United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of
Administration
Washington, D.C. 20460
    PB91-904203
July-September 1991
Library Systems Staff
EPA Publications
Bibliography
Quarterly Abstract
Bulletin

-------
   ABOUT  NTIS
  As a cornerstone of the technological publishing structure in
the United States, the National  Technical  Information Service
(NTIS) is a key participant in the development of advanced
information products and services for the achievement of U.S.
productivity and industrial innovation goals in the 1980's.
  NTIS, an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce, is the
central source for the public sale of U.S. Government-sponsored
research, development, and engineering reports, and  for sales
of foreign technical reports and other analyses prepared by
national and  local government  agencies and their contractors
or grantees.
  And, it is the central source for:
      federally generated machine processable data files
      and software;
      licensing U.S. Government-owned patents.
  NTIS manages the:
      Center for the  Utilization of Federal Technology
      (CUFT), which alerts U.S. industry to specially select-
      ed technology having  immediate practical value;
      Federal Software Exchange Center, for the exchange
      of computer software among Federal agencies, with
      public availability through NTIS.
  Consequently, NTIS is one of  the world's leading processors
of specialty information.
  The NTIS information collection is approaching two million
titles, several  hundred thousand of which contain foreign tech-
nology or foreign marketing information. All are permanently
available for  sale, either directly from  80,000 titles in shelf
stock or from microform master copies of documents that are
less in  demand. Annually, NTIS supplies its customers with
more than six  million documents  and microforms,  shipping
about 24,000 information items daily.
                                                               Full  summaries of current U.S. and foreign research reports
                                                             and other specialized information, in hundreds of subject cat-
                                                             egories, are published  regularly by NTIS in a  wide variety of
                                                             newsletters, journals, and indexes, and in a  variety of sub-
                                                             scription formats for other  Federal agencies. The complete
                                                             texts of the technical reports cited are sold in paper and
                                                             microform.
                                                               Some 70,000 new technical reports of completed research
                                                             are added annually to the NTIS Bibliographic Data Base. Any-
                                                             one seeking the latest technical reports  or wanting to compile
                                                             unique subject groups of abstracts may  search the NTIS Bibli-
                                                             ographic Data Base online using the services of vendors or
                                                             organizations that maintain the  NTIS data base for public use.
                                                             The whole data base in machine readable form may be leased
                                                             directly from NTIS.
                                                               The more timely documents in the NTIS collection are selected
                                                             by category and  sold  as paperbound  Published  Searches,
                                                             covering some 3,000 topical subject areas.
                                                               Customers with well  defined continuing interests may sub-
                                                             scribe  to  a standing order  microfiche  service (SRIM) which
                                                             enables them  to automatically receive  the full  texts of only
                                                             those documents relating to their individual requirements.
                                                               NTIS sells its technical information products and services
                                                             under the provisions of Title  15 of the U.S. Code (1151-7). The
                                                             law established a clearinghouse for scientific, technical, and
                                                             engineering information within  the Department of Commerce
                                                             and directed that it be self-supporting.
                                                               NTIS, therefore, is a unique Government agency supported
                                                             by  its customers. All costs,  such as salaries, manufacturing,
                                                             information acquisition, marketing and postage, are paid from
                                                             sales income;  not from tax-supported  congressional appro-
                                                             priations, certain developmental programs excepted.
  HOW  TO ORDER
                                        NTIS DELIVERY AND ORDERING OPTIONS

                              Sales Desk Business Hours:  8:30 am. - 5:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time
Delivery
Options

Express


Rush
Regular
                        Overnight1
                          Courier

                        First Class
                          or equivalent
                        Customer Pickup
                          8:30-5:00

                        First Class
                          or equivalent
NTIS In-house
Processing

Guaranteed9
  24 hours

Guaranteed*
  24 hours
                                                                                                   Service
                                                                                                   Charge

                                                                                                   $22 per item
                                                                                                   Only available in U.S.

                                                                                                   $12 per item
                                                                                                   $14.50 outside U.S.,
                                                                                                   Canada, and Mexico

                                                                                                   $12
                                                                                                   Per Item

                                                                                                   $3 handling fee
                                                                                                   per order
                                                                                                   $4 outside U.S.,
                                                                                                   Canada, and Mexico

  'Express Order Service guarantees overnight delivery to most U.S. cities. Express orders received by 1 p.m. (EST) on any working day are in
your hands by 3 p.m. (local time) the following working day for reports in stock.
  'Express and Rush Order Services guarantee same day processing on reports in stock and 24-hour processing on reports requiring printing.
Toll free ordering is available for express and rush orders. All express and rush orders require NTIS Deposit Account, American Express, VISA,
or MasterCard. Standard $3.00 handling fee is waived on all express and rush orders, QuikService, or pickup at NTIS.
  •Regular handling for reports not in stock (requiring reproduction) normally takes 2 to 8 days to process.
Guaranteed2
  24 hours

Stocked Reports3
  2-3 days
Phone Numbers

(800) 553-NTIS
VA (703) 487-4650

(800) 553-NTIS
VA (703) 487-4650
(800) 553-NTIS
VA (703) 487-4650

(800)553-NTIS
VA (703) 487-4650
                                                                          NTIS/QuikSERVICE
                                                                            Call (703) 487-4650 and ask for PR-846/827.
                                                                          Code-A-Phone: (703) 487-4650
Ordering Options Available 24 Hows • Day
Telex:   89-9405 (Domestic) or 64617 (International)
Fax:    (703)321-8547
Online:  DIALOG (Command: DialOrder)
        ORBIT (Command: Order NTIS)
        STN International (Command: Order NTI)
        OCLC (Interiibrary Loan Command NTI, NTI)

  NOTE: Whether you request Express Order, Rush Order, or Regular service, your orders always receive our best attention. NTIS is required
by law to recover costs, and every order is important to us.
                                                      NTIS
                                                                              U.S. DEPARTMENT OF  COMMERCE
                                                                              National Technical Information Service
                                                                              Springfield, Virginia 22161

-------
                                         PB91-904203
                                    July-September 1991
EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
    QUARTERLY ABSTRACT BULLETIN
                SPONSORED BY
              Library Systems Staff
         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
              401 M Street, S.W.
            Washington, D.C. 20460

-------
                      FOREWORD
 I  he EPA Cumulative Bibliography,  1970-1976,  published in
December 1976  (order number PB-265920, price code E99) con-
tains  bibliographic citations with abstract for reports generated by
EPA and  its predecessor agencies and entered into the  NTIS collec-
tion through  1976.  Access points to  this  cumulative are by  Report
Title;  Subject (keyword); Corporate  or Personal  Author; Contract
Number; and Accession/Report Number.
  The EPA Publications Bibliography, 1977-1983, is also available
 (order number PB84-158500,  price code  E99)  containing EPA
reports entered into the NTIS collection and published in the EPA
Publications Bibliography,  Quarterly Abstract Bulletin from its inception
in  1977 through December 1983. This cumulated volume contains all
the indexes of its predecessor plus a "Sponsoring EPA Office" index
as in the quarterly bulletin.
  Quarterly update supplements will continue to be published listing
and indexing EPA technical reports and journal articles added to  the
NTIS  collection during the preceding quarter.  The fourth  issue of  the
year contains bibliographic citations with abstracts  for the preceding
quarter and cumulative indexes for the calendar year.


To order documents or subscriptions, return the order form   (at  the
back  of this issue) to the National Technical  Information  Service,
5285  Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Do not order from  the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. If what you have ordered is in
stock, you should receive your order within a few days after it arrives at
NTIS.  If what you have ordered must be reproduced from a microform, or
if all the paper copies have been  sold and reprints are in process, you
should receive your order within four to six weeks. Infrequently,
orders may be further delayed by a contractor's inability to deliver to
NTIS.  You will be notified if such delay is expected.
  Prices for documents are indicated in each entry by a price code
for  paper  copy and for  microform. To determine the current price,
consult the price-code table printed on the outside backjcover of the
most  recent issue of the EPA Publications  Bibliography, Quarterly
Abstract Bulletin.
  The EPA Publications Bibliography Quarterly Abstract Bulletins
are available on annual subscription from NTIS at a Cost of $120.00
for  North  American  Continent, users (single  copies, when available,
are $32.50 each). For those outside the North American Continent,
please write NTIS for prices.

-------
                      CONTENTS

About NTIS	  inside front cover
Foreword	     ii
User's Guide	      v
Report Summaries	      1
Title Index	 TI-1
Keyword Index	  KW-1
Sponsoring EPA Office Index	  SO-1
Corporate Author Index	  CA-1
Personal Author Index	  PA-1
Contract/Grant Number Index	  CG-1
NTIS Order/Report Number Index	  OR-1
Order Form	 At end
EPA Libraries	  inside back cover
Price Codes	 outside back cover
      NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE
               KEY TELEPHONE NUMBERS

Business hours: Monday thru Friday, 8:30 am to 5:30 pm

INFORMATION ABOUT NTIS PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  Springfield Information Center                      (703) 487-4600
  Computer Products                              (703) 487-4763

IDENTIFICATION OF A REPORT TITLE, NUMBER, PRICE OR
  NTIS AVAILABILITY (telephone answering machine)      (703) 487-4780

TO ORDER ANY NTIS PRODUCT OR SERVICE
  Online: DIALOG (Command:  DIALORDER)
        ORBIT (Command: ORDER NTIS)
  Springfield Order Desk (document or report)           (703) 487-4650
  Springfield Pickup Desk (8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m.)           (703) 487-4604
  Subscription Orders                              (703) 487-4630
  Telex                                       89-9405 or 64617
  Fax                                          (703)487-8547
  Express or Rush Service (Virginia)                   (703) 487-4700
  Express or Rush Service (outside Virginia)              (800) 336-4700

QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR ORDER OR DEPOSIT ACCOUNT
  Subscriptions                                   (703) 487-4630
  Other inquiries                                  (703) 487-4660
  Accounting                                    (703) 487-4770

-------
                                    USERS'  GUIDE
   Report entries are arranged alphanumberically by NTIS  order number—alphabetic data precedes
   numeric.
    NTIS Order/Accession
             Number  '
    Sponsoring EPA Office .

                Title •


        Personal Author •

          Contract
          Grant Number"

             Abstract •
                                       Media Code
" PB85-169597/REB    PC A02/MF A01 -

. Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA


- PAH (Polycyclic  Aromatic  Hydrocarbons) Uptake by Plants: Methodology
 and Initial Investigations, Clemson Univ., SC. Dept. of Environmental .
 Systems Engineering
- J. Coates, A. W. Elzerman, and A. W. Garrison. Feb 85, 18p EPA/600/D-
 85/036 1                        	_^__^^^^^^^
. Contract EPA-68-01-2281                   "^~~"~~~~~~


. An analytical protocol was developed  that allows quantification of 16
 PAHs in grain sorghum and fescue grass. Compounds are extracted from
 the plant stem and foliage by homogenation/solication using acetonitrile
 as the primary solvent. The extract is cleaned up by solvent partitioning
 into pentane followed by absorption chromatography on silicic acid, then
 analyzed by GC-FID This method can be used to measure PAH concen-
 trations at the 25 micrograms/kg level in the plant.
                           Keywords: 'Plants (botany),  'Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons,
                           •Environmental surveys, 'Chemical analysis, Vegetation, Extration, Sam-
                           pling. Field tests, Concentration (Composition). Gas chromatography,
                           "Organic materials. Natural emissions.
                                                                                     NTIS Price Code
                                                                                      PC = paper copy
                                                                                      MF = microfiche
' Corporate Author


 Report Number
                                                                                     Keywords
Index entries  are  arranged  alphanumerically. Titles are included  in  all  indexes except
Contract/Grant  Number  Index. Sample entries for each index follow:
            Title: Reports are listed alphabetical-
              ly by title; A,  An, and The at the
              beginning of a title  are ignored  in
              alphabetizing.
                             PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
                             Uptake by Plants: Methodology and Ini-
                             tial Investigations
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Keyword: Entries are sequenced by
              major subject  term, second paired
              term, and NTIS order number.
                             Plant* (Botany)
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
                               Uptake by Plants: Methodology and Ini-
                               tial Investigations
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Sponsoring EPA  Office: Publications
              are sorted  alphabetically by title
              under the sponsoring  EPA  office. The
              EPA office  is listed alphabetically
              beginning with the major EPA Head-
              quarters Office. Laboratories  and
              Divisions  are listed alphabetically
              within the appropriate office.
                             Environmental Research Lab., Athens,
                             GA
                               EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic
                               Hydrocarbons) Uptake
                               by Plants: Methodology
                               and Initial Investigations
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Corporate Author:  Entries  are se-
              quenced by corporate author name,
              report number, and NTIS order number.
              The monitor agency number is given
              following the report title.
                             Clemson Univ., SC, Oept.of Environmen-
                             tal Systems Engineering
                               EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar-
                               bons) Uptake by Plants: Methodology
                               and Initial Investigations
                               EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Personal Author Entries are sequenced
              by personal author, report  title, and
              NTIS order number.
                             J. Coates, A. W. Elzerman and
                             A. W. Garrison
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic
                               Hydrocarbons) Uptake
                               by Plants: Methodology
                               PB85-1S9597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Contract/Grant Number: Entries are
              sequenced by contract or grant num-
              ber, corporate author, and NTIS order
              number.
                             EPA-68-01-2281
                               Clemson Univ., SC, Dept. of
                               Environmental Systems Engineering
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            NTIS Order/Report Number: Entries
              are sequenced by NTIS order, report,
              or monitor agency number.
                             EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic
                               Hydrocarbons) Uptake
                               by Plants: Methodology
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01

-------
EPA   PUBLICATIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Quarterly Abstract Bulletin
   The full bibliographic report entries in this section are arranged alphanumertcally by
   NTIS order number. Alphabetic data precedes numeric.
THE THREE LETTERS AT THE END OF THE NTIS ORDER NUMBERS HAVE BEEN PLACED THERE TO HELP
NTIS DETERMINE THE MOST EFFECTIVE MEDIA IN BRINGING VARIOUS TYPES OF INFORMATION TO
READERS' ATTENTION.

PLEASE DO USE THE MEDIA CODES AT THE ENDS OF THE ORDER NUMBERS WHEN ORDERING. THE
INFORMATION THEY PROVIDE IS VERY HELPFUL TO NTIS.
SAMPLE  ENTRY
              NTIS Order Number/Media
                    Code Price Codes

                        Report Title
                    Corporate Author

                    Personal Authors
                             Date
                            Pages
                      Report Number

                    Contract Number

                          Abstract
         Keywords (Descriptors & Identifiers)
 PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
 PAH (Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hyrdocarbons) Uptake by Plants:
 Methodology and Initial Investigations

 Clemson Univ., SC, Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

 COATHES J., ELZERMAN A. W. and GARRISON A. W.
 February 85
 18p
 EPA/600/D-85/036

 EPA-68-01-2281

 An analytical protocol was developed that allows quantification
 of 16 PAHs in grain sorghum and fescue grass. Compounds are
 extracted from the plant stem and foliage by homogenation/so-
 lication using acetonitrile as the primary solvent. The extract
 is cleaned up by  solvent partitioning into pentane followed  by
 absorption chromatography on silicic acid, then analyzed by GC-
 FID. This method  can be used to measure PAH concentrations
 at the 25 micrograms/kg level in the plant.

•Plants (botany, 'Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, Environ-
mental  surveys, "Chemical analysis, Vegetation, Extration,
Sampling, Field tests, Concentration (Composition), Gas chrom-
atography, "Organic materials, Natural emissions.
                                    VI

-------
                           EPA   PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
                                       Quarterly   Abstract   Bulletin
PB90-274549/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
Basics of Pump-and-Treat Ground-Water Remedi-
ation Technology. Special rept.
GeoTrans,  Inc., Herndon, VA.
J. W. Mercer, D. C. Skipp, and D. Giffin. Mar 90,65p*
EPA/600/8-90/003
Contract EPA-68-C8-0058
Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research
Lab., Ada, OK.

The pump-and-treat process, whereby  contaminated
ground water is pumped to the surface for treatment, is
one of the most common ground-water remediation
technologies used at hazardous waste sites. However,
recent research has identified complex chemical and
physical interactions between contaminants and the
subsurface media which may impose limitations on the
extraction part of the process. The report was devel-
oped to summarize the basic considerations neces-
sary to determine when, where, and how pump-and-
treat technology can be used effectively to remediate
ground-water contamination.

Keywords:  'Hazardous materials,   'Ground  water,
•Waste treatment, 'Water pollution control, Pumping,
Sites, Chemical reactions, Extraction, Vacuum appara-
tus,  Design  criteria,  Monitoring,   Requirements,
Density(Mass/Volume), Viscosity,   BiodeterioratJon,
Hydrocarbons, Carbon tetrachloride, Chlorobenzenes,
Flow charts, Drawings, 'Remedial  action, Cleanup,
Point sources.
PB91-100172/REB               PC A12/MF A02
Development of Risk Assessment Methodology
for Municipal Sludge Landfilling. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Aug 89,261 p EPA/600/6-90/008

The report is one of a series of reports that present
methodologies for assessing the potential risks to
humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse
of municipal  sludge. The sludge management prac-
tices addressed by the series include land application
practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfill-
ing, incineration and ocean disposal. In particular, the
reports provide methods for evaluating potential health
arid environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may
be present in sludge. The document addresses risks
from chemicals associated with landfilling of municipal
sludge. These proposed  risk assessment procedures
are designed as tools to assist in the development of
regulations for sludge management  practices. The
procedures are structured to allow calculation of tech-
nical criteria for sludge disposal/reuse options based
on the potential for adverse health or environmental
impacts. The criteria may address management prac-
tices (such as site design or process control specifica-
tions), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic
chemical concentrations in the sludge.

Keywords:  'Risk  assessment,  'Sludge disposal,
'Public health, 'Waste management, 'Environmental
effects, 'Toxic substances, Municipal wastes, Ground
disposal.  Earth  fills. Waste disposal,  Incineration,
Ocean waste disposal, Pollution regulations,  Waste
product    utilization,    Chemical    compounds,
Concentration(Composition), Path of pollutants, Water
pollution, Air pollution.
PB91-110411/REB               PCA04/MFA01
Endangered Species Protection Program as It Re-
lates to Pesticide Regulatory Activities. Report to
Congress.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
May 91,63p EPA/540/09-91 /120
The document addresses the amendments to the En-
dangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531
et seq.). Section 1010(C) of the amended act directs
the Administrator of the US, EPA to submit a report to
Congress on the results of joint efforts undertaken by
EPA, the United  States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) and the United States Department of the Inte-
rior (DOI). As described in Section 1010(b), the efforts
are to identify reasonable and prudent means to imple-
ment an endangered species protection program as it
relates to pesticide regulatory activities.

Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Endangered species, 'Envi-
ronmental effects, US EPA, Pollution regulations, Envi-
ronmental protection, US DOI, Resource conservation,
Legal  aspects, Maps,  Implementation, Agricultural
chemicals, Economic impacts, Habitats, 'Endangered
Species Act of 1973.
PB91-1545B3/REB               PC E99/MF E99
Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
Anticipated Pesticide Residues In Food.
Dynamac Corp., Rockville, MD.
26Jul89,1213p-in2v
Set includes PB91-154591 and PB91-154609. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Washing-
ton, DC. Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.

No abstract available.
PB91-154591/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
Anticipated Pesticide Residues In Food. Volume
1. Draft rept. (Final).
Dynamac Corp., Rockville, MD.
J. Reinert. 26 Jut 89,99p
Contract EPA-68-01 -7363
See also Volume 2, PB91 -154609. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office
of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
Also available in set of 2 reports PC  E99/MF E99,
PB91-154583.

Pesticide residue  data on raw and processed food
were obtained on a voluntary basis from agencies and
organizations not required to submit these data to the
Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP). The project was
part of a scoping exercise to compile and summarize in
an electronic format  available monitoring data from
outside the Agency, and to begin to evaluate the use-
fulness of these data for scientific and regulatory pur-
poses. Data for 286 pesticides on an estimated 49,857
samples were obtained from three sources: Agriculture
Canada, state monitoring data compiled by FDA, and
the National Food Processors Association.

Keywords: 'Pesticide residues, 'Food contamination,
Monitoring, Data bases, Tables(Data), United States,
Canada, Food processing, Data acquisition, Data proc-
essing, Access methods.
PB91-154609/REB               PC A99/MF E09
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
Anticipated Pesticide Residues In Food. Volume
2. Draft rept. (Final).
Dynamac Corp., Rockville, MD.
J. Reinert. 26 Jul 89,1114p
Contract EPA-68-01 -7363
See also Volume 1, PB91 -154591. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office
of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
Also available in set of  2 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-154583.
Pesticide residue data on raw and processed food
were obtained on avoluntary basis from agencies and
organizations not required to submit these data to the
Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP). The project was
part of a scoping exercise to compile and summarize in
an electronic format available monitoring data from
outside the Agency, and to begin to evaluate the use-
fulness of these data for scientific and regulatory pur-
poses. Data for 286 pesticides on an estimated 49,857
samples were obtained from three sources: Agriculture
Canada, state monitoring data compiled by FDA, and
the National Food Processors Association. Volumes 2,
3,  and 4 are tablrs generated by various  sources,
sorted by pesticide.

Keywords: 'Pesticide residues, 'Food contamination,
Food   processing,  Tables(Data),  United   States,
Canada.
PB91-156679/REB               PC A04/MF A01
RCRA Implementation Plan, FY 1988.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
J. W. Porter. 31 Mar 87,62p EPA/530/SW-91/039,
OSWER DIRECTIVE-9420.00-4
See also PB87-157673 and PB91-156687.Portions of
this document are not fully legible.

The document provides guidance on implementing the
RCRA Subtitle C program and provides a framework
for determining priorities at the national and  State
levels. The highest priorities are to meet the 1988 and
1989 permitting deadlines, to process permit modifica-
tions, new treatment and R&D unit permits, to address
environmentally significant closures and to perform in-
spections as mandated by statute and Agency policy.

Keywords: 'State implementation plans, 'Waste man-
agement, Research and development, Guidelines,
Permits, Revisions, Waste treatment, Technology
transfer, Pollution  regulations,  Inspection,  Regional
analysis, Grants, Law enforcement. Information man-
agement, 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
'Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Na-
tional priorities list.
PB91-156687/REB               PC A06/MF A01
RCRA Implementation Plan, FY 1989.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
J. W. Porter. 5 Apr 88,114p EPA/530/SW-91 /040,
OSWER DIRECTIVE-9420.00-5
See also PB91-156679.

The document provides guidance on implementing the
RCRA Subtitle C program and provides a framework
for determining priorities based on environmental ben-
efits.

Keywords: 'State implementation plans, 'Waste man-
agement, Permits, Standards  compliance, Law en-
forcement,  Federal  agencies,  Grants,  Information
management, Technology transfer, Pollution regula-
tions, 'Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act,
'Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Na-
tional priorities list.
PB91-15669S/REB              PC AOS/MF A01
RCRA Implementation Plan, FY 1990.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
1990,86p EPA/530/SW-91 /041
See also PB91 -156687.

The document outlines EPA's environmental program
for FY 1990. It provides an overview of national pro-
gram strategies, as well as priorities for permitting, en-
                                                                                                                                            1

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
forcement, clean-up, and other activities for FY 1990.
The most significant activities are included in the Stra-
tegic Planning and Management System (SPMS).

