WATER SUPPLY  AND  WATER
   QUALITY CONTROL STUDY
   BLUE MARSH  RESERVOIR
     SCHUYLKILL  RIVER BASIN
          PENNSYLVANIA
     PE NNSYLVANIA
      U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
      BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 02203
              June 1968

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          WATER SUPPLY AND WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY
                      BLUE MARSH RESERVOIR
                     SCHUYLKILL RIVER BASIN
                          PENNSYLVANIA
Abstract
A study has been made which discloses a present and future need
(to the year 2020} for storage in the proposed reservoir for
municipal and industrial water supplies.  There is also an
immediate need for storage for flow regulation to control water
quality.  These conclusions are based on hydrologic, economic
and demographic analyses.  Future needs are based on projected
population and industrial growth.
                    IN COOPERATION WITH THE
                  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
                  U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT
                  PHILADELPHIA,  PENNSYLVANIA
                U.  S.  DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
           Federal  Water Pollution  Control  Administration
                    Northeast  Regional Office
                      Boston, Massachusetts
                           June 1968

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                                TABLE OF CONTENTS






                                                                Page No.



      LIST OF TABLES	    iii




      LIST OF FIGURES	    iv




  I.  INTRODUCTION   	     1



        Request and Authority  	     1




        Purpose and Scope  	     1




        Acknowledgments  	     2




 II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS  	     3




        Findings   	     3



        Conclusions  	     5



III.  PROJECT DESCRIPTION  	     7




        Location and Pertinent Data  	     7



        Streamflow 	     7




        Water Quality	     8




 IV.  STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION	    13




        Location and Boundaries  	    13




        Topography and  Geography 	    14



        Climate	    15




        Principal Communities and Industries  	    15




  V.  WATER RESOURCES OF  THE STUDY AREA	    16




        Quantity of Water Available  	    16




        Quality of Water  Available 	    18

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)




                                                                 Page No.


  VI.  THE ECONOMY	     21


         Introduction  	     21


         Present	     21


         Future	     22


 VII.  WATER REQUIREMENTS - MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL 	     27


         Present Water Use	     27


         Existing Sources of Water - Surface and Ground

           Water	     29


         Future Municipal and Industrial Water Requirements   .     32


VIII.  WATER QUALITY CONTROL 	     40
                                  #

         Municipal and Industrial Pollution  	     40


         Water Quality Objectives  	     42


         Flow Regulation	     44


  IX.  BENEFITS	     48


         Water Supply - Municipal and Industrial	     50


         Water Quality Control	     52


   X.  BILBIOGRAPHY	     57


         APPENDIX A - Surface Water Withdrawals  	     58


         APPENDIX B - Surface Water Discharges 	     60
                                      11

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                           LIST OF TABLES

No.                            Table                       Page No.

 1        Water Quality - Tulpehocken Creek (Near
           Reading)                                           11

 2        Water Quality - Schuylkill River                    12

 3        Low Flow Statistics - Schuylkill River              17

 4        Water Related Industries                            24

 5        Blue Marsh Study Area - Population                  25

 6        Projected Production of Water Related Industries    26

 7        Present Water Use                                   28

 8        Larger Water Supply Systems in the Blue Marsh
           Study Area                                         30

 9        Average Daily Per Capita Water Use - 1965           33

 10       Future Municipal Water Demands                      34

 11       Future Self-Supplied Industrial Water Demands -
           MGD                                                37

 12       Municipal and Industrial Waste Discharges           41

 13       Larger Municipal Waste Discharges in the Blue
           Marsh Study Area                                   43

 14       Streamflow Required to Maintain Quality Control -
           cfs                                                45
                                111

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                          LIST OF FIGURES

                                                           Following
No.                 Figure                                 Page No.

1         Blue Marsh Study Area	    57
                                   IV.

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                          I.   INTRODUCTION



 Request and Authority



      This study was initiated at the request of the District Engineer,



 Corps of Engineers, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by letter dated



 October 15, 1964.  The letter requested ... "A review and updating



 of the recommendations for the development of water supply and flow



 regulation for quality control for the Blue Marsh Project," located



 in the Schuylkill River Basin.




      Authority to conduct this study is provided in the Federal



 Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 466 et. seq.),



 and in a Memorandum of Agreement, dated November 4, 1958, between



 the Department of the Army and the Department of Health, Education,



 and Welfare, relative to Title III of P.L. 500, 85th Congress as



 amended by P.L. 87-88.  Responsibility for this study was transferred



 to the Department of the Interior as of May 10, 1966, by Reorganization



 Plan Number 2 of 1966.



 Purpose and Scope



      The purpose of this study is to determine the need for and value



of storage of water in the proposed Blue Marsh Reservoir for municipal



and industrial water supply and for water quality control.  This



reservoir is proposed by the Corps of Engineers for multi-purpose



development.




      The area considered in this study encompasses portions of



Berks, Montgomery,  Chester,  Bucks, Delaware, and Philadelphia counties,



in southeastern Pennsylvania.
                                  -1-

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      Project needs and benefits have been evaluated for the period



1970 to 2020.






Acknowledgements




      Information and cooperation provided by the following agencies



are gratefully recognized:




           U. S. Army Engineer District, Philadelphia, Pa.



           U. S. Geological Survey



           Delaware River Basin Commission



           Pennsylvania Department of Health



           Philadelphia Suburban Water Company
                                -2-

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                II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS








Findings



     1.  The U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, is considering construction



of a project known as the Blue Marsh Reservoir, on Tulpehocken Creek.



This creek is tributary to the Schuylkill River upstream from Reading,



Pennsylvania.



     2.  The Schuylkill River, which flows through southeastern Pennsylvania,



is a major tributary of the Delaware River which it joins at the City of



Philadelphia.



     3.  The study area consists of six counties (Berks, Bucks, Montgomery,



Chester, Delaware and Philadelphia) lying mostly within the Schuylkill



River Basin.



     4.  The study area is characterized by rolling hills, below Reading,



which taper off to tidal marshes at the confluence of the Schuylkill with



the Delaware.



     5.  In 1965, approximately 1.7 million persons lived in the study



area with the population density varying from approximately 200,000 people



in and around Reading to over one million people in the Norristown-



Philadelphia area.



     6.  The most significant water users in the study area are the people



and industries centered in and around the cities of Reading, Pottstown,



Norristown and Philadelphia.  In 1965, the combined peak daily use for



these four urban areas was 487 million gallons per day (MGD).
                                -3-

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       7.   For  1965, estimates of adequately  treated waste  pro-



 duced  within the  study area account  for discharges of approximately



 38,000 pounds  of  biochemical oxygen  demand.  Municipal waste from



 the urban  areas of Reading, Pottstown and Morristown account for



 32,000 pounds  of  this estimate, while the remaining 6,000  pounds



 are attributable  to industrial wastes.




       8.   The  manufacturing categories primarily responsible for



 industrial waste  discharges are:  Food and Kindred Products, Paper



 and Allied Products, Chemicals and Allied Products, Petroleum and



 Allied Products,  Rubber Products, and Primary Metals.




       9.  The  Schuylkill River is used extensively for industrial and



 municipal water supply.  All municipal supplies must receive filtra-



 tion and chlorination before use.




     10.  Maintenance of the sport fishery in the Schuylkill River



 required frequent restocking by the  Pennsylvania Department of



 Fisheries.




     11.  Water quality in the Schuylkill River is marginal.



Observations have revealed dissolved oxygen values less than 4 mg/1,



waste concentrations as high as 8 mg/1 of biochemical oxygen demand,



and concentrations of organic chemicals exceeding recommended limits



of Public Health Service "Drinking Water Standards".
                                 -4-

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Conclusions

      1.   In the year 2020 approximately 2.9 million people will be

using the waters of the Schuylkill Basin for water supply, and

approximately 1.9 million people will be using these waters for the

dilution and assimilation of treated wastes.

     2.  Projections to the year 2020 indicate that storage will be

necessary to insure 241 MGD for municipal and industrial water sup-

plies in the Norristown region of the study area.

     3.  During a once-in-50 drought occurrence, a draft on storage*

of approximately 3,200,000 acre feet will be needed by the year

2020, to sustain acceptable water quality in the Schuylkill River.

     4.  The augmentation capacity of the Schuylkill Basin is not

sufficient to maintain quality control through stream flow regulation.

Therefore, quality control practices such as advanced waste treat-

ment, in addition to stream flow regulation will be necessary.

     5.  The minimum annual value of municipal and industrial water

supply storage in the Blue Marsh Reservoir is estimated at $370,000.

This value is based on the assumption that a single purpose reservoir

would be the most efficient means of providing the water needed should
* A draft on storage is the sum of the incremental excesses of needed
  releases over inflows during a drought period.
                                  -5-

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the Federal project not be built.  The cost of this single purpose



alternative, therefore, is used as a measure of the minimum value of



the storage provided by the Federal reservoir.  Calculation of the



cost is based on amortization over a 100 year period at a Federal



interest rate of 3-1/8 percent.  Included in the annual cost are



expenditures for operation and maintenance.



      6.  The minimum annual value of storage releases, that will



provide a portion of the quality control needed, is estimated at



$321,000.  This assumes that storage releases for water supply



purposes, which also produce quality control benefits, will be



provided.



