WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES   D AST 19
       BIOLOGICAL  EFFECTS OF OIL POLLUTION
                  BIBLIOGRAPHY
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

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          HATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
The Hater Pollution Control Research Reports describe the
results and progress in the control and abatement of pollu-
tion of oar Nation's waters.  They provide a central source
of information on the research, development and demonstra-
tion activities of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration, Department of the Interior, through inhouse
research and grants and contracts with. Federal, State, and
local agencies, research institutions, and industrial organ-
izations.

Hater Pollution Control Research Reports will be distributed
to requesters as supplies permit.  Requests should be sent to
the Planning and Resources Office, Office of Research and
Development, Federal lister Pollution Control Administration,
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C.  20242.

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                   BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF




                OIL POLLUTION - BIBLIOGRAPHY
A Collection of References Concerning the Effects of Oil on




                     Biological Systems








                             by



       Donna R. Radcliffe and Thomas A. Murphy, Ph.D.
              Edison Water Quality Laboratory




     Northeast Region Research and Development Program




                 Edison, New Jersey, 08817









                          for the




       FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION




                 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR









               Program  Number 15080  FHU  10/69
                         October 1969

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          FWPGA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by  the Federal
Water Pollution Control Administration  and
approved for publication.   Approval does  not
signify that the contents  necessarily reflect
the views and policies of  the Federal Water
Pollution Control Adninistrat ion, nor does
mention of trade names or  commercial products
constitute endorsement or  recommendation  for
use.

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                            ABSTRACT









References on the biological effects of oil are listed  according




to the following categories:  Publications on the General Aspects




of Oil Pollution, Reports of Oil Spill Incidents, General Biologi-




cal Effects of Oil and of Specific Oil Spill Incidents, Effects of




Oil on Birds, Effects of Oil on Fish, Effects of Oil on Shellfish,




Effects of Oil on Freshwater Invertebrates, Effects of Oil on




Plants, Effects of Oil on Dissolved Oxygen, Carcinogenic Effects




of Oil, and Miscellaneous Biological Reports on Oil.









KEY WORDS:  Aquatic animals, aquatic plants, bibliographies, bio-




            degradation, birds, environmental effects, marine animals,




            marine plants, oil, water pollution effects.
                                111

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS







                                                             Page No.



Introduction	      1



Bibliographies	      3



Publications on the General Aspects of Oil Pollution	      4



Reports of Oil Spill Incidents	      8



General Biological Effects of Oil and of Specific Oil

   Spill Incidents	     n



Effects of Oil on Birds	     15



Effects of Oil on Fish	     24



Effects of Oil on Shellfish	     32



Effects of Oil on Fresh Water Invertebrates	     3"



Effects of Oil on Plants	     38



Effects of Oil on Dissolved Oxygen	     ^1


                                                                 li")
Carcinogenic Effects of Oil	



Miscellaneous Biological Reports on Oil	

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                             INTRODUCTION


The occurrence of several highly-publicized oil pollution incidents during
the past three years has focused the attention of the public, the scientif-
ic community and governmental regulatory agencies on the biological effects
of spilled oil.  As indicated by the widely varying expert opinions
expressed during major spills, this is a topic of confusion and controversy.
Part of this confusion derives from the inaccessibility of many of the
reports dealing with the biological effects of oil - reports from a bewild-
ering diversity of sources, often not dealing primarily with the problem of
spilled oil.

Several recent bibliographies on the general aspects of oil pollution list
a number of excellent biological references, but omit some of the signifi-
cant reports in the older literature and from the less common sources.  As
an aid in dispelling some of the confusion surrounding this subject, the
following bibliography was compiled.

Sources consulted include:

1.  The bibliographies listed on page 3 .

2.  A search of the following sources:

    a.  Chemical Abstracts:  June 1967 through June 1969.

    b.  Biological Abstracts:  June 1967 through June 1969.

    c.  Water Pollution Abstracts;  December 1969 through April 1969.

    d.  Selected Water Resources Abstracts;  through June 1969.

    e.  Commercial Fisheries Abstracts:  November 1969 through June 1969.

    f.  Current Literature on Air and Water Conservation:  through April
        1969.

3.  The bibliography of Water Quality Criteria;   (see p. 5 )

Reports on oil pollution incidents are published routinely by the Smith-
sonian Institution's Center for Short-lived Phenomena (see p. 8 ) and by
the Marine Pollution Bulletin (Prof. R. B. Clarke, Editor, Zoology Dept.,
University of Newcastle-on-Tyne, England).

Abbreviations  in this bibliography are according to the World List of
Scientific Periodicals, 1965, Butterworth's Scientific Publications, London,

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Since this bibliography is intended to  be  revised  and  updated periodi-
cally, any comments regarding errors, omissions, etc.  are welcome and
should be addressed to:

          Chief, Oil & Hazardous Materials Research  Unit
          Water Quality Laboratory
          FWPCA, U. S. Dept.  of  the Interior
          Edison, New Jersey   08817
                                - 2 -

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                             Bibliographies
Anon.  1968.  Oil Spillage Study:   Literature Search and Critical  Evalu-
       ation for Selection of Promising Techniques to Control  and
       Prevent Damage.  Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland,
       Washington.  Distributed by Clearinghouse for Federal
       Scientific and Technical Information,  U.  S. Dept. of Commerce.

Anon.  1969.  Water Pollution by Oil Spillage.   Southern Methodist Univ.,
       Industrial Information Services Search No. 460, Science
       Library, Dallas, Tex.

Nelson-Smith, A.  1967.  A Classified Bibliography of Oil  Pollution.
       Updated in Biological Effects of Oil Pollution on Littoral
       Communities,  Suppl. to Vol 2, Field Studies, Carthy, J.D.,
       Arthur, D. R. (eds), Field Studies Council, London.

Yee, J. E.  Nov. 1967.  Oil Pollution of Marine  Waters;  Bibliog.  #5,
       U.S.D.I., Dept. Library, Washington, D. C.
                                    - 3 -

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          Publications on the General Aspects of  Oil Pollution
Adams, N. K.  1936.  The Pollution of the Sea and Shore by Oil.   Report
       to Council of the Royal Society, London.