Keywords: 'State implementation plans,  'Hazardous
materials, 'Environmental surveys, Permits, Law en-
forcement, Remedial action, Standards  compliance,
Underground storage, Storage tanks, Pollution abate-
ment, Pollution control, Waste management, Informa-
tion transfer, Emergency planning, 'Resource Conser-
vation and Recovery Act, Clean-up operations, Nation-
al Priorities List, Strategic Planning and Management
System.
PB91-156711/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Surface Impoundment Modeling System, Version
2.0. User's Manual
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
S. L Watkins. Sep 90,37p* EPA/450/4-90/019A
Contract EPA-68-02-4378
For  system  on diskette, see  PB91-506998. Super-
sedes PB90-141227. See also PB91-156729. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency,  Research
Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and
Standards.

Surface impoundments are used to treat, store, and
dispose of wastewater  generated by facilities in many
different industries. Because surface impoundments
are normally open to the atmosphere, the potential for
air emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC's)
and toxic air pollutants exists. As such. State and local
air pollution control agencies need a methodology to
estimate  the  air emissions from surface  impound-
ments. The Surface Impoundment Modeling System
(SIMS) is  a  personal computer based program de-
signed to estimate the  air emissions from surface im-
poundments.  The emission estimates  are  based on
mass transfer models  developed by the Emissions
Standards Division (ESO) of the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) during the evaluation of hazardous
waste  treatment, storage,  and  disposal  facilities
(TSDF's).  SIMS allows the user to specify all the re-
quired inputs to these emission models when the infor-
mation is available, or when only limited information is
avaialble,  provides default values for most of the
model inputs. The manual presents a complete refer-
ence for all of the features and commands in SIMS.
Another document entitled, Background Document for
the  SIMS, PB91-156729,  discusses  the  emission
models, surface impoundment  design and operation,
default parameter development, and the emission esti-
mation procedure.

Keywords: 'User manuals(Computer programs), 'Air
pollution,  'Hazardous  materials, 'Surface  impound-
ments, Volatile organic compounds, Study estimates,
Information systems, Waste management, Waste dis-
posal, Industrial waste  treatment, Sewage treatment,
Documentation, Water pollution control, State govern-
ment, Mass transfer, Waste storage, Waste treatment,
'Surface Impoundment  Modeling System.


PB91-156729/REB              PC A08/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Background  Document for the Surface Impound-
ment Modeling System, Version 2.0. Documenta-
tion.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
S. L Watkins. Sep 90,165p* EPA/450/4-90/019B
Contract EPA-68-02-4378
For system on diskette, see  PB91-506998. Super-
sedes PB90-141235. See also PB91-156711.  Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency,  Research
Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and
Standards.

The document presents a brief description of the oper-
ation and design of surface impoundments and back-
ground information on the development of the Surface
Impoundments Modeling System (SIMS). The SIMS
was  developed with funding from the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency's (EPA) Control Technology
Center (CTC) and with  project management provided
by EPA's Technical Support Division of the Office of
Air Quality Planning and Standards. SIMS is  based on
emission  models developed by the Emission Stand-
ards Division  (ESD) during the evaluation of surface
impoundments located  in treatment, storage, and dis-
posal facilities (TSDF). The purpose  of the latest
update to SIMS is to add models for diffused air sys-


2     Vol. 91, No. 3
tems and several collection system devices, and to
expand the compound database from 40 to 150. The
technical document discusses these emission models,
surface impoundment design and operation, default
parameter development, and the emission estimation
procedure. Another document entitled, SIMS Version
2.0 User's Manual, PB91-156711, presents a complete
reference for all features and commands in the SIMS
PC program.

Keywords: 'Air pollution, 'Hazardous materials,  'Sur-
face impoundments,  Volatile  organic compounds,
Documentation, Study estimates, Waste management,
Waste  disposal, Waste treatment, Waste storage. In-
dustrial waste treatment,  Water  pollution control,
Sewage treatment, State government,  Mass transfer,
'Surface Impoundment Modeling System.
PB91-156794/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Control of PCDD/PCDF Emissions from Municipal
Waste Combustion  Systems (Reannouncement).
Journal article Sep-Nov 89.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
T. G. Brna, and J. D. Kilgroe. c1990,10p EPA/600/J-
90/310
Previously announced as PB91 -146639. Pub. in Chem-
osphere, v20 n10-12 p1875-1882 1990.

The article gives results of tests on five modern munic-
ipal waste combustors (MWCs) to characterize or de-
termine the performance of representative combustor
types and associated air emission control systems in
the regulatory development process. Test results for
uncontrolled (combustor outlet) and controlled (flue
gas cleaning system outlet) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-
dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are  re-
ported, along with pertinent information on other tests.
The EPA is revising air pollutant emission rules for new
MWCs and preparing guidelines for existing MWCs.
These  rules will limit emissions of PCDDs,  PCDFs,
CO2, and acid gases (HCI and SO2) as well as require
tighter control of particulate matter emissions.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Incinerators, Munici-
pal wastes, Waste disposal, Performance evaluation,
Flue gases, Particles, Pollution regulations, Air pollu-
tion  standards,  Reprints,  'Polychlorinated dibenzo-
dioxins, 'Polychlorinated dibenzofurans.
PB91-156802/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Effect of Metal Catalysts on the Formation of Pol-
ychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Polychlorinat-
ed  Dibenzofuran Precursors  (Reannouncement).
Journal article Oct 88-Oct 89.
Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
B. K. Gullett, K. R. Bruce, and L. O. Beach. c1990,11 p
EPA/600/J-90/309
Contract EPA-68-02-4701
Previously announced as PB91 -146647. Pub. in Chem-
osphere, v20 n10-12 p1945-1952 1990. Sponsored by
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper gives results of an examination of the cata-
lytic effects of copper and iron compounds for their be-
havior in  promoting formation of chlorine (CI2), the
major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-
dtoxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans
(PCDFs),  in an environment simulating that of munici-
pal  waste fly ash. CI2 formed as a result of  a metal-
catalyzed reaction of HCI with  O2. Catalytic activity
was greatest at a temperature of about 400 C, support-
ing  a  theory of de novo synthesis of PCDDs and
PCDFs on fly ash particles downstream of waste com-
bustion.

Keywords:   'Catalysis,    'Fly    ash,   'Chlorine,
'Synthesis(Chemistry),  'Air pollution control,  Metals,
Municipal wastes,  Waste  disposal, Copper com-
pounds, Experimental design, Toxic substances, Re-
prints, 'Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins,  'Polychlori-
nated dibenzofurans, Chemical reaction mechanisms.
PB91-162396/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Minimization of Combustion By-Products: Charac-
teristics of Hazardous Waste.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
C. C. Lee, and G. L. Huffman. Nov 90,25p EPA/600/
D-90/224
Presented at the National Research and Development
Conference on the Control of Hazardous  Materials,
Anaheim, CA., February 20-22,1991.

It has been well  recognized that, although there are
many potential solid  waste treatment technologies,
none are as universally applicable as incineration for
the treatment of  the many types of waste which are
governed by the many different Federal laws and State
regulations. However, incinerators may release trace
amounts of unwanted combustion by-products,  par-
ticularly if the incinerators are not well designed or
properly operated. Control of emissions of combustion
by-products (CBPs) is one of the major technical and
sociological issues surrounding the implementation of
incineration as a waste treatment alternative. Much of
this  is due to the lack of detailed knowledge about
CBPs. The Clean Air Act Amendment is emphasizing
the control of toxic air pollutants from all combustion
sources; some of these pollutants are CBPs. CBPs in-
clude: (1)  unbumed principal organic hazardous con-
stituents (POHCs); (2) products of incomplete combus-
tion  (PICs); (3) metals emissions; and (4) residuals/
ashes. The Paper is a part of a series of writings on the
subject of the CBP issue from EPA's Risk Reduction
Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. It specifi-
cally addresses the aspect of hazardous waste char-
acteristics. The main objective of the series is to com-
pare combustion  by-products  from all  combustion
sources including fossil fuel combustion and waste in-
cineration, which  hopefully will serve as an initial step
in the eventual minimization of the release of CBPs to
the environment.

Keywords: 'Incinerators, 'Refuse disposal,  'Waste
treatment, Air pollution, Waste disposal, Combustion
products. Atmosphere contamination control, Ashes.
PB91-162586/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Mutagenidty, Cardnogeniclty, and Human Cancer
Risk  from Indoor Exposure to Coal  and Wood
Combustion in Xuan Wei, China. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park,NC.
J. L. Mumford, R. S. Chapman, S. Nesnow, C. T.
Helmes, and X. U. c1990,9p EPA/600/D-90/244
Pub. in Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures, v39
p157-163  1990. Prepared  in cooperation  with  SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA., and Institute of  Envi-
ronmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China).

The residents in Xuan Wei County, China, have been
exposed to high levels of combustion emissions from
smoky and smokeless  coal and wood  combustion
under unvented conditions in homes. An  unusually
high lung cancer mortality rate that can not be attrib-
uted to tobacco smoke or occupational exposure was
found. The communes using smoky coal,  which emits
more  organics than smokeless coal, generally have a
higher lung cancer rate than the communes using
smokeless coal  or wood. The mutagenicity and car-
cinogenicity of organic extracts of indoor air particles
collected from Xuan Wei homes during cooking were
investigated. The objectives of the study were (1) to in-
vestigate the characteristics of lung cancer mortality in
Xuan Wei, (2) to determine the genotoxicity and chemi-
cal  and physical properties of the combustion emis-
sions, and (3) to link bioassay results to  human lung
cancer data. The organic extracts of these emission
particles were tested for  mutagenicity in the Ames Sal-
monella and the L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma
assays and for skin tumor-initiating activity and com-
plete carcinogenicity in SENCAR mice. The two coal
samples whoed higher  activity in both  mutagenicity
and tumor initiation. When the emission rate of organ-
ics was taken into consideration, the smoky coal emis-
sion showed the highest potency of the  three fuels.
The smoky coal  sample  was also a more  potent com-
plete carcinogen than the wood sample. Higher muta-
genicity and carcinogenicity of the smoky coal emis-
sion compared to wood  or smokeless coal emissions
are in agreement with the epidemiological data.

Keywords: 'Air pollution, 'Smoke, 'Combustion prod-
ucts, Airborne wastes, Respiratory diseases, Lung dis-
ease.  Public health, Mutagenicity tests,  Carcinogen-
icity tests, 'Lung cancer.
PB91-162735/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Expert Systems to Assist in Decisions Concerning
Land Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 D. G. Greathouse. C1991,13p EPA/600/D-91 /009
 Presented at the Air  Pollution Control  Association
 Annual Meeting (81st), Dallas, TX., June 20-24, 1988.

 Review  of permits for land disposal of hazardous
 wastes requires numerous decisions concerning policy
 and technical issues. Some require interpretation and
 application of information in research reports, other in-
 volve interpretation and evaluation of specialized test
 data, and others involve assessment of compliance
 with latest regulatory policies. Specialized knowledge
 concerning a number of technical areas and a broad
 base of environmental regulatory experience are nec-
 essary to adequately perform these reviews. The need
 for current knowledge and background, in addition to
 the concern that reviews be consistent prompted the
 authors  int systems derest in  expert systems. The
 paper presents the history,  current status, and future
 direction of the expert evelopment program supported
 by the Waste Minimization,  Destruction and Disposal
 Research Division of the Risk Reduction  Engineering
 Laboratory. The development  methods  being used
 and some of the authors' experiences are also pre-
 sented.

 Keywords: 'Waste treatment, "Expert systems, 'Envi-
 ronment management, Environment pollution, Envi-
 ronmental  engineering, Waste  disposal, Decision
 making,  Management information  systems,  Problem
 solving, Hazardous wastes.
 PB91-167569/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Preparation Aids for the Development of Catego-
 ry 3: Quality Assurance Project Plans.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 G. Simes. Feb 91,60p EPA/600/8-91/005
 See also PB91 -148312.

 Data collection activities performed for the Risk  Re-
 duction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. En-
 vironmental Protection Agency are divided into four
 categories, depending on the intended use of the data.
 Quality Assurance  (QA) Project Plans are written to
 ensure that project needs will be met and that quality
 control procedures are sufficient for obtaining data of
 known quality. The  level of QA required, however, de-
 pends on the  project category selected for a given
 project. Projects that produce results for the purpose
 of evaluating and selecting basic options, or perform-
 ing feasibility studies or preliminary assessments of
 unexplored areas which might lead to further work are
 identified as Category III projects. To assist profession-
 al scientists and engineers in preparing QA Project
 Plans, separate guidance manuals in an  easy-to-read
 format have been developed for each category. The
 Category III manual contains detailed descriptions of
 each of the 11  required elements of a Category III QA
 Project Plan. Also included are definitions and expla-
 nations of  frequently used terms,  examples  of  QA
 forms  and  charts,  sample equations  and numerous
 types of tables suggested for summarizing information.

 Keywords:   'Manuals,   'Environmental   surveys,
 'Project planning,  'Data  processing, Management
 planning, Quality assurance, Quality control,  Stand-
 ards compliance, Records management, Site surveys,
 Sampling,  Research  and  development, Auditing,
 'Quality Assurance  Project Plans.
PB91-167577/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Section 313, Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know  Act:  Quality  Assurance  Audit
Manual. Final rept.
Radian  Corp.,  Hemdon,  VA.  Dulles  Technology
Center.
D. S. Matthews, and M. T. McAdams. Aug 90 79p
EPA/560/4-90/018
Contract EPA-68-D9-0169
Sponsored by  Environmental  Protection  Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Sub-
stances.

The document is designed to aid EPA staff and con-
tractors when evaluating the quality of data submitted
on EPA Form R, the report submitted to EPA by indus-
trial facilities for Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) report-
ing. The TRI is an annual inventory compiled by EPA of
releases of listed toxic chemicals  into the environment
by manufacturing facilities. Such facilities are required
to submit release estimates  and  other pertinent data
under requirements of Section 313 of the Emergency
 Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)
 of 1986. The manual contains background information
 on TRI reporting requirements, suggestions for prepar-
 ing for a site audit and an audit checklist. The checklist
 questions are designed to aid the auditor in assessing
 the completeness and quality of the TRI data as he re-
 views the Form R reports and supporting documenta-
 tion.  The manual  is intended for use during technical
 data  quality audits unrelated to  EPCRA Section 313
 enforcement inspections, but may be used by enforce-
 ment personnel as a supplemental technical refer-
 ence.

 Keywords: 'Manuals, 'Toxic substances, 'Compli-
 ance audits, Site surveys, Quality assurance, Law en-
 forcement, Pollution regulations, Standard Industrial
 Classification, Industrial wastes, Standards, On-site in-
 vestigations, Environmental transport, Chemical com-
 pounds, 'Supertund Amendments and Reauthoriza-
 tion Act of 1986, 'Emergency Planning and Communi-
 ty Right-to-Know Act.
 PB91-167585/REB               PC A09/MF A01
 Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Adipose Tissue of
 U.S. Vietnam Veterans and Controls.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office of Toxic Substances.
 H. K. Kang, K. K. Watanabe, J. Breen, J. Remmers,
 and M. Conomos. Aug 90,177p EPA/560/5-89/002
 Prepared in cooperation  with Department of Veterans
 Affairs,  Washington, DC. Office of Environmental  Epi-
 demiology, Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO.,
 and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center,
 Leavenworth, KS.

 Concern about the adverse effects of exposure to
 Agent Orange is for  the most part  attributable to its
 toxic contaminant,  2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
 (TCDD). A total of  40 Vietnam veterans, 80 non-Viet-
 nam veterans and 80 civilian men were selected from
 males born between 1936 and 1954 and their adipose
 tissues  were analyzed for 17 2,3,7,8-substituted diox-
 ins and  dibenzofurans. TCDD levels were log normally
 distributed and the  mean level of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in  adi-
 pose tissue of the Vietnam veterans (13.4 ppt) was not
 significantly different from that of the non-Vietnam  vet-
 erans (12.5 ppt) or civilian men (15.8 ppt). Adjusting for
 demographic variables did  not change the conclu-
 sions. The study results suggest that heavy exposure
 to Agent Orange for most Vietnam veterans was very
 unlikely and that there is no readily available and  reli-
 able indirect method  of assessing exposure to Agent
 Orange for Vietnam veterans.

 Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Tetracholorodibenzodioxins,
 'Adipose tissue, 'Dioxins, Military personnel, Expo-
 sure,    Comparative   evaluations,    Health  status,
 Tables(Data),  Graphs(Charts),   Biological  markers,
 'Agent Orange, 'Dibenzofurans, 'Vietnam veterans.


 PB91-167593/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Reporting Requirements for Continuous Releases
 of Hazardous Substances: A Guide for Facilities
 and Vessels on Compliance.
 Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
 Oct 90,43p EPA/540/G-91 /003, OSWER
 DIRECTIVE-9360.7-01

 The purpose of the Guide is to help you understand the
 definitions and requirements contained in the U.S.  En-
 vironmental Protection Agency's (EPA) regulation on
 reporting continuous  releases  of  hazardous sub-
 stances (see 55 FR 30166; July 24, 1990). The effec-
 tive date of the regulation was  September 24, 1990.
 The continuous release reporting regulation allows re-
 duced reporting for facilities or vessels that release
 hazardous substances in a continuous  and stable
 manner. The Guide has been designed to provide in-
 formation necessary to successfully comply with  the
 regulation. The Guide is divided into two parts. The first
 part provides general information in a question and
 answer  format regarding the continuous  release  re-
 porting regulation and your responsibility to report re-
 leases of hazardous  substances. The second part
 contains detailed instructions on how to prepare con-
tinuous release reports that include all required infor-
 mation.

 Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Supertund,  'Re-
porting requirements,  'Waste management, US EPA,
Pollution regulations,  Radioactive materials, Notifica-
tion procedures, Information transfer, Information sys-
tems, Toxic substances, Pollution sources, 'Compre-
 hensive Environmental Response Compensation and
 Liability  Act,  Emergency  Response  Notification
 System.
 PB91-167601/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 Snow/Rain Collector Sampler.
 Nevada Univ. System, Reno. Desert Research Inst.
 R. G. Purcell, and R. B. Brown. Mar 91,49p EPA/600/
 3-91/005
 Contract EPA-68-D-80095
 Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
 Exposure Assessment Lab.

 A new snow/rain collector was designed, built, and
 field tested. The instrument was designed to be able to
 operate in all weather conditions at remote and unat-
 tended sites for up to seven days. The design criteria
 also included stipulations that the instrument be easily
 operated by non-technical personnel, be convenient
 for transfer  of collected  precipitation samples, and
 have provisions  for excluding dry deposition. The  in-
 strument was field tested and test results are included.

 Keywords:  'Rain,  'Snow,  'Meteorological instru-
 ments,           'Measuring          instruments,
 Precipitation(Meteorolpgy),   Design,    Atmospheric
 chemistry, Monitors, Field tests.
 PB91-167692/REB               PC A23/MF A03
 Compilation of  Air  Pollutant Emission Factors.
 Volume 2. Mobile Sources. Supplement A.
 Environmental  Protection  Agency, Ann Arbor,  Ml.
 Emission Control Technology Div.
 Jan 91,529p AP-42-SUPPL-A
 See also PB87-205266.

 A 'Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors' (AP-
 42) reports data on atmospheric pollutants for which
 sufficient data exist to establish realistic emission esti-
 mates.  The  highway mobile  source emission factors
 presented in this Supplement to the 4th edition of AP-
 42 (EPA, Sept.  1985)  are based on EPA's MOBILE4
 emission factor  model  (EPA, 1989), and provide emis-
 sion factors for eight vehicle types and the highway ve-
 hicle fleet as a  whole  for a variety of different condi-
 tions (e.g., calendar year, average speed, temperature,
 fuel volatility, and operating modes). The supplement
 also discusses the algorithms used in MOBILE4 to es-
 timate such emission factors.

 Keywords:  'Motor  vehicles,  'Air pollution control,
 'Highways, Estimates, Sources, Exhaust emissions,
 Rates(Per time),  Mobility, Exhaust gases,  Velocity
 measurement, Age, Distance, Fuels, Volatility, Tem-
 perature, Diurnal variations, Revisions, Trips, Refuel-
 ing.
PB91-167718/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model, Version
1.1. User's Manual. Final rept.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
W. R. Pelt, R. L. Bass, I. R. Kuo, and A. L. Blackard  Apr
91,37p EPA/600/8-90/085A,, EPA/SW/DK-91/
081A
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
For system on diskette, see PB91-507541. Sponsored
by Environmental Protection Agency, Research Trian-
gle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research
Lab.

The document is a user's guide for the computer pro-
gram. Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model. It pro-
vides step-by-step guidance for using the program to
estimate landfill air emissions. The purpose of the pro-
gram is  to aid local and state agencies in estimating
landfill  air  emission  rates for  nonmethane organic
compounds and individual air toxics. The program will
also be helpful to landfill owners and operators affect-
ed by the upcoming New Source Performance Stand-
ard (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines for Municipal
Solid Waste Landfill Air Emissions. The model is based
on the Scholl  Canyon Gas Generation Model, used in
the development of the soon-to-be-proposed regula-
tion for landfill air emissions. The Scholl Canyon Model
is  a first order decay equation that uses site-specific
characteristics for estimating the gas generation rate.
                                                                                                                               Sept 1991

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
In the absence of site-specific data, the program pro-
vides conservative default values from the soon-tobe-
proposed NSPS for new landfills and emission guide-
lines for existing landfills. These default values may be
revised based on future information collected by the
Agency.

Keywords: 'Earth fills, 'Air pollution standards, 'User
manuals(Computer programs), 'Computerized simula-
tion, 'Air pollution abatement, Documentation, Pollu-
tion regulations, New Source Performance Standards,
Guidelines, Concentration(Composition),  Toxic  sub-
stances, Non-methane hydrocarbons, Waste disposal,
Site surveys, Study estimates, 'Landfill Air Emissions
Estimation Model.
PB91-167767/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Computer-Readable TSCA Chemical  Substances
Inventory. Data Tape Documentation.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
1991,36p EPA/DF/MT-91 /082A
For system on magnetic tape, see PB91 -507301.

The computer-readable TSCA Chemical Substance In-
ventory is issued periodically to provide chemical sub-
stance information for those substances on the non-
confidential substance identity portion of the TSCA
Master Inventory File. For a complete understanding
of the data contained on these tapes, it is necessary to
consult the introductory material of the  printed 1985
Edition and the 1990 Supplement to 1985 Edition. The
tapes consist of two files: Inventory Preferred Name
File and Inventory Synonym Name File. The first file
contains  the CAS  Registry Number, preferred CA
Index Name, molecular formula, and other appropriate
information for each non-confidential Inventory chemi-
cal substance. The entries are in ascending CAS Reg-
istry Number order. The second file is a file of synony-
mous chemical names for the same substances listed
in the Preferred Name File. Its entries are ordered al-
phabetically by name with each name accompanied by
the same information for the substance as appears in
the Preferred Name File.

