FEDERAL GUIDELINES (DRAFT)
            STATE AND  LOCAL
        PRETREATAAENT PROGRAMS
                    VOLUME I
                           \

                AUGUST 1975
                     NOTICE

       THIS DOCUMENT IS A PRELIMINARY DRAFT. IT HAS NOT BEEN
       FORMALLY RELEASED BY EPA AND SHOULD NOT AT THIS STAGE
       BE CONSTRUED TO REPRESENT AGENCY POLICY. IT IS BEING
       CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT ON ITS TECHNICAL ACCURACY
       AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS.
  U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
   OFFICE OF WATER PROGRAM OPERATIONS
              WASHINGTON, D.C.

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                          NOTICE
     This document is a Draft Contractor's Report.  It
includes technical information submitted by the Contractor
to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
and is being distributed for review and conment only.  The
report is not an official EPA publication.

     The guidelines will be undergoing extensive review by
EPA, Federal and State agencies, public interest organiza-
tions and other interested groups and persons in the coming
months.

     The document shall have standing in any EPA proceeding
or court proceeding only to the extent that it represents
the views of the Contractor who studied the subjects covered
and proposed the information.  It cannot be cited, referenced,
or represented in any respect in any subject proceedings
as a statement of EPA's views regarding the subjects
covered.
          U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Water Program Operations
              Municipal Construction Division
                 Washington, D.C.  20460

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                                     18399
FEDERAL GUIDELINES (DRAFT)
           STATE AND LOCAL

       PRETREATMENT PROGRAMS

                   VOLUME I

               PROJECT OFFICER
                GARY F OTAKIE
        MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION DIVISION
      OFFICE OF WATER PROGRAM OPERATIONS
                WASHINGTON, D.C.
          EPA CONTRACT NO. 68-01-2963
               PROJECT MANAGER
               ARNOLD S. VERNICK
               BURNS & ROE, INC.
                 PARAMUS N.J.
                PREPARED FOR
    U.S. ENVIROAAENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE OF WATER PROGRAM OPERATIONS
          WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460

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            U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                          FOREWORD
     In response to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972  (P.L. 92-500), this country has under-
taken an unprecedented program of cleaning up our Nation's
waters.  There will be a substantial investment by Federal,
State, and local government as well as by private industry
in treatment works to achieve the goals of the Act.  It is
important that this investment in publicly owned treatment
works  (POTW's) be protected from damage and from interference
with proper operation, and that water quality be protected
from pollutants which may pass through the POTW.

     These guidelines were developed by the Environmental
Protection Agency in accordance with Section 304 (f) of the
Act for the purpose of assisting States and municipalities
in meeting NPDES permit requirements.  It is important to
note the clear requirements in the Act that there be both
national pretreatment standards, Federally enforceable, and
pretreatment guidelines to assist States and municipalities
in developing local pretreatment requirements.  Some .factors
in pretreatment are not amenable to a national standard.  The
Environmental Protection Agency therefore encourages the
establishment of local pretreatment requirements, tailored
to the conditions at a specific publicly owned treatment works.
Such requirements are considered essential to ensure compliance
with permits issued under the National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System.

     The guidelines are a revision of the previous guidelines,
"Pretreatment of Pollutants Introduced Into Publicly Owned
Treatment Works."  Contained in this revision is additional
technical information on pollutants which may interfere with
or pass through publicly owned treatment works.  Also, guid-
ance is presented to assist State and local governments in
developing their own pretreatment programs to comply with
NPDES permit conditions.  The guidelines are the result of
extensive reviews and numerous field trips and discussions
with EPA Regional Offices, city, regional, State and inter-
state agencies.  We are extremely grateful for the cooperation
of those who assisted in the preparation of the guidelines.
                                                 Administrator

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                      TABLE OF CONTENTS
                          VOLUME I

            Title                                      Page

SECTION A - INTRODUCTION

     Purpose                                           A-l
     Background                                        A-l
     Authority                                         A-2
     Federal Pretreatment Standards                    A-3
     Effluent Limitations for POTWs                   A-5
     Organization of Guidelines                        A-7

SECTION B - MANAGEMENT OF A CONTROL PROGRAM

     Purpose                                           B-l
     Organizational Structure                          B-3
     Financial Aspects                                 B-12
     Policy                                            B-13
     Public Relations                                  B-16

SECTION C - LEGAL ASPECTS OF A CONTROL PROGRAM

     Introduction                                      C-l
     Legal Authority                                   C-l
     Sewer Use Ordinances                              C-3
     Recommended Ordinance for Industrial Use of
      Publicly Owned Sewerage Facilities               C-5

SECTION D - MONITORING

     Functions of a Monitoring Program                 D-l
     Field Considerations in Monitoring                D-9
     Laboratory Considerations in Monitoring           D-18

SECTION E - POLLUTANTS WHICH INTERFERE WITH PUBLICLY
            OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

     Introduction                                      E-l
     Materials which Inhibit Biological Treatment
      Works                                            E-l
     Other Substances Which Interfere with POTW
      Facilities                                       E-44
     Environmental Considerations                      E-47

SECTION F - REMOVAL AND PASS THROUGH OF POLLUTANTS IN
            PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

     Introduction                                      F-l
     Data Collection                                   F-2
     Data Analysis                                     F-4

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                      TABLE OF CONTENTS(Continued)
                            VOLUME I
             Title
                                                         Page
 SECTION G - GLOSSARY                                     G-l

 SECTION H - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                              H-l

APPENDIX 1 - PRETREATMENT STANDARDS

    Pretreatment Standards  (40CFR128)                    1-1
    Pretreatment Standards for Certain Categories        1-5

APPENDIX 2 - SECONDARY TREATMENT INFORMATION

    Secondary Treatment Information                      2-1

APPENDIX 3 - RECOMMENDED ORDINANCE FOR INDUSTRIAL
             USE OF PUBLICLY OWNED SEWERAGE FACILITIES

    Recommended Ordinance for Industrial Use of
    Publicly Owned Sewerage Facilities                   3-1

APPENDIX 4 - TEST PROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS

    Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures
     for Analysis of Pollutants  (October 16, 1973)       4-1
    Analysis of Pollutants - Proposed Guidelines
     for Establishing Test Procedures  (June 9, 1975)     4-5

APPENDIX 5 - POLLUTANT INTERFERENCE DATA

    Pollutant Interference Data                          5-1

APPENDIX 6 - POLLUTANT REMOVAL AND PASS THROUGH DATA

    Computer Report No. 1 - Summary of POTW Removal
     Data by EPA Region                                  6-1
    Computer Report No. 2 - POTW Categorization          6-2
    Computer Report No. 3 - POTW Removal Data,
     Reference Information                               6-4
    Computer Report No. 4 - POTW Removal Data
     Analysis, 24 Hr. Composite - 6 Hr. Simultaneous
     Composite, Comparison of Results                    6-10
    Computer Report No. 5 - POTW Removal Data Analysis,
     by Plant Category                                   6-16
    Computer Report No. 6 - Summary of POTW Removal Data 6-22
    Computer Report No. 7 - POTW Effluent Data Analysis  6-30
    Computer Report No. 8 - Summary of POTW
     Effluent Data                                       6-37
    Table 6-1 - Cumulative Frequency Distribution
     of Removal Data                                     6-45
    Table 6-2 - Cumulative Frequency Distribution of
     Effluent Data                                       6-47

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                      TABLE OF CONTENTS(Continued)
                           VOLUME I
             Title
APPENDIX 7 - ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

     Section A - Introduction                           7-1
     Section B - Management of a Control Program        7-11
     Section C - Legal Aspects of a Control Program     7-19
     Section D - Monitoring                             7-28
     Section E - Pollutants which Interfere with
                   Publicly Owned Treatment Works       7-58
     Section F - Removal of Pollutants in Publicly
                   Owned Treatment Works                7-93

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                   TABLE OF CONTENTS(Continued)
                        VOLUME II
                       APPENDIX 8


Title                                                 Section

Introduction                                             i

                             Code of Federal
                             Regulations  (CFR
Industry Description         Number)	

Dairy Products                    405                    1

Grain Mills                       406                    2

Canned and Preserved Fruits
   and Vegetables                 407                    3

Canned and Preserved Seafood      408                    4

Sugar                             409                    5

Textiles                          410                    6

Cement                            411                    7

Feed Lots                         412                    8

Metal Finishing and
   Electroplating                 413                    9

Organic Chemicals                 414                    10

Inorganic Chemicals               415                    11

Plastics and  Synthetic
   Materials                      416                    12

Soap and Detergents               417                    13

Fertilzer                         418                    14

Petroleum                         419                    15

Iron and Steel                   420                    16

Non Ferrous Metals               421                    17

Phosphates                         422                    18

Steam  Electric Power Plants       423                    I9

Ferro  Alloys                       424                    20

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                    TABLE OF CONTENTS(Continued)
                         VOLUME II
                         APPENDIX 8


Leather                           425                 21

Glass                             426                 22

Asbestos                          427                 23

Rubber                            428                 24

Timber                            429                 25

Pulp, Paper and Paperboard        430                 26

Builders Paper and Roofing Felt   431                 27

Meat Products                     432                 28

Water Supply                      437                 29

Misc. Foods and Beverages         438                 30

Misc. Chemicals                   439                 31

Auto and Other Laundries          444                 32

Paint and Ink Formulation         44G&447             33

Steam Supply and Noncontact
Cooling                           449                 34

Index

List of References

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                      LIST OF TABLES
                         VOLUME I

Table                      Title                        Page

C-l           Calculation of Maximum Allowable
              Industrial Discharge Concentrations-
              County Sanitation Districts of Los
              Angeles County                            C-12

E-l           Threshold Concentrations of Inorganic
              Pollutants that are Inhibitory to
              Biological Treatment Processes            E-7

E-2           Threshold Concentrations of Organic
              Pollutants that are Inhibitory to
              Biological Treatment Processes            E-28

F-l           Distribution of POTW Data by Plant
              Process                                   F-6

F-2           Removal Data Summary for Primary,
              Trickling Filter and Activated Sludge
              Plants (Selected Parameters)              F-8

F-3           Effluent Data Summary for Primary,
              Trickling Filter and Activated Sludge
              Plants (Selected Parameters)              F-9

F-4           Characterization of Primary and Bio-
              logical Plant Performance                 F-10

F-5           Removal and Effluent Data Summary for
              Oil and Grease, Cyanide and Hexavalent
              Chromium                                  F-l3

F-6           Removal in Biological Plants with
              Chemical Addition, and Tertiary Plants    F-14

F-7           Correlation Coefficient                   F-16

F-8           Correlation Coefficient (Log)             F-17

F-9           Regression Analyses - Influent Con-
              centration (X) vs. Effluent Concen-
              tration (Y)                               F-18

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                       LIST OF FIGURES

                          VOLUME I
Figure                     Title                       Page

B-l         Conceptual Organization of an Industrial
            Wastewater Control Program                 B-4

B-2         Typical Organization of a Large System     B-5

B-3         Typical Organization of a Medium Size
            System                                     B-10

B-4         Typical Organization of a Small System     B-ll

D-l         Monitoring Feedback System                 D-2

F-l thru
F-17        Cumulative Frequency Distribution Curves
            for Effluent Concentration and Percent
            Removal of the following parameters:

F-l         Cadmium                                    F-19
F-2         Chromium                                   F-20
F-3         Lead                                       F-21
F-4         Mercury                                    F-22
F-5         Copper                                     F-23
F-6         Nickel                                     F-24
F-7         Zinc                                       F-25
F-8         Iron                                       F-26
F-9         Manganese                                  F-27
F-10        Total Phosphates                           F-28
F-ll        Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen                    F-29
F-12        Ammonia                                    F-30
F-13        Phenolics                                  F-31
F-14        Total Organic Carbon                       F-32
F-15        Chemical Ozygen Demand                     F-33
F-16        Suspended Solids                           F-34
F-17        Biochemical oxygen Demand                  F-35

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            SECTION A




           INTRODUCTION
Purpose



Background



Authority



Federal Pretreatment Standards



Effluent Limitations for POTW's



Organization of Guidelines

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                         SECTION A
                       INTRODUCTION
Purpose

     These guidelines are established to assist municipalities,
States, Federal agencies, and others in developing require-
ments for the pretreatment of wastewaters which are intro-
duced into publicly owned treatment works (POTW1s).  This
document is a revision of an earlier publication dated
October 1973, and presents a compilation of technical and
administrative information relative to pretreatment and the
control of industrial wastewaters in publicly owned systems.
Information contained herein is designed to provide the
operators of POTW systems with a sound basis for determining
the impact of non-residential wastewaters, as well as
appropriate approaches for controlling pollutants from these
sources.

     Additionally, this document provides guidance helpful
in complying with those special conditions of the National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System  (NPDES) permits issued
to POTW's that relate to non-residential wastewaters.  Tech-
nical aspects, including data on pollutants which  may inter-
fere with the operation of POTW's,  and the removal of" pollu-
tants in treatment facilities are covered in detail.  Legal
considerations encompassing methods for establishing pollu-
tant limitations and a recommended ordinance for industrial
use of sewers are also addressed.  Additionally, information
on the management and monitoring requirements of an industrial
wastewater control program and summaries of the wastewater
characteristics and pretreatment information for major
industrial categories are included.

     In summary, this document provides guidance to State
and local governments concerned with both implementing pre-
treatment policies in accordance with appropriate Federal
Regulations and developing supplemental pretreatment require-
ments as necessary.

Background

     Up until 1972, the emphasis in Federal legislation had
been oriented toward water quality standards.  With the
enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amend-
ments of 1972  (Public Law 92-500) a number of fundamental
changes in the approach to achieving clean water were
instituted.  One of the most significant changes was from an
emphasis on the ambient quality of streams to direct control
of effluents through the establishment  of regulations and
standards which form a basis for the issuance of discharge
permits.  In addition, the 1972 Amendments required the
                          A-l

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development of pretreatment guidelines and standards to pro-
vide a uniform approach to the control of industrial pollu-
tants introduced into POTW's.

     Public Law 92-500 established a national system for
preventing, reducing, and eventually eliminating water
pollution.  By the creation of the National Pollutant Dis-
charge Elimination System (NPDES), the Act has required that
all point sources  (including POTW's) obtain a permit for the
discharge of wastewaters to the navigable waters of the
United States.

     The Act further requires that as a minimum intermediate
objective, all point sources other than POTW's treat their
wastewaters by the application of the best practicable con-
trol technology.  Subsequently, the minimum requirement for
industrial wastewaters would be the application of best
available treatment technology.  For POTW's the initial
objective is secondary treatment, as outlined in "Secondary
Treatment Information" promulgated by the Environmental
Protection Agency on August 17, 1973 (Appendix 2).

     As an additional measure designed to protect the
quality of navigable waters. Public Law 92-500 also contains
provisions that require regulating the pretreatment of non-
domestic wastewaters contributed to POTW's.  In the following
section, those portions of the Act that pertain to pre-
treatment, including the section providing authority for
the development of this document are discussed.

Authority

     Under Title III of the Act, "Standards and Enforcement,"
several sections are included that specifically refer to the
pretreatment of pollutants introduced into POTW's.  Authority
for development and revision of this guidelines document is
contained in Section 304(f)  which states:

     "For the purpose of assisting States in carrying
     out programs under section 402 of this Act, the
     Administrator shall publish	 and review at
     least annually thereafter and if appropriate,
     revise guidelines for pretreatment of pollutants
     which he determines are not susceptible to treat-
     ment by publicly owned treatment works.  Guide-
     lines under this subsection shall be established
     to control and prevent the discharge into the
     navigable waters, the contiguous zone, or the
     ocean (either directly or through publicly owned
     treatment works) of any pollutant which interferes
     with, passes through, or otherwise is incompatible
     with such works."
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     These guidelines should not be confused with pretreat-
ment standards for both existing and new sources, promulgated
under the authority of Sections 307 (b) and 307(c) respectively.
Section 307(b) is directed toward existing sources, and
states:

     "The Administrator shall	publish proposed
     regulations establishing pretreatment standards
     for introduction of pollutants into treatment
     works	which are publicly owned for those
     pollutants which are determined not to be sus-
     ceptible to treatment by such treatment works
     or which would interfere with the operation of
     such treatment works."

Under the authority of this Section,  the EPA promulgated on
November 8, 1973, general pretreatment standards, which are
included in Appendix 1 of this document.  These pretreatment
standards set forth rules and regulations designed to protect
POTW's from the possible harmful effects of industrial waste-
waters introduced into such systems.   In addition to the
general pretreatment standards, this section also provides
authority for the development of pretreatment standards for
specific major industrial categories of non-residential
contributors.  Similarly, Section 307(c) authorizes the
promulgation of pretreatment performance standards for new
sources.

     The distinction between pretreatment standards and
pretreatment guidelines must be emphasized.  This document,
as indicated, is strictly advisory, for the purpose of pro-
viding pretreatment assistance to interested parties.  As
such, these guidelines only recommend approaches to developing
pretreatment policy.  In contrast, the pretreatment standards
as promulgated under Section 307 of the Act, represent rules
and regulations which are enforceable by the Federal
government.

Federal Pretreatment Standards

     EPA has issued general standards for pretreatment of
pollutants introduced into POTW's  (Appendix 1).  Subsequent
to the promulgation of pretreatment standards on November 8,
1973, the Agency has proposed and promulgated numerous
pretreatment standards relative to specific industry cate-
gory wastewater discharges for both existing sources and
new sources.  As a result of these proposed and promulgated
regulations, the Agency has received numerous indications
that its pretreatment procedures, both for the establishment
of and for the enforcement of pretreatment standards, and
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the pretreatment standards themselves were not clearly
understood by many segments of the general public.  For this
reason, the Agency has decided to clarify and simplify the
existing pretreatment standards.   This will be accomplished
by proposing new general pretreatment regulations to replace
the existing standards contained in Appendix 1.  It is antici-
pated that the proposed standards will be published in the
Federal Register in the near future.  At that time the
proposed regulation and an appropriate discussion will be
incorporated in these guidelines.

     The pretreatment standards are intended to be national
in scope.  In many cases, it will be necessary for a State
or a municipality to supplement the Federal standards with
additional pretreatment requirements which take into account
local conditions.  Factors such as stringent water quality
standards reflected in the POTW1s NPDES permit or character-
istics of the treatment process may necessitate more restric-
tive pretreatment requirements in specific instances.  The
Federal pretreatment standards do not preclude municipalities
and States from establishing pretreatment standards of their
own, not in conflict with any Federal pretreatment standard,
as stated in Section 307(b)(4) of P.L.92-500.  State or
local standards may be necessary to control types, flows,
concentration and variability of industrial and commercial
discharges into municipal treatment works.

     There may be specific situations when the Federal pre-
treatment standards will not be sufficient to protect the
operation of the publicly owned treatment works.  This might
be the case when the quantity of a pollutant not susceptible
to treatment in a POTW, introduced by a major contributing
industry, would result in a concentration of the pollutant
in the influent to the treatment works which would inhibit
the performance of the treatment process.  In such a case,
the municipality would have to supplement the Federal standards-.
Additionally, State or local pretreatment standards may be
necessary for pollutants susceptible to treatment in a POTW.
Pretreatment of wastewaters containing susceptible pollutants
may be necessary in the form of spill protection or flow
equalization in order to ensure compliance with the Federal
pretreatment standards and permitted effluent limitations.

     EPA has been, and is currently in the process of promul-
gating rules and regulations setting forth effluent limitations
guidelines and standards of performance for the treatment of
specific industrial wastes discharged to navigable waters.
In pursuit  of this goal, EPA has categorized wastewater pro-
ducing commercial activities, and has, on an industry by
industry basis, published effluent standards in the Federal
Register  (40 CFR 400 series).  In each of these rules and
regulations for specific major industries, pretreatment
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standards are either proposed or promulgated in addition to
the requirements for wastewaters which are directly discharged.
To date, pretreatment standards for new sources have generally
been established in final form, while final rules and regula-
tions for the pretreatment of existing sources have only
been partially promulgated.  Pretreatment standards for
existing sources within fifteen major industrial categories
were promulgated on February 11, 1975 (Appendix 1), with
approximately twenty additional industrial pretreatment
standards still pending.  The pretreatment standards published
for the first fifteen industries do not establish limitations
on pollutants contributed to municipal systems because the
pollutants from these industries are usually susceptible to
treatment in a POTW.  In other words, for the first fifteen
industrial categories, there is no specific numerical pre-
treatment requirement at the Federal level.  However, there
are general prohibitions provided in the pretreatment standards
contained in Appendix 1.

     On the other hand, the pretreatment standards promul-
gated for new sources in various industrial categories
generally contain limitations on the level of specific pol-
lutants allowable in the wastewater discharged to POTW's.
The nature of the pretreatment standards to be established
for the remaining major industrial categories is unknown at
this time.  When issued, the information in these remaining
standards will be useful to local governments in determining
exact pretreatment requirements for the industries in
question.  For new sources, pretreatment standards have been
established for a number of major industries and have been
published in the Federal Register.

Effluent Limitations for POTW's

     As a result of the fundamental changes instituted by
Public Law 92-500, POTW's are now required to obtain permits
for their discharges and to meet certain minimum effluent
standards.  Both POTW permits and effluent standards have
a direct bearing on the control of industrial pollutants
that must be undertaken within a particular system.

     Since most POTW's discharge their effluents to navigable
waters/ the Act requires that effluent limiting regulations
be promulgated.  As indicated, EPA has published in the
Federal Register rules and regulations governing POTW dis-
charges entitled "Secondary Treatment Information,"(Appen-
dix 2).  These regulations set forth specific concentration
limits to be achieved by secondary wastewater treatment
facilities.  Limits are placed on permissable discharge con-
centrations (or removal efficiencies) for BOD, suspended
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solids, and fecal coliforra bacteria.  Additionally, an
acceptable pH range for secondary POTW effluents is set.
The pollutants limited in the regulation are generally
susceptible to treatment in POTW's.  As a consequence,
industrial pollutants only become important with regard to
secondary treatment standards when the contribution causes
these pollutant discharge limitations to be exceeded.

     In many instances, State or local water quality stan-
dards require a degree of treatment greater than that
required to meet the secondary treatment regulations, such
as more stringent BOD or suspended solids requirements.
Additionally, water quality standards often exist for pollu-
tants other than those regulated in the secondary treatment
standards, such as phosphorous, nitrogen compounds, metals,
etc.  Treatment requirements necessary to meet water quality
standards are normally incorporated into the NPDES permit.
Consequently, control of applicable industrial pollutants
can be extremely important in helping the municipality meet
its NPDES permit requirements.

     Procedures developed under Section 402 of the Act pro-
vide details for implementation of the NPDES permit program.
Under the program, all point sources, including POTW's,
must obtain a permit to discharge to navigable waters of the
United States.  NPDES permits are not required for indus-
trial sources contributing to POTW's, but many limitations
placed on a POTW, beyond standard secondary treatment, are
aimed at controlling the effects of non-domestic waste-
waters .

     The NPDES permit has several impacts on State or local
pretreatment policy.  First, as a part of the permit
application, the permittee must obtain preliminary infor-
mation on the activities and wastewater characteristics of
major industrial contributors within the collection system.
Based on this information, effluent limitations for pollu-
tants not susceptible to treatment in a POTW may be indivi-
dually established by the permitting agency.

     Secondly, under the Federal NPDES permit regulations
(40CFR126) the permitee is required to provide notice to
the Regional Administrator of the following:

     (i) Any new introduction of pollutants into such treat-
ment works from a source which would be a new source as
defined in Section 306 of the Act if such source were dis-
charging pollutants;
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     (ii)  Any new introduction of pollutants which exceeds
10,000 gallons on any one day into such treatment works from
a source which would be subject to Section 301 of the Act
if such source were discharging pollutants; and

     (iii) Any substantial change in volume or character
of pollutants being introduced into such treatment works by
a source introducing pollutants into such works at the time
of issuance of the permit.

     This notice must include information on the quantity
and quality of wastewater introduced by the new source into
the publicly owned treatment works, and any anticipated
impact on the effluent discharged from such works.

     In addition to effluent limitations, the permit sets
forth special conditions that pertain to pretreatment activi-
ties.  Municipalities are considered the first line of
defense for Federal pretreatment programs.  For this reason,
they are encouraged to enact an ordinance giving them the
power to enforce Federal pretreatment standards as well as
State and local standards "not in conflict" with Federal
pretreatment standards.  In an efficient POTW system, a
properly designed ordinance acts as the impetus for a
responsible approach to control and pretreatment of industrial
pollutants.  Guidance is provided in this document to aid
in the development of a municipal ordinance for industrial
use of publicly owned sewers.

Organization of Guidelines

     These guidelines are presented in two volumes.  Volume
I contains the main body of the guidelines, and seven appen-
dices furnishing the backup data to various sections of the
document.   Volume II is devoted to Appendix 8, containing
pretreatment information for major industrial source cate-
gories compiled from published and unpublished Effluent
Limitation Guidelines Development Documents.

     The main body of the guidelines is composed of six major
sections.   The first four sections provide the essential
information necessary to establish and administrate an
industrial pollutant control program.  Specific aspects dis-
cussed include organization, financial considerations,
policy and public relations in Section B, legal aspects
in Section C and monitoring in Section D.  The legal
aspects consist primarily of considerations related to an
ordinance for industrial use of publicly owned sewerage
facilities.  A recommended ordinance is contained in
Appendix 3 of the first volume.
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     One of the prime considerations in the development of
a workable ordinance is the establishment of limitations for
specific pollutants contained in industrial discharges to
publicly owned sewerage systems.  Administrative considera-
tions for setting such limits are discussed in Section C.
The technical information necessary to establish limits in
a particular system is contained in Sections E and F and
Appendices 5 and 6 of Volume I,  and Appendix 8 in Volume II.
Section E and Appendix 5 present technical data on the inter-
ference and inhibition characteristics of pollutants con-
tained in industrial discharges.  The data presented includes
information on major organic and inorganic constituents,
explosive and corrosive wastes and excessive discharges.
Section F and Appendix 6 provide the results of a survey to
determine the removal or pass through characteristics of
various pollutants in POTW's.  Appendix 8 is a compilation
of information on major industries, with emphasis on the
typical wastewater characteristics of plants within the
subcategories established for each industry.
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                          SECTION B
               MANAGEMENT OF A CONTROL PROGRAM
Purpose

Organizational Structure
  Large Systems
    Administrative
    Industrial Waste Division
    Field Monitoring
    Laboratory
    Legal-Enforcement
  Medium Size Systems
  Small Systems

Financial Aspects

Policy
  Pretreatment
  Joint Treatment
  Sludge Disposal
  Summary

Public Relations

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                        SECTION B
              MANAGEMENT OF A CONTROL PROGRAM
Purpose

     The objective of an industrial pollutant control program
is to assure continuity of treatment, provide physical pro-
tection of treatment facilities, and prevent the discharge
of pollutants from the treatment facilities which would be in
violation of NPDES permit conditions and other regulatory
requirements.  In order to achieve these objectives, POTW
operators must develop programs which provide a data base
for establishing local requirements and which after the
requirements have been established, form a framework for
administering these requirements.  The purpose of this sec-
tion is to discuss various aspects relating to the management
of an industrial pollutant control program.

     The scope of such a program depends to a large degree
on a number of factors.  Of prime importance is the size
of the sewerage system and the number and type of industries
utilizing the system.  Other significant elements include
the type of treatment facility, the water quality standards
applicable to the POTW and the provisions of the plant's
NPDES permit.

     In this section, management approaches are discussed
on three levels, for large, medium, and small systems, referring
in general to systems with average dry weather flows in excess
of 100 mgd, between 10 and 100 mgd, and less than 10 mgd.
However, a system with a heavy industrial contribution, but
an average flow of under 10 mgd may opt for a more extensive
program, whereas a system with an average flow in excess of
10 mgd but only limited industrial contribution may adopt ar
less comprehensive program.  Thus the categorization by size
is provided as a general guideline only, and should be con-
sidered flexible depending upon the needs of a particular system.
The degree of industrialization in a community and the type
of industrial facilities contributing to the system, are
major factors in determining the requirements of an industrial
pollutant control program for a given POTW.

     Historically, municipalities and authorities that have
developed effective programs to control industrial pollutants
have generally been motivated by several factors.  The most
effective industrial pollutant control programs have generally
been instituted where the need to protect treatment facilities,
plant operation or receiving waters has been apparent.  In
those cases, the motivating force toward a control program
                             B-l

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was either frequent or serious plant upsets or the require-
ment of meeting stringent water quality standards.  Also,
many POTW1s have established industrial programs primarily
as a revenue producing mechanism through the use of sur-
charges.  Surcharge fees have been applied not only to
flow and organic loading, but in many instances surcharges
have been imposed upon incompatible pollutants as well.

     For many POTW's interest in controlling non-residential
contributions to their system is an outgrowth of the require-
ments of Public Law 92-500 and the subsequent receipt of an
NPDES permit.  The permit generally places limitations on
the quality of discharge permissible by the POTW.  As a
result, it is important that interferences that might decrease
the treatment plant's operating efficiency, or pollutants
that might pass through a system be avoided.  In addition,
the permit may require that an enforceable ordinance be
enacted.  Municipalities are encouraged by the EPA to adopt
local ordinances to control pollutants which might upset the
POTW, decrease treatment efficiency, or cause a violation of
the effluent limitations in the NPDES permit.  Consequently,
an effective program is essential not only to control pollu-
tants entering the treatment plant which  in turn affect  its
effluent, but also to develop and enforce an appropriate
ordinance for the control of industrial pollutants.

     Beyond  fulfilling the specific requirements of  the  NPDES
permit,  a properly administered industrial pollutant control
program also serves  several other essential functions.   Depend-
 ing  on  the degree to which the POTW is cognizant of  non-
 residential  contributions to its system,  the control program
 can  serve as a basis  for obtaining data on industrial  contri-
 butors  and in turn identify potential problem areas.   The
 program should offer an  ordered mechanism through which
 information  can  be transfered  on the degree of compliance
 with'ordinance  requirements and Federal regulations.   Above'
 all, the control program provides the mechanism  and  enforce-
 ment tools necessary to  assure treatment  continuity  and  the
 protection of  public facilities.

      Additionally,  industrial  pollutant control  programs
 may be used to  establish procedures  for implementing sur-
 charge or user  charge policies.  The EPA  Construction
 Grant Regulations (40 CFR  35)  require  construction  grant
 applicants for funds authorized under  Title  II  of PL-92-500
 to establish and maintain  a proportionate system of  user
 charges for operation and maintenance  costs  and  industrial
 cost recovery for capital  costs.  These requirements can be
 most effectively implemented  through  an  industrial  pollutant
 control program.
                             B-2

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Organizational Structure

     The industrial pollutant control program consists of
the activities and personnel assigned specific functions
and responsibilities in relation to the control of industrial
pollutants.   For most larger systems, this involves a well-
defined organizational structure with assigned personnel
having specialized training and qualifications.  For smaller
systems, it  may involve only a part time assignment for a
single individual.  However, even small systems should be
aware of the functional steps involved in an industrial
pollutant control program and provide for these functions
on an appropriate scale.

     Figure  B-l illustrates a conceptual organizational
structure based on the functions required for a workable
control program.  The manner in which these elements are
organized can vary greatly depending on the local situation.
The essential aspect is the need for an efficient information
transfer mechanism.  The typical organization shown outlines
the interrelationship of the essential elements of a program.

     Generally, the larger the system,the more complex the
organization.  Individual responsibilities also become more
clearly defined as the system increases in size.  For very
small systems, outside experts are frequently utilized to
provide engineering, legal and laboratory expertise.  In
order to supply the most meaningful guidance, the organization
necessary for an effective industrial pollutant control pro-
gram is specifically discussed in the following paragraphs in
terms of small, medium and large systems.

     Large Systems

     Figure  B-2 presents an example of an industrial waste
control program organization for a large POTW system.  The
chart illustrates the need for a structured organization to
most effectively administer a control program in a large
system.  The larger and more complex the POTW, the more
highly developed and structured the organization should be.
Nevertheless the components of an effective organization
demonstrated by the chart are essential for a functional
industrial waste control program in any large system.
Specific sections of an industrial waste control organization
for a large  system should include the following:
                             B-3

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                  MUNICIPAL
                 GOVERNMENT
                     OR
               REGIONAL BOARD
  STATE &
  FEDERAL
 REGULATORY
  AGENCIES
    POTW
ADMINISTRATION
 PUBLIC
RELATIONS
   LEGAL-
ENFORCEMENT
 COLLECTION &
  TREATMENT
   SYSTEM
  OPERATION
INDUSTRIAL
  WASTE
 DIVISION
                 LABORATORY
                     FIELD
                   MONITORING
   CONCEPTUAL  ORGANIZATION OF AN
 INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTROL PROGRAM
                 FIGURE  B-l
                     n-4

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                                    MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
                                              OR
                                  BOARD OF  COMMISSIONERS
                                         DIRECTOR  OF  -
                                    POLLUTION  CONTROL
    TREATMENT PLANT
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE
INDUSTRIAL  WASTE
      DIVISION
                        OPERATIONS SECTION
     I.Administers permit program
      a.Reviews applications
      b. Issues  permits
      c.Maintains permit files
    2.Evaluotes pretreatment practices
      a.Reviews plans and specifications
      b.Checks  operation of facilities
    3,Coordinates enforcement activities
      a.Analyzes self-monitoring and  compliance
      monitoring data
      b.Conducts conciliation meetings
      c,Provides technical  expertise in court actions
    4.Formulates industrial  wastewater  policy
      a.Evaluates  Federal  and State standards
      b.Recommends specific policy action
    5. Administers  surcharge,user charge and
      industrial cost recovery programs
SEWER SYSTEM
 OPERATION  &
 MAINTENANCE
             MONITORING SECTION
             I,Develops industrial wastewater data base
              a. Reviews applicable records and files
              b.Checks  industrial plant in field
             2,Conducts  on-site monitoring and inspection
              a.Scheduled monitoring for compliance,surcharge,
              usercharge,industrial cost recovery and EPA
              reports
              (DComposite sample with  flow measurement
                over several days
              (2)0nce per year for all major industries if
                possible
              b.Un-scheduled surveillance for compliance
              (I) Composite or grab sample with or without
                flow measurement  as often as possible
              c.Demand monitoring as required
                                                                                            J
                                                                                                                      RESEARCH &
                                                                                                                     DEVELOPMENT
                TYPICAL  ORGANIZATION  OF  A LARGE  SYSTEM
                                         FIGURE  B-2

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          Administrative

          Administrative responsibility for the program should
rest with a single person who has intimate knowledge of all
aspects of pollution control and wastewater treatment within
the jurisdictional boundaries.  In municipal systems, usually
the Director of Public Works or Superintendent of Sanitation
would be the appropriate individual.  In regional authorities,
there is most often a Board of Commissioners which has
overall responsibility for the entire POTW system.  Commissioners
are generally appointed by appropriate governmental officials
such as the governor of the state, and frequently act only in
an overall policy and management capacity.  In this sense,
such boards can be considered as analogous to the mayor
and council in a municipality.  Day-to-day operations are
usually administered by an Executive Director, General Manager,
Chief Engineer or Superintendent who can be compared for
these purposes to the Commissioner of Public Works,in
municipal operations.

          Decisions pertinent to pretreatment policy should
be made by this individual drawing upon information supplied
by key subordinates.  These subordinates should include
personnel such as the Chief Industrial Waste Engineer, Chief
Plant Operator, Chief Chemist, and other specialists concerned
with the control program, including field investigators,
engineers and attorneys.

          Specific functions of the administrative section
should include  (1) basic policy decisions  (2) management of
budgetaiy needs  (3) personnel administration and  (4) coordin-
ation with the public and appropriate municipal, State and
Federal authorities.

          Industrial Waste Division

          The individuals comprising the industrial waste
division represent the heart of any industrial waste control
program.  Generally the division is comprised of engineers
that conduct the program and secretarial personnel, field
inspectors and  laboratory technicians that provide the neces-
sary support for effective operation.  The engineering staff
engaged in this activity should be the most knowledgeable
group of individuals on all aspects of industrial wastewater
within a given  system.  They should be thoroughly familiar
with the operation and wastewater produced by industries in
the system, pretreatment facilities utilized by the industries,
applicable provisions of Federal and State standards and local
ordinances and  characteristics of the treatment processes
                             B-6

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utilized in the system.   If a local permit program is employed,
the industrial waste division would undoubtedly administer
its operation.   Generally this group will formulate industrial
wastewater policy and recommend specific policies to the
administrator for implementation.  The industrial waste division
would also generally coordinate enforcement activities and
provide necessary technical expertise to the legal staff in
court actions.

          Staff levels vary considerably depending upon size,
fiscal resources, organizational structure, number and type
of industries present and the specific NPDES permit require-
ments of the system.  The largest POTW systems in the country
have as many as 50 to 80 individuals reporting to the Chief
Industrial Waste Engineer.  Smaller cities and regional
authorities obviously require smaller staffs, with the level
generally varying from approximately 1/2 to 2 individuals per
10 MGD, depending upon the factors indicated above.

          Field Monitoring

          The organization should include a group of inspectors
whose only responsibility is the monitoring of non-residential
contributors.  These field investigations should include
initial plant surveys, data acquisition at the plant site,
and all follow-up monitoring and inspection activities.  Moni-
toring and the general conduct of field investigations is an
important subject which is covered in detail in Section D
of these guidelines.

          The field monitoring section should have total
responsibility for surveillance of non-residential sources.
Specific functions to be carried out by field inspectors
include:   (1) sampling and flow measurement at wastewater
sources,  (2) inspection of plant and pretreatment operations
at the time of sampling,  (3) maintenance of specialized
field equipment, and  (4) performance of specialized monitoring
activities in connection with locating the source of problems
within the system, enforcement activities, etc.  The Metro-
politan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago provides uniforms
and badges for its inspectors to formalize their status in the
community.  This can be helpful in gaining quick access to
industrial facilities when necessary.  In any event, all
field inspectors should be provided with proper credentials
which should be carried for identification at all times.
                            B-7

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          Laboratory

          An industrial pollutant control program will gen-
erally require some expansion of the typical laboratory
required for control of biological treatment processes.  As
a result, additional personnel may be necessary to carry out
analyses in conjunction with a monitoring program.  Frequently,
these technicians are incorporated into the existing laboratory
organization, so that coordination with the industrial waste
division is essential.  Some POTW's are structured so that
laboratory personnel engaged in industrial wastewater analysis
report directly to the Chief Industrial Waste Engineer.
Such an arrangement may be preferable for improved communica-
tions and delineation of responsibility.

          Where this function is part of the overall labora-
tory responsibility, then data must be reported to the indus-
trial waste division so that pretreatment performance can be
evaluated.  If any ordinance violations are suscepted, then
analytical data would also be passed on to the legal staff
for evaluation and possible enforcement action.  The specific
functions of the laboratory in connection with industrial
wastewaters include  (1) analysis of field samples,  (2) main-
tenance of laboratory equipment and (3) proper record keeping
and reporting in support of industrial waste division activities,

          Legal - Enforcement

          One or more attorneys may be required to provide
legal services with regard to enforcement of ordinance regu-
lations.  Attorneys may not have full time responsibility
in connection with ordinance enforcement.  Instead the legal
staff may serve the dual function of supporting legal action
against ordinance violators, and general legal support of
other activities in the water pollution control area.

          For enforcement activity, the legal group should
receive information directly from the industrial waste
division staff, as well as from field monitoring and labora-
tory personnel.  The special functions of enforcement include
 (1) assistance in evaluation of suspected ordinance violations,
 (2) notification of suspected violators, (3) participation in
follow-up meetings with violators  (4) preparation of briefs
for litigation; and  (5) court action.

     Medium Size Systems

     As the size of a POTW decreases, the operation of the
industrial pollutant control program becomes less of a separate
entity, and more entwined in the overall operation of the


                             B-8

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wastewater collection and treatment facility.  Because of
limited resources,  administrative and laboratory personnel
generally become responsible for both plant operations and
control of pollutants contributed by non-residential sources.
Figure B-3 provides a typical organization chart for a
medium size POTW system.

     Although fewer individuals are involved, the specific
organizational elements of a control program must be main-
tained.  The organization will not be as structured as in
large systems, but the essential functions of industrial
waste control must be performed in conjunction with other
duties.  Among these functions is the use of a field moni-
toring group to carry out plant inspections and effluent
sampling.  The field crew is essential for all of the
specific monitoring requirements necessary.to control
industrial contributors to the system.  Likewise, other
specific functions of a control program would have to be
maintained in a medium size  system, such as ordinance
enforcement, summary and analysis of industrial data and
surcharge administration.  However, unlike the large system
organization where individuals or groups of individuals
have well defined task assignments, the control program for a
medium size  system will most likely contain individuals
with multiple functions and responsibilities.  Some medium
size systems with many industrial contributors may find
it necessary to have an industrial waste engineer or other
individual specifically assigned to the control of discharges
from these facilities.

     Small Systems

     A large proportion of municipal POTWs that treat non-
residential wastes fall into the small system category.  In
a small system, adequate resources would generally not be
available to have any individual whose sole responsibility
lies in the area of non-domestic pollutant control.  Instead,
all of the elements of an industrial pollutant control pro-
gram that are delineated for large systems would have to
be handled by personnel currently employed by the municipality.
This is not unrealistic, since quite often a small system
would be concerned with only a few, or even a single industrial
contributor.

     Figure B-4 illustrates an organizational arrangement for
a typical small system.  The structure shown is only one of
several that could be effectively utilized in a small
municipality.  The variety encountered in the organization of
small local governments suggests that a number of different


                             B-9

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  MUNICIPAL
  ATTORNEY
      T
      L
SEWER SYSTEM
 OPERATION &
 MAINTENANCE
      T
     MUNICIPAL
    GOVERNMENT
                   COMMISSIONER
                  OF  PUBLIC WORKS
J
 DIRECTOR OF
  POLLUTION
   CONTROL
Overall responsibility
 for industrial waste
CONSULTING
 ENGINEER
IF  REQUIRED
 (Contract)
                 ASSISTANT DIRECTOR
               OF  POLLUTION  CONTROL
                   Administers industrial
                    waste program
  TREATMENT PLANT
    OPERATION &
    MAINTENANCE
         T
                    LABORATORY
                                          FIELD
                                        MONITORING
                                       Conducts field
                                        monitoring of
                                       industrial wastes
            TYPICAL  ORGANIZATION
          OF A MEDIUM SIZE  SYSTEM
                    FIGURE  B-3
                        B-10

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 MUNICIPAL
 ATTORNEY
  (controct)
 MUNICIPAL
GOVERNMENT
~1
                  COMMISSIONER
                 OF PUBLIC WORKS
                 Overall responsibility
                  for industrial waste
                 TREATMENT PLANT
                 & SEWER SYSTEM
                   OPERATION i
                   MAINTENANCE
                   TOWN AND/OR
                    CONSULTING
                     ENGINEER
                    IF  REQUIRED
                      (contract)
                  Administers industrial
                    waste program
                PLANT  LABORATORY
                   Conducts field
                    monitoring of
                   industrial wastes
                        CONTRACT  LABORATORY
                            SERVICES FOR
                        SPECIALIZED ANALYSES
                             IF  REQUIRED
TYPICAL ORGANIZATION  OF  A SMALL  SYSTEM

                  FIGURE  B-4
                        B-ll

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arrangements may be equally effective in the administration of
an industrial pollutant control program.  Nevertheless, in
the small system case,  generally one person has responsibility
for monitoring and all  specialized analysis is contracted to
commercial laboratories.  Similarly, the Director of Public
Works would most likely have overall administrative respon-
sibility in addition to performing the functions of the
industrial waste engineer.  A town engineer may be utilized
for industrial waste control, reporting either to the Director
of Public Works or directly to the governing body.  The town
engineer may be a full  time employee if the needs of the
system dictate, but he  is most frequently a consulting
engineer under a retainer type contract to the municipality.
Specialized engineering requirements would usually be provided
by either the town engineer or another consultant, with
legal questions being handled by the municipal attorney.  Since
the NPDES permit program for POTW's, large or small, encourage
implementation of Federal pretreatment standards, it is
recommended that industrial pollutant control be implemented,
even in the smallest of systems, where there are industrial
users.

Financial Aspects

     As might be expected, the cost of an industrial pollutant
control program is a function of both the total system flow
and of the proportion of the industrial wastewater contribution.
A survey of municipal and regional sewerage systems with dry
weather flows ranging from 15 to over 1,000 mgd was conducted.
The survey showed that the annual direct cost of the industrial
pollutant control program was generally in the order of $1,000
per million gallons per day of dry weather flow for systems
having some significant portion of the total wastewater  flow
from  industrial contributors.  On .this basis, the direct
cost  of a program covering industries for a system with an
average flow of 50 mgd might be $50,000 per year  (1975 dollars) .
Assuming an average salary level of $15,000 per year for
personnel assigned to such a program, this system would support
a staff of 3 persons.

      Many systems have  traditionally recovered the additional
costs for treating anJmonitoring industrial wastewater through
imposition of a surcharge.  These surcharges have generally
been  related to the additional cost of treating for removal
of suspended solids and BOD for industrial wastewaters that
exceed domestic sewage  in these components.  In addition,
PL 92-500 and the EPA construction grant regulations now
require Federal construction grant recipients to establish
and maintain a user charge program and a system of industrial
                              B-12

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cost recovery.   The proportionate costs of an industrial
pollutant control program such as outlined above, could be
added to the user charge for the industrial contributors.
In this way, the cost of the industrial pollutant control
program would be distributed back to  the contributor of the
industrial wastewater being controlled.  The cost of the
control program could be recovered through a formula
similar to the  user charge formula where flow, loading, and
a charge per connection or a charge per monitoring visit
are used to determine an equitable cost  distribution.

     It should be noted that a well run, efficient industrial
pollutant control program may be cost effective for both the
POTW and the industrial contributors to the system.  In some
cases, the control program can pay for itself by means of
increased surcharge or user charge revenue derived from the
identification and continued surveillance of industrial
discharges to the POTW.  Industries in the system may also
benefit from the cost savings in economy of scale realized in
cases where the municipality performs all of the monitoring
functions.  In such instances, lower costs should result
from the use of a central laboratory and experienced monitor-
ing field personnel, than the industry would incur  in admin-
istering its own monitoring program.  In particular, small
industries with limited resources may prefer that the
municipality perform this function.

Policy

     Pretreatment

     Most States or municipalities will  require  pretreatment
in order to  comply with the effluent limitations  in the
NPDES permit.   Pollutants which  would  interfere  with or  pass
through the  POTW, resulting in a violation of  any of these
NPDES permit requirements, must  be pretreated  or rejected
from the  system.  The  following  sections of  the  guidelines
contain technical  information to assist the  State or munici-
pality  in determining  specific pretreatment  requirements.
Pretreatment may be  necessary for compatible or  incompatible
pollutants  since both  may be  limited in the  NPDES permit,  and
since  either can cause plant upsets. Generally,  however,  where
design  capacity is  available, except for shock loading pro-
visions,  pretreatment  would not  be required  for  compatible
pollutants.  Pretreatment  is  most commonly  required for
 incompatible pollutants  to  prevent interference  with treatment
processes or pass  through  to  receiving waters.
                             B-13

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     Federal pretreatment standards for fifteen categories of
existing industrial sources have been promulgated (Appendix 1)
but these standards, in effect, require no pretreatment as
the wastewaters involved are generally susceptible to treat-
ment in POTW facilities.  However, this does not preclude
local pretreatment requirements for compatible pollutants,
if necessary.  Where design capacity is not available, pre-
treatment for compatible pollutants may be necessary to
comply with NPDES permit effluent limitations.  Pretreatment
regulations for the remaining major existing industrial cate-
gories are still pending, with specific standards anticipated
for most incompatible pollutants.  '

     In addition to the regulatory aspects, pretreatment of
incompatible wastes offers several operational advantages to
POTW's.  One significant advantage to the municipality is
the specialized treatment that each wastewater contribution
receives, and the fact that the potential for plant upset is
greatly reduced by pretreatment.  Local control can also
serve as an insurance measure to protect against damage to
the POTW from industrial wastes.  Finally, the problem of
incompatible pollutants contaminating the sludge from the
POTW is reduced,  as discussed in the following section on
sludge disposal.

     Joint Treatment

     Joint treatment is a policy alternative that can be
advantageous to both the POTW and the industry with regard to
pollutants susceptible to treatment in POTW's.  Generally,
the treatment of industrial wastewaters in a POTW is incidental
to its primary function of treating domestic sewage.  Where
the industrial contribution constitutes a significant portion
of the total flow and substantially alters the concentration
of pollutants normally contained in domestic sewage, the
public agency may resort to the joint treatment approach.
In this approach, the industry or industries contributing
the pollutants is made a partner in the design and construction
of the system, and the treatment works are designed to
specifically remove the industrial pollutants.  Both capital
costs and operating costs are allocated to the industry and
the public agency according to an agreement arrived at through
negotiation, or as  required by Federal regulations  if construction
 grant funds are involved.

     Joint treatment of industrial wastewaters with municipal
domestic sewage offers these advantages:

     - Savings in capital and operating expenses due to
       the economics of large-scale treatment facilities


                            B-14

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    - Increased flow which can result in reduced ratios of
      peak to average flows

    - More efficient use of land resources, particularly
      in cases where available land for treatment facilities
      is scarce

    - Improved operation  (larger plants are potentially
      better operated than smaller plants)

    - Increased number of treatment modules with resultant
      gains in reliability and flexibility

    - More efficient disposal of sludges resulting  from
      treatment of wastewaters containing pollutants  sus-
      ceptible to treatment in POTW1s

    - Utilization of the nutrients available  in domestic
      wastes  for biological treatment of industrial wastes
      which are nutrient deficient

    Possible  disadvantages of joint treatment are as  follows:

    - Where the pollutants are different from those usually
      treated in a POTW, design to treat the  combined
      industrial-domestic waste stream for these pollutants
      may not be cost-effective (Reference F-25)

    - Joint treatment by definition implies that the  POTW
      was designed so as not to be interfered with  by indus-
      trial wastes.  However, where this requires design
      modifications ordinarily not required for domestic
      wastes, joint treatment may not be cost effective

    - If joint treatment results in sludge disposal or
      utilization problems it may not be acceptable

    - Some costs for the construction of joint treatment works
      solely  to treat industrial pollutants are not eligible
      for Federal construction grants

    Sludge Disposal

    The ultimate disposal of sludges produced by either pre-
treatment or joint treatment operations is  an  important factor
to consider.   The POTW must be aware of the effect of  its
policies on environmental problems that may result from sludge
disposal.
                            B-15

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     Generally pretreatment facilities will remove incompatible
pollutants that may eventually be deposited in the sludge
produced by the operation of the publicly owned treatment
works.  This can be a meaningful advantage in terms of the
environmental effects of the ultimate disposal of sludge from
the POTW.  Incompatible pollutants in sludges can cause
problems in most disposal techniques utilized, including
incineration, landfills, ocean dumping and land spreading.
Consequently, the removal of incompatible pollutants at their
source by pretreatment is usually advantageous to the POTW
in terms of its sludge disposal.

     Nevertheless, incompatible pollutants removed by pretreat-
ment also require an ultimate disposition, although the
impact on the POTW may have been eliminated.  In some cases
the sludge produced by pretreatment operations may be pure
enough to warrant by-product recovery or recycle.  When this
is not economically or technically feasible, disposal of
sludge is necessary.  Although the sludges produced by
industrial pretreatment may not technically be under muni-
cipal regulatory control, the impact on other environmental
areas should be noted.  A possible approach to this problem
would be an effort by the municipality to coordinate off-site
disposal with appropriate regulatory agencies.  If on-site
disposal is utilized by the industry, attempts should be
made to evaluate proposed disposal schemes to prevent future
air and water pollution problems.

     Summary

     The treatment policy instituted by a POTW, whether
pretreatment or joint treatment, should be determined on the
basis of the conditions within the system.  One of the most
important  factors to consider is the potential effect of
the chosen course of action.  The POTW must be aware of its
policy's effect on critical environmental problems such as'
sludge disposal.  As a  result, the treatment policy should
be instituted on the basis of a broad overview of all aspects
and consequences of action taken.

Public Relations

      It must be recognized that some industries using a
public sewerage system  will be reluctant to provide the
necessary  pretreatment  facilities, particularly if they have
been  using the public system for some time and the effects of
their contribution are  not apparent. . One way in which some
public agencies have been able to enlist the support of their
contributing industries is through the formation of an informal
coordinating committee, which would consist of representatives


                             B-16

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of the affected industries and the public agency.  This
committee would explore all aspects of the Federal regulation,
including pretreatment requirements and the NPDES permit for
the POTW, and develop programs which would meet the require-
ment of the regulatory agencies.   Such committees would be
purely advisory and would not have any legal status, but
could serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas.
                             B-17

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                          SECTION C

             LEGAL ASPECTS OF A CONTROL PROGRAM


Introduction

Legal Authority

Sewer Use Ordinances
  Historical Development
  Types of Ordinances

Recommended Ordinance for Industrial Use of Publicly Owned
Sewerage Facilities (Appendix 3)
  Introductory Sections
  Regulatory Sections
    Excessive Discharge Rate
    Establishing Limitations for Pollutant Parameters
  Other Regulatory Sections
  Optional and Procedural Clauses

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                         SECTION C
             LEGAL ASPECTS OF A CONTROL PROGRAM
Introduction

    The legal considerations  inherent in the development and
administration of an industrial pollutant control program are
perhaps the most significant  factor in the establishment of a
viable program.  The legal aspects are particularly important
in instituting a control program in terms of providing the
legal authority over industrial discharges to the sewerage
system.  In many cases,  legal authority may be complicated by
the structure of a sewer district or regional sewer authority.
Many districts and regional authorities act essentially as
wholesalers serving a number  of political subdivisions, and
do not have any direct contact with industries in the system.
However, where the service area coincides with political
boundaries, then legal authority can usually be established
in a relatively simple manner, by the promulgation of an
ordinance for the control of  industrial use of publicly owned
sewerage facilities.


    •  The ordinance  is the  heart  of  any industrial pollutant
 control program,  providing the essential  mechanism for con-
 trolling the discharge  from  industries within the POTW system.
 Consequently,  the ordinance  must be carefully drawn to include
 all essential ingredients  for the particular system.   Once
 promulgated,  the  ordinance should be utilized for the control
 of all industrial wastewater discharges and the  eventual
 enforcement of its  terms  against all violators.   Therefore,
 the administration  or enforcement of the  ordinance is equally
 as important as its contents.  Enforcement must  be an integral
 part of any industrial  pollutant control  program.  Consequently,
 legal assistance  must be viewed  as  a continuing  need which does
 not end once the  ordinance is drawn and instituted.  Proper
 enforcement requires  teamwork between administrators, engineers,
 attorneys  and field and laboratory  personnel, with the legal
 role being the key  to eventual resolution of problems through
 conciliation or court action.

 Legal Authority

      One of the most significant factors  in the  establishment
 of a viable industrial  pollutant control  program is the provision
 of adequate legal authority  to develop, administer and enforce
 the program.   Whatever  agency  is designated to operate the
 program must have sufficient power  to enforce its rules and
 regulations on industrial  users  and to obtain the data necessary
 to monitor how its  rules  are being  complied with.
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     If the service area of a public sewerage agency coincides
with the boundaries of a political subdivision  (city, county,
etc.) the legal problems are usually relatively simple.
However, if the sewerage agency serves more than one political
jurisdiction, and particularly if it serves them essentially
as a wholesaler, the problems can become more complicated.
The solution depends to some extent on the legal structure
of the sewerage agency.  If it is only a voluntary association
of independent municipalities, the agency will generally only
have such authority as has been delegated to it by the compact
creating the sewerage authority or district.  If the sewerage
agency has been established by a superior governmental
jurisdiction, it then may be able to superimpose its authority
on that of the local municipalities.

     In any case, many existing regional sewerage authorities
or districts are not able to legally interface with industries
in the system because the industries discharge to municipal
sewers which in turn connect to the regional agency.  In
such instances, the development and enforcement of ordinances
controlling the discharge of industrial wastewaters is
legally the responsibility of the individual municipalities
in the system.  They may look toward the regional agency for
guidance in such matters, but nevertheless the municipalities
in these cases would retain the legal authority to deal with
industries in their systems in these situations.

     With the advent of the NPDES permit program, it becomes
increasingly important for the permittee to have the right to
directly control the wastewaters from all contributors within
the  sewerage system.  If an industrial discharger causes an
upset  in treatment plant operations and a resulting violation
of the permit provisions, the POTW must have the right to
directly and immediately control the industrial discharge.
Regional agencies with the most effective industrial pollutant
control programs at present have obtained the legal authority
to control industries in their system directly.  In some
instances it was necessary to have the state legislature
revise the compact or charter of the regional agency in order
to obtain this  authority.  In other instances, renegotiation
of the agreement between the regional agency and the munici-
palities in  the service area might be the most direct method
for  obtaining  legal authority.  In any case, to comply with
NPDES  permit requirements, it is essential that the operating
agency of the  POTW obtain the power to deal directly with
the  industries  contributing to its system in order to
establish a viable industrial pollutant control program.
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Sewer Use Ordinances

     The following describes  the content of sewer use
ordinances,  factors that control the content, the historical
development  of such ordinances,  types of ordinances, and the
application  of sewer  use ordinances to industrial users of
publicly owned sewerage facilities.

     Historical Development

     The content of sewer use ordinances has evolved over
the years roughly paralleling the increased sophistication
in wastewater treatment facilities.  Early ordinances were
outgrowths of local plumbing and health codes, the contents
of which were primarily devoted to standardization of mate-
rials used in the construction of sewers and connections
thereto.  Since sewage treatment was limited to settling of
solid material, the content of ordinances at this stage
focused on protection of sewers from clogging, corrosion
and explosive hazards.  Most ordinances are built around
these basic provisions and have increased in scope as new
needs have arisen.

   •  With the advent of secondary treatment processes and
the development of anaerobic digestion, closer control over
certain dissolved organic and inorganic pollutants became
necessary to prevent inhibitory effects in these units.  In
many instances, this type of control was provided by setting
concentration limits for the acceptable discharge of critical
pollutants.

     The  recent application of  State and Federal water quality
standards, which  in many cases  require the removal  of even
trace quantities  of certain toxic  pollutants, has caused many
POTW's  to establish direct control  over significant industrial
users.   To gain information and control over these  sources,
many ordinances are now including  permit provisions and  self-
monitoring  provisions,  or both.

     Finally,  as  the costs of providing  increased  levels of
treatment have risen, many POTW's have been forced  to expand
their revenue base.  This has taken the  form of  surcharging
provisions  for users "whose wastes  have  greater  strength  than
normal  domestic sewage.
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     There is no single ordinance now in force that could be
considered typical of all, or even most, ordinances currently
being utilized.  Effective control of sewer use has been
obtained by both simple and complex ordinance structures.

      Types of Ordinances

     Two factors influence the size and content of a sewer
use ordinance.  The first of these is whether the ordinance
is designed to be self-contained, or whether it simply states
general provisions and relies on separately published rules
and regulations for interpretation and  implementation.   The
second factor is whether or not the ordinance incorporates a
permit system for either industrial users or all users of
the system.  Obviously, an ordinance which is self-contained
will be a  longer document than one which is not.  Permit
systems, if used, will also add length.  Generally, smaller
communities with relatively few industries will use a self-
contained  ordinance and will not employ a permit system.
Enforcement of the ordinance for the few industrial users in
such cases can be achieved on the basis of personal contact
between the pollution control officer and the industry plant
manager.   As  the size of the POTW increases or, more impor-
tantly, as the number of industrial users increases, it
becomes more  difficult to provide flexibility for the numerous
individual differences between users within the ordinance
document itself.  In these systems, a shorter document stating
general provisions may be more effective.  This type of
ordinance  is  usually supplemented by a  separate set of rules
and  regulations that explain the responsibilities of users
with  respect  to the general provisions.  The supplemental
regulations   may take the form of a permit system with or
without industrial self-monitoring provisions.  Permit and
self-monitoring requirements are particularly useful for POTW's
which are  starting a comprehensive industrial discharge  con-
trol program  to meet NPDES requirements, and have to comply
with a schedule for the development of  information on
industrial users.  By using these provisions, the enforce-
ment authority can expand the coverage  of a smaller initial
staff.  In subsequent years, as both field and laboratory
capability is increased,  more direct methods of compliance
monitoring can be used.   In a fully developed industrial waste
 control program,  compliance monitoring  is usually the most
effective  tool for enforcement of the ordinance.

      Regardless of the  type of ordinance employed, its scope
and complexity should be  limited  to the resources available
 to the enforcement authority.  If enforcement of the ordinance
relies heavily on a permit  system and self-monitoring, then
                             C-4

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there should be an adequate office and field staff to issue
and review permits and to check the periodic self-monitoring
information.  If enforcement is based on analysis of samples
taken by the authority, then an adequate field and laboratory
capability is necessary.  In all cases, sufficient manpower
should be available to follow up violations through the
administrative procedures provided in the ordinance.  Only
by following up on each violation to gain compliance, will
credibility for both the ordinance and the enforcement
authority be established.

Recommended Ordinance for Industrial Use of Publicly Owned
Sewerage Facilities(Appendix 3)                       '

     The recommended ordinance contained in Appendix 3 covers
those portions of a complete sewer use ordinance which relate
only to the industrial use of sewer systems.  Excluded from
Appendix 3 are those parts of a typical ordinance which relate
to standards for construction of sewers and appurtenances,
provisions relating to the control of infiltration and inflow,
surcharge fees, and other miscellaneous provisions.  These
portions of a typical sewer use ordinance are adequately
covered in other reference sources.


     The recommended ordinance is designed to be self-contained,
and in its full form could be used independently as a separate
document to control the industrial use of sewerage facilities.
In addition, individual sections of the recommended ordinance
may be used separately as an addendum or a major revision to an
existing ordinance.  Finally, individual clauses contained in
the recommended ordinance may be used to supplement an other-
wise complete document.

     The recommended ordinance contains nine sections which
can be grouped into four basic parts as follows:

     A.  Introductory sections consisting of the introduction,
purpose, legislative background and definitions.

     B.  The body of the regulation consisting of prohibitions
and limitations on discharges, control of prohibited wastes,
sampling and analysis of wastes and enforcement procedures.

     C.  Optional add-on sections for permits and self-
monitoring if desired.

     D.  Procedural clauses.
                            C-5

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     Introductory Sections

     The introduction is simply a short statement of the con-
tent of the ordinance.  It usually includes the precise
location (city, county, state) of the area under jurisdiction
of the ordinance.  This blank in the recommended ordinance, as
well as all other blanks in parenthesis, must be completed to
suit  the enforcement agency responsible for implementation.
The introduction used in the recommended ordinance is a state-
ment of the content of Appendix 3, and will need to be modi-
fied for ordinances whose scope is greater or smaller than
that contained therein.


     The purpose and legislative background portions of the
ordinance state the intent of the document and the legal
context under which it has been developed.  The influence of
Public Law 92-500 with regard to both the NPDES permit program
(Section 402) and pretreatment standards  (Section 307)
should be included.  Additional applicable regulations of
either State or interstate agencies should also be noted in
this section of the ordinance.

     All ordinances contain a section on definition of terms
used in the body of the, ordinance.  As few as 10, and as
many as 50 definitions have been used depending on the
sophistication of the ordinance.  The recommended document
contains 24 entries, or about the average length of a defini-
tion section.  If a POTW has other sewer ordinances, then
the definitions should be changed to be compatible with
existing terminology.  Many ordinances also have an entry
for "other terms" which refers to the "Glossary-Water and
Sewage Control Engineering" published by the Water Pollution
Control Federation.

     Regulatory Sections

     This portion of the ordinance contains the essential
regulations controlling discharges to sewerage systems,
provisions for sampling and analysis, and procedures for
enforcement of the ordinance.

     Most ordinances cover prohibitions and limitations of
wastewater discharges  in two parts; general prohibitions
on materials which have proven to be hazardous, or interfere
with both collection and treatment systems, and limitations
on certain critical pollutants which either interfere with
or pass through the treatment facilities.  The general
prohibitions should delineate all objectionable materials
                            C-6

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as specifically as possible,  and also should provide legal
coverage for unanticipated problems.   In this context, it
should provide the POTW with  the flexibility to effectively
act against violators discharging materials not specifically
named in the ordinance.

     Excessive Discharge Rate

     One instance in which flexibility is essential is in
regard to excessive discharge rate.   The recommended ordinance
includes, in paragraph 3.1.8  a general prohibition of wastes
containing high concentrations of suspended solids, BOD
or COD, or unusually high flows which would cause a treatment
process upset and subsequent  loss of  treatment efficiency.
This clause is of particular  importance to many POTW systems.
In a number of instances,  industrial  dischargers constitute
a large percentage of the flow to a POTW.  Excessive discharge
can be extremely damaging in  such cases.  In addition,
frequently industries with wide seasonal variations in their
wastewater characteristics discharge to POTW's.  Excessive
discharge can also be a significant problem with industries
having such seasonal variations in their plant effluent.  In
any case, it may be possible  for a POTW to define excessive
discharge more specifically for the system in question.
This may be done in terms of  design capacity, NPDES permit
conditions, or by taking into account the most cost effective
means of dealing with excessive discharge.  If it is possible
to delineate specific limits  for excessive discharge incor-
porating local conditions, that is generally more desirable
than the general clause contained in  the recommended ordinance,

     Establishing Limitations for Pollutant Parameters

     The provisions for limitations on wastewater discharges
have been shown in both general and specific terms in the
recommended ordinance.  Whichever option is utilized, the
NPDES permit conditions and Federal pretreatment standards
should be either referenced directly  or used in the develop-
ment of specific numerical limitations for applicable
pollutant parameters.  The general limitations provide
flexibility for systems which are unable to determine what
specific limitations to establish.

     If sufficient information is available to select
pollutant parameters and set  specific numerical limitations,
that option is usually preferable. However, it requires
thorough knowledge of the sewerage system, data on industrial
contributors, and familiarity with applicable water quality
standards, Federal pretreatment standards and the provisions
of the NPDES permit for the POTW.  In establishing specific
limits, there are three major factors to consider; Federal
                             07

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pretreatment standards, inhibition of treatment processes,
and pass through of pollutants which would affect the
POTW's NPDES permit or water quality standards.

     Federal pretreatment standards for new and existing
sources within major industrial categories are in various
stages of development as described in other sections of these
guidelines.  When finalized, the limitations prescribed
therein should be incorporated into the ordinance for all
affected industries.  As a result, specific numerical limi-
tations for various incompatible pollutant parameters will be
established for a number of major industries.  Standards
applicable to industries within a given system should be
incorporated directly into this section of the ordinance.
An efficient way in which this may be accomplished is by use
of the Standard Industrial Category  (SIC) code for each
industry established by the Office of Management and Budget.
The SIC numbers are utilized by the EPA in pretreatment rules
and regulations, and thus provide a convenient method of cross-
referencing for a given industrial category.

     The second major consideration in setting numerical
limitations is the inhibition of treatment processes that
may be caused by particular incompatible pollutants.  In this
connection, Section E and Appendix 5 of this document provide
technical data on the inhibitory effects of both inorganic
and organic constituents of industrial wastewaters.  The
data presented represents a summary of information available
in the literature on this subject.  It should be used as a
guide in establishing a range of values, for specific pol-
lutants which may inhibit or upset treatment processes.
Nevertheless, a number of factors within a given collection
and treatment system will affect the acceptable level of a
specific pollutant in a specific treatment plant.  Of the
many factors to be considered, the type of treatment process
utilized is of prime importance.  In addition to the inherent
differences between unit processes such as activated sludge
and trickling filtration, other treatment considerations such
as chemical addition and wastewater  flow pattern strongly
affect inhibition characteristics.   Consequently, information
that may be available for a particular system should be
utilized preferentially as compared  to the data contained in
these guidelines.

     Additional factors to be  considered in setting limits
based on inhibition are the dilution available, and back-
ground  levels of  the pollutant present in the collection
system.  Dilution is primarily a  function of the size of the
system, ranging from insignificant dilution in many small
systems, to extremely  high  levels of dilution in very large
systems.   Several of the  largest  systems report that upset
                            C-8

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of treatment processes  is  extremely rare,  regardless of the
concentration of individual industrial contributions.  The
background level of  a specific pollutant in a sewerage system
should also be considered  in setting numerical standards
based on inhibition.  Normally this is a difficult deter-
mination, but information  from systems without industrial
contributors may be  helpful.  Also, monitoring of all indus-
trial dischargers and plant influent levels, with subsequent
calculations will reveal background levels within the system.

     In general, judgment  is required in developing approp-
riate limitations based on inhibition of treatment processes,
and all factors affecting  the determination must be taken
into account at the  local  level.   A final consideration in
establishing limitations based on inhibition, is the incor-
poration of an appropriate safety factor into the numerical
limits for each pollutant.  The inhibition data presented
in these guidelines  summarizes the results of studies
reported in the literature indicating actual numerical values
at which inhibition  or  process upset was observed for specific
pollutants.  Establishment of limitations based on this
information requires  the use of a suitable safety factor to
ensure that adequate  protection is provided for the treatment
process.

     The third major  consideration in setting specific limi-
tations is the pass  through of pollutants which would cause
the POTW to violate  its permit conditions or water quality
standards.  The method  required to establish limits for
industrial contributors based on permit or water quality
provisions is "back-calculating," using the allowable dis-
charge level in the  standard as a starting point.  This pro-
cedure requires knowledge  of the removal capability of the
treatment plant for  the pollutant parameters of interest, in
addition to information on dilution and background levels in
the system discussed above.  Frequently it is necessary to
sample, the influent  and effluent of the treatment plant to
establish its removal capability for a specific pollutant.
If data for the system  in  question is not available, the
removal information  contained in Section F and Appendix 6 may
be utilized to obtain average values for use in calculating
specific pollutant limitations.  Those portions of the docu-
ment present the results of a survey of 269 treatment plants
to determine the removal capability of treatment processes
in regard to various pollutant parameters.

     One major POTW  system has developed a formula for use
in establishing limits  on  its industrial contributors based
on allowable pollutant  concentrations in the treatment plant
                              C-9

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discharge set by the State.  The formula is as follows:

     L = (Le) JSl\ (R) (P)   (Reference C-47e, page V-22)
               -
where
     L  =  Maximum allowable concentration in an industrial
           wastewater discharge  (mg/1) .

     L  =  Allowable effluent concentration at the treatment
           plant (mg/1).
                            O*
     R  =  Dilution ratio = g—

     E  =  Treatment plant removal efficiency  (%)

     Q* =  Total daily dry weather flow to the treatment
           plant (millions of gallons) .

     Q  =  Total daily industrial flow to which L applies
           (millions of gallons) .

     P  =  Assumed ratio of the maximum to average concen-
           tration for any wastewater component in an  indus-
           trial wastewater discharge.

     S  =  Assumed portion of total that can be controlled
      In this formula, L is determined for each pollutant
parameter  for which an Le has been established.  The  dilution
ratio (R)  is estimated by determining the total  flow  (Q)
of  all industries to be regulated for the pollutant in
question,  and dividing it into  the total flow to the  treatment
plant (Q*) .  Values for E, the  treatment plant removal
efficiency for  the pollutant parameter, should be based on
operating  experience of the specific treatment plant.  If
such information is unavailable, data for similar treatment
 facilities presented  In Section F may be utilized.  The peak
•to average ratio,  P,  is an estimate of  the  ratio of the nax-
 imum concentration of  a constituent in  an industrial  effluent
 to the average  concentration  of the constituent  for all
 industries included in Q.  The  more tightly a pollutant is
 controlled, the lower  this ratio will be.   The factor S is
included to account for background levels in  the system.  If
there is no background level for a particular pollutant,
with industry providing the total concentration, then the
value of S is 1.0.
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     The originators  of  the  formula,  the County Sanitation
Districts of Los Angeles County,  have utilized it to aid in
determining allowable pollutant  concentrations for industrial
dischargers within  the system.   Table C-l provides a numerical
illustration of how the  formula  was  applied to the ocean
standards established by the State of California for arsenic,
cadmium, chromium,  copper,  lead,  mercury, nickel, silver, zinc,
and cyanide.  The table  is  included  herein only as a guide for
utilization of the  formula,  and  not  for the presentation of
numerical information.  Subsequent data obtained by the County
Sanitation Districts  has resulted in a revision of many of the
values shown in the table,  particularly for the factors R and
S.  POTW's applying the  formula  to their own situation must
determine applicable  values for  all  of the factors in the
formula based on  the  characteristics of the individual system.
In summary, the  formula  provides a systematic method for
establishing specific numerical  limitations for industrial
pollutants based  on the  allowable concentration of each
pollutant in the  treatment plant effluent.

     Responsible  State or local  regulating agencies should
recognize that concentration based limitations have some  in-
herent deficiencies,  particularly where the ordinances'  nu-
merical limitations are intended to  meet water quality require-
ments.  Mainly,  in cases where water and sewer costs are  less
than the cost of installing and  operating pretreatment facil-
ities, industrial dischargers may be tempted to use dilution
to comply with the concentration limitations, resulting  in the
degradation of water  quality.  Dilution could result from the
addition of city water,  non-contact  cooling water or relatively
clean process water or storm water.

     To detect diluters, the responsible authority should review
industrial plans and  specifications  for pretreatment facilities,
and use on-site inspection of pretreatment facilities and plant
piping to determine that the appropriate pretreatment facilities
have been installed,  are being operated, and that there  are no
permanent connections for dilution water.  Additionally,  close
surveillance of water meter readings and records can often pin-
point diluters.   However, this is usually most effective  when
the concentration limitations first become effective and  are
first enforced.   With these safeguards, concentration limitations
will usually provide  an effective and enforceable means  of
preventing the pass through of pollutants which could cause the
POTW to violate its permit conditions or water quality standards.

     Other Regulatory Sections

     Section 4 of the recommended ordinance establishes  the
authority and procedure for the control of prohibited wastes.
It includes the necessary clauses relative to regulatory  actions,
submission of plans for pretreatment facilities, proper  opera-
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                                                     TABLE C-l

                       CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE CONCENTRATIONS
                                 COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICTS OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY



CONSTITUENT





Arsenic
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Silver
Zinc
Cyanide
Le
Ocean Plan
Effluent
Limit
,' (mg/i)





0.01
0.02
0.005
0.2
0.1
0.001
0.1
0.02
0.3
0.1
E
Removal
Efficiency
at plant
w/Biolog.
Secondary
Treatment
(%)


48
73
77
76
80
34
53
69
77
55
Lp
Permissible
Influent
Limit to
Plant
Le
(1-E)

(mg/1)

0.02
0.09
0.022
0.4 (2)
0.6
0.008
0.23
0.074
1.58
0.24
R
Dilution
Ratio
Q*
Q
(1)




28
11
20
15
15
10
15
20
6
8
P
Assumed
Ratio
of
Maximum
to
Average
Concentration


5
4
2
2
3
5
2
5
2
3
S
Assumed
Percentage
from
Controllable
Sources




0.9
0.9
0.9
0.85
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
L
Calculated
Maximum
Concentration
Allowable
in Industrial
Discharge
T (Le) (R) (P) (S)
L Cl-E)
(mg/1)
2.4
2.9
0.78
10.
20.
0.28
5.8
5.8
14.
4.8
n
i
                Notes;  (1)  Dilution ratios are based on the Industrial Waste Inventories of the Sanitation
                             Districts.  They are obtained by dividing 350 mgd by the total industrial
                             wastewater flow of all industries identified in the inventory as significant
                             contributors  of the particular constituent.

                        (2)  The limit of 0.4 mg/1 copper is based upon the toxicity relationship of copper
                             to biological wastewater treatment processes and is more restrictive than the
                             influent limit required by the Ocean Plan effluent limit.  The restrictive Lp
                             value of 0.4 mg/1 was used in lieu of Le/(l-E) in the calculation of I.
                Reference C-47e, page V-24

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tion and maintenance of  pretreatment facilities,  admission of
POTW personnel to industrial plants and reporting of accidental
discharges.   Section  5 of the ordinance is devoted to sampling
and analysis of industrial wastewater.   Several clauses are
included with regard  to  monitoring, encompassing the type and
frequency of samples  and the allocation of costs for sampling and
analysis.  Section D  of  these guidelines includes a complete
summary of monitoring information for the sampling and analysis
of industrial wastewaters.

     The section of the  recommended ordinance dealing with
enforcement provides  a structured approach for the handling
of violations.  The first step in the procedure is notifica-
tion in writing of the violation, followed by conference and
conciliation.  If these  steps are unsuccessful in solving
the problem, then more formal proceedings are instituted.
The first is a show cause hearing, which provides the violator
with an opportunity to show cause why an order should not be
issued directing the  discontinuance of the discharge.  Show
cause hearings are usually open to the public, and held before
a hearing board composed of appropriate officials of the
municipality, authority  or district.  Upon submission of
all evidence, the hearing board has the option of issuing an
order for the cessation  of the discharge within a specified  time
period.  If an order is  issued, and not complied with, then
court action is the next and final step in enforcement of the
ordinance.  This step-by-step approach to enforcement provides
the maximum opportunity for the resolution of ordinance vio-
lations without resorting to court proceedings until absolutely
necessary.

     Optional and Procedural Clauses

     The two major optional clauses contained in the recommended
ordinance pertain to a permit program and the use of self-
monitoring for industrial contributors to the system.  Local
permit programs are most applicable to large systems, and to
date have been used successfully by several large regional
agencies.  Permit programs greatly increase the paper work
associated with industrial pollutant control programs.
Although the onus for filing permits is placed on the industries
in the system, the POTW must nevertheless scrutinize the permits
for completeness, truthfulness, accuracy, etc.  The use of
permits can be particularly advantageous in instituting a control
program in a large system.  At the outset, industries must
self-monitor and provide all relevant information on their
discharges, thus relieving the POTW staff from this initial
data gathering task.   Local permit programs offer an option
which is systematic and thorough, but one which requires a well-
trained capable staff to administer.
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     Self-monitoring is frequently used in conjunction with a
permit program.   Industries are generally required, under
these programs,  to self-monitor for the completion of a permit
application.  Self-monitoring reports are then generally
required at varying frequencies to update discharge information.
In any event, monitoring for compliance and enforcement
activities, and  demand monitoring to alleviate operating
problems in the  system, usually remain the responsibility of
the POTW.  Few systems utilize self-monitoring as an option
for compliance monitoring or any function other than initial
data gathering and periodic review.

     The procedural clauses included in the recommended
ordinance serve  several varying functions.  The principal
clause provides  that the bulk of the ordinance remains in
force if any section is declared invalid or unconstitutional.
Only the affected section is no longer in force, thus "saving"
the remainder of the ordinance.  This section also references
other related ordinances and reconciles differences that may
exist between the various ordinances.  Finally, the procedural
clauses establish the authority of the manager of the system,
and set forth the date that the ordinance becomes effective.
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                       SECTION D
                       MONITORING
Functions of a Monitoring Program
  Introduction
  Development of a Data Base
  Scheduled Monitoring
  Unscheduled Surveillance
  Demand Monitoring
  Self-Monitoring
  Enforcement

Field Considerations in Monitoring
  Background
  Scheduled Monitoring
    Scheduling
    Preparation for a Monitoring Visit
    Equipment
    Sample Handling
    Chain of Possession
    On-Site Safety
    Equipment Set-up and Field Analysis
    Continuous On-Line Monitoring
  Demand Monitoring

Laboratory Considerations in Monitoring
  Standard Analytical Techniques
  Analytical Quality Control
  Equipment
    Atomic Adsorption
    Specific Ion Electrodes
    Automatic Analyzers
    Gas Chromatography
    IR-UV Spectrophotometry
  Personnel and Degree of Expertise
  Special Analytical Considerations
    Correlation of Analytical Techniques
    Standard Reporting Procedures
    Contracting for Analytical Services

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                         SECTION D
                        MONITORING

Functions of a Monitoring Program

     Introduction

     As outlined in the preceding sections, the management of
a pollutant control program requires a constant flow of infor-
mation on the quality and quantity of industrial contributions
to the publicly owned system.  In general, the function of a
monitoring program is to provide a mechanism by which the POTW
operator can obtain information on the pollutants introduced
into the sewer system.  The information obtained through mon-
itoring activities may then be applied to specific areas of
concern to the municipality.  These specific areas include
compliance to ordinance requirements, ascertaining surcharge
fees, and completion of reports required by EPA.  Additionally,
the POTW operator may use monitoring information to determine
the contributors who are responsible for releasing materials
potentially harmful to collection or treatment systems.

     Depending on the specific situation, information obtained
by monitoring may also be used in the development of the
ordinance and in its enforcement.  Monitoring information can
be especially useful in developing those sections of the
ordinance that set levels for incompatible pollutants, as
well as determining orders of magnitude for an equitable
system of surcharge fees.  As a result, ordinance development
and enforcement work hand in hand with monitoring activities.

     Although monitoring in a broad sense performs the single
function of transferring quantitative and qualitative informa-
tion on non-residential contributors, specific subfunctions
should also be completed to provide a total program.   For mon-
itoring, there are well defined intermediate steps that should
be accomplished during the course of the overall program.   In
a well managed system for industrial pollutant control, informa-
tion should be transferred in a closed loop where monitoring,
ordinance  compliance, ordinance enforcement and surcharge fee
determination all input to one another.  A typical monitoring
feedback system is depicted in Figure D-l.   Each of the mon-
itoring functions shown are discussed in detail in the follow-
ing paragraphs.   The interrelation  of each function is
addressed with commentary included  on the implementation of
the specific monitoring activity.
                            D-l

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               DATA BASE
              DEVELOPMENT
            H
REPORTS TO
    EPA
n
  SELF
MONITORING
 DEVELOPMENT OF
 COMPLIANCE  AND
SURCHARGE SYSTEM
          Li
        UN SCHEDULED
        SURVEILLANCE
            I
              1
  ORDINANCE
 DEVELOPMENT
           DEMAND
          MONITORING
                      i
                 ENFORCEMENT
         LA
      SCHEDULED
      MONITORING
      MONITORING FEEDBACK  SYSTEM

                 FIGURE  D-l
                      D-2

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     Development of a Data Base

     NPDES permits issued to POTWs often stipulate that the
permittee must promulgate an enforceable ordinance.  In
addition, the permittee is required to submit reports and
forms to the EPA regional office concerning the character-
istics of contributions from major contributing industries
 (MCI's)within their system.  Once an ordinance is in effect,
reports on the progress of the MCI's toward compliance
are usually required.  The ordinance cannot be completely
developed unless the municipality or authority has acquired
preliminary information on non-residential contributions in
the system.  The mechanism for obtaining this data base is
provided by the requirement in the typical NPDES permit
that the permittee must submit, for each MCI within its
system, an EPA Standard Form A - Municipal; Section IV
entitled "Industrial Waste Contribution to Municipal Systems."
Completion of the Section IV form requires information on
production, wastewater flow and wastewater concentration.
This information can serve as an initial data base, from which
the municipality or authority can plan or implement its
industrial pollutant control program.  The Section IV form is
only required by EPA for MCI's.  However, this form provides a
convenient tool that could be utilized by municipalities to
obtain data on all industrial establishments within their juris-
diction.  C9nsequently, a systematic approach to obtaining
Section IV information should be developed.  An important
preliminary step in this regard is the location, evaluation
and classification of non-residential contributors.  In order
to develop the Section IV data base, two specific tasks must
be completed;   the identification of non-residential contrib-
utors,  and differentiating between major and minor sources.

     For the small municipality, identifying contributors
within the wastewater collection system is usually an easy
task.   The plant operator, or the system's superintendent,
is generally familiar with the area served, and the contribu-
tors within it.   For larger systems, and those small systems
where this familiarity does not exist,  identifying industrial
contributors can be more complex.  The location of wastewater
sources can be accomplished by using the various listings of
commercial establishments that are available to the public.
Such listings  include:

     —Labor Department Records
     —Property Tax Records
     —Chamber of Commerce Rosters
     —Census  Bureau Records
     —Local Telephone  Directory
     —Water Consumption Records


                            D-3

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These documents can provide a variety of information on
industrial establishments, such as location, product line,
production volume and water usage.

    Combining the information that can be obtained from the
individual listings can provide the municipality with an
understanding of which contributors may be considered major
or minor.  Using the criteria for an MCI established by the
EPA, a preliminary breakdown between major and minor con-
tributors generally can be established on the basis of flow.
In addition to the Federal definition of a major industry,
the municipality must decide, on the basis of specific factors
in the POTW system, which industrial facilities to consider
significant contributors.  The EPA definition of an MCI should
be used as a first step in a major-minor delineation.  However,
other factors including water quality standards, and the POTW's
sensitivity to a particular type of wastewater, must also be
taken into account.  Establishing a list of significant con-
tributing industries on this basis requires direct contact with
industry, and detailed analysis or evaluation of each plant's
wastewater.

    Once a preliminary list of possible MCI's and other signi-
ficant industries has been developed, each major contributor
should be classified into the proper Standard Industrial
Category (SIC).  This may be accomplished by matching the
industry's products or commercial activities to the SIC codes
as listed in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual
published by the Executive Office of the President; Office of
Management and Budget.  Depending on the size and resources
of the municipality or authority, the MCI's might be required
to self-monitor their effluent to provide the Section IV
analytical information.  If the municipality has the resources,
it may elect to do analytical surveys on its own.  Once the
Section IV reports have been completed, the municipality can
then use this information as a data base for the development
of ordinance stipulations, including compliance requirements
and surcharge fee schedules.

    Scheduled Monitoring

    Scheduled monitoring involves the systematic sampling
and inspection of significant industrial contributors to the
POTW system in accordance with a predetermined schedule.   The
schedule should be developed by the POTW personnel administer-
ing the industrial pollutant control program, and should be
maintained as confidential information so that the industries
in the system are unaware of contemplated monitoring visits.
The schedule should attempt to provide for the monitoring of
each significant industrial contributor at least once per


                           D-4

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year if at all possible.  If resources do not permit this
type of coverage, then visits should be planned as often
as possible within the limitations of available resources.

    Scheduled monitoring should serve a number of specific
needs, including:  (1) checking for compliance with the
ordinance, (2) surcharge, user charge and industrial cost
recovery determinations, and (3) completion of required
EPA reports.   Scheduled compliance monitoring should be
aimed at obtaining all the information necessary to determine
adherence to the local ordinance.  The information required
for surcharge, user charge and capital cost recovery coincides
to a large degree with the data necessary for the completion
of required EPA reports.  In addition to the Section IV
forms, many NPDES permits require the  municipality to
furnish the EPA with periodic reports on the progress of
industrial contributors toward compliance with pretreatment
regulations.   Also, if the POTW is the recipient of Federal
construction grant funds, it is required by Federal regulations
to review user charges on an annual basis.  This review would
usually require that the municipality monitor the quality
and quantity of major industrial contributors.  Even if the
municipality has not been granted Federal funds, a periodic
review of surcharge fees is usually needed to keep abreast
of changing conditions in the system.

    The three elements of scheduled monitoring outlined above
(compliance,  surcharge and EPA reports), although designed
to meet differing needs, all require a similar field effort
and technique.  All three should be conducted on a reasonably
rigorous basis to assure the validity of the data obtained.
Each element of scheduled monitoring may require 'an extended
survey of a particular plant's contribution to the municipal
sewer.  As a result,  scheduled monitoring should provide for
a single visit to a specific industrial facility for the dur-
ation of time necessary to obtain all data required for the
purposes indicated above.

    In general, scheduled monitoring would include on-site
inspection of pretreatment facilities and plant operations,
and composite samples and flow measurements taken
over a period of several days.   On-site inspection is
necessary to  insure that pretreatment facilities are being
operated properly and to detect any dilution of plant waste-
waters.  The  determination of flow is important for several
reasons.   Primarily,  flow information is essential in the
calculation of surcharge or user charge fees.  Additionally,
flow readings are necessary as an added safeguard against
dilution and  to confirm the validity of concentration measure-
ments taken for ordinance compliance.  The degree of care
                            D-5

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and conformance to established procedures in obtaining samples
and flow measurements during scheduled monitoring visits is
an extremely important consideration.   Information obtained
during this process may ultimately be  used in enforcement
activities culminating in court action.  Additionally, in the
determination of surcharges or user charges, the municipality
may be compelled to monitor with sufficient rigor to satisfy
the industry that the information obtained is sufficiently
accurate.  This situation is especially valid in those cases
where sewer use charges are a significant expense for the
industry.

    Although  detailed composite sampling may be most desirable
for compliance monitoring, simple grab samples may often be
sufficient to determine ordinance compliance.  It is recognized
that many POTW systems do not have sufficient resources to
monitor each significant contributing  industry once per year
for a period of several days.  The essential aspect is to
obtain a sample that will have sufficient validity should it
become necessary to use the data for enforcement activities.
The applicability of less rigorous sampling, such as simple
grab samples, depends largely on the stipulations of the
ordinance concerning sampling technique and the municipality's
ability to enforce the ordinance using the data derived from
a grab sample.

    Unscheduled Surveillance

    In addition to the planned approach, POTW's should institute
a less formal type of compliance monitoring designed to provide
a spot check of industrial contributors.  This random type of
compliance monitoring should be focused on maintaining a degree
of surveillance, and would generally not be formally planned
by the POTW.

    Scheduled compliance monitoring is designed primarily to
establish the characteristics of contributions from major
sources, whereas unscheduled surveillance attempts to randomly
survey all sources within the system.   By checking all con-
tributors over an extended period of time, the municipality
can continue to expand its data base,  and keep abreast of
trends and changes within the system.   This type of monitor-
ing should be conducted on a random basis, with contributors
being observed during normal operation, thus providing infor-
mation on the true nature of the wastewater.  If ordinance
violations are suspected, the information obtained during
unscheduled surveillance can also be used to evaluate the
need for further, more detailed, evaluation of a particular
contributor.
                            D-6

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    Unscheduled surveillance can be conducted with  less
 rigor than scheduled compliance monitoring.  Since  sur-
 veillance activities are intended only to provide a quick
 spot check to determine the need for future more detailed
 analysis and evaluation, this type of monitoring can be
 less formal than a full compliance monitoring visit.
 Unscheduled surveillance should involve no more than a few
 samples, perhaps composited over a short period of  time,
 and a cursory inspection of plant operations and pretreatment
 activities.  Where resources are limited, grab samples are
 frequently used for this type of surveillance.  Flow measure-
 ments may be taken if facilities are available to obtain
 readings without difficulty.

    Bemand Monitoring

    As the name implies, demand monitoring should be conducted
 when an upset or other disruption of system operation occurs,
 which may have been caused by an industrial source.  Additionally
 any discharge of prohibited or limited materials can prompt
 demand monitoring.  Specific occurrences that may initiate a
 demand monitoring sequence are as follows:

  .  1.  Contributions of Explosive or Corrosive
        Materials to the Sewer

    Release of these types of materials are generally pro-
 hibited by the municipal ordinance.  Because of the magnitude
 and immediacy of the potential impact of explosive  or corro-
 sive materials, swift location of the source is essential.
 The most effective means of locating sources of explosive
 or corrosive materials is by utilizing sewer back tracking,
 which is a systematic search upstream through the sewer
 system until the source is pinpointed.

    2.  Operating Difficulties

    Treatment plant and collection system operating diffi-
 culties can also prompt demand monitoring.  One of  the more
 serious operating problems is caused by the release of mat-
 erials into sewers which can cause blockages or plugging.
 Similarly,  excessive quantities of viscous or floating solids
 entering a treatment-plant can disrupt unit operations such
 as sludge digestion.   The presence of excessive foaming can
 also cause operating difficulties,  and may prompt a demand
 search.   In general,  any upset of normal operating routine
may be considered cause for initiating demand monitoring.
                           D-7

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     3.  Violation of the POTW's  Permit  Requirements

     A POTW1 s permit generally contains limits on the concen-
trations of specific pollutants that it can discharge to nav-
igable waters.   If the treatment process is disrupted to the
extent that these limits are exceeded, it becomes the respon-
sibility of the municipality to determine the source of the
materials that might be passing through the system, or caus-
ing poor removal of the pollutants that the treatment system
is designed to remove.

     4.  Violation of Pretreatment Regulations

     Since many NPDES permits require the development of an
ordinance that contains requirements for compliance by MCI's
to pretreatment regulations, a suspected violation of these.
standards can initiate demand monitoring.  In such cases,
demand monitoring should provide information on the cause
of interferences, and the responsible party.  In these sit-
uations, demand monitoring can be most successful when the
municipality has access to a good data base.  Using data
base information, the probable sources of interfering mat-
erials can generally be determined and monitored so that
responsibility can be properly assigned.

     It should be noted that in those cases where demand
monitoring is prompted by the presence of an explosive mat-
erial, the removal of the explosion hazard must have top
priority.  It is unwise to attempt sewer backtracking until
any possible danger has been eliminated.

     Self-Monitoring

     Many of the monitoring activities that have been out-
lined  in the preceding paragraphs require that samples be
taken  at the effluent of  an industrial contributor, and'
analyzed for appropriate  pollutant parameters.  Depending
on the available resources and manpower, the municipality
may not be  able to perform all of the various monitoring
functions required for industrial contributors.  At a min-
imum,  the municipality should attempt to conduct, with
their  own personnel,  compliance  and demand monitoring
activities  for all significant industrial contributors within
the  system.  However, complete coverage of all contributors
within the  system may be  more difficult to implement using
municipal personnel  and  resources.  One way to circumvent
this problem is  to require each  major contributor to do its
own  sampling and analysis, a function which is usually termed
self-monitoring.
                             D-8

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     Self-monitoring systems require that a mechanism for
reporting and record-keeping be maintained by the industrial
establishment.  Periodic reports would generally be sent
directly to the municipality.  The recordkeeping function
permits access to a history of source quantity and quality
which can aid in both data base development and compliance
determination.

     Self-monitoring can be particularly helpful in the
development of the initial data base.  Forms can be forwarded
to industrial contributors requesting information on the flow
and pollutant characteristics of their effluents.   This  type of
approach is most applicable where a local permit program is
utilized, and the form then becomes a permit applicaton.  Data
accumulated in this manner can serve as the basis for estab-
lishment of an industrial pollutant control program, with
verification achieved through subsequent compliance monitoring.

     Enforcement

     An important function of a monitoring program is its
ability to provide specific information required by enforce-
ment activities.  Enforcement implies that there has been a
violation of a regulation.  In general, municipalities will
use monitoring information to assess deviations from ordinance
stipulations.  If conducted with the proper rigor and quality
control, wastewater sampling and analysis previously performed
by the municipality can be used in enforcement activities
directed at ordinance violators.  Self-monitoring information
generally is not used for enforcement.  If an industry is
aware that its contribution is in violation of the ordinance,
it is not likely that it would be willing to submit such data
to the municipality for use in enforcement proceedings.   There-
fore, self-monitoring data should not be considered suitable
for enforcement activities.  Instead, the municipality should
rely on its own monitoring information, legally obtained, with
proper technical execution.

Field Considerations in Monitoring

     Background

     Organizational and managerial aspects of a monitoring
program may vary considerably from system to system, but the
approach to the technical problems encountered in any field
monitoring activities remain fairly constant.  The need to
maintain rigor and objectivity dictates that sound, uniform
                             D-9

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and well defined procedures be maintained during plant inves-
tigations and sampling programs.  Some guidance on how to
develop and carry out a monitoring program is available in
an EPA Technology Transfer document entitled "Handbook for
Monitoring Industrial Wastewater."  This handbook describes
technical aspects of monitoring, but its major emphasis is
directed at industries discharging directly to navigable
waters that are engaged in self-monitoring activities.
Although many of the details remain the same, field consider-
ations for monitoring industrial contributors in a pretreat-
ment situation have a slightly different orientation.  Special
field considerations for monitoring pollutants introduced into
POTW's are outlined in this section.

