Vol. 6, No. 3
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
March 1977
    EPA  Employee   Receives            Fluid  Modeling  Facility
               Bronze  Medal
                           by Dorothy Rose/Roger Thompson
   Bill  Hunt
   Bill  Hunt, Chief, Data Analysis Section, was  recently
presented with a bronze medal  for commendable services
by Bob Neligan, Director, Monitoring and Data Analysis
   The citation states, "In  recognition of exceptional
performance  and initiative in  the development of the
Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Pollutant
Standards Index, statistical quality control tests  for
ambient air  quality data, and  the establishment  of  a
center of statistical expertise within the Office of
Air Quality  Planning and Standards."
   During the past year Hunt took on two major addition-
al responsibilities:  (1) Chairman of the EPA Working
Group to develop an air quality index, and  (2) Director
of the quality control development program for screening
ambient air  quality data.
   As chairman of the EPA Working Group, Hunt prepared
a guideline  document to encourage the use of a uniform
index by state and local air pollution control agencies.
As part of this effort he also conducted a joint study
with the Office of Research  and Development which
tested the index in eight cities.
   The second major effort undertaken by Hunt was the
quality control development  program for the National
Aerometric Data Bank, which  contains over 85 million
ambient air  pollution values.  The purpose of this
(continued on page  2)
                    Lew Knight adjusting sampling  rate in a towing
                    tank experiment.
                   How can watching the smoke from a scale-model smoke-
                stack  in a wind tunnel  help  solve the nation's air
                pollution problems?  Dr.  William Snyder,  Chief of the
                EPA Fluid Modeling Facility  explains, "If the wind
                tunnel  is a meteorological wind tunnel, atmospheric
                air motions can be created to provide a laboratory
                environment for the study of air pollution dispersion.
                Quantitative results from these scale-model  studies can
                be directly applied to  full-scale, real world
                   Recently I  spent a very informative 45 minutes at
                the Fluid Modeling Facility.  I saw a short film which
                described the  operation of the facility,  then Roger
                Thompson, an engineer in ESRL, took me on a tour and
                explained the  functions of the wind tunnel and water
                channel-towing tank.  I was  amazed and you will be
                too, if you get a chance to  visit this facility.
                   The EPA Fluid Modeling Facility (FMF), located in
                the Grand Slam building, was established in 1974 by
                the Meteorology and Assessment Division of the ESRL as
                one of only a  few atmospheric dispersion modeling
                facilities in  the world. Major research components of
                the facility include a  water channel-towing tank, a
                meteorological wind tunnel,  and an instrument calibra-
                tion wind tunnel.  In addition, there is a complete
                mini-computer  for real-time  data acquisition and
                analysis.  Flow rates and concentrations are measured
                (continued on  page 4)

    Congratulations from EMSL personnel to Tom and
Wendy  Lawless who are the proud parents of an 8 Ib a oz
baby boy, Geoffrey Tyler, who was born on February 25.
Tom is a Systems Analyst in our Statistical and Tech-
nical  Analysis Branch.

    Best wishes for a speedy recovery to Bill Harris,
GSD/OA, who  is in the Veterans Hospital recovering
from a recent illness.

    Buttermilk biscuits, pumpkin bread, crepes filled
with ham and mushrooms—these are just a few of the
delicacies  prepared by six EPA'ers in their new "learning
to cook" venture. They meet as their budget or as hunger
moves  them—eating their way through a myriad of cook-
books. Our  potential gourmet cooks over in OAQPS are
Mary Whitt,  Nancy Council, Priscilla Smith, Ann Eleanor,
Patrice Mansfield, and Karen Easter. The major Question:
Do you need  anyone to sample' The line forms on th"e right:

Liz ^artin,  OA, was recently accredited by the Public
Relations Societv of America, the national professional
association  for public relations practitioners. It is the
largest association of its kind in the world with the
primary aim  of advancing the standards of the publ'fc
relations profession.

Archibald Andrew tfacOueen, IV, was born on Saturday,
February 26, 1977, to Judge and Mrs. Susan 'lacQueen in
Charleston,  West Virginia.  Proud grandparents are Arch
and Kathleen MacQueen of Cary, fl.C.  Mr. lacOueen is

Congratulations to Penny Andrews, EMB/EMSL, and her
husband, "Dink," on the birth of a daughter, Ashley
Lynn,  on January 31.  Ashley weighed in at 7 Ibs. 2 ozs.