      7.  The benefits derived from water quality control in the



Schuylkill River above Fairmount Dam will be in the form of:



          a)  An improved quality in the raw water used for municipal



              and industrial water supplies.



          b)  Increased opportunities for recreational activity.



          c)  Enhancement of a desirable fish population.



          d)  Prevention of obnoxious septic and near septic conditions.



          d)  Improvement in the aesthetic qualities of the River.
                               -6-

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                      III.  PROJECT DESCRIPTION






Location and Pertinent Data




     Blue Marsh Reservoir on Tulpehocken Creek is one of several major




projects in the Corps of Engineers' Delaware River Basin plan authorized




for Federal construction, to conserve and control the waters of the




Delaware River and its tributary streams.  The Reservoir will be formed




by an earthfill, rock-covered dam across the valley of Tulpehocken Creek




about 1 % miles upstream from the mouth of Plum Creek and about 6 miles




northwest of Reading, Pa.  (See Figure 1).  The drainage area above this




site totals 175 square miles.  The Dam which will be 1,100 feet long and




90 feet high will provide a total reservoir storage capacity of 50,000



acre feet.  Current apportionment of this storage assigns 3,000 a.f. to




sediment deposition, 14,600 a.f. to water supply and recreation, and



32,400 a.f. to flood control.








Streamflow




     Since December 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey has maintained a




Streamflow gaging station on Tulpehocken Creek, 3 miles downstream from



the Blue Marsh dam site.  The flow record provided by this station shows




average daily streamflows in Tulpehocken Creek to be equal to or greater




than 88 cfs ninety percent of the time, 72 cfs ninety-five percent of the




time, and 60 cfs ninety-eight percent of the time.  Average annual flow at




the gaging station is 300 cfs.  Assuming Streamflow to be proportional to




drainage area, the average annual flow at the dam site is estimated at 250




cfs.  The drainage area serving the U.S.G.S. gage is 211 square miles.







                                   -7-

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 Water Quality
      The water quality of Tulpehocken Creek is  generally good with
 a few exceptions.   Analyses performed by  the U.  S.  Geological Survey
 and the Pennsylvania Dept.  of Health,  presented in  Table I  show high
 nitrate and hardness concentrations  (about  10 mg/1  and  175  mg/1
 respectively).   Additional  analyses  by the  FWPCA have indicated
 phosphorus  concentration  in excess of 0.10  mg/1  and total coliforms
 greater than 1000/100 ml.
      The primary source of  nitrates  would appear to be  agricultural
 and the major source of phosphorus,  domestic sewage.  Except  for
 small  forested  areas most of the Tulpehocken drainage basin is  farm
 land.   The  concentration of nitrogen and  phosphorus found is  in the
 range  to support optimum growth of planktonic algae.
     The sources of  hardness  are limestone  and dolomite  beds  which
 underlay the  headwaters of  Tulpehocken Creek.  The creek water  above
 Reading,  Pa., is considered as "very hard"  according to  U.  S. Public
 Health  Service  "Drinking Water Standards".   Water treatment may be
 necessary for industrial use  to prevent scale in boilers, water
 heaters, and pipes.
     Watershed bacterial counts generally exceed Pennsylvania State
 Dept. of Health standards for recreational use.   The sources are
municipal waste water and agricultural runoff.  A study  should  be
conducted to determine if more effective effluent chlorination  of
the sewage treatment plants in the basin,  coupled with a reduction
in the bacterial count that occurs with reservoir storage, would

                                  -8-

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 result in a bacterial density within the recreation standard (1000/lOOml).
 Also, a means for control of agricultural pollution should be sought.
      Ground waters which recharge the headwaters of Tulpehocken Creek
 (Jackson Township, Lebanon County)  are now contaminated with arsenic
 compounds originating from the property of production of pharmaceuti-
 cals by the Whitmoyer Laboratory.   The Pennsylvania Dept.  of Health
 and the Delaware River Basin Commission have  approved a permit  for
 controlled ground water decontamination of the  area.   Whitmoyer
 Laboratories has informed the DRBC  that the contamination  will  be
 removed from the ground water and streams to  within acceptable  limits
 before  the construction of Blue Marsh Dam.
      The Pennsylvania Dept.  of Health has sampled the Tulpehocken
 Creek near Reading quarterly.   Analyses over  the past five years show
 the  dissolved oxygen  to be never less  than 8  mg/1.   The  BOD range  for
 the  same period  is about  1-5  mg/1.
      Water quality in  the  Schuylkill  River is marginal.  Those  para-
 meters which  have  exceeded  limits specified by U. S.  Public Health
 Service  "Drinking  Water Standards" or  "Water Quality  Criteria"  for
 aquatic  life, recreation, municipal or  industrial use  are:   aluminum,
 copper,  iron, manganese, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate,  dissolved oxygen,
biochemical oxygen demand, pH, hardness, dissolved solids,  coliforms,
ABS, and stream temperature.
     Acid mine drainage affects the chemical quality of the main stem
Schuylkill River throughout to the confluence with the Delaware River
 (Table 2).  However, below Berne alkaline water from tributaries (the

                                    -9-

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 major ones are Tulpehocken and Maiden Creeks)  dilutes and neutralizes
 the acidic Schuylkill River.   As a result the  normal  pH range at
 Pottstown is 6.5 to 8.0 in contrast to levels  below 5 at Berne.   The
 U.  S.  Geological Survey,  prior to the 1965 water year,  has reported
 pH  values as low as 3.8 at Pottstown,  Pa.   A concerted mine drainage
 abatement program is needed to alleviate  the acid condition in the
 Schuylkill River.   Residual hardness  and  sulfates,  comprising most  of
 the dissolved solids concentration, affect water use  throughout  the
 length of the Schuylkill  River.
     The  effect  of dilution from tributary water is reflected in a
 reduction of dissolved-solids  content.  The dissolved-solids  content
 exceeded  400 mg/1  at Berne, Pa.,  250 mg/1  at Pottstown,  and 210  mg/1
 at  Philadelphia, Pa.,  less  than  50% of the time.   Please note that
 average dissolved-solids  concentrations, shown in Table  2,  are higher
 than these values because the  1965 water year flows are  lower than
 average.
     Dissolved oxygen problems occur in the  vicinity of  metropolitan
areas, particularly near Reading, Pottstown, and Norristown.  Pennsyl-
vania Dept. of Health analyses reveal summer dissolved oxygen lows
of about 7.0 mg/1 near Reading, 5.0 mg/1 near Pottstown,  and 4.0 mg/1
near Norristown.  The BOD concentration ranges are Reading  1-9 mg/1,
Pottstown 1-7 mg/1, and Norristown 2-8 mg/1.
                                  -10-

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                                    TABLE I

               WATER QUALITY - TULPEHOCKEN CREEK (NEAR READING)

                 (Concentrations in mg/1 Except Where Noted)
Constituent
Mean Discharge
Dissolved Solids
Hardness
Alkalinity
Iron
Manganese
Sulfate
Chloride
Fluoride
Nitrate
pH (4)
Color
Conductivity
Temperature
Dissolved Oxygen
BOD
    U.S.G.S.Analysis*
    Oct.  63 - July 65
   Pa.  Dept.  of Health**
         1962 - 1967
                         Average
                  Range
 Average
Range
109   cfs       53-375   cfs
215.2          174-251
174.4          136-199
169.8          124-196
  0.00
 (2)             (2)
 29.7           27- 33
 12.3          8.6- 18
  0.05         0.00-0.10
  9.6          7.8-12.0
  7.6          7.1-8.2
  4              2-9
  no analysis performed
  no record made
  no analysis performed
  no analysis performed
186.0 cfs
250.7
154.0
123.4
0.3
(3)
41.1
12.7
36 - 689
180 - 308
40 - 208
75 - 150
0.1 - 1.0
(3)
19 - 185
7-18
                      cfs
                     CD
   no analysis performed
   no analysis performed
  7.8      6.4 - 8.9
 17.5        5-45
331.7      300 - 380 micromhos
 12.7C      1 - 24.4C
 11.3      8.2 - 14.4
  2.9      1.2 -  4.9
 * Seven sample average
** Twenty-two sample average


(1) Second lowest value - 120
(2) Two samples contained 0.01 mg/1
(3) One sample contained 0.1 mg/1
(4) Laboratdry determinations
                                      -11-

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to
I
                                                       TABLE 2

                                           WATER QUALITY - SCHUYLKILL RIVER

                                      (Concentrations in mg/1 Except Where Noted)
Constituent
Mean Discharge
Dissolved Solids
Hardness
Alkalinity
Aluminum
Copper*
Iron
Manganese
Sulfate
Chloride
Fluoride
Nitrate
ABS*
PH
Color
Temperature
Dissolved Oxygen*
BOD*
Berne, Pa.
Average Range
443 cfs
460
277
0.5
1.3
0.06
0.01
3.6
294
10.3
0.1
8.8
0.04
4.3
4
55F
10.1
1.9
79-1860 cfs
193-824
109-499
0-2
0.4-4.2
0.00-0.36
0.00-0.02
1.4-7.2
115-552
6.5-16
0.0-0.2
3.9-14
0.00-0.15
3.8-4.7
2-5
32-88 F
8.4-13.4
0.4-5.6
Pottstown, Pa.
Average Range
638 cfs
334
182
74
0.06
0.02
0.00
125
42
0.2
16
0.22
7.3
11
9.2
2.7
407-868 cfs
217-452
129-235
51-96
0.00-0.28
0.00-0.03
75-176
19-66
0.2-0.3
12-21
0.05-0.55
6.8-7.8
10-13
5.0-14.2
0.9-5.9
Philadelphia, Pa.
Average Range
1310 cfs
299
170
76
0.05
0.01
0.08
112
29
0.3
11
0.22
7.1
7
62F
8.6
3.4
95-5400 cfs
207-474
120-278
40-110
0.00-0.22
0.00-0.02
0.00-0.36
64-213
18-48
0.2-0.6
6.9-16
0.00-0.62
6.8-7.8
3-12
36-84F
4.0-14.0
1.6-7.6
          *Pennsylvania Dept. of Health Samples 1962-1967, 20 samples.
           All other parameters U. S. Geological Survey October 1964-September  1965
           Monthly samples for Berne and Philadelphia.  Pottstown, biannual

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                   IV.  STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION






Location and Boundaries



      The study area, which is in southeastern Pennsylvania, con-



sists of four sub-areas or regions that might feasibly require



and subsequently use the Blue Marsh Reservoir to satisfy immediate



and future water supply needs.  These sub-areas center around the



cities of Reading, Pottstown, Norristown and Philadelphia (see



Figure 1).  With the exception of a portion of the Norristown sub-



area, all are within the Schuylkill River drainage basin.  Only



the communities served by the Philadelphia Suburban Water Company



are outside the basin.