Keywords:  'Chemical compounds, 'Environmental
surveys,  Pollution, Documentation, Revisions, Poly-
mers, Toxic substances, 'Toxic Substance Control
Act 'Toxic substance inventory, Molecular formula,
CAS Registry Number, Chemical nomenclature.
PB91-167841/REB                       PC E19
General Enforcement Policy Compendium.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
16 Dec 88,1179p'
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The attached documents contained in the report, are
an update of the General Enforcement Policy Com-
pendium. The update consists of policies which have
been added, revised or deleted since the issuance of
the June 11,1987, update. Some of the policies are:
Issuance of Enforcement Considerations for Drafting
and Reviewing Regulations and Guidelines for Devel-
oping New or Revised Compliance and Enforcement
Strategies, Procedures and Responsibilities for Updat-
ing ana Maintaining the Enforcement Docket, Final
Guidance on Use of Alternative Dispute Resolution
Techniques  in Enforcement Action,  Processing  of
Consent Decrees, Procedures for Assessing Stipulat-
ed Penalties, Case Management Plans, and Guidance
on Certification  of  Compliance  with Enforcement
Agreements. There are also modifications to existing
policies.

Keywords: 'Law enforcement, 'Environmental policy,
•Pollution laws. 'Pollution regulations, Guidelines, Re-
visions. Standards compliance. Substitutes, Consent
orders, Administrative procedures, Management plan-
ning, Charges, Consent orders.
PB91-168336/REB               PCA06/MFA01
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
CommunlcaUng Environmental Risks: A Guide to
Practical   Evaluations.   Risk   Communications
Series.
Research Triangle InsL, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Center for Economics Research.
M. J.Regan, and W.H.Desvousges. Dec 90,107p
EPA/230/01-91/001
Grant EPA-R-814676
Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Policy, Planning and Eval-
uation.

'Communicating Environmental Risks:  A Guide  to
Practical Evaluations' is a guidebook designed to help
program offices determine whether risk communica-
tion activities are achieving their goals. The guidebook
explains how to plan a practical, cost-effective evalua-
tion strategy that can be integrated with risk communi-
cation efforts. The framework described has been de-
veloped to facilitate thinking about where and when
various evaluation techniques and activities are most
effective.

Keywords: 'Risk assessment, 'Environmental man-
agement, 'Information transfer, Health risks. Public in-
formation, Pollution  regulations,  Management plan-
ning, Cost effectiveness, Design, Selective dissemina-
tion of information, Baseline measurements, Question-
naires, Assessments, Data processing, Guidelines, US
EPA.
PB91-168344/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Guide for  Preparation  of  Quality  Assurance
Project Plans for the National Estuarine Program.
Interim Final.
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection.
Jun 88,35p EPA/556/2-88/001

The document presents guidance for completing the
elements of a QA project plan specified by OWRS QA-
1, 'Guidance for the Preparation of Combined Work/
Quality Assurance Project Plans for Environmental
Monitoring,' May  1984. The QA project plan is made
up of a cover page, a table of contents, and  19 sec-
tions as indicated below. All of these elements should
be included in the plan. If a particular section does not
apply to the work assignment, the section should be
listed and marked with 'Not Applicable.' QA project
plans are controlled documents for EPA. The docu-
ment control format should consist of the following in-
formation on  each page: section  number,   revision
number, date of revision, and page.

Keywords: 'Guidelines, 'Project planning, 'Data proc-
essing, 'Environmental monitoring, 'Estuaries, Quality
assurance. Research and development Environmen-
tal  management,  Sampling,  Records management
Auditing, Flow charting, Performance evaluation, 'Na-
tional Estuarine Program.
PB91-1683S1/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Economics of Improved Estuarlne Water Quality:
An NEP Manual for Measuring Benefits.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection.
P. Caulkins, T. Armitage, M. Pryor, and T. Bigelow. Sep
90,87p EPA/503/5-90/001
Prepared in cooperation with Battelle Memorial Inst,
Washington, DC.

Section 320 of the Clean Water Act provides for the
development of  Comprehensive Conservation  and
Management Plans (CCMPs) for estuaries of National
significance.  To ensure the greatest return on re-
sources spent  it is often necessary to document the
economic benefits associated  with alternative man-
agement strategies. The purpose of the manual is to
assist estuary program managers and staff in identify-
ing, estimating, and evaluating the economic benefits
of water qualify improvements created by various  pol-
lution abatement options. Estimating economic bene-
fits helps to determine that a project's benefits are rea-
sonably commensurate with the project's costs.

Keywords: 'Estuaries, 'Water quality management
'Water pollution abatement 'Water pollution econom-
ics, 'Benefit cost analysis, Management  planning,
Economic analysis, Water pollution control, Agricultur-
al engineering, Municipal  water, Habitats,  Industrial
wastes.  Potable water, Fishing, Navigation,  Recrea-
tion, Benefit  plans, Advantages and disadvantages,
Comprehensive  Conservation   and  Management
Plans, Clean Water Act.
PB91-168369/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Assessing  Human Health Risks from Chemically
Contaminated  Fish  and  Shellfish:  A  Guidance1
Manual Final rept.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection.
K. Devonald, and J. Maxted. Sep 89,158p EPA/503/
8-89/002

The manual identifies procedures for assessing health
risks from fish and shellfish, including summarizing as-
sumptions and uncertainties; provides guidance on
presenting  assessment  results;  and  summarizes
standard model variables and criteria related to risk as-
sessment.

Keywords: 'Seafood, Shellfish, 'Food contamination,
"Health hazards,  Risk assessment, Chemicals, Dose-
response relationships, Carcinogenicity tests.
PB91-168377/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection.
Citizen Volunteers In  Environmental Monitoring:
Summary Proceedings of the National Workshop
(2nd).  Held In New Orleans, Louisiana in Decem-
ber 1989.
Rhode Island Univ., Kingston. Sea Grant Program.
Aug 90,66p EPA/503/9-90/009
See also PB89-154462.  Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Marine
and Estuarine Protection, and National Sea Grant Coll.
Program, Silver Spring, MD.

The second national workshop on The Role of Citizen
Volunteers in Environmental Monitoring' was held in
New Orleans, Louisiana, in December 1989. Cospon-
sored by EPA's Office of Marine and Estuarine Protec-
tion and the Gulf  of Mexico Program,  the workshop
was attended by 160 people representing many differ-
ent kinds of volunteer monitoring programs and gov-
ernment agencies from all around the country. A pri-
mary objective of the second national workshop was to
explore 'how to provide useful information and how to
encourage partnership  between citizen monitoring
groups and state or regional government' A second
major objective of the workshop was to introduce state
and regional government officials to the achievements
and potential of volunteer monitoring. The third goal of
the conference was to provide an opportunity for par-
ticipants to meet and foster a national network of citi-
zen volunteers.

Keywords:  'Meetings,  'Environmental  monitoring,
'Volunteers, 'Voluntary organizations, 'Water quality,
Estuaries, Public relations, State government, Informa-
tion management, Information transfer, Ecosystems,
Regional analysis, Water pollution sampling, Surface
waters, Ocean waste disposal,  Qualify assurance.
Quality control, US EPA, Cleanup operations.
 PB91-1683B5/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Progress In the National Estuary Program: Report
 to Congress. Rept for 1987-89.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection.
 Feb 90,50p EPA/503/9-90/005

 The problems facing the nation's estuaries do not fit
 into existing conventional pollution control programs
 based solely on regulations and enforcement. Neither
 do  they fit neatly into the traditional, restricted defini-
 tion of 'water pollution'. Rather, they involve complex
 issues of habitat protection, multimedia and nonpoint
 source  pollution,  land-use planning, and resource
 management. Congress established the National Estu-
 ary Program (NEP) precisely to address these issues.
 Under the Clean Water Act, the program  is to show
 how estuaries (and other ecosystems) can be protect-
 ed  and their living resources enhanced through com-
 prehensive, action-oriented management that: identi-
 fies the probable causes of major environmental prob-
 lems  in estuaries  of national significance; promotes
 and sustains long-term state and local commitment to
 solving the problems; generates meaningful public in-
 volvement and participation; focuses existing regula-
 tory, institutional,  and financial resources to act on
 identified problems; and encourages innovative man-
 agement approaches.

 Keywords: 'Estuarines, 'Aquatic ecosystems, 'Coast-
 al regions, 'Water quality management, Narragansett
 Bay, Puget Sound, Regulations, Comprehensive plan-
 ning, Water pollution abatement, Water pollution con-
trol, Habitats, Albemarie Sounds, Pamlico Sound, Buz-
zards Bay, Long Island Sound, Management planning,
Community development Nonpoint sources,  Land
 use, Natural resources management, San Francisco
 Bay, 'Natural Estuary Program, Clean Water Act of
        Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 1987, Comprehensive Conservation and Management
 Plan.
 PB91-168393/REB               PC A05/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection.
 Financing Marine and Estuarine  Programs:  A
 Guide to Resources.
 Apogee Research, Inc., Bethesda, MD.
 K. Rubin, M. Hardison, R. Brodie, T. Callender, and E.
 Cardon. Sep 88,100p EPA/503/8-88/001
 Contract EPA-68-01 -7281
 Prepared in cooperation with American Management
 Systems, Inc., Arlington, VA. Sponsored by Environ-
 mental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of
 Marine and Estuarine Protection.

 Under the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency's
 (EPA) National Estuary Program, state resource man-
 agers, town planners, and local administrators jointly
 develop plans to protect the coastal waters and pre-
 serve the living resources of the estuaries. The three-
 part document,  Financing Marine and Estuarine Pro-
 grams: A Guide to Resources, will help estuarine and
 marine managers understand the concepts and termi-
 nology of public finance, and secure the funds needed
 to support restoration  and protection programs. The
 first part of the report, the financial primer, introduces
 basic financing  concepts and  explains'the initiatives
 needed to  begin financial planning  for long-term re-
 source management activities. The  second  part, the
 case studies, provides specific examples of how some
 towns and cities have raised money to solve specific
 water quality problems. Finally, the glossary serves as
 a quick reference to the financial  terminology that
 managers unfamiliar with financial  planning need  to
 understand.

 Keywords:  'Estuaries,  * Water  management(Applied),
 'Water pollution control,  "Water pollution abatement,
 •Financing, Financial assistance, Case studies, Envi-
 ronmental protection, Water  quality management, Ad-
 ministrative procedures, Liabilities, Financial  manage-
 ment, Management planning, Capitalized costs, Reve-
 nue, Taxes, State government.
 PB91-168401/REB               PC A05/MF A01
 Study Using a Three Dimensional Photochemical
 Smog Formation Model under Conditions of Com-
 plex Row: Application of the Urban Airshed Model
 to the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Rept. for Jan 85-
 Jan91.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 S. Wakamatsu, and K. L Schere. Mar 91,98p EPA/
 600/3-91/015
 See also PB86-213246. Prepared in cooperation with
 National  Inst.  for Environmental Studies,  Ibaraki
 (Japan).

 The purpose of the study  is to evaluate the Urban
 Airshed Model (UAM), a  three-dimensional photo-
 chemical urban air quality simulation model, using field
 observations from the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Em-
 phasis was placed on the photochemical smog forma-
 tion mechanism under stagnant meteorological condi-
 tions.  The UAM produced  reasonable calculated  re-
 sults for the  diurnal, areal and vertical distributions of
 O3  concentrations covering the Tokyo Metropolitan
 Area.  The role and significance  of the previous day's
 secondary pollutants on O3 formation mechanisms
 were  also investigated. During  the night time, high
 values of secondary pollutant  concentrations were
 predicted above the radiation inversion layer. These
 aged  pollutants were then  entrained into the mixing
 layer during the day in accordance with the elevation
 of the lid. These characteristic features were also ob-
 served in the field study.

 Keywords: *Smog, *Air pollution monitoring, 'Atmos-
 pheric models, Urban areas,  Atmospheric chemistry.
 Ozone,  Photochemical  oxidants,  Graphs(Charts),
Tables(Data), Atmospheric  diffusion, 'Urban Airshed
 Model, Tokyo(Japan).
PB91-168419/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Colloidal-Facilitated Transport of Inorganic  Con-
taminants In Ground Water. Part 1. Sampling  Con-
siderations. Research rept. Feb 88-Sep 90.
Robert S. Kerr  Environmental Research  Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
 R. W. Puls, J. H. Eychaner, and R. M. Powell. Dec 90,
 12p EPA/600/M-90/023
 Prepared  in  cooperation  with  Geological  Survey,
 Tucson, AZ., and NSI Technology Services Corp., Ada,
 OK.

 Investigations at  Pinal Creek, Arizona, evaluated rou-
 tine sampling procedures for determination of aqueous
 inorganic geochemistry  and assessment of contami-
 nant transport by colloidal mobility. Sampling variables
 included pump type and flow rate, collection under air
 or nitrogen, and filter pore diameter. During  well purg-
 ing and sample collection, suspended particle size and
 number as well  as dissolved oxygen,  temperature,
 specific conductance, pH, and redox potential were
 monitored.  Laboratory  analyses  of  both  unfiltered
 samples and the filtrates were performed by inductive-
 ly coupled argon  plasma,  atomic  absorption  with
 graphite furnace, and ion chromatography.  Scanning
 electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive  X-ray was
 also used for analysis of the filtered participates. Sus-
 pended particle counts consistently required approxi-
 mately twice as long as the other field-monitored indi-
 cators to stabilize. High-flow-rate pumps  entrained
 normally nonmobile particles. Differences in  elemental
 concentrations using  different filter-pore sizes were
 generally not large with only two wells having differ-
 ences greater than 10 percent in most elemental con-
 centrations, although trends showed increasing con-
 centrations  with  increasing filter pore sizes in most
 wells. Similar differences (>10%) were  observed for
 some wells when samples were collected under nitro-
 gen rather than in air.

 Keywords: 'Ground water, Sampling, 'Water pollution,
 Mobility, Colloids, Pumps, Dispersions, Geochemistry,
 Dissolved  gases, Oxygen,  pH,  Conductivity,  Field
 tests, Pinal Creek(Arizona).
PB91-168427/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Best  Demonstrated   Control  Technology  for
Graphic Arts.
Midwest Research Inst., Gary, NC.
B. Friedman, and C. Vaught. Feb 91,52p EPA/450/3-
91/008
Contract EPA-68-02-4379
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air  Quality Plan-
ning and Standards.

The Graphic Arts Industry is a source of volatile organ-
ic compound (VOC)  emissions. The study  was con-
ducted to document  the reported overall control  effi-
ciency for VOC at a number of rotogravure and flexo-
graphic  printing facilities. The primary  conclusions
from the study are: (1) the use of capture and control
systems and the use  of water-based ink systems have
been  demonstrated  to  be effective and reliable  in
achieving greater than 90 percent overall VOC reduc-
tion rotogravure and  flexographic printing facilities; (2)
facilities can be retrofitted to achieve 90  percent VOC
reductions; and (3) permanent total enclosures meet-
ing  EPA criteria have been successfully  installed  and
operated at rotogravure and flexographic printing fa-
cilities.

Keywords: 'Best technology, 'Graphic arts, 'Air pollu-
tion control, 'Volatile organic  compounds,  'Capture
effect, Performance standards. Design criteria, Air pol-
lution  control equipment, Flexography, Gravure print-
ing, Printing inks, Control Technology Center.
PB91-168450/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Continuous Release-Emergency Response Notifi-
cation System and Priority Assessment  Model:
User's Manual for EPA Regions.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Oct 90,88p* EPA/540/G-91 /001, OSWER
DIRECTIVE-9360.7-05
See also PB90-249715 and PB91 -168468.

The user's manual provides EPA Regional personnel
with information and detailed instructions on  how to
use the Continuous Release-Emergency Response
Notification  System (CR-ERNS) and Priority Assess-
ment Model (PAM), an integrated database manage-
ment  system and  screening-level  risk assessment
model.

Keywords:   'User   manuals(Computer  programs),
'Computerized simulation,  'Hazardous materials, *Su-
perfund,  'Environmental surveys,  'Waste manage-
ment. Personnel development, Pollution sources, Air
pollution, Water pollution, Radioactive waste. Emer-
gency plans,  Remedial action, Information systems,
Risk assessment, Regional analysis. Law enforce-
ment, Pollution regulations,  Database management,
'Emergency Response Notification System, 'Priority
Assessment Model, EPA regions 1-10, Remedial re-
sponse, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Re-
sponse.
PB91-168468/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Continuous Release-Emergency Response Notifi-
cation System and Priority Assessment Model:
Model Documentation.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
13 Feb 91,75p* EPA/540/G-91 /004, OSWER
DIRECTIVE-9360.7-03
See also PB91-168450 and PB90-249715.

The purpose of the model documentation is to provide
a detailed description of the modeling and risk analysis
procedures used in CR-ERNS/PAM to  assist  OSCs
and other Superfund  decision-makers in interpreting
the system results. PAM is a screening-level model; to
property interpret PAM's outputs, the user must under-
stand the limitations and uncertainties in the equations
and data used to generate these results. Chapter 2
presents the system's fate and transport models and
describes  the  assumptions associated with  these
equations. Chapter 3 describes PAM's auxiliary data
bases and provides the source(s) of each parameter
and the methods by which  values were selected.
Chapter 4 explains the methods and exposure as-
sumptions used to estimate exposures to hazardous
substances and to evaluate the risks and hazards as-
sociated with these exposures. Chapter 5 presents ex-
amples of reports generated by PAM and explains the
meaning of the 'flags' assigned to hazardous sub-
stances, media, and  facilities. Appendix A contains
versions of the fate and transport equations used for
radionuclides. Appendix B contains copies of PAM's
reports.

Keywords: 'Computerized simulation, 'Hazardous ma-
terials, 'Superfund, 'Environmental surveys, 'Waste
management, 'Documentation,  Database manage-
ment, Personnel development, Pollution sources, Air
pollution,  Radioactive wastes, Information systems,
Pollution  regulations,  Water pollution,  Emergency
plans, Remedial action, Risk assessment, Regional
analysis,  Law enforcement,  'Emergency  Response
Notification System, 'Priority Assessment Model, EPA
regions  1-10, Remedial  response,  Office of  Solid
Waste and Emergency Response.


PB91-168476/REB               PC A15/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Soil Vapor Extraction  Technology:  Reference
Handbook. Final rept. Jim 89-Mar 90.
Camp, Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA.
T. A. Pedersen, and J. T. Curtis. Feb 91,330p EPA/
540/2-91/003
Contract EPA-68-03-3409
See also PB90-216995. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction En-
gineering Lab.

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in
increasing numbers due to many advantages  these
systems hold over other soil treatment technologies.
SVE systems appear to be simple in design and oper-
ation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface
vapor transport are quite complex. In view of the com-
plexity, an expert workshop was held to discuss the
state-of-the-art of the technology, the best approach
to optimize systems application, and process efficien-
cy and limitations. As a result of the workshop, an SVE
Technology Assessment report was produced. The
report discusses the basic science of the subsurface
environment and  subsurface  monitoring, emission
control, and costs. The report also serves as the pro-
ceedings of the expert workshop. Additional research
activities being conducted include a field demonstra-
tion of a structured SVE system design approach; a
laboratory column study to  determine and characterize
residuals following vapor extraction; an assessment of
secondary emissions and regulations governing  re-
leases from SVE systems; cost of SVE implementation
and operation; and a survey of techniques to enhance
vapor removal.
                                                                                                                               Sept 1991

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Keywords: 'Land  pollution,  'Volatile organic com-
 pounds, 'Soil gases, *Air pollution control, 'Hydrocar-
 bons, Soils, Monitoring, Handbooks, Gasoline, Reme-
 dial action, Waste disposal. Cost analysis. Field tests,
 'Soil vapor extraction.
 PB91-168484/REB              PC A04/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 Data Users Guide to the Mountain Cloud Chemls-
 try Protect,
 State Univ. of New York at Albany. Atmospheric Sci-
 ences Research Center.
 V. A. Mohnen. Mar 91,69p EPA/600/8-91/009
 See also PB89-148597 and PB91-100164. Sponsored
 by Environmental Protection Agency, Research Trian-
 gle Park, NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure
 Assessment Lab.

 Atmospheric pollution is deposited on the forests of
 the eastern United States in a variety of forms. Con-
 cern has been raised that the exposure to and deposi-
 tion of these atmospheric pollutants may play a role in
 the  decline  of these forests. The  Mountain Cloud
 Chemistry Project (MCCP), sponsored by the U.S. En-
 vironmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National
 Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), has
 studied the exposure and deposition of atmospheric
 constituents to these forests. Research scientists and
 technicians of the MCCP have measured the concen-
 trations of atmospheric pollutants at six remote moni-
 toring stations for four growing seasons (1986-89).
 Measurements of ozone, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitro-
 gen, hydrogen peroxide, doud and rain water ions, me-
 teorotogfcal parameters, and other parameters of in-
 terest were  collected at sites in Howtand, ME; ML
 Moosteuke,   NH;  Whtteface ML, NY; Shenandoah
 Park, VA; Whftetop Mt, VA; and ML Mitchell, NC. The
 report served to document the type and amount of
 data collected  for  the  Mountain  Cloud Chemistry
 Protect during the four warm seasons between 1986
 and 1989. Details are presented on the locations of the
 six research/monitoring sites, the types of measure-
 ments made, the periods of record, the quality of the
 data, and the availability of the data.

 Keywords:    'Forest    land,    'Air    pollution,
 *CJouds(Meteorotogy).      Chemical     analysis,
 Tabtes(Data), Wind velocity, 'Atmospheric chemistry,
 Acid deposition,  Precipitation(Meteorotogy),  Ozone,
 Sulfur  dioxide,  Nitrogen oxides, 'Mountain  Cloud
 Chemistry    Project,    'Appalachian    Mountain
 Regton(Untted States), Acid rain.
PB91-168492/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Proceedings of Two Highway Vetride Emission In-
ventory Workshops. HeM In Washington, DC.  on
July  19-20,  1990 and In Sacramento, CA.  on
August 21,1990. Rept for Jul-Sep 90.
Pechan (E.H.) and Associates, Inc., Springfield, VA.
J. H. Wilson. Mar 91,23p EPA/600/9-91 /007
Contract EPA-68-09-0168
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park.  NC. Air and Energy Engineering
Research Lao.

EPA's Joint Emission  Inventory Oversight Group is ini-
tiating research projects with the goal of better quanti-
fying air pollution emissions in both current and future
years. Highway vehicles have been found to be an im-
portant contributor to  organic, oxides of nitrogen, and
carbon monoxide emissions as well as some hazard-
ous air pollutants, despite the significant emission re-
ductions that have already been achieved on a per ve-
hidebasis. Therefore, EPA is actively investigating re-
search opportunities to improve the state-of-the-art in
estimating highway vehicle emissions. The project was
an effort to solicit research ideas from people outside
EPA via a workshop forum.

Keywords: 'Motor vehicles. 'Air pollution, 'Emission
factors,  'Meetings, Air pollution control, Stationary
sources, Estimating, Planning.


PB91-168500/REB               PC AOS/MF A01
CorvaMs Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Indicator Development Strategy for the Environ-
mental Monitoring and Assessment Program.
Technical Resources,  Inc., Davis, CA.
 C. M. Knapp, D. R. Marmorek, J. P. Baker, K. W.
 Thornton, and J. M. Klopatek. Mar 91,94p EPA/600/
 3-91/023
 Contract EPA-68-CO-0021
 Prepared in cooperation  with  Environmental  and
 Social Systems Analysts Ltd.,  Vancouver (British Co-
 lumbia),  Western Aquatics, Inc., Durham, NC., and
 FTN Associates, Little Rock, AR. Sponsored by Cor-
 vallis Environmental Research  Lab., OR.

