                    Ventilation ran

1 . t


J N.

^ U
^ f

             Feeder     Concrete or earth floor

     Single-story poultry house
                                     Ventilation Ian
             Lifter      Wood floor
                  Concrete or earth door
    Two-story poultry house
   Figure 1.—Two types of litter-floor poultry
   Dry stacks promote ease of handling and uni-
   formity of material, in addition, disposal is rel-
   atively  easy Dry stacks protect  the resource
   from bad weather and  make it  available for
   distribution at appropriate tunes

       A variation on  this option is a stack or
   windrow located in the open on  well-drained
   areas and protected  from storm water runoff
   The stack must be covered with a well-secured
   tarpaulin or other synthetic sheeting

       Grower storage in covered or uncovered
   facilities is  not the  only  storage alternative
   Field storage on the farm, applicator  storage
   (that is, storage by the  crop fanner who will
   use the litter for fertilizer), cooperative storage
   (several growers sharing a  larger facility off-
   site), and  private  storage (by entrepreneurs
   who will sell or process  the litter to create new
                                                   Figure 2.—Roofed structure with earthen or
                                                   concrete floor.
                  products) are  additional methods of waste
                  storage.  Each method must be evaluated  in
                  terms of cost, environmental safety, and indus-
                  try and regulatory practice.
                      In some states, permits may be required for
                  your storage facility or for other parts of your
                  resource management system. Possible zoning
                  restrictions  may also influence your choice of
                  storage systems.
                      Proper storage is essential to maintain the
                  waste's fertilizer value for crops, provide ease
                  of handling, and avoid groundwater contami-
                  nation. Consider also the feasibility of process-
                  ing alternatives Waste can be

                        T composted and pelletized to
                         produce fertilizer,

                        ^ converted to feed for beef cattle
                         or to briquettes for fuel, or

                        T deposited in lagoons for
                         anaerobic digestion and methane

                       Above  all, use soil and manure testing to
                   improve the success (crop  yields) and timing
                   of land  applications. Practice biosecunty (that
                   is, safeguard the application from disease caus-
                   ing organisms and fly larvae) at all fames.
                       Using poultry litter as a feed supplement
                   for cattle has become popular.  Methods of
                   waste handling and storage can greatly affect
                   the quality of the material as a feed ingredient
                   Litter with the highest nutritional value for re-
                   feeding is found in the upper layers of the litter

 pack. Large amounts of soil  increase the ash
 content and reduce the nutritive value of litter.
 Feed litter should be kept covered with poly-
 ethylene at least three weeks to ensure that suf-
 ficient heat is generated to kill pathogens.

    Remember,  storage is an interim step in
 waste management planning. It should be fol-
 lowed by  nutrient management planning and
 appropriate use of the lifter for land applica-

Brodie, H.L, LE Carr, and C.F Miller 1990 Structures
  for Broiler Litter Manure Storage Fact Sheet 416 Coop-
  erative  Extension, University  of  Maryland,  College
Cabe Associates, Inc. 1991. Poultry Manure Storage and
  Process Alternatives Evaluation Final Report. Project
  Number 100-286 University of Delaware Research and
  Education Center, Georgetown
Department  of  Natural Resources and Environmental
  Control and Cooperative Extension Service 1989 Poul-
  try Manure Management: A Supplement to Delaware
  Guidelines University of Delaware, Newark
Donald, J O  1990 Litter Storage Facilities  DTP Circular
  10/90—004 Alabama Cooperative Extension Service.
  Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Payne, VWE., and J.O Donald 1991. Poultry — Waste
  Management  and Environmental  Protection Manual.
  Circular ANR-580  Alabama Cooperative  Extension
  Service, Auburn, AL.
   Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
   further distribution.  The Poultry  Water Quality Consortium  is  a  cooperative  eflort  of  industry and
   government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone                                                                    PWM / 3 - 6/94
                             POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                      HB-2C. 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga. TN 37402-2801
                              Tel: (615) 751-7297  •  Fax: <615) 751-7479
                                                                               DRY WASTE MANAGEMENT  5

               Ligum  WASTE MANAGEMENT
                   lor ducks,  geese,  and
                   some layer operations,
 manure is usually handled  through  liquid
 waste management systems. Water increases
 the amount of waste to be processed. There-
 fore, drying the manure naturally or through
 forced air systems as part of the collection and
 storage  procedures can  help  control the
 amount of material to be managed.
    A liquid waste system  involves collection,
 storage, handling,  and use.  Collection and
 storage are generally combined into one opera-
 tion that can include pits, settling tanks, or
 earthen storage ponds.
    Advantages of a liquid waste management
 system are that it is easier to automate and less
 labor intensive. However, there are also disad-
 vantages associated with liquid waste systems:

     * constraints on management —
      must be emptied when full,

     * costs — concrete can be costly or
      a grower may have  insufficient
      land to construct a holding

     * toxic gases or unpleasant odors
      — these problems occur
      especially during waste removal,

     * flies — insects will breed in
      improperly managed waste,

     T volume — water vastly increases
      the amount of waste to be
      handled, and

     T land applications of liquid wastes
       must be carefully planned and

    Volume comparisons between liquid and
 dry manure show that 10,000 caged layers pro-
duce nearly 2,500 pounds of manure per day,
with an estimated volume of 50 cubic feet. In
dry  form,  this  manure  weighs about  695
pounds, with 10 percent moisture, and reaches
a volume of 27 cubic feet.
   Most liquid waste systems require permit-
ting by the appropriate state agency. Without
the water, solid waste systems have less vol-
ume to control and lower equipment and en-
ergy costs. These considerations and operator
preference  help  determine   a  particular
grower's choice of poultry waste management

Liquid Collection Methods
Most layer or pullet operations have cages ar-
ranged in up to four decks. The manure  falls
directly into a pit or is scraped into the pit from
intervening dropping boards.  Pits must be
cleaned regularly, and the manure stored in
concrete or steel storage  tanks or applied di-
rectly to the land. A lagoon may be necessary
to catch overflow Ventilation fans are essential
to keep  the manure dry,  and  reduce toxic
gases,  fly problems,  and offensive  odors
Equipment is available for m-pit manure com-
posting There are three basic pit designs

  * Shallow-pit  systems,  built of concrete at
   ground level, are 4 to  8 inches deep and lo-
   cated 3 to 6 feet below the cages. Manure is
   scraped from the pit or flushed out  with
   water  and collected  in  a storage area or
   loaded directly into a  spreader (Fig. 1).

  * Deep-pit systems are usually  4 to 8 feet
   wide and may extend  2 to 6 feet below
    ground level with the cages at least 8 feet
    above the concrete or masonry floor. The
    pit floor and sidewalk must be sealed and
    thoroughly protected from outside surface

   Figure 1.—Shallow-pit poultry house with cages.
                                        Air inlet
   Figure 2.—High-rise poultry house with cages.
      or ground water. Foundation drains and ex-
      ternal grading are needed to remove sub-
      surface water and allow surface water to
      drain away from the budding

    * High-rise systems are similar to deep-pit
      systems  but  are   built  entirely  above
      ground, with the cages 15 to 30 feet above
      the ground (Fig. 2). The pit floor should be
      concrete  and  graded,  with  foundation
      drains. The  water supply must  be con-
      trolled if the wastes are stored for extended
      periods. If outside water penetrates the sys-
      tem,  the  manure can cause a serious fly
      problem or leach nutrients into surface or

   Settling Tanks
   Concrete, concrete block, or steel storage tanks
   can be used to collect solids and to skim float-
   ing material from a layer operation. A floating
baffle or other separator can be installed to re-
move egg shells, feathers, and other debris
The tank should be placed between the layer
house and a waste storage pond or lagoon
Normally, a settling tank is 4 feet at the deep
end, sloping to ground level. Walls are slotted
to allow drainage of the settled waste.
   It is recommended that two settling tanks
be installed; one can be drained and cleaned
while the other remains in  operation. The
tanks must be properly constructed and sealed
to prevent groundwater or surface water pol-
lution. In tanks and storage ponds, unpleasant
odors and dangerous gases may  be present
and may require protective measures.

Storage Pond
A storage pond or lagoon  is an anaerobic stor-
age facility. It is designed  to hold liquid waste
from layer or other liquid waste  operations.
When the potential for groundwater contami-
nation exists because of  site  conditions, the
pond should be lined with clay, concrete, or a
synthetic matenal. In warmer climates, struc-
tures are designed for a 30- to 90-day holding
period but in colder areas, 180-day storage is
needed. It is not practical to design a structure
for less than 30-day storage. When the struc-
ture becomes full, it must be emptied, regard-
less of weather conditions Specific criteria for
construction of storage ponds  can be obtained
from the USDA Soil Conservation Service of-

Land Applications
Solid forms of manure are probably easier than
liquid  for land applications, but a manure
slurry or irrigation system may be used.  If the
application falls directly on the crop, care must
be taken  to prevent ammonium toxicity and
burning. Because raw manure contains high
amounts of uric acid, it should be thoroughly
mixed before application  Layer lagoon sludge
is more dense than a pullet lagoon sludge be-
cause of its high grit or limestone content and
should be diluted before application.

    Timing is a major factor in successful land
applications The manure must  also be uni-
formly  applied  — whether you are using a
manure spreader or an irrigation system. The
applicator  should, be   particularly  careful

 (especially during a drought) not to coat the
 plants with lagoon liquid. Instead, make sev-
 eral small applications of lagoon liquid, rather
 than one large one.
    Liquid  waste is primarily  disposed  of
 through land applications. Proper spreading
 on the land is an environmentally acceptable
 method of managing waste. However, with in-
 creasing environmental concerns, and the need
 to match closely the fertilizer needs of crops,
 fanners can no longer afford to simply "spread
    The   USDA  Soil  Conservation  Service,
 Cooperative  Extension  Service,  and  other
 agencies offer poultry waste and nutrient man-
 agement  planning  assistance. These  offices
 have worksheets to help growers plan liquid
 waste management, which includes the follow-
 ing tasks:

     * determining the amount and
       volume of waste generated,

     ^ calculating land application

     T sampling and analyzing the
       nutrient composition in poultry
       litter, and

     * matching the nutrients available
       in these products with crop
       nutnent requirements  for land
   Detailed  information on how to prepare
nutrient assessments, conduct soil testing, and
calculate application rates, timing, and meth-
ods of application are also available from these

   The use of nutrient management planning
will help growers make economical and practi-
cal use of the organic  resources generated on
their farms.

Brodie, J.L., L.E Can, and C.F. Miller 1990. Structures for
  Broiler Litter Manure Storage. Fact Sheet 416. Coopera-
  tive Extension Service, University of Maryland, College
Fulhage, C. 1993.  Land Application Considerations for
  Animal Wastes. WQ202. University Extension, Univer-
  sity of Missouri, Columbia.
Payne, VW.E., and J.O. Donald. 1991 Poultry Waste Man-
  agement and Environmental Protection Manual. Circu-
  lar ANR-580 Alabama Cooperative Extension Service.
  Auburn, AL
U S Department of Agriculture. 1992 National Engineer-
  ing Handbook  210,  Part 651  In Agricultural Waste
  Management  Field Handbook Soil Conservation Serv-
  ice, Washington, DC
Watson, H 1990 Liquid Manure Handling Systems  DTP
  12/90-018  Alabama Cooperative Extension, Auburn
  University, Auburn, AL
    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
    further  distnbution. The Poultry  Water Quality Consortium  is a cooperative effort  of industry  and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
    for everyone.                                                               PWM / 4 - 6/94
                            POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                      HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                             Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

                    sultry litter or layer ma-
                    nure is most often land
 applied to pastures and crops for its value as
 an organic fertilizer. We know from long expe-
 rience how beneficial this practice can be when
 soil and manure nutrient testing are integrated
 with crop nutrient needs to  determine the
 amount and tuning of the application. This in-
 tegration makes it possible to  approach land
 application as a wise use of resources rather
 than as a disposal method.

    Proper storage and  treatment of poultry
 by-products (litter,  manure,  hatchery  waste,
 and dissolved air flotation [DAF] skimmings)
 before use are important to minimize composi-
 tional changes and decrease odor and handling
 problems. Depending on the by-product, dry
 storage, ensiling, or composting may be appro-
 priate  treatments. Resource management sys-
 tems may include  incineration and  burial as
 methods  of disposal; however,  these tech-
 niques are not called treatments because they
 do not usually provide any reusable products

    Composting is an environmentally  sound
 and productive way to treat poultry by-prod-
 ucts and mortalities (see also  PMM/4). The
 product of composting is easier to handle, has
 a smaller volume, and is a more stable product
 than the raw materials. The nutrient content of
 the compost will be nearly the same as the
 starting materials if the composting is per-
 formed properly.

    While compost can be land  applied  to de-
 crease the need for nutrients from commercial
 fertilizers, composted by-products may also be
 marketed for higher value uses such as turf,
 nursery, and home and garden uses. It can be
added as an amendment to soils for transplant-
 ing flowers, trees, and shrubs, or to establish
new lawns. Compared to commercial fertiliz-
ersi poultry by-product compost  will have a
lower nutrient analysis (e.g., 2-2-2) for nitro-
gen, phosphorus, and  potassium. However,
there are other benefits to the soil and plant
growth associated with the organic matter and
micronutrients in compost.

Understanding the Process and
Benefits of Composting
Composting is a natural, aerobic, microbiologi-
cal process in which carbon dioxide, water, and
heat are released from organic wastes to pro-
duce a stable material.  Leaves and other or-
ganic debris are  subject to this process all the
time—that Ls, the activity of microorganisms
transform  these  materials  into  a  soil-like,
humus-rich product called compost.
   This natural process can  also be used as a
resource management technique to transform
large quantities  of litter,  manure, and other
poultry by-products into compost. The condi-
tions under which natural composting occurs
can be stimulated and controlled  so that  the
materials compost  faster and the nutrient
value of the compost is maximized
   The composting  process  is relatively sun-

   1  By-products,  for example, litter ma-
      nure,  eggshells,  hatchery waste, and
      DAF  skimmings, are placed in bins,
      piles, or elongated piles called wind-
      rows.  A  bulking  agent  or   carbon
      amendment (e.g., sawdust, wood chips,
      yard waste, or paper that is rich in car-
      bon but low in other  nutrients)  is usu-
      ally necessary to provide  the  proper
      ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the mix
      and improve aeration.

   2.  Air is added to support and enhance
      rrucrobial  activity. Because composting

         microorganisms are aerobic, that is, oxy-
         gen using, sufficient aeration is very im-
         portant to the efficiency of the process.
         Sufficient aeration also minimizes the
         formation of objectionable odors that
         form under anaerobic (oxygen depleted)
         conditions.  Adequate aeration  can  be
         provided by forced air systems, such as
         blowers or fans; or by turning the com-
         post with a front-end loader or a com-
         mercially available  compost  turner as

      3. Mechanical  agitation or turning of the
         materials supplies aeration, helps mix
         the materials, and distributes any added

      4. Temperatures in the compost must be
         maintained   at levels  above approxi-
         mately 130 °F to kill any pathogens (dis-
         ease-causing organisms) and promote
         efficient  composting.   Temperatures
         above 150 to 160 *F should be avoided
         because they reduce  microorganisms
         beneficial to the composting process

      5. Adequate moisture, between 50 and 60
         percent, is necessary for optimal micro-
         bial activity.

   Using Compost
   Compost produced from poultry by-products
   has many potential uses  it can be used directly
   as a soil amendment for agricultural or horti-
   cultural uses, it can be pelletized or granulated
   for ease of transportation and application, and
   it can be enhanced with conventional fertili2-
   ers to improve its nutrient value. Off-farm uses
   are limited more by the absence of markets for
   the products and competition from less costly
   products than by  technical problems.  Practi-
   cally  speaking, composting is  a  preferred
   method for managing a variety of poultry by-
   products. Composting is often recommended
   for use on the farm and at the hatchery.

   Possible Drawbacks
   Composting, like any management technique,
   cannot be undertaken lightly, whatever its ben-
   efits. It requires a  commitment of time  and
   money for equipment, land, storage facilities,
labor, and management. Composting is an in-
exact process that depends heavily on the qual-
ity and characteristics of the materials being
composted and the attention given to the com-
posting process.
   Although the finished product  should
have no odor or pest problems, such problems
may occur during the composting process.
Weather may also affect the process adversely.
Compost releases nutrients slowly — as little
as 15 percent of the nitrogen in compost may
be available during the first year of applica-
tion. In addition, costs associated with produc-
tion-scale composting can  be significant, and
federal and  state  regulations for stormwater
runoff from the composting site must be fol-

   Despite these  potential drawbacks, com-
posting  on the farm is a practical resource
management technique. Good  management
will consider every opportunity to eliminate or
reduce the concerns associated with compost-
ing while maximizing its benefits. Once it is re-
alized that composting can be  more than a
"dump it out back and forget  it" procedure,
the technique can be used and adjusted to meet
by-product management needs.

Composting Methods
There are four general methods of composting:
passive composting, windrows,  aerated piles,
and in-vessel composting

    * Passive composting  is   the   simplest,
    lowest cost method, it  requires little or no
    management because  the materials to be
    composted are simply stacked into  piles
    and left to decompose naturally  over  a
    long time.

    Passive composting is  not suitable for the
    large quantities  of litter or manure pro-
    duced  on  poultry  farms.  It  occurs  at
    comparatively low temperatures and de-
    composition occurs at a slow rate. Anaero-
    bic conditions resulting from insufficient
    aeration can result in objectionable odors.

    * Windrow composting occurs  in  long
    narrow piles  that can  vary  in height and
    width  depending on  the  materials  and
    equipment available for turning. For most

    efficient composting, windrows are turned
    as required depending on temperature and
    oxygen measurements.

    Windrow  composting (Fig. 1) is usually
    well suited to  poultry  farms.  In  this
    method, the windrows are formed  from
    the  material to be composted, water, and
    any bulking agent or carbon amendment.
    The piles can  range from 3 feet high for
    dense materials to  as high as 12 feet for
    lighter, more porous materials like leaves.
    If the piles are too large, anaerobic condi-
    tions can occur in the middle; if they are
    too  small, insufficient heat will be main-
    tained for pathogen  reduction and  opti-
    mum microbial activity.

    The windrows are  turned periodically to
    add oxygen, mix the materials, rebuild po-
    rosity (as the mixture settles), release ex-
    cess heat, and expose all materials equally
    to the high interior heat that kills patho-
    gens. Turning can be labor and equipment
    intensive depending on the method used.
    In the beginning, it may be necessary to
    rum daily or even several times a day to
    maintain sufficient oxygen levels; however,
    turning  frequency   declines   with   the
    windrow's age.

    In addition to needing space for the wind-
    rows, the producer  will also need turning
    equipment, a source of water, a dial  ther-
    mometer, and  perhaps  an  oxygen meter.
    The  turning equipment (Fig. 2) can be
    front-end loaders, manure spreaders  with
    flails and augers  to provide good mixing,
    or specialty machines. Often older, unused
    farm equipment,  for example, an old po-
    tato  plow and a farm tractor, can be  used
    for turning compost.

    Temperatures  within  the  windrow  are
    most commonly used to determine when
    turning  is necessary. Low  temperatures
    and  odors are  signs that more oxygen is
    needed, while cool or hot spots at intervals
    along the windrow indicate that the mate-
    rial needs to be mixed. During fly season,
    all windrows should be turned at  least
    weekly. In the winter, windrows can be
    combined to conserve heat as they dimin-
    ish in height Composting  time can  vary
    from weeks to months depending on the
Figure 1.—Typical windrow shapes and
Figure 2.—Windrow composting with an
elevating face windrow turner.
Figure 3.—Passively aerated windrow method for
composting manure.

    material being  composted, the attention
    given to composting conditions, and the
    quantity of material composted.

    ^ Aerated static composting   eliminates
    the labor of turning the compost by using
    perforated pipes to introduce air into piles
    or windrows. Air can be supplied pas-
    sively, or with blowers to force air into or
    through the composting material.

    Passively aerated  windrows (Fig. 3) are a
    modification of  windrow composting that
                                                                  COMPOSTING WASTE PRODUCTS  3

        eliminates turning. In a commonly used
        system, the windrow is placed on a base of
        wood chips, straw, or peat, and perforated
        aeration pipes are added  on top of this
        base. The material to be composted must
        be very well mixed, since it is not turned,
        and.the windrow should not be higher
        than 3 to 4 feet. This method has the ad-
        vantage of minimizing odors and helping
        to conserve nitrogen.
        Aerated static piles or windrows add blow-
        ers to the aeration pipes. This method al-
        lows larger piles or windrows and permits
        more efficient composting than passively
        aerated static piles. Air can either be drawn
        into or forced through the composting ma-
        terial.  The blowers may be controlled  to
        rum on at set intervals or in  response  to
        temperatures in the pile or windrow.

        ^ In-vessel composting is  similar to aer-
        ated methods but the materials to be com-
        posted  are contained in bins or reactors
        that allow for control of aeration, tempera-
        ture, and mixing, in some systems.
        In-vessel composting is actually a combi-
        nation of methods that involve both aera-
        tion and  turning.  The  advantages   of
        in-vessel composting include the elimina-
        tion of weather problems and the contain-
        ment of odors. In addition, mixing can be
        optimized, aeration enhanced, and temper-
        ature control  improved.
        The simplest form of in-vessel composting
        is bin composting, which is readily adapt-
        able to poultry farms Bins may be  plain
        structures with wood  slatted floors  and a
        roof, conventional grain bins, or bulk stor-
       age  buildings. Other types  of in-vessel
        composters use silos in which the air goes
        in at the bottom and  the  exhaust is cap-
    tured for odor control at the top; agitated
    bed systems; and rotating drums. Costs for
    equipment,  operation,  and  maintenance
    for a large quantity of materials are high
    for in-vessel composting.