      An additional sub-area requires special reference.  The



Chester sub-area, comprised of the communities served by the Chester



Water Authority, is immediately adjacent to the most southeasterly



portion of the Norristown sub-area, and was considered in detail



in the "Tocks Island Reservoir, Water Quality Control Study".  '



      Tulpehocken Creek, on which the Blue Marsh Project is located,



joins the Schuylkill River at the City of Reading.  The Schuylkill



then flows through all of the sub-areas, except Chester, for



approximately 70 miles and unites with the Delaware Estuary at the



City of Philadelphia.  It is the Schuylkill River which is the



object of water quality control consideration in this study.  The



Delaware Estuary and the lower few miles of the Schuylkill below






                                -13-

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Fairmount Dam are the object of the FWPCA Delaware Estuary Compre-



hensive Study and, therefore, are not included in the detailed work



of this Blue Marsh Study.



      The preceding sub-areas constitute the entire study area for



the Blue Marsh Project and are situated totally within the Common-



wealth of Pennsylvania.  The counties involved are Berks, Bucks,



Montgomery, Chester, Delaware, and Philadelphia.



Topography and Geography



      The study area is characterized by rolling hills in the



vicinity of Reading, which taper off to tidal marsh lands at the



confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers.  The Schuylkill



River is the study area's principal waterway, and along its banks



are located the most densely populated urban areas.  The River is



not commercially navigable but its six dams and pools create con-



ditions suitable for pleasure boats and recreation.  Principal



tributaries to the Schuylkill are Maiden Creek and Tulpehocken Creek



just above Reading; Manatawney Creek at Pottstown; French Creek,



Perkiomen Creek and Pickering Creek just above Norristown and



Wissahickon Creek just above Philadelphia.  Beyond the urban



and suburban communities that line the River, there is still much



open land well adapted to agriculture and intensely farmed.





                                -14-

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Climate



     The average annual temperature of 50F.  and mean annual  precipitation




of 44 inches are characteristic of the study area's continental  climate.




Temperatures range from a summer average of 71F. to a winter average of




30F. and the rainfall which produces an average annual runoff  of 21 inches,




occurs rather uniformly throughout the year.   This pattern of rainfall is




ideal for agriculture.




Principal Communities and Industries



     The study area has been segmented into four metropolitan sub-areas




containing many smaller communities but focusing on one larger  center




community.  These four sub-areas center around the cities of Reading,




Pottstown, Norristown, and Philadelphia.  There is significant  industrial




development in each of these sub-areas and the industries most  directly




connected with water uses and waste discharges fall under six general



categories.  These categories are Chemicals, Paper, Petroleum,  Primary Metals,




Food and Rubber.
                                    -15-

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                 V.  WATER RESOURCES OF THE STUDY AREA






Quantity of Water Available



      Sufficient streamflows in the Schuylkill River have been reported



for a number of years and have thus made possible a statistical analysis



of the record for each of 3 gaging stations.  The stations, maintained



by the U. S. Geological Survey, are located at Philadelphia, Pottstown



and Berne, thereby supplying flow data for the entire length of the



Schuylkill under study.  The statistical characteristics of the low



flows at these stations are presented in Table 3.  Since runoff is



not substantially controlled in the Schuylkill, the flow records of



the Berne and Pottstown gages and their associated statistical



parameters closely reflect natural streamflow conditions.  The flow



record for the Philadelphia gage was adjusted to natural conditions



by adding to it the upstream water supply diversions made by the city



of Philadelphia.  The importance of base flow is demonstrated by the



data in Table 3, which show that in the Schuylkill River, there is



little difference between a 1 in 20 drought and a 1 in 50 drought.



      The extent of the flow data provided made it possible to reliably



interpolate between U.S.G.S. gages to get the flow characteristics at



Norristown and Reading.  Thus, substantial streamflow information became



available for each of the sub-areas in the study area.



      Ground water is widely used in the study area but yields from wells



change significantly from one locality to the other because of the



structural  variety in underlying geological formations.  Most public



supplies using ground water are small, serving a few thousand persons




                                  -16-

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                    TABLE 3
Low Flow Statistics - SchuylMll River Basin
Location of
Streamflow Gage

Schuylkill R.
at Philadelphia



Schuylkill R.
at Fottstown



Schuylkill R.
at Berne


Number of Consecutive
Days of Low Flow
7
30

60
120
7
30

60
120
7
30

60
120
Streamflow at Various
Recurrence Intervals (CFS)
1 in 10
320
360

U30
51*0
250
280

320
380
70
80

100
120
1 in 20
300
330

380
1*60
220
250

280
320
55
65

80
90
1 in 50
290
320

360
U20
210
220

250
270
1*0
50

60
70
                        -17-

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or less.  One of the few larger supplies using ground water, serves


approximately 13,000 persons from 8 wells having a combined dependable


yield of 1.2 MGD or 104 gpm per well.  It has been reported that in


Berks County, "the (underlying) rocks have been so altered in texture,


or folded or faulted to expose the beveled edge of the strata at land


surface, that the characteristics of the rocks are seldom uniform


throughout any large area.  Thus, ground water does not occur uniformly.

                                               (2)
Average yields are in the order of 40 to 50 gpm."  Large quantities of


ground water may be present in the study area, but generally, their


location is uncertain and their occurrence sporadic.  High yield wells


do exist but on the average, yields tend to vary between 30 and 100 gpm.


     By flanking the Schuylkill basin, the Lehigh and Susquehanna Rivers


present the possibility of diverting water from either into the study area.


The average annual discharge of the Lehigh River at Bethlehem and the


Susquehanna River at Harrisburg are 2,236 c.f.s. and 33,870 c.f.s.,


respectively, as published in "1966 Water Resources Data for Pennsylvania,


Part 1, Surface Water Records" by the U. S. Geological Survey.  The mini-


mum flows are given as 125 c.f.s. and 1,700 c.f.s., respectively.



Quality of Water Available


     The uses of a river can be a good measure of its immediate and


potential water quality, and the Schuylkill River is extensively used.


It touches the public through large water supply systems.  It becomes


part and parcel of many industrial processes and its watercourse is


home to fish.  However, this picture of health is not entirely
                                   -18-

-------
accurate.  The river receives the waste of its surrounding society



and this unpretentious use reduces the wholesomeness implied



by the river's more prominent uses.   Prior to public distribution, the



river waters are disinfected through pre-and post chlorination;  hardness



and suspended matter are removed through coagulation, sedimentation and



filtration; and tastes and odors in the water require further treatment.



Industrial processes necessitate more specialized treatment of the water



and maintenance of the fish population must be supported through restocking




by the State.



      The Schuylkill is recovering from past injustices.  Most wastes



within the study area are now receiving secondary treatment or its



equivalent; and accumulations of coal culm originating from the mining



activities in the headwaters of the basin have been  removed and



are being adequately controlled by upstream de-silting dams.  While the



Schuylkill is no longer a dirty stream, it is still not a clean stream.



With flows on the order of 300 cfs, as measured at Pottstown, the Schuylkill



has exhibited dissolved oxygen concentrations below 4.0 mg/1.  Low flows



have also seen concentrations of organic chemicals beyond the recommended



limit of 0.2 mg/1 CCE*^3^.  Algae have flourished    and calculations show



that the residuals from adequately treated waste discharges still result



in high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand.  With streamflows



between 200 and 300 cfs, BOD's range from 7 to 12 mg/1.



*Carbon Chloroform Extractables



                                  -19-

-------
       Although widely variable, ground water quality in the Schuylkill



 River Basin is generally acceptable for municipal and industrial uses.



 The ground water hardness ranges from soft to very hard;  in some areas



 the water contains dissolved solids in concentrations up  to 400 mg/1,



 while in others it contains less than 100 mg/1;  and a few wells have



 produced water containing excessive amounts of iron in solution.  These



 conditions are of natural origin,  since the ground water  is relatively



 free from man-made pollution.   In  general,  the study area's ground water



 can be qualitatively characterized as good and,  where necessary,



 objectionable  chemical  constituents can be removed through treatment.



       The Lehigh  and Susquehanna Rivers are adjacent to the Schuylkill



 and therefore  becomes possible  alternative  sources of supply for the



 study area.  At present,  the water quality  of the Lehigh  above  Allentown



 is  suitable  for municipal  and industrial  purposes,  but downstream,  the



 River receiving the  waste  discharges  of Allentown and Bethlehem,  becomes



 degraded.  Although  these  wastes are  adequately  treated prior to discharge,



 the  Lehigh River  below  the Allentown-Bethlehem complex will  be  in need



 of  low flow  augmentation by the year  1970.   By the  year 2010 an annual



 draft  on  storage  of  approximately  110,000 acre-feet will  be  necessary



 to maintain  desirable quality.




       Water  quality  in  the upper Susquehanna  River  adjacent  to  the  study



 area is poor.  It receives  raw sewage and is  further degraded by abundant



 amounts of mine drainage.   As the  river approaches  Harrisburg,  quality



 improves but remains marginal.  After receiving  that  city's  treated wastes,



quality again declines  and  does not recover for  some  miles downstream.



                                   -20-

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                           VI.  THE ECONOMY






Introduction



      Effective planning for water resources development requires an




economic base from which to evaluate and project the various needs



for water.  In this study the concern is for municipal and industrial



water needs and for instream water quality control.   Population and



index of production, both projected to the year 2020, are the economic



characteristics used to anticipate water supply withdrawals and sub-



sequent waste dishcarges that alter stream quality.