Ambrose, H. A.  1967.  Oil Pollution of Seas, Coasts,  and Harbors.   Gulf
       Res. & Develop. Co., Rept. N. 700R7001, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Anon.  1953.  Fouling the Seas.  Nature, 172:1013.

Anon.  1953.  Report of the Committee on the Prevention of Pollution of
       the Sea by Oil.  Ministry of Transport, London, H. M.
       Stationery Office.

Anon.  1967.  Minutes of Evidence Taken Before the Select Committee on
       Science and Technology, Sub-Committee on Coastal Pollution.
       H. M. Stationery Office, London.

Anon.  1967.  The Protection of Sea Coasts Against Pollution.  Korresp
       Abwass, 14(12)9-10.

Anon.  1968.  Report from the Select Committee on Science and Technology,
       Session 1967-68, Coastal Pollution.  Report, Minutes,  and
       Index.  House of Commons, H. M. Stationery Office, London.

Anon.  1969.  Helpless Birds, Helpless Technology, Giant Oil  Spill Coats
       Beaches, Both Prevention, Cure Unknown.  Sc i News, 95(7):
       183-84.

Anon.  1952.  Report of the International Joint Commission, U. S. and
       Canada, On Pollution of Boundary Waters.  Washington,  D.  C.
       & Ottawa.

Bare lay-Smith, P.  1967.  Oil Pollution - An Historical Survey.   J Devon
       Trust Nat Conserv, Suppl  , pp. 3-7.

Beatty, R. 0.  1948.  Wildlife's Stake in Pollution Abatement.  Trans
       13th N A Wildl Conf. pp. 563-595.

Callaghan, J.  1961.  International Aspects of Oil Pollution.  Trans 26th
       N A Wildl and Natural Resources Conf, pp. 328-342.

Elmhirst, R.  1922.  Investigation on the Effects of Oil-Tanker Discharge.
       Ann Rept Scottish Mar Biol Ass.
                                    - 4 -

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Galstoff, P. S.  1936.  Oil Pollution in Coastal Waters.   In Wildlife
       Restoration and Conservation, Proc .  N.  A. Wildlife Conf.,
       U. S. Gov't. Print. Off., pp. 550-555.

Hawkes, A. L.  1961.  Nature and Extent of  Damage Caused  by Oil Pollu-
       tion at Sea.  Trans 26th N A Wildl and Natural Resources
       Conf, pp. 434-453.

Hynes, H.B.N.  1960.  The Biology of Polluted Waters.  Liverpool  Univ.
       Press, Liverpool.

Jackson, R. I.  1968.  (no title).  Paper presented at Int. Conf. Oil
       Poll. Sea, Rome.

Kittner, Z.  1965.  Crude Oil and Water Conservation.  Vod Hospod,
       15:400-402.  (in Russian).

Lane, F. W., et al.  1924.  Effect of Oil Pollution of Coastal and Other
       Waters on Public Health.  Publ Hlth Rep, 39:1657.

Lane, F. W., et al.  1926.  The Effect of Oil Pollution on Marine and
       Wildlife.  Rep U S Comm Fish, App. 5, p. 11.

Laucht, H.  1955.  Oil Pollution, a Danger to the Inhabitants of  Coastal
       and  Inland Waters.  Kosmos, 51:496-591.  (in German).

1'Hardy, J. P.  1967.  Sea Pollution by Hydrocarbons and its Biological
       Consequences.  Penn Bed, 6(50):123-128.  (Biol Abstr,
       49:87-387, 1968).

Maiden, F.R.E., Khan, H.  1942.  River Pollution and Fish Mortality.
       J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 43:534-536.

Manwell, C., Baker, C. A.  1967.  Oil and Detergent Pollution - Past,
       Present, Politics, and Prospects.  J Devon Trust Nat
       Conserv, Suppl, pp. 39-72.

Marx, W.   1969.  How Not to Kill the Ocean.  Audubon Mag, 71(4) :27.

McKee, J.  E.   1956.  Oily Substances and their  Effects on the Beneficial
       Uses of Water.  Publ. No. 16, State Water Poll. Cont.
       Bd., Sacramento, Calif., p.  72.

McKee, J.  E., Wolf, H. W.  1963.  Water Quality_Criteria, State Water
       Quality Control Bd., Publ. No. 3-A, Sacramento, Calif.
                                    -  5  -

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Mironov, 0. G.  1968.  Hydrocarbon Pollution of the Sea and its Influ-
       ence on Marine Organisms.  Helgolander Wiss Meeresunters,
       17(l/4):335-339.

Ogren, L., Pearce, J. B.  1968.  Oil Pollution - A Threat to Marine
       Resources and Recreation.  Underwater Naturalist, 5:2, 6.
Orton, J. H.  1925.  Effects on Marine Organisms of Oils Discharged
       at Sea.  Nature, 115:910-911.

Panel la, S.  1968.  Preliminary Report of the Pollution of Italian
       Coastal Waters in Relation to the Biological Environment
       and Fisheries.  Paper Presented at Int. Conf. Oil Poll.
       Sea, Rome, Oct 7-9, 1968.

Potts, G. W.  1968.  Unwanted Oil.  Sea Front, 14(4):221-233.

Roberts, C. H.  1926.  Oil Pollution:  The Effect of Oil Pollution Upon
       Certain Forms of Aquatic Life and Experiments Upon the
       Rate of Absorption, Through Films of Various Fuel Oils,
       of Atmospheric Oxygen by Seawater.  J du Conseil Int pour
       1* Exploration de la Mer, 1:245.

Rushton, W., Jee, E. C.  1923.  Fuel Oil and Aquatic Life.  Salmon Trout
       Mag, 31:89-95.

Senez, J. C., Konovaltschekoff-Mazoyer, M.  1958.  Pollution de la mer
       par  les hydrocarbures et bacteries marins.  Rapp Comm Int
       Explor Sci Mar Medit, 14:535:543.

Shoemaker, C. D. 1957.  The Menace of Oil Pollution.  Audubon Mag,
       59(1):24.