    Factors to consider in  choosing a compost-
ing method are speed, labor, and costs. Wind-
rows are  common  on farms;  they can use
existing  equipment, no electricity is required
(so they can be remotely located), and they
produce a more uniform product.  They are,
however, also labor intensive and at the mercy
of the weather. Adding a  paved or compacted
clay surface and a simple open-sided building
can minimize weather problems and the im-
pact of composting on water quality.

    For more information, technical assistance,
and possible cost-share programs that may be
available to help you begin a composting oper-
ation, contact your local  conservation district
office, the Soil Conservation Service, or the Co-
operative Extension Service.

Biocycle. 1991 The Art and Science of Composting The
  JG Press, Inc., Emmaus, PA.
Cabe Associates, Inc. 1991 Poultry Manure Storage and
  Process. Alternatives Evaluation Final Report  Protect
  Number 100-286. University of Delaware Research and
  Education Center, Georgetown
Donald, J O, C C Mitchell, and C H  Gilljam 1990 Com-
  posting Agricultural Wastes in Alabama AMR Circular
  572  Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University,
  Auburn, AL
Rynk,  R, editor 1992 On-fanm Composting Handbook
  NRAES-54 Cooperative Extension Northeast Regional
  Agricultural Engineering Service Ithaca. NY
Smith, B 1993 Composting and Uses for Manure  Presen-
  tation  1993 Waste Management  and Water  Qualin,
  Workshop Southeastern Poultry and Egg Association.
  Atlanta, GA
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further distribution.  The Poultry Water Quality Consortium  is a cooperative effort of industry  and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone.                                                               PWM/5-6/94
                               POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                        HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297 •  Fax:(615)751-7479

                PUTTING  NUTRIENT
                MANAGEMENT TO  WORK
                   and  application, espe-
                  fcially field spreading, is
in most cases the best use of poultry wastes. It
is cost-effective, disposes of the largest amount
of waste closest to the point of production, and
is environmentally safe if handled properly. To
ensure that  waste is not  overapplied  to the
land, the amount and type of nutrients in it
must be known and the timing of applications
must be adjusted to ensure that growing plants
can use the nutrients. The application should
also be made evenly, so that all plants have the
same access to the nutrients.

What Is a Nutrient
Management Plan?
A nutrient management plan is necessary to
mmirruze  edge-of-field delivery  of nutrients
and lurut  leaching of nutrients from the root
zone  Nutrient management plans include de-
veloping a nutrient budget for the crop, apply-
ing nutrients at the proper time, applying only
the types and amounts of nutrients necessary
to produce a crop, and  considering the envi-
ronmental hazards of the site.
    More  specifically, nutrient management
plans should apply nutrients at rates necessary
to achieve realistic crop yields, improve the
timing of  nutrient application, and use agro-
nomic crop production technology to increase
nutrient use efficiency. At a rrurumum, nutrient
management involves determining the nutri-
ent value  of manure by testing, crediting the
nitrogen contribution of any legume crop, and
testing the soil routinely.
    An  effective nutrient management  plan
consists of the following core components:

     * farm and field maps.
                     * realistic yield expectations for the
                       crops to be grown,

                     v a summary of the nutrient
                       resources available (the results of
                       soil tests and nutrient analyses of
                       manure, sludge, or compost),

                     v an evaluation of field limitations
                       based on environmental hazards
                       or concerns (e.g, sinkholes, land
                       near surface water, highly
                       erodible soils),

                     T application plans based on the
                       limiting nutrient,

                     * plans that include proper timing
                       and application methods (avoid
                       application to frozen soil and
                       during periods of leaching or
                       runoff), and

                     T calibration of nutrient application

                    The  USDA Soil Conservation Service and
                 Cooperative Extension Service offices have pre-
                 pared tables of the mean average  amounts of
                 key nutrients found in different kinds of ma-
                 nure (Table. 1). These tables may be used to es-
                 timate  the  nutrient content of your  waste
                 source or stockpile. However, as this resource is
                 produced and used under many different cir-
                 cumstances, it is always best to have samples of
                 your supply tested by a state or private lab

                 Preparing Samples
                 Always prepare your samples from six to 12
                 representative areas in the  poultry house or
                 from at least six different locations in the stock-
                 pile. (Samples collected  from the stockpile


Table 1. — Nutrient content of different sources of animal manure.

all types
fresh (no litter)
broiler litter
roaster litter
breeder litter
stockpiled litter
all types
fresh (DO litter)
brooder litter
grower litter
stockpBed litter
all types
fresh (no litter)
under cage scraped
highrise stored
all types

liquid slurry
anaerobic lagoon sludge

anaerobic lagoon liquid b

liquid slurry
anaerobic liquid sludge
all types
anaerobic lagoon liquid
all types d
all types d

Ih/lfYY) fnTlrtfi —


179 154 46 266
	 lb/1000 gallon 	
136 111
53 133
	 lb/1000 gallon 	
28 11 19 25
a - Data compiled by J. J. Camberato, Extension Agronomist. 1990-91.
b - Soil Facts-Fbuitiy Manure as a Fertilizer Source. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Fact Sheet AG-439-5.
J. P. Zublena, J. C Barker. andT. A. Carter.
c - Soil Facts-Swine Manure as a Fertilizer Source. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Fact Sheet AG-439-4.
J. P. Zublena. J.C. Barker, and J.W.Parker.
d - Using Manure to Cut Fertilizer Costs. University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet 512. V. Allan Bande

should be taken from a depth of about 18 To collect the sample, obtain a quart of
inches; careful handling will ensure that no soil waste from six to 12 locations in the house or
is intermixed in the sample.) Samples should stock pile and place them in a large, clean
be taken as dose as possible to the time of ap- bucket. Mix the contents thoroughly; then
plication; however, allow sufficient time to re- place about a quart of the mixed sample into a
ceive test results. clean plastic bag or bottle. Seal it tightly, but

 allow room for the sample to expand. Keep the
 sample cool; if it is not mailed to the laboratory
 on the same day as it was withdrawn from the
 source, then the entire sample should be refrig-
 erated. The accuracy of the lab test depends on
 the quality of die samples collected. Contact
 the lab that will be analyzing your sample for
 information on collection,  handling, and ship-

 For  Best Results
 Both  dry and wet samples should be routinely
 tested on an "as is" basis for total nitrogen, am-
 monia-nitrogen,  phosphorus, and potassium.
 The  key  to successful land applications is to
 apply the right amount of waste at the right
 time, using the right method so that the waste's
 nutrient content is closely correlated with the
 nutrient needs of the plants and soil. Be aware
 that some nutrients will accumulate in the soil
 and reach high levels; apply the product imme-
 diately before  planting, during a high growth
 season, and not in bad weather (when the nu-
 trients may be  washed  away).  Incorporate
 waste in  the soil, if possible. For best results,
 use biennial soil tests in connection with your
 manure sample and basic calculations.

 Land Application Rates
 and  Methods
 Whether  the poultry waste is taken  to nearby
 farms or spread on your own land, the amount
 applied, the timing of the applications, and the
 methods  used  will affect the outcome. Under-
 standing  how  the soil and waste interact and
 calibrating  the spreader  will help  growers
 apply the right amount at the nght time in just
 the nght way.
   Manure spread on  the  surface and not
 worked into the soil will lose most of its vola-
 tile nitrogen compounds, which will be re-
 leased as ammonium gas  to  the atmosphere.
This release may not represent a pollution po-
 tential, but such lost nutrients are not available
 for plant growth
   Poultry waste spread on  frozen or snow-
covered soil has  a high potential for runoff to
surface water.  It should not be surface applied
to soils near wells, springs, or sinkholes or on
slopes adjacent to streams, rivers, or lakes. In
fact, some states prohibit this activity. Conser-
                  vation practices can reduce runoff, nutrient
                  loss, and pollution.

                     Water pollution potential can be decreased,
                  and the amount of waste nutrients available to
                  plants can be increased, by working poultry
                  waste into  the soil either by tillage or by sub-
                  surface injection. Subsurface injection of waste
                  only  minimally disturbs the soil surface and
                  would be appropriate for reduced till and no-
                  till cropping systems.

                     Manure or litter must have time to break
                  down before the nutrients in it become avail-
                  able to the crop. Fall applications allow this
                  breakdown to occur, but some of the nitrogen
                  in the manure may be lost through leaching
                  and runoff. Spring applications prevent this ni-
                  trogen loss but do not allow enough time for
                  the breakdown of the manure. Incorporation of
                  poultry waste beneath the soil surface in the
                  fall is a way to conserve the nutrients and pro-
                  tect water quality.

                     Spring  and summer applications are rec-
                  ommended based on plant uptake, though it is
                  always important to check  for good weather
                  before applications are planned. If litter is ap-
                  plied in bad weather, nutrients may be lost in
                  stormwater runoff.  Nutrient-enriched runoff
                  from agriculture could be a leading cause of
                  nonpoint source pollution.

                     How the poultry waste  is applied  also af-
                  fects  how  quickly the nutrients  are incorpo-
                  rated. Generally, incorporation within 12 hours
                  is ideal  The waste can be broadcast over the
                  whole field, followed by incorporation tillage
                  This method has the advantage of good distri-
                  bution, because it is visible, the grower can de-
                  termine  the  uniformity of  the broadcasting.
                  There will, of course, be some odor on  the day
                  of the application. Farmers  may  also want to
                  investigate incorporation, topdress, sidedress,
                  and band application methods.

                  Spreader Calibrations
                  Calibration of the spreader machine is also
                  necessary to monitor and control the  amount
                  and uniformity of the application. Calibration
                  specifies the combination of settings and travel
                  speed needed to apply nutrients at a  desired
                  rate.  By knowing a spreader's application rate,
                  a producer can correctly apply the nutrients to
                                                          PUTTING NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT TO WORK  3

    meet the needs of the plants. Generally, there
    are two types of nutrient spreaders — solid or
    semisolid and liquid. Broiler growers handle
    solid or semisolid nutrients; many egg produc-
    ers have liquid waste systems.
       Solic] or semisolid waste is usually handled
    in box-type  or open-tank spreaders, and  the
    application rate is expressed in tons  per acre.
    Nutrient concentrations in pounds per ton can
    be estimated, or calculated from the lab analy-
    sis. The nutrient application rate in pounds per
    acre must be determined, based on the tons per
    acre of waste application.
       Liquid or slurry waste is usually handled
    by  tank wagons or irrigation systems, and the
    application rate is  expressed  in  gallons  per
    acre. Nutrient concentrations  in pounds  per
    gallon (or pounds per 1,000 gallons) can be es-
    timated or obtained from lab analysis and used
    with the application rate in gallons per acre to
    obtain pounds per acre nutrient applied.
       The volumetric capacity of spreaders is
    generally provided by the manufacturer. Cau-
    tion  should  be  exercised  in using  manu-
    facturer's data  for spreader volume. A more
    accurate and preferred approach is to calibrate
    your own equipment.
       Assistance is available from the USDA Soil
    Conservation Service or Cooperative  Exten-
    sion Service offices  to calibrate your spreader
    Worksheets   are   available   to   determine
    spreader capacity and application  rate.  Unless
    the waste has been  analyzed for nutrient con-
    tent and unless the crop soil nutrient needs are
    known, spreader calibration may have little ef-
    fect on the application's success
       Once the desired application rate  is ob-
    tained, record the pertinent information so that
    you do not  have to recalibrate the  spreader
    each time it is used. Spread poultry wastes in a
    uniform  manner. If lush,  green growth  and
    not-so-lush  growth  of plants are  observed,
adjustments will need to be made during the
next application. Calibration of the  nutrient
spreader is an important practice that is eco-
nomically and environmentally useful.

    A nutrient management plan should be pe-
riodically updated  to ensure its effectiveness.
Often nutrient management can  save a pro-
ducer money by reducing the amount of fertil-
izer purchased.  This  reduction in cost is a
result of crediting for nutrients already in'the
soil and manure. For more information, or for
nutrient  management  planning  assistance,
contact your  local USDA  Soil Conservation
Service or Cooperative Extension Service office
or a nutrient management consultant in your

Barker, J.C. 1990. Livestock Waste Sampling, Analysis.
  and Calculation of Land Application Rates Reprint.
  EBAE  111-84  Agricultural Extension Service, North
  Carolina State University. Raleigh
Brodie, H.L., and V.A. Bandel 1990 Manure Testing FS-
  430 Cooperative Extension Service,  University of
  Maryland, College Park
Fulhage, C.D 1989. Reduce Environmental Problems with
  Proper Land Application of Animal Wastes  WQ201
  University Extension, University of Missouri, Colum-
	  1992. Land Application Considerations for Aru-
  mat Wastes WQ2D2 University Extension, University
  of Missouri, Columbia
Goan, H C, and J Jared 1991  Poultry Manure  Proper
  Handling and Application to  Protect Our Water Re
  sources PB1321 Cooperative Extension Service North
  Carolina State University. Raleigh
Ogbum, C B, and J O  Donald 1990  Calibrating Spread-
  ers for the Application of Animal and Poultry Manure
  DPT Circular  11/90-006 Cooperative Extension Serv-
  ice Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Woodward,  M  No date Manure Spreader  Calibration
  Work  Sheet Technical Note 4 Cooperative Extension
  Service, Pennsylvania State University, Lancaster
Zublena.JP,J.C Baiker, and T.A Carter 1993 Soil Facts
  Poultry Manure as a Fertilizer Source 1993 AG-139-5
  WQWM-41 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Ser-
  vice, Raleigh.
       Ottier pages in this handbook conlatn more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
       further  distribution. The  Poultry  Water Quality  Consortium is  a cooperatrve effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                                PWM / 6 - 6/94
                                POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                         HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax: (815)751-7479

                POULTRY WASTES
                    •hen  land  suitable
                    for spreading poultry
waste as a fertilizer or soil amendment is not
available or not under the control of the poul-
try grower, new markets for land applications
and new ways to use the waste must be found.
Poultry waste can be marketed as a fertilizer,
soil amendment, growing medium, or beef cat-
tle feed. These options could involve moving
the material from the point of production  to
the point of use

A Concentrated Industry-
Most poultry growers are concentrated within
a 25 to 50 mile radius of the hatchery, feed mill.
and  live bird processing plant. The cost  of
broiler production increases one cent per
pound when the production radius increases
over 25 miles Transportation and labor  costs
are the reason for  the increase, which can cost a
broiler production unit an additional S2 mil-
lion annually
    However, costs must also be applied to the
protection and preservation of water quality A
producer must ask whether it is better to in-
crease the area of the poultry operation to ac-
commodate all waste products or to transport
the excess materials to other areas. For exam-
ple,  suppose that a broiler complex that  in-
cludes pullets and breeders handles about I
million birds a week. These birds will produce
about 65,000 tons of litter annually. At the rate
of 4 tons per acre, a total of 16,250 acres will be
needed to use this  quantity of waste for land

    If more than the one company is operating
in the area, then even more waste will be pro-
duced and  mote land  will be needed. One
method of dealing with these large quantities
is to generate markets or disposal areas at a
point some distance from the point of produc-
tion. Growers need  to  find buyers for their
poultry  waste. In some instances, custom
cleanout operators will broker the waste for
the grower.
   Because of  the bulkiness of the solid or
semisolid product, transportation will  be the
Litter buyer's highest cost  An average farm
truck can carry 9 to 12 tons. A 30-foot, open
trailer used for transporting grains can carry
18 to 24 tons. As load size increases, the  cost
per ton should decrease. Figure the cost on a
round-trip basis, but if you can schedule back-
hauls in the empty truck, you can push  the
costs even lower. Current cost estimates  are
about $1 per mile on a round-tnp basis for a
20-ton load
    If the grower is paid a per ton price rang-
ing from S5 to $10 and the litter has a value of
S22 to $28 as a fertilizer or S40 to S80 as a feed
ingredient, the buyer  can afford to transport
the litter 100 miles for land applications or up
to 300 miles for use as a feed

Other Considerations
A method for  loading waste into trucks that
have 11-foot sides is needed. Front-end loaders
or an elevator that can  be  loaded  with a
smaller tractor or skid loader will work. The
storage facility must have a smooth hard pad
 to accommodate the loading process, and the
 litter must be free of foreign materials such as
 soil, rocks, broken glass, or other debris.  Pro-
 tect material from stormwater runoff.
     Roads and turn-around areas at both ends
 of the trip must beiarge enough to aocommo-

   date the process, and storage facilities must
   exist at the delivery depot if land applications
   or other use will be delayed.
       The quality and biosecurity  of  the waste
   must be protected. Poultry  waste should be
   transported only from well-managed and dis-
   ease-free farms. All trucks should be properly
   cleaned and disinfected, and any leakage from
   the trucks should be properly drained and di-
   verted  from runoff and groundwater. Before
   transportation to off-farm  use,  the  product
   should be deep stacked so that the heat in the
   stack can kill off any harmful microorganisms
   that might be present.
       Transportation of liquid  waste is more or
   less restricted to on-farm or short local hauls
   because of the type and size of equipment used
   and transporting time.
    Before waste can be readily accepted as a
substitute for commercial  fertilizer,  growers
must be confident that this waste product is
truly a marketable resource. When properly
collected, stored, handled, and used, poultry
waste is an effective substitute for fertilizer. It
also builds organic matter in the soil and im-
proves soil quality. Thus, it is not a waste, but
an economic asset.

Donald, J O., and J P Blake 1990. Economics of Transport-
  ing Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer. DTP Circular 10/90-
  007. Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn
  University, Auburn. AL.
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further  distribution. The  Poultry Water Quality  Consortium  is a cooperative effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone.                                                               PWMII- 6/94
                                POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                         HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax: (615) 751-7479

                AN  OVERVIEW OF  POULTRY
                    >oultry  mortalities —
                    dead birds — are a daily
 or near daily occurrence. Responsibility for
 safe and nonwasteful management of the car-
 casses begins with choosing the best method
 for their proper disposal. Because dead birds
 constitute a large portion of the total wastes
 generated in poultry production, their disposal
 is a practical problem for growers. In fact, even
 environmentally safe and economical methods
 of disposal can be a chore to producers.

    Normal mortality for broiler production is
 3  to 5 percent over the production cycle or
 about .01 percent per day. However, the size of
 flock, the number of birds on  hand, and the
 size and age  of the birds will dictate the num-
 ber and weight  of the carcasses that must be
 disposed of  daily. Massive die-offs or  cata-
 strophic losses must be handled differently.

    Most normal mortalities occur during the
 first and fast two weeks of the growing  cycle
 for broilers and from 10 to 13 weeks of age for
 layers  Mortality rates in other kinds of poultry
 operations will be similar to, if not somewhat
 lower  than,  the rate for broilers. A single
 grower, assuming that a typical broiler house
 holds 20,000 birds  weighing 2 to 4 pounds,
 may have as many as 85 pounds of dead  birds
 to dispose of each day near the end of the
 growing cycle. A roaster operation may have
 to dispose of as many as 115 pounds per day,
 and a turkey operation may dispose of 150 to
 200 pounds per day.

     Burial  in specially designed pits, incinera-
 tion, and transporting the carcasses off-farm to
 rendering  plants are the three most common
 means of disposing of dead birds; and recent
 environmental,  economic, and practical con-
cerns have sparked interest in an alternative
method: composting. Each of these four meth-
ods has best management practice guidelines
associated  with its use in poultry mortality
    Burial in pits is not always practical and
may not always be permitted. In some places,
pits may have adverse effects on water quality,
a serious  drawback given the intensity and
concentration of today's industry. Where per-
mitted, such pits must be properly sized,  lo-
cated,  and constructed.  The  decomposition
process in the pit works less well in cold
weather, and the pit must be tightly covered
for safety and to prevent odors.
    Incineration is an acceptable alternative to
the use of burial pits. It is environmentally
safe, though care must be taken to insure that
emissions do not create air quality problems or
nuisance odors. Incineration is a more costly
method of mortalities disposal; however, incin-
erator  equipment is improving to meet  a\r
quality standards

The Composting Alternative
Composting dead birds has become an accept-
able method of disposing of poultry  mortali-
ties  Composting  is  an  ancient,   natural
technique that was practiced with little change
throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. In that
era, composting methods and speed differed
little from the decomposition of organic matter
 that occurs naturally. The use of composting as
 a managed method of mortalities disposal is a
 relatively new process to the poultry grower
    Composting will result in an inoffensive
 end product;  in fact,  composting may  add
 value  to  the wasfe. Composted dead birds

   make good fertilizer or soil  amendment —
   each carcass is 2 to 9 percent  nitrogen, 1  to 4
   percent total phosphorus, and 1 to 7 percent
   total potassium.

   Rendering may be the most environmentally
   safe  method  for disposal of carcasses. It, like
   composting, adds value to a waste product —
   in this case by producing feed products, such
   as feather meal, with or without blood,  and
   other by-products for poultry and other  ani-
      A major problem with this method of mor-
   tality management is to determine how best to
   transport  the carcasses to the  plant before de-
   composition sets in. The grower's concern is to
   eliminate  the possibility that disease  or  dis-
   ease-causing organisms might be picked up in
   the vehicle or at the rendering plant and unin-
   tentionally transported back to the farm.
      Besides the delivery of fresh carcasses to
   the renderer, acid preservation and lactic  acid
   fermentation practices can be  used on the car-
   casses. These practices help neutralize patho-
   gens  and  toxic  chemicals  and provide  for
   longer holding  times on the  farm before the
   carcasses  are  transported.  Refrigeration or
   freezing is another method to preserve dead
   birds prior to delivery to the plant.
Before You Decide
Unsanctioned methods, such as feeding the
carcasses to hogs or other domestic animals or
abandoning them in sinkholes or creeks or in
the wild, should not be attempted. Disposing
of dead birds in a municipal landfill is also no
longer acceptable.
    In all cases, dead bird disposal should be
recognized as a potential health hazard and in
most states, as a regulated activity. Growers
must choose the permitted disposal method
that best suits them. Standards must be strictly
maintained to ensure sanitary conditions and
the least possible environmental consequences.
Growers should check with their state regula-
tory agency  to be certain  that their planned
methods of disposal comply with all dead ani-
mal disposal regulations. The USDA Soil Con-
servation Service and Cooperative Extension
Service offices can be of assistance.
    More detailed discussions of burial pits, in-
cineration,  rendering, and  composting  as
methods  for managing dead birds  can  be
found in the Poultry  Mortality  Management
(PMM) section of this handbook.