 The overall goal of Environmental Monitoring and As-
 sessment Program (EMAP) is to provide a quantitative
 assessment of the current status and long-term trends
 in the condition of the nation's ecological resources on
 regional and national  scales. The document outlines a
 strategy  for indicator selection, development,  and
 evaluation within EMAP. Its objectives are twofold: (1)
 to present general guidelines, criteria, and procedures
 for indicator selection and evaluation, and (2) to estab-
 lish an organizational framework for coordinating and
 integrating   indicator  development and use within
 EMAP. It should serve both to promote internal con-
 sistency among EMAP resource groups and to provide
 a basis for external review of  the proposed indicator
 development process.

 Keywords: 'Environmental  monitoring,  'Environmen-
 tal impact assessments, 'Biological indicators, Biologi-
 cal effects, Long term effects,  Indicator species, Eco-
 systems, Regional  analysis, Environmental transport,
 Guidelines, Habitats,  Decision making, Risk assess-
 ment. Forecasting.
 PB91-168518/REB                PC A09/MF A02
 EMAP-Surface Waters Monitoring and  Research
 Strategy. Fiscal Year 1991.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 S. G. Paulsen, D. P. Larsen, P. R. Kaufmann, T. R.
 Whrttier, and J. R. Baker. Mar 91,194p EPA/600/3-
 91/022
 Prepared  in  cooperation with  Nevada  Univ.,  Las
 Vegas, Utah State Univ., Logan, Oregon State Univ.,
 Corvallis, and  ManTech Environmental Technology,
 Inc., Corvallis, OR.

 The document describes the Environmental Monitor-
 ing and Assessment Program's (EMAP) vision of what
 is needed to evaluate the ecological condition of the
 surface waters of the United States. It describes the
 content and organization of the research plan.

 Keywords: 'Environmental monitoring,  'Water pollu-
 tion sampling, 'Aquatic ecosystems, Surface waters,
 Water  quality,  United States, Project planning, Re-
 search and development, Biological effects, Biological
 indicators, Hydrology, Quality assurance, Information
 management, 'Environmental Monitoring and Assess-
 ment Program.
PB91-168S26/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Peer  Review  Standards  for  the  Disposal of
Sewage Sludge. U.S. EPA Proposed Rule 40 CFR
Parts-257 and 503 (February 6, 1989 Federal Reg-
ister pp5746-5902).
Cooperative State Research Service, Washington, DC.
Feb89,147p
Prepared in cooperation with Ohio State Univ., Colum-
bus, and California Univ., Riverside. Sponsored by En-
vironmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Cri-
teria and Standards Div.

The report is a comprehensive document on the use
and disposal  of  municipal sewage sludge by using
modem scientific and technological means.

Keywords: 'Sewage sludge, 'Sludge disposal, 'Waste
utilization. Standards, Pollution regulations, Reviews,
Comprehensive planning, Technology utilization,  Bio-
logical effects, Risk assessment, Public health. Health
risks. Recommendations, Clean Water AcL
PB91-168534/REB               PC A22/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Municipal Waste Combustion: Background Infor-
mation  for  Promulgated Standards  and  Guide-
lines. Summary of  Public Comments  and Re-
sponses. Final repL
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Dec 90,520p EPA/450/3-91 /004
Contract EPA-68-02-4378
 See also PB91-168542. Sponsored by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
 of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

 EPA is preparing for promulgation under Clean Air Act
 111(b) emission standards for new MWC's and, under
 111 (d), emission guidelines for existing MWC's. The
 standards and guidelines will apply to MWC units with
 a capacity to combust 250 or more tons of municipal
 solid waste per  day. The standards and  guidelines
 were proposed in the Federal Register on  December
 20,1989 (54 FR 52251 and 54 FR 52209). Public hear-
 ings were held in January 1990 in Boston MA, Detroit
 Ml, and Seattle WA. These meetings were open to the
 public and the public was given an opportunity to com-
 ment on the proposal. Additionally, EPA received over
 300 written comment letters. The report summarizes
 all comments and presents the Agency's responses.

 Keywords: 'Municipal wastes,  "Air pollution stand-
 ards,  'Waste disposal,  'Guidelines, 'Incineration,
 Combustion products. Public opinion, US EPA, Pollu-
 tion  regulations,  Performance standards,  Pollution
 sources, Air pollution control equipment, Air pollution
 abatement, Air pollution control, Best  technology,
 Standards compliance, Law enforcement Nitrogen
 oxides. Materials recovery, 'New Source Performance
 Standards, Clean Air AcL
 PB91-168542/REB              PC A06/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
 Municipal  Waste Combustion: Background Infor-
 mation  for  Promulgated  Standards and  Guide-
 lines. Summary of  Public Comments and Re-
 sponses. Appendices A to C. Final rept.
 Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 Dec 90,105p EPA/450/3-91 /004A
 Contract EPA-68-02-4378
 See also PB91 -168534. Sponsored by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
 of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

 Appendices A to C to the 'Municipal Waste Combus-
 tion:  Background Information for Promulgated Stand-
 ards  and Guidelines -  Summary of Public Comments
 and Responses' (PB91 -168534), address key techni-
 cal issues related to the promulgated rules for munici-
 pal waste combustors  (MWC's). Appendix A provides
 analysis of the continuous SO2 control capabilities of
 spray dryer/fabric filter (SD/FF) and spray dryer/elec-
 trostatic precipitator (SD/ESP) control  systems  for
 MWC's. Achievable SO2  performance levels for these
 systems are determined  based on the analysis. Simi-
 larly, Appendix B provides analysis of continuous NOX
 emissions data from MWC's. Results are presented for
 the statistical analysis of NOX data obtained from a
 grate-fired  mass burn waterwall MWC  using selective
 npncatalytJc reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOX emis-
 sions and from a rotary mass burn waterwall MWC de-
 signed to  limit  NOX  emissions through combustion
 control. Appendix C provides additional  MWC emis-
 sions test data which became available following pro-
 posal of the standards and  guidelines for MWC's on
 December 20,1989. The appendix reviews data at four
 MWC's with either unique air pollution control technol-
 ogies or emissions which are higher than for similarly
 controlled MWC's that had been previously examined.

 Keywords:  'Municipal wastes,  'Air pollution stand-
 ards,  'Waste disposal, 'Guidelines,  'Incineration,
 Graphs(Charts), Combustion products,  Public opinion,
 US EPA, Pollution regulations, Performance stand-
 ards,  Tables(Data), Air pollution control, Materials re-
 covery,  Nitrogen oxides, Law enforcement, Pollution
 sources, Air pollution control equipment,  Air pollution
 sampling, Standards  compliance,  Best  technology,
 'New Source Performance Standards, Clean Air AcL
PB91-168559/REB               PC A05/MF A01
National Air Pollutant Emission Estimates, 1940-
1989. Final rept
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Mar 91,82p* EPA/450/4-91/004
See also PB90-199266.

The report presents estimates of trends in nationwide
air pollutant emissions for six major pollutants: panicu-
late (PM/TSP and  PM10), sulfur oxides,  nitrogen
oxides, reactive volatile organic compounds, carbon
monoxide, and lead.  Estimates are provided for major
categories of air pollution sources. A short analysis of
6      Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
emission trends is given along with a discussion of
methods used to develop the data.

Keywords: 'Air pollution, 'Parbculates, 'United States,
Tables(Data), Exhaust emissions,  Study estimates,
Pollution sources, Carbon  monoxide,  Sulfur oxides,
Graphs(Charts), Concentration(Composition), Industri-
al wastes, Combustion products, Trends, Solid waste
disposal,   Nitrogen   oxides,   Emission  factors,
Lead(Metal), Volatile organic  compounds, 'Emission
inventories.
PC AOB/MF A01
          Infor-
PB91-168567/REB
Municipal Waste Combustion: Background
mation for Materials Separation. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Pa/k, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Jan 91. 168p EPA/450/3-90/021

Several  issues related to materials separation from
municipal solid waste (MSW) are  discussed.  Current
nationwide rates of materials separation and recycling,
as well as the methodology for determining municipal
solid waste  separation rates, are presented.  Case
studies of four community curbside separation pro-
grams include performance data and program costs.
Two centralized materials separation facilities which
separate materials from unsorted MSW are described
with respect to the separation mechanisms employed,
performance, and available cost data. Available data
on the impacts of materials separation on municipal
waste combustor (MWC) air emissions, combustor op-
eration, and  MWC ash are presented. The potential
occupational risks of the handpicking process used to
separate materials from MSW at some  centralized
separation facilities are discussed. The use of mercury
in  household batteries, and  current information on
community battery separation and collection programs
and recycling efforts, are also discussed.

Keywords: 'Municipal  wastes,  'Materials recovery,
'Incinerators, 'Air pollution  control,  'Air pollution
standards, Separation, Waste recycling, Case  studies,
Operating, Household wastes, Combustion products,
Waste disposal.  Pollution  regulations, Performance
evaluation, Cost analysis, Occupation exposure, Elec-
tric batteries.
PB91-168S7S/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Pollutant Emission Standards and Guidelines
for Municipal Waste Combustors: Revision and
Update of Economic Impact Analysis and Regula-
tory Impact Analysis. Final rept.
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Center for Economics Research.
G. E. Morris, B. L. Jellicorse, and R. Sarmiento. Nov
90,115p EPA/450/3-91 /003
Contract EPA-68-D-80073
See  also PB90-154899, PB90-154907,  and  PB90-
154915.  Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection
Agency. Research Triangle  Park, NC. Office of  Air
Quality Planning and Standards.

EPA is preparing for promulgation under Clean Air Act
111(b) emission standards for new Municipal Waste
Combustors (MWCs) and, under 111(d), emission
guidelines for  existing  MWCs. The  standards and
guidelines will apply to MWCs with a capacity to com-
bust 35 or more Mg of municipal solid waste per day.
The report updates 'Economic Impact of Air Pollutant
Emission Standards  for New Municipal Waste Com-
bustors,' EPA-450/3-89-006 (August 1989), 'Econom-
ic Impact of Air Pollutant Emission Guidelines for Exist-
ing Municipal Waste Combustors,' EPA-450/30-89-
005 (August 1989), and 'Regulatory Impact Analysis of
Air Pollutant Emission Standards  and Guidelines  for
Municipal Waste Combustors,' (PB90-154915), (Octo-
ber 1989). The update describes baseline  projections
of MWCs, economic analysis methodology, national
costs  and  emission  reductions attributable to the
standards and guidelines, the sensitivity of costs to as-
sumptions about capacity utilization arid about materi-
als separation requirements, and  how the standards
and guidelines may change communities'  choices of
waste disposal technology.

Keywords: 'Air pollution standards, 'Air pollution eco-
nomics, 'Municipal wastes, 'Incinerators, 'Waste dis-
posal, Economic factors, Air pollution control, Pollution
regulations, Standards compliance, Materials  recov-
ery, Cost estimates.  Household wastes,  Revisions,
Performance standards, 'New Source  Performance
Standards, Small systems, Clean Air Act.


PB91-168583/REB               PC A13/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Nonmethane Organic Compound and Three-Hour
Air Toxics Monitoring Program, 1990.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
R. A. McAllister, P. L. O'Hara, D. P. Dayton, J. E.
Robbins, and R. F. Jongleux. Jan 91,286p EPA/450/
4-91/008
Contract EPA-68D80014
See also PB90-265331. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

In certain areas of the country where the  National Am-
bient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is being
exceeded, additional measurements of ambient non-
methane organic compounds (NMOC) are needed to
assist the affected States in developing revised ozone
control strategies. Because of previous difficulty in ob-
taining accurate NMOC measurements, the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection  Agency (EPA) has  provided
monitoring and analytical assistance to these States,
beginning in 1984 and continuing through the 1990
NMOC Monitoring Program.

Keywords:  'Air  pollution  monitoring,  'Toxic sub-
stances,  'Non-methane hydrocarbons,  Air  pollution
standards, Air pollution control, Air quality, Ozone, Air
pollution detection, Concentration(Composition), Qual-
ity assurance, Quality control, Data processing, Stand-
ards compliance.
                  PB91-1713S5/REB               PC A04/MF A01
                  Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
                  Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
                  Technology for the Control of PaiDculates and
                  Sulfur Oxides by  Electrostatic Techniques. Final
                  rept. Aug 85-Jul 90.
                  Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL
                  E. B. Dismukes, and J. P. Gooch. Mar 91,55p SRI-
                  ENV-90/892-5868, EPA/600/7-91/004
                  Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
                  search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
                  Research Lab.

                  The report summarizes research performed by South-
                  em Research Institute on several aspects of the E-
                  SOx Process, invented by EPA to jointly control partic-
                  ulate matter and SO2 in coal-fired boiler emissions by
                  retrofitting an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP),
                  formerly used only for paniculate removal. The report
                  covers research on potential ESP sites for process ap-
                  plication, process economics, characterization of proc-
                  ess solid waste collected in the ESP, measurement
                  and modeling of prechargers in the retrofitted ESP,
                  and effectiveness of the process with respect to SO2
                  removal.  Experiment results described in the report
                  confirm original EPA laboratory work and were influen-
                  tial in the decision to proceed with a large  pilot evalua-
                  tion of E-SOx. Research emphasis was on ESP per-
                  formance, under E-SOx conditions, to verify that this
                  essential equipment process component  could retain
                  its primary function of particle removal at a level equal
                  to removal prior to modifications necessary for E-SOx.
                  Further research is suggested.

                  Keywords: 'Air pollution control equipment, 'Electro-
                  static  precipitators,  Sulfur dioxide, Particles, Experi-
                  mental design,  Technology utilization, Performance
                  evaluation, Solid wastes, Retrofitting, Injection, *E-
                  SOX process.
                  PB91-171363/REB               PC A12/MF A02
                  Macroinvertebrate Field and Laboratory Methods
                  for Evaluating the Biological Integrity of Surface
                  waters.
                  Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Cincinnati,
                  OH.
                  D. J. Klemm, P. A. Lewis, F. Fulk, and J. M. Lazorchak.
                  Nov 90,270p EPA/600/4-90/030
                  See also PB-227183.

                  The manual describes guidelines  and standardized
                  procedures for using benthic macroinvertebrates in
                  evaluating the biological integrity of surface waters. In-
                  cluded are sections on quality assurance and quality
                  control procedures, safety  and health recommenda-
                  tions, selection of sampling stations, sampling meth-
                  ods, sample processing, data evaluation, and an  ex-
                                                                    tensive taxonomic bibliography of the benthic macroin-
                                                                    vertebrate groups. Supplementary information on the
                                                                    pollution tolerance of selected species, examples of
                                                                    macroinvertebrate bench sheets  and macroinverte-
                                                                    brate data summary sheets, and a list of equipment
                                                                    and supplies for conducting biomonitoring studies are
                                                                    provided in the Appendices.

                                                                    Keywords:  'Surface  waters,  'Biological  fouling,
                                                                    'Water pollution, 'Invertebrates, Field tests, Quality
                                                                    assurance, Sampling, Monitoring, Taxonomy, 'Labora-
                                                                    tory methods.
PB91-171371/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Innovative and  Alternative Technology Assess-
ment Manual.
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Water Engineering Research Lab.
Feb 80,117p EPA/430/9-78/009
See also PB81-103277.


The EPA updated the publication entitled 'Innovative
and  Alternative  Technology  Assessment  Manual'
(PB81-103277) with 'Municipal Waste Water Treat-
ment Technology Fact Sheets'. The  document con-
tains information  on collection systems,  disinfection,
sludge, on-site systems, biology, secondary treatment,
and miscellaneous technology.


Keywords:   'Sewage   treatment,   'Municipalities,
'Water pollution control, Sewers, Design  criteria, Per-
formance evaluation, Waste disposal, Waste utiliza-
tion, Cost effectiveness.  Secondary sewage treat-
ment. Biological treatment. Technology utilization, Dis-
infection, Incineration, Composting, Sludge disposal,
On-site  investigations,  Alternative planning, Clean
Water Act of 1977.
                                                  PB91-171389/REB               PC A21/MF A03
                                                  Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
                                                  Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
                                                  Follow-Up Durability Measurements and  Mitiga-
                                                  tion Performance Improvement Tests in 38 East-
                                                  em  Pennsylvania Houses Having  Indoor Radon
                                                  Reduction Systems. Final rept. Oct 89-Feb 90.
                                                  Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY.
                                                  W. O. Findlay, A. Robertson, and A. G. Scott. Mar 91,
                                                  492p*
                                                  Contract EPA-68-02-4262
                                                  See also PB88-156617. Sponsored by Environmental
                                                  Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC. Air
                                                  and Energy Engineering Research Lab.


                                                  The report gives results of follow-up tests in  38 diffi-
                                                  cult-to-mitigate  Pennsylvania houses where indoor
                                                  radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4
                                                  years earlier. Objectives were to assess system dura-
                                                  bility, methods for improving performance, and meth-
                                                  ods for reducing installation and operating costs. The
                                                  durability tests indicated that the 38 systems have not
                                                  experienced any  significant degradation  in indoor
                                                  radon levels or in  system flows/suctions, except in 6
                                                  houses where system fans failed, and in houses where
                                                  homeowners turned off the systems. Tests to  improve
                                                  performance indicated that nearly all of the elevated
                                                  residual radon levels are due to re-entrainment back
                                                  into the house of very-high-radon exhaust gas from the
                                                  soil depressurization systems, and to radon  release
                                                  from well water.  Tests to reduce system costs showed
                                                  that premitigation sub-slab suction field measurements
                                                  can help prevent installation of too many suction pipes
                                                  when communication is good, but suggest a need for
                                                  too many pipes when communication is poor.  Soil de-
                                                  pressurization fans could not be turned  down to  the
                                                  extent expected in some systems that were over-de-
                                                  signed. Between 6 and 42% of the exhausted air was
                                                  withdrawn from the house.


                                                  Keywords: 'Radon, 'Indoor air pollution, Performance
                                                  evaluation, Radioactive materials. Design criteria, Op-
                                                  erating costs. Houses, Durability,  Installation costs,
                                                  Residential buildings, 'Source reduction, 'Subslab de-
                                                  pressurization systems,  'Draintile  depressurization
                                                  systems, Soil gases.
                                                  PB91-171405/REB               PC A03/MF A01
                                                  Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
                                                  Reduction Engineering Lab.
                                                                                                                               Sept 1991

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
ChamMry of Water Treatment Processes Involv-
ing Ozone, Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet Ra-
diation. Journal article.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Office of Environmental
Science and Engineering.
W. H. Glaze, J. W. Kang, and D. H. Chapin. c1987,20p
EPA/600/J-87/545
GrantEPA-R-813188
Pub. in Ozone Science and Engineering, v9 D335-352
1987.  Sponsored   by  Environmental  Protection
Agency,  Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
Lab.

Advanced  oxidation processes are defined as those
which involve the generation of hydroxyl radicals in
sufficient quantity to affect water purification. The the-
oretical and practical yield of OH from O3 at high pH,
O3/H2O, O3/UV and H2O2/UV systems is reviewed.
New data is presented which illustrates the importance
of direct photolysis in the O3/UV process, the effect of
the H2O2:O3 ratio in the O3/H2O2 process, and the
impact of the low extinction coefficient of H2O2 in the
H2O2/UV  process. (Copyright (c)  1987, International
Ozone Association.)

Keywords:  'Water  treatment  'Water  chemistry,
 'Water pollution control, 'Sewage treatment, Ozoniza-
tton,  Ultraviolet  radiation, Water purification. Photo-
chemical reactions, Water treatment(Chemtcate), Free
radicals, Photolysis, Chemical reactions, Decomposi-
tion reactions. Industrial  waste treatment.  Hydrogen
 peroxide, Reprints, Chemical reaction mechanisms.
 PB91-171413/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 CorvalNs Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 Arsenic Sedimentation Along the Slope of a Lake
 Basin. Journal article.
 Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. DepL of Fisheries
 and Wildlife.
 M. Siami, C. D. McNabb, T. R. Batterson, and R. P.
 Glandon. C1987,13p'EPA/600/J-87/546
 Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v6
 0595-6051987. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
 Research Lab., OR.

 Lake Lansing, Michigan was treated with sodium ar-
 senfte for macrophyte control in 1957. Seven 1.5-m
 sediment cores were taken along a line through the lit-
 toral zone to the deepest portion of the lake and ana-
 (yed for arsenic. In each core, arsenic concentrations
 going from the surface downward increased to some
 maximum and then receded to background. Depth of
 peak concentrations followed two patterns; three litto-
 ral cores showed peak arsenic at 0.13 m from the sedi-
 ment  surface, and  four  cores from progressively
 deeper portions of the lake showed a regular decrease
 in peak depth from 0.32m to 0.17m. Sediment accu-
 mulation rates were calculated along this transect
 Particle-size sorting of sediments along this slope was
 also measured. This work suggested that i
 originated from wetland vegetation at the edge of the
 lake.  Turbulent movement of water in the shallows
 caused suspension  and down-slope movement of
 small particles. Fewer panicles of wetland origin were
 available for sedimentation beyond the region of high-
 est faHout (3.75 m), thus accounting for progressively
 lower sedimentation  rates in deeper portions of the
 basin. A model was developed to predict the time it
 would lake for surface sediments to reach pretreat-
 ment concentrations  of arsenic levels; for Lake  Lan-
 sing it would be more than 100 years. (Copyright (c)
 SETAC1987.)

 Keywords: •Arsenic, 'Lake Lansing(Michigan), 'Sedi-
 mentation, Water pollution, Mathematical  models. Lit-
 toral zone. Sodium arsenite, Surface waters. Reprints.
PB91-171421/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Triangle-Shaped DC Corona Discharge Device for
Molecular Decomposition. Journal article May-Aug
87.
Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. Yamamoto, P. A. Lawless, and L E. Sparks. C1989,
9p EPA/600/J-89/507
Pub. in IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics En-
gineers) Transactions on Industry Applications, v25 n4
0743-749 Jul/Aug 89. Presented at the Industry Appli-
cations Society Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA., October
19-23,1987. Sponsored by Environmental  Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy
Engineering Research Lab.
The paper discusses the evaluation of electrostatic DC
corona discharge devices for the application of molec-
ular decomposition. A point-to-plane geometry corona
device with a rectangular cross section demonstrated
low decomposition efficiencies in earlier experimental
work. The numerical simulation of the device suggest-
ed that there were low electron density and electric
field zones, resulting in electrical sneakage. Thus, the
kinetic rate coefficients in the chemical reaction proc-
ess were significantly reduced. A triangle-shaped DC
corona discharge device was developed to improve
the electrical sneakage problem, and a mathematical
model was developed to describe the detailed electri-
cal characteristics and to refine estimates on the opti-
mum shape of the device. The preliminary experimen-
tal results indicated that the decomposition efficiency
was much improved.