     An ordinance will generally prohibit, or set limits on
the release of specific materials to the municipal wastewater
treatment system.  Wastes that cause an explosion hazard, or
block or corrode the sewer are generally completely prohibited.
Other pollutants that may either inhibit biological processes,
or pass through the system, may be limited by ordinance.  It
is therefore essential that the monitoring program supply data
on the contributions of prohibited and limited substances as
stipulated in the ordinance.  Furthermore, the ordinance may
establish the frequencies and the type of sampling required
for non-residential contributors.  Monitoring activities must
also be coordinated with these aspects of the ordinance.

     The approach to monitoring  in the field subdivides into
three basic categories:   (1) Monitoring on a scheduled and
planned basis,  (2) Unscheduled surveillance on a random
basis, and  (3) Demand monitoring prompted by an emergency
condition or violation of standards.  Field considerations
in plant sampling during a planned visit or random visit for
unscheduled surveillance are similar  in many respects,
although less rigor  is required  during an unscheduled visit.
Consequently, details on the field aspects of monitoring
have only been provided for scheduled and demand monitoring,
since the information provided under  scheduled monitoring
may generally be used as a guide for  unscheduled surveillance.

    Scheduled Monitoring

    Scheduling

    An attempt should be made  to systematically cover all
significant contributing  industries annually if resources
permit.  After  initial  data base development, monitoring should
be conducted at  each major  contributor to determine progress
toward compliance.   Once  compliance is achieved, the contributor


                            D-10

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must be sampled periodically to assess continued compliance.
Additionally, when a scheduled compliance monitoring visit
uncovers a violation, scheduling should be altered to provide
more detailed analysis of the wastewater.  This extended
sampling program is normally required to obtain data suffi-
ciently valid for enforcement activities.

     In all cases, the frequency and order of investigations
should be determined on the basis of size and importance of
the contributor.  Sampling should be started with the largest,
or most significant industry.  Once the major industries are
covered for data base and initial compliance purposes, a
continuing program of follow-up monitoring should be instituted.
It may not be within the resources of the municipality to
cover all contributors within its system thoroughly and equally.
A schedule in which major contributors are monitored more
frequently than minor contributors will generally be necessary.

     Preparation for a Monitoring Visit

     Industries should not be notified prior to scheduled
monitoring or unscheduled surveillance visits.  It is gen-
erally agreed that by not giving prior notice to the industry,
the samples that are obtained will be more representative of
daily operation.

     Prior to sampling at a contributor,  the sampling crew or
inspector should obtain specific information about the indus-
try.   During the initial visit a plant inspection report should
be prepared.   Several specific items should be included in this
report:

     —A sketch of the location of all wastewater effluent
       lines that flow into the publicly owned sewer
       system.  The sketch should also include the layout
       of major plant features.

    —A description of major product lines and processes
       utilized within the plant.  For MCI's this informa-
       tion may be obtained from the Section IV report.

     —A detailed description and appropriate sketches of
       existing pretreatment facilities, including operating
       data if available.

     —A list of pollutants of interest at the plant, with
       emphasis on materials limited or prohibited by the
       ordinance.
                             D-ll

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     Equipment

     On-site inspection,  flow measurement and sampling should
be accomplished during each visit.   Accurate flow measurement
and sampling techniques are of prime importance in obtaining
valid monitoring information.  Both flow measurements and sampl-
ing can be accomplished either manually or through the use of
automatic devices.  Three types of  sampling may be utilized:

     —Grab samples, in which a single volume of wastewater
       is obtained and analyzed.  This type of sample will
       not always provide an accurate measure of wastewater
       characteristics, especially  when the flow is heter-
       ogeneous, or varies with time.

     —Simple composite sampling is a timed sequential
       collection of equal volume grab samples that are
       combined in a single reservoir.  This type of
       sample can give a partial evaluation of the
       variability of wastewater composition with time.
       It does not provide any measure of the total
       pounds of pollutant discharged since pollutant
       loading is a flow related value.

     —Flow proportioned composite samples are obtained by
       collecting incremental samples with volumes propor-
       tional to flow.  This type of sample, when analyzed
       and compared to total flow,provides the most
       accurate measure of wastewater quality and pollutant
       loading.

     Automatic sampling devices that can obtain all three
sampling types are commercially available.  These automatic
samplers vary over a wide range in cost, applicability and
reliability.  Two EPA documents are available which provide
thorough evaluation of commercial automatic samplers:

     —"Sampling of Wastewater," by Philip E. Shelley
        Available through EPA Technology Transfer

     —"Wastewater  Sampling Methodologies and Flow
        Measurement Techniques"
        EPA  Report  907/9-74-005

     The second document also includes information on the
performance  of portable automatic flow measuring devices.
There  are considerably fewer devices of this type on the
market than  automatic  samplers.  However, a few portable
instruments  are available that can provide reasonably
accurate flow measurement data.
                            D-12

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     For the smaller system,  or those municipalities that
have only limited resources,  both sampling and flow measure-
ment may be accomplished using manual techniques.  All three
sample types can be collected using manual methods.  In gen-
eral, there is little equipment commercially available for
manual sampling.  What is usually needed is an extendable
pole, with a stoppered bottle attached to the end.  This
type of sampling pole can be easily fabricated.  The sample
bottle should be hinged so that it can be tilted to align
parallel to the wastewater flow.  This orientation allows
for sampling from very shallow streams.  The bottle stopper
should be attached to a string so that it can be removed
while the sample bottle is submerged.

     With regard to flow determination, the accuracy of any
flow measurement depends greatly on the control surface utilized,
Some ordinances may require that major contributors install a
special control manhole designed to provide sufficient access
for sampling and an appropriate control surface for flow
measurement.  Depending on the situation, permanent flow
recording equipment may also be required.  The installation
of a standard weir or flume makes flow measurement a simple
matter of measuring wastewater depth.  No control  surface  is
completely accurate, but the combined use of  a quality auto-
matic flow mesuring device and  a control surface  can typically
yield flow measurement  accuracy of better than j^ 15%.

     Special attention  should be paid to the  accuracy of
sampling activities.  Whereas flow measurement accuracy can
be held to the  15% level, sampling errors can range up to
200% of the true value.  The basic problem results  from the
fact that the typical industrial waste may have  a large pro-
portion of its  pollutants in the form of suspended  solids.
As a result, it is important that the quantity of suspended
solids entrained during sampling be  proportional  to the sus-
pended solid content of the total wastewater  stream.  Common
practice is to  simply place a suction tube in the wastewater
flow, or to immerse an  open sampling bottle in the  stream.
Since solids entrainment is a velocity controlled process,
an attempt should be made to obtain  samples isokinetically.
There should be a minimum fluid velocity difference between
the  interior and exterior of the sampling tube.   Accomplish-
ing  this type of sampling is a  difficult procedure, but the
situation can be significantly  improved by aligning the  sam-
ple  tube such that  it is facing upstream and  is  secured
rigidly  in place.  Because of the potential for  large errors
associated with sampling, it  is essential that extreme  care
be exercised  in. selecting sampling  devices and procedures.
                               D-13

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     Sample Handling

     Once an accurate sample has been obtained, several steps
should be taken to assure that the validity and objectivity
of the monitoring operation is maintained.  All samples must
be properly preserved.  Sample preservation techniques are
outlined in various analytical handbooks such as Standard
Methods and the EPA,Chemical Methods Manual.  The content
of these and other similar handbooks are discussed in more
detail in the section devoted to laboratory considerations
in monitoring.

     Because of the heterogeneous nature of many industrial
wastewaters, the parameters to be analyzed may require the
use of incompatible stabilizing reagents.  To solve this
problem, it is usually necessary to take a relatively large
volume of sample, so that it may be divided for appropriate
preservation.  In addition to assuring adequate volume for
sample preservation, sufficient sample size must be maintained
so that a portion of the sample can be offered to the indus-
trial contributor.  The option should be given to the industry
of independently checking the municipality's analytical
results if they so desire.

     Chain of Possession

     Once an appropriate sample is obtained and properly
stabilized, it is essential that the possession of the sam-
ple be properly documented.  That is, the person completing
the field sampling should maintain a log, containing pertin-
ent information such as date, time and location of the sam-
pling activity.  Before releasing the sample to the labora-
tory, or any other appropriate official, a signed receipt
should be obtained documenting the exchange.  As the sample
is transported, a continuous history of its condition and
locations should be maintained through successive log entries
and receipts.

      The reason  for  such  caution  in the handling and transfer
of  samples  stems  from the  need to be certain of sample inte-
grity as part of  any enforcement  activity.  It should be
assumed  that  every  scheduled compliance monitoring sample may
become  evidence  in  a court of  law. In practice, few ordinance
violations  will  require legal action, but nevertheless, sample
integrity must be maintained.  If the municipality cannot
prove that  a  sample  has not been mishandled or tampered with,
then  any inferences  regarding the quality of the wastewater
that  the sample  represents  fall into jeopardy.  It is therefore
essential  that a  chain of  possession be maintained and recorded,


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     On-Site Safety

     Visitors to industrial establishments are usually
required to abide by any safety regulations observed by plant
management.  Ideally,  access to wastewater flows should be
available from manholes or junction boxes located outside of
plant property.  In this way, plant inspectors would not be
exposed to any hazardous activities and would be able to sam-
ple without the need to gain entry to the plant.  Unfortunately,
accessible manholes located outside of plant boundaries are
rare, and consequently inspectors are generally required to
enter upon plant property.  Under these circumstances, all
pertinent safety rules in force at the plant must be adhered
to.  The first step upon presenting credentials and entering
the plant, is to notify appropriate plant management, and
request applicable safety information.  In most cases, a
formal set of safety rules are in effect, and these rules
should be recorded and, filed with the plant inspection report.

     Minimum safety equipment that must be carried by each
inspector or inspection crew includes:

     —Hard Hat
     —Safety Goggles
     —Rubber Gloves,  Boots and Other Protective Clothing
     —First Aid Kit

 Special  safety precautions  and  equipment  are  necessary  for
 any sampling  activity  that  requires manhole entry.   The
 most dangerous aspect  of  sewer  sampling and inspection  is
 the possible  presence  of  dangerous gases in sewers.  These
 gases  may include  either  explosive vapors or  poisonous  mix-
 tures.   Conversely, there may be  an oxygen deficiency in .
 the sewer.   In order to avoid possible  injury,  several  pre-
 cautions should be taken  and proper equipment should be util-
 ized during the course of sewer inspection as follows:

     —Manholes should be opened  with a hook  rather than
       a pry bar.   Using  a  hook reduces the possibility
       of having metal rub  against metal,  causing  a
       spark and possible explosion.

     —Before entering a  manhole,  the atmosphere within
       the sewer should be  tested for oxygen  content,
       explosion hazard and poisonous gases.   Several
       portable, probe type oxygen and  explosion meters
       are commercially available.  Equipment of this
       type should be  utilized  during every  sewer  entry.
       Many types  of  indicating ampoules  and  gas
       detection test  kits are  available  which can
       signal the  presence of poisonous gases.   A
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       complete set of such test materials must be
       present and utilized during each 3ewer inspection.

     —Appropriate gas masks and breathing mask respirators
       should be used whenever there is the slightest
       indication of danger.

     Actual entry into a manhole requires additional special
safety precautions.  Although nearly all manholes are built
with ladder rungs, these rungs may have been used infrequently,
As a result of the often corrosive atmosphere in a manhole,
it is not advisable to use sewer ladder rungs, since it is
possible that they may not be structurally sound.  Descent
into a manhole should be accomplished utilizing a portable
rigid ladder or flexible rope ladder.  Even when a ladder
is used, each individual entering a manhole should be har-
nessed with a safety rope leading to the surface.  In this
way, in the event of a fall, asphyxiation or other injury,
the individual can be pulled to the surface with relative
ease.

     Fire safety should always be practiced whenever within
an industrial plant or near an open manhole.  No open flames
should be permitted, and all equipment should be explosion
proof.and water resistant.  Since many manholes are located
on streets or other thoroughfares, additional sarety pre-
cautions should be taken to avoid automobile accidents and
the possibility of pedestrians falling into open manholes.
Consequently, appropriate pylons, barricades and flashing
lights should be used in the vicinity of the manholes.

     Equipment Set-Up and Field Analysis

     In the absence of a control manhole equipped with
brackets or ledges for mounting automatic samplers and flow
measuring devices, a method must be devised for securing and
mounting equipment.  Within the boundaries of a plant some
degree of security can be assumed, but unattended sampling
points in public areas can be tempting to vandals.  One solu-
tion to this type of field problem is the use of a self-
contained trailer or van outfitted with appropriate materials
and equipment.  A further advantage to using a monitoring
vehicle is that the time required for set-up and removal of
equipment is greatly reduced.  Furthermore, the vehicle can
be outfitted with appropriate field analytical equipment.
Certain parameters require immediate analysis upon sampling,
such as dissolved oxygen and pH.  Equipment for these analy-
yses can be mounted in the vehicle to facilitate rapid
analysis.
                             D-16

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     For the small system,  resources may not be available,
nor the need apparent,  for  a sophisticated well equipped
monitoring vehicle.   At the very least, a compact package
containing necessary equipment should be utilized.  A mini-
mum number of separate  equipment packages should be main-
tained, with the dimensions of a foot locker being an ideal
size for each equipment carrier.

     Continuous On-Line Monitoring

     In recent years, equipment has been developed which can
automatically monitor various wastewater characteristics.
For industrial wastewaters, numerous constituents may be of
interest.  However,  as  a result of operating difficulties,
generally only a few parameters can be successfully analyzed
on a continuous basis.   The sensors typically used in auto-
matic monitoring equipment  are often very sensitive to inter-
ferences found in wastewater, and as a consequence great care
should be exercised in choosing this type of specialized
equipment.  Because of the  commonly encountered operating
difficulties, continuous on-line monitors generally require
a high level of maintenance and attention.  If the equipment
works well, it can serve as an excellent source of continuous
data which will not only aid in wastewater evaluation, but
can help in evaluating process operations as well.  Various
manufacturers offer continuous on-line analytical equipment
which  can provide excellent monitoring information.  However,
it  should be noted that automatic analysis is  still a develop-
ing technology, which should be approached with an appropriate
degree of caution.

     Demand Monitoring

     Unlike scheduled monitoring in which a planned and  orderly
approach can be maintained, demand monitoring  results from
emergency conditions occurring on a random basis.  As outlined
under  the functions of a monitoring program, specific emergency
conditions can prompt a demand monitoring sequence.  These
situations include:

     —Explosion Hazard
     —Slugs of Inhibitory Materials
     —Plant Upsets
     —Sewer Blockages
     —Violations of the POTWs NPDES  Permit
     —Any danger to public health or  safety
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     For demand monitoring, rapid initial detection and
prompt location of the violator are essential.  To facilitate
detection, it is advisable where possible that permanent con-
tinuous surveillance stations be established at key points
throughout the collection system.  As soon as an abnormal
wastewater quality or flow rate is detected, either at the
treatment plant or at some point in the collection system,
an immediate investigation should be initiated.  This inves-
tigation should be systematic, back tracking in the sewer
until the source of the violation is located.

     As a result of the transient nature of many violations,
it is essential that analytical work done in the course of
sewer back tracking be completed rapidly.  Presence of a
prohibited or limited material in a sewer cannot be used as
evidence that a specific industry is the source of the prob-
lem.  As a result, it is advisable to use quick spot-check
methods during back tracking operations.  Once the source
of the problem is located, then rigorous analytical techniques
should be utilized to facilitate possible enforcement
activities.

Laboratory Considerations in Monitoring

     .Once an administrative approach, and technical method-
ology are developed for obtaining industrial wastewater- sam-
ples, a mechanism for accurate and rapid analysis of the
samples must be provided.  It is essential that analytical
results be accurate and reproducible to assure that monitoring
activities will provide the quality of information necessary
for a successful industrial pollutant control program.

     Standard Analytical Techniques

     Precise and well recognized techniques have been estab-
lished for the analysis of wastewaters.  EPA has promulgated
rules and regulations on this subject entitled "Guidelines
Establishing Test Procedures for Analysis of Pollutants,"
dated October 15, 1973 with a proposed revision dated June
9, 1975  (Appendix 4).  These, rules stipulate specific anal-
ytical methods that are recommended by EPA for the determi-
nation of 71 chemical and biological parameters as reported
in three analytical handbooks.  The three referenced manuals
are:

     —"Manual of Methods for Chemical Analysis of
        Water and Wastes," available through EPA
        Technology Transfer
                             D-18

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     —"Standard Methods for the Examination of
        Water and Wastewater,"  published by the
        American Public Health  Association

     —"Annual Book of Standards, Part 23, Water,
        Atmospheric Analysis, 1972," published by
        the American Society for Testing and
        Materials (ASTM)

     Each of these documents provides a short synopsis of the
analytical method for each parameter, information on inter-
fering substances, and step-by-step instructions on how to
carry out the analysis.  Also included is information on the
calculation of results, the precision and accuracy of the
analytical method, and techniques for chemically stabilizing
and preserving samples.

     These three publications should be considered a minimum
requirement for any analytical  laboratory.  These manuals
and handbooks supply the basic  information that a trained lab
technician would need to successfully perform nearly all
analytical procedures that may  be required in connection with
monitoring programs.

     Analytical Quality Control

     The potential errors encountered during analysis of
wastewater samples, although not as great as the errors
associated with poor sampling techniques, can nevertheless
have a great impact on the acceptability of monitoring
information.  Without the aid of independent checks and gen-
eral quality control, the lab technician can report erroneous
results without being aware that a problem exists.

     Analytical quality control assistance is available in
several forms from EPA.  A document entitled "Handbook for
Analytical Quality Control in Water and Wastewater Laborato-
ries," has been published by the EPA Technology Transfer
Program.  In thishandbook, specific information is provided
that can guide the lab technician or chemist toward sound
and reliable techniques and procedures. • In addition, stan-
dard approaches to data handling and reporting, and informa-
tion on calibrating equipment are included.

     The EPA "Manual of Methods for Chemical Analysis of
Water and Wastes" also includes information pertinent to
laboratory quality control.  Each of the ten EPA regional
offices has an office of Analytical Quality Control headed
by a Regional Analytical Quality Control Coordinator.
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Included in the EPA Methods Manual are a listing of the ten
Quality Control Coordinators,  accompanied by appropriate
addresses and telephone numbers.  Through the Quality Control
Coordinators, any interested party can obtain preanalyzed
samples that can be used to test the accuracy of analytical
techniques.  Periodic analysis of known samples can provide
the lab technician with an independent  check of his
accuracy, providing the opportunity to correct any improper
procedures.

     Equipment

     A document entitled "Estimating Laboratory Needs for
Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities" published by the
Operation and Maintenance Program of the EPA Office of Water
Program Operations, provides specific information on the min-
imum requirements for laboratory facilities at various sized
wastewater treatment plants.  This publication also includes
recommendations on how a laboratory operation may be altered
to handle the analysis of pollutants contributed by non-
residential sources.

     Laboratory equipment required for a municipal wastewater
treatment plant is generally standard, with variations
occurring only in degree, as the size of the plant varies.
If, however, a publicly owned system receives wastewater from
a particular industry, specialized analytical equipment may
be required.  The range of applicability of several special
types of equipment are discussed in the following paragraphs.

     Atomic Adsorption

     Atomic adsorption spectrophotometry provides a rapid  and
easily  performed technique  for  the analysis of metals in
wastewater.  Nearly  all of  the  more than thirty elements that
can be  analyzed  by  atomic  adsorption, can be analyzed by
standard wet chemical techniques.  However, the wet chemical
methods can be tedious and time consuming, requiring detailed
sample  pretreatment  procedures. Atomic adsorption methods
provide for metal  analyses  with minimum sample preparation
and,  in many  instances, analyses can  be completed to the
parts per  billion  level,.which  is not attainable with standard
wet chemical techniques.

      In some respects atomic  adsorption does have limitations.
 In all  cases,  atomic adsorption provides only the total con-
centration of the  element.  Unless  specialized pretreatment
 is utilized,  no  breakdown of  oxidation state or ionic species
can be  determined.   However,  for  the  analysis of metals at
very low concentrations,  atomic adsorption  is unsurpassed  in


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speed and accuracy.   In situations where a large number of
metal analyses may be necessary, such as those POTW's that
receive wastewaters from metal processing or finishing indus-
tries, atomic adsorption capabilities may be required.  But
in all cases, the relatively high cost of atomic adsorption
equipment should be weighed against the need for high volume
trace metal analysis.

      Specific Ion Electrodes

     Specific ion electrodes are sensing probes that can
detect the concentration of chemical species when immersed
in a solution containing the substance to be measured.  As
long as the probe is completely submerged, a concentration
can be measured regardless of the volume of sample present.
In contrast to atomic adsorption, specific ion electrodes,
as the naine implies, detect only certain ionic species as
they exist in solution.  As a consequence, specific ion
electrode readings are greatly dependent on the environmental
conditions within the sample, such as pH and oxidation-r
reduction potential.

     More than two dozen ionic species can be analyzed using
specific ion electrodes.  Analyses are rapid, but require
some pretreatment to remove interferences prior to simple
immersion of the probe in the sample and meter readout.  The
drawbacks to this type of specialized equipment include
possible fouling of the probe membrane, long readout equili-
brium periods and the ability to detect only specific ionic
species.  However,  progress is continually being made in ion
sensing electrode technology.   Excellent use has been made of
the commercially available dissolved oxygen probes for
measuring oxygen demand, and an ammonia sensing electrode
has been successfully used for monitoring nitrification in
an activated sludge treatment plant.  Because of the potential
ease and speed of analysis that can be realized with specific
ion electrodes, consideration should be given to the possible
use of these methods for selected ionic species.
     Automatic Analyzers

     A few manufacturers currently market automated wet chem-
ical analyzers that are typically called automatic analyzers.
These devices automatically draw a small sample, add pretreat-
ment chemicals, filter the sample if necessary, add chemicals
to develop a color with an intensity proportional to the con-
centration, and finally automatically read and record the con-
                            D-21

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centration proportional to the developed color.  Other more
sophisticated automatic analyzers may use infrared or ultraviolet
spectrophotometrie detection, and some use fluorometers or
flame photometers.  In effect, the typical automatic analyzer
eliminates the steps that a technician would have to perform in
carrying out typical wet chemical analysis.

     Although an automatic analyzer can greatly reduce the time
required to perform a particular analysis, use of these
instruments is only economical when the analysis is required
on a mass production basis.  Furthermore, automatic analysis
instruments are relatively complex devices that can require a
substantial maintenance effort.  As indicated for the other
specialized equipment described in this section, automatic
analyzers should only be used when the presence of a specific
pollutant contributed by a particular industrial source is
so important that frequent analyses are required.

     Gas Chromatography

     Gas chromatography refers to several variations of a
technique in which a wastewater sample is vaporized, and the
organic fraction is then analyzed.  Gas chromatography is by
far the most efficient way of analyzing for trace organics
in wastewater, especially pesticides.  However, most gas
chromatographs are relatively expensive and require highly
skilled operators.  As a result, this type of equipment finds
only limited application in POTW analytical laboratories.

     IR-UV Spectrophotometry

     Infrared  (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometers,
like gas chromatographs are used to analyze for organic mat-
erials in wastewater.  UV Spectrophotometry has been used
recently for detecting oil and grease in wastewater samples.
However, these two types of specialized equipment generally
have only limited and specialized uses because of cost and
the requirement for skilled operators.

     Personnel and Degree of Expertise

     Laboratory manpower requirements are outlined in the
Operation and Maintenance Program document "Estimating
Laboratory Needs for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facili-
ties."  Some quantitative information is provided for deter-
mining how laboratory manpower should be altered to handle
non-residential contributions.  Although a thorough general
analysis is provided in the publication, it should be noted
that each system presents a unique situation.   Nevertheless,
it can be stated in general terms, that any monitoring pro-
gram will require an added degree of laboratory support.
For very small systems with few industrial contributors, the


                           D-22

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additional analytical work can probably be handled by the
technician performing regular sanitary chemistry.  Larger
systems may require the addition of personnel to handle the
greater load created by the industrial monitoring program.

     If analyses in connection with the monitoring program
require the use of any of the specialized analytical equip-
ment outlined above, technicians or chemists with more than the
usual level of expertise may be required.  Although the
utilization of spe'cific ion electrodes is relatively simple,
proper use of atomic adsorption, automatic analyzers, gas chroma-
tographs or IR-UV spectrophotometers does require a higher
degree of expertise. Automatic analyzers and atomic adsorption
require good technique, and special attention to equipment
maintenance.  In order to properly utilize either gas chro-
matography or IR-UV spectrophotometry, special technical
expertise beyond the 4-year college level may be required.

     Special Analytical Considerations

     Underlying the compliance and enforcement uses of anal-
ytical data is the need to know the true composition of
wastewater contributions so that the presence of harmful
materials can be detected.  In general, EPA recommends that
wastewater samples be stabilized in a manner that will sol-
utilize otherwise insoluble, or suspended materials.  This
is an  especially important factor  in the case of metals which
are  generally insoluble at high pH levels.  Metal concentrations
are  of particular interest to plant operators since  relatively
small  quantities of these materials can  cause operating prob-
lems.  However, the metallic pollutant generally must  be  in
solution  before it can cause an upset of biological  treatment
processes.  As a result, the practice of acidifying  samples
and  obtaining total, rather than dissolved metal concentrations
can  give  misleading results for samples  with high pH levels.
Metallic  pollutants at high pH values would tend to  be in the
form of suspended solids,  and would most likely  be  substantially
removed prior to reaching  biological treatment  facilities.
Consequently, the impact of a wastewater stream can  greatly
depend on the pH of the wastewater as  it enters  the  treatment
system.

     Another similar example  is the importance  of the  oxida-
tion state of the constituent being measured.   For  example,
hexavalent chromium is generally considered  to  have  a  greater
impact on biological treatment  processes than trivalent
chromium.  The  impact  of hexavalent chromium can be  signifi-
cant,  but the typical  environment  in  a sewer system would tend
to  reduce this material, and  often ensure  that  only trivalent
chromium  reaches the  treatment  plant.   Clearly,  the  analysis


                              D-23

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of wastewaters containing materials having various impacts
which depend on the conditions in the sample, must be approached
prudently, considering the state of the pollutant as it enters
the treatment system.

     Correlation of Analytical Techniques

     In determining compatible pollutant loadings, it is
necessary to analyze industrial wastewater contributions for
the typical oxygen demand parameters.  BOD .historically has
been used to measure oxygen demand, but this test is time
consuming and can be inaccurate.  COD has been used in place
of BOD, but it too can be tedious, and it also takes a signi-
ficant amount of time to complete.  In recent years, catalytic
oxidation approaches have been developed that yield measures
of oxidizable substances that can be correlated to the more
standard BOD or COD tests.  These analyses, which are termed
total organic carbon  (TOC) and total oxygen demand  (TOD), are
rapid and reproducible.

     A large body of data has been developed showing that the
more rapid TOC and TOD methods can be correlated to BOD, and
therefore can act as a more efficient measurement tool for an
operating facility.  Other similar correlations can be devel-
oped that can increase the efficiency of laboratory operations.
For example, oil  and  grease  is usually measured by  an
extraction  gravimetric technique.  This measurement can be
simplified  or  accelerated  by utilizing a UV  spectrophotometer
to detect the  levels  of organics if this type of device is
available.   Substitutions  of methods that  are either faster,
more accurate,  or encompass  a broader range  of parameters
should be considered  for unofficial use, when they  can be
correlated  to  standard methods.

     Standard  Reporting  Procedures

     Laboratory data  handling and reporting  require two basic
considerations;  reliable methods for recording both laboratory
and field data,  and criteria for determining the  significance
and acceptability of  the data.   Without a  good system  in which
standard procedures are  used for accurate  recording of anal-
ytical and  field data,  the usefulness of the information
obtained from  monitoring operations  can be greatly  diminished.
Standard forms should be developed for recording  field  infor-
mation,  which  would include  the  conditions at the time of
sampling.   All laboratory  data  should be recorded in bound
notebooks with numbered pages.   This assures a continuity in
time, with  a sequence for  all analytical data.  All forms
should be  completed in duplicate, with each  copy  being  stored
separately  as  a precaution against accidental loss  of  data.
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     Of equal importance to proper recording methods is the
significance and acceptability of data collected.  One must
be certain that the sample being analyzed is representative,
and has. not been influenced by infrequent or rare laboratory
or plant occurrences.   Numerous statistical techniques are
available that can provide a measure of the appropriate con-
fidence that should be assigned to the data.  These statis-
tical techniques are adequately covered in several of the
handbooks cited above.  However, caution should be exercised
when using statistical methods.  Generally, statistics offer
a means by which variations in a set of data can be analyzed,
assuming that all of the data used in the analysis is equally
valid.  Although statistics can be a powerful tool, it is
always preferable to evaluate the significance of data vari-
ation on the basis of first-hand knowledge of the situation
during sampling and analysis.  Many times, if unusual circum-
stances are apparent,  the data can be eliminated from consid-
eration by inspection, and the problem can be rectified with-
out the use of more sophisticated statistical analysis.

     Contracting for Analytical Services

     Many of the considerations discussed above  concerning
laboratory aspects of a monitoring program are based on the
assumption that a POTW either has an existing laboratory which
will be expanded to handle industrial wastewater, or has the
resources to develop  such facilities.  This may  be  true for
the larger systems, but the more numerous small  systems may
not have the resources or capability to complete the necessary
analyses required for proper monitoring of  industrial wastes.
In such systems, analytical work must frequently be performed
by commercial laboratories.  When choosing  a laboratory several
criteria should be considered to assure that proper services
are being provided.

     At the present time only a few states  have  developed a
certification system  for commercial laboratories.   EPA is
currently in the process of developing a guidance document
for lab certification programs.  As a result, for the short
term,POTW1 s wishing to engage qualifieid laboratory  services
will be required to evaluate laboratory performance independ-
ently.  For the long  term, use may be made  of the upcoming
guidance to be supplied by EPA.

     Several techniques can be  used to compare the  quality  of
analytical services provided by commercial  labs:

      1,  Use of samples spiked  with known  amounts of
         pollutants of  interest.  Chemicals used in
         the spiked samples  can be obtained from the

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    appropriate EPA Regional Quality Control
    Coordinator.  Use of spiked samples  is a
    desirable method for testing laboratory per-
    formance when analyzing complex wastewater
    mixtures.

2.  Parallel analysis of identical samples at two
    or more commercial labs.  This procedure can
    provide information on the relative  performance
    of the laboratories in question.

3.  Adherence to standard procedures is  essential,
    and as a result should be used as a  primary
    criteria for evaluating lab performance.

4.  Competitive costs are also important,  providing
    that an acceptable quality of analytical services
    is provided.
                         D-26

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                        SECTION E
          POLLUTANTS WHICH INTERFERE WITH PUBLICLY
                    OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

 Introduction

Materials Which Inhibit Biological Treatment Processes
  Synergism
  Antagonism
  Acclimation
  Significance of Data on the Inhibitory Effects of Pollutants
  Inorganic Substances
    Acidity, Alkalinity, pH
    Ammonia
    Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals
    Arsenic
    Borate  (and other boron species)
    Cadmium
    Chromium
    Copper
    Cyanide
    Iron
    Lead
    Manganese
    Mercury
   • Nickel
    Silver
    Sulfate
    Sulfide
    Zinc
  Organic Substances
    Alcohols
    Phenols
    Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
    Chloroform
    Carbon Tetrachloride
    Methylene Chloride
    Chlorobenzenes
    Miscellaneous Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
    Agricultural Chemicals
    Organic Nitrogen Compounds
    Surfactants
    Miscellaneous Organic Chemicals
    Oil and Grease
  Discharge of Excessive Levels of Pollutants
    Introduction
    Impact of Excessive Discharge and Shock
    Loading on POTW Operation

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Other Substances Which Interfere with POTW Facilities
  Corrosive Materials
  Materials Which Cause Sewer Blockages
  Explosive and Flammable Materials

Environmental Considerations
  Sludge Disposal or Utilization
  Reuse of Wastewaters

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                         SECTION E
         POLLUTANTS WHICH INTERFERE WITH PUBLICLY
                   OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

Introduction

     Interference with the operation of a POTW system can be
caused by a wide variety of chemical, biological and physi-
cal phenomena.  In a broad sense, interference consists not
only of materials which inhibit biological sewage treatment
processes, but also substances which cause problems in sew-
age collection systems, sludge disposal or utilization methods,
water reuse, land application of wastewater or other opera-
tions.  Collection system problems include fire and explo-
sion hazards, corrosion and solid or viscous wastes which
cause plugging of sewers, and a discussion of these problems
is included herein.  Interference with sludge disposal or
utilization and reuse of wastewaters consists primarily of
incompatible pollutants which are concentrated in sludge or
by reuse techniques.

     This section of the report primarily presents technical
data on the various substances which inhibit biological treat-
ment processes, including the problems caused by the excessive
discharge of pollutants to a treatment facility.  Consideration
was given to interference with physical-chemical sewage treat-
ment systems, employing activated carbon adsorption fallowing
primary treatment such as chemical coagulation and filtration.
Although many facilities of this type are currently being
designed and constructed, operating data from full scale
physical-chemical plants is extremely limited at this time.
In addition, the characteristics of the activated carbon
adsorption process are such that there are few substances
which cause interference.  Consequently, although it is
recognized that physical-chemical treatment facilities will
become more prevalent in the future, a detailed discussion
of interference with such processes has not been included in
these guidelines.

Materials Which Inhibit Biological Treatment Processes

     In an effort to describe inhibitory effects, treatment
processes and interfering substances have been grouped into
broad categories.  Three basic categories of treatment
processes have been delineated, including aerobic processes,
anaerobic processes, and nitrification.  The aerobic pro-
cesses have been further subdivided into activated sludge
and trickling filter operations, while anaerobic processes
consist essentially of sludge digestion.  Although many
currently operating biological treatment plants utilize the


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trickling filter process, relatively little data is available
on pollutant interferences.  Consequently, the information
on aerobic biological treatment presented is predominantly
concerned with the activated sludge process.  Since both
activated sludge and trickling filtration are aerobic pro-
cesses, the lack of information on trickling filtration may
be compensated for by cautiously drawing parallels with
activated sludge data.

     The general categories established for interfering sub-
stances are inorganics and organics, with acidity, alkal-
inity, pH, ammonia, transition metals, metals, sulfate and
sulfide comprising the major components of the inorganic
category.  Organic substances discussed include alcohols,
amines, chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides and herbicides,
phenol, surfactants and miscellaneous organic chemicals.

     Most analytical methods used for determing the concentra-
tions of the pollutants covered in this section yield a total
result, including the contribution of both the dissolved and
the precipitated substances in the original sample.  In most
cases, a precipitated pollutant has relatively little in-
hibitory impact as compared to its soluble counterpart.  This
results from the fact that most settleable solids are removed
in primary treatment, and therefore never reach the potentially
inhibited biological unit process.  Because the insoluble
fraction of a pollutant parameter will have relatively little
or no effect on biological treatment processes, most investi-
gators have conducted their tests using only dissolved pollu-
tants.  As a consequence, unless otherwise noted, the concen-
tration of pollutants reported in this section are only for
dissolved species, not the more common total value.

     Whether a substance is inhibitory depends on a number
of factors, including its concentration and the presence of
other chemicals which have synergistic or antagonistic
effects.  Some substances, such as mercury, present in waste-
water at a very low concentration, can disrupt one or more
functions of a biological treatment system.  Other substances,
such, as chloride ion, are inhibitory only at relatively high
concentrations.  Some of the special phenomena that may alter
the inhibitory nature of a substance are outlined below as a
prelude to the detailed discussion of specific pollutants.

     Synergism

     Synergism can be generally characterized as an increase
in  the inhibitory  effect of one substance by the presence of


                            E-2

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another.   Synergism,  as well as its opposite, antagonism,
is found to be most prevalent when considering combinations
of transition metals or heavy metals.   The inhibitory effects
of these metallic constituents are also enhanced by acidity.

     The synergistic effects of metals with acidity is under-
standable in terms of the chemistry of these metals.  The
transition and heavy metals tend to be insoluble by hydrolysis
in the pH range of sewage influent.  They therefore tend to
precipitate or adsorb on solids, and interact with polyelectro-
lytes or various chemical species containing anionic functional
groups.  Acidity suppresses hydrolysis, and the hydrogen ion
competes with the metal ion for adsorption sites on solids or
anionic functional groups in solution.

     Another type of synergism is encountered with cyanide or
other complexing substances which are easily biodegradable.
In these cases, it is possible for the microorganism to
ingest excessive levels of complexed metal ion and then to
destroy by assimilation the complexing substance which is
shielding the microorganism from the metal ion.  The result
is the release of an excessive level of the metal within the
organism, upsetting its biological life processes.

     Antagonism

     Antagonism is the opposite of synergism in that it is
characterized as a decrease in the inhibitory effect of one
substance by the presence of another.  The most notable
antagonistic effects occur with the combination of metallic
and anionic pollutants.  For example, several chelating
agents, such as EDTA (Disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-
acetic acid) and HEDTA  (disodium salt of hydroxy-
ethylenediamene triacetic acid) have exhibited antagonistic
properties with metals.  These chelating agents are used
in culturing microorganisms to regulate the level of metals
needed to grow bacterial cultures.  Bacteria thrive in culture
solutions containing concentrations of these metals well into
the inhibitory range, when chelating agents are also present.

     Some ambiguity as to the inhibitory effects of metals on
sludge digestion has been found in the literature.  Part of
the ambiguity can be explained by the antagonistic effect of
the sulfide normally present in a digester.  Sulfide ion
precip.^tate.s metals, removing them from solution and conse-
quently eliminating their inhibitory effect.   In fact, this re-
duction in  inhibitory effects by the addition of sulfide has
been used effectively in restoring upset digesters  to opera-
tion  (E-35).   Besides sulfide,  other  ions  such  as hydroxide

                             E-O

-------
(i.e., high pH)  chromate,  ferro-cyanide,  phosphate,  carbonate,
and arsenate will tend to precipitate with metals, thereby
reducing the inhibitory effect.

     Acclimation

     In addition to chemical factors, there are significant
biological factors which must be considered to understand
the inhibitory effect of pollutants.  In  the activated sludge
process, a healthy biomass contains a broad distribution of
microorganisms,  including many species of bacteria and protozoa,
These organisms  compete for the available food, oxygen and
nutrients, and grow and reproduce according to the suit-
ability of the aquatic environment to their existence.  In
the absence of sufficient food,  reproduction slows and the
microorganisms devour each other.  Whenever the environment
changes due to the introduction of, or omission of a given
pollutant, the opportunities for,reproduction and growth of
different species change,  so that the relative populations
of different species are altered with conditions.

     Therefore,  the previous history of a particular activated
sludge biomass,  including its distribution of microorganism
populations, affects how it will respond  when a new pollutant
enters its environment.  When a new pollutant is introduced,
those species which cannot tolerate this  substance fail'to
reproduce and grow,and tend to die off, while more tolerant
species consume the food supply and grow  and reproduce.

    When a biomass becomes accustomed to  the presence of a
normally inhibitory concentration of a substance, it can be
characterized as acclimated to that pollutant.  Sludge
digestion and nitrification do not have the same flexibility
of adaptation to changing environmental conditions as do
other biological processes.  Both nitrification and sludge
digestion are biological processes that rely on particular
strains of bacteria.  In the case of sludge digestion, the
process proceeds in two steps,using two specific bacterial
strains to achieve digestion.  Nitrification is also limited
to particular bacterial types.  As a consequence, when
adverse conditions are encountered in these processes, there
is no possibility of another organism taking over for the
affected strain of bacteria.  Consequently, neither nitri-
fication nor sludge digestion are readily acclimated to a
new pollutant and may be easily upset when new conditions are
encountered.

-------
     Significance of Data on the Inhibitory Effects
     of Pollutants	

     As a result of the chemical and biological factors which
affect the inhibitory impact of a pollutant, a given con-
centration of that pollutant may be inhibitory to a biological
process under a given set of conditions and non-inhibitory
under another set of conditions:  Therefore, it is not
surprising that a significant amount of data in the litera-
ture ^ are apparently contradictory/ in that certain concen-
trations have been reported as inhibitory, while higher
concentrations are reported to be harmless.  In most cases,
these inversions of effects with concentration are not due
to errors-of observation, but rather to different conditions
surrounding the biological processes, such as those described.

     The following paragraphs summarize the current available
data on the inhibitory effects of specific substances, as
well$as the chemistry and occurence of the pollutant.  Where
applicable, special effects of each pollutant are described.
Important industrial sources of many of the pollutants dis-
cussed in this section are summarized in Appendix 8 of these
guidelines.   Additionally, Appendix 5 contains tables summarizing
the data on the effects of inorganic, substances.  Appendix 5
also contains graphical presentations of the data for inorganics.


     Inorganic Substances

     Wastewater entering a POTW may contain any combination
of thousands of inorganic compounds present as major or
minor constituents.  Fortunately, since most inorganic sub-
stances dissolved in wastewater are present in ionic form,
it is possible to reduce the number of parameters of
interest to a smaller list of cations and anions which
comprise these dissolved substances.  In addition, a few non-
ionic substances must also be considered.

     The cations of interest consist of the ammonium ion and
various metal ions.  A few metal ions; i.e., sodium, calcium,
and magnesium, are prevalent in wastewaters, but are not
inhibitory except at very high concentrations (about 1000
mg/1, order of magnitude).  Most metal cations, on the other
hand, are beneficial or non-inhibitory at very low concen-
trations.  However, at somewhat higher concentrations (a few
mg/1, order of magnitude)  they become inhibitory to biological
processes.
                            E-5

-------
     A number of metals of interest are  amphoteric;  that is,
they may exist in solution as a cation or anion.   For example,
chromium may form chromic or chromous cations or  the chro-
mate or dichromate anion.  Arsenic can likewise exist as
arsenic or arsenous cations or arsenate  or arsenite anions.

     Many anions (chloride or bicarbonate, for example) are
relatively compatible with biological treatment processes.
Others, such as cyanide, borate, and chlorate can pose diffi-
culties to the biological processes.  A  few neutral substances
are important, especially ammonia and elemental chlorine.

     The significant inorganic constituents which have been
identified as having inhibitory effects  are discussed below,
in alphabetical order.  A summary of the major inhibitory
effects for each inorganic pollutant is  given in Table E-l.

     Acidity, Alkalinity and pH

     The pH of a wastewater represents the relative concen-
tration of hydrogen ions in the fluid.  Although pH is fre-
quently used to describe the acidity or  alkalinity of a
sample, there are fundamental differences between these con-
cepts'.  pH is reported on a scale of 0 to 14, with each pH
unit representing a factor of 10 in hydrogen ion concentra-
tion.  A pH of 7 is considered neutral,  while a solution
with a pH of less than 7 is acidic, and  above 7 is  alkaline.

     A distinction should be made between acidity and an acidic
solution, and similarly between alkalinity and an alkaline solu-
tion.  As discussed above, a pH of less  than 7 indicates an acidi
solution.  On the other hand, the acidity of the solution
is a measure of its capacity to maintain its pH during the
addition of an alkaline solution.  For example, if an acidic
solution has a pH of 6 and the addition of one drop of an
alkali raises its pH to 9, it has less acidity than an
equal volume of another pH 6 solution that needs ten drops
of the same alkali to increase its pH to 9.

     Most natural unpolluted waters have a pH value near
neutral  (pH 6 to 8) .  Excess carbonic acid gas (carbon
dioxide) can result in lower  (more acidic) pH values, while
soluble carbonates, borates or silicates may produce higher
 (more alkaline) pH values.

     Most bacteria favor an environment of pH 6 to 8.  Rare
microorganism species may tolerate or even thrive in wastes
of extremely low or extremely high pH, but these are not


                            E-6

-------
                                   TABLE E-l
 POLLUTANT
Ammonia
Arsenic
Borate(Boron)

Cadmiurn
Calcium
Chromium
 (Hexavalent)
Chromium
 (Trlvalent)
Copper

Cyanide

Iron
Lead
Manganese
Magnesium

Mercury

Nickel
Si 1ver
Sodium
Sulfate
Sulfide
Zinc
THRESHOLD CONCENTRATIONS OF INORGANIC POLLUTANTS
THAT
ACTIVATED
SLUDGE
PROCESSES
480
0.1
0.05-100
10-100
2500
1-10
50
1.0
0.1-5
1000
0.1
10

0.1-5.0
1.0-2.5
5



0.08-10
ARE INHIBITORY TO BIOLOGICAL
TREATMENT PROCESSES
CONCENTRATION (mg/1)
ANAEROBIC NITRIFICATION
DIGESTION PROCESS
PROCESSES
1500
1.6
2
0.02
t
50 0.25
50-500
1.0-10 0.005-0.5
4 0.34
5
0.5

1000 50
1365
0.25

3500
500
50
5-20
0.08-0.5
REFERENCES
E-17.E-20.E-29
E-5.E-21
E-5,E-9,E-44,
E-l 28
E-21.E-29.E-104
E-26.E-37.E-120
E-5.E-29.E-78,
E-117.E-129
E-88
E-2.E-5.E-24,
E-78.E-100.E-109
E-5.E-15.E-21,
E-118, E-129
A-l. E-21
E-5
E-21
E-26.E-37.E-100
E-l 20
E-21.E-28.E-70,
E-118
E-14.E-25, E-118,
E-8.E-9.E-21
E-26,E-37,E-120
E-ll.E-17
E-19.E-35
E-4,E-5,E-6,E-7,
E-33,E-78,E-100,







,E-129






E-129




E-29
E-118
    Note:
Concentrations shown represent influent to
the unit processes.
                                       E-7

-------
significant in biological treatment systems.  As a result, pH
values outside this range can cause severe upsets in biological
treatment processes.  This is particularly true of acidic waste-
waters with low pH values in relation to nitrification or anaerobic
sludge digestion.

      Of  equal  importance  to  the absolute pH level in waste-
water is a  sudden  change  in  pH.  Sudden swings of pH are
always disruptive  to an otherwise  stabilized system.   The
effect of extreme  fluctuations in  pH in a waste  stream can
be overcome by collecting, storing, and mixing the variable
waste mixture  in a storage vessel  or pond.  The  effluent from
this pond will show less  variability and consequently  will
respond  to  biological treatment more favorably.

      Discharges  of wastes from commercial manufacturing or
processing  industries may typically result  in wastes ranging
in pH from  about 3 to 11.  Wastes  outside this range are
rare and represent corrosive and dangerous  levels.

      Acidic contributions may be received from many industrial
processes including metal cleaning, plating or treatment plants,
manufacture of drugs and  explosives, processing  of photographic
films, etc.

      Alkaline  contributions  may be received from laundries,
detergent manufacture, bottle cleaners  (dairies,  for example),
textile  processing and cement manufacturing.


      Summary of  Inhibitory Properties :

      1.   The activated sludge process can treat waste  solu-
tions ranging  from about  pH  3 to 11, provided that the pH
 level has been stabilized (E-51).

      2.   Another source  states that inhibitory effects gre
 related to  temperature and were noted above pH 10 at 20 c
 and above pH 9 at  10 C  (E-21).

      3.   It has  been reported that at pH  4  the activated
 sludge process is  43% effective  (E-51).

      4.   The sludge digestion process  is  extremely  sensitive
 to pH, and deviations of pH outside  the range  6.5 to  7.5
 generally cause  upset of sludge  digesters.

      Synergistic  and Antagonistic Effects:

      While high acidity  (low pH)  is  generally  inhibitory
 to biological treatment systems,  the presence  of most  metal
 ions with excess acidity results in much  more  severe  inhibi-
 tory effects.   The reason for this phenomenon  is that at
                             E-8

-------
near-neutral pH values, most transition metal ions tend
to precipitate out as insoluble floes.   These ions also
tend to form hydroxo-complexes at neutral or alkaline pH
values, and these complexes mask the inhibitory properties
of the metal ions.  As the pH is reduced (acidity increased),
the hydroxo-complexes are decomposed, and insoluble metal
hydrous oxide floes redissolve.  The result is that the
full effect of the metal ion concentration is felt by the
microorganism.  Thus, the presence of acidity which is in
itself inhibitory, causes the full release of metal ions
(copper, zinc, iron, lead, etc.) which are also inhibitory,
and a synergistic result occurs.

     Conversely, alkalinity causes the neutralization of
acidity, increases the pH, and tends to precipitate metals
out of solution.  Thus, alkalinity is antagonistic or decreases
the effect of metals.  At high pH levels, where hydroxyl ion
is inhibitory, acidity is antagonistic to excess alkalinity.
Therefore, substances which tend to drive the pH value of
the waste toward the neutral point, tend to help the activated
sludge process to operate satisfactorily.

     Ammonia

     Ammonia (NH_) is a common chemical substance, which is
a gas at room temperature.  It is extremely soluble in water
and its water solution is used as a household cleaning agent.
Ammonia forms a series of salts called ammonium salts.
Inasmuch as ammonia and ammonium ion occur together in
solution and are transformed from one form to another by
shifts in the solution pH, the two substances are usually
treated as a single substance in most of the wastewater
literature.

     Ammonia is an important substance in wastewaters and
serves as a nutrient material to supply nitrogen needed for
microorganism growth.  All ammonium salts encountered are
completely soluble in wastewater.

     Ammonia occurs naturally in most wastewaters as a
result of decomposition of nitrogen containing compounds
in sanitary wastes.  In addition, ammonia is used extensively
in chemical manufacture, water softening, agricultural
fertilizers, refrigeration, metal cleaning and other diverse
applications.
                            E-9

-------
     Summary of Inhibitory Properties2

     1.  At low concentration levels, ammonia serves as an
important nutrient in a healthy biological oxidation system.

     2.  No adverse effects on oxygen consumption are noted
at concentrations of up to 100 mg/1 of ammonia.

     3.  At excessively high levels  (about 480 mg/1) ammonia
exhibits inhibitory effects on the activated sludge process
(E-29) .

     4.  At a concentration of 1500 to 3000 mg/1 ammonia is
inhibitory to anaerobic digestion  (E-17, E-20).

     Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals

     The common alkali metals, sodium and potassium, and alkaline
earths, calcium and magnesium, are widely distributed in nature
and are significant components as salts in most water supplies.
Consequently, these metals are almost universally present in
all wastewater flows, usually as chloride, sulfate or bi-
carbonate salts.

     These metal ions are well tolerated by activated sludge
operations, and only at relatively high concentration levels
have inhibitory effects been noted.  For example, inhibitory
effects on the activated sludge process were noted with slug
dose concentrations of sodium chloride  (common table salt)
of 30,000 to  50,000 mg/1  (E*-5, Er-22, E^49) f but  these inhibi-
tions  may be  primarily caused by  the accompanying high  chloride
levels (E-91).  Upsets have been  reported  in which  seafood
wastewater  contributions  containing high chloride levels
were  indicated  as  the cause of the upset.  Interference
with  a trickling filter was noted at 20,000 mg/1 sodium
chloride  (E-22).   At more moderate concentrations of salt,
no interference with these processes were  noted.

      However, the  anaerobic sludge digestion and nitrifica-
tion  processes  are more sensitive to these cations, and it
appears that  important effects are noted when the relative
concentrations  and absolute concentrations of these metal
cations deviate from certain beneficial values.  Thus,  it
has been reported  that calcium levels of 100 to  200 mg/1 are
stimulatory to  anaerobic digestion; 2500 to 4500 mg/1 are
moderately  inhibitory to  the process; and  a concentration
level of 8000 mg/1 is strongly inhibitory  (E-26, E-37,  E-120).
                            E-10

-------
Similar relations are noted for magnesium, sodium and potas-
sium.  Also/ it has been reported that various combinations
of alkali and alkaline earth ions and the ammonium ion show
either synergistic or antagonistic effects in the operation
of the anaerobic sludge digestion process.  For nitrification
processes a magnesium concentration of 12.5 to 50 mg/1 was
found to be stimulatory, whereas 50-100 mg/1 inhibited the
process (E-100).

     Arsenic

     Arsenic is a metallic element which forms cationic
salts of the arsenic and arsenous forms and anion salts of
the arsenate and arsenite forms.  It is well known for the
poisonous properties of its compounds.  Arsenic is found at
very low concentration levels in most natural waters and is
likewise a trace constituent in most foods.

     Arsenic can enter sewage treatment systems from a number
of commercial operations.  A major use of arsenic compounds
is agricultural pesticides, where it is used in liquid sprays
and dusting powders.  Other uses associated with its toxic
nature are wood preservatives and medicines.  Arsenic com-
pounds also find commercial use in artists' pigments, glass
manufacture, and pyrotechnics.  Probably the most significant
source of arsenic pollution is from agricultural pesticide
use.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  A level of 0.1 mg/1 sodium arsenate  (arsenic concen-
tration 0.04 mg/1) showed no effect on oxygen uptake, while
a level of 1.0 mg/1 of this compound depressed oxygen uptake
about 50% (E-21) .


     2.  A 0.1 mg/1 concentration of arsenic trichloride
(about 0.04 mg/1 arsenic) likewise reduced oxygen uptake
about 50% (E-21).

     3.  A 4 mg/1 concentration of sodium arsenate  (about
1.6 mg/1 arsenic) resulted in a significant reduction in
sludge digestion efficiency (E-5).

     Borate (and other boron species)

     Boron is a light metal.  It forms a series of anionic
salts, including borate, metaborate and tetraborate.  Boron
                            E-ll

-------
salts are found widely distributed in natural waters and
foods, and therefore are natural constituents of sewage.
In addition, boron compounds are constituents of household
detergents and medications which also contribute to boron in
domestic wastewaters.  Boron compounds find application in
the manufacture of glass and ceramics, fireproofing, high
energy rocket fuels and in the operation of nuclear reactors.
Contributions of boron from these sources are probably small.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Boron concentrations of 0.005 to 0.05 mg/1 are
reported to have had no effect on microorganism growth (E-29) .

     2.  Levels of borate from 0.05 to 100 mg/1 have been
reported to interfere with the activated sludge process in
various ways, such as interference with sludge settling and
COD removal (E-5, E-9, E-29, E-44).

     3.  Boron shock loads of 2 mg/1 have been reported to
have affected anaerobic digestion (E-128).

     Cadmium

     Cadmium is a transition metal which forms divalent, salts.
Cadmium salts are somewhat toxic, and are found in domestic
water and wastewater sources only at very low levels.  Con-
tributions to POTW's come from industrial or commercial sources,
with the principal contributions of cadmium coming from metal
plating processes.  Cadmium also finds significant use in
pigment manufacture, photographic applications, dyeing and
calico printing.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Cadmium has no adverse effects on the activated
sludge process up to a concentration level of about 1 mg/1
 (E-21).

     2.  In the range of 10 to 100 mg/1, cadmium shows var-
ious deleterious effects, such as decrease in BOD removal
efficiency and reduction in oxygen uptake (E-21, E-29) .

     3.  An investigator reports that 0.02 mg/1 should be
considered a threshold concentration for cadmium in digesters
(E-104).
                           E-12

-------
     Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects:

     Synergistic effects have been reported on cadmium
and zinc,  as well as cadmium and manganese.  Other heavy
metals may also show Synergistic effects with cadmium.
There is no doubt that acidity would show a synergistic effect
with cadmium.

     Sulfide and high pH (8 and above)  are strongly antagon-
istic with cadmium, since they precipitate the insoluble
sulfide and hydroxide compounds.

     Chromium

     Chromium is a transition metal which forms two import-
ant series of salts, the trivalent chromic cation and the
hexavalent chromate anion.   Chromium is present as a trace
constituent in domestic sewage, but the levels encountered
are not significant relative to POTW operation.

     Chromium is contributed to wastewater from numerous
industrial and other commercial operations.  Especially sig-
nificant sources are the electroplating and electrofinishing
industries.  Another significant source is the use of soluble
chromates as corrosion inhibitors in cooling towers and in-
soluble chromates in corrosion resistant coatings.  Other
sources of commercial discharge of chromium salts include
leather tanning, photographic processing, and textile dyeing.
Unless stated otherwise, the inhibitory properties outlined
below are for hexavalent chromium.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Effect of Chromium on the Activated Sludge Process:

         a.  At a concentration level of 0.005 to 0.05 mg/1,
chromium has a stimulatory effect on microorganism growth
(E-5) .

         b.  Interference with biological processes is re-
ported at the 1 mg/1 concentration level  (E-5).

         c.  Another investigator identifies 10 mg/1 as the
threshold level for deleterious effects  (E-29, E-78).

         d.  In the concentration range of 1 to 50 mg/1, the
published literature is quite confusing and contradictory,
ranging from serious interference to insignificant effects
(E-29, E-118).


                            E-13

-------
         e.  In the range of  50  to 500 mg/1,  the published results
describe various deleterious effects.   These include syner-
gistic effects of chromium with acidity, iron and copper
(E-5, E-29, E-21, E-118).

         f.  Slug doses up to 500 mg/1 of chromium have been
reported to result in relatively minor disturbances to the
activated sludge process (E-29, E-12,  E-36).

         g.  Up to 50 mg/1 of trivalent chromium was reported
to have an adverse effect on activated sludge processes (E-88) .

     2.  Sludge Digestion

         a.  Chromium levels of up to  500 mg/1 in the plant
influent do not affect digestion of the resultant sludge.
This result may be due to precipitation of the insoluble
chromic hydrous oxide (E-118).

         b.  The addition of up to 50  mg/1 of chromium directly
to a sludge digester had a serious effect on digestion (E-78),
and the addition of 500 mg/1 to the digester stopped the
process completely (E-118).

         c.  The effect of trivalent chromium on digestor
operation has been reported to be dependent on the digestion
period. 500 mg/1 trivalent chromium is tolerated in digestors
with 20 day digestion periods,  100 mg/1 with 17 days of
digestion, and 50 mg/1 with 14 days (E-88).

     3.  Nitrification

         a.  It has been reported that 0.25 mg/1 of chromium
will inhibit nitrification to some extent (E-119).

         b.  From 2 to 5 mg/1 of chromium completely inhib-
its the nitrification process (E-29, E-117f E-13).

     4.  Sludge Settling

         a.  Concentrations ranging from 7 to 500  mg/1 of
chromium interferes with sludge settling (E-29).


     Copper

     Copper is a transition metal which  forms salts and
other compounds in two valence  forms.  Monovalent  copper,
copper (I), forms a series  of chemical salts called "cuprous",


                            E-14

-------
while divalent copper, copper (II),forms a series of "cupric"
compounds.  The cuprous  compounds are all relatively insolu-
ble and uncommon,  and are not significant in water pollution
or water treatment chemistry.  Therefore, in this document,
attention has been focused on cupric compounds only, and
references to "copper" below signify the cupric form only.

     The majority of common copper compounds are insoluble,
and therefore do not pose a problem to sewage systems in that
form.  However, copper nitrate, sulfate, chloride salts, and
a number of copper complexes are soluble and these may pose
problems when discharged to sewage treatment plants.

     Copper compounds occur naturally in surface and ground
waters, usually at relatively low concentration levels, and
are natural constituents of domestic drinking water supplies.
Copper also enters domestic sewage flows as a result of rou-
tine household activities, such as washing and preparing of
foods, cleaning of copper utensils, and use of garbage dis-
posal units to macerate waste foods.  In*addition, copper
salts discharge to sanitary sewers as a result of corrosion
of copper and brass plumbing fixtures and pipes.  Also, cor-
rosion of copper roofing and surface run-off leads to addi-
tional discharge of copper to combined sewage systems.

     Finally, copper compounds are discharged from a number
of industrial operations such as metal cleaning and electro-
plating operations.  Engraving, jewelry,  electrical manu-
facturing, chemical industrial processes, and algicide and
insecticide uses all add copper to industrial wastewaters.

     Copper is an essential nutritional food element for man
and lower organisms, and is no doubt essential to the proper
operation of biological waste treatment systems at some un-
determined trace level.  At extremely high concentration
levels  (about 1000 mg/1 and above) essentially all forms of
living species are destroyed and essentially sterile water
results  (E-121).

     The sewage plant operator is concerned with intermediate
concentration levels, at which copper-bearing wastewater may
be processed through the system without causing significant
plant upset.  Above this safe copper concentration, he may be
interested in the various inhibitory effects which may
result.   It is expected that the various biological  treatment
systems  may respond differently to the  same  level of copper
in wastewater.
                            E-15

-------
     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Synergism of copper with the following substances
has been identified:  cyanide, acidity (low pH)  and other
heavy metals.

     2.  Antagonism of copper with the following substances
has been identified:  sulfide, high pH, and certain chelat-
ing agents such as EDTA (E-100).

     3.  Effect of Copper and Copper Complexes on Activated
         Sludge Plants

         a.  One rag/1 of copper has been reported to be the
threshold limit for continuous feed of copper to the activated
sludge process (E-5, E-2, E-109,  E-24, E-78).

         b.  A pilot plant study showed an effect on the
process at 1.2 mg/1, while at 10  mg/1 a small reduction of
plant efficiency of about, 4% or less was reported (E-4,
E-24, E-78, E-118).

         c.  The combination of 3.6 mg/1 of copper with 8.6
mg/1 of cyanide caused a serious  upset of the process (E-16).

         d.  Another reference cites 0.1 mg/1 as the recom-
mended upper limit of copper ion in sewage feed (E-2) .

         e.  For slug doses, it has been reported that doses
above 50 mg/1 for 4 hours show a severe effect (E-21) ; a
64 mg/1 dose for 4 hours showed a slight effect (E-118) ; a
75 mg/1 dose for 4 hours "affected" the system (E-29) ; and
100 to 400 mg/1 showed a severe effect in which plant ef-
ficiency dropped to about 50% for 48 hours as a result of the
slug dose  (E-118, E-2).

         f.  Ten mg/1 of copper in the presence of cyanide
caused a severe effect  (E-29), while 25 mg/1 of copper in
the presence of cyanide caused a very severe effect for
24 hours  (E-118).

         g.  It has been reported that there is an approximate
one-to-one relationship between copper concentration and
effluent COD.  A one mg/1 increase in copper will result in
a one mg/1 increase in effluent COD  (E-60).
                             E-16

-------
         Note that the severity of effects reported for slug
doses of copper does not correspond quite proportionally
with the concentrations of these doses.  Nevertheless, it
may be concluded that slug doses of copper from 50 to 400
mg/1 result in serious upset conditions with the activated
sludge process.

     4.  Effect of Copper on Sludge Digestion

         a.  Data reported on the effect of continuous dos-
ages of from 0.1 to 10 mg/1 of copper in influent wastewater
on sludge digestor operation vary widely.

         b.  Two investigators recommend 1.0 mg/1 as the
maximum concentration of copper in influent wastewater to
avoid digestor operating difficulty (E-5, E-15).

         c.  For direct feed to a combined sludge digestor,
a 5 mg/1 copper dosage is recommended as an upper limit.  For
primary sludge digestion, 10 mg/1 copper is the recommended
upper limit (E-78).

         d.  Various copper concentrations in digesters greater
than 10 mg/1 have been found to be inhibitory  (E-l, E-2,
E-118).

         These data may be summarized by stating that over
the range of copper concentration from 0.1 to 10 mg/1, there
are reports of digestor problems attributed to the presence
of copper, and other reports of digestor tolerance to these
same levels.  These discrepancies are no doubt explicable  in
terms of differences in operating conditions, and antagonistic
or synergistic effects.

     5.  Nitrification - One investigator reports that 0.005
to 0.03 mg/1 of copper is stimulatory to nitrifying bacteria/
concentrations above 0.05 mg/1 copper were found to be
inhibitory (E-100) , and 0.5 mg/1 of copper as copper sulfate
has been reported as inhibitory to nitrification  (E-2).

     Cyanide

     The cyanide ion (CN~) is a pollutant parameter of sig-
nificant interest in POTW influent and effluent, as well as
in rivers, streams and lakes.  Its poisonous character is
universally known, and accounts for the interest in this
pollutant.  The poisonous nature of cyanide is actually
associated more with hydrogen cyanide, which generally is
more prevalent below pH 7, than with the free cyanide
ion.  Therefore, cyanide toxicity is directly  tied

                             E-17

-------
to the pH of the wastewater.   Another interesting aspect of
its poisonous character is that its toxicity is principally
applicable to higher life forms.  Microorganisms present in
sewage treatment plants can adapt to the presence of cyanide,
and metabolize and destroy it even at fairly high concentra-
tion levels.

     An important property of the cyanide ion is that it is
a powerful complexing agent and can bind with transition and
other heavy metal ions to form metal cyanide complexes.
These complexes exhibit neither the properties of the metal
ion nor the cyanide ion, and thus are actually different
chemical substances.

     Cyanide is not a normal constituent of domestic sewage,
and its presence in wastewaters is almost exclusively a
result of manufacturing processes and commercial operations.
Principal sources of cyanide in wastewater are the electro-
plating, coke, petroleum gas, steel, plastics, and chemical
industries.  The electroplating industry is particularly
noteworthy because it combines cyanide wastes with transi-
tion and heavy metal ion wastes.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties :

     1.  Wastewaters containing 0.01 to 0.05 mg/1 of cyanide
have no deleterious effect on an activated sludge plant (E-118)
At levels of from 0.3 to 3 mg/1 of cyanide, some adverse
effects are reported (E-21) .
     2.  Recommended maximum limits of 0.1 to 2 mg/1 of cy-
anide have been reported in the literature (E-5, E-118) .

     3.  5 mg/1 of cyanide in raw wastewater has been found
to interfere with activated sludge processes (E-15) .

     4.  A slug dose of 40 mg/1 of cyanide upset an activated
sludge plant for two days (E-29) .  On the other hand, after
acclimation, 60 mg/1 was tolerated in an activated sludge
plant  (E-21) and 200 mg/1 was tolerated in a trickling filter
plant  (E-29).

     5.  It has been reported that the toxicity of copper
and nickel are enhanced by the presence of cyanide (E-16 , E-118)

     6.  It was reported that cyanide levels of 4 to 100
mg/1 upset the sludge digestion process from four days to
complete retardation (E-5).
                             E-18

-------
     7.  Trickling filter operations have been impaired by
30 mg/1 of cyanide  (E-7),  but 10 mg/1 were destroyed by trick-
ling filter operations.

     8.  The nitrification process was reported to'be in-
hibited by about 75% by 0.65 mg/1 of sodium cyanide  (0.34
mg/1 of cyanide) (E-129).  Other reports indicate that 2 to 72 mg/1
of cyanide as HCN interfered with nitrification, the upper
value completely inhibiting the process (E-5).

     9.  The cyanide ion shows a remarkable range of behavior
with biological processes, from interference at low concen-
trations with non-acclimated systems, to tolerance at high
levels in acclimated systems.

     Iron

     Iron is a transition metal forming two groups of salts,
the divalent ferrous salt series and the trivalent ferric
salt series.  Both the ferrous ion and the ferric ion are
precipitated from solution at neutral pH values as hydrox-
ides .

     Iron salts are natural constituents of both domestic
and commercial wastewaters.  While the levels in domestic
sewage are always low, the levels in certain industrial or
commercial wastes may be excessive.  Major industrial sources
include metal pickling and cleaning processes, chemical manu-
facturing, electric utilities, etc.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Iron is a necessary element for microbiological
growth and its absence causes a reduction in metabolic
activity  (E-39, E-112) .

     2.  The activated sludge process appears to be rather
insensitive to iron concentration except for very high con-
centration levels.  It is reported that 100 mg/1 causes
little adverse effect, but 1000 mg/1 stops oxygen uptake
(E-21).

     3.  The sludge digestion process is more sensitive to
soluble iron concentration.  It is reported that 5 mg/1 is a
maximum level, as higher iron levels cause interference with
the process, due to hydrolysis of the iron and release of
acidity (A-l).  As has been previously emphasized, the sludge
digestion process is very sensitive  to pH values outside the
optimum range of 6.5 to 7.5.  Therefore, the inhibitory effect
                             E-19

-------
of iron is no doubt due to the acidity released (E-5, E-118) .

     4.  A technique to control metal interference with sludge
digestion is to add iron sulfide directly to the digester.
Iron sulfide, although very insoluble, is more soluble than
most other metal sulfides.  When a metal, e.g., copper,
enters the digestor, it reacts with the iron sulfide to pre-
cipitate the copper sulfide, and thus removes the copper
from solution.  The less "toxic" iron is solubilized as a
result.  If the pH is stabilized in the optimum range, the
iron is largely precipitated out as the hydroxide, and the
digester is protected from the effect of the copper.  The
selection of iron sulfide for this use is a result of its
inherent low "toxicity" to microorganisms.

     Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects:

     Synergistic effects occur between pairs of transition
metal ions present in a wastewater.  A specific effect of
iron synergism with chromium has been reported and synergism
with other metals may also occur (E-29).

     Antagonistic effects may be anticipated with sulfide ion
and hydroxyl ion (high pH), due to precipitation of the sul-
fides and hydroxides of iron.  An antagonistic effect should
be expected with cyanide, since the ferrocyanide complex is
very stable and no doubt non-inhibitory to biological pro-
cesses .

     Lead

     Lead is found in natural waters at trace levels as the
divalent ion.  It occurs in domestic sewage as a result of
its presence in the water supply and also as a result of
corrosion of lead plumbing.  It is present in industrial
wastewaters from storage battery manufacture, tetraethyl
lead production, and pigment, paint and cement industries.
It also is contributed to wastewater flow as a result of
manufacture and use of lead-containing pesticides.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  At concentration levels of 0.005 to 0.05 mg/1, lead
has no effect on the activated sludge process.  A moderate
"toxicity" of lead to microorganisms has been reported above
0.1 mg/1 and also above 1 mg/1 (E-5) .

     2.  In apparently contradictory results, one paper
states that a significant effect on oxygen uptake is noted


                             E-20

-------
in the presence of lead from 10 to 100 mg/1 (E-29) , while a
second paper states that no significant change in oxygen con-
sumption is noted at up to 50 mg/1 (E-21).

     3.  Lead concentrations of up to 0.05  mg/1 have been
reported to have no effect on the nitrifying bacteria
nitrosonomas (E-100).

     Manganese

     Manganese is found in domestic sewage  in trace amounts.
The significant aqueous form is the divalent ion.  Manganese
is contributed in the wastewaters from storage battery manu-
facture, paint manufacture, chemical manufacture, etc.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  It has been reported that a concentration'of 7 mg/1
of manganese has no adverse effect on the activated sludge
process.  However, two reports indicate that at 10 mg/1 of
manganese, a severe adverse reaction occurred with the acti-
vated sludge process, and a severe inhibition of oxygen up-
take was experienced.  Oxygen uptake was completely inhibited
at 50 mg/1 of manganese (E-21).

     2.  Manganese salts in the concentration range of 12.5
to 50 mg/1 have the unusual property of stimulating the growth
of the microorganism nitrosonomas (E-29).

     Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects :

     Synergistic effects of manganese with zinc and cadmium
have been reported (E-29).  It is probable that similar syn-
ergistic effects may occur with other transition and heavy
metals, and with acidity.

     Although no data have been found on antagonistic ef-
fects with manganese, it may be presumed that hydroxide and
sulfide, which can precipitate manganese, will act in this
manner.

     Mercury

     Mercury forms two series of salts, the monovalent mer-
curous salts and the divalent mercuric salts.  Most mercury
salts  (of either valence form) are considered to be in-
soluble or sparingly soluble.  However, because of the severe
toxicity of mercury to man, fish, wildlife, and lower organisms,
even the slight solubility poses a substantial threat.
                             E-21

-------
     Mercury is found in typical domestic wastewaters at
extremely low levels.  Commercial contributions occur
principally from the chlor-alkali industry (chlorine-caustic
soda manufacture).  Other sources include chemical, drug,
herbicide, fungicide, and paper products from these industries.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  At a concentration level of 0.1 mg/1 of mercury, one
paper reports no effect on the activated sludge process
(E-21); another paper reports a 10% reduction in oxygen up-
take  (E-28).

     2.  A threshold level for adverse  effects of mercury on
the activated sludge process is reported at about 2.5 mg/1
(E-21).

     3.  An investigator reports that at less than 2.5 mg/1,
mercury has little effect on aerobic processes, but at above
5.0 mg/1,aerobic processes are definitely inhibited (E-70) .

     4.  In the concentration range of  1 to 200 mg/1 there
are numerous reports of different degrees of inhibitory effects
on the activated sludge process (E-122, E-29, E-21).

     5.  A study of mercury behavior in the sludge digestion
process indicated that 43 mg/1 of mercury in the digester
had no adverse effect, and that 1365 mg/1 had an adverse
effect (E-18).

     Nickel

     Nickel is a transition metal which forms a series of
divalent  (nickelous) salts and trivalent (nickelic) salts.
Only the divalent salts are of interest in wastewater manage-
ment.  Nickel is present as a trace constituent in domestic
wastewaters.  Nickel is contributed from some commercial
sources at much higher levels, which could disrupt the opera-
tion of a POTW if no control were used.

     The major source of nickel contribution to wastewaters
is from electroplating and related metal finishing processes.
Other minor sources of nickel in wastewater arise from cor-
rosion of alloys, dyeing, and printing  operations.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Activated Sludge Process

         a.  There appears to be no significant adverse effect
                            E-22

-------
from nickel concentrations of less than one mg/1 (E-118) .

         b.  A threshold effect of nickel on the activated
sludge process is reported between one and 2.5 mg/1 (E-118).

         c.  Various adverse effects on the activated sludge
process are reported for nickel influent concentrations of
2.5 to 200 mg/1 (E-19,  E-21, E-25).   These include reduced
oxygen uptake between 10 to 50 mg/1 of nickel and inter-
ference with solids settling between 2.5 and 10 mg/1 of
nickel (E-14).

     2.  Sludge Digestion - The data available on sludge diges-
tion in the presence of nickel show little or no effect of
nickel (from 10 to 500  mg/1) on the sludge digestion process
(E-l, E-3, E-4, E-19, E-21, E-29, E-118).  In view of the sen-
sitivity of microorganisms to nickel ions, it is clear that
the reason no effect was noted (except in one instance  (A-l),
with up to 500 mg/1 of nickel, is because sulfide and per-
haps hydroxide have precipitated the nickel out of solution,
rendering it harmless.   In the absence of adequate sulfide
(or sulfate) in the digester one would expect lower levels
of nickel to interfere with the process.

     3.  Nitrification - It is reported that a level of one-
half to three mg/1 of nickel has an adverse effect, and 10
mg/1 has a very adverse effect on the nitrification process
(E-25, E-118).

     Silver

     Silver is a transition metal which forms a series of
monovalent salts.  It has few soluble salts.  Silver is not
normally a significant constituent of domestic wastewaters.
Because of its relatively high cost, commercial contributors
usually make an effort to recover as much silver as is
economically practical.

     The principal source of silver in wastewaters is the
photo processing industry.  Silver salts are removed from
photographic film with sodium thiosulfate  (hypo) , and the
films are rinsed free of the hypo.  In large photoprocessing
installations, the silver is recovered from the hypo.  Resid-
ual traces in rinse water are not economical to recover, and
these residuals result in contributions to the waste load.

     Silver ion is extremely toxic to microorganisms, being
one of the most reliable disinfectants known.  Therefore,
it would be anticipated that silver discharges to a POTW
                           E-23

-------
could cause interferences with its operation.   However, in
the case of contributions from the photoprocessing industry,
the sterilizing effect of silver is generally  not encountered.
The reason for this anomaly is that virtually  all of the sil-
ver released from a photoprocessing plant is in the form of
the thiosulfate complex.  This complex does not display any
of the "toxic" properties of silver ion.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Free silver ion at the 5 mg/1 level causes an 84%
inhibition of the activated sludge process (E-8, E-9).  At
the 25 mg/1 level, inhibition is complete (E-21).

     2.  In contrast, silver present as the thiosulfate com-
plex, at levels of from 2 mg/1 to greater than 250 mg/1 of
silver had no effect (E-8, E-9).

     Sulfate

     The sulfate radical is a common constituent of natural
water supplies and, as a result, is also a common constituent
of domestic and commercial wastewater streams.  Numerous
industries release sulfates; for example, metal cleaning or
"pickling" is carried out with sulfuric acid,  which may be
neutralized and contributed to a municipal sewer.  Similarly,
air pollution scrubbers collect abundant quantities of sul-
fates and sulfites which may be released to the sewers.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  No data have been found on inhibitory effects of
sulfate on the activated sludge process but presumably,
adverse effects would occur at some elevated concentrations.

     2.  Inhibitory effects have been noted in sludge diges-
tion.  At greater than 500 mg/1, an adverse effect of sul-
fate in sludge digesters is reported (E-ll, E-17) .  At a
level of 2400 mg/1 of sulfate, it is reported  that the gas
generation was reduced by less than 12% from that without
high sulfate level.  At a sulfate level greater than 2400
mg/1, there is a report of complete cessation  of gas pro-
duction (E-19).

     Sulfide

     The sulfide ion is a common constituent of domestic
wastewater, especially when anaerobic conditions occur.  Sul-
fides may be discharged in wastes from petroleum refining,
                           E-24

-------
the leather tanning industry, and chemical manufacturing in-
dustries .

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Excessive levels of sulfide would interfere with the
activated sludge process by depleting the dissolved oxygen
transferred in the aeration process.  One investigator reports
that 25 to 50 mg/1 of sulfide, is tolerable for about one
week (E-29) .

     2.  Sulfide is beneficial to the anaerobic digestion
process at low concentrations because of its ability to pre-
cipitate transition and heavy metals out of solution.  At
higher concentrations, and subject to conditions in the
digester, sulfide becomes inhibitory.

     3.  Reports of tolerance to sulfide in the sludge
digestion process include the following reports:  50 to 100
mg/1 of sulfide can be tolerated (E-120); 200 mg/1 causes
less than 12% loss in gas generation (E-19); and up to 200
mg/1 of sulfide can be tolerated (E-120).

     4.  Sulfide concentrations of 150 to 200 mg/1 in the
digestor feed reduced gas production considerably (E-35,
E-19).

     5.  Reports of inhibitory effects include the follow-
ing conclusions:  Greater than 50 mg/1 of sulfide reduces gas
production considerably; 100 mg/1 of sulfide causes from
a 33% to 50% loss in gas generation; no methane forms with
more than 165 mg/1 of sulfide; 200 rag/1 of sulfide causes
an 80% loss of gas generation; greater than 200 mg/1 of
sulfide is quite toxic, causing complete cessation of gas
generation; and 400 mg/1 of sulfide causes 95% loss of gas
generation (E-19).

         It is clear that the effect of a given level of sul-
fide ion may be quite variable, depending on specific process
conditions.  The reported contradictory effects of sulfide on
anaerobic digestion, points to the dependence of inhibition
or tolerance on other factors.

     Zinc

     Zinc is a transition metal which forms a series of
divalent salts.  It has amphoteric behavior; i.e., it forms
zinc cations and zincate anions.  Zinc has a rather wide-
spread occurrence, and is a normal constituent of domestic


                            E-25

-------
wastewaters.  Zinc is contributed to sewage flow from a number
of industries, including electroplating,  dye and pigment manu-
facture, rubber processing, and electrical generation.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Activated Sludge Process

         a.  A number of reports cite tolerance of the acti-
vated sludge process to zinc, up to concentration levels of
10 mg/1 (E-4, E-6, E-21).

         b.  There is a report of an adverse effect in the
0.08 to 0.5 mg/1 range and a report that  the threshold level
is between 5 and 10 mg/1 (E-29, E-33).

         c.  Reports of inhibitory effects are given over the
range of 20 to 160 mg/1  (E-118, E-29, E-6, E-5, E-67) .

         d.  Synergistic effects are noted between one mg/1
of zinc with 10 mg/1 of cadmium,between 10 mg/1 of zinc and
100 mg/1 of manganese, and between 10 mg/1 of zinc and 10
mg/1 of cadmium.

     2.  Sludge Digestion

         a.  Two references cite no adverse effects of zinc
with the sludge digestion process for 10  mg/1 and 10 to 20
mg/1 of zinc, respectively (E-3, E-6).

         b.  Two references cite adverse  effects of zinc on
the sludge digestion process at 20 mg/1 and 1000 mg/1 re-
spectively (E-118, E-5).   Other investigators indicate 5 mg/1
zinc as the upper limit to prevent decreases in digester gas
production (E-7, A-l), and 10 mg/1 as the highest continuous
dosage that will allow satisfactory digestion (E-78) .

     3.  Solids Settling

         a.  Adverse effects on solids settling have been
reported for 7.5 and 15 mg/1 slug doses of zinc solution over
a half hour period (E-29).

     4.  Nitrification - Inhibition of nitrifying bacteria by
0.08 to 0.5 rag/1 of zinc has been reported (E-100) .
                            E-26

-------
     Organic Substances

     Organic chemicals may be characterized as those com-
pounds made up of carbon in combination with hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus.  The following list is rep-
resentative of some of the categories of organic compounds
with biological and/or commercial importance.

     Petroleum products
     Perfumes and flavors
     Antibiotics and vitamins
     Insecticides and fertilizers
     Plastics and synthetics
     Dyes and pigments
     Sugars
     Paint and coatings
     Explosives and propellants

Wastewaters reaching a POTW may contain any number of organic
substances.

     Although most organic compounds appear to be compatible
with aerobic biological treatment systems, some have been
known to cause treatment plant upsets.

     It appears to be generally true that anaerobic digestion
is the biological treatment process which is most susceptible
to upset by inhibitory substances, especially chlorinated
hydrocarbons (E-109).  Nitrification is also sensitive to
organics, although acclimation is possible.  Autotrophic
bacteria which are involved in nitrification are more readily
inhibited than are the heterotrophic bacteria which are
involved in the oxidation of carbon compounds.  Organic
sulfur compounds, especially those with sulfur-carbon-nitrogen
linkage are inhibitors of nitrification (E-109).

    The significant organic constituents which have been
identified as having inhibitory effects are discussed below,
and are summarized in Table E-2.
    Alcohols

     An alcohol is a hydrocarbon in which one of the hydrogens
is replaced by a hydroxy  (-OH) group.  The lower molecular
weight alcohols are relatively polar substances and are com-
pletely miscible with water.  With increasing size of the
hydrocarbon group the alcohols become increasingly insoluble
in water.  Polyhydroxy alcohols contain more than one hydroxy
group per molecule.  One of these, ethylene glycol, is used
                           E-27

-------
                        TABLE E-2
THRESHOLD CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
THAT ARE INHIBITORY
TO BIOLOGICAL

TREATMENT PROCESSES

ACTIVATED
SLUDGE
POLLUTANT PROCESSES
Alcohols
Allyl
Crotonyl
Heptyl
Hexyl
Octyl
Propargyl
Phenols
Phenol 200
Creosol
2-4 Dinitrophenol
Chlorinated Hydro-
carbons
Chloroform
Carbon Tetrachloride

Methylene chloride
1-2 Dich lor oe thane
Dich lorophen*
Hexachlorocyc lohexane
Pent achloropheno 1*
Tetrachloroethylene
1, If 1, -Trichloroethane
Tr ich loroethy lene
Trichlorofluoromethane*
Tr ichlorot r i f louroethane
(Freon)
Allyl Chloride
Dich lorophen
Organic Nitrogen Compounds
CONCENTRATION (rag/1)
ANAEROBIC NITRIFI-
DIGESTION CATION
PROCESSES PROCESSES

100 19.5
500
500
1000
200
500

4-10
4-16
150


10-16
10-20

100-500
1
1
48
0.4
20
1
20
0.7

5
180
50




REFERENC

E-ll, E-
E-ll
E-ll
E-ll
E-ll
E-ll

E-2 3, E-
E-102,
E-129


E-ll, E
E-51, E
E-109,
E-51, E
E-109
E-109
E-109
E-109
E-109
E-109
E-109
E-109

E-109
E-129
E-129

Acrylonitrile
E-109
                           E-28

-------
                       TABLE E-2 (Continued)

                                CONCENTRATION (mg/1)
                          ACTIVATED
                           SLUDGE
POLLUTANT                 PROCESSES

Organic Nitrogen Compounds
     (Continued)

  Thiourea
  Thioacetamid
  Analine
  Trinitrotoluene (TNT)     20-25
  EDTA                      25
  Pyridine

Surfactants
  Nacconol                  200
  Ceepryn                   100

Miscellaneous Organic
Compounds
  Benzidine                 500
  Thiosemicarbazide
  Methyl isothiocyanate
  Allyl isothiocyanate
  Dithio-oxamide
  Potassium thiocyanate
  Sodium methyl
    dithiocarbamate
  Sodium dimethyl
    dithiocarbamate
  Dimethyl ammonium
    dimethyl
    dithiocarbamate
  Sodium cyclopentamethylene
    dithiocarbamate
  Piperidinium
    eye lopentamethylene
    dithiocarbamate
  Methyl thiuronium
    sulphate
  Benzyl thiuronium
    chloride
ANAEROBIC
DIGESTION
PROCESSES
NITRIFI-
CATION
PROCESSES
              0.075
              0.14
              0.65

              300
              100
              0.9

             13.6


             19.3

             23


             57

              6.5

             49
REFERENCES
           E-109, E-129
           E-109, E-129
           E-129
           E-33
           E-93,  E-129
           E-102
                        E-63
                        E-63
.
0.18
0.8
1.9
1.1
300
E-10
E-129
E-129
E-129
E-129
E-129
            E-129

            E-129


            E-129

            E-129


            E-129

            E-129

            E-129
                              E-29

-------
                       TABLE E-2  (Continued)

                                CONCENTRATION  (mg/1)
POLLUTANT
Miscellaneous Organic
Compounds  (Contd.)
  Tetramethyl thiuram
    momosuIphide
  Tetramethyl thiuram
    disulphide
  Diallyl  Ether
  Dimethyl-
    paranitrosoaniline
  Guanidine carbonate
  Skatole

  Strychnine
    hydrochloride
  2 chloro-6 trichloro-
    methyl-pyridine
  Ethyl urethane
  Hydrazine
  Methylene blue
  Carbon disulphide
  Acetone
  8-hydroxyquinoline
  Streptomycin
ACTIVATED
 SLUDGE
PROCESSES
ANAEROBIC
DIGESTION
PROCESSES
NITRIFI-
CATION
PROCESSES
                         50

                         30
                        100

                          7.7
                         19
                         Ifr. 5
                          7.0

                        175

                        100
                        250
                         58
                        100
                         35
                        840
                         73
                        400
Note:  Concentrations shown represent influent to
       the unit process.  Where indicated with a *,
       the concentration represents total plant
       influent.
REFERENCES
                       E-129

                       E-129
                       E-129

                       E-129
                       E-129

                       E-129

                       E-129

                       E-129
                       E-129
                       E-129
                       E-129
                       E-129
                       E-129
                       E-129
                       E-129
                              E-30

-------
extensively as an antifreeze.  Alcohols may be found in the
effluents from the Pharmaceuticals, alcoholic beverages,
anti-freeze chemicals and plastics manufacturing industries.
One investigator reports that 19.5 mg/1 of alky1 alcohol
inhibits nitrification by 75% (E-129).


       Effect of Some Alcohols on Anaerobic Digestion

                                                Inhibitory
                                   Water       Concentration
Alcohol              Use          Solubility       (mg/1)

Allyl             Plastics        Miscible           100
 (CH2=CH-CH2OH)

Propargyl                         Miscible            50
 (CH=C-CH2OH)

Crotonyl                          Partly             500
 (CH3-CH=CH-CH2OH)                 Soluble

Hexyl             Antiseptic     Slight            1000
 (C6H13OH)

Heptyl                            Slight             500
 (C7H15OH)

Octyl             Perfume         Insoluble          200
    Phenols

    Phenols are aromatic hydrocarbons with  a hydroxy  (-OH  )
group substituted for a hydrogen  in  the  ring.   Cresols  are
phenols with a methyl group substituted  for a second  hydrogen
in the benezene ring.  Domestic wastewaters do not generally
contain significant amounts of phenols.   Phenols  can  cause
significant problems if present in domestic water supplies
since the chlorophenols that may  be  produced during chlorinat-
ion can be odorous.

    Phenols are basic organic chemicals  used in many  indus-
trial syntheses, including plastics  production, dyes/ and
                            E-31

-------
Pharmaceuticals.  Phenolic wastewater is also produced as a
by-product of petroleum refining.

      Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

      There is an extremely diverse reaction to phenolic
wastes in the activated sludge process depending upon whether
the sludge has been acclimated to phenol.  Relatively small
amounts of phenol can be inhibitory to unacclimated sludge.
However, with acclimation, and use of the complete mixing
mode of operation, high concentrations of phenol can be tol-
erated.  The following results taken from the literature
substantiate this conclusion  (E-23).

      1.  Phenol slug doses of 200 mg/1 can deactivate aerobic
treatment plants by killing the biomass (E-23).

      2.  One investigator reports a progressive inhibition of
nitrification between 4 and 10 mg/1 of phenol or creosol.
5.6 mg/1 of phenol has been found to inhibit nitrification
by 78% (E-129).  Cresol   at concentrations of 4-5 mg/1
inhibits nitrification(E-102).  12.6 mg/1 of o-cresol, 11.4
mg/1 of m-cresol and 16.5 mg/1 of p_-cresol were found to
inhibit nitrification by 75%  (E-129).

      3.  150 mg/1 of 2-4 dinitrol phenol also decreased
nitrification by 75% (E-129).

      4.  A particular bacteria found in the activated sludge
biomass (bacillus cerus) is capable of metabolizing phenol.
Concentrations of up to 1000 mg/1 of phenol are not harmful
to this species (E-32).

      Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

      Hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atom is
 replaced by a chlorine atom can be classified as  chlorinated
 hydrocarbons.  These materials do not occur in nature but
 can be found in domestic water supplies as a result  of chlorine
 disinfection and the consequent chlorination of trace hydro-
 carbons.   Chlorinated  hydrocarbons are known for  their per-
 sistence in the environment and are  considered especially
 dangerous because of their ability to be accummulated in  the
 tissues  of higher life forms.  As a  result, many  chlorinated
 hydrocarbons, particularly pesticides, have been  banned from
 environmental use,  or  their use has  been curtailed.

      Chlorinated  hydrocarbons are employed in a broad range
 of industrial applications including use as solvents  and
                          E-32

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degreasing agents,  agricultural chemicals, disinfectants,
dry cleaning agents,  soaps and shampoos,  wood preservatives,
propellants and refrigerants, as well as  in chemical manu-
facturing.  The inhibitory properties of  several important
chlorinated hydrocarbons are detailed below.

     Chloroform

     Chloroform (CHC1.,)  is a low boiling point liquid which
is only slightly soluole in water.  It is used as a solvent
for fats,  oils, rubber,  alkaloids, waxes, resins, as a
cleansing  agent, in fire extinguishers, and in the rubber
manufacturing industry.
     Summary  of  Inhibitory Properties:

     1.   Continuous  doses of chloroform at 16 mg/1 or more
in the raw sludge  feed caused inhibition of anaerobic diges-
tion. Continuous  doses at concentrations of 10 and 11 mg/1
produced a noticeable drop in gas yield (E-110 , E-ll).

     2.   At 1.5  mg/1 of chloroform there is no inhibition of
sludge digestion/while at 14.9 mg/1 inhibition is complete
(E-51).

     3.   One investigator reported slight reduction in diges-
ter gas  production caused by chloroform at a concentration
of 0.1 mg/1.   Also included in this report is  a reference
to an investigation that reported a 50% gas reduction due
to 0.96  mg/1 of  chloroform  (E-107).

     4.   The effect of shock dosing with chloroform was
determined in laboratory digesters.  The table shows the
average  percentage inhibition of gas production for each
shock dose in the raw sludge  (E-110) :
Shock Dose of CHC13 in
Raw Sludge Feed (mg/1)

         1
         5
        10
        16
        20
Average % Inhibition

       3.1
      10
      16.9
      42.3
      54.3
      Carbon Tetrachloride
      Carbon tetrachloride  (CCi4) is a colorless nonflammable
                            E-33

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liquid which is insoluble in water and has a characteristic
odor.  It is very toxic to humans.  It is a general purpose
solvent with broad industrial applications.  Carbon tetra-
chloride has been used as a fire extinguisher, a drying agent,
a chemical intermediate, and as an exterminating agent.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  Carbon tetrachloride at levels of 10 mg/1 in sludge
has  been found to be toxic to anaerobic digestion (E-109) .

     2.  Carbon tetrachloride is reported to inhibit digestion
as follows  (E-51):


Concentration Level
	(mg/1)	             Percent Inhibition

       0.8                               0
       7.9                              40
       19.7                              90
     159.4                             100
      3.   50 % reduction in methane production occurred at  2.2
 mg/1  (E-107) .

      4.   Another investigator showed that 100% inhibition
 of gas production during anaerobic digestion required a carbon
 tetrachloride dosage of 16 mg/1  (E-103).

      Methylene Chloride

      Methylene chloride  (CH-Cl-) is a colorless, nonflammable,
 liquid which is slightly water soluble.  It is used as a
 solvent  for  cellulose acetate, as a degreasing agent, clean-
 ing fluid and anesthetic.

      Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

      1.   Methane production in anaerobic digestion was re-
 duced by 50% in the presence of  100 mg/1 of methylene chloride
 (E-107).

      2.   Methylene chloride showed the  following reduction  in
 gas production during anaerobic  digestion for each  dosage in
 the raw  sludge  (E-51) :
                            E-34

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Concentration (mg/l)
          Percent Inhibition
        1.3
        3.3
        9.9
      132.6
      530.4

     Chlorobenzenes
                   0
                  40
                  60
                  80
                 100
     Chlorobenzenes are used as solvents, chemical inter-
mediates ,  for moth control and as deodorants.
     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  The following table  presents data on the
inhibitory effect of Chlorobenzenes in batch digestion tests
(E-107) :
Material
Chlorobenzene
 Time from
 start of
Test (days)
    2
    4
    6
 Concentration (% wt/wt dry
 sludge solids) in digester
    .	contents	
 % Reduction in Gas Production
                                   20
                     35
1.3    1.7
1.0    1.4
0.94   1.3
         50

        2.1
        1.9
        1.7
           80

          3.4
          3.4
          3.0
Orthodichloro-
 benzene
    2
    4
    6
1.1
0.88
0.73
1.6
1.4
1.2
2.4
2.0
1.6
  5.4
  4.7
  3.8
Paradi chloro-
 benzene
Certi-chlor*
    2
    4
    6

    2
    4
    6
2.1
1.8
1.4

0,7
0.62
0.54
2.6
2.4
2.1

1.6
1.3
1.1
3.0
3.1
2.7

2.5
2.1
2.0
  8
7-8
  5.3

  4.9
  4.9
  4.3
     * A proprietary material similar  to  ortho-dichlorobenzene
       and consisting largely of  that  material.
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      Miscellaneous Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
      1.  The following table was developed by an investigator
to describe the concentrations of various chlorinated hydro-
carbons that have exhibited inhibitory effects on anaerobic
treatment processes  (E-109).
        Toxicity  of  Some  Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
                   to Anaerobic Digestion
Chlorinated Hydrocarbon
Carbon tetrachloride
1,2 Dichloroethane
Dichlorophen
Hexachlorocyclohexane
Methylene Chloride
Pentachlorophenol
Tetrachloroethylene
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Trichloroethylene
Trichlorofluoromethane
Trichlorotrifluoroethane
  Inhibitory Concentrations
          (mg/i)	
In Sewage         In Sludge

                      10
                       1
    1
   0.4
   0.7
                      48
                      20
                       1
                      20
     2.  A slight reduction in digester gas production was
observed as a result of a concentration of 0.1 mg/1 of
1,1,1-trichloroethane  (E-107).

     3.  A 75% reduction in nitrification was reported in
the presence of  180 mg/1 of allyl  chloride  (E-129).
     Agricultural Chemicals

     Insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides are manu-
factured from chlorinated hydrocarbons and from organo-phos-
phorus compounds.  Some of these materials are damaging to
sewage treatment processes and to fish and wildlife in very
small concentrations  (DDT, aldrin, dieldrin).  Whereas most
other chlorinated hydrocarbons enter the wastewater stream
as a result of industrial manufacturing processes, agricultural
chemicals usually enter wastewater and natural streams by means  r>f
runoff.
                            E-36

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     Summary  of  Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  One  laboratory test revealed that two pesticides,
aldrin and  simazine,were not inhibitory to the growth of
nitrifying  bacteria,  Nitrobacter, whereas five other pesti-
cides including  chlordane, heptachlor,  lindane, CIPC, and
ODD prevented growth.  Heptachlor was the most deleterious
compound  (E-99) .