Blake, J.P.  1993.  Mortality Management Presentation.
   Poultry Waste Management and Water Quality Work-
   shop Southeastern Poultry and Egg  Association.  At-
   lanta, GA
Payne, V WE , and J O  Donald 1991 Poultry Waste Man-
   agement and Environmental Protection Manual Circu-
   lar ANR-580 Alabama Cooperative Extension Service.
   Auburn, AL
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further distribution.  The Poultry Water Quality  Consortium is a cooperative effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       tor everyone.                                                              ******'1 ~
                               POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                        HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  •  Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                               Tel: (615) 751-7297 - Fax:(615)751-7479

                FOR  DEAD  BIRDS
                   he burial of dead birds
                   in trenches, open  pits,
 and landfills is not an acceptable method of
 dead bird disposal. In some states, no burial
 pits whatsoever are permitted — or it is pre-
 dicted that they will not be permitted in the fu-
 ture. However, in states  that do permit  this
 practice, properly constructed disposal  pits
 may provide a safe and economical component
 of a mortalities management plan. In all cases,
 the pits  must be fabricated.

 Fabricated Disposal Pits
 A fabricated pit is an open-bottomed, rein-
 forced hole in the ground that has one or more
 openings at the top through which carcasses
 are dropped. An airtight cover above the open-
 ings prevents  odors from escaping.  The pit
 provides an environment for aerobic and an-
 aerobic microorganisms to decompose organic
 materials. Although disposal pits require mini-
 mal labor and supervision, they must be main-
 tained  in  a   sanitary,  legal,  and  socially
 acceptable manner.

    Some prefabricated  pits  can be purchased
 from septic tank dealers and delivered to the
 farm ready for installation. Under no circum-
 stances,  however, should  the pit be simply a
 hole in  the ground dug with a  backhoe  and
 lined with tin. Instead, the fabricated pit should
 be made of concrete block, poured concrete, or
 treated  timbers. The decomposition process
 produces very little water inside the pit, but the
 pit  must be covered (with soil and planted to
 vegetation) to carry water away from the pit
 and to prevent access to heavy equipment.

    The openings — also called drop chutes —
 are  made of plastic (PVC) pipes, which pro-
trude out of the mound at intervals of five feet.
The chutes should have tightly fitted but re-
movable covers.  The bottom of the pit  is
earthen with holes at intervals up the sides.

Generally, a disposal pit should be located at
least 200 feet from dwellings and the nearest
water well, 300 feet from any flowing stream
or public body of water, and 25 feet from the
poultry house.  Before constructing a disposal
pit, make certain that the soil composition is
Properly constructed disposal pits are made of
concrete block, poured concrete, or treated

    acceptable.  Bedrock  (especially  limestone)
    should be avoided. Locate pits in soil where
    good surface runoff will occur.
        To prevent groundwater  contamination,
    the pit's lowest point should be at least five
    feet above the highest known water table and
    at least five feet above bedrock to keep con-
    tamination from traveling along a rock fissure.
    To prevent water from seeping into the pit,
    construction on a  slope, floodplain, or low-
    lying area should be avoided. Sandy soils are
    not suitable for installing a disposal pit.

    Pit Size
    The pit itself should be at least six feet deep
    with reinforced walls. The size of the pit de-
    pends on several  factors, including tine ex-
    pected mortality rate of the flock, bird size, and
    environmental conditions. Use  the following
    table to estimate pit size:
(to IS weeks)
       For broiler mortalities, for example, if you
   ha\e  a 5 percent mortality  rate in a flock of
   20,000 and you raise five flocks per year, your
   burial pit should contain at least 250 cubic feet
   of disposal space. That is, it should be about
   six feet deep, six feet wide, and about seven
   feet long. Sometimes it can be more convenient
   to use several smaller pits to  prevent overload-
   ing In cooler climates, the pit size should be
   larger to accommodate a slower rate of decom-

   Durability and Cost
   The life of  the pit will  depend on  its location
   and whether it is properly sized, constructed,
   and managed. Because bacterial action is im-
   portant, the pit must be operated in a way that
   will protect  the bacterial  population. High
acidity can  slow the  decomposition of dead
birds. Disposal pits are most efficient during
warmer months when bacterial action is great-
est. Decomposition is slowed by winter tem-
peratures or by accumulation of water in the
pit. Grinding the carcasses or splitting open
the dead birds will increase the pif s efficiency
and extend its life.

   The cost of constructing disposal pits will
vary widely depending on the materials used,
site conditions, and the size of the pit. The ge-
ology — rocky soil, for example — can make
digging expensive. As pit size increases, heav-
ier construction is required for walls and tops;
thus, higher costs are incurred. For a well-built
pit, a useful  life of five years is not uncommon,
and some producers have  reported that pits
can be useful for eight to 10 years. Replace-
ment is required when the pit is full.

After  a  pit  is constructed, producers should
check their facilities twice daily for mortalities,
which should be transferred immediately  to
the pit. Covers on the drop chutes should be
kept tight at all times to prevent odor and re-
strict  unauthorized access by  children,  ani-
mals, and rodents. Certain insects in a disposal
pit are beneficial to the decomposition of the
carcasses, but insects should not be allowed to
develop into a nuisance. With proper handling
the disposal pit costs nothing to maintain ex-
cept for the labor required to collect the car-

Burial pits may attract  flies and  scavengers,
and they may create offensive odors Further,
today's farm may have insufficient land space
for burying  birds,  or  the capacity  of the pits
may  be  limited in wintertime. In  many in-
stances, the  dead birds do not completely de-
compose  because  of  the  lack  of oxygen
Slacked lime may be added to the burial pit to
break down  the tissue of the dead birds, which
will also, in effect, sterilize the remains. If poor
soils or a high  water table are not considered
before pits are  dug, groundwater can become

   Before constructing or installing a prefabn-
cated  disposal  pit,* poultry producers should

 consult with their state's veterinary specialist,
 other agricultural offices,  and  environmental
 or  natural resource agencies.  These  agencies
 may  regulate the use of burial pits, or the state
 may  have disallowed  burial pits entirely,  so
 seeking expert guidance will often save time
 and  money.  Local USDA Soil  Conservation
 Services or Cooperative Extension Service of-
 fices  can provide technical assistance  to grow-
 ers who want to use disposal pits as part of
 their  mortality management plans.

Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission and
  the Water Resources Center. No date Water Quality
  and Poultry Disposal Pits. Fact Sheet 2. Arkansas Soil
  and Water Conservation Commission, Little Rock AR.

Donald, J.O., and J.P. Blake. 1990. Use and Construction of
  Poultry Burial Pits. DTP Circular 10/90-013  Alabama
  Cooperative Extension Service, Aubum University. Au-
  burn, AL

Wineland, M.J., and T. A Carter. 1987. Poultry Science and
  Technology Guide — Proper Disposal of Dead Poultry
  PS&T Guide No. 19. North Carolina Agricultural Ex-
  tension Service, Raleigh
    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
    further distribution.  The Poultry Water Quality  Consortium  is a  cooperative  effort of industry and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
    for everyone                                                                   PMM12- fi/94

                               POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                       HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  •  Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                               Tel: (615) 751 -7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479
                                                                      A DISPOSAL METHOD FOR DEAD BIRDS  3

               METHOD  FOR DEAD  BIRDS
                 Incineration, or cremation,
                 is a safe method of carcass
disposal and may be an alternative to burial
pits. The major advantage of incineration is its
security — it is biologically secure, and it will
not create water pollution problems. Ash is
easy to dispose of and does not attract rodents
or pests.
   On the other hand, incineration is slow and
costly — and likely to become more expensive
as fuel costs rise. Incinerators must be properly
sited,  too, because  unpleasant odors may ac-
company the process. Indeed,  an air quality
issue  for poultry growers who  choose  this
method of mortalities management is the emis-
sion of odor and dust (particulates) that may
be generated during the process.
   Nevertheless,  incineration  is  considered
very sanitary when properly applied. Home-
made  incinerators, that is, 55-gallon barrels or
drums containing  carcasses that have been
drenched in a flammable liquid, are not accept-
able and do not meet air quality standards.

Good Incinerator Design
Incinerator design and use are often regulated
by states. Producers considering  this method
of poultry mortality management should  con-
sult with their state's environmental and natu-
ral resources  agencies  before incorporating
incineration into their mortality management
plan. A variety of commercial incinerators are
available that will ensure a proper bum and air
quality safeguards.
   Incinerators should be sturdily built and
able to accommodate normal daily mortalities.
Those that have automatic controls are most
convenient. The unit you purchase should be
able to handle large loads and high tempera-
tures,  and the size of the incinerator should
also be carefully estimated to avoid overload-
ing the equipment Other disposal methods
should be included in your resource manage-
ment plan to cover situations in which heavy,
unexpected losses occur.

Incinerator Location
Additional considerations include the location
and proper operation of the incinerator equip-
ment.  Nuisance complaints about incinerators
are many; where and how you install and op-
erate your equipment will influence the fre-
quency of these complaints. First, locate the
unit downwind of the  poultry house, resi-
dences, and  your neighbors' properties. Sec-
ond, be sure that  the discharge stack is far
enough away from trees or wooden structures
to avoid  fires.  Incinerators burn at intensely
high temperatures. Locating the incinerator Ln
A variety of commercial incinerators are available.

    an area convenient to the poultry house will
    also contribute to better management.
       Sheltering the  incinerator from inclement
    weather will extend the life of the unit. For best
    results,  place it on a concrete slab inside a
    roofed structure.

    Incinerator Costs
    You will want to consider at least two items to
    determine the cost of incineration as a disposal
    method for poultry mortalities:

        * equipment purchase and
          maintenance, and
        T the rate of bum and fuel costs.

       Purchase  costs will vary depending on the
    size and type of  the incinerator. Discharge
    stacks and afterburner devices that recycle the
    fumes can help control odors and dust, but air
    pollution is difficult to avoid with incinerators.
    Expendable parts and grates will need to be re-
    placed periodically — perhaps every two or
    three years — and the whole system may need
    replacement (or overhaul) every  five to seven
       The rate of burn will likewise vary depend-
    ing on the weight, moisture, and  fat content of
    the carcasses and on the loading capacity of the
unit (e.g., incinerators may have to be loaded
several  times to handle a day's mortalities).
Some broiler producers have experienced an
average bum rate of about 65 pounds an hour;
they estimate that it costs about $3.50 (1990 es-
timates) to incinerate 100 pounds of mortali-
ties. If fuel prices increase, so will the cost of
each burn.

    Incineration is  an  acceptable  and  safe
method of poultry mortalities management. It
does not risk the spread  of disease or water
pollution; however, it is costly. Not only are di-
rect costs involved in the process, the choice of
incineration also means the loss of any nutrient
value that the mortalities might have had if
composted for land applications or other uses.
Growers considering incineration as a method
of poultry mortalities management are encour-
aged  to plan this action in connection with
their entire resource management system.

Brown. W R 1993 Composting Poultry Manure Presenta-
  tion Poultry  Waste Management and  Water Quality
  Workshop Southeastern Poultry and Egg Association,
  Atlanta, GA
Donald, J O, and J P Blake 1990 Installation and Use of
  Incinerators DPT Circular 11/90-014 Alabama Cooper-
  ative Extension Service, Auburn University, Auburn,
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further  distribution. The  Poultry  Water  Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort of industry  and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                               PMM / 3 - 6/94
                               POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                        HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297  • Fax:(615)751-7479

                COMPOSTING —  A  DISPOSAL
                METHOD  FOR  DEAD BIRDS
                   Composting poultry mor-
                   ' tali ties or dead birds is
 a practical and sanitary alternative to burial
 pits and incinerators. It is a fairly odorless and
 biologically sound practice. Management com-
 mitment is the key to the success of compost-
 ing dead birds.
    Composting  yields a valuable product:
 compost, an odorless, spongy humus-like ma-
 terial that has several uses ranging from soil
 conditioner to horticultural growing medium.
 However, most states require that composted
 birds be applied  to the grower's own land.
 Composting also has other advantages.

     * It is not a costly method of
       mortality disposal.

     * The materials needed for
       composting — litter, mortalities,
       straw, and water — are readily

     T It increases biosecurity; that is,
       composting destroys
       disease-causing organisms and
       fly larvae.

     * Composting is environmentally
       sound; properly done, it will not
       cause odors or water pollution

     * Once a composting system has
       been set up, it will not require
       much labor.

     * Composting systems have been
       developed and tested to fit both
       large and small growers' needs.
A Natural Process
Composting is a controlled, natural aerobic
process in which heat,  bacteria,  and  fungi
change organic wastes into compost. Success-
ful composting requires a specific range of
particle sizes,  moisture content,  carbon-to-
nitrogen ratio, and temperature.

   * Particle Size. Particles that are too small
   will compact to such an extent that air
   movement into the pile is prevented. Mate-
   rial that is too large allows too much ex-
   change of air, and  so prevents the heat
   from building up properly. A proper mix-
   ture of size allows both air exchange and
   temperature buildup.

   * Moisture Content. The ideal moisture
   content in the composting pile is 60 per-
   cent. Too much moisture can cause the pile
   to become saturated, which excludes oxy-
   gen The process then becomes anaerobic,
   a condition that results in offensive odors
   and attracts flies  Runoff from a composter
   that  is too  wet  can  pollute  the soil or
   water  Too little  moisture reduces  micro-
   bial activity and decreases the rate of com-

    * Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio. Carbon and
   nitrogen are vital nutrients for the growth
    and  reproduction of bacteria  and  fungi;
    therefore, the ratio of carbon  to nitrogen
    (C N) influences the rate at which the com-
    posting process  proceeds. Conditions are
    most ideal for composting when the CN
    ratio is between 20:1 and 35:1.
    If the carbon ratio is too high,  the process
    slows down because it has insufficient ni-
    trogen. This imbalance can be corrected by

       adding more manure or litter to the com-
       post pile. If the carbon ratio is too low, the
       bacteria and fungi cannot vise all of the
       available nitrogen, and the excess nitrogen
       is converted to ammonia, resulting in un-
       pleasant odors. This problem  is fixed by
       adding more straw or sawdust.

       v Temperature.   The best indicator  of
       proper biological activity in the composter
       is temperature. Use a probe-type 36-inch
       stainless steel thermometer, 0 to 250 *F,
       with a pointed tip to monitor temperatures
       within the compost pile. Optimum temper-
       ature range is 130 to 150 °F. When the tem-
       perature decreases,  the general problem is
       that not enough oxygen is available for the
       bacteria and fungi. Oxygen can be replen-
       ished by turning or aerating the pile. Tem-
       peratures will rise as  the  composting
       process repeats itself.
       The  cycle of composting, turning, com-
       posting can be repeated as long as there is
       organic material available to compost and
       the proper moisture content and C:N ratio
       are present. When temperatures reach the
       optimum range for three days, harmful mi-
       croorganisms (pathogens) and fly larvae
       will be  destroyed. Daily  recording of the
       temperatures in the piles is important be-
       cause it will indicate whether the bacteria
       and fungi are working properly.

   Composter Design and Operation
   Composting poultry mortalities can be done in
   or outside the poultry house, but it should al-
   ways be done in an environmentally safe and
   healthy manner, under a roof, and protected
   from  ram. Dead bird composters are generally
   classified as single-stage or  two-stage  struc-
   tures. The  small, single-stage composter was
   developed to dispose of small birds, to operate
   in normal or  lower  than normal mortality
   events, and to serve smali farms without front-
   end loaders. The operation is simple,  yet effec-
   tive, and requires  only a shovel or pitchfork
   and a thermometer.

      To make an in-house composter, use four
   screen-and-lumber  panels (about 40 by  36
   inches) to make a single square bin (Fig.  1).
   Each bin has a capacity of up to 30 pounds of
   dead  birds per day or a total capacity of 600

Figure 1.—Typical in-house composter.

pounds. Four to six such bins will handle the
dead birds from a 20,000-bird broiler house at a
cost of about $500. Position assembled bins at a
location convenient for gathering  the dead
birds  and for easy access for unloading be-
tween flocks.

    The process for composting  in a  single-
stage  composter begins with the procedures
previously described.  The recipe or start-up
materials are 200 pounds of litter, one-third
bale of straw, and 15 gallons of water.  Add
these  ingredients  to  a bin in  the  following
order 6 inches of loose straw, 65 pounds dry
litter,  and 5 gallons of water. Repeat the layer-
ing process three times until all start-up ingre-
dients have been  used. Insert thermometer;
when the material reaches  140 to 150 *F, the
composter is ready to begin processing dead
    Form a V-shaped  IS-inch deep trough in
the center of the  bin. Add  straw, btter, dead
birds, water, and btter, and cover or cap with
start-up ingredients. Avoid placing dead birds
closer than 6 inches to the walls  Mixing and
aeration take place when the bin is prepared
for the next load of dead buds (Fig  2). Record
the temperature at a depth of 8 to 20 inches in
the center of the pile daily  Repeat this proce-
dure  until the bin is filled  Compost may  be
used in place of new materials to restart.

    An outside single-stage composter can be
any size. However, an area 4 feet square and a
36-by-48-inch bin  is a workable size  Place the
bins on a concrete pad with a roof to protect
the compost from excessive  moisture,  anaero-
bic conditions, and pests. The management of,
and recipe  for, outside composters are the

 Figure 2.—Loading an in-house composter.
 same as for in-house composters, but adjust-
 ments can be made to meet individual situa-
 tions. The time and hand labor required to
 manage an outside composter must be care-
 fully considered before installation. The cost of
 an outside  single-stage composter varies ac-
 cording to its size, from $500 to $1300.

 Two-stage Composters
 A two-stage composter is larger and more ex-
 pensive than the single-stage composter, but it
 will accommodate  more dead  birds.  A two-
 stage composter is also less labor intensive be-
 cause it  relies on mechanized  equipment.
 However, it must be compatible with the man-
agement capabilities of the producer. The com-
posting process is done in  primary and sec-
ondary  bins.  The following  requirements
describe the  design and lay-out of a two-stage

 ^ The size of the composter is 1 cubic foot of
   primary bin and 1 cubic foot of secondary
   bin per pound of daily mortality.

 * The height of bins should not exceed 5 feet.
   Heights  greater than 5 feet increase com-
   paction and the potential for overheating.

 * The width of the bins is usually selected to
   accommodate the loading and unloading of
   equipment. A width of 8 feet is normal, but
   the bins could be wider.

 v Most bins are typically 5 or 6 feet deep, al-
   though deeper  bins can be  used. Longer
   bins are more difficult to enter and exit and
   take more time to work.

 ^ Several smaller primary bins work more ef-
   ficiently  than a few large bins. Secondary
   bins can be larger, but they must have the
   same capacity as the primary bins (see Fig.

                                                   PUSH POST ROW
                       UTTER STORAGE
                           10* X 16'
                  |_          "]^_      TREATED COLUMNS                      _J

                                            FLOOR PLAN
Figure 3.—Typical two-stage composter floor plan (not to scale).
                                                               A DISPOSAL METHOD FOR DEAD BIRDS 3

     v It is desirable to have extra primary bins in
       which to store litter and straw. If high mor-
       talities occur, these bins could be used for

     * Ceiling height of the composter should be
       high enough to accommodate a front-end
       loader extended upward.

     ^ Concrete flooring should be extended be-
       yond the bins sufficiently to allow a tractor
       or other equipment to work entirely on  a
       concrete surface. Dirt or gravel will rut, dig
       out. and reduce traction.

     * Roof overhang must extend sufficiently to
       prevent blowing rain from  reaching  the
       compost. Side curtains are another option
       to protect the compost from blowing rain.
       Maintain dry conditions within the com-
       posting structures.

     T A composter that has a litter storage facility
       can  greatly enhance the management of
       dead birds, building cleanout,  and litter
       spreading operations

     ^ The composting facility should be supplied
       with fire protection equipment in case the
       compost self-ignites

     * The  composting   facility   should  be
       equipped with  water and electrical serv-
       ices Water is required for the compost rec-
       ipe,   equipment cleanup,  and  for  the
       washdown of personnel. Electrical  outlets
       are required for lights and power tools or

       Costs of composters depend on many  fac-
   tors — size, configuration (e.g., work areas, in-
   gredients, and finished compost storage), and
   utilities  Some  composting  structures have
   been built  for as little as $500; others, for as
   much as 550,000. No specific plan or layout for
   composters works best in all cases. Many dif-
   ferent  designs  will  perform adequately,  but
   management capabilities determine the suc-
   cess of the composting process. Standard plans
   and management information for poultry mor-
   tality composters are available through local
   USDA Sod Conservation Service or Coopera-
   tive Extension Service offices.
   Financial aid or cost-share funding may be
available to help pay for the design and con-
struction of composting facilities. Check with
your local conservation district, USDA Soil
Conservation Service, or Cooperative Exten-
sion Service offices to learn more about these

Composting Recipe
For composting poultry mortalities in a two-
stage composter, a prescribed mixture of ingre-
dients is used called a "recipe." The recipe calls
for one part dead birds, one part manure and
litter, two-to-three parts straw or other carbon
source, and zero-to-a-half part water (Table 1).
Recipes for  a single-stage composter differ

Table 1.—Typical recipe for composting
dead birds with litter, straw and water as
Dead Birds
Litter or cake
* Water as an ingredient may not be necessary.
Too much water may result in anaerobic

    Proper layering of the reape  will ensure
appropriate  heat for composting the mortali-
ties in about 14 days To begin, place 6  to 12
inches of litter or manure, followed by a 6-inch
layer of loose straw to provide aeration, fol-
lowed b\ a layer of dead birds Depending on
the moisture content of the manure or  cake,
water may or may  not be added  Repeat this
layering process until the pile or bin is full (see
Fig 4)
    Leave 6 to 8 inches of space between the
edges of the dead bird layer and  the wooden
wall  of the  composter This space allows air
movement around the pile and keeps carcasses
nearer to the center of the pile, where the heat
is highest. Do not  stack dead birds on top of
each other. They may be adjacent to  one an-
other, even touching, but they must be ar-
ranged in  a  single layer.  Spread  litter  or
manure and straw as evenly as possible.