Keywords: 'Electric coronas, Electrostatics, Decom-
position, Phosphonic acid/dimethyl methyl ester.  Pol-
lution  control,  Mathematical   models,  Stationary
sources,  Reaction kinetics. Technology assessment,
Reprints.
PB91-171439/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Ozonation Byproducts. 2.  Improvement of an
Aqueous-Phase DerivaUzation Method for the De-
tection of  Formaldehyde  and  Other  Carbonyl
Compounds Formed by the Ozonation of Drinking
Water. Journal article.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Office of Environmental
Science and Engineering.
W. H. Glaze, M. Koga, and D. Cancilla. C1989,12p
EPA/600/J-89/508
Grant EPA-R813188
Pub. in Environmental Science and Technology, v23
n7 p838-847 Jul 89. Prepared in cooperation with Uni-
versity of Occupational and Environmental Health, Ki-
takyushu (Japan). Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engi-
neering Lab.

A method for the determination  of  low  molecular
weight aldehydes in water using aqueous-phase derivi-
zation               with              0-(2,3,4,5,6-
pentafluorobenzyljhydroxylamine  hydrochloride has
been improved by the use of high-resolution capillary
GC.  Detection limits with GC/ECD and GC/MS with
selected ion monitoring  are in the low mterogram per
liter (ppb) range. The method has been used to evalu-
ate levels of aldehydes in three surface water treat-
ment plants and one ground water treatment plant
before and after ozonation. Aldehydes are increased
as a result of ozonation, with formaldehyde being the
most prevalent Higher yields are observed in the plant
treating surface water with the highest TOC level, but
very low yields  are observed in a high TOC ground
water. Spiking studies show that the raw ground water
has a very high demand for formaldehyde, suggesting
that the aldehydes may be converted  into secondary
byproducts.

Keywords: 'Water treatment plants, 'Formaldehyde,
* Water pollution detection, 'Water analysis, 'Ozoniza-
tion, 'Potable water, Surface waters, Ground water. Al-
dehydes, Gas chromatography,  Mass spectroscopy,
Byproducts,  Carbonyl  compounds,  Halomethanes,
Substitutes,    Reprints,   Amine    hydrochloride/
(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxyl.
PB91-171447/HEB               PC A03/MF A01
Use of Expert Systems to Assist In Decisions
Concerning Environmental Control. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. Greathouse, J. Clements, and K. Morris. C1989,19p
EPA/600/J-89/509
Pub. in Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, CRC
Press, Inc.,  Issue 4, v19 p341-357 1989. Prepared in
cooperation with Computer Sciences Corp., Cincinnati,
OH.

Expert systems are being  developed by a number of
organizations to aid decision makers in the evaluation
of complex environmental  issues. The paper presents
some of the basic concepts of expert systems, dis-
cusses some of the important development issues,
and provides a brief summary of several systems cur-
rently under development

Keywords: 'Hazardous  materials, 'Waste disposal,
'Environmental  impact 'Expert systems,  Decision
making, Artificial intelligence, Systems engineering,
Management, Reprints.
PB91-171454/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Application of Ecological Theory to Determine
Recovery Potential  of Disturbed Lotto Ecosys-
tems: Research Needs and Priorities. Journal arti-
cle.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth. MN.
J. A. Gore, J. R. Kelly, and J. A. Yount. c1990,8p EPA/
600/J-90/389
Pub. in Environmental Management v14 n5 p755-762
Sep/Oct 90. Prepared in cooperation with Austin Peay
State  Univ., Clarksville, TN. Center for Field Biology,
and Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Ecosystems Research
Center.

The article summarizes the views of aquatic scientists
who gathered to assess the ability of stream ecosys-
tem theory to predict recovery from disturbance. Two
views of disturbance were evident a discrete removal
of organisms vs an unusual deviation from normal.
These were perceived as applying to different scales
and/or objectives. Long-term information  is  required
from both points of view to define recovery. Recovery
also may be defined in  different ways, but it is clear
that recovery has both spatial and temporal compo-
nents, and includes both physical and biological proc-
esses. There was strong consensus that a national
monitoring system of representative lotic ecosystems
within ecological regions be established. The purpose
of the monitoring system would be to acquire long-
term data on natural variability, to establish viable indi-
cators of  spatial and temporal aspects of recovery,
and to develop and test emerging theoretical develop-
ments.

Keywords: * Lotic environment 'Aquatic ecosystems,
'Streams, 'Recovery, 'Remedial  action, 'Environ-
mental monitoring, Spatial distribution, Temporal distri-
bution, Balance of nature, Biological  effects, Long
term effects,  Water pollution effects, Research and
development Chemical properties, Reprints.
PB91-171462/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Bloassay Directed Characterization of the Acute
Aquatic Toxicity of a Creosote Leachate. Journal
article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
D. W. Kuehl, G. T. Ankley, L P. Burkhard, and D.
Jensen. C1990,11p EPA/600/J-90/390
Pub. in Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials, v7
n3 p283-291 Jul 90. Prepared in cooperation witti AScI
Corp., Duluth, MN.

A toxicity based approach to chemical characterization
has been used to identify select toxicants in an aque-
ous leachate of creosote. Gas chromatographic-mass
spectral  analysis of toxic fractions of  the leachate
identified pentachlorophenol and a mixture, of low mo-
lecular weight heterocydic aromatic hydrocarbons as
suspect toxicants from among the hundreds of chemi-
cals found in the leachate.

Keywords:  'Hazardous wastes,  'Toxicity, 'Creosote,
Bioassay, Leaching, Gas chromatography.  Aromatic
hydrocarbons, Toxic  substances, Daphnia, Environ-
mental monitoring, Mass spectroscopy, Reprints.
 PB91-171470/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Influence  of Cytochrome  P450  Mixed-Function
 OxMase Induction on the Acute Toxicity to Rain-
 bow Trout "Salmo gatrdner* of Primary Aromatic
 Amines. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 J. L M. Hermans, S. P. Bradbury, and S. J. Broderius.
 C1990,13p EPA/600/J-90/391
 Pub. in Ecotoxicology and Environmental  Safety, v20
 p156-166 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Utrecht
 Rijksunrversiteit (Netherlands). Research InsL of Toxi-
 cology.

 The influence of enzyme induction on the acute toxicity
 of aniline and 4-chloroaniline  to rainbow trout (Salmo
 gairdneri) was investigated. For these two xenobiotics,
 bioactivation  reactions are known to occur in mam-
 mals.  Induction of cytochrome P450  mixed-function
 oxidase was  obtained by intraperitoneal (ip) injection
 of trout with  a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls
 (Aroclor 1254). Five days after ip injection with three
 different doses of Aroclor 1254 (50,100, and 200 ring/
 kg),  benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity in trout liver
8      Vol. 91, No.  3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
microsomes increased  five- to sixfold.  Cytochrome
P450 concentrations in the microsomes were slightly,
but significantly, enhanced in two of the three dose
levels. The 96-hr LCSO's of aniline and 4-chloroaniline
were not affected by pretreatment with Aroclor 1254,
suggesting that metabolic activation does not neces-
sarily  play  a  role in  the acute toxicity of aromatic
amines to fish. (Copyright (c) 1990 Academic Press,
Inc.)

Keywords:  'Mixed  function oxidases,  'Trout, 'Ani-
lines,  Enzyme  induction,  Polychlorobiphenyl com-
pounds, Benzopyrene,  Dose-response  relationships,
Liver microsomes, Metabolic activation,  Water pollu-
tion effects(Animals), Reprints, 'Cytochrome P-450.
PB91-171488/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Sintering and Sulfation of Calcium Silicate: Calci-
um Aluminate. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
R. H. Borgwardt, and G. T. Rochelle. c1990,8p EPA/
600/J-90/392
Pub. in Jnl.  of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Research, v29 n10 p2118-2123 Oct  90. Prepared in
cooperation with Texas Univ. at Austin. Dept. of Chem-
ical Engineering.

The effect of sintering on the reactivity of solids at high
temperature was studied. The nature of the interaction
was studied with  calcium silicate-aluminate reacting
with SO2 between 665 and 800 C. The kinetics of the
sintering and sulfation processes were measured inde-
pendently in terms of the common variables, tempera-
ture and specific surface area. Surface reduction pa-
rameters were evaluated by the German-Munir sinter
model, modified to account for a strong catalytic effect
of H2O vapor. Sulfation parameters were determined
from a series of conversion vs. time measurements at
various temperatures using calcined  solids of known
surface  area. These  show  product layer diffusion
through CaSO4 to be the probable controlling process
above 670 C and diffusion through a mixture of CaSOS
and CaSO4 controlling below that temperature. Like
sintering, sulfation was enhanced by the presence of
H2O in  the  feed  gas. With 7% H2O vapor, the en-
hancement factor for sulfation was 1.5 at 665 C and
estimated to be 5.0 at higher temperatures where only
CaSO4 is formed. A combined sinter/sulfation model,
based on the parameters evaluated for the independ-
ent processes, is compared to sulfation rates meas-
ured for the uncalcined solid when sintering is occur-
ring simultaneously.

Keywords: 'Sintering, 'Calcium silicates, 'Aluminates,
'Sulfation, 'Chemical reactivity, Sulfur dioxide, Water,
Calcium sulfates, Temperature effects, Reaction kinet-
ics. Surface properties, Air pollution control. Reprints.
 PB91-171496/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Nitrous  Oxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Com-
 bustion. Journal article.
 Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 W. P. Linak, J. A. McSortey, R. E. Hall, J. V. Ryan, and
 J. O. L Wendt. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/393
 Contracts EPA-68-02-4701, EPA-68-02-4285
 Pub. in Jnl. of Geophysical Research, v95 nD6 p7533-
 7541,20 May 90. Prepared in cooperation with Arizona
 Univ.,  Tucson. Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Spon-
 sored  by Environmental  Protection Agency, Research
 Triangle  Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Re-
 search Lab.

 The role of coal combustion as a significant global
 source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexam-
 ined through on-line emission measurements from six
 putverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory
 and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers
 yielded direct N2O emission levels of less than 5 ppm.
 The sub-scale combustor test data were consistent
 with full-scale data, and also showed N2O emission
 levels  not exceeding 5 ppm, although these levels in-
 creased  slightly when various combustion modifica-
 tions to  lower NO emissions were employed. These
 on-line emission measurements are very different from
 previously published data. The discrepancy is shown
 to be  due to a sampling artifact  by which significant
 quantities of N2O can be produced in sample contain-
 ers which have been used in establishing the prevous-
 ly employed N2O data base. Consequently, it was con-
 cluded that N2O emissions bear no direct relationship
 to NO emissions from these combustion sources, and
that the direct source of N2O is negligible. Other indi-
rect routes for the conversion of NO into N2O outside
the combustor and other combustion  sources not ex-
amined by the study, however, cannot be ruled out.
(Copyright (c)  1990  by  the American Geophysical
Union.)


Keywords: 'Nitrogen  oxide(N2O), 'Coal combustion,
Emission, Boilers, Air pollution, Air pollution control,
Stationary sources, Fossil fuels, Laboratory tests, Re-
prints.
PB91-171504/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
Cosolvent Effects on Sorption and Mobility of Or-
ganic Contaminants in Soils. Journal article.
Florida Univ., Gainesville.
A. L. Wood, D. C. Bouchard, M. L. Brusseau, and P. S.
C. Rao. C1990,15p EPA/600/J-90/394
GrantEPA-R-814512
Pub. in  Chemosphere,  v21 n4-5 p575-587 Nov 90.
Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research
Lab., Ada, OK.

Batch equilibrium  and column miscible displacement
techniques were used to investigate  the influence of
an organic cosolvent (methanol) on the sorption and
transport  of  three  hydrophobic organic chemicals
(HOCs) - naphthalene, phenanthrene, and diuron her-
bicide - in a sandy surface soil (Eustis fine sand). Equi-
librium sorption constant (K) values  calculated  from
batch and column data exhibited an inverse  log-linear
dependence on the volume fraction (fc) of methanol in
the mixed solvent. The slope of the log-linear plot was
approximately equal to the logarithm of the ratio of the
HOC solubilities in neat cosolvent and water. K values
obtained from breakthrough curves were comparable
to those estimated from equilibrium sorption isoth-
erms. Long-term exposure to methanol-water mixtures
had  little effect on sorption  and transport properties of
the  soil,  but  column retardation factors were influ-
enced by the short-term solvent exposure history prior
to solute elulion.

Keywords: 'Naphthalene,  'Phenanthrene, 'Diuron,
'Sands,  'Sorption, Transport  properties,  Solvents,
Methanol, Water, Solubility,  Land pollution, Ground
water, Herbicides,  Thermodynamic  properties,  Re-
prints.
 PB91-171512/REB               PC A01/MF A01
 Chemical Transport Facilitated by Colloidal-Sized
 Organic Molecules. Journal article.
 Robert  S.  Kerr Environmental Research  Lab., Ada,
 OK.
 C. G. Enfield. C1990,4p EPA/600/J-90/395
 Pub. in Hazardous Materials Control, v3 n4 p50-51 Jul/
 Aug90.

 The fluid passing through the pores of soils and geo-
 logic materials is not just water with dissolved inorgan-
 ic chemicals, but a complex mixture of organic and in-
 organic molecules. Large organic molecules such as
 humic and fulvic materials may impact the movement
 of contaminants.  If the  large organic molecules are
 mobile and they act like surfactant micelles, they can
 facilitate the movement of hydrophobic organic con-
 taminants. Enfield and Bengtsson performed a sensi-
 tivity analysis  evaluating the importance of  several
 processes that might impact the movement of hydro-
 phobic organic chemicals. The sensitivity shown in the
 analysis demonstrates the importance of a knowledge
 of the mobility of the organic  colloids and the ability of
 the organic colloids to partition a contaminant and fa-
 cilitate its movement as well as the amount of organic
 colloid present. The analysis indicates that if the col-
 loid is not mobile it will not have an impact on chemical
 transport and  also  shows  the importance of the
 amount of mobile carbon assuming the partition coeffi-
 cient was the same for all  carbon (mobile and associ-
 ated with the mineral fraction of the soil). Experimental
 evidence of facilitated transport for hexachloroben-
 zene due to the presence of a polysaccharide (blue
 dextran) is also discussed.

 Keywords: 'Transport theory, 'Soils, 'Colloids, *Hex-
 achlorobenzene, 'Blue Dextran, Micelles,  Mathemati-
 cal models, Contaminants, Porosity, Ground water, Or-
 ganic compounds, Reprints.
PB91-171520/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Benzene and Naphthalene Sorption on Soil Con-
taminated with  High Molecular Weight Residual
Hydrocarbons from Unleaded Gasoline. Journal ar-
ticle.
Robert S. Kerr  Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
D. C. Bouchard, S. C. Mravik, and G. B. Smith. C1990,
17p EPA/600/J-90/396
Pub. in Chemosphere, v21 n8 p975-989 1990.

For complex nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), the
composition of the NAPL retained in the pore space of
geologic material weathers  until the residual NAPL no
longer acts as a liquid and exists as discrete regions of
hydrocarbon (termed residual hydrocarbons) in asso-
ciation with the geologic media (water wet media), or
as thin film coatings on the media (NAPL wet media).
In the study,  the residual hydrocarbons were found to
resist separation from the soil solids even when sub-
jected to shaking in batch reactors.  In addition, the
magntude of solute sorption  was significantly higher
for a low organic carbon soil contaminated with residu-
al hydrocarbons than for natural soil organic carbon.

Keywords: 'Oil pollution, 'Unleaded gasoline, 'Land
pollution, 'Petroleum residues, 'Environmental per-
sistence,  Soil contamination. Geologic  formation,
Weathering, Sorption, Benzene, Naphthalene, Petrole-
um products, Reprints, 'Nonaqueous phase liquids.
PB91-171538/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
Bioremediated Soil Venting  of Light Hydrocar-
bons. Journal article.
Massachusetts Univ., Amherst.
D. W. Ostendorf, and D. H. Kampbell. C1990,18p
EPA/600/J-90/397
Pub. in Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials, v7
n4 p319-334 1990. Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Envi-
ronmental Research Lab., Ada, OK.

The effectiveness and feasibility of bioremediated soil
venting of light hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone
was investigated.  Degradation mechanics were con-
sidered as a  one dimensional  balance of  storage,
linear sorption, vertical  advection,  and  Michaelis-
Menton kinetics. The resulting analytical solution was
tested successfully against field performance data of
an unsaturated clay soil  bioreactor for a pollpellant
waste gas mixture of propane, n-butane, and isobu-
tane. A series of venting simulations was run to assess
the biodegradation of vapors above an aviation gaso-
line spill in sandy soil at Traverse City, Michigan, based
on field and microcosm estimates of the kinetic param-
eters. Acclimated, nutrient rich soil effectively and fea-
sibly  reduced  effluent vapor concentration from the
strong influent concentration  associated with  dis-
persed residual gasoline in the contaminated capillary
fringe. Aggregated residual contamination required a
stronger airflow for a longer duration while natural ki-
netics were too slow for feasible and effective treat-
ment by bioremediated soil venting at Traverse City.

Keywords: 'Remedial action, 'Land pollution control,
'Hydrocarbons, 'Biodeterioration, 'Hazardous materi-
als, Waste disposal, Pesticides,  Chemical spills,  Oil
spills, Soil contamination, Reprints, 'Soil venting, Tra-
verse City(Michigan).
 PB91-171546/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
 Preparation of Benthic Substrates for Sediment
 Toxicity Testing. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
 OR. Mark 0. Hatfield Marine Science Center.
 G. R. Ditsworth, D. W. Schults, and J. K. P. Jones. c15
 Mar 90,9p EPA/600/J-90/398, ERLN-N077
 Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v9
 p1523-1529 1990. Sponsored by Environmental Re-
 search Lab., Narragansett, Rl.

 A jar-rolling apparatus was constructed to prepare test
 substrates using sediments  spiked with laboratory
 chemicals, the toxicity of which were assessed with
 the  Rhepoxynius abronius bioassay. Test sediments
 were mixed by rolling them for several hours in one-
 gallon glass jars.  Mixing was considered adequate
 based on the analytical results of sediment samples
 that were collected at locations along the longitudinal
 axis within each horizontally lying jar immediately after
 rolling. However, because comparative standards did
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991       9

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 not exist, definitive conclusions of mixing thorough-
 ness  could not  be drawn.  Coefficients of variation,
 used to assess mixing within jars, were 11.5% or less
 (mean 5.1%). Mixing was  not significantly  different
 among replicated jars but, in  some jars, was signifi-
 cantly different among within-jar sample locations.

 Keywords: 'Sediments, 'Water pollution effects, *Tox-
 katy, 'Benthos, Sediment-Water interfaces, Bioassay,
 Experimental design, Design criteria. Sample prepara-
 tion, Reprints.


 PB91-171553/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Retrospective Study of the  Water Quality Issues
 of the Upper Potomac Estuary. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
 N. A. Jaworski. C1990,32p EPA/600/J-90/399,
 ERLN-P02
 Pub. in  Aquatic  Sciences, Issue  1, v3 p11-40 1990.
 Also pub. as Environmental Research Lab., Narragan-
 sett, Rl. rept no.  CONTRIB-P2.

 The water quality of the  upper Potomac Estuary near
 Washington,  D.C.,  has changed  dramatically during
 the past  century. The channels that carried untreated
 wastewaters from the city in the mid-1880s are gone.
 The low dissolved oxygen levels, nuisance algal condi-
 tions, and high coliform densities in the upper estuary
 which occurred in the 1950s and 1960s are also gone.
 The improvements in water quality are a result  of a
 massive  wastewater management effort costing over
 $1 billion during the past 20 years. The paper reviews
 the major scientific and technical issues as they were
 presented to the decision-makers and follows these
 decisions as they  were  accepted, rejected, and/or
 modified. The review also includes how good the pre-
 dictions for wastewater management efforts were, and
 how the  uncertainty issues  were  addressed. Special
 emphasis is  placed  on  the unpredicted 1983  algal
 bloom and its causes. The review also includes cost
 and benefits analyses,  societal  conveniences,  and
 zero discharge implications. (Copyright (c)  1990 by
 CRC Press, Inc.)

 Keywords:  'Water  quality  management  'Sewage
 treatment, 'Potomac Estuary,  Chesapeake Bay,  Bio-
 chemical oxygen demand,  Decision making. Algae,
 Benefit cost analysis, District of Columbia, Maryland,
 Reprints.
PB91-171561/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Definition of Adverse Effects for the Purpose of
Establishing  Secondary  National  Ambient Air
Quality Standards. October-December 1990. Jour-
nal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
D. T. Tingey, W. E. Hogsett, and S. Henderson. c1990,
7p EPA/600/J-90/400
Pub. in Jrt. of Environmental Quality, v19 n4 p635-639
Oct-Dec 90. See also PB90-116617. Prepared in coop-
eration with NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis,
OR.

Under the Clean Air Act, the USEPA establishes ambi-
ent air quality standards to protect public welfare from
known  or anticipated adverse effects from criteria air
pollutants. Although adversity is simply  defined (i.e.,
opposed to one's interest; harmful), its determination
is fraught with difficulties. The definition depends on
one's viewpoint; society has established that some ef-
fects are more serious than others. There is a view that
ecological effects are adverse only if they can be ex-
pressed in economic terms. This leads to the conclu-
sion  that mitigative actions need not be taken unless
the costs of the action are offset by sufficient benefits.
Adverse effects,  however,  should be viewed in a
broader societal  content i.e., the total benefits from
ecological systems. (Copyright (c) 1990, ASA, CSSA,
SSSA.)

Keywords:  'Environmental  effects,  'Air  pollution
standards. 'Ecology, 'Public health, Biological effects,
Pollution regulations. Exposures, Air quality, Socioeco-
nomic factors, Air pollution effects(Plant), Air pollution
effects(Humans), Economic analysis, Reprints, 'Sec-
ondary Natkxial Ambient Ar Quality Standards.
PB91-171579/REB                PC A03/MF A81
CctvjUfe Environmental-Research Lab., OR.
Theoretical Investigation of  the Pressure and
Temperature Dependence of Atmospheric Ozone
Deposition of Trees. Journal article.
Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept of Civil Engineering.
T. V. Larson, and R. J. Vong. C1990,13p EPA/600/J-
90/401
Pub. in Environmental Pollution, v67 p179-189 1990.
Prepared in cooperation with Oregon State Univ., Cor-
vallis. Dept.  of Atmospheric Sciences. Sponsored by
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Methods for describing the exposure patterns of for-
ests to atmospheric ozone concentrations are com-
pared with special emphasis on the situation at high al-
titudes, such as the Appalachian Mountains of the
eastern USA. Limitations to the use of ozone concen-
tration as mass per unit volume are  discussed and a
correction for temperature  and pressure changes is
derived. If identical ozone mass concentrations were
measured at two sites separated by 2000 m elevation,
the ozone flux at the lower site would exceed the flux
at the higher site by 4-8% due to the temperature and
pressure effects on both air volume and ozone deposi-
tion velocity. It is recommended that ozone exposures
be described in terms of Dux-corrected' mass concen-
trations or volumetric  mixing  ratios when ambient
ozone data from sites at  different altitudes are to be
compared. (Copyright (c)  1990 Elsevier Science Pub-
lishers Ltd, England.)