Silverling, B.  1964.  Oil Brings Disaster to Beach Life.  Seattle Post-
       Intelligencer, (March 18, 1964).

Tendron, G.  1958.  Les pollutians chimiques des mers, des estuaires et
       des  cotes.  C R Acad Agric Fr, 44(12):582-588.

Tendron, G.  1964.  La pollution des mers par les hydrocarbures et la
       contamination de la flore et de la faune marins.  Penn Bed,
       3:178-191.

Walsh, J.   1968.  The Wake of the Torrey Canyon.  Sc ience, 160:167-69.
                               - 6 -

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Yamashina, Y.  1968.  Biological  Aspects of Oil  Pollution.   Paper  pre-
       sented Int. Conf. Oil Poll.  Sea,  Rome,  Oct.  7-9,  1968.

Zobell, C. E.  1963.  The Occurrence,  Effects, and  Fate  of  Oil  Polluting
       the Sea.  Int J Air Wat Poll,  7:173-198.

Zobell, C. E.  1964.  The Occurrence,  Effects, and  Fate  of  Oil  Polluting
       the Sea.  In Advances in Water  Pollution  Research, Pearson,
       E. A. (ed.), Pergamon Press, New  York,  pp.  85-118.
                                    -  7  -

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                  Reports of Oil Spill  Incidents


NOTE:  The Center for Short-lived Phenomena,  Smithsonian  Institution,
Cambridge, Mass., issues brief reports  on the occurrence  and effects
of pollution incidents, including those involving oil.  "Notification
Reports" provide initial documentation  for a  given incident.  Subse-
quent information on the sameincident is issued in "Information
Reports".  Oil spills reported to date  include:


 1.  Witwater Oil Spill             13  Dec '68   Event  No.  64-68

 2.  Wakulla Oil Slick              27  Dec '68             68-68

 3.  Santa Barbara Oil Spill        30 Jan '69              9-69

 4.  Cook Inlet Spill                4  Mar '69             24-69

 5.  Louisiana Oil Spill            16  Mar '69             25-69

 6.  Chicago River Oil Spill        21  Mar '69             27-69

 7.  Dutch Coast Oil Spill          28 Feb '69             39-69

 8.  Sandy Hook Oil Spill           10 Mar '69             47-69

 9.  Hamilton Trader Oil Spill      30 Apr '69             49-69

 10.  Piscatagus River Oil Spill        May '69             54-69

 11.  Alma Oil Spill                 16 Jun '69             68-69

 12.  Cook Inlet Oil Spill II        23 Jun '69             74-69
Anon.   1967.  Battling the Blob; Effects of Oil Discharge from Tanker
        Aground Off  British Coast.  Newsweek, 69(15): 110,
        (April 10, 1967).

Anon.   1967.  Botany Bay, Australia's Torrey Canyon.  Fisherman's Bull,
 Anon.   1967.  The  Torrey Canyon.  Report to Parliament by the Secretary
        of  State for Home Dept, H. M. Stationery Office, London.
                                     -  8 -

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Anon.  1969.  The Torrey Canyon.  Report of the Committee of Scientists
       on the Scientific and Technological Aspects of the Torrey
       Canyon Disaster.  H. M. Stationery Office, London.

Anon.  1969.  Oil Pollution on the Newfoundland Coast.  Mar Poll Bull,
       No. 14, p. 8.

Beynon, L. R. 1967.  The Torrey Canyon Incident - A Review of Events.
       Brit. Petrol. Ltd. (mimeo).

Brusson, J.  1967.  Le petrole du Torrey Canyon en Her. Penn Bed, 6(50):
       79-84.

Cerame-Vivas, M. J.  1969.  The Wreck of the Ocean Eagle.  Sea Front,
       15(4):224.

Cooper, C.H.N.  1968.  Scientific Consequences of the Wreck of the Torrey
       Canyon.  Helgolander Wiss Meeresunters, 17(1/4):340-355.

Crapp, G.  1969.  Oil Pollution in Milford Haven.  Nat in Wales, 99(3):
       131-137.

Croome, A.  1967.  Before and After the Torrey Canyon.  New Sc ient, 35(562);
       569.

Croome, A.  1968.  Oil from the Torrey Canyon.  Sea Front, 14(3):139-149.

Diaz-Piferrer, M.  1962.  The Effects of Oil on the Shore of Guanica,
       P. R.  Deep Sea Res, 11(5):855-856.

Drew, E. A., et al.  1967.  Torrey Canyon Report.  Rep Underwater Ass,
       1966-67, pp. 53-60.

Glude, J. B., Peters, J. A.  1967.  Observationjpn the Effect of Oil
       from the Tanker Torrey Canyon and Oil-Control Measures on
       Marine Resources of Cornwall, England and Brittany, France.
       Unpubl. Rep't. Submitted to Dir., Bur. Comm. Fish, U.S.D.I.

Harrison, J.  1966.  The Medway Oiling Fiasco.  Shooting Times Lib, 4391:
       1681-1682.

Hicks, J.  1967.  Fair England Fouled by Oil.  Life Magazine, 62(15):26,
       (April 14, 1967).

Holene, M. A.  1967.  Oil Pollution of the Cornish Coast of England at
       the Site of the Torrey Canyon Shipwreck.  Penn Bed, 6(50):
       88-94.  (Biol Abstr, #87385, 1968).
                                    -  9  -

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Jenkins, W. A.   1967.  U. S. Coast  Guard Report  of  Wake Island Oil  Spill.
       In Marine, Estuarine, and Riparian Pollution Disasters and
       their Consequences.   Ocean Resources Subcommittee Mtg.,
       Nat'l  Security Industrial Ass.,  Washington, D.  C.

Jones, L. G., et al.  1969.  Just How Serious Was the Santa Barbara Oil
       Spill?  Ocean Indust, 4(6):53-56.

Petrow, R.  1968.  In the Wake of the Torrey Canyon.  McKay, New York.
       (Biol Abstr, 50:50658, 1969).