                                                                    *i 4— 4* manurr c»p
                                                                        Manure is aJways
                                                                       • plared on top of
        v Foundations  An  impervious,  weight-
        bearing foundation or floor, preferably of
        concrete,  should  be provided  under  pri-
        mary and secondary composting vessels or
        bins.  Experience has shown that after fre-
        quent loading and unloading activities,
        dirt or gravel tends to become rutted  and
        pot-holed. A good foundation ensures all-
        weather operation, helps secure against ro-
        dent  and animal activity, and minimizes
        the potential for pollution of surrounding

        * Building Materials and Design.   Pres-
        sure-treated lumber or other rot-resistant
        materials are necessary. A roofed compos-
        ter ensures year-round, all-weather opera-
        tion, helps control stormwater runoff,  and
        preserves composting ingredients  at  the
        desired moisture content. Adequate roof
        height is also needed for clearance when
        using a front-end loader. The  amount of
        rain that is blown into the composter can
        be minimized  by the addition  of  partial
        sidewalls or curtains  and guttering along
        the roof.

        Thus, the key requirements  for a mortality
   composter are good management;  a properly
   sized, properly located facility;  easy  access,
   and a well-constructed, roofed  structure. Fol-
   lowing these regulations will result in a mor-
talities management system that is nonpollut-
ing and capable of producing a valuable by-

Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission and
  the Water Resources Center. No date. Composting- A
  Safe and Simple Alternative m Water Quality and Poul-
  try Disposal Pits. Fact Sheet 2. Arkansas Soil and Water
  Conservation Commission, Little Rock.
Brown. W.R 1993. Composting Poultry Mortality Presen-
  tation. Poultry Waste Management and Water Quality
  Workshop. Southeastern Poultry and  Egg Association,
  Atlanta, GA.
Fulhage, C. 1992. Composting Poultry Carcasses in Mis-
  souri  WQ205. Cooperative Extension, University  of
  Missouri, Columbia
Murphy, D.W. 1993. Mirticomposter — Dead Bird Dis-
  posal. Fact Sheet 642. Cooperative Extension, Univer-
  sity of Maryland, College Park.
Murphy, D.W., and L.E. Can. 1991 rev Composting Dead
  Birds. Fact Sheet 537. Cooperative Extension, Univer-
  sity of Maryland, College Park.
Payne, V W.E., and J O Donald 1991 Poultry Waste Man-
  agement and Environmental Protection Manual. Circu-
  lar ANR 580. Cooperative  Extension Service, Auburn
  University, Auburn, AL.
Scarborough, J N , D H Palmer, and T H  Williams  No
  date Composting Structures for Dead Poultry Dela-
  ware Cooperative Extension, University of Delaware,
U S. Department of Agriculture 1993 Agricultural Waste
  Management Handbook, Part 651 Soil Conservation
  Service, Washington, DC
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects  Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material lor
       further distribution. The  Poultry  Water Qualrty  Consortium  is a cooperative effort  of  industry  and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                                  PMM 74-6/94
                                 POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                          HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  •  Chattanooga, TN  37402-2601
                                  Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

               RENDERING —  A DISPOSAL
               METHOD  FOR DEAD  BIRDS
                   .endering — the process
                   of  separating  animal
fats, usually by cooking, to produce usable in-
gredients such as lard, protein, feed products,
or nutrients — is an ancient waste manage-
ment process. It is also an excellent  way to
recycle dead birds. We are now able to reclaim
or recycle almost 100 percent of inedible raw
poultry  material through  rendering  tech-
    Until recently, the animal protein  in meat
and bone  meal  residues was considered a
waste of the rendering process; it was usually
discarded, though it could sometimes  be used
as a fertilizer Now rendering plants pick up or
receive about 91  million pounds of waste an-
nually to supply 85 percent of all fats and oils
used in the United States. They also export 35
percent of the fats and oils used worldwide.
Rendering operations provide a vital  link be-
tween the  feed industry  and  the  poultry
grower and help us control odor and  prevent
air and water pollution.
    Rendering has not  always been widely
practiced as a poultry mortality management
technique because

    * dead birds may carry disease-
      causing organisms;

    * suitable facilities for rendering
      have not always been available;

    * it can be difficult to keep the
      carcasses suitable for rendering.
   Thus, dangers associated with the routine
pick up  and delivery of the  carcasses to the
rendering plant  have been  perceived as a
threat to avtan health and the environment.
   Rendering's great advantage as a manage-
ment technique is that it removes mortalities
from the farm and relieves the grower of envi-
ronmental concerns related to other methods of
disposal. It may also provide some economic
return.  Therefore, as  concerns for nutrient
losses  and water quality increase,  producers
and buyers of poultry products are experiment-
ing with new techniques for delivering poultry
mortalities to rendering plants as part of their
mortalities management planning.
   A major disadvantage of rendering as it is
usually perceived is that disease may be car-
ried back to the poultry farm by the vehicles or
containers used to convey the dead birds to the
tendering  plant.  Appropriate  management
and handling techniques can alleviate this dif-

Holding Methods
Raw or fresh poultry mortalities that are des-
tined for a rendering plant must be held in a
leak-proof, fly-proof container, and  they must
be delivered to, or be picked up by, a rendering
company within 24 hours of death All mortali-
ties must be held in a form that retards decom-
position until they are collected

Freezing or Refrigeration,
A New Holding Technique
Some producers  are  experimenting  with  a
technique that combines on-the-farm freezing
or refrigeration and the rendering process to
determine whether freezing can be an effective
way for growers to hold dead birds until they
can be rendered.  Large custom-built or ordi-
nary commercial freezer boxes are  being used
to preserve dead birds until they can be picked

    up  and  delivered  to  the rendering  plant.
    Custom-built boxes or  units are usually free
    standing   with  self-contained   refrigeration
    units designed to operate at temperatures be-
    tween 10 and 20 *F.

       Ideally, these freezer units will have no en-
    vironmental  or health  impacts.  The smaller
    ones are designed to allow the immediate re-
    moval of the carcasses  from the  growers; the
    larger ones, to hold the birds frozen until the
    box is full or otherwise  scheduled for delivery
    to the plant.

       Large domestic freezers will hold  about
    250 to 300 pounds  of dead birds. Specifically
    designed  boxes  can handle  1,600  to  2,000
    pounds of dead birds and are easily loaded
    through various door  arrangements.  They
    must also be sealed against weather and air
    leakage. The grower can load the freezer each
    day — once is a minimum. Putting the birds in
    the freezer in a single layer helps ensure that
    all  the carcasses are properly refrigerated or

       Fresh  unfrozen  carcasses are added  to the
    box as the top  layer. The temperatures are set
    to allow the  product to be completely frozen
    within 24  hours. Check the temperature  gauge
    at each loading. Overloading may prevent the
    total freezing of the  carcasses.

       The boxes  can  be emptied at the end of
   each growing cycle or as needed. The render-
    ing plant can send  a truck to the farm,  or the
   grower may deliver the unit to the plant  Boxes
   or containers are picked up (using a forklift or
   front-end  loader) and  emptied.  The freezer
   boxes open from the top, bottom, or sides for
   easy access and are  then reseaJed  The refriger-
   ation unit never leaves the farm, only the con-
   tainer  holding the  dead birds is removed or
   emptied.  Freezer units are expected to  last
   roughly 10 years. They operate on energy effi-
   cient circuit boxes  with an operating cost of
   about SI 50 per day.

       So far, the cost  of freezing as a collection
   method is related to the cost of energy; its po-
   tential for generating income is not yet known.
   The product is  processed at a rendering plant.
   Although some companies have already made
   an  investment in these units, other growers
   should be able to recoup the costs of freezer
boxes and product transportation. Transfer of
pathogens  or harmful  microorganisms  be-
tween farms has not been found to be a prob-
lem with this method of collection. Additional
research is  needed to fully explore  this man-
agement option and any  pathogenic problems
that may be perceived in it; however, its propo-
nents stress its usefulness as a way to reduce or
eliminate potential pollution and improve con-
ditions on the farm.

Fermentation procedures have been explored
to determine whether they can contribute to a
biologically secure and environmentally safe
method of holding poultry carcasses until their
nutrient components can be recovered in a
form suitable for reprocessing and refceding.

   Fermentation is, in fact, a way to safely dis-
pose of poultry mortalities, but it also keeps
them on-site until the end of the growing cycle
or until sufficient volume is  attained for deliv-
ery to a rendering plant. Fermentation mixes
the  mortalities and  a fermentable carbohy-
drate, such as sugar, whey, ground com, or
   The fermentation process produces organic
acids that lower the pH of the mixture. The
acidity of  fresh tissue  is near neutral (pH
equals 6.3 to 6.5), while the acidity of the silage
is 4 0 to 4.5. Thus, the activity of anaerobic bac-
tena (Lactobacillus, which are found naturally
in poultry) converts the sugars into lactic acid
and lowers the pH to less than 5 0, thus inacti-
vating the  pathogenic microorganisms in  the
carcasses and preserving the organic materials

    In the experiments presently underway, it
has not been necessary to use any bacterial uv
oculant in the mixture The fermented product
is incubated anaerobically in airtight contain-
ers where  it can  be safely  stored for several
months —  that is, until the amount  of  the
product suffices to warrant the cost of trans-
portation to the rendering plant

Acid Preservation
Preserving foodstuff by  acidification has been
a  widespread  practice   in agriculture. This
method of preserving dead birds is the same as
the fermentation process except that propioruc.

                                             LITY     MANAGEMENT
 phosphoric, or sulfuric acid is added to the
 poultry carcasses, which are kept in an airtight,
 plastic container. Sulfuric add may be pre-
 ferred because it (1) retards spoilage, (2) excel-
 lently  preserves  the  carcass,  and  (3)   is
 relatively low in cost.
    Carcasses can be punctured with a blunt
 metal  rod  rather  than  placed  through  a
 grinder. Punctured carcasses can be separated
 from the acid solution without the accumula-
 tion of sludge in the holding container.
    The product resulting from lactic acid fer-
 mentation and  acid  preservation  reduces the
 transportation costs associated  with rendering
 by 90 percent. What is more important, how-
 ever, is that these processes eliminate the po-
 tential for transmitting pathogenic organisms
 into the rendered products or environment.
Accurate costs of fermentation and preserva-
tion are limited because most of the work has
been through research.  It is estimated, how-
ever, that costs  will range from three to four
cents per pound of dead birds.
    In an expanding poultry industry, the pro-
duction of manure and mortalities will only in-
crease. Producers should contact the Tenderers
in their area to determine which holding and
transportation methods  are acceptable, and
they must increase their search for safe, cost-ef-
fective disposal and reuse methods. Every pos-
sible  safe  method should be  explored until
each grower determines the method most com-
patible with his or her situation and manage-
ment abilities.  Rendering,  like  composting,
adds value to the end product.

Blake, JP 1993. Mortality  Management  Presentation
  Poultry Waste Management and Water Quality Work-
  shop Southeastern Poultry and Egg Association, At-
  lanta, GA
Lomax, K.M., G W. Malone, and W.W Saylor. 1991. Add
  Preservation for Poultry Carcass Utilization Paper No.
  91-4051. American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
  Albuquerque, NM.
Murphy, D.W., and S.A Silbert. 1992. Preservation of and
  nutrient recovery from poultry carcasses subjected to
  lactic acid bacteria fermentation. Journal of  Applied
  Poultry Research l(l):66-74.
Zimmerman, M. 1993. Freezing for the Rendering Plant.
  Presentation. Poultry Waste Management  and Water
  Quality Workshop. Southeastern Poultry and  Egg As-
  sociation, Atlanta, GA
   Other pages m this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects  Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
   further distribution.  The Poultry Water  Quality  Consortium  is a cooperative effort  of  industry  and
   government lo identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone.                                                                 PMM / 5 - 6/94
                            POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                     HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  • Chattanooga, TN  37402-2801
                             Tel: (615) 751-7297 •  Fax: (615) 751-7479
                                                                   A DISPOSAL METHOD FOP DEAD BIRDS  3

                 SITE  SELECTION FOR  THE
                 POULTRY  FARMSTEAD
                   kite selection and general
                   'farmstead  planning are
 important elements in subsequent profitability
 and ease of animal waste management han-
 dling. Each site is, of course, unique, but some
 general environmental  and safety considera-
 tions apply to all sites.  Besides the visual im-
 pact, the first considerations  are air quality
 (dust and odor control), the movement and
 quality  of the water (drainage  and  supply),
 and availability of sufficient land for handling
 waste production. Site selection is also an ap-
 propriate beginning for establishing a good
 neighbor policy
    A good location will help you minimize
 potential problems with odor, rats, flies, bee-
 tles, and mice. Locating the poultry house con-
 veniently near the farm residence is useful; but
 the location should also be attractive, or the
 house should be shielded (not visible) from the
 road, especially  if  it is  near a property line.
 Building a vegetative windbreak  or fence will
 not only help  the  operation's appearance, it
 will also reduce dust and odors that might cre-
 ate a nuisance, or the perception of a nuisance,
 among your neighbors  If the house is sited

Figure 1.—Siring of a typical broiler operation.
within an adequate windshed, many potential
air quality problems can be avoided with little
on no adverse effect on the community (see
Fig. 1).

   Soil drainage (both surface and subsurface)
is likewise an important consideration. A site
on relatively high ground with adequate drain-
age can help prevent flooding, road wash outs,
wet litter, and disease. Good drainage coupled
with an appropnate use of gutters and grading
around the outside of the building will  direct
runoff away from the production facility and
family home. Sod drainage helps ensure access
to the facility at all times on all-weather roads
It also helps secure a safe drinking water sup-

   Subsurface drainage is also important  to
prevent excessive nutrients or other possible
contaminants from entering the groundwater
In the manure storage area, a barrier between
the manure and the ground is needed, such as
a plastic tarp under the gravel or concrete base
of the structure Within the  house itself, the re-
moval of  cake and  wet litter  should  be
planned,  waterers should be inspected  for
leaks, and  stirring, air drying, and ventilation
should be part of standard operating proce-
dures Foundation drains or footing drains can
also be added to remove any subsurface water
that rrught otherwise enter the house.

Manure  Storage Sites
Manure storage sheds, stacks,  or windrows
should be convenient to the poultry house, but
distant enough to reduce disease transmissions
between flocks or houses.  A distance of 100
feet is reasonable Storage structures are usu-
ally 40 feet wide with a 14-to-16-foot clearance.

    The length varies depending on the amount of
    manure to be stored. Many of these structures
    are three-sided — a rectangle with one end
    open.  The interior  wall  should  be strong
    enough to withstand the weight of piled ma-
    nure and the force of front-end loaders.
       The site for a stack or windrow should be
    properly prepared before manure is laid down.
    If the storage time exceeds one month, a pad
    must be available, and the stack or windrow
    should be covered  to reduce flies and  odor
    problems. Manure stored  on the bare  earth
    must be completely removed to avoid creating
    an area in which  high salinity  and nitrate-
    nitrogen are a potential for groundwater con-

    Dead Poultry Disposal
    In  the  past, poultry mortalities were simply
    buried  on site, but this disposal method  is no
    longer  feasible and is, in some places, illegal.
    Composting is one of several alternative meth-
    ods that use this resource economically; it also
    helps protect water quality. For composting to
    work  effectively, however,  an  appropriate
    structure is necessary. This structure can be
    conveniently attached to the manure storage fa-
    cility. Refer to  the appropriate fact sheets on
    manure storage and poultry mortality manage-
    ment for additional material on these topics.

    The Farm*A*Syst
    Assessment  Program
    A new program that is helping to prevent
    water pollution  in  rural  America  is called
    Farm*A*Syst, the Farmstead  Assessment Sys-
    tem It  is a voluntary, farmstead or rural resi-
    dent  pollution risk assessment,  designed to
    help  rural residents become knowledgeable
about water pollution risks and to help them
develop an action plan  to  reduce the risks
identified by the system. It may also be a use-
ful tool for site selection and general farmstead
   The Farm*A*Syst program addresses nu-
trient contamination, water well design and lo-
cation,  waste  and  fertilizer storage,  septic
systems, dead bird disposal, pesticide and pe-
troleum storage, household and  farmstead
hazardous waste and waste disposal, and mi-
croorganism contamination  of  well  water.
Growers can learn more about this  program
and how they can participate in it by contact-
ing  the National  Farm*A*Syst Staff,  B142
Steenbock,  550 Babcock Drive, University  of
Wisconsin,   Madison,   WI  53706   (phone
608/262-0024); or the USDASoil Conservation
Service  or Cooperative Extension Service of-
fices. Farm*A*Syst is jointly funded by the
USDA'Soil Conservation and Cooperative Ex-
tension  Services, and the US. Environmental
Protection Agency.

Proper siting and design of a poultry facility is
important to the economy and success of the
whole operation. It prevents problems before
they arise, thus saving the grower money, time
and worry, and best of all, it protects  the envi-
ronment and community from senous prob-
lems or distressing nuisances.

Donald,) O, and J Blake 1990 Guidelines for Proper Sit-
  ing of New and Expanded Poultry Facilities DTP Cir-
  cular   10/90-009 Cooperati\e  Extension  Service,
  Auburn University, Auburn. AL
Jackson, G,  D Knox, and L  Nevers 1992  Protecting
  Rural America's Water — Farm'A'Syst  National
  Farm'A'SvslStaff University of Wisconsin, Madison
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further distribution. The Poultry Water Quality  Consortium is a cooperative  effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quaJrty of water
       for everyone                                                               OEI / 1 - 6/94
                              POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                       HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                               Tel: (615) 751-7297 •  Fax: (615)751-7479

               AIR  QUALITY AND  ITS
                    le Clean Air Act of 1970
                   provided for  uniform
air quality standards and control of emissions
from existing facilities. It also prohibited the con-
struction of new facilities that violate or interfere
with federal or state regulations for air quality
standards. Although many of the private citizen
complaints and civil suits brought against live-
stock and poultry operators are because of odor
problems, many of the states' air quality require-
ments have been established as a direct result of
federal legislation.  The odor  (and  sometimes
dust) problems denved from poultry operations
are  associated with improper or mismanaged
bunal pits, emissions from incinerators, and land
applications of poultry waste.
   The Clean Air  Act Amendment of 1990
(Pub.  Law 101-549)  also contains provisions of
importance to producers  of agricultural prod-
ucts. Because its goals are to reduce emissions
that cause acid rain and to protect stratospheric
ozone, ammonia volatilization from animal and
other  agricultural operations  will most likely
come  under increased scrutiny and possible
control  Some states are starting to request at-
mosphenc ammonia test results on air samples
taken  at the property  lines of animal opera-
    Methane emissions from "rice and livestock
production" and from "all forms of waste man-
agement . . . including storage, treatment, and
disposal" are mentioned in  the 1990 law as
being  of concern with regard to ozone deple-
tion. These sources and others, both nationally
and internationally, are to be evaluated by EPA
jointly with the secretaries of Agriculture and
Energy, and control options will be developed
that can be used to stop or reduce growth of
methane concentrations in the atmosphere.
Poultry Production Facilities
and Air Quality
Poultry production facilities can be the source
of gases, aerosols, vapors, and dust that can,
individually or in combination, create air qual-
ity problems. These problems include

     ^ nuisance odors,

     ^ health problems for poultry in
      confined housing,

     v deadly gases that can affect
      poultry and humans, and

     ^ corrosion.

    A variety of gases are generated during the
decomposition of poultry wastes Under aero-
bic conditions, carbon dioxide is the principal
gas produced; under anaerobic conditions, the
primary gases are methane and carbon diox-
ide  About 60 to 70 percent of the gas gener-
ated in an anaerobic lagoon or pit is methane
and about 30 percent is carbon dioxide Trace
amounts of  more  than 40 other compounds
have been identified in the air exposed to de-
grading animal waste, including mercaptans
(the odor generated by skunks and the smell
introduced in natural gas are in the mercaptan
family), aromatics, sulhdes, and various esters,
carbonyls, and amines

Methane, Carbon Dioxide,
Ammonia, and Hydrogen Sulfide
The gases of most interest and concern in poul-
try nutnent management are methane (CHO,
carbon  dioxide (COz), ammonia (NHs), and
hydrogen sulfide  (H2S). The following para-
graphs summarize the most significant charac-
teristics of these gases.

   T Methane. Methane, a flammable gas, is a
   possible source of energy on the farm. Because
   methane is also explosive, extreme care is  re-
   quired when attempting to generate and cap-
   ture this gas for on-fann use.

   * Carbqn Dioxide. Carbon dioxide can be an
   asphyxiant when it displaces normal air in a
   confined facility. Because CO2 is heavier than
   air, it remains in a tank or other well-sealed
   structure,  gradually  displacing   the  lighter
   gases. With high-density housing, gas and par-
   ticulate  levels  may increase, and control be
   comes more difficult. Carbon dioxide increases
   substantially with the larger  number of poul-
   try producing  CO2, as compared with earlier
   low-density housing. Continued monitoring of
   temperature, air  removal rate, and manure
   moisture  content is  required to  maintain
   proper carbon dioxide concentrations.