     Organic  Nitrogen Compounds

     Many organic  compounds contain nitrogen, commonly in
the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond.  Because of the numerous
nitrogen oxidation levels ,the chemistry of organic nitrogen
substances  is quite diverse.  At its lowest oxidation state
nitrogen forms amines.  The most common amine is ammonia.
Amines are  classified according to the number of hydrocar-
bon groups  attached to the nitrogen atom.  Thus one substitu-
tion gives  a  primary amine, two substitutions give a second-
ary amine,  three yields a tertiary amine, and four produces
quaternary  ammonium salts.  Amines are generally soluble
in water, and ionize, exhibiting varying pH dependent proper-
ties. At its highest oxidation state, nitrogen forms nitro
compounds.  These  materials are chemically unstable, and are
easily, and sometimes violently reduced (Trinitrotoluene, TNT,
is a typical  example).  Nitrogen exists at intermediate oxi-
dation states, each producing compounds with differing proper-
ties.

     This plethora of nitrogen compounds exerts a wide range
of environmental effects.  While some nitrogen compounds
are compatible with biological treatment, others are inhibi-
tory. Some nitrogen is required for satisfactory treatment
plant operation and a nitrogen source must be added to those
trade wastes  which are nitrogen deficient.  Some organic nitro-
gen compounds are  completely biodegradable, whereas others
are toxic to  wildlife and some are carcinogenic to man.

     Organic  nitrogen is contributed to sewage from domestic
wastewaters which  contain complex proteinaceous materials,
from agricultural  runoff, and from a variety of industrial
operations.

     Specifically, this class of compounds is used in the
textile, dye, pharmaceutical, plastics, varnishes, perfume,
insecticide,  tanning, synthetic fibers, and solvents indus-
tries .
                            E-37

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     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.  One investigator reports that 5 mg/1 of acrylonitrile
in sludge has an inhibitory effect on anaerobic digestion
(E-109) .

     2.  Another investigator reports that more than 20 mg/1
of acrylonitrile in sludge is not harmful to anaerobic diges-
tion (E-47) .

     3.  0.075 and 0.076 mg/1 of thiourea have been reported
by two investigators as inhibiting nitrification (E-109,
(E-129).

     4.  0.14 and 0.18 mg/1 of thioacetamide have been re-
ported as inhibiting nitrification (E-109, E-129).

     5.  Analine at a concentration of 0.65 mg/1 was found
to inhibit nitrification by 75%  (E-129).

     6.  At concentrations of 20-25 mg/1 of TNT, aerobic pro-
cesses were severly inhibited (E-33).

     7.  Increasing amounts of EDTA adversely effect
settleability of secondary sludge and increases surface scum.
At greater than 10 mg/1 there is a decreased utilization
of oxygen.  At more than 25 mg/1 there is a toxic effect on
coliform bacteria (E-93) .  A concentration of 300 mg/1 of
EDTA has been found to inhibit nitrification by 75% (E-129) .

         fPyridine and  the methylpyridines which occur  in  coke
       iquors  are varied in  the  ability to inhibit nitrifica-
tion  (E-102) as follows:

                              Concentration   % Inhibition  of
                                 (mg/1)	   Nitrification

Pyridine                           100           100
4-Methylpyridine                   100           100
3-methylpyridine                   100        No Effect
2-methylpyridine                   100           40

     Surfactants

     This  group of  chemicals  comprises those substances which
have surface  active properties.   This includes synthetic
detergents , emulsifiers,  foaming agents, and wetting agents.
These  substances comprise normal constituents in domestic
                             E-38

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sewage,  mostly associated with laundry detergents and com-
mercial  cleaning formulations.  In addition, they are con-
tributed by numerous industrial and commercial sources, in-
cluding  commercial laundries, wool scouring plants, dyeing,
and rubber processing.

     Surfactants may interfere with operation of a POTW in
a number of ways.  The surfactant may be inhibitory to biologi-
cal processes because of its chemical properties.  The sur-
factant  may also interfere through  various  physical  effects  by
causing  excessive foaming, interfering with oxygen transfer
or dispersing the biomass floe and causing loss of solids.

     Summary of Inhibitory Properties:

     1.   Laboratory tests with the anionic surfactant Nacconol
(at 100  mg/1) showed a stimulatory effect on the activated
sludge process.  At concentration levels greater than 200
mg/1, inhibitory effects were noted.  These effects were
worse at low pH  (about 5) and low sludge loadings (E-63).

     2.   In another laboratory test with the cationic surfactant
Ceepryn, 100 mg/1 of this material suppressed oxygen uptake.
The effect was more deleterious at high pH  (about 9)  (E-63).

     3.   In a pilot plant study, it was noted that  10 mg/1
of an alkyl benzene sulfonate  (ABS) surfactant had  a
negligible effect on the activated sludge process.  It was
reported that higher concentrations can be very inhibitory
(E-61) .

     4.   In another test, 10 and 20 mg/1 levels of ABS
caused minor losses (5 to 8%) in BOD  removal efficiency in
the activated sludge process.  In the same study, a linear
.alkyl sulfate  (LAS) at 10 and 20 mg/1 caused a loss of only
one to two percent BOD removal in the activated sludge
process  (E-50) .

     5.   A laboratory study determined that a surface active
agent at concentration levels from near zero to 50 mg/1 inter-
fered with oxygen transfer to water (E-92).

     6.   Digestion is likely to be seriously affected if
the detergent concentration exceeds 2% of the weight of sus-
pended solids.  Initiation of digestion processes may be
difficult at a detergent concentration of only 1% (E-109).
                            E-39

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      Miscellaneous Organic Chemicals

      Benzidine

      A laboratory experiment is reported which showed that
 500  mg/1 of benzidine inhibited oxygen uptake for 144 hours.
 At 5  mg/lf  sludge activity decreased (E-10).

      t-butyl Borane

      In laboratory tests 500 mg/1 of t-butyl borane was found
 to be inhibitory to activated sludge processes.

      Formaldehyde

      A level of 500 mg/1 of formaldehyde. was found to be
 stimulatory to activated sludge processes.


      Benzene/ Toluene, Xylene

      Benzene and Xylene at the 1000 mg/1 level are reported
 to seriously retard sludge digestion.  Toluene at the 500
 mg/1  level  has no appreciable effect on the  process.
       *
      Oil and Grease

      The term oil  and grease covers a wide variety of sub-
stances that might  be found in the influent to a POTW.  Unlike
other constituents, which usually have well defined chemical
forms, oil and grease characteristics are usually dependent
on the method by which the material is analyzed.  Instead
of oil and grease representing a specific chemical species,
it is best defined  as those organic substances with similar
solubilities  in a particular extracting solvent.

      The most commonly  used solvents for oil and grease
analysis are hexane, petroleum ether and freon.  These sol-
vents will extract  a broad spectrum of organic materials,
including fatty acids, soaps, esters, fats, waxes and various
petroleum products  (E-131).  Freon is specifically recommended
by EPA  as the solvent for oil and grease extractions.  Con-
sequently, it is essential that all oil and grease measure-
ments be completed  utilizing the freon method to assure
uniformity of results.

      Oil and grease is  a natural constituent of sewage.  It
has been reported that fecal material contains more than 25%


                             E-40

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grease (E-129).   Additionally, domestic kitchen wastes con-
tribute a large  quantity of solvent extractable materials.
Commercial or industrial sources of oil and grease include
slaughter houses, food processers and restaurants, as well
as automobile service stations and petroleum refineries or
storage depots.   Although oil and grease from all of these
sources may be extracted by the same solvent, and therefore
considered a single constituent, the substances included
in the analysis  may or may not be biodegradeable.

      In general, the 4elineation between biodegradeable oil
and grease and the more refractory extractable substances,
corresponds to the distinction between oil and grease of
animal and vegetable origin versus that of petroleum origin.
Oil and grease of animal and vegetable origin has been reported
to be more biodegradeable than that of petroleum origin
(E-13) .  Nevertheless, many municipalities limit only total
oil and grease (C-98).  Traditionally, oil and grease con-
centration limits were focused on the prevention of sewer
clogging and coating of pumping stations and treatment
facilities, in which case the type of extractable material
present was not  important.  However, distinguishing between
petroleum and animal origin oil and grease can yield informa-
tion on both oil and grease treatability and source.

      In addition to partially passing through a biological
treatment plant, petroleum oil at concentrations ranging
between 50 and 100 mg/1 has been reported to interfere with
the aerobic processes in a POTW (E-23).   It is believed
that the principal interference is caused by attachment of
oil, which has a density less than water, to the bacterial
floe particles,  which are to be gravity settled.  The result
is a slower settling rate, loss of solids by carryover out
of the settling  basin, and excessive release of BOD from the
POTW to the environment (E-108).  Additionally, in activated
sludge units,  oil and grease may coat the biomass, interfering
with oxygen transfer.   As a consequence of this "smothering"
action, a lower  degree of treatment may be achieved (E-130).
Oil and grease may also interfere with the operation of physi-
cal-chemical treatment facilities by coating the activated
carbon and thus  diminishing the adsorption of organic pollutants.

      Oil and grease may also cause other problems in POTW
operation.  Actual operating problems have been reported in
which oil and grease have clogged screens and interfered
with skimming operations.   Large quantities of oil and grease
may block screens, scum draw-off systems and sludge pumps,
causing excessive loads on mechanical scraping and cleaning
devices.   Excessive oil and grease may also cause serious
                            E-41

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problems in pumping station operation by fouling float
systems so that pumps fail to operate, and by blocking pump
intakes.  Additionally, oil and grease may foul electrodes
used for monitoring volatile and explosive mixtures, causing
a serious hazard.  Since wetwells are seldom pumped dry,
the accumulation of floating oil and grease can cause
operational problems in this portion of the system  (E-130).

      Among the more troublesome operational problems caused
by oil and grease are those associated with anaerobic digester
operation.  Oil and grease can be responsible for foaming
throughout the plant and especially in digester vessels.  If
oil and grease reaches a covered digestor, a crust may form
on the underside of the cover, causing serious maintenance
problems, and reducing the available digestor volume.  Scum
layers in digestors may also interfere with effective mixing,
temperature control and gas separation (E-130).

   Discharge of Excessive Levels of Pollutants
                        »
     Introduction

     Sewage plant operations may be impaired by various types
of shock loads.  Shock loading has been defined as  any  rapidly
occurring change in the chemical or physical environment  of
a plant's biomass caused by the introduction of a new pollu-
tant, or a change in the rate of flow of  a pollutant  (E-73) .
Four specific types of shock loads are commonly encountered
in POTW's:

     1.  Materials Deleterious  at Trace Levels

         The introduction  of specifically deleterious materi-
als such as metallic pollutants  (copper,  zinc, chromium,  etc.)
at trace levels  has  a well defined impact on treatment
plant operation.  These materials interfere with the metabolic
activities within the biomass cells.  Because of the precise
nature of this type of shock load, it is  possible to set
down in advance  the maximum acceptable concentration for  such
pollutants.

     2.  Qualitative Shock Loads

         It has  been reported that if a treatment system
has become  acclimated to  a pollutant, the introduction  of a
new type of organic load  can block the assimilation of  the
waste that  the system was  treating  (E-89) .  This type of  shock
load is  termed Qualitative (E-73), and may be  caused by  the
introduction of  a new waste to  a system which would normally
be biologically  treatable.
                              E-42

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     3.   Quantitative Shock Loads

         Quantitative shock loads may be characterized as
any sudden change in the BOD loading that a plant receives.
Since the type of BOD loading is not changed, as in the case
of qualitative shocks, the result is an inability of the POTW
to treat all of the increased amount of organic matter
entering the plant.  Quantitative shock loads are often called
Excessive Discharge to the POTW, and generally refer to the
introduction of unusually large amounts of BOD to the system.
Other oxygen demand parameters such as COD or TOC may be
used to  describe quantitative shock loads, but BOD is the
most common measure of organic loading and therefore its use
offers the most general description of the phenomenon.


     4.   Hydraulic Shock Loads

         Hydraulic shock loads are characterized by a rapid
decrease in the concentration of the waste or the organic
loading  of the system (E-73).  Such a decrease in loading
may result from the sudden introduction of stormwater into
the system, as is common with combined sewer systems.

     Impact of Excessive Discharge and Shock Loading on
     POTW Operation

     Contributions of trace deleterious materials and quali-
tative shock loads pose a relatively small, although signifi-
cant, problem to the POTW operation.  These two types of
treatment interference can be controlled if the municipality
places an upper limit on the quantity of the material that
would be acceptable.  However, for quantitative shock load-
ing and  hydraulic shock loading, setting limits is not
straightforward.  Several specific problems arise when trying
to define an approach to  controlling  these  two  types of  plant
disruption.  Each POTW is designed to treat a specific maxi-
mum amount of loading.  Most  POTW1 s are operating at levels
which are either above or below design capacity,  and each may be
designed to handle differing diurnal flow patterns.  Because
of the heterogeneous nature of POTW operations and waste
flows it becomes very difficult to predict in advance what
kind of  transient loads a POTW can handle.  Some work has been
completed in this area, and one investigator states that
hydraulic shock loads of up to 100% above normal flow can be
accepted without serious disruption of plant operations
(E-71).   Another researcher has presented a kinetic model
that may enable some operators to predict the response of
treatment plants to quantitative shock loads (E-72).
                          E-43

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     The apparent  lack of data  on  approaches to handling
excessive discharges points out that more research into this
area is needed.  A first order  of  priority should be the
development of a firm definition of what constitutes exces-
sive discharge or  shock loading, and how differing plant
conditions alter the effects of these  types of plant upsets.
For the short term, certain remedial steps can be taken by
plant operators that will reduce the impact of excessive
discharge.  Wherever possible,  industrial contributors should
be required to implement equalization  of concentrated organic
wastes so that they can be released at low flow periods.
Additionally, an effort should  be  made to regulate industrial
sources of stormwater.  Quite often, industrial facilities
discharge stormwater, collected on their plant property, to
sanitary systems that otherwise do not carry stormwater.
To avoid hydraulic overloading,  the municipality should dis-
courage this type  of activity when practiced indiscriminately.
However, the typical industrial stormwater may be contaminated,
and consequently not of high enough quality to be discharged
to a navigable water directly.   Industries should be required
to segregate runoff within the  plant,  providing for the direct
discharge of clean stormwater.   Contaminated runoff should be
collected and stored for subsequent discharge to the sewer.
Equalization of contaminated stormwater for discharge during
low flow periods should decrease the possibility of hydraulically
overloading the POTW, and should be strongly encouraged as a
solution to this problem.

Other Substances Which Interfere with  POTW Facilities

    This category  includes those substances which may interfere
with the operation of a sewage  treatment system, but which
are not necessarily inhibitory  to  biological processes.
Typical substances of this class include corrosive materials,
substances which cause blockages in sewer lines and flammable
or explosive materials.  Although  these materials may not
inhibit biological processes, they can cause serious dis-
ruptions of treatment system operations.  In the case of
corrosive or explosive substances, severe damage to collection
or treatment facilities may result from their introduction
into the system.   Consequently, corrosive or explosive
materials, as well as substances that  may cause sewer line
blockages, are generally totally excluded from POTW systems
by ordinance.  Unlike trace inhibitory materials that may
be tolerable, or even beneficial at low levels, the
prohibited materials included in this  section should be
closely regulated  because of the severity of their effect
on treatment and collection systems.
                              E-44

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     Corrosive Materials

     Corrosion in relation to sewerage systems can be defined
as the phenomenon in which a pipe ,conduit ,or piece of
equipment is gradually deteriorated by the fluid with which
it comes in contact.

     For sewage collection systems/ one of the most prevalent
types of corrosion is a deterioration of concrete pipe
called "crown" corrosion.  In this process, sulfates in
wastewater are reduced under anaerobic conditions to sulfides,
which hydrolyze to hydrogen sulfide.  In addition, an
industry such as an oil refinery or textile manufacturer
may discharge sulfides directly to the sewer.  If the con-
crete pipe is only partially filled, the H-S formed may
diffuse into the air above the fluid, where the bacteria
Thiobacillus can convert it to sulfuric acid.  Sulfuric
acid then reacts with the calcium oxide in the concrete,
forming calcium sulfate or gypsum.  This material is
structurally unsound, and will eventually crumble.

     Coating the interior of concrete pipes with an inert
material can avoid crown corrosion, but an equally effective
preventative measure is the exclusion of sulfides from the
collection system.  Chlorinating sulfide carrying industrial
wastewater is one way of achieving this goal.  However, when
the wastewater contains sulfate, which may be present as a
result of non-carbonate hardness in the water supply,
anaerobic conditions in the sewer should be avoided since
they provide the necessary atmosphere for the creation of
H_S.  Nevertheless, anaerobic conditions may be unavoidable
in many instances.  In those cases, proper sewer ventilation
is necessary not only to provide a measure of safety from
potentially lethal hydrogen sulfide, but also to avoid the
oxidation of H_S to sulfuric acid.  Although sulfide may
be beneficial in terms of precipitating metals, its presence
should be closely monitored to avoid crown corrosion.

     The second type of corrosion is the dissolution of
metallic pipes and structures.  This commonly occurs when
wastewater has a low pH, or contains some other oxidizing
agent.  Generally, waste mixtures should be pretreated to
fall in the pH range of 6 to 9.  Lower pH  (acidic) discharges
will attack and disintegrate metal and concrete pipes and
structures.  Higher pH values are more tolerable, and enforce-
ment of the high pH restriction should be at the discretion
of the POTW operator.  High fluoride levels, especially in
acidic solutions, are a potential corrosion threat.  High


                           E-45

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concentrations of chlorine, hypochlorites and chlorides are
all corrosive to metals.

     Many other products, when reacted with water will form
acidic products which are detrimental to sewer systems.
For example, acetic anhydride will hydrolize to form acetic
acid; acetyl chloride will form acetic and hydrochloric
acids, and ferric chloride will release hydrochloric acid upon
hydrolysis.  Sulfur dioxide and sulfurous acid are also common
materials corrosive to sewers and sewage treatment plants.
Materials Which  Cause  Sewer  Blockages

     Discharges  from commercial and industrial establishments
must be controlled to prohibit materials which will clog
sewers or treatment plants, or form deposits that adversely
affect a sewer's hydraulic characteristics.  Precipitates
such as ferric hydrous oxide can interfere with the activated
sludge system by inhibiting oxygen or food transfer between
sludge particles and the surrounding liquids.  Sulfates and
carbonates can react with calcium salts to form a scale
which can coat and ultimately block pipes.  Fatty acids
similarly react with calcium salts to form a curdy scum
which can coat and block sewer lines.

     Very high levels of suspended solids can cause blockages
in sewer lines and overload primary settling tanks.  Small
fibers from textile industry operations may interfere
with screens and filters by matting and blocking the passage
of wastewaters.

     Grease accumulation can cause sewer line clogging
both in the collection system and in the interconnecting
sewers within the POTW.  Collection systems with restuarant
connections are  especially prone to blockages, unless suitable
grease collection facilities are provided at the contributing
source.  Sewer clogging is most prevalent in small sewer
lines, such as laterals, with 12 inch or smaller diameters.
To cause a blockage problem, oil and grease which is typically
discharged in a  liquid or emulsion form, must congeal or
solidify.  Generally,  the temperatures encountered in sewers
are high enough  to prevent solidification of oil and grease
of petroleum origin   (hydrocarbon type).  However,oil and
grease of animal or vegetable origin can exhibit a broad
range of congealing temperatures.  Some oils and greases of
animal or vegetable origin will congeal at  the highest  tem-
peratures encountered  in sewers, while others may remain
fluid at the lowest temperatures.  The probability that oil
                            E-46

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and grease will  congeal in a sewer pipe depends  on a number
of factors including the type of oil and grease  involved,
temperature  and  the  fluid velocity in the pipe.   A sufficiently
high velocity  in the sewer can prevent clogging  by keeping
all congealed  material in suspension, even if all other con-
ditions  are  appropriate for solidification.

     Explosive and Flammable Materials

     The discharge of potentially explosive or flammable
materials to sewer lines must be strictly controlled.
A serious hazard can be created by hydrocarbon solvents,
which float on the surface of water, and exert their full
vapor pressure on the air space above.  Such substances as
gasoline, kerosene,  naphtha, benzene,toluene and xylene
therefore,  are particularly hazardous.  Ethers,  alcohols,
ketones, aldehydes and organic peroxides similarly pose
fire or explosion hazards.

     Powerful oxidizing substances such as peroxides, chlorates,
perchlorates and bromates are potentially dangerous and
should be restricted.  Substances which can liberate flammable
or explosive gases such as carbides, hydrides, and sulfides
must also be carefully controlled.

     Many of the above chemicals originate from facilities
that manufacture or use organic chemicals.  POTW's with such
facilities among their contributors  should give special
attention to the control of explosive  or flammable materials.
The production of methane  in  sewers  resulting fron anaerobic
conditions also presents a well known  potential explosion
hazard.  Because of the potential hazards caused by the
presence of explosive materials in  sewers, extreme care should
be  taken whenever entering a  sewer manhole.

Environmental Considerations

     Sludge Disposal or Utilization

     Interference with  the biological  unit processes of a
POTW may not represent  the only impact of industrial con-
tributions.  The sludges produced during  the course of
biological treatment will  generally  contain, in a  concen-
trated form, many of the pollutants  contributed to the POTW
that may be considered  inhibitory.   Likewise, if pretreatment
of  industrial wastes is practiced, many of the undesirable
industrial constituents undoubtedly  will be  concentrated  in
the industrial sludge.  Those responsible for disposing of


                             E-47

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these sludges  should  be  aware  of  the  potential impact of
industrial wastes  (A-20).   Of  most concern are those pollu-
tants that are generally considered deleterious to the environ-
ment.  Specifically,  the so called "heavy metals" and various
chlorinated hydrocarbons,  such as polychlorinated biphenyls
are of major concern.

     Depending on  the sludge disposal or utilization method
employed, potentially harmful  materials in sludges may have
varying effects.   Four methods of sludge disposal or utiliza-
tion are currently in common practice.  These methods include
(1) land application, (2)  disposal in sanitary landfills,
(3) ocean dumping  and (4)  incineration (A-20, E-132, E-134).

     Spreading sludges on land is generally considered a
sludge utilization method,  since  the  sludge acts as a source
of nutrients or as a  soil conditioner.  Using sludge from
municipal wastewaters containing  incompatible pollutants
requires a certain degree of caution.  Because the waste-
waters from certain industries contain concentrations of
potentially harmful elements such as  zinc, copper, nickel,
cadmium, boron, lead  or  mercury which are concentrated in the
sludge, it is  important  to be  aware of the possible effect of
these substances on the  environment (E-133).  Trace levels
of many of these elements are  essential to plant growth,
although higher concentrations may have deleterious effects.

     High concentrations of many  of the substances mentioned
above have been noted in sludges  derived from purely domestic
wastewaters.   Undoubtedly,  metals in  such systems originate
from relatively uncontrolled sources.  Corrosion of metallic
plumbing elements  in  soft water areas  may be such a source, as
is storm water runoff in urban areas  having combined sewer
systems.  Consequently,  the introduction of industrial waste-
water containing incompatible  pollutants may intensify the
problem.  Special  attention must  be paid to details such as
the cation exchange capacity of the soils upon which the
sludge is placed,  and the general chemistry of the runoff
and ground water likely  to be  encountered.  Additionally,
each crop has  a different affinity for these elements, and
crops, therefore,  should be chosen accordingly.

     Sanitary  landfill operations pose similar problems for
disposal of sludges from POTW's with  significant industrial
wastewater components.  Proper precautions must be taken to
adequately protect the environment from the impact of such
sludges when applied  to  a landfill.   The principal considera-
tion in this regard is the leachate that is created by rain-
fall and runoff interacting with  the  sludge in the landfill.
                              E-48

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Metals and other substances present in the sludge are trans-
ferred to the leachate which in turn can adversely affect
surface and ground water in the area.  Consequently, control
of leachate in landfills handling sludges with industrial
waste components is of prime importance in the protection
of the aquatic environment.

     Incineration of sludges containing incompatible pollu-
tants can also cause environmental problems.  Incineration
of such sludges may create a serious air pollution problem.
This situation is not limited only to the volatilization of
heavy metals or chlorinated hydrocarbons, but to other sub-
stances as well.  The increasing use of incineration for
sludge disposal in the recent past highlights the importance
of proper consideration of potential air pollution problems.
The design of such facilities must provide adequate safe-
guards to assure that the stack gases will comply with
Federal,  State and local air quality and emission standards
and will not cause an adverse impact on the environment.

     Sludge may also be disposed of in the ocean.  This method
has been practiced on both the east and west coasts of the
United States.  East coast POTW's have utilized barges to
transport sludge to areas in the ocean designated for dump-
ing by the*EPA and the Corps of Engineers.  West coast POTW's
have utilized long pipelines for ocean disposal of sludge.
Ocean disposal of sewage sludge is currently regulated by the
EPA, with permits being required for this operation.  The
environmental impact on the ocean of sludges from POTW's
has been the subject of many studies in the recent past.  The
effect on the ocean of incompatible pollutants in sludge has
been an integral part of these studies, which have led to
the close control of ocean disposal currently being exercised.

     Reuse of Wastewaters

     Environmental considerations relating to the reuse of
wastewaters from POTW's containing industrial contributions
are similar to the factors involved in sludge disposal or
utilization.  The primary concern in the reuse of such
wastewaters is the presence of incompatible pollutants
from industrial wastes which may be deleterious to the
environment.  The variety of wastewater reuse practices
currently employed result in a wide variation of associated
environmental considerations.
                            E-49

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      The major categories of wastewater reuse are land
application,  in which either raw or treated wastewater is
spread over a specific land area, and reuse involving re-
cycle for domestic or industrial purposes.   In the case
of  land application, reuse generally involves utilization
of  the wastewater for agricultural purposes.  In addition,
it  also implies completion of the hydrologic cycle by return
of  the wastewater to the ground water aquifer.  Consequently,
the land application of raw or treated wastewater containing
incompatible  pollutants to a large degree involves the
same  basic concerns as delineated above for the land appli-
cation of sludge.

      In the case of direct land application of wastewater,
particularly  treated wastewater, the concentration of in-
compatible pollutants from industrial wastes being applied
to  the land may be lower than with sludge.   In sludge, there
is  generally  a concentration of such pollutants that occurs
through removal in the wastewater treatment process and de-
watering  steps.  However, many incompatible pollutants may
only  experience incidental removal in the treatment process,
so  that the quantity passing through the POTW is greater
than  that being removed.  Additionally,  the volume of
treated effluent from a POTW greatly exceeds the volume of
sludge generated.  These two factors suggest that in many
cases  the net quantity of incompatible pollutants from
industrial wastes being applied to the land may be greater
with  treated  wastewater than with sludge.   In any event,
careful evaluation of all environmental  factors must be
made  prior to embarking on a program of  wastewater reuse
by  land application.

     The  recycling of treated wastewater varies from reuse
for industrial purposes, to the return of the treated effluent
to  the domestic water supply either directly or indirectly.
Concerns  associated with the presence of incompatible pollutants
in  wastewater being reused in industrial facilities vary
widely depending upon the specific circumstances of the appli-
cation.   Many such recycle schemes involve  reuse of the waste-
water  for cooling purposes or. for make-up to a closed cooling
system.   In most industrial situations,  environmental con-
siderations are more closely related to  the ultimate dis-
position  of the wastewater rather than the  factors involved
in  the  industrial reuse application.

     The  recycling of treated wastewaters to domestic water
supplies  by both direct and indirect methods is the area of
greatest  concern regarding the presence  of  incompatible
                             E-50

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pollutants from industrial wastes.  In these applications
the principal concern is public health, so that even trace
quantities of many incompatible pollutants may be intolerable,
The methods utilized for recycling vary from direct return to
water supply impoundments, to indirect return via injection
into the groundwater aquifer or discharge to a water course
used for domestic purposes.  In either case, the treated
effluent is diluted so that trace quantities of incompatible
pollutants may become undetectable.  Nevertheless, it is
possible that a build-up of refractory pollutants may occur
with such recycling over an extended period of time.  Con-
sequently, it is imperative that POTW's with industrial
wastewater components contemplating or practicing waste-
water reuse for domestic purposes, exercise careful control
over the incompatible pollutants present to avoid any
possibility of a public health hazard.
                          E-51

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                          SECTION F
            REMOVAL AND PASS THROUGH OF POLLUTANTS
              IN PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS
Introduction

Data  Collection
  Data  Compilation

Data  Analysis
  Limitations  of Data Reported
  Plant Performance
  Characterization of Primary and Biological Plant
   Performance
  Evaluation of Limited Data
  Correlation  Analyses
  Regression Analyses

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                         SECTION F
         REMOVAL AND PASS THROUGH OF POLLUTANTS IN
               PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS
Introduction

    The purpose  of this section of the report is to summarize
available  information on removal and effluent concentrations,
or pass-through of  pollutants in POTW's.   It is intended to
be responsive  to  the portion of Section 304(f) of PL 92-500
which  states,  "Guidelines under this subsection shall be
established to control and prevent the discharge*...(either
directly or through publicly owned treatment works) of any
pollutant  which interferes with, passes through, or otherwise
is incompatible with such works".

    The information contained herein was obtained from a survey
of POTW1s  having  analytical data for influent and effluent
concentrations of incompatible pollutants.  Specific emphasis
was placed on  obtaining data on the concentration of metals in
POTW systems.  Data was obtained from a total of 269 treatment
facilities for 61 pollutant parameters.  Wastewater flow in
the POTW's represented by the survey varied from less than 0.05
MGD to more than  110 MGD.  The major portion of plants in the
survey, a  total of  101 POTW's,were in the range of 1.0 to
5.5 MGD,representing 38 percent of the total number of facilities
reporting  data.   Computer facilities were utilized to summarize
and analyze the data obtained.  The summary computer reports
are presented  in  Appendix 6 of these guidelines.

    The discussion which follows describes data sources,
procedures used in data compilation, limitations of the
reported data, and plant performance evaluation for primary,
trickling  filter  and activated sludge plants.  A limited
discussion of  biological treatment plants with chemical
addition and tertiary plants is also presented, along with the
results of correlation and regression analyses for selected
pollutant  parameters.  A characterization of the performance
of primary and biological treatment plants (trickling filter
and activated  sludge) is presented in terms of percent removal
and efffluent  concentration  (pass through) for the 17 most
significant pollutant parameters.

    The performance characterization results contained in
this section,  are presented only to provide guidance in deter-
mining pretreatment requirements where sufficient operational
data is not available at a specific POTW.  The data is not
intended to serve as a substitute for detailed influent and
effluent sampling of the treatment plant, which will provide


                              F-l

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the most reliable removal and pass through information for
the system in question.  However, the data does present removal
and pass through information which may be considered typical
of many conventional primary and biological treatment plants.

Data Collection

     In accumulating data, an attempt was made to compile a
broad base of valid removal and pass through information on
various sewage treatment processes.  An extensive search was
undertaken covering data in the published literature and
unpublished data collected by Federal, State and interstate
agencies, and individual sewerage system operators.  With the
cooperation of the EPA Region II office, NPDES permit
applications from publicly owned treatment works were evaluated
as a potential source of removal and pass through data.  It
was concluded that permit applications were generally not a
good source for this information.

     However, another data source from the EPA regional
offices, compliance monitoring reports, was identified as a
significant source of removal and pass through information.
Compliance monitoring reports are prepared by the EPA
regional enforcement or State enforcement programs for POTW's
with NPDES permits.  These reports summarize the results of
on-site monitoring, usually performed on a continuous basis
for 24 or 48 hours.  In some EPA regions, monitoring encom-
passes both influent and effluent streams, while in other
regions only the plant effluent is sampled.  In the regions
where influent and effluent data were available, these reports
were found to be an excellent data source in that they usually
covered a wide range of pollutant parameters and were generally
uniform in format.

     Although the compliance monitoring program has just
recently begun, these reports nevertheless represent about
40 percent of the total data base compiled.  Most of the
reports obtained were from EPA Regions V and VII, as their
programs are well advanced, and both plant influent and
effluent are sampled.

     Interstate pollution control agencies, river basin
commissions. State agencies, and individual sewer system
operators were contacted in the data collection phase of the
work.  Most of the governmental agencies contacted did not
compile removal or effluent data on parameters other than
those normally associated with domestic sewage, except where
it was known or suspected that industrial wastewater was
interfering with or passing through the system.  However,
                            F-2

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those  State agencies and interstate commissions which did pro-
vide valid comprehensive data comprised about 50 percent of
the total data base compiled.  Individual POTW1s and the pub-
lished literature constituted only an estimated 10 percent
of the compiled data.  Most POTW's contacted were not sampling
for comprehensive removal parameters on a routine basis.
The literature was found to contain very little specific
plant  removal or pass through data on parameters other than
those  normally used for the analysis of domestic sewage.

    Altogether, removal and pass through data was obtained
from 269 plants, geographically distributed according to
Report No. 1 of Appendix 6.

     Data Compilation

     Reported data was categorized according to treatment
process, treatment flow rate, and percent industrial flow.
Report No. 2 of Appendix 6 summarizes the treatment process
and flowrate categories, most of which were used in grouping
the data reported.  Plant processes were categorized into  five
major classes as follows:

     A - Primary Sedimentation Treatment Process
     B - Trickling Filter
     C - Activated Sludge
     D - Filtration
     J - Miscellaneous

     Additional plant and sampling information was also
collected.  Report No.  3 of Appendix 6 details the sampling
procedure, sampling date, major industrial contributors, and
level of POTW control over industrial contributors.  The
sampling procedure is indicated as either flow proportioned
composite  (FC), time composite  (C), or grab  (G).  If a  com-
posite sample was taken the  sampling duration  is  then indi-
cated.  The final item  shown under sampling procedure is  (S)
for simultaneous sampling at influent and effluent, or  (R)
for sampling performed with  plant  retention time  taken  into
account.  The sampling  date  is  indicated as Year/Month/Day,
and under the remarks column, the  composite interval, or the
method of  data  summary  is indicated.  Where the  information
was readily available, major industrial  contributors and the
level of POTW control over industry  is also shown.  The
 level of control is a subjective measure ranging  from no
control  (O) to  very tight control  (10) with surveillance
and monitoring.

      Data  was compiled  according  to  STORET  numbers  for  61
 parameters  as  indicated in Report  No.  7  of  Appendix 6.   Com-
 puter processing was  utilized  in  data  handling and  analysis,


                               F-3

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 resulting  in the  reports  shown  in Appendix  6,  and  the corre-
 lation and regression  analyses  which  follow.

 Data  Analysis

      Analysis of  accumulated  data includes  a discussion of
 the limitations of the data reported,  analysis of  6 hour
 simultaneous sampling  results,  evaluation of plant perfor-
 mance data,  and correlation and regression  analyses for
 statistical relationships within the  reported  data.

      Limitations  of Data  Reported

      There  are three major areas in which the  data reported
 is limited;  selection  of  plants, sampling variation, and
 plant performance  variation.  One governmental  source of
 reported data  indicated that  in most cases  their basis for
 selecting POTW's  for sampling was that the  plant was having,
 or was suspected of having, operating problems.  This type of
 data  has been excluded from the data compilation insofar as
 it could be  recognized.   However, the possibility of data
 bias  toward malfunctioning plants should be noted.  This
 could be particularly  true with regard to data  obtained from
 enforcement or compliance activities.  Nevertheless, signifi-
 cant  differences on a broad basis between data  from compliance
monitoring and that obtained  from other sources was not noted.

      Since the reported data was not obtained  from a controlled
 survey, the method of sampling was therefore not consistent.
 It was suspected that data from 6 hour simultaneous sampling
procedures might not be valid, because plant detention time
was not taken into account.  Report No. 4 of Appendix 6 was
prepared to compare sampling results from 24 hour composites
 and 6 hour simultaneous composites for similar plants.  It
was expected that this comparison might show a higher level
of removal with 6 hour sampling.  This was not  confirmed by
 the comparison, and, in fact,  an opposite trend was exhibited
 in some instances.  It was  therefore  concluded that the 6
hour,  and all simultaneous sampling results, should be
included in the reported data.  However, since  sampling
methods could not be compared at a single plant, a potential
data misrepresentation still exists due to sampling variation.

     Plant performance variation is the greatest single area
of data limitation.  A single days sample  from what may be
a highly variable plant operation may not accurately charac-
 terize the removal effectiveness of the plant  in question.
Much of the data obtained in the survey is of this type and
 therefore may be open to question on the basis of represen-
 tativeness .

      Insofar as possible, the reported data is  for typical
 plant operation, and where more than one sampling was

                              F-4

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available,  average  values were reported.   In several instances,
a great  deal  of data was available for specific plants where
specialized test programs are underway or thorough monitoring
is performed  on a routine basis.   Average values for these
facilities  were utilized and entered as one data point for
each pollutant parameter in the computer analysis.  Consequently,
several  of  the data points in the analysis are extremely rep-
resentative of plant performance, but were compared on an
equal basis with data far less representative. This is a
possible additional limitation of the results reported.
Nevertheless,  a broad spectrum of plants was covered by this
analysis and  significant variation between the average results
obtained and  values reported for  the plants with significant
quantities  of data  was not noted.

     Plant  Performance

     Report No.  5 of Appendix 6 is a summary of removal data
for 40 parameters grouped by plant treatment process as
follows:  conventional primary plants (Al), other primary
plants (A02),  conventional trickling filter plants  (Bl),
other trickling  filter plants (B02, B04, BOS), conventional
activated sludge plants (Cl), other activated sludge plants
(C02, COS,  C06,  C09, C19,  C20), and miscellaneous plants
(D, J).   It was concluded from this report that the conventional
primary,  trickling  filter, and activated sludge plant groups
could be expanded by incorporating the specialized categories
of these processes  into a summary type of analysis.  Similarly,
Report No.  7  of Appendix 6 is a summary of effluent or pass
through  data  for all 61 parameters for plant groups as out-
lined above for Report No. 5.

     In  addition to the regrouping of plants under the expanded
headings of primary, trickling filter, and activated sludge
plants,  upon  review of Reports 5  and 7, it was also decided
that the miscellaneous and "other" plants should be grouped
as biological treatment plants with chemical addition, and
tertiary plants. The following table summarizes the various
treatment plant groups as discussed above, and defines the
plant categories included in each group for further reference.

     Report No. 6 of Appendix 6 is a summary of removal data
for all  primary, trickling filter and activated sludge plants
not utilizing chemical addition.   Additional plant groups
also included in this report defined as "biological plants"
include  the sum of  trickling filter and activated sludge
plants;  "secondary  plants", those plants meeting the EPA
definition  of secondary treatment  (an effluent BOD and SS
less than or  equal  to 30 mg/1, and a removal of 85% or
greater  for both parameters); and "total all plants", the
                              F-5

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                                TABLE F-l

                 DISTRIBUTION OF POTW DATA BY PLANT PROCESS
  (PP)   Primary Plants
 (TFP)   Trickling Filter Plants
 (ASP)   Activated Sludge Plants
(BPCD)   Biological Plants
          with Chemical
          addition
  (TP)   Tertiary Plants
        Other Plants
     Category

A01, A02

B01,B02,B04,B05

C01,C02,C05,C06,C09,
C19,C20
B03,C03,C04,C14
C07,C08,C10
001,002,003,004,005,
D06,D07
A03,A04,A05
J01,J02
No. of
Plants

 79

 81

 83
  8
  3

  8
  3
  4
                                                                 243
                                8
                                                                  11
             TOTAL
                              269
                                    F-6

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sum of  all  269  plants'  data.   The number of plants reporting,
the maximum and minimum percent removal, the mean removal, and
the standard deviation  of the removal data are given for each
parameter under the plant groups discussed above.  It should
be pointed  out  that the number of secondary plants can not
be related  as a percentage of the number of biological
plants  because  not all  biological plants reported the data
required for secondary  plant selection.  Report No. 8 of
Appendix 6  is a summary of effluent or pass through data in
a format similar to the removal report discussed above.

     The removal and effluent data summary reports were
utilized in a selection of parameters for more detailed
examination. The criteria used in this selection were twofold;
the importance  of the parameter in the context of project
objectives, and the number of plants for which data was
reported.   On this basis the following parameters were selected:

     Cadmium (CD)
     Chromium (CR)
     Lead  (PB)
     Mercury (HG)
     Copper  (CU)
     Nickel  (NI)
     Zinc  (ZN)
     Iron  (FE)
     Manganese  (MN)
     Phosphorus-Total (P-TOTAL)
     Total  Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)
     Ammonia (NH3>
     Phenolics   (PHEN)
     Total  Organic Carbon (TOC)
     Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
     Suspended  Solids (SS)
     Biochemical Oxygen Demand, 5 Day (BOD)

All the metallic parameters represent total concentrations
rather  than the soluble fraction of the metal.  COD data
represents  the  sum of COD values obtained by the three
methods of  analysis listed in Reports 6 and 8 of Appendix 6.
Tables  F-2  and  F-3 are  summaries of the removal and effluent
or pass through data for the selected parameters.  Figures
F-l thru F-17 are cumulative distribution curves of the
removal and effluent data for the same parameters.  The data
utilized for these curves is presented in Tables 6-1 and
6-2 of  Appendix 6.

     Characterization of JPrimary and Biological Plant
     Performance

     Table  F-4  summarizes the removal and effluent or pass
through data reported for  primary and biological treatment


                            F-7

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                                                   TABLE P-2
                                             REMOVAL DATA SUMMARY
                                         FOR PRIMARY,  TRICKLING FILTER
                                  AND ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANTS (SELECTED PARAMETERS)
oo
       Parameter     Primary Plants  (PP)
       	     	Standard  MaxT  No.of
                  Mean  Deviation Min   Plants
Trickling Filter Plants(TFP)    Activated Sludge Plants  (ASP)
CD
CR
PB
HG
CU
NI
ZN
FE
MN
P-TOTAL
TKN
NH3
PHENOL
TOC
COD
SS
BOD
8
26
24
27
26
6
31
40
15
13
22
20
38
24
26
51
30
17
26
26
29
24
18
22
22
20
8
20
16
-
19
_
18
22
76/0
80/0
88/0
75/0
77/0
92/0
88/0
89/0
81/0
24/0
60/0
64/0
50/25
56/0
82/0
92/17
89/0
31
36
34
21
44
28
38
27
16
7
7
42
2
30
18
47
52
20
37
37
30
54
21
46
50
31
26
50
41
50
64
71
75
77

Mean
20
37
37
30
54
21
46
50
31
26
50
41
50
64
71
75
77
Standard
Deviation
25
30
31
23
24
23
22
26
23
22
27
30
28
18
—
19
18
Max/ No . o
Min. F
75/0
99/0
93/0
67/0
95/0
86/0
89/0
90/0
72/0
99/0
94/7
99/0
85/0
84/8
95/34
97/20
96/5
'lant
35
48
41
20
49
32
52
30
21
24
20
48
12
23
36
66
60
Standard
Max/ No. of
ean Deviation Min. Plants
17
46
39
39
57
20
58
63
38
42
34
49
69
73
75
75
84
27
34
32
32
24
21
25
27
32
25
26
31
31
12
_
22
15
88/0
98/0
95/0
99/0
95/0
60/0
99/0
98/8
93/0
92/0
92/5
99/4
98/0
89/42
94/24
99/9
99/18
44
54
49
34
63
44
58
35
19
36
11
47
16
13
40
62
65
        Notes:
        1.  PP - A01, A02 plants (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)
        2.  TFP - B01, B02, B04, BOS  (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)
        3.  ASP - C01, C02, COS, C06, C09, C19, C20 (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)

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                                                                               TMLS r-3
                                                                          BPFUIZHT DATA SUMMARY
                                                                      FOR PRIMARY, TRICKLING FILTER
                                                              AND ACTIVATED SLUDGE PIAHTS (SELECTED PARAMETERS)
                                                                      Trickling Filter Plant* (TFP)
 I
IO
r a*cu><« vv3*>

CD (jig/1)
CR
PB
HG
CU
NI
ZN
FE
MN

Mean
14
iea
156
1.0
191
165
550
1520
176
P-TOTAL(Bg/l)12.9
TKN "
NH3 "
24.4.
20.2
PHENOL (;jg/l)16
TOC (ng/l)142
COD "
ss
BOD "
346
93
167
Standard
Deviation
9
406
272
1.3
278
387
658
1020
112
22
11.6
34.6
23
84.2
-
62
111

Max/Mln
40/3
2600/6
1700/10
5.0/0.1
1700/10
1700/6
3600/30
5000/400
390/30
77/1.3
47/8.5
256/2.1
53/0.1
539/52
768/58
314/15
650/20
No. of
Plant*
35
40
37
23
48
33
49
30
22
10
-
63
-
35
19
54
58

Mean
11
235
116
1.0
133
198
316
2910
136
9.02
16.8
16.6
209
54.3
133
43
48.6
Standard
Deviation
10
563
276
2.0
283
336
464
11000
130.
3.8
11.9
17.2
772
26.3
-
37
47.3

Max/Mln
66/1
3200/3
1800/5
10.0/0.1
1800/3
1533/7
2800/40
65600/100
580/20
18.3/3.3
47.8/1.2
.115/0.03
3000/0.03
129/23
361/18
228/5
245/4.0
No. Of
Plants
41
52
45
22
54
38
57
34
28
27
21
65
13
23
38
66
61
Activated Sludge Plants (ASPJ

ttean
50
202
67
6.0
92
165
238
747
144
5.2
19.0
11.1
135
35.3
86
37
28.3
Standard
Deviation
277
515
68
32
195
387
257
1170
200
2.7
9.6
7.6
473
22.4
-
39
40.7

Kax/Min
1970/1
2520/5
350/3
200/0.1
1600/8
1700/6
1400/10
6800/100
940/10
10.4/1.0
34/1.5
27.5/0.07
2000/0.02
95.0/10
275/14
185/2
230/2.0
No. of
Plant*
48
60
51
37
68
56
66
37
23
40
12
63
16
14
42
64
65
         MotelI

         1.  PP  - A01, A02 Plants (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)
         2.  TFP • B01, B02, B04, BOS (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)
         3.  ASP - C01, C02, COS, COS, C09, C19, C20   (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)

-------
                                  TABLE F-4
                    CHARACTERIZATION OF PRIMARY AND BIOLOGICAL
                               PLANT PERFORMANCE
                   Primary Plants  (PP)
                                               Biological Plants (BP)
Parameter
         Percent
         Removal
CD (jug/1)
CR
PB
HG
CU
NI
ZN
FE
MN
P-TOT(mg/l)
TKN "
NH3
PHEN (jig/1)
TOC (mg/1)
COD
SS
BOD
7/8
16/26
20/24
22/27
18/26
6/6
26/31
35/40
8/15
ID/13
ID/22
17/20
ID/ 38
20/24
18/26
50/51
28/30
  Effluent
Concentration
Percent
Removal
  Effluent
Concentration
              (50%>)/(mean)      (50%<)/(mean)     (50% >)/(mean)  (50% <)/(mean)
                                     11/14
                                     90/188
                                    110/156
                                    0.6/1.0
                                    110/191
                                     75/165
                                    300/550
                                   1300/1518
                                    160/176
                                     10/13
                                     ID/24
                                     13/20
                                     ID/16
                                    125/142
                                    340/346
                                     78/93
                                    140/167
                                               9/19
                                              41/42
                                              41/38
                                              38/35
                                              56/56
                                              16/21
                                              52/52
                                              59/57
                                              28/35
                                              32/34
                                              40/42
                                              37/45
                                              68/60
                                              71/69
                                              75/73
                                              80/75
                                              85/81
                                       10/30
                                       50/218
                                       60/92
                                      0.6/3.5
                                       50/113
                                       65/182
                                      160/277
                                      600/1827
                                       90/140
                                        6/7
                                       17/18
                                       12/14
                                      2.5/175
                                       45/25
                                      100/110
                                       30/40
                                       28/39
Notes:

1.  ID
2.  PP
3.  BP
= Insufficient data reported.
= A01, A02  (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)
= TFP + ASP = B01, B02, B04, BOS, C01, C02,
  COS, C06, C09, C19, C20.
                                       F-10

-------
plants.   Removal data has been reported as the mean and the
removal  equalled or exceeded by 50% of the plants reporting,
as estimated from Figures F-l thru F-17.  This latter value
is in some cases also the median.  Similarly, effluent data
has been reported as the mean and the effluent concentration
which has not been equalled or exceeded by 50% of the plants
reporting; as estimated from Figures F-l thru F-17.  Again,
this latter value is in some cases also the median.

     Table F-4 and the figures show that the removal of metals
in primary plants was generally low, with cadmium, nickel and
manganese having the lowest removals.  Maximum effluent con-
centrations were 14 >ig/l for cadmium, 165 pg/1 for nickel and
176 Jig/1 for manganese.  Removal of chromium, lead, copper and
mercury  was somewhat higher, while zinc and iron removals were
the highest of the metals in primary plants.  Maximum effluent
concentrations were 550 pg/1 for zinc, and 1518 .ug/1 for iron.

     In  biological treatment plants, cadmium, nickel and
manganese were removed least, with chromium, lead, copper
and mercury removals being slightly higher.  Effluent concen-
trations of up to 30 jig/1 for cadmium, 182 .ug/1 for nickel,
and 140  jug/1 for manganese were reported.  Zinc, iron, and
copper had a relatively high percentage of removal in
biological treatment plants.  Effluent concentrations of up
to 277 ;ig/l for zinc, 1827 *ig/l for iron,, and 113 jug/1 for
copper were reported.  These data would tend to indicate
that iron,  zinc and copper are most susceptible to removal
in conventional treatment facilities, while cadmium, nickel
and manganese are the least susceptible of the metals to
removal.

     The removal of pollutant parameters related to organic
pollution,  total phosphorus, kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and
phenolics in primary plants was on the order of 13 to 38
percent.   Maximum reported effluent concentrations were
13 mg/1  for P-TOT,  22 mg/1 for TKN, 20 mg/1 for NH-, and
16 jug/1  for phenolics.  In biological plants, the   removals
for these parameters ranged from 32 to 65 percent.  Maximum
reported effluent concentrations were 7 mg/1 for P-TOT,
18 mg/1  for TKN, 14 mg/1 for NH.,, and 2.5 to 175 ;ag/l for
phenolics.   Mean values for biological treatment plants'
effluent phenolics concentration is distorted by some extremely
high concentrations for a few plants.

     The removal of the more general parameters of pollution,
TOC, COD,  SS,  and BOD in primary plants was 18 to 51 percent.
Effluent concentrations of up to 142 mg/1 for TOC, 346 mg/1
                             F-ll

-------
for COD, 93 mg/1 for SS, and 167 mg/1 for BOD were reported.
Removals of these parameters in biological plants ranged from
69 to 81 percent/ with effluent concentrations of up to 45
mg/1 for TOC, 11 mg/1 for COD, 40 mg/1 for SS, and 39 mg/1
for BOD.

    Evaluation  of Limited Data

    Table F-5 is a summary of removal and effluent data for
oil and grease, cyanide  (total), and hexavalent chromium in
primary and biological treatment plants.  The data presented
for oil and grease is a combination of the original oil and
grease data obtained by three distinct analytical methods.

    Of these parameters, oil and grease removal was most
significant, with approximately 50 percent removal achieved
in primary plants, and 68-83 percent removal obtained in
biological plants.  It was noted that for the limited number of
plants reporting oil and grease data, a high level of BOD and
suspended solids removal was also achieved in these facilities.
Consequently, the oil and grease removal data presented is
indicative of a well operated and efficient biological treatment
system.  For the plants reporting oil and grease data, pass
through was 25.0 - 27.8 mg/1 in primary plants, and 9.0-21.0
mg/1 in biological treatment plants.

    Removal of cyanide and hexavalent chromium was reported
only by biological treatment facilities.  Removal varied from
3 to 29 percent and 0 to 18 percent respectively, thus
indicating only incidental removal of these pollutants in
biological treatment plants.  Corresponding effluent values
were 0.01 to 3.7 mg/1 for cyanide and 10 to 15 jug/1 for hexa-
valent chromium.  As a result of the limited number of plants
reporting oil and grease, cyanide and hexavalent chromium data,
this information should not be considered conclusive, but rather
indicative of the performance of similar treatment facilities.

    A limited amount of data was also reported on biological
treatment plants with chemical addition, and tertiary plants.
Table F-6 summarizes this data with mean and median values for
removal reported, along with the number of plants reporting
data.  Again, no attempt was made to characterize the perfor-
mance of these  plants due to the limited extent of the data
base.  Nevertheless, the table confirms the expected general
improved removal of metals experienced in plants utilizing
chemical addition.
                             F-12

-------
                                            TABLE F-5
                                REMOVAL AND EFFLUENT DATA SUMMARY
                                 FOR OIL AND GREASE, CYANIDE AND
                                       HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM
                           Primary Plants (PP)
                          	~Effluent
                    Percent Removal    Concentration
                                                     N
                                               Biological Treatment Plants  (BP)
                                             	Effluent
                                             Percent Removal     Concentration
                                             MA,^ an/Moan       Median/Mean    N
      O&G (mg/1)

      CYN (mg/1)

      HEX.  CR. (;ig/l)
Meaian/nean
52/48
0/0
) o/o
IN
6
1
3
25.0/27.
0.055/0.
20/17
8
075

6
4
3
83/68
3/29
0/18
13
14
19
9.0/21.0
0.010/3.672
10/15
25
28
20
U)
      Notes:

      1.  PP

      2.  BP
= A01, A02 (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No.  2)

= TFP + ASP = B01, B02, B04, BOS, C01, C02,
  COS, C06, C09, C19, C20.
      3.  N  = Number of plants reported.

-------
                            TABLE F-6
           REMOVAL IN BIOLOGICAL PLANTS WITH CHEMICAL
                  ADDITION, AND TERTIARY PLANTS
            Biological w/Chem
               Addition
CD
CR
PB
HG
CU
NI
ZN
FE
MN
P-TOTAL
TKN
NH,
PHENOL
TOC
COD
SS
BOD
edian/Mean
0/0
67/70
38/39
33/34
80/75
75/62
79/72
84/84
39/39
80/78
51/57
45/56
82/82
79/79
87/78
83/78
93/86
No. of Plants
4
6
6
5
5
7
8
3
2
6
6
5
2
3
5
8
6
Tertiary
Median/Mean
0/6
14/32
31/44
17/22
79/73
13/18
77/63
94/82
47/53
41/43
88/88
89/80
85/65
75/74
88/84
93/90
95/90
No. of Plant
5
7
10
4
9
5
7
8
5
6
2
9
4
3
10
11
11
Note:

1.  Biological plants with chemical addition are
    as follows:  BO3, CO3, C04, C14.
     (Reference Appendix 6, Report No. 2).

2.  Tertiary Plants are as follows:  CO7, COS, CIO, D01, D02,
    D06, D07.  (Reference Appendix 6, Report No. 2).
                               F-14

-------
     Correlation Analyses

     Correlation analyses were performed to determine the
degree of linear relationship for influent concentration ver-
sus percent removal, suspended solids removal versus percent
removal,  influent pH versus percent removal, and influent
concentration versus effluent concentration for nine metal
parameters. Table F-7 is a summary of the correlation coeffi-
cients obtained.  Of the four relationships investigated, only
influent  concentration versus effluent concentration exhibited
a consistently high degree of correlation.  This relationship
was therefore pursued further in the regression analyses
which follow.

     The  possibility of a linear relationship with log com-
binations for influent concentration versus percent removal,
suspended solids removal versus percent removal, and influent
pH versus percent removal for cadmium, chromium, and lead
was investigated in Table F-8.  No consistent high degree of
correlation was exhibited in this analysis.

     Regression Analyses

     Polynomial regression analyses were performed to deter-
mine the  line of best fit for the reported data in the
relationship of influent concentration to effluent concen-
tration.  ' The regression equation along with the standard
error of  estimate (Se), the standard deviation for effluent
concentrations reported (Ys), and the maximum and minimum
reported  influent concentrations  (X max, X min) is presented
in Table  FT 9 for nine total metals' parameters.  Three to
six degrees of polynomial regression were examined for each
parameter, with the selection of regression equations based
on the minimum reasonable  Se/Ys  ratio.

     Taking into account the standard error of estimate, and
within the limits of influent concentrations X max, and X min,
the regression equations in Table F-9 may be utilized to
estimate  an effluent concentration from a given influent con-
centration, or conversely to estimate an influent concen-
tration from a given effluent limitation.
                             F-15

-------
                                                                 TABLE F-7
                                                            CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Parameter
                  Influent Cone.
                  vs. % Removal
                                      SS % Removal
                                     vs. % Removal
                                       PH - Influent
                                       vs•  % Removal
   Influent Cone.
   vs. Effluent Cone.







•fl
1
H>
ffi

CD
CR
PB
KG
CU
NI
ZN
FE

MN
             PP     TFP    ASP      N
                                (PP/TFP/ASP)
            -0.02   0.33   0.22   31/25/44

             0.19   0.38   0.22   26/48/54

             0.63   0.40   0.41   34/41/49

             0.03   0.22   0.26   21/20/34

            -0.03   0.21  -0.01   44/49/63

             0.23   0.52  -0.14   28/32/49

             0.02   0.15   0.40   38/52/58

             0.45  -0.15   0.13   27/30/35

             0.06   0.31   0.12   16/21/19
                                PP
        TFP    ASP      N         PP
                    (PP/TFP/ASP)
-0.25   0.06   0.27   17/28/30   0.19

-0.02   0.18   0.43   19/37/40   0.12

 0.03   0.07   0.17   21/32/41   0.17

 0.54   0.32   0.41   11/16/28  -0.69

-0.17   0.36   0.30   20/36/43  -0.27

-0.26  -0.04   0.06   19/26/36   0.01

 0.06   0.50   0.56   18/40/44   0.03

 0.56   0.56   0.56   12/25/32   0.07

-0.08   0.18   0.11   14/21/18  -0.32
                                                                       TFP     ASP      N
                                                                                    (PP/TFP/ASP)
                                                                       -0.29   0.37   13/25/21

                                                                       -0.07  -0.13   18/34/27

                                                                       -0.41   0.07   17/30/32

                                                                        0.01   0.10    9/11/20

                                                                       -0.13  -0.25   27/36/37

                                                                        0.05  -0.01   15/20/25

                                                                        0.11  -0.07   21/38/34

                                                                       -0.02   0.33   22/29/33

                                                                        0.18  -0.29   12/20/16
PP     TFP    ASP      N
                   (PP/TFP/ASP)
0.97   0.83   1.00   31/35/44

0.98   0.81   0.84   36/48/54

0.58   0.67   0.77   34/41/49

0.89   1.00   0.76   21/20/34

0.97   0.87   0.67   44/49/63

0.94   0.6;   1.00   28/32/49

0.96   0.93   0.61   38/52/58

0.67   0.99   0.57   27/30/35

0.92   0.85   0.95   16/21/19
   Notes:

   1.  PP   =

   2.  TFP =

   3.  ASP =

   4.  N   =
A01, A02 plants (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No.  2)

B01, B02, B04, BOS (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No.  2)

C01, C02, COS, C06, C09, C19,  C20 (Ref. Appendix 6,  Report No.  2)

Number of plants reported.

-------
                             TABLE F-8
                     CORRELATION COEFFICIENT  (LOG)
Parameter  Log Inf. Cone.      Log Inf. Cone.      Influent Cone.
vs. Log % Rem.
PP TFP ASP
CD -0.13 -0.001 0.33
CR 0.62 0.50 0.62
PB 0.51 0.38 0.32
Log SS % Rem.
vs. Log % Rem.
PP TFP ASP
CD -0.38 0.11 0.30
CR 0.57 0.20 0.44
PB 0.02 -0.10 0.09
pH - Influent
vs. %
PP
-0.05
0.45
0.59
Log SS
vs. %
PP
-0.23
0.63
0.09

Removal
TFP
0
0
0
.05
.61
.58
ASP
0.
0.
0.
38
67
43
vs
PP
-0.
0.
0.
% Rem.
Rem.
TFP
0
0
0

.08
.18
.06

ASP
0.
0.
0.

26
42
17

. Log
% Rem.
TFP
04
28
43
SS
vs.
PP
-0.
0.
-0.

0.
0.
0.
%
Log
24
22
21
Rem
%
TFP
37
54
03

0.
0.
-0.

08
18
10

ASP
0.
0.
0.
•
Rem
23
20
30

•
ASP
0.
0.
0.

33
41
05

          vs. Log % Rem.
          PP   TFP   ASP
   CD    0.32 -0.36  0.27
   CF    0.35 -0.09 -0.11
   PB    0.34 -0.32 -0.02

   Notes:
   1.  PP  = A01, A02 plants  (Ref. Appendix  6, Report No.  2)
   2.  TFP = B01, B02,  B04, BOS  (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No.  2)
   3.  ASP = C01, C02,  COS, C06, C09, C19, C20  (Ref. Appendix 6,
             Report No. 2)
                                   F-17

-------
                                                                       TABLE F-9
                                                     REGRESSION ANALYSES - INFLUENT CONG. (X) v«. EFFLUENT CONC. (T)

Parameter

CO
CR
PB
HG
CO
NI
ZN
PE

HN
Note a i
PRIMARY PLANTS
Ragra««ion Equation

Y - 0.39 4- 0.99 x
Y - 14.6 +• 0.69 x
2
Y - 16.3 + 0.73 X -0.001X
Y - -0.13 + 0.81 X
Y - -10.2 -f 0.79 x
Y - -8.00 + 0.90 x
Y - -56.9 +0.76 x
Y - 650-0. Olx+0,0002x2
-2UO'8)x3
Y - 3.97 +• 0.82 X

|PP)
Se Yo
. ...
V '
1.7 7.3
90 442
54 79
0.7 1.4
73 289
108 312
194 685

713 1055
37 91






30
3600
1040
5
1900
1700
4300

9000
370


3
6
10
0.1
30
9
40

620
46

TRICKLING FILTER
Regreiaion Equation


Y - 5.08 + 0.34 x
Y - -26.2 + 0.53 x-2(10*5)x3
2
Y " -5.33 + 0.53 X-O.OOOlx
Y - 0.09 +• 0.52 x
Y - 64.9 + 0.15 x
Y - 14.9 + 0.88*-0.000lx2
Y - -10.7 +• 0.51 x

PLANTS (TFP)
8. Y« X

l)*lfll
6 90
215 546 14000
147 287 7150
0.1 2.1 19
148 301 12000
63 365 8300
165 440 4800

Y - -829 + 0.76 x 1376 11894 85700
Y - 5.85 +• 0.60 x

43 81 426


X
	 Min

2
4
5
0.2
20
12
94

160
30

ACTIVATED «LUB
Regrasaion Equation

Y • 3.16 + 0.48 x
Y —1.30 + 0.36 x
Y - 25.6 4- 0.26 x
Y « 2.72-1.02x-K).01x2
Y - 7.48 + 0.38 x
Y - -29.5 4- x
Y " 73.1 + 0.19 x

Y —927 «•• 2.15 x -0.001
+ 8 (10"S) x3
Y - 24.7 + 0.47 x

GE PLANTS
se

9
211
34
15
53
61
136

2
X
641
69

ASP)
Ya
IOT/D
295
389
52
34
71
5706
169

1200
215


X X
tWX Min
4130 3
5600 5
930 5
300 0.2
620 30
40000 9
2200 60

7367 250
2020 35

1.  *„ - Standard deviation  (of effluent concentration reported)
2.  Se • Standard error of estimate
3*  !Wx * Maximui11 reported influent concentration
4-  "MI,, " Minimum reported influent concentration
5.  PP « A01, A02 plants (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)
6.  WP - B01, B02, B04, BOS  (Ref. Appendix 6, Report No. 2)
7.  ASP - t»l, C02, COS, C06, C09, C19, C20 (Ref. Appendix 6, Report So. 2)

-------
    CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT  DATA
                                  CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF REMOVAL DATA
Al
13


Z
' '
i>
i.

Z

• '
    I
     0   20  40  60  80  100
0  20  40  60  80  100
     0   20  40  60  80  100      0  20  40  60 80  100

                     PERCENT OF PLANTS
                                                                                                 TRICKLING - iLfTER
                                                                                                    I PJ-ANTS!
                                                                  0  20  40 60  80  100
                             a.
                               100-
                                      ACTIYATEd SLUPGE
                                          PLANTS
                                                                20  40  60  80  100
BIOLOGICAL PLANTS
                                  0  20  40  60  80   100
                                                                                               20  40  60  60 100
                                                 PERCENT OF PLANT5
               NOTES'--I-VlS THE NUMBER OF PLANTS REPORTED
                     2-"BIOLOGICAL PLANTS" IS THE TOTAL OF TRICKLING FILTER & ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANTS
                     3-CADMIUM REPORTED AS CD, TOTAL

-------
                                                    FIGURE F-2
                                                    CHROMIUM
         CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT  DATA
                                                       CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF REMOVAL DATA
i
juvj
4 UU—
A?,np.
v-oOO
It
\ o AA —
O tUU
2
gioo-
5 n'
f
. \


PRI
\
V

MRY
N-4-


^__
•^
PLA
0



^^s
*ts




                               500
20  40  60  80  100
                                        TRCKL^O FILTTER
                                            PLnNTS
                         0  20  40 60  80  100
0  20  40 60  80  100     0  20  40 60  80  100
              PERCENT Of PLANTS
                                                               O
0  20  40 60  80  100
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-------
CUMULATIVE  DISTRIBUTION OF  EFFLUENT  DATA
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-------
                                               FIGURE F4
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-------
    CUMULATIVE  DISTRIBUTION OF  EFFLUENT  DATA
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-------
                                           FIGURE  F6
                                             NICKEL
CUMULATIVE  DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT  DATA
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-------
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-------
                                            FIGURE F-8
                                               IRON
CUMULATIVE  DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT DATA
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-------
    CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT  DATA
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-------
                                           FIGURE F-IO
                                         PHOSPHORUS
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-------
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-------
                                                        FIGURE F-12
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-------
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-------
                                           FIGURE F-14
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-------
  CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT  DATA
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-------
                                           FIGURE F-16
                                      SUSPENDED  SOLIDS
CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT  DATA
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-------
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                         SECTION G
                         GLOSSARY
Acclimatization (Acclimation)  - A process by which the bio-
logical organisms in a biological treatment system develop
the capability of maintaining normal life cycles in the
presence of concentrations of pollutants that would normally
inhibit their activity.

Antagonism - Reduction of the inhibitory effect of one sub-
stance by the presence of another.

Compatible Pollutant - A pollutant which is normally treated
by conventional biological sewage treatment processes.

Contribution (Contributors) - A point source originating
within the area served by a sewerage system and treatment
works.

Existing Source - Any wastewater source, which was contri-
buting to a sewerage system, (or a potential source that was
under construction), at the time of publication of proposed
regulations.

Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 -
Public Law 92-500 which provides the legal authority for
current EPA water pollution abatement projects, regulations
and policies.

Incompatible Pollutant - Any pollutant which is not normally
treated by conventional biological sewage treatment processes

Industrial Waste Ordinance - An enforceable local law which
establishes rules, regulations, limitations and prohibitions
to be adhered to by wastewater sources within the service
area of a publicly owned sewer system.

Inhibition - A contribution that decreases the pollution
removal efficiency of a biological treatment facility.

Interference - A contribution that hinders in any way the
operation of a wastewater  collection and treatment system.
Inhibition can be considered a type of interference.

Joint Treatment - The treatment of a wastewater consisting
of a combination of domestic and industrial flows in a
single treatment system which has been specifically designed
to handle the combined wastewater.
                            G-l

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 Limited Waste - A waste, which by either local ordinance or
Federal regulation, cannot be present in a contribution or
direct discharge above a certain concentration.

Major Contributing Industry (MCI) - A major source of
industrial wastewater within a POTW system, as defined in
the Federal pretreatment standards.

Monitoring - The practice of investigating, surveying and/
or sampling wastewater sources in an effort to obtain infor-
mation on the quality or quantity of the wastewater flow.

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) -
A system of permits to discharge wastewaters to navigable
waters developed under the authority of Section 402 of Public
Law 92-500.  The permit system has as its objectives the
achievements of the goal of that law, the elimination of
the discharge of pollutants by 1985.

New Source - A wastewater source for which construction
began after the publication of proposed regulations.

Pass Through - The discharge to the receiving waters from
a publicly owned treatment works of a pollutant without sub-
stantial modification or removal.

Pretreatment - The treatment of a wastewater contribution,
at the point of origin, prior to release to a publicly owned
treatment system.

Prohibited Waste - A material which must be excluded from
any discharge of wastewater to a collection system in any
concentration.  Prohibited wastes include, among others,
explosive or corrosive materials.

Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) - A sewerage facility
which collects,treats or otherwise disposes of waste-
waters, owned and operated by a village, town, county,
authority or other public agency.

Synergism - An increase in the inhibitory effect of one
substance caused by the presence of another.

Upset - A substantial decrease in the treatment efficiency
of a biological treatment system caused by changes in the
life cycles of the biological organisms comprising the
system.
                            G-2

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                         SECTION H
                       ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
     The following members of the Burns and Roe technical
staff made significant contributions to the overall project
effort and the development of these guidelines:
     John L.  Rose,  P.E.
     Arnold S.  Vernick, P.E.
     Jameel Ahmad,  PhD
     Howard D.  Feiler
     William A. Foy,  P.E.
     Benjamin J.  Intorre,PhD
     Edgar G. Kaup,  P.E.
     Barry S. Langer
     Paul D.  Lanik,  P.E.
     Judith Liebeskind
     Paul J.  Storch
                         Manager, Environmental Engineering
                         Project Manager
                         Senior Civil Engineer
                         Environmental Engineer
                         Senior Environmental Engineer
                         Engineering Specialist
                         Senior Chemical Engineer
                         Environmental Engineer
                         Environmental Engineer
                         Environmental Engineer
                         Environmental Engineer
     The assistance of Mrs.  Marilyn Moran of Burns and Roe
in the physical preparation  of this document is specifically
noted.
     The  support of  all Environmental Protection Agency per-
sonnel  contributing  to this effort is specifically noted.   The
development of  the Guidelines was under the direction of Gary F.
Otakie,  the Project  Officer;  William A. Whittington,  Chief,
Municipal Technology Branch,  Municipal Construction Division;
and Charles H.  Sutfin, Deputy Director, Municipal Construction
Division.

     The  following organizations within the Environmental
Protection Agency were extremely helpful and enthusiastic in
providing all assistance and information requested:
     Region I  Office,
     Region II Office,
     Region III Office,
     Region IV Office
     Region V  Office,
     Region VI Office
     Region VII Office
     Region VIII Office
     Region IX Office
     Region X  Office
                    Boston, Massachusetts
                    New York, New York
                    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
                    Atlanta, Georgia
                    Chicago, Illinois
                    Dallas, Texas
                    Kansas City, Missouri
                    Denver, Colorado
                    San Francisco, California
                    Seattle, Washington
National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
Quality Assurance and Methods Development Laboratory,
                    Cincinnati, Ohio
Edison Water Quality Research Laboratory, Edison,
                    New Jersey
Effluent Guidelines Division, Office of Planning
                    and Standards
                             H-l

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      Criteria and Standards Division,  Office of Planning
                                and Standards
      Office of Research and Development
      Office of Planning and Evaluation
      Office of Enforcement
      Office of General Counsel

      Representatives of the following  city,  county,  regional,
State and interstate agencies are specifically acknowledged
for theircooperation and assistance in  meeting with EPA and
Burns and Roe representatives, and furnishing requested data
and information:

      Bureau of Pollution Control
      Atlanta, Georgia

      Department of Natural Resources
      State of Georgia

      Sewer Utility
      Boulder, Colorado

      Department of Water and Pollution Control
      Wichita, Kansas

      Water Pollution Control Department
      Topeka, Kansas

      Department of Environmental Protection
      State of Connecticut

      Department of Public Works
      Wilmington, Delaware

      Maryland Water Resources Administration
      Havre De Grace, Maryland

      Department of Public Works
      Fitchburg, Massachusetts

      Department of Environmental Protection
      State of Massachusetts

      Department of Water Resources
      New York, New York

      Township of Towamencin, Pennsylvania

      Interstate Sanitation Commission
      New York, New York
                             H-2

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County  Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County
Whittier, California

Department of Ecology
State of Washington

Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle
Seattle, Washington

Regional Water Quality Control Board
State of California

Delaware River Basin Commission
Trenton, New Jersey

Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati
Hamilton County, Ohio

Division of Water Quality
Muncie, Indiana

East Bay Municipal Utility District
Oakland, California

Dallas Water Utilities
Dallas, Texas

Water Reclamation Research Center
Dallas, Texas

Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago
Chicago, Illinois

Department of Natural Resources
State of Wisconsin

Department of Natural Resources
State of Michigan

Department of Environmental Resources
State of Pennsylvania

Department for Natural Resources and
Environmental Pollution
State of Kentucky

New England Interstate Water Pollution
Control Commission
Boston, Massachusetts
                         H-3

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     Cleveland Regional Sewer District
     Cleveland, Ohio

     Sanitary District of Rockford, Illinois

     Acknowledgment is also made to the following organizations
for assistance provided:

     Camp Dresser & McKee
     Boston, Massachusetts

     Soap and Detergent Association
     New York, New York

     McPhee, Smith, Rosenstein Engineers
     Buffalo, New York

     National Canners Association
     Washington, D. C.

     Diamond Crystal Salt Company
     Akron,  Ohio

     Rohm and Haas Company
     Spring House, Pennsylvania
                              H-4

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        APPENDIX 1
  PRETREATMENT STANDARDS
Pretreatment Standards  (40CFR128)

Pretreatment Standards for Certain Categories

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                THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1973

                WASHINGTON, D.C.

                Volume 38 • Number 215



                PART III
                 ENVIRONMENTAL
                    PROTECTION
                      AGENCY
                  WATER PROGRAMS
                   Pretreatment Standards
tut 316—pt. in	1
                1-1

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30982
     RULES AND REGULATIONS
  Title 40—Protection of the Environment
     CHAPTER I—ENVIRONMENTAL
         PROTECTION AGENCY
    SUBCHAPTER D—WATER PROGRAMS

PART 128—PRETREATMENT STANDARDS
  On July  19. 1973, notice was  pub-
lished in the FEDERAL REGISTER  that the
Environmental Protection Agency  was
proposing standards for pretreatment of
pollutants   introduced   into   publicly
owned treatment works pursuant to sec-
tion 307 (b)  of the Federal Water Pollu-
tion Control Act Amendments of 1972
(the Act>. Written comments on the pro-
posed rulemaking  were  invited and re-
ceived from  interested parties  and the
public. In addition, a public hearing was
held in Washington, D.C., on September .
26,  1973. The Environmental Protection
Agency has carefully considered all com-
ments received and the record of the
public hearing.  All  written comments
and a transcript of  the public hearing
are on file with the Agency. As indicated
below, the regulation has been modified
in response to some of  the comments.
The following discussion also  outlines
the reasons why other suggested changes
were not made.
  Under section 307 (b) of the Act. Fed-
eral pretreatment standards are designed
to achieve two purposes: <1> To protect
the operation of  publicly owned treat-
ment works, and (2)" to prevent the dis-
charge of pollutants which pass through
such works inadequately treated.
  Section 128.131 sets forth a number of
prohibitions designed to protect the op-
eration  of  publicly  owned  treatment
works.  The  prohibitions are  self-ex-
planatory.  One commenter suggested
that § 128.131 is deficient in that it fails
to impose specific numerical limitations
on  the discharge of pollutants  that in-
terfere  with the operation of  publicly
owned  treatment  works. However, the
Agency has been unable to formulate
such specific numerical limitations. In
the  first  place,  the  data that  are
 presently available are  not considered
 sufficient to support uniform  national
 standards prescribing permissible con-
 centrations  of particular pollutants  in
 publicly owned treatment works. More-
 over, the degree that any pollutant in-
 terferes with the operation of a publicly
 owned treatment works depends  on
 the  concentration  of  pollutant   in
 the  treatment  works  Itself,  rather
 than the  concentration  in each user's
 effluent. But for a  national  pretreat-
 ment standaard  to be workable and
 enforceable, it must prescribe the qual-
 ity of the user's effluent; otherwise, the
 user will not know what steps he must
 take to comply with the standard. It is
 impossible  in a uniform national pre-
 treatment standard to relate the quality
 of the user's effluent to the concentration
 of  various  pollutants  in  the  publicly
 owned treatment works, since  this rela-
 tionship  will vary in each sewer system
 depending on the quantity of the user's
 effluent as compared with the quantity of
 other effluents in the system.
  Section 128.133 is based on the premise
that pollutants which pass through pub-
licly owned treatment works in amounts
greater  than would  be  permitted  as a
minimum  treatment requirement for
similar industrial sources discharging di-
rectly to navigable waters should be con-
sidered adequately treated. The fact that
a discharger chooses to  use a municipal
sewer system, rather than discharging
his wastes  directly to  the  navigable
waters, should not as a matter of general
principle involve  a penalty to  the en-
vironment.
  On  the basis of this premise, § 128.133
requires  users in industrial  categories
subject to effluent guidelines issued under
section  304(b)  of the  Act, which are
discharging incompatible pollutants to
publicly  owned   treatment works,  to
adopt best practicable control technol-
ogy currently available, as defined by the
Administrator pursuant to section 304
(b) of the Act.
  During the public comment  period.
questions were raised as to whether the
effluent  limitations  guidelines would be
appropriate in all  cases for application to
users   of  publicly  owned  treatment
works. The. Agency recognizes that  for
some  industrial  categories  it  may be
necessary to further refine the effluent
limitations guidelines to deal with prob-
lems that may arise in the application of
such  guidelines  to users of  publicly
owned treatment  works.  However, the
Agency believes that any adjustments re-
quired for  particular industrial catego-
ries should be considered in connection
with the promulgation of the individual
effluent guidelines, rather than in the na-
tional pretreatment standard.  Accord-
ingly, when effluent limitations guidelines
are promulgated for individual industrial
categories, the Agency will also propose
a separate provision for their application
to users of  publicly owned  treatment
works.  Additional  language  has  been
added to 5 128.133 to clarify this intent.
  It was unclear whether § 128.133 as
proposed covered sources that would be
new sources if they were discharging di-
rectly into the navigable waters. Section
307 (c) of the Act requires promulgation
of separate pretreatment standards for
such sources. Pursuant to section 307(c),
the Agency has  proposed pretreatment
standards for such sources in connection
with its proposal of new source perform-
ance  standards under Section 306 of the
Act. Accordingly,  I 128.133 has been mod-
ified  to make it clear that it covers only
sources that are  not subject to section
307(O of the Act.
   Section 128.133 allows a credit for the
percentage removal of  an incompatible
pollutant to which the publicly  owned
treatment works is committed in its per-
mit. To insure the basis for allowing such
credit; a commitment with respect to  a
percentage removal of  an incompatible
pollutant will be included in the permit
at the  request of a municipality where
a basis for such commitment  can be
demonstrated.
   Some commenters suggested that the
credit in  5 128.133  for removal at  the
joint treatment works, where there is a
commitment  to  such  removal  in the
NPDES permit, is unrealistic, since mu-
nicipalities will be unwilling to enter into
such commitments. However, in order to
achieve the goal of preventing the dis-
charge   of    incompatible   pollutants
through municipal systems in amounts
greater than the minimum requirements
if  the  discharge were  directly  into the
navigable waters, it is necessary that the
required reduction be  contained in an
enforceable commitment either  on the
part of the industrial  user or the joint
treatment works.  The industrial user
should not be relieved of the  commit-
ment to achieve the required  degree  of
reduction  except to the extent that the
joint treatment works  is able to assume
a commitment to remove the  pollutant.
  One commenter suggested  that users
should be required to comply with toxic
effluent standards under section 307 (a)
of the Act, as well as the requirement of
best practicable  control technology cur-
rently available under section 301 (b) and
304(b) of the Act. However, toxic effluent
standards will be designed  to protect
aquatic life  in  the receiving body  of
water from both acute and chronic ef-
fects. Acute effects will  be covered  by
concentration standards while  chronic
effects will be covered  by weight limita-
tions. Both  types of standards will  be
applicable to the discharge from the pub-
licly owned treatment works. Toxic efflu-
ent standards will  not be designed  to
protect sewer systems,  and thus it  would
not be appropriate to apply them to dis-
charges into  the system. To the extent
that toxic materials  in the  users' dis-
charges interfere with the operation of
publicly owned treatment  works,  the
problem can be  otherwise  addressed
under these  standards  (§ 128.131)  or
under local standards using the pretreat-
ment  guidelines issued  under section
304(f) of the Act. While toxic materials
hi the  users'  discharge may  appear in
the  sludge  generated by  the publicly
owned treatment works, the Agency has
no basis for making a national deter-
mination  that the resultant sludge dis-
posal problem is  any worse than  the
problem that would  be  created if  the'
individual users removed the toxics from
their effluent and disposed of the result-
ant  materials individually.  This  is  a
factor  which must  be determined  by
State and local  authorities, taking into
account the capabilities of their sludge
disposal system and the pollutants pres-
ent in the wastes from industrial users.
   The  presence of toxic pollutants  in
toxic amounts is utilized in the regula-
tion in order to identify  "major con-
tributing industries" for purposes of the
pretreatment  requirements  for incom-
patible pollutants. The purpose here is to
identify industrial users whose effluent
is significant enough to warrant the im-
position of controls based on best prac-
ticable control  technology  currently
available  without undue administrative
burden, rather than to indicate that it
is appropriate to impose toxic effluent
standards on industrial users.
                              FEOEIAL REGISTER, VOL. 38, NO. 215—THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1973


                                                              1-2

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                                            RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                                                                                               30983
  The definition of "compatible pollut-
ant" has been  broadened  to  recognize
the fact that some joint treatment works
are designed to achieve substantial  re-
moval of pollutants other than the four
pollutants listed in the definition in  the
proposed  regulation (BOD,  suspended
solids, pH, and  fecal coliform bacterial.
Where the  joint  treatment works  was
designed to and does achieve substantial
removal of a pollutant, it is not appropri-
ate to require the  industrial user  to
achieve  best  practicable control tech-
nology currently  available,  since  this
would lead  to an uneconomical duplica-
tion  of treatment facilities.  While  the
term "substantial removal" is  not sub-
ject to precise definition, it generally con-
templates  removals in the order of 80
percent or greater. Minor incidental re-
movals in the order of 10 to 30 percent
are not considered "substantial".
  There was a diversity of comments on
the length  of  the time for compliance
and its relation to the promulgation of
the definition of best practicable control
technology  currently available. The  Act
requires that pretreatment must specify
a time for compliance not to exceed three
years from the date of promulgation. The
Agency has concluded that a period not
greater than three years from the  date
of promulgation is appropriate for com-
pliance for § 128.131. For Section 128.13S
the same period is also considered an ap-
propriate time for compliance. However,
the standard set forth in  § 128.133  will
not be complete  until promulgation of
the separate provision, as required by
Section 128.133, setting forth the applica-
tion  to  pretreatment  of  the effluent
limitations  guideline  for  a  given  in-
dustrial category.
   Accordingly.  § 128,140  provide*   that
the period  of  compliance with § 128.133
will not commence for any  particular
category of user until promulgation of
that  separate provision.  Section 128.140
has been further modified to establish an
interim requirement for commencement
of construction, and a requirement for
compliance reports. It was concluded that
without such requirements, timely com-
pliance with the pretreatment standard
might be unenforceable  as  a practical
matter.
   Some commenters questioned the need
for these pretreatment standards or the
relationship bet-ween these standards and
local pretreatment programs. It is im-
portant to note the clear requirements in
the Act that there be both national pre-
treatment standards. Federally enforce-
able, and EPA pretreatment guidelines to
assist  States   and  municipalities in
 developing local pretreatment programs.
The Agency recognizes that in some cases,
 these pretreatment standards may not be
sufficient to protect  the  operation  of a
 publicly owned treatment works or to
 enable the treatment works to comply
 with the terms of its NPDES permit. This
 may be the case,  for example, when the
 terms of  the permit  for the publicly
 owned treatment works a,re dictated by
 water quality  standards or toxic stand-
 ards. In such cases, the State or munici-
 pality may have to impose more stringent
pretreatment standards  under State or
local  laws than  are  specified in these
regulations  to  enable compliance  with
NPDES permits issued to publicly owned
treatment works.  The agency considers it
essential  that  such local  pretreatment
requirements be established for each sys-
tem  where necessary to ensure compli-
ance with the NPDES permit.
  Pretreatment guidelines will  be  pub-
lished, pursuant to section 304(f > of the
Act. to assist the States  and municipali-
ties in establishing their own pretreat-
ment requirements.
  Effective date. This regulation will be-
come effective  December 10, 1973.
                     JOHN QUARLES,
               Acting Administrator.

  NOVEMBER 1,  1973.
  NOTE.—The EPA pamphlet, Pretreatmeut of
Discharges to  Publicly Owned Treatment
Work, is filed as part of the original  docu-
tnent.
Sec.
128.100  Purpose.
128.101  Applicability.
128.110  State or local law.
128.120  Definitions.
128.121  Compatible pollutant.
128.122  Incompatible pollutant.
128.123  Joint treatment works.
128.124  Major contributing Industry.
128.125  Presentment.
128.130  Pretreatment standards.
128.131  Prohibited wastes.
 128.132  Pretreatment  (or compatible pol-
          lutants.
 128.133  Pretreatment  for incompatible pol-
          lutants.
 128 140  Time for  compliance.
   AUTHORITY: Sec. 307(1))  Pub. L, 92-500; 86
 Slat. 857 (33 U.S.C. 1317).

 § 128.100  Purpose.
   The provisions of this part implement
 section 307(b)  of the Federal Water Pol-
 lution Control Act Amendments of 1912
 (Public Law 92-500) hereinafter referred
 to as "the Act".

 g 128.101  Applicability.
   The  standards set forth  in  § 128.131
 apply to all non-domestic users of pub-
 licly owned treatment works. The stand-
 ard set forth in  § 128.133 applies only to
 major contributing industries.

 § 128.110  Stale or local law.
   Nothing in  this part shall affect any
 pretreatment requirement established by
 any State or local law not in conflict with
 any standard established pursuant to this
 Part. In particular  cases,  a  State or
 municipality, in  order to meet the effluent
 limitations in a NPDES  permit for  a pub-
 licly owned treatment works may  find it
 necessary  to  impose  pretreatment re-
 quirements stricter than those contained
 herein.

 §  128.120  Dofmiliovis.
    Definitions  of terms  used  in this part
 arc as follows:
 §128.121   Compatible pollutant

    For purposes of establishing Federal
 requirements  for pretreatment, the term
 "compatible pollutant" means biochem-
 ical oxygen  demand, suspended  solids.
pH and fecal coliform bacteria, plus ad-
ditional  pollutants  identified  in the
NPDES .permit  if  the publicly  owned
treatment' works was designed to treat
such pollutants, and In fact does remove
such pollutants  to a substantial degree.
Examples of such additional  pollutants
may include:
Chemical oxygen demand.
Total organic carbon.
Phosphorus and phosphorus- compounds.
Nitrogen and nitrogen compounds.
Fats, oils, and  greases of animal or vegeta-
  ble origin  except  as  prohibited  under
  6 123,131(C).
 § 128.122  Im-omputible pollutant.
   The  term  "incompatible  pollutant"
means any pollutant which is not a com-
patible pollutant as defined in g 128.121.
§ 128.123   Joinl treatment works.
   Publicly owned treatment  works for
both  non-industrial   and   industrial
wastewater.
§ 128.124  Majori-onlribuling industry.
   A major contributing industry is  an
industrial user of the  publicly  owned
treatment works that;  (a)  Has  a flow
of 50,000 gallons ov more per average
work day;  (b)  has  a  flow greater than
five percent of the flow carried  by the
 municipal system  receiving  the  waste:
  has  in its waste, a toxic pollutant in
 toxic amounts  as denned in standards
 issued under section 307(a> of the Act:
 or (d)  is found by the permit issuance
 authority, in connection with the issu-
 ance of an NPDES permit to the pub-
 licly owned treatment  works receiving
 the waste, to  have  significant  impact,
 either  singly  or in  combination with
 other contributing  industries, on  that
 treatment works or upon the quality of
 effluent  from that treatment  works.

 § 128.125  Prrlrratmeiil.
    Treatment   of   wastewaters  from
 sources before introduction into the joint
  treatment works.
 §128.130  Prrlreulmonl standards.
    The following sections  set forth pre-
 treatment standards for pollutants Intro-
  duced   into  publicly  owned  treatment
  works.
  §128.131  Prohibited wastes.
    No waste  introduced into a  publicly
  owned  treatment  works shall interfere
  with the operation or performance of the
  works. Specifically, the following wastes
  shall not be introduced into  the publicly
  owned treatment works:
      Wastes which create a fire or ex-
  plosion  hazard in the  publicly owned
  treatment works.
    (b»  Wastes which will cause corrosive
  stioictural damage to treatment works.
  but in  no case wastes  with  a pH lower
  than 5.0, unless the works is designed to
  accommodate such wastes.
    
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30981

   Wastes at a flow rate and/or pol-
lutant discharge rate which Is excessive
over relatively short time periods so that
there is a treatment process upset and
subsequent loss of treatment efficiency.
§ 128.132  I'reircalmenl  for  compatible
     pollutant*.
  Except as required by § 128.131, pre-
treatment for removal of compatible pol-
lutants is not required by these regula-
tions. However. States and municipalities
may require such pretreatment pursuant
to section 307«b) <4) of the Act.
fe 128.133  i'rrlrratiiirnl  for  inroinpali-
     bl«- pollutants.
  In  addition  to the prohibitions  set
forth  in 1128.131, the  pretreatment
standard for incompatible pollutants in-
troduced into a publicly owned treat-
ment works by  a major contributing in-
dustry not subject to section 307   of
the Act shall be, for sources within the
corresponding industrial or commercial
category, that established by a promul-
gated effluent limitations guideline  de-
fining best practicable control technology
currently available pursuant to sections
301 
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TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1975
WASHINGTON, D.C.

Volume 40 » Number 29


PART II
 ENVIRONMENTAL
   PROTECTION
     AGENCY
  EFFLUENT GUIDELINES
   AND STANDARDS

  Pretreahnenf Standards for Certain
        Catesories
 1-5

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 6432
      RULES AND REGULATIONS
  Title 40—Protection of the Environment
     CHAPTER  I—ENVIRONMENTAL
         PROTECTION AGENCY
   SUBCHAPTER N—EFFLUENT GUIDELINES
            AND STANDARDS
              [PEL 331-8]

      PRETREATMENT STANDARDS
   On May 28. 1974; March  20.  1974;
 March  21, 1974;  June 26.  1974;  Janu-
 ary 31, 1974; March 20, 1974; Febru-
 ary 20,  1974. February 14, 1974; April 25,
 1974; April 12, 1974; February 14, 1974;
 February 26.1974; May 29, 1974; May 9,
 1974 and February 28,1974, notices were
 published In the proposed rules section
 of the FEDERAL REGISTER (39 FR 18610,
 39 FR 15019, 39 FR 10869, 39 FR 23154,
 39 FR 4039. 39 FR 10527. 39 FR 6595, 39
 FR 5709,  39 FR 14684. 39 FR 13394, 39
 FR 5720. 39 FR 7534, 39 FR  6666, 39 FR
 16582,  and. 39 FR  7907 respectively),
 that  the  Environmental   Protection
 Agency (EPA or Agency) was proposing
.regulations concerning  the  application
 of effluent limitations guidelines for ex-
 isting sources  to  pretreatment stand-
 ards.
  The purpose of this notice is to estab-
 lish final  pretreatment  standards for
 selected subcategories of existing sources
 within the dairy products processing in-
 dustry point source category (40 CFR
 Part 405); grain mills point source cate-
 gory (40  CFR Part 406);  canned and
 preserved fruits and vegetables process-
 ing point  source category (40 CFR Part
 407); canned  and  preserved seafood
 processing point source category (40 CFR
 Part 408); beet sugar processing point
 source subcategory  (40 CFR Part 409)-;
 liquid and crystalline cane sugar refining
 subcategory (40 CFR Part 409); cement
 manufacturing point source category (40
 CFR Part 411); feedlots point  source
 category  (40 CFR  Part 412); organic
 chemicals  manufacturing point  source
 category (40 CFR Part 414); soap and
 detergent  manufacturing point  source
 category (40 CFR Part 417); glass man-
 ufacturing point source categories  (40
 CFR Part 426); asbestos manufacturing
 point source category (40 CFR Part 427);
 pulp, paper and paperboard point source
 category  (40 CFR  Part 430); builders
 paper and roofing  felt segment  of the
 builders paper  and board  mills  point
 source  category (40 CFR  Part  431);
 and the meat products point source cate-
 gory (40 CFR Part 432) which discharge
 to publicly owned treatment works.
   Pending further study, final pretreat-
 ment standards for existing sources for
 the following industrial subcategories
 will be promulgated by the Agency hi the
 near future:  In the organic chemicals
 manufacturing point source category (40
 CFR Part 414), product-process sub-
 category groups C2 (phenol and ace-
 tone—cumene process), C3  (bisphenol
 A). and C4 (p-cresol); in the soap and
 detergent manufacturing  point  source
 category (40 CFR Part  417), manufac-
 ture of spray dried detergents, manufac-
 ture of liquid detergents, manufacturing
 of detergents by dry blending, and man-
 ufacture of drum dried detergents sub-
categories; and In the glass manufactur-
ing point source categories (40 CFR Part
426), automotive glass laminating and
float glass manufacturing subcategories.
  This final rulemaklng is promulgated
pursuant to section 307 
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                                             RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                                                         6433
cold weather these warm discharges can
actually prove beneficial to the biological
systems In the treatment plant.
  (6) Several commenters  had no ob-
jections to the  pretreatment standards
for existing sources proposed.
LIQUID AND CRYSTALLINE CANE SUGAR BE-
 PININC SUBCATEGORY  (40 CFR PART 409)
  (7) One commenter expressed concern
regarding the extremely high concentra-
tions of BODS and TSS In the filter cake
slurry  waste water.
  Although the filter cake blurry waste
water stream is considered to be highly
amenable to  treatment, the extremely
high concentrations of BODS and TSS
therein could, in some cases, interfere
with the  operation of publicly owned
treatment works. These special situations
should be controlled by the  operators of
the treatment works Involved. Such con-
trol should not pose undue difficulty since
the highly concentrated waste can be dry
handled and disposed of as solid waste by
the publicly owned treatment works. Any
discharger whose waste causes an upset
or interferes with the operation or per-
formance of the publicly owned treat-
ment works shall be in violation of the
prohibited wastes section (128.131) of the
general pretreatment regulation (40 CFR
128).
 CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE
      CATEGORY  (40 CFR PART 411)
  (8) A comment was received concern-
ing the temperature parameter for Oils
industry.
  Heat losses and dilation hi the biter-
ceptor systems will generally effectively
reduce  any  thermal  discharges  from
these plants. Those discharges which
may reach a  treatment facility  at a
slightly higher than  ambient tempera-
ture will enhance the biological activity
in the treatment works. This is a highly
desirable effect during cold weather.
    FEEDLOTS POINT  SOURCE CATEGORY
           (40 CFR PART 412)
  (9) No comments were received.

ORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT
  SOURCE CATEGORY (40 CFR  PABT 414)
  (10)  Some commenters .Indicated that
there may be other pollutants  in the
waste water  from this industry besides
BODS, TSS and pH.
  The  Agency is aware that the waste
water from this industry is composed of
many varied  and complex  compounds.
The operators of municipal treatment
works  are  warned that  though  these
wastes are  usually organic  in nature,
caution should be exercised  in treating
these waste waters to assure that they do
not interfere with the operation or per-
formance  of the publicly owned treat-
ment works.
SOAP  AND   DETERGENT  MANUFACTURING
  POINT SOURCE CATEGORY (40 CFR  PART
  417)
  (11)  Several  commenters  expressed
their belief that the oil and  grease dis-
charged by this Industry Is amenable to
treatment hi publicly owned treatment
works.
  The Agency concurs that the oils and
greases of animal or vegetable origin can
be treated in a properly operated pub-
licly owned treatment works. Excessive
discharges of oil and grease may upset
or interfere with the operation or per-
formance of the publicly owned  treat-
ment works. Such  excessive  discharges
would be in violation of the prohibited
wastes section (§ 128.131) of the general
pretreatment  regulation  (40  CFR Part
128).
  GLASS MANUFACTURING  POINT SOURCE
     CATEGORIES (40 CFR PART 428)
  (12) No comments were received con-
cerning the subcategories being consid-
ered for promulgation.
ASBESTOS  MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE
      CATEGORY  (40 CFR  PABT 487)
  (13) One commenter was concerned
with the  disposal of  sludges containing
asbestos fibers.
  Waste from this industry category can
contain large amounts of asbestos  fibers.
These wastes should not be Introduced
into (1) publicly-owned treatment works
whose effluents  could affect a potable
water  supply  or  (2)  publicly-owned
treatment works that dispose of sludges
without adequate safeguards to prevent
land  migration of  contaminants  to
ground or surface  waters. Sites should
be selected that have natural soil and
geographical conditions to prevent such
contamination or, if  such conditions  do
not  exist, artificial means (e.g. liners)
must be  provided  to insure long-term
protection. Where  such  control is not
provided  for sludges  containing signifi-
cant Quantities  of  asbestos fibers, they
should be excluded "from the municipal
sludge and disposed of separately  under
controlled conditions.

   PULP,  PAPER AND PAPERBOARD POINT
  SOURCE  CATEGORY  (40 CFR PART ««)

  (14) No comments  were received.
BUILDERS PAPER AND ROOFING FELT SEGMENT
  OF THE BUILDERS PAPER AND BOARD MILLS
POINT SOURCE CATEGORY (40 CFR PART 341)
  (15) Several comments were  received
questioning the necessity of a settleable
solids limitation in addition to a sus-
pended solids limitation.
  Settleable solids are those  suspended
solids which settle  out in one  hoar  or
less. Since this type of solids is present
in all  municipal and domestic wastes,
they are readily treated in the  primary
units of a municipal treatment facility
and therefore no limitation is established
for  this  parameter  in this  regulation.
The necessity of both a suspended solids
and a settleable solids limitation is aimed
primarily  at direct dischargers to pre-
vent the  build-up of delta like forma-
tions in navigable waters at the  point
of  discharge.  Any  discharger  whose
waste causes an upset or interferes with
the  operation  or performance of the
publicly owned treatment works  shall  be
in violation of the prohibited wastes sec-
tion (§ 128.131) of the general pretreat-
ment regulation (40 CFR Part 128).
  MEAT PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY
           (40 CFR PART 432)
   (16) Several  commenters  indicated
that  excessive discharges  of oil  and
grease may  pass  through  or interfere
with the operation of a publicly owned
treatment works.
   Oil and grease, particularly of animal
and vegetable origin, can be treated by
biological techniques in a publicly owned
treatment works. Operators are warned
that  excessive discharges  of oil  and
grease which would  upset  or interfere
with the operation or. performance of a
publicly owned treatment works  would
be in violation of the prohibited  waste
section (§28.131)  of  the  general pre-
treatment regulation (40 CFR Part 128).
     IB) REVISION OF THE PROPOSED
   REGULATION PRIOR TO PROMULGATION

   No substantive  changes  have  been
made from the proposed regulations ex-
cept the format has been  changed for
clarification  of the. pretreatment stand-
ards.
        (C)  FINAL RULEMAKING

   In consideration of the  foregoing, 40
CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N is hereby
amended by adding to Part 405, dairy
products processing industry point source
category, §§ 405.14, 405.24, 405.34, 405.44,
405.54, 405.64, 405.74, 405.84, 405.94, 405.-
104, 405.144, 405.124; Part 406;  grain
mills point  source category, §§ 406.14,
406.24, 406.34, 406.44, 406.54, 406.64; Part
407, canned and  preserved fruits  and
vegetables processing point source cate-
gory,  §§407.14. 407.24,  407.34,  407.44.
407.54; Part 408, canned and preserved
seafood processing point  source  cate-
gory, §J 408.14,408.24,408.34,408.44,408.-
54, 408.64, 408.74, 408.84, 408.94, 408.104,
408.114, 408.124,  408.134, 408.144; Part
409, beet sugar processing  point source
subcategory, §409.14; Part 409,  Liquid
and crystalline cane sugar refining sub-
category, §§ 409.24, 409.34; Part 411, ce-
ment manufacturing  point  source cate-
gory, §§411.14, 411.24, 411.34; 412, feed-
lots point source category, §§ 412.14, 412.-
24; Part 414, organic chemicals manu-
facturing point source category, §§ 414.-
14, 414.24, 414.34;  Part 417, soap  and
detergent manufacturing  point  source
category, §§ 417.14, 417.24, 417.34, 417.44,
417.54, 417.64, 417.74, 417.84, 417.94, 417.-
104, 417.114, 417.124, 417.134, 417.144.
417.194; Part 426, glass manufacturing
point source categories, §§ 426.24,426.34,
426.44, 426.64; Part 427, asbestos manu-
facturing point source category, §§ 427.-
14, 427.24,  427.34,  427.44, 427.54, 427.64,
427.74; Part  430, pulp, paper and paper-
board point  source category, §§430.14,
430.24, 430.34, 430.44,  430.54; Part 431,
builders paper and roofing felt segment
of the builders paper and  board mills
point source category, § 431.14; Part 432,
meat  products point  source category,
{§432.14,  432.24,  432.34, and 432.44 to
read as set forth below. This final  regu-
lation is promulgated as set forth  below
and shall be effective March 13,  1975.
                              FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL. 40, NO. 19—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11,  19TS


                                                        1-7

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6434
                         RULES AND REGULATIONS
(Sees. 301, 304 (b). (c). 306 (b), (c), 307(b).
Federal  Water Pollution Control Act, as
amended; 33 U.S. C. 1251,1311.1314 (b). (c),
1316 (b) and (c). 1317(b); 86 Stat. 816 et
seq.: Pub. L. 92-500)

  Dated: January 29, 1975.

                    JOHN QUARLES,
               Acting Administrator.

  The following parts of 40 CFR Chap-
ter I are amended as set forth below:

PART 405—DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESS-
     ING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

  The table of contents to Part  405 is
amended by adding  the  following new
entries to the Indicated subparts:
   Subpart A—Receiving Stations Subcatsgory
Sec.
405.14   Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
    Subpart B—Fluid Products Subcategory
405.24   Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
   Subpart C—Cultured Products Subcategory
405.34   Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
       Subpart D—Butter Subeategoiy
405.44   Pretreatment standards for existing
 Subpart E—Cottage OWM* and Cultured Cream
            Cheese Subcategory
406.54  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart F—Natural and Processed Cheese
              Subcatagory
405.64  Pretreatment standard* for existing
         sources.

  Subpart G—FluW Mb for lea Craam and Other
        Frozen Desserts Subcategory
405.74  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Subpart H—Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts.
 Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subeategoiy
405.84  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Subpart I—Condensed Mm Subeategoiy
405.94  Pretreatment standards for existing
  sources.

       Subpart J—Dry Milk Subcatagory
405.104  Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
    Subpart I
I Whey Subeategoiy
405.114  Pretreatment standards for existing
           sources.

      Subpart L—Dry Whey Subeategoiy
405.134  Pretreatment standards for existing
           sources.

   Part 405 is amended as follows:
   1.  Subpart A  is amended by adding
 {405.14 as follows:

 § 405.14  Prelreatment standards for ex-
      isting sources.
   The  pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307 (b) of the Act for a source
 within the receiving  stations subcate-
 gory which is a user of a publicly owned
 treatment works and a major contribut-
 ing industry as defined in 40 CFR Part
 128  (and which  would be  an existing
 point source subject to section 301 of the
 Act, if it were to discharge pollutants
 to the navigable waters), shall be the
standard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128,
except that, for the purpose of this sec-
tion, 40 CFR 128.121,  128.122,  128.132,
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties controlled  by this
section which may be  discharged to a
publicly owned treatment works by a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
   property:                 standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS	     Do.
  TSS		     Do.

  2.  Subpart B is amended by adding
§405.24 as follows:

§ 405.24  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  The  pretreatment standards  under
section 307 (b)  of the Act for a source
within the fluid products subcategory
which is a user of a publicly owned treat-
ment works  and a major contributing
industry as defined in 40 CFR Part 128
(and which would be an existing point
source subject to section 301 of the Act,
if it were  to discharge pollutants to the
navigable  waters), shall be the standard
set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
for the purpose of this section,  40 CFR
128.121. 128.122, 128.132,  and  128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
ment standard establishes the quantity
or quality  of  pollutants  or pollutant
properties controlled  by  this  section
which  may be  discharged to a  publicly
owned treatment works by a point source
subject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
   property:                 standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS	     Do.
  TSS		     Do.

  3.  Subpart C is amended by adding
{405.34 as follows:

§ 405.34  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.

  The  pretreatment standards  under
section 307(b)  of the Act for a source
within the cultured products subcategory
which  is  a user of  a  publicly owned
treatment works and a major contribut-
ing industry as defined in 40 CFR Part
128 (and  which  would  be an  existing
point source subject to section 301  of the
Act. if it were to  discharge pollutants to
the  navigable  waters),  shall  be  the
standard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128,
except that, for the purpose of this sec-
tion, 40 CFR  128.121,  128.122,  128.132,
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties controlled  by this
section which  may be  discharged to a
publicly owned treatment works by a
point  source subject to the  provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS	     Do.
  TSS	     Do.
  4. Subpart D is amended by adding
{ 405.44 as follows:

§ 405.44   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307 (b) of the Act fpr a source
within the butter subcategory which is
a user  of a publicly  owned  treatment
works and a major contributing industry
as denned in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which
would be an existing point source sub-
ject to section 301 of the Act, if it were
to discharge pollutants to the navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part 128. except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121
128.122,128.132 and 128.133 shall not ap-
ply. The  following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity or quality of
pollutants or pollutant  properties con-
trolled  by this section  which  may  be
discharged to a  publicly owned  treat-
ment works by a point source subject to
the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS		     Do.
  TSS	:	      Do.

  5. Subpart E is amended by adding
S 405.54 as follows:
§ 405.54   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307 (b) of the Act for a  source
within the cottage cheese and  cultured
cream cheese  subcategory which  is  a
user of a publicly owned treatment works
and a major contributing Industry as de-
fined in 40 CFR  Part 128 (and which
would be an existing point source  sub-
ject to section 301 of the Act, if it were
to discharge pollutants to the navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122,  128.132  and  128.133 shall  not
apply.  The   following   pretreatment
standard  establishes  the quantity  or
quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties controlled by this section which
may be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works by a point source  sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
  -  property:                 standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS	-_     Do.
  TSS	      Do.
  6. Subpart F is amended by adding
S 405.64 as follows:
§ 405.64   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources. '
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307 (b) of the Act for a  source
within* the natural and processed cheese
subcategory which is a user of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing  industry as defined in 40 CFR
Part 128  (and which would be an exist-
ing point source subject to section 301
of the Act. it it were to discharge pollut-
ants to the navigable waters),  shall be
the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
                               FEDERAL ftEGISTEt, VOL. 40. NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEMUAKY 11, 1975


                                                           1-8

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                                              RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                  6435
 section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132
 and  128.133  shall not  apply.  The  fol-
 lowing pretreatment standard establishes
 the quantity or quality of pollutants or
 pollutant  properties controlled by  this
 section  which may be  discharged to a
 publicly owned treatment  works by  a
 point source subject to the provisions of
 this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standird
   pH		_.  NO limitation.
   BODS	      Do.
   •ras	      DO.

   7.  Subpart G is  amended by adding
 8405.74 as follows:

 § 405.74  Pretreatraent standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307 (b)  of the Act for a source
 within the fluid mix for ice cream and
 other frozen desserts subcategory which
 is a user of a publicly owned treatment
 works and a major contributing industry
 as denned in 40 CPR  Part  128 (and
 which would be an existing point source
 subject to section 301 of the Act, if it
 were to discharge pollutants to the navi-
 gable waters), shall be the standard set
 forth in 40 CPR Part 128, except that, for
 the purpose  of this  section,  40 CFR
 128.121,128.122,128.132 and 128.133 shall
 not apply.  The  following pretreatment
 standard  establishes  the  quantity   or
 quality of  pollutants or  pollutant  prop-
 erties  controlled by this section which
 may be discharged to a publicly owned
 treatment  works by a point source sub-
 ject to the provisions of  this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH	..	  No limitation.
  BODS		     Do.
  TSS			     Do.

  8. Subpart  H  is amended by adding
 S 405.84 as follows:
 § 405.84   Pretreatnicnl standards for  ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment  standards  under
section 307 (b) of the Act for a source
within the ice  cream, frozen desserts,
novelties, and other dairy desserts sub-
category which is. a user of a publicly
owned treatment' works and  a major
contributing industry  as denned in 40
CFR Part  128 (and  which would be  an
existing point source subject to section
301 of the Act, if it were to discharge
pollutants to the navigable waters), shall
be  the standard  set forth  in  40  CFR
Part 128, except that, for the purpose of
this section,  40  CFR 128.121,  128.122,
128.132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
following pretreatment standard estab-
lishes the quantity or quality of pollu-
tants or  pollutant properties controlled
by this section which may be discharged
to a publicly owned treatment works by
a point source subject to the provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH  	  NO limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  T38  		      Do.
   9. Subpart  I is  amended by  adding
 § 40S.94 as follows:
 § 405.94  Pretreatment standards for ex-
      isting sources.
   The  pretreatment  standards under
 section  307(b)  of the Act for a source
 within the condensed milk subcategory
 which is  a user  of  a publicly owned
 treatment works and a major contribut-
 ing industry as defined in 40 CFR Part
 128  (and  which  would be an  existing
 point source subject to section 301 of
 the Act, if It were to discharge pollutants
 to the navigable waters), shall  be the
 standard set forth  in 40 CFR Part 128,
 except that, for the purpose of this sec-
 tion,  40 CFR   128.121, 128.122,  128.132,
 and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
 ing pretreatment standard  establishes
 the quantity or quality of pollutants or
 pollutant  properties controlled  by this
 section which may be discharged  to a
 publicly owned treatment works by  a
 point source subject to the provisions of
 this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property'.                StoncUtrA
   pH  	  No limitation.
   BOD5 —.	     Do.
   TSS		;	     Do.

   10.  Subpart  J Is  amended by adding
 § 405.104 as follows:
 § 405.104   Pretreatment  standards  for
     exist ing sources.
   The pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307O>)   of the Act for a source
 within the dry milk subcategory which is
 a  user of  a publicly owned treatment
 works and  a major contributing industry
 as defined hi  40  CFR Part  128  (and
 which would be an existing point source
 subject to  section 301 of  the Act,  if it
 were to discharge  pollutants to the navi-
 gable  waters),  shall be the standard set
 forth  in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
 for the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
 128.121,128,122,128.132, and 128.133 shall
 not  apply.  The following pretreatment
 standard  establishes  the  quantity or
 quality of pollutants or pollutant proper-
 ties controlled by this section which  may
 be discharged to a publicly owned treat-
 ment works by a point source subject to
 the provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH			   No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TSS	      Do.

   11. Subpart K is  amended by  adding
 § 405.114 as follows:                „

 g 405.114   Pretreatment-  standards  for
     existing sources.
   The pretreatment standards under sec-
 tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
 the condensed whey subcategory which is
a  user of  a publicly  owned treatment
 works and a major contributing industry
 as defined in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which
would be an existing point source sub-
ject  to section 301 of the Act, if it were
to discharge pollutants to  the navigable
waters),  shafl be the standard set forth
in 40 CFR  Part  128, except that, for the
 purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
 128.122, 128.132, and 128.133 shall  not
 apply. The following pretreatment stand-
 ard establishes the quantity or quality
 of pollutants or pollutant properties con-
 trolled by this section which may be dis-
 charged to a publicly owned treatment
 works by  a point source subject to  the
 provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
   pH „_•			No limitation.
   BODS	;      Do
   TSS		      DO.

   12. Subpart L is amended by adding
 § 405.124 as follows:

 § 405.124  Pretreatment  standards  for
     existing sources.
   The  pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307 (b)  of the Act for  a source
 within the dry whey subcategory which is
 a user of a publicly owned treatment
 works and a major contributing industry
 as defined in 40 CFR Part 128  (and which
 would be an existing point source subject
 to section 301 of the Act, If it were to dis-
 charge   pollutants  to   the  navigable
 waters), shall  be the standard set forth
 in 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for  the
 purpose of this section,  40 CFR 128.121
 128.122,  128.132, and  128.133 shall  not
 apply.   The   following  pretreatment
 standard  establishes  the quantity  or
 quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
 erties controlled by this section which
 may  be discharged to a publicly owned
 treatment works by a point  source sub-
 ject to the provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
   pH 	 No limitation.
   BODS  	    Do.
   TSS 	    Do.


 PART 406—GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE
               CATEGORY
   The table of contents is amended by
 adding  the following new sections to  the
 indicated sub parts:
   Subpart A—Com Wet Milling Subcategory
 Sec.
 408.14  Pretreatment standards  for existing
         sources.
   Subpart B—Corn Dry Milling Subcategory
 40624  Pretreatment standards  for existing
         sources.
    Subpart C—Normal Wheat Flour Milling
               Subcategory
 406.34  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Subpart D—Bulgar Wheat Flour Milling
               Subcategory
 406.44  Pretreatmeut standards for existing
        sources.
   Subpart E—Normal Rice Milling Subcategory
406.54  Pretreatment standards for existing
        sources.
     Subpart F^-Parbolled Rice Processing
               Subcategory
406.64 Pretreatment standards  for existing
        sources.

   Part 406 is amended as follows:
   1. Subpart A is amended  by adding
 §408.14 as follows:
                              FEDERAL tEGtSIEt, VOL. 40, NO. 19—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY II,  1975


                                                             1-9

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6436
      RULES  AND  REGULATIONS
§ 406.14  Prctrealmcnl standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards under
section 307 (b)  of the Act for a source
within the corn wet milling subcategory
which is  a user  of a publicly owned
treatment works and  a major  contrib-
uting  industry  as denned  in  40  CPB
Part 128 (and which would  be an exist-
ing point source subject to section 301
of the Act,  if it were  to discharge pol-
lutants to the  navigable waters),  shall
be  the standard  set forth  in  40  CFR
Part 128, except that, for  the  purpose
of this section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122,
128.132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
following  pretreatment standard estab-
lishes  the quantity or quality  of pol-
lutants or pollutant properties controlled
by this section which may be discharged
to a publicly owned treatment works by
a point source  subject to the provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH 	  No limitation.
  BODS	       Do.
  TSS  		       Do.
  2. Subpart B is amended by adding
{ 406.24 as follows:

§ 406.24  Prelreatinrnt standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards under
section 307 (b)  of the Act for a source
within the corn dry milling subcategory
which is  a user  of a publicly owned
treatment works and  a major  contrib-
uting  industry  as defined  in  40  CFR
Part 128 (and which would  be an exist-
ing point source subject to section 301
of the Act,  if it were  to discharge pol-
lutants to the  navigable waters),  shall
be  the standard  set forth hi  40  CFR
Part 128, except that, for  the  purpose
of this section. 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122,
128.132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
following  pretreatment standard estab-
lishes  the quantity or quality of pol-
lutants or pollutant properties controlled
by this section which may be discharged
to a publicly owned treatment works by
a point source  subject to the provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH 	  No limitation.
  BODS	     Do.
  TSS 		     Do.
   3. Subpart C is amended  by adding
 $406.34 as follows:

 § 406.34   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307 (b)  of the  Act  for  a source
 within the normal wheat flour milling
 subcategory which is a user of a publicly
 owned treatment works and  a major
 contributing industry  as defined  in 40
 CFR  Part  128  (and which would be an
 existing  point  source subject to section
 301 of the Act, if it were to discharge pol-
 lutants to the navigable waters). shall be
  the standard  set forth in  40 CFR Part
  128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity  or quality of pollutants or
pollutant properties controlled  by this
section  which may be  discharged to a
publicly owned  treatment works  by a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
                          Pretreatment
                            standard
Pollutant or pollutant
    property:
  BODS	  No limitation.
  TSS—	     Do.

  4. Subpart D  is  amended by adding
§406.44 as follows:
§ 406.44  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards  under
section 307 (b) of the  Act for a source
within the bulgur  wheat flour milling
subcategory which is a user of a publicly
owned treatment works  and a major
contributing  industry as  defined in 40
CFR Part 128 (and which would be an
existing point source subject to section
301 of the Act,  if It were to discharge
pollutants to the navigable waters), shall
be  the  standard set forth in 40 CFR
Part 128, except that, for the purpose of
this section,  40  CFR  128.121,  128.122,
128.132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
following pretreatment standard estab-
lishes the quantity  or quality of pollut-
ants or pollutant properties controlled
by this section which may be discharged
to a publicly  owned treatment works by
a point source subject to  the provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
      property:               standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BOD5		     Do.
  TSS	-...-	     Do.

  5. Subpart E  is  amended by adding
8406.54 as follows:
§ 406.54  Pretreatment  standards   for
    existing  sources.
  The pretreatment standards under
section  307 (b)  of the Act for a source
within the normal rice milling subcate-
gory which is a user of a publicly owned
treatment works and a major contrlbut-
ing industry  as defined in 40 CFR Part
128 (and which would be an  existing
point source subject to section 301 of the
Act, if it were to discharge pollutants to
the  navigable  waters),  shall  be  the
standard set forth  hi 40 CFR Part 128,
except that, for the purpose of this sec-
tion,  40  CFR 128.121,  128.122,  128.132,
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant properties controlled  by this
section  which may be discharged to a
publicly  owned  treatment  works by  a
point source subject to the  provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  BODS	  No limitation,
  TSS	     Do.
  6. Subpart F is amended by adding
§406.64 as follows:

§ 406.64  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307 (b)  of the Act for  a source
within the parboiled rice processing sub-
category which is a user of a publicly
owned  treatment works  and  a major
contributing  industry as  defined  in  40
CFR Part 128  (and which would be  an
existing point source subject to section
301 of the Act, if it were to discharge
pollutants  to  the  navigable  waters),
shall be the standard set forth in 40 CFR
Part 128, except that, for the purpose of
this section, 40  CFR  128.121,  128.122,
128.132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
following pretreatment standard estab-
lishes the quantity or quality of pollut-
ants or pollutant properties controlled
by this section which may be discharged
to a publicly owned treatment works by
a point source  subject  to  the provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS		      Do.
  TSS	      Do.
PART  407—CANNED  AND  PRESERVED
   FRUITS AND VEGETABLES  PROCESS-
   ING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY
  The table of contents  is amended by
adding the following sections to the in-
dicated subparts:
Sec.
     Subpart A—Apple Jutce Subcategory
407.14.  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Subpart B—Apple Products Subcategory
407.24  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Subpart C—CKrus Products Subcategory
407.34  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
 Subpart D—Frozen Potato Products Subcategory
407.44  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Subpart E—Dehydrated Potato Products
              Subcategory
407.54  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.

  Part 407 Is amended as follows:
  1. Subpart A is  amended by adding
§ 407.14 as follows:
§ 407.14  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
the  apple juice subcategory which Is a
user of a publicly owned treatment works
and a major contributing industry as de-
fined hi 40 CFR Part 128  (and  which
would be an existing point source sub-
ject to section 301 of the Act, if it were
to discharge  pollutants to the navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122,  128.132, and  128.133 shall not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity or quality of
                               FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL. 40, NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11,  1975

                                                            1-10

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                                             RULES AND  REGULATIONS
                                                                            6137
pollutants or pollutant properties con-
tained by this section which may be dis-
jharged to a publicly owned treatment
forks by a point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
   property:                 standard.
 _g _____________________   No limitation.
 BODS" ..... --------------      DO-
  1 Subpart B  is  amended  by adding
} 407 .24 as follows:
(407.24  Pretreatment standards (or ex-
    isting sources.
  The pretreatinent standards under sec-
tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
the apple products snbcategory which Is a
user of a publicly owned treatment works
and a major contributing industry  as
defined In 40 CPR Part  128 (and which
would be an existing point source subject
to section 301 of the Act, if it were to dis-
charge  pollutants  to  the  navigable
waters) , shall be the  standard set forth
in 40 CFB Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132,  and  128.133 shall  not
ipply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity or quality of
pollutants or  pollutant  properties con-
trolled by  this section which may be dis-
charged to a publicly owned treatment
works by  a point  source subject to  the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
   property:                  standard
  pH _______________ ...... -  No limitation.
  BODS ....... ------ ......      Do.
  188 ---------------------      Do.
  3. Subpart C  Is  amended  by adding
 {107.34 as follows:
 {407.34  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  Hie pretreatment standards under sec-
 tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
 the citrus products subcategory which Is
 • user  of  a publicly  owned treatment
 works and a major contributing indus-
 try as defined In 40 CFR 'Part  128 (and
 ibich would be an existing point source
 object to section 301 of the Act.  If  it
 we to  discharge pollutants  to  the
 navigable waters) , shall be  the standard
 ait forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
 for the purpose  of this section, 40 CFR
 128.121,  128.122,  128.132,  and 128.133
 than not apply.  The following pretreat-
 inent standard establishes  the  quantity
 or quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
 erties controlled by this section which
 may be discharged to a publicly owned
 treatment works by a point source sub-
 ject to the provisions of this subpart.
 N)nttat or pollutant       Pretreatment
    properly:                Standard
  pH ---------------------  No limitation.
  BOD5. ............ . .....    Do.
  t88 --------------- _ ____    Do.

   i Subpart D is amended by adding
  1407.44 as follows:
  S 407.44   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The pretreatment standards under sec-
  >ta307(b) of the Act for a source within
the frozen potato products subcategory
which is a user of a publicly owned treat-
ment works and a major contributing in-
dustry  as denned  in 40 CPR  Part 128
(and which would be an existing point
source subject to section 301 of the Act,
if it were to discharge pollutants to the
navigable waters), shall be the standard
set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
for the purpose  of this section, 40 CFR
128.121,  128.122, 128.132, and  128.133
shall not apply.  The following  pretreat-
ment standard establishes the  quantity
or  quality of  pollutants or  pollutant
properties  controlled  by this  section
which may be discharged to a publicly
owned treatment works by a point source
subject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant  or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH			 No limitation.
  BODS	   Do.
  TSB 		   Do.
  5. SUbpart  E  is amended by adding
I 407.54 as follows:
§ 407.54  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment standards  under
section 307 (b) of  the Act for  a source
within  the dehydrated potato  products
subcategory which is a  user of a pub-
licly owned treatment works and a major
contributing industry as denned in  40
CFR Part 128 (and  which would be an
existing point source subject to section
301  of  the Act,  if it were to  discharge
pollutants  to the  navigable   waters),
shall be  the standard  set forth In  40
CFR Part 128, except that, for the pur-
pose of this  section,  40  CFR  128.121,
128.122, 128.132, and 128.133  shall not
apply.   The   following   pretreatment
standard  establishes  the  quantity  or
quality of pollutants or  pollutant prop-
erties controlled by this section which
may  be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works by  a point  source  sub-
ject to  the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH 	 No limitation.
  BODS		   Do.
  TSS		   Do.
 PART 408—CANNED  AND  PRESERVED
   SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE
   CATEGORY

   The Table of contents Is amended by
 adding the following new sections to the
 Indicated subparts:
   Subpart A—Farm-Raised Catfish Proces»lr«
                Subcategory
 Sec.
 408.14   Pretreatment standards for  exist-
          ing sources.
  Subpart B—Conventional Blue Crab Processing
                Subcategory
 40824   Pretreatment standards for  exist-
          ing sources.
  Subpart O-
               ahanlMd Blue Crab Procaashic,
               Subcstegory
 408.34   Pretreatment  standards for exist-
          ing sources.

   Subpart D—Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Ueat
           Processing Subcategory
 408.44   Pretreatment  standards for exist-
          ing sources.
    Subpart E—Remote Alaskan Crab Meat
           Proc«*sing Subcategoty
Sec.
408.54   Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

Subpart F—Non-RamoU Alaskan Whole Crab an*
     Crab Section Processing Subcategory

408.64   Pretreatinent standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

  Subpart O—Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and
     Crab Section Processing Subcategory

406.74   Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

Subpart  H—Dungeness and Tenner Crab  Proo-
  esstnfln th« Contiguous States Subcategory

408.84   Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

    Subpart I—Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp
           Processing Subcategory

408.94   Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

 Subpart J—Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing
               Subcategory

408.104  Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

 Subpart K—Northern Shrimp Processing In the
        Contiguous States Subcategory

408.114  Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

   Subpart L—Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp
Processing In the Contiguous States Subcategory

408.124  Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

Subpart  M—Breaded  Shrimp Processing In the
        Contiguous States Subcategory

408.134  Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

    Subpart N—Tuna Processing Subcategory

408.144  Pretreatment standards  for exist-
          ing sources.

  Part  408 is amended as follows:
  1. Subpart A is amended  by adding
§408.14 as follows:

§ 408.14  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.

  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b)  of  the Act  for a source
within  the farm raised catfish processing
subcategory which is a user of a publicly
owned  treatment  works and a  major
contributing industry as defined in 40
CFR Part 128  (and which  would be an
existing point source subject  to section
301  of  the Act, if it were  to  discharge
pollutants  to  the  navigable  waters),
shall be the standard set forth in 40
CFR Part 128,  except that, for the  pur-
pose of  this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122,  128.132, and  128.133  shall not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes  the quantity or quality
of pollutants or pollutant properties  con-
trolled by this section which may be dis-
charged  to  a publicly owned  treatment
works by a point  source subject to the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  ph	  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	     Do.
  TBS  	     Do.

  2. Subpart B Is amended  by adding
 S 408.24 as follows:
                               FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL. 40,  NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11,  197S


                                                          1-11

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 6438
      RULES AND  REGULATIONS
 § 408.24   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b) of the Act for a source
within the conventional blue crab proc-
essing subcategory which is a user of a
publicly owned  treatment works and a
major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CFR Part 128  (and which  would
be an existing  point source subject to
section 301 of the Act, if it were to dis-
charge pollutants to  the navigable wa-
ters), shall be the standard set forth in
40 CFR Part 128, except  that, for  the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132, and 128.133 shall  not
apply.  The  following   pretreatment
standard  establishes  the quantity  or
quality of pollutants  or pollutant  prop-
erties controlled by this  section which
may be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment arorks by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
   property:                 standard
  ph			  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	     Do.
  TSS  	     Do.
  3. Subpart  C  is amended  by adding
$408.34 as follows:
§ 408.34  Pretrealment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-?
tion 307 (b) of the Act for a source within
the mechanized blue crab processing sub-
category which  is-a user  of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as defined in  40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would be an  exist-
ing point source subject to section  301
of the Act, if it were to discharge pol-
lutants to  the navigable  waters), shall
be the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR  128.121, 128.122, 128.132.
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or  quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties controlled  by this
section which may be discharged to a
publicly owned  treatment works- by  a
point source  subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH  	  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	     Do.
  TSS	     Do.

  4. Subpart D  is  amended by adding
 { 408.44 as follows:

 § 408.4-4   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.

  The  pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307(b) of-the Act for a source
 within the  non-remote  Alaskan crab
 meat processing subcategory which is a
 user of a publicly owned treatment works
 and  a major contributing industry as
 denned hi 40 CFR Part 128  (and  which
 would be an existing point source sub-
 ject to section 301  of the Act, if it were
 to discharge pollutants to the navigable
 waters), shall be the standard set forth
 in 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132,  and 128.133 shall  not
apply.   The  following   pretreatment
standard  establishes the quantity  or
quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties  controlled  by this  section which
may be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works  by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH 	  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	  Do.  •
  TSS  		  Do.

  5. Subpart  E is  amended by  adding
$ 408.54 as follows:

§ 408.54  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment standards under
section 307 (b) of the Act for a source
within the remote Alaskan  crab meat
processing subcategory  which is a user
of a publicly owned treatment works and
a major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CFR Part  128 (and which would
be  an  existing point source subject to
section 301 of the Act, if it were to dis-
charge pollutants   to  the  navigable
waters), shall be  the standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for  the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132,  and 128.133 shall  not
apply.   The  following  pretreatment
standard  establishes the quantity  or
quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties  controlled  by this  section which
may be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works  by a point source sub-
ject to  the provisions of this subpart.

Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH 	  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	      Do.
  TSS  		      Do.

  6. Subpart  F is  amended by adding
5408.64 as follows:

§ 408.64  Prrtreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b) of the Act for a source
within the non-remote Alaskan whole
crab and  crab section  processing sub-
category which is a user of a publicly
owned  treatment works  and  a major
contributing  industry as  defined in 40
CFR Part 128 (and which would be an
existing point source subject to section
301 of  the Act, if it were to discharge
pollutants to the navigable waters), shall
be the  standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
128, except that,  for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
and 128.133 shall  not apply. The follow-
ing  pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties controlled  by this
section which may be discharged to a
publicly owned treatment works by a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH 	..	  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	      Do.
  TSS  		      Do.
   7. Subpart G is  amended by  addine
 §408.74 as follows:

 § 408.74  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.

  The  pretreatment standards   under
section 307(b)  of the Act for  a source
within the remote  Alaskan whole crab
and crab  section processing subcategory
which is  a user of  a publicly  owned
treatment works and a major contribut-
ing industry as denned in 40 CFR Part
128  (and which  would be an existing
point source subject to section  301 of
the Act, if it were to discharge pollutants
to the navigable waters), shall  be the
standard  set forth  in 40 CFR Part 128
except that, for the purpose of this sec-
tion.  40  CFR  128.121,  128.122,  128.132
and 128.133  shall not apply. The follow-'
ing  pretreatment standard establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties controlled  by  this
section which  may be  discharged to a
publicly  owned treatment works  by  a
point source subject to the provisions
of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH  	  No  limitation.
  Oil and grease	•__      Do.
  TSS .—		      DO.

  8. Subpart H is  amended by  adding
§408.84 as follows:

 § 408.84  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards   under
section 307(b)  of the Act for  a source
within the dungeness and tanner crab
processing in the contiguous states sub-
category which is a user of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as defined in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would be an existing
point source subject to section  301 of
the Act, if it were to discharge pollutants
to the navigable waters), shall  be the
standard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128,
except that, for the purpose of this sec-
tion,  40  CFR  128.121,  128.122,  128.132,
and 128.133  shall not apply. The follow-
ing  pretreatment standard establishes
the quantity or quality  of pollutants or'
pollutant  properties controlled  by  this
section which  may be  discharged to a
publicly  owned treatment works by  a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH  	-_	  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	      Do.
  TSS 	      Do.

  9. Subpart I is amended by  adding
§ 408.94 as follows:

§ 408.94  Pretreatment  standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards   under
section 307(b)  of the Act for a  source
within the non-remote  Alaskan shrimp
processing subcategory  which  is  a user
of a publicly owned treatment works and
a  major  contributing industry as  de-
nned in 40  CFR Part  128  (and which
would be  an existing point source sub-
ject to section 301 of the Act,  if it were
                               FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL 40, NO. 29—TUESDAY,  FEBRUARY 11, 1975

                                                          1-12

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                                            RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                                                          M39
to discharge pollutants to the navigable
TOteis). shall be the standard set forth
to 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of  this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132,  and  128.133 shall  not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity or quality of
pollutants or  pollutant properties con-
trolled by this section which may be dis-
charged to a  puoucjy owned treatment
works  by a point source subject to  the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
   property:                 standard
 pH			  No limitation.
 OH and grease	      Do.
 TSS—	—      Do.

 10. Subpart J is  amended by adding
§408.104 as follows:

§408.104   Pretreatment  standards  for
   existing sources.
 The pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307(b)  ofthe Act for a source within
the remote Alaskan  shrimp processing
subcategory which is a user of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as defined in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would be an existing
point source subject to section 301 of the
Act, if  it were to discharge pollutants to
the navigable waters), shall be the stand-
ard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128. except
that, for the  purpose of this section, 40
CTR 128.121,128.122,128.132, and 128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
ment standard establishes the quantity
or quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties controlled  by this section which
may be discharged  to a publicly owned
treatment works by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Mtatant or pollutant       Pretrtatmrnt
   property:                 standard
 pH		   No limitation.
 (ffl and grease	      Do.
 IBS		      Do.

 11. Subpart K  is  amended by adding
(408.114 as follows:

{408.114   Prrtreatnurtt  standard?  for
   existing sources.

 Hie pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307«b) of the Act for a source within
the Northern  shrimp processing in  the
contiguous states  subcategory which is a
user of a publicly owned treatment works
and a major contributing industry as de-
fined in 40 CFR  Part  128  tand which
would be an existing point  source subject
to section 301 of  the Act, if it were to
discharge  pollutants to the  navigable
raters), shall be  the standard  set forth
to 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for  the
purpose of this section. 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128 132, and 128 133 shall  not
»pply. The following pretreatment stand-
aid establishes the quantity or quality of
pollutants or  pollutant properties con-
trolled by this section which may be dis-
charged to a publicly owned treatment
forks  by a point source subject to  the
provisions of  this subpart
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  ph	  No limitation.
 . Oil and grease	      Do.
  TSS	      Do.

  12. Subpmrt L is amended by adding
§ 408.124 as foBcrws:
§ 408.124   Pretreatment standards  for
     existing sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
the   Southern   non-breaded   shrimp
processing in the contiguous  states sub-
category which is  a  user of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as defined in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would be an existing
point source  subject to section 301 of the
Act, if it were to discharge  pollutants to
the navigable waters). shall be the stand-
ard set forth in 40 CFR Part  128, except
that, for the purpose of this section, 40
CPR 128.121,128.122,  128.132, and 128.133
shall not apply. The  following pretreat-
ment standard  establishes  the  quantity
or quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties  controlled by  this section which
may be  discharged to a publicly owned
treatment  works by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                  standard
  ph 	  No limitation.
  Oil and grease	      Do.
  TSS		      Do.

  13. Subpart M is amended by adding
§ 408.134 as  follows:

§408.13*  Pretreatment standards  for
     existing  sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307 (b) of the Act  for  a source
within the breaded shrimp processing in
the contiguous states subcategory which
is a user of a publicly owned treatment
works and a major contributing industry
as defined in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which
would  be an existing point source sub-
ject to section SOI of the Act, if it were
to discharge  pollutants to the navigable
waters), shall be the  standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part  128, except  that, for  the
purpose of this section,  40 CFR 128.121,
128.122,  128.132, and  128.133 shall  not
apply. The following treatment standard
establishes tne  quantity or  quality  or
pollutants  or pollutant  properties  con--
trolled by this secUon which may be dis-
charged  to a publicly owned treatment
works  by a point source subject to  the
provisions of  this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Prctreatment
    property:                 standard,
  pH  	  No Hmitation.
  Oil and grease	    Do.
  TSS  	    Do.

  14. Subpart N is amended by adding
5 408.144 as follows:
§ 408.144  Pretreatmenl standards  for
     existing  source*.
  The  pretreatment  standards under
section 307(b) of the Act for  a source
within the tuna processing subcategory
which is a user of a publicly owned treat-
ment works aud  a major  contributing
industry as denned in 40 CFR Part 128
(and which would be an existing  point
source subject to section 301 of the Act,
if it were to discharge pollutants to the
navigable waters), shall be the standard
set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
for the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
128.121,  128.122.  128.132,  and  128.133
shall not  apply. The  following pretreat-
ment standard establishes the  quantity
or  quality  of pollutants or  pollutant
properties  controlled  by  this  section
which may be jdischarged to a publicly
owned treatment works by a point source
subject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH	   No limitation.
  BODS 	   Do.
  TSS 	   Do.
  Oil and  grease	   Do.
PART 4P9—BEET AND LIQUID AND CRYS-
   TALLINE  CANE  SUGAR  PROCESSING
   POINT  SOURCE SUBCATEGORY
  The table of  contents is amended by
adding the  following sections to the In-
dicated subparts:
 Subpart A—Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory
Sec.
4O9.14  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart B—Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining
              Subcategory
409.24  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Suhpart C—Liquid Cane Sugar (Mining
              Subcategory
409JM  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources,
  Part 409 is amended  as follows:
  L  Subpart A is amended by adding
S 409.14 as follows:
§ 409.14  Pretrentment standard* for ex-
     isting sources.
  Tne  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b)  of the Act  for a source
within the  beet sugar processing  sub-
category  which is  a  user of  a  pub-
licly  owned treatment  works  and  a
major contributing  industry as  defined
in 40 CFR  Part 128 (and which would
be an existing  point source subject to
section 301  of the Act,  if it were to dis-
charge  pollutants  to  the navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part  128, except that, for the
purpose of this  section. 40 CFR  128.121.
128.122,  128.132, and  128.133 shall not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes  the  quantity or quality
of pollutants or pollutant properties con-
trolled by this  section which  may be
discharged to a publicly owned treatment
works by a  point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart
Pollutant or pollutar.i
    property:
  pH  	
  BODS	
  TSS		
  Fecal  collform	
  Temperature (beat).
Prctreatment
  standard
No limitation.
    Do.
    Do.
    Do.
    Do.
                             FEDEtAl REGISTER. VOL 40,  NO.  29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1975

                                                        1-13

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6440
      RULES AND REGULATIONS
  Part 409 is amended as follows:
  1. Subpart B is  amended by  adding
§ 409.24 as follows:
§ 409.24  Protrealment staiid.-.rds for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment standards  under
section  307 (b)  of the Act for a source
within the crystalline cane sugar refining
subcategory which is a user of  a  pub-
licly  owned treatment works  and  a
major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CFR Part  128  (and which would
be  an existing point source subject to
section  301 of the Act, if it were to dis-
charge  pollutants  to   the  navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,  for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132,  and 128.133 shall not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the  quantity or  quality
of pollutants or pollutant properties con-
trolled  by this section which may be
discharged to a publicly owned treatment
works by  a point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH 	  No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TSS	      Do.
  2. Subpart C is  amended by  adding
(409.34 as follows:
§ 409.34  Prctreatnient standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment standards  under
section  307 (b)  of the Act for a source
within  the  liquid  cane sugar refining
subcategory which is a user  of  a  pub-
licly owned treatment works  and  a
major contributing industry as  defined
In  40 CFR  Part  128  (and which would
be an existing point source subject to
section 301  of the Act. if it were to dis-
charge  pollutants  to   the  navigable
waters), shall be the standard set  forth
in 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
 128.122, 128.132, and 128.133  shall not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
 ard establishes the quantity  or  quality
 of pollutants or pollutant properties con-
 trolled by  this section which may be
 discharged to a publicly owned treatment
 works by a point source  subject to the
 provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant  or pollutant        Pretreatment
     property:                 standard
   pH	 No limitation.
   BODS	     Do.
   TSS		     Do.
  PART 411—CEMENT MANUFACTURING
        POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

   The table of contents is amended by
  adding the following new sections to the
  indicated subparts:
      Subpart A—Nonleaching Subcategory
  Sec.
  411.14  Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
        Subpart B—Leaching Subcategory
        Pretreatment standards for existing
   Subpart C—Materials Storage Piles Runoff
               Subcategory
 Sec.
 411.34  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
  Part 411 is amended as follows:
  1.  Subpart A is amended by  adding
-I 411.14 as follows:
 § 411.14   Prelrcatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307 (b) of the Act for a source
 •within  the   nonleaching  subcategory
 which is a user of a publicly owned treat-
 ment works and a major contributing in-
 dustry as  denned in 40  CFR Part 128
 (and which  would be an existing point
 source subject to section 301 of the Act,
 if it were to discharge pollutants to the
 navigable waters), shall be the standard
 set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
 for the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
 128.121,  128.122.  128.132, and  128.133
 shall not apply. The following pretreat-
 ment standard establishes the quantity
 or  quality  of pollutants or  pollutant
 properties controlled  by this  section
 which may be discharged to a publicly
 owned treatment works by a point source
 subject to the provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	 No limitation.
  Temperature (heat)	     Do.
  TSS	„__	     Do.
  2. Subpart B is amended by  adding
 §411.24 as follows:
 § 411.24   Prelrealment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The  pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307 (b) of the Act for a source
 within the leaching subcategory  which
 is a user of  a publicly owned treatment
 works and a major contributing Indus-
 try as defined in 40 CFR Part 128. (and
 which would be an existing point source
 subject to section 301  of the  Act,  if It
 were to discharge pollutants to the navi-
 gable waters), shall be the standard set
 forth in 40  CFR Part  128, except that.
 for the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
 128.121,  128.122,  128.132, and  128.133
 shall not apply. The following pretreat-
 ment standard establishes the quantity
 or quality  of pollutants or  pollutant
 properties controlled  by this  section
 which may  be discharged to a publicly
 owned treatment works by a point source
 subject to the provisions of this subpart
 Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	 No limitation.
  BOD1	     Do.
  TSS-	     Do.
   3.  Subpart C  is  amended  by adding
 5 411.34 as follows:
 § 411.34  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The  pretreatment  standards  under
 section 307 (b) of the  Act for a source
 within the materials storage piles runoff
 subcategory  which is a user of a publicly
 owned treatment works and a  major
 contributing Industry  as  defined in  40
 CFR Part 128 (and which would be an
existing point source subject to section
301 of the Act,  if it were to  discharge
pollutants to the navigable waters), shall
be the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
and 128.133  shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment  standard establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties  controlled by this
section  which may  be  discharged  to a
publicly owned  treatment works by a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                standard.
  pH	  No limitation.
  TSS			      Do.
 PART 412—FEEDLOTS POINT SOURCE
              CATEGORY
  The table of contents is amended by
adding the following sections to the in-
dilated subparts:
   Subpart A  All Subcategorfes Except Ducks
Sec.
413.14  Pretreatment  standards for  exist-
         ing sources.
       Subpart B—Ducks Subcategory
412.24  Pretreatment  standards for  exist-
         ing sources.

  Part 412 is amended as follows:
  1. Subpart  A Is amended  by  adding
S 412.14 as follows:
§ 412.14  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b) of the Act for a source
within all  subcategories except  ducks
which is a user of a publicly owned treat-
ment  works and  a major contributing
industry as denned  in 40 CFR Part 128
(and which would be  an existing point
source subject to section 301 of the Act,
if it were to discharge pollutants to the
navigable waters), shall be the standard
set forth to 40 CFR Part 128, except that.
for the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
128.121,128.122,128.132, and 128.133 shall
not apply. The following pretreatment
standard establishes  the quantity  or
quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties  controlled by this section  which
may be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works by a point  source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant
    property:
  Fecal conform	
  BODS			
                          Pretreatment
                            standard
                       _  No limitation.
                              Do.

  2.  Subpart B  is amended by adding
I 412.24 as follows:
§ 412.24  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment  standards" under
section 307(b) of the Act for a source
within the ducks subcategory which is a
user of a publicly owned treatment works
and  a major contributing  industry  as
defined in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which
would be an existing point source  sub-
ject to section 301 of the Act, if it were to
discharge pollutants  to  the  navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
                               FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL  40, NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1975

                                                          1-14

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                                             RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                                                            6441
jg 40 CFR Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
UU22. 128.132, and 128.133 shall not
ipply. The follqwlng pretreatment stand-
ird establishes the quantity or quality of
pollutants or pollutant properties con-
trolled by this section which may be dis-
charged to a publicly  owned treatment
forks by a point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
   property:                 standard
 Meal conform	  No limitation.
 SODS	      Do.
•ART 414—ORGANIC CHEMICALS MANU-
FACTURING  POINT  SOURCE CATEGORY

  Hie table of contents Is  amended by
iddtag the following new sections to the
Indicated subparts:
 iatatrt A Konaqueous Processes Subcategory
Bee.
41414 Pretreatment Standards for Existing
       Sources.
                  iWlthPn
                             i Water
   Contact as Steam Diluent or Ataorbent
4HJ4 Pretreatment Standards for Existing
       Sources.

  Mpart C— Agueou* LlquM Phase Reaction
 %*Mn (Except Prwhiet-Procewes C2.C3.C4)
414M Pretreatment Standards for Existing
       Sources. -
 ' Fart 414 Is amended as follows :
  L Subpart  A Is amended by  adding
1 414.14 as follows:
1 414.14  Pretreatment standards for er-
    ittiac sources.
 . H» pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
the nonaqueous  processes  subcategory
thich is a user of a publicly owned treat-
Bent works  and  a major contributing
tatastry as denned in  40 CFR Part 128
tad which would be an existing point
norce subject to section 301 of the  Act,
ff it were to discharge  pollutants to the
navigable waters) , shall be the standard
Ktforth In 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
far the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
1M.121,  128.122,  128.132,  and 128.133
daft not apply. The  following  pretreat-
otnt standard establishes the quantity
•Quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties controlled by  this  section which
py be discharged Into a publicly owned
tnatment works by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
tUtatmt or pollutant        Pretreatment
t  property:                  standard
V.JB ---------------------  No limitation.
  WDS ___________________      Do.
,'.188 -------------- k ______      Do.

  1 Subpart  B Is amended by adding
 1 41124 as follows:
 141424  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
• ••: The pretreatment standards under sec-
ftaamb) of the Act for a source within
 (be processes with process water contact
Mrteam diluent  or  absorbent subcate-
forjr which is a user of a publicly owned
 treatment works and  a major  con-
tributing industry as  defined in 40 CFR
Part 128  (and which  would be an exist-
ing point source subject  to section  301
of the Act, If it were to  discharge pol-
lutants to the navigable waters), shall be
the standard set forth in 40  CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing  pretreatment standard establishes
the quantity  or  quality of pollutants or
pollutant properties  controlled by this
section which may be discharged to  a
publicly  owned  treatment  works  by  a
point source subject to the  provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant         Pretreatment
    property:                  standard
  pH  			  No limitation.
  BODS			     Do.
  TSS  	     Do.

  3. Subpart C  is  amended by adding
§414.34 as follows:

§ 414.34   Prelreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b) of the Act  for a source
within the aqueous liquid  phase reaction
systems  (for Cl  product-process  only)
subcategory which is a user of a publicly
owned  treatment works  and a  major
contributing  industry as  defined in 40
CFR Part 128 (and which  would be an
existing  point source subject to section
301 of the  Act,  if it were  to  discharge
pollutants  to the navigable waters),
shall  be  the standard set forth In 40
CFR Part 128, except that, for the pur-
pose  of  this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122,  128.132,  and  128.133  shall  not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity  or quality
of pollutants or pollutant properties con-
trolled by this section which may be dis-
charged  to a publicly owned  treatment
works  by a point source  subject to  the
provisions of  this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS	     Do.
  TSS	     Do.
PART 417—SOAP AND DETERGENT MAN-
   UFACTURING  POINT  SOURCE  CATE-
   GORY

  The table of contents Is  amended by
adding the following1 new sections to the
indicated subparts:
 Subpart A—Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle
               Subcategory
417.14   Pretreatment  standards  for  exlst-
        • Ing sources.

  Subpart B—Fatty AcM Manufacturing by Fat
           Splitting Subcategory
417.2*   Pretreatment  standards  for  exist-
          ing sources.
  Subpart C—Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid
         Neutralization Subcategory
417.34   Pretreatment  standards  for  exist-
          ing sources.
Subpart D—Glycerine Concentration Subcategory
Sec.
417.44  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
  Subpart E—Glycerin* Distillation Subcategory
417.54  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart F—Manufacture of Soap Flakes and
            Powders Subcategory
417.64  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
     Subpart G—Manufacture of Bar Soaps
               Subcategory
417.74  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
    Subpart H—Manufacture of Liquid Soaps
               Subcategory
417.84  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart I—Oleum Sulfonation and Sulfatton
               Subcategory
417.94  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
 Subpart J—Air—SO3 Sulfatlon and Sulfonation
               Subcategory
417.104 Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
Subpart K—SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation
               Subcategory
417.114 Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
Subpart L—Sulfamic Acid Sulfation Subcategory
417.124 Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
    Subpart M—Chlorosulfonlc Acid Sulfatlon
               Subcategory
417.134 Fretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
   Subpart N—Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid
     Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory
417.144 Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.
Subpart S—Manufacture of Detergent Bars and
             Cakes Subcategory
417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing
          sources.

  Part 417  is amended as follows:
   (1)  Subpart A is amended by adding
§417.14 as  follows:

§ 417.14   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.

  The pretreatment standards under sec-
lishes  the quantity or  quality of pollut-
tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
the soap manufacturing by batch kettle
subcategory which is  a  user  of a pub-
licly owned treatment works and a major
contributing  industry  as defined in 40
CFR Part 128 (and which would be an
existing  point source subject to section
301 of the Act, If it were to discharge pol-
lutants to the navigable waters), shall
be the standard set forth In 40 CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
and 128.133 shall not apply. The following
pretreatment standard  establishes the
quantity or quality of pollutants or pol-
lutant properties controlled by this sec-
tion which may be discharged  to a pub-
licly owned treatment  works by a point
source subject to the provisions of this
subpart.
                             FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL.  40, NO. 29—TUESDAY,  FEBRUARY  11,  1975


                                                          1-15

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 6442
      RULES AND  REGULATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretrcatment
    property:                standard
  pH 	  No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TSS 	      Do.
  Oil and Grease	      Do.
  COD	      Do.

   (2) Subpart B is amended by adding
8 417.24 as follows:

§ 417.24  Prelreatmcnt standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section'307(b) of the Act for a source
within the fatty acid manufacturing by
fat splitting subcategory which is a user
of a publicly owned treatment works and
a major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which would be
an existing point source subject to section
301 of the Act, If it were to discharge pol-
lutants to the navigable waters), shall
be the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132.
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing  pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties controlled by  this
section which  may be discharged to a
publicly owned treatment works by  a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH 	  No limitation.
  BODS 		      Do.
  TSS 	      Do.
  Oil and Qreas* —,	      Do.
  COD		      Do.

  (3) Subpart C is amended by adding
8 417.34 as follows:

§ 417.34  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.

  The  pretreatment  standards under
section 307(b) of the Act for a source
within the soap manufacturing by fatty
acid neutralization subcategory which is
a  user  of a publicly  owned treatment
works and a major contributing industry
as defined in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which
would be an eyfating point source subject
to section 301 of the Act, If it were to dis-
charge pollutants to the navigable  wa-
ters), shall  be the standard set forth in
40 CFR Part 128,  except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132,  and  128.133 shall  not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity or quality
of pollutants or ollutant properties con-
trolled by this section which may be  dis-
charged to  a publicly owned treatment
works by a point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
     property:                standard
  pH		—  No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TSS	      Do.
   Oil and Grease	      Do.
   COD	      Do.

   (4) Subpart D Is amended by adding
 1417.44 as follows:
 § 417.44  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards under
 section 307 (b) of the Act for a source
 within the glycerine concentration sub-
 category which is a user of a  publicly
 owned treatment works and a major con-
 tributing industry as denned in 40 CFR
 Part 128 (and which would be an existing
 point source subject to section 301 of the
 Act, if it were to discharge pollutants to
 the navigable waters), shall be the stand-
 ard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except
 that, for the purpose of this section, 40
 CFR 128.121,128.122,128.132. and 128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
 ment standard establishes" the quantity
 or  quality of pollutants  or pollutant
 properties  controlled  by  this   section
 which may be discharged to a  publicly
 owned treatment works by a point source
 subject to the provisions of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH  	,	  No limitation.
  BOD5	      Do.
  TSS  	      Do.
  Oil and Grease	      Do.
  COD	      Do.

  (5) Subpart E is amended by adding
 8417.54 as follows:

 § 417.54  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards under
section 307 (b) of  the Act for a source
 within the  glycerine  distillation  sub-
category which is a user of a  publicly
 owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as defined hi 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would  be an exist-
ing point source subject to section 301
of the Act, if it were to discharge pollut-
ants to the  naxlgable waters), shall be
the standard  set forth hi 40 CFR Part
 128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
 ing  pretreatment standard establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties controlled  by this
section which may be discharged  to a
publicly owned treatment  works by  a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH  	  No limitation.
  BODS		    Do.
  TSS  		    Do.
  Oil and Grease	    Do.
  COD	    Do.

  (6) Subpart F is amended by adding
 5 417.64 as follows:

 § 417.64  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307 (b) of the Act for a source within
the  manufacture  of  soap flakes and
powders subcategory which is a user of a
publicly owned treatment works and  a
major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which would be
an existing point source subject to sec-
 tion 301 of the Act, if it were to discharge
pollutants to the navigable waters), shall
be the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing  pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant properties  controlled by  this
section  which may be  discharged to a
publicly owned  treatment works by a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:               standard
  pH 	   No limitation.
  BODS	    Do.
  TSS  	    Do.
  Oil and Grease	    Do.
  COD	    Do.

  (7) Subpart G is amended by adding
§ 4X7.74 as follows:
§ 417.74  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment standards  under
section  307(b) of the Act for a source
within the manufacture of bar soaps sub-
category which is a  user of  a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as  defined in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would be an existing
point source subject to section 301 of the
Act, if it were to  discharge pollutants to
the navigable waters), shall be the stand-
ard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except
that, for the purpose of this section, 40
CFR 128.121,128.122,128.132, and 128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
ment standard establishes the quantity or
quality of pollutants or pollutant proper-
ties controlled by this section which may
be discharged to a publicly owned treat-
ment works by a point source subject to
the provisions of this  subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretrcatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	 'No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TSS  			      Do.
  Oil and Grease	      Do.
  COD	.	.      Do.

  (8) Subpart H is amended by adding
I 417.84 as follows:
§ 417.84  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The  pretreatment standards  under
section  307 (b) of the Act for a source
within the manufacture of liquid soaps
subcategory which is a user of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as  defined in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which  would be an exist-
ing point source subject to section 301 of
the Act, if it were to discharge pollutants
to the navigable waters), shall be the
standard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128,
except that, for the purpose of this sec-
tion, 40 CFR 128.121,128.122,128.132, and
128.133 shall not  apply. The following
pretreatment standard  establishes  the
quantity or quality of pollutants or  pol-
lutant properties  controlled by this  sec-
tion which may be discharged to a pub-
licly owned treatment works by a point
source subject to the provisions of  this
subpart.
                               FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL. 40, NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1975
                                                            1-16

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                                           RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                                                                                                6143
poBnUnt or pollutant
  property:
 pfll ----------- .....
 BODS --------------
 OB and Grease
 COD .....
                        Presentment
                          standard
                      No limitation.
                          Do.
                          Do.
                          Do.
                          Do.
 (9) Subpart I is amended by adding
1 41754 as follows:
{ 417.94  Prelreatment standards for ex-
   isting sources.
 •Hie  pretreatment standards  under
Mctton  30? (b) of  the Act for a source
lithin the oleum sulfonation and sulf a-
ttm subcategory which is  a user of a
publicly owned treatment  works and a
major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CPR Part 128  (and which would
te an existing point source subject to
action  301 of the Act. if it were to dis-
charge  pollutants  to   the  navigable
mten) , shall be the standard set  forth
tn40 CPU Part 128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121.
US.122, 128.132,  and 128.133 shall not
Igply.  The  following   pretreatment
rigndard  establishes the  quantity or
fnUty of pollutants  or pollutant prop-
erties controlled by this section which
My be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works by a point source sub-
ject to  the provisions of this subpart.
KBntant or pollutant       Pretreatment
   property:                 standard
 pH _____________________   No limitation.
 BOD5 ............... —      Do.
 188 ................. —      Do.
 00 ud Grease __________      Do.
 COD ---------- ..........      Do.
 Bmfectants -------------      Do.
  (10)  Subpart  J is amended by adding
 1417.104 as follows:
 {417.104   Prelreatment standards  for
   existing sources.
  The  pretreatment standards  under
 •ctton 307 (b)  of the Act  for a source
 lithin  the  air-SO3  sulfation and sul-
 faoation subcategory which is a user of a
 publicly owned  treatment works and a
 Mjor  contributing industry as defined
 fa 40 CFR Part 128 (and which would be
 IB existing  point  source subject to sec-
 tion 301 of the Act, if it were to discharge
 pollutants to the navigable waters) , shall
 be the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
 19, except that, for the purpose of tills
 MUon, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
 lad 128.133 shall not apply. The f ollow-
 fef pretreatment  standard establishes
 be quantity or quality of pollutants or
 pollutant properties  controlled  by this
 MUon which may be discharged to a
 jobHcly owned treatment works by a
 point souKe subject to the provisions of
 Wi subpart.
 IWuttnt or pollutant
   property:
  SODS
  OU and Grease
  000	
  .Surfactants	
Pretreatment
  standard
No limitation.
  Do.
  Do.
  Do.
  Do.
  Do.
  ,y adding
 § 417.194 as follows:
 § 417.194   Pretreatmenl  standards  for
      existing sources.
   The  pretreatment  standards  under
 section  307(b)  of the Act for a  source
 within  the manufacture  of  detergent
 bars and cakes  subcategory  which is a
 user of a publicly owned treatment works
 and a  major contributing industry as
 defined in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which
 woud be an existing point source sub-
 ject to section 301 of the Act, if it were
 to discharge pollutants to the navigable
 waters), shall be the standard set forth
 in 40 CFR Part  128, except that, for the
 purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
 128.122,  128.132, and  128.133 shall not
 apply. The following pretreatment stand-
 ard  establishes  the  quantity  or quality
 of pollutants or pollutant properties con-
                              FEDERAL REGISTER,  VOL. 40, NO. 29—TUESDAY,  FEBROARY  11, 1975

                                                         1-17

-------
6444
                                      RULES AND  RfGULATIONS
trolled by this section  which  may be
discharged to a publicly owned treatment
works by a point source sabject to the
provisions of thia subnazt.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TSS	      Do.
  Oil and grease	      Do.
  COD	      Do.
  Surfactants	      Do.


  PART 426—GLASS MANUFACTURING
      POINT SOURCE CATEGORIES

  The table of contents is amended by
inserting the  following new sections  In
the indicated subparts:
    Subpart I
                  IGIa
                      »Ma
                               irin
Bee.
426.24
       Subeategpry

            standards for extst-
       Pre treatment
         Ing sour aes.
    Subpart C—Roiled Glass Manufacturing
               Subcategoiy
426.34  Pretreatment
         Ing sources.
                    standards  for txlst-
     Subpart

 426.44
      •PUI» Glass Uamilacturing
       Subcaftgory
Pretreatment
  ing sourc«».
                      for exist-
               Subcataapry
 426.64 Pretreatment standards  for  exist-
         ing sources-
   Part 426 is amended at follows:
   I.  Subpart B  is amended by adding
 { 426.24 as follows:
 g 426.24  Pretrcatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The pretreatment standard* under sec-
 tion 307(b) of the Actfor a source within
 the sheet  glass manufacturing subcate-
 gory which is a u»er of a publicly owned
 treatment works and a major contrnt-
 uting industry as defined in. 40 CFR Part
 128  (and  which would be an  easting
 point source subject to section 301  of the
 Act,  if it were to discharge pollutants to
 the'navigable waters), shall be the stand-
 ard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except
 that, for the purpose of this section, 40
 CFR 128.121,128.122,128.132, and 128.133
 shall not apply. The following pretreat-
 ment standard establishes ttie quantity
 or quality of pollutants orpoHHtaot prop>-
 erties controlled by this,  section  which
  may be discharged to a publicly  owned
  treatment works by a point source sub-
  ject to the provisions of this snbpart.
  Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatnwirt
     property:                standard
   pH	  No limitation.
   TSS	     Do.
    2. Subpart C Is amended  by adding
  § 426.34 as follows:
  § 426.34  Prelreatmcnt standards  for ex-
      isting sources.
    The pretreotment standards under sec-
  tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
  the rolled glass manufacturing subcate-
  gory which i* a uier of a polilcly owned
  treatment works and  »  major contrib-
uting industry as defined in 40 CFR Part
128  (and which would  be an  existing
point source subject to section 301 of the
Act, if it were to discharge pollutants, to
the navigable waters), shall be the stand-
ard set forth in 40 CER Part 128, except
that, for the purpose of this section, 40
CFR 128.121, 128.122,128.132, and 128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
mentstandard establishes the quantity or
quality of pollutants or  pollutant prop-
erties controlled by this section which
may be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works by a  point source sub-
ject to the provisions, of. thia subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Br; treatment
    property:                standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  TSS	     Do.
  3. Subpart  D is amended by adding;
I 426.44 as follows:
§ 426.44 PretreoUnent standards tor CDE~
     isling sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
tb.3  plate glass manufacturing  subcate-
gory which is a user of a publicly owned
treatment works and  a major contrib-
uting industry as defined in 4Q CFR Part
128 (and which would be an existing
point source subject to section 301 of the
Act, if it were to discharge pollutants to
the navigable waters), shall be the stand-
ard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128f except
that, for the purpose  of this section, 40
CFR 128.121,128:122.128.132, and 128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
ment standard establishes the quantity or
quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties controlled by this  section which
may be  discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
                                  Pollutant or pollutant'
                                     property:
                                   pH	.	.	
                                   TSS	
                                                                         Pollutant 01 pollutant
                                                                            property:
                                                                           pH  	
                                                                           Oil  	
                                                                           TSS 	
                                                                                                         Pretreotmtnt
                          No limitation.
                            Do.
                            Do.
                           Pretreatment
                             standard
                         .  No limitation.
                               Do.
   4. Subpart F is amended by  adding-
 $ 425.64 as follows:
 § 426.64   Pretreatmeat standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The pretreatment  standards  under
 section. 307 (b)  of the A oftor a. source
 section. 307(b)  of the Act for a source
 within the automotive glass tempering
 subcategory which is  a user of  a pub-
 licly owned treatment works and a major
 contributing industry as denned hi 40
 CFR  Part 128  (and which would be an
 existing point  source  subject to section
 301 of the Act, If it were to discharge
 pollutants to  the navigable waters),
 shall  be  the standard set forth in 40
 CFR  Part 128, except that, for the pur-
 pose  of  this  section. 40  CFR 128.121,
 128.122,  128.132, and  128.133 shall not
 apply.   The   following  pretreatment
 standard  establishes the quantity or
 quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
 erties controlled by this section, which
 may  be discharged to a publicly owned
 treatment works by a point source sub-
  ject  ta ttt* Bsovtakas; of this subpart.
PART 427— ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING
      POINT SOURCE  CATEGORY

  The table of contents is amended by
adding the following new sections to the
indicated subparts:
 Sbbpact A — Asbesto*Cement Pip* Subcategoty
Sec.
42T.14 Pretreatment standards for  existing
         source*.
Subpart 0 — Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategoiy
427.24 Pretreatment standards for  existing
         sources.
   Subpart C — Asbestos Paper (Starch Bindw)
              Subcategory
42.7.34 Pretreatment standards for  existing
         sources.
    Subparta— Asbestos Bap* (ElMterawte
            Blndw) Subcategeiy
427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   TnhSiiiT E— AaUestas-MWioaiil Subcategory
42(7.54  Pretnatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart F—ftsbestar Roofing Subcategory
427.64  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart a  Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory
427.74  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.

   Part 427 is amended as follows :
   1. Subpart A  is amended by adding
 5427.14 as follows:
 § 427.14  Prctrealmcml standards for ex-
     isting sources.
   The  pretreatment  standards under
 section 307 (b) of the  Act for a source
 within  the  asbestos-cement  pipe  sub-
 category which  is a user of  a  publicly
 owned  treatment  works  and a major
 contributing industry  as denned  in 40
 CFR Part 128 (and which would be an
 existing point source  subject  to section
 301 of  the Act,  if it  were to discharge
 pollutants  to the navigable  waters),
 shall be the standard set forth in 40 CFR
 Part 128, except that,  for  the  purpose
 of this section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122,
 128.132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
 following pretreatment standard estab-
 lishes the quantity or quality of pollu-
 tants or pollutant properties controlled
 by this section which may be discharged
 to a publicly owned treatment works by
 a point source subject to the provisions
 of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
     property:                 standard
   PH                    . No limitation.
      "~~~
                                                                            2. Subpart  B is amended  by adding
                                                                           S 427.24 as follows:
                                                                           § 427.24   Prctrealment standards for ex-
                                                                               isting sources.
                                                                            The  pretreatment  standards  under
                                                                           section 307 (b) at the Act for  a source
                                 KMtAL REGIflBtVOL. 4* MO. 1»—TUESDAY. FEBRUARY 11,  1975

                                                              1-18

-------
                                            RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                                                           6445
     the asbestos-cement sheet sub-
t»iegory which Is a user of a publicly
gmed treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as defined in 40 CPR
part 128 (and which would be  an exist-
ing point source  subject to section 301
of the Act, if it were to discharge pollut-
ing to the navigable  waters), shall be
tte standard set  forth  in 40 CPR Part
US except that, for the purpose of this
action, 40 CPR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132
ind 128.133 shall  not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard establishes
file quantity or quality of  pollutants or
pollutant properties controlled by  this
section  which may be  discharged to a
publicly  owned treatment  works by a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
   property:     •           standard
 pH			  No limitation.
 188		      Do.
 S. Subpart C is  amended by adding
(427.34 as follows:
( 427.34  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
 The pretreatment  standards  under
lection  307(b) of the Act for  a source
lithta the asbestos paper (starch bind-
o) aibcategory which is a user  of a pub-
licly owned treatment works and a major
contributing  industry as  defined in 40
OR Fart 128 (and which would be an
eristtng point source subject to section
HI of the Act, if it were to discharge
pollutants  to the navigable  waters),
dan be the standard set forth in 40 CFR
hit 128, except that, for the purpose of
tUl section. 40  CFR   128.121, 128.122,
1&132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
mowing pretreatment  standard estab-
Utes the quantity or quality of pollut-
mti or pollutant properties controlled
lj this section which may be discharged
to a publicly owned treatment works by a
point source subject to the provisions of
ttb subpart.
Ntatant or pollutant
  ..property:
                        Pretreatment
                          standard
 JH~			 No limitation.
MSB		     Do.
 t Bubpart D is amended by adding
107.44 as follows:
{427.44   Pretreatment standards for ex-
   Mtmg sources.
 'Die pretreatment  standards  under
Ktkm 307(b) of the Act for a source
ttthta the asbestos paper (elastomeric
Under) subcategory which is a user of a
jAUcly owned treatment works and  a
•»jor contributing industry as-defined in
JO CRB Part 128 (and which would  be
n existing point source  subject to sec-
ta 301  of  the Act, if it were to dis-
durge pollutants to the navigable wa-
tB), shall be the standard  set forth in
H CFR Part  128, except that,  for the
Wpose of this section, 40 CPR  128.121,
HUB, 128.132. and  128.133 shall not
«Wy.  The  following   pretreatment
itadard  establishes  the  quantity  or
Witty of pollutants  or  pollutant pro-
perties controlled by this section which
My be discharged  to a  publicly owned
treatment works by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  TSS	      Do.

  5. Subpart E  is amended by adding
§ 427.54 as follows:

§ 427.54  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b) of the Act  for  a source
within the  asbestos millboard  subcate-
gory which is a user of a publicly owned
treatment works and a major contribut-
ing industry as defined in  40 CFR Part
128 (and which would be  an existing
point source subject to section 301 of the
Act, if it were to discharge  pollutants to
the navigable waters), shall  be the stand-
ard set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except
that,  for the purpose of this section, 40
CPR 128.121,128.122,128.132, and 128.133
shall  not apply. The following pretreat-
ment standard establishes  the  quantity
or quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties  controlled by this section which
may be discharged to a publicly owned
treatment works by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                 s t and ard
  pH	  No limitation.
  TSS	      Do.

  6. Subpart P  is amended by adding
§ 427.64 as follows:

§ 427.61  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307 (b) of the Act for a source within
the asbestos roofing subcategory which is
a user of  a publicly owned treatment
works and a major contributing industry
as defined in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which
would be an existing  point source sub-
ject to section 301 of the Act, if it were
to discharge pollutants to the navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
in 40  CPR Part 128, except  that, for  the
purpose of this section, 40  CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132, and  128.133 shall  not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity or quality of
pollutants or pollutant  properties con-
trolled by this section which may be dis-
charged to a publicly owned treatment
works by a point source subject to  the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH  	  No limitation.
  COD	     Do.
  TSS  	     Do.

  7. Subpart G  is amended by adding
§ 427.74 as follows:
§ 427.74  Pretreatment standards for ex-
    isting sources.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b) of the Act  for a source
within the asbestos floor tile subcategory
which is a user of a publicly  owned treat-
ment'works  and a  major  contributing
industry as defined in 40 CFR Part  128
(and  which would be an existing point
source subject to section 301 of the Act,
if it were to discharge pollutants to the
navigable waters), shall be the standard
set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
for the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
128.121,  128.122,  128.132, and  128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
ment standard establishes the  quantity
or  quality  of  pollutants or  pollutant
properties   controlled  by this  section
which may be discharged to a publicly
owned treatment works by a point source
subject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH 	_:	 No limitation.
  COD	      Do.
  TSS  		      Do.
PART 430—PULP,  PAPER,  AND PAPER-
   BOARD  POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

  The table of  contents is amended by
adding the following new section to the
indicated subparts:
   Subpart A—Unbleached Kraft Subcategory
Sec.
430.14  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart B—Sodium Based Neutral Sulfite
         Semi-Chemical Subcategory
430.24  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart C—Ammonia Base Neutral Sulfite
         Semi-Chemical Subcategory
430.34  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
  Subpart D—Unbleached Kraft—Neutral Sulfite
  Semi-Chemical (Cross Recovery) Subcategory
430.44  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.
   Subpart E—Paperboard From Waste Paper
               Subcategory
430.54  Pretreatme'nt standards for existing
         sources.

  Part 430 is amended as follows:
  1.  Subpart A is amended  as adding
§ 430.14 as follows:

§ 430.14   Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.

  The pretreatment  standards  under
section  307 (b)  of the  Act  for  a source
within the unbleached kraf t subcategory
which is a user of a publicly owned treat-
ment works and a major contributing in-
dustry as  defined in 40 CFR Part 128
(and which  would be an existing point
source subject to section 301 of the Act,
if it  were to discharge  pollutants to the
navigable waters), shall be the standard
set forth in 40 CFR Part 128, except that,
for the purpose of this section, 40 CFR
Parts  128.121,   128.122,  128.132,  and
128.133  shall not apply. The  following
pretreatment standard establishes the
quantity or quality of pollutants or pol-
lutant properties controlled by  this sec-
tion  which may be discharged to a pub-
licly owned treatment  works by a point
source subject to the provisions of this
subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
   property:                standard
  pH	   No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TSS	      Do.
                             FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL.  40, NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY IT,  1975

                                                      1-19

-------
 6146
                                             RUIES  AMD  Kf GULATIONS
  2. Subpart  B Is amended by  adding
 § 430.24 as follows:

 § 430.24  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sonrces.
  The pretreatment standards under seo~
tlon 307(b) of the Act for a source with-
in, the sodium based neutral sulflte semi-
chemical subcategory which is a user of-
a publicly owned treatment works and a
major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CFR Part 128 (and which would be
an existing point source, subject to sec-
tion 301  of the Act, if it were to dis-
charge  pollutants  to   the  navigable
waters), shall be the standard set forth
in 40 CFR Part 128. except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122, 128.132, and 128.133 shall not
apply. The following pretreatment stand-
ard establishes the quantity or quality ot
pollutants or  pollutant properties con-
trolled by this section which may be dis-
charged to a  publicly, owned treatment
works by  a  point  source subject to the
provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant of pollutant        Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH	  No limitation.
  BODS		     Do.
  TSS	     Do.

  3.  Subpart  C  is amended by adding
{ 430.34 as follows:

§ 430.34  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting i
  The pretreatment standards  under
section 307(b)  of the Act for a source
within the nnwnnn<^ basg neutral sulfits
semi-chemical  subeategory  which  is a
user  of  a  publicly  earned treatment
works and a major contributing indus-
try as defined in 40 CFR Part 128  (and
which would be an existing point source
subject to section  301 of the Act,  if it
were to discharge pollutants to the navi-
gable waters) . shall be the standard set
forth in  40  CFR Part 128, except that,
for the purpose of this section,  4tt CFR
128.121,  128.122, 128.132,  and  128.133
shall  not  apply.  The  following  pre-
treatment   standard   establishes   the
quantity  or  quality of pollutants or pol-
lutant properties controlled  by this sec-
tion which may be discharged to a pub-
licly owned treatment works by  a point
source subject  to the provisions of this
subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant-      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH --------------------- No limitation.
  BOD5 __________________    Do.
  TSS ___________________    Do.

  4.  Subpart D is  amended by adding
 5 430.44  as  follows:
 § 430.44  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment   standards under
section 307 (b)  of  the Act for a source
within the unbleached kraf t-neutral sul-
fite semi-chemical (cross recovery)  sub-
category which is a  user of a  publicly
owned treatment  works and a major
contributing industry as defined in 40
CFR Part 128  (and which would be an
existing  point  source subject  to  sec-
tioH 301 of the Act, if it were to discharge
pollutants to  the  navigable waters),
shall  be the standard  set  forth  in  40
CFR- Part 128,  except that, for the pur-
pose of  this section,  40 CFR  128.121,
128.122,  m.132,  and 128.133 shall nat
apply.   The   following  pretreatment
standard  establishes the  quantity  or
quality of the pollutants  or pollutant
properties  controlled  by  this  section
which  may be  discharged to  a publicly
owned treatment works by a point source
subject to the provisions  of this sub-
part.
Pollutant or pollutant      Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  BOD5	  No limitation.
  TSS	      Do.
  PH..		      Do.

§ 430.54  PretraBlment standards for ex.
    isting sources.
  5. Subpart E la amended by adding
§430.54 as follows:
  The- pretreatment standards'  under
section 307(b)  of the Act for a source
within the paperboard from waste  paper
subcategory which is a user of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as defined in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would be an  exist-
ing point source subject to section 301
of the Act, if it were to discharge pol-
lutants to the  navigable waters), shall
be the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of thi»
section, 40 CFR 128.121. 128.122, 128.132,
and 128.13T shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality  of pollutants  or
pollutant  properties controlled by this
section which a&y be. discharged to  a
publicly  owned treatment works  by  a
point source subject to the provisions  of
this subpart.
                         Pretrtsxtmeat
                           ttfllllltlltt
                   	No limitation.
                   	      Do.
                   	      Do.
    property:
  pH
  BODS
PART 431—BUILDERS PAPER AND ROOF-
   ING FELT SEGMENT OF THE BUILDERS
   PAPER- AND  BOARD  MILLS  POINT
   SOURCE CATEGORY
  Part 431 is amended as follows:
  L Subpart A is  amended by  adding
5 431.14 as follows:
§ 431.14  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards  under
section 307(b)  of the Act for  a source
within the builders paper and  roofing
felt  subeategory which is a user of  a
publicly  owned treatment works and  a
major contributing industry as defined
in 40 CFR Part 128  (and which would
be  an existing point source subject  to
section 301 of the Act, if it were to dis-
charge pollutants to  the navigable wa-
ters), shall be the standard set forth in
40 CFR  Part  128, except that, for the
purpose of this section, 40 CFR 128.121,
128.122,  128.132, and 128.133  shall not
apply.  The  following  pretreatment
standard establishes the quantity or
quality of pollutants  or pollutant prop-
                                        erties controlled by tills section which,
                                        may be discharged to a publicly owned.
                                        treatment works by a point source sub-
                                        ject  to  the provisions of this subjpart.
                                        Pollutant, or pollutant      Pretreatment
                                           property:                atoruterd
                                          pH	  No limitation
                                          BODS	     Do.
                                          TSS		     Do.
                                          Settleable solids	     Do.
                                          PART 432—MEAT PRODUCTS POINT
                                                  SOURCE CATEGORY

                                          The table of contents  is amended by
                                        adding the following new section to the
                                        indicated subparts:
                                         Subpnt A—Simpl* Slaughterhouse Sttcategary
                                        See.
                                        432.14  Pretreatment standards for existing
                                                sources.

                                             Subpart B—Complex Slaughterhouse
                                                      Subcategory
                                        432.24  Pretreatment standards for existing
                                                soxtrces.

                                           Subpart C—Low Processing Packinghouse
                                                      Subcategory
                                        432.34  Pretreatment standards for existing
                                                sources.
                                           Subpart
                                                 D—Wgp H-ocnsini
                                                      Subcategory
 432.44  Pretreatment standards for existing
         sources.

  Part 432 is amended as follows:
  1. Subpart A is amended by «riding-
 § 432.14 as follows:
 § 432.14  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment  standards  under'
 section 307(b) at the Act for a source
 within the simple, slaughterhouse sub-
 category which is a user of a. publicly
 owned treatment works  and  a  major
 contributing  industry as  defined in 40
 CFR Part 128 (and which would be an
 existing point source subject to section
 301  of the Act, if it were to discharge
 pollutants to  the navigable waters), shall
 be  the  standard set forth in  40 CFR
 Part 128, except that, for the  purpose
 of this section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122,
 128.132, and 128.133 shall not apply. The
 following pretreatment standard estab-
 lishes the quantity or quality of pollut-
 ants or pollutant properties controlled'
 by this section which may be discharged
 to a publicly  owned  treatment works by
 a point source subject to  the provisions
 of this subpart.
 Pollutant or pollutant prop-  Pretreatment
    erty:                    standard
  pH	  No limitation.
 EOD5	      Do.
  TSS	      Do.
  Oil and grease	      Do.
  Fecal collform	      Do.

  2. Subpart B is amended by adding
 § 432.24 as follows:
 § 432.24  Pretreatment standards for ex-
     isting soorcea.
  The  pretreatment  standards  under
section 307(b) of  the Act for  a source
within  the complex slaughterhouse sub-
category which is a user of a  publicly
 owned  treatment  works  and  a major
contributing  Industry  as  defined  in 40
                              FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL 40, NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11,  1975

                                                            1-20

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                                           RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                                                          6447
OR Part 128  (and which would be an
(listing point  source subject to section
jjl of the Act, if it were to  discharge
pollutants to the navigable waters) , shall
te the standard set forth in 40 CFR Part
US, except that, for the purpose of this
action, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122, 128.132,
Bd 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment  standard establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant  properties  controlled by  this
gction which  may be discharged to  a
publicly owned treatment works by  a
point source subject to the provisions of
this fiubpart.
Pollutant or pollutant
property:
BODS 	 -
J8S 	

•KBI coUform 	
Pretreatment
standard
	 No limitation.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
  J, Snbpart C Is amended by adding
 102.34 as follows:
 {43134  Prelreatmcnt standards for ex-
   isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-
 tion 307 (b) of the Act for a source within
the  low-processing packinghouse sub-
category which is  a user of a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as denned in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which would be an existing
point source subject to section 301 of the
Act, if it were to discharge pollutants to
the navigable waters), shall be the stand-
ard set forth in 40  CFR Part 128, except
that, for the purpose of this section, 40
CFR 128.121,128.122,128.132, and 128.133
shall not apply. The following pretreat-
ment standard  establishes the quantity
or quality of pollutants or pollutant prop-
erties  controlled by this  section which
may be  discharged to a publicly owned
treatment  works by a point source sub-
ject to the provisions of this subpart.
Pollutant or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                standard
  pH	   No limitation.
  BODS	      Do.
  TS8		      Do.
  Oil and grease	      Do.
  Fecal collform	      Do.

  4. Subpart D is amended by adding
§ 432.44 as follows:
§ 432.44  Pretrcalnient standards for ex-
     isting sources.
  The pretreatment standards under sec-
tion 307(b) of the Act for a source within
the high-processing packinghouse sub-
category which is a  user of  a publicly
owned treatment works and a major con-
tributing industry as  defined  in 40 CFR
Part 128 (and which  would be an exist-
ing point source subject  to section 301
of the Act, if it were to discharge pollu-
tants to the navigable waters), shall be
the standard  set forth in 40  CFR Part
128, except that, for the purpose of this
section, 40 CFR 128.121, 128.122. 128.132.
and 128.133 shall not apply. The follow-
ing pretreatment standard  establishes
the quantity or quality of pollutants or
pollutant properties  controlled by  this
section  which  may be discharged to a
publicly owned treatment works  by a
point source subject to the provisions of
this subpart.
Pollutane or pollutant       Pretreatment
    property:                 standard
  pH	No limitation.
  BODS	     Do.
  TSS 		....     Do.
  Oil  and  grease	     Do.
  Fecal ooliform	     Do.
   [FR Doc.75-3620 Filed 2-10-75;8:45 am]
                            FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL 40, NO. 29—TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1975
                                                        1-21

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          APPENDIX  2
SECONDARY TREATMENT INFORMATION

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No. 159—Pt. II	1
                 FRIDAY, AUGUST 17, 1973
                 WASHINGTON, D.C.

                 Volume 38 • Number 159


                 PART II
                 ENVIRONMENTAL
                    PROTECTION
                      AGENCY
                   WATER PROGRAMS

                    Secondary Treatment
                       Information
                2-1

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 22298
                                             RULES AND REGULATIONS
    Title 40—Protection of Environment
      CHAPTER I—ENVIRONMENTAL
          PROTECTION AGENCY
     SUBCHAPTER D—WATER  PROGRAMS
   PART  133—SECONDARY  TREATMENT
             INFORMATION
   On April 30,1973, notice was published
 in the FEDERAL REGISTER  that the En-
 vironmental Protection Agency was pro-
 posing information on secondary treat-
 ment pursuant to  section  304(di(l)  of
 the  Federal  Water  Pollution  Control
 Act  Amendments  of  1972  (the  Act).
 Reference should be made to the  pre-
 amble of the proposed rulemaking for a
 description of the purposes and intended
 use of the regulation.
   Written comments on the  proposed
 rulemaking  were  invited  and received
 from  interested parties. The  Environ-
 mental  Protection  Agency  has care-
 fully considered all comments received.
 All written comments are on file with the
 Agency.
   The regulation has been reorganized
 and   rewritten   to  improve  clarity.
 Major changes that were made as a re-
 sult  of  comments  received are sum-
 marized below:
   (a)  The  terms  "1-week"  and  "1-
 month"  as  used  in I 133.102  (a)  and
 (b)  of the proposed rulemaking  have
 been changed to 7 consecutive days and
 30  consecutive days  respectively  (See
 I 133.102 (a), (b),and (c) ).
  (b) Some comments indicated that the
 proposed  rulemaking appeared to re-
 quire 85 percent removal of biochemical
 oxygen demand and suspended  solids
 only in cases when a treatment works
 would treat a substantial portion of ex-
 tremely high strength industrial  waste
 (See 5 133.102(g)  of the  proposed rule-
 making) . The intent was that in no case
 should the percentage removal of bio-
chemical oxygen demand  and suspended
solids in a 30 day period be less than 85
percent.  This has been clarified in  the
regulation. In addition, it has been ex-
pressed as percent remaining rather than
percent removal  calculated  using  the
 arithmetic means of the  values for in-
fluent and effluent samples collected in
a 30 day period (See § 133.102(a) and
 (b)).
  (c)  Comments were  made as to  the
difficulty of achieving 85 percent removal
of biochemical oxygen demand and sus-
uended  solids during wet  weather  for
 treatment works  receiving flows  from
combined sewer  systems.  Recognizing
this,  a  paragraph  was  added which
will allow waiver or adjustment of that
requirement  on  a  case-by-case  basis
 (See{ 133.103i a».
    The definition of a 24-hour com-
 posite  sample (See  § 133.102(c) of  the
proposed rulemaking)  was deleted from
 the regulation. The sampling require-
 ments for publicly owned  treatment
works will be established In  guidelines
 issued pursuant to sections 304(g> and
 402 of the Act.
  (e)  In f 133.103 of the  proposed rule-
 making, It was recognized that secondary
 treatment processes are subject to upsets
 over which little or no control may be
 exercised. This provision  has been de-
 leted. It is no longer considered necessary
 in this regulation since procedures for
 notice and review of upset Incidents will
 be included  in discharge permits Issued
 pursuant to section 402 of the Act.
   (f)  Paragraph  (f) of § 133.102 of the
 proposed rulemaking, which  relates to
 treatment works which receive substan-
 tial portions of high strength industrial
 wastes, has been rewritten for clarity. In
 addition, a  provision  has been added
 which  limits the use of the upwards ad-
 justment provision to only  those cases in
 which the flow or loading from an indus-
 try  category exceeds 10 percent of the
 design flow or loading of the treatment
 works. This intended to reduce or elimi-
 nate the administrative burden which
 would  be involved In making inslgnifl-
. cant  adjustments in  the  biochemical
 oxygen demand  and suspended solids
 criteria (See  5 133.103(b)).
   The   major  comments  for  which
 changes were not made  are discussed
 below:
   (a)  Comments  were received which
 recommended that the regulation be
 written to allow effluent limitations to be
 based on the treatment necessary to meet
 water  quality standards. No change has
 been made in the regulations because tho
 Act  and  its  legislative history clearly
 show that the regulation is to be based
 on the capabilities of secondary treat-
 ment technology and not ambient water
 quality effects.
   (b)  A number of  comments were re-
 ceived which  pointed out that waste sta-
 bilization ponds alone are not generally
 capable of achieving the proposed efflu-
ent quality in terms of suspended solids
and  fecal conform bacteria. A few com-
menters expressed the opposite view. The
Agency is of the opinion that with proper
design (including solids separation proc-
esses and disinfection in some cases)  and
operation, the level of effluent quality
specified can be  achieved with waste
stabiUzation ponds. A technical bulletin
will be published in the near future which
will provide guidance on the design and
operation of waste stabilization ponds.
   (c) Disinfection must be employed hi
order to achieve the fecal coliform bac-
teria levels specified. A few commenters
argued that disinfectant is not a second-
ary treatment process and therefore the
fecal  colifonn  bacteria  requirements
should  be deleted. No changes were made
because disinfection is considered by the
Agency to be an  important element of
secondary treatment which Is necessary
for protection  of  public  health  (See
S 133.102(0).

  Effective date.  Taew regulations shall
become effective 0:1 August 17,1973.
                    JOHN QTTARLES,
               Actina Administrator
  AUGUST 14, 1973.
    Chapter I of title 40 of the Code of
 Federal Regulations Is amended by add-
 ing a new Part 133 as follows:
 Sec.
 133.100  Purpose.
 133.101  Authority.
 133.102  Secondary  treatment.
 133.103  Special considerations.
 133.104  Sampling and test procedures.
   AUTHORITY: Sees. 304()(1), 301(b)(l)(B)
 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amend-
 ments. 1P72, Pi,. 92-600.

 § 133.100   Purpose.

   This part provides Information on  the
 level   of   effluent  quality   attainable
 through the application  of  secondary
 treatment.

 § 133.101   Authority.
   The information contained  in  this
 Part is provided pursuant  to  sections
 304(d) (1) and 301 (b) (1) (B)  of the Fed-
 eral   Water  Pollution   Control   Act
 Amendments of  1972,  PL 92-500 (the
 Act).

 § 133.102  Secondary treatment.
   The following paragraphs describe the
 minimum level of  effluent quality attain-
 able by secondary treatment in terms of
 the parameters  biochemical oxygen de-
 mand,  suspended  solids, fecal coliform
 bacteria and pH. All requirements  for
 each parameter shall be achieved except
 as provided for in § 133.103.
   (a) Biochemical oxygen demand (five-
 day).  (1)  The arithmetic  mean of the
 values for effluent  samples  collected In a
 period of 30 consecutive days shall not
 exceed 30  milligrams  per liter.
   (2) The arithmetic mean of the val-
 ues for  effluent samples collected  in a
 period of  seven consecutive  days shall
 not exceed 45 milligrams per liter.
   (3) The arithmetic mean of the val-
 ues for  effluent  samples collected  in a
 period of 30 consecutive days shall not
 exceed 15 percent of the arithmetic mean
 of  the values for  influent  samples col-
 lected  at approximately the same times
 during the same period (85 percent re-
 moval).
  (b) Suspended solids. (1) The arith-
 metic mean of  the values for  effluent
 samples collected in a period of 30 con-
 secutive days shall not exceed 30 milli-
 grams per liter.
  (2) The  arithmetic  mean of  the val-
 ues for effluent samples  collected in  a
 period  of seven  consecutive days shall
 not exceed 45 milligrams per liter.
  (3)  The  arithmetic  mean of the  val-
 ues for effluent samples  collected In  a
 period  of 30 consecutive  days shall not
exceed 15 percent of the arithmetic mean
of the  values for Influent  samples  col-
lected at approximately the same times
during the same period (85 percent re-
moval) .
  (c)  Fecal coliform bacteria. (1) The
geometric mean of  the value for effluent
samples collected in a period of 30 con-
secutive days shall not exceed  200 per
 100 mimilters.
                               KDERAt REGISTER, VOL. 36, NO.  159—FRIDAY, AUGUST 17, 1973
                                                      2-2

-------
  (2) The geometric mean of the values
{or effluent samples collected In a period
of seven consecutive days shall not ex-
ceed 400 per 100 mllliliters.
  (d) pH. The effluent values for pH shall
remain within  the limits  of 6.0 to 9.0.
§ 133.103   Special considerations.
  (a)  Combined   sewers.   Secondary
treatment may not be capable of  meet-
Ing the percentage removal requirements
of paragraphs  (a) (3)  and  (b>(3>  of
(133.102  during  wet weather in  treat-
ment works which  receive  flows  from
combined sewers (sewers which are de-
signed to  transport both storm  water
and sanitary sewage).  For such  treat-
ment works, the  decision must be made
on a case-by-case  basis  as  to whether
my attainable percentage removal level
can be defined, and if so, what that level
should be.
     RULES AND REGULATIONS

  (b) Industrial wastes. For certain in-
dustrial categories, the discharge to nav-
igable waters of biochemical oxygen de-
mand  and  suspended solids permitted
under sections 301 (b) (1) (A) (1)  or 306 of
the Act may be less stringent than the
values  given in  paragraphs (a)(l). and
(b) (1) of § 133.102. In cases when wastes
would be introduced from such an indus-
trial  category  into  a publicly owned
treatment works, the values for biochemi-
cal oxygen demand and suspended solids
in  paragraphs  (aHl)  and  (b)(l)  of
§ 133.102 may be adjusted upwards  pro-
vided that:  (1) the permitted discharge
of such  pollutants, attributable to the
industrial category, would not be greater
than that  which would  be permitted
under  sections 301(b) (1) (a) (i) or 306
of the Act  if such industrial  category
were to discharge directly into the navi-
gable waters, and (2) the flow or loading
                               22299

of such pollutants introduced by the in-
dustrial category exceeds  10  percent of
the design flow or loading of the publicly
owned treatment works. When such an
adjustment is made, the values for bio-
chemical oxygen demand  or suspended
solids in paragraphs (a) (2)  and (b>(2>
of § 133.102 should  be adjusted propor-
tionally.
§ 133.101   Sampling and tot procedure*.