Potts, J., Gage, J. and Forster,  G. R.  1967.  Diving Studies on the
       Torrey Canyon Oil Pollution.  J Devon Trust Nat  Conserv,
       Suppl, pp 22-24.

Ranwell, D. S., Stebbings,  R. E.  1967.   Report  on the Effects of Torrey
       Canyon Oil Pollution and Decontamination Methods on Coastal
       Habitats in Cornwall and Brittany, March-April 1967.  Nature
       Conservancy, Furzebrook Res. Station (mimeo).

Rechnitzer, A.  B., Limbaugh, C.  1956.  An Oceanographic and Ecological
       Investigation of the Area Surrounding the Union Oil Company
       Santa Maria Refinery Outfall, Oso Filaco, California.  Inst.
       Mar. Resour., Univ. Calif., Ref.  55-5, pp 1-46.

Rees, E. I., Donally, R. J.  1969.  Hamilton Trader Oil Pollution Incident,
       April-May 1969:  North Wales Coast and Cumberland Coast.
       Mar Poll Bull, No.  12, pp 10-13.

Searl, D.  1967.  First Report on Torrey Canyon Coast, Ecology.  The Sunday
       Times, London,  (Sept. 3, 1967).

Smith, J. E.  1968.  Torrey Canyon Pollution and Marine Life.  Cambridge
       Univ. Press, NYC.

Spooner, M., Spooner, G.   1968.  The Problem of Oil Spills at Sea Illus-
       trated by the Stranding of the General Colocotronis on
       Eleuthera, Bahamas,  March 7, 1968.  Rept. for the West
       Eng. Steam Ship Owners Protect, and Indemn. Assoc., Ltd.,
       London.

Stebbings, R. E.  1967.  Torrey Canyon Pollution on the Brittany Coast and
        its Treatment.  J Devon Trust Nat Conserv,  Suppl, pp  25-26.

Williams, J. K.  1967.  Conservation and the Torrey Canyon;  the Extent of
       Pollution.   J Devon  Trust Nat Conserv, Suppl, pp  20-22.
                                  -  10  -

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  General Biological Effects of Oil and of Specific Oil Spill Incidents


Abbott, B. C., Straughan, D. M.  1969.  Biological and Oceanographic
       Effects of Oil Spillage in the Santa Barbara Channel
       Following the 1959 Blowout.  Mar Poll Bull, No. 12,
       pp. 1-3.

Anon.  1969.  Report Issued on Marine Mammals on San Miguel Island.
       U.S.D.I., Washington, D. C.

Baker, J. M.  1968.  Effect of Oil Pollution on Salt Marsh Communities.
       Field  Studies Council, Oil Poll Res Unit, j.st Ann  Report,
       Pembroke, S. Wales.

Bellamy, D. J., et al.   1967.  Some Effects of Pollution  from the Torrey
       Canyon Disaster on Littoral and Sublittoral  Ecosystems
       Dominated by Attached Macrophytes.  Univ. Durham  (mimeo) .

Bellamy, D. J., et al.   1967.  Effects of Pollution from  the Torrey Canyon
       on Littoral and Sublittoral Ecosystems.  Nature,  216:1170.

Bellamy, D. J., Whittick, A.   1968.   Problems  in the Assessment  of  the
       Effects of Pollution on Inshore Marine  Ecosystems  Dominated
       by Attached Macrophytes.   In the  Biological Effects  of Oil
       Pollution on Littoral Communities, Suppl Vol 2, Field
       Studies, Carthy,  J.  D., Arthur, D. R.  (eds).  Field  Studies
       Council, London.

Bellan-Santini, D.   1966.   Influence  des eaux  polluees sur  la flore et la
       faune  marins  benthiques dans  la region  de  Marseille.
       Techqs Sci Munic , 7:285-292.

Buck,  W.F.A., Harrison,  J.   1967.   Some  Prolonged Effects of  Oil Pollution
       on  the Medway Estuary.   Rept Wildfowl  Trust,  1966-67,
       pp.  32-33.

Carthy,  J.  D., Arthur,  D.  R.   1968.   The Biological Effects of  Oil  Pollu-
       tion on Littoral  Communities.   Suppl. to Vol.2,  Field Studies,
       Field Studies Council,  London.

 Chasse,  C., Halos,  M.T.H., Perrot, Y.  1967.   Outline of a Balance  of
        Biological Losses Caused by the Fuel Oil from the Torrey
        Canyon on the Treagor Seaboard.   Penn Bed, 6(50):107-112.
        (in French).  (Biol Abstr, 49:7825,  1968).
                                  -  11 -

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Chipman, W. A., Galtsoff, P. S.  1949.  Effects of Oil Mixed with Car-
       bonized Sand on Aquatic Animals.  U.S.D.I., Spec ia1 Sc i
       Rep't Fisheries, No. 1, Fish. Wildl. Serv., Washington,
       D. C.

Clark, R. B.  1969.   (no title).  Mar Poll Bull, No. 10, pp. 7-9.

Clemens, H., Finnell, J.  1956.  Biological Conditions in a Stream
       Receiving Refinery Effluents.  Tex J Sci, 8(4):392.

Copeland, B. J., Dorris, T. C.  1964.  Community Metabolism in Ecosystems
       Receiving Oil Refinery Effluents.  Limnol Oceanog,
       9(3):431-447.

Copeland, B. J., Winter, K. W., Dorris, T. C.  1964.  Chlorophyll and
       Suspended Organic Matter in Oil Refinery Effluent Holding
       Ponds.  Limnol Oceanog, 9(4):500-506.

Coughlan, J., Spencer, J. F.  1967.  Milford Haven:  Effects of Oil
       Spillages on Ecological Survey.  Central Electricity
       Research Lab Report, RD/L/23/67 (mimeo).

Cowell, E.  1969.  The Effects of Oil Pollution on Salt Marsh Communities
       in Pembrokeshire and Cornwall.  J Appl Ecol (in press).

Cowell, E., Baker, J.  1969.  The Recovery of Salt Marsh in Pembrokeshire,
       S. Wales, from Pollution by Crude Oil.  Blol Cons (in press).