   * Ammonia. Ammonia is primarily an irri-
   tant and has been known to create health prob-
   lems in  animal confinement buildings. Irrita-
   tion  of  the eyes and respiratory tract  are
   common problems  from prolonged exposure
   to this gas. It is also associated with soil acidifi-
   cation processes.
      Ammonia  concentration in broiler houses
   has increased in the past few years. The pri-
   mary reason is that ventilation  rates are re-
   duced to conserve heat in the winter months
   Research also shows that dust particles serve as
   an ammonia  transport mechanism,  so  over-
   ventilation to  the outside may lead  to odors
   near the house and overly dry litter inside the
      Ammonia concentration increases with in-
   creasing pH, temperature, and litter moisture
   content. It is desirable to maintain litter mois-
   ture  in a production house below 30 percent
   for ammonia control. Studies indicate that am-
   monia increases bird susceptibility to Newcas-
tle disease and decreases feed intake and egg

*  Hydrogen  Sulfide.  Hydrogen  sulfide  is
deadly. Humans and farm animals have been
killed by this gas after falling into or entering a
manure tank or a building in which a manure
tank was being agitated. Although only small
amounts of hydrogen sulfide are produced as
compared  to  other  major gases, this  gas is
heavier than air  and becomes more concen-
trated over time.
    Hydrogen sulfide has the distinct odor of
rotten eggs. Hydrogen sulfide deadens the olfac-
tory nerves (the sense of smell); therefore, if the
smell of rotten eggs appears to have disap-
peared, this does not indicate that the area is not
still contaminated with this highly poisonous
gas. Forced-air ventilation or an exhaust system
helps prevent  gas poisoning. Otherwise, evacu-
ate the area until the gas can be removed.

Where to Go for Help
Information on achieving air quality standards
and  managing the air quality  problems of
poultry production  facilities is available from
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, and  the Depart-
ment of Energy. Poultry associations and state
water quality agencies can also help.

U S Department of Agriculture  1992 Agricultural Waste
   Management Field Handbook AWMFH-l Soil Conser-
   \ aeon Service, Washington, DC
Barker, J C  1988. Poultry Layer Production Facility Ma-
   nure Management High Rise. Deep Pit EBAE 131-88
   \orth Carolina Agricultural Extension Sen-ice, Raleigh
Carr L E , F W Wheaton. and L W Douglas 1990 Empm-
   ca! Models to Determine Ammonia Concentrations
   from Broiler Litter Transactions of the American Soa-
   ety of Agricultural Engineers 33(4) 1337-42
 King, H F, and GO Bressler 1974 Gas and Paniculate
   Levels in Sloping Wire Floor Poultry Houses PR 342
   Agricultural Experiment Station, Pennsylvania State
   University, University Park
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further distnbutoon. The Poultry  Water Qualrty  Consortium is a cooperative effort  of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality oi water
       for everyone                                                                 OEI/2-6/94
                               POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                        HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  « Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                               Tel: <615) 751-7297 • Fax: (615)751-7479

               PREVENTING  FIRES  IN
                  fund reds of poultry
                      mre/litter  storage
structures have been built as a component of a
total waste management program on the poul-
try farmstead. Storage facilities help prevent
the possibility of water pollution and provide
flexibility in the timing of land applications.
They  also protect  this resource from  the
weather and wildlife so that it can be used as a
cattle feed.
   Manure piles will generate heat, however,
and care should be taken to prevent fires in the
storage facility. Spontaneous combustion in a
litter stack is possible, probably as a result of
the  buildup of combustible methane or the
storage of wet and dry litter. Fires may also
occur  if the manure is stacked too close to
wooden wails that may ignite when the tem-
perature in the litter reaches the wood's flash
point The exact causes of litter storage fires are
difficult to know, but good management prin-
ciples will help protect the litter.

Methane Production
Anaerobic bacteria generate about 50 to 65 per-
cent methane, about 30 percent carbon dioxide,
and a smaller percentage of other gases. There-
fore, if the moisture content of stored litter is
more than 40 percent in a stack with little or no
oxygen, then conditions are right for anaerobic
bacteria to grow and methane to  result. Un-
vented landfills have the  same problem.
Methane's specific gravity is less than air, how-
ever. If the stack has adequate pore spaces (or
the landfill has ventilation pipes), the methane
will escape into the atmosphere.
   High moisture levels in stored litter help
create the potential for fires, as does layering
the manure (putting new litter on top of old ut-
ter). Compacting the litter will trap heat in the
pile, and failure to provide an adequate ratio of
surface area  to volume can also  create prob-
                                           Tips for Fire Prevention
                                           The following  guidelines will help prevent
                                           fires in storage facilities:

                                            T Keep the litter dry and do not stack it too
                                              near the open end of the building (methane
                                              is flammable in air)

                                            ^ Do not compact moist cake or mix it with
                                              dry litter, and do not stack cake or dry litter
                                              higher than  5 feet or store it against the

                                            * Do not compact the dry litter, since com-
                                              pacting creates anaerobic conditions  and
                                              prevents the natural venting of methane

                                            T Do not cover moist litter but allow the open
                                              litter to vent naturally.

                                            * Monitor the resources in your storage facil-
                                              ity regularly, and remove any materials
                                              that have temperatures greater than 180 *F.
                                              If the temperatures exceed 190 *F, notify the
                                              fire department and  prepare to move the
                                              material. Emptying the  storage area will
                                              bring the litter out into the air, so precau-
                                              tions must be taken against a fire occurring
                                              at this tune.

        It  is a  good  idea not to store expensive
    equipment in the litter storage facility.

        If you are storing dry litter for later use as a
    cattle  feed, cover it  with polyethylene. This
    technique   will  suppress   the  temperature
    buildup and reduce the production of bound
    nitrogen, a form  of protein that cattle are un-
    able to digest.

Soil Conservation Service. 1993. Preventing Fires in Litter
  Storage Structures. Guide AL-39 in Alabama Poultry
  Waste Management. Waste Utilization and Facility De-
  sign Workbook  US  Department of Agriculture, Au-
  burn, AL.
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
       further  distribution.  The Poultry  Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                                   OEI / 3 - 6/94
                                POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                         HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                 Tel: (615)751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

               TREATMENT  LAGOONS
               AND  PONDS
                    [anure  in shallow pits
                     (from  caged  layers)
can be flushed out once a day or scraped out
dry every one to three days. Flushed manure
can then be transferred to storage by gravity or
with a pump. Semisolid or liquid manure can
be stored in below or above  ground ground
storage tanks, steel storage tanks, or earthen
basins. Thus, lagoons  are a type of earthen
basin used  for waste storage; however, they
can also be used as manure treatment systems
for  converting the organic matter in animal
wastes into  more stable products Lagoons
have even been used as digesters to convert
large masses of waste into gases, liquids, or
sludge. Aerobic and anaerobic lagoons  work
with bacteria to decompose the dissolved sol-
ids in animal waste.

    Lagoons  became a  somewhat  popular
component  of  waste  management  systems
during the  1970s when the  interest  shifted
from simply using waste for fertilizer in land
applications to treating the waste to produce a
more  convenient waste management system

    Anaerobic bacteria in animal waste (i.e.,
bacteria that live in animal intestines) cannot
work in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic bacte-
ria,  on the other hand, must have oxygen;
therefore, anaerobic lagoons are deep and air-
less, aerobic lagoons are spread over a large
surface area, take in oxygen from the air, and
support algae.

    The advantages of lagoons are that they are
easy to manage, convenient, and cost-efficient.
Storage and  land application  can be handled
more opportunely if the grower has a Lagoon,
and labor costs and operating costs are  slight
after the initial investment. In general, anaero-
bic lagoons do not require much space, and
they provide storage and disposal flexibility.
   Other factors, however, must also be con-
sidered. Lagoons are a source of odors and ni-
trogen losses and may require frequent sludge
removal  if they are undersized. Groundwater
protection may be difficult to secure, and if
mechanical aeration is used, energy costs must
be included in the accounting. Proper manage-
ment is essential for lagoon maintenance and

Aerobic Lagoons
The design, shape, size, capacity, location, and
construction of the lagoon depends on its type.
Aerobic lagoons require so much surface area
(to maintain sufficient dissolved oxygen) that
they are an impractical solution to most waste
management problems They may require 25
times more surface area and 10 times more vol-
ume than  an anaerobic lagoon  Nevertheless,
some growers may consider using an aerated
lagoon — despite its expense — if they are op-
erating in an area highly sensitive to odor
   Some of the sizing difficulty can be solved
by using mechanical  aeration — by  pumping
air into the lagoon — but the energy costs for
continuous aeration can be high  Aerobic la-
goons will have better odor control, and the
bacterial digestion they provide will be more
complete  than  the  digestion  in anaerobic

    Lagoon design and loading specifications
should be carefully followed and monitored to
increase the effectiveness of the treatment. No
more than 44 pounds of biological oxygen de-
mand (BOD) effluent should be added to the

    lagoon per day per acre.  The lagoon should
    have sufficient depth  so that light will pene-
    trate the 3 or 4 feet of water. Effluents from the
    lagoon should be land applied to avoid long-
    term ponding and to make economical use of
    the nutrients that remain in them.

    Anaerobic Lagoons
    Anaerobic treatment lagoons are earthen  ba-
    sins or ponds containing diluted manure that
    will be broken down or decomposed without
    free oxygen. In the process, the organic compo-
    nents or BOD in the manure will be liquified or
    degraded naturally. Anaerobic lagoons must
    be properly designed,  sized, and managed to
    be an acceptable animal waste treatment facil-

        Liquid volume rather than area determines
    the size  of  anaerobic lagoons.  The  lagoon
    should accommodate the design treatment liq-
    uid capacity and the amount of wastewater to
    be treated; it should also have additional stor-
    age room for sludge buildup, temporary stor-
    age room for rain and wastewater inputs, extra
    surface storage for a  25-year, 24-hour storm
    event, and at least an  additional  foot of free-
    board to prevent overflows.

       The design criteria for anaerobic lagoons
    are based on the amount of volatile solids to be
    loaded each day. The range is from 2.8 to 4.8
    pounds of volatile solids  per day per 1,000
    cubic feet of lagoon liquid. The amount of rain
    that would collect in a 24-hour storm so  in-
    tense that its probability of happening is once
    in 25 years requires at least 5 to 9 inches of sur-
    face storage

       To protect the ground water  supply,  la-
    goons should not be  situated on  permeable
    soils that will not seal, on shallow soils, or over
    fractured rock. Nor should mortalities be dis-
    posed of in  lagoons;  in  fact, screening  the
    wastes before they enter the lagoon helps en-
    sure complete digestion and the quahty of the
   wastewaters for land applications. If the site's
    topography indicates a potential  for ground-
   water contamination, then  any earthen basin
   should be lined with day, concrete, or a syn-
   thetic liner.

       New  lagoons should be filled  one-half full
   with wastewater before waste loading begins.
Planning start up in warm weather and seed-
ing the bottom with sludge from another la-
goon  helps   to   establish  the   bacterial
population.  Because  bacterial activities in-
crease in high temperatures, lagoons, in gen-
eral,  work best in warm climates.  Manure
should be added to anaerobic lagoons daily,
and irrigation (drawdown) should begin when
the liquid reaches normal wastewater  maxi-
mum  capacity.  The  liquid  should  not be
pumped below the design level  treatment,
however, because the proper volume must be
available for optimum bacterial digestion.
    Drawdown (that is, the lagoon liquid) can
be used for land applications guided by regu-
lar  nutrient  management  planning and  sam-
pling of the lagoon liquids and soils to ensure
safe and effective applications. When sludge
accumulation diminishes  the  lagoon's treat-
ment capacity,  it,  too,  can be land  applied
under strictly monitored conditions.
    Secondary lagoons are often needed for
storage from the primary lagoon.  Using a sec-
ondary lagoon for irrigation also bypasses
some of the solids picked up in the primary la-
goon. The size of secondary lagoons is not crit-

    Information and technical assistance and
some cost-share programs  are available for
producers who determine that a lagoon system
should be part  of their resource management
system. The LJSDA Soil Conservation  and Co-
operative Extension Service offices can provide
additional assistance.

Barker, JC 1990 rev Lagoon Design and Management lor
  Livestock  Waste Treatment and Storage Agn-Waste
  Management  EBAE-103-83 North Carolina Agricul-
  tural  Extension  Service Agricultural  and  Technical
  State University of North Carolina, University Station
Michigan Agriculture Commission 1991 Generally Ac-
  cepted Agricultural Practices for Manure  Management
  and Utilization Lansing, Ml
Payne, VWE, and).O Donald 1991 Poultry Waste Man-
  agement and Environmental Protection Manual Circu-
  lar AMR 580 Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn,
  University, Auburn, AL.
Ritter, W F. No date Poultry System Design  and Manage-
  ment for Environmental Protection  University of Dela-
  ware, Newark.
US  Department of Agriculture.  1993  Agricultural Waste
  Management Handbook. Part 651  Soil Conservation
  Service, Washington, DC

    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal tor
    further  distribution.  The Poultry  Water Quality  Consortium  is a cooperative  effort of industry and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
    lor everyone                                                                    OEI/4-6/94
                              POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                       HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  •  Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                               Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax.-(615)751-7479
                                                                         TREATMENT LAGOONS AND PONDS  3

                   Fagnesium  ammonium
                    phosphate, sometimes
called struvite, is a grayish-white crystalline
salt that builds up on the internal pump and
piping surfaces used for lagoon liquid recycl-
ing. It usually appears on metallic surfaces but
also on plashes. Steel, cast iron, bronze, and
brass are equally susceptible.

   Struvite usually builds up on the internal
pump components first, then moves outward
to the discharge pipes. It often occurs at pipe
joints, elbows, valves, or imperfections because
grit and solids tend to lodge at these points,
providing a base for the salt to grow. Predict-
ing struvite is difficult because its cause is not
well known. Design, maintenance, and man-
agement techniques have been researched that
can reduce the buildup to acceptable levels

Pumping and Piping System
Use only high-quality, low-pressure,  self-prim-
ing centrifugal or submersible pumps. They
should not be oversized in relation to the pip-
ing network, and should perhaps be on a
timer  The suction pipe should also be  large
enough to prevent pump cavitation. Normally
the suction  pipe diameter should be one size
larger than  the discharge  pipe. Locate  the
pump close to the  high-water level to mini-
mize suction lift. Replace fine mesh suction in-
take strainers with wire screens or baskets of
1-inch mesh or larger The diameter should be
at least five times the diameter of the suction
pipe. Struvite will also build up on the screens.

    Use nonmetallic pipes and fittings. Pipes
should be large enough to maintain flow veloc-
ities between 3 to 5 feet per second; the mini-
mum pipe diameter at any point except at the
immediate discharge  point  should be  1.5
inches. Sharp pipe bends (elbows and tees)
should be avoided. Instead, use flexible plastic
pipe and long sweep elbows for the direction
changes. The system (pumps  and piping)
should have  sufficient capacity to work only
one-half to two-thirds of the time, and piping
systems not  in continuous  use should  be
drained between pumping events.

Electrostatic Charges
Stray  voltage is also believed to contribute to
struvite. Direct grounding of the pump hous-
ing can discharge any static charges. A metal
rod should be placed 10 to 12 feet into the
moist soil near the lagoon's edge, and cable
connections  at the ground  rod and  pump
should be checked periodically for corrosion.

Lagoon Management
Lagoons should be properly sized New ones
should be charged at least half full of water be-
fore startup, and the liquid level should be
brought up to design levels as soon as possible.
Rainfall during  normal years  dilutes lagoon
liquid while extended  periods of  hot,  dry
weather increase nutnent and salt levels and
the rate of salt buildup in recycling systems
Flushing with fresh water or irrigating a  por-
tion of the lagoon contents may help

Acid Cleaning
Salts  can be dissolved with dilute  acid treat-
ments. Several doses followed by flushing the
spent acid solutions will be needed to  treat
heavy buildups. A more thorough and more
costly method is to install an acid recirculation
loop. Use a 150-gallon acid-resistant tank as

    the reservoir. You will need enough solution to
    fill the pipe length and some in reserve to keep
    the redrcularionpurnp pruned. Use the accom-
    panying table  to  determine  how much acid
    you will need.

    Table 1.—Amount of solution needed for acid
    cleaning Busing an acid recirculation loop.
       To reduce the size of the tank, isolate sec-
   tions of the line with valves and circulate the
   aad through only one section-. The flush pump
suction is switched from the lagoon and con-
nected to the bottom of the acid tank with a
quick-connect coupling. A 1-inch line returns
acid from the end of each treated pipe section
to the tank.
    Hydrochloric  acid  can  be purchased at
most chemical supply houses  or paint stores.
Dilute the acid with water on a 1 to 9 ratio — 1
gallon aad to 9 gallons of water. Use caution.
Mixing acids with water is a hazardous opera-
tion. Partially fill the tank with water, then add
the acid slowly to the water. Eye protection is
essential, and heat will be generated. To treat
heavy  struvite buildups, recirculate the mix-
ture overnight and count on using the mixture
only once. Spent acid may be dumped into the
lagoon. Acids currently cost about $14 for a 15-
gallon drum or about $33 for a 50-gallon drum.
Deposits on the drums are $25 and $50, respec-

Barker, JC 1981 Crystalline (Salt) Formation in Wastewa-
  ter Recycling Systems  EBAE 082-81  North Carolina
  Agricultural Extension Service,  North Carolina State
  University, Raleigh
Payne, VWE 1993. Persona] Communication US  De-
  partment of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Au-
  burn, AL
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects  Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
       further  distribution. The  Poultry  Water Quality Consortium  is a cooperative effort of industry and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the qualrty of water
       for everyone                                                                 OEI IS- 6/94
                                POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                        HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

               PREDATORS, AND
               DARKLING  BEETLES
                   sts, often called vectors
                  because they may be a
point of entry for disease or other nuisances in
the poultry house, are an aspect of waste man-
agement that should not be overlooked. Vec-
tors can be either living or nonliving carriers of
disease. Especially troublesome on the poultry
farm are house flies, rats, and darkling beetles.
Wildlife, especially  feral  dogs and coyotes,
must also be controlled. Having proper waste
management facilities and maintenance proce-
dures on the farm will contribute to productiv-
ity, nutrient management, and environmental
safety. A cost-effective and  safe pest control
system is essential.

   Uncontrolled pests cause irritation to birds
and workers, carry poultry disease pathogens,
increase mortality,  lower  carcass grades  and
production,  damage building  materials,  and
interfere with feed  conversion. In addition,
and if  they did nothing  else, poultry pests
must be carefully controlled because they can
migrate from litter to nearby residences, where
they may become a serious nuisance among
the neighbors

Moist manure is not only a threat to surface
and groundwaters; it is also an ideal breeding
ground for fbes. Caged layer operations  are
most susceptible to this problem, followed by
breeder farms and, occasionally, broiler farms.
Wherever poultry houses are susceptible to
flooding, or litter is stored outdoors, the poten-
tial exists for fly-control problems.

   Flies, which generally become active in the
early spring (mid-March in many areas), have
four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa,
and adult. Most generations require about two
weeks to develop. Females will produce 120 to
150 eggs in three or four days, and hatching oc-
curs between eight and 24 hours later. House
flies can complete their entire life cycle in as
few as seven days; therefore, many of these 150
flies will also breed within a few days. Twenty
to 30 generations in a fly season is not unusual.
As many as 1,000 flies can develop in a single
pound of suitable breeding material.
   The actual rate of development depends on
the temperatures and moisture levels in the
breeding area. Since fresh manure is about 75
percent moisture, and flies breed in areas con-
taining 75 to 80 percent moisture, poultry litter
should be kept as dry as possible. Leakproof
waterers should be installed and maintained in
good condition. Broken eggs and mortalities
among the flock should be cleaned up immedi-
   Manure should be removed from the house
every four to seven days during hot weather
After  removal, it must  be stored and  used
properly to achieve fly control If manure can
be dried quickly or immediately liquified, it
will not become a breeding ground for flies
During  land applications,  poultry manure
should be spread thinly to promote drying. If
fly larvae are in the manure, then incorporat-
ing it into the soil as quickly as possible will
help break the fly development cycle.
   Under certain conditions, insecticides may
be used to control adult flies in bams and poul-
try houses. But these products should be re-
served for critical times when the management
system breaks down, because flies quickly de-
velop resistance. Insecticide  applications may

    be regulated  in some states  and should  be
    handled carefully to minimize any harmful  ef-
    fects associated with toxic ingredients.

    Rats and Mice
    Voles, field mice, and cotton rats are not usu-
    ally the source of problems for poultry grow-
    ers. NoAvay rats and roof rats, however, are
    two non-native species of rats that can be trou-
    blesome — and they proliferate rapidly. A pair
    of rats will produce six to 12 young in 21 days
    — and each of these becomes sexually mature
    in three months. A single pair of rats, if they
    find food, water, and shelter, can produce a
    colony of 640 rats in a year.
       Poultry houses provide everything the rats
    need:  food, water, and shelter. Norway  or
    wharf rats usually nest  under buildings and
    concrete slabs and in garbage dumps. They are
    great burrowers and may  have an extensive
    system of burrows under the poultry house,
    with several escape routes. They eat anything
    but prefer nuts, grains, meats, and some fruits
    They  can  easily find meats and grains in the
    poultry house.
       Roof or black  rats  are  more aerial  than
    Norway rats.  They enter buildings  from the
    roof or utility lines. They usually live in trees,
    so access to the poultry house is easy: up the
    walls, across vines, along pipes. Exterior walls
    should be hard, flat surfaces, and all entrance
    holes should be plugged up. Rats  can make
    themselves "paper thin" to come in under
    doors and through holes as small as one-half
    inch in diameter
       The best rat control  program is proper  re-
    source management, maintenance, and sanita-
    tion, but the food supply in the poultry house
    makes rat occupation probable. Some chemical
    controls or  rodenticides may, and  probably
    should be, added to your control program  To
    administer rat poison  effectively, first know
    how many rats you are dealing with; then,  es-
    tablish bait stations near the walls in areas of
    rodent activity.

       To determine how  many rats are in  the
    poultry house, observe the area at night as well
    as in the daylight. Rats are nocturnal; if you  see
    no rats in the day or at  night, there probably
    are not many around. If you see old droppings
    or gnawed areas, no rats during the day, and
only a few at night, rats are probably present in
medium numbers only. Finally, if you see fresh
droppings and tracks, some rats during  the
day, and three or more at night, large numbers
are probably present.
    To control  the infestation, use single or
multiple doses of a rodenticide in the bait sta-
tions. Avoid making the rats sick; if they  get
sick and do not die, they will become bait-shy
and not eat the poison. Place the bait stations
appropriately and protect them from moisture,
dust, and weather to encourage the rats to eat
from these stations. Rats, like many animals,
prefer fresh food.