  (a) Sampling  and test procedures for
pollutants listed in  § 133.102  shall be in
accordance with guidelines promulgated
by  the Administrator pursuant  to sec-
tions 304ig) and 402 of the Act.
  (b) Chemical  oxygen demand (COD>
or total organic carbon (TOO may be
substituted for biochemical oxygen •de-
mand  (BOD)  when a long-term BOD:
COD or BOD:TOC  correlation has been
demonstrated.
  [PP. Doc.73 17194 Piled 8-16-73:8:45 am]
                              fEDERAl REGISTER, VOl.  38, NO. 159—FRIDAY, AUGUST 17,  1973

                                                       2-3

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                APPENDIX 3
RECOMMENDED ORDINANCE FOR INDUSTRIAL USE OF
     PUBLICLY OWNED SEWERAGE FACILITIES

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                        APPENDIX 3
           RECOMMENDED ORDINANCE FOR INDUSTRIAL
        USE OF PUBLICLY OWNED SEWERAGE FACILITIES
     An  ordinance establishing rules and regulations for the
discharge  of wastewaters from industrial users into the publicly
owned sewerage facilities of (	) ,  including provisions
for sampling and flow measurement of such wastewaters, prohibi-
tions and  limitations on the use of the publicly owned sewerage
facilities,  requirements for pretreatment where necessary to
meet the prohibitions and limitations set forth herein, and
where applicable, procedures for obtaining permits for the
discharge  of wastewaters by industrial users into the publicly
owned sewerage system and reporting by industry on the use of
the publicly owned facilities.

1.0  Purpose

     The purpose of this ordinance is to provide for the use
of the publicly owned sewerage facilities by industries
located  within the area served by the (	) (enter
applicable designation - City, County, District, Authority,
etc.) without damage to the physical facilities, without
impairment of their normal function of collecting, treating
and discharging domestic wastewaters from the area served
by the (	) , and without the discharge by the publicly
owned treatment works of pollutants which would be in violation
of its permitted discharge under the applicable rules and
regulations of state and federal regulatory agencies.

1.1  Legislative Background

     The publicly owned treatment works of the  (	)
are operating under a permit issued by the  (          )(enter
EPA or State Agency) under the National Pollution Discharge
Elimination System as provided for in Section 402 of
Public Law 92-500.  The permit requires discharges from the
treatment  works of the  (	) to conform to certain
specific limitations as to the quantity of pollutants which
may be discharged by the treatment works.  Wastewaters from
industrial users conveyed into the publicly owned sewerage
facilities are further provided for under Section 307 of
PL 92-500  and under rules and regulations contained in the
Code of  Federal Regulations promulgated in implementation of
that Section.

     The operation of the publicly owned treatment works is
also under the jurisdiction of the  (	)  (enter State
or interstate agency) with regard to water quality standards
established by that agency.


                              3-1

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2.0  Definitions

     Unless the context specifically indicates otherwise,
the meaning of terms used in these regulations shall be as
follows:

2.1  "Authority"  (optional) shall mean the agency which is
responsible for the administration of this ordinance.

2.2  "Cooling Water" shall mean the water discharged from any
use such as air conditioning, cooling or refrigeration, dur-
ing which the only pollutant added to the water is heat.

2.3  "District" (optional) shall mean the area served by the
Authority.

2.4  "EPA" shall mean the United States Environmental Protec-
tion Agency.

2.5  "Garbage" shall mean solid wastes from the domestic and
commercial preparation, cooking and dispensing of food, and
from the handling, storage and sale of food.

2.6  "Industrial Wastewater" shall mean the discharge of a
liquid resulting from the processes employed in industrial
establishments.

2.7  "Major Contributing Industry" shall mean a major source
of industrial wastewater, as defined in the Federal pretreat-
ment standards.

2.8  "Manager" shall mean the Chief Executive Officer of the
(	) or his authorized deputy, agent or representative.

2.9  "May" is permissive; "shall" is mandatory.

2.10 "NPDES" shall mean the National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System as defined in Section 402 of the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law
92-500).

2.11 "Person" shall mean any individual, firm, company,
association, society, corporation or group including a city,
county, town, village or sewer district.

2.12 "pH" shall mean the negative logarithm or the log of
the reciprocal of the concentration of hydrogen ions in gram
moles per liter of solution as determined by acceptable
laboratory procedures.
                            3-2

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2.13  "Pretreatment" shall mean the treatment of wastewater
by the user before introduction into the publicly owned system.

2.14  "Pretreatment Standards" shall mean all applicable rules
and regulations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations
as published in the Federal Register, under section 307 of
Public Law 92-500.

2.15  "Properly Shredded Garbage" shall mean the waste from
the preparation, cooking and dispensing of food that has been
shredded to such a degree that all particles will be carried
freely under the flow conditions normally prevailing in public
sewers, with no particle greater than one-half (1/2) inch
(1.27 centimeters) in any dimension.

2.16  "Sewer" shall mean a pipe or conduit for carrying sewage.

2.17  "Sewage" shall mean a combination of the water-carried
wastes from residences, business buildings, institutions and
industrial establishments, together with such ground, surface
and stormwaters as may be present.

2.18  "Sewerage Facilities" includes intercepting sewers,
sewage treatment works, pumping stations, outfall sewers,
and appurtenances constructed, operated and maintained by the
(	) for sewage disposal purposes.

2.19  "Standard Methods" shall mean "Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater" prepared and published
jointly by the American Public Health Association, American
Water Works Association and the Water Pollution Control
Federation.

2.20  "Storm Water" shall mean any flow occurring during or
immediately following any form of natural precipitation and
resulting therefrom.

2.21  "Unpolluted Water" is water not containing any pollu-
tants limited or prohibited by the effluent standards in
effect, or water whose discharge will not cause any violation
of receiving water quality standards.

2.22  "User" means any person discharging wastes to the
(	) sewers.

2.23  "Wastewater" shall mean domestic sewage and industrial
wastewaters discharged to the (	) sewers.
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2.24  "Wastewater Discharge Permit" (optional) shall mean a
permit to convey or discharge industrial wastewater into any
sewer under jurisdiction of the (	) .

3.0   Prohibitions and Limitations on Wastewater Discharges

3.1   Prohibitions on Wastewater Discharges

      No person shall discharge or cause or allow to be dis-
charged into the (	) sewerage facilities or any con-
nected treatment facilities any waste which contains any
of the following:

3.1.1 Oils and Grease

      Fats, wax, grease or oils of more than  (   )(optional)
mg/1, whether emulsified or not, or containing substances
which may solidify or become viscous at temperatures between
32  and 150 F (0  and 65 C) at the point of discharge into
the system.

3.1.2 Explosive Mixtures

      Liquids, solids, or gases which by reason of their
nature or quantity are, or may be, sufficient to cause fire
or explosion or be injurious in any other way to the sewer-
age facilities or to the operation of the system.  At no
time shall two successive readings on an explosion hazard
meter, at the point of discharge into the sewer system, be
more than five percent (5%) nor any single reading over 10
percent (10%) of the Lower Explosive Limit  (L.E.L.)  of the
meter.   Prohibited materials include, but are not limited
to, gasoline, kerosene, naphtha, benzene, toluene, xylene,
ethers, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, peroxides, chlorates,
perchlorates, bromates, carbides, hydrides and sulfides.

3.1.3 Noxious Material

      Noxious or malodorous solids, liquids or gases, which
either singly or by interaction with other wastes, are
capable of creating a public nuisance or hazard to life,
or are or may be sufficient to prevent entry  into a sewer
for its maintenance and repair.

3.1.4 Improperly Shredded Garbage

      Garbage that has not been ground or comminuted to such
a  degree  that all particles will be carried freely in sus-
pension under flow conditions normally prevailing in the
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public sewers,  with no particle greater than one-half inch
(1/2)  in any dimension.

3.1.5   Radioactive Wastes

       Radioactive wastes or isotopes of such half-life or
concentration that they are in noncompliance with regulations
issued by the appropriate authority having control over their
use and which will or may cause damage or hazards to the
sewerage facilities or personnel operating the system.

3.1.6   Solid or Viscous Wastes

       Solid or viscous wastes which will or may cause ob-
struction to the flow in a sewer, or other interference with
the proper operation of the sewerage facilities.  Prohibited
materials include, but are not limited to, grease, uncomminuted
garbage, animal guts or tissues, paunch manure, bones, hair,
hides  or fleshings, entrails, whole blood, feathers, ashes,
cinders, sand,  spent lime, stone or marble dust, metal,
glass, straw, shavings, grass clippings, rags, spent grains,
spent  hops,  waste paper, wood, plastic, tar, asphalt residues,
residues from refining or processing of fuel or lubricating
oil, and similar substances.

3.1.7   Excessive Discharge Rate

       Wastewaters at a flow rate which is excessive rela-
tive to the capacity of the treatment works and which would
cause  a treatment process upset and subsequent loss of
treatment efficiency; or wastewaters containing such concen-
trations or quantities of pollutants that their introduction
into the treatment works over a relatively short time period,
(sometimes referred to as slug discharges) would cause a
treatment process upset and subsequent loss of treatment
efficiency.

3.1.8   Toxic Substances

       Any toxic substances, chemical elements or compounds,
phenols or other taste- or odor-producing substances, or any
other  substances which may interfere with the biological
processes or efficiency of the treatment works, or that will
pass through the treatment works.

3.1.9   Unpolluted Waters

       Any unpolluted water including, but not limited to,
water  from cooling systems or of stormwater origin, which
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will increase the hydraulic load on the sewerage facilities.

3.1.10  Discolored Material

        Wastes with objectionable color not removable by the
treatment process.                          ,

3.1.11  Corrosive Wastes

        Any waste which will cause corrosion or deteriora-
tion of the sewerage facilities.  All wastes discharged to
the public sewer system must have a pH value in the range
of (  ) to (  ).  Prohibited materials, include, but are
not limited to, acids, sulfides, concentrated chloride and
fluoride compounds and substances which will react with
water to form acidic products.

3.2     Limitations on Wastewater Discharges

        Use either Option A or Option B.

3.2.1   General Limitations on the Discharge of
        Pollutants (Option A)

        It is prohibited to discharge or convey to the public
sewer any wastewater containing pollutants of such character
or quantity that will:

        A.  Not be amenable to treatment or interfere with
the sewerage facilities.

        B.  Constitute a hazard to human or animal life, or
to the stream or water course receiving the treatment plant
effluent.

        C.  Violate the Federal Pretreatment Standards.

        D.  Cause the treatment plant to violate its NPDES
permit or applicable receiving water standards.

3.2.1   Specific Limitations on the Discharge of
        Pollutants (Option B)

        The following are the maximum concentrations of
pollutants allowable in wastewater discharges to the sewerage
facilities.  Dilution of any wastewater discharge for the
purpose of satisfying these requirements shall be considered
a violation of the ordinance.
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       Pollutant                 Concentration  (mg/1)

       Arsenic                   Options:  See Volume I,
       Barium                              Section C
       Boron
       Cadmium
       Chromium  (total)
       Chromium  (Trivalent)
       Chromium  (Hexavalent)
       Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
       Copper
       Cyanide
       Iron
       Lead
       Manganese
       Mercury
       Nickel
       Phenolic Compounds
       Phosphorus
       Selenium
       Silver
       Surfactants
       Zinc
       pH
       Temperature               Not over  150°F  (except
                                  where higher  temperatures
                                  are permitted by  law)
3.3     Special Agreements
       No statement contained in this  section  shall be  con-
strued as preventing any special agreement between  the
(	) and any user of the sewerage facilities,
whereby a wastewater of unusual strength or character may
be accepted into the system subject to  any payments as may
be agreed upon by the two parties.

4.0     Control of Prohibited Wastes

4.1     Regulatory Actions

       If wastewaters containing any substance described in
section 3 of this Ordinance are discharged or proposed to be
discharged into the sewer system of the (	) or to
any sewer system tributory thereto, the (	) may take
any action necessary to:

       A.  Prohibit the discharge of such wastewater.
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        B.  Require a discharger to demonstrate that in-plant
modifications will eliminate the discharge of such substances
to a degree as to be acceptable to the (	.).

        C.  Require pretreatment including storage facilities,
or flow equalization necessary to reduce or eliminate the
objectionable characteristics or substances so that the dis-
charge will not violate these rules and regulations.

        D.  Require the person or local government unit making,
causing or allowing the discharge to pay any added cost of
handling and treating excess loads imposed on the sewerage
facilities.

        E.  Take such other remedial action as may be deemed
to be desirable or necessary to achieve the purpose of this
ordinance.

4.2     Submission of Plans

        Where pretreatment or equalization of wastewater flows
prior to discharge into any part of its sewerage facilities
is required by the (	), plans, specifications and
other pertinent data or information relating to such pre-
treatment or flow-control facilities shall be submitted to
the (	)  for review and approval.  Approval shall in
no way exempt the discharge or such facilities from compli-
ance with any applicable code, ordinance, rule or regulation
of any governmental unit or the (	) .  Any subsequent
alterations or additions to such pretreatment or flow-control
facilities shall not be made without due notice to, and approval
of the (	) .

4.3     Pretreatment Facilities Operations

        If pretreatment or control of waste flows is required,
such facilities shall be effectively operated and maintained
by the owner at his expense, subject to the requirements of
these rules and regulations and all other applicable codes,
ordinances, and laws.

4.4     Admission to Property

        Whenever it shall be necessary for the purposes of
these rules and regulations, the Manager may immediately
enter upon any property upon presentation of credentials,
for the purpose of obtaining information or conducting surveys
or investigations.  Entry shall normally be made during day-
light or operating hours.  However, the Manager reserves the


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right to enter upon the property at any hour of any day the
Manager deems necessary as a result of abnormal or emergency
circumstances.

4.5     Reporting of Accidental Discharges

       If an accidental discharge of prohibited or regulated
pollutants to the sewerage facilities should occur, the in-
dustrial facility responsible for such discharge shall im-
mediately notify the Manager so that corrective action may be
taken to protect the sewerage facilities.  In addition, a
written report addressed to the Manager detailing the date,
time and cause of the accidental discharge/ the quantity and
characteristics of the discharge and corrective action taken
to prevent future discharges, shall be filed by the respon-
sible industrial facility within (30) (optional) days of the
occurrence of the accidental discharge.

5.0     Industrial Wastewater Sampling and Analysis

5.1     Basis of Compliance Determination

5.1.1   Type of Sample

        Compliance determinations with respect to section 3
prohibitions and limitations may be made on the basis of
either instantaneous grab samples or composite samples of
industrial wastewater at the discretion of the Manager.
Composite samples may be taken over a 24 hour period, or over
a longer or shorter duration of time, as determined by the
Manager to meet the needs of specific circumstances.

5.2     Control Manhole

        Where required by the (	), industrial dis-
chargers shall install a suitable control manhole/ together
with such necessary samplers, meters, recorders and other
appurtenances to adequately sample and measure the wastes
discharged.   The control manhole shall be constructed and
operated so as to permit accurate sampling and flow measure-
ments of all wastes discharged.  Where conditions do not
permit measurement of all discharges from one industrial
facility at a single control manhole, multiple control
manholes shall be provided.  The control manhole shall be
located so as to permit unrestricted access by  (	   )
representatives, provide sufficient space for storage of
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samples and equipment and allow for accurate sampling.  The
control manhole shall be situated on the discharger's prem-
ises, but the  (	)  may, when such a location would
be impractical or cause undue hardship on the discharger,
allow the control manhole to be constructed in the public
street or sidewalk area and located so that it will not be
obstructed by landscaping or parked vehicles.  If the control
manhole is located within the discharger's fence, there
shall be accommodation to allow for access by (	)
personnel, such as a gate secured with an (	) lock.

5.3     Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters

        Laboratory analysis of industrial wastewater samples
shall be performed in accordance with the current edition
of "Standard Methods", "Methods for Chemical Analysis of
Water and Waste" published by the U. S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency or the "Annual Book of Standards, Part 23,
Water, Atmospheric Analysis" published by the American Society
for Testing and Materials.   Analysis of those pollutants
not covered by these publications shall be performed in accord-
ance with procedures established by the (	) .

5.4     Sampling Frequency  (Optional)

        Sampling of industrial wastewater for the purpose of
compliance determination with respect to section 3 prohibitions
and limitations will be done at such random intervals as the
(	) may designate.  However, it is the intention of the
(	) to conduct compliance sampling for all major
contributive industries at least once in every(1 year)(optional)
period.

5.5     Cost of Sampling and Analysis  (optional)

        Costs incurred in connection with the first sampling
and analysis performed during any(l year)(optional) period
for the purpose of compliance determination with respect to
section 3 prohibitions and limitations will be paid by the
discharger.  The cost of any additional sampling and analysis
during this interval will be paid by the  (	) .

6.0     Industrial Discharge Permit System  (optional)

6.1     Wastewater Discharge Permits

        All major contributing industries proposing to connect
or to discharge into any (	)  sewer must obtain  a  discharge
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permit from the (	) .   All existing major contribut-
ing industries connected to or discharging to a (	)
sewer must obtain a wastewater discharge permit within 90
days of the effective date of this ordinance.


6.2     Permit Application

        Users seeking a wastewater discharge permit shall
complete and file with the Manager an application on the form
prescribed by the Manager, and accompanied by the applicable
fee.  In support of this application, the user shall submit
the following information:

        A.  Name, address, and SIC number of applicant

        B.  Volume of wastewater to be discharged

        C.  Wastewater constituents and characteristics
including, but not limited to, those mentioned in section 3
as determined by a laboratory approved by the  (	) .

        D.  Time and duration of discharge

        E.  Average and  (30)(optional) minute peak wastewater
flow rates, including daily, monthly and seasonal variations
if any

        F.  Site plans,  floor plans, mechanical and plumbing
plans and details to show all sewers and appurtenances by
size, location and elevation

        G.  Description  of activities, facilities and plant
processes on the premises including all materials and types
of materials which are,  or could be, discharged

        H.  Each product produced by type, amount, and rate
of production

        I.  Number and type of employees, and hours of work

        J.  Any other information as may be  deemed by the
Manager to be necessary  to evaluate the permit application

        The Manager will evaluate the data furnished by the
user and may require additional information.  After evaluation
and acceptance of the data furnished, the Manager may issue
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a wastewater discharge permit subject to terms and conditions
provided herein.

6.3     Permit Conditions

        Wastewater discharge permits shall be expressly sub-
ject to all provisions of this Ordinance and all other
regulations, user charges and fees established by the
(	) .  The conditions of wastewater discharge permits
shall be uniformly enforced by the Manager in accordance with
this Ordinance, and applicable State and Federal regulations.
Permit conditions will include the following:

        A.  The unit charge or schedule of user charges and
fees for the wastewater to be discharged to the (	) .

        B.  The average and maximum wastewater constituents
and characteristics

        C.  Limits on rate and time of discharge or require-
ments for flow regulations and equalization

        D.  Requirements for installation of inspection, and
sampling facilities

        E.  Pre-treatment requirements

        F.  Requirements for maintaining plant records
relating to  wastewater discharges as specified by the
(	) , and affording the  (	) access thereto

        G.  Mean and maximum mass emission rates, or other
appropriate limits when pollutants subject to limitations and
prohibitions are proposed or present in the user's wastewater
discharge

        H.  Other conditions as  deemed appropriate by the
 (	) to insure compliance with this Ordinance
 6.4     Duration of Permits

        Permits shall be issued  for a specified time period,
 not to exceed  (five)(optional) years.  A permit may be issued
 for a period of less than  (one)  (optional) year, or may be
 stated to  expire, on a specific date.  If the user  is not
 notified by the  (	)  (30)  (optional) days  prior to
 the expiration of  the permit, the  permit shall automatically
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be extended for (   )  months.  The terms and conditions of
the permit may be subject to modification and change by
the (	)  during the life of the permit, as limita-
tions or requirements as identified in section 3 are modified
and changed.  The user shall be informed of any proposed
changes in his permit at least (30) (optional) days prior to
the effective date of change.  Any changes or new conditions
in the permit shall include a reasonable time schedule for
compliance.


6.5     Transfer of a Permit

        Wastewater discharge permits are issued to a specific
user for a specific operation.  A wastewater discharge permit
shall not be reassigned or transferred or sold to a new owner,
new user, different premises, or a new or changed operation.

6.6     Revocation of Permit

        Any user who violates the following conditions of
his permit or of this Ordinance, or of applicable State and
Federal regulations, is subject to having his permit revoked.
Violations subjecting a user to possible revocation of his
permit include:

        A.  Failure of a user to factually report the waste-
water constituents and characteristics of his discharge

        B.  Failure of the user to report significant changes
in operations, or wastewater constituents and characteristics

        C.  Refusal of reasonable access to the user's
premises for the purpose of inspection or monitoring; or,

        D.  Violation of conditions of the permit

7.0     Enforcement Procedures

7.1     Notification of Violation

        Any person found in violation of this Ordinance or of
any prohibition, limitation or requirement contained herein,
will be served by the Manager with a written notice stating
the nature of the violation and providing a reasonable time
limit for the satisfactory correction thereof.  The Manager
will endeavor to the full extent possible to eliminate or
remedy such violation without resorting to further adminis-
trative proceedings.
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7.2     Show Cause Hearing

        If those efforts have been unsuccessful, the Manager
may order any person who causes or allows an unauthorized
discharge to show cause before the (	) why such
discharge should not be discontinued"!  A notice shall be served
on the offending party, specifying the time and place of a
hearing to be held by the (	) regarding the violation,
and directing the offending party to show cause before the
(	) why an order should not be made directing the
discontinuance of such discharge.  The notice of the hearing
shall be served personally or by Registered or Certified Mail
at least (ten) (optional) days before the hearing; service
may be made on any agent or officer of a corporation.

        The (	) may itself conduct the hearing and
take the evidence, or may designate any of its members of
any officer or employee of the (	)to:

        A.   Issue in the name of the (         ) notices of
hearings requesting the attendance and testimony of witnesses
and the production of evidence relevant to any matter involved
in any such hearings

        B.   Take the evidence

        C.   Transmit a report of the evidence and hearing,
including transcripts and other evidence, together with
recommendations to the (	) for action thereon.

        At any public hearing, testimony taken before the
(	) or any person designated by it, must be under
oath and recorded stenographically.  The transcript so recorded,
will be made available to any member of the public or any
party to the hearing upon payment of the usual charges
therefor.

        After the (	) has reviewed the evidence,
it may issue an order to the party responsible for the dis-
charge, directing that within a specified time period, the
discharge be discontinued unless adequate treatment works,
facilities or devices shall have been installed or existing
adequate treatment works, facilities or devices are properly
operated, and any other such orders as the (	)
may deem necessary.
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7.3     Court Proceedings

        A violation of an Order of the ( _ )  shall be
considered a nuisance.  If any person discharges sewage,
industrial wastes or other wastes into the sewerage facili-
ties under the jurisdiction of the (   _ )  contrary
to any Order of the ( _ ) , the  (      ~   ) ,  acting
through the Manager, may commence an action by  proceeding
in the Circuit Court in and for the County in which the
( _ ) is located, or operates facilities, for the
purpose of having the discharge stopped either by mandamus
or injunction.

7.4     Penalties

        Whoever fails to comply with any provisions of this
Ordinance or with an Order of the (  _ )  issued in pur-
suance of this Ordinance, shall be fined not less than  ($100)
(optional) nor more than ($10,000) (optional) for each offense.
Each day's continuance of such failure is a separate offense.
The penalties so imposed, plus reasonable attorneys' fees,
court costs and other expenses of litigation, are recoverable
by the ( _ )  upon its suit as debts are recoverable at
law.

7.5     Injunctive Relief

        In addition to the penalties provided in the foregoing
Section, wherever a person violates any provision of this
Ordinance or fails to comply with any Order of the  ( _ ) ,
the ( _ ) , acting through the Manager, may apply to
the Circuit Court of the County for the issuance of an injunc-
tion restraining the person violating the Ordinance or failing
to comply with the Order, from making any further discharges
into the sewerage facilities under the jurisdiction of the
8.0     Industrial Self-Monitoring Requirements  (optional)

        In order to effectively administer and enforce the
provisions of these regulations, the Manager may ask any
discharger to comply with any or all Of the following
requirements :

8.1     Discharge Reports

        The Manager may require discharge reports, including
but not limited to questionnaires, technical reports, sampling
reports, test analyses, and periodic reports of wastewater
discharge.
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        When a report filed by a user pursuant to this section
is not adequate in the judgment of the Manager, he may require
the user to supply such additional information as the Manager
deems necessary.

        The discharge report may include, but not be limited
to, nature of the process, volume and rates of wastewater
flow, elements, constituents, and characteristics of the
wastewater, together with any information required in an
application for a wastewater discharge permit.

8.2     Monitoring Programs

        The Manager may require of users such technical or
monitoring programs, including the submission of periodic
reports, as he deems necessary, provided that the burden,
including costs, of such programs and reports shall bear a
reasonable relationship to the need for the report and the
benefits to be obtained therefrom.  The discharger shall pay
the applicable  (	) charge for the monitoring program,
in addition to the sewage disposal and other charges established
by the  (	).

        The monitoring program may require the discharger to
conduct a sampling and analysis program of a frequency and
type specified by the Manager to demonstrate compliance with
prescribed wastewater discharge limits.  The discharger may
either:

        A.  Conduct his own sampling and analysis program
provided he demonstrates to the Manager that he has the
necessary qualifications and facilities to perform the work; or

        B.  Engage a private  laboratory,  approved by  the
Manager.

8.3     Trade Secrets

        When requested by the user furnishing a report or
permit  application or questionnaire, the portions of the
report, or other document, which might disclose trade secrets
or secret processes shall not be made available for inspection
by the  public but shall be made available to governmental
agencies for use in making studies; provided, however, that
such portions of a report, or other document, shall be avail-
able for use by the  (  	) or the State or any State
agency  in  judicial review or enforcement proceedings involving
the person furnishing the report.

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9.0     Procedural Clauses

9.1     Authority of the Manager

        The Manager is charged with the responsibility for the
(	)  industrial discharge control program and enforce-
ment of the provisions of this Ordinance.

9.2     Savings Clause

        If the provisions of any paragraph, section or article
of this Ordinance are declared unconstitutional or invalid by
the final decision of any court of competent jurisdiction, the
provisions of the remaining paragraphs, sections or articles
shall continue in full force and effect.

9.3     Other Regulations

        This Ordinance supplements other regulations now in
force in the (	).  These include the (Plumbing Code
and the Sewer Surcharge Ordinance)(optional).  All parts of
these existing ordinances which are in conflict herewith are
hereby rescinded.  All other parts of these existing ordinances
remain in full effect.

9.4     Effective Date

        This Ordinance shall become effective on(January 1,
1976)(optional).
                              3-17

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             APPENDIX 4
TEST PROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS
    Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures
    for Analysis of Pollutants  (October 16, 1973)

    Analysis of Pollutants - Proposed Guidelines
    for Establishing Test Procedures  (June 9, 1975)

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\r ----- ____ - - J
            TUESDAY, OCTOEL:::< 15, 1973
            WASHINGTON, D.C.
            Volume 38 B Number 1'JS
            PART 11
                  'ROTECOGN
                   AGENCY
               WATER PROGRAMS


             Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures
                 for Analysis of Pollutants
            4-1

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28758
     RULES AND REGULATIONS
   Title AO—Protection of Environment
     CHAPTER I—ENVIRONMENTAL
         PROTECTION AUENCY
    SUBCHAPTER D—WATER  PROGRAMS
PART 136—GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING
  TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALY-
  SIS OF POLLUTANTS
  Notice was punished  in the FEDERAL
REGISTER issue of June 29. 1973 (38 FR
17318) at 40 CFR 130. that the Environ-
mental  Protection Agency  (EPA)  was
giving consideration  to the testing pro-
cedures  required  pursuant to  section
304(g) of the Federal Water Pollution
Control  Act  Amendments of  1972 (86
Stat. 810. et seq.. Pub. L. 92-500  (1972))
hereinafter referred to as the Act. These
considerations were given in the form of
proposed  guidelines  establishing  test
procedures.
  Section 304 (g) of the Act requires that
the  Administrator  shall  promulgate
guidelines establishing  test procedures
for the  analysis of pollutants  that shall
include factors which must be provided
in:  1, any certification pursuant to sec-
tion 401 of the Act, or 2. any permit ap-
plication pursuant to section 402 of the
Act. Such test, procedures  are to be used
bv permit applicants to demonstrate that
effluent  discharges meet applicable pol-
lutant discharge limitations, and by the
States and other enforcement activities
in routine or random monitoring of ef-
fluents  to verify  effectiveness of pollu-
tion control  measures.
  These guidelines require that discharge
measurements, including but not limited
to the pollutants and parameters listed
in Table I.  bo  performed  by the test
procedures indicated; or  under certain
circumstances by other test procedures
for analysis  that may be  more advan-
tageous  to  use. when such other test
procedures have the approval of the Re-
gional  Administrator  of the  Region
where such  discharge  will occur, and
when the Director of an approved State
National  Pollutant Discharge Elimina-
tion System (NPDES)  Program (here-
inafter  referred  to as the Director)  for
the State in which such  discharge will
occur has no objection to such approval.
  The list of test procedures in Table I
is published  herein as final rulemaking
and represents major departures from
the list of proposed test procedures which
was published  in 38 FR  17318, dated
June 29.1973. These revisions were made
after carefully considering all  written
comments which were received pertain-
ing to the proposed  test procedures. All
written comments are on  file and avail-
able for public review with the Quality
Assurance Division.  Office of Research
and Development, EPA, Washington. D.C.
  The principal revisions to the proposed
test procedures are as follows:
   1. Where several  reliable test proce-
dures for analysis  are  available from
the given references for a given pollutant
or  parameter, each such  test  procedure
has been approved for use for making
 the measurements required by  sections
401 and 402 and related sections of the
 Act. Approved test procedures have been
selected to assure an acceptable level of
intercomparability  of  pollutants  dis-
charge data. For several pollutants and
parameters it has still been necessary to
approve only a single test procedure to
assure this level of acceptability. This is
a major departure from the proposed
test  procedures which  would have re-
quired the  use of a single  reference
method for each pollutant or parameter.
  2.  Under certain circumstances a test
procedure not  shown on the approved
list may  be considered  by an applicant
to be more  advantageous to use.  Under
guidelines in §5 136.4 and 13G.5 it may be
approved by the Regional Administrator
of the Region where  the discharge will
occur, providing the Director has  no ob-
jections. Inasmuch as there  is no longer
a  single  approved  reference method
against which a comparison can be made.
the  procedures for  establishing such
comparisons that were  required  by the
proposed  test procedures in  § 130.4 (b)
have been deleted from  this final guide-
line  for test procedures  for  the analysis
of pollutants.
  3.  A mechanism  is also  provided to
assure national uniformity  of such ap-
provals of  alternate  test procedures for
the   analysis   of  pollutants. ' This  Is
achieved through a centralized, internal
review within the EPA of all  applications
for the use of alternate testing  proce-
dures. These will be  reviewed and ap-
proved or  disapproved  on the basis of
submitted information and  other avail-
able  information and  laboratory tests
which may  be required  by the Regional
Administrator.
  As deemed necessary,  the  Administra-
tor will expand or revise these  guide-
lines to provide the most responsive and
appropriate list of  test  procedures to
meet the requirements of sections 304(g),
401 and 402 of the Act,  as amended.
  These final guidelines establishing test
procedures for the analysis of pollutants
supersede the Interim list of test proce-
dures published in the FEDERAL REGISTER
on April 19. 1973 (38 FR 9740) at 40 CFR
Part 126 and subsequent procedures pub-
lished on July 24, 1973 (38 FR  19894)
at 40 CFR  Part 124. Those regulations
established  interim test procedures for
the submittal of applications under sec-
tion 402 of  the Act. Because of the im-
portance  of these  guidelines for test
procedures for the analysis of pollutants
to the National Pollution Discharge Elim-
ination System (NPDES), the Adminis-
trator finds good cause  to declare that
these guidelines shall be effective Octo-
ber 16,1973.
                    JOHN QUARLES,
               Acting Administrator.
  OCTOBER 3, 1973.
PART 136—TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE
       ANALYSIS OF  POLLUTANTS
Sec.
136.1  Applicability.
13G.2  Definitions.
136.3  Identification of test procedures.
138.4  Application for alternate test proce-
        dures.
136:6  Approval of alternate test procedures.
   AuTHonrry; Sec. 3042-5iX>).
 § 136.1  Applicability.

   The  procedures  prescribed  herein
 shall, except as noted in § 136.5, be used
 to perform the measurements  indicated
 whenever the waste constituent specified
 is required to be measured for:
   (a) An  application  submitted to the
 Administrator, or to a State having an
 approved NPDES program, for a permit
 under section 402 of the  Federal Watc'-
 Pollution   Control  Act  as   amended
 (FWPCA). and.
   (b) Reports required to be submitted
 by   dischargers   under   the  NPDES
 established by Parts 124 and 125 of this
 chapter, and,
   (c) Certifications issued by States pur-
 suant to section 401 of the FWPCA, as
 amended.
' § 136.2  Definitions.
   As used in this part, the term:
   (a) "Act" means the  Federal Water
 Pollution  Control Act, as amended 33
 U.S.C. 1314. et seq.
   (b) "Administrator" means the  Ad-
 ministrator of the  U.S.  Environmental
 Protection  Agency.
   (c) "Regional Administrator" menus
 one of the EPA Regional Administrators.
   (d) "Director" means the Director of
 the  State  Agency authori/.ed to carry
 out an approved National Pollutant Dis-
 charge  Elimination  System  Program
 under section 402 of the Act.
   (e) "National   Pollutant  Discnarjre
 •Elimination System (NPDES)" means
 the national system for the issuance oi
 permits under section 402 of the Act and
 includes any State or interstate program
 which has been approved by the Admin-
 istrator, in whole or in part, pursuant to
 section 402 of the Act.
   (f) "Standard Methods" means Stand-
 ard  Methods  for  the Examination of
 Water and Waste Water, 13lh Edition,
 1971. This publication is available from
 the American Public Health Association.
 1015 18th St. NW.. Washington,  D.C.
 20036.
   (g) "ASTM" means Annual Book of
 Standards. Part 23, Water, Atmospheric
 Analysis, 1072. This publication is avail-
 able from  the  American Society  for
 Testing and Materials,  1916  Race  St.,
 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103.
   (h) "EPA Methods" means Methods
 for  Chemical  Analysis   of  Water  and
 Wastes, 1971, Environmental Protection
 Asency. Analytical Quality Control Lab-
 oratory. Cincinnati, Ohio. This public.-.-
 tion  is  available  from  the  Super-
 intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern-
 ment Printing Office. Washington.  D.C.
 20402 (Stock Number 5501-0067).
 § 136.3   Identification  of  lest  proce-
      dures.
   Every  parameter or  pollutant  for
 which an effluent limitation is now spec-
 ified pursuant to sections 491 and  402
 of the Act is named together with test
 descriptions and references  in Table I.
 The discharge  parameter  values  for
 which reports  are required must be de-
                              FEDERAl  REGISTER, VOL. 38, NO. 199—TUESDAY, OCTOBER 16, 1973
                                                        4-2

-------
termlned bv one of the standard ana- glonal Administrator or the Director in '
lytical methods cited and described the Region or State where the discharge
in Table I. or under certain circum- will occur may determine for a par-
stances by other methods that may be ticular discharge that additional param-
more advantageous to use when such eters or pollutants must be reported.
other methods hr.ve been previously ap- Under such circumstances, additional
proved by the Regional Administrator of test procedures for analysis of pollutants
the Region in which the discharge will may be specjfie(i by the Regional Ad-
will" occur a- i'lda!il nitrogen (asN) Diiwstion 4- distillation — nesslcriralion or p. 469 	 	 p. 149.
nig/liter. tit.-atlon ulomated digestion phcnolate. p. 157.
10. Nitrate (as N) mg/Uter. Cadmium reduction; brucine sulfate: au- p. 458 	 p. 124 	 p. 170.
lion. p. 185.
11. Total phosphorus (as P) Pcrsulfute digestion and single reagent p. 526 	 	 p. 42. 	 p. 235.
and automated single reagent or Stan- o. 259.
nous chloride.
12. Acidity mg CaCOi/Uter Electromotric end point or phenolputhal- . .. p. 148 	 	
eln end point.
13. Total organic carbon Combustion— Infrared method ' 	 p.267 	 p. 702 	 p. 221.
(TOC) m«/utor.
14. Hardness— total mg EDTA tltration; automated colorimetric p. 179 	 p. 170.. 	 p. TO.
CaCOVliter. atomic absorption. p. 78.
15. Nitrite (as N) mg/liter. Manual or automated colorimetric diaioti- 	 p. 186.
tatlon. p. 195.
Analytical methods for trace
metals:
16. Aluminum— total ' mg/ Atomic absorption 	 	 p. 210..... 	 p. 98.
liter.
liter.
18. Arsenic— total mg/Uter. Digestion plus silver oiethylolthlocarba- p. 66 	 	 	 p. 13.
mate; atomic absorption.' p. 62 	 	 	 '... 	
19. Barium— total ' mg Alter. Atomic absorption ' 	 p. 210 	 	
20. Beryllium— total ' mg/ Alumlnon; atomic absorption 	 p. 67 	 	 	
liter. ' p. 210 . . 	 .
21. Boron— total mg/litcr .. Curcumln ... p 69
22. Cadmium— total ' mg/ Atomic absorption; colorimetric 	 p. 210 	 p. 692 	 p. 101.
lltt-r. p. 422 	
23. Calcium— total *mg/llter. EDTA tltration: atomic absorption 	 p. S4 . . . p. 692 . . p. 102.
24. Chromium V Hug/liter. Extraction and atomic absorption; color!- p. 429 . p. 94.
metric.
Parameter and units Method
25. Chromium— total1 mg/ Atomic absorption; colorimetric 	
liter.
26. Cobalt— total' roj/liter. Atomic absorption ' 	
27. Copper — totnl • nvi/liter. Atomic absorption: coloriin'irie 	
2?. Lead— total 'mg/Iiler 	 do 	
liter.
31. Manganese— total ' mg/ Atomic absorption 	
liter.

me/liter.
34. Nick<'1— tola'i'ns/iilT. Atomic absorption; colorimctric* 	
liter. photometric.
37. Silver— lotul * 	 Atomic absorption * 	
38. Sodium— lolal1 me/liter. Flame photometriciatomlcabsorplion 	


liier.
liter.
43. Zinc— total" mg/iiter... Atomic Absorption; Colorimctric 	
Analytical methods for nu-
trients, anions, and organics:
44. Organic nitrogen (as N) KJeldahl nitrogen minus ammonia
mg/liter. nitrogen.
45. Ortho-phosphate (as P) Direct single reagent; automated single
mg/liler. reagent or stannous chloride.
46. Sulfate (as SO,) mg/ Gravimetric; turbidlmetric; automated
liter. colorimctric— barium chloranilatc.
47. Eulfidc fas S) mg/liter. . Tiuimetric— iodine 	
48. Sulflte (as SOt) mg/ Titrimctric; lodide-iodate 	
liter.
60. Chloride mg/liter 	 Silver nitrate; mercuric nitrate; automated
coloriinetric-ferricyanlde.
61. Cyanide— total mg/liler. Distillation— silver nitrate tltration or
pyridine pyraiolone colorimetric.
82. Fluoride mg/Utcr 	 Distillation— SPADNS 	
63. Chlorine— total residual Colorimetric; amperometric titratlon 	
mg/liter.
64. Oil and grease mg; liter.. Liquid-Liquid extraction with Irlchloro-
trifluorocthane.
65. Phenols mg/liter.. 	 Colorimetric, 4 AAP 	 . 	
66. Surfactants mg/Uter 	 Methylcne blue colorimetric 	 	 	 ..


compounds (except
pesticides) Dig/liter.
60. Pesticides mg/Iiler 	 Gas ohromatographv '....„ 	 	
Analytical methods for
physical and biological
parameters:
61. Color platinum-cobalt Colorimetric; spectrophotometrtc... ......
Xe'.w>
Slam'.ird A3TM EPA
mothods rootbods
p. 310 	 p.
-------
28760
                          RULES  AND REGULATIONS
Parameter and anils

Standard
methods
Before nces
ASTM ERA.
methods
   M. Fecalstreptooocol
       bacteria number/100
       ml.
   U. CoUlorm bacteria
       (fecal) uumber/100
       ml.
   96. Coliform bacteria
       (total) number/100
MPN; merabrana filter; plata count	p. 089	
                                p. WO	
                                p. 691
MPK: Membr»n« flltar.	p. 849	
                                p. 6S4	
  .do..
                                 p. MM.
                                 p.67».
Radiological parameters:
   47. Alpha—total pCi/Utor_. Proportional counter; scintillation counter p. 898	p. 509	
   08. Alpha—counting error 	do	p. SW	p. 512	
       pCiAitcr.
   69. Ileta—total pCi/Uter... Proportional countart	p. W*	p. 478	
   70. Beta—counlinc error	do	 p. 698...	p. 478	.	
       pCi/liler.
   71. Radium—total pCi/   Proportional counter; scintillation counter.. p. 411	p. 671	
       liter.                                              p. «17	

  ' A number of such systems manufactured by various companies are considered to lie comparable in their per-
formance. In addition, another technique, based on Combustion-Methane Detection, is also acceptable,
  * For the dcti-rmination of total inc-uils the sample is not filtered before processing. Choose n volume of sample
appropriate for the expected level of metals. If much suspended mfltcnal is prewnt, as little as 50-100 ml of well-mixed
sample will most probably bo suUicicm. (.The Simple volume required may also VMry proportiun.-.lly with the number
of metals to U deterniincJ.)
  Transfer a representative aliquot of the well-mixed sample toa Griltin Ixvilcer and add 3 ml of concentrated distilled
UNO,. 1'lace tlu- lwak
-------
                                                PROPOSED RULES
                                                                         21535
emission limit and the expected si;;o of
iir« plants,  the  25  pounds per  liour
criterion would be exceeded. Where the
iUccted facility or  facilities could ex-
ceed this criterion, the proposal of the
new source performance standard will
also include a proposal to add such plants
to  the list of sources  subject  to the
significant deterioration  review;  how-
ever, only those size  plants which will
ncecd the 25 pounds  per hour emission
limitation will be required  to  undergo
the preconstruction  review.
 Only ferroalloy  production fnrilities
ire proposed to be added nt l.hb  time,
dnce they are the only sources  nnt al-
ready subject to the significant detcrio-
ntion regulation which meet the above
criteria. No'restricllons are placed on the
rize ferroalloy production facility sub-
ject to the review, since all plnnts from
this source category affected by the new
source performance  standard  are ex-
pected to be of sufficient size to exceed
(be emission limitation criterion.
 Consideration  was  given  to  several
other source selection criteria, including
not combining the selection of additional
sources with establishment of new source
performance standards. However,  a re-
Hew of more than 150 candidate sources
mealed that the  Agency's vigorous on-
going new source  performance standard
program  Is orientated  toward  those
sources capable of having major Impacts
at the olr quality  Increment";. In view of
the requirement for sources affected by
the significant deterioration regulation
to use best available  control technology,
and since meeting  a new  source per-
formance standard   satisfies  this  re-
quirement,  the Administrator has con-
cluded the most logical approach for fu-
tare  addition  of  sources  would  be
through  combining   the  addition  of
SHirces subject to the significant dete-
 rioration review with proposals  for new
 Kiurce performance standards. The pro-
 posed approach will provide a clear and
 uniform definition of best available con-
 trol technology for sources which become
 subject to the significant deterioration
 regulation in the future.
  The Administrator also  considered
 nrious emission  rate limitations as  a
 tat-off criteria for adding sources  to the
 prcconstruction requirements of the reg-
ulation. A cut-off criterion of 25 pounds
 per hour was selected to preclude numer-
 ous preconstruction reviews  of well-con-
 trolled sources  which have only  minor
 tapact on the specified air quality  lucre-
 Bents. Also, the focus on major sources
 esentlally regulates the basic economic
 ttructure or  framework of an  area.
 Therefore, if the  major  sources are re-
 stricted  or prohibited In an area, the
 frorth of smaller sources,  which dften
Hepend to a certain extent on the exist-
 ence of the major sources,  will likewise
 terestricted. Consequently, it is the Ad-
 Blnlstrator's judgement that reasonable
 protection of the  deterioration  incre-
 nents can be obtained by continuing to
 focus on major sources.
 • The Administrator recognizes that fu-
 ture air quality may require a change in
 tte proposed selection  criteria:  such
 danges 'will be adopted as  necessary to
•tomrethat the provisions and Intent of
the December 5lh regulations  are com-
plied with.
  Comments on  the proposed changes
and  the Administrator's plan for sub-
jecting additional sources to the precon-
struction   review   requirements   are
solicited, and should be forwarded  (In
triplicate)  to the Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards, Environmental
Protection  Agency, Research Triangle
Park, N.C. 27711, attn: Mr. Kent Berry.
All relevant comments received on or be-
fore July 9, 1975, will be considered. Com-
ments received will be available for pub-
lic Inspection at the Office of Public Af-
fairs, 401 M Street, SW.,  Washington.
D.C., 20460.
(Seen. 110(c), 301 (a)  of the Clean Air Act as
amended (42 U.S.C. 1857c-B(c) 1857g(a))

  Dated: June 2, 1975.
                  RUSSELL E. TRAIN,
                       Administrator.

  It is  proposed to amend Part 52  of
Chapter I, Title 40 of the Code of Fed-
eral Regulations as follows :
  1.  In 5 52.21, paragraph (d)  is revised
to read as follows:

§ 52.21  Prevention of significant drier!-
     oration.
     •       •      •       •      *
  (d)  ' *  *
  (1) •  *  •
  (xix)  Ferroalloy  production facilities.
   |FR Doc.75-14900 Filed 8-6-76;8:45 am]
           [ 40 CFR Part 136 ]
               IFRL 36&-2J
       ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS
  Proposed Guidelines for Establishing Test
               Procedures
   The Environmental Protection Agency
 Is considering amendments to Part 136
 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations,
 setting  forth  Guidelines  Establishing
 Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pol-
 lutants. These amendments would cor-
 rect minor errors and include  additional
 parameters  and  analytical methods In
 ! 136.3,  "Identification of Test  Proce-
 dures."  The  guidelines were  published
 In the  FEDERAL  REGISTER  on  Tuesday,
 October 16, 1973  (38 FR 28757).
   Interested persons may participate in
 this proposed rule making by submitting
 written comments, suggestions, or objec-
 tions to the Office of Research and De-
 velopment, Quality  Assurance Division
 (RD-687, EPA, Washington, D.C. 20460
 on or before July 24, 1975.  All comments
 which  are received within this time pe-
 riod will be considered before final ac-
 tion is  taken  on this proposed amend-
 ment.  Copies  of  all comments received
 will be available  for examination by in-
 terested persons in Room 3100D, Water-
 side Mall Building, 401 M Street, SW.,
 Washington, D.C.  20460. The proposed
 amendment may be changed  In light of
 the comments received.
   Section 136.3 Identified  the test pro-
 cedures which must be used In any certi-
 fication pu^-suant to section 401 or per-
 mit  application pursuant to section 402
of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of  1972  (86  Slat. 816
et seq., Pub. L. 92-500 (1972)). It is pro-
posed to make minor wording changes
and correct typographical errors In en-
tries numbered 1, 2, 9, 14, 37, 53, and 62.
These changes do not affect the nature of
the parameter measured or the method to
be used, but simply serve  to clarify the
meaning of the entries listed.
  Certain parameters not included In the
original list have been determined to be
significant in the control of  pollutants
for which the Agency  has established
effluent limitations.  For these param-
eters,  test procedures  have  been  se-
lected which will provide reliable data
when they are employed  with an ade-
quate quality control program. The ad-
ditional parameters are: 2(a)-Dissolved
Oxygen, 6(a)-Settleable Solids,  ll(a>-
Elemental Phosphorus, 12
-------
24536
            PROPOSED  RULES

Tint.* I.— J.litt  ol approved tnt p
                                    Parameter and: mil 19
                                                                               Method
                                                                                                            References (page Nos.)
                            General analytical methods:
                             1. Alkalinity as CttCO, milligrams
                                  CaCOt per liter.
  2. Biological oxygen demand, «-i..
      (IIOD4), millignuns per liter.
  2(a). Dissolved  oxygen  milligrams
         per liter.
  1. Chemical oij gen demnncl (COH),
      milligrams |»ci  liter.
  4. Totnl soll.ls, milUfrrnms per liter. .
  6. Total dissolved (Illteiable) solids
      milligrams JHT liter.
  4. Total  siis|>endcd (nonflllcrabkO
      solids, millignuns per liter.
  «(«). Hettleable solids,  inlllllller per
         liter or nilllirrums per liter.
  7. Total  vrlallle solids,  milligrams
      iwr liter.
  8. Ammonia (as N) ', milligrams |>et
      liter.

  9. KJeldahl nitrogen (as N), milli-
      grams per liter.

  10. Nitrate (as  N). milligrams per
       liter.

  11. Total phosphorous  (an F), milli-
       grams per  liter.


  II (B).  Phosphorus (elemental)'milli-
         grams |ier liter.
  12. Acidity inlllicrams  CaCOj  per
       Hter.
  12(a).  Hydrogen lint (pll), pll nulls.
  IS. Total  organic  rarlKiu (TOO,
       milligrams per liter.
  14. Hardness   total, milligrams
    earth IHT liter.
  16. Nitrite, (as N).  mllUgrnms per
    liter.
Analytical methods fur trace metals:
  Ifi. Aluminum-  total,*  milligrams
    ivr liter.
  Iflia).  Alllmiuiim  dissolved, milli-
    grams IMT liter.
  17. Antimony  -total.4 milligrams
    per liter.
  17(a).  Antimony-- dissolved,  milli-
    grams IMT liter.
  IK. Arsenic -total   milligrams  per
    HU-r.
  IR.a).  Arsenic--dissolved, milli-
    grams |vr liter.
  l'>. llarium  toul.<  inllllgratns  |*r
    liter.
  Ift(a).  Barium  -dissolved, milU-
    gmms |»-r liter.
  2O. lleryiliuni  -V.tal,4 milligrams

  20(a).  Her'yllimn • dissolved,   mllll-
    grams per liter.
  21. llnnni— total, milligrams per liter..
  21 (a).  Boron—dissolved,  milligrams
    per liter.
  22. Cadmium - total', milligrams per
    liter.
  22(a).  Cadniiuni - dissolved,   milli-
    grams |HT liter.
  23. Calcium—total', milligrams per
    liter.
  23(a).   CalHiim  dissolved,   milli-
    grams per liter.
  24.  Chromium VI,  milligrams per
    liter.
  24(a). Chromium VI -dissolved, mil-
    ligrams |wr liter.
  25.  Chromium - touil *,  milligrams
    PIT liter.
  25(a).  Cliromluin -dissolved, milli-
    grams per liter.
  2n.  Cohalt—total", mllllgtams  per
    lit. i.
  2fl(a).  Coliiilt.lii-i.ilvr.I. milligrams
    j>er liter.          »
  27.  CopiM-r- total *,  milligrams per
    liter.
  27int.
                                                                 Eleclrometrlc measurement	
                                                                         Uon—Infrared method '	
                                                                 EDTA  Utratlon; automated  colnrl-
                                                                   iiietrle.; aUimlc at>sor|itlon.
                                                                 Manual  or automated colorimetile
                                                                   dia7otlKatlon.

                                                                 Atomic al.sovptiun. -	
                                                    MX)


                                                    !7'.l
                                                               148 .

                                                               24D
                                                                   230
                                                       7W         221

                                                       170       78.78

                                                      	     185,198
                                                                 0.45 micron filtration and reference
                                                                   method for total aluminum.
                                                                 Atomic absorption '		
                                                                 0.4.r> n>icmn  nitration  and reference  .
                                                                   method for total antimony.
                                                                 Digestion  plus  silver  .diethyldithio-
                                                                   carliamate; aUimir alisorpUoii.*
                                                                 0.45 micron  filtration  and reference  .
                                                                   method lor total arsenic.
                                                                 Atomic absorption •	
                                                                            8»

                                                                            It

                                                                            8C
                                                                 0.45 micron  filtrntion and reference
                                                                   method for total barium.
                                                                 Alumlnon; aUnnic absorption _________
                                                                                                                                     M
                                                                                                          67,210 .
                                                                 0.45  micron  filtration and reference .
                                                                   method lor total beryllium.
                                                                 Curcumln.			
                                                                 0.15  micron  IlltraUoii and relerenw -
                                                                   method for total boron.
                                                                 Atomic absorption;  colorimctrle	

                                                                 0.45  micron  filtration and reference ..
                                                                   method for total cadmium.
                                                                 EDTA UtraUon; atomic absorption..-

                                                                 0.45  micron  nitration and referem* -
                                                                   method for total calcium.
                                                                 Extraction  and  atomic  absorption;
                                                                   colorlmetrlc.
                                                                 0.45  micron  nitration and reference .
                                                                   method for total chromium VI.
                                                                 Atomic absorption; colorimctrlc.	

                                                                 0.45  micron  filtration and reference .
                                                                   method for total chromium.
                                                                 Atomic absorption •		
                                                                                                                                     8C
                                                210, 422
                                                               692
                                                     84
                                                               •02
                                                    429
                                                210,42«    tea, 403
                                                                   101

                                                                    80

                                                                   102

                                                                    as

                                                                    04

                                                                    86

                                                                   104

                                                                    M
                                                               092 .
                                                                 0.45  micron  nitration and reference	
                                                                   method for total cobalt.
                                                                 Atomic absorption; colorimctrlc	    210,430

                                                                 0.45  micron  filtration and reference..	
                                                                   method for total copper.
                                                                 Atomic absorption •	
                                                           •92,410
                                                                    89

                                                                   108

                                                                    84
                                                                    -do».
                                                                 Atomic absorption; colorlmetrle	
                                                                 0.45  micron  filtration and reference ..
                                                                   method for total Iron.
                                                                 Atomic absorption; eoloruBetrlo-.-i.-~
                                                                                                         210.433     W2,152
                                                210,438
                                                               tea
                                                                 0.45  micron  filtration and reference	
                                                                   method for total lead.
                                                                 Atomic absorption; gravimetric	210,418,201
                                                               •W
                                                                   108
                                                                    86

                                                                   110

                                                                    M

                                                                   113
                                            FEDEIAl  REGISTER VOL 40,  NO. Ill—MONDAY, JUNE 9,  1975
                                                                            4-6

-------
                                        PROPOSED  RULES                                                             24537

                       T*«l,l I.—I jilt of approved tut procedure*—Continued
                                                                                References (page No§.)
        Parameter and units                       Method
                                                                           Standard    ASTM      EPA
                                                                           methods              methods
 80(a).  Miiencslum—dissolved,  mllli- 0.46 micron  nitration and reference	          86
   grams I»T liter.                     method for total magnesium.
 Jl.  Kiiyiicaiieno—tolal,<    milligrams Atomic absorption	        210        692         114
   per liter.
 31(a).  & aimnnese--dlssolved,  mlUl- 0.45 micron  filtration and reference	          M
   grams per liter,                     method for total manganese.
 32.  Aiercury-tolnl, milligrams  per Flamrless atomic absorption '	
   lllcr.
 35(a).   Mercury-dissolved,   mllll- 0.45 micron  nilralion and reference	          66
   prams per Iller.                     method for tola! mercury,
 33.  NrolylHlemini- total," milligrams Atomic absorption '	-	
   per lllrr.
 33(a).  Milyhileiiiim- dissolved, mil  0.45 micron  fillrallon and reference		          86
   linmrns per IMcr.                    method for lolal molybdenum.
 34.  Nickc-l  total.'  milligrams  per Atomic absorption; colorimetrlc '	        443        992 .._.	
   liter.
 84(a).  Nickel-dissolved, milligrams 0.45 micron  fill ration and reference		          86
   IXT liter.                            method for lolal nickel.
 3100.  Osmium- lol-il,"   milligrams Atomic absoiptlou *			-		.	
   IKT liter.
 34(c).  Palladium— total,' milligrams	do*		.
   per liter.
 S4(d).  riallmim-lntal.i  milligrams	do«.	
   per lllcr.
 85.  rota.«slnm- dlsrolveb,milligrams Atomlcabsoiptlon;coloiimetric;flame     283, 285       126         llf
   per liter,                            photometric.
 35(a).  I'lilassinni—dissolved,  mllll- 0.45 micron  filtration  and reference	-	         86
   prams tier llt< r.                     method for total potassium. '
 35(b).  Illiodiuin—total,^ mlUigrams Atomic absorption'	.	-	..	........
   IKT lllcr.
 35(c).  Itnlhcnlutn-total,"     mllll-	do<		
   puillis per liter.
 36.  Selenium- total.' milligrams per	do*	

 36(a).  Selenium- dissolved,    mllll- 0.45 micron  filtration and reference			.         8t
   prams IHT liter.                     method for lolal selenium.
 36(l>).  t-'lHca—dissolved,  milligrams 0.45 micron Munition and molybdosiii-         303         88     86t 273
   IXT liter.                            cate-rolorhnctric,
 37.  Silver-  total.1   milligrams  pur Atomic absorplion •	        210	_	
   liter.
 37(a).  S-'llver- dissolved,  milligrams 0.45 micron  filtration and reference	         86
   liter.                               method for total silver.
 38.  Sodium- lol;\l.«  inllllirrnms JMT Flamepholornrtric;alomlcahsorpUon.        317        326         118
   HUT.
 38(n).  1 •linllliiin  -dissolved,   mllll- 0.45 micron  miration  and reference	         86
   prnms per liter.                     method for total tnalllum.
 40. Tin—total.' rnllllp.nuns per Hler. Atomic absorption'	
 40(a).  Tin-dissolved, milligram* |*ir 0.45 micron  nitration  and reference..				.         86
   liter.                               method for total tin.-
 41. Titanium total, milligrams per Atomic absorption '-	
   liter
  lldi). Tltuidiim-dissolved,  mllli-  0.45 micron filtration  and  reference	         86
   prtims per liter.                     method for total titanium.
  42. ViirnidhiiM  l"f :   /cr   Xutrifittt,
   Aniortx, ortfi <'rflon«-«
  44. Organic ri!lroi/en  ins N), inilli-  KJeldnhl nilropen minum ammonia        40ft	        140
   prams IHT liter.                     itltropen.
  4i. Olho—plmspliiilr (as I')	 Direct  sincle  rpapenl:  automated        SS2         42  225,246,259
                                       siiiKle reagent or stannmui chloride.
  46. Sul/ale (asSOi).	 Gravimetric;   tmhidlmclric;  auto-     331,334      51,62      286,288
                                       nialed colorlmetiic—barium chlor-
                                       anilate.
  47. Sulfide  (ns  R), mllllprums per Tltrinietric—Iodine	        551	        29*
    Iller.
  47(tt). Huindfl (as St), milligrams per  Melhylene blue pholometrlc for level*        558			.	..
    liter.                               less than 1 nip per liter.
  4X. Ruinte  (as SOi). mllllgruins iwr  TrltrimeUlc; iodlne-lodale	        337        261	.-
    liter.
  4fl. Hrornid'', mlMicrams per liter		do				       218	
  60. Chkirldr, lullllfsmms per liter	Silver nil rale; mercuric nilrale; auto-       1K3,»7      23,21        28,31
                                       mated colortmelrle-ferrlcyartlde.
  51. Cyanide,  total,  mllliprnms per  Distillation- -silver   nllrale Utratlon        387        656           41
    liter.                               or pyrldine pyrazolone (or barbitu-
                                       ric acid) colortmolrio.
                 FEDERAL REGISTER,  VOL. 40, NO.  Ill—MONDAY,  JUNE  9, 1975


                                                    4-7

-------
21538
                                                                      PROPOSED  RULES
                                                   TAm.r I.— TAtt of ttffrornl tent  nroe*dri;rr»—Continued
                                    Parameter and nniti
                                                                                Method
                                                                                                             References (page Nos.)
                                                                                                        Standard
                                                                                                        methods
                                                                                                                     ASTM
                                                                                                      EPA
                                                                                                    methods
                              51(a). CyaniderMiienaliletnchlorlna-  Coliirlmetrlc	        MS
                                      tiou, aiil'lcninis per liter.
                              52. Fluoride, mlllirninis per liter. _ .  LllstlTiarton— probe er SPADNS after     171,174     11T, l'	".I-!.I!"""IIIIIIII"II
                              W, Chloiinateil in'/aiiie eointHiixiilfl  (}as CHromatnffraphy'.		     ...".'.'.'.'."'['.'.    I
                                   (eitvpi, IMV-HI id(^). niillipnmis                                                      	"
                                   liter.
                              00. TN-slleidec. niillipii-ni.-: per liter   .  (las rbrwnalography *	
                           Analytical  mell-iuls f.ir physle;i| and                                                           	
                               biological palameters:
                             U. Color, plaiiniim-cMli.Ut uuils or  CulcrljneUk1; cpectrnphoUoMtrie	    rCT,3"-'	          J8
                                   (lonnirianl   Mavelength,  line,
                                   luminance, puiily.
                              62. Ppecille nni>hii'fiiiee mieroinho  Whratstone bridge	             3^3         163          284
                                   per centimeter »l 25" C.
                              (C(n). Teniperattire degrees C	Calibrated  ("lass   or   fletUometrlc         318	         288
                                                                    thermometer.
                             (0. Turlildlly JiK-ksun null; .  	>  Tnrbldlmrlrr.	        3.X)         487          MB
                             •4. Kecal slrrplreiH-i'i Kicteria uum-  MPN; membrmne filter; plaU count	    «gfl, SO .
                                   lier i>et IHitnl.                                                               Ril
                             U. Collliinu bai'ii-riu (fical) number  Ml'N;memlirane filter.	-.	    MD,684 .
                                   per  iminl.
                             SiW. CoUfotm  tacleiia (fecal)  In  MPN-	        M?	_.
                                   in prevent e of chknine itiiuilHT
                                   IH-rlUUml.
                             M. Colif.irm biulnin (lotaP nuniNT  MPN; membrane filler	    Of.4,r.7'J .
                               |wr 100 nd.                                                                                  	
                             66(aV. (•olifmin bactetli (t..lal)  In  MPN: marabrane filter wit*  enrich- fid.Gdl'.nsS ...  	
                               |irt«ence cf «lili ttne numlMr |»er    merit.
                               mi ml.

                             f.7. Alpha—Intnl.  pel per liter .    .  Pro|x>H!nnAl   counter;  schitillallon         5!>R         urn	
                                                                    counter.
                             ftR.  Alpha-ronriinic  fir.ir. p(;t  |icr ... .do	     ..   .     .                   .VW         M2
                               liii-r.
                             M.  llrln-loial. p( i per liter	Proportional counter	        K*         47H      	
                             70.  llrlu- aniiilmii-iror.iiCiprr liter	do	        M8         478	_
                             71.  Radium -tiiiul, pel per liter.   ..  Protwrltonal   counter;  icIaUUiitlon     Oil.617         674	 .
                                                                    counter.
                             ' Robert K. Tin
                           "EllvuuluiienLil
                                 I., llnolli. "Srlectlt* Ekccrode Mrastireinent or Ammniiln In Wnl/i uid Wutrv"
                        fliui Tcclinolofly," Vol. 7, No. ft, pp. U3-.VM, 1973. A delAflnd methml deserlption Is ftlao
                           •TAllalilr  hont ih.- klellio.ls DcvcU'pinfnt arid Quality As«urmiic« Keaenreh Lahorutcry  (Ml)QAKL).
                           Knvlrniiinpiital  KiM-ureli < Vuli-r (NKHO,  USKPA. flnelnnarl. Ohio VOKf.
                             >  K. r'.  AililiMiii mid u. G. Axkiuaii, "LJitect Determination il K'.emtuUI 1'liosphonu by (ia«-U»mld  Chroaa-
                           togrnphy." "Juuri-nl <•( < hroni:iloct:ipliy." \'cl. 47. No. 3, pp. 421-426, 1SI7U.
                             > A  iiuinl>ei ol siu-li  s\su-ms iuuiuirnetur*vd hy Tahmu cornpuHn &ro considered 1^ be com|>aroblc Ui th«lr per-
                           fnnnnnre. In :i sample Is not filtered bofont processing. Choose a volamc of sample.
                           appropii:iti' for II ..... oii(lo(l mftterinl is present, as littli> M 50 -1 (XI ml of well-
                           rnixtMl ^iiupk1 will ?i«i>l piol>;kl»ly IM> silfHeicnt.  (The sample TolurM  rcquln>d mny  Hlso v:uy firo|>ortioiuilly with
                           the immlHT of ni--l.ilr  10 !«• d.-teiinim>(l.)
                             Tmnsler 11 r.-pr.-!— ii-.iiiv* nlt'tiiot of the well-mlled mmplr to a (IrllTin 1ie:iker nnl as iny^i-ssAry until the digestion Is complete, generally tTiHIiMteil \\y a light colored
                           residue. Add (1:1 wiih iljt t^i snpie predetermined value)
                           ba.<*tl on tin1 r\itt--t,-.l nirlal conrentiatlon*. The- snmple is now ready for analysis. ("one.'iilia'Jons so determine*!
                           shall he re|n.rted ;i< "I'.inl." I'nr a more complete discussion of snraple hninlllng and prep;ir.»lion for ntomic aDsnri*-
                           tiiin analysis. *u- p|i. M '17 o| Kl'A  Methods.
                             For the me)t,nren ..... l «.( III.- nobli- metiil series (cold, indium, osmium, palladium, platlntim, rho'llum and rutlie-
                           ninuit, itn ^qim re^ia d.iresti..n  K to he suhslituled for Ih^ nitric acid  dipesllon in the pnmjTiaph nUwp as f<>llows:
                             Transfer a M pn-.. nhilixe ali.piot of the well-mixed sample to a Orilliu Ix-aker and add '* ml of rme. redistilled
                           PINf »i. IMai-e thi- br.nker t n n vteam bath flnd evaporate todrynes*. Cool the benker nnti eantlously n
-------
                                                  PRO. OSED RULES
 'FompdalMnn'llinil. ««•. "Snurnnl n( (1i- A'm-ii. .11 Win or WoiV» AMorlatlon M." No. I. pp. 20-25 (Jan. 1!»7J) or
AS I'M MoUicvl 1> 3-'/3 73, American Kocloly for I'l
 i Mel hod for InlreWil spool tophoUnnHrlr il
TlSiK.l'A.CIlidnmill.OhlolVtt't.
                         .    . .   .        .
      uul MuUhhi,

nnliiniliin o( oil nnd Rrpft.il> Is available from thd MDQARL, NE HC,

   nlo romjtmmds. »nd pn-HlrlilK. run no obl»lno,d from llio Mothoils
                                            '
   ...
 • Inlwlm proOTihmw [or Mzlcldns, rhlntlnntoil o'pnlo romjtmmds. »nd
IVirlopmiMil and IJuiillly Assuranoo Rt:* in h l.ulicrnlurj, Nalloiml Environmental Research Onlor, URK.I'A,

 •"Ailnoualnly lest oil ini'ilioils (or lx>m.ldliu> tin- not nvnllnlilo. t'ntll approved mnlhods nroavallnlilo, thf following
In). Tim met hod can Ix- iiml fur Uirreiltnnlli'ii nf l>nuldlni': 1. "Method for RonrlJIne and lla raits In wiistowaUTs."
Mmhod availiiM* from Mrihntl* iwrl<>i»ni>ni utvd ijunliiy Assurance Research Laboratory, National Environ-
mental Research »>nlcr, I'UKI'A, Cincinnati. onto 4.VM.

 NoTf..— Dlisolvful mrtuls nn* donned as I how ti>nsiliiienls wlilrli will nans through a O.U micron membrano niter.
A (irrfUtraUaii Is permissible. to freu HIP giunpln (nun larger siisppudfd solids.
  Dated: May 30,1975.
                                                         RUSSELL E. TRAIN,
                                                              Administrator.
                      |FR Doc.75- 14776 Filed 8-6-76:8:45 am]
          [ 40 CFR Part 180 ]
        [OPP-2800r>2; FRL 884-3]
              PINE OIL
Proposed Exemption From Requirement of
              a Tolerance
  Section  408(e)  of the Federal  Food.
Drug, and Cosmetic Act provides that the
Administrator may at any time, upon his
own Initiative, propose the  issuance of a
regulation  exempting a  pesticide chemi-
cal f«wn the requirement of a tolerance.
It is  proposed that  pine oil.  used as a
deodorant,  be exempted from  the re-
quirement  of  a tolerance when  used In
accordance with good agricultural prac-
tice as an Inert ingredient In formulation
with  the bee  repellent  butanolc. anhy-
dride. Based on available data. It is con-
cluded that the proposed regulation will
protect the public health.
  Any person who has registered or sub-
mitted an  application for  the registra-
tion of a pesticide under the Federal In-
secticide, Fungicide, and Uodenticidc Act
which contains any  of  the Ingredients
listed herein may request, within 30 days
after publication of this notice, that this
proposal be referred to an advisory com-
mittee In accordance with section 408(e)
ot Hie FederTil Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Act.
  Interested persons are invited to sub-
mit written comments on  the proposed
reputation  to  the  Federal Register Sec-
tion.  Technical Services Division fWH-
569), Office of Pesticide Programs. En-
vironmental Protection Aeenry. Room
401.  East  Tower.  401  M  Street.  SVV,
Washington, DC 20460.  Three copies of
the comments should  be  submitted  to
facilitate the  work of the Agency and
others Interested  in Inspecting  them.
The comments must be received  on  or
before July 9, 1975  and should bear  a
notation indicating  the subject  (OPP-
280002). All   written   comments  filed
pursuant to this notice  will be nvnilable
for public  Inspection in  the office of the
Federal  Register Section from 8:30.a.m.
to 4 pjn. Monday through Friday.
  It is proposed that Part  180, Subpart
D, be amended by adding g 180.1035.

  Dated: June 2,1975.
              JOHN B. RITCH. Jr..
                          Director.
               Registration  DMslon.
(See.  408(e) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosme-
tic Act (21 OB.C. 34fl(a) (e)))
          It is proposed  that Part 180. Subpart
        D, be amended by adding § 180.1035 to
        read as follows.
        § 180.1035   Pine oil;  exemption  from
             the requirement of a tolerance.
          Pine oil is exempted from the require-
        ment of a tolerance when used as  a de-
        odorant at  no more than 12  percent  In
        formulation with the  bee repellent bu-
        tanoic anhydride applied in an absorbent
        pad over the hive.
         (PR Doe.76-14876 Piled 6-«-75;8:45 am]


                   [40 CFR Part 421]
                      | FRL 384-7]

        NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING
              POINT SOURCE CATEGORY
            Effluent Limitations and Guidelines
          The purpose of this notice Is to pro-
        pose amendments to Subpart A—Bauxite
        Refining,  and  Subpart  C—Secondary
        Aluminum   Smelting,  of  40  CFR Part
        421—Nonferrous Metals  Manufacturing
        Point Source Category. On April 8. 1974,
        the  Environmental Protection  Agency
        published  a  notice of final  rulemaking
        establishing  effluent  limitations guide-
        lines for existing sources and standards
        of performance and pretreatment stand-
        ards for new sources for  three  subcate-
        gorles of  the  nonferrous metals  cate-
        gory—bauxite refining, primary alumi-
        num smelting and secondary aluminum
        smelting. 40 CFR Part 421. .The Agency
        has continued to review the regulations.
        both in the  context of litigation filed on
        these particular regulations  (Reynolds
        Metals Co.  v. EPA.  C.A.  4. Civ. No. 74-
        1760) and In considering the impact  of
        issues raised In other guideline reviews
        on Part 421. As a result  of this review.
        It  has  been  determined that  certain
        amendments would be appropriate. These
        amendments  are the  subject  of  this
        notice.
          In Part 421 the Administrator estab-
        lished for the bauxite refining  subcate-
        gory an  effluent limitation for existing
        plants of "no discharge of process waste
        water pollutants to navigable  waters."
        The treatment technology relied upon  in
        defining the effluent limitations was total
        Impoundment. Recognizing the difficulty
        in achieving "no discharge," in  the face
        of significant  rainfall, the  regulations
        allow for discharge of excess rainfall that
falls within the impoundment. Under the
circumstances, precise  definition  of the
term "within the impoundment"  Is Im-
portant. While  the Agency  is not  pre-
pared to define the Impoundment area to
Include  the entire countryside  drain-
ing into the plant area, some expansion
of the  area beyond the  Impoundment
dam itself appears to be appropriate. It is
therefore proposed that a definition simi-
lar to that proposed for Inclusion in the
hydrochloric acid subcategory of the in-
organic chemicals Industry (40 FR 1712,
January 9,  1975) be  adopted for the
bauxite  refining subcategory.  The  pro-
posed definition would make It clear that
the term "within the impoundment" re-
fers to  the  water surface  area  within
the  Impoundment  dam  at maximum
capacity, the area of the inside and out-
side slopes of the dam, the surface area
between the outside edge of the seepage
ditches and the bottom of the outside
sloi>e of the dam. The effect of the pro-
posed definition is to give credit  for  all
rainfall  within  this extended drainage
area, in the calculation of the volume of
water which may be discharged from the
impoundment.
  With regard to the regulations for the
secondary   aluminum   smelting   sub-
category (40 CFR Part 421.  Subpart C),
an issue was raised during litigation con-
cerning a  possible ambiguity  as  to the
applicability of the regulations to vari-
ous  waste  streams.  In developing the
guidelines and standards of performance
applicable  to these sources, the Agency
concentrated on wastes in fume-scrub-
bing wastewaters where aluminum fluo-
ride is  used in  the magnesium removal
process and wastewaters from metal cool-
Ing, establishing a limitation of "no dis-
charge," and on wastes in fume-scrub-
bing wastewaters where chlorine is used
in the magnesium removal process and in
wet  residue  milling wastewaters,  estab-
lishing  numerical  limitations  for these
two  waste  streams. It was not intended
that the regulations apply at this time to
wastes in a fourth, less  significant, waste
stream including waste  from furnace wet
scrubbers.  In reviewing the regulations,
however, some ambiguity as to the in-
tent to exclude  this latter waste stream
from coverage of the regulations appears
to exist. An amendment to Subpart C of
the regulations  is therefore  proposed, to
clarify  the applicability of  the  regula-
tions to the various waste streams.
  Interested persons may participate  In
the  rulemr.king  by submitting written
comments  in triplicate  to the EPA Office
of Public Affairs, Environmental Protec-
tion  Agency, Washington,  D.C.  20460.
Attention:   Ms.   Ruth  Brown,   A-107.
Comments on all aspects of the proposed
regulations are solicited.  In the event
comments are in the nature of criticisms
as to the adequacy of data available,  or
which may be relied upon by the Agency,
comments should identify and if possible
provide any  additional  data which  may
be available and Indicate why such data
are essential to the development  of the
regulations. In the event comments ad-
dress the approach taken by the Agency,
                                FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL 40, NO. Ill—MONDAY, JUNE 9, 1975


                                                         4-9

-------
                 APPENDIX 5
         POLLUTANT INTERFERENCE DATA

Effect on Biological Treatment Processes

Table & Figure No.              Pollutant

      5-1                       Ammonia
      5-2                       Arsenic
      5-3                       Borate  (Boron)
      5-4                       Cadmium
      5-5                       Chromium
      5-6                       Copper
      5-7                       Cyanide
      5-8                       Iron
      5-9                       Lead
      5-10                      Manganese
      5-11                      Mercury
      5-12                      Nickel
      5-13                      Silver
      5-14                      Sulfate
      5-15                      Sulfide
      5-16                      Zinc

-------
                                TABLE 5-1

                               DATA SUMMARY

                          EFFECT OF AMMONIA

                      ON  BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration


mg/1
10
100
5-200
480
200-1000
1500-3000
3000

Activated
Sludge
Processes
N
N

I



Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes


B

N
I
U
Nitrifi-
cation
Processes










Comments










References
E-29
E-29
E-29
E-29
E-29
E-17, E-20
E-ll
NOTES:

B = Beneficial
N = No  Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations represent  influent  to the  unit  processes.
                                    5-1

-------
                                           FIGURE  5-1

                                        EFFECT  OF  AMMONIA

                                ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
            Processes
en
i
to
     Anaerobic  Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                 Inhibitory
                                                                No Effect
                           Upset

                       H
                    Inhibitory
             •iMimntn

             No Effect
                                                                liiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiinJ

                                                                   Beneficial	
                                                         1.0
10
100
1000
10000
                                                           Concentration mg/1

-------
                               TABLE 5-2

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF ARSENIC
                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
0.1
0.1
i.o
1.6


Activated
Sludge
Processes
N
I
I


Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes



I


Nitrifi-
cation
Processes






Comments
Meta-Arsenate
AsCl_

4 mg/1 Sodium
Arsenate

References
E-29
E-21
E-21
E-5

NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No  Effect
T= Threshold for Inhibitory  Effects
I = Inhibitory
I) = Upset
Concentrations represent  influent  to the  unit processes.
                                   5-3

-------
                                       FIGURE 5-2

                                    EFFECT OF ARSENIC

                            ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
  Activated Sludge
      Processes
Anaerobic Digestion
      Processes
  Nitrification
    Processes
Inhibitory
                                           No Effect
                                                                Inhibitory
0.001    0.01
                                                   0.1
       1.0
                                         10
100
                                                                                          1000^
                                                    Concentration rng/1

-------
                               TABLE 5-3

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF BORATE (BORON)

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration


mg/1
0.005-
0.05
0.05
0.4
2
7.4

10
50
74

100
740


Activated
Sludge
Processes
N

I
N

N

I
I
I

I
U

Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes




I









Nitrifi-
cation
Processes

















Comments





50 mg/1 Sodium
Tetra-Borate


500 mg/1 Sodium
Tetra-Borate

5000 mg/1 Sodium
Tetra-Borate



References
E-29

E-5, E-29
E-8, E-9
E-128
E-8

E-9, E-29, E-t
E-29
E-8

E-44
E-8

NOTES:

B = Beneficial
N= No  Effect
T= Threshold for Inhibitory  Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations represent  influent  to the  unit processes.
                                    5-5

-------
                                               FIGURE 5-3

                                            EFFECT OF BORON

                                   ON BIOLOGICAL  TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
            Processes
in
i
     Anaerobic  Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                                                                tvntf f tttit i itiitiiuttiiH ti i
                                                                       Upset
                                                                                          mJ
                       Inhibitory
                                           ^IllllllltllllllillllllllllllUiJ
                                               No  Effect
                                                                         Inhibitory
                                     0.001     0.01
0.1
1.0
10
100
                                                                                                    1000
                                                            Concentration

-------
                               TABLE 5-4

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF CADMIUM

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
0.02
1
10 - 50
60
100

Activated
Sludge
Processes

T
I
U
T
Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes
T





Nitrifi-
cation
Processes






Comments






References
E-104
E-21
E-29
E-29
E-29
NOTES:

B= Beneficial
I = No Effect
T= Threshold for Inhibitory  Effects
I = Inhibitory
i = Upset
Concentrations represent  influent  to the  unit  processes.
                                     5-7

-------
                                             FIGURE 5-4

                                          EFFECT OF CADMIUM

                                 ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
en
I
00
     Anaerobic Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                                                                       Upset
                                                                        Inhibitory
miUIHIHIIilllilM
                                                   Inhibitory
                                   0.001     0.01
      0.1
1.0
                                                                             10
100
                                             1000
                                                         Concentration mg/1

-------
                                TABLE 5-5

                               DATA  SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF CHROMIUM

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
0.005-
0.05
0.25
1
1
1
1.5
2.5
5
5
7
8.8
5-10
10
10
15
4
0-50

Activated
Sludge
Processes
B

N
I
T




I
I
I
T
I



Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes





T


T








Nitrifi-
cation
Processes

I




U
U






I
I


Comments



K2Cr207





25% Loss in BOD
Removal
25 mg/1 K2Cr207


29% Loss in BOD
Removal
Cr III

Cr III, No Effect
on Trickling
Filter Operation

References
E-5
E-119
E-5
E-5
A-l
A-l
E-13, E-29, E-l
A-l
A-l
A-l
E-8
E-29, E-78
E-29, E-78
E-28
E-29
E-l 7
E-29
 MOTES:
:B = Beneficial
 N = No Effect
 T= Threshold  for  Inhibitory Effects
 I= Inhibitory
 U = Upset
^Concentrations  represent influent to  the unit processes.
                                      5-9

-------
                                TABLE 5-5  (continuted)

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF CHROMIUM

                      ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
50

50
50
50
100


100

300
300
500
500
430 + 1440
Effect On
Activated
Sludge
Processes
I

I





I






Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes



N
U






U
U
U

Nitrifi-
cation
Processes





I




I



U

Comments
3% Loss in BOD
Removal



Reduced Nitrifi-
cation by
66-78%
3% Loss in BOD
Removal






References
E-118

E-88
E-3
E-118, E-78
E-5


E-118

E-118
E-118
E-118
E-29
E-29
NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No  Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations  represent  influent to  the unit  processes.
                                    5-10

-------
                                        FIGURE 5-5

                                    EFFECT OF CHROMIUM

                            ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
  Activated Sludge
      Processes
Anaerobic Digestion
      Processes
  Nitrification
    Processes
                                                                   Inhibitory
                                                     No Effect
                                    Beneficial
                                                                              Upset
                                                             Inhibitory
                                                                 Upset
                                                       Inhibitory
                              0.001
0.01
0.1
1.0
10
                                                                                 100
                                                  1000
                                                       ce*:^ ration roq/1

-------
                                TABLE 5-6

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF COPPER

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
0.005-
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5-0.56
0.7
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.2
2.4
2.5

Activated
Sludge
Processes
B

T
T
N
N



T
T
N

I

I
Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes












T

U


Nitrifi-
cation
Processes

I





I









Comments




With 5 mg/1 Zn
With CN
Toxic to all
Micro Organisms

Inhibition of
Micro Organisms


With CN

2% Loss in BOD
Removal
With 20 mg/1 Zn
4% Loss in BOD
Removal

References
E-29
E-100
E-2
E-33
E-5, E-29
E-118
E-5
E-2
E-29
E-l
A-l,E-2,E-5,E-24,
E-29,E-78,E-109
E-29
E-5, E-15
E-118
E-5, E-29
E-118
NOTES:

B = Beneficial
N = No  Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations  represent  influent to the  unit processes.
                                     5-12

-------
                                TABLE 5-6 (continuted)

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF COPPER

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
3.6
4
5
5
5
10
10
10
1-10
10
10
10
10
10
10
15
15

Activated
Sludge
Processes
U
I
I

I
I
I
N
T


I
I
I
I
I

Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes



N





N
T





I
Nitrifi-
cation
Processes


















Comments
With 8.6 mg/1 CN



6% Loss in BOD
Removal
3.6% Loss in BOD
Removal
With CN 7% Loss
in BOD Removal



With CN
With 100 mg/1 CN
With 10 mg/1 Ni
With 100 mg/1
With 100 mg/1 Fe
5.3% Loss in BOD
Removal


References
E-16
E-29
E-29
E-118
E-118
E-118
E-118
E-29
E-29
E-118
E-118
E-29
E-29
E-29
E-29
E-118
E-118
NOTES:

B = Beneficial
N = No Effect
T = Threshold for  Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations  represent influent to  the unit  processes.
                                     5-13

-------
                                TABLE 5-6  (continued)

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF COPPER

                      ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
15
25
25

30
45
50
50
64
75
100
210
410
1000
1000

Effect On
Activated
Sludge
Processes
I

I

I
I
I

I
I
I
U
U



Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes

I





I





I
I

Nitrifi-
cation
Processes

















Comments


With CN 2.5% Loss
in BOD Removal









Cuprous 14.9% Loss
in Gas Production
Cuprous 49.4% Loss
in Gas Production

References
E-129
E-118
E-118

E-29
E-43
E-29
E-29
E-118
E-29
E-2, E-118
E-118
E-118
E-29
E-29

NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No  Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations represent influent to  the unit processes.
                                      5-14

-------
       Activated Sludge
            Processes
Ul
i
M
Cn
Anaerobic Digestion
      Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                               FIGURE 5-6

                                            EFFECT OF COPPER

                                  ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
                                                                          FI
                                                                           MII n i in mi in i ii 11
                                                                              Upset
                                                           rirtiimifirnitiiiTiif iii
                                                                Inhibitory
                                                 No Effect
                                          Beneficial
                                                                           Inhibitory
                                                        Inhibitory
                                V
                                     0.001     0.01
                                                     0.1
1.0
                                                                                10
100
                                                                                             1001)
                                                           Concentration

-------
                                TABLE 5-7

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF CYANIDE

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration

mg/1
0.01-
0.05
0.1
0.3-
0.5
0.34

1
1
1.6
2
2
2
2
2-3
3
4
5
21
30
•*n
Effect On
Activated
Sludge
Processes
N

I


T

T
I


I
I
I
I



Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes

T



T
T


T








Nitrifi-
cation
Processes



I






I




U
I



Comments

In Raw Sewage

0.65 mg/1 NaCN
Reduced Nitrifi-
cation by 75%


As HCN



5% Reduction in
BOD Removal


40 mg/1 NaCN

Interfered with


References
E-118
A-l, E-5,
E-21
E-5

A-l
A-l
A-l
E-5
E-5
A-l, E-5
A-l, E-5
A-l, E-5
A-l, E-5
A-l, E-5
E-15
E-5
E-5
E-7
                                              Trickling
NOTES:                                         Filter Operation
B = Beneficial
N = No  Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations represent influent  to  the unit processes.
                                       5rl6

-------
                               TABLE 5-7 (continued)

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF CYANIDE
                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
40
100
100
100
480

Activated
Sludge
Processes
I

I
I
U
Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes

U



Nitrifi-
cation
Processes






Comments


With 10 mg/1 cu
With 10 mg/1 Ni
480 mg/1 KCN

References
E-29
E-5
E-29
E-29
E-29
80TES:
8= Beneficial
H = No  Effect
;I= Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
1= Inhibitory
I) = Upset
Concentrations represent  influent to the  unit  processes.

                                     5-17

-------
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
i
H
00
     Anaerobic Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                             FIGURE 5-7

                                         EFFECT OF CYANIDE

                                 ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT  PROCESSES
                                                                       Inhibitory
                                               LllllillMll

                                               No  Effect
                                    0.001    0.01
                                                               Inhibitory
                                                                                              I    .^
                                                                                              HIIII^
                                                                                              upset
                                                                                          Upset
                                                                                     Upset
                                                                miiiniii minim minium

                                                                     Inhibitory
0.1
                                                                   1.0
10
                                                                                       100
                                        1000
                                                          Concentration rog/1

-------
                                TABLE 5-8

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF IRON
                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
rng/1
0

0

5
5
5-20
TOO
1000
Effect On
Activated
Sludge
Processes


I

T


N
U
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes
I




T
I


Nitrifi-
cation
Processes










Comments
.ack of Iron
Inhibits Digestion
.ack of Iron
Reduces Metabolism


Due to Acidity



References
E-39, E-112

E-39, E-112

E-5
A-l
E-5, E-118
E-21
E-29
NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations  represent  influent to  the  unit  processes.
                                      5-19

-------
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
K)
o
Anaerobic Digestion
      Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                             FIGURE 5-8

                                           EFFECT OF IRON

                                 ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
                       ^   I
                       ^""1

                      Inhibitory
^4<*M*ffl


Inhibitory
                                   0.001
                                        0.01
                                                                                                   pset
                                                                          Inhibitory
                                                                         Inhibitory
                             0.1
1.0
10
100
                                                                                               1000
                                                         Concentratior. mg/1

-------
                              TABLE 5-9

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF LEAD

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
0.005-0.05
0.05
0.5
0.1-1.0
50
10-100

Activated
Sludge
Processes
N


I
N
I
Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes






Nitrifi-
cation
Processes

N
I




Comments







References
E-5
E-100
E-5
E-5
E-21
E-29
NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No Effect
T= Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations represent  influent  to the  unit processes.
                                    5-21

-------
                                              FIGURE  5-9

                                            EFFECT OF LEAD

                                  ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
Ul
i
ru
to
Anaerobic Digestion
      Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                                            iilMlMtllMtitmi
                                                               Inhibitory
                                           IIIHIIIIIIIMH


                                          "No Effect
                                                      Illlltiltil
                                                         Inhibitory
                               No Effect
                                V
                                    0.001    0.01
                                                    0.1
1.0
10
100
                                                                                                 1000
                                                          Concentration mg/1

-------
                               TABLE 5-10

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF MANGANESE

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
7
10
50
12.5-50
50-100

Activated
Sludge
Processes
N
I
U

I
Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes






Nitrifi-
cation
Processes



B


Comments






References
E-29
E-29
E-21
E-29
E-29
NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No  Effect
T = Threshold  for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
 Concentrations  represent influent to  the unit processes
                                    5-23

-------
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
i
to
Anaerobic Digestion
      Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                            FIGURE 5-10

                                       EFFECT OF MANGANESE

                                ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
                                  0.001    0.01
                                                                                   Upset
                                                                              Inhibitory
                                                              No Effect
                                                                         h»H
                                                                       Beneficial
                                                  0.1
1.0
10
                                                                                    100
1000
                                                       Concentration rog/1

-------
                                TABLE 5-11

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF MERCURY

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
0.1 - 1.0
1.0
1.0
2.5
2.5
2.5-5
5
5
5
10
43
50
200
1365

Activated
Sludge
Processes
I
I
I
T
I
T
I
I
I
I

I
U

Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes










N


I
Nitrifi-
cation
Processes















Comments







14% Loss in COD
Removal
40% Loss in COD
Removal
59% Loss in COD
Removal





References
E-28
E-28
E-29
E-21
E-29, E-122
E-29
E-70
E-122
E-29
E-29
E-18
E-29
E-29
E-18
NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No Effect
T = Threshold for  Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations  represent  influent to the  unit  processes.
                                     5-25

-------
                                             FIGURE 5-11

                                         EFFECT OF MERCURY

                                 ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
Ul
i
M
a\
     Anaerobic Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                    0.001    0.01
                                                         9wwwwwmw
                                                              IIIIIIIH
                                                                     Inhibitory
0.1
1.0
                                                                              10
                                   •

                                   \J
                                                                                             pset
                               100
                              1000
                                                          Concentration rog/1

-------
                                TABLE  5-12

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF NICKEL

                      ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
1
2
1-2.5
2.5

0.5-3
5

5
10
10
10
25
25
40
50
500


Activated
Sludge
Processes
N

T
I


I

I
I


I
U

U


Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes

T









N


N

I

Nitrifi-
cation
Processes





I




I








Comments



2.5% Loss in
BOD Removal

5% Loss in BOD
Removal

5% Loss in BOD






9.4% Reduction in
Gas Production

References
E-118
A-l
A-l
E-118

E-25, E-118
E-118

E-29
E-118
E-118
E-118
E-118
E-19
E-29
E-3
E-5

NOTES:

B =  Beneficial
N =  No Effect
T =  Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I =  Inhibitory
U =  Upset
Concentrations  represent influent to  the unit  processes.
                                     5-27

-------
                                             FIGURE 5-12

                                          EFFECT OF NICKEL

                                 ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
Ol
i
to
00
Anaerobic Digestion
      Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                                                                      Upset
                                                                    Inhibitory
                                                            No Effect
                                                                      Inhibitory
                                                                Inhibitory
                               V
                                   0.001
                                       0.01
0.1
                                                                 1.0
                                                                       10
                              100
                                                                                          1000
                                                         Concentration mg/1

-------
                               TABLE  5-13
                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF SILVER

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT  PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
5

25
2-250

Effect On
Activated
Sludge
Processes
I

U
N

Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes





Nitrifi-
cation
Processes






Comments
4% Loss in BOD
Removal

As Thiosulfate


References
E-8, E-9

E-21
E-8, E-9, E-120,
A-l
NOTES:

B =  Beneficial
N =  No Effect
T =  Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I =  Inhibitory
U =  Upset
Concentrations  represent influent to  the unit  processes.
                                      5-29

-------
                                             FIGURE 5-13


                                          EFFECT OF SILVER


                                 ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
Ul
i
u»
o
Anaerobic Digestion

      Processes
       Nitrification

         Processes
                                                                                    Hiniin
                                                                                      Upset
                                                                           Inhibitory
                                    0.001     0.01
                                                   0.1
1.0
                                                                             10
100
                                                                                           1000
                                                         Concentration

-------
                                TABLE 5-14

                               DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF SULFATE

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration
mg/1
500
2400
>2400
Effect On
Activated
Sludge
Processes



Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes
I
I
U
Nitrifi-
cation
Processes




Comments

12% Reduction in
Gas Production


References
E-ll, E-17
E-19
E-19
NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations  represent  influent to  the  unit  processes.
                                    5-31

-------
                                             FIGURE 5-14

                                         EFFECT OF SULFATE

                                 ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
Ul
u>
ro
     Anaerobic Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                                         K
                                                       Upset
                                                                                               HMM
                                                                                            Inhibitory
                               V
                                    0.001
0.01
0.1
1.0
                                                                             10
                                          100
                                        100TT
                                                         Concentration rng/1

-------
                               TABLE 5-15

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF SULFIDE

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration


mg/1
25-50
50
50-100
100

100

165
200
200
200

400
400


Activated
Sludge
Processes
I














Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes

I
N
I

I

U
U
N
I

N
I


Nitrifi-
cation
Processes


















Comments



50% Reduction in
Gas Production
33% Loss in Gas
Production


With Acclimation
80% Reduction in
Gas Production
FeS
95% Reduction in
Gas Production



References
E-35
E-20
E-120
E-19

E-20

E-19
E-19
E-35, E-120
E-20

E-35
E-20

NOTES:
B = Beneficial
N = No Effect
T = Threshold for  Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
11 = Upset
Concentrations  represent  influent  to the  unit processes
                                  5-33

-------
                                             FIGURE 5-15

                                          EFFECT OF SULFIDE

                                 ON  BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
01
i
U)
     Anaerobic  Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                     Cnhibitory
                                                                                             Upset
                                                                                    Inhibitory



                                                                                  No Effect
                               V
                                   0.001
0.01
0.1       1.0


 Concentration
10
                                         100
                                                                                              1000

-------
                               TABLE 5-16

                              DATA SUMMARY

                         EFFECT OF ZINC

                     ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
Concentration


mg/1
0.005-
0.08
0.3
0.08-0.5
0.08-0.5
1
2.5
5
5
2.5-10
10
5-10
10
10

10
10-20
20
20

20

Activated
Sludge
Processes

N
T
I

I
N

T
T
N
T

I

N


I

I
Effect On
Anaerobic
Digestion
Processes







T




N



T
U



Nitrifi-
cation
Processes




I



















Comments





With 10 mg/1 Cd




With CN


2% Loss in BOD
Removal



2% Loss in BOD
Removal




References

E-29
E-33
E-29
E-100
E-29
E-118
A-l, E-7
E-29, E-35
E-29
E-118
E-29
E-3
E-118

E-22
E-6, E-78
E-118
E-118

E-67
r- r~
 1000
NOTES:
I
                                                                E-5
B = Beneficial
N = No Effect
T = Threshold for Inhibitory Effects
I = Inhibitory
U = Upset
Concentrations  represent  influent  to the  unit processes.
                                     5-35

-------
                                              FIGURE  5-16

                                           EFFECT OF ZINC

                                 ON BIOLOGICAL  TREATMENT PROCESSES
       Activated Sludge
           Processes
w    Anaerobic Digestion
           Processes
       Nitrification
         Processes
                                                     UMIiMIMItitilMllilMI
                                                                   Inhibitory
                                                     No  Effect

                                    0.001
0.01
                                                                                     Upset
                                                                              miniiiiint
                                                                          ^BH VHi

                                                                             Inhibitory
                                                                 No Effect
                                                         Inhibitory
0.1
1.0
10
                                          100
                                                                                                1000
                                                          -concentration mg/1

-------
                APPENDIX 6
POLLUTANT REMOVAL AND PASS THROUGH DATA
Computer Report No. 1 - Summary of POTW Removal Data
by EPA Region.

Computer Report No. 2 - POTW Categorization.

Computer Report No. 3 - POTW Removal Data, Reference
Information.

Computer Report No. 4 - POTW Removal Data Analysis,
24 Hr. Composite - 6 Hr. Simultaneous Composite,
Comparison of Results.

Computer Report No. 5 - POTW Removal Data Analysis, by
Plant Category.

Computer Report No. 6 - Summary of POTW Removal Data.

Computer Report No. 7 - POTW Effluent Data Analysis.

Computer Report No. 8 - Summary of POTW Effluent Data.

Table 6-1 - Cumulative Frequency Distribution of
Removal Data.

Table 6-2 - Cumulative Frequency Distribution of
Effluent Data.