Crapp, G.  1969.  Effects of Oil Pollution on Littoral Communities.  Field
       Studies Council, Oil Poll Res Unit, 1st Ann Report, Pembroke,
       S. Wales.

Farrar, M. D.  1936.  The Effects of Petroleum-Oil Sprays on Insects and
       Plants.  Bull 111 Nat Hist Survey. 21(l):l-32.

Filke, F. P.  1954.  An Ecological Survey of the Castro Creek Area in San
       Pablo Bay.  Wasmann J Biol, 12:1.

Fisher, J., Charlton, S.  1967.  Tragedy of Errors; Effect of Torrey
       Canyon Disaster on Sea Life.  Audubon Mag, 69(6):72-85.

George, M.  1961.  Oil Pollution of Marine Organisms.  Nature, 192:1209.

Ghirardelli, E., Pignatti, S.   1968.  Consequences de la pollution sur les
       peuplements de "Vallone de Muggia" pres de Trieste.  Revue
       Internationale D*Oceanog Med, 10:111-122.  (English summary).
                                  -  12  -

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Glude, J. B.  Observations on the Effect of Oil from the -Tanker Ocean
       Eagle and Oil Dispersant Chemicals on Biological Popula-
       tions in San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico, Bur. Comm. Fish.,
       Seattle, Wash.

Gooding, R. M.  1968.  Narrative Report:  Biotic Damage on Wake Island
       Caused by Oil Spillage from the Tanker R. C. Stoner.
       Bur. Comm. Fisheries, Honolulu.  (Unpubl Rep't).

Hunt, G. S.  1965.  The Direct Effects on Some Plants and Animals of
       Pollution in the Great Lakes.  Biosc ience, 15(3):181-186.

Kalugina, A. A., et al.  1967.  Effect of Pollution on Marine Organisms
       of Novorossiysk Bay, Black Sea.  Hydrobiol J, 3:47-53.
                                                              M
Konig, D.  1968.  Biologische Auswirkungen des Abwasser einer 01-
       Raffinerie en einem Vorland-Gebiet an der Nordsee.
       Helgolander Wiss Msersunters, 17(l/4):321-334 (April
       1968).  English summary).

Kuptsis, I. D.  1901.  Further Investigations Concerning the Harmful
       Properties of Petroleum and its Products to Fish and
       Animals.  Vestn Ryboprom, pp. 5-6.  (in Russian).

Mackin, J. G.  1950.  A Comparison of the Effect of_Application of Crude
       Petroleum to Marsh Plants and to Oysters, Texas A & M Res.
       Found., Proj. 9, College Station.

Malacca, I.  1966.  Etudes Concernant 1'Effet des Produits Petroliers sur
       Certains Organisms de la Zone Littoral Roumain de la Mer
       Noire.  Conf Coastal Engng, 10 (Tokyo).

Malacca, I., Cure, V., Weiner, L.  1964.  Contributions to the Knowledge
       of the Noxious Action of Oil, Napthenic Acids and Phenols
       on Certain Fish and Crustacean Daphnia magna.  Straus Stud
       Prot Epur Apel (Rumania), 5:353-597.

Marx, W.  1969.  Wildlife and the Union Oil Blowout.  Underwater Nat,
       6:32-34.

McCauley, R. N.  1964.  The Biological Effects of Oil Pollution in a
       River.  Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell Univ. (Piss Abstr, 25(8):
       4373, 1965).

McCauley, R. N.  1966.  The Biological Effects of Oil Pollution in a
       River.  Limnol Oceanogr, 11:475-486.

Nelson-Smith, A.  1967.  The Effects of Oil Pollution and Emulsifier
       Cleansing on Shore Life  in Southwest Britain.  J Appl
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                                   -  18  -

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Hartung, R.  1965.  Some Toxic Effects o Ingesting Polluting Oils on
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                                    - 19 -

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Hunt, G. S., Ewing, H. E.  1953.  Industrial Pollution and Michigan
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                                    - 20 -

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Phillips, W.W.A.  1967.  Oiled Seabirds in Pagham Harbor in January  and
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                          11               "               it
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                                    - 22 -

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Tanis, J.J.C., Bruijns, M.F.M.  1968.  The Impact of Oil Pollution on
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                        Effects of Oil on Fish
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                                - 31 -

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Reimann, K.  1962.  Harmfulness of Oil and Tar Products to Lower Water
       Organisms.  Munch Beitr Abwass Fisch u Flussbiol, 9:60-
       72.  (in German).
                                  - 36  -

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Reimann, K.  1967.  Lethel Effects of  Oil and Tar Products on Lower
       Aquatic Organisms.  Munch Beitr Abwass Fisch u
       Flussbio1, 9:18-99.  (in German).

Richards, A. G.  1941.  Differentiation Between Toxic and Suffocating
       Effects of Petroleum Oils on Larvae of the House
       Mosquito (Culex pipiens) .  Trans Amer Entomol Soc ,
       67:161-196.

Tubb, R. A., Dorris, T. C.  1965.  Herbivorous Insect Populations in
       Oil Refinery Effluent Holding Pond Series.  Limnol
       Oceanogr, 10:121-134.

Watson, G. I.  1941.  A Physiological Study of Mosquito Larvae Which
       Were Treated With Anti-Malarial Oils.  Bull Ent Res,
       31:319.

Wilhm, J. L.  1965.  Species Diversity of Benthic Macro invertebrates
       in a Stream Receiving DomestLc and Oil Refinery Efflu-
       ents.Ph.D. Thesis, Okla.  State Univ.,  Stillwater.
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Wilhm, J. L., Dorris, T. C.  1966.  Species Diversity of Benthic Macro-
        invertebrates  in a  Stream  Receiving Domestic  and Oil
       Refining Effluents.  Amer  Midland Natural, 76:427-449.

Zuzolo, R. C.   1966.  The  Action  of Oil-Water Interfaces on Amoebae and
       Isolated Nuclei.  Ph.D. Thesis, New York  Univ., N.Y.C.
        (Piss Abstr, 27(3):953-B).
                                 - 37 -

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                         Effect of  Oil on Plants
Anon.  1949.  Vanishing Eelgrass:  A Problem Affecting Wildfowl and
       Fisherman.  City Sportsman, 26:221.