Keywords:  'Air   pollution  affects(Plants).  'Ozone,
'Deposition, 'Atmospheric temperature, 'Atmospher-
ic pressure,  'Trees(Plants), High altitude tests, Appa-
lachian Mountains,  ConcentratJon(CompositJon), Ex-
posure, Flux density, Mixing height Mass transfer, Re-
prints, Eastern Region(United States).
PB91-171587/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Effects of  the Duration and Timing of Dietary
Methyl Parathion Exposure on  Bobwhite Repro-
duction. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
R. S. Bennett R. Bentley, T. Shiroyama, and J. K.
Bennett. c1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/402
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology  and Chemistry, v9
p1473-1480 1990. Prepared  in cooperation  with NSI
Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.

Two northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) reproduc-
tion tests were conducted concurrently to  evaluate
how the duration and time of initiation of methyl parath-
ion exposure affected dose-response relationships of
reproductive parameters. In  the long-term exposure
test pairs of adult bobwhite were fed methyl parathion-
amended diets (0,7,10,14,20 or 28 ppm) for 25 weeks:
10 weeks prior to the  onset of laying, 6 weeks as they
came into laying condition and 9  weeks  during egg
laying. In the short-term exposure test, quail  received
amended diets (0,10,14,20,28, or 40 ppm)  for only
three weeks during the egg laying period, followed by a
three-week posttreatment period. Fourteen birds died
in the long-term test compared to two in the short-
term test Significant  dose-related  reductions in daily
food consumption, egg production  and the number of
14-d-dd chicks were observed in both tests during the
treatment periods. No dose-related effects on fertility,
hatchability or chick  weights were detected.  In the
long-term test there were dose-related decreases in
adult body weight brain and serum cholinesterase ac-
tivity and female serum calcium concentrations. Cho-
linesterase and calcium were not measured  in the
short-term test Eggshell weights were significantly de-
creased in both tests, but a dose-related decrease in
eggshell strength and thickness was detected only in
the short-term test

Keywords:   'Methyl  parathion,   'Birds,   'Wildlife,
•Reproduction(Bioiogy),  Diet Eggs,  Dose-response
relationships, Cholinesterase, Calcium, Body weight
Fertility, Reprints,  'Northern bobwhite, Colinus virgin-
ianus.
PB91-171S95/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Effects of Dtetsry Methyl Pflrathlon on Northern
Bobwhite Egg Production and Eggshell  Quality.
Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
J. K. Bennett and R. S. Bennett C1990,7p EPA/600/
J-90/403
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v9
P1481-1485 1990. Prepared in cooperation with  NSI
Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.

The effect of a short-term dietary methyl parathion ex-
posure on northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)  egg
production and shell quality was investigated. Hens in
egg production were fed either a methyl parathion  diet
(0,14,20,28 or 40 ppm) or a pair-fed diet (PF28 or PF40
received the same daily allotment of control feed on a
g/kg/d basis as the 28 or 40 ppm-treated hen with
whom she was paired) for 8 d. Daily food consumption
was significantly reduced in all treatment groups and
inversely related to chemical concentration. However,
actual chemical consumption was similar for all methyl
parathion-treated groups. Body weight, egg produc-
tion, egg weight and eggshell strength, thickness and
weight were reduced in the methyl parathion groups in
a dose-related  manner. Similar responses were ob-
served in the pair-fed groups, indicating that effects
were associated with a pesticide-induced reduction in
food consumption. The dietary methyl parathion expo-
sure impacted bobwhite egg production within 3 to 4 d
and eggshell quality within 1 d of the onset of treat-
ment.

Keywords: 'Methyl  parathion, 'Birds,  'Wildlife, diet
Dose-response  relationships,  Food  consumption,
Body  weight  Reprints, 'Northern bobwhite,  'Egg-
shells, 'Egg production, Colinus virginianis.
 PB91-171603/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Some Novel Statistical Analyses Relevant to the
 Reported Growth Decline of Pine Species In the
 Southeast Journal article.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 W. G. Warren. C1990,18pEPA/600/J-90/404
 Pub. in Forest Science, v36 n2 p448-463 Jun 90.

 Existing statistical methodology has been adapted to
 give additional insight into the data on pine-growth re-
 duction in the Southeast as presented by Sheffield et
 al. (1985). Specifically the generation of confidence in-
 tervals for the percentage growth reduction is illustrat-
 ed. The probability integral transformation and cumula-
 tive sum techniques are employed as a meta-analytic
 approach to testing the significance of the growth re-
 duction.  While  these methods are suggested  as  a
 means of obtaining a quantitative overview of these
 particular data, the  potential  for wider application
 exists. It is also shown how the observed pattern of re-
 duction and most, if not all, of its magnitude can be ex-
 plained by a simple conceptual model for hardwood
 competition. Verification of the approach is, however,
 not possible with the data as provided by Sheffield et
 al. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the Society of American For-
 esters.)

 Keywords: 'Pine trees, 'Statistical analysis, 'Plant
 growth,  'Growth  rate,  Forests,  Study  estimates,
 Graphs(Charts), Mathematical  models, Air pollution
 effects(Plants),  Deposition, Data processing, Species
 diversity,  Baseline  ecology.  Reprints,  'Southeast
 Regk>n(United States).
 PB91-171611/REB               PCA02/MFA01
 Global Climate Change: Policy Implications for
 Fisheries. Journal article.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 H. Gucinski, R. T. Lackey, and B. C. Spence. C1990,8p
 EPA/600/J-90/405
 Pub. in Fisheries, v15 n6 p33-38 Nov/Dec 90. Pre-
 pared  in cooperation with NSI Technology Services
 Corp.,  Corvallis, OR., and Oregon State Univ., Corval-
 lis.

 Several government agencies are evaluating  policy
 options for addressing global climate change, these
 include planning for anticipated effects and developing
 mitigation options where  feasible  if climate  does
 change as predicted. For fisheries resources,  policy
 questions address effects on international, national,
 and regional scales. Climate change variables expect-
 ed to affect  inland and offshore fisheries include tem-
 perature rise, changes in the hydrologic  cycle, alter-
 ations  in nutrient fluxes,  and reduction and relocation
 of spawning and nursery habitat. These variables will
 affect resources at all levels of biological organization,
 including the genetic, organism, population, and eco-
 system levels. In this context changes in  primary pro-
 ductivity, species composition in the food-web, migra-
 tion, invasions, synchrony in biological cycles, shifts in
 utilization of niches, and problems of larvae entrain-
 ment in estuaries  have  been identified.  Maintaining
ecosystem robustness (i.e., high biodiversity)  is an-
other component of the  problem. Action  requires es-
tablishing priorities for information needs,  determining
appropriate temporal and spatial scales  at which to
model effects, and accounting for interactive changes
in physical and biological cycles. A  policy response
can be derived when these results are integrated with
social needs and human population constraints.
10     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords: 'Climatic changes,  'Fisheries, 'Environ-
mental effects. Air pollution, Global aspects, Aquatic
ecosystems, Global  warming, Oceans, Fresh water,
Species distribution, Biological effects, Air water inter-
actions, Food chains, Reprints.
PB91-171629/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Long-Term Starvation-Induced Loss of Antibiotic
Resistance in Bacteria. Journal article.
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.
R. P. Griffiths, C. L. Moyer, B. A. Caldwell, C. Ye, and
R. Y. Morita. C1990, 9p EPA/600/J-90/406
Grant EPA-R-913413-01 -0
Pub. in Microbial Ecology, v19 p251-257 1990. Also
pub. as Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Cor-
vallis rept. no. TP-9224. Prepared in cooperation with
Oregon Agricultural  Experiment Station,  Corvallis.
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and  a
Pseudomonas sp. strain 133B containing the pSa plas-
mid were  starved in well water for up to 523 days.
There were two patterns of apparent antibiotic resist-
ance loss observed. In Pseudomonas sp. strain 133B,
there was no apparent loss  of antibiotic resistance
even after starvation for 340 days. In E. coli,  by day 49
there was a ten-fold difference between the number of
cells that would grow on antibiotic- and nonantibiotic-
containing plates. However, over 76% of the cells that
apparently lost their antibiotic resistance were able to
express antibiotic resistance after first being resusci-
tated on non-selective media. By day 523, only 12% of
these cells were able to express their antibiotic resist-
ance after being resuscitated. After starvation for 49
days, cells that could not grow on antibiotic medium
even after resuscitation, showed a permanent loss of
chloramphenicol  (Cm) resistance but retained resist-
ance to kanamycin  (Km)  and streptomycin  (Sm).
(Copyright (c) 1990 Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.)

Keywords: 'Microbial drug resistance,  'Antibiotic re-
sistance, 'Pseudomonas, 'Escherichia coli, 'Starva-
tion, Plasmids, Chloroamphenicol, Kanamycin, Strep-
tomycin, Restriction endonucleases, Restriction map-
ping, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Reprints.
PB91-171637/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Characterizing Surface Waters That May Not Re-
quire Filtration. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
E. E. Geldreich, J. A. Goodrich, and R. M. Clark. cDec
90,14pEPA/600/J-90/408
Pub. in Jnl. American Water Works Association, p40-
50 Dec 90.

A relatively clean raw surface water can be determined
that is amenable to disinfection as the only controlling
treatment process. The essential criteria and associat-
ed standards are: Fecal coliform 20  organisms/100
ml_  turbidity  1.0 NTU, color  15 ACU, and chlorine
demand 2 mg/L. These criteria were selected from a
study of a variety of data gathered from 34 raw source
waters used by utilities in full scale application of disin-
fection as the only treatment process. Selection of
water characteristics was based on the potential for
impact on disinfection effectiveness and magnitude of
fecal pollution tolerated. Watershed management is an
essential aspect of controlling water quality fluctua-
tions and in preventing progressive deterioration in the
raw water resource. Monitoring data should not only be
utilized to form a continual historical record that dem-
onstrates water quality suitability for minimal treatment
but also as an integral part of guidance in making day
to day changes in process control to avoid any chance
for microbial penetration into the public water supply.

Keywords: 'Surface waters, 'Water treatment, 'Disin-
fection, Water pollution, Standards, Watershed man-
agement, Water quality management, Water supply,
Turbidity, Filtration, Monitoring,  Guidelines, Coliform
bacteria, Color, Chlorine, Reprints.
PB91-171645/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
In-Place Performance Evaluation of HEPA-Filtra-
tton Systems at Asbestos Abatement Sites. Jour-
nal article.
PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
J. R. Kominsky, R. W. Freyberg, J. M. Boiano, J. A.
Browniee, and D. R. Gerber. C1990,7p EPA/600/J-
90/409
Contract EPA-68-03-4006
Prepared in cooperation with New Jersey State Dept.
of Health, Trenton. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engi-
neering Lab.

The study was conducted to assess the in-place per-
formance of high-efficiency paniculate air (HEPA) fil-
tration systems at asbestos-abatement  sites  in New
Jersey to determine each system's particle-removal
efficiency. An air-generated dioctyl phtalate  aerosol
was used to challenge the filtration system, including
possible filter and housing bypass leaks, or damaged
filter medium. Sixteen percent of the  HEPA-filtration
systems tested showed  particle-removal efficiencies
lower than the American National Standards Institute
N509-1980 acceptance criterion of 99.95 percent.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control equipment, *Air filters,
'Asbestos,  Air  pollution  abatement,  Aerosols, Per-
formance evaluation.  Air flow,  Design criteria,  Re-
prints, 'High efficiency participate air filters.
PB91-171652/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Concerns with  Using Chlorine-Dioxide Disinfec-
tion in the USA. Journal article.
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
B. W. Lykins, J. A. Goodrich, and J. C. Hoff. c1990,13p
EPA/600/J-90/410
Pub. in Jnl.  of Water SRT-Aqua, v39 n6 p376-386
1990.

There is a renewed interest in disinfection with chlorine
dioxide in the United States because of upcoming Fed-
eral regulations  on  disinfection by-products. Bench
studies and field applications of chlorine dioxide have
shown that  it  is an effective biocide that does not
produce  halogenated by-products such as  trihalo-
methanes. There are some health concerns with in-
gesting chlorine  dioxide and its metabolites, chlorite
and chlorate, and concerns about tastes and odors.
These concerns may be  alleviated by removing the
chlorine dioxide species with granular activated carbon
or reducing them to chloride before water distribution.

Keywords: 'Water treatment,  'Disinfection, 'Potable
water,  'Chlprination,  'Water pollution control, Pollu-
tion regulations, Chlorine dioxide, Byproducts, Halo-
methanes,   Granular  activated  carbon  treatment,
Reduction(Chemistry), Reprints.
PB91-171660/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Evaluation of Polyester and Metallized-Polyethyl-
ene Films for Chemical Protective Clothing Appli-
cations. Journal article.
Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.
R. Goydan, T. R. Carroll, A. D. Schwope, and M.
Gruenfeld. c1990,13p EPA/600/J-90/411
Contract EPA-68-03-3293
Pub. in Jnl. of Plastic Film and Sheeting, v6 n2 p106-
116 Apr 90. Sponsored by Environmental Protection
Agency, Cincinnati,  OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
Lab.

The permeation resistance of thin polyester films and
metallized, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films was
evaluated to assess their feasibility for use in chemical
protective clothing applications. For a 0.002 cm poly-
ester film, permeation tests were conducted with ace-
tone, carbon  disulfide, dichloromethane, and tetrahy-
drofuran. In all cases no permeation was detected for
a five hour duration at the sensitivity of the permeation
method. Concentrated sulfuric acid, however, severely
degraded the polyester film. Permeation tests  were
also conducted with a series of 0.0033 and 0.0071  cm
LDPE,  metallized-LDPE films, and their laminates to
study the contribution of the metal layer to the barrier
properties. Tests with dichloromethane were per-
formed on the films and laminates as is and also after
flexing. In all  cases, the dichloromethane permeation
rates were lower through the metallized-LDPE films
than through  the LDPE substrate alone when tested
without flexing. The permeation rates through the met-
allized-LDPE  films  following flexing, however,  were
similar  to those measured  for the LDPE substrate.
(Copyright (c)  1990 Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.)
Keywords:  'Protective clothing, 'Polyester  fibers,
'Metal films, 'Polyethylene, Solvent resistance, Poly-
meric films, Liquid permeability,  Thin films, Acetone,
Carbon disulfide, Chloromethanes, Solvents, Hazard-
ous materials, Feasibility,  Barrier materials, Sulfuric
acid,  Laminates, Substrates, Low density materials,
Reprints.
PB91-171678/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Update  of  the  U.S. Environmental  Protection
Agency's SITE  Emerging Technology Program,
1990. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
D. E. Banning, and N. M. Lewis. cDec 90,13p EPA/
600/J-90/412
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
tion, v40 n12 p1706-1719 Dec  90. See also PB90-
103490.

Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evalua-
tion (SITE) Program,  the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (U.S. EPA) is seeking to foster the further
development of technologies that have been success-
fully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-
scale testing, prior to field- or full-scale demonstration.
The goal is to ensure that permanent, cost-effective
technologies  will  be ready for  field demonstration,
thereby increasing the number of viable alternatives
available for use in Superfund removal and remedial
actions. Under this program, the U.S. EPA can offer
technology developers financial assistance of up to
$150,000 per year, for up to two years. The program is
now initiating  its  fourth solicitation (E04) with  two
projects form the E01 solicitation completed; five more
E01 projects are scheduled for completion by Septem-
ber 30,  1990; eight  E02 projects  are  starting their
second year; and  16  projects were selected from the
third (EOS) solicitation. The fourth Emerging Technolo-
gy Program Solicitation is open to the receipt of  new
proposals from July  6, 1990, through  September 7,
1990.  The purpose of the  article  is to provide the
reader with (1) an introduction to the Emerging Tech-
nology Program (ETP); (2) an understanding  of  how
the Program operates; (3) a summary of those technol-
ogies currently being tested and evaluated under the
Program; and (4)  information on how to apply to the
Program.

Keywords: 'Technology utilization, 'Waste manage-
ment, Research and development, US EPA, Remedial
action, Substitutes, Financial assistance, Cost effec-
tiveness, Pilot plants, Project management, Reprints,
'Superfund  Innovative Technology Evaluation  Pro-
gram, Cleanup operations.
PB91-171686/REB               PC A02/MF A01
EPA  SITE  Demonstration  of the  International
Waste  Technologies/Geo-Con In situ Stabiliza-
tion/Solidification Process. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
M. K. Stinson. cNov 90,10p EPA/600/J-90/413
Pub. in Jnl. of Air and Waste Management Association,
v40 n11 p1569-1576 Nov 90. See also PB89-194161
and  PB89-194179.  Prepared   in cooperation with
Foster Wheeler Enviresponse, Inc., Edison, NJ.

The paper presents an EPA evaluation of the first field
demonstration of an  in situ  stabilization/solidification
process for contaminated soil under the EPA Super-
fund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) pro-
gram. Demonstration of the process was a joint effort
of two  vendors: International  Waste Technologies'
(IWT) of Wichita, Kansas, who provided the treatment
process, specifically the proprietary additive  called
HWT-20, and Geo-Con, Inc., of Pittsburgh,  Pennsylva-
nia, who provided both engineering and hardware for
the in situ soil treatment. The field demonstration took
place in April, 1988 at a site contaminated  mainly with
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). EPA tested the soil
before and after treatment and the EPA evaluation of
the process is based on results from the testing. A year
later, in April 1989, EPA tested again the treated soil
and results of that  testing were compared  to those of
the demonstration. Results of the EPA  evaluation of
the IWT process, the Geo-Con performance, and treat-
ment costs are discussed separately. (Copyright  (c)
1990--Air & Waste Management Association.)

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Stabilization, 'So-
lidification, 'Remedial action,  'Soil treatment,  'Land
pollution,  Performance  evaluation, Waste disposal,
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     11

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Son contamination, Additives, US EPA, Polychlorinat-
ed biphenyls, Comparison, Technology utilization, Re-
prints, 'Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation
Program, Hialeah(Rorida).


PB91-171694/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Use of  Electrokinetics for Hazardous Waste Site
Remediation. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. Cabrera-Guzman, J. T. Swartzbaugh, and A. W.
Weisman. c1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/414
Pub. in Jnl. of Air Waste Management Association, v40
n12 p1670-1676 Dec 90. Prepared in cooperation with
PEER Consultants, Inc., Dayton, OH.

The  Superfund Innovative  Technology  Evaluation
(SITE) program was authorized as part of the 1986
amendments to the Superfund legislation. It repre-
sents a joint effort between the U.S. EPA's Office of
Research and Development and Office of Solid Waste
and Emergency Response. The program is designed
to assist and encourage the development of waste
treatment technologies that would contribute to more
solutions to our hazardous waste problems. Recently,
EPA, through the SITE program, issued a work assign-
ment to assess the 'state-of-the-art' of  electrokineti-
caHy enhanced contaminant removal from soils. Prior
research efforts, both laborator and field, have demon-
strated the  etecto-osmosis has the potential to be ef-
fective  in facilitating the removal  of certain types of
hazardous wastes from soils. Particularly encouraging
results  have been achieved with inorganics in fine
grained soils where more traditional removal alterna-
tives are less effective. Although the results of various
 studies  suggest that electrokinetics is a  promising
technology, further testing is needed at both the labo-
 ratory and field levels to fully develop this technology
for site remediation. A conceptual test program is pre-
 sented based  on best available data which incorpo-
 rates system design and operating parameters used in
 previous applications of this technology in the use of
 electrokinetics  treatment as a  remediation technique
 at hazardous waste sites. (Copyright (c) 1990-Air &
Waste Management Association.

 Keywords:  *Superfund, 'Hazardous materials, *Re-
 meolal action,  'Soil contamination, 'Electrodynamics,
 Best technology, Land pollution. State of the art. Tech-
 nology utilization, Electroosmosis, Ground water, Per-
formance evaluation. Soil water,  Electric fields, Envi-
 ronmental transport, Electrochemistry, Reprints.


 PB91-171702/REB               PC  A03/MF A01
 Reductions of  Enteric   Microorganisms  during
Aerobic Sludge Digestion. Journal article.
 EnvronmentaTProtection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. H. Martin, RE. Bosfian, and G. Stem. C1990,11p
EPA/600/J-90/415
Pub. in Water Research, v24 n11 p1377-1385 19^0.
See also PB89-138846. Prepared  in cooperation with
Cornell Univ.,  Ithaca, NY. Center for Environmental
Research.

Seasonal variations in the reductions of total coliform,
local coliform, fecal streptococci, and enterovirus den-
sities that occur during conventional aerobic sludge di-
gestion in cold  climates were characterized. Also, the
potential to improve reductions  in the densities of
these four groups of enteric microorgamsms in cold cli-
mates by simple modifications  that increase process
temperature by reducing heat losses was demonstrat-
ed. To obtain this data, two 32 cu m aerobic digesters
located at a small municipal wastewater  treatment
plant were  operated continuously over a period of
twenty months. One digester was a conventional di-
gester white the other was designed to minimize heat
tosses, and thus, facilities autoneating. When the re-
sults obtained during 11 separate periods of steady-
state operation at  mean mixed liquor  temperatures
ranging from 8  to 40 C and at residence times of 10,
15, and 20 days were combined for analysis, it was evi-
dent that significant reductions in the densities of the
four groups  of enteric microorganisms was dependent
both residence time and temperature. Using the Arr-
henius equation, it  was possible to describe mathe-
matically the temperature dependence of the rate of
Iog10 reduction in density of each of these four groups
of enteric microorganisms. The four mathematical rela-
tionships developed provide a rational basis to deter-
mine residence times  necessary to achieve desired
levels of indicator organism and enterovirus reductions
during aerobic sludge digestion at mixed liquor temps.
ranging from 8 to 40 C. (Copyright (c) Pergamon Press
1990.)

Keywords:  'Sludge  digestion, 'Aerobic processes,
'Aerobic bacteria, 'Microorganism control(Sewage),
Seasonal variations, Water treatment. Sludge dispos-
al, Municipalities, Digestion(Decomposition),  Entero-
viruses, Streptococcus, Digesters, Temperature  ef-
fects,  Field  tests,  Reprints,  Coliform  bacteria,
Trumansburg(New York).


PB91-171710/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Exposure  of Frog Hearts to  CW  or Amplitude-
Modulated VHP Fields: Selective Efflux to Calcium
Ions at 16 Hz. Journal article.
Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park,NC.
J. L Schwartz, D. E. House, and G. A. R. Mealing.
C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/416
Pub. in Bioelectromagnetics, v11  p349-358  1990. Pre-
pared in cooperation with National Research Council
of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

The effects of  continuous and amplitude-modulated
radiofrequency  electromagnetic  waves on  calcium
efflux from 45 Ca preloaded frog hearts were exam-
ined. Frog hearts, electrically stimulated at their natural
beating frequency, were exposed for 30 min to 240
MHz radiowaves in a Crawford irradiation  cell. Expo-
sures at incident power levels of 0.5,  0.8,1.0,1.2, 5.0
and 10.0 Watts (corresponding to calculated specific
absorption rates (SAR) of 0.15, 0.24,  0.30,  0.36, 1.50,
and 3.00 mW/kg) were tested either in the continuous
wave mode or using sinusoidal amplitude modulation
at 0.5 Hz,  the average  beating frequency  of the frog
hearts, or at 16 Hz. Continuous at 0.5 Hz  amplitude-
modulated waves did not affect calcium efflux from the
hearts. However, 16 Hz amplitude-modulated electro-
magnetic radiation resulted in statistically significant
increases in calcium efflux. The effect was most signif-
icant at the 1 W incident power level (17.9%,  p<0.01)
but  was also observed at 0.5  W(21.0%, p<0.05).
Therefore, it appears that frog hearts are affected by
electromagnetic radiation at particular power levels
and 16 Hz modulation frequency, a bioelectromagnetic
interaction displaying power and frequency  windows
comparable to those reported by other investigators in
calcium efflux studies on neural tissue.