    Because rats are colorblind and have poor
eyesight, rodenticides  can  be marked  for
safety. If other conditions make poisons inad-
visable, rats can be trapped with common snap
traps, glue boards, or in live traps.

Darkling Beetles
Known as litter beetles, lesser mealworms, or
"black bugs," the darkling beetle (Alphitobius
diapermus) is found in large numbers in poul-
try houses, in the woods,  and around  feed
bins These black or reddish-brown beetles are
troublesome in turkey and broiler production
because deep  litter and open-floor housing
provide an  ideal habitat in  which the beetles
can survive and reproduce.
    The total effect of darkling beetles on poul-
try production  is not known They may be
more problematic as a nuisance than as a vec-
tor (carrier of disease)  However, beetles are
thought to harbor a number of disease organ-
isms — for example, fowl pox, E coli. Salmo-
nella  spp,  Newcastle  disease,  and  avian
leukosis — and to be involved in the transmis-
sion of the causative organism for Marek's dis-
ease, although immunization against Marek's
disease is now available. Darkling beetles are
also an intermediate  host  for  poultry tape-
worms and cecal worms. If they are  in litter
that is land applied, their possible  effects on
wildfowl must be considered.

    An undisputed second  concern  related  to
the darkling beetle is that they can damage the
insulation in poultry houses. Larvae bore into
the insulation to find safe places to pupate. But
adult beetles who eat the pupae soon enlarge
the larval tunnels in their search for  an  easv

meal. Birds and mice then daw at the insula-
tion to get at the adult beetles,  larvae, and
pupae. In a severe darkling beetle infestation,
as much as 25 percent of the insulation can be
lost in a single year.
    Another  potential  problem arises if in-
fested litter is spread on crops. Adult beetles
may migrate from the field into nearby  resi-
dences; the result can be a nuisance complaint
to the health department — and sometimes
    Temperature  and  moisture   affect  the
amount of time an insect needs to complete its
life cycle. Temperatures between 60 and 100 *F
and moisture levels above 12 percent are opti-
mum for its survival. Food sources, decaying
litter, an occasional bird carcass, and the ab-
sence of major predator and parasite  com-
plexes in the poultry house help the beetle
population to increase.
    The life cycle of the beetle takes 35 to 60
days to complete. The adult female lays eggs
individually or in dusters at intervals of one to
five days throughout her life cyde. The eggs
hatch into tiny larvae after four to seven days
and grow through five to rune stages, called in-
stars. This  period lasts for seven weeks;  then
the beetles pupate in cracks and crevices, in the
soil and lower strata of the litter, and in build-
ing insulation. The pupal state lasts for seven
to 11 days, after which a new adult emerges.
    To manage darkling beetles effectively re-
quires monitoring, cultural practices, and some
insecticide  applications. Treatment should be
maintained regularly, even  if beetle  numbers
are low  Individual beetles or larvae (100 or
fewer) pose no  problem, however, their pres-
ence indicates a need for continued  monitor-
ing, ideally on a weekly basis, from the  time
the birds are brought into the house until they
are removed.  Visual inspection is the best way
to monitor the open-floored, deep  litter house
The grower should  look at litter,  carcasses,
cracks and crevices, equipment, and insulation
at intervals of 30  to 40 feet throughout the

 * Litter should be  examined along wails,
   around  support posts, and under brooder
   hoods and feeders. Dig down 1 to 2 inches
   in caked litter to  look for small,  early in-
 v Carcasses should be examined during daily
   collections. A large number of beetles on a
   large number of carcasses may point to a
   heavy infestation.

 T Equipment and cracks and crevices are fa-
   vorite beetle habitats. Be sure to check the
   framing joints and other cracks as well as
   the brooder  guard, house dividers, drink-
   ers, and feeders.

 v Insulation  in  new  houses  should  be
   checked for  clusters of small holes along
   seams, in corners, at the eaves, and along
   the gable. Insulation board may also be dis-
   colored. If mice damage appears, look also
   for beetle tunnels. In older houses, it will be
   hard to distinguish between old  and new
   beetle damage.

   Trapping beetles  is  a  second  control
method. Traps  can be made using a  2-inch
schedule 40 PVC pipe, a 10-to-12-inch section
for each trap. Put a roll  of  corrugated card-
board (brooder  guard) inside the pipe, and
place six or so traps between the wall, feeder,
and  brooder locations from one end  of the
house to the other. To prevent the birds from
moving the traps, stake the traps in place. Re-
move the cardboard and count the beetles on a
weekly schedule. Their presence or a rapid rise
in their number indicates a need for treatment.
   Cultural methods for controlling beetles
are nonchemical ways to reduce the pest popu-
lation. Cold weather is the  most  effective
measure, and proper Utter handling is also an
essential for good control If the weather coop-
erates, open the house  to  the cold between
flocks. If the temperature drops below 30 °F, all
stages of the darkling beetle will die. As soon
as the birds are  moved, the grower can remove
Utter and litter cake from the poultry house.
Darkling beetles will move to protected areas
in the empty house within a few days; there-
fore,  moving the  litter before that time will
more effectively control the beetle population.
    Fresh  litter  that  is  applied  to cropland
should be incorporated to prevent any return
of the darkling beetle.  Stockpiled or com-
posted litter should be turned every two weeks
to promote enough heat to kill beetle eggs and
                                          PROTECTION AGAINST PESTS PREDATORS AND DARKLING BEETLES  3

        Although ail insecticides registered as con-
    trolling darkling beetles will work, none con-
    trols  the house  for  more  than one  flock.
    Therefore,  a treatment program should be
    maintained year-round. Most products remain
    active about a week and are designed to be ap-
    plied when the birds have been removed from
    the house. The best time for application is on
    the first day after the birds have been removed
    followed by cleanup immediately on the sec-
    ond day. Treating the  house again — and its
    outside perimeter — just before the placement
    of a new flock, is also useful. Surface sprays,
    dusts, and baits are available for making these
       Beetles love temperatures between 70 and
    90 *F;  they are nocturnal and can be  found
    everywhere. Seeing them during the day is a
    sure sign of infestation — of their presence in
    great numbers. Young chicks  will eat them.
    Darkling beetles can fly up to one mile a night.
    If a million or so are taken from a house, 15,000
    of those taken will return in the direction of the
    house from which they came. Approved insec-
    ticides are Rabon, Sevin, and boric aad com-
    pounds.  Best  control  methods  are  careful
    cleanout and spraying.
       Beetles cause reductions in feed conver-
    sions and weight gains, and possible disease.
    Under dry conditions, they will eat the flesh of
    dead or down birds, and at night crawl up the
    feathers of resting  birds and bite the  skin
    around the feather folhcals. Bitten birds may
    have weeping skin lesions or pink and swollen
    areas around the feather follicals that resemble
    skin leukosis  The birds are forced to rest and
    wander all night instead of eating and sleeping
    as they would in properly managed houses
       Darkling beetles are a general nuisance be-
    cause  they  are attracted by light; therefore,
    they will crawl out of  the litter and move to-
    ward the bght at night. Large numbers of bee-
    tles on or in houses create a negative  public
    image  and give rise to complaints against the
    broiler producer. To prevent migration, spray
    the pit walls and posts, or use well-sealed, an-
    gled, metal flashing  attached to pit walls at
    posts and masonry frame wall joints.
Coyotes and Feral Dogs
Coyotes and feral dogs are opportunistic feed-
ers.  If they live  in  the  area, their presence
around a poultry house is  not remarkable.
They will kill the poultry for food, but they can
easily be prevented from gaining access to the
house. Complete confinement of the poultry is
the best  way to stop predation. Heavy wire
should be used to cover all openings. Sanita-
tion and the proper disposal of mortalities will
cut down on the attraction of coyotes to the

    Predator calling and shooting may be used
in most states to harvest these animals. Preda-
tor calling is a mechanical device that  attracts
the animals within shooting range. Trapping is
also an effective  control method. Traps and
trap sizes as well as hunting and trapping sea-
sons may be regulated in some places. Leghold
traps that do not harm the animal or traps with
padded jaws may offer the best control in some

    Controlling animals and  pests in  poultry
houses involves  a combination of resource
management, sanitation, and exclusion, and
some  special  measures  such  as chemicals,
hunting, or trapping

Arends, J Darkling Beetle Control Using Disodium Oc-
  taborate Tetrahydrate (Red Zone). North Carolina State
  Newsletter North Carolina Extension Service, Raleigh
Armstrong, JB 1990 Rat Control in Poultry Houses DTP
  Circular  12/90-016 Cooperative Extension Sen-ice. Au-
  burn University, Auburn, AL
	  1990 Controlling Coyotes and Dogs Around
  Poultry Houses  DTP Circular  12/90-017 Cooperative
  Extension Service, Auburn University Auburn, AL
Call, A  Are Lesser Mealworms Worth the Trouble They
  May Cause Poultry Digest February 1980 76-77
Nolan, M P Jr 1988 Control External Parasites and House
  Flies Around Poultry Operations Bulletin 723 Cooper-
  ative Extension Service College of Agriculture, Univer-
  sity of Georgia, Athens
PennsyKarua Slate University  No date. Darkling Beetles,
  and Pest Management Recommendations for Poultry-
  No signatures Lancaster, PA
Skewes, PA, and J L Monroe 1991 Research Note  The
  Effects of Darkling Beetles on Broiler Performance
  Poultry Science 70 1034-36
Strother, G R 1990  Fly Control in Poultry Operations
  DTP Circular 12/90-015 Cooperative Extension Serv-
  ice, Auburn University, Auburn, AL

   Other pages >n this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
   further distnbution.  The Poultry  Water Quality  Consortium is  a  cooperative effort of industry  and
   government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone.                                                                     OEI / 6 - 6/94
                             POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                      HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                              Tel: (615) 751-7297 •  Fax:(615)751-7479
                                               PROTECTION AGAINST PESTS, PRHMTOBS. AND DARKLING BEETLES  5

                    gricultural runoff con-
                    ktributes about 60 per-
cent of the nonpoint source pollution that
threatens water quality in the rivers and lakes
of the United States. Water that flows off the
land after precipitation events picks up fertil-
izers and  animal wastes that have been ap-
plied to the soil and deposits them in lakes
and rivers.
    If the runoff is uncontrolled, it causes soil
erosion and the flow of high amounts of sus-
pended solids, nutrients, pesticides, herbicides,
and metals into the receiving waters. Flooding
and the degradation of rivers,  streams, and
lakes are  the consequence. Nonpoint source
pollution can also threaten groundwater qual-
ity  as the same pollutants leach through the
    Runoff can be controlled. Best manage-
ment practices (BMPs) can be adopted as part
of the poultry grower's operating procedure
For example, stormwater can be diverted from
poultry houses and manure storage areas, and
land applications can be made when no storms
are predicted. In addition, the arsenal of BMPs
now includes the use of natural or constructed
wetlands for treating runoff and wastewater

Functions of Wetlands
Wetlands are defined as  transitional areas be-
tween the land and water. They support water-
tolerant or aquabc plants, and their sods are
saturated (waterlogged) or covered with shal-
low water for some part of the year. Bogs,
swamps, marshes, and sloughs  are types  of

    Wetlands help improve water quality, store
floodwaters,  reduce erosion,  and recharge
groundwater. They are also habitat for wildlife
and home to about  one-third of our endan-
gered species, though our focus is on wetlands
for  waste  treatment.  The treatment  process
involves complex physical, biological,  and
chemical interactions, but it can be simply de-
    If surface runoff flows through wetlands
before reaching open water, its progress will be
slower here  than in channelized flows  over
drier lands. Suspended solids will settle or fil-
ter out, and microorganisms will pick up the
organics and nutrients in the water for food.
Metals mil settle into the soil and be absorbed
by plants. Thus,  pollutants in stormwater run-
off  can be reduced, cleansed, or transformed
into harmless substances during the  runoff's
passage or treatment in natural or constructed
wetlands.  Most pollutants  are  transformed
into basic elements, compost, or biomass.
    The constructed wetland is the heart of the
treatment system. It deans wastewater by fil-
tering and settling solids, decomposing organ-
ics, and adsorbing/absorbing other pollutants
such as phosphorus and trace metals  The dis-
solved organic pollutants are  removed  by  a
complex group  of microbes (bacteria, fungi,
alg.'e, and protozoa) that live in the wastewater
and on  plant and sediment  surfaces   Since
waste materials are food for most of these mi-
crobes, pollutants  are gradually converted
through complex food cycles into environmen-
tally harmless by-products (gases that escape to
the air and inert solids that stay in the system).

    The primary purpose of wetland  plants  is
to provide a  place for these microbes  to attach
and grow. Generally,  treatment effectiveness
increases with plant density, which  allows a
larger quantity  of attached microbes to exist
within the system. The density of plants also
affects flow  hydraulics. Uniform flow is en-
hanced by uniform plant densities, but vari-
able densities create  short-circuiting which

                E   R   N   A  T  I  V  E
    reduces the retention time and treatment effec-
    tiveness of the wetland. In addition, plants
    make the system attractive  and provide food
    and shelter for wildlife.

       The system remains effective during win-
    ter because the microbes are still present on the
    dead stalks and stems of the vegetation. Be
    cause the biological processes slow down dur-
    ing winter, wetland systems are typically sized
    to meet treatment objectives  during  cold

       Notwithstanding their usefulness, over 50
    percent of the natural wetlands in this country
    have been destroyed, according  to estimates
    from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Wet-
    lands have been drained and converted into
    farmland or drained and filled for urban devel-
    opment. They have even been used as dumps
    for hazardous wastes. Until  recently, many
    people  believed that wetlands were  nothing
    more than a nuisance — a source of mosqui-
    toes,  flies, mildew, and unpleasant odors.
    These  attitudes and our care of  wetlands is
    changing rapidly as we become more knowl-
    edgeable  about total  resource and  animal
    waste management procedures.

       Section 404 of the Clean Water Act  protects
    our nation's wetlands by regulating  the dis-
    charge of dredge or fill  materials into most
    wetlands, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv-
    ice purchases  some wetlands each year with
    federal  funds  Numerous private incentives
    also support wetlands conservation. For exam-
    ple, the 1986 tax reform bill prohibits deduc-
    tions by farmers to drain or fill wetlands, and
    the 1985 Swampbuster Program removes both
    flood and crop insurance and price supports
    from farmers who drain wetlands.

    Designing Constructed Wetlands
   Constructed wetlands  can  effectively  treat
   poultry   industry    wastewaters,  including
   stormwater runoff.  These wetlands   are de-
   signed  by engineers and built to restore, en-
   hance, or replace the physical, chemical, and
   biological processes  in natural wetlands. They
   are typically used as polishing cells following
   conventional primary treatment facilities such
   as lagoons, settling basins, or septic tanks. The
   integrated treatment system provides a higher
   quality wastewater  that may be  recycled  or
discharged to a receiving stream if appropriate
permits are obtained
    In addition, the volume of treatable waste-
water may be substantially reduced during the
growing season because of evaporation. For ex-
ample, a poultry producer currently having dif-
ficulty with overflowing  lagoons during wet
weather now has the option of adding con-
structed wetlands, which  can be used to hold
the lagoon wastewater during the growing sea-
son. Typically the wastewater in the wetlands
will evaporate or percolate into the soil, but any
effluent can also be recycled as process waste or
as irrigation water.

    Constructed wetlands consist of one  or
more "cells" of wetland plants in series or par-
allel. Construction can be  easily accomplished.
Excavate the area to shape the bottom of the
wetlands and build small  dikes around it. Use
PVC pipe to distribute and collect wastewater
and to control water levels in the wetland.
Water levels are normally shallow — about 3 to
12 inches. Uncontammated runoff can be di-
verted from the system by berms or other buff-
ers or grading.

    A lagoon, detention basin, or other type of
solids trap is used in front of the constructed
wetlands  to remove heavy  or  coarse solids
Some runoff contains high sediment loads and
decomposing organic matter  that may settle in
bottom  deposits. Because these deposits can
adversely affect the hydrology and life  forms
in the wetland, the solids trap is particularly

    Most wetland systems for treating agricul-
tural  related  wastewaters will  not  be  larger
than 1 or 2 acres. In general, they should not be
located in areas with steep topography, shal-
low  topsoil, or limited space. They must  be
properly constructed to ensure groundwater
protection. The potential  for constructed wet-
lands to adequately  treat agricultural waste-
waters is so great that the USDA Agricultural
Stabilization and Conservation Service has ap-
proved  the development  of cost-sharing for
this practice. Consult your local soil and water
conservation district for more information.

Wetland  plants include mixtures of cattails,
reeds, bulrushes, sedges,  and grasses that are

normally nabve to the area. The plants provide
the  right  conditions for the microorganisms
that live in the wetlands and break down the
    Pond and wetland systems are particularly
effective because ponds can be designed to
catch th$ stonnwater and slowly release it to
the wetlands following the  storm. This tech-
nique keeps the wetlands wet for longer time
periods,  which can be especially important
during dry seasons.

    The systems  need  little routine mainte-
nance but should be inspected periodically to
detect any loss of plants, leakage through the
dikes, clogging of  the  pipes,  mosquitoes, or'
short-circuiting of the  flow. These problems
and others are usually easily corrected.

    Properly managed  constructed wetlands
are cost effective, energy efficient, and simple
to  operate.  They  accept varying  pollutant
loads, attract a variety of wildlife, and add
beauty to the farm landscape.  Above all, con-
structed  wetlands   can  help   achieve  clean
    Information on the  design and  construc-
tion of wetlands for managing wastewater is
available from USDA Soil Conservation Serv-
ice local offices.

Olson, R K 1993. Created and Natural Wetlands for Con-
  trolling Nonpoint Source Pollution CRC  Press, Boca
  Raton. FL.
Schueler, TR. 1992. Design of Stormwater Wetlands Sys-
  tems No. 92710. Metropolitan Washington Council of
  Governments, Washington, DC
Tennessee Valley Authority. No date. Natural and Con-
  structed Wetlands. Fact Sheet in cooperation with U S
  Environmental Protection Agency. No place of publica-
VS. Environmental Protection Agency 1990 Uses of Wet-
  lands in Stormwater Management. Watershed Manage-
  ment Unit, Water Division, Region 5, Chicago, IL.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1991. National Bulletin
  No. 210-1-17. Soil Conservation Service. Washington,
    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
    further  distribution.  The Poultry  Water  Quality  Consortium  is a cooperative effort  of industry and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
    for everyone                                                                   AT /1 - 6A94
                             POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                      HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  • Chattanooga, TN  37402-2801
                              Tel: (615) 751-7297 •  Fax:(615)751-7479
                                                                             CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS  3

V  E
                   (roller  litter  has  long
                   been considered a prob-
lem by-product. It is usually applied  to the
land as a fertilizer, but the concentration of the
industry in relatively small geographic areas
contributes to an oversupply of litter for this
purpose. Broiler litter that is not managed in
an environmentally sound manner may con-
tribute to surface and groundwater contamina-
tion.  An  alternative,  and  indeed a more
economical, use of broiler litter is as a source of
dietary nutrients for beef cattle and other ru-
minants, whose unique digestive system  is
well able to process wastes and other by-prod-
ucts. Turkey litter and poultry manure can also
be used for this purpose.
    Litter is a source of protein, energy, and
minerals. Using it as a feed ingredient helps to
conserve nutrients  and to offset costs.  The
plant  nutrients in the litter — nitrogen, phos-
phorus, and potassium — and other minerals
will be  redeposited on pasture land as cattle
manure. For this reason, even when the cost of
transporting the litter is factored in, feeding lit-
ter to ruminants can be an economical waste
management technique
    There may be a problem with the public's
perception of litter as a cattle feed. We readily
accept and even prefer vegetables that are or-
ganically grown — in fact, mushrooms go di-
rectly from the manure bed to  the grocery
store — but we have a hard time accepting lit-
ter as a food ingredient. Yet a cow's food is
broken down and processed much more com-
pletely  than a plant assimilates  food into its

Regulations on  Feeding Litter
In 1967, the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) discouraged the use of litter as a cattle
feed.  But in 1980, FDA issued a statement leav-
           ing it to the states to regulate this use. At least
           22 states  have current regulations.  No state
           regulates  the private use or exchange of litter
           for this purpose; many states, however, regu-
           late this commodity on the commercial market.
              Processed broiler litter offered for sale may
           be required to carry warning labels about the
           presence of any drugs that may be present in
           the litter. To minimize the potential for any
           drug residues in the cattle, all litter feeding
           should be discontinued at least 15 days before
           the animals are marketed for slaughter. This
           responsibility for selling only wholesome ani-
           mals falls on the producers, regardless of regu-
              Generally, attention to safety precautions
           — such as the 15 day withdrawal period before
           slaughter, not feeding litter to lactating cows,
           and not feeding litter with high copper concen-
           trations to copper-sensitive sheep — are suffi-
           cient to eliminate health risks Litter has in fact
           been used as a feed ingredient for 35 years
           without  any  reported  adverse  effects  on
           human or animal health.

           Nutritional Value of Litter
           The kind and  amount of  bedding material
           used  in  a broiler house and  the number of
           batches housed on the litter affect  the nutri-
           tional value of the Utter, which should always
           be tested before being used as a food product
           for ruminants. The average nutrient contents
           are as follows

             * Moisture. The moisture content  of the ma-
               nure  has little nutritional value; but litter
               that is too dry may be unpalatable, and lit-
               ter that is too wet may be difficult to handle
               as  a food ingredient. An acceptable range
               seems to be from 12 percent to  25 percent

     * Total Digestible Nutrients. The sum of the
       crude protein  and crude  fiber values is
       used to calculate the total digestible nutri-
       ents (TDN) in  the litter. If the Utter has a
       calculated  value of 50 percent TDN, it is
       comparable to hay as an energy source.

     v Crude Protein. The  average amount  of
       crude protein in broiler litter is about 24.9
       percent.  But about 40 percent of  that
       amount is probably nonprotein nitrogen or
       uric acid. Young cattle cannot use this non-
       protein nitrogen as  easily as mature cattle
       can, so broiler litter should be fed only to
       cattle weighing  over 450 pounds.