Anon.  1960.  The Effects of Waste Discharges on Kelp.  Summary of  Marine
       Waste Disposal Research Program in California.   Calif.
       State Wat. Poll. Contr. Bd, Publ.  #22, pp 44-49.

Bruns, V. F., Hodgson, J. M., Arle, H. F., Gimmons,  F.  1955.  The  Use  of
       Aromatic Solvents for Control of Submersed Aquatic Weeds
       in Irrigation Channels.  U. S. Dept. Agric.,  Circ . #971,
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Clendenning, K. A.  1959.  The Effects of Waste Discharges  on  Kelp;
       Toxic it y Studies.  Inst. Mar. Resour., Univ.  Calif.,  Ref.
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Clendenning, K. A.  1959.  The Effects of Waste Discharges  on  Kelp: Fuel
       Oil.  Inst. Mar. Resour., Univ. Calif., Ref.  59-4, pp 4-12.

Clendenning, K. A.  1960.  The Effects of Waste Discharges  on  Kelp; Phenols
       and Cresols.  Inst. Mar. Resour.,  Univ. Calif., Ref.  60-4,
       pp 45-47.

Clendenning, K. A., North, W. J.  1960.  The Effects of Wastes on the Giant
       Kelp Macrocystis pyrifera.  In Waste Disposal in the  Marine
       Environment (E. A. Pearson, ed).  Pergamon Press, N.  Y., pp
       82-91.

Copeland, B.'J., Dorris, T. C.  1962.  Photosynthetic  Productivity  in Oil
       Refinery Effluent Holding Funds.  JWPGF, 34(11):1104-1111.

Crosby, E. S., Rudolfs, W., Heukelekian,  I.  1954.  Biological Growths  in
       Petroleum Refinery Waste Waters.  Ind Engng Chem, 46(2):
       296-300.

Currier, H. B.  1951.  Herbicidal Properties of Benzene. Hilgardia,
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Currier, H. B., Peoples, S. A.  1954.  Phytotoxicity of Hydrocarbons.
       Hilgardia, 23:155-173.

Foyn, E.  1964.  Disposal of Waste in the Marine Environment and the Pollu-
       tion of the Sea.  Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev,  3:95.
                                   -  38 -

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Gilet, R.  1960.  Water Pollution in Marseilles and its Relation with
       Flora and Fauna.  In Waste Disposal in the Marine Envir-
       onment (E. A. Pearson, ed), Pergamon Press, N. Y., pp
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Ginsberg, J. M.   1931.  Penetration of Petroleum Oils Into Plant Tissue.
       J Agric Res, 43:469-474.

Havis, J. R.  1950.  Herbicidal Properties of Petroleum Hydrocarbons.
       Mem. Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta., Geneva, N. Y., p 298.

Iz'yurova, A. I.  1950.  Influence of Petroleum Products on Development
       of Lower Aquatic Plants.  Gig San it, 10:11-14.  (in
       Ru s s ian) .

Korzep, D. A.  1962.  Toxic ity of Organic Compounds.  Thesis, Univ. Tex.,
       Au s t in.

Lukanina, V. S. , et al.  1964.  Effect of Certain Physico-Chemical
       Properties of Petroleum Emulsion on Their Phytocidal
       and Toxic Properties.  Khim Sel-skom Khoz, 5:28-30.
       (in Russian).

Mackin, J. G.  1950.  Report on a Study of the Effect of Application of
       Crude Petroleum on Saltgrass, Distichlis spicata (L.)
       Greene.  Texas A&M Res. Found., Proj. 9, College Station.

Minshall, W. H., Helson, V. A.  1949.  The Herbicidal Action of Oils.
       Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci, 53:294-298.

Mironov, 0. G.,  Lanskaja, L. A.  1966.  The Influence of Oil on the Devel-
       opment of Marine Phytoplankton.  Int Oceanogr Congr, 2  (Moscow).

Mironov, 0. G.,  Lanskaya, L. A.  1967.  Growth of Diatoms  in Sea Water
       Polluted by Petroleum Products.  In Biology and the Distri-
       bution of Plankton of the Southern Seas.   (USSR Acad. Sci.),
       p 31.

North, W. J.  1964.  An Investigation of  the Effects of Discharged Wastes
       on Kelp.  Calif. State W. Q. Contr. Bd., Publ. #26,
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North, W. J., Clendenning, K. A.  1959.  The Effects of Discharged Wastes
       Upon Kelp.  Inst. Mar. Resour., Univ. Calif., Ann. Report.

Ranwell, D. S.   1968.  Lichen Mortality Due to Torrey Canyon Oil and
       Decontamination Measures.  Lichenologist, 4:55-56.
                                - 39 -

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Shaw, J. M., Timmons, F. L.  1949.  Controlling Water Weeds on Irri-
       gation Systems with Aromatic Solvents.  U. S. Bur. Reclam.,
       Res. & Geol. Div., Lab. Rep. CH-97, Denver.

Straus, M.  1949.  Control of Weeds on Irrigation Systems.  Bur. of
       Reclamation, U.S.D.I., Washington, D. C.

Van Overbeek, J., Blondeau, R. 1954.  Mode of Action of Phytotoxic Oils.
       Weeds, 3:55-65.

Veldre, I. 1963.  Toxicological Characteristics of Shale Waste Water.
       Rybn Khoz Vnute Vodoemov Latv, SSR Sb, pp 55-59.
       (in Russian).  (Chem Abstr, 61:14345, 1966)

Vinyard, W. C. 1966.  Growth Requirements of Blue-green Algae as Deduced
       from Their Natural Distribution.  Environ Requir Blue-green
       Algae, Proc. Symp., pp 81-85.

Young, P. A. 1935.  Oil-mass Theory of Petroleum-Oil Penetration Into
       Protoplasm.  Amer J Bot, 22:1-8.
                                  - 40 -

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                     Effects of Oil on Dissolved Oxygen
Alyakrinskaya, I. 0. 1966.  Experimental Data on the Oxygen Consumption
       of Seawater Polluted by Oil.  Okeanologiia, 6(l):71-78 .
       (in Russian) .