Keywords: 'Electromagnetic radiation, 'Calcium, 'Bio-
logical  transport,  'Heart, 'Rana catesbeiana, Fre-
quency, Nerve tissue,  Statistical analysis, Radiation
dose-response relationship, Reprints.


PB91-171728/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Acute Exposure to Tr!s(2-Chloroethyl)Phosphate
Produces Hippocampal Neuronal  Loss and  Im-
pairs Learning ki Rats. Journal  article.
Health  Effects Research Lab., Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
H. A. Tilson, B. Veronesi, R. L McLamb, and H. B.
Matthews. C1990,18p EPA/600/ J-90/417
Pub. in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, v106
n2 p254-269 Nov 90. Prepared in cooperation with Na-
tional  Inst of  Environmental Health Sciences,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

Adult female, Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 275
mg/kg  of Ws(2-chtoroethyl)phosphate (TRCP)  by
gavage. TRCP produced  consistent  signs of convul-
sive activity within 60-90 minutes after dosing and ex-
tensive toss of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells when
examined 7 days after dosing. At the  light microscopic
level, toxic effects of TRCP on pyramidal  cells in the
CA3, and CA4 and granule cells in the dentate gyrus
were less severe than on the  CA1 cells. The seizure-
related and neurohistological effects of TRCP were
significantly attenuated by pretreatment with atropine
or chkxdizepoxkJe,  suggesting that the hippocampal
damage was  related  to  the  seizures produced by
TRCP. In a second experiment designed to assess the
potential health risk associated with TRCP,  exposed
rats were mildly impaired  in the acquisition of a refer-
ence memory task in a water maze.  However, TRCP-
exposed rats were consistently impaired in  performing
a repeated acquisition task in  the water maze. These
data underscore the potential health risk  associated
with exposure to  TRCP and support the  conclusion
that the hippocampus is intimately involved in spatial
memory in rats. (Copyright (c) 1990  Academic Press
Inc.)

Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Hippocampus, 'Nerve cells,
'Learning, Seizures, Health hazards, Spatial discrimi-
nation, Memory, Atropine, Rats, Dose-response rela-
tionships,      Histology,     Reprints,     *Tris(2-
chloroethyljphsphate, Chlordiazepoxide.
PB91-171736/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Mutagens and  Risk Assessment.
Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
J. Lewtas, J. E. Gallagher, and D. M. DeMarini. C1990,
11p EPA/600/J-90/418
Pub. in Environmental Mutagen Research Communi-
cations, v12 p1 -9 Dec 90.

Recognition that most human exposures to environ-
mental chemicals occur as complex mixtures has stim-
ulated research and the development of new methods
to assess exposure, dosimetry, and genotoxic effects.
New genetic and molecular methods are being applied
to each aspect of research to develop new methods
for the assessment of cancer risk from human expo-
sure to complex mixtures. Short-term genetic bioassay
methods utilizing new engineered bacterial strains are
being  used to assess total human exposure  to muta-
gens in the environment New DNA adduct methods
are being used in exposure-dpsimetry studies of com-
plex mixtures in humans and in experimental systems.
Finally, new advances in sequencing the genetic muta-
tions induced by environmental mutagens wjll improve
our understanding  of the relationship between DNA
adducts, DNA damage and repair, mutation induction,
and tumor initiation.

Keywords: 'Environmental pollutants,  'Mutagens,
•Risk  assessment, 'Toxicology Environmental expo-
sure pathways, Mutagenicity tests, DNA damage, DNA
repair, Carcinogenicity tests, Environmental monitor-
ing, Pulmonary neoplasm, Dose-response relation-
ships, Reprints.
 PB91-171744/REB              PC A03/MF A01
 CASE-SAR Analysis of Potycydic Aromatic Hy-
 drocarbon Carcinogenicity. Journal article.
 Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Carcinogenesis and Metabolism Branch.
 A. M. Richard, and Y. Woo. c1990,21 p EPA/600/J-
 90/419
 Pub. in Jnl. of Mutation Research, v242 n4 p285-303
 Dec 90. Prepared in  cooperation with Environmental
 Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

 A CASE SAR analysis was performed  on  a selected
 database of PAH's to investigate the possible use of
 the CASE method as an aid for preliminary assess-
 ment of carcinogenic potential of untested environ-
 mental PAH's. A data set consisting of 78  PAH's and
 their experimental carcinogenicities was used to 'train'
 the CASE fragment  These fragments predicted the
 activities of 94% of the  training' set correctly. Using
 these fragments, the  potential activities of a database
 of 106,  mostly untested PAH's were predicted and
 compared to 'expert judgement' predictions in order to
 evaluate the extent  of concordance between these
 two methods. Initial poor agreement (64%) was attrib-
 uted to inadequate CASE knowledge of 2- and 3-ring
 PAH  subclasses; when these  subclasses were ex-
 cluded, the concordance improved to 90%. The pre-
 diction accuracy of 75%, despite the structural diversi-
 ty of the data set, provided independent evidence of
 the utility of the present CASE results. A close exami-
 nation of the CASE incorrect predictions was conduct-
 ed to delineate inadequacies of these CASE results in
 order to provide cautionary guidance for future applica-
 tion of the method.  Finally, the present results were
 compared to the results of a previous CASE analysis
 based on a more limited  PAH data set, and  were found
 to be of greater general utility.

 Keywords: 'Carcinogenicity tests, 'Aromatic pplycy-
 clic hydrocarbons, 'Structure-activity relationship,  In-
 formation  systems, Computer systems software, Mo-
 lecular structure, Reprints, 'CASE.
 PB91-171751/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Bleomycin  Effects  on Mouse  Meiotic Chromo-
 somes. Journal article.
 Health  Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
 Park, NC.
 P. Poorman-Allen, L C. Backer, I. D. Adler, B.
 Westbrook-Collins, and M. J. Moses. c1990,11 p EPA/
 600/J-90/420
 12    Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
Pub. in Jnl. of Mutagenesis, y5 n6 p573-581 Nov 90.
Prepared in cooperation  with Wellcome  Research
Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC., Gesellschaft fuer
Strahlen- und Umweltforschung  m.b.H., Neuherberg
bei  Munich (Germany, F.R.).  Inst. fuer  Biologie, and
Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC.

The effects of a radiomimetic chemical, bleomycin
(BLM), on  meiotic  chromosomes was evaluated  in
mice. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed at mei-
otic metaphase I, and damage to the synaptonemal
complex was analyzed in meiotic prophase cells. In the
metaphase aberration studies, an ip. injection of 80
mg/kg BLM, timed to precede or coincide with ultimate
S-phase, led  to a  significant increase in structural
damage (p<0.01) in cells reaching metaphase I  12 d
after treatment. However, no increases in clastogenic
effects were observed at metaphase I after treatment
of cells during various stages of prophase. SC analy-
ses in pachytene cells following an ip. or it. injection at
S-phase revealed various forms of synaptic errors and
structural  anomalies,  including  qualitative  changes
similar to those observed following  irradiation. Ip.
doses ranging from 25-100 mg/kg, and it. doses as
low as 0.5 mg/kg,  caused roughly sixfold increases
over control levels in the number of damaged cells. It
was concluded  that BLM is  clastogenic  for meiotic
chromosomes; however, it does not reveal the strong
S-independedt clastogenic  activity  at meiosis  that is
characteristic of its activity at mitosis.

Keywords:  "Toxicology,   'Bleomycin,  *Mutagens,
•Chromosomes, *Meiosis, Mutagenicity  tests,  Cell
cycle. Synapses, Nerve cells, Dose-response relation-
ships, Chromosome  aberrations, Spermatozoa, Re-
prints.
PB91-171769/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Genotoxicity of  Inhibitors  of DNA Topoisomer-
ases  I (Camptothecin) and  II (m-AMSA)  In  vivo
and In vitro. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
L C. Backer, J. W. Allen, K. Harrington-Brock, J. A.
Campbell, and D. M. DeMarini. c1990,9p EPA/600/J-
90/421
Pub. in Mutagenesis, v5 n6 p541-547 1990. Prepared
in cooperation with  Environmental Health Research
and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The present study was  designed to determine and
compare the clastogenicity of amsacrine and camp-
tothecin in vivo in mouse bone marrow and peripheral
blood lymphocytes and in  vitro in mouse  lymphoma
L5178Y cells. It was expected that amsacrine, which
interferes with topoisomerase II to  induce  double-
strand DNA breaks, and camptothecin, which inter-
feres  with  topoisomerase  I to induce single-strand
DNA breaks, would induce different types of chromo-
somal  aberrations. However, both  drugs produced
quantitatively and qualitatively similar numbers and
types of aberrations under similar experimental condi-
tions. In mouse bone marrow, both drugs (3 mg/kg) in-
duced about 30% damaged cells, with an average of
0.4 chromatid breaks per cell. Cell cycle specificity was
indicated by the absence of chromosomal aberrations
when exposure to the drugs occurred  during GO in
vivo. In vitro, amsacrine, and camptothecin  induced
161 and 20 mutants/10 (to the sixth power) survivors/
nM. respectively; they induced 6 and 2 aberrant cells/
nM, respectively. In contrast to the in vivo results, the
drugs induced high levels of both chromatid- and chro-
mosome-type aberrations in vitro.

Keywords:  'Enzyme  inhibitors, 'Mutagens,  * Camp-
tothecin, 'Amsacrine,  *DNA topoisomerase I,  DNA
damage, Mutagenicity  tests, In vitro analysis, In vivo
analysis, Lymphoma, Chromosome  aberrations, Cell
cycle, Thymidine linase, Cultured tumor cells, Adeno-
sine cyclic monophosphate, Reprints.
PB91-171777/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Comparison of Chromosome Aberration Frequen-
cy  and  Small-Colony  TK-Deflcient  Mutant  Fre-
quency  in  L5178Y/TK(+/-)-3.7.2C Mouse  Lym-
phoma Cells. Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
M. M. Moore, and C. L Doerr. c1990,8p EPA/600/J-
90/095
Pub. in Mutagenesis, v5 n6 p609-614  Nov 90. Pre-
pared in  cooperation with Environmental Health  Re-
search and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park,  NC.
The  L5178Y/TK+/- mouse lymphoma assay is uti-
lized to quantitate the induction of thymidine kinase
(TK)-deficient mutants. TK-heterozygous  cells are
treated with the test compound, newly induced mu-
tants are allowed to express, and mutants are selected
with trifluorothymidine (TFT). Mutant colonies detected
in the assay can be classified by colony size as large
(> than approximately 0.6 mm) and small (< than ap-
proximately 0.6 mm).  An extensive analysis of these
two classes of mutants has led to the hypothesis that
the two types of mutants result from different degrees
of genetic damage and that the assay can be used to
detect and discriminate between chemicals acting as
point mutagens (inducing significant numbers of large
colonies) and/or clastogens (inducing significant num-
bers of small colonies). This raises the question as to
how the small-colony TK mutant frequency would be
related to the gross aberration frequency obtained by
standard microscopic technique. Preliminary studies
with  a very small number of chemicals indicated that
there might be a simple mathematical comparison be-
tween the two endpoints.

Keywords:  'Chromosome aberrations,  'Thymidine
kinase, 'Mutagens, Cultured tumor cells, Lymphoma,
Mutagenicity tests, Enzyme induction, Heterozygote,
Reprints.
PB91-171785/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Metabolism of 1-Nitropyrene by Human, Rat, and
Mouse  Intestinal Flora:  Mutagenicity of  Isolated
Metabolites by Direct Analysis of HPLC Fractions
with a Microsuspension Reverse Mutation Assay.
Journal article.
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
L. C. King, M. J. Kohan, S. E. George, J. Lewtas, and L.
D. Claxton. C1990,16p EPA/600/J-90/423
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
v31 n3p179-192Nov90.

Among the nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons  identified in environmental  samples and
known to be genotoxic, 1-nitropyrene is one of the
most  abundant.   The   biotransformation   of   1-
nitro((14)C)pyrene by human, rat, and mouse intestinal
microflora and the mutagenicity of the isolated meta-
bolites by direct analysis of the HPLC fractions with a
microsuspension mutation assay were investigated. 1-
nitro((14)C)pyrene was metabolized by human, rat and
mouse intestinal microflora to the following reductive
metabolites; 1-aminopyrene, Nacetylaminopyrene, N-
formyl-1-aminopyrene and  two unknown metabolites
identified as A and B. The predominant metabolite of
1 -nitro((14)C)pyrene produced by human, rat or mouse
intestinal microflora following a 12 h incubation was 1-
aminopyrene which accounted for 79 to 93% of the
total (14)C respectively. Only minor amounts of N-
formyl-1-aminopyrene (1%), N-acetylaminopyrene (3 -
4%) were produced. The similarity in the distribution of
the  reductive metabolites suggests  that a  similar
mechanism exists in the biotransformation of 1-nitro-
pyrene by intestinal microflora of different mammalian
species.

Keywords: 'Metabolism, 'Enterobacteriaceae,  'Toxi-
cology, High pressure liquid chromatography, Mutage-
nicity tests, Aromatic polycyclic  hydrocarbons, Rats,
Human, Mice, Reprints, * 1 -Nitropyrene.
 PB91-171793/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Delay-Dependent Impairment of Reversal  Learn-
 ing in Rats Treated with Trimethyltin. Journal arti-
 cle.
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
 P. J. Bushnell. c1990,17p EPA/600/J-90/424
 Pub. in Behavioral and Neural Biology, v54 p75-89 Apr
 90. Portions of text were presented at the  Annual
 Meeting, Society of  Toxicology, Dallas, TX., February
 17, 1988 and Behavioral Toxicology Society,  Savan-
 nah, GA., May 17,1988.

 Recent theories of hippocampal function focus on its
 role in the formation of  associations in the temporal
 domain. A reversal learning paradigm based on lever-
 press automaintenance was developed to vary the CS-
 UCS  relationship along two independent dimensions,
 one temporal and one not: CS+-UCS  delay and the
 probability  of  reinforcement  (P(RFT))  following  the
 CS+. Eight male  hooded  Long-Evans  rats were
 trained to reverse the automaintained discriminations
 repeatedly,  until  stable  reversal  performance was
 achieved. The neurotoxicant trimethyltin (TMT) was
used to induce lesions in the CNS, including the CA3-4
region of Ammon's Horn in dorsal hippocampus. Fol-
lowing iv injection of 7 mg/kg TMT to half the rats, re-
versal performance was assessed under varying con-
ditions of delay and P(RFT). After recovery from the
acute effects of  TMT (1-2 weeks), treated rats  re-
versed normally when no  delay separated the CS+
and UCS; with delays of 2 to 4 sec, they reversedless
completely  within  a session than  did controls.  The
degree of behavioral impairment correlated significant-
ly with hippocampal damage only  at nonzero CS + -
UCS delays.

Keywords:  'Toxicology, 'Learning disorders,  'Tri-
methyltin compounds,  Hippocampus, Time factors,
Animal behavior, Histology, Body weight, Reprints.
PB91-171801/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
Subchronic 90 Day Toxicity of Dichloroacetic and
Trichloroacetic Acid in Rats. Journal article.
Idaho Univ., Moscow.
G. G. Mather, J. H. Exon, and L. D. Koller. c1990,12p
EPA/600/J-90/425
Pub. in Toxicology, v64 n1 p71-80 Oct 90. Prepared in
cooperation with Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. School
of Veterinary Medicine. Sponsored by Health Effects
Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.


Male  Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either
dichloroacetic acid (DCA) or trichloroacetic acid (TCA)
in the drinking water at levels of 0, 50, 500 and 5000
ppm for a period of 90 days to determine the toxicities
associated with subchronic exposure. All animals were
sacrificed and examined for gross and histopathologic
lesions, serochemical changes, immune dysfunction,
hepatic peroxisomal and mixed  function oxidase
enzyme induction and organ-body weight changes.
Animals treated with DCa had decreased body weight
gains (500 and 5000 ppm) and decreased total serum
protein (all doses). Rats given either TCA (5000 ppm)
or DCA (500 or 5000 ppm) had increased  liver and
kidney organ to body weight ratios. Rats offered DCA
had significantly elevated alkaline  phosphatase (500
and 5000 ppm) and alanine-amino transferase (5000
ppm). No consistent immunotoxicity was observed in
animals exposed to either compound. Rats treated
with 5000 ppm TCA or DCA had significantly increased
hepatic peroxisomal beta-oxidation activity. (Copyright
(c) 1990 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.)


Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Dichlorpacetate, •Trichloroace-
tic acid, Dose-response relationships,  Mixed function
oxidases, Blood proteins, Organ weight, Body weight,
Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase,  Pa-
thology, Immune system, Statistical  analysis, Blood
chemistry, Enzyme induction, Reprints.
PB91-171819/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Age-Related Changes  in Sensitivity to Environ-
mental Chemicals. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
L. S. Birnbaum. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/426
Pub. in Japanese Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental
Health, v36 n6 p461 -479 Dec 90.

The processes of aging  result  in many physiological
changes which can lead to alterations in both pharma-
cokinetic  and pharmacodynamic properties.  Such
changes can result in altered sensitivity to chemicals,
whether drugs or environmental agents, in the elderly.
It is extremely difficult, however, to generalize  about
the nature of such changes. Part of this may reflect
disagreement, or at least, confusion in the literature
over what the term 'age' means. It is not uncommon
for a study to discuss age-related changes and, in fact,
be comparing neonatal to pubescent or young adult
animals. Therefore, it is clear that 'age' should always
be clearly  defined. When interest is in post-maturation-
al organisms, and, at the very least, those at the mean
life span of the population. The  requirement has been
stated before, but not always adhered to. Studies com-
paring only very young and terminally senescent ani-
mals may  not provide fair representation of the effects
occuring over the life-span of the species in question.
While  no  broad generalization can be made  about
pharmacokinetic and/or  pharmacodynamic changes,
it is probably fair to state that such changes will often
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991      13

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Keywords:  "Environmental  pollutants,  'Toxicology,
 'Aging,  Pharmacokinetics,  Pharmacology, Risk as-
 sessment, Reprints.
 PB91-171827/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Is 1,4-Dioxane a Genotoxic Carcinogen. Journal ar-
 ticle.
 Health  Effects  Research Lab., Research  Triangle
 Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
 K. T. Kitchin, and J. L. Brown. cAug 90,7p EPA/600/J-
 90/427
 Pub. in Cancer Letters, v53 n1 p67-71 Aug 90.

 Linear models of risk assessment may be appropriate
 for chemical that are initiators of carcinogenesis while
 threshold model of risk assessment have been pro-
 posed for promoters.  The proper risk assessment
 model for the regulation of promoters of carcinogene-
 sis remains an active area of research and controver-
 sy. Cancer is a multistage process (e.g. initiation, pro-
 motion and progression). These three stages of the
 pncogenic process have different biological character-
 istics. Studies to determine which chemicals effects
 which stages and to what degree are needed for risk
 assessment. The  in-vivo biochemical system de-
 scribed in the report can be performed in a species
 specific and organ specific manner. In the report 1,4-
 dioxane is given to rats at doses of 168, 840, 2550, or
 4200 mg/kg. DNA damage occurred at 2550 and 4200
 mg/kg. This is the first description of genotoxicity of
 1,4-dioxane in-vivo. Hepatic  ornithine decarboxylase
 activity was also induced by 1,4-dtoxane. This 1,4-diox-
 ane appears to be a weak genotoxics carcinogen and
 a strong nongenotoxic carcinogen.

 Keywords:  'Dioxanes,  'Mutagens,  'Carcinogens,
 'Toxicology, Mutagenicity tests, Carcinogenicity tests,
 Dose-response  relationships,   Biochemistry,  DNA
 damage, Liver, Cytochrome P-450, Reprints.
 PB91-171835/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Health  Effects  Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.
 Mlrex Induces Omtthlne Decarboxylase in Female
 Rat Liver. Journal article.
 University of South  Florida, Tampa. Coll. of  Public
 Health.
 A. Mrtra, I. Richards, K. Kitchin, R. Conolly. and A. P.
 Kulkami. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/428
 Contract EPA-68-02-4175
 Pub. in Jnl. of Biochemical Toxicology, v5 n2 p119-124
 Jul 90. Prepared in cooperation with Chemical Industry
 Inst. of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC. Spon-
 sored by Health Effects Research lab., Research Tri-
 angle Park, NC.

 Ornithine  decarboxylase  (ODC),  the  rate-limiting
 enzyme in polyamine synthesis, was significantly in-
 duced in female rat liver following oral administration
 of the pesticide, mirex. After dual oral exposure (120
 mg/kg;  21 and 4 hrs. prior to sacrifice) induction of
 ODC activity in rat liver cytosol was 70-fold as com-
 pared to controls. A single oral dose of mirex (180 mg/
 kg) induced hepatic ODC activity 55-fold over controls.
 The time-course study indicated that maximal  induc-
 tion of ODC activity after a single oral dose of mirex
 was at 36 hours post-dosing. Though the exact mech-
 anisms is still unclear, it  appears that sex could be a
 pre-disposing factor in the induction of ODC activity in
 rat liver. Mirex is an unusually strong and long lasting
 inducer of rat hepatic ODC activity. (Copyright (c) 1990
 VCH Publishers, Inc.)

 Keywords: 'Mirex, 'Toxicology, 'Liver, 'Omithine de-
 carboxylase, Enzyme induction, Polyamines, Dose-re-
 sponse relationships, Statistical analysis, Reprints.
PB91-171843/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Neurotoxiclty of Parathion-lnduced Acetytcholln-
esterase Inhibition in Neonatal Rats. Journal arti-
cle.
Health Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
PanXNC.
B. Veronesi, and C. Pope. C1990,20p EPA/600/J-90/
429
Pub. in NeuroToxicology, v11  n4 p609-626 Dec 90.
Prepared in  cooperation with Northeast Louisiana
Univ., Monroe. Toxicology Program.

The biochemical and morphological neurotoxic effects
of postnatal  acetylcholinesterase  (AChE) inhibition
were examined in rat pups dosed with parathion, at
time points critical to hippocampal  neurogenesis and
 synaptogenesis (i.e., D5-20). Hippocampal cytopatho-
 logy as assessed  by  light and electron microscopy,
 consisted of cellular disruption and necrosis in the DG,
 CA4, and CA3a regions. Synaptic disruption in the DG
 molecular layer was suggested by histochemical prep-
 aration using both the Timm's and AChE stains. In par-
 athion-treated D12 pups, hippocampal AChE was de-
 pressed 70%  and  QNB binding depressed by 36%.
 The above  results  indicated that definite neurotoxic
 consequences are  associated with persistent AChE
 depression in the neonatal rat.