       Bound Nitrogen. Insoluble or bound nitro-
       gen  occurs in  litter that has been over-
       heated. Bound nitrogen  is  less  easily
       digested than other nitrogen. Average litter
       samples have 15  percent bound nitrogen;
       overheated litter may have as much as 50
       percent bound nitrogen.

       Crude Fiber. The  fiber source  in litter
       comes mainly from the bedding materials.
       Ruminants, however, need long roughage,
       such as hay. At  least 5 percent of the litter
       ration should be in the form of hay or other
       long roughage.

       Minerals. Excessive minerals  in litter are
       not  usually a problem, though  excessive
       calcium can cause milk fever in beef cows
       at calving  Withdrawing the Utter from the
       cows' food  for 30 days overcomes this dif-
       ficulty  Microminerals,  such  as copper,
       iron, and magnesium, are also present  in
       large amounts.  Copper should not  be fed
       at more  than  150  parts  per million.  It
       builds  up  in the  liver  but  is  usually not

       Ash. Ash content is an indication of litter
       quality and should not exceed 28 percent.
       About 12 percent of the ash is made up of
       calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and trace
       minerals, the rest is soil. Management tech-
       niques that reduce the soil content in the Lit-
       ter should be practiced.
Survey of Broiler
Litter Composition
In some, all litter to be used as a beef ration
should be analyzed — tested for nutrient con-
tent. Litter used for feed should have at least
18 percent crude protein and less than 28 per-
cent ash. Not more than 25 percent of the crude
protein should be bound or insoluble.

    Litter that has too much ash is not suitable
as a food ingredient  If broilers are reared on
dirt floors, the litter may be contaminated with
soil during deanout.

    The number of broods reared on the  litter
prior to cleanout of the broiler house also af-
fects the quality of the litter; die more broods
reared (five or more), the higher the litter is in

    Charred litter, that is, litter that has  been
exposed to too much heat during storage and
has a burnt wood appearance, is only half as
digestible as litter stored in stacks that  were
protected from excessive heat.

Processing and Storing
Broiler Litter
All litter, regardless of its source,  should be
processed to eliminate pathogenic organisms,
such as salmonella; pesticide residues; medi-
cated  poultry rations,  such as  antibiotics,
coccidiostats, copper, and arsenic  Dead birds
may not be composted with poultry litter if the
litter is to be used as a feed ingredient

    Litter can be  processed  by fermentation
(ensiled with other feed  ingredients  such as
corn or sorghum), directly acidified, or  heat
treated. The easiest, most economical method
of treatment is deep  stacking  Deep stacking
should be done for 20 days or more at a tem-
perature of 130 "F. Most of the antibiotics ap-
proved  for chickens are  also approved  for
cows, and deep stacking inhibits molds (myco-
toxins).  Excessive heating  to temperatures of
140 *F or more is cause for alarm. Therefore,
the deep stack should be covered with a  poly-
ethylene tarp to exclude oxygen. Covered litter
stacks will reach a temperature high enough to
destroy pathogens but not so high that nitro-
gen digestibility is threatened.

Table 1.— Suggested Rations.
Broiler Litter
Cracked Com
Total Pounds
Suggested Rations
Table 1 indicates rations that can be fed to dry
brood  cows, lactating cows,  and  stackers.
These rations are recommended  guidelines,
not absolutes, since die nutrient levels in litter
are variable. Vitamin A should be added to all
rations. To  reduce bloating, feed the animals
Botavec or  Rumensin. Supplementing  winter
and summer grazing  for  stocker cattle  in-
creases the  animals' weight gain and the total
beef produced.

Because of the unique ability of ruminant ani-
mals to digest forages, other fibrous materials,
and inorganic nitrogen such as urea, there is a
growing awareness worldwide that by-prod-
ucts of agriculture can serve as low-cost alter-
native feed  sources for these animals The use
of broiler litter may become more widespread
as the need for economy and responsible waste
management becomes more urgent. Alabama,
for example, produces about 1.8 metric tons of
litter per year; in fact, litter is the state's most
collectible  animal waste. Since management
practices on the farm affect the litter's quality,
attempts to market the litter as a feed ingredi-
ent begin with a focus on  management tech-

McCaskey, T.A, A H Stephenson, and B G Ruffm 1990
  Factors that Influence the Marketability and  Use of
  Broiler litter as an Alternative Feed Ingredient Pages
  197-203 in Proceedings of the Sixth International Sym-
  posium on Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes
  American  Society of Agriculture Engineers, Chicago,
Ruffin, BG , and TA  McCaskey. 1990 Feeding Broiler
  Litter lo  Beef Cattle. Circular ANR-557 Cooperative
  Extension Service, Auburn University, Auburn, AL
    Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
    granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
    further  dislnbuton. The Poultry Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort of  industry  and
    government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products thai will preserve the quality of water
    for everyone                                                                  AT / 2 - 6/94
                            POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                     HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2B01
                             Tel: (615) 751-7297  • Fax:(615)751-7479

               OF  LITTER
                    Iecause it has  no un-
                    pleasant  odors,  com-
 posted broiler litter can be used indoors in a
 soilless potting  medium. In fact, its nutrient
 content makes litter an ideal fertilizer for both
 indoor and outdoor gardens. It is also a good
 organic material for improving soil structure
 and drainage.

 Soil Amendment
 Gardeners can add composted  htter  to soils
 that otherwise contain too much sand or clay
 to support a garden. Work the top soil loose to
 a depth of 1 foot; then, spread 3 or 4 inches of
 compost on the soil. About 2 inches of compost
 may suffice at a minimum, but in really poor
 soils, 6 inches can be applied.  Turn the soil
 over after the application to incorporate the

 Flower  and Vegetable Transplants
 Annual and perennial  flowers and vegetable
 transplants also  do well in compost-amended
 settings  Use a trowel to dig a hole m the new
 location Remove the plant  from its container
 and tear a hole in the bottom of the root-ball —
 otherwise, the roots will continue to grow in a
 tight circle — before setting it into the ground.
 Fill the hole with amended soil and water thor-
 oughly Mulching will help  the plants retain
 water, thereby conserving this resource as well

Transplanting Trees and Shrubs
 If you are transplanting trees or shrubs, use the
 techniques listed above, but make sure that the
hole you dig for the plant is at least twice the
size of its present container. Work about 3 to 6
inches of  composted litter into the soil in the
hole and place the tree or shrub therein. Keep
as much soil as possible around the root-ball
when you take it out of the container. Do, by
all means, remove the container, especially if it
is plastic, so that the new growth will have
plenty of room. The soil line on  your plant
should be level with your garden. Fill in the
hole with the amended soil, and water the
plant thoroughly  to remove any  air pockets
that may have been in the backfill.

Potting Mix for Indoor Plants
To make your own potting medium, use equal
parts of composted litter and composted pine
bark — all living things need nitrogen and car-
bon. The bark may be screened to remove large
pieces (one-half inch or larger) before mixing
Fill the new pot with 1 or 2 inches of the plant-
ing medium, spread out the roots of your
plant, and set it in the pot Remove  any buds or
flowers before replanting to ensure that the
plant  has time to get  properly  established
Transplant from one pot size to the next one
only; skip one size if you have to, but don't go
from a 1-inch pot to a 4-inch pot and expect to
succeed. Water the plants in the fall and win-
ter, fertilize them in the growing seasons —
spring and summer.

Composted broiler litter is a superior product
to  use to establish new lawn areas Spread
about 2 inches of composted litter on the area
to be seeded. Then rum the soil over to a depth
of  6 inches to incorporate the material. Place
turf on the prepared soil and water it as usual.
The addition of compost to the soil helps hold
moisture and improves drainage.

     The  nutritional analysis  of composted  litter
     will  vary, depending on  conditions of waste
     production  and handling, among other vari-
     ables.  However, most  composted  litter  will
     have an analysis similar  to 2-2-2 commercial
     fertilizer. That is, it should have no less than 2
     percent'nitrogen (N), 2  percent phosphoric
     acid  (PzOs), and no less than 2 percent potas-
     sium (KaO). Two quarts of broiler litter com-
post can be applied monthly to your vegetable
and flowering plan:s. It should be worked into
the soil lightly — at the drip line or where the
water falls naturally from the leaves.


Behe, B.K. 1990. Horticultural Uses of Composted Broiler
  Utter. Poultry By-product Management. Horticulture
  DTP Circular 11/90-012. Cooperative Extension Serv-
  ice, Aubum University, Auburn, AL.
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
       further  distnbuHon.  The  Poultry  Water Quality Consortium is a  cooperative  effort of  industry  and
       government to identity and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone.                                                                   AT/3-6/94
                                POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                         HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN  37402-2801
                                Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479
2  HomTcyLTVfw. uses OF UTTER

                                     I   N   F   O  R  M   A   T   I
                  I he poultry industry and
                   three government agen-
cies have formed the Poultry Water Quality
Consortium to promote better environmental
management by the rapidly growing poultry
   The Consortium  encourages the use of
poultry by-products as a resource rather than
letting them become a pollution source. As the
industry grows, protecting natural resources is
becoming a major priority, demanding new
technologies in poultry by-product develop-
ment, storage, utilization, and land  applica-
   The Consortium is responding to this chal-
lenge by promoting cooperation and informa-
tion  exchanges  between  government  and
industry on water quality and by-product
utilization  issues.  By  focusing on  pollution
prevention, the Consortium encourages the de-
velopment and transfer  of new technologies
designed to protect water quality and promote
a clean environment.

Members of the Consortium:

    ^ Southeastern Poultry &
      Egg Association

    * U.S. Department of Agriculture -
      Soil Conservation Service

    T Tennessee Valley Authority

    T U.S. Environmental Protection

   Ed Schwille, Liaison
   Poultry Water Quality Consortium
   HB-2C, 1101 Market Street
   Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
   Tel   (615)751-7297
   Fax. (615)751-7479
   Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
   further distribution  The Poultry Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative  effort of  industry  and
   government to identify and adopt prudent uses ot poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone                                                          Rl /1 - 6/94
                   HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga. TN 37402-2801
                          Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

I  N
R  M   A  T  I
                EGG ASSOCIATION
                     e Southeastern Poultry
                   and  Egg  Association
 (Southeastern) is dedicated to the growth and
 development of the poultry industry and rep-
 resents the entire industry — from the produc-
 ers of eggs,  broilers,  and  turkeys,  to the
 processors of poultry and egg products, along
 with the allied companies that serve the indus-
 try. The  association emphasizes technology
 transfer, in order to ensure that knowledge and
 information are exchanged and shared. The
 association's extensive and diverse programs
 have been developed to help members  keep
 abreast of rapid changes in the poultry and egg

 Services Available to
Poultry Growers
Southeastern is best known for its annual In-
ternational Poultry Exposition, held in January
in Atlanta,  Georgia. The Expo features the
world's largest display  of technology, equip-
ment, and supplies used to produce and pro-
cess poultry and egg products-
   Continuing education is a  high priority
The association's seminar program  has ex-
     panded  into  a  comprehensive  schedule of
     workshops and clinics to keep the poultry in-
     dustry informed. Twelve seminars are  held
     each year.
        Through its  government relations  pro-
     gram. Southeastern keeps Congress and fed-
     eral agencies apprised of industry needs, and
     informs members of government actions.
        The association's research program returns
     millions of  dollars  to the industry. Research
     grants are used to find better ways of produc-
     ing poultry and  egg products. Members are
     kept aware of industry developments through
     the distribution of  newsletters,  reports, and

        Don Dalton, Executive Vice President
        Southeastern Poultry & Egg Association
        1530 Cooledge Road
        Tucker, GA 30084
        Tel. (404)493-9401
        Fax (404)493-9257
   Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material tor
   further distribution. The Poultry  Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort  of industry and
   government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone.                                                          R| 72-6/94
                   HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                         Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

                 U   R
I  N   F   O   R  M   A   T   I
Agency's Commitment to the
Poultry Industry
The Soil Conservation Service (SCS), an agency
within the  U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA),  administers national soil and water
conservation programs with the cooperation of
landowners and operators in  local soil conser-
vation districts and other  government agen-
cies.  It provides  USDA leadership to assist
landowners and local groups to practice re-
source conservation. In this role, it protects and
enhances the nation's surface and groundwa-
ter resources and provides technical assistance
to the U.S  agricultural community to  help
plan,  design, and implement waste manage-
ment systems and other conservation projects.
The 1990 Farm Bill focused the SCS on major
agricultural concerns including pesticides, nu-
trients, animal  waste, and  agricultural pollu-
tants in surface and groundwater.
      Services Available to
      Poultry Growers
      Through its  conservation practices, the SCS
      provides planning, design, and construction
      assistance on waste treatment lagoons, manure
      and litter dry-stacking facilities, poultry mor-
      tality  facilities,  management, and nutrient
      management plans based on soils, crops, and
      equipment availability. It also serves as techni-
      cal representative  for USDA cost-share pro-
      grams to implement nutrient and poultry
      mortality management systems; and, in some
      cases, provides financial as well as technical
      assistance in special project  areas. The SCS
      works closely with state regulatory agencies in
      waste management.

      For more information about SCS programs and
      assistance, call or visit the SCS office listed in
      your local telephone directory under U.S De-
      partment of Agriculture.
   Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
   further distribution. The Poultry  Water Quality Consortium is a cooperative effort of industry  and
   government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone.                                                         R1 / 3 - 6/94
                   HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                         Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

                                                       R   M   A   T   I
Agency's Commitment to the
Poultry Industry
An overall objective of the Tennessee Valley
Authority (TVA) is to develop and implement
programs and activities that will further de-
velop agriculture and agribusiness to protect
the environment. The poultry industry is an in-
tegral part of the agricultural economy. Pro-
tecting water quality is a major concern as
illustrated by TVA's ongoing projects related to
proper management and use of animal wastes.
   Much of TVA's work is accomplished in co-
operation with federal and state agencies, and
universities and  pnvate organizations con-
cerned with animal waste management. TVA is
in an excellent position to identify, demon-
strate, and transfer poultry  by-product re-
sources technology to potential users.

Services Available to
Poultry Growers
TVA's programs  and projects primarily deal
with helping prevent or reduce impacts of the
industry  on the environment. This service is
accomplished through educational workshops
and demonstrations in cooperation with other
federal and state agencies to focus on prevent-
ing or reducing the environmental impacts of
by-products generated by the poultry industry.
   Current project areas are composting poul-
try mortality; animal waste lagoon manage-
ment; production and  marketing of poultry
litter products for use  as a soil amendment,
fertilizer, and cattle feed; creating agribusiness
that will produce and market poultry by-prod-
ucts; and conducting research and demonstra-
tions that show correct use of by-products.

   Richard C. Strickland
   Biotechnical Department
   Tennessee Valley Authority
   P.O. Box 1010
   Muscle Shoals, AL 35660-1010
   Tel: (205) 386-2542  • Fax:(205)386-2129

   Richard D. Urban
   Water Management Services
   Tennessee Valley Autoriry, HB-2C
   1101 Market Street
   Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
   Tel. (615) 751-7301  • Fax. (615) 751-7479

   Larry Johnson
   Community  Partnership
   Tennessee Valley Authority, CTR 2L
   PO. Box 1010
   Muscle Shoals, AL 35660-1010
   Tel: (205) 386-2887 • Fax-(615) 386-3880
   Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects. Permission is hereby
   granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
   further distribution. The Poultry Water Quality  Consortium is  a cooperative effort of industry  and
   government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
   for everyone.                                                           Rl / 4 - 6/94
                   HB-2C, 1101 Market Street  •  Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                          Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479

                                     I  N   F  O   R   M  A  T  I
               U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL
               PROTECTION  AGENCY
Agency's Commitment to the
Poultry Industry
The  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
(EPA) is dedicated to improving and preserv-
ing the quality of the  environment, both na-
tional and  global,  and to preventing and
reducing water pollution associated with poul-
try by-products. Historically, EPA has distin-
guished between  point and nonpoint sources
of water pollution  in its management pro-
grams. Under the Clean  Water  Act, certain
poultry processing or rendering plants are reg-
ulated and required to remove pollutants from
process wastewater.
   Certain large concentrated animal feeding
operations (CAFOs) may be regulated and
may  be required to obtain a discharge permit.
The  new Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization
Amendments of 1990 address nonpoint source
pollution affecting coastal waters. This Coastal
Zone Act requires EPA to issue guidance on
nonpoint source management  measures that
represent the best available means of reducing
nonpoint source pollution in coastal  waters

Services Available to
Poultry Growers
EPA  administers a variety of nonpoint source
control programs to  address  animal waste
problems associated with smaller operations.
Under  section 319 of  the Clean Water Act,
states have developed nonpoint source assess-
ment reports on the nature and extent of their
nonpoint pollution problems, including prob-
lems associated with poultry waste. In addi-
tion,  section 319 requires states to develop
comprehensive management programs to miti-
gate  the problems.
   Currently, funds are provided under 319(h)
to states to implement their nonpoint source
management programs including, for example,
demonstrations of poultry composting facili-
ties or development of educational manuals or
regulations to address poultry by-products.
EPA provides assistance to states to implement
nonpoint  source controls  under  other pro-
grams such as the Chesapeake Bay Program
and the Clean Lakes Program

The U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency,
headquartered in Washington, DC, operates 10
regional offices.

U.S. EPA, Region 1
   (CT, MA, ME, NH. RI, VT)
   John F Kennedy Federal Building
   One Congress Street
   Boston, MA 02203

U.S. EPA, Region 2
   (NJ. NY, PR. VI)
   Water Standards and Planning Branch
   26 Federal Plaza
   New York City, NY 10278
   (212) 264-8708

U.S. EPA, Region 3
   (DC, DE, MD, PA, VA, WV)
   841 Chestnut Street
   Philadelphia, PA 19107

U.S. EPA. Region 4
   (AL, FL. GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN)
   345 Courtland Street, ME
   Atlanta, GA 30365
   (404) 347-2126

    U.S. EPA. Region 5
        (IL,IN,MI,MN, OH,WI)
        Great Lakes National Programs
        77 W. Jackson Boulevard
        Chicago, IL 60604

    U.S. EPA. Region 6
R  E  S   O  U   R
                                      I   N   F   O   R   M  A  T  I
               DIRECTORY  OF
                   he following state,  re-
                	gional, and national  or-
ganizations are listed in alphabetical order. The
organizations in most states are therefore listed
together; however, if you are looking for a par-
ticular  association, please consult the entire
list. The Wilkes Area Poultry Association,  for
example, is listed under W, not under North
Carolina. We hope that  we have not inadver-
tently omitted or incorrectly identified any or-
ganization or its address. This material will be
updated from time to time.