Anon. 1953.  The Persistence of Particular Organic Compounds in Surface
       Waters.  R. A. Taft San. Eng. Center, Cincinnati, Activity
       Report #15:22, USPHS.

Beerstecher, Jr., Ernest. 1954.  Petroleum Microbiology. Elsevier
       Press, N. Y.

Davis, J. B. 1967.  Petroleum Microbiology.  Elsevier Press, N. Y.

Iz'yurova, A. I. 1952.  Rate of Oxidation of Petroleum Products in Water
       Without Addition of Nitrogen.  Gig San it,  7:12-17.(in
       Russian).  (Chem Abstr, 46:10507).

Iz'yurova, A. I. 1955.  Petroleum in a Body of Water.  Gig Sanit, 20:15 .
       (in Russian)

Laycock, H. C. 1956.  Cetyl Alcohol Control Evaporation.  Wat Sewage Wks,
       103:346.

Ludzak, F. J., Kinkead, D. 1956.  Persistance of  Oily Wastes  in Polluted
       Water Under Acidic Conditions.  Water Oil  Class of Hydro-
       carbons.  Indust Engng Chem, 48:263-267.

Mann, H.,  Stehr, E.  1959.  The Influence  of Oil on Oxygen Content of Water.
       Arbeiten  des Deutschen Fishcerei Verbandes (Hamburg),
       11:7-14.(in German).

Pomeroy, R.  1954.  Disposal of Waste Water from Oil Fields  in the Coastal
     '  Counties  of California.  Sew Indust Waste, 26:59.

Rosenfeld, W. D.  1947.  Anaerobic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons by  Sulfate-
       Reducing  Bacteria.   J Bact,  54:664.

Voroshilova, A.  A.,  Dianoug, E. V.  1950.  Bacterial Oxidation of Oil and
        its Migration in Natural Waters.   Mikrobiologia,  19:203-
        210.(in Russian).

Voroshilova, A.  A.,  Dianova, E. V.  1951.  Petroleum-oxidizing bacteria as a
        scale of  intensity of biological oxidation of  petroleum
        under natural conditions.   Mikrobiologia,  21:408-415.
        (in Russian).

Zobell,  C. E.,  Prokop, T.  F.  1966.   Microbial Oxidation  of  Mineral Oils in
        Barataria Bay Bottom Deposits.   Zeit Allg  Mikrobiol,
        6:143-162.

                                   - 41 -

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                      Carcinogenic Effects of Oil
Andelman, J. B., Suess, M. J.  1967.  Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
       in the Water Environment - a Review.  153rd Nat. Meet.
       Amer. Chem. Soc., Preprint, 7:152-154.

Bingham, E., Horton, A. W., Tye, R.  1965.   The Carcinogenic Potency of
       Certain Oils.  Arch Environ Hlth, 10:445-451.

Borneff, J.  1964.  Carcinogenic Substances in Water.  Zbl Bakt I,  193:
       91.  (in German).  (Wat Poll Abstr,  38:190, 1965).

Borneff, J., Fisher, R.  1963.  Carcinogenic Substances in Water and
       Soil.  Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface
       Water.  Arch Hyg Bakt, 146:430-437.   (in German).  (Wat
       Poll Abstr, 37:355, 1964)

Bourcart, J.  1965.  Marine Pollution of the Coasts of the Central  Area
       of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Bay of Naples) by Polybenzine
       Hydrocarbons of the 3, 4-Benzopyrene Type.  C R Ac ad
       Sci. Paris, 260:3729-3734.   (in French).  (Wat Poll
       Abstr. 38:1721, 1965).

Ciratelli,  M. S.  1965.  Studies dei fenouieni de accumulo del buyo 3,
       4-pirene nell1 organismo di Tulisfex.  Bolletino Pi
       Pesca, Piscicoltura E Idrobidogia Inst Poligrafico
       Dello Stato, Rome, 20:245.

Dowe, C. J., et al.  1964.  Hepatic Neoplasms in Native Bottom-Feeding
       Fish in Deep Creek Lake, Md.  Cancer Res, 24:1194.

Finkelstein, E. A.  1960.  Tumors of Fish.  Arkh Patol, 22:56-61.

Hueper, W.  C.  1963.  Environmental Carcinogenesis in Man and Animals.
       Ann  N Y Acad Sci,  108:963-1038.

Hueper, W., Ruehhoft, C.  Carcinogenic Studies on Adsorbates of Indus-
       trially Polluted Raw and Finished Water Supply.  Arch
       Ind  Hyg, 9:488.

Lalou, C.   1965.  Concentration des benzo - 3,4 pyrenes par les
       holothuries de  la  region de  Ville-frauche et  d'Antibes.
       Rapp Comm  Int Explor Sci Mer Medit. Monaco, 1964, pp
       363-366.

Lalou, C., et al.   1962.  The Distribution  with  Depth of  3,4-Benzopyrene
       in a Core Sample from the Bay at  Villefranch-sur-mer.
       C R Acad Sci.  Paris. 255:145.
                                   - 42 -

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Mallet, L.  1961.  Recherche des hydrocarbures pdlybenzeniques du
       type benzo-3,4-pyrene dans la faune des mileus
       marins (Mauche, Atlantique, et Mediterranee).  C R
       Acad Sci. Paris. 253:168-170.

Mallet, L.  1965.  Presence of Hydrocarbons of the Benzopyrene Type
       in the Sediments Near the Bank of the Seine Downstream
       from Paris.  Bull Acad Nat'1 Med, 149:655.  (in
       French).  (Wat Poll Abstr), 39:1636, 1966).

Mallet, L.  1966.  Marine Pollution of Polycondensed Hydrocarbons  of
       the 3, 4-Benzopyrene Type at the North and West Coast
       of France and their Evidence in Biological Media, esp.
       in Plankton.  Conf Prevent Naut Dinard, 2:1-6.  (in
       French).