Speaking Engagements

    Bob Bauman, SASD/OAQPS, will  discuss "Energy and the
Environment," at a meeting of the Durham Jaycees,
March  22, at the Downtowner Motor Inn, Durham, N.C.

    Walter Barber, Director, OAQPS, will address the
Durham Downtown Lions Club, April 13, at the Downtowner
Motor  Inn.  His subject will  be "Proposed Future Plans
for EPA."

Judy Graham, Microbiologist,  Biomedical  Research  Branch,
will discuss the  "Physiological  Effects  of a Number  of
Pollutants," at Indiana  University of Pennsylvania,
Indiana, Pa., April  15.

    Norman Plaks,  Chief,  Metallurgical  Process Branch,
IERL, will  talk about EPA/ORD activity in  the iron  and
steel   industry at the American Society of  Mechanical
Engineers meeting,  May 11-12,  in Pittsburgh, PA.

    Robert Hall, Research Mechanical  Engineer, IERL,  will
discuss guidelines  for industrial  boiler performance
improvement at the  Air Pollution Control  Association
meeting, June 20,  in Toronto,  Canada.
    G.  Tucker, Chief,  Special  Studies  Staff,  IERL, will
address the American Society  of  Engineering Educators,
June 27, at Grand  Forks,  ND.   His subject  will  be
energy/environment  management  problems.
    Richard Stern, Chief,  Process Technology Branch,
IERL,  will  attend the 2nd Symposium on Stationary
Source Combustion,  August 29-September 1,  in New  Orleans
LA.  He will talk about  flue  gas treatment for NOX  and
simultaneous SOX/NOX control.

    Robert Statnick,  Research  Chemist,  IERL,  will  attend
the American Society for Testing and  Materials meeting,
October 2,  in San Francisco,  California.   His subject
will be source sampling  and analysis.
EMSL  Sponsors  Symposium

    The  Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory
 is  sponsoring a symposium presenting an  in-depth over-
 view  and findings of the Los Angeles Catalyst  Study
 (LACS)  currently in progress.  The central objectives
of  the  study are to evaluate the impact  of the catalyst
on  ambient air levels of automotive pollutants, and  to
 provide a long-term data base upon which to assess
 human exposures to automotive attribution products in
and near the roadway.  Data from this study will be
presented and interpreted to determine if the  use of
the catalytic converter has significantly affected the
ambient level of automotive related pollutants, espe-
cially  in areas adjacent to the heavily  travelled free-
ways.   The symposium will be held April  12 and 13, 1977
at  the  Royal Villa Motor Inn, Raleigh, North Carolina.

   The Institute of Environmental Sciences is holding
its 23rd Annual Technical  Meeting and Equipment Exposi-
tion April 24-27, at the Marriott Hotel, Los Angeles,
California.  The theme:   "Environmental Technology '77."

   The Society for Advanced Medical Systems has issued
a call for papers for its  9th Annual Conference on
"Advanced Medical Systems-Challenges and Prospects."
The conference will  be held November 9-12, at the
Los Angeles Hilton Hotel,  Los Angeles, California.
Sign-up sheets for the Research  Triangle Federal
Employees Association "TENNIS CLASSIC" will be mailed
late in March.  If you're interested and do not receive
an application call:  Charlie Pratt, ext. 365 or Dick
Jenkins, ext. 581.
EPA EMPLOYEE...  (continued  from page 1)

program is to develop and apply quality control  tests

to screen ambient air quality data for inconsistent
values caused by transcription, keypunch, and other

   Hunt has gone beyond  the development and testing
stages and has set up cooperative studies with EPA

regional  offices in Chicago and San Francisco to pro-
vide an evaluation of the quality control tests.