      The Delaware River Basin Commission, which has  the authority and



the responsibility to approve all water resource developments in the



Delaware River Basin, provided the economic analysis of population and



industrial growth for this study.  The basic method used was extrapola-



tion of past trends with consideration given to special circumstances



such as saturation of an area or foreknowledge of new plant construction.



      Since this report is intended to focus on the water and not the



economy of the study area, only economic information immediately relevant



to defining water needs is presented in the following paragraphs.  Although



inter-related with the economic forces that create water needs, other



aspects of the study areas' economy are not presented.



Present



      Water needs in the study area are associated primarily with the popula-



tion and manufacturing industries.  In 1965, the study area population



was apportioned among its regional sub-areas as follows:






                                  -21-

-------
               Reading sub-area          217,000  persons

               Pottstown sub-area        218,000  persons

               Norristown sub-area       834,000  persons

               Philadelphia sub-area     385,000  persons


The total study area populations was 1,654,000 persons.  The central

city in each sub-area, after which it was named, contained the following

number of persons; Reading 97,000, Pottstown 28,000, Norristown 39,000 and

Philadelphia 385,000.*

     The industrial categories in each sub-area which either use large

quantities of water or produce substantial amounts of waste are listed

in Table  4.    The connection between industry and water was established

through a 1965 inventory of industrial withdrawals and discharges in the

Schuylkill Basin.  The inventory compiled by the Delaware River Basin

Commission  is very complete accounting for at least 95 percent of

manufacturing industry self-supplied withdrawals.

Future

     Population in the study area is expected to grow from 1,740,000 in 1970

to 2,940,000 in 2020.   This projection was made within the context of census

historical population trends and projections for the United States, the

Northeast Region of the United States,  and the four Delaware River Basin

States.  Sub-area population projections for each 10-year increment from

1970 to 2020 are presented in Table 5.
 * Total 1965 population of Philadelphia estimated at 2,040,000 persons,
   Portion within study area estimated at 385,000 persons.
                                      -22-

-------
     The growth of water related manufacturing is indicated in Table &



which lists the projected index of production for each industrial category.



Industrial employment characteristics in the Schuylkill Basin as well as



national trends in production were considered in preparing these projections.



The projections are equally applicable to any of the sub-areas because the



entire study area is considered neither large enough nor of such a geograph-



ical orientation as to present significant differences in either the type



of workers employed or manufacturing processes used by similar industries




located in different sub-areas.
                                    -23-

-------
                         TABLE 4

                   WATER RELATED INDUSTRIES
Sub -area
Reading




Potts town





Nor r is town




Manufacturing Category
Food
Paper
Chemicals
Petroleum
Primary Metals
Food
Paper
Chemicals
Petroleum
Rubber
Primary Metals
Food
Paper
Chemicals
Rubber
Primary Metals
Number of Plants
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
6
3
2
Philadelphia
Industries in the Philadelphia sub-area are not
included here since they withdraw water from and
discharge waste to those waters under study by the
Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study.
                                -24-

-------
                                     TABLE 5
                        Blue Marsh Study Area - Population
  Sub-Area
                  1970
                       Population Projections
               1980	1990        2000
2010
2020
Reading
Pottstown
Norristown
Philadelphia
229,000
241,000
883,000
390,000
250,000
287,000
1,015,000
392,000
272,000
334,000
1,151,000
39^,000
237,000
390,000
1,296,000
396,000
325,000
453,000
1,491,000
398,000
355,000
527,000
1,660,000
400,000
TOTAL
1,743,000   1,944,000   2,151,000   2,319,000   2,667,000   2,942,000
                                           -25-

-------
                                 TABLE 6







          Projected Production of Water Related Industries








Manufacturing Category        Index of Production             (1960 = 100)




                              1970    1980    1990    2000    2010    2020
Food and Kindred Products
Paper and Allied Products
Chemicals and Allied Products
Petroleum and Coal Products
Rubber Products
Primary Metals
116
125
161
131
1*5
136
152
165
232
171
195
175
191
209
3^0
228
254
230
234
260
500
316
34o
310
276
302
fiU
*U2
^50
388
315
328
750
515
600
465
                                    -26-

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         VII.  WATER REQUIREMENTS - MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL






Present Water Use



      Water is presently withdrawn and used to support the municipal



and industrial activities of the study area in the quantities listed



in Table 7.  It is also noticeable from this table that industrial



water use increases as the sub-areas get closer to Philadelphia.



    Most of the current population of 1.7 million persons receive



their water from public or municipal supplies that rely substantially



on surface water as a source.  To a minor degree, many subdivisions



and people in rural areas find that private low yield wells are



sufficient.  These supplies, first and foremost, serve the personal



needs of the population by supplying them with water for drinking,



cooking, cleaning, and watering their lawns, etc.  In addition, the



municipal supplies provide most commercial establishments and many



small industrial plants with the water they need for their various



processes and cleaning jobs.



      The large industrial plants usually find it more economical to



supply their own water.  Most of the process water used by the plants,



tabulated in Table 4, in the "Economics Chapter," comes from their own



supplies.   Cooling water,also being a requirement for some but not all



of these industries, is self supplied.  The Primary Metals industry



in the Norristown sub-area is currently the largest user of cooling



water.
                                 -27-

-------
                                     TABLE 7
                                 PRESENT WATER USE
Sub -Are a
Reading
Potts town
Norristown
1965 Population
Served
217,000
218,000
834,000
Municipal Water
Average Day
35
30
74
Use-mgd
Peak Day
53
45
111
Philadelphia
  385,000
                         1.
198
                       2.
258
                2.
                                                          Industrial Water Use-mgd
                                                          	Self Supplied

                                                                   0.6

                                                                   1.3

                                                                  17.9
N.A.
                     3.
Totals
1,654,000
337
467
19.8
1.  This is just that portion of the Philadelphia population living within
    the study area.

2.  Average day use represents amount of Schuylkill water used in the water
    system for the entire City of Philadelphia.   Peak day use is the legal
    allotment of Schuylkill water given to Philadelphia by Commonwealth of
    Pennsylvania.

3.  N.A. - not applicable.  Philadelphia industries withdraw and return their
    water entirely within the DECS study area.
                                       -28-

-------
      Total peak day water use in the study area is 487 mgd.  The



 Philadelphia Suburban Water Company contributes 47 mgd of this from



 ground water sources and from surface sources outside the Schuylkill



 Basin.   It is estimated that the City of Philadelphia diverts 148 mgd



 of this  total for water supply use in that portion of the city outside



 the study area.



      According to estimates made in preparing the "locks Island Water



 Quality  Control Study", the Chester sub-area during 1965 had an average



 daily water usage of 27 mgd and a peak daily water usage of 40 mgd.



 This water was supplied entirely by the Chester Municipal Authority for



 domestic, commercial, and industrial purposes.  Since the analysis of



 the Chester sub-area was presented in detail in the "Tocks Island



 Study",  only this summary of the sub-area's water use is offered here.





 Existing Sources of Water - Surface and Ground



      The Blue Marsh study area was divided into a few large sub-



 areas so that water supply needs could be considered on a regional



 basis rather than community by community.  This approach was chosen



 because  greater reliance can be placed on economic projections for



 large sub-areas than for each of the more than 150 communities dis-



persed throughout the study area.  A practical framework for this



 regional analysis is presented in Table 8 which directs attention toward



 the larger water supplies in each sub-area.  From this table, it is



apparent that each sub-area depends heavily on surface water as the



source of its supply and that the yields developed by existing structures
                                  -29-

-------
                                                           TABLE 8
o
I
Sub Area
Reading
Pottstown


Norristown





Philadelphia
Chester
% of Sub Area
Population Served
Water System 1965
Reading Municipal System 0$
Pottstown Municipal System 15$ )
Royersford, Home Water Co. 5$ ) 27$
Phoenixville Municipal 7% )
System
Norristown Water Co. 9$ ) y$%
Philadelphia Suburban 86$ )
Water Co.




Philadelphia 100$
Municipal System
Chester Municipal 100$
* 	 i_i 	  j 	
Source 	
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface

Surface
Surface
Surface


Ground . .
Surface^3'
Surface
Surface
River
Basin 	
Schuylkill
Schuylkill
Schuylkill
Schuylkill

Schuylkill
Schuylkill
Small basins
adjacent to
Schuylkill
12 Wells
Susquehanna
Schuylkill
Susquehanna
(1)
Yield Developed
U2
N.A.<2>
N.A.
N.A.

N.A.
29.5
30.0


13.0
Ji.O
N.A.
70
   (l)  Refers to yield available either from constructed water



   (2)  N.A. - not applicable.  Water system uses neither water



   (3)  Purchased from the Chester Municipal Authority.
supply reservoirs or wells.



supply reservoirs nor wells.

-------
 do  not  provide  much  of a margin  for  growth  in  the  sub-areas of



 Reading and  Norristown.  During  the  drought which  had prevailed



 upon  this  section of the country for the period  1961 -  1966,



 stream  flows have been just  large enough to enable the  study area



 water suppliers  to meet demands  for  water without  resorting to



 emergency  measures.   However, the combined yield from reservoir



 structures and  from  low stream flows has approached water supply



 demands  closely  enough to require constant surveillance in



 anticipation of  an emergency.