Mallet, L., et al.  1960.  Recherches des hydrocarbures cancerigenes
       (type benzo-3,4-Pyrene) dans les eaux et depots marins
       des estuaires et leurs  incidences biologiques.  Ann
       Med tegale.

Mallet, L., et al.  1963.  Pollution of the Western Part of the Arctic
       Ocean by Polybenzene Hydrocarbons on the 3,4-benzopyrene
       Type.  C R Acad Sci, Paris,  256:3487.   (in French).
       (Wat Poll Abstr, 37:167, 1964).

Mallet, L., Lami, R.  1964.  Pollution of the Plankton by 3,4-Benzo
       Pyrene Type Polybenzene Hydrocarbons in the Ranee
       Estuary.  C R  Soc Biol,  158:2261-2262.  (in French).

Mallet, L., Priou, M. L.  1967.   Sur le retention des hydrocarbures
       polybenzenique du type  benzo-3, 4 pyrene par  les
       sediments,  la  faune et  la  flore  marins de la baie
       Sant-Malo.  C R Acad  Sci,  Paris, 264:969-971.

Mallet, L., Sardou, J.   1964.   Recherche de la presence  de  1'hydrocarbure
       polybenzenique benzo-3, 4  pyrene dans  le milieu planctonique
       de la region de la baie de Villefranche.  Rapp Comm  Int
       Explor  Sci  Mer Medit.  Monaco,  1964, pp 331-334.

Mallet, L., Theule.   1961.   Recherche du benz^o-3,4  pyrene  dans  les
       sables vaseux  marins  des regions cotieres  de  la Manche
       et de 1'Atlantique.   C R Acad Sci,  Paris,  252:565-567.

Masek, V.  1965.   3,4-benzopyrene in Waste Water.   Vod Hospod,  15:69-71.
       (in Czech with English summary).
                                   - 43 -

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Perdriau, J. 1964.  Marine Pollution by Carcinogenic Hydrocarbon Type
       3,4 Benzopyrene-Biological Indices.  Cahiers Oceanogr,
       16:125-229.(in French).  (Chem Abstr. 65:3557, 1966).
                                    ^^^"^^^~

Roffo, A. H. 1941.  Experimental Gastric Cancer After Ingest ion of Fuel
       Oil.  Bol Inst Med Exp, Buenos Aires, 18:487-558.

Russell, F. E. and Koten, P. 1956.  Squamous-papil1oma in the White
       Croaker.  J Nat Cancer Inst, 18:857-861.

Shabad, L. M. 1967.  Studies in the USSR on the Distribution, Circulation
       and Fate of Carcinogenic Hydrocarbons in the Human Environ-
       ment and the Role of Their Disposition in Tissues in Carcin-
       ogenesis:   A Review.  Cancer Res, 37:1132-1137.

Shimkin, N. B., Koe, B. K., Zechmeister, L. 1951.  An Instance of the
       Occurrence of Carcinogenic Substances in Certain Barnacles.
       Science, 113-650-651.

Sula, J. P. 1963.  The Carcinogen 3,4-Benapyrene in the Living Environment
       and Human Organism.  Neoplasma, 10:571-579.

Young, P. H. 1964.  Some Effects of Sewer Effluent on Marine Life.
       California Fish & Game, 50:33-41.
                                  - 44 -

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                   Miscellaneous Biological Reports on Oil
Anon. 1953.  Committee to Study the Effect of Oil Upon Marine Life.  Report
       of Maryland Legislative Council, Baltimore.

Anon. 1963.  Manual of Refinery Wastes, Section I, Waste Water Containing
       Oil.  American Petroleum Institute, 7th ed, New York, N. Y.

Anon. 1967.  Silicones Could Have Saved Sea Life; Torrey Canyon Disaster.
       Science News, 92(0ct. 7):343-4.

Arthur, D. R. 1968.  Different Kinds of Death.  New Scient, 37(589):625-627.

Gillerot, R., Cadron, E. 1967.  Consideration sur les effects de la pollu-
       tion de la mer est des plages.  Tribs Centre Beige Etude
       Document Eaux, 283/284:290-292.

Gloyna, F. F., Malin, J. F. 1963.  Petrochemical Wastes Effects on Water.
       Wat Sewage Wks, 110:R262-R285.

Gruvel, A. 1934.  Failure of Common Marine Species to Penetrate the Suez
       Canal.  C R Acad Sci, Paris, 198:1265.

Gunter, G. 1959.  Pollution Problems Along the Gulf Coast.  Biol Prob Wat
       Poll, Trans. Sem, 2:184-188.

Kemf, T., et al. 1967.  Pollution of Waters by Motorized Operation, Esp. by
       Outboard Motors.  Schrreihe Ver Wass-Boden u. Lufthyg. No.
       26.(Wat Poll Abstr, 41(2):136,  1968).(in German).

Laycock, G. 1969.  Whittling Alaska Down  to  Size.  Audubon  Mag, 71(3):67.

Liebmann, H. 1958.  Handbuch der Frischewasser und Abwasserbiologie.
       R. Oldenberg, Munchen.

Lindsay, C. E.  1960.  The Bioassay Approach  to Estuarine Pollution Problems.
       JWPCF. 32(2):195.

Malina, J. F., Jr.  1964.  Toxicity of  Petrochemicals in the Aquatic Environ-
       ment.  Wat  Sewage Wks,  111(10):456-460.

Nehring, D. 1962.   Laundry Waste Waters and  Fish.  Lit Ber  Wass Abwass Luft u
       Boden, 11:37.  Also Dtsch Fichztg,  9:46.(in German).
                                      - 45 -

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Schaut, G. G. 1939.  Fish Catastrophes During Draught.  J Am Wat Wks Ass,
       31:771.

Tarzwell, C. M. 1967.  Crude Oil and Petroleum Products.  In Interim
       Report on Water Quality Requirements for Fishes, Other
       Aquatic Life and Wildlife.  Nat. Tech. Advisory Ctee,
       Wash., pp 108-119.

Wragg, L. E. 1954.  Effect of DDT and Oil on Muskrats.  Canad Field-
       Naturalist, 68:11-13.
                                                        fi GPO 963-406

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