   Hunt,  a native of New Jersey, received his B.A.  in

Mathematics and  his M.S. in Applied and Mathematical

Statistics from Rutgers  University, New Brunswick,  N.J.
   Currently, Hunt, his  wife, Janice, and their  two
children, Bill,  III,  and Elizabeth, reside in Durham.
 The CLEANER TIMES is  published monthly by Public Affairs,
 Office of Administration. U S  Environmental Protection Agency,
 Research Triangle Park, N  C 27711

 Liz Martin  	        ...        .... Editor
 Dorothy Rose   	    	Assistant Editor
 Elaine Hyman  	    ..  Reporter

 Produced  with the assistance of the Word Processing Center:
 Graphics, Composition, Printing Sections, and Forms and Publica-
 tions Center, GSD

      Tena  Pipkin
      practices  CPR.
   Your luncheon partner  suddenly  stops  talking  in mid-
sentence,  turns pale and  is  obviously  in acute distress.
He clutches his chest  in  panic.  Within  the next seven
minutes he will be  dead—unless you  know what to do.
   Each year  thousands  of Americans  die  by choking on
a piece of food.  Many  of these lives  could be saved
by simple  first aid techniques.  First aid instruction
trains employees to act swiftly and  without panic in
ordinary,  everyday  emergencies when  qualified medical
aid  is not readily  available.
   Most of us could use a refresher  course in emergency
first aid  procedures and  with the  range and complexity
of work carried out by  EPA'ers, there  is an increasing
need for expert medical instruction—especially  for
laboratory and field personnel.
   Now three  different  types of emergency training
courses are available through the  Personnel Division.
EPA recently  concluded  an interagency  agreement with
the U.S. Army John  F. Kennedy Center for Military
Assistance at Ft. Bragg,  North Carolina.  The Special
Forces team provides expert medical  instruction  in all
phases of  first aid and emergency  medical care.  They
also teach courses  tailored  for specific occupational
   Part of the training course covers  cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) and emergency  cardiac care.  CPR
is an emergency method  of keeping  the  brain supplied
with oxygen in case of  cardiac arrest.  The course is
designed to teach you to  recognize respiratory and
cardiac arrest, and to  properly apply  CPR to maintain
life until professional help is available.
   According to John Coggin, Personnel, there are three
standard courses being offered.  There is an intensive
basic first aid course  for non-laboratory personnel
which runs for 16 hours.  Over 700 employees took this
course last spring  at RTP.  The laboratory emergency
aid course is a 24  hour course, and  there is a 40 hour
 field  course which deals with emergency medical  problems
 and  with evacuation procedures at remote sites.
   This latter course was taught last spring at  RTP  to
 21 "students" who do stack sampling for EPA.  These  EPA
 staff  members travel to industrial  sites to determine
 what pollutants are expelled into the atmosphere by
 selected industrial processes.  The results may  be used
 in further research or as reference points in setting
 emission standards.
   The stack sampling teams work in close quarters at
 or near the top of tall stacks and tanks, some as many
 as 300 feet high.  Outer temperatures may rise to
 230° and inner heat can reach 1200°.  Personnel  may  be
 on the job long after the close of the official  working
 day.   While every safety measure possible is taken,
 there  is always the possibility of sudden expulsion  of
 gasses, electric shock, cuts, or other accidental
   There has been no loss of time due to accidents in
 the  six years of EPA's stack testing program, partly
 because of continuing classes and upgrading of skills
 in the safety awareness area.
   Courses can be designed for a particular laboratory
 or field situation or specialized safety problem.  A
 call to John Coggin, Ext. 1321, will answer all  the
 questions you have about EPA's first aid courses.

 Donor  News
   Many thanks  to  all  of  you  who  unselfishly  volunteered
your time and  gave your blood during  1976.
   We are just 65  pints short of  our  quota  under the cur-
rent Red Cross  group agreement signed in  May  1976.
   This month,  which has  been proclaimed  "Red  Cross Month"
by President Jimmy Carter, we want  to pay  tribute  to all
of you  who gave blood  during  1976 but space does not allow
us to list all  of  you.  A special tribute  however, goes  to
Gordon  Ortman  who  has  now given  11  GALLONS  (yes, that's
correct)  "ELEVEN."  To give this  much blood requires 88
pints donated  over the years.  Thank  you,  Gordon.  And
thanks  to all  our  other doners.
   Very special  thanks  goes to Richard Atherton who gave
SIX  pints this  year.
   Five pinters  included:  Robert L.  Denny,  Whitmel
Joyner, John Brown,  and Gordon Ortman.
   EPA'ers who  gave four  pints were:   Miriam Ashe, Ralph
Baumgardner, John  Cline,  John Floyd,  Richard Jenkins,
Charles Keadle,  Bonnie Kirtz, Jerome  Kirtz,  Thomas Lahre,
Willie  McLeod,  Richard Paur,  Donna  Wicker,  Allen Hoyt,
George  Gillis,  and Lula Murphy.
   If you have  never given blood  and  would  like to par-
ticipate, give  us  a call.  Liz  Martin or  Elaine Hyman,
Ext.  2952.  We  need you.