-------
PEPORT NO* 1               SUMMARY OF POTW REMOVAL DATA BY  EPA  REGION                    DATE  5/15/75

                                          PLANT TYPE
                     Al     OTHER ft      fi}     OTHER 8       Cl      OTHER C  OfJt(MISC)    TOTAL
      REGION


       I             15          0         6         0         12         -Ov        0        33
       II            33          3         9         9          5        10         0        69
       111            0          5         3         9          1         5         V        24
       IV           •  S          2         5         9          3         4         5        33
       V             It          0         1<»         11         23        19         6        67
       VI             0          0         1         1          0         0         0         2
       VI1            •*          0        . t>         I          6         Z,        .0        19
       VIH           0          0         0         6          0         0         0         0
       IX             0          0         -9         fr         9         0         -0         d
       X              10001002


       TOT-          ?2         10         **         40^        SI"        40,       12       269

-------
                       RFPOHT NU. <•               POTW CATEGORIZATION                       s/is/75 DATE
CATEGORY


A        PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION TREATMENT PROCESS
A01        CCNVFMTIONAL
A02        FLASH AERATION «HEAU. OF CLAHIFICATION
A03        CHEMICAL FLCCCULATION, CLARIFICATION
A04        LIME, FERRIC CHLOHlDt ADDITION, PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION, CLARIFICATION
A05        PREAF.RATION, POLYMER ADDITION, PRIMARY SEDIMATION
B        TRICKLING FILTER
BOI        AOI, TRICKLING FILTER, CLARIFIER
B02        AOI, TF-HlGH HATE, CLA«IF1EM
803        A04, TRICKLING FILTfr-k, CLAR1FIEH
B04        A01» TF-2 IW SE^IESt CLAHIFIER
80S        AOI. TF-2 HIGH RATE IN SERIES, CLARIFIER
C        ACTIVATED SLUDGE
C01       ' AOI, ACTIVATFD SLUDGE, CLARIFIER
C02        FXTEMJEO AERATION, CLAKIFIER-NO PRIMARY SETT-INU
C03        A04, ACTIVATED SLUDGF., TLARiFIEH
COA        AOI, AS-POLYMEH ADDITION, CLARIFIER
COS        AOI, AS-STEP AERATION, CLARIFIER
C(J6        A01» AS-HIGH RATE, CUARIFIER
COT        TtH* -POLISHING LAGOON
C08        FXTENUEO AERATION, 2 POLISHING LAGOONS IN SERIES-NO PRIMARY SETTLING
CO«J        AOI, AS-KRAliS PROCESS
CIO        AOI* AS-KHAOS PHQCESS.2FACULTATIVE LAGOONS  IN SERIES
C14        AOI* AS-POLYMER ADDITION* POLISHING LAGOON
C19        ACTIVATED SLUDGE, CLARIFIER-NO PRIMARY SETTLING
C?0        AS-hIGH RATE, CLARIFIER-NO PRIMARY SETTLING
0        FILTRATION
D01        C01*      FILTRATION
DO?        AS-CONVENTIONAL AND HIGH KATE IN PARALLEL, FILTHATION-NO PRIMARY SED
003        C19* FILTRATION
004        C20, FILTRATION
005        FXTENO€0 AERATION, CLARIFIER, FILTRATION-NO PRIMARY SETTLING
006        AOI, AS-HIGH RATF, FILTRATION
007        P0?» FILTRATION
J        MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES
JOI        AERATED LAGOON
J02        OXIDATION DITCH* STABILIZATION POND

-------
                           REPORT NU.
                                               POTW  CATEGORIZATION
                               5/15/75 DATE
    CATFC-ORY
                         OESCHIST(ON
                                                              NO. OF PLANTS
                      PERCENT OF TOTAL
-01
-0?
-03
-"4
-05
-06
-07
-Ofi
-09
-10
•11
UNDER
0
0
0
0
1
5
12
11
•
•
•
»
•
•
•
•
051
101
251
50 >
001
501
501
501
0.050
THWU
1H«U
THKU
THM|J
THkyj
THRU
THRU
THftU

n
n
0
)
5
12
31
75

»
*
*
*
*
•
»
•

100
?50
«UlO
000
500
500
500
000
I*GD
KGO
Ht>0
KGO
NfaO
t*GD
MOD
MOD
w&O
                                     TREATMENT
             75.001 TH«u  110.000
             OVER 110.000
            TOTM.
  6
  3
 11
 20
 29
101
 39
 30
 12
  7
 11
   2
   1
   4
   7
  11
  38
  15
  11
   5
   2
	4,
"TSRF
    CATEGORY
                         DESCRIPTION
<*
ui
   A  UNDEfi?20   PERCENT INDUSTRIAL FLOW
   B  21 -THRU $0 PERCENT
   C  Ul THRU 50 PERCENT
   0  51 THKU 60 PERCENT
   E  61 THRU 70 PERCENT
   F  OVE« 70
   G  UNKNOWN
   H  NONE

-------
                                                             OftTA
                                                                                               DATE  5/15/75
                                                                                                    CAGE  1
REF.tvO.
CATFGOSY
1 .on
2. on
3. on
4. no
S.oi
5t02
6.00
7.ni
7.02
8.00
10.00
ii.no
12.00
13. no
14.00
15. 00
15*0,1
15*02
15.03
15.04
15.05
15.06
15.07
0, *5*°8v
ir IfrrOO
** 18.00
I9.no
20. ne
21.00
22.00
-?3.r>n
24.00
?5,01
25.02
25.03
26.00
?8,no
29.00
30.00
31.no
32.00
33.00
34.no
35.00
36.00
37.00.
42.00
43.00
44.00
45. on
007.060
cnq.GPi",
CIO. 06*J
COS. 060
C02.04&
J01.066
A01.06G
A01.10G
001. 06t
B01.04C
A01.06G
A01.06G
J02.030
«01.03G
80?.04G
AOI-OBG
C05-10G
C05-11G
C06-OWG
C06-08G
C06-09G
C06-09G
C06-106
C06-1Q4
AO^.0^5^
802. 05G
C01.06B
B02.06G
C06-04G
902-01G
BO 1-066
802-066
802-06G
B02-06G
C 06-0 76
B02-036
80?- 046
C06-04G
802-06G
B02-04G
C01-HG
001-046
Crtl-llG
D01-06G
C01-11G
C02-05G
A01-06H
B01-04A
801-04A
B04-05-*
PKOCF.UUHE
                          FC024S
                          FC024S
                          FC02'+S
                          FC024S
                          FC024S
                          FC024S
                          FC024S
                          FC024S
                          FC024S
                          FC084S
                          FC024S
                          FCQ24S
G
G
G
G
G
G

G
G
                               K
                               H
                               R
                               It
                               R
                               R
                          £€0245'
                          FC024S
                          FC024S
C 024S
FC024S
"FC024S
FC024S
FC024S
FC024S
FCQ24S
C 024S
C
C
C 024$
C 024S
  024S
  024S
C 024S
C 0?4S
C 024S
C 024S
C 024S
FC024S
FC008S
C
                  SAMPLING DATt
                           741030
                           741107
                           741107
                           741113
                           741113
                           741113
                           741113
                           741114
                           741114
                           730905
                           741126
                           741017
                           730830
                           730829
                           710630
                           7201
                           7201
                           7201
                           7201
                           7201
                           7201
                           .7201
                           7201
                           741023
                           741010
                           741003
                           741023
                           700311
                           710109
                           710928
                           721114
                           7102?3
                           710223
                           710233
                           710114
                           711102
                           710120
                           740305
                           710823
                           740101
                           740101
                           740101
                           740101
                           740101
                           740101
                           740930
                           741112
                           740723
                           740410
                     THRU
                     THRU
                     THftu
                     THRU
                     THRU
                     THftlj
                     THRU
                     THRU
                     THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                                              THRU
                          7309
                          7309,
                          7309
                          7309
                          7309
                          7309
                          7309
                          7309
                          7309
                          701203
                          710119
                          700826
                          700826
                          700315
                          701112
                          741231
                          741231
                          741231
                          741231
                          741231
                          741231
                                                           REMARKS
EVERY 30 WIN
tVEHV 30 MIN
EVERY 30
EVERY 30
EVERY 30 MIN
EVERY 30
EVERY 30
EVERY 30 MIN
tVERY 30 MIN
EVERY 30 MIN
EVERY 30 MIN
EVERY 30 MIN
EVERY 36 MIN
EVERY 30
EVERY 30
FC DkY.MO COMP AVG
FC OLY.MO COMP AVG
FC OfcY»Mp £OMP AVG
FC -OLV-tMO -C0KP-AV&
FC DLY»MO COMP AVG
FC OLY.MO COMP AVG
FC DLY»MO COMP AVG
FC OLY.MO COMP AVG
FC DLY.MO COMP AVG
EVERY 3« MIN
EVERY 30 MIN
EVERY 30
EVERY 30
                          MAJOR
                         INDUSTRY
                                                                                         POULTRY
                                                                                    POTW
                                                                                  CONTROL
                                                                TRUCK PLANT
                                                                METAL STAMP

                                                                TANNERY
                                                                                         CHEESE PLANT
                                                                                     00
                                                                                     01

                                                                                     01
                                                                                         TANNERY
                                         INF  IX/WKtEFF OLY
                                         INF  1X/WKȣFF OLY
                                         INF  1X/WK,£FF OLY
                                         INF  1X/WK.EFF OLY
                                         INF  1X/WK.EFF OLY
                                         INF  IX/WKiEfF DLY
                                         EVERY 4 HR
                                         EVERY 2
                                         EVERY 2
                                         EVERY 2
                                                                          HR
                                                                          HR
                       NONE
                       COIN LAUNDRY
                       MACHINE SHOP

-------
PWUCEJ
                           OflTt
                                              HEMAHKS
46.00
47.no
48. fin
49,0«
50.00
51.00
S2.^0
^3.00
•54.no
55.00
56.00
57.00
58.00
5fl.ni
59.00
59.01
60. 00
61.01
61 • «?
61 .03
61.04
65.01
65.02
68.00
(s9.no
71.00
72.00
73.00
74.00
75.00
76.00
77.00
78.00
78.01
81.01
01.02
fll.oj
81.04
81.05
81.06
92.01
92.02
92.03
92.04
9?. 05
92.06
92.08
92.09
9?. 10
92. U
804-06*
CO l-05a
COl-U'ih
C04-07A
C06-06*
C19-01H
C19-03H
C] y-04G
C2U-046
C2U-06U
U01-04H
G02-04A
C01-OIH
J01-01H
803-050
C03-04U
C14-09A
302-086
C01-056
C01-07G
C01-09U
AOl-lOli-
C01-08G
CO 1-086
801-0*6
B01-06G
B02-06G
C01-05G
802-06G
AQ1*>Q?G
AQ2— 06G
B02-05G
ti01-09G
605-iOG
A01-09G
A01-08F
A01-08G
801-07G
C01-Of.G
A01-06G
A01-07A
A01-07A
801-07A
AOI-06A
A01-06A
AOl-06^
AOI-07A
A01-06A
A01-06A
H01-OM
fcn?4s
0
t: n?^s
t5
C 0?4S
C 024S
C OJ4-S
KC024S
C nj^S
C 034S
C 024S
C 024S
C 0?4S
C 0?4S
FC024S
FC024S
FC02*S
FC024R
FC024H
FC(J24K
FC024R
FC   S
FC   S
6
FC024S
FCO?4S
FC024S
PC024S
FC024S
FC024S
FC02*S
FC024S
G    R
G    «
fC   S
ft   S
FC   S
FC   S
FC   S
FC   S
C 006S
C 006S
C 006S
C
c
C OO&S
C 006S
C 0065
C 006S
C
74l<]?3
741022
74U8D7'
740723
740716
740522
740S13
741106
740730
740710
740501
740501
740716
740716
740709
6310 THRU
6312
6307
6309
730622 THRU
730622 THRU
7301 THRU
741030
741106
741009
741106
741022
741 126
741022
741121
7307 THRU
7307 THRU
7201 THflij
7201 THRU
7201 THRU
7201 THRU
7201 THRU
7201 THRU
6506
6506
6S06
6506
6506
6506
6506
6506
6506















6311



730802
730802
7312








7406
7406
7207
7207
7207
7207
7207
7207









                                         F-VERY 3 HS




                                         EVERY 4 HR

                                         FVERY HH

                                         EVERY 3 HR
                                         EVERY 2 HR
                                         EVERY 2 HH
                                         EVERY 2
                                         EVERY 2
HR
HR
                  f!« JOH
                 INDUSTRY
               NONE
               PLATING
               NONF
               PLASTIC,MACH

               NONE
               NONE
               PLASTIC
               NONE

               NONE
               NONE
                                                                                    POTW
                                                                                  CONTROL
                                         HOURLY tl 30* Y AVG
                                         HOURLY. sOAy AVG
                                         HOURLY, 14DAY AVG
                                         HOURLY, 140AY AVG
                                         PAILYt »)K COMP AVG
                                         DAItr, WK COMP AVO
                                         COHP WEEKLY, YR AVG
                                         EVERY 30 MIN
                                         EVERY 30 MIN
                                         EVERY 30 »IN
                                         EVERY
                                         EVERY 30
                                         EVERY 30 MIN
                                         fcvERY 30 MIN
                                         COMP MONTHLY»AVG
                                         COMP MONTHLY, AVG
                                         DAILY, £WK COMP
                                         OilLYtflfK COMP AV6
                                         DAILY, ZWK COMP AVG
                                         OA1LY.2WK COMP AVG
                                         OAILY,2WK COMP AVG
                                         UAILY,2W*< COUP AVG
                                         EVERY 15 MIN
                                         EVERY 15 MIN
                                         EVERY 15
                                         tvERY 15
                                         EVERY 15 MIN
                                         EVERY 15 MIN
                                         EVERY 15 MIN
                                         EVERY 15
                                         EVERY 15
                                               15

-------
   HFPOPT NO. ;<
REF.MO,
CATEGORY
                         PROCEDURE
92.12
92.13
92.14
92.17
92.18
92.19
9?«?0
92. ?1
92. ?2
92.23
97*01
97.02
97.03
97.05
97.06
97.07
97,08
97.09
97.10
97.11
97.52
97.14
97.17
97.18
97,?i
97. ?3
97, ?6
97.27
97.?8
97.?9
97,30
97.31
97.12
97.33
97.35
150.00
153.00
154.00
155.00
156.00
158.00
160.00
1*2.00
163.00
164.00
165*00
166.00
167.00
2ol »nn
20?. 00
B01-07A
HOI-OKA
601-07A
A01-07A
CO 1-05 A
C01-07A
C01-06A
C01-06A
A01-06B
A01-08tJ
COt-078
801 -066
CO 1-078
A01-06E
A01-07B
801-07B
801»088
C05-078
COl-OfrA
C01-08B
C05-08B
&02--0.7C-
cotiilc
epi^ifs
AO l-g^7 A
C01-08C
801-07C
A01-07A
C01-06A
A01-06A
C05-06F
804-06A
B04-07C
A01-06A
A01-066
CO 1-06 A
601-06*
C07-06G
C01-02H
d01-07G
C08-026
CO 1,07 A
C01.0SA
C01.06G
U01.06A
U01.06A
801. 05G
S04.06G
AOI-OAA
A01-06H
t
C
C
C
C
C
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
:••'£
•_*.
C
c
Q
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
no6s
oofes
OOfiS
006S
0065
0065
0065
0065
OObS
0065
02*S
02*9'-'
02*5
02*5
02*5
Q2*3
92*5
02*5'
.024.^1.,
02*5
02*5
02*5,
02*S
"024S1
02*5
02*5
02*5
02*5
0?4S
024S
0245
02-45
02*5
02*5
02*5
02*5
02*5
02*5
02*5
02*5
o?.*s
02*5
02*S
02*S
02*
0245
0065
OObS

POTw REMOVAL DATA

REFERENCE INFORMATION
SAMPLING DATE
650f
6506
6506
6506
6506
6506
6506
6506
6506
6506
72D1
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
IZOl
7301
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
7201
740705
740626
740622
740621
740621
740618
740618
740617
740827
741028
741028
741028
741028
740604
740516










THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 720*
THRU 7205
TXRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
THRU 7205
740706 740707

740623
740ft22 7406?3
740622 740623
740619 7*0620


THHu 740901
THRU 741030 ,
THRU 741030
INF 741029 EFF
THRU 741031
740304
740201
REMARKS
EVERY 15 MIN
EVERY 15 MIN
EVERY 15 MIN
EVERY is MIN
EVERY 15 MIN
EVERY is MIN
EVERY 15 MIN
EVERY 15 MIN
EVERY 15 MIN
EVERY 15 MIN

























EVERY HR« AVG

AVG
AVG
AVG
AVG


AVG 5 DAILY COMP
AVG 2 DAILY COMP
AVG 2 DAILY COMP

AVG 3 DAILY COMP
AVG
AV/G
                                                                                   OATfc   5/15/7&
                     PAGE  3
 MAJOK
INDUSTRY
  PUTta
CONTROL
                                                                                          NONE
                                                                                          DYE
                                                                                          METAL  PLAT

                                                                                          PLAT,DAIRY
                                                                                          PLAT,MEAT PKG

-------
      HFPOWT KG. 3
   RFF.NO
o>
I
PKOCEUUHE
203.00
204.00
2n5.no
206. r-o
207.00
208.00
209.00
2)0.00
2] I .00
212.00
213.00
214.00
215.00
216.00
217.0Q
218.00
219.00
220.00
221.no
2?3.00
2?4.oo
225.0Q
226.00
227.00
229.no
231.00
232.00
233.00
234.00
235.00
23*. PO
237,00
238.00
239.00
240.00
241.00
242.00
243.00
245.00
246.00
248.00
250.00
251.00
25?."0
253.00
254.no
255.no
256.no
257.00
25&.00
H02-07H
AQ1-07A
A03-06A
A01-05A
801-06M
A01-06A
A01-054
901-074
A01-06D
AQ1-09A
A04-06D
B01-06H
A01-06H
A01-06H
AO]-OflC
AQ1-09U
801-06H
C01-09A
801-06A
401-08A
A01-06A
A01-08A
A01-05A
A01-06A
A01-07A
H02-06b
A01-09A
B02-06A
A.01-08A,
A01-08A
A01-06A
•302-06A
A01-06A
C05-04A
A01-05A
A01-05A
A01-01A
A01-03A
A01-01A
H02-06A
801-05A
A01-03A
BO 1-06 A
A01-05A
C01-07A
flO?-05M
rtO?-05A
C01-06W
C01-06A
i«V-0*ft
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
006S
OOfcS
006S
OObS
006S
006S
006S
006S
006$
OObS
006S
006S
<1Q6S
0065
006S
OObS
OQ6S
006S
006S
OObS
006S
006S
006S
006S
006S
OObS
006S
006S
006S
006S
006S
OO^S
OObS
006S
006S
006S
006S
OObS
006S
006S
024
024
024
0?4
0?i»
(/?*+
024
024
024
0^4


pnT*1 Ptw
*tFFRE.NC£
SAMPLING DATE
740626
740618
740108
740506
740429
740118
740327
740429
740812
740531
740207
740701
740506
740131
730927
740621
740702
740626
740401
740619
740621
740114
740604
740221
740228
740513
740809
740618
740506
740128
740424
740627
740125
740122
740201
740617
740424
740616
740301
740205
740328
740124
740220
740129
740129
740326
740220
740827
741017


730828
7403118
740208
730731
740115
740307

740221
730907

740308
730925




740114





/31220
740226


740315
731119
740227


730906
730223

740129

731220
74Q919

0709 oaoa
0820 1010
041B 0611
0620 0711
OblS 1010
0606 0827
1C22 1126

OVAL DATA
INFORMATION
REMARKS


AVG
AVG
AVG
AVG
AVG
AVG

AVG
AVG

AVG
AVG




AVG





AVG
AVG


AVG
AVG
AVG


AVG
AVG

AVG

AVG
1974 AVG

0919 AND 741008 1212AVG
121? 1974 AVG
0702 "813 0904 1001 AVG
OflOl 0813 0910 1001 AVG
1210 1974 AVG
1022 1126 1974 AVG
1974 AVG

                                                                       DATE  5/15/75
                                                                                                                    PAGE
 MAJOR
INDUSTRY
  POTW
CONTROL
                                                                                             NONE
                                                                                             NONF
                                                                                             NONE
                                                                                             NONE

-------
                            HKMOVAL DATA
                                                                      DATt  5/15/75
                                                                                      PAGE  5
2S9.nn
2ftn.no
2*3.00
2f<4.on
266.00
267.00
2*9.00
269.00
270.00
271.00
272.00
274.00
275.00
276.00
277.00
280.00
281.00
.282.0ft
283.00
2fl4.oo
2P5.00
2fl6.no
287.00
c, 288.00
1 2fl9.no
00 291.no
292.00
295.00
296,00
297.00
298.00
299.00
300.no
301.00
302.00
303.01
303. 02
304.no
305.no
306.00
307.00
308.00
309.no
310.00
311.00
312.00
313.01
313.02
314.01
' 314.02
A02-06C
A01-06A
C01-07A
401-08A
(301-07A
C01-05A
C01-05A
C01-OM
C01-05A
C01-06A
C01-09A
A01-08A
A01-07A
"01-08A
C01-07B
BO 1-04G
801- 046
A01-05G
BO 1-056
C01-06G
C01-06t>
603-060
C01-068
A01-04H
AO 1 -06G
C01-06A
A01-06G
B01-06A
C06-06A
602-03A
C06-06A
C06-07G
401-03G
B01-03A
B04-06H
C01-05G
C02-«5G
C06-06H
U06-06H
801-03G
801-036
B03-02H
C03-0«F
B01-06G
A01-07G
aoi-060
B05-06G
B02-06H
802-076
C01-0613
PROCEDURE
C
C
C
C
 C OObS
 c; oo6s
 C 006S
 C 006S
 C 006S
 C 0065
 C 006S
 c 00&S
 C 006$
   006S
   C06S
   G06S
   Q06S
 FC024S
 FC024R
 FC024S
 FC024S
 FCO?4S
 C 024S
 KC024S
 FC024S
 C 024S
 FC024S
 FC024S
 FC024S
 FC024S
 FC024S
 FC024S
 FC024S
 FCO?4S
 FC024S
FC024S
FC024S
FC024S
FC024S
C  02^5
FC024S
FC024S
FC024S
                 SAMPLING DATE
             740326
             740507
             740516
             740531
             740313
             740501
             740530
             740514
             740305
             740502
FCO?4S
740506
740513
740304
740326
720823
740708
671003
691215
740826
740430
700203
740709
740715
730102
740724
690521
750122
750213
750107
750206
750204
750116
750127
741023
740911
740911
750115
750212
741203
741217
750121
750121
750219
750128
730B13
730618
730618
730*20
7306?!
740MI

 740327
 740322

 740306
 740320
 740319

 740307
 740314
 740311
 740318
                     730103
                    THRU
                    THRU
                    THRU
                    THRU
                    THRU
    730816
    730622
    730620
    730624
    730623
AVG
AVG

AVG
AVG
AVG

AVG
AVG
AVG
                    EVERY is
                    EVERY 6  WIN
                    EVERY is MIN
                    EVCRY is MIN
                    EVERY 10 MIN

                    EVERY is MIN
                    EVERY 6 'WIN
                    EVERY is MIN
                    15  MIN,2 DAY AVG
                    EVERY 15 MIN
                    EVERY HH

                    EVERY MR
                                        EVERY -MR
                                        EVERY 3HR
                                        EVERY  HRilNF  GRAB
                                        E.VERY  HR
                                         INF BY POTw EON
                                         EVERY 2HH
                                         EVERY HR
                                         EVERY'1 HR
                                                      MAJOR
                                                     INDUSTRY
                                                               POTW
                                                             CONTROL
                                                               DAIRY
                                                               MEAT PACKING
                                                               BREWERY
                                                               NONE
                       POTATO  CHIP
                       PAINT,  OIL
                       METAL.PLASTIC
                       MET At

                       SLAUGHTER
                       DAIRY PROD
                       NONE
                       METAL
                       METAL
                       NONE
                       NONE
                       METAL

                       NONE
                       PAPER MILL
                       FOOD PROCESS
                       MFG,DAIRY
                       TEXTILE DYE
                       DAIRY-PLASTIC
                       NONE
                       ROOFING MFG.
                       PAPER-PAINT

-------
RffF .MO.
              C.  3
               CATFGOKV
                            PHUCfcUUPE
                                     POTW  REMOVAL  OAT A
                                   KtFF.KtMCt  INFORMATION

                                SAMPLING UATt
                                                                          REMARKS
                                                                                                   DATE   5/15/75
                                                                                                                    PAGE
   MAJOR
  INDUSTRY
                                                                POTW
                                                              CONTROL
31S.OO
31 6.no
3i7.on
3)8.no
319.00
320.00
3?5.no
3?6.00
326.01
327.00
327.01
3?8.
329.00
331.00
332.00
333.00
335.00
336.flO
J01-05H
C01-07G

b02-08lj
B01-06A
B01-04A
C04-06G
C06-1] A
A02-11A
A02-11A
A02-11A
A02-11A
C05-08A
601-08B
001-11A
C01-09A
B05-09G
A05-07A
B01-OAA
KCOP4S
fi    S
G    S
0 024S
G    S
G 024S
«    S
                             G
                             G
     S
     S
b    S
G    S
C 0015
6    S
730616
740122
740507
740116
740124
740402
740326
740724
740724
730924
740724
730930
740103
740822
740122
730725
740318
731211
741120
                                                 THRU
THRU
THRU
                          730620
                          740423

                          /41030
                          741003
THRU 741211
741010
741010
THRU 731007
741010
731007
THRU 741022
730726
74Q627
                                                                     a\/G

                                                                     AVG 8 SAAKPLtS
                                                                     AVG 3 SAMPLES

                                                                     AVG 4 SAMPLES
                                                                     AVG
                                                                     EVERY 4Hft,14DAY AV
                                                                     AVG
                                                                     EVERY 4HR,sOAy AVG
                                                                     AVG 7SAMPLES
                                                                     AVG
                                                                     AVG
NONE

FOOD-PHARMA
PAINT MFG
FOUNDRY
PRINTING
IRON-GLASS
MEAT PKG,PLAT
MUNITION,DYE
STEEL»POWER
PAPER MILL
WIRE
                                                                 01
                                                                 01

                                                                 03
                                                                 03
                                                                 03
                                                                 03
                                                                 03
                                                                 03
                                                                 04
                                                                 09
                                                                 04
                                                                 03
                                                                 06
                                                                 03
i
10

-------
TOT-sxLI
00556
                  ."0-/I
00560
00500      hfFSIDUt
TOTAi •  Tb
00530
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50Ar
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11 ft A
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41.37
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-------
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       !/ATrt ANALYSIS
UK SJMUL TcNEOiJS UIM
                                                                                                                       PAGE  2
3?73r Pk-tNDi JCS
4AAP n is TIL ,ic/i



0094C SULP^ff-
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00665 TOfAL
PHOSPHORUS MG/L



00610 NlTH'JGEN»
AMMOMA MG/L



00625 NITROGEN,
KjELOAHLt TnTAi MO/L



0100? TOT ARSEfvIC
AS UG/L



01027 TOT CAiJi'Il.jM
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0103& TOT CHROMIUM
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6.42
10.00
6) .05
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1<. 08
21.06
6.00
59.72
u.O
21.32
21.8S*
1.00
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.00
13. OU
25.00
n.O
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10. 9b
lH.00
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0.0
31 .4*
.32. I 'J
1S.OU
H:!.?'*
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1 h . 6 c>
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0.0
0.0
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0.0
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0.0
7.12
10.^3
0.0
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0.0
0.0
0.0
28.00
64.29
0.0
20.91
14.97
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
O.ii
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
«»«««««
1 1.00

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18.11
P2.V9
b.OO
s o . o a
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                                                                     0.0
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                                                                   30.26

                                                                     4.00
                 0.0
                 0.0
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J4.?9
32.44
11.00
b2.54
9.14
26.12
14.25
l&.OO
99.49
47.81
29.37
10.00
B5.31
7.00
40.36
26. 4«
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
13.00
75. 0 
-------
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                                !.»• ll.li)
                                            M
                                                r;0"HU5l
                                                             Ml -H/vAL  IJ* I ti ANALYSIS
                                                             ,. UK SlNULf ANf-.uiiS C.U'
Tt. COMPARISON OF RFSULTS

                  Cl
                                                                                                                         PAGK   3
                                                                                                                                          5/23/75
   71900 Tnt
   Hr,
0104?  TOT
Cli
                    U(-/L
                    Uli/L
   01097 TOT  AlUI.'ONY
                    UG/l.
   01067 TOT  NICKEL
   NI
<*  01147 TOT  SELENIUM
M                   UO/L
10
   01077 TOT SILVt.R
   AG               UG/l.
   0109? TOT  /TNC
   ZM               UG/l.
   0110? TOT  TIN
                    UG/l
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NO.
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.•F»«f.
STn.i;tv
NO.
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WIN
"fc AN
STU.OtV
NO.
M/\A
t- I IN
MFAi\i
STO.OEV
NO.
MAA
MIN
MF«M
STO.OtV
NO.
MAA
MIN
MFAN
STO.UKV
NO.
MAX
HIM
Mt-'AfM
STD.UfcV
MO.
N'ftA
Cli.
f'FAN
srn.utv
NO.
MfiA
r'l'-l
MH «\
STD.ntv
MJ.
".A A
Ml;
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H.OU
/S.'io
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31.70
34 . 1 >J
Ib.OU
77.27
0. 0
J2.54
27.12
0.0
0.0
fl.n
O.U
0.0
14. OU
92. 19
o.o
9.84
25.43
0.0
0.0
O.U
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
12.00
^.6.67
O.U
37.33
21.9*
(1.0
0.0
o.o
O.U
o.o
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SO. 44
*i.»V
«"4.Uh
7.'U)
7S.Od
0.0
?6.> J
30.51
Id. 00
46. HH
0.0
13.17
lb.84
0.0
0.0
O.U
O.U
O.U
8.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
«»«»«*«
0.0
0.0
O.U
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.u
O.U
O.U
o.o
14.00
68. 7b
0.0
19. 70
19.27
0.0
0.0
O.U
o.o
o.o
22.00
56. 4J
0.0
l"t,^v
                                                 1 H . t) M
M .b*
U.O
30.9 .1
r-6.1Sl
19.00
9b.2J
lh.67
b4.4W
23.7V
0.0
0.0
U.O
0.0
0.0
11.00
86.39
U.O
19. 9b
25.61
0.0
0.0
0.0
U.O
U.O
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
19.00
87.8'-
0.0
47.7*
24.34
0.0
0.0
U.O
U.O
0 . 0
3.00
76. 7*
7 0 . f> 1
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bti. 1 3
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7. no
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49. 57
33.46
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.00
0.0
0.0
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0.0
U.O
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
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0.0
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70.42
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42. Ob
lb.54
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0.0
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11.4*
17.00
99.58
n.o
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30.20
25.00
92.31
14.29
63.10
P2.54
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22.00
60.00
0.0
21.67
24.39
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
27.00
99.29
0.0
62.87
27.13
1 .00
0.0
n.o
o.o
0.00
4.00
«7.78
70.90
7fl.07
7.04
1.00
81.25
81.25
81.25
0.00
5.00
64.29
25.00
46.52
16.93
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.00
66.67
52.94
59.80
9.71
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.00
74.07
41.94
64.12
15.10

-------
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 AL                 ijfi/
                                                               KrMUVAL ilftlA ANALYSIS
                                                               6  riK SlMML UNEUHS
                                                                                            Tt ,  COMPARISON OF  RESULTS
                                                                                                                             PAGE
                                                                                                                                           5/23/75
 01045 TOT  IPUI
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56. 71
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63.64
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30.49
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0.0
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69.23
9.09
43.66
21.00
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23.00
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5.00
76.24
3b.43
60.40
22. OS
5.00
60.00
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29. 4b
30.02
4.00
66.67
0.0
35.41)
27.47
1.00
14.61
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0.0
0.0
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3.00
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46.6 '
63.39
21.40
3.0"
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0.0
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75.00
66.67
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                                                                         0.0
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                                                                                                              Cl
                                                                                                         24
2.00
31.03
0.0
15.52
21.94
IS. 00
97.67
7.70
59.73
29.85
4.00
42.06
3.33
1R.83
17.63
4.00
98. 21
n.o
54.86
44.76
6.00
93.52
33.76
63.70
24.53
4.00
54.39
0.0
13.57
27.14
9.00
94.60
14.49
61.30
27.71
2.00
49.15
43.42
46.29
4.05
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.00
97.50
42.66
77.79
30.34
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0,0
0.0
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85.71
76.92
81.81
4.09
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.00
S7.50
12.50
56.09
28.97

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20. 6h
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??."*••):, i it.  CUM^AHISON OF RESULTS
                                                                                                                   PAGE   5
                                                                                                                         5/23/75
2<«
o.O
0.0
u.o
o.o
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9.00
65.67
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22.61
28.92
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0.0
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*******
9.00
55.56
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12.23
24.28
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57.14
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23.69
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37.57
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2.04
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63.64
2.33
38.43
22.45
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61.33
34.02
52.29
12.76

-------
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42.00
91.U9
16.79
51.55
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30.91
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81.77
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75.76
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34.38
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30,61
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14.00
87.20
37.33
68.15
14.49

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95.40
48.20
79.75
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88.49
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66.57
38.?6

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 0.0

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 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

20.00
63.91
 7.44
32.46
15.96

41.00
98.54
33.33
77.35
19.58

41.00
97.58
51.22
85.20
11.73

20.00
92.86
23.70
71.28
17.21

  1.00
91.72
91.72
91.72
  0.00

  6.00
93.35
52.34
77.6?
15.74
                                                                                                         OTMtH  C
 2.00
92.86
51,69
72.27
29.11

 3.00
90.00
84.00
87.J7
 3.01

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

12.00
31.72
 5.11
16.84
 9.32

29.00
98.54
 8.57
75.15
23.21

30.00
99.22
17.86
83.38
18.47

13.00
93.52
74.83
84.77
 6.OB

 2.00
94.81
72.13
83.47
16.04

 4.00
83.89
64.58
74.21
 8.02
                                                                                                                              5/23/75
MISCID.J)

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

    1.00
   68.89
   88.89
   88.89
    0.00

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

    2.00
   46.02
   21.78
   33.90
   17.14

    9.00
   97.94
   59.66
   87.98
   12.68

    9.00
   98.46
   71.77
   91.15
    9.22

    5.00
   86.88
   63.70
   72.43
    9.?9

    1.00
   89.63
   89.63
   89.63
    0.00

    2.00
   91.93
   89.33
   90.63
    1.84

-------
(PAWAVf- TFUS C
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18.00
66.67
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8.00
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38.57
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9.72
50.44
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32.00
98.00
3.79
42.58
30.24
10.00
91.67
10.71
37.00
25.89
1.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
0.00
19.00
80.00
0.0
15.08
27.32
?7.00
98.33
0.0
60.15
32.23
29.00
95.00
0.0
42.96
32.83
j i ncn ^
10.00
96,05
69.23
84.68
9.57
7.00
64.58
0.0
11.52
23.63
19.00
90.60
0.0
40.79
27.87
22.00
99.70
9.76
60.50
31.57
8.00
93.60
4.55
53.62
. 33.40
6.00
60.00
0.0
19.72
30.56
29.00
87.69
0.0
15.56
25.88
33.00
92.31
0.0
37.43
32.13
28.00
90.65
0.0
36.31
31.99
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4.00
89.47
0.0
64.69
43.22
1.00
60.69
60.69
60.69
0.00
5.00
69.74
20.91
42.34
20.16
7.00
97.00
0.0
70.19
37.25
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.00
50.00
0.0
16.00
23.02
6.00
77.01
0.0
37.72
36.95
8.00
93.33
6.25
43.35
32.46

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32.00

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14.29
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22.14
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9.H7
DATA ANALYSIS HY PLANT
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bO.OO
O.U
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21.60
20.00
85.00
20.00
51.53
20.90
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0.0
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0.0
0.0
19.00
96.67
0.0
27.01
30.37
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
2.00
33.33
0.0
16.67
23.57
27.00
92.50
0.0
48.68
23.8?
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
16.00
82.84
8.08
60.38
19.69

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19.00
99.se
0.0
50.55
30.44
35.00
95.16
14.29
61.23
22.64
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
26.00
80.00
0.0
22.06
23.41
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
34.00
99.29
0.0
63.93
25.38
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
8.00
87.78
41. 9<*
71.10
13.21
                                                                                                             PAfcE  3
                                                                                                            OTHtR C
  19.00
  71.43
   0.0
  25.02
  27.33

  35.00
  92.86
   0.0
  56.39
  25.53

   1.00
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.00

  28.00
  76.35
   0.0
  24.56
  23.90

   3.00
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
«•»*•**

   1.00
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.00

  32.00
  91.67
   0.0
  52.60
  24.29

   3.00
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
««*«««•

   8.00
  89.36
  60.23
  78.70
  10.17
   5/23/75
HISC(O.J)

    4.00
   50.00
    0.0
   Z0.83
   25.00

    7.00
   95.83
   50.97
   77.81
   15.05

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

    5.00
   44*83
    0.0
   23.85
   22.58

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.6
    0.0

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

    5.00
   91.67
   37.41
   74.72
   21.55

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

    2.00
   75.1?
   57.50
   66.31
   12.46

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  0.0
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  0.0

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  0.0
  0.0

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 0.0
 0.0
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30.30
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75.00
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28.19

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14.81
14.HI
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23.09
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 B9.58
 75.00

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 89.83
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 50.44
 ?7.70

 13.00
 71.95
  6.63
 30.74
 20.87

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  6.54
  6.54
  6.54
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  2.00
 89.27
 71.65
 80.46
 12.46

  1.00
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.00

 3.00
65.93
 11.76
36.67
27.34

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
                                               4.00

                                               0.0
                                               13.04
                                               11.49
 Cl

  3.00
 31.03
  0.0
 15.90
 15.53

 20.00
 97.67
  7.70
 63.92
 28.48

  6.00
 42.86
  3.33
 25.45
 17.18

  5.00
 98.21
  0.0
 59.94
 40.41

  6.00
 93.52
 33.76
 63.70
 24.52

  4.00
 54.29
  0.0
 13.57
 27.14

 13.60
 94.60
 14.49
 67.61
 24.76

  2.00
49.15
43.42
46.29
 4.05

  7.00
87.50
12.50
56.09
2B.97
                                                                                                                PAW
                                                                                                               OTHER C
                                                                                                                                     5/?3/75
                                                                                                                                  MISC(D.J)
7.00
94.22
0.0
46.57
32.71
19.00
97.73
10.00
65.82
24.86
14.00
93.46
0.0
44.88
34.30
6.00
86.57
0.0
18.59
34.77
3.00
83.33
38.24
58.12
23.02
10.00
75.00
0.0
14.42
30.44
2.00
72.16
23.91
48.04
34.12
1.00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
1.00
66.67
66.67
66.67
0.00
3*00
97.87
0.0
55.54
50.26
8.00
97.67
17.91
81.41
27.37
6.00
90.91
22.47
54.12
26.13
4.00
93.90
0.0
28.74
44.56
1.00
88.85
88.85
88.85
0.00
3.00
0.0
0.6
0.0
*«•««*•
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0*0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

-------
 Of'M'-^f . i^.t
NdTt : "jH'Miv-  •••<•'•,/a i.1  »uci-
                                                                   Ktr"'tfAL '.)ATA ANALYSIS MY PLANT
                                                                                                             PAOt  5
                                                                               OTMtW
             C(-'  DISSOLVFD  WG/L AS MN     MAX
                         STD.DKV

                         NO. POT*
          .U  MG/L AS HO    MAX
                           MIN
                          Mf- AN
   70507      TOT  OHTHU-   NO.PUTW
   PHOSPHATE        MG/L
                         STO.UEV
             TOT  CAHaON   NO.POTw
             MG/L AS  C      MAX
                                   •'H.dd
                                   •'It. *<-•
                         sru.UEv
                                      0.0
                                     SO. 00
                                      0.0
                                  31.0')
                                  
-------
  NOTt !
                                                                  KhM"VAL OATA ANALYSIS bY PLANT
                                                                                                         PAGE
                                                                                                                                5/83/75
  v
  006SO     TOTAL
  PHOSPHATf
  00671
  ORTHnpHOSPHf. Tt  Mti/L
                        MAX
                        MIN
                       wfAN
                      «?TI:.UEV
01037
01007
            COBALT, TOT  IN
            UG/L AS CO    MAX
                          NlfM
                        STO.DEV
            6AKTUM»TOT  N
            OG/L AS BA    MAX
                          M [iv
                        STU.utV
 2.00
f-0.00
 7.B^
13.95
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

 1.00
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.00
 1.00
?ft.H7
P6.87
?fe.87
 o.no

 o".o
 o.o
 o.o
 0.0
 0.0

 2.00
60.00
 0.0
30.00
43.43

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
                                                                  b.OO
                                                                 53. b7
                                                                  1.35
 3.00
50.59
 2.17
24.13
24. S?

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 6.00
69.33
 0.0
25.47
25.01

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

 1.00
54.55
54.55
54.55
 0.00
Cl

 7.00
63.16
16.98
32.54
16.62

 2.00
96.60
84.21
90.51
 8.90

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
                                                                                                          OTHER  C
   1.00
  89.53
  89.52
  89.52
   0.00

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

   2.00
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
««*««•«

   1.00
  14.71
  14.71
  14.71
   0.00
MISC(D.J)

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

    0.0
    0.0
    o.o
    0.0
    0.0

    0.0
    0.0
    o.o
    0.0
    0.0

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
I
to

-------
                                     (A)
                                                         0^  MOT* *tkUVAL  DATA
                                                   TRICKLING
                                                    FILTtW
                                                   •CTIVATEU
                                                     SLOUGE
                                                      (C)
                               BIOLOGICAL
                                 PLANTS
                                   (B»C)
                                                                      PAGE  1

                                                                SECONDARY

                                                                  PLANTS
                                          6/ 6/TS

                                TOTAL ALL PLANTS

                                  (A*B«C*OTHCft)
005*0
TpT-SXLT        MO/I
0055*     OIL-OREASF
SEP-FUNNEL
00560     OIL-GKtASE
INFRARED
00500     HFSIUUF
TOTAl., TS       MG/L
00530     RFSIDljt
TOT NFLT. S?    MG/l.
00310
5DAY
          BOO
MG/L
00340     CPU
MI LFVEL
00335     COU
LOW LEVEL
  MA*
  V T • 4
 "EAN
STO.oEV


NO.POI*
  MAX
 MEAN
sTn.uev

NO.PUT*
  MA«
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.OEV

NC.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.OEV

NO.port*
  MAX

 MEAN
STD.DEV

MO.PUTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STO.OEV
                        MAH.
       MEAN
      STD.OEV

      NO.POT*
        MAX
 •j.i'OOO

U.3000
                    0 . 0
                    o.o
                    0.0
                    0.0
                    O.'i

                    o.o
                    U.O
                    II. 0
                    U.O
                    0.0
4-4.H193
 0.1980
17.9075
lH.1806

4?.!,000
91.HV19
lh.7883
51.' 116
1 /.9246

52.'1000
86.7006
 0.0
30.2367
21.7091

is.noon
81.f7?1
                       MEAN
                      STO.OEV
             2V.4072
             22.9731

              1.0000
             19.3925
             19.3925
             19.3925
              0.0000
 5.0000
73.840 /
22.000'!
S1.8H51
21.7001

 1.0000
95.500"
95.5000
95.5000
 0.0000

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

41.0000
63.3333
 0.6211
26.9446
14.4746

66.0000
97.421?
19.7183
74.6986
19.1476

60.000(1
96.4602
 4.7619
77.4453
17.7546

27,0001''
93.323?
34.3750
68.5252
15.130?

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
                                                     4.nnoo
                                                    »H.«»852
                                                     9.2P7?
                                3R.2612

                                 3.0000
                                90.0000
                                84.0000
                                87.1667
                                 3.0156

                                 0.0
                                 0.0
                                 0.0
                                 0.0
                                 0.0

                                29.0000
                                63.9134
                                 5.1095
                                27.0552
                                16.41S9

                                62.0000
                                9B.5437
                                 8.5714
                                75.1669
                                21.7615

                                65.0000
                                99.2188
                                17.8571
                                81.8410
                                15.2908

                                27.0000
                                92.8571
                                23.7037
                                74.16*1
                                15.7923

                                 3.0000
                                94.8148
                                72.1311
                                86.2233
                                1?.3027
  9.0000
 88.485?
  9.2872
 58.4111
 29.0570

  4.0000
 95.5000
 84.0000
 89.2500
  4.8379

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

 70.0000
 63.9134
  0.6211
 26.9904
 15.1925

128.0000
 98.5437
  8.5714
 74.9249
 20.3787

125.0000
 99.21R8
  4.7619
 80.7705
 16.7645

 54.0000
 93.3232
 23.7037
 71.3447
 15.5823

  3.0000
 94.8148
 72.1311
 86.2233
 12.30?8
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

 1.0000
90.0000
90.0000
90.0000
 0.0000

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

 9.0000
52.2388
 5.4616
24.8250
14.3667

31 .0000
98.5437
87.3134
93.5479
 3.2612

31.0000
98.3193
85.4430
93.1482
 4.1688

15.0000
93.0295
23.7037
79.2360
18.1649

 2.0000
94.8148
91.7241
93.2695
 ?.1893
 17.0000
 92.8571
  9.2873
 56.3845
 28.4696

  5.0000
 95.5000
 84.0000
 89.1777
  4.1947

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

102.0000
 63.9134
  0.0
 24.7855
 15.5400

200.0000
 98.5437
  8.5714
 69.8022
 22.1670

199.0000
 99.2188
  0.0
 67.7471
 29.1271

 84.0000
 93.5206
  4.6835
 64.3905
 23.6339

  5.0000
 94.8148
 19.3925
 73.5384
 31.5282
NOTE?:
1)  NEGATIVE RFMQVALS  DELETED
2)  PRIMARY  (A)  INCLUDES  A01.A02
3)  TRICKLING  FlLTE^  tm  I'^'CIUCKS  HOI ,riti2,B04,H05
4)  ATTlVATEO  SLuOGt  (C)  INCLUOKS  C"1.Cuif .C05.C06.C09.C1V,C?0
5)  SFCONOftHY  PLANTS  A*E  TH'JSE  hKl.-OiC'.L  PLANTS WITH  F»LHtNT  bUD-S  AND  SS  LFSS  THAN  OH EQUAL  TO  30MG/L
                 HAN  OR tCl|*L  f"  M«i>  «t ")VAL  FOk HOTH  PAHA^ETtWS

-------
 REPORT (MO.

/PARAMETERS
V
CaTEGrw
                                     (A)
                            SUMMARY OF POTW REMOVAL  DATA
THICKLING
 FILTER
                                              ACTIVATED
                                                SLUC1GE
BIOLOGICAL
  PLANTS
   (8*0
      PAGE  a
SECONDARY
  PLANTS
          6/ 6/75
TOTAL ALL PLANTS
 
0034? SEA COD
SALINE MG/L



3273P PHENOLICS
4AAP DISTIL _ UG/L



00945 SULFATE
MG/L



00665 TOTAL
PHOSPHORUS MG/L


o>
t
fo
w oo6in NITROGEN,
AMMOMA MG/L



0062* NITROGEN,
KjELOAHL, TOTAL MG/L



NO.P'JTw
MAX
MJN
MEAN
STD.DEV
t^O.POTw
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
r,o.porw
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEV
IVO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV


N'O.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
2.0000
W.392B
0.0
9.6963
13.7126
^.0000
5U.OOOO
25.0000
37.5000
17.6776
13.0000
57.8947
0.0
9.8780
17.1409
7.0000
24.299)
U.O
13.2186
8.1411


42.0000
64.2857
0.0
19,7504
16.0708
7.0000
59.722?
0.0
21.7594
20.0055
                                                    9.0000
                                                   95.3^64
                                                   48.1967
                                                   76.8786
                                                   15.2534

                                                   12.0000
                                                   85.0000
                                                    0.0
                                                   50.4891
                                                   28.0577

                                                   10.0000
                                                   79.742?
                                                    2.8000
                                                   28.3498
                                                   21.3001

                                                   24.0000
                                                   99.4185
                                                    0.0
                                                   25.6007
                                                   21.9699

                                                   48.0000
                                                   99.4941
                                                    0.0
                                                   41.0735
                                                   29.8591

                                                   20.0000
                                                   93.6842
                                                    7.0000
                                                   49.9227
                                                   27.3765
                                               10.0000
                                               93.3511
                                               52.3416
                                               76.2544
                                               12.7352

                                               16.0000
                                               98.2609
                                                0.0
                                               69.1646
                                               31.2366

                                               13.0000
                                               38.5714
                                                0*0
                                               11.8723
                                               12.0523

                                               36.0000
                                               92.3077
                                                0.0
                                               41.9167
                                               24.9894

                                               47.0000
                                               99.7015
                                                3.7879
                                               48.7321
                                               31.3228

                                               11.0000
                                               91.6667
                                                4.5455
                                               34.0453
                                               26.4399
                                 19.0000
                                 95.3964
                                 48.1967
                                 76.5501
                                 13.5864

                                 28.0000
                                 98.2609
                                  0.0
                                 61.1608
                                 30.8442

                                 23.0000
                                 79.7422
                                  0.0
                                 19.0364
                                 18.2918

                                 60.0000
                                 99.4185
                                  0.0
                                 35.3903
                                 24.9716

                                 95.0000
                                 99.7015
                                  0.0
                                 44.8624
                                 30.6713

                                 31.0000
                                 93.6842
                                  4.5455
                                 44.2887
                                 27.7004
                  3.0000
                 93.3511
                 87.0886
                 89.1760
                  3.6164

                  7.0000
                 96.0526
                  0.0
                 64.9988
                 42.4991

                  4.0000
                 25.4237
                  2.2989
                 14.7034
                 10.8557

                 18.0000
                 92.3077
                  6.5367
                 47.4827
                 27,1234

                 26.0000
                 99.7015
                  3.7879
                 65.3043
                 33.9926

                  3.0000
                 91.6667
                 36.3636
                 71.1143
                 30.2623
                 24.0000
                 95.3964
                  0.0
                 72.4863
                 23.3288

                 37.0000
                 98.2609
                  0.0
                 61.3401
                 30.5589

                 41.0000
                 79.7422
                  0.0
                 17.2660
                 20.1632

                 81.0000
                 99.4185
                  0.0
                 37.8046
                 26.2613

                157.0000
                 99.7015
                  0.0
                 39.9600
                 31.1176

                 47.0000
                 93.6842
                  0.0
                 44.3923
                 28.6991
NOTEcf
i) NEGATIVE REMOVALS
2) PRIMARY (A) INCLUDES A01.A02
3) TRICKLING FlLTEH IB) INCLUDES 301,602.«04,BOS
4) ACTlVATEH SLUOGt (C) IMCLUDtS C01,C02,C05,C06,C09,C19,C20
5) SFCOMOARY PLANTS APE THOSE BIuLOGlCnL PLANTS WITH EFFLUENT BOD-S AND SS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 30MG/L
   AMD GRFATER THAiM OP EQUAL TO 85* KEMOVAL FOR BOTH PAHAwtTERS

-------
                                     (4)
                                                    HI Tt.W
                                                      (H)
                                                         IH  POT* Kfc MIVAL  DATA
                                                                   ftCTlVATEO
                                                                    SLUOGE
                                                                      (C)
                                                                                   BIOLOGICAL
                                                                                     PLANTS
                                                                                      (B*C)
      PAGE  3

SECONDARY

  PLANTS
                                                                                                                              6/ 6/75

                                                                                                                    TOTAL ALL PLANTS

                                                                                                                     (A»B»C*OTHER)
oioo? TOT
01027 TOT CftUMluM
CO              UG/L
01034 TOT
CR
0105) TOT LFAfl
PR
                        M/ X
                        MTU

7)900 TOT MFKCUPY
HG
0104? TOT CfiPPFP
Cil
01097 TOT
                      STO.'JLV
                        MAX
                                    1. '1000
                                    (1 .11
                                    U.ii
                                    O.I)
                                    u.
                                    31.0000
                                                     3.0001.



[UM
UG/L




UG/L



= Y
UG/L



l
UG/L




UG/L



MJN
MEAN
STO.UEV
NO. POT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
No.porw
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
NO.por*
"A*
MI IN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.PUTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEV
NO. PUT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEV
U.c
H.?248
17.2113
30.0000
80.0000
0.0
26. d!59
20.1279
34.MOOO
Btt.^353
O.D
24. 1034
26.3064
21.0000
7b.OOOO
U.i;
20.9503
20.6170
44.1.000
7/.?727
0.0
25.5771
24.0147
O.fi
(i . n
0.0
0.0
0.0
                                                     0.0
                                                    11.1111
                                                    19.2451'

                                                    IS.OOOi'
                                                    0.0
                                                   19.8551
                                                   24.9946

                                                   4ft.OOOP
                                                   98.9412
                                                    0.0
                                                   37.6953
                                                   30.H6SW

                                                   41.0000
                                                   93.4193
                                                    0.0
                                                   37.0009
                                                   31.2869

                                                   20.0000
                                                    0.0
                                                   30.3073
                                                   23.4209

                                                   49.0000
                                                   95.2294
                                                    0.0
                                                   54.l9ftfl
                                                   24.2583

                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
 5.0QOO
60.0000
 0.0
24.0000
32.8634

44.0000
H7.6923
 0.0
16.7704
26.9183

54.0000
9R.3333
 0.0
46.3708
33.9051

49.0000
95.0000
 0.0
>8.5565
32.2960

34.0000
99.5833
 0.0
38.7528
32.1854

63.0000
95.1613
 0.0
57.1917
24.2747

 o.n
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
  8.0000
 60.0000
  0.0
 19.1667
 27.7030

 79.0000
 87.6923
  0.0
 18.1370
 25.9644

102.0000
 98.9412
  0.0
 42.2882
 32.3797

 90.0000
 95.0000
  0.0
 37.8478
 31.6716

 54.0000
 99.5833
  0.0
 35.6248
 29.3016

112.0000
 95.2294
  0.0
 55.8810
 24.2045

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  2.0000
 60.0000
  0.0
 30.0000
 42.4264

 11.0000
 53.8461
  0.0
  9.6497
 21.4719

 20.0000
 98.3333
  0.0
 52.4383
 39.3630

 19.0000
 95.0000
  0.0
 45.9701
 35.3599

 14.0000
 81.2500
  0.0
 49.2762
 21.4477

 22.0000
 92.3077
  0.0
 69,2626
 22.6787

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
                                                                                                                     12.0000
                                                                                                                     60.0000
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                     20.4167
                                                                                                                     26.6678

                                                                                                                    122.0000
                                                                                                                     87.6923
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                     15.1049
                                                                                                                     24.1799

                                                                                                                    154.0000
                                                                                                                     98.9412
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                     38.7910
                                                                                                                     31.8146

                                                                                                                    145.0000
                                                                                                                     95.0000
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                     34.2641
                                                                                                                     31.0457

                                                                                                                     86.0000
                                                                                                                     99.5833
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                     32.5740
                                                                                                                     28.5871

                                                                                                                    172.0000
                                                                                                                     95.8333
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                     49.5492
                                                                                                                     27.8885

                                                                                                                      1.0000
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                                                      0.0000
010>-7 TOT MCKF|       N'(
NT              UG/L    MAX

                       MEAN
                      STO.JtV
                                   92.1875
                                     0.0
                                     6.^990
                                                   32.0000
                                                   86.3B55
                                                    0.0
                                                   21.4&4H
                                                   ?3.962b
49.UOOO
80.0000
 0.0
20.4195
21.3254
 81.0000
 86.3855
  0.0
 20.8404
 22.2630
                                                                                                    16.0000
                                                                                                    37.5000
                                                                                                     0.0
                                                                                                     8.9410
                                                                                                    14.6326
                124.0000
                 96.6667
                  0.0
                 19.6489
                 24.7609
Non <-:
1) ivFGATlVt KtMOVALS ntLtTt.D
2)
3)
           (A)  INCLUDES A01.A02
   TPICKLIMG FHTE* (HI
4) ArTIvATt'-
5)
                                  rioi,H.-i2,rio4,eob
              SLMUGt  (C)  INCL'JCLS  CD 1 ,C V ,CH5 .COfe , C09 , C 19,020
              PLAMTb  AMt  THUSc"  hlUL'XjiOL  PLANTS WITH  F.FKUtM  MOIJ-s AND SS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 30MG/L
             hW IHfl'.  Ilk  F'JI'.'U  TO «s*  Ht-'/Mu&l  Fdw nnT-1  Pfik A ,**• TF W<^

-------
                    CAIF-
                                     (A)
                                                 SUM>'A»«Y Of
                                                    KILTtR
                                                    •  (H)
                                                                   *E'-iOVAL   DATA

                                                                      ACTIVATED
                                                                        SLUDGE
                                                                                    BIOLOGICAL
                                                                                      PLANTS
                                                                                       (B + C)
      PAOE

SECONDARY

  PLANTS
            6/ 6/75

  TOTAL ALL PLANTS

   -
                UG/i.    'tax
01077 TOT SILVER
AR              IIG/I.
                         STD.OtV

                         NO.POT*
                           t*AX
                           MJN
                          f F.AN
                         STD.OEV

                         NC.POTw
                           wax
                           MTN
                          MEAN
                         STD.UEV
                           Max
                           MIlN
                          MEAN
                         STO.QEV

I
01 OOfHn TOT ORO  CBWBUN'   NO.PUfin
  TOTflL.TOC        MG/L     MAX
                           WIN
                          MEAN
                         STD.OEV
 U. it
 0 . .1
 I.I . '.'!

 'J.O

 O.o
 u.o
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

3-i.iOOO
 O.o
31."493
22.9848

 0.0
 O.D
 O.d
 0.0
 0.0

3U.OOOO
5^.4270
 0.0
23.9512
17.8074
                                                     0.0,
                                                     0.0
                                                     0.0
                                                     0.0
                                                     0.0

                                                     1.0000
                                                    J3.3333
                                                    33.3333
                                                    33.3333
                                                     0.0000

                                                    52.0000
                                                     0.0
                                                    46.2715
                                                    22.098*

                                                     0.0
                                                     0.0
                                                     0.0
                                                     0.0
                                                     0.0

                                                    23.0000
    2.0000
    0.0
    n.o
    0.0
««•»««*»«•««

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

   58.0000
                                                     8.0824
                                                    63.5019
                                                    17.7721
    0.0
   58.3914
   25.1160

    3.0000
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
«*««*»»«««

   13.0000
   89.3617
   41.9355
   73.1626
   12.2421
                                                                                        ?.oooo
                                                                                        0.0
                                                                                        0.0
                                                                                        0.0
  1.0000
 33.3333
 33.3333
 33.3333
  0.0000

110.0000
 99.2857
  0.0
 52.6615
 24.4006

  3.0000
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
 36.0000
 89.3617
  8.0824
 66.9904
 16.4939
  1.0000
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0000

  O.P
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

 19.0000
 99.2857
 42.1053
 71.3264
 14.9530

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

  8.0000
 89.3617
 72.0779
 79.1304
  6.8380
    5.0000
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
»««*«»*««•

    3.0000
   33.3333
    0.0
   11.1111
   19.2450

  167.0000
   99.2857
    0.0
   48.8794
   26.4544

    5.0000
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
»*«*«*•««*

   75.0000
   89.3617
    0.0
   49*1584
   27.4015
1) NEGATIVE REMOVALS DELfcTfcQ
2) PRIMARY  U) INCLUDES  A01.A02
3) TRICKLING FILTER  (8)  INCLUDES  HO 1.80?,804,805
4) ACTIVATED SLUOGE  (C)  INCLUOf-S  CO 1,C02.C05,C06,C09,C19,C20
5) SECONDARY PLANTS  ARE  THOSE  BIOLOGICAL PLANTS WITH EEFLU6.NT BOD-'a AND  SS  LESS  THAN OR EQUAL TO 30MG/L
       GKFATER THAIX<  Orf EfJllAL  TO 8S*  KE^OVAL fQK BOTH PARAMETERS

-------
        NO.*
                                     M MY
                                     (A)
                                                    ^ ILTtM
                                                      (H)
                                                         ()»•  I'OT* KK"«UVAL  DATA
ACTIVATED
  SLUDGE
   (C)
WIOLOGICAL
  PLANTS
   (8*C>
      PAGE.  S

SECONDARY

  PLANTS
          6/ 6/T5

TOTAL ALL PLANTS

  3P26P
CYANIOE.
      MG/L
          MRAS
                MG/I
                         STO.UEV

  01055  TOI  MflNGANESt    NO.PuTx
  MN               UG/i.     MAX
                           MIN
                          MFAIM
                         STU.UEV
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STO.UEV
                           MAX
                           MIN
                          MEAN
                         STO.UEV
                         10.4696
                         10.6696
                          U.OOOO

                         2/.I-000
                         8W.8889
                          0.0

                         22.0123

                         16.0000
                         81.2500
                          o.n
2U.4798

 l.OPOO
 U.n
 U.n
 0.0
 0.0000

 1.1)000
9U.H602
10.6667
34.3356
37.B509
                                                     o.o
                                                    59.4670
                                                    38.7336

                                                    30.0000
                                                    69.8337
                                                     0.0
                                                    49.6736
                                                    25.774S

                                                    21.0000
                                                     0.0
                                                    31.1776
                                                    23.3465

                                                     4.0000
                                                    HO. 0000
                                                     0.0
                                                    21.6355
                                                    39.0317
                                                    35.4JO&
                                                    66.1342
                                                    21.1106
  9.noon
 HO. /t.
-------
/PARftMETEPS         CA1FBO«>
V                   	3
0101?     HFXAVALE'-'T  NO.POTW
CHROMIUM, UG/L AS C4    Mfl*
                        MTN
                       MEAN
                      STO.DEV

                      NO.POT*
                        MAX
                        MIN
                       MEAN
                      STU.OEV

                      NO.PUT1*
                        MAX
0060S     NITROGEN,
ORGANIC         MG/L
0066*     DISSOLVED
PHOSPHORUS      *G/L
0104T     COPPER,
DISSOLVFD MG/I  «5
 0109n      ZINC»
 DISSOLVFD  MG/L  AS  ZN
 01030      CHROMIUM,
 DISSOLVED MG/L AS c*
 0104Q     LFAO,
 DISSOLVED MG/L AS
                        MEAN
                       STO.OEV

                       NO.PUT*
                         MAX

                        MEAN
                       STD.OEV

                       NO.POT'*
                         MAX
                         MIN
                        MEAN
                       STD.OEV

                       NO.POTW
                        MEAN
                       STD.DEV

                       NO.POTrt
                         MAX
                                  P H i M .1W Y


                                    (A)
                                    -Uoooo
                                    o.o
                                    0.0
                                    u.o
                                    1 U . 0 0 0 0
                        MEAN
                       STD.OEV
 1.1696
39.7083
23.5323

 1.0000
 0.0
 O.O
 0.0
 0.0000

23.n()00
6b.uOOO
 0.0
16.7356
17.0688

21.0000
71.4286
 0.0
?5.3454
1 d . 1713

2ci.OOOO
80.6452
 0.0
15.5886
22.9236

31.0000
66.6667
 0.0
10.2150
21.8061
TRICKLING
FILTER
(8)
Ki.OOOO
60.0000
0.0
24.5454
29.424?
&.ooon
75.0000
0.0
47.6869
25.4775
1.0000
14.8148
14.8148
14.8148
0.0000
10.0000
62.5000
0.0
27.5574
22.2836
7.0000
60.0000
0.0
39.9350
20.9625
10.0000
88.8889
0.0
18.8889
32,2030
10.0000
90.0000
0.0
24,8333
35.2281
ACTIVATED
SLUD6E
(C)
13.0000
75.0000
0.0
15.2705
29.3448
15.0000
94.6000
14.4928
65.0046
25.6135
3.0000
49.1525
0.0
30.8578
26,8769
R.OOOO
87.5000
12.5000
57.4091
27.0812
7.0000
H7.5000
14.2857"
53.6482
31.8898
10.0000
65.6716
0.0
20.3526
28.1859
10.0000
0.0
0.0
0.0
«*«»«»»**«
                                                                                   BIOLOGICAL
                                                                                     PLANTS
                                                                                       (B*C)
19.0000
75.0000
 0.0
18,1994
28.8824

23.0000
94.6000
 0.0
58.9810
26.3655

 4.0000
49.1525
 0.0
26.8471
23.3650

18.0000
87.5000
 0.0
40,8248
28.2462

14.0000
87.5000
 0>0
46.7916
26,8851

20.0000
88.8889
 0.0
19.6207
29.4636

20.0000
90.0000
 0.0
12.4167
27.3886
               SECONDARY
                 PLANTS
    5.0000
    o.n
    o.o
    0,0
«»«««*««»*

    5.0000
   94.6000
   58.9743
   80.9077
   15.0376

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

    6.0000
   87.5000
   25.0000
   65.3521
   22.0187

    4.0000
   87.5000
   45.4545
   69.9053
   20.7082

    6.0000
   88.8889
    0.0
   33.4046
   38.7118

    6,0000
   50.0000
    0.0
   13.8889
   22.1527
                  TOTAL ALL PLANTS

                    ) INCLUDES Hi) 1 » Bi>2 , t)04 ,805
 4) /TTIVATFH SLUOGt (C) INCLUDES C<. 1 , CU2,C05 ,C06 ,
 5) SFCONuIrtY PLANTS ^ THOSE btOLi'fiJCM. PLANTS  WITH EKfLOENT POO-b  AND  SS  LESS  THAN  OK  EQUAL  TO  30MG/L
    £"0 GKFATtR THAN CM FQUAL TO MS* KK'J0\/AL FON  MOTH PAKACE1ERS

-------
        r,0.«-
                    CM*- (
                                    (A)
                                                        Of HOT* REMOVAL  DATA
THICKLlNG
 FILTER
   (H)
1CTIVATEU
  SLUDGE
   (C)
BIOLOGICAL
  PLANTS
   (B*C)
      PAGE  7

SECONDARY

  PLANTS
          6/ 6/75

TOTAL ALL PLANTS

 (A»B»OOTHER)
0 1 0 ti ^ M 0 K F L «
DISS°LVFH MP/L AS f!I



0)0?c; CM)MIUM,
DISSOLVED M;/I. AS Co



0105* MfsNGANESt. •
DISSOLVED MG/L AS MN



7]89n MfHCURYi
DISSOLVED MG/L AS. HG



70507 TOT ORTHO-
PHOSPHATE MG/L



oo*9n TOT CARBON
MG/L AS c



NO. PUT..
MAX
w T N
MEAN
STO.UEV
NO.PUTx
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.DtV
NO.PUTw
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTt*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
•STD.DEV
NO.POTK
Max
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
c'^.nOOO
SO. 0000
O.ll
<«.M887
li.^HOS
31.0000
2b.OOOO
O.U
0.0065
4.4901
IM.OOOO
21.4386
0.0
5.6515
7.1377
?0.dOOO
84.i?105
0.0
21.2799
26.1570
22.0000
8^.^268
0.0
27.1162
20.7055
26.0000
57.0111
0.0
22.2897
18.0518
10.0000
0.0
0.0
0.0
««««««**«•
10.0000
o.o
0.0
0.0
«*»•«*•««•
9.0000
35.7143
0.0
12.3064
13.8533
4.000U
50.0000
0.0
30.5555
24.2161
9.0000
7().tt333
9.09Q9
25.2945
19.3681
9.0000
83.7956
42.2222
60.4625
14.3129
                                                                    10.0000
                                                                    S5.555S
                                                                     n.n
                                                                    11.0101
                                                                    23.2135

                                                                    10.0000
                                                                    S7.1429
                                                                     0.0
                                                                    10.7143
                                                                    22.6503

                                                                     6.0000
                                                                    92.8571
                                                                     0.0
                                                                    40.7143
                                                                    36.6200

                                                                     fl.OOOO
                                                                    14.2857
                                                                     0.0
                                                                     1.7857
                                                                     5.0508

                                                                     9.0000
                                                                    99.0476
                                                                     2.3256
                                                                    45.1609
                                                                    29.1433

                                                                     5.0000
                                                                    90.1639
                                                                    34.0206
                                                                    59.8665
                                                                    20.2218
                                 2U.OOOO
                                 Sb.5555
                                  0.0
                                  5.5050
                                 16.9450

                                 20.0000
                                 57.1429
                                  0.0
                                  5.3571
                                 16.5296

                                 15.0000
                                 92.8571
                                  0.0
                                 23.6695
                                 28.3084

                                 12.0000
                                 50.0000
                                  0.0
                                 11.3757
                                 19.4119

                                 le.oooo
                                 99.0476
                                  2.3256
                                 35.2277
                                 26.0900

                                 14.0000
                                 90.1639
                                 34.0206
                                 60.2496
                                 15.8738
                                  6.0000
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  n.o
                              «»**«****»

                                  6.0000
                                 50.0000
                                  0.0
                                  8.3333
                                 20.4124

                                  4.0000
                                 92.8571
                                 20.0000
                                 47.3810
                                 32.9329

                                  3.0000
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                              ft*********

                                  4.0000
                                 58.3333
                                 40.0000
                                 47.2083
                                  8.1347

                                  4.0000
                                 64.5833
                                 60.7843
                                 62.7863
                                  2.0065
                                 50.0000
                                 55.5555
                                  0.0
                                  4.573*
                                 14.2371

                                 52.0000
                                 57.1429
                                  0.0
                                  2.5412
                                 10.8957

                                 33.0000
                                 92.8571
                                  0*0
                                 13.8415
                                 21.4632

                                 32.0000
                                 84.2105
                                  0*0
                                 17.5658
                                 24.0163

                                 40.0000
                                 99.0476
                                  0.0
                                 30.7663
                                 23.3294

                                 41.0000
                                 90.1639
                                  0.0
                                 34.8535
                                 25.1943
NOTF«:t
1)  NFGATlvE REMOVALS OELETtO
2)  PRIMARY (A) INCLUDES A01.A02
3)  TPICKLTNG FILTER (R) INCLUDES R01.B02.B04.805
4)  ACTIVATED SLUDGE (C) INCLUDES CUliC02.C05,C06,C09,C19,C20
5)  SECONDARY PLftUtS APE THOSE blOLOGICrtL PLANTS WITH EFFLUENT BOD-5 AND SS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 30MG/L
   A^D GREATER THAN OB FOU4L TO 85* KEMQVAL FOk BOTH PARAMETERS

-------
   PEPOPT
                                      (tt)
                                                          of  POTw t-tMovAL  DATA
                                                    TR.ICKL1NH
                                                     KILTER
                                                       (B)
 SLUDGE
  (C)
  BIOLOGICAL
    PLANTS
     (B*C)
      PAGE  8

SECONDARY

  PLANTS
          6/ 6/75

TOTAL ALL PLANTS

 
ro
vo



00671 DISSOLVED
ORThOPHOSPHATE MG/L



01037 CObALT.TOT
UF/L AS CO



01007 rtflWIUMfTOT
UG/L AS bA



MTN
Mf- AN
STD.OEV
MO. POT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEV
NO.POTto
MAX
MIN
i^EAN
STn.OEV
MO. PQ lln
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.DEV
l.'J625
21.9299
12.7638
2.0000
2U.OOOO
7.«947
13.9474
8.5597
2.0000
6U.OOOO
U.O
30.0000
42.4264
1,0000
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0000
 11. o u o u
• 69.3333
  0.0
 27.5111
 22.7160

  3.000U
 50.5882
  2.1739
 24.1350
 24.5178

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

   l.OOOD
 54,5455
 54.5455
 54.5455
   0.0000
 8.0000
89.5238
16.9611
39.6647
25.3521

 2.0000
96.8000
84.2105
90.5053
 8.9022

 2.0000
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
                                                                       1.0000
                                                                      14.7059
                                                                      14.7059
                                                                      14.7059
                                                                       0.0000
   19.0000
   89.5238
    0.0
   32.6284
   23.9716

    5.0000
   96.8000
    2.1739
   50.6831
   40.52t)l.

    2.0000
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
««««««*«»«

    a.oooo
   54.5455
   14.7059
   34.6257
   28.1708
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

  ?.oooo
 96.3000
 84.2105
 90.5053
  8.9027

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  OtO
   NOTEc:
   1)  MFGATlvE  REMOVALS  DELETED
   2>  PPIMARY  (A)  INCLUDES  &oi»ao2
   3)  TPICKLIMG HLTER  

INCLUDES *01,802,604,BOS ,„„„„, WANT'S ARE rS^fou.^^?'?^^^^'^^^^ BOD-S AND ss LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 30MG/L ""GHFATER THAN OH EUUAL ru as* REMOVAL FOR BOTH PARAMETERS 32.0000 69.5238 0.0 28.2821 20.6210 7.0000 96.8000 2.1739 40.1871 37.7903 4.0000 60.0000 0.0 15.0000 30.0000 3.0000 54.5455 0.0 23.0838 28.2213


-------
 I
o
RFPORT NO. 7

V —
-
005SO OIL-ORMSE
TOT-«!XLT MG/L



00556 OIL-GREASE
SFP-FUNKItL MG/I



00560 OIL-GREASE
INFRARED MG/L



oosoo WFSIUUE
TOTAL, TS MG/L



00530 WESIUuE
TOT NFLT» SS MG/L



oosin eon
5DAV MG/L



00340 COO
HI LEVEL MG/L



0033S COO
LOW LEVFL MG/L



0034? SEA COi;
SALINE MG/L




dtt-r.o^r
NO. POT*
MAX
MF-
"t A's
SIO. JtV
NO.POTW
MAX
WIN
"t AN
STO.DEV
NO.PUTh
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.UEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.UEW
NO.POTh
MAX
MIN
Mf AN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
VAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEV
N'O.POTW
MAX
MIN
"£AN
•STO.UKV
NO. PUT*
MAX
MIN
f'f AN
MO. Of V
fuT.PUl W
""AX
K I ';
'••KAN
S"i i!.i:t >/

-1
b.t'OOO
44.0000
19.0000
?9. IdOO
V.'Utt/
o.o
0.0
0.0
J.O
U.I)
0.0
0.0
U.O
u.o
0.0
25.0000
1842.0000
346.0000
676.4800
172.0469
49.0000
314.0000
15.0000
90.4428
64. -,526
54.0000
650.0000
20.0000
)66.37b9
1 1 1.S490
11.0000
768.0000
56.0000
.<51. t?7l
f".M.(.5?S
1 . i;0()u
145. iiQOO
34b. lOOtf
.*4b.<»OflU
U.i'OOO
<^."00fi
^ 1**. uOOO
<4b. 0000
<*?9.'->00 o ;< i
t
OTHtW A
i.oooo
?1 .5000
?1.5000
?1 .boon
o.oooo
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
u.o
0.0
0.0
o.o
o.o
0.0
6.0000
1269.0000
400.0000
6R4.000U
334.3118
8.0000
161.0000
85.5000
1 1 0.5625
?5.?3?1
6.0000
300.0000
51.0000
196.6667
94.69b3
6.0000
555.0000
147.0000
6,0000
O.'iOOO
3.0000
31S.I-000
10?. DOOO
1 7 7.^6fj7
11^.1^01
)AIA ANALYSIS
OfMtM b
6.0000
37.8000
5.0000
17.2000
13.542?
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
25.0000
3030.0000
40.0000
666.9678
572.1072
37.0000-
196.0000
6.0000
41.4297
38.2320
33.0000
lao.oooo
2.2000
47.6848
43.2595
15.0000
370.0000
32.0000
176.3333
106.6633
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0000
IbH.OOOO
10.0000
95. 3333
6J .9439

Cl
7.0000
130.0000
6.0000
36.9143
43.5760
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22.0000
3440.0000
294.0000
741.3635
701.6296
42.0000
175.0000
2.0000
32.4286
31.8795
41.0000
200.0000
3.0000
27.7707
37.4381
20.0000
275.0000
31.7000
109.1250
70.1036
1.0000
24.0000
24.0000
24.0000
0.0000
6.0000
173.0000
16.0000
84.6*67
7] .4BS4
PAGE 1
OTHtK C
5.0000
58.5000
1.0000
19.5200
24.7896
4.0000
8.0000
1.0000
4.7500
2.8723
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
15.0000
1900.0000
371.0000
716.0000
388.2290
30.0000
185.0000
4.0000
37.9767
45.9761
31.0000
230.0000
2.0000
25.2516
41.5822
13.0000
148.0000
14.3000
55.0231
32.5391
4.0000
51.0000
14.0000
28.7500
15.7982
4.0000
119.0000
29.0000
81.0000
3B.6781
5/23/75
MISC(D.J)
0*0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1*0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
0.0000
0*0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.0000
770.0000
630.0000
689.3333
72.3948
9.0000
94.0000
3.0000
20.5555
33.1176
9.0000
131.0000
2.0000
23.2000
41.8200
5.0000
329.0000
53.0000
139.8000
111.2617
1.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
0.0000
2.0000
32.0000
28.0000
30.0000
2.8283

-------
C 1
IPA^ftWf TtUS C;
V
3?73n Hl-KNOL ICS
4AAP nlfTTL KG/I.


00945 SlLFME
•Jtfl/l
:*! VI f i

00941 OLOHIDE
CL MG/L

00665 TOTAL
PwOSPHOPUS M(i/L
00630 NITROGEN*
N02-W03 MG/L
00610 MIROGENt
AMMONIA MG/L
00625 NITHOGEN.
KjELPAHL. TOTAL MG/L

010(1? TOT ARSENIC
AS UG/L

010?7 Tr*T Cfl!)Mll.iM
en nr-i/i

ilKoOKY
\i p o r
MAX
WfM

f f ft IN"
S f ! . ut- v
NC.PU1 <»

cE AN
STM.iJEV
NO.POTW
MAX
"iTD.'JtV
NO.PUTW
MAX
MIN
STD.Uf.V
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
STO.Ut.tf
NC.POTM
MAX
MEAN
STD.OEtf
NO.POTw .
MAX
STO.PtV
NO.PGTb
MAX
MIN
sTfi.Jtv
MAX
STl'.L't/V
1
4 . fid (io
0 . I 0 0 0

2*. '.%<><*
1 f . t "' 0 0 0
] *? VI .'TOO'''

b4. 1765
1 f. . S 3 1 1
3«.noou
4J.OOOO
031*438
d.nooo
77.0000
1.3400
IS. 1775
2.0000
10.0000
0*0300
5.01SO
5-4. 00 00
256.5999
2.1000
7.0000
47.0000
a. 5000
1/.<>421
1.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2. ('0*10
o.naoo
JU.uOOO
4U.COOO
J. i.OOd
o!^7«»S
UlrthH A
4. 000"
45.0000
0. 1500

19.1B41
a.ooot-
15(1. 0000
72.0000
111.0000
55.1543
6.0000
290.0000
60.0000
123.5000

3.0000
10.0000
4.0000
6.0167
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.0000
24.5000
4.3000
14.8500
7.1762
1.0000
31*0000
31*0000
31 .0000
0.0000
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.0000
400.00UO
4.0000
("5.2857
174.350*
l
H.'IOOO
3000.0000
0. 0.300
« 3r"j.6tt71
10S«,.46S1
ii.ooob
?<*3.UOOO
38.DOOO
73.7273
57.S257
19.0000
330.0000
32.0000
1 12.1667
71.1063
17.0000
It). JOOO
«J. 7706
11.0000
16.0000
0.0260
5.1419
33. (JOOO
115.0000
O.H300
18. 2281
13.0000
39.0000
1.2000
17.3615
1 1 . «<365
l.POOO
2.0000
2.0000
2. "000
o.uooo
66.0000
1.0000
13./6V2
\J | rn. r\ r*
7.0000
24.000"
0.0300
6.7671
S.44V?
7.0000
454.0000
22.0000
177.4286
1 by. 1868
16.0000
990.0000
36.0000
172.906?
2S1.3995
13.0000
20.0000
1.6000
9.0665
5.5395
10.0000
23.8000
0.1500
7.7250
7.1650
35.0000
76.0000
0.1300
14.7714
14.0357
10.0000
46.7500
2.2000
14.6340
12.6386
4.0000
20.0000
0.5000
8.3250
H.3679
22.0000
20.0000
1.0000
9.7273
b. 119.1
v A
9.0000
2000.0000
0.0200
226.4699
665.1030
14.0000
223.0000
33.0000
88.7857
6B.8778
22.0000
1561.0000
43.0000
256.4497
342.6404
23.0000
10*4000
1.0000
4.1930
2.3527
11.0000
7.8000
0.0200
1.7973
2.6517
41.0000
26.0000
0.2000
11.4107
7.2425
11.0000
34.0000
1.5000
18.7809
10.0763
1.0000
2*0000
2.0000
2.0000
0.0000
23.0000
20.0000
1.0000
11.2609
6.4893

11.0000
353.0000
0.0400
35.6400
105.2899
15.0000
470.0000
17.0000
134.6000
102.7121
17.0000
610.0000
43.8000
210.1647
175.1463
23*0000
10.3000
0.4600
5.4317
3*1812
17.0000
19.9000
0*0300
5.2485
6.2322
31.0000
27.5000
0.0700
9.5529
8.0652
a. oooo
26.2500
1.6000
10.2437
9.3281
7.0000
5.0000
2.0000
3.7143
1.6036
33.0000
1970.0000
2.0000
69.4151
341.2322

5*0000
30000.0000
2.0000
6003.1992
13414.5742
3.0000
400*0000
136.0000
254.6667
134.0049
4.0000
410.0000
148*0000
274.5000
109.8527
6*0000
8*7800
2*7000
5*9600
2.4041
3*0000
13.0000
0*6300
8.1100
6*5791
8.0000
17*8000
0.1200
5.3950
6.4845
0.0
0.0
,0*0
0.0
0.0
0*0
0*0
0*0
0.0
0*0
6.0000
35*0000
1.0000
10.6667
12.2583

-------
   Wfr WOPT NP. 7
  01034 TOT CHROMIUM
  Co               UG/I
01051 TOT
pp
                   UG/L
  71900 TOT MERCURY
  HG               UG/L
  0104? TOT COPPER
  CU              UG/L
  01097 TOT  ALIMONY
                   UG/L
U)
  010*7 TOT NICKEL
  NI              UG/L
  01147 TOT  Sn.ENTUM
                   UG/I.
  01077  TOT  SILVtP
  AG               I
         TnT  71NC
                   'JCi/L

CATFC,OKY

MAX
M IN
*l AN
5TII.ULV
NO.POTw
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.UEV
NO. POT*
KAX
MIN
ye AN
STO.OEV
KO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
SID. JKv
NO.POTW
MAA
MIN
MEAN
STP.JfcV
NO. POT*
MAX
MIN
Wfc AN
STO.l'tV
NO. POT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
ST','.i>Erf
Nn.porw
MAX
MIN
NK AN
STO.iJEV
KO.Puiw
I.HA
v f '<
v( ftf
«; rr. IT. >/

M
36.li 000
?*ou.oooo
b.MOOO
190. (OSS
44RO. onou
1 12.0000
:iss.?sod
Jci?.9<»h4
•"DIM tffL'lENl 1
«1
29.0000
3200.0000
9.0000
3?7.<-i;06
733.«914
23.0000
550.0000
5.0000
94.? 174
144. /010
11.0000
1.8750
0.1000
0.5341
0.4897
32.0000
1800.0000
2.6000
155.4562
334.9673
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
O.fi
22.0000
1130.0000
11.0000
17B.1227
292.4*19
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0000
445.7000
445.7000
445.7000
0.0000
33.0000
?80 0.000(1
40.0000
J't f .')5
bbf1.'" t-W
)Aff» ANALYSIS
UTHLM H
28.0000
1200.0000
3.0000
132.5357
262.0610
25.0000
1800.0000
9.0000
133.4400
355.7373
14.0000
10.0000
0.2000
1.2439
2.5438
25.0000
1000.0000
19.0000
99.0400
193.3092
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
21.0000
1533.0000
7.0000
197.5238
365.1274
1.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
0.0000
2.0000
10.0000
2.0000
6.0000
5.6568
30.0000
1321.0000
20.0000
?S-*.S667
319.851]

Cl
32.0000
2520.0000
5.0000
323.7717
687.3762
30.0000
350.0000
3.0000
74.2900
76.1513
22.0000
200.0000
0.1000
9.8091
42.4839
40.0000
1600.0000
10.0000
105.7500
254.8947
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
32.0000
1800.0000
3.0000
110.9562
309.5474
1.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
0.0000
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
40.0000
1400.0000
10.0000
?5fl.8H23
301.3843
PAGE 3
OTHER C
36.0000
400.0000
5.0000
57.1583
90.6973
30.0000
200.0000
4.0000
51.7767
49.1337
20.0000
5.0000
0.2000
0.6115
1.0692
37.0000
180.0000
6.0000
62.6027
51.1277
1.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
0.0000
32.0000
40000.0000
7.0000
1332.0625
7056.5898
3.0000
5.0000
2.0000
4.0000
1.7321
1.0000
10.0000
10.0000
10.0000
0.0000
37.0000
800.0000
30.0000
188.1702
166.0566
5/23/75
MISC(D.J)
7*0000
600.0000
10.0000
110.1429
216.5660
a. oooo
50.0000
12.0000
31.0000
10.9021
5.0000
1.7000
0.2000
0.5400
0.6542
7.0000
152.0000
6*0000
32.1429
53.0831
0*0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0000
240.0000
5.0000
67.3333
86.6525
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0000
338.0000
9.0000
123.3333
151.6491

-------
            MOTd EFH.UFNT OMA  ANALYSIS
OTHFW A
                  hi
                              OTHER B
                                                 Cl
 PAGE  4




OTHtR C
   5/Z3/75



HISC(DtJ)
V
011C? TnT TTN



00680 TOT
TOTAl ,TOC
00410
PH 4.5
00400
UG/L


ORG CARBCN
MG/l.
ALKALINITY
MG/L
PH
SU
0009«; SPECIFIC
CONDUCTANCE MICROMHO
0110<5 TOT
. AL
01045 TOT
FF
01055 TOT
MN
Al UMINUM
UG/L
IBON
UG/L
MANGANESE
UG/L
50060 CHLOHINF.
TOT PFSTCtjAL MG/L
NO.POfw
MAX
MIN
WF A IN
STD.uF.V
NO.POtW
M/VA
MIN
MEAN
STO.UEV
NO. POT*
MAX
wf AN
STO.UEV
NO.POTiv
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OtV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEv
NO.PUfW
MAX
MIN
STD.JEV
NO.POTw
MAX
STD.Ot.tf
NO.PUTW
MAX
MIN
WEAN
STO.UEV
NO.POTw
STO.'JtV
U.D
o.o
0 . ii
0 . 0
0.0
3J.OOOO
53V. 0000
52.0000
141.1211
86.5486
6.0000
300,0000
83.0000
IBb.SOOO
79.1495
54.0000
8.2000
5.0000
7,0539
0.4973
3.0000
970.0000
615.0000
R28.J333
18d. H360
1.0000
410.0000
410.0000
410.0000
0.0000
23.0000
3500.0000
400.0000
1344.3042
8^7.8044
lb.0000
362.0000
30.0000
147.937S
102./452
2t>.0000
10.0000
O.'^OOO
0.0
On
. U
0* fl
. u
On
. u
0.0
4.0000
228.0000
128.0000
177.0000
40.8733
4.0000
258.0000
18.5000
114.8750
99.7165
8.0000
7.9000
5.6000
6.9125
0.7434
3.0000
600.0000
500.0000
550.0000
49.9959
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.0000
5000.0000
fc?0.0000
20*3.7500
12«7.4473
6.0000
390.0000
66.0000
250.3333
107.4531
2.0000
3.0000
0.1000
1.5500
?.050b
0.0
O.o
0.0
g •* 9 '
0.0
8.0000
96.0000
33.0000
54.2500
22.9705
10.0000
319.0000
133.0000
203.3500
63.8173
36.0000
7.9000
6.6000
7.28?2
0.3627
10.0000
1475.0000
634.0000
942.5000
314.5103
4.0000
1450.0000
100.0000
735.0000
553.0823
18.0000-
10000.0000
100.0000
1331.7222
2225.0439
12.0000
329.0000
40.0000
120.5633
89.0601
8.0000
3.0000
0.1000
1.8775
1. 1025
1.0000
400.0000
400.0000
400.0000
0.0000
16.0000
129.0000
15.0000
51.8687
29.4061
13.000,0
344.0000
41.0060
162.2308
104.3830
33.0000
8.0000
4.0000
7.0836
0.7608
7,0*00
4400.0000
669.000Q
1455.5713
1328.3367
2.0000
100.0000
20.0000
60.0000
56.5685
17.0000
65550.0000
110.0000
4572.0586
15725.2813
17.0000
580.0000
20.0000
148.8235
150.6980
12.0000
3.0000
0.1000
2.0558
0.8526
1.0000
12600.0000
12600.0000
12600.0000
0.0000
9.9000
95.0000
11.0000
41.8555
25.2905
10.0000
400,0000
117iOOOO
244.6000
107.7918
36.0000
8.0000
6.2000
7.1997
0.4258
e.oooo
1900.0000
791.0000
1208.0000
382.5190
3.0000
200.0000
100.0000
166.6667
57.7348
20.0000
' ' 6800.0000
100.0000
941.0498
1527.0234
7.0000
443.0000
20.0000
141.2857
143.2210
10.0000
3.0000
0.6000
1.5090
0.7272
4.0UUO
400.0000
400.0000
400.0000
0.0
8.0000
35.0000
10.0000
22.5000
7.2702
15.0000
384.0000
78.0000
238.2000
80.6967
24.0000
8.3000
6.3000
7.2937
0.4908
18.0000
3170.0000
760.0000
1446.9443
672.5767
9.0000
570*0000
100.0000
211.1111
148.5298
21.0000
1550.0000
100.0000
482.2856
424.9780
18.0000
940.0000
10.0000
147.4444
212.7679
13.0000
3.0000
0.0700
1.1385
0.8896
u.u
0*0
0*0
0.0
0.0
2.0000
102.0000
34.0000
68.0000
48.0831
4.0000
317*0000
135*0000
264.0000
86.4283
9.0000
7.9000
7.0000
7.4778
0*3031
3*0000
2500*0000
1820.0000
2106.6665
352.3655
3*0000
200.0000
100*0000
133.3333
57.7349
8*0000
1100*0000
35*0000
267.3750
349.1960
6.0000
138.0000
12*0000
51*5000
46.2504
3.0000
1.1000
0.2500
0.6500
0.4272

-------
PFPIIOT r*n. /
lPA«<5uETt(JS
0110' TfiT TTN
UG/L



00680 TOT ORG CARBON
TOTAL ,TOC MG/L



00410 ALKALINITY
PH 4.5 rtG/L


00400 PH
su



0009«; SPECIFIC
CONDUCTANCE MICROMHO
n
i
o
0
01105 TOT AIUMINUM
. At UG/L



01045 TOT I ROM
Ff UG/L



01055 TOT MANGANKSE
MN UG/L



5006P OLOKiNF.
TflT PESIOtjAL MG/L




CflTF.CiOKr
NO. po rv.
VAX
MIN
"F Al\
STD.uEV
NO.POIW
MAA
MIN
KEA*
STtl.UEV
NO.POTh
MAX
MTN
Mf.AM
STO.UEV
NO.POTn
WAX
MIN
VEAM
STO.OtV
NO.POTW
MAX
MJN
MEAN
srn.oEw
No.purw
MAX
MIN
«*EAN
STO.UEV
NO.POTM
VAX
MIN
^EAN
STD.Ot.tf
NO.PUTw
MAX
MIN
«EAN
STO.OEV
MO.POTw
K'AX
MI'M
Mf/VN
STO.utV

..1
O.U
O.*1
0. ./
0.0
0 . 0
33.0000
53V. 0000
52.0000
141.1211
P6.S486
6.0000
300.0000
83.0000
IBb.SOOO
7S.149S
54.0000
8.2000
5.0000
7,0539
0.4973
3.0000
970.0000
615.0000
R28.J333
188.H36D
1.0000
410.0000
410.0000
410.0000
J.OOOf)
23.UOOO
3500.0000
400.0000
U44.3042
H47.HQ44
16.UOOO
362.0000
30.0000
147.9375
102.V452
2b.0f»oo
10.0000
o.?ooo
1 .V55H
U-^374

OTMEH A
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.0000
228.0000
128.0000
177.0000
40.8733
4.0000
258.0000
18.5000
134.8750
99.7165
8.0000
7.9000
5.6000
6.9125
0.7434
3.0000
600.0000
500.0000
550.0000
49.9959
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
e.oooo
5000.0000
6?0.0000
20*3.7500
12R7.4473
6.0000
390.0000
66.0000
250.3333
107.4531
2.0000
3.0000
0.1000
1.5SOO
?.OS06
POTiK EfH.UFNT
hi
. 0."
0.0
O.U
,0.0
0.0
8.0000
96.0000
33.0000
54. 2500
22.9705
10.0000
319.0000
133.0000
203.3500
63.8173
36.0000
7.9000
6.6000
7.2822
0.3627
10.0000
1475.0000
634.0000
942.5000
314.5103
4.0000
1450.0000
100.0000
735.0POO
553.0823
18.0000'
10000.0000
100.0000
1331.7222
2225.0439
12. (1000
329.0000
40.0000
120.5633
89.0601
8.0000
3.0000
0. 1000
1.S775
1.1C25
DATA ANALYSIS
OTHER H
1. 0000
4UO.OOOO
400.0000
400.0000
o.oooo
16.0000
129.0000
IS. 0000
51.8687
29.4061
la.ooqo
344.0000
162!?30B
104.3830
33*0000
8.0000
4.0000
7.0836
0.7608
7.0400
4400.0000
669.000Q
1455.5713
13*8.3367
2.0000
100,0000
20.0000
60.0000
56,5685
17.0000
65550.0000
110.0000
4572.0586
15725.2813
t 7.0000
5SO.OOOO
20.0000
148.8235
150.6980
12.0000
3.0000
0.1000
2.0558
O.S526

Cl
1.0000
12600.0000
12600.0000
12600.0000
0.0000
9.0000
95.0000
11.0000
41.8555
25.2905
10.0000
400,0000
117,0000
244.6000
107.7918
36 .,00 00
8.0000
6.2000
7.1997
0.4258
d.OOOO
1900.0000
791.0000
1?08.0000
382.5190
3.0000
200.0000
100.0000
166.6667
57.7348
20.0000
' 6800.0000
100.0000
941.0498
1527.0234
7.0000
443.0000
20.0000
141.2857
143.2210
10.0000
3.0000
0.6000
1.5090
0.727?
PAGE 4
OTHER C
4.0000
400.0000
400.0000
400.0000
0.0
a. oooo
35.0000
10.0000
22.5000
7.2702
15.0000
384.0000
78.0000
238.2000
80.6967
24.0000
8.3000
6.300Q
7.2937
0.4908
18.0000
3170.0000
760.0000
1446.9443
672.5767
9.0000
570.0000
100.0000
211.1111
148.5298
21.0000
1550.0000
100.0000
482.2856
424.9780
18.0000
940.0000
10.0000
147.4444
212.7679
13.0000
3.0000
0.0700
1.1385
0.8896
5/23/75
MISC(O.J)
0.0
0*0
0*0
0.0
0.0
2*0000
102.0000
34.0000
68*0000
48.0831
4.0000
317.0000
135*0000
264.0000
86.4283
9.0000
7.9000
7.0000
7.4778
0.3031
3.0000
2500*0000
1820.0000
2106.6665
352*3655
3.0000
200.0000
100*0000
133.3333
57.7349
8.0000
1100.0000
35.0000
267.3750
349.1960
6.0000
138.0000
12.0000
51.5000
46*2504
3.0000
1.1000
0.2500
0.6500
0.4272

-------
        Nn.v
V
01 ngn
          '•T/l.
01030
DISSOLVED MP/L  AS
01040     LFADf
DISSOLVED *T-/L AS
          NICKEL.
DISSOLVED MG/L AS NI
          CADMIUM,
DISSOLVED W-/L *s CD
01056     MANGANESt,
DISSOLVED MC-/L os MN
71890     MfcKCURY.
DISSOLVED MG/L AS *
70507     TOT OPTHO-
PHOSPHATE       MG/L
00641

C/mr-rv.,
ISC. POT"
MAX
1', I N
^F. ^'
STO.Jt-'
M-J.P-MW
Ma/
Mir,
MF. AIM
STM.i> V
NO, POT*
MAX
MIN
^e A'I
sirj.ntv
NO. POT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.Oh V
NO. PUT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OtV
NO. POT W
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.UtV
ISO. PUT W
MAX
MIN
"EAN
sin.Jtv
NO. POT*
MAX
M I ISl
t*E AN
STO.OEV
!> O.PUU
f»iX
M £ fv
«FA>'~
^•Tij..;:- v

»>
Pfa.iOOO
J.^bftO
|J . U40U
u . H'-t)
11.0701
Jl . iiOOO
O.bftOO
U . 0 1 0 0
0 .1' /?!
0.1197
31.UOOO
0.2000
0.1000
0 . 1 0 V 7
0 . 0 3 0 1
31.0000
O.c.200
0.1000
0.1313
U.1330
31.0000
0.0300
0.0100
0. 01 24
0.0062
31.0000
0.3600
0.0005
0.1578
0.0796
2b.OOOO
0.0017
0.0001
0.0005
0.0004
33.0000
7.7000
0.7000
J./>524
l.*27H
2«.OOOM
Sri u.i 000
H 0 . 0 0 0 1}
1 ->U .f.^fl'4
'-> i . > I S *
*>
i)[Hf-K A
1 .0000
0.5VOI)
n ,s9oo
I). 5900
o. on oo
1 .0000
0.0700
0.0700
0.0700
0 . 0 0 0 0
1.0000
0.3000
0.3000
0.3000
0.0000
1.0000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
o.oooo
1.0000
0.0?00
0.0200
0.0200
0.0000
1.0000
0.2400
0.2400
0.2400
0.0000
1 .0000
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023
0.0000
2.0000
6.0000
3.7000
5.«50<;
3.040S
'? . (i n o u
252.0000
i??5 .0000

-------
 QFPOPT NO."