      The varying amounts of municipal and industrial waste which



 are discharged to most surface waters in the study area have resulted



 in many  water supplies being filtered and treated  for taste and



 odor  control.  This  includes the supplies listed in Table 8, except



 the Chester  Municipal  Authority which does not have taste and odor



 problems.  Quality in  the Schuylkill River, the largest source of



 water in each of the sub-areas, except Chester, can be improved



 through stream flow regulation in combination with additional quality



 control methods such as advanced waste treatment.  In fact, if these



quality control practices are not instituted, the present marginal



quality of the Schuylkill,  as described in Chapter V "Water Resources



of the Study Area",  will deteriorate despite adequate treatment of



wastes.
                                 -31-

-------
Future Municipal and Industrial Water Requirements



      The present pattern of per capita water use, shown by Table 9,



was established through a sampling of water use data for the more



populated and established communities of each sub-area.  This pattern



served as the datum for projecting the municipal requirements of the



future, since it is assumed that the characteristics of the expanding



population will be similar to those of presently established com-



munities.  In accordance with national and regional trends, only



small increases in per capita water use are expected to occur in



these established areas.  Therefore, the use rates shown in Table 9



were increased by just a few gallons over the length of the study



period.  Although these rate increases are small, less than 20 gpd



per capita over 50 years, they are slightly different for each sub-area.



      The municipal water demands for each decade between 1970



and 2020 are presented in Table 10.  The average daily demands pre-



sented are based on population projections and per capita use rates,



while peak daily demands are estimated at 150% of the average daily



figures.



      The average and peak municipal demands of the Chester sub-area



as calculated from the Tocks Island study, are:





1970          1980         1990          2000        2010       2020



29 5 43      36 6 54      50  75       61 fi 91     74 5 111   88 f, 132



                           (The units used are mgd)
                                  -32-

-------
                TABLE 9







Average Daily Per Capita Water Use. - ]965




                  gd








Sub-Area                     Water !Jse.






Reading                         161






Pottstown                       136






Norristown                       89






Philadelphia                    186
                      -33-

-------
                                     TABLE 10






                           Future  Municipal Water Demand^






                       Average  Dally Demand -  Peak  Dally  Demand




                                         mgd
  Sub-Area
1970
1980
1990
                                                      2000
2010
                                                            2020
Reading          37   56     41   62     46   69     51    77      56    84      62    93







Pottstown        33   50     41   62     48   72     57    86      68   102      81   121






Norristowri       79  119     92  138    106  159    121   181     140   210     156   234






Philadelphia    198  258    198  258    198  258    198   258     198   258     198   258
                                         -34-

-------
      It is significant to recall at this point that 47 mgd of the



Norristown demand will be yielded by sources presently developed



outside the surface resources of the Schuylkill Basin.  These are



sources used by the Philadelphia Suburban Water Co.  Therefore,



in using Table 10 to anticipate the demand that might be placed



on the surface waters of the Schuylkill Basin, one should first



subtract 47 mgd from the values listed for the Norristown sub-area.



      A word of explanation is necessary about the Philadelphia sub-



area.  The average and peak day demands of 198 and 258 mgd are more



than twice the projected needs of the Philadelphia population within



the sub-area.  However the excess will be diverted out of the sub-



area to serve other portions of the City's population.  The demands



which are shown constant throughout the study period, represent the



average and peak rate capacities of the Philadelphia water plants



drawing from the Schuylkill.  The peak rate of 258 mgd is also the



entitlement of Schuylkill water given to the city of Philadelphia



by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  Therefore, since the city of



Philadelphia has the capability, the authority, and the need to with-



draw water from the Schuylkill River, it is reasonable to assume that



they will withdraw at the rates shown in Table 10.  It is further



reasonable to assume that these rates will not increase but remain



constant.  According to representatives from the City Water Commissioner's



Office, increasing demands of the population outside the sub-area
                                 -35-

-------
will be met by the City's Torresdale water plant.   This plant draws



from the relatively unlimited supply of the Delaware River.



      The present pattern of industrial water use,  as presented in



Appendix A, was constructed by the Delaware River Basin Commission



from their industrial water use inventory collected in 1965.   This



pattern served as the datum for projecting the industrial require-



ments of the future, under the assumption that water use per unit of



product will remain essentially the same as time goes on.  The future



water requirements of industry, as shown in Table 11, are the result



of multiplying present water use by the appropriate index of pro-



duction.  Projections of this index for the manufacturing categories



involved have been presented in Table 6, in the Economic Chapter.



      The projections of industrial water use include cooling as well



as process needs.  However, the cooling need was included on the basis



of the amount of make-up water needed to replace that lost through



evaporation, and not on the amount of water actually passed through



the industrial heat exchangers.  Industry would need so much water to



pass through their exchangers that it became obvious large reservoir



releases would become necessary to meet the need.  For example, in the



Morristown sub-area the need for water passing through heat exchangers



is estimated to grow from 115 mgd in 1970 to 390 mgd in 2020.  Instead



of paying for storage in Federal reservoirs it seems reasonable to assume



that industry would recirculate the needed amounts through cooling towers,



In any case, cooling towers will have to be built if stream temperatures
                                 -36-

-------
                                   TABLE 11
                Future Self-Supplied Industrial Water Demands - m
Sub-Area
1970
1980
1990
2000
                                                           2010
          2020
Reading
 0.7
 0.9
 1.1
 1.4
 1.6
 1.8
Pottstown
 1.5
 2.1
 2.8
 3.8
 4.9
                                                                      6.5
Norristown
21.7
29.3
41.8
59.4
74.2
89.9
Philadelphia
Self-supplied industrial demands in the Philadelphia
sub-area are not included here since they withdraw water
from those waters under study by the Delaware Rstuary
Comprehensive Study.
                                        -37-

-------
                                     o
are to be kept within the limit of 93 F, as prescribed in Pennsylvania.


Using this rationale, make-up water became the only need associated


with cooling uses.


      If the water supplies of each sub-area consolidate to become


regional rather than local in scope, the most likely source of their


supply will be the Schuylkill River.  Therefore, the pattern of stream


flow in the Schuylkill was matched against the regional demands of


each sub-area to determine the capability of the River to meet the


water needs of the future.  The conclusion of this analysis is that


the Schuylkill River will have sufficient flow to meet the average


daily municipal needs and industrial needs of each sub-area, throughout


the study period.  However, by the year 2000 stream flows will not be


sufficient to meet both the peak daily municipal demand and the industrial


needs of the Morristown sub-area.  Also, stream flows are not currently


sufficient to insure the municipal allotment of 258 mgd granted to the


city of Philadelphia by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  This


insufficiency is due primarily to two causes: first, drought flows are


not capable of yielding 258 mgd and second, the lower yield that could


be provided by drought flows is reduced further by diversion of


Schuylkill water out of the basin.  The Philadelphia Suburban Water Co.,


in the Norristown sub-area,is the source of this diversion and if the


population served by this company is to continue its growth, the amount


of the diversion will increase as follows:
                                  -38-

-------
              Diversion From The Schuylkill Basin - mgd




                   Average and Peak Day Values




1970        1980     1990        2000       2010      2020




5 S 7       9  14  13 6 20     17  26    23  35   29 5 43




The preceding assumes, of course, that the Philadelphia Suburban




Water Co. will continue to use the Schuylkill River as the main




source of its supply.



      The low flow characteristics of a 1 in 50 drought occurrence




were used in this study to determine the capability of the Schuylkill



River to meet future municipal and industrial water needs.
                                 -39-

-------
                     VIII.   WATER QUALITY CONTROL






 Municipal and Industrial  Pollution




       Pollution from organic  waste is presently  the most  significant



 and obvious  cause  of quality  degradation in  the  Schuylkill  River




 downstream from the  proposed  project, and projections of  both popula-



 tion and industrial  production  indicate  that organic wastes will




 continue to  be  the dominant factor necessitating water quality  control.



 One measure  of  organic wastes is  their potential to deplete the



 oxygen  content  of  water.  Therefore, Table 12 shows both  the present



 and projected organic waste discharges in terms  of biochemical  oxygen



 demand.   This table  lists the amount of  waste discharged  directly to



 the stream,  assuming that at  least  85 percent of the total waste



 produced will have been removed through  various  treatment processes.



      The population  projections  of Table 5, presented in Chapter V -



 The  Economy,  were used to estimate  the quantities of municipal  waste



 discharges.   However, the projections for the Norristown  sub-area



 had  to be adjusted to exclude from  the calculations, that portion of



 the  population not returning  its waste to the Schuylkill basin.  As



 a result, the population projections used for the Norristown sub-area



 are:




 1970      1980       1990      2000        2010        2020



435.000  509,000   593,000   692,000    813,000     955,000



The  factor of 0.25 Ibs.  per capita per day,ultimate BOD was used to



relate population with waste production.
                                -40-

-------
                                     TABLE 12







                   Municipal  and  Industrial Waste Discharges




                                  Ibs.  of BOD
Sub-Area
1965
1970
                                 1980
1990
2000
                                              2010
                                              2020
Municipal
Reading
Pottstown
Norristown
8,100 8,600
8,200 9,000
15,100 16,400
9,400
10,700
19,100
Industrial
Reading
Pottstown
Norristown
2,300 2,900
1,700 2,000
2,400 2,900
4,000
2,700
4,000
Discharges
10,400 11,100 12,200
12,500 14,600 17,000
22,200 26,000 30,400
Discharges
5,900 8,500 10,500
3,700 5,100 6,200
5,600 7,800 9,600

13,300
19,800
35,800

12,700
7,400
11,900
                                        -41-

-------
      Industrial wastes were estimated using the inventory of surface



water discharges collected by the Delaware River Basin Commission



(refer to Appendix B).   The information it provides on the volume of




waste discharges and the type of manufacturing involved enabled



estimates to be made of the character and concentrations of the dis-




charges.  These estimates are presented in Table 12.



      Wastes from the Philadelphia sub-area were not considered



because these discharges either go directly to the Delaware River



or to the estuarine portion of the Schuylkill River, both of which



arc outside the study area of this report.  The Chester sub-area was




also excluded for the same reason.



      The characteristics of the larger municipal discharges in each




sub-area are presented in Table 13.



Water Quality Objectives



      The objectives of water quality control are to preserve and



promote the reasonable and legitimate uses of water in accomplishing



ends dependent upon  certain quality requirements.  This refers to



both present and anticipated uses of water in the stream  and on  the



land.   It is well to note that water quality is an  important con-



sideration  in safeguarding public health  and in securing  economic




benefits.