FLUID MODELING... (continued from page 1)
by various electronic, chemical,  and mechanical  equip-
ment.  The staff includes professionals trained  in
environmental fluid dynamics, model  makers,  computer
programmers, and electronic technicians.
   A boundary layer similar to that which exists in
the atmosphere is generated in the meteorological  wind
tunnel by placing large fins at the entrance to  the test
section.  Scale models of buildings or terrain features
are mounted to the floor of the test section.  Portions
of a model can be mounted on a turntable that can be
easily rotated to simulate different wind directions.
Pollutant emissions from various types of sources, such
as smokestacks, are modeled according to established
techniques.  Smoke may be released from the source to
visualize and photograph the dispersion pattern.  If
concentration measurements are required, hydrocarbon
gas is used as a tracer in the stack gas, and samples
are taken at various locations in the test section.
Such effects as the aerodynamics of a building on the
dispersion of pollutants from a nearby stack can be
analyzed.  By varying the height of the stack in the
model, the height required for avoiding the building
influences can be determined.
   The water channel-towing tank was installed to study
dispersion under stably stratified atmospheric condi-
tions.  The water channel mode of operation is similar
to that of the wind tunnel and only neutral  (no  inver-
sion) flow can be modeled.  Models are fastened  to the
floor of the test section; dyes are used for flow visu-
alization studies and for quantitative concentration
determinations.  The towing tank mode  of operations  in-
volves blocking the ends of the  test section  and filling
it with layers of salt water of  increasing  density  to
produce the desired stable stratification.  Models  are
attached to a turntable suspended from a towing carri-
age into the water, and towed the length of the test
section, making possible the study of  flow  and  disper-
sion around building and complex terrain under  stably
stratified atmospheric conditions.
   An old "rule of thumb" says that a  stack placed next
to a building must be at least 2-1/2 times  the height
of the building to avoid downwash of the plume in the
wake of the building.  Downwash would  result  in high
concentrations of pollutants at ground level.  A wind
tunnel study showed this to be a  good rule  for a
conventionally shaped building.    For a tall,  thin
building, however, the rule was demonstrated  to be
unnecessarily conservative and, therefore,  wasteful.
Research proved that a thin building has essentially no
effect on plume behavior when the stack is  1-1/2 times
the height of the building.  However,  studies show
that downwash occurs behind a wide building when the
stack height  is only 1-1/2 times  the building height.
This study benefitted the consumer by demonstrating
that the construction of costly tall stacks is not
always necessary.

   These and other types of studies are constantly
going on at the Fluid Modeling Facility in  an effort
to gain general understanding of  the mechanisms of
atmospheric dispersion.
 Personnel Corner
    Occasionally the Personnel  Office  learns  of  com-
 plaints from employees and  new retirees  who  claim  to
 have been unaware of requirements  to  continue their
 health benefits upon retirement.
    The Federal Employees Health Benefits law allows a
 retiree to continue health  benefits  into retirement
 if his or her retirement is:
    - On an immediate annuity,
    - After 12 or more years of service  or under the
      disability provisions  of  the  retirement law,  and
    - After enrollment (or coverage as a  family  member
      in a plan) (not necessarily the  same plan) under
      program during:
    - the 5 years of service immediately  preceding
      retirement, or
    - all service since his  or  her  first  opportunity
      to enroll.
    Give careful  consideration to these requirements,
 if you are  not  enrolled in a plan or are considering
 cancellation  of your enrollment.
    The following awards were  approved during
 February 1977:
    Joshua S.  Brown,  IERL       Gloria J.  Koch, ESRL
    T.  Kelly Janes,  IERL        Robert R.  Arnts, ESRL

    Jean Guard Lewis, HERL
    Karen B. Curtis,  ESRL