\f
V
Of
TOT«I
                                          HOlv LfKLUhNT OfllA ANALYSIS
ss«
  M 1 !•••
 *t tft
bio.ue<
             1 i.liOOO
            >:)D. oo ou
                  1 O'j.nOOO
0042* M.K/M.INITY
-RICARBONATF MG/L



00650 TO ML
PHOSPHATE MG/L



00070 TURBInlTY
JTU



00671 DISSOLVED
ORTHOPHOSPHATE MG/L
at
\
<*
01037 C08ALT.TOT
UG/L AS CO



01007 BARIUM, TUT
UG/L AS B-A



0007*. Tt^BIDlTY
FTU



Kfl.POTu
MAX
MIN
Mlf AN
STO.OtV
NO.POTw
MAX
MIN
MEAN
SID.OtV
NO.POIK
MAX
MIN
MF AN
STO.UF.V
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.UEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO..UEW
NO.PUfW
MAX
MI^
MEAN
STO.OEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
Mt"Ai<
STn.utv
11.0000
300.0000
7 •-» . n o o 0
155.0000
7 ** . b ^ 7 0
15.0000
6M.OOOO
15.5000
31.4533
13.1506
4.0000
6a.oooo
25.0000
48. 7500
I/. 7645
3.0000
40.0000
1.4000
14.V667
21.7049
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
i.oooo
160.0000
160.0000
160.0000
0.0000
1.0000
57.0000
57.0000
57.0000
O.i)000
,'THFR  A

    1.0000
  154.0000
  154.0000
                                  0.0000

                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0

                                  1.0000
                                 24.5000
                                 £4.5000
                                 24.5000
                                  0.0000

                                  4.0000
                                 76.5000
                                 26.0000
                                 49.8750
                                 21.3477

                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0

                                  2.0000
                                 30.0000
                                 20.0000
                                 25.0000
                                  7.0711

                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                  0.0
                                   0.0

                                   0.0
                                   0.0
                                   0.0
                                   0.0
                                   0.0
  HI


  5.0000
110.0000
                                                           UTHtH H
                                                                              CJ
                                                               32.1558

                                                                4.0000
                                                               IbO.nooO
                                                               102.0000
                                                               1^2.0000
                                                               25.H714

                                                                9.0000
                                                               36.5000
                                                               11.5000
                                                               24.5500
                                                                9.5018

                                                                7.0000
                                                               40.0000
                                                               15.0000
                                                               27.9000
                                                                9.6126

                                                                3.0000
                                                                6.7500
                                                                4.2000
                                                                5.1500
                                                                 1.3937

                                                                 0.0
                                                                 0.0
                                                                 0.0
                                                                 0 . o
                                                                 0.0

                                                                 0.0
                                                                 0.0
                                                                 0.0
                                                                 0.0
                                                                 0.0

                                                                 I.oooo
                                                                10.0000
                                                                10.0000
                                                                10.0000
                                                                 O.nooo
1.0000
44.0000
44.0000
44.0000
o.oooo
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
12.0000
26.0000
1.5600
11.8117
7.2740
5.0000
99.0000
21.0000
43.8000
31.4436
1.0000
15.0000
15.0000
15.0000
0.0000
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0000
100.0000
100.0000
100.0000
0.0000
1.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
0.0000
6.0000
632.0000
60.0000
191.3333
221.4921
4.0000
104.0000
22.0000
62.0000
42.9B84
8.0000
90.0000
14.0000
30.3237
25.1594
6.0000
54.0000
3.0000
24.0167
16.9215
3.0000
3.0000
0.1600
1.4533
1.4368
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
 PA&E  7

OTHER C

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

   4.0000
  28.3500
   1.1000
  14.3375
  11.6836

   3.0000
  29.3000
  20.0000
  25.1000
   4.7149

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

   2.0000
  20.0000
  20.0000
  20.0000
   0.0271

    1.0000
 5600.0000
 5800.0000
 5800.0000
    0.0000

    1.0000
    6.0000
    6.0000
    6.0000
    0.0000
    5/23/75

 MISC(DtJ)

0.0
0*0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0*0
0*0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

 1.0000
5*0000
5*0000
5.0000
 0.0000

 0*0
 0*0
 0*0
 0*0
 0.0

 1.0000
20*0000
20*0000
20.0000
 0*0000

 0.0
 0*0
 0*0
 0.0
 0.0

 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0
 0.0

-------
 RFPHRT NO.

/PARAMETERS
V
CATEGORY
                                     U>
SUMMARY OF POTW EFFLUENT DATA

  t*vTCKLIrvG       ACTIVATED
   FILTER           SLUDGE
     !B)             (C)
                 BIOLOGICAL
                   PLANTS
                    (B*C)
                       PAGE

                 SECONDARY

                   PLANTS
                          5/23/75

                TOTAL ALL PLANTS

                 U»B*C*OTHER)
005*0     OTL-Gfib'ASe
TOT-<=XLT        MG/L
0055*     OTL-GREASE
SEP-FUNMEL      MG/L
00560     OTL-GREASE
INFRARED        MG/L
00500     RESIDUE
TOTAL, TS       MG/L
00530     RESIDUE
TOT WFLT, ss    MG/L
00310     BOO
5DAY            MG/L
00340     COO
HI LFVEL        MG/L
00335     COD
LOW LFVFL       MG/L
NO.PUTw
  MAX
 MEAN
STD.DEV

NO.PUTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STO.DEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STO.OEV

K'O.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.DEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MTN
 MEAN
STD.UEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.DEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.DEV

NC.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.DEV
  6.1/000
 44.0000
 19.0000
 27.8333
  O.o
  0.0
  O.o
  0.0
  0.0

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

 30.0000
346.0000
660.8665
362.0049

 54.0000
314.0000
 15.0000
 93.2722
 62.4438

 58.HOOO
650.0000
 20.0000
166.7810
110,4911

 lo.OOOO
768.0000
 5H.OOOO
334.P125
                               11.0000
                               72.0000
                                4.0000
                               21.1091
                               20.0922

                                3.0000
                                9.0001
                                1.0000
                                4.1667
                                4.2525

                                0.0
                                0.0
                                0.0
                                0.0
                                0.0

                               <*5.0000
                             2034.0000
                               40.0000
                              628.6487
                              389.8845

                               66.0000
  1.0000
34S.OOOO
345.0000
345.0000
  0.0000
                                5.0000
                               42.6500
                               37.0209

                               62.0000
                              245.0000
                                4.0000
                               48.5710
                               47.2754

                               28.000"
                              361.0000
                               26.0000
                              138.8036
                               80.2413

                                1.0000
                               66.0000
                               66.0000
                               66.0000
                                0.0000
   8.0000
 130.0060
   5.0000
  32.9250
  41.8917

   3.0000
   8.0000
   5*0000
   6.0000
   1.7321

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

  33.0000
3440.0000
 294,0000
 712.2119
 578.5815

  64.0000
 185.0000
   2.0000
  37.1250
  39.7279

  65.0000
 230.0000
   2.0000
  28.2861
  40,7063

  27.0000
 ?75.0000
  31.7000
  98.3518
  65.3504

   5.0000
  51.0000
  14.0000
  27.8000
  13.8456
  19.0000
 130.0000
   4.0000
  26.0842
  30.7029

   6.0000
   9.0000
   1*0000
   5*0833
   3.0727

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0*0
   0.0

  78.0000
3440.0000
  40.0000
 664.0024
 477.1821

 130.0000
 228.0000
   2.0000
  39.9300
  38.3284

 127.0000
 245.0000
   2.0000
  38.1889
  45.0249

  55.0000
 361.0000
  26.0000
 118.9454
  75.4455

   6.0000
  66.0000
  14.0000
  34.1667
  19.9139
  1.0000
  9.4000
  9.4000
  9.4000
  0.0000

  2.0000
  5.0000
  1.0000
  3.0000
  2.8284

  0.0
  0.0
  0*0
  0.0
  0.0

  9.0000
727.0000
312.0000
548.7776
158.4633

 31.0000
 30.0000
  2.0000
 11.1935
  7.1759

 31.0000
 28.0000
  2.0000
 10.5355
  7.4303

 15.0000
231.0000
 26.0000
 65.7333
 52.3604

  4.0000
 27.0000
 14.0000
 22.0000
  5.5976
                                                                    29.0000
                                                                   130.0000
                                                                     1*0000
                                                                    26.0414
                                                                    26.4917

                                                                     8.0000
                                                                     9.0000
                                                                     1*0000
                                                                     4.5625
                                                                     2.9693

                                                                     0.0
                                                                     0.0
                                                                     0.0
                                                                     0*0
                                                                     0.0

                                                                   119.0000
                                                                  3440.0000
                                                                    40.0000
                                                                   692.3796
                                                                   495.3723

                                                                   210.0000
                                                                   314.0000
                                                                     2.0000
                                                                    53.4518
                                                                    52.1177

                                                                   209.0000
                                                                   650.0000
                                                                     2.0000
                                                                    74.6075
                                                                    92,2027

                                                                    86.0000
                                                                   768.0000
                                                                    14.3000
                                                                   158.6546
                                                                   147.1832

                                                                     9.0000
                                                                   345*0000
                                                                    14.0000
                                                                    74.2222
                                                                   104.4721
1) NFGATlvP" KFMOV&LS DELETED
2) PRIMARY  INCLUDF* Aoi,A02
3) TQICKLI^r. FILTER (H) INCLUDES HOI «H02,H04,B05
4) ArTIVATFT SLllDGH (C) INCLUDES Cu 1 , C./2 .C05.C06 »C09, C19. C20
5) <;rcOM)AWv PLANTS AWfi THOSE HlOLKjICAL PLANTS WITH EFFLUENT KOO-S  AND  SS  LFSS  THAN  OR  EQUAL  TO 30MG/L
                HA^ c>» HJIIAI. T'i  's- i-K"'"v.. -o>- MOTH 'JA*-'' f * r~.-*s

-------
 REPORT
/PAMMETEPS CATtGOWy PHIMAKY


0034? «?FA COO
SALINE



32730
MG/L



PHENOL ICS
4AAP DISTIL UG/L



0094=;




0094ft
CL



00665
PHOSPHORUS



00630
N02-N03



00610
AMMONIA



0063^
KJELOAHL,






Sl.'LFATE
MG/L



CHLORIDE
MG/L



TOTAL
MG/L



NITROGEN,
MG/L



NITROGEN,
MG/L



NITROGEN.
TOTAL MG/L




NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
•5TD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN'
MEAN
STO.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.UEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
(A)
*.«.00.)
M4.0000
34S.OOOO
429.5000
11*. 5015
/.OOOO
53.0000
U.1000
16.2928
33.0982
19.0000
150.0000
26.0000
69.1053
36.4370
41.0000
2169.0000
43.0000
296.8584
421.0542
10.0000
77.0000
1.3400
12.9470
22.6614
2.0000
10.0000
0.0300
5.0150
7.0499
64.0000
256.5999
3.1000
30.2034
34.6453
ri.UOOO
47.000n
H.5000
P4.3750
11.6458
SUMMARY Ut- POTW EFFLUCNT DATA                           PAGE

                  ACTIVATED       BIOLOGICAL      SECONDARY
                    SLUDCE          PLANTS
                     
-------
          ND.M

  /PARAMETERS
  V
                                       (A)
SUMMARY OF POTW EFFLUENT DATA

  TWICKLlwti       ACTIVATED
   FILTLR           SLUDGE
     (H)             (C)
                                                                                   BIOLOGICAL
                                                                                     PLANTS
                                                                                      (B«C)
                                                                                   PAGE

                                                                             SECONDARY

                                                                               PLANTS
                                                                                            5/23/75

                                                                                  TOTAL ALL PLANTS

                                                                                   (A*B»C*OTHER)
   oion?  TOT  ABSFNIC
   AS               UG/I.
                      NO.POTw
                           WIN
                          MEAN
                         STD.UEV
01027 TOT
CO
                   UG/I,
  01034 TOT CHROMIUM
  CP              UG/L
0105J TOT
PB
                  UG/L
01
i
  7190P TOT MFKCURY
  HG              UG/L
  0104? TOT COPPER
  CU              UG/L
  01097 TOT AMTIMONY
                  UG/L
  01067 TOT NICKEL
  Nl              UG/L
  MAX
  WIN
 MEAN
STD.OEV

NO. POT*
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.OEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
                       MEAN
                      STO.BEV

                      NO.POTW
                        MAX
                       MEAN
                      STD.DEV

                      NO.PUTW
                        MAX
                        MIN
                       MEAN
                      STD.OEV

                      NO.POTW
                        MAX
                        MIN
                       MEAN
                      STD.OEV

                      NO.POTW
                        MAX
                        MIN
                       MFAN
                      STD.DEV
   1 .(1000
   2.0000
   £.0000
   a. oooo
   0.0000

  30.0000
  40.0000
   3.0000
   8.9805

  43.0000
    .0000
   b.OOOO
 188.3488
 405.9954

  37.0000
1700.0000
  10.0000
 156.0270
 272.0637

  23.0000
   5.0000
   0.1000
   0.9826
   1.3193

  48.0000
1700.0000
  10.0000
 191.0833
 276.2058

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

  33.0000
1700.0000
   6.0000
 164.5757
 387.1809
    4.0000
   20.0000
    0.5000
    6.8250
    8.9623

   43.0000
   66.0000
    1.0000
   11.2395
   10.4963

   56.0000
 3200.0000
    3.0000
  235.3929
  563.0393

   47.0000
 1800.0000
    5.0000
  116.0213
  276.3105

   24.0000
   10.0000
    0.1000
    0.9620
    1.9679

   56.0000
 1800.0000
    2.6000
  132.6892
  283,0786

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

   40.0000
 1533.0000
    7.0000
  19B.0425
    5.0000
    5.0000
    2.0000
    3.2000
    1.6432

   50.0000
 1970.0000
    1.0000
   50.1280
  277.1191

   61.0000
 2520.0000
    5.0000
  201.9295
  515.0706

   52.0000
  350.0000
    3.0000
   67.3788
   67.6438

   38.0000
  200.0000
    0.1000
    5.9771
   32.337?

   70.0000
 1600.0000
    8.0000
   91.7571
  195.1596

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

   58.0000
40000.0000
    3.0000
  786.7515
 5244.5742
    9.0000
   20.0000
    0.5000
    4.8111
    5.9263

   93.0000
 1970.0000
    1.0000
   32.1430
  203.3024

  117.0000
 3200.0000
    3*0000
  217.9461
  536.4790

   99.0000
 1800.0000
    3.0000
   90.4717
  197.0117

   62.0000
  200.0000
    0.1000
    4.0358
   25.3338

  126.0000
 1800.0000
    2.6000
  109.9492
  238.1161

    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0

   98.0000
40000.0000
    3.0000
  546.4622
 4036.4604
   2.0000
   5,0000
   2.0000
   3.5000
   2.1213

  16.0000
1970.0000
   2*0000
 131.5000
 490.2800

  21.0000
 200.0000
   5.0000
  33.5714
  46.9430

  20.0000
 270.0000
  10.0000
  57.4000
  57.2751

  16.0000
 200.0000
   0.1000
  12.9706
  49.8766

  25.0000
 120.0000
   6.0000
  38.5600
  31.3808

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

  22.0000
 370.0000
   7.0000
  69.8182
  74.8423
   14.0000
   20.0000
    0.5000
    4.6643
    4.8573

  145.0000
 1970.0000
    1.0000
   28.2965
  167.1832

  179.0000
 3200.0000
    3.0000
  197,6112
  460.6142

  157.0000
 1800.0000
    3.0000
  105.7707
  221*7903

   97.0000
  200.0000
    0.1000
    2.9053
   20.2664

  192.0000
 1800.0000
    2.6000
  125.6505
  242.1976

    1.0000
    5.0000
    5.0000
    5.0000
    0.0000

  149.0000
40000.0000
    3.0000
  410.7668
 3278.7412
  NOTE*:
  1) NFGATlvE HFMOVaLS CFLETtO
  2) ROIMAKY  (A)  INCLUDES Af)]»AO/?
  3) TRICKLINP- FII..TEK  (P) INCLUDES £01 »B02,H04,B05
  4) ACTIVATEr SLllf)Gt  (C) INCLUDES Ci>l»C02,Cns.C06,COW,C19,C
-------
 REPORT
SUMMARY Of POTW frFFLUENT DATA
/PARAMETERS CATEGORY

011*7 TOT SELENIUM
UO/L



01077 TOT SILVER
AG UG/L



0109? TOT ZTNC
ZN UG/L



0110? TOT TIN
UG/L


91
I
° 00680 TOT ORG CARBON
TOTAL»TOC MG/L



00410 ALKALINITY
PH 4.5 MG/L



00400 PH
SU



0009«; SPECIFIC
CONDUCTANCE MICBOMHQ




NO. PUT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OEV
NO. POT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO.POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STO.OtV
PRIMARY
(A)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0000
13.0000
13.0000
13.0000
0.0000
49.0000
3600.0000
30.0000
550.0610
657.9351
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
35.0000
539,0000
52.0000
141.7999
84,2303
9.0000
300.0000
18.5000
167.0555
91.8010
59.0000
8.2000
5.0000
7.0764
0.4998
b.onoo
970.11000
550.0000
727.0000
192.9903
                                                  TRICKLING
                                                   FILTER
                                                      (B)
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0

                                                    8.0000
                                                  445.7000
                                                    2.0000
                                                  233.8500
                                                  313.7434

                                                   fcO.OOOO
                                                 2800.0000
                                                   40.0000
                                                  316.1665
                                                  463.5981

                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0
                                                    0.0

                                                   23.0000
                                                  129.0000
                                                   23.0000
                                                   54.3000
                                                   26.2976

                                                   22.0000
                                                  344.0000
                                                   41.0000
                                                  180.1136
                                                   91.7973

                                                   67.0000
                                                    a.oooo
                                                    4.0000
                                                    7.1659
                                                    0.5B76

                                                   15.0000
                                                 14BO.OOOO
                                                  634,0000
                                                  952.2666
                                                  312.103b
                  ACTIVATED
                    SLUDGE
                     (C)
                    2.0000
                    2.0000
                    2.0000
                    2.0000
                    0.0

                    0.0
                    0.0
                    0.0
                    0.0
                    0.0

                   69.0000
                 1400.0000
                   10,0000
                  237.6420
                  257.2742

                    3.0000
                12600.0000
                  400.0000
                 4466*6641
                 7043.6797

                   14.0060
                   95,0000
                   10*0000
                   35.3317
                   ?2.4007

                   22.0000
                  400.0000
                   78.0000
                  248.0909
                   93.7499

                   54.0000
                    8.3000
                    6.2000
                    7.2146
                    0.4604

                   20.0000
                 2780.0000
                  760.0000
                 1369.3999
                  518.5095
  BIOLOGICAL
    PLANTS
     
    2.0000
    2.0000
    2.0000
    2.0000
    0.0

    2.0000
  445.7000
    2.0000
  223.8500
  313.7429

  129.0000
 2800.0000
   10*0000
  274.1650
  368.4727

    3.0000
12600.0000
  400.0000
 4466.6641
 7043.6797

   37.0000
  129.0000
   10*0000
   47.12*3
   26.2822

   44.0000
  400.0000
   41.0000
  214.1023
   97.9259

  121.0000
    8.3000
    4.0000
    7.1876
    0.5326

   35.0000
 2780.0000
  634.0000
 1190.6284
  483.9617
       PAGE

 SECONDARY

   PLANTS
   1.0000
   2.0000
   2.0000
   2.0000
   0.0000

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

  22.0000
 650.0000
  10.0000
 172.3162
 181.4486

   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0
   0.0

   8.0000
  74.0000
  10.0000
  29.1850
  20.9586

   8.0000
 400.0000
 184.0000
 269.6250
  71.1415

  26.0000
   8.3000
   6.7000
   7.3461
   0.3989

   9.0000
2170.0000
 634.0000
1184.1111
 503.4524
            5/23/75

  TOTAL ALL PLANTS

   1 ,C(>2,C05,CUfr,C09,Cl*»Cieo
5) SECONDARY PLANTS ARE TMOSt BIOH'OICAL PLANTS WITH EFFLUtNT BOU-5 AND SS LESS THAN OR EQUAL  TO  30MG/L
   BMPI RWFATtR THAN OR FQUAL TO 8V* WFMQVAL FOk BOTH

-------
cn
/PARAMETERS CATEGORY HRIM/SKY

01 10C TOT Al. IJMIr.'UM
A| UG/L



oi04<; TOT IRON
FE UG/L



0105^ TOT MANGANESE
MN UG/L



50060 CHLOKINE.
TOT RfSIDljAI. MG/L



00720 CYANIDE,
TOTAL MG/L



3«26o MHAS
MG/L



00620 NITROGEN,
NITRATE MG/L




NO. POT in
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO. POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
NO. POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
NO. POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
NO. POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO. POTW
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.DEV
NO. POT*
MAX
MIN
MEAN
STD.OEV
(A)
1 .11000
410.0000
410.0000
410.0000
0.0000
30.0000
500U.OOOO
400.0000
1S17.6333
102J.4553
22.0000
390.0000
30.0000
175.8636
111.6616
. 0 0 n (.1
                                                 14SO.OOOO
                                                   ?o.ooon
                                                  510.0000
                                                  552.8840

                                                   35.0000
                                                65550.0000
                                                  100.0000
                                                 2905.5999
                                                11024.6836

                                                   28.0000
                                                  580.0000
                                                   20.0000
                                                  136.3214
                                                  129.9116

                                                   20.0000
                                                    3.0000
                                                    0.1000
                                                    1.9845
                                                    0.9363

                                                    8.0000
                                                  100.0000
                                                    0.0030
                                                   12.5066
                                                   35.3526

                                                    9.0000
                                                    3.2800
                                                    0.5700
                                                    1.7156
                                                    0.9443

                                                   33.0000
                                                   11.3800
                                                    0.1200
                                                    2.157(1
                                                    2.5661
                                                        OK POTW tFFLUENT  DATA
 uCTIVATEO
   SLUDGE
    (C)
  11.0000
 570.0000
 100.0000
 193.6364
 135.0016

  37.0000
6HOO.OOOO
 100.0000
 746.7837
1171.4160

  23.0000
 940.0060
  10.0000
 144.2174
 200.4655

  22.0000
   3.0000
   0.2000
   1.3555
   0.8003

  20.0000
   2.2600
   0.0020
   0.1380
   0.5009

   fl.OOOO
   3.2900
   0.2000
   1.1600
   1.1336

  30.0000
   8.0080
   0.0200
   1.8597
   2.2995
  BIOLOGICAL
    PLANTS
     (B+C)
   17.0000
 1450.0000
   20.0000
  305.2939
  362.2170

   72.0000
65550.0000
  100.0000
 1796.2063
 7751.0938

   51.0000
  940.0000
   10.0000
  139.8823
  163.7516

   42.0000
    3.0000
    0.1000
    1.6550
    0.9140

   28.0000
  100.0000
    0.0020
    3.6719
   18.8833

   17.0000
    3.2900
    0.2000
    1.4541
    1.0439

   63.0000
   11.3flOO
    0.0200
    2.0154
    2.4278
       PAOE

 SECONDARY

   PLANTS
   5,0000
 200.0000
 100.0000
 160.0000
  54.7717

  17.0000
1000.0000
 100.0000
 298.8235
 223.4851

  11.0000
 190.0000
  10.0000
  82.3636
  56.4114

  14.0000
   3.0000
   0.720Q
   1.8693
   0.8210

  10.0000
   0.1400
   0.0020
   0.0319
   0.0447

   2.0000
   0.2200
   0.2000
   0.2100
   0.0141

  10.0000
   6.7400
   0.0500
   2.0110
   2.2987
            5/23/75

  TOTAL ALL PLANTS

   (A»B»C»OTHER)
   23.0000
 1450.0000
   20*0000
  281.3042
  316.5637

  117.0000
65550.0000
   35.0000
 1600*8601
 6121.0117

   84.0000
  940.0000
   10.0000
  146.5357
  145*4156

   74.0000
   10.0000
    0.0700
    1.6957
    1.3871

   41.0000
  100.0000
    0.0020
    2.5179
   15.6087

   25.0000
   17.8000
    0.2000
    2.3778
    3.5671

  106.0000
   11.3800
    0.0100
    1.6404
    2.0528
NOTES!
1)  NFOATIVF. REMOVALS DELETED
2)  PRIMARY (A)  INCLUDES AOLA02
3)  TRICKLING FILTEN (B) INCLUDES B01,602 ,«04,805
4)  ArTIVATEH SLuDGt (C) INCLUDES Co 1,C»2»C05tCOfr
5)  SFCONOAHY PLANTS ARF THOSf HlPLnGlCflL PLANTS WITH EFFLUENT BOU-S AND SS LFSS THAN OR EQUAL TO 30MG/L
   AMD RHFATtP THAN OR t'OllAL TO 85* rtffVQVAL FOK ROTH PARAMETERS

-------
   REPORT NO.P

  /PA9«METEPS
  V
                                       (A)
                          SIJMMAWY or POTw f.FFLUENT DATA
                            TRICKLING
                             FILTEP
                                (H)
                               ACTIVATED
                                 SLUDGE
                               BIOLOGICAL
                                 PLANTS
                                  (B*C)
                                      PAGE   6

                                SECONDARY

                                 PLANTS
                                         5/23/75

                               TOTAL ALL PLANTS

                                
  01040     COPPER.
  DISSOLVED MG/L AS Cu
  01090     ZINC*
  DISSOLVED MO/L AS /N
  01030
  DISSOLVFO MG/L AS C»
  0104<5     LFAO.
  DISSOLVED MG/L AS
MO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.OEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
.  MIN
 MEAN
STn.OEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.DEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.OEV

NO.POT*
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.OEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.DEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.DEV

NO.POTW
  MAX
  MIN
 MEAN
STD.UtV
 J.OOOO
25.0000
 5.0000
16.6667
10.4084

40.0000
 0.0130
 0.1636
 0.1236

12.0000
82*0000
 4.0000
10.8833
 6.5013

 a. oooo
 5.4000
 4.3000
 4.8500
 0.7778

32.0000
11.7000
 0.0600
 0.5005
 2.0460

26.0000
 3.2500
 0.0400
 0.3941
 0.6701

31.0000
 U.5600
 0.0100
 0.0733
 0.1 197

31.0000
 U.?000
 0.1000
 0.1097
 0.0301
 6.0000
20.0000
 2.0000
10.5000
 6.685R

33.0000
 2.0000
 0.0040
 0.2643
 0.4053

 8.0000
11.6000
 3.000D
 6.3625
 3.3406

 4.0000
 8.4000
 2.3000
 4.4750
 2.7072

10.0000
 0.1300
 0.0300
 0.0730
 0.0*22

 7.0000
 0.1000
 0.0500
 0.0671
 0.0160

10.0000
 o.oion
 o.olon
 o.oioo
 o.oooo

10.0000
 0.1000
 0.0200
 0.0920
 0.0253
 14.0000
 60.0000
 10.0000
 17.2143
 15.0189

 24.0000
 8.2450
 0*0100
 0.5198
 1.6712

 16.0000
 24.5000
 0*4000
 5.41S7
. 6.2786

 8.0000
 8.0000
 1.8000
 A.lies
 1.8310

 10.0000
 1.4000
 0.0100
 0.2300
 0.4466

 9.0000
 1.1606
 0.0100
 0.2678
 0.4380

 10.0000
 0.7000
 0.0190
 0.1120
 0.2183

 10.0000
 0.1000
 o.ioeo
 0.1000
 0.0
20.0000
60.0000
 2.0000
15.2000
13.2688

57.0000
 8*2450
 0*0040
 0.3719
 1.1212

24.0000
24.5000
 0*4000
 5.7333
 5.4142

13.0000
 8.4000
 1.8000
 4.2333
 2.0406

20.0000
 1.4000
 0.0100
 0.1515
 0.3191

16.0000
 1.1600
 0.0100
 0.1800
 0.3361

20.0000
 0.7000
 0.0100
 0.0610
 0.1591

20.0000
 0.1000
 0.0200
 0.0960
 0.0179
 A.0000
60.0000
10.0000
18.3333
20.4124

 7.0000
 2.0000
 0*0600
 0.4421
 0.7126

 5.0000
 6.50DO
 0*4000
 2.9200
 2.3665

 2.0000
 8.0000
 4.0000
 6.0000
 2.8284

 6.0000
 0.1300
 0.0100
 0.0483
 0.0431

 4.0000
 0.0600
 0.0100
 0.0425
 0.0236

 6.0000
 0.1000
 0.0100
 0.0250
 0.0367

 6.0000
 0.1000
 0.1000
 0.1000
 0.0001
 29.0000
100.0000
  2.0000
 17.1034
 19.7634

100.0000
  8.2450
  0.0040
  0.2813
  0.8533

 37.0000
 24.5000
  0*4000
  7.6540
  6.2512

 14.0000
  8*4000
  1.8000
  4.3214
  1.9027

 53.0000
 11.7000
  0.0100
  0.3724
  1.6011

 43.0000
  3.2500
  0.0100
  0.3190
  0.5659

 52.0000
  0.7000
  0*0100
  0*0679
  0.1338

 52.0000
  0.3000
  0.0200
  0.1081
  0.0378
  NOTES!
  1) NFGATIVE REMOVALS DELETED
  2) ppiMAHv (A) INCLUDES AOI.AO?
  3) TPICKLTNG FlLTFW  (H) INCLUDES 301tH02.B04.B05
  4) ACTIvATF-P SLilDGt  (C) INCLUDES CO 1 »Cu
-------
 RFPCIRT
                                     (A)
                                                         Of  P()Tw
                                                    ULTfR
                                                                          DATA
ACTIVATED
  SLUDGE
BIOLOGICAL
  PLANTS
    (B + C)
      PAGE  7

SECONDARY

  PLANTS
          5/23/75

TOTAL ALL PLANTS

  9«0
                                                    10.0000
                                                     0.1000
                                                     0.1000
                                                     o.ioon
                                                     0.0

                                                    10.0000
                                                     0.0100
                                                     o.oioo
                                                     0.0100
                                                     0.0000

                                                    10.0000
                                                     0.1100
                                                     0.0300
                                                     0.0740
                                                     0.0280

                                                     8.0000
                                                     0.0018
                                                     0.0001
                                                     0.0007
                                                     U.0005

                                                    «rO.OOOO
                                                    13.0000
                                                     0.7000
                                                     5.2875
                                                     3.8093

                                                    10.0000
                                                   160.0000
                                                    50.0000
                                                    81.5000
                                                    35.2334

                                                     6.0000
                                                   110.0000
                                                    32.0000
                                                    80.666?
                                                    33.9097

                                                     4.000"
                                                   160.0000
                                                   iu2.ouno
                                                   122.0000
 10.0000
  0.8000
  0.1000
  0.1850
  0.2212

 10.0000
  0.1200
  0.0100
  0.0210
  0.0348

 10.0060
  0.2600
  0.0200
  0.1140
  0.0857

  9.0000
  0.0010
  0.0001
  0.0006
  0*0003

 13.0000
 28.0000
  O.lOOO
  5.6000
  8.3430

  6.0000
 90.0000
 24.0000
 56.3333
 22.5359

  6.0000
^32.0000
 60.0000
191.3333
  4.0000
104.0000
 22.0000
 62.0000
 42.9884
 20.0000
  0.8000
  0.1000
  0.1425
  0.1583

 20.0000
  0.1200
  0.0100
  0.0155
  0.0246

 20.0000
  0.2600
  0.0200
  0.0940
  0.0653

 17.0000
  0.0018
  0.0001
  0.0006
  0.0004

 33.0000
 28.0000
  0.1000
  5.4106
  5.8942

 16.0000
160.0000
 24.0000
 72.0625
 32.7481

 12.0000
632.0000
 32.0000
136.0000
161.7472

  a.oooo
160.0000
 22.0000
 92.0000
 45.9065
  6.0000
  0.1000
  0.1000
  0.1000
  0.0001

  6.0000
  0.0100
  0.0100
  0.0100
  0.0000

  6.0000
  0.1100
  0.0200
  0.0750
  0.0339

  4.0000
  0.0007
  0.0001
  0.0005
  0.0003

  6.0000
  6.6000
  1.0000
  2.7167
  2.0331

  4.0000
160.0000
 40.0000
 81.5000
 53.6002

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
 52.0000
  0.8200
  0.1000
  0.1350
  0.1407

 52.0000
  0.1200
  0.0100
  0.0137
  0.0158

 52.0000
  0.3600
  0.0005
  0.1348
  0.0807

 43.0000
  0.0023
  0.0001
  0.0006
  0.0005

 68.0000
 28.0000
  0.1000
  4.3762
  4.3830

 46.0000
580.0000
 24.0000
145.4239
 94.1036

 26.0000
632.0000
 30.0000
118.6923
121.6461

 19.0000
300.0000
 22.0000
128.4737
 70.2899
1) NFOATlvE WFMfWALS OtlFTtQ
2) PoiMa^v fA) I'-iCLuDtS A01.A02
3) TPICKLjNr- FlllE*  (P) INCLUDES HO 1 ,Ho2,H04,Ff,t  (C) UCLlintS C01 .Ci'2, COS,Cl)6,
5) SFCOMLVWf PI AMIS A^ IH.JSh HiOI_iH>iCAL PLANTS mTTn  EFfrLl'tNT  HDD-S AND SS LESS THAN1 OK EQUAL TO 30MG/L
   n*'H r,KF»TI-w THA-! (,H fi.'l'Al. TO M^'-  *f- n)VA!. f-Ow BOTH  PANS'"- TFWS

-------
/PARAMETERS
V
CATEGORY
                                    (A)
SIIMMAWY 0^  HOT* EFKLUENT OATA                           PAGE

                  ACTIVATED       BIOLOGICAL      SECONDARY
                    SLUDGE          PLANTS
                     (ci             
-------
                                            TABLE  6-1

                                 CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
                                         OF REMOVAL DATA
                                        (PERCENT OF PLANTS)
PERCENT
REMOVAL
                                10
                                        20
LEAD
MANGANESE
TOTAL
ORGANIC
CARBON
CHEMICAL
OXYGEN
DEMAND
              PP
              TFP
              ASP
              BP
              PP
              TFP
              ASP
              BP
100
100
                        100
70
96
                                97
50
96
                        100    100
               100
               100
33
96
                33
               100
                98
                99
 27
 91
100
 94
                11
                94
                98
                96
17
87
92
89
                11
                86
                95
                91
 0
70
92
78
                 11
                 81
                 83
                 82
                                                        39
                                                        77
                                                        53
                11
                56
                73
                64
                                                        17
                                                        23
                                                        19
                 6
                31
                48
                39
 0
11
15
13
                                                                                                        100
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
PP
TFP
ASP
BP
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
26
43
34
38
61
71
74
73
56
71
67
69
62
70
71
70
70
98
97
97
18
56
59
58
82
92
95
94
93
93
97
95
37
76
73
75
19
43
30
35
44
67
74
71
50
59
59
59
52
60
65
63
47
92
94
93
7
SO
43
46
61
87
91
89
81
90
91
91
18
66
68
68
6
37
27
32
36
60
67
64
41
54
57
56
33
55
62
59
34
76
78
77
7
34
30
32
39
79
84
82
67
77
85
82
12
47
47
47
6
26
20
23
25
48
56
52
24
51
53
52
33
50
44
46
27
71
75
73
4
16
16
16
32
62
81
72
41
60
74
68
6
33
42
38
3
9
16
13
19
31
43
37
15
34
43
39
29
10
29
26
18
51
63
58
4
13
8
10
26
40
64
53
26
40
71
57
6
28
31
30
3
9
11
10
19
21
41
31
9
27
31
29
19
10
18
22
11
39
51
46
4
6
4
5
13
29
52
41
15
30
63
48
6
9
21
15
3
3
7
5
6
17
39
28
9
15
20
18
14
0
12
11
9
31
37
34
4
6
4
5
3
15
40
28
11
23
49
37
6
4
21
13
0
0
2
1
0
B
20
15
3
10
B
9
0

6
7
0
22
19
21
4
3
0
1
3
6
22
15
4
20
31
26
6
0
15
B


0
0

4
10
6
0
5
2
3


0
4

a
3
5
4
0

0
0
0
9
5
0
0
23
12
0

15
8





O
0
0

0
0
0



0

0
0
0
0


0


0
O



0


0
0
31
35
44
79
36
48
54
102
34
41
49
90
21
20
34
54
44
49
63
112
28
32
49
81
38
52
58
110
27
30
35
65
16
21
19
40
PHOSPHORUS
TOTAL - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP


INSUFFICIENT
100
100
100
75
88
83

DATA
50
77
67


33
69
55


20
50
38


12
33
25


4
25
17


4
13
10


4
8
7


4
2
3


0
0
0


24
36
60
TOTAL
"KJELDALH"
NITROGEN



AMMONIA



PHENOLICS




- PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
- PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
- PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP


INSUFFICIENT
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
90
90
90
71
79
93
86
INSUFFICIENT
100
100
100
83
94
89

DATA
80
63
74
38
77
78
78
DATA
83
88
86


70
45
61
23
56
63
60

67
81
75


60
27
48
9
41
55
48

67
81
75


50
18
39
7
31
44
32

58
75
68


40
18
32
4
27
34
30

50
69
61


35
18
29
0
20
29
25

25
63
46


15
9
13

16
25
21

8
50
32


5
9
6

8
17
13

0
31
18


0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0


20
11
31
42
48
47
95

12
16
28
                 30
                 23
                 13
                 36
18
36
40
76
SUSPENDED
SOLIDS



- PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP


100
100
100
100
98
99
96
98
98
98
85
95
95
95
74
92
94
93
53
86
87
87
34
85
76
80
11
73
66
70
4
45
56
51
2
24
34
29
0
0
O
O
47
66
62
128
                                                        6-45

-------
                                          TABLE  6-1  (Continued)

                                    CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
                                            OF REMOVAL DATA
                                          (PERCENT OF PUNTS)
PERCENT
REMOVAL                  p	10	20	30	40	50	60	70	80	90	100	N_

BIOCHEMICAL
OHGEN
DEMAND      - FP        100     83      65      42      29      17      12       6       2       0               52
            - TIT       100     98      98      97      97      92      88      77      63      20        0      60
            - ASP              100      98      98      98      97      92      83      72      46        0      65
            - BF        100     99      98      98      98      94      90      80      68      34        0     125


            NOTES:   1)  PP - Primary Plants (AO1, AO2)
                     2)  TFP - TricJcling Filter Plants (BO1, B02, BO4, BOS)
                     3)  ASP - Activated Sludge Plants (CO1, C02, COS, C06, CO9, C19, C20)
                     4)  BP - Biological Plants (TFP + ASP)
                     5)  N • Number of Plants
                                                        6-46

-------
            TABLE  6-2

CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
         OF EFFLUENT DATA
        (PERCENT OF PLANTS)
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/1)^
CADMIUM - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/l).>
CHROMIUM- PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/1) ;»
LEAD - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/1) >.
MERCURY - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/1) Z
COPPER - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/1)^
NICKEL - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/1) ^
ZINC - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/1) Z
IRON - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (ug/Di
MANGANESE - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (mg/l)>
PHOSPHORUS- PP
TOTAL - TFP
- ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION (mg/1) >.
TOTAL - PP
KJELDAHL - TFP
NITROGEN - ASP
- BP
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATI ON (mg/1 ) "Z.
AMMONIA - PP
- TFP
- ASP
- BP

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100

0

4
89
83
92
88

50
73
48
42
45

50
81
58
57
57

0.4
70
77
62
68

50
88
52
51
52

50
64
66
57
61

100
92
79
65
72

600
90
65
30
46

60
82
68
78
73

2
90
100
93
96

5

8
80
68
75
72

100
45
35
25
29

100
54
24
14
19

0.8
30
27
32
31

100
54
30
31
30

100
39
47
23
33

200
71
39
39
39

1200
53
24
16
20

120
64
39
26
33

4
80
89
58
70

10

12
40
22
31
27

150
28
25
17
21

150
30
13
10
11

1.2
17
14
16
15

150
33
13
13
13

150
12
29
11
18

300
51
26
18
22

1800
30
12
8
10

180
41
21
17
20

6
60
70
38
51

15

16
37
17
27
22

200
25
23
15
19

200
24
9
8
a


20
34
15
19
17

250
18
21
12
16

250
5
9
2
5

1.6 2.0
9
14
14
14

200
25
13
9
11

200
9
26
11
17

400
31
19
14
16

2400
20
9
3
6

240
36
14
13
14

8
50
63
20
37

20
INSUFFICIENT
100
100
100

0
100
100
100
100
86
83
85

4
97
86
79
83
67
83
73

8
84
69
59
64
48
67
55

12
57
57
43
50
29
58
39

16
40
36
25
31
9
5
11
8

250
19
9
4
7

250
9
16
7
11

500
31
16
12
14

3000
10
6
3
4

300
18
14
13
14

10
10
41
5
19

25
DATA
10
25
15

20
24
26
13
20

24
11
5
4
4

300
15
21
12
16

300
5
9
0
4

2.4
9
5
5
5

300
19
9
4
7

300
9
16
5
10

600
27
11
9
10

3600
3
6
3
4

360
9
11
9
10

12
10
26
0
10

30

10
8
9

24
17
14
5
9

28
9
5
4
4

350
13
17
12
14

350
5
9

4

2.8
9
5
5
5

350
13
9
3
6

350
6
16
5
10

700
24
9
8
8

4200
3
6
3
4

420
0
4
9
6

14
10
7

3

35

10
0
6

28
11
11
0
5

32
0
2
2
2

400
10
17
12
14

400
3
9

4

3.2
9
5
5
5

400
13
9
1
5

400
6
16
4
9

800
22
9
8
8

4800
3
6
3
4

480

4
4
4

16
10
7

3

40

5

3

32
5
8

4

36

2
2
2

450
10
12
8
10

450
3
7

3

3.6
9
5
S
5

450
10
9
1
5

450
6
13
4
7

900
20
9
3
6

5400
0
6
3
4

540

4
4
4

18
10
4

1

45

5

3

36
3
6

3

40

2
2
2

500
8
12
8
10

500
3
7

3

4.0
9
5
5
5

500
8
6
1
3

500
6
11
4
6

1000
16
7
3
5

6000

6
3
4

600

0
4
2

20
10
0

0

50

O

0

40
3
5

1

N
35
41
48
89


40
52
60
112


37
45
51
96


23
22
37
59


48
54
68
122


33
38
56
94


49
57
66
123


30
34
37
71


22
28
23
51


10
27
40
67



21
12
33


63
65
63
128
              6-47

-------
                                              TABLE 6-2  (Continued)

                                       CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
                                                OF EFFUJEHT DATA
                                                (PERCENT  OF PLANTS)
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION  (ug/1) 2.   0
PHENOLXCS  - tf
           - TFP        10O
           - ASP        100
           - BP         100
                                  38
                                  75
                                  59
         2	  3       4
       INSUFFICIENT DATA
        38     38      38
        75     50      38
        59     45      38
                       38
                       31
                       34
                         38
                         31
                         34
                         38
                         31
                         34
                                          38
                                          31
                                          34
                                                                                                38
                                                                                                13
                                                                                                24
                         10

                         31
                          6
                         17
                         13
                         16
                         29
BrrLUENT
CONCENTRATION
TOTAL      - PP
ORGANIC    - TFP
CARBON     - ASP
           - BP
                          0
                        100
                        100
                        100
                        100
 30
100
 96
 SO
 78
60
97
30
14
24
90
77
13
 7
11
120
 54
  4
  0
  3
               150
                31
                 0
                                                                       180
                                                                        17
210
  9
240
  9
       270
         3
300
  3
                                                                                                                 35
                                                                                                                 23
                                                                                                                 14
                                                                                                                 37
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION  ("9/1 >.£    0      40     80    120     160      200      240     280
CHEMICAL   - PP         100     100     89     89       79      68       63      63
OXYGEN     - TFP        100      94     72     47       22      14        8       8
           - ASP        100      78     43     20       15        8        3       0
           - BP         100      86     57     33       IB      11        5       4
                                                       320     360      400
                                                        58     42       37
                                                         330
                                                                                                                 19
                                                                                                                 36
                                                                                                                 40
                                                                                                                 76
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION
SUSPENDED  - PP
SOLIDS     - TFP
           - ASP
           - BP
                         0
                        100
                        100
                        100
                        100
 20
 98
 73
 58
 65
40
93
42
31
37
60
78
17
20
18
 80
 48
  9
 11
 10
               10O
                24
                 6
                                                                       120
                                                                        20
                                                                         S
                                                                         6
                                                                         5
140
 13
  3
  6
  5
160    ISO     200
 11      9       9
  222
  320
  221
                         54
                         66
                         64
                        130
COHCENTIIATIOM  (•9/1)2.   0       20     40
BIOCHEMICAL- PP         100     100     97
OXYGEN     - TFP        100      82     41
           - ASP        100      4O     20
           - BP         100      60     30
60
93
20
 8
13
 80
 86
 15
  5
 10
               100
                74
                13
                 5
                 9
                              120
                               59
                                8
                                5
                                6
                                              140
                                               52
                                                7
                                                5
                                                6
                                                                                        160    180     200
                                                                                         45     36      28
                                                                                          55       3
                                                                                          332
                                                                                          44       2
                                                                                                                 58
                                                                                                                 61
                                                                                                                 65
                                                                                                                126
        NOTES:  1)  PP - Primary Plants  (AO1, AO2)
                2)  TFP - Trickling Filter Plants  (BO1, BO2, B04. BOS)
                3)  ASP - Activated Sludge Plants  (GDI, 002, COS, O06, CO9, CIS, C20)
                4)  BP - Biological Plants (TFP + ASP)
                5)  N - Hater of Plants
                                                               6-48

-------
            APPENDIX 7
     ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
SECTION A - Introduction

SECTION B - Management of a Control Program

SECTION C - Legal Aspects of a Control Program

SECTION D - Monitoring

SECTION E - Pollutants which Interfere with
            Publicly Owned Treatment Works

SECTION F - Removal of Pollutants in Publicly
            Owned Treatment Works

-------
                    SECTION A - INTRODUCTION

               Reference:  Volume I - Section A & Appendices 1 & 2
A-l   Theories and Practices of Industrial Waste Treatment,
      Nemerow, Nelson Leonard,  Addison-Wesley Publishing
      Company, Inc., Reading, Massachusetts, (1963).

      This book is divided into four sections:

      1.  The effects of industrial wastes on a receiving
          stream and how to treat wastes to protect the
          stream.

      2.  Theories of waste treatment including solids
          removal, neutralization, equalization and pro-
          portioning, and removal of dissolved organics and
          inorganics.

      3.  Engineering practice and actual case studies which
          consider economics, public opinion, personality
          differences, local laws or customs, and previous
          community  experience to help the reader put theories
          into practice.

      4.  A condensed evaluation of the nature of major indus-
          trial wastes - their origin, characteristics and
          treatments.


A-2   Projects in the Industrial Pollution Control Division -
      December, 1974, Environmental Protection Technology
      Series, EPA 600/2-75-001 (March, 1975).

      This book is a compilation of information sheets from
      all projects initiated since fiscal year 1967  (through
      fiscal year 1974).  Each sheet contains the objectives,
      statistical information, and a brief description of one
      project.


A-3   "Combined Tannery and Municipal Waste  Treatment -
      Gloversville - Johnstown, New York," Nemerow, N. and
      R. Armstrong,  Proceedings of the 21st  Industrial Waste
      Conference,  Purdue University, (1966), p. 447.
      This article describes the stream survey used on the
      Cayadutta Creek to determine the waste treatment re-
      quired for a combined tannery-municipal waste discharge
      flow.  The sampling procedure used is  indicated and the
      results are discussed.  Laboratory scale treatment tests
      were conducted on the waste stream, and the results and
      conclusions are presented.
                                 7-1

-------
A-4    "Synthetic Organic Pesticides - An Evaluation of Their
       Persistence in Natural Water," Okey, Robert W. and
       Richard H. Bogan*  Proceedings of the llth Pacific
       Northwest Industrial Waste Conference, Corvallis, Oregon,
       Cir. No. 29, p. 222  (1963).
       Metabolism studies were carried out with the Warburg
       microrespirometer, and the conventional 5-day 20°C
       biochemical oxygen demand test to determine the persis-
       tence  (biodegradeability) of insecticides.  The work
       was carried out in two principal phases.  The first
       employed unacclimated activated sludge, and the second
       used acclimated activated sludge.  A discussion of the
       results is included.
A-5   "Toxicity of Chemicals in Paper Factory Effluents,"
      Norup, Bjarne, Water Research, Vol. 6, p. 1585 (1972)

      This article presents the results of a study to demon-
      strate that PGP is as toxic to fish as the dangerous,
      previously used slimecides containing mercury.  A dis-
      cussion of the experimental results is given.


A-6   "Treatment Studies of Combined Textile and Domestic
      Wastes," Lauria, Donald T. and Charles A. Willis,
      Proceedings of the 19th Industrial Waste Conference,
      Purdue University, (1964), p. 45.

      Pilot plant studies were conducted to evaluate a com-
      pletely mixed biological process to treat combined
      domestic and industrial wastes, produced in the town
      of Valdese, North Carolina.  The results of the pilot
      plant tests and conclusions are presented in this
      paper.


A-7   "Biomonitoring of Industrial Effluents," Jackson,
      Herbert W., and William A. Brungs, Jr., Proceedings
      of the 21st Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,
      (1966), p. 117.
       *
      This paper describes a method to determine the toxicity
      of wastewater by using tanks containing aquatic life.
      The death of fish signal a deleterious change of the
      wastewater.  A schematic flow scheme of the system and
      operating procedures are given.
                               7-2

-------
A-8   "Isolation and Identification of Anaerobic and Faculta-
      tive Bacteria Present in the Digestion Process,"
      Burbank, N. C., Jr., et.al., Proceedings of the 19th
      Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, (1964),
      p. 552.

      The purpose of this study was fivefold:

      1.  To improve the equipment devised to cultivate
          anaerobic bacteria.

      2.  To improve the techniques for identifying anaerobic
          bacteria.

      3.  To isolate and identify the anaerobic bacteria and
          facultative bacteria present in sewage sludge.

      4.  To correlate the population of the bacteria to the
          operation of digesters.

      5.  To isolate and identify anaerobic and facultative
          bacteria present in the digestion process of meat
          packing wastes.

      Results and conclusions are presented in this study.


A-9   "Industrial Wastewater Reclamation," Rainbow, Carl A.,
      Proceedings of the 23rd Industrial Waste Conference,
      Purdue University, (1968), p. 1.

      The environmental and economic advantages of wastewater
      reclamation are presented in this paper.  Specific case
      histories are presented where wastewater reclamation has
      demonstrated distinct advantages over other methods of
      treatment.
A-10  "Decision Factors - Separate Industry or Joint Municipal
      Waste Treatment," Sanders, Francis A., Proceedings of
      the 23rd Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,
      (1968), p. 1021.

      This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages
      to both industry and communities of joint treatment.
      The factors which affect the decision of joint treatment,
      and the advantages of using a consulting engineer are also
      presented.
                               7-3

-------
A-ll  "Combined Waste Treatment at Grand Island, Nebraska,"
      Gibbs, W.R., and Henry Benjes, Jr., Proceedings of the
      22nd Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,
      (1967), p. 800.

      This paper discusses the development of the conceptual
      design of the new sewage collection and treatment system
      at Grand Island, Nebraska.  The detailed design and the
      operation of the treatment system are also presented.


A-12  Comparative Effects of Chemical Pretreatment on Carbon
      Adsorption, Westrick, James J., et al., presented at
      the Water Pollution Control Federation 47th Annual Con-
      ference, October 8-13, 1972.

      Three physical-chemical pilot plants were operated,
      utilizing three different chemical clarification schemes
      preceding filtration and carbon adsorption.  The purpose
      of the study was to compare effluent qualities from each
      plant.  A method of data analysis was developed to permit
      simplistic comparison of carbon dosages and costs.


A-13  "Phys/Chem or Biological:  Which Will You Choose?",
      Earth, E.E..and Jesse M. Cohen, Water & Wastes Engineering,
      (Nov., 1974).


      The relative advantages and disadvantages of physical-
      chemical and biological wastewater treatment methods are
      discussed.  Examples are given where combinations of both
      methods can satisfy a particular wastewater requirement.


A-14  "The Treatment of Industrial Wastewater for Reuse -
      Chrysler Indianapolis Foundry," Balden, A.R., and
      Paul R. Erickson, Proceedings of the 25th Industrial
      Waste Conference, Purdue University, (1970), p. 62.

      This paper discusses the waste treatment plant designed
      for the Chrysler Indianapolis Foundry.   The waste treat-
      ment plant handles the waste stream produced by the gas
      scrubbers, which contain iron particles, evaporated oils
      and phenols.


A-15  "Wastewater Load Evaluat ed at a Multi-Product Organic
      Chemical Plant," Morrissey, A. J. and S. A. LaRocca,
      Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 117, No. 5, p. 173,(May, 1970)

      The wastewaters generated from a chemical plant are
      characterized and their effects on receiving waters are
      assessed.  The sampling and analysis program is also
      discussed.

                                7-4

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A-16  "Experience in the Treatment and Re-use of Industrial
      Waste Waters," Renn, Charles E., Proceedings of the 24th
      Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, (1969),
      p. 962.

      The re-use of industrial waste waters at the Black and
      Decker Manufacturing Company's Hampstead, Maryland plant
      were discussed.  A detailed description of the collection
      pond is given, and a discussion of the operating problems
      faced is also contained.
A-17  "Water Conservation and Reuse by Industry," Irvine,
      Robert L., Jr. and William B. Davis, Proceedings of the
      24th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University (1969),
      p. 450.

      The reasons why industry has not implemented in-plant
      water management programs for water conservation and
      reuse are discussed in this paper.  The first part of
      the paper disputes these reasons; the second part dis-
      cusses how the concepts of conservation and reuse aid
      in overall plant performance. The third part indicates
      how the efficiency of biological waste treatment facili-
      ties can be increased.
A-18  "Rough Days Ahead for Industry, but New Methods Gain,"
      Heckroth, Charles W., Water and Wastes Engineering,
      (January, 1972), p. A2.

      This article briefly discusses:
      1.  The W.P.C.F. meeting held in San Francisco in 1971,
          including EPA viewpoints regarding latest treatment
          technology.
      2.  Studies presented at the WPCF meeting on how five
          towns are handling both municipal and industrial
          wastewaters.
      3.  Advances in pulp and paper, food, plating, plastic,
          and mining waste treatment systems.
A-19  "Detection of Industrial Wastes in Municipal Systems,"
      Delaney, Ladin, Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 42, No. 4, p. 645, (April, 1970).

      This article briefly discusses some basic procedures for
      detecting illegal discharges to sewerage systems.  Speci-
      fic case histories are presented to illustrate each of
      the author's suggestions.
                               7-5

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A-20  "Acceptable Methods for the Utilization or Disposal of
      Sludges,"  U.S. E.P.A., 430/9-75, a preliminary draft
      of a technical bulletin. Supplement to Federal Guidelines;
      Design, Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment
      Facilities, 26 pp.

      This bulletin discusses the factors important to the
      environmental acceptability of a particular sludge manage-
      ment system.  The environmental assessment procedure to
      determine the acceptability of sludge disposal at a specific
      site is also discussed.  Information on the constraints of
      various sludge disposal methods is presented.


A-21  "Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities," Part I,
      Tchobanoglous, George, Public Works, Vol. 105, No. 7,
      p. 58,  (July, 1974).

      This article defines some of the general problems associ-
      ated with small waste treatment plants.  Alternate treat-
      ment processes and design considerations for small plants
      are discussed.  Economic comparisons between treatment
      processes are also given.


A-22  "Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities," Part 2,
      Tchobanoglous, George, Public Works, Vol. 105, No. 8,
      p. 58,  (August, 1974).

      Design considerations for small activated sludge systems
      are discussed.  An economic evaluation of alternative
      processes is considered and illustrated.  Capital and
      operating costs for various systems are shown.


A-23  Industrial Wastes, Rudolfs, W., Reinhold Publishing
      Corporation, New York, N. Y. (1953), 497 pp.

      Brief descriptions of industrial waste-producing processes,
      sources of wastes, recovery and remedial measures, quan-
      tities and characteristics of the wastes, methods of treat-
      ment and the effects of the wastes on domestic sewage
      treatment processes are presented.  Various contributors
      presented waste treatment fundamentals from the physical,
      chemical, biochemical and engineering viewpoints.
                               7-6

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A-24  "Measuring Open Channel Wastewater Flows," Blois, R.S.,
      Pollution Engr., Vol. 19, No. 6, P. 20, (Nov.-Dec., 1973).

      The use of weirs to measure flow rates is discussed.
      Some basic designs are given, and simple flow recording
      methods are presented.


A-25  "Analytical Parameters of Petrochemical and Refinery
      Wastewaters," Ford, D.L., et. al., Journal of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 43, No. 8, p. 1712,
      (August, 1971).

      This paper discusses the tests for BOD, COD, TOD, and
      TOC, and shows how these tests can be used to determine
      wastewater characterization and Wastewater treatability.


A-26  "Unique System Solves Plastic Problem," Water and Wastes
      Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 5, p. C-20,  (May, 1973).

      This article briefly discusses the method used by the
      Marbon Chemical Division of Borg-Warner Corporation to
      determine whether a waste stream was biodegradeable.
      The analysis also produced the design parameters for
      the full scale plant.


A-27  "A Method for the Measurement of the Radioactive Content
      of Wastewater," Haughey, Francis J. and Raymond M. Manganelli,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 36,
      No. 1, p. 88,  (January, 1964).

      A method to measure the radioactive content of wastewater
      is presented in this article.  The method accounts for
      the relationship between radioactivity and the various
      sewage solids fractions.


A-28  "Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Instrumentation,"
      Babcock, Russel H., Water and Wastes Engineering, Vol. 5,
      No. 8, p. 47,  (August, 1968).

      This article briefly discusses instruments and controls
      that can be used in a sewage plant.
                                7-7

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A-29  "Surveillance in Water Quality Management," Ward, Robert C.,
      et al.  Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 45, No. 10, p. 2081,  (October, 1973).

      This paper reviews the strategy developments in water
      quality surveillance that have occurred in this country.
      The paper also discusses the importance of data to
      successful implementation of these strategies and notes
      failures in the utilization of the data.  Remedies for
      these situations are also proposed.


A-30  Manual on Disposal of Refinery Wastes, Volume on Liquid
      Wastes, American Petroleum Institute, 1801 K Street, N.W.,
      Washington, D.C. (1969).

      This document is a comprehensive manual on the disposal
      and treatment of petroleum refinery wastes.  Included is
      information on the removal and reduction of pollutants,
      collection and treatment of wastewaters, monitoring, and
      solubility and toxicity data.


A-31  Principles of Industrial Waste Treatment, Gurnham, C. Fred,
      John Wiley & Sons,  Inc., New York, New York, (1955), 399 pp.

      This book examines the problem of industrial wastes from
      the unit operations viewpoint.  Operations and processes
      used to treat wastes before discharge include physical,
      chemical and biological pretreatment.  Sources of wastes,
      their pollutional effects and a review of major industry
      problems are covered.


A-32  Industrial Waste Treatment Practice, Eldridge,  E. F.,
      McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, New York, (1942),
      401 pp.

      Information and data pertaining to the design and operation
      of treatment works for industrial wastewaters are given.
      Wastewaters from important industries are characterized.

A-33  Choosing the Optimum Financial Stratecrv, Upgrading1 Meat
      Packing Facilities to Reduce Pollution.  U.S. EPA Technology
      Transfer Seminar Publication, October, 1973, 38 pp.

      This booklet presents various strategies for financing
      pollution control equipment.  The areas  covered include
      depreciation. State and other financing, tax incentives,
      and comparisons between on-site and municipal treatment.
      Three hypothetical meat packing facilities are considered
      as examples, and their method of optimizing costs are detailed.
                              7-8

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A-34  In Process Modifications and Pretreatment,  Upgrading Meat
      Packing Facilities to Reduce Pollution,  U.S.  EPA,  October,
      1973,  90 pp.

      Methods of reducing pollution from meat  packing plants are
      described in this report.  Both in-plant modifications and
      pretreatment of wastes are discussed. Two  case histories
      are presented,  with operating results.   A discussion of
      odor problems and control is also included.

A-35  Waste Treatment, Upgrading Meat Packing  Facilities to
      Reduce Pollution, U.S. EPA, October,  1973,  64 pp.

      This booklet describes the use of biological wastewater
      treatment methods to treat waste from meat  packing plants.
      The various biological systems are indicated, and procedures
      for planning, designing and constructing such facilities
      are recommended.  Proper operation and maintenance pro-
      cedures are presented, and case histories of several plants
      utilizing biological treatment are detailed.

A-36  In-Plant Control of Pollution, Upgrading Textile Operations
      to Reduce Pollution, U.S. EPA Technology Transfer Seminar
      Publication,  October, 1974, 118 pp.

      This study surveys the wastes produced by textile operations
      and indicates various treatment methods  to reduce and eliminate
      pollution.  Examples of flow reduction,  water reuse and waste
      segregation are presented.  Different pretreatment techniques
      are also discussed.

A-37  Wastewater Treatment Systems, Upgrading  Textile Operations
      to Reduce Pollution, U.S. EPA, October,  1974, 45 pp.

      Experience with using biological treatment systems and
      activated carbon to treat textile wastes is described in
      this bulletin.   The sources and strengths of wastewaters
      from various textile manufacturing processes are described,
      and case histories from several plants are indicated.

A-38  In-Process Pollution Abatement, Upgrading Metal Finishing
      Facilities to Reduce Pollution, U.S.  EPA, July, 1973, 69 pp.

      This booklet describes generally the metal finishing industry
      and techniques that can be used to control pollution.  One
      chapter deals specifically with water pollution, and discusses
      both conservation and treatment.
                              7-9

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A-39  Waste Treatment, Upgrading Metal Finishing Facilities to
      Reduce Pollution, U.S. EPA, July, 1973, 47 pp.

      Methods of treating metal-finishing wastes are discussed
      in this document.  Methods of process solution regeneration
      and recovery are indicated and commonly used waste treatment
      systems are also described.  A chapter on solid-liquid
      separation, solids concentration and sludge disposal is
      included.  The economic considerations of waste treatment
      are outlined.

A-40  Upgrading Poultry Processing Facilities to Reduce Pollution.
      Volume 1 - In-Process Pollution Abatement, Volume 2 - Pre-
      treatment of Poultry Processing Wastes, Volume 3 - Waste
      Treatment, U.S. EPA Technology Transfer Seminar Publication,
      June, 1973.

      This three volume set of booklets describes methods of
      reducing and treating the wastes from poultry processing
      operations.  The first volume describes the industry and
      its wastes,and presents a case study of process and equip-
      ment modifications which were successful in reducing waste-
      water.  The second booklet discusses unit operations which
      may be used as pretreatment of poultry wastes.  The relation-
      ship of municipal ordinances and these wastes is also indi-
      cated.  The third volume discusses complete waste treatment,
      including planning, selection and operating suggestions.  A
      case history of a waste treatment plant for poultry wastes
      is included.

A-41  Technical Aspects of Joint Waste Treatment; Municipal/Industrial,
      Litsky, W., et.al. editor. Proceedings of an Institute Held
      at Framingham, Massachusetts, March 5, 1969, Technical Guidance
      Center for Industrial Water Pollution Control (University of
      Massachusetts) and Associated Industries of Massachusetts.

      This document is a collection of papers dealing with the
      organizational, managerial and technical aspects of joint
      industry/municipal sewage treatment.  Some of the subjects
      included are economic studies of joint treatment and case
     ; histories of combined treatment.  15 technical papers are
      included.


      For additional information pertaining to this section,
      please refer to the following articles:

                              E-31
                              E-66
                              E-73

                              D-112


                              7-10

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                  SECTION B - MANAGEMENT OF A
                              CONTROL PROGRAM

                  Reference:  Volume  I - Section 3
B-l   "Delaware System Moves Ahead,"  Webber, Paul J. and
      Robert C. Kausch, Water and Wastes Engineering, p. 44,
      January, 1972.

      This article describes how the Delaware River Basin
      Commission set up a regional waste treatment system
      in cooperation with the local municipalities and in-
      dustries.  The article describes the history, starting
      from the original agreement, through the pilot plant
      to the beginning of the final plans.
B-2   "Classifying Industrial Wastewater Emissions,"
      Williams, Rodney T., Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 121,
      No. 7, p. 86, (July, 1974).

      This article describes the classification methodology
      of the East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland,
      California to categorize the industrial users of their
      system.  The article describes the classification pro-
      gram, the rate  structure, the regulations and permits
      used.


B-3   "Pollution Abatement Thru Government-Corporate
      Cooperation,"  Reed, Paul E., Water and Sewage Works,
      Vol. 121, No. 9, p. 104,  (September, 1974).

      This article describes the managerial, fiscal, and
      political aspects of the Joint Treatment Facility be-
      tween the Borough of Naugatuck, Connecticut and Uni-
      royal, Inc.  The Naugatuck Treatment Company, which is
      owned by Uniroyal, Inc. will run the plant.  The
      financial considerations of this arrangement are
      described.
B-4   "Chicago Industrial Waste Surcharge Ordinance,"
      Anderson, Norval E. and Ben Sosewitz, Journal of the
      Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 43, No. 8,
      p. 1591, (August, 1971).

      This article first describes in detail the surcharge
      program, and then includes a copy of the ordinance
      used by the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater
      Chicago.
                                7-11

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 B-5    "The  Joint  Municipal  and  Industrial Wastewater Treatment
       Approach -  A Case History," Hickman,  Paul T., Presented
       at  the Water Pollution Control Federation Meeting, Denver,
       Colorado, October 9,  1974.

       This  paper  presents a case history of the Joint Municipal
       and Industrial  approach to water pollution control, prac-
       ticed in the City of  Springfield, Missouri.  The article
       describes the collection  system, treatment plants, and
       the history of  the surcharge system.


 B-6    "All  Parties Can Benefit  from Joint Municipal-Industry
       Treatment," Byrd, J.  Floyd, Water and Sewage Works,
       Volume 116, No. 11, p. IW 14, November,  1969.

       This  article lists the advantages of  joint treatment as
       opposed  to  separate industrial treatment.  A number of
       speci-fic cases  are presented to support  these claims.
       Factors  affecting the development of  a good ordinance
       are also listed.


 B-7    "Methods of Charging  for  the Reception,  Treatment and
       Disposal of Toxic Wastes," Harkness,  N., Water Pollution
       Control, Vol. 69,(1970).

       This  article presents methods of calculating the costs
       of  (and  the charges for)  treating toxic wastes mixed
      with  sewage.  Different methods are presented for differ-
       ent types of wastes to be treated.


 B-8    "Technical  Bases for Assessing the Strength, Charges for
      Treatment and Treatability of Trade Wastes," Simpson, James R.,
      Water  Pollution Control, Vol. 66, No. 2, p. 165,(1967).

      This  article presents a detailed methodology, with formulas,
       for determining the strength, and charges for treatment of
       industrial wastes in publicly owned treatment works.


B-9    "Rx for Industry:   Regionalism,"  Traquair,  William C.,
      Water  and Wastes Engineering, May,  1973.

      This article states the reasons for choosing joint treat-
      ment in Concord, N.H., and describes the treatment system
      used.
                                 7-12

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B-10  "Cooperation Helps Erie/' Waytenick,  Robert J.,  Water
      and Wastes Engineering,  September,  1973,  p. 76.

      This article describes the agreement  between Erie,
      Pennsylvania and the Hammermill Paper Company for a
      joint waste treatment system.  A description of  the
      treatment plant is also presented.


B-ll  "Estimating Industrial Water Pollution in Small  Regions,"
      Greenberg, Michael R. and Rae Zimmerman,  Journal of the
      Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol.  45, No. 3, p. 462,
      (March, 1973) .

      This article describes the methodology used to develop
      a model for estimating the volume and quality of indus-
      trial effluents.  The model was developed for the New York
      Metropolitan region, consisting of 21 counties.


B-12  Enforcement Management System Users Guide, U.S.  E.P.A.,
      NTIS No.  PB 210 716, 210 pp., September,  1972.

      The Enforcement Management System  (EMS) was developed
      to aid our pollution control agencies handle data arising
      from most agency enforcement activities.   The system
      emphasizes management control of enforcement functions
      and establishes standardized methods  of handling data.


B-13  "Industrial Waste Charges;" Seagraves, James A., Journa1
      of the Environmental Engineering Division, ASCE Vol. 99,
      No. EE 6, p. 873,(December, 1973).

      The controversial issues involved in establishing equitable
      industrial charges for wastewater discharges are discussed.
      Included  are several examples of existing surcharge methods.


B-14  "Combined Treatment," Byrd, J. F.,  Proceedings of the 16th
      Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,   (1961), p. 92,

      The advantages and limitations of combined municipal-indus-
      trial sewage treatment are discussed.  Several methods of
      recovering costs are also reviewed.
                             7-13

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B-15  "Potential of Large Metropolitan Sewers for Disposal of
      Industrial Wastes," Gibbs, Charles V. and Ray H. Bothel,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol 37,
      No. 10, p. 1417,(October, 1965).

      The advantages to industry of locating in a large metro-
      politan area to benefit from joint treatment of industrial
      wastes are discussed.  The discussion includes the relative
      financial, personnel,technical and treatability aspects of
      sewage treatment.


B-16  "Development of an Industrial Waste Study for a Munici-
      pality," Meers, J. E., et al. Journal of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 36, No. 12, p. 1501,
      (December, 1964).

      A survey was conducted to develop a comprehensive sewerage
      plan for the Bloom Township Sanitary District, Chicago
      Heights, Illinois.  The objectives of the study were to
      identify wastewater constituents that interfere with treat-
      ment works, to determine the extent that the present facili-
      ties could be utilized, and to evaluate the present sewer
      use ordinance.


B-17  "An Industry Approach to Pollution Abatement," Rocheleau, R.F.,
      and E. F. Taylor, Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 36,  No. 10, p. 1185,(October, 1964).

      The factors necessary to implement an effective industrial
      waste management program are discussed.  Control methods
      and techniques are also described and economic considerations
      are stressed.
B-18  "New Concepts in Industrial Sewage Collection," Munson,
      Edward D., Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 36, No. 9,  p. 1146,(September, 1964).

      This article discusses the segregation of industrial wastes
      and their conveyance through open channels as a means of
      wastewater collection and treatment.  The Bayport, Texas
      industrial sewerage plan is also described.
                               7-14

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B-19  "Combined Treatment - A Coast to Coast Coverage,"
      Byrd, J. Floyd, Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 39, No. 4, p. 601,(April, 1967).

      This article discusses factors that can contribute to
      the failure or success of combined industrial and muni-
      cipal wastewater treatment systems.  The advantages of
      performance and cost of joint treatment are examined.
      Precautions necessary to assure success are also outlined.


B-20  "Combined Treatment at Kalamazoo - Cooperation in Action,"
      Swets, Donald H., et al, Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 39, No. 2, p. 204,(February, 1967).

      This article describes the steps which led to the esta-
      blishment of a government and industry joint wastewater
      treatment system.  Some of the philosophies that shaped
      the venture, and how the program evolved and was imple-
      mented are discussed.  Points of view are presented by
      representatives of each of the affected institutions:
      public works director, industry, city and state.


B-21  "Evaluation Factors for Joint Waste Treatment," Reiter, W.M.,
      Pollution Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 12, p. 38,(December, 1974)

      This article contains a general discussion on the factors
      that need to be considered in a joint municipal-industrial
      waste treatment program.  Factors include waste treatability;
      federal, state and municipal regulations; pretreatment re-
      quirements; and cost and extent of monitoring and surveil-
      lance.
B-22  "Planning and Execution of Industrial Waste Treatability
      Studies," Westfield, James D., et al, Proceedings of the
      26th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,(1971),
      p. 832.

      This paper presents an approach to planning a treatability
      study.   The approach defines a framework which can be used
      to plan  and conduct any industrial waste treatability eval-
      uation.   Treatment processes can then be selected to satisfy
      required removals.
                              7-15

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B-23  "The Foundation of Successful Industrial Waste Disposal
      to Municipal Sewage Works," Wisely, W.H., Proceedings of
      the 5th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,
       (1949), p." 360.

      Factors leading to successful joint (municipal and indus-
      trial) sewage treatment relationships are discussed.
      Some of the common causes for breakdown in these arrange-
      ments are outlined.
B-24  "Management of Industrial Effluent Disposal in Britain,"
      Jackson, C. J., Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 41, No. 12, p. 2020,(December, 1969).

      This article discusses the wastewater treatment and
      disposal factors to be considered in making industrial
      planning decisions.  Factors discussed include treatment
      and disposal methods, pretreatment requirements, and
      costs.
B-25  "Planning Industrial Waste Treatment," Black, H. H.,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 41,
      No. 7, p. 1277,(July,1969).

      This article presents those concepts that may serve as
      guidelines for those engaged in the planning of industrial
      waste treatment.  Factors that must be considered for ef-
      fective planning are discussed, including evaluation of
      waste load, and receiving waters, treatment requirements,
      development of design criteria, and monitoring.


B-26  "Treatment of Mixed Industrial Wastes at Bayport's Indus-
      trial Complex", Meriwether, George B., Journal of the
      Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 41, No. 3, p. 440,
      (March, 1969).

      The central wastewater collection and treatment system for
      the Bayport industrial complex is described.  Pretreatment
      requirements, management of the program and the system of
      user charges are also discussed.
                               7-16

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B-27  "How to Manage Industrial Inflow," Williams, R.  T.  and
      R. J. Dolan,  Water and Sewage Works,  Vol. 121,  No.  12,
      p. 46,(December, 1974).

      The development of a wastewater management plan for the
      East Bay Municipal Utility District,  Oakland, California
      is reported.   The discussion includes ordinance develop-
      ment, sampling program, service charges,  and permit programs,


B-28  "The Advantages of Industrial-Municipal Wastewater Treat-
      ment," Watson, K. S., Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 42, No. 2, p. 209,(February, 1970).

      This article discusses the advantages of joint treatment,
      and indicates the different approaches that a sanitary
      district can take.  Case histories are discussed,  such as
      the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, Allegheny
      County,  and the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater
      Chicago.  An equitable finance formula is also discussed.


B-29  "Industrial Effluents:  Problems of Recovering Costs,"
      Lewin, V. H., Discharge of Industrial Effluents to Municipal
      Sewerage Systems, p. 77, Proceedings of Symposium of the
      Institute of Water Pollution Control, London.
      November 29-30, 1971.

      This paper discusses several systems now in use in England
      and Wales to recover the costs of industrial sewage treat-
      ment.  Some of the problems involved are also discussed.
      The experiences of the City of Oxford, which has been using
      a Mogden-type formula for cost recovery,  are reported.


B-30  "Methods of Charging for the Treatment and Disposal of
      Industrial Effluents in Municipal Sewerage Systems,"
      Simpson, J. R. and G. A. Truesdale, Discharge of Indus-
      trial Effluents to Municipal Sewerage Systems,  p.  65,
      Proceedings of Symposium of the Institute of Water Pollu-
      tion Control, London.  November 29-30, 1971.

      A method to calculate user charges for industrial effluents
      is presented.  A charge for both the capital and operating
      costs is recommended.  Calculations for capital costs are
      based upon sewerage system design; operating costs are
      based upon quantity and character of flow.  Formulae to
      make these calculations,and several examples of their
      implementation are also included.
                                7-17

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B-31   "Present Industrial Effluent Legislation and Its Short-
       Comings," Fisher, N. S., Discharge of Industrial Effluents
       to Municipal Sewerage Systems, p. 14, Proceedings of
       Symposium of the Institute of Water Pollution Control,
       London, November 29-30, 1971.

       This paper reviews British law pertaining to the dis-
       charge of trade effluents and comments on some of the
       shortcomings of its provisions.  Several views are pre-
       sented on where the responsibility for water quality
       control should be.


B-32   "Effects of the 1972 Water Pollution Control Act Amendments
      on Industrial Waste Monitoring in Anondaga County,"
      Ott,  Randy,  et al, presented at the New York Water Pollution
      Control Association,  January, 1974.

      An extensive analysis program was conducted to estimate
      industry's proportionate cost of wastewater treatment.  A
      discussion of cost of such a program, data collection,
      and results of the program are presented in this paper.


      For additional information pertaining to this section,
      please refer to the following articles:


                   D-3              E-15
                   D-12        :     E-16
                   D-29             E-28
                   D-34
                   D-42
                   D-76
                   D-114
                            7-18

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                   SECTION C - LEGAL ASPECTS
                               OF A CONTROL PROGRAM

                   Reference:  Volume  I - Section C & Appendix 3
 C-l    "Wastes May Not Be a Treat for Pretreatment," Chemical
       Week, October 9, 1974.

       This article discusses the disadvantages of pretreatment
       for organic chemical manufacturing plants.  The disad-
       vantages discussed include economic, technical and
       political considerations.
C-2   "The Sewer Ordinance Basics," Calver, Robert and
      Trevor Saxon, Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 121, No. 8,
      p. 54, (August, 1974 ).

      The fundamentals of wastewater control are discussed,
      including the need for an industrial sewer ordinance.
      Recommendation for planning and designing the ordinance
      are also included and user charge formulas are presented.
C-3   "Regulations and Service Charges for the Treatment of
      Industrial Wastewater in Federally Assisted Public
      Facilities," Gutierrez, A. F., Paper presented to the
      Southeast Section Convention of the American Waterworks
      Association. San Antonio, Texas, October 11, 1971.

      The importance of adopting a community ordinance to control
      and regulate the use of public wastewater facilities, to
      protect these facilities and to provide an equitable
      system of cost recovery is discussed.  Included is a cost
      recovery formula and several examples which illustrate its
      use.
C-4   "Energetic Enforcement of Industrial Waste Ordinances,"
      Lavin,  Allen,  Proceedings of the 23rd Industrial Waste
      Conference,  Purdue University,  p. 550, 1968.

      This paper discusses why industrial waste ordinances have
      been failing,  and how the Metropolitan Sanitary District
      of Greater Chicago is enforcing theirs.  The author also
      presents arguments for strict enforcement of industrial
      waste ordinances.
                                 7-19

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C-5   "Municipal Waste Ordinances - The Views of Industry,"
      Byrd, J. F., Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 37, No. 12, p. 1635,(December, 1965 ).

      The views of industry are presented on what constitutes
      a good municipal waste ordinance.  The discussion centers
      on those aspects of the model ordinance, presented in
      Water Pollution Control Federation's Manual of Practice #3,
      "Regulation of Sewer Use,", which are of interest to
      industry.


C-6   Development of a State Effluent Charge System,   U.S.
      E.P.A., NTIS No. PB 210 711, 215 pp., February, 1972.

      The Vermont permit and fee system that has been developed
      and implemented is described in this book.  Various methods
      of fee calculations are discussed and the reasons for se-
      lection of one are set forth.  The following issues are
      discussed:  incentive effect on dischargers, the relation
      of dischargers to instream economic damages, equity, con-
      stitutionality, economic efficiency, technical and adminis-
      trative feasibility and income potential.


C-7   "Effluent Guidlines - Industry's Point of View," Elkin,
      Harold F, et al. Pollution Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 6,
      p. 18, (November-December, 1974 ).

      This article examines industry's view toward the develop-
      ment and use of effluent guidelines for industrial dis-
      charges to navigable waters.  It presents a case history
      of the development of petroleum refining discharge guide-
      lines.


C-8   "Chicago vs. Industry Polluters," Lue-Hing, Cecil, and
      Earl W. Knight, Water and Wastes Engineering,  p. 71,
      September, 1973.

      This article briefly discusses the water pollution problem
      caused by industries discharging to the Metropolitan Sani-
      tary District (MSD)  of Greater Chicago and the actions
      taken by the MSD to correct these problems.
                             7-20

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 C-9   "Some Experiences in the Pretreatment of Industrial
       Waste Going to the Municipal Sewer System of Philadelphia,"
       Reich, J. S., Proceedings of the 10th Industrial Waste
       Conference, Purdue University, (1955), p. 244.

       The pretreatment and disposal practices of several types
       of industries discharging to the Philadelphia treatment
       system are discussed.  The city has established a set of
       criteria upon which pretreatment requirements are based.


 C-10   "Control of Industrial Wastes Entering Municipal Sewers,"
       Carpenter, Carl B., Proceedings of the llth Industrial
       Waste Conference, Purdue University,  (1956),  p. 1.

       This article presents the experiences of the Hammond
       Sanitary District's monitoring and ordinance program.
       The article describes its monitoring system to catch
       illegal dischargers.  Case histories dealing with problem
      wastes from industry are also presented.  These case
      histories deal with such items as waste streams con-
       taining spent pickle liquors,oil spills, and sulfuric
       acid plant wastes.


C-ll   "Establishing Industrial Waste Ordinances," Taylor, Dean M.,
      Proceedings of the 10th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue
      University,  (1955),  p.  255.

      This paper discusses the basic requirements which should
      be recognized in preparation of an industrial wastewater
      ordinance.  Factors to be considered include a clear
      definition of terms, conditions for usage of the public
      sewers,  prohibitions of specific substances,  monitoring
      requirements,  penalties and charges.


C-12  "Experience with Waste Ordinance and Surcharges at
      Greensboro,  North Carolina," Shaw,  Ray E., Jr., Journal
      of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 42, No. 1,
      p. 44,(January,  1970.)

      This  article is  a case history of how an ordinance system
      was  developed in the City of Greensboro, North Carolina.
      The  article includes discussions on the ordinance struc-
      ture,  the method of establishing the surcharge, the
      sampling procedures, and presents several case histories.
                              7-21

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C-13  "Factors in the Development of an Industrial Waste
      Ordinance," Kami in, W.G.,  Proceedings of the 9th Indus-
      trial Waste Conference, Purdue University,  (1954), p. 14.

      This article discusses some of the many factors which
      must be considered before drafting an adequate industrial
      waste ordinance.  Factors to be considered include:
      statement of purpose and policy, definition of terms,
      definition of public sewer usage, prohibition of specific
      substances, conditions of industrial waste discharge,
      industrial waste charges,  refunds, penalties and validation.


C-14  "Pretreatment Requirements for Industrial Waste Discharged
      to Municipal Treatment Systems," Escher, Dennis E. and
      Andrew J. Kicinski, presented at the ASCE-EED Specialty
      Conference on Environmental Engineering
      ment and Design, Pennsylvania State University. July, 1974.

      This paper considers the subject of developing criteria
      for the pretreatment of industrial wastes prior to their
      discharge into municipal sewage treatment systems. The
      article presents a detailed discussion of the 1972 amend-
      ments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, including
      requirements and interpretations.  The paper also dis-
      cusses some recommended effluent limitations for pretreat-
      ment.


C-15  "Consents and Agreements," Finch, John, Discharge of
      Industrial Effluents to Municipal Sewerage Systems,
      Proceedings of Symposium of The Institute of Water
      Pollution Control, London, p. 23, November 29-30, 1971.

      Legal aspects of implementing the Acts of Parliament
      pertaining to wastewater treatment are discussed. In-
      cluded are several model agreements, which contain regu-
      lations establishing effluent limitations, financial
      arrangements and management control programs.
                               7-22

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 C-16  "MOP No. 3  Regulation of Sewer Use", Journal of the
       Water Pollution Control Federation.

       Part I - Vol. 45, No. 9, p. 1985 (September, 1973)
       Part II- Vol. 45,No. 10, p. 2216 (October, 1973)


       This manual of practice has been prepared to assist
       municipalities regulate and control wastewater facili-
       ties.  The importance of controlling usage is empha-
       sized.  The fundamental requirements of the regulations
       that are essential to proper control are indicated.
       The effects of inadequate control,  and considerations
       in developing a code and ordinance, are also discussed.
       The second part of this manual presents and discusses
       a model ordinance for wastewater control.  Charges for
      wastewater service are indicated and recommendations
       to implement the ordinance are made.


 C-17   "Heavy Metals in Digesters:  Failure and Cure," Regan,
      Terry M. and Mercer Peters, Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 42, No. 10, p. 1832 (October, 1970),
      also reported in Proceedings of the 25th Industrial Waste
      Conference,  Purdue University, (1970), p. 645.


      This article reports the action taken after primary
      digester failure at the Lexington,  Kentucky treatment
      plant.   The failure was caused by excessive metal con-
      centrations.  The costs incurred from this failure are
      also presented.   The waste sampling system that was sub-
      sequently instituted is described.


C-18  Metropolitan Sewerage System,  Seattle, Washington.
      Resolution No.  2158.   Regarding the Control and Disposal
      of Industrial Waste into the Metropolitan Sewerage
      System,  July,  1974.
                                7-23

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C-19  City of Atlanta, Georgia

      a.  Sewer Service Charges and Industrial Waste Sur-
          charges, 1971.

      b.  Standards of Acceptability of Industrial or Trade
          Wastes for Admission into Sewers of the City of
          Atlanta, Georgia, 1971.


C-20  Metropolitan Sewer Board, St. Paul, Minnesota, Sewage
      and Waste Control Rules and Regulations for the Metro-
      politan Disposal System, December 1, 1971.


C-21  The Sanitary District of Rockford, Illinois, Ordinance
      No. 309, Pollutant Discharge Control Ordinance of the
      Sanitary District of Rockford, 1974.


C-22  City of New York, New York

      a.  Rules and Regulations Relating to the Use of the
          Public Sewer System for the Discharge of Sewage,
          Industrial Waste and Other Wastes, Including Sur-
          charges and Penalties.

      b.  Amendment to the Administrative Code, Section
          687-1.0 Industrial Waste; Sewer Surcharges.


C-23  City of Houston, Texas, Disposal of Industrial Waste
      Through City Sewer System, 1974.


C-24  Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati,
      Cincinnati, Ohio, Rules and Regulations, December 4, 1968.
                              7-24

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 C-25  Commission of Jefferson County, Jefferson County, Alabama

      a.  Rules and Regulations for Discharge of Waste Into
          Sanitary Sewerage System, April, 1970.

      b.  Resolution for Industrial Waste Surcharge, September, 1972.


 C-26  The Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District, St. Louis, Missouri

      a.  Ordinance No. 2289, May, 1972

      b.  Ordinance No. 2412, March, 1973

      c.  Ordinance No. 2444, June, 1973


 C-27  City of Akron, Ohio, Ordinance No. 499, Industrial Wastes;
      Regulations for Non-acceptable, 1963.


 C-28  City of Dallas, Texas, Industrial Waste Ordinance, 1969.


 C-29  City of Topeka, Kansas, Ordinance No. 13664, 1975.


 C-30  City of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, The Discharge of Waters
      and Wastes Into the Public Sewer System.


 C-31  Westchester County Environmental Facilities, Westchester
      County, New York, Sewer Ordinance No. 1, Rules, Regulations
      and Ordinances Governing the Discharge of Sewage, Industrial'
      Wastes or Other Wastes.


 C-32  City of Olean, New York, Sewer Use Ordinance, September, 1968.


 C-33  Township of Towamencin, Pennsylvania, Rates, Rules and
      Regulations, April, 1967.


C-34  City of Muncie, Indiana, Muncie Code of Ordinances; Laws
      Pertaining to This Division, 1954-1967.
                             7-25

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C-35  Sewer Utility of the City of Boulder, Boulder, Colorado,
      Ordinance No. 3836.
C-36  Environmental Improvement Agency of New Mexico, Santa Fe,
      New Mexico, Industrial Waste Ordinance, a model ordinance.


C-37  County of Onondaga, Syracuse, New York, Rules and Regu-
      lations Relating to the Use of the Public Sewer System,
      1972.
C-38  The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago,
      Chicago, Illinois
      a.  Sewage and Waste Control Ordinance as Amended, 1972.

      b.  Sewer Permit Ordinance, 1969, Amended, 1972.
      c.  Industrial Waste Division Procedural Manual.

C-39  Texas Water Quality Board, Austin, Texas, A Suggested
      Industrial Waste Ordinance.


C-40  City of Wichita, Kansas
      a.  Title 16, Sewers, Sewage Disposal and Drains, 1964

      b.  An Ordinance Amending Sections of the Code


C-41  State of Vermont, Suggested Model Sewer Use Ordinance,
      January, 1975.


C-42  California Water Pollution Control Association, Berkeley,
      California
      a.  Model Wastewater Discharge Permit Application Question-
          naire, October, 1974.
      b.  Model Wastewater Discharge Ordinance, April, 1974.


C-43  State of Massachusetts, Suggested Rules and Regulations
      Regarding the Use of Common Sewers, 1974.


C-44  City of Wilmington, Delaware, Exclusion of Materials
      Detrimental to the Sewerage System
                              7-26

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C-45  Buffalo Sewer Authority, Buffalo, New York,  Sewer
      Regulations of the Buffalo Sewer Authority.


C-46  East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland,  California
      a.  Ordinance No. 27, Waste Water Control Ordinance,  1972
      b.  Wastewater Discharge Permit Parts A-G


C-47  Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County,  Los Angeles,
      California

      a.  An Ordinance Regulating Sewer Construction, Sewer
          Use and Industrial Wastewater Discharges,  April,  1972.
      b.  Instructions for Obtaining a Permit for  Industrial
          Wastewater Discharge

      c.  Instructions for Filing an Industrial Wastewater
          Treatment Surcharge Statement
      d.  Industrial Wastewater Charge Rates, 1971
      e.  Technical Report - Waste -Discharge to the Ocean

C-48  "Pretreatment Requirements for Industrial Wastes Discharged
      to Municipal Treatment Systems,"  Escher, E.D., and
      Kicinski, A.J., ASCE-EED Specialty Conference on Environ-
      mental Engineering Research, Development and Design,  Penn
      State University.

      Results of a study of the ordinances of 100 geographically
      distributed municipalities are presented.  Ordinance status
      is covered along with ranges of  limitations on certain
      pollutants as established by the ordinances in force.

      For additional information pertaining  to this  section,
      please refer to  the  following articles:


                B-4             D-112         F-16
                B-10                          F-41
                B-20
                B-21
                B-23
                B-27
                B-31
                               7-27

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                  SECTION D - MONITORING

                Reference:   Volume I Section D & Appendix 4
D-l   "The Need for, and Methods of, Monitoring and Control
      of Industrial Discharges to Sewers," Wrigley, K. J.
      and F. Ashworth, Discharge of Industrial Effluents
      to Municipal Sewerage Systems, p. 91, Proceedings of
      the Symposium of the Institute of Water Pollution
      Control, London, (Nov. 29-30, 1971).

           Several aspects of monitoring trade wastes are
      discussed including regulatory control, instrumental
      methods of analysis, and qualifications of personnel.
      The monitoring system used in Manchester for the past
      ten years is discussed.


D-2   "Self-Contained Sampling and Measurement System Features
      Respirometer," Robert Shaw Controls, Water and Sewage
      Works, Vol. 121, No. 2, p. 53 (February, 1974).

           This article discusses a self-contained sampling
      and measurement system which measures oxygen utilized
      to determine BOD.   The sampler aerates the effluent
      sample and measures the DO before and after.  Response
      time is 2 minutes.
D-3   "Make Water Pollution Control a Meaningful Local
      Responsibility," Craddock, John M., The American City,
      May, 1974, p. 63.

           This article discusses the procedure used by the
      Division of Water Quality of the Muncie, Indiana Sanitary
      District to monitor industrial and commercial wastewaters
      within their jurisdiction.  Automatic samplers are placed
      on discharges to the sanitary sewer system, which permit
      monitoring for metals, BOD_, COD and suspended solids.


D-4   "Instrumentation for Measurement of Wastewater Flow,"
      Nedved, Thomas K. et al, Journal of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 820
      (May, 1972).

           A new instrument has been developed, which measures
      both stream flow and-its characteristics.  The device is
      portable, self-contained, and independent of outside power
      sources.  The system takes a stream sample after a
      preset flow volume has passed.  The instrument is identified
      and described in this article.
                             7-28

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D-5   "Polarographic Method for Nitrate and Dissolved
      Oxygen Analysis," Hwang, C. P. and C. R. Forsberg,
      Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 120, No. 4, p. 71,
      (April, 1973).

           This article discusses the disadvantages of
      the common methods for measuring nitrates and
      dissolved oxygen.  The article then describes a
      test utilizing a polarographic apparatus with a
      rapid dropping electrode.  The test results are
      presented.
D-6   "A Rapid Biochemical Oxygen Demand Test Suitable for
      Operational Control," Mullis, Michael K. and Edward
      D. Schroeder, Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 43, No. 2, p. 209 (February, 1971).

           A method to determine the total biological oxygen
      demand of soluble wastes using the chemical oxygen
      demand test and a mass culture of cells is presented
      in this article.  Experimental and operational data
      are both presented.  A method to shorten the time
      required to determine BOD is discussed.
D-7   "The Use of Collaborative Studies to Evaluate Water
      Analysis Instruments," McFarren, Earl F. and Raymond
      J. Lishka, Journal of the Water Pollution Federation,
      Vol. 43, p. 67  (January, 1971).

           A collaborative study has been indicated as a
      method to obtain objective evaluation of measurement
      instruments in  laboratories.  Studies of fluorides,
      pesticides, metals and nutrients in water were
      conducted by the Analytical  Reference Service.  These
      collaborative studies are analyzed, and the reliability
      of various instruments is presented.


D-8   "Total Phosphorus Analysis:   Persulfate on Ashing?"
      Gupta, Kailash  B. and Alphonse E. Zanoni, Water and
      Sewage Works, Vol. 121,  No.  7, p. 74  (July, 1974).