      The water quality objectives used  in this study apply  to uses



of the  Schuylkill waters  as  a  source of  municipal  water supply,  the



enhancement of aquatic  life, aesthetic appeal,  and for prospective



recreation.  To properly  insure  the waters  of  the  river for  these






                                 -42-

-------
                                      TABLE 13

         Larger Municipal Waste Discharges in  the Blue  Marsh Study  Area
Sub-Area
Pottstown
Norristown
  Community
Population Served
Type of Treatment
Reading
Reading
Joint Municipal
120,000
39,000
Secondary
Secondary
Authority of
Wyomissing Valley

Pottstown
Royersford
Phoenixville

Norristown
Conshohocken
     35,000
      U,000
     15,000

     60,000
     13,000
   Secondary
   Secondary
   Secondary

   Secondary
   Secondary
                                         -43-

-------
widespread public uses, the dominance of organic waste will have to

be removed.  Therefore, either natural or regulated stream flows

should contain at least 5 milligrams per liter of dissolved oxygen and

no greater than 6 milligrams per liter of biochemical oxygen demand.*

These goals were used to determine whether or not storage releases

will be necessary to secure quality control in the Schuylkill River.

Flow Regulation

      Analyses of presently available data indicate various zones of

quality degradation along the Schuylkill from Reading to Philadelphia.
                    
As population and industrialization grow, further degradation of water

quality is expected in spite of currently defined levels of adequate

waste treatment.  To prevent this and to insure the water quality

objectives, it will be necessary to maintain the flows indicated in

Table 14 or provide some other combination of quality control measures.

To provide these flows during a once-in-50 drought, the natural

streamflow would have to be supplemented with the annual drafts on

storage also indicated in Table 14.  If quality control is not pro-

vided,  severely degraded quality will occur throughout the length of

Schuylkill.  For example, during the year 2020, water quality in the
*Water Quality Criteria", 2nd Edition, edited by McKee 5 Wolf
 indicates a good source of water supply as having a raw water quality
 not in excess of 4.0 mg/1 of 5-day BOO.  This criteria was used
 assuming 4 mg/1 of 5-day BOD as equivalent to 6 mg/1 of ultimate BOD.
                                 -44-

-------
                        TABLE 14
Streamflow Required To Maintain Quality Control - CFS
Month

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

1970
980
920
860
780
700
620
580
610
620
730
820
900

1980
1140
1140
1050
960
880
800
770
770
800
920
1000
1100
Annual Draft on


To

Year
1990
1650
1650
1450
1300
1200
1100
1050
1050
1100
1280
1390
1500
Storage

2000
2100
2100
2030
1870
1670
1500
1450
1450
1500
1760
1920
2030
Required

2010
2450
2400
2330
2180
2000
1830
1800
1800
1880
2100
2230
2350


2020
2820
2760
2720
2590
2380
2250
2250
2250
2330
2520
2660
2760

Maintain Quality Control
Acre -
Feet



         1970       1980       1990       2000       2010        2020
       53,000    130,000    243,000   1,076,000   1,794,000   3,172,000
                            -45-

-------
 pools below Norristown would approach septic  conditions  during  a



 drought having a once-in-50 occurrence.   Droughts  of lesser occur-



 rence, of course, would not result  in such  severe  quality  degrada-



 tions.  However,  the statistics  show  little difference between  the



 low flows occurring  on a once-in-20 interval  and those occurring



 on a once-in-50 year interval.




       It should be noted that the drafts  on storage  for  quality



 control are for amounts  over and above the  drafts  needed to insure



 the quantity of flow necessary for  water  supply.



       As a final  point toward obtaining the optimum  water  quality



 necessary for maximum realization of  benefits, it  is  recommended



 that a means of destratification be included  in the  reservoir.  The



 recommendation is prompted  by the likely  occurrence  of vertical



 gradations in the quality of the impounded  waters  due to thermal



 stratification.  Under such  conditions, the epilimnion of  the impound-



 ment remains  aerobic  because of  wind  mixing and contact  with the



 atmosphere,  while the  water  in the  hypolimnion is  trapped  below the



 thermocline  and is prevented from undergoing  atmospheric reaeration.



 Subsequently  the original dissolved oxygen  content may be  reduced.



 Then,  if  anaerobic conditions develop, other  detrimental reactions take



 place.  For example,   iron, manganese  and color may go into solution,



 and  the pH may decline.  A lower pH in Tulpehocken Creek would result



 in a reduction of neutralizing power.   The  effect on the Schuylkill



 River would be that the  low quality of water  due to acid mine drainage



would travel  further downstream before being neutralized.






                                 -46-

-------
      Storage releases of low quality could reduce the potential



benefit of the downstream waters, in addition to causing harmful



effects.  Consideration for a means of destratification such as



mechanical mixing, aeration or a multiple level outlet to insure



optimum quality of the releases is advisable.
                                   -47-

-------
                           IX.  BENEFITS






      It is the conclusion of this study that there are current and




future water supply needs and water quality control needs in the



Schuylkill Basin that can be met with storage releases from the pro-



posed project.  The least cost alternative method of getting this



supplemental water in absence of the proposed project is taken as



a minimum measure of the value of these storage releases.  Since the



alternative methods considered could provide water for supply purposes



as well as for quality control, the feasibility of these alternatives



will be discussed prior to evaluating and describing benefits



associated individually with either water supply or quality control.



      Tliree alternative methods were considered; importation of water



from adjacent river basins, use of groundwater, and storage of water



in a single purpose reservoir.  The basins adjacent to the Schuylki-11



are the Lehigh Basin and the Susquehanna Basin.  Since the Lehigh River



will itself be in need of flow regulation for quality control by the



year 1970, it seems inadvisable that water be diverted from this basin



to serve similar purposes in another basin.  Diverting water from the



upper reaches of the Susquehanna also seems inadvisable, because of



the poor quality conditions in the river.  It cannot be said with



acceptable certainty when the pollution of the Susquehanna will be



reduced, particularly that caused by mine drainage.  Therefore, the



wisdom of expending funds to install a pipeline and pumping stations



in over 20 miles of mountainous terrain is considered doubtful.  In the
                                 -48-

-------
lower portion of the Susquehanna Basin where water quality is better,
there is a current legal question over diversion rights.   Concern over
diversion from the Susquehanna, which is  an interstate body of water,
has been expressed by the city of Baltimore, Maryland.   The Chester
Municipal Authority has been granted an increase in their present
diversion from the Susquehanna Basin, by the Pennsylvania Board of
Water and Power Resources, and the city of Baltimore feels that this
might be an unsound principle inasmuch as further interstate diversion
could ensue.  This further diversion would become a reality if the
Susquehanna were proposed as an alternative source of water for the
Schuylkill Basin.  Therefore, the problem with quality conditions
in certain portions of  the Susquehanna in addition to possible legal
complications led to the decision to  reject importation  from  the
Susquehanna  Basin as a  practical alternative.
      Since  the potential for  locating high yield wells  is  uncertain
and  the yields available  from  most  other wells  would vary between  30
and  110 gpm,  it was decided  that the  use of ground water could not be
a reasonable alternative  toward meeting the large  regional water demands
of the  study area.
      There  are no  apparent  reasons why single  purpose reservoirs  could
not  assist  in meeting  the water supply and  quality control needs of the
study area.   The  Corps  of Engineers has already determined that there
are  reservoir sites available on Tulpehocken and Maiden Creeks.   There-
fore, the use of single purpose reservoirs  was  chosen as the alternative
method  of providing the needed water in lieu of the proposed projects.
                                  -49-

-------
However, the augmentation capacity of the Schuylkill  basin is  not



sufficient to provide all of the draft on storage necessary for quality



control, shown in Table 14.  Therefore, additional quality control



practices must be instituted, most probably advanced waste treatment.



Research on methods of advanced waste treatment is already well



under way, so the outlook is optimistic that practical applications



of these methods will be developed in time to assist streamflow



regulation practices in controlling the problems of water pol-



lution.  Exportation of the  wastes for discharge  to  adjacent  basins



cannot  be recommended since  such  a practice would only compound the




pollution problems  already  inherent  in these waters.




Water Supply - Municipal  and Industrial



     At present,  flow  augmentation would be necessary during  a 1  in  50



drought occurrence, to provide the city  of Philadelphia  with  that portion



of its  legal allotment of Schuylkill River water, diverted out of the



basin  by the Philadelphia Suburban Water Company.  This  need for flow



 augmentation will increase throughout the study period as the Phila-



 delphia Suburban Water Company increases its diversion to serve the



 needs of its expanding population.  By the year 2000, the 1 in 50



 drought flows will not be sufficient to meet the peak daily needs of



 the Norristown sub-area, of which the Philadelphia Suburban Water



 Company is  a part.  As it turns  out, the water that is  required  to



 replace for the city of  Philadelphia, what is diverted  out of the basin,
                                   -50-

-------
 is  approximately the same amount of water required to insure the needs
 of  the entire Norristown sub-area.  Therefore the one parcel of water
 serves two water supply needs and has a dual benefit.  Releases of
 approximately 8000 acre-feet will be required at each point of
 need to insure the diverted portion of Philadelphia's allotment of
 258 mgd and the Norristown sub-area demand of 240 mgd.  Since there
 will be importation in the Norristown sub-area from presently developed
 sources, as well as diversion; and since there will be re-use of
 Schuylkill water within the sub-area, between the Philadelphia
 Suburban Water Co. and the rest of the sub-area, the net water demand
 on the resources of the River reduces from the 324 mgd M  I need,
 tabulated in Chapter VII, to 240 mgd.
     The minimum measure of the value of water supply benefits is
 based on supplying an annual release of 8000 acre-feet and is
 estimated at $10,300,000. Amortizing this cost over 100 years, from
 1970 to 2020, at an interest rate of 3 1/8% and including operation
 and maintenance costs,  the annual value of water supply benefits
 is $370,000.
     In the Tocks Island study,  various alternatives were presented
 for obtaining water to meet the  future demands of the Chester Municipal
Authority.   One alternative that was explored was the possibility of
connecting the Chester Authority with the Schuylkill River.  The cost
                                   -51-

-------
of constructing a pipeline to provide this  connection and  for storing



the needed water in a single purpose reservoir,  is  estimated at



$8,950,000 per year.  In comparing this cost with that of  the least



cost 'alternative, a pipeline from mile point 87  on  the Delaware  River,



priced at $1,100,000 per year, it became evident that the  Schuylkill



River was a more expensive and therefore less reasonable source  for




the Chester Authority.