   One Court Square, Suite 315
   Montgomery, AL 36104
   TEL (205)265-2732
   FAX (205)265-0008

   PO  Box 949
   Palmer, AK 99645
   TEL (907)745-7200
   FAX (907)745-7112

   1460 Renaissance Drive
   Park Ridge, IL 60068
   TEL (708)296-7043
   FAX (708)296-7007

   26363 South Tucker Road
   Estacada, OR 97023
   TEL (503)630-6759

   Agricultural Saence Building, Room 328
   University of Arizona
   Tucson, AZ 85721
   TEL (602)621-1095
   c/o Hickman's Egg Ranch
   7403 North 91st Avenue
   GlendaIe,AZ 85305
   TEL.  (602)872-1120
   FAX  (602)872-9220

   PO Box 1446
   Little Rock, AR 72203-1446
   TEL  (501)375-8131
   FAX  (501)375-5519

   1150 North Mountain Avenue, Suite 114
   Upland, CA 91786
   TEL.  (714)981-4923
   FAX  (714)946-5563

   3117 A McHenry Avenue
   Modesto, CA 95350
   TEL  (209)576-6355
   FAX  (209)576-6119

   4S16 E Co Road, #30
   Ft Collins, CO 80525
   TEL  (303)226-3680

   Department of Agriculture
   16 South Capitol Avenue
   Ha rtford.CT 06106
   TEL  (203)566-5268
   FAX  (203)566-6576

   RD 2, Box 48
   Georgetown, DE 19947
   TEL  (302)856-7303

    R   E   S   O  U   R
        RD 6, Box 47
        Georgetown, DE19947
        TEL: (302)856-9037
        FAX. (302) 856-1845

        80817th Street, N.W.
        Washington, DC 20006
        TEL: (202)296-8248
        FAX: (202)223-9569

        4508 Oak Fair Boulevard, Suite 290
        Tampa, FL 33610
        TEL. (813)628-4551
        FAX- (813)620-4008

        16 Forest Parkway
        Forest Park, GA 30050
        TEL. (404)363-7661
        FAX: (404)363-7664

        P.O Box 763
        GainesvUle. GA 30503-0763
       TEL  (404)532-0473
        FAX. (404)532-7543

       PO. Box 20
       Oakwood,GA 30566
       TEL: (404)535-5996
       FAX  (404)539-1948

       PO  Box 127
       Watkinsville, GA 30677-0127
       TEL  (706)769-5668

       1818 Kanakaniu Street
       Honolulu, HI 96819
       TEL  (808)841-2828

       841 Bishop Street, Suite 850
       Honolulu, HI 96813
       TEL  (808)522-5133
       FAX  (808)522-5144

       c/o Memll Poultry Farms Inc
       Rt 2, Box 2184
       Paul, ID 83347
       TEL  (208)438-4605
       FAX  (208)438-8694
          324 Mumford Hall
          1301 West Gregory Drive
          Urbana, IL 61801
          TEL (217)244-0195
          FAX: (217) 244-2871

          9193 Tampico Road
          Rock Falls, [L 61071
          TEL: (815)438-2580

          Purdue University
          1026 Poultry Science Building
          W Lafayette, IN 47907-1026
          TEL: (317)494-8517
          FAX: (317)494-6349

          535 East Lincoln Way
          P.O. Box 704
          Ames, IA 50010-0704
          TEL: (515)232-2103
          FAX: (515)232-2825

          PO Box 825
          Ames, IA 50010-0825
          TEL. (515)232-7492
          FAX. (515)232-2825

          1816 Alabama
          Manhattan, KS 66502
          TEL (913)539-5441
          FAX (913)532-5681

          PO Box 21829
          Lexington, KY 40522-1829
          TEL (606)257-2694

          604 Gamgus Building
          Lexington, KY 40546
          TEL (606)257-7259
          FAX (606)258-1027

          241 KnappHaU
          Louisiana State University
          Baton Rouge, LA 70803
          TEL (504)388-8667
   ;       FAX- (504)388-2478

                                                                M   A   T   I   O   N
    Louisiana State University
    Extension Service
    221 Knapp Hall
    Baton Rouge, LA 70803
    TEL. (504)388-8667
    FAX: (504)388-2478

    PO. Box 228
    Augusta, ME 043304)228
    TEL. (207)622-4443
    FAX: (207)623-3748

    3109 Animal Science Center
    University of Maryland
    College Park, MD 20742
    TEL: (301)405-5775
    FAX: (301)314-9557

    22 Kimball Place
    Fitchburg, MA 01420
    TEL. (508)345-4103
    FAX: (508)345-7187

    PO Box 153
    Stevensville, MI 49127-0153
    TEL  (616)465-5531
    FAX  (616)465-4730

    2380 Wycliff Street
    St Paul. MN 55114
    TEL  (612)646-4553
    FAX  (612)646-4554

    PO Box 170
    124 North Second Street
    Eldridge, 1A 52748
    TEL  (319)285-9100
    FAX  (319)285-9109

    PO Box 13309
    Jackson, MS 39236-3309
    TEL  (601)355-0248
    FAX  (601)353-3840

    2100 East Broadway, Room 319
    Columbia, MO 65201
    TEL. (314)874-1920
    FAX (314)874-1921
    The Madison Building, Suite 614
    115515th Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20005
    TEL- (202)296-2622
    FAX: (202) 293-4005

    7 Oak Street West
    PO. Box 267
    Sisseton, SD 57262-0267
    TEL: (605)698-7651

    604 Green Street, Suite 3
    Gainesville, GA 30501
    TEL: (404)535-9901
    FAX: (404)535-7385

    1101 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 100
    Washington, DC 20036
    TEL:  (202)857-1136
    FAX.  (202)775-2625
    11319 Sunset Hills Road
    Reston, VA 22090
    TEL  (703)435-7206
    FAX  (703)481-0837

    A103 Animal Sciences
    PO Box 830908
    University of Nebraska
    Lincoln, ME 68583-0908
    TEL. (402)472-2051
    FAX (402)472-6362

    PO Box 725
    Augusta, ME 04330
    TEL (207)623-3940
     FAX (207)623-3748

     20 Goodhue Road
     Boscawen, NH 03303
     TEL (603) 796-2890

     Saratoga Springs, NY 12866
     TEL (518)584-5912
                                                                 DIRECTORY OF POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS  3

                       U  R   C
I   N
O   R  M  A   T   I
        1213 Ridge Road
        Raleigh, NC 27607
        TEL. (919)828-8188
        FAX (919)828-8189

        4020 Barrett Drive, Suite 102
        Raleigh, NC 27609
        TEL- (919)783-8218
        FAX: (919) 783-8220

        North Dakota State Diversity
        AmmaJ Science Department
        Fargo, ND 58105
        TEL- (701)237-7691

        80817th Street, N.W., Suite 200
        Washington, DC 20006
        TEL: (202)296-8248
        FAX: (202)223-9569

       P.O. Box 1038
        1700 Cooper Point Road, S W
       Suite B-3
       Olympia, WA 98507-1038
       TEL. (206)754-4401
       FAX: (206) 754-4414

       674 West Lane Avenue
       Columbus, OH 43210
       TEL  (614)292-2089
       FAX  (614)292-7227

       201 Animal Science Building
       StiUwater, OK 74078
       TEL (405)744-6058
       FAX (405)744-5339

       PO Box 357
       Hartshorne, OK 74547
       TEL. (918)297-7219

       762 Driftwood Drive
       Eugene, OR 97402
       TEL (503)829-9682

       32914 South Haghway 213
       Molalla. OR 97038
       TEL- (503)829-9682
          P.O Box 3003
          Portland, OR 97208-3003
          TEL. (503)777-1320
          FAX. (503)777-2373

          5705 Cooper Hollow Road
          Monmouth, OR 97361
          TEL: (503)623-3722

          PO. Box 5324
          Salem, OR 97302
          TEL: (503)364-3323
          FAX: (503)364-6142

          1620 North Carpenter Road
          Building A-4
          Modesto, CA 95351
          TEL: (209)524-9666
          FAX: (209)524-3047

          500 North Progress Avenue
          Hamsburg, PA 17109
          TEL- (717)652-7530
          FAX. (717)652-0230

          49 HillsdaJe Road
          West Kingston. Rl 02892
          TEL: (401)792-2072
          FAX: (401)792-4017

          1201 Main Street, Suite 1220
          AT&T Building
          Columbia, SC 29201
          TEL  (803)748-1283
          FAX (803)748-1294

          930 Hawthorne Lane Ext
          Rock Hill. SC 29730
          TEL  (803)327-6037

          PO Box 2170
          South Dakota State University
          Brookings,SD 57007
          TEL. (605)688-5165
          FAX. (605)688-6170
4  owecroRY OF POUL TPY ASSOCIA news

R   E   S   O   U   R   C
    1530 Cooledge Road
    Tucker, GA 30084
    TEL: (404)493-9401
    FAX. (404)493-9257

    P.O. Box 957253
    Duluth,GA 30136
    TEL. (404)476-2771
    FAX- (404)476-9762

    PO Box 11082
    Knoxvdle, TN 37939-1082
    TEL. (615)974-7351
    FAX: (615) 974-7448

    P.O. Box 40627, Melrose Station
    Nashville, TN 37204
    TEL: (615)360-0120
    FAX. (615)781-5309

    8130 Bumet Road
    PO Box 9589
    Austin, TX 78766-9589
    TEL  (512)451-6816
    FAX  (512)454-4221

    One Massachusetts Avenue, N W., Suite 800
    Washington, DC 20001
    TEL  (202)842-2345
    FAX  (202)408-7763

    1303 Hightower Trail, Suite 200
    Atlanta, GA 30350
    TEL (404)587-8571
    FAX (404)587-0041

    2300 West Park Place Boulevard, Suite 100
    Stone Mountain, GA 30087
    TEL (404)413-0006
    FAX (404)413-0007

    PO Box 408
    Moroni, UT 84646-0408
    TEL (801)436-8365
    FAX. (801)436-8280
          Vermont Department of Agriculture, Food and
          120 State Street
          Montpelier, VT 05620
          TEL (802)828-2500
          FAX (802)828-2361

          911 Saddleback Court
          McLean, VA 22102
          TEL (703)790-1984

          PO Box 552
          Hamsonburg, VA 22801
          TEL: (703)433-2451
          FAX- (703)433-3256

          1605 Fifth Street, S.W.
          Puyallup,WA 98371
          TEL (206)840-2040

          c/o Washington State University
          Puyallup Center
          Puyallup, WA 98371
          TEL (206)840-4537

          P.O Box 1526
          Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91729-1526
          TEL (909)980-5114
          FAX (909)945-3575

          PO Box 612
          Moorefield, WV 26836-0612
          TEL (304)538-2725

          PO Box 1393
          North Wilkesboro, NC 28659
          TEL (704)872-6227
          FAX (704)872-1452

          260 Animal Science Building
          1675 Observatory Drive
          Madison, Wl 53706
          TEL (608)262-9764
          FAX (608)262-6005
                                                                DIRECTORY OF POUL TRY ASSOCIA TlONS  5

Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
further  distnbution. The  Poultry  Water  Quality Consortium  is a cooperative  effort of industry  and
government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
for everyone                                                                      Rl / 6 - 6/94
                          POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                  HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                           Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax: (615) 751-7479

R  E  S   O   U   R  C
I  N
R  M  A  T  I  O   N
              OTHER SUPPORTING
              USDA AGENCIES

    The USDA's Agricultural Stabilization and
    Conservation Service (ASCS) helps to as-
sure a continuous supply of food and fiber for
all Americans, and to promote sound resource
management systems. As part of this mandate,
ASCS works with poultry producers to share
the costs of solving erosion and water quality
problems that result from nonpoint source pol-
lution. The cost-shanng program  is called the
Agricultural Conservation Program, or ACP.

Services Available to Growers
Under the ACP, ASCS has the authority to
share with producers up to 60 percent of the
cost of building facilities that handle and/or
store poultry waste Facilities include lagoons,
dry-stacks, and composting units. Producers
who have been in business for less than five
years or who have substantially enlarged their
operahons may not be eligible for this assis-

For more information about ACP and other
ASCS programs, call or visit the ASCS office
listed in your telephone directory.

           Extension Service, U.S. Department of
         Agriculture (ES-USDA) and the state Co-
     operative Extension System (CES) link  re-
     search-based  information and technology to
     help people improve their lives through an ed-
     ucational process  that  uses scientific knowl-
     edge focused on issues and needs. Cooperative
     Extension, created by the Smith-Lever Act in
     1914, was designed as a  partnership of  the
     USDA and  the land-grant universities that
     were established  under the  Morrill  Acts of
     1862 and 1890.
         USDA and state and local agencies form a
     network of Extension  professionals through-
     out the United States arid its territories. Offices
     are located in more than 3,150 counties across
     the nation, with technical and administrative
     suppport for county agents located at state and
     land-grant universities

     Services Available to Growers
     Educational programs to protect natural re-
     sources and the environment, to manage waste
     efficiently, and to deal with water quality are
     included in the national priority initiatives of
     the Cooperative Extension System

     For more information about ES-USDA and the
     Cooperative Extension System, call or visit the
     CES office listed  in your  telephone directory
     under local government.

Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this material for
further distnbuton. The  Poultry Water Quality Consortium  is a cooperative  effort of industry and
government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
for everyone                                                                      Rl / 7 - 6/94
                          POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                   HB-2C, 1101 Market Street « Chattanooga, TN  37402-2801
                           Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615}751-7479

         S   O  U  R  C
               DIRECTORY  OF STATE
    2800 Zelda Road
    Suite 200-9 and 200-10
    Montgomery, AL 36106-2686
    TEL: (205)242-2620

    1751 Cong. W. L. Dickinson Drive
    Montgomery, AL 36109
    TEL. (205)271-7700

    PO Box 949
    Palmer, AK 99645-0949
    TEL. (907)745-7200

    P.O Box 0
    410 Willoughby Avenue, Suite 105
    Juneau,AK 99801-1795
    TEL (907)465-5000

    Natural Resource Conservation Division
    1616 West Adams, Room 419
    Phoenix, A2 85007
   TEL (602)542-4625
   3033 N Central Avenue
   Phoenix, AZ85012
   TEL  (602)207-4512

   101 E Capitol
   Suite 350
   Little  Rock, AR 72201
   TEL  (501)682-1611
        Resources Control Board
        Division of Water Quality
        901P Street
        Sacramento, CA 95801
        TEL: (916)657-1727

        P.O Box 100
        Sacramento, CA 95812
        TEL. (916)657-2390

        1313 Sherman Street
        Room 219
        Denver, CO 80203
        TEL- (303)866-3351

        Water Quality Control Division
        4300 Cherry Creek South
        Denver, CO 80222-1530
        TEL (303)692-3500

        79 Elm Street
        PO Box 5066
        Hartford, CT 06102-5066
        TEL (203)566-7049

        89 Kings Highway, Box 1401
        Dover, DE 19903
        TEL (302)739-4860

        2600 Blair Stone Road
        Tallahassee, FL 32399-2400
        TEL (904)488-4805

        E  S
U   R
       PO. Box 8024
       Athens, GA 30603
       TEL: (706)542X3065

       7 Mardn Luther King Drive
       Suite 643
       Atlanta, GA  30334
       TEL. (404)656-4988

       PO Box 621
       Honolulu, HI 96809
       TEL: (808)587-0214

       5 Waterfront Plaza
       Suite 25D
       500 Ala Moana Boulevard
       Honolulu, HI 96801-9984
       TEL:  (808)543-8337

       1215 W State Street
       Bo.se, ID 83720-7000
       TEL  (208)334-0210

       1410 N Hilton
       Boise, ID 83706
       TEL  (208)334-5860

       PO Box 19281
       State Fairgrounds
       Springfield, IL 62794
       TEL  (217)782-6297

       Box 19276
       2200 Churchill Road
       Springfield, IL 62794
       TEL  (217)782-3362

       Division of Soil Conservation
       402 W Washington Street, Room 265W
       Indianapolis, IN 46204
       TEL  (317)233-3870
I   N   F   O  R   M   A   T   I
                              INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
                                 105 S. Meridian Street
                                 P.O Box 6015
                                 Indianapolis, IN 46206-6015
                                 TEL: (317)232-8603

                              IOWA DIVISION OF SOIL CONSERVATION
                                 Wallace State Office Building
                                 Des Moines.IA 50319
                                 TEL. (515)281-6143

                              IOWA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL
                                 Water Quality Planning Division
                                 East 9th and Grand Avenue
                                 Des Moines, IA 50319-0034
                                 TEL. (515)281-5145

                              KANSAS STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION
                                 109 S.W. Ninth Street
                                 Suite 500
                                 Topeka.KS 66612-1299
                                 TEL. (913)296-3600

                              KANSAS DEPARTMENT OP HEALTH AND
                                 Landofi State Office Building
                                 Room 901
                                 Topeka.KS 66612-1290
                                 TEL (913)296-1522

                              KENTUCKY SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
                                 691 Teton Trail
                                 Frankfort, KY 40601
                                 TEL. (502)564-3080

                              KENTUCKY DIVISION OF WATER -
                                 NONPOINT SOURCES
                                 14 Reilly Road
                                 Frankfort, KY 40601
                                 TEL (502)564-3410

                              LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
                                 AND FORESTRY
                                 Office of Soil and Water Conservation
                                 PO  Box 3554
                                 Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3554
                                 TEL (504)922-1270

                              LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF
                                 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
                                 PO  Box 82263
                                 Baton Rouge, LA 70884-2263
                                 TEL (504)765-0741

R   E   S  O   U   R   C
    Maine Department of Agriculture, Food, and
    Rural Resources
    State House Station 28
    Augusta, ME 04333
    TEL: (207)289-2666

    Department of Environmental Protection Agency
    State House, Number 17
    Augusta, ME 04333
    TEL: (207)289-3901

    Maryland Department of Agriculture
    Annapolis, MD 21401
    TEL: (410)841-5863

    Watershed Management Administration
    2500 Broening Highway
    Baltimore, MD 21224
    TEL (301)631-3552

    100 Cambridge Street
    20th Floor
    Bos ton, MA 02202
    TEL (617)727-1552

    1 Winter Street
    Boston, MA 02108
    TEL (617)727-0437

    PO Box 30017
    Lansing, MI 48909
    TEL (517)373-9797

    Surface Water Quality Division
    PO Box 30273
    Lansing, Ml 48909
    TEL. (517)373-2867

    155 South Wabasha Street, Suite 104
    St Paul, MN 55107
    TEL (612)296-3767
         520 Lafayette Road
         St  Paul, MN 55155
         TEL  (612)296-6300

         P.O. Box 23005
         Jackson, MS 39225-3005
         TEL.  (601)359-1281

         P.O. Box 10385
         Jackson, MS 39289-0385
         TEL:  (601)961-5171

         P.O. Box 176
         Jefferson City, MO 65102
         TEL:  (314)751-4810

         PO. Box 202301
         Helena, MT 59620-2301
         TEL:  (406)444-6667

         Cogswell Building
         Room A-206
         Helena, MT 59620-0909
         TEL:  (406)444-2406

         301 Centennial Mall South
         P.O Box 94876
         Lincoln, NE 68509-4876
         TEL  (402)471-2081

         PO Box 98922
         Lincoln, NE 68509
         TEL  (402)471-4220

         333 W Nye Lane, Room 126
         Carson City, NV 89710
         TEL  (702)687-6977

         Capitol Complex
         333 W Nye Lane
         Carson City, NV 89710
         TEL  (702/687-4670
                                                       DffleCTOflY OF STATE WATER QUALITY AGENCIES  3

                      U   R  C
       PO. Box 2042
       Concord, NH 03302-2042
       TEL: (603)271-3551

       P.O. Box 95
       6 Hazen Drive
       Concord, NH 03302-0095
       TEL: (603)271-3503

       New Jersey Department of Agriculture
       CN 330, Room 204
       Trenton, N] 08625
       TEL: (609)292-5540

       401 East State Street, CN 423
       Trenton, NJ 08625-0423
       TEL: (609)633-7021

       Energy and Forestry Resource Conservation
       PO. Box 1948
       Santa Fe,NM 87504-1948
       TEL  (505)827-5830

       NMED/Purchase Water Quality Bureau
       PO Box 26110
       Santa Fe, NM 87502
       TEL  (505)827-0187

       1 Winners Circle
       AJbany, NY 12235
       TEL  (518)457-3738

       50 Wolf Road
       Room 306
       Albany, NY 12233-3500
       TEL  (518)457-6674

       Department of EHNR
       Box 27687
       Raleigh, NC 27611-7687
       TEL  (919)733-2302
          Division of Environmental Management
          P.O Box 27687
          Raleigh, NC 27611
          TEL: (919)733-4064

          State Capitol
          600 East Boulevard Avenue
          Bismarck, ND 58505-0790
          TEL: (701)224-2650

          1200 Missouri Avenue
          Box 5520
          Bismarck, ND 58502-5520
          TEL: (701)221-5210

          Soil and Water Conservation District
          1939 Fountain Square Court
          Building E-2
          Columbus, OH 43224
          TEL. (614)265-6637

          1800 Watermark Drive
          Columbus, OH 43215
          TEL: (614)644-3020

          2800 N Lincoln Boulevard
          Suite 160
          Oklahoma City, OK 73105
          TEL (405)521-2384

          PO Box 53504
          Oklahoma City, OK 73152
          TEL 1405)521-2384

          Natural Resources Division
          635 Capitol Street, NE
          Salem, OR 97310
          TEL (503)378-3810

          811 SW 6th Avenue
          Portland, OR 97204
          TEL (503)229-5630

     E  S   O  U
    Water Quality Management
    P.O. Box 2063
    Hamsburg, PA 17105-2063
    TEL. (717)783-3303

    Department of Agriculture
    P.O. Box 10163
    Santurce, PR 00908-1163
    TEL: (809)721-2120

    1413 Fernandez Juncos Avenue
    Santurce, PR 00909
    TEL: (809)729-6920

    291 Promenade Street
    Providence, RI02908
    TEL (401)277-3%!

    2221 Devine Street
    Suite 222
    Columbia, SC 29205
    TEL (803)734-9100

    2600 Bull Street
    Columbia, SC 29201
    TEL. (803)734-5228

    Division of Conservation
    445 East Capitol
    Pierre, SD 57501-3185
    TEL (605)773-3258

    523 E Capitol
    Pierre, SD 57501
    TEL (605)773-4216

    Agriculture Resource Division
    Ellington Center
    PO Box40627
    Nashville, TN 37204
    TEL (615)360-0108
I   N
O   R   M   A  T   I
         401 Church Street
         6th Floor L & C Annex
         Nashville, TN 37243-1534
         TEL: (615)532-0625

         P.O. Box 658
         Temple, TX 76503
         TEL: (817)773-2250

         Department of Agriculture
         350 North Redwood Road
         Salt Lake City, UT 84116
         TEL: (801)538-7171

         288 N. 1460 West
         Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4870
         TEL: (801)538-6146

         103 South Main Street
         Waterbury, VT 05671-0301
         TEL. (802)241-3601

         Agency of Natural Resources
         Building 10 North
         103 South Main Street, 2nd Floor
         Waterbury, VT 05671-0408
         TEL (802)241-3770

         Estate Lower Love
         Kingshiil, VI 00850
         TEL (809)778-0997

         45A Estate Nisky Center, Suiie 231
         St Thomas, VI00802
         TEL. (809)774-3320

         Nisky Center, Suite 231
         St Thomas, VI00802
         TEL. (809)774-3320

         203 Governor Street, Suite 206
         Richmond. VA 23219
         TEL. (804)786-2064
                                                        D/HECTOflY OF STATE WATER QUALITY AGENCIES 5

                       U   R
A   T   I   O   N
        Mad Stop PV-11
        Olympia, WA 98504-8711
        TEL.  (206)438-7883

        PO Box 47600
        Olympia, WA 7600
        TEL.  (206)459-6000

        1900 Kanawha Boulevard East
        Charleston, WV 25305-0193
        TEL-  (304)558-2204

        1201 Greenbner Street
        Charleston, WV 25311
        TEL.  (304)558-2107
          Box 7921
          Madison, WI53707
          TEL  (608)267-7610

          2219 Carey Avenue
          Cheyenne, WY 82002
          TEL.  (307)777-6579

          Herschler Building
          4th Floor
          West Cheyenne, WY 82002
          TEL  (307)-777-7626
       Other pages in this handbook contain more detailed information on these subjects Permission is hereby
       granted to producers, growers, and associations serving the poultry industry to reproduce this matenal for
       further  distribution. The Poultry Water Quality Consortium is  a cooperative  effort of industry  and
       government to identify and adopt prudent uses of poultry by-products that will preserve the quality of water
       for everyone                                                                    Rl / 8 - 6/94
                                POULTRY WATER QUALITY CONSORTIUM
                         HB-2C, 1101 Market Street • Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801
                                 Tel: (615) 751-7297 • Fax:(615)751-7479