           This article describes  two methods for total
      phosphorus analysis, the persulfate oxidation and the
      dry ashing method.  The  article presents analytical
      procedures for  both methods, and examples of tests on
      natural water samples are included.  Comparisons of
      the two tests are presented  and discussed.
                                 7-29

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D-9   "Metals in Sewage Measured Simply but Accurately,"
      The American City, August, 1972, p. 40

           This article describes how the laboratory at the
      Irwin Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant in Charlotte,
      North Carolina uses an atomic absorption spectrophoto-
      meter to monitor metal elements.
D-10  "Laboratory Tests for Plant Operation Control and Stream
      Quality Measurement," Banerji, Shankha K., Journal of the
      Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 43, No. 3,
      p. 399 (March 1971).

           A number of water quality tests, including those
      for BOD,  COD, TOC, total oxygen demand, suspended solids,
      sludge volume index and oxidation - reduction potential
      are discussed in this article.  The advantages and
      disadvantages of each test are also discussed.


D-ll  "Gauging and Sampling Industrial Wastewater  (Open Channel),"
      Klein, Larry A. and Albert Montague, Journal of the
      Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 42, No. 8,
      p. 1468 (August, 1970).

           The gauging and sampling system developed by New
      York City to measure industrial discharge to the sewer
      system is presented in this article.  The methods
      utilized are applicable €o open channels.
      The methods described include:  an inflatable gas bag
      and portable ejector system for in-plant gauging; and a
      combination V-notch weir or flume with a head measuring
      device and a propeller meter for out-of-plant measurements.


D-12  "Routine Surveillance Alternatives for Water Quality
      Management," Ward, Robert C., Journal of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 2645
      (December, 1974).

           Grab sampling, automatic monitoring, and remote
      sensing are reviewed in this paper.  Their individual
      and collective roles in the overall design of a routine
      water quality surveillance program are discussed.
                              7-30

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D-13  "Portable Device to Measure Industrial Wastewater Flow,"
      Forester, R. and D. Overland, Journal of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation, Vol.46, No.4, p.777
      (April, 1974).

           This paper describes a method of monitoring the
      wastewater pumps in a sewage treatment plant to record
      the pump's operating time.  The paper indicates how
      this defines both the total flow and the flow during
      any period of time.  This data can compliment auto-
      matic samplers in obtaining accurate wastewater measure-
      ments .
D-14  "Carbon Measurements  in Water Quality Monitoring," Maier,
      Walter J. and Hugh L. McConnell, Journal of the _W_a_t_e_r
      Pollution Control Federation, Voll  4(f, No. 4, p. 623
      (April, 1974).

           This article discusses  the use of a carbon analyzer
      to test natural waters in  Minnesota.  The results of an
      extensive test program are presented.  The program
      tested the organic and inorganic carbon content of the
      waterways, various equipment, and  the correlations
      between BOD/TOC and COD/TOG  ratios.


D-15  "Comparison  of Wastewater  Sampling Techniques,"
      Tarazi, D. S. et. al., Journal of  the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol.  42, No. 5, p. 708,  (May, 1970).

           The results of a study  comparing two  sampling
      techniques is presented.   One technique uses  grab samples
      and the other composite  samples.   The tests were run
      on two separate outfalls  and results of the tests are
      indicated.


D-16  "Evaluation  of an Automatic  Chemical Analysis Monitor
      for Water Quality Parameters," O'Brien, James E. and
      Rolf A. Olsen, Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation,  Vol.  42,  No.  3,  p.  380, (March, 1970).

           This article evaluates  an  automatic water monitor-
      ing unit with  12  channels to measure:  Nitrate, Nitrite,
      Alkalinity-pH  8.3, Alkalinity-pH 4.6,  Phenol, Free
      Ammonia, Sulfate, Phosphate, Iron   (Fe), COD,  Methylene
      Blue Active  Substance,  and Fluoride.  The  test  site was
      on the Hudson  River,  3 miles south of  Albany, New York.
      Operational  problems  of  the  unit are discussed.  Modifi-
      cations to  the unit  in  attempts  to overcome  some problems
      are discussed,and factors which must be  taken into  con-
      sideration  in  the design of  an automatic  system are
      reported.

                                 7-31

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D-17  "The Detection of Organic Pollution by Automated
      COD," Molof, A. H. and N. S. Zaleiko, Proceeding of
      the 19th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University
      (1964) , p.540.

           This paper presents the results of experimental
      work to convert the manual COD test as outlined in
      Standard Methods to an automated chemical test.  The
      test consists of using a colorimeter to measure the
      Hexavalent Chromium present after the oxidation steps.
      Laboratory and field test results are both given.


D-18  "An automated BOD Respirometer," Arthur, Robert M.,
      Proceedings of the 19th Industrial Waste Conference,
      Purdue University, (1964), p. 628.

           This paper describes an automatic instrument which
      measures BOD utilizing the partial pressure of oxygen
      over a sample with the use of a manometer.


D-19  "A Colorimetric Method for Determining Chemical Oxygen
      Demand," Gaudy, A. F. and M. Ramanathan, Proceedings of
      the 19th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University
      (1964), p. 915

           The purpose of the experiments reported in this
      article was to determine whether COD values obtained
      by the standard titrimetric procedure were equivalent
      to those obtained colorimetrically when identical samples
      were subjected to identical reflux conditions.  Tests
      were conducted on municipal, industrial, and joint wastes.
      Laboratory tests on a standard compound were also included.


D-20  "The Determination of Total Organic Carbon in Water,"
      Larson, T. E. et. al., Proceedings of the 19th Industrial
      Waste Conference, Purdue University  (1964), p. 762.

           This paper discusses one method for measuring the
      carbon dioxide process by the TOC test, which uses
      Van Slyke reagent.  Laboratory test results are presented
      and discussed.
                              7-32

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D-21  "Characterization of Industrial Wastes by Instrumental
      Analysis," Clark, H. A. Proceedings of the 23rd
      Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University (1967)
      p. 26.

           This paper presents a general discussion of a large
      laboratory in Toronto, and discusses the work func-
      tions and equipment available in the laboratory.  The
      use of the instruments  (including polarography, atomic
      adsorption spectrophotometry, and chromatographic methods)
      and the application of these techniques to industrial
      wastes is also indicated.
D-22  "A Fluorometric Method for the Determination of Lignin
      Sulfonates in Natural Waters," Thruston, Alfred D., Jr.,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 42,
      No. 8, p. 1551  (August, 1970).

           The use of a simple fluorometer for the detection
      of low concentrations of lignin sulfonate solutions is
      described in this article.  An optical bridge fluorometer
      was used in experiments which are also described.  The
      limits of fluorescent assay are presented and details
      of a continuous monitoring system are also indicated.


D-23  "Remote Sensing of Water Pollution," Horn, Leonard W.,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 40, No. 10, p. 1728  (October,  1968).

           The concept and theory of remote sensing are discussed
      in this article.  A discussion of the various factors
      which govern the remote sensing of  water pollution is
      also included.  Different types of  remote sensing are
      discussed and the advantages and limitations of many are
      presented.


D-24  "Application of the Total Carbon Analyzer for Industrial
      Wastewater Evaluation," Ford, Davis L., Proceedings of
      the 23rd Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University
      (1968), p. 989.

           This article presents information on the correlation
      of BOD and COD  to TOC for various chemicals and for
      various industrial waste  streams  (e.g. chemical and
      petrochemical) .  Literature was used as the source for
      the raw data.
                                 7-33

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D-25  "Identification of Petroleum Products in Water," Lively, L.,
      et al,  Proceedings of the 20th Industrial Waste Conference.
      Purdue University (1965), p. 657.

           This paper presents an analytical method to deter-
      mine petroleum products in water.  Specific industrial
      problems are then used to illustrate the application of
      these analytical methods.


D-26  "Value of Instrumentation in Wastewater Treatment,"
      Salvatorelli, Joseph, Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol.  40, No. 1, p. 101 (January, 1968).

           Instrumentation and its application to waste treat-
      ment plants is discussed in this article.  The types of
      instrumentation available, the value of instrumentation,
      the applications of instruments and examples of their
      use are all discussed.
D-27  "Monitoring and Treatment of Cyanide - Bearing Plating
      Wastes," Vought, John H., Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 39, No. 12, p. 1971  (Dec., 1967)

           Treatment plant controls, and monitoring equipment
      at a Motorola plant are described.  Their automatic
      monitoring includes pH and cyanide measurement.
D-28  "Determination of Organics in Water," Andelman, Julian B.
      et. al., Proceedings of the 20th Industrial Waste Conference,
      Purdue University (1965) p. 220.

           This paper assesses the extent of recoverability of
      organics when activated carbon is used to remove organics
      from wastewater.  The organics are then extracted from
      the carbon and measured.  Municipal tap water was used
      as the sample for the experiments.


D-29  "Water Quality Monitoring must be Action-Oriented,"
      Stack, Vernon T., Jr., Water and Waste Engineering,
      Vol. 8, No. 3, p. 310  (March, 1971).

           This article discusses monitoring systems in
      detail.  Problems in their administration  (with potential
      solutions)are indicated, particularly in regard to obtain-
      ing representative samples.  A review of automatic samplers
      on the market is also included.
                              7-34

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D-30  "Waste Monitoring by Gas Chromatography," Cochran,
      L. G. and F. D. Bess, Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 38, No. 12, p. 2002 (Dec., 1966).

           The development of gas chromatography and its
      use at the Institute, West Virginia Plant of Union
      Carbide Corporation is presented in this article.
      Gas chromatographs help control organic loadings on the
      treatment plant, trace abnormal losses of chemicals
      common to several departments, and evaluate the effective-
      ness of treatment.
D-31  "A Rapid Wastewater Sensitivity Test," Brown/ James A.,
      Jr., Industrial Waste, May/June, 1972, p. 28.

           The application of a modified paper disc technique
      for rapid screening of wastewater is described. Materials
      that exert a deleterious effect on the physiological
      function of the microorganisms in activated sludge
      may be detected by this technique.  The test is
      qualitative, and the details of the technique are
      presented.


D-32  "Cold Vapor" Method for Determining Mercury," Kopp,
      John F. et. al., Journal of the American Water Works
      Association, Vol. 64, p.2~T)(Jan.,19T2).

           This article presents an analytical method for
      measuring mercury in water.  The method was developed
      in the author's laboratory.  An atomic absorption
      spectrophotometer with auxiliary equipment is required.


D-33  "Mercury Analysis and Toxicity:  A Review," Baker, Robert
      A. and Ming-Dean Luh, Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 118,
      No. 5, p. IW-21,  (May, 1971).  (Also included in Industrial
      Wastes, May/June, 1971)

           This article reviews various methods used to measure
      mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively.  The
      advantages and disadvantages of each procedure are
      discussed.  The toxicological effects of mercury are also
      indicated in this article.
                                 7-35

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D-34  "Monitoring Wastewater?  Try these Methods/' Churchill,
      R. J. and T. A. Helbig, Industrial Wastes, September/
      October 1974, p. 26.

           A basic approach to a self-monitoring system is
      presented in this article.  The needs for and methods
      to obtain representative samples are indicated, and the
      Federal Guidelines and various analytical methods are
      reported.


D-35  "A New Technique for Industrial Waste Sampling,"
      Beach, Martha I. and John S. Beach, Jr., Industrial
      Wastes, January/February, 1973, p. 28.

           This article describes a sampling technique called
      the sequential composite, and compares it to grab samples,
      simple composites and flow proportioned composites.


D-36  "Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Simplifies Heavy-
      Metals Analysis," Willey, Benjamin F., et. al., Journal
      of the American Water Works Association, Vol. 64, p. 3TT3 ,
       (May, 1°72)

           This article presents the basic operating principles
      and procedures for adjusting the instrument settings of
      an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and precautions
      concerning its operation.   Its application for the analysis
      of heavy metals is discussed in detail.  The article also
      compares atomic absorption with wet chemical analysis.


D-37  "Rapid Phosphate Determination by Fluorimetry,"
      Guyon, John C. and Wolbur D. Shults, Journal of the
      American Water Works Association, Vol~63,pT403
      (August, 1969).

           Two similar procedures for determining phosphate
      concentrations are discussed.  One method is suitable
      for lower concentrations and the second for higher levels.
      The elimination of interferences of cations and anions
      is also discussed.  The apparatus, reagents and procedures
      to be used and the effects of certain variables are
      presented.
                              7-36

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D-38  "Detection and Monitoring of Phenolic Wastewater,"
      McRae, A. D. et. al., Proceedings of the 14th
      Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, (1959).

           This paper describes the modifications made to
      an instrument which used a nitrous acid-mercuric nitrate
      reagent  (millions Reagent) to monitor phenols.  Modifica-
      tions included a water softener, buffering agent and
      indolac reagent.  The modifications were made on an
      instrument which monitored the effluent from the
      Imperial Oil Limited Oil Refinery in Sarnia, Ontario,
      Canada.


D-39  "Polarographic Scanning of Industrial Waste Samples,"
      Porter, J. D. and W. W. Sanderson, Proceedings of the
      9th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University
      (1954) .

           A method of screening water samples to determine
      which metals are present is reported *  The advantage
      of this screening is to eliminate analyzing for
      metals which are not present.  A detailed description
      of the equipment and the procedure of the tests is
      given.


D-40  "New, Simplified Methods for Metal Analysis," McFarren,
      Earl F., Journal of the American Water Works Association,
      Vol. 64, p. 28(January, 1972).

           This article summarizes the theory and operation of
      atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  Different procedures
      applicable to determine various metals is discussed.  The
      metals include zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese,
      silver, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, chromium, aluminum,
      beryllium, barium, vanadium, arsenic and mercury.


D-41  "Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury:  A Plenary Account for
      Water Pollution, Part  I - Occurrence, Toxicity and Detection,"
      Cheremisinoff, Paul, N. and Yousuf H. Habib, Water and
      Sewage Works, Vol. 119, No. 7, p. 73  (July, 1972).

           A description of  the nature, sources and uses of the
      metals listed in the title are presented.  The toxicity
      (level of concentration at which it becomes toxic) and toxic
      effects of each metal are also given.  Analytic methods
      for detection of these elements are indicated.
                              7-37

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D-42  "Monitoring New York's Water Automatically," Maylath,
      Ronald E., Journal Of the American Water Works Association,
      Vol. 63, p. 517 (August, 1971).

           This article describes the automatic monitoring
      system used throughout New York State.  The surveillance
      network provides information to consulting engineers,
      industrial firms, and local, state and federal agencies.
      The system consists of different "Building Blocks,"
      including major monitoring stations,  remote terminals,
      and computer stations.


D-43  "TLC Finds Hexane Solubles," Atanus, Herbert, Water  and
      Wastes Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 10, p. 26  (October, 1974).

           A thin-layer chromatography  (TLC) technique  is  used
      to  help  separate and  identify  hexane  solubles at  the
      Metropolitan Sanitary District of  Chicago. A description
      of  the technique and  its advantages are given.


D-44   "Modern  Monitoring  of a Treated  Industrial  Effluent,"
      Ostendorf, R.  G. and  J. F.  Byrd,  Journal  of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation,  Vol. 41, No.  1  p.  89
       (January,  1969).

            This article describes the  monitoring  system used
       by  the  Charmin Paper  Products  Company to  monitor their
       waste treatment plant on the Susquehanna  River.  Para-
       meters  monitored automatically are total  carbon,  suspended
       solids,  and  pH.  A  detailed description of.the system
       and its interlocks  to the treatment plant are given.


 D-45  "Rapid  Instrumental Measurement of the Organic Load
       in Wastewaters," Lysyj, I. et. al., Journal of the Water
       Pollution Control Federation,  Vol. 41, No.  5, p. 831,
       (May, 1969).

            A pyrographic approach to determine the total organic
       carbon is presented in this article.  The results of
       experiments are then compared and correlated to BOD
       values.  These tests were run in Los Angeles.
                                7-38

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D-46  "Comparison Studies of Winkler vs. Oxygen Sensor,"
      Reynolds, Jeremiah F., Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 41, No. 12, p. 2002 (December,
      1969).

           This article discusses two techniques to accelerate
      and simplify dissolved oxygen determinations compared to
      the Winkler test method.  Both methods use oxygen sensors.


D-47  "Evaluation of Instrumentation  and  Control," Babcock,
      Russell  H., Journal of the  Water  Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol.  44,  No.  7, p.  1416 (July, 1972).

           Methods to evaluate  what automatic  controls  are
      practical  in sewage treatment plants are discussed.
      The  parameters discussed  include  control variables,
      the  need for records, the caliber of personnel
      available,  and the need for detection of alarm  conditions.
      The  advantages and disadvantages  of electrical  and
      pneumatic instrumentation are presented and compared.


 D-48  "Analytical Determination of Metals Affecting Sewage
      Treatment," Riehl, M. L.  and E. G. Will, Proceedings of
      the  4th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University
       (1948) .

            This paper describes the early work conducted to
       develop analytic methods for the determination of metals,
       such as copper,  zinc, iron, chromium, nickel, cadmium,
       and cyanide.  The methods  include  colorimetric, volumetric
       and gravimetric techniques.


 D-49  "Monitoring Industrial Pollutants  by Pyrolysis - Methane
       Detection Method," Lysyj,  I. et. al., Journal  of the
       Water Pollution Control  Federation, Vol. 40, No. 5, Part 2,
       p. R181,  (May, 1968)'.

            This  article discusses the  monitoring  of  methyl-
       containing organic compounds,  which occur  in industrial
       wastes,  but not  in natural pollutants.   Natural.organic
       pollutants contain hydroxyl and  amino groups.  Therefore,
       the  procedure discussed  in this  paper (the  use of pyrolysis-
       methane detection methods) can determine whether an
       industry has discharged  to a particular stream or treat-
       ment plant.  The instruments  include a gas  chromatograph,
       a hydrogen flame ionization detector, a microcombustion
       furnace,  and a  recorder.
                                7-39

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D-50  "Instrumentation for Water Pollution Control," Jones,
      Robert H., Pollution Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 6, p. 22
      (Novembe r/December, 1971).

           A brief summary of where controls and instrumenta-
      tion can be used in a sewage treatment plant is indicated
      in this article.  Their specific use in a plating waste
      treatment plant is also reported.


D-51  "A Rapid Method for the Estimation of Trace Amounts of
      Kerosene in Effluents,"Lee, E. G. H. and C. C. Walden,
      Water Research, Vol. 4, No. 9, p. 641  (1970).

           This article discusses a method to determine the
      concentration of hydrocarbons in water, in the range of
      10-100 rag/1.  The method  involves separating and con-
      centrating the hydrocarbons by adsorption on activated
      carbon, followed by removing the hydrocarbons with
      acetone and measuring the turbidity of the acetone.


D-52  "Analysis of Water for Molecular Hydrogen Cyanide",
      Nelson, K. H. and I. Lysyj, Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 43, NoV" 5, p. 799  (May, 1971).

           The toxicity of cyanide and its relationship to the
      presence of HCN and total cyanide is reported in this
      article.  The method presented for the measurement
      of hydrogen cyanide combines vapor phase equilibration
      (Gas chromatographic methods) with amperometric techniques.
      The technique consists of sparging a small portion of
      the undissociated HCN from the sample, trapping the HCN
      in dilute base, and then measuring the sparged HCN with
      a rotating gold anode.


D-53  "The Role of Automatic Sampling in Industrial Waste
      Control," Beach, Martha  I, and C. Fred Gurnham, Mid Atlantic
      Industrial Waste Conference, No. 5 p.  225  (1971).

           This paper reviews  the advantages of industrial
      self-monitoring and presents a handbook type approach
      to the selection of the  right type of  sampling equipment.


D-54  "Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Facilitates Water
      Analysis," Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 121, No. 1, p. 27
       (January, 1974).

           This article describes how spectrophotomic techniques
      are used  at the Ben Nesin Laboratory  in New York State.
                               7-40

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D-55  "Determination of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage
      Plant Sludges by Neutron Activation Analysis,"
      Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 327
      (September, 1974).

           A discussion of the use of Neutron Activation
      Analysis  (NAA) to scan sewage sludges for trace metal
      content is presented.  The meanings of the varia-
      tions in metal concentrations are discussed
      and the precision and potential of NAA is reported.


D-56  "The Determination of Heavy Metals in Domestic Sewage
      Treatment Plant Wastes," Van Loon, J. C. et. al.,
      Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 2, No. 4, p. 473
      (December, 1973).

           Atomic absorption spectroscopy procedures are out-
      lined for the determination of some heavy metals in
      solids and liquids.  Problems associated with sample
      preparation and sample solution interferences are
      described.  Sewage treatment plant products  (both liquid
      and solid) are analyzed and the results are given for
      samples representative of a wide range of sewage input
      patterns.


D-57  "Rapid Determination of Total Organic Carbon  (TOC)
      in Sewage," Blackmore, R. H. and Doris Voshel, Water
      and Sewage Works, Vol. 114, No.10, p. 398  (October, 1967)

            This article presents TOC data gathered at  the
      Grand Rapids, Michigan sewage treatment plant by the
      use of the Leco Carbon analyzer connected to a Leco
      Combustion Furnace.  This data is  compared to data for
      BOD and COD on the same wastes.
 D-58   "Statistical  Evaluation of BOD verses ODI,"  Reynolds,
       Jeremiah  F. and Karl A. Goellner,  Water and  Sewage  Works,
       Vol.  121,  No.  1,  p.  31  (January,  1974).

            This article describes the test procedure for  the
       determination of the oxygen demand index (ODI).
                               7-41

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D-59  "Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Techniques for Petrochemical
      Wastewater Analysis," Sugar, William J. and Richard A.
      Conway, Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 40, No. 9, p. 1622 {September, 1968).

           Laboratory techniques for efficiently selecting
      gas-liquid Chromatographic (GLC) operating parameters
      based on different problems are described.
      Measurements can be made down to one mg/1.  Emphasis
      was placed on the selection of column liauid phases
      for separation of a wide span of organic types, definition
      of the utility of temperature programming, and improve-
      ment of precision by use of an internal standard.


D-60  "Analysis of Municipal and Chemical Wastewaters by an
      Instrumental Method for COD Determination," Stenger, V. A.
      and C. E. Van Hall, Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation, Vol. 40, No. 10 , p. 1755 (October, 1968).

           This article reports the experience gained from a
      new method of COD determination.  This method uses a
      vapor phase oxidation-reduction system and takes two
      minutes to complete.  Tests were run on the wastewater
      at the sewage treatment plant at Midland, Michigan, and
      at the Dow Chemical Co. in the same city.  The test
      results are reported.


D-61  "Differentiation of LAS and ABS in Water," Maeller,
      Claude Z. et. al., Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 39, No. 10, Part 2, p. R92
      (October, 1967).

           A method of differentiating between ABS based
      detergents (Low Biodegradeability) and LAS based deter-
      gents  (High Biodegradeability) can be achieved.  This
      method combines and modifies those developed by Fairing
      and Short; and Frazee and Crisler.  The method is
      described in this article.
D-62  "An Automated Method for the Determination of Formaldehyde
      in Sewage and Sewage Effluents," Musselwhite, C. C. and
      K. W. Petts, Water Pollution Control, Vol. 73, No. 4,
      p. 443 (1974):

           This article presents a method to automatically
      measure the concentration of formaldehyde.  The method
      utilizes a chemical reaction to produce a color which
      can be measured colorimetrically.  An automatic analyzer
      is used as a necessary piece of equipment.
                             7-42

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D-63  "A Safe Solvent for Oil and Grease Analyses,"  Chanin,
      G. et.  al.,  Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation/  Vol.  39,  No.  11,  p.  1892  (November,  1967).

           Procedures for determining  oil and grease are
      presented,  consisting of using either Trichlorotrifluoro-
      ethane  or using the soxhlet extraction method  for sludge,
      instead of hexane which is called for in "standard  methods,"
      but which can be  dangerous .in the laboratory.


D-64  "Comparative Studies of Dissolved Oxygen Analysis Methods,"
      McKeown,  J.  J.  et.  al., Journal  of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol.  39,  No. 8, p. 1323 (August,  1967).

           This paper compares the Winkler  Method to the
      membrane electrode method of measuring dissolved oxygen.
      The interferences present in the sample are also discussed.


D-65  "Detection of Trace Metals in Water," Kerber,  Jack, D.,
      Industrial Water  Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 5,  (September/
      October,  1973).

           A  basic discussion on atomic absorption is presented.
      It's operation and application to the measurement of
      metals  in water are discussed.  Costs for equipment are
      also given.


D-66  "The Determination of Stable Organic Compounds in Waste
      Effluents at Microgram per Liter Levels by Automatic
      High-Resolution Ion Exchange Chromatography,"  Katz, Sidney
      et. al.,  Water Research, Vol. 6, No.  9, p. 1029  (September,
      1972).

           This article presents the results of a study using
      high-resolution ion exchange chromatography to measure
      pollutants in sewage.  A description of the equipment,
      the field experiments, the results and conclusions are
      presented.
                               7-43

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D-67  "Automated Fluorometric Method for Determination of
      Boron in Waters, Detergents and Sewage Effluents,"
      Afghan, Badar K., et. al.. Water Research, Vol. 6,
      No. 12, p. 1475 (1972).

        This method of automatically measuring boron is based
      on the reaction of 4 chloro-2-hydroxy-4methoxybenzophenone
      (CHMB) with boron to produce fluorescent species in a 90%
      sulfuric acid medium.  Measurements are in the 5-100
      microgram per liter range.  The equipment, procedures,
      and results of experiments are presented.


D-68  "Industry's Idea Clinic," various authors, Journal of
      the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 37, No. 4,
      p. 508 (April, 1965).

           A discussion was held on industrial waste automatic
      sampling among individuals at the Federation's 37th
      Annual Conference.  Members of industry presented their
      experiences with different monitoring schemes including
      operational problems and solutions.


D-69  "An Industrial Waste Sampling Program," Woodruff, Paul H.,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 37, No. 9, p. 1223  (September, 1965).

           This article discusses the waste sampling program
      used by the Midland Division of the Dow Chemical Company.
      The mechanics of setting up a sampling program, and the
      sampling systems installed are both reported.


D-70  A Study of Methods used in Measurement and Analysis of
      Sediment Loads in Streams-Report T,Progress Report,
      Laboratory Investigation of Pumping-Sampler Intakes,
      Federal Inter-Agency Sedimentation Project, Minneapolis,
      Minnesota  (April, 1966).

           This document describes the development of a pump-
      ing sampler intake structure that is dependable and draws
      an accurate sample.
                            7-44

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D-71  A Study of Methods used in Measurement and Analysis of
      Sediment Loads in Streams, Report UrAn investigation of
      a Device for Measuring the Bulk Density of Water-Sediment
      Mixtures, Beverage, J. P.  and J. V.  Skinner,  Federal
      Inter-Agency Sedimentation Project,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota
      (August, 1974).

           This booklet describes a device which was developed
      to test whether sediment concentration can be determined
      by measuring the bulk density of the liquid.   The device
      is a special neutrally buoyant container.  The displace-
      ment of an indicator rod is measured after equilibrium
      is reached.  Results of the experiment are given and
      discussed.


D-72  A Study of Methods used in Measurement and Analysis of
      Sediment Loads in Streams, Catalog of Instruments and
      Reports for Fluvial Sediment Investigations,  Federal
      Inter-Agency Sedimentation Project, Minneapolis,
      Minnesota,  (June, 1974).

           Suspended sediment samplers, bed material samplers,
      pumping type bottling samplers, a hand size analyzer, and
      a laboratory splitter, all developed by the Federal Inter-
      Agency Sedimentation Project, are described, with pictures
      and drawings.


D-73  "Orthophosphate Determinations  Using Premeasured Reagents,"
      Baskett, Russell C., Water and  Sewage Works, January,  1973,
      p. 47.

           A simple,fast orthophosphate measurement can be made
      by mixing  5 ml of sample with a premeasured polyethylene
      powder pillow,and measuring the color 1 minute later on
      a spectrophotometer  (710 nyu) .   The chemical is PhosVer ill
      (Hach Co.).


D-74  "Total Mercury Analysis:  Review and Critique," Reimers,
      Robert S.  et.  al., Journal of the Water Pollution Control
      Federation. Vol. 45, No.  5, p.  815  (May,  1973).

           This  article presents a detailed discussion on the
      analysis for total mercury.  Headings include techniques
      for wet oxidation and complete  combustion of mercury  samples;
      preconcentration of mercury, and analytical techniques includ-
      ing gravametric methods, volumetric methods, polarography,
      amperometric analysis, catalytic analysis, colorimetric
      analysis,  and  atomic absorption.
                                7-45

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D-75  "Industrial Waste Treatment Plant Instrumentation,"Babcock,R.H.,
      Water and Waste Engineering,Vol.5, No.9, p. 3 (Sept. 1968).

           This paper briefly discusses how controls and
      instrumentation can be used for pumping, cyanide destruc-
      tion, chrome reduction, neutralization, and batch treatment.


D-76  Permit Program Guidance for Self-Monitoring and Reporting
      Requirements, United States Environmental Protection Agency,
      Office of Water Enforcement (October 1, 1973).

           This document provides guidance to those interested
      in setting up a self-monitoring program.  It is directed
      towards both industrial and municipal interests.  The
      report includes guidance on data management, report
      schedules and many other areas.


D-77  "Automatic Samplers for Sewage and Effluents," Levin, V. H.
      and A. Latten, Process Biochemistry, June, 1973, p. 15.

           This paper reviews various samplers, by manufacturer,
      and describes each one.  The advantages and disadvantages
      of each machine are presented.


D-78  "Automatic Samplers," Wood, L. B., and H. H. Stanbridge,
      Water Pollution Control, Vol.  67, p. 495 (1968).

           This article presents the results of a survey of
      automatic samplers available in England.  The survey
      was conducted to help decide which samplers to use in
      the Department of Public Health Engineering of the
      Greater London Council.  The article discusses general
      features to examine in samplers, and describes various
      samplers by manufacturer.


D-79  "Instrumentation in Water Pollution Control Analysis,"
      Williamson, T. and A. S. Millar, Water Pollution
      Control, Vol. 70, (1971).

           The use of instrumentation to replace classical
      "wet" methods to determine chemical analysis can be used
      to reduce analysis time and increase reliability and
      precision.  This article discusses the auto analyzer ,
      atomic-absorption spectrophotometer, and gas-liquid
      chromatography in reference to the above factors.
                              7-46

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D-80  "In-Process Monitoring,"  Zabban,  Walter,  presented at
      the EPA Technology Transfer Seminar on Monitoring
      Industrial Wastewater,  Arlington, Va., January 9, 1975.

           This article presents the advantages of in process
      monitoring of wastes by industry.  The article also
      discusses how process monitoring can be used to prevent
      treatment plant upsets, features to look for in monitor-
      ing equipment,and the use of monitoring to measure
      various parameters.


D-81   Literature Survey of Instrumental Measurements of
      Biochemical Oxygen Demand for Control Application/1960-1971.
      Environmental Monitoring Series, National Environmental
      Research Center, Office of Research and Development,
      U. S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio  45268, EPA-670/4-74-001
       (February, 1974).

           This  report determines the  state-of-the-art of
      instrumental  biochemical oxygen  demand methods.  A survey
      of related literature  published  between  1960  and  1973
      is used.   An  alternative solution  is  suggested  for
      monitoring secondary treatment plants, using  differential
      test values of  a  sample  (e.g. &  TOC,  £  TOD,  or  ^ COD).


D-82   Performance  of the  Union  Carbide  Dissolved Oxygen
      Analyzer,Environmental Monitoring Series, Office  of
      Research' and  Development,  U.  S.  EPA,  Cincinnati,  Ohio
       45268,  EPA  670/4-73-018  (July,  1973).

           Union Carbide dissolved  oxygen analyzer, model 1101,
      was  evaluated to determine the  effectiveness  of the
       thallium electrode in  the  measurement of dissolved oxygen
       (DO).    Tests included stability,  transient response,
       linearity, and temperature compensation.


 D-83   "The Work of the Dalmarnock Laboratory,  Glasgow,"
       Cunningham,  M.  F.  et.  al., Water Pollution Control,
       Vol.  72, No.  4, p. 392 (1973TT~"

           The monitoring and analysis activities of a sewage
       works  laboratory are described.   Activities include the
       use of gas liquid chromatography to identify oils,
       lithium salt injection to determine flow measurements,
       infra-red spectrophotometry to determine organic carbon
       content, atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine
       mercury, and gas and thin layer chromatography to determine
       chlorinated organics.
                               7-47

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D-84   "The Determination of Phenolic Materials in Industrial
       Wastes," Ettinger, M. B. and R. C. Kroner, Proceedings of
       the 5th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University
       p. 345  (1949).

            This article reviews some methods and procedures that
       can be used to determine phenolic materials in industrial
       wastes.  A detailed description is given of procedures
       to screen out interfering materials.  The use of bromine
       demand and Gibbs techniques to determine phenol is also
       presented.


D-85   "Solvents in Sewage and Industrial Waste Waters:  Identifi-
       cation and Determination," Ellison, W. K. and T. E. Wallbank,
       Water Pollution Control, Vol. 73, No. 6 p. 656,(1974).

            The use of infra-red and ultra-violet spectroscopy
       in conjunction with gas chromatography is assessed as a
       detection and identification technique.  Its application
       to identifying traces of immiscible solvent residues in
       samples of industrial waste waters, sewages and sludges
       is presented.


D-86   " Cobalt Interference in the Non-Steady State Clean Water
       Test," Kalinske, A. A. et. al., Water and Sewage Works,
       Vol. 120, No. 7, p. 54,  (July, 1973).

            Laboratory tests evaluated the oxygenation capacity
       of aeration equipment using the "non-steady state clean
       water techniques."  Deoxygenation of the aerator test
       basin was accomplished by adding sodium sulfite and a
       cobalt salt catalyst.  Cobalt interference in the determin-
       ation of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler Method was also
       investigated.


D-87   "1975 Annual Review of the New Developments in Water
       Quality Instrumentation," Cheremisinoff, Paul N. and
       Richard Young, Pollution Engineering,March, 1975, p. 28.

            This review reports the significant developments
       made by instrument manufacturers during 1975, and mentions
       some new products that may be useful to pollution engineers.
       Included is a list of instrument manufacturers.
                                7-48

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D-88   "Thin Layer Chromatography as a Sorting Test for
       Metals in Trade Effluent," Bailey, A. R.,Water Pollution
       Control,  Vol.  68,  No.  4,  p. 449,  (1969).

            Detailed information is presented on procedures to
       identify  and determine metal components in trade effluents.
       Thin layer chromatography is the recommended method.
       Results from the Purdy and Truter equation for determining
       metal concentrations are compared to those obtained from
       atomic absorption.


D-89   "Thin Layer and Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Parathion
       and Methyl Parathion in the Presence of Chlorinated Hydro-
       carbons," Kawahara, F. K. et. al., Journal of the Water
       Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 39, No.3, p. 446,
       (March, 1967).

            Methods to identify and measure chlorinated hydro-
       carbons and thiophosphate pesticides in water are described.
       The procedure used was employed to follow the course of
       accidental contamination in a river by pesticides.  A
       discussion of sampling, extraction, analysis by thin layer
       and gas chromatography, and infra-red spectrophotometry
       are also included.
D-90   "Chloride Interference in Nitrate Nitrogen Determination,"
       Malhotra, S. K., and A. E. Zanoni, Journal of the American
       Water Works Association, Vol. 62, No. 9, p. 568,
       (September, 1970).

            This paper presents graphs to quantitatively determine
       the interference of chlorides in the Standard Methods
       test for Nitrate Nitrogen.


D-91   "Automatic Sampling and Measurement of Small Liquid
       Flows," Evans, M. R. and R. Edgar, Water Pollution Control,
       Vol. 70,  (1971).

            This article describes a sampling machine which was
       developed without using a peristaltic pump or a timing
       clock.  The article also describes the construction of a
       low-cost flow recorder, which uses an overflow weir and
       a float-operated pen.
                                 7-49

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D-92   "Determination of Proteins in Waste Water," Woods,
       Calvin, Process Industrial Waste Control, Vol. 49,
       No. 4, p. 501 (July, 1965).

            Different techniques for measuring proteins in
       wastewater are presented.  The advantages
       and disadvantages Of each technique are indicated.  Some
       of the methods described include kjeldahl organic nitrogen,
       colorimetric determinations, the Eolin reaction, and the
       Eiuret reaction.


D-93   "Toxic Inorganic Materials and their Emergency Detection
       by the Polarographic Method," Offner, Harry G. and Edward
       F. Witucki, Journal of the American Water Works Association,
       Vol. 60, No. 8, p. 947,(August, 1968).

            The use of polarography utilizing the dropping
       mercury electrode for rapid and easy antimony, arsenic,
       cadmium, lead, mercury,selenium, tellurium and thallium
       analysis is discussed.  Discussions on these chemicals'
       physiological and toxic properties are also given.


D-94   "Monitoring with Carbon Analyzers," Arin, M. Louis,
       Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 10,
       p. 898 (October, 1974).

            A comparison of different instruments available for
       TOC  determinations is presented.  A brief discussion of
       the correlation between TOC, BOD and COD is also
       contained.
D-95   A Quick Biochemical Oxygen Demand Test,  U. S. EPA,
       Water Pollution Control Research Series, EPA No. 16050 EMF
                     3r
(06171),  48  pp.
            A study was conducted to develop a satisfactory,
       short term biological oxygen demand test suitable for
       operational control of waste treatment processes.  The
       test is a modification of the total biological oxygen
       demand (Tj^OD) test.  Laboratory experiments were conducted
       to examine the test, and experimental results are presented.


D-96   "Mercury in Public Sewer Systems," Evans. Ralph L.r et al,
       Water and Sewage Works, February, 1973, p. 74.

            This article presents the results of a study of five
       municipalities in central Illinois, which were found to
       contain from 0.1 to 7.9 ppb of mercury in their sewage.
       Analytical procedures and results are also presented.

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D-97   "Ion-Selective Electrodes for Quality Measurement and
       Control,"  Babcock,  R.  H.  Journal of the American Water
       Works Association,  January,  1975, p. 26.

            The theory and practice of ion-selective electrodes
       and their  application to  water quality measurement is
       discussed.  The limitations  of their use in the field
       is also considered.


D-98   "Detecting Pollutants with Chemical-Sensing Electrodes,"
       Frant, Martin. S.,  Environmental Science and Technology,
       Vol. 8, No. 3, p.  22A~, (March, 1974) .

            The advantages and disadvantages of chemical-sensing
       electrodes for identifying toxic materials in wastewaters
       are considered.  Several  applicable analytical methods,
       detection limits,  interferences and limitations are
       discussed.  A list of commercially available electrodes
       and their area of application is provided.


D-99   "Variables to be Measured in Wastewater Treatment Plant
       Monitoring and Control,"  Roesler, Joseph F. and Robert
       H. Wise, Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
       Vol. 46, No. 7, p.  1769,  (July, 1974).

            This article reviews methods of measuring those
       variables which would optimize wastewater treatment
       plant operation and control and minimize costs.  The
       discussion centers on four different groups:  Substrate
       variables, physical and chemical variables, suspended
       solids variables,  and biological activity variables.


D-100  "When you go into a Manhole or a Sewer, you should Under-
       stand Sewer Gases," Nichols, Preston, R., Deeds, & Data,
       p. 2  (January, 1975) .

            The sources and characteristics of typical sewer
       gases are discussed.  Eight different instances are
       considered where gas generation may occur in sewerage
       systems.  Safety precautions for each instance is recommended.


D-101  "Monitoring and Treatment of Cyanide-Bearing Plating Wastes,"
       Vought, John H., Journal of the Water Pollution Control
       Federation, Vol. 39, No.  12, p. 1971(December, 1967).

            The treatment and control of cyanide-bearing plating
       wastes are aided by an instrument performing continuous
       analysis and monitoring.   The sampling and operation of
       this analyzer  is described in detail and operating experiences
       are presented.

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D-102  "Instrument for Monitoring Trace Organic Compounds
       In Water," H. C. Bramer et. al.. Water & Sewage
       Works, Vol. 113, No. 8, p. 275  (August, 1966).

            An ultra-violet spectrophotometer was developed
       to measure trace organic compounds in water.  It has
       been demonstrated in qualitative and quantitative work
       on water bodies and waste effluents.  These demonstrations
       are described in this article.


D-103  "How to Measure Industrial Wastewater Flow," Thorsen,
       Thor and Rolf Oen, Chemical Engineering, Vol. 82, No. 4,
       p. 95  (February 17, 1975).

            Techniques for qualitative and quantitative waste-
       water analysis are discussed.  Included is a table of
       methods for effluent analysis, their costs and reliabilities.
       Flow calculations and operating principals of weirs and
       flumes are also discussed.


D-104  "Determination of Cyanide in Industrial Effluents," Hewitt,
       P. J. and H. B. Austin, Water Pollution Control, Vol. 71,
       No. 4, p. 381  (1972).

            This article reports on the development of a method
       to separate "free cyanide" from various complex cyanides.
       The effect of interfering substances on the rate of recovery
       of free cyanide is also assessed.


D-105  "Automated Analysis:  The Determination of Ammoniacal,
       Nitrous and Nitric Nitrogen in River Waters, Sewage
       Effluents and Trade Effluents," Chapman, B. et. al.,
       Water Pollution Control, Vol. 66, No. 2, p. 185  (1967).

            The Technicon auto analyzer is evaluated for ammoniacial,
       nitrous and nitric nitrogen determinations in river and
       waste waters.  The results are compared with standard
       analytical methods and presented in tabular form.


D-106  "Sampling and Monitoring Feature," Water and Waste Treatment,
       Vol. 16, No. 10, p. 11  (October, 197371

            This report includes a review of current water and
       wastewater sampling and monitoring equipment. The applications,
       limitations, manufacturer and description of each
       instrument is presented.
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D-107  "Comparison of Air and Water Pollution Instrumentation,"
       Rittmiller, Lawrence A.  et.  al.,  Pollution Engineering,
       Vol.  3,  No. 6, p.  26 (November-December,  1971).

            Sampling and  analysis equipment for  measuring air
       and water pollutants are discussed.   Tables are  included
       which provide information on instrument characteristics.


D-108  Simultaneous and Automated Determination  of Total Phosphorus
       and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, Gales,  Morris E.,  Jr., and
       Robert Booth, U.S. EPA, NTIS No.  PB  232 710,p.19,(May,1974).

            This study evaluates automated  methods for  the deter-
       mination of total  phosphorus and total kjeldahl  nitrogen.
       Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate  the detection
       limits,  precision  and accuracy of three detection methods
       (Single Reagent Method for total phosphorus, Selenium Method
       for nitrogen, and  Vanadium Method for nitrogen and
       phosphorus) in surface waters and wastewaters.


D-109  Instrumentation for Water Quality Determination, Mentink,
       ASCE, Water Resources Engineering Conference,  March 8-12,
       1965, 43 pp.
                                   /

            This pamphlet reviews the operation and theory of
       instrumentation that is used to measure basic water quality
       parameters.  Several integrated water quality instrumenta-
       tion  systems are discussed.   Included are illustrations
       of instrumentation and their circuits.


D-110   Automated Water Monitoring Instrument for Phosphorus
       Contents,  Prager, Manfred,  U. S. EPA, NTIS No.  PB 222 772,
       June, 1973, 26 pp.

            The development of a prototype  automated water monitor
       for trace quantities of phosphorus compounds is reported.
       The method uses hydrogen flame emission spectroscopy.
       Operating parameters described include fuel and air flow
       rates, burner configuration, operating temperature and
       methods of sample aerosolization.
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D-lll  NPDES Permits and Water Analysis, Pojasek, Robert B.
       Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4, p. 320,
       (April, 1975).

            This paper reviews the National Pollutant Discharge
       Elimination System (NPDES) procedure that is required for
       all individuals who discharge pollutants into a waterway
       from a point source.   To receive a permit, the applicant
       must summarize his wastewater characteristics according to
       federally approved methods of sampling and analysis.
       Included is a table that compares analytical methods
       for determining water pollutants under the permit program.


D-112  "Complying with Discharge Regulations," Schafer, Carl J.
       and N. Lailas, Environmental Science and mechnology,
       Vol. 8, No. 10, p. 903,  (October, 1974).

            Spokesmen of the federal Environmental Protection
       Agency report how industries and municipalities must
       monitor their wastewaters, and what help is available
       to meet the task of achieving compliance.


D-113  Wastewater Sampling Methodologies and Flow Measurement
       Techniques, Harris, Daniel J. and W. J. Keffer
       U. S. EPA No. 907/9-74-005,June, 1974, 117 pp.

            This report consolidates and summarizes the activities,
       experience, sampling methods, and field measurement
       techniques of the Field  Investigations Section of the  EPA.
       Sources of error and data variability are also included.


D-114  Quantitative Methods for Preliminary Design of Water
       Quality Surveillance Systems, U. S. EPA, NTIS No. PB 219/010,
         November, 1972  , 226 pp.

            Quantitative methods for the preliminary design of
       water quality surveillance systems  are developed and
       demonstrated  in this report.  The quantitative methods
       are  organized into a User Handbook.  The methods were
       illustrated on the Wabash River  Basin and the results
       were satisfactory.
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D-115  Estimation of  Polychlorinated  Biphenyls  in the  Presence
       Of- DDT-Type Compounds,  U.  S. EPA,  NTIS No.  PB 233  599,
       June,  1974, 90 pp.

       Research  to develop a  simple,  rapid  method for  determining
       PCB, and  DDT in water  is reported.   The  emphasis in the
       experiments is on the  sensitivity  and specificity  of
       luminescence.   Studies  include the determination of recoveries
       and detection  sensitivities for compounds of interest.
       An analysis of several environmental waters is  also reported.


D-116  Analysis  for Mercury  in Water, A Preliminary Study of
       Methods,  U. S. EPA  No.  R4-72-003,  September, 1972, 58 pp.

           A study to develop analytical methods to determine
       mercury (organic  and  inorganic) in water is reported.
       A comparison of various methods in both  distilled  and
       surface waters was  made.


D-117  Test Procedure and  Standards - ABS and  LAS Biodegradability,
       The Soap  and Detergent Association Scientific and  Technical
       Report No.  3,  January, 1966, 16 pp.

           A procedure to determine the biodegradability of
       ABS and LAS surfactants is described.  Results  of  two
       biodegradability test methods, the shake flask  and the
       semicontinuous activated  sludge, are presented.


D-118  Field  Tests of LAS  Biodegradability, The Soap and Detergent
       Association,Scientific and Technical Report No. 2,
       September,  1965,  36 pp.

           Field  studies  were undertaken to evaluate  the
       biodegradability of LAS in extended  aeration activated
       sludge plants  under normal operating conditions.   The
       results of  four different field tests are presented.


D-119  "A New Automatic Sampler  fox Industrial Outfall,  Streams
       and Sewers,"  Brailsford,  H. D., Water and Sewage Works,
       September,  1968.

           The  operation  of a timer-controlled intermittent
       pump type sampler is  described in this article.  A schematic
       diagram of  its circuit is also presented.


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D-120  Fluorescent Probes in the Detection of Insecticides
       In Water, U. S. EPA, NTIS No. PB 221 336, April, 1973,
       41 pp.

            Laboratory research has been conducted to synthesize
       one or more fluorescent probe molecules which would be
       useful in the analytical methodology for insectide deter-
       minations in water.  Development of experimental parameters
       for design and synthesis of optimum probe molecules is
       reported in this booklet.


D-121  Environmental Applications of Advanced Instrumental
       Analyses;  Assistance Projects/ FY 69-71, U. S. EPA,
       May, 1973, 82 pp.

            A multitude of analyses involving the identification
       and measurements of organic pollutants in water are dis-
       cussed under eleven project categories involving a pollu-
       tion incident.  In most cases these analyses have helped
       to solve, or at least understand more clearly the related
       pollution incident.  In some cases the analyses provided
       evidence for enforcement of regulatory legislation.


D-122  Current Practice in GC-MS Analysis of Organics in Water,
       U. S. EPA, NTIS No. PB 224 947, August, 1973, 91 pp.

            Experiences during five years of evaluating the
       application of gas chromatography mass spectrometry to
       wastewater analysis is reported.  Procedures are described
       to analyze for organic water pollutants, including sample
       collection, handling, preparation, analysis, interpretation
       of the results, and confirmatory techniques.  Case histories
       illustrating the techniques are also included.


D-123  "Instrumentation in Pollution Control," Snowden, F.C.,
       Industrial Water Engineering, Vol. 7,No. 6, p.22,(June,1970).

            Sensors and analyzers for various water quality
       determinations are discussed, including pH, conductivity,
       dissolved oxygen, and temperature meters.  Techniques
       for measuring process wastes are also discussed.  Con-
       sidered are:  plating wastes, acid-base neutralization,
       activated sludge and flocculation control.  Instrumentation
       for measuring air pollutants is also considered.
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D-124  Sampling  of  Wastewater,  Shelly,  Philip E.,  U.  S.  EPA,
       Technology Transfer,  Washington,  D.  C. 20460,
       June,  1974,  115 pp.

           This handbook  summarizes  wastewater sampling
       techniques and equipment.   It  includes a list  of
       sampler manufacturers,  and detailed  descriptions  of
       some commercially available equipment.


D-125  Industrial Wastewater Discharges, Compiled and edited by
       Bureau of Water and Wastewater Utilities Management,
       Division  of  Pure Waters, June, 1969, Albany, N. Y.
       available from the  Health Education  Service, P. 0.  Box
       7283,  Albany,  N. Y.  12224, 56  pp.

           This guide is  a compilation of  policy, procedural
       and technical  suggestions for  measuring and reporting
       industrial wastewater characteristics.  Part 1 describes
       the design of  a testing and measurement program and
       Part 2 describes administrative aspects.


D-126  Organic Pollutant Identification Utilizing Mass
       Spectrometry,  U. S.  EPA, NTIS  No. PB 224 544,  July, 1973.

           A system  for the rapid identification of  volatile
       organic water  pollutants has been developed.   It involves
       gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with computerized
       matching  of  mass spectra.  Examples  are presented to
       illustrate the use  of GC/MS for specific identifications.


D-127  Pyrographic  Gross Characterization of Water Contaminants,
       U. S.  EPA, No. EPA  R2-73-227,  May, 1973, 94 pp.

           A method  has been developed for direct analysis
       of organic materials in aqueous solutions.  The method
       is based  on  thermal fragmentation followed by  gas chroma-
       tographic separation and detection of the resulting deriva-
       tive composition.  The results of a field study are
       reported, and  include:   a definition of area of potential
       application  of this technique, development of  reliable
       analytical procedures,  and development of an efficient
       data handling  system.

       For additional information pertaining to this  section,
       please refer to the following  articles:

                 A-7             E-38
                 A-15
                 A-19
                 A-24
                 A-25
                 A-27
                 A-28

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        SECTION E - POLLUTANTS WHICH INTERFERE WITH
             PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

             Reference:  Volume I, Section E & Appendix  5
E-l   "Copper and Anaerobic Sludge Digestion", McDermott, G.N.,
      et.al., Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 35, No. 5, p. 655 (May, 1963).

           The digestion of sludges obtained from sewage to
      which copper in known concentrations was fed continuously
      was observed in pilot plant studies.  Digester perform-
      ance was measured by gas production.  Studies of the effect
      of slug doses were also made.
E-2   "Effects of Copper and Lead Bearing Wastes on the Puri-
      fication of Sewage", Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 93,
      No. 1, p. 30 (January, 1946).

           A procedure to examine the effects of small concen-
      trations of metal ions on the metabolism of sewage is
      reported.  The metal ion effects on nitrification are also
      discussed.
E-3   "Toxicity, Synergism, and Antagonism in Anaerobic Waste
      Treatment Processes", Kugelman, I.J. and K. K. Chin,
      Advanced Chemistry, Series 105, Vol. 55, p. 55 (1971)

           This report reviews the literature on toxicity,
      synergism and antagonism in anaerobic digesters.   Ex-
      perimental inadequacies on much published data are
      pointed out, and methods of minimizing toxic effects of
      metals and certain organics are indicated.  The paper
      also attempts to categorize quantitatively toxicity and
      stimulation, on an absolute basis.
E-4   "Summary Report on the Effects of Heavy Metals on the
      Biological Treatment Processes", Barth, E. F., et.al.,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 37,
      No. 1, p. 86(January, 1965).

           The effects of copper, chromium, nickel and zinc,
      individually and in combination on biological treatment
      processes were studied in pilot plant tests.  No-effect
      doses were determined for the aeration and anaerobic diges-
      tion phases.  Distribution of metals through the activated
      sludge process and the concentration in the final effluent
      were also indicated.
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E-5   "Review of Literature on Toxic Materials Affecting Sewage
      Treatment Processes,  Streams,  and BOD Determinations",
      Rudolfs W., et.  al.,   Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
      Vol.  22, No.  9,  p.  1157  (September,  1950).

           The review  of  the literature is divided into three
      parts.   The first part comprises the effect of toxic
      materials (both  organic  and inorganic)  on sewage treat-
      ment  processes  (both  aerobic and anaerobic).  It includes
      a review of the  effects  of various industrial wastes.
      The second part  reviews  the literature that pertains to
      the physical, chemical,  and biological effects of pollutants
      on streams.  The third part reviews  the literature on the
      use of  the BOD test as a tool for the detection of in-
      hibitory substances on the oxidation of sewage.  Also
      included is a table listing concentrations of wastes and
      compounds which  inhibit  or retard various treatment pro-
      cesses, and flora and fauna.
E-6   "Zinc in Relation to Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Di-
      gestion Processes",  McDermott, Gerald N., et.al., Proceed-
      ings of the 17th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue
      University, p.  461 (1962) .

           The efficiency  of treatment of sewage containing
      zinc was studied by  operation of pilot activated sludge
      plants.  The objectives of the research were to determine
      the level of zinc that can be tolerated without reducing
      treatment plant efficiency, and to determine the efficiency
      of the process  in removing zinc.
E-7   "The Effects of Industrial Wastes on Sewage Treatment" ,
      Masselli, Joseph W. , et.al., Report prepared by New England
      Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission, June, 1965.

           The effect of industrial wastes on sewage treatment
      has been reviewed, and methods which may alleviate their
      effect have been described.  Analytical data on metallic
      content of Connecticut sewages have been recorded and re-
      habilitation of metal-sick digesters by use of sulfide
      and sulfate is described.
E-8   Environmental Effect of Photoprocessing Chemicals, Vol. 1,
      Report by the National Association 6f Photographic Manu-
      facturers , Inc., 600 Mamaroneck Ave., Harrison, N.Y. 10528
      (1974)

           The effects of photographic chemicals on conventional
      treatment systems and on aquatic organisms are examined.
      Included are results and discussion of wastewater analysis
      and the development of a model to predict downstream response
      to photoprocessing effluent.

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E-9   Environmental Effect of Photoprocessing Chemicals, Vol. II,
      Report by the National Association of Photographic Manu-
      facturers, Inc., 600 Mamaroneck Avenue, Harrison, N.Y.
      10528, 1974,  324  pp.

           This volume contains a detailed compilation of all
      the experimental procedures, results, and data analysis,
      and provides data to support the statements and conclusions
      of Vol. I (See Reference E-8).
E-10  Fate  of Benzidine in the Aquatic Environment; A Scoping
      Study,  U. S. EPA Contract # 68-01-2226, January, 1974.

           To determine the fate of benzidine in the aquatic
      environment, the stability of the aqueous phase of
      benzidine in biologically active systems was studied in
      the laboratory.  Long term BOD and respirometer studies
      were used to measure the removal or continued presence
      of aqueous benzidine.
E-ll  "Anaerobic Processes - Literature Review", Ghosh, S.,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 44, No. 6, p. 948 (June 1972).

           Review of the 1971 literature revealed that a greater
      emphasis was placed by researchers on evaluating the effects
      of various inhibitory chemicals on the performance of
      anaerobic digesters.  Also, considerable effort was directed
      toward evaluating the fate of precipitated, insoluble
      phosphates added to digesters, along with primary and/or
      secondary sludge.
E-12  "Effects of Chromium On the Activated Sludge Process",
      Moore, W. Allan, et. al., Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 33, No. 1, p. 54 (January 1961).
      Also published in the Proceedings of the 15th Industrial
      Waste Conference (1960) , Purdue University, p. 158.

           Pilot plant studies were conducted to determine the
      extent to which sewage processes can tolerate chromium
      wastes.  Removal efficiencies (BOD and chromium) and the
      distribution and concentrations of chromium in various
      treatment units were examined.  Digester effects and sludge
      settleability were also studied.
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E-13  "Pilot  Plant  Experiments  on the  Effects  of  Some Constitu-
      ents  of Industrial Waste  Waters  on Sewage Treatment",
      Wheatland,  A.B.,  et.al.,  Water Pollution Control,  Vol.  70,
      p.  626  (1971).

           Pilot  studies to  assess the effects of copper, nickel,
      zinc  and chromium on activated sludge performance  are  out-
      lined with  a  view towards developing a realistic assess-
      ment  of user  costs based  on treatability.
E-14  "Nickel in Relation  to Activated Sludge and Anaerobic
      Digestion Processes",  McDermott, G.N.,  et.al.,  Journal
      of the Water Pollution Control Federation,  Vol.  37,  No.  2,
      p. 163 (February 1965).

           Pilot plant studies  were conducted to  determine the
      level of nickel in waste  waters that can be tolerated by
      aerobic and anaerobic  biological treatment  processes.
      The studies included the  determination  of the  efficiency
      of the processes in  removing nickel.
E-15  "Limits  for Toxic Wastes  in Sewage Treatment",  Coburn,
      Stuart,  Sewage Works  Journal,  Vol. 21, No.  3, p.  522 (1949)

           This  paper reviews  some of the deleterious effects of
      industrial wastes on  municipal treatment systems.   The
      question of pretreatment  standards is also discussed.
E-16  Controlling  the Effects of Industrial Wastes on Sewage
      Treatment,   Masselli,  et.al.,  Technical Report prepared
      for the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control
      Commission  by Wesleyan University, June 1970, 62 pp.

           Factors involved  in the joint treatment of industrial
      and domestic wastewaters are discussed.  A discussion on
      the composition of domestic and industrial wastes, the
      functions of a treatment plant, the effects and control
      of industrial wastes,  and a monitoring and analysis
      program are included.   Major industrial processes are
      reviewed and their wastewaters described.  Recommendations
      are made for a control program which maximizes treatment
      and minimizes deleterious effects on treatment systems.
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E-17  "Anaerobic Processes", Pohland, F.G. and S. J. Rang,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 43,
      No. 6, p. 1129 (June 1971).

           This article reviews the 1970 literature on the
      microbiology and mechanisms involved in anaerobic pro-
      cesses, and on the factors inhibiting these processes.
E-18  "Mercury in Anaerobic Sludge Digestion", Lingle, James W.
      and Edward R. Hermann, Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 47, No. 3, p. 466 (March 1975).

           Laboratory studies were conducted to determine whether
      mercuric chloride in various concentrations are converted
      into methyl mercury in the anaerobic sludge digestion
      process.  The distribution of mercury within the digester
      was also determined.
E-19  "White Water Treatment", Rudolfs, William and H. R. Amberg,
      Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 24, No. 10, p. 1278
      (October 1952).

           Laboratory studies determined the effect of various
      concentrations of soluble sulfide upon the anaerobic
      digestion process.  White water and sodium acetate were
      used as substrate in these studies.
E-20  "Digestion Fundamentals Applied to Digester Recovery -
      Two Case Studies", Dague, Richard R., et. al., Journal of
      the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 42, No. 9,
      p. 1666 (September 1970).

           The authors attempted to interpret the theory of
      anaerobic digestion as applied to digester operation.
      They report the experiences encountered in solving the
      problems of two anaerobic digester upsets.
E-21  "The Effects of Heavy Metals and Toxic Organics on Activated
      Sludge", Goss, Thomas A., Masters Thesis. University of
      Pittsburgh (19 69).

           Manometrie techniques were used to determine the rela-
      tive respiration rates of nonacclimated activated sludge
      to various heavy metals and organics. Threshold limits of
      sludge to these components were determined.
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E-22  "Effect  of High Sodium Chloride  Concentration  on  Trickling
      Filter Slimes", Lawton,  Gerald W.  and Clarence Eggert,
      Sewage and Industrial  Wastes, Vol.  29, No.  11, p.  1228
      (November 1957) .

           Pilot plant  studies were conducted  to  determine  whether
      trickling filter  slimes  can  satisfactorily  stabilize  organic
      matter in saline  wastes.  The effect  of  these  wastes  on
      growths  already developed was investigated.  Both acclimated
      and non-acclimated slimes were examined.
E-23  Aqueous Wastes  from Petroleum and  Petrochemical  Plants,
      Beychok, M.R. ,  John Wiley  &  Sons,  N.  Y.,  1967.

          Pollutants found  in petroleum and  petrochemical  waste-
      waters and  their environmental effects  are  discussed.
      Effluent quality standards from several governmental
      authorities  are included.
E-24  "Effects of Copper on Aerobic Biological  Sewage  Treatment",
      McDermott, Gerald N., et.al., Journal  of  the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol.  35, No.  2,  p.  227  (February  1963).

          Pilot plant studies  were conducted to  determine  the
      effects of copper on biological treatment systems.  BOD
      removal efficiencies were determined under  steady  feed and
      slug doses of copper feed.  No-effect  concentrations  are
      given.
E-25  "Field Survey of Four Municipal Wastewater  Treatment Plants
      Receiving Metallic Wastes", Barth, E.F. ,  et.al.,  Journal
      of  the Water Pollution Control Federation,  Vol.  37,  No. 8,
      p.  1101  (August 196b).	

          Four municipal wastewater treatment  plants  that
      receive metallic wastes were  sampled  for  treatment effici-
      ency. Metal distribution among the individual  treatment units
      was determined.  Concentration levels  that cause no reduc-
      tion in treatment plant efficiency are  also given.
                           7-63

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 E-26   Treatability of Oil and Grease Discharged to Publicly
       Owned  Treatment Works, U. S. Environmental Protection
       Agency, EPA No. 440/575/066, Pretreatment Requirements
       for  Oil and Grease, April, 1975.

           This document discusses the available methods for
       the  removal of oil and grease from waste streams.  Other
       items  discussed include the method of analysis and
       currently acceptable concentrations for oil and grease.
E-27  Toxic  Materials Analysis of Street Surface Contaminants.
      Office of Research and Development, U. S. EPA Report
      iR2-73-233,  August 1973.

           Metal loading from road surface runoff is tabulated
      and compared to normal sanitary sewage flow.  The relation-
      ship between metals in runoff and metals in sewage treat-
      ment plant effluent is made, to evaluate the effect on
      receiving waters.  The effect that collecting runoff in
      a combined system will have on biological systems is
      explored.  A table summarizes metal concentrations neces-
      sary to cause reduction in biological treatment systems.
E-28  "Annual Report - Control of Toxic and Hazardous Material
      Spills in Municipalities", Brinsko, G.A., Allegheny County
      Sanitary Authority., November 4, 1974.

           This demonstration project, partially funded by the
      EPA, involves developing a comprehensive program for the
      management and control of hazardous materials in the
      Allegheny County Sanitary Authority municipal wastewater
      treatment and collection system.  The program will include
      the development of an early warning system with appropriate
      monitoring and surveillance equipment to permit the plant
      to respond operationally to shock loadings of contaminants.
      The demonstration grant is composed of seven specific tasks
      which include:

           1.  Literature and Source Review
           2.  Inventory
           3.  Pilot Plant Evaluation
           4.  Monitoring and Surveillance Systems
           5.  Contingency Plan
           6,  Operational Modifications to the ALCOSAN Plant
           7.  Surcharge, Financing and Legislation
      This summary deals with work accomplished during the first
      year of this two-year project.
                           7-64

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E-29  A Handbook on the Effects of Toxic and  Hazardous Materials
      On Secondary Biological Treatment Processes, A Literature
      Review^Environmental Quality Systems,Inc., Rockville,
      Maryland, prepared  for the Allegheny  County Sanitary
      Authority and the EPA, Sept. 1973, unpublished.


          A major goal of this work was to provide background
      information relating to the effects of  toxic and hazardous
      materials on the performance of biological  treatment  pro-
      cesses.  In addition, background information was collected
      on the effects of biological processes  on  toxic materials.
      The information is  presented in four  sections:  an intro-
      duction, the matrix of toxic and hazardous  material infor-
      mation, the list of references used to  generate the tabular
      matrix, and a supplementary list of chemicals.
E-30  "Effects  of Alum Addition  on Activated Sludge Biota",
      Anderson,  Douglas  T.  and Mark J.  Hammer,  Water and Sewage
      Works,  Vol. 120, No.  1, p.  63 (Jan.  1973)

          Laboratory  studies were conducted to determine the
      effect  of aluminum sulfate (alum)  addition to the activated
      sludge  process.  The  influence of alum on higher life  forms
      and on  BOD removals were examined.   A comparison was made
      between effects  on domestic and synthetic (glucose-glutamic
      acid substrate)  wastewater.


E-31  "Literature Review",  Journal of the  Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 46,  No.  6,  p.  1034  (June,  1974).

          A  review  of the  preceding year's literature is
      presented, including:

          1.  Treatment technology  for major industrial  effluents
              including paper, dairy, chemicals, petroleum,
              plating, meat, fish,  poultry, and fermentation(phar-
              maceuticals, corn, sugar) industries.

          2.  Sampling and analysis  techniques  for  continuous
              monitoring, organic and inorganic chemicals.

          3.  Physical-chemical waste treatment methods.

          4.  Microbiology and mechanisms  of anerobic processes.

          5.  Sources, fate, effects of metals  and  other trace
              elements.

          6.  The identification, interactions, inhibitions of
              waste treatment microbiota.


                            7-65

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 E-32  "Activated Sludge Studies with Phenol Bacteria",  Radhakrishnan,
       I.,  and A. K.  Sinha Ray,  Journal of the Water Pollution
       Control Federation, Vol.  46,  No. 10,  p. 2393 (Oct.  1974).

            A series  of laboratory studies were conducted  to
       determine the  concentrations  of phenol that can be  metabolized
       by Bacillus cereus bacteria.   Also studied were nitrogen-
       deficient conditions,  temperature variations, and the
       results of contaminating  the  culture with wastewater.
 E-33  "Biological Treatability of Trinitrotoluene Manufacturing
       Wastewater", Nay,  Marshall W.  Jr.,  et.al..  Journal of
       the Water Pollution Control Federation,  Vol.  46,  No.  3,
       p.  485 (March,  1971)

            Laboratory studies were conducted to define  the  amen-
       ability of neutralized wastewater from the counter-current,
       continuous flow trinitrotoluene (TNT)  manufacturing process
       to  biodegradation.  The feasibility of using biological
       processes for treatment of the wastewater was also evaluated.
E-34   "Toxicity of Copper to Activated Sludge," Ayers, K. C.
       et. al., Proceedings of the 20th Industrial Waste
       Conference (1965)  Purdue University.

            This article summarizes studies carried out at
       Ohio State University in which attempts were made to
       investigate the actual mechanism causing partial failure
       of the activated sludge process due to shock loadings of
       copper. A description of the pilot plant and the results
       of the experiments are presented.  The work of previous
       investigations is also discussed.
 E-35  "The Effects of Sulfides on Anaerobic Treatment", Lawrence,
       Alonzo W., et.al., Proceedings of 19th Industrial Waste
       Conference, Purdue University  (1964), p. 343.

            The effects of soluble and insoluble sulfides on anaero-
       bic treatment were investigated by the operation of a series
       of laboratory digesters receiving daily sulfide additions.
       Experimental results were discussed with respect to toxic
       concentrations of soluble sulfides.  Possible methods for
       controlling and eliminating sulfide toxicity were also
       indicated.
                                 7-66

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E-36  "Slug of Chromic Acid Passes Through  a Municipal Treatment
      Plant", English, J, N., et.al.,  Proceedings  of  19th Indus-
      trial Waste Conference  (1964), Purdue University, p.  493.

          A field  study was undertaken  to  determine  the effects
      of  passage of a chromic acid slug  on  the efficiency of a
      municipal sewage treatment  plant.   In addition  to the levels
      of  chromium in the plant  processes attributable to the
      chromic acid  slug, background  data on the concentrations of
      chromium, copper, zinc and  nickel  are also presented.
E-37  "Cation  Toxicity  and Stimulation in Anaerobic Waste Treat-
      ment II.   Daily Feed Studies",  Kugelman,  Irwin J.  and p.  L.
      McCarty,  Proceedings of 19th Industrial Waste Conference
      (1964),Purdue  University,  p. 667.  Also presented in the
      Journal  of the Water Pollution  Control Federation,  "ol. 37,
      p.  97 (1965) .  ~~~"

           Laboratory  studies to investigate cation effects under
      daily feed conditions on anaerobic waste  treatment systems
      are reported.  These studies provide the  sanitary engineer
      with data which  can be used to  design waste treatment sys-
      tems. Cation  concentrations are examined singly and in com-
      bination to determine synergistic and antagonistic effects.
E-38  "Determination of Biodegradability Using Warburg Respirometric
      Techniques", Hunter, J.  V. and H. Heukelekian, Proceedings
      of the 19th Industrial Waste Conference (1964), Purdue
      University, p. 616.

          .Laboratory studies are reported which examine the
      Warburg Respirometer as a biodegradability technique.  Its
      applications, procedures for use, interpretations, and the
      advantages and disadvantages inherent in its use are also
      presented.
 E-39  "The Role of Iron in Anaerobic Digestion", Pfeffer, John T,
      and James E, White, Proceedings of the 19th Industrial Waste
      Conference,  (1964)  Purdue University, p. 887.

           Laboratory studies are reported examining the relation-
      ship between iron loading and digester efficiency.  The role
      of iron in reducing soluble phosphate concentrations by
      precipitation is studied, and the relationship between soluble
      phosphate concentration and digester efficiency is examined.
                              7-67

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E-40  "Substrate Interaction during Shock Loadings to Biological
      Treatment Processes", Komolrit, K. and A. F. Gaudy, Jr.,
      Proceedings of the 19th Industrial Waste Conference, (1964)
      Purdue University, p. 796.Also presented in the Journal
      of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 38, No. 8,
      p. 1259 (August, 1966).

           Laboratory studies were conducted under severe shock
      loading conditions to examine substrate dependence of sequen-
      tial substrate removal phenomena.  A metabolic flow chart
      for various carbohydrates and related sugar alcohols shows
      the metabolic pathways.
E-41  "Effect of High Concentrations of Individual Volatile Acids
      on Anaerobic Treatment, McCarty, Perry L. and Marc Brosseau,
      Proceedings of the 18th Industrial Waste Conference  (1963),
      Purdue University, p. 283.

           Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the
      effects of high concentrations of volatile acids individually
      and in combination on the digestion of sewage sludge.  The
      purpose was to determine whether volatile acid buildup is
      the cause or effect of digester upset.
E-42  "A Procedure for Continuous Nitrification  Corrections
      During Warburg Respirometer Studies", Symons, James, and
      Roger LaBonte, Proceedings of the 18th Industrial Waste
      Conference (1963), Purdue University, p.498.

           Background and a discussion of oxygen uptake due to
      nitrification during Warburg Respirometer biodegradation
      studies is reported in this article.  The paper includes a
      discussion on possible solutions, theoretical considerations
      and correction possibilities in order to deal with the nitri-
      fication problem.
E-43 "The Physical and Biological Effects of Copper on Aerobic
      Biological Waste Treatment Processes", Moulton, Edward Q.,
      and Kenesaw S. Shumate, Proceedings of the 18th Industrial
      Waste Conference (1963) , Purdue University, p. 602.       .,

           Laboratory studies were conducted to explain the effects
      of copper toxicity on aerobic biological treatment systems.
      The effects of copper dosage on BOD and COD are examined.
      An explanation of the path and fate of copper ions is
      proposed.
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E-44   "Effect of Boron on Aerobic Biological Waste Treatment",
       Banerji, Shankha K,, et.al., Proceedings of the 23rd
       Industrial Waste Conference  (1968) , Purdue University,  p. 956

           Laboratory studies are reported on the effects of
       boron on an activated sludge system.  The effects of dif-
       ferent concentrations of boric acid on the growth and on
       the substrate removal rate of acclimated activated sludge
       is indicated.  Settling characteristics of the sludge are
       examined and a literature review of the effects of boron
       on treatment processes and on aquatic life is included.
E-45   "Development of Biological Treatment Data for Chemical
       Wastes", Ford, Davis L., et.al., Proceedings of the  22nd
       Industrial Waste Conference  (1967) , Purdue University,
       p. 292.

           Laboratory experiments were conducted to develop
       design criteria for chemical wastes.  The feasibility of
       treating industrial wastewaters on a laboratory scale
       is examined.
E-46   "Carbon as a Parameter in Bacterial Systems Growth Limi-
       tation and Substrate Utilization Studies", Rickard, M.D.
       and W. H. Riley, Proceedings of the 20th Industrial Waste
       Conference (1965), Purdue University, p. 98.

           The utility of carbon analysis to  trace the metabolism
       of organic compounds is surveyed.  The  relationships obtained
       among cellular carbon, exogenous soluble carbon and viable
       count during bacterial growth are examined with the rates
       of synthesis of cellular material.
E-47   "Effect of Acrylonitrile on Anaerobic Digestion of  Domestic
       Sludge", Lank, John C. Jr., and Alfred T. Wallace,  Pro-
       ceedings of the 25th Industrial Waste Conference  (1970),
       Purdue University, p. 518.

           Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the  effects
       of acrylonitrile on anaerobic digestion.  Included  is  a
       literature survey on the effects of  acrylonitrile on aquatic
       life and aerobic biological treatment.
                               7-69

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E-48   "Trace Metals and Filamentous Microorganism Growth",
       Pfeffer, John T., et.al,, Proceedings of the 20th Indus-
       trial Waste Conference  (1965) , Purdue University, p. 608.

            Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine
       the trace metal requirements that are necessary for bac-
       terial and fungal growth.
E-49   "Some Effects of High Salt Concentrations on Activated
       Sludge", Kincannon, D.F. and A. F. Gaudy, Jr., Proceed-
       ings of the 20th Industrial Waste Conference  (1965) ,
       Purdue University, p. 316.Also presented in the Journal
       of th«» wat^r Pollution rontrnl FpHpration, Vol. 36,
       No. 7, p. 1148  (July 1966).

            Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine
       the effects of shock loadings of high salt concentrations
       on sludges developed in waters with low salt content.  Con-
       versely, the effects of fresh water on sludges developed
       in a salt water medium were also examined.  Settling
       characteristics, removal efficiencies and cellular compon-
       ents were indicated.
E-50   "The Effect of Surface Active Agents on Substrate Utiliza-
       tion in an Experimental Activated Sludge System", McClelland,
       Nina I. and K. H. Mancy, Proceedings of the 24th Industrial
       Waste Conference (1969) p. 1361.

            Laboratory studies to determine the effect of ABS
       (alkylbenzene sulfonate) and LAS (linear alkylate sulfon-
       ate) on the performance of an activated sludge system are
       reported.  The mechanism of interference with activated
       sludge systems of compounds with surface active character-
       istics is also presented.
E-51   "Combined Treatment of Chemical Wastes and Domestic Sewage
       in Germany", Bischofsberger, Wolfgang, Proceedings of the
       24th Industrial Waste Conference  (1969), Purdue University,
       p. 920.

            Pilot plant studies were conducted to determine whether
       chemical wastes needed to be treated separately or could
       be combined with domestic sewage.  Basic criteria for plant
       design were developed for a combined activated sludge
       system.
                               7-70

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E-52  "Factors  Responsible  for Non-Biodegradability of Indus-
      trial Wastes,"  Irvine,  Robert L.  Jr.  and A.  Busch,
      Proceedings  of  the  24th Industrial Waste Conference
      (1969), Purdue  University,  p. 903.

           This paper discusses some basic  concepts in bio-
      chemistry that  can  be used to understand the true mean-
      ing of biodegradability.  The article indicates how these
      concepts  may be used  to develop new treatment practices.
      It points out that  some materials that are termed "non-
      biodegradable"  may  be degradable under a different set
      of conditions.

E-53  "Composition Studies  of Activated Sludges,"  Burkhead,
      Carl E. and Samuel  Waddell,  Proceedings of the 24th
      Industrial Waste Conference  (1969), Purdue University,
      p. 576.

           Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the
      change in chemical  composition of activated sludges
      grown in  batch  fed  units with various pure organic sub-
      strates.   Energy-synthesis data were also collected to
      more completely define the chemical changes taking place
      throughout all  phases of the growth cycle.


E-54  "Sludge Activity Parameters and Their Application to
      Toxicity  Measurements and Activated Sludge," Patterson,
      James W.  et al., Proceedings of the 24th Industrial
      Waste Conference (1969), Purdue University, p.127.

           This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages
      of standard treatment unit monitoring methods.  Other
      specific  biochemical  parameters and their applicability
      to activated sludge systems under toxic stress are dis-
      cussed.   A procedure  for ATP(adenosine triphosphate)
      analysis  for use as a quantitative measurement of
      microbial biomass and activity is also included.


E-55  "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons:  Emerging Implications in
      Regional  Planning," Shea, Timothy and Williams Gates,
      Proceedings of  the  24th Industrial Waste Conference
      (1969),  Purdue  University, P. 1448.

           A study was conducted to develop estimates of
      chlorinated hydrocarbon emissions in municipal and
      industrial wastewaters and in water and sediments in
      the San Francisco Bay-Delta region.  A mass balance of
      pesticide transport into and from the Bay System was
      also discussed.
                             7-71

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E-56  "Dissolved - Copper Effect on Iron Pipe," Cruse, Henry,
      Journal of the American Water Works Association, Feb.,
      1971, p. 79.

           Several case studies are presented to show the
      corrosion effects of galvanized iron pipe as a result of
      copper concentrations as low as .01 mg/1.  Copper sources
      include water supply, copper addition for algae control
      and copper pipe upstream of the iron pipe.


E-57  "Identification and Testing of Compatible Industrial
      Wastes," Hastings, P. C. and M. W. Davis, Jr., Proceedings
      of the 27th Industrial Waste Conference  (1972), Purdue
      University, p. 515

           Laboratory studies are reported which examine two
      wastes  (Kraft mill bleachery waste of the caustic stage
      and aluminum containing waste) which mixed together cause
      a physioehemical reaction resulting in precipitation of
      organic and inorganic materials.  Location of plants with
      a view towards joint treatment of compatible wastes is
      suggested.


E-58  "Effect of Chrome Plating Wastes on the Warsaw, Indiana
      Treatment Plant," Erganian, George K., Proceedings of
      the 14th Industrial Waste Conference (1959) Purdue
      University, p.127.

           An evaluation of the effect of chrome plating wastes
      on the operation of an activated sludge plant is reported.
      Relationships between chrome concentration and treatment
      efficiency, sludge index, and return sludge concentration
      are presented.  Consideration is given to the need for
      ferrous sulfate as a pretreatment device for chrome
      bearing wastes.  Chrome removals as a result of treatment *
      are also examined.


E-59  "Significance of a Highly Alkaline Industrial Waste In a
      Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant," Leary, R. D.,
      et. al., Proceedings of the 26th Industrial Waste Conference,
      (1971), Purdue University, p. 566.

           The effect of a high alkaline - high chromium content
      glue and gelatin plant waste on a primary treatment plant
      is reported.  Laboratory study results are also presented
      on the effects of these wastes on anaerobic digestion.
      Data is provided on treatment plant performance before
      and after discharge of the trade waste.
                                7-72

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E-60  "Some  Effects  of  Copper  on the  Activated Sludge Process,"
      Directo,  Leon  S.  and  Edward Moulton,  Proceedings of the
      17th Industrial Waste Conference (1962) , Purdue
      University,  P. 95

          The  results  of pilot plant studies  to evaluate the
      response  of  activated sludge to various  situations are
      presented in this article.  Responses to shock loadings
      of copper under varying  organic loadings and to various
      suspended solids  concentrations are both reported.


E-61  "The Effect  of ABS Shock Loadings on the Activated
      Sludge Process,"  Bennett, E. R. and D. W. Ryckman, Proceed-
      ings of the  16th  Industrial Waste Conference (1961) ,
      Purdue University,p~.52.

          Laboratory studies  were conducted to investigate
      the effect of  shock loadings of ABS on the activated
      sludge system  and to  gain an insight into the mechanism
      involved in  the interaction of  ABS and the activated
      sludge microorganisms.  The results of these tests are
      presented in this paper.


E-62  "The Effect  of Whey Upon the Operation of an Activated
      Sludge Plant," Backmeyer, D. P., Proceedings of the 3rd
      Industrial Waste  Conference (1947), Purdue University,
      p. 310.

          This paper discusses the experiences encountered by
      an activated sludge treatment plant as a result of batch
      and continuous doses  of  whey.


E-63  "Effects of  Synthetic Detergents on Activated Sludge,"
      Manganelli,  R. M., Proceedings of the 4th Industrial
      Waste  Conference, (1948), Purdue University, p.611.

          Laboratory  studies  were conducted to determine the
      effects of anionic, cationic and nonionic detergents
      at various pH  levels  on  activated sludge organisms.  The
      results of these  studies are reported in this paper.


E-64  "Some  Revised  Concepts Concerning Biological Treatment,"
      Sawyer, Clair  N.  et al., Proceedings of the 9th Industrial
      Waste  Conference   (1954), Purdue University, p. 217.

          Laboratory  studies  were conducted to determine the
      effect on biological  treatment of:  fluctuating temperature,
      fluctuating  pH levels and starvation periods.  The study
      results are  presented in this paper.


                                7-73

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E-65  "University of Toronto Studies Reveal Toxic Metals in
      Sludges Used for Soils," Water and Sewage Works,
      Vol. 120, No. 7, p. 50  (July, 1973).

           Metal concentrations were measured by atomic
      absorption from three different dried sludge sources:
      heavily populated and industrialized, residential and
      a large town with industries-one of which uses chrome.
      Concentrations for cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel,
      zinc, iron, manganese and copper from each of the sludges
      is reported.  In recognition of this toxic metals threat,
      Ontario established guidelines for sludge disposal.


E-66  "Inhibition of Aeration Process :  A Quantitative Assess-
      ment of Some Toxic Materials," Burrows, M. G., Water
      Pollution Control, Vol. 68, No. 4, p. 457. (19631

           A method is described by which, it is contended, the
      cost of treating trade effluents containing inhibitory
      substances can be developed by the use of laboratory-
      scale activated sludge units.


E-67  "Some Effects of Zinc on the Performance of. Laboratory
      Scale Activated Sludge Units," Brown, P. and P. R. Andrew,
      Water Pollution Control, Vol. 71, No. 5, pp. 549-554
      (1972).

           A laboratory investigation was carried out to deter-
      mine the effects of zinc on batch type activated sludge
      units.  The test results are presented in this article.


E-68  "Lead-Cadmium and Endotoxin Interactions," Luzio, Nicholas
      R., Paper presented to the Senate Commerce Committee,
      Subcommittee on Environment. February 26, 1973.

           Laboratory studies were used to determine the effect
      of lead and cadmium intake in animals on their ability
      to fight off bacteria.  Different animals were used,  and
      lead or cadmium was administrated to the animals along with
      endotoxins, and the results were reported.
                               7-74

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E-69  "Temperature Acclimation  in Aerobic  Bio-oxidation
      Systems," Benedict, Arthur H.  and  D.  A.  Carlson,  Journal
      of  the Water Pollution Control Federation,  Vol.  45,
      No.  1, P. 10  (Jan. 1973).

           Laboratory  studies were  conducted to determine  the
      effects  of high  and low temperatures on micro-organisms
      and on performance efficiency of biological treatment
      systems.  Acclimation of  mixed cultures at low and at
      high temperatures were examined.


E-70  "Toxic Effects of Mercury on  the Activated Sludge Process,"
      Ghosh, Mriganka, and Paul Zugger,  Journal of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation,  Vol. 45, No.  3, p.  424
      (March,  1973).

           Laboratory  studies were  conducted to determine the
      concentrations of mercury that exhibit toxic effects on
      the activated sludge process.   The results of the study
      are reported in  this article.


E-71  "Response of Completely Mixed Systems to Hydraulic Shock
      Loads,"  George,  Thazhethil, K. and Anthony F. Gaudy, Jr.,
      Journal  of the Environmental  Engineering Division, Proceed-
      ings of  the American Society  of Civil Engineers, Vol. 99,
      Number EE5, p. 593  (October  1973).

           Laboratory  tests were used to determine the effects
      of hydraulic shock  loads  on  activated sludge processes.
      Two types of shock  loads  were studied.  The first was a
      constant feed concentration.   The  second involved a com-
      pensating change in feed  substrate concentration, so that
      the daily organic  loading remained constant, called
      "constant daily  organic  loading."   Results of the experi-
      ments are given.


E-72  "Response of Activated  Sludge to Organic Transient Loadings,"
      Adams, Carl E. and W. Eckenfelder, Jr., Journal of the
      Sanitary Engineering Division, Proceedings of the American
ings
.  3:
      Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 96, p. 333 (April 1970).

           Laboratory studies were undertaken to evaluate the
      effects of organic loadings under steady state and tran-
      sient conditions upon the activated sludge system.  Sub-
      strate removal and oxygen uptake kinetic models were
      examined to determine if these equations could be utilized
      to predict system responses under transient loadings.
                              7-75

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E-73  Biological Waste Treatment., Genetelli, E. J., Department
      of Environmental Sciences/ College of Agriculture
      and Environmental Science, Rutgers University, New Bruns-
      wick, New Jersey, 35 pp.

           The available methods of biological waste treatment,
      with their different process modifications are presented.
      In addition, a discussion on shock loadings (both quantita-
      tive and toxic) and their affect on biological systems
      is included.
E-74  "Toxicity Measurements in Activated Sludge," Hartmann,
      Ludwig and Gerhard Laubenberger , Journal of the Sanitary
      Engineering Division, Proceedings of the American Society
      of Civil Engineers, Vol. 94, No. 2, p. 247  (April, 1968) .

           This paper discusses different methods of handling
      toxicity data, and the problems and difficulties that
      can arise in toxicity measurements.  The Michaels
      and Menten, Warburg, and Lineweaver and Burk Methods are
      discussed, with laboratory experiments used to demonstrate
      their application.


E-75  "Toxicity Measurements in Activated Sludge," Closure,
      Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, Proceedings
      of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 96, No.
      S.A. 2 (April, 1970)

           This closure discusses several points from article E-74
         concerning the Michaels and Menten equations.


E-76  "Settling Characteristics of Sludge Sedimented from
      an Industrial Effluent Containing Lead Compounds,"
      Christian, J. R. and D  Dollimore, Water Research, Vol. 5,
      No. 5, p. 177 (1971).

           The effect of the presence of oil on the settleability
      of sludge containing some lea*d is examined.  Laboratory
      studies examine settling rate, and solids concentration
      before and after oil removal.


E-77  "Measurement of Toxicity of Industrial Wastes," Banerji,
      S. K. et. al., Proceedings of the 3rd Mid-Atlantic
      Waste Conference, p.
           This paper discusses a method for quantitatively
      assessing the toxicity of wastewater ingredients which
      affect biological wastewater treatment.  The authors
      use boron as an example to compare the theoretical cal-
      culations to the actual laboratory data.
                            7-76

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E-78  "Effects of Metallic  Ions  on  Biological  Waste Treat-
      ment Processes," Reid, George W.  et  al., Water and
      Sewage Works, Vol.  115, No. 7,  p.  320,  (July 1968).

          Laboratory studies were  conducted to observe the
      effects of metallic ions on slime and on digester
      efficiency.  The study included various  concentrations
      of chromium, cadmium  and copper.   Pilot  plant studies
      were carried out to determine the effect of metallic
      ions on trickling  filter BOD  removal efficiencies, and
      on metallic uptake by attached  slimes.


E-79  "Effects of Pesticides on  Raw Wastewater," Canter, L. W.
      et. al.. Water and Sewage  Works,  Vol. 116, No. 6,
      p. 230,  (June, 1969).

          Laboratory studies are reported which examine the
      toxic  effects of dieldrin, endrin and the organic solvents
      utilized in commercial pesticide products.  Their effects
      on domestic sewage and on  Escherichia coli are also
      examined.
E-80  "Effects of Heavy Metals on Microorganisms.  Application
      to Process Design,"  Heck II, Robert P. et. al.,
      Proceedings of the 27th Industrial Waste Conference,
      (1972),  Purdue University.

           This paper discusses the use of laboratory monitor-
      ing techniques to determine the effects of heavy metals
      on microorganisms used in biological waste treatment.
      A discussion of how this data can be applied to process
      design is also included.  Laboratory tests were conducted
      with copper as the "toxic"  material to demonstrate the
      methods  discussed, and the results of the tests are pre-
      sented.
E-81  "Sulfide Saturation for Better Digester Performance,"
      Masselli, Joseph W. et. al.,  Journal of the Water
      Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 39,  No. 8, p. 1369
      (August, 1967).

           Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine
      the effects of sulfide saturation of digester sludge
      on gasification.  The precipitation of metals to their
      insoluble sulfides can eliminate metallic shock to anaerobic
      digestion.
                            7-77

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E-82  "Elemental Analysis of Wastewater Sludges from 33
      Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States,"
      Salotto, B. Vincent et. al., from the draft report
      Proceedings of the Research Symposium on Pretreatment
      and Ultimate Disposal of Wastewater Solids, Rutgers
      University, New Brunswick, N. J.(May 21-22, 1974).

           Analyses of raw and digested sludges for their
      metal content are reported in this paper.  Statistical
      distribution, general tendencies, and deviations of the
      data for 21 metals are included.  Comparison of the
      data with sources outside the United States is made.
      An analysis of sludge samples for nitrogen, phosphorus,
      sulfur, and heat of combustion was also made.


E-83  "Effect of Industrial Wastes on Oxidation Pond Performance,"
      Moshe, Meir et. al., Water Research, Vol. 6, No. 10,
      p. 1165  (Oct. 1972) .

           Laboratory experiments were conducted to establish
      the toxicity criteria of different metal ions on oxida-
      tion pond operation.  Metal ion concentration and pH
      levels are examined in relation to algal numbers and
      dissolved oxygen content.


E-84  "Toxic Effects of Cupric, Chromate and Chromic Ions on
      Biological Oxidation," Lamb A., and E. L. Tollefson,
      Water Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, p. 599  (April, 1973).

           The toxic effects of cupric, chromate and chromic
      ions under conditions of shock loading on a laboratory
      activated sludge system are presented.  The relationship
      between toxic effect and suspended solids concentration
      is also examined.


E-85  "Effect of Temperature on the Removal of NTA  (Nitrilotriacetic
      Acid) during Sewage Treatment," Eden, G. E., et. al.,
      Water Research, Vol. 6, No. 8, p. 877  (August, 1972).

           Experiments to determine NTA biodegradation by
      activated sludge processes are reported.  The effects
      of temperature are also examined to predict the impact
      of winter conditions on NTA removals.
                             7-78

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E-86  "The Role of Sulfide in Preventing Heavy  Metal  Toxicity
      in Anaerobic Treatment," Lawrence, Alonzo Wm.,  and
      Perry L. McCarty, Journal of the Water  Pollution  Control
      Federation, Vol. 37, No. 3, p.  392  (March 1965)

          Laboratory studies were performed  to determine the
      effects of copper, zinc, nickel and  iron  concentrations
      individually and in combination on anaerobic digestion.
      The role of sulfide in preventing heavy metal toxicity
      was also evaluated.  The investigation  examined sulfide
      addition as a control procedure to relieve metal  toxicity.


E-87  "Resistance of Carcinogenic Organic  Compounds to  Oxidation
      by Activated Sludge," Malaney,  G. W.  et.  al., Journal
      of the Water Pollution Control  Federation, Vol. 39, No. 12,
      p. 2020,  (Dec. 1967)

          Laboratory studies were conducted  to investigate
      the ability of activated sludge treatment plants  to remove
      carcinogenic compounds from wastewater.  The ability of
      three activated sludges to oxidize  selected compounds
      was tested and the results are  presented  in this  article.


E-88  "The Influence of Trivalent Chromium on the Biological
      Treatment of Domestic Sewage,"  Bailey,  D. A. et.  al.,
      Water Pollution Control, Vol.  69, No. 2,  p. 100 (1970)

          Pilot plant studies were  undertaken  to determine
      concentration levels of trivalent chromium that are accept-
      able to biological treatment processes.  The effects of
      chromium on digestion, trickling filtration and activated
      sludge performance were studied and  are reported in this
      article.
E-89  "Biochemical  Response  of Continuous Flow Activated Sludge
      Processes  to  Qualitative Shock Loadings," Komolrit, K.
      and A.  F.  Gaudy,  Jr.,  Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 38,  No. 1, p.  85 (January, 1966)

           Laboratory  studies  were  conducted to determine the
      mechanism  of  substrate interaction in a continuous flow
      activated  sludge system.  Variables considered included
      the combinations and ratios of different substrates, con-
      centration levels and  modes of introducing substrates.
      The shock  load responses at various ratios of BOD and Nitrogen
      were also  investigated.
                               7-79

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E-90  "The Effect of Kraft Pulp Mill Effluents on the Growth
      of Zalerion Maritimum," Churchland, L. M. and M. McClaren,
      Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 50, p. 1269 (1972).

           Laboratory studies are reported which measured the
      growth of marine fungus in Kraft pulp mill effluents.
      A determination of Z .maritimum as an effective decomposer
      of caustic effluent is also conducted.
E-91  "Tolerance of High Salinities by Conventional Wastewater
      Treatment Processes," Ludzack, F. J. and D. K. Noran,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
      Vol. 37, No. 10, p. 1404  (October, 1965)

           This article reports the results of laboratory tests
      to determine the effects of varying concentrations of
      chlorides upon activated sludge and anaerobic digestion
      units during sustained operation.  The performance of
      treatment units were evaluated under slug doses,starva-
      tion periods and varied feed rates.


E-92  "The Effects of Surface Active Agents on Aeration,"
      Mancy, K. H. and D. A. Okun, Journal of the Water Pollution
      Control Federation, Vol. 37, No. 2, p. 212  (February, 1965)

           This study analyzed theoretically and experimentally
      the effect of surface active agents on oxygen transfer
      kinetics.  The article explained how surface active agents
      interfere with aeration efficiency in waste treatment
      processes.


E-93  "Effects of EDTA on Wastewater Treatment," Potos, Chris,
      Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 37,
      No. 9, p. 1247  (Sept. 1965)

           This paper reports on the research program initiated
      to determine the effect of EDTA on several components of
      sewage treatment.  Included are the effects of EDTA on
      secondary sedimentation, coliform numbers, oxygen utiliza-
      tion, wastewater oxidation and chemical coagulation.
                             7-80

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E-94  "The Response of Activated Sludge to Nitrogen  Deficient
      Conditions," RamaRao, C. V. et. al., Journal of  the
      Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol.  37, No.  10,
      p.  1422  (October 1965).

          Pilot plant studies were conducted to  evaluate
      modifications of the activated sludge process  that would
      effectively treat nitrogen deficient wastewaters.  The
      purpose of the study was to investigate nitrogen economy
      in  the treatment of certain trade wastes, and  the study
      results are presented in this paper.


E-95  Identification and Control of Petrochemical Pollutants
      Inhibitory to Anaerobic Processes, J. C.  Hovious et.  al.,
      EPA Bulletin No. PB-222-287, 111 pp. April, 1973.

          Laboratory studies were conducted to identify
      materials that are potentially inhibitory to anaerobic
      processes using an unacclimated biomass.  A number of
      petrochemical pollutants and their inhibitory  concentrations
      are given.
E-96  "The Effect of Temperature on the Removal  of  Non-Ionic
      Surfactants during Small Scale Activated Sludge Sewage
      Treatment - I," Stiff, M. J. et. al., Water Research,
      Vol. 7, p. 1003  (1973).

          Laboratory studies indicated the differences in
      biodegradation of three non-ionic surface  active materials
      at  15 C, 11 C and 8 C.  Comparisons  are  made  with
      operating results from a small sewage treatment plant.
E-97   "The Effect of Temperature on the Removal  of Non-Ionic
      Surfactants during Small-Scale Activated Sludge  Sewage
      Treatment - II Comparison of a Linear Alkyl Phenol
      Ethoxylate wi