Water Quality Control



     The control and supplementation of stream flow can improve  water



quality to the extent that the water will be more beneficial as  a



source for drinking supply, in supporting fish life, in developing



aesthetic enjoyment, and in expanding opportunities for recreation.



These widespread benefits will materialize through use of the waters



in the Schuylkill River from Reading to Philadelphia, a distance of




approximately 60 river miles.








Description of Benefits:



     Drinking Water - Quality control would reduce the concentrations



of many constituents which cause quality degradation  in the  water



that is processed for drinking supplies.   For example, the  "musty"



odor in the river water would be reduced;  water  treatment difficulties



would be  alleviated through  the dilution and further removal of algae



producing nutrients;  and  public health  would be  further insured
                                     -52-

-------
through the better water quality provided when the residual con-



centrations of bacteria and dissolved solids inherent in the waste



discharges, are given further treatment and dilution.



     Fish Life - Pollution in the Schuylkill River is presently a



limiting factor in the development of an adequate stream fishery,



and maintenance of the fish population requires continued re-stocking



by the Pennsylvania Fish and Game Commission.  Present species in



the river are largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, walleye, sunfish,



crappie, carp, sucker and other  rough fish.  Quality control would



enable this fish population and other aquatic life to thrive by



providing adequate levels of dissolved oxygen and by removing and



diluting out the harmful environmental effects of waste discharges.



Since this fishery would be easily available to the 2 to 3 million



people of the study area, it is evident that the potential benefit



of the fishery is quite significant.



     Aesthetics - Quality control would prevent the obnoxious odors



and appearance of water associated with septic conditions.  The



appearance of the river would be further improved through reduction



in the occurrence of unsightly algae blooms.



     Recreation - Boating is popular in the pools created by the dams



in the river and opportunities are also afforded for swimming and other



bodily contact with the water.  Unless quality control is provided,



the residual wastes from the growing population and its industries,
                                 -53-

-------
will make these pools essentially unacceptable  for any recreational
use.  Since the pools retain stream flows longer than comparable
stretches of free flowing stream, they provide  more of an opportunity
for wastes to stabilize.  This situation magnifies quality problems
and so the pools in particular, necessitate quality control.

Value of Benefits:
     Investigation has shown that under present methods, adequate
treatment of organic wastes will not produce the water quality  im-
provements required to secure the foregoing benefits.  Therefore, it
becomes necessary to complement  the effects of  such waste treatment
by  providing supplemental streamflow during periods of  low  flow,
in  combination  with other means  of quality control  such  as  advanced
waste  treatment.  Since  cost  data on the degree of advanced waste
treatment  that  would be  required in the  Schuylkill  basin is not
available  at this time,  only  the value of that  portion  of the
benefits  attributable  to stream  flow  regulation will  be presented.
      Increases in  low flow  will  reduce the concentration of the
 residual pollutants imparted to  the stream from the various treated
 waste effluents.  This supplemental flow in the absence of the
 proposed projects would have to be provided by a suitable alternate
 structure.  Therefore, the cost of such a structure is taken as a
 measure of the minimum value of the benefits attributable to streamflow
                                    -54-

-------
regulation, under the assumption that the benefits are worth at  least
what it costs to provide them, if the water quality goals are to be
achieved.
     As previously described, the most likely alternative is a single
purpose reservoir that would provide a draft on storage equal to that
available from the proposed multi-purpose project.  Such a reservoir
would have an active storage capacity of 14,500 acre feet and an
approximate dead storage of  1500 acre feet, for a total cost of
$15,305,000. Amortized over  a  100 year period  from 1970  to  2070  at
a 3-1/8% interest rate plus  operation and maintenance charges, the
annual cost of this  alternative would be approximately $550,000.  It
should be noted, however, that  this value of the water quality control
benefits is applicable only  if  releases  are not made  for water supply.
If  releases to the Schuylkill  River  for  water  supply purposes are
provided by the  Blue Marsh Project,  these  releases  will  also produce
water quality control benefits.  To  avoid  double  counting the value  of
these releases,  they should  be  subtracted  from the total  release that
could be provided by Blue Marsh for  water  quality control.   Therefore,
the minimum  value of quality control benefits  developing from  stream
flow regulation  in  this  case,  becomes equal to the cost of  a single
purpose  reservoir having an  active  storage capacity of 6500 acre feet.
This storage figure represents the  difference  between the total available
                                   -55-

-------
in Blue Marsh of 14,500 acre feet and that necessary for water supply,



8000 acre feet. Assuming dead storage of 1500 acre feet, the cost of



this single purpose reservoir for water quality control is estimated



at $8,950,000.  Amortizing this cost in the same fashion as with the



previous reservoirs, results in an annual cost or benefit of



approximately $321,000.



      Since the need for quality control streamflow is immediate,



the cost of neither quality control reservoir has been discounted.
                                 -56-

-------
                             BIBLIOGRAPHY
N0<                           REFERENCE

 1      Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control
        Administration, New York, New York, "Water Quality Control
        Study, locks Island Reservoir, Delaware River Basin."
        (June 1966)

 2      Berks County Planning Commission, "Physical Characteristics
        and Land Use, A Comprehensive Plan Study." Comprehensive Plan
        Report 11.  (1964)

 3      U. S. Public Health Service, "Drinking Water Standards"  (1962)

 4      City of Philadelphia, Water Department, "Annual  Report"  (1964)

 5      US. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,  Public Health
        Service, Region  II, New  York, New York, "Water Supply and  Water
        Quality Control  Study, Beltzville Reservoir, Lehigh  River  Basin,
        Pennsylvania."  (November 1964)
                                   -57-

-------
                    Appendix A

Surface Water Withdrawals - Schuylkill River Sub-Basin
    By Manufacturing Centers In Hydro logic Order
           By Plant And SIC Industry Code
                           -58-

-------
 PAGE NOT
AVAILABLE
DIGITALLY

-------
                                                                 APPENDIX A

                                             SURFACE WATER WITHDRAWALS - SCHUYLKILL RIVER "US-BASIM
                                             BY MANUFACTURING CENTERS IN HYDROLOGIC ORDER BY PLANT
                                                            AUD SIC INDUSTRY CODE
in
10
MANUFACTURING CENTER
I/
I/
I/
T/
READING
READING
READING
READING
READING
READING
REPORTED TOTAL: READING
POTTSTOWN
POTTSTOWN
POTTSTOWN
POTTSTOWN
REPORTED TOTAL- POTTSTOWN
I/
I/
1 y
J./
T/
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
NORRISTOWN
REPORTED TOTAL: NORRISTOWU
PHILADELPHIA
PHILADELPHIA
PHILADELPHIA
REPORTED TOTAL: PHILADELPHIA
NAME OF PLANT
Central Asphalt Materials, Inc.
Modern Concrete Products, Inc.
Reading Metals Refining Corp.
Whitmoyer Laboratories, Inc.
MINOR CIVIL DIV.
OR MUNICIPALITY
Frackville
Bethel
Ontelaunee Twp.
Myerstown
Great American Knitting Mills, Inc. Bechtelsville
Federal Paper Board Co. Inc. Reading
Win. G. Leininger Knitting Co. Mohnton
Briskin Dyeing e Finishing Co. Hohnton
Longacre Modern Dairy Barto
Carl P. Strunk, Sr. Sinking Spring


Cryochem Engineering t Fabricating, Inc. Boyertown
Kawecki Chemical Co. Boyertown
Berks Associates, Inc Douglassville
Firestone Tire  Rubber Co. Pottstown

Bethlehem Mines Corp. -Grace Mine
Exton Paper Mf g . , Inc .
Phoenix Steel Corp.
Eastern Prestressed Concrete Co.
Highland Tool E Machine Co.
Taylor Corp.
Nicolet Industries, Inc.
The Budd Co.
Nicolet Industries, Inc.
Certain-Teed Products Corp.
Alan Wood Steel Co.
Wyerhauser Co.
Penn Valley Polymers Co.

The Fredericks Co.
The Atlantic Refining Co.
Gulf Oil Corp.


Morgantown
West Whiteland Twp
Phoenixville
Hatfield
Trooper
Valley Forge
Norristown
Bridgeport
Ambler
Ambler
Conshohocken
Miquon
Gladwyne

Bethayres
Philadelphia
Philadelphia

COUNTY SIC
(2 or
Schuylkill
Berks
Berks
Lebanon
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks

Berks
Montgomery
Berks
Montgomery

Herks
.Chester
Chester
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery

Montgomery
Philadelphia
Philadelphia

CODE
4 DIGIT)
29
32
33
28
22
26
22
22
20
32

34
28
29
30

NO. OF
EMPLOYEES
u
23
1 ft C
103
160
355
39
269
76
38
1

23
416
31
3,168

3312 Unknown
26 25
3312 918
32
35
28
26
28
26
32
3312
26
28

3?
2)11
2'11

3U
?
611
10>
529
Unknown
161
2,712
Unknown
4

173
2,638
1,271

DRAWALS IN M.G.D.
(DRBC INVENTORY)
.001
.0315
.490
.04
.065
.43?
.1^9
.02
.095
.0017
.6527

.002
.172
.024
2.505
2.703

.105
.05
1.296
.0015
.0027
1.32
.58
5.7
.426
.03
92.5
.22
.0007
100.77R9

.008
17.62
47. B
65.428

       TOTAL SURFACE WATER WITHDRAWALS

       I/OUTLYING REGION
                                                                                                                                    180.8089

-------
                   Appendix t

Surface Water Discharges - Schu/lkill River Sub-Basin
    By Manufacturing Centers In Hydro logic Order
           By Plant And SIC Industry Code
                     -60-

-------
                                                          APPENDIX B

                                        SURFACE WATER DISCHARGES - SCHUYLKILL RIVER SUB-BASIN
                                      BY MANUFACTURING CENTERS  IN HYDROLOGIC ORDER BY PLANT
                                                       AND SIC INDUSTRY CODE
MANUFACTURING CENTER
0)
Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
REPORTED TOTAL: HAMBURG
I/
I/
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
NAME OF PLANT
(25
Reading Metals Refining Corp.
Fairmont Foundry Inc.
Price Battery Corp.
Ortho Magnetics, Inc .
Wolfe Dye-Bleach Works, Inc.
Brush Beryllium Co.
Wyomissing Corp.-Tuclcerton Rd.

Garden State Tanning, Inc.
Whitmoyer Laboratories
Western Electric Co.
Prestolite Co.
Federal Paper Board Co. Inc.
The Carpenter Steel Co.
Orr & Sembower, Inc.
Briskin Dyeing & Finishing Co.
LOCATION
Minor Civil Div. County
or Municipality
(3)
Ontelaunee Twp.
Hamburg
Hamburg
Kutztown
Shoemakersville
Shoemakersville
Muhlenberg Twp.

Fleerwood
Myers town
Laureldole
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Mohnton
(45
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks

Berks
Lebanon
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
Berks
SIC CODE
(2 or 4 Digit)
  	
33
33
36
36
22
33
26

31
28
36
36
26
3312
34
22
NO. OF SURFACE WATER
EMPLOYEES DISCHARGES IN MGD
(DRBC INVENTORY)
(6)
105
134
286
43
78
70
Unknown

126
160
2,304
Unknown
39
2,691
15
76
(7)
.490
.0038
.16
.03
.175
.104
.08
1.0428
.0104
.01
.124
.380
.432
2.749
.251
.02
REPORTED TOTAL: READING
                                                                                                                       3.956
I/OUTLYING REGION

-------
                                                                APPENDIX B
K>
I
                                             SURFACE WATER DISCHARGES - SCHUYLKILL RIVER SUB-BASIN
                                            BY MANUFACTURING CENTERS IN HYDROLOGIC ORDER BY PLANT
                                                            AND SIC INDUSTRY CODE
MANUFACTURING CENTER
(')
Boyertown
Boyertown

Boyertown
Boyertown
Boyertown
.REPORTED TOTAL: BOYERTOWN
Pottsfown
Pottstown

Pottstown
Pottstown
Pottstown
REPORTED TOTAL: POTTSTOWN
Lansdale
Lansdole
Lansdale
Lansdale
NAME OF PLANT LOCATION SIC CODE
Minor Civil Div. County (2 or 4 Digit)
or Municipality
(2)
Longacre Modern Dairy
Great American Knitting Mills
Inc.
Tung-Sol Electric, Inc.
Kawecki Chemical Co.
Vincent A. Sovarese

Berks Associates, Inc.
Doehler Jarvis Div. -National
Lead Co.
Neapco Products, Inc.
Dana Corp.
Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.

PhilcoCorp.
American Olean Tile Co. Inc.
Frank M. Weaver, Inc.
Martin Century Farms, Inc.
(3)
Barto

Bechtelsville
Boyertown
Boyertown
E.Greenville

Douglassville

Stowe
Pottstown
Pottstown
Pottstown

Lansdale
Lansdale
Lansdale
Lansdale
(4)
Berks

Berks
Berks
Montgomery
Montgomery

Berks

Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery

Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
(5)
20

22
36
28
35

29

33
37
37
30

36
32
34
20
NO. OF
EMPLOYEES
(6)
38

355
315
416
Unknown

31

1,036
220
903
3,168

1,843
Unknown
168
1,014
SURFACE WATER
DISCHARGES IN MGD
(DRBC INVENTORY)
(7)
.095

.050
.107
.120
.004
.376
.036

.15
.022
.35
2.760
3.318
.5
.009
Unreported
.12
     REPORTED TOTAL: LANSDALE
.629

-------
a*
                                                                 APPENDIX B

                                              SURFACE WATER DISCHARGES - SCHUYLKILL RIVER SUB-BASIN
                                             BY MANUFACTURING CENTERS IN HYDROLOGIC ORDER BY PLANT
                                                             AND SIC INDUSTRY CODE
MANUFACTURING CENTER
rn
Collegeville
Collegeville
Collegeville
REPORTED TOTAL: COLLEGEVILLE
I/
!_/

REPORTED TOTAL: OUTLYING REGION
Phoenixville
Phoenixville

Phoenixville
Phoenixville
Phoenixville
Phoenixville

Phoenixville
REPORTED TOTAL: PHOENIXVILLE
NAME OF PLANT LOCATION SIC CODE
Minor Civil Div. County (2 or 4 Digit)
or Municipality
(2)
Krasley Bleach & Dye Works
T.J.Cope Div-Rome Cable Corp.
Ajax Stamping & Mfg. Inc.

Sunn/side Dairy
Bethlehem Mines Corp.-
Grace Mine
D
Roberts Packing Co.
Exton Paper Mfg ., Inc.

Phoenix Steel Corp.
J. R. Hollingsworth Co.
Taylor Corp.
Mrs. Sands Food Products

Bethlehem Limestone Co.

(3)
Royersford
Collegeville
Collegeville

Bverson
Morgantown


Kimberton
West Whiteland
Twp.
Phoenixville
Phoenixville
Valley Forge
West Norristown
Township
(4)
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery

Chester
Berks


Chester

Chester
Chester
Chester
Montgomery
Montgomery

Upper Merion Twp Montgomery


(5)
22
34
34

20
3312


20

26
3312
36
28
20

32

NO. OF
EMPLOYEES
(6)
40
85
44

Unknown
Unknown


143

25
918
84
611
5

Unknown

SURFACE WATER
DISCHARGES IN MGD
(DRBC INVENTORY)
(7)
.2
.1035
.006
.3095
.010
1.665

1.675
.060

.004
13.44
.003
1.2
Un reported

12.
26.707
         I/  OUTLYING REGION

-------
                                                          APPENDIX B
                                       SURFACE WATER DISCHARGES - SCHUYLKILL RIVER SUB-BASIN
                                      BY MANUFACTURING CENTERS IN HYDROLOGIC ORDER BY PLANT
                                                      AND SIC INDUSTRY CODE
MANUFACTURING CENTER NAME OF PLANT
(1)
V
!/
Norristown
Norristown
iNorristown

Norristown
Norristown

Norristown
Norristown
Norristown
Norristown
Norristown
Norristown

Norristown
Norristown
Norristown
Norristown
(2)
Foote Mineral Co.
Synthane Corp .
Evans-Roberts Co.
Nicolet Industries, Inc.
Bethlehem Mines Corp. -
Bridgeport Quarry
The Budd Co.
Martin Witchwood Ice Cream Co.

Nicolet Industries, Inc.
Gessner Mfg. Co.
Certain-Teed Products Corp.
Chemical Concentrates Corp.
McNiel Laboratories, Inc.
Nypel Corp.

Essex Wire Corp .
Alan Wood Steel Co.
Quaker Chemical Corp.
Weyerhauser Co.
LOCATION SIC CODE
Minor Civil Div. County (2 or 4 Digit)
or Municipality
(3)
Exton
Oaks
Norristown
Norristown

Bridgeport
Bridgeport
Lower Gwynedd
Twp.
Ambler
Ambler
Ambler
Ft. Washington
Ft. Washington
West Consho-
hocken
Conshohocken
Conshohocken
Conshohocken
Miquon
(4)
Chester
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery

Montgomery
Montgomery

Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery

Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
(5)
28
30
32
26

33
28

20
26
30
32
28
28

30
36
3312
28
26
No. OF
EMPLOYEES
(6)
151
679
6
104

Unknown
529

14
Unknown
20
161
78
340

46
Unknown
2,712
270
Unknown
SURFACE WATER
DISCHARGES IN MGD
(DRBC INVENTORY)
(7)
.004
.2024
.432
.250

1.0
5.7

.107
.540
.515
.2
.010
.002

2.5
.360
16.0
.030
3.53
REPORTED TOTAL: NORRISTOWN

 1'OUTLYING REGION
                                                                                                                    31.176

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                      APKNOIX B

 SURFACE WATER DISCHARGES - SCHUYLKILL RIVER SUB-BASIN
BY MANUFACTURING CENTERS IN HYDROLOGIC ORDER BY PLANT
                 AND SIC INDUSTRY CODE
MANUFACTURING NAME OF PLANT LOCATION
CENTER Minor Civil Div. Counry
or Municipality
(1)
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
REPORTED TOTAL:
TOTAL
(2)
Drever Co.
The Fredericks Co.
Merck, Sharp & Dohme
The Atlantic Refining Co.
Gulf Oil Corp.
PHILADELPHIA

(3)
Bethayres
Bethayres
West Point
Philadelphia
Philadelphia


W
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery
Philadelphia
Philadelphia


SIC NO OF
CODE EMPLOYEES
(2 or 4 Digir)
(5) (6)
34 Unknown
32 173
28 1494
2911 2638
2911 1271


SURFACE WATER
DISCHARGES IN MG
(DRBC INVENrQK/i
(7)
.050
.004
.525
16.7
41.27
58.549
128.6686

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