 Keywords: 'Parathion, 'Neurotoxins, 'Cholinesterase
 inhibitors, 'Acetylcholinesterase, Rats, Newborn ani-
 mals,  Hippocampus, Histology, Electron microscopy,
 Histocytpchemistry, Biochemistry, Dose-response re-
 lationships, Chemical depression, Reprints.
 PB91-171850/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Health  Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Clinical Research Branch.
 Production of Arrhythmias by Elevated Carboxy-
 hemoglobin In Patients with Coronary Artery Dis-
 ease. Journal article.
 North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill.
 D. S. Sheps, M. C. Herbst, A. L. Hinderliter, K. F.
 Adams, and L. G. Ekelund. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-
 90/430
 Pub. in Annals of Internal Medicine, v113 n5 p343-351
 Sep 90. Sponsored by Health Effects Research Lab.,
 Research  Triangle  Park,  NC. Clinical  Research
 Branch.

 Sudden death frequently occurs from coronary artery
 disease. It almost always results from cardiac arrhyth-
 mias and is often the first and only clinically recogniz-
 able manifestation  of the disease process  (1). Be-
 cause of the relations  among  cardiac arrhythmias,
 sudden death, and coronary artery disease, as well as
 the high prevalence of coronary artery disease in the
 United States today, it is important to answer the ques-
 tion of whether or not exposure to carbon monoxide
 causes arrhythmias (2-10). Few carefully  controlled
 double-blind studies exist with adequate control moni-
 toring periods to assess  spontaneous variability of ar-
 rhythmias in the control period. The purpose of double-
 blind study was to ascertain whether carbon monoxide
 exposure leading to elevated venous carboxyhemog-
 lobin concentrations has an arrhythmogenic effect in
 patients with coronary artery disease.  (Copyright (c)
 1990 American College of Physicians.)

 Keywords:     'Arrhythmia,    'Carboxyhemoglobin,
 'Carbon monoxide, 'Coronary artery disease,  Double-
 blind method, Tables(Data), Exercise, Stroke volume,
 Adrenergic beta receptor blockaders, Calcium channel
 blockers, Reprints.
PB91-171868/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Persistence of Lymphocytes with Dicentric Chro-
mosomes Following Whole-Body X Irradiation of
Mice. Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
A. D. Kilgerman, E. C. Halperin, G. L Erexson, and G.
Honore. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/431
Pub. in Radiation Research, v124  p22-27 1990. Pre-
pared in cooperation with Duke Univ. Medical Center,
Durham, NC.  Dept. of Radiology, and Environmental
Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle
Park, NC.

Thirty-six male C57B1/6 mice were whole-body x-irra-
diated with 3 Gy to generate lymphocytes with dicen-
tric chromosomes to  study the persistence of these
lymphocytes in the spleen and peripheral blood to esti-
mate the lifespan of mature B- and T-cells. Blood and
spleen were removed from groups of four mice imme-
diately after radiation exposure and on days 1,3,7,14,
28, 56, and 12, thereafter. The initial frequencies of di-
centric chromosomes with accompanying fragments
observed in splenic  T-cells (0.44), splenic  B-cells
(0.43), and peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures (0.48)
initiated on day 0 were not significantly different. For
both splenic and peripheral blood-T-lymphocytes, the
frequency of cells containing dicentric chromosomes
declined in  an exponential manner following irradia-
tion, with a 50% reduction in frequency occurring  14
days after exposure. In contrast, the frequency of B-
cells containing dicentric  chromosomes remained
stable through day 7  but then declined precipitously
between day 7 and 14 and remained relatively stable,
although slightly above  baseline,  through day 112
post-exposure.
 Keywords: 'Chromosome aberrations, *X-rays, 'Lym-
 phocytes, Mice, Kinetics,  Statistical analysis, Meta-
 phase. Leukocytes, Whole body irradiation, Reprints.
 PB91-171876/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Morphometric Analysis of  Osteosclerotic  Bone
 Resulting from  Hexachlorobenzene  Exposure.
 Journal article.
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.
 J. E. Andrews, L. D. Jackson, A. G. Stead, and W. E.
 Donaldson. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/432
 Pub.  in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
 v31 n3 p193-201 Nov 90. Prepared in cooperation with
 Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, NC. Documentation
 and Clinical Studies Div., and North  Carolina State
 Univ. at Raleigh.


 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) exposure has been shown
 to  induce hyperparathyroidism and  osteosclerosis in
 rats.  Experiments were undertaken to investigate the
 effects of HCB on femur morphometry as well as
 breaking  strength. Fischer  344 rats were dosed 5
 days/wkfor 15 wks with 0,0.1,1,10 or 25 mg HCB/kg
 body weight. Hyperparathyroidism was produced in the
 two higher dose groups as reported previously (An-
 drews et al., 1988). Femur weight was significantly in-
 creased in the rats receiving 0.1,1 and 25 mg HCB/kg
 body weight wheras density was increased significant-
 ly at 1,  10 and 25 mg HCB/kg dose levels. Bone
 strength was also significantly increased at the three
 higher dose levels. Bone flexibility was significantly in-
 creased at the 0.1 mg HCB dose level. Cross sectional
 area  of the midpoint of the femur was significantly in-
 creased at the 1 mg/kg HCB dose level. Cortical area,
 as well as the proportion of the total area of the bone
 which the cortex occupied,  were  significantly in-
 creased at the three higher dose  levels. Medullary
 cavity area was significantly increased at the 0.1 mg/
 kg dose level but  significantly decreased at the two
 higher dose levels of HCB.


 Keywords: 'Hexachlorobenzene, 'Toxicity, 'Osteos-
 clerosis, 'Bones, 'Biomechanics, Organ weight, Dose-
 response relationships, Body weight, Hyperparathyroi-
 dism, Statistical analysis, Reprints.
 PB91-171884/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research  Lab., Ada,
 OK.
 Relationship between Cell Surface Properties and
 Transport of Bacteria through Soil. Journal article.
 Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Lab. of Soil Microbiology.
 J. T. Cannon, V. B. Manila), and M. Alexander. c1991,
 6p EPA/600/J-91/002
 Pub. in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v57
 n1 p190-193 Jan 91. Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr En-
 vironmental Research Lab., Ada, OK.


 A study was conducted to relate the properties of En-
 terobacter,  Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Achromobacter,
 Flavobacterium,  and  Arthrobacter  strains to their
 transport with water moving through soil. The bacteria
 differed markedly in their extent of transport; their hy-
 drophobicity, as measured by adherence to n-octane
 and  by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography; and
 their net surface electrostatic charge, as determined
 by electrostatic interaction chromatography and by
 measurements of the zeta potential. Transport of the
 19 strains through  Kendaia loam or their retention by
 the soil was not correlated with hydrophobicities or net
 surface charges of the cells or the presence of cap-
 sules. Among 10 strains tested, the presence of flagel-
 la was  also not correlated with transport. Retention
 was  statistically related to cell size, with bacteria short-
 er than 1.0 micro m usually showing higher percent-
 ages of cells being transported through the soil. It is
 suggested that more than one characteristic of bac-
 terial cells  determines whether the organisms are
 transported through soil with moving water. (Copyright
 (c) 1991 American Society for Microbiology.)


 Keywords:  'Water microbiology,  'Transport proper-
ties,  'Cell membrane, 'Membrane potential, 'Ground
water,   'Bacteria,  Liquid chromatography. Species
specificity, Surface properties, Reprints.
14     Vol.  91, No.  3

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-171892/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Biodegradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Aq-
uifer Microorganisms  under Denitrifying Condi-
tions. Journal article.
Robert  S.  Kerr Environmental  Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
S. R. Hutchins, G. W. Sewell, D. A. Kovacs, and G. A.
Smith. c1991,11 p EPA/600/J-91/003
Pub. in Environmental Science and Technology, v25
n1 p68-76 Jan 91. Prepared in cooperation with NSI
Technology Services Corp., Ada, OK.

Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate whether
denitrification would be a suitable alternative for bior-
estoration  of an aquifer  contaminated with  JP-4 jet
fuel. Microcosms were prepared from uncontaminated
and contaminated aquifer material,  amended with ni-
trate, nutrients, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and incu-
bated under a nitrogen atmosphere at 12 C.  With un-
contaminated core material, there was no observable
lag period prior to removal of toluene whereas 30 days
was required before biodegradation commenced for
xylenes, ethylbenzene,  and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene.
An identical test with contaminated aquifer material ex-
hibited not only much longer lag periods but decreased
rates of biodegradation; benzene, ethylbenzene, and
o-xylene were not significantly degraded within the 6-
month time period even  though active denitrification
occurred at this time. First-order  biodegradation rate
constants ranged from 0.016 to 0.38/day for unconta-
minated core material and from 0.022 to 0.067/day for
contaminated core material. Tests with individual com-
pounds  in uncontaminated core  indicated that ben-
zene and m-xylene inhibited the basal rate of denitrifi-
cation. These data demonstrate that several aromatic
compounds are degraded  under denitrifying condi-
tions, but rates of biodegradation may be lower in ma-
terial contaminated with  JP-4 jet fuel.  (Copyright (c)
1990 American Chemical Society.)

Keywords: 'Biological treatment, 'Aquifers, 'Biodeter-
ioration, 'Oil pollution, 'Denitrification, 'Water pollu-
tion control, Aquatic microorganisms, Aromatic hydro-
carbons, Jet engine fuels, Underground storage, Stor-
age tanks. Hazardous materials, Benzenes,  Toluene,
Xylenes, Oil spills, Reprints.
PB91-171900/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Reducing Waste In the Photo Lab. Waste Minimi-
zation:  Opportunity Assessment Make It  Easy.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. Evans, A. Robertson, M. A. Curran, and G.
Dunaway. Sep 90,5p EPA/600/J-91 /004
Pub. in Photo Marketing Jan 91. Prepared in coopera-
tion with Accuphoto Film Lab., Cincinnati, OH.

As the attention given to waste disposal and pollution
prevention increases, so does the possibility of regula-
tion. Owners and operators of small photo processing
labs are  among the many who must be concerned
about waste disposal and pollution prevention. The
U.S. EPA conducted a waste minimization opportunity
assessment of Accuphoto, a photo lab in Cincinnati,
Ohio. The assessment process and the results of the
assessment of Accuphoto are described at Accuphoto
include reduction in use of wash water, recovery of
silver, and recovery of bleach fix.

Keywords: 'Waste management, 'Materials recovery,
'Photographic processors, Waste disposal, Pollution
abatement, Pollution regulations. Silver, 'Waste mini-
mization, 'Source reduction, Cincinnati(Ohio), Accu-
photo.
PB91-171918/REB               PC E99/MF E99
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Regional Oxidant Model User's Guide.
Computer Sciences Corp., Research Triangle  Park,
NC.
Jan91,1084p-in3v
Set includes PB91-171928 through PB91-171942. See
also PB90-197831. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmos-
pheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

No abstract available.
PB91-171926/REB               PC A16/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Regional Oxidant Model User's Guide. Part 1. The
ROM Preprocessors. Final rept. Aug 89-Jan 91.
Computer Sciences  Corp.,  Research Triangle Park,
NC.
L Milich, L. Bender, T. Boehm, O. Bullock, and J.
Novak. Jan 91,356p EPA/600/8-90/083A
Contract EPA-68-01-7365
See also Part 2, PB91 -171934. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure Assess-
ment Lab.
Also available in set of 3 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-171918.

The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) determines hourly
concentrations and fates of ozone and 34 other chemi-
cal species over a scale of  1000 km x 1000 km for
ozone  'episodes' of up to one month's duration. The
model  structure, based  on  phenomenological con-
cepts, consists of 3 112 layers. The surfaces separat-
ing the layers respond to variations in space and time
in the meteorological phenomena simulated in each
layer. The model simulates many physical and chemi-
cal processes that affect the motion and distribution of
chemical concentrations; among these are:  horizontal
transport, photochemistry, nighttime wind shear and
nocturnal jet; cumulus cloud effects  and mesoscale
vertical motion;  terrain and mesoscale eddy effects;
subgrid scale chemistry processes, natural sources of
hydrocarbons, NOx and stratospheric ozone; and dry
deposition. The ROM is a complex model that requires
users to have expertise in photochemical grid model-
ing. Meteorologists,  engineers, and computer scien-
tists familiar with  this type of modeling will find the
User's  Guide relevant and helpful for running the
ROM.

Keywords:   'User  manualsfComputer  programs),
'Computerized  simulation,  'Air  pollution  sampling,
'Atmospheric  composition,  Meteorology,  Ozone,
Concentration(Composition),  Photochemical   reac-
tions, Atmospheric diffusion, Environmental transport,
Information       systems,      Dry      methods,
Wind(Meteorology), Mesoscale phenomena, Physical
properties,  Chemical properties, Natural  emissions,
Deposition, 'Regional Oxidant Model.
PB91-171934/REB               PC A19/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Regional Oxidant Model User's Guide. Part 2. The
ROM Processor Network. Final rept. Aug 89-Jan 91.
Computer Sciences Corp., Research Tnangle  Park,
NC.
L Milich, L. Bender, T. Boehm, O. Bullock, and J.
Novak. Jan 91,443p EPA/600/8-90/083B
Contract EPA-68-01-7365
See also Part 1, PB91-171926  and  Part 3,  PB91-
171942.  Sponsored  by  Environmental Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Re-
search and Exposure Assessment Lab.
Also available in set of 3 reports  PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-171918.

The volume is divided  into three sections.  The first
section is on the I/O support for the Regional Oxidant
Model (ROM) processor  network.  The  second and
third sections discuss the ROM processor network and
regional dependencies and the VAX/VMS implemen-
tation of domain changes in the  Regional Oxidant
Model's processor network and analysis programs.

Keywords:   'User   manuals(Computer   programs),
'Computerized  simulation, 'Air  pollution sampling,
'Atmospheric composition, Information systems. Me-
teorology, Ozone, Concentration(Composition), Photo-
chemical reactions,  Atmospheric diffusion.  Environ-
mental transport, Computer programs, Computer pro-
gramming, Regional analysis, Wind(Meteorology), Dry
methods, Deposition, 'Regional Oxidant Model.
 PB91-171942/REB                PC A13/MF A02
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 Regional Oxidant Model User's Guide. Part 3. The
 Core Model. Final rept. Aug 89-Jan 91.
 Computer Sciences Corp., Research Triangle  Park,
 NC.
J. Young, L. Milich, and D. Jorge. Jan 91,285p EPA/
600/8-90/083C
Contract EPA-68-01-7365
See also Part 2, PB91 -171934. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure  Assess-
ment Lab.
Also available  in set of 3 reports PC  E99/MF E99,
PB91-171918.

The volume is divided into two sections. The first sec-
tion contains the overview and structure of the core
model. The other section discusses the core model
input files.

Keywords:   'User  manuals(Computer  programs),
'Computerized  simulation, 'Air  pollution sampling,
'Atmospheric composition, Information systems, Me-
teorology, Ozone, Concentration(Compositipn), Photo-
chemical reactions. Deposition, Atmospheric diffusion,
Environmental  transport, Computer programs, Com-
puter      programming,     Regional      analysis,
Wind(Meteorology), Dry methods, 'Regional Oxidant
Model.
PB91-171975/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Cancer  Dose-Response  Models  Incorporating
Clonal Expansion. Symposium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
C. W. Chen, and A. Moini. Oct 89,26p EPA/600/D-91 /
042, OHEA-C-330
Presented at the Research Application Conference on
Scientific Issues in Quantitative Cancer Risk Assess-
ment, Arlington, VA., October 1989. Prepared in coop-
eration with Computer Sciences Corp., Arlington, VA.

Under the assumption that a malignant tumor devel-
ops through a sequence of steps (normal cells-> initi-
ated cells/foci-> nodules-> tumors) two classes of
mathematical models of carcinogenesis  that have a
potential to be used for cancer dose-response model-
ing are discussed. The two classes of models consid-
ered are (1) a general version of the two-stage model
by Moolgavkar and colleagues, henceforth called the
MVK model,  and (2) a clone process  model derived
from Tucker. These two classes of models incorporate
essentially the same biological information but in dif-
ferent ways and offer a conceptual contrast  between
the two differing approaches. The objectives of the
paper are to (1) highlight issues and  problems that
arise in  using  biologically based  dose-response
models to predict cancer risk and (2) discuss how pa-
rameters in the models could be estimated using auxil-
iary information.

Keywords: 'Carcinogenesis, 'Dose-response relation-
ships, 'Mathematical models, Risk factors, Predictive
value of tests.
 PB91-172122/REB                PCA11/MFA02
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
 Summary Report on Issues in Ecological Risk As-
 sessment.
 Eastern Research Group, Inc., Arlington, MA.
 J. H. Gentile, W. H. H. van der Schalie, and W. P.
 Wood. Feb 91,242p EPA/625/3-91 /018
 Contract EPA-68-C8-0036
 Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection Agency,
 Washington, DC. Office of Health and Environmental
 Assessment.

 In  1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 (EPA) published a series of guidelines for carrying out
 human health risk assessments. As part of the ongoing
 effort to develop guidance in areas not addressed by
 the 1986 guidelines, EPA's Risk Assessment Forum
 sponsored a series of meetings to consider issues rel-
 evant to developing the Agency's first  Agency-wide
 guidelines for ecological risk assessment. The report
 summarizes the discussion and conclusions of seven
 information-gathering meetings held in the spring of
 1990. Invited speakers and EPA staff addressed the
 scope and content of future ecological guidelines, the
 nature and diversity of ecological assessments,  ap-
 proaches to characterizing and quantifying uncertainty
 in ecological hazard and exposure assessments, and
 the potential use of population modeling for character-
 izing ecological risk. Relying in part upon the results of
 these discussions, EPA has embarked on a multiyear
 effort to develop ecological risk assessment guidelines
 that will foster consistency in the Agency's approach
                                                                                                                               Sept 1991     15

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 to evaluating not only the risks posed by conventional
 stresses such as toxic chemicals, but also other an-
 thropogenic stresses such as habitat loss and global
 climate change.

 Keywords: 'Risk  assessment,  'Ecology,  'Environ-
 mental surveys, "Hazardous materials, Toxic sub-
 stances, Guidelines, Meetings,  Exposure,  Biological
 effects, Dose-response relationships, Habitats, Climat-
 ic changes, Population density, Toxicity, Ecosystems,
 Environmental  impacts. Species  diversity, Animals,
 Plants(Botany), Chemicals.
 PB91-172940/REB               PC A11/MF A02
 Information Systems Inventory (ISI).
 Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Information Resources Management.
 May91,246p
 For system on diskette, see PB91 -507558 (IBM com-
 patible) and PB91 -507566 (Macintosh compatible).

 This is a hardcopy version of the EPA Information Sys-
 tems Inventory (ISI) database. The ISI database is
 maintained on an IBM PC and an Apple Macintosh and
 currently holds roughly 500 records. The ISI was de-
 veloped to enhance the Agency's ability to track major
 information systems, facilitate the sharing of informa-
 tion across media and program boundaries and im-
 prove the Agency's oversight of information systems
 development. For each system in  the Inventory, the
 following information is included: system identification,
 descriptors of database content, and administrative
 data about access, and legal authorities. The database
 is available in the EPA Headquarters, Regional  Librar-
 ies, and NTIS. The system is managed by the Informa-
 tion Management and Services Division, OIRM. The
 hardcopy contains only a subset of the information.
 The ISI diskette with functionality is sold separately.

 Keywords: US  EPA,  "Information Systems Inventory
 Database, *ISI database, Agency information systems.
 PB91-175877/REB               PC A08/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 User's Guide for Executing OZIPR. Rept. for Apr
 89-Apr90.
 Atmospheric Research Associates, Inc., Boston, MA.
 M. W. Gery, and R. R. Grouse. Jan 91,175p EPA/600/
 8-90/069,, EPA/SW/DK-91/084A
 For system on diskette, see PB91-507376. Sponsored
 by Environmental Protection Agency, Research Trian-
 gle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure
 Assessment Lab.

 A new, trajectory-type, air quality simulation model
 called  Ozone Isopleth  Plotting  Package (Research
 Version)  (OZIPR)  has  been  developed.  OZIPR is
 based on previous versions of EPA's Ozone  Isopleth
 Plotting  Program (OZIPP) Model, but contains  im-
 proved and expanded capabilities that make the model
 useful for research purposes. OZIPR serves the dual
 purpose of providing: (1) a simple trajectory model ca-
 pable of  using complex chemical mechanisms, emis-
 sions, and various meteorological parameters, and (2)
 procedures through which the Empirical Kinetics Mod-
 eling Approach (EKMA) can be implemented to calcu-
 late emission reductions for compliance with  the Na-
 tional Ambient Air Quality Standard  for ozone.  While
 these capabilities were included in earlier versions of
 OZIPP, the new OZIPR contains major improvements
 that expand the program's capability to input utilize,
 and output a much larger range of information. The
 Project Report serves as a user's manual for OZIPR. It
 contains  a description of the model, along with input
 and output requirements and options. The input and
 output files for nine examples are also included.

 Keywords: *Air quality, Ozonosphere, Reaction  kinet-
 ics, Photochemical reactions, Models, Emission fac-
tors, Oxidants, Nitrogen oxides, Computerized simula-
tion, User manuals(Computer programs), Documenta-
tion, 'Ozone isopleths, Empirical Kinetics Modeling
Approach.
PB91-176057/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Episodic AckHficatJon and Associated Fish and
Benthic Invertebrate Response* in Five Northern
Appalachian Streams: An Interim Report of the
Episodic Response Project
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 D. R. DeWalle, C. J. Gagen, M. C. Jones, R. F. Carline,
 and W. E. Sharpe. May 91,122p EPA/600/3-91 /035
 See also PB89-138861. Prepared in cooperation with
 Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

 The report summarizes progress from October 1988 to
 May 1989 on an ongoing research project to investi-
 gate the chemicals and biological response of five
 Northern Appalachian  Plateau  streams  to  episodic
 changes in flow. The research described is part of the
 U.S.  EPA Episodic Response Project (ERP), Aquatic
 Effects Research Program. Research includes moni-
 toring of stream discharge, episodic stream chemistry,
 precipitation  amounts and intensity,  and snowpack
 chemistry and water equivalent. Biological research in-
 cludes bethic invertebrate surveyss stream bioassays
 with brook trout and sculpins, and tracking  of brook
 trout movement during episodes using radiotelemetry.

 Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Acidifi-
 cation,   'Water   chemistry,  'Aquatic  ecosystems,
 'Streams, Hydrology,  Biological  effects, Fisheries,
 Fishes,       Deposition,        New       York,
 Precipitation(Meteorology), Bioassay, Field tests,  Air
 water interactions, Graphs(Charts),  'Episodic  Re-
 sponse  Project,  Benthic  invertebrates,  Adirondack
 mountains, National Acidic  Deposition Assessment
 Program.
 PB91-176065/REB               PC A06/MF A01
 Episodic Acidification and  Associated Fish and
 Benthic Invertebrate Responses of Four Adiron-
 dack Headwater  Streams: An  Interim Report of
 the Episodic Response Project
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 W. A. Kretser, H. A. Simonin, D. W. Bath, B. P. Baldigo,
 andD. DiTqmmaso. May91,121p EPA/600/3-91/036
 Prepared in  cooperation  with  Adirondack  Lakes
 Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY.

 The U.S. EPA  Episodic  Response Project  (ERP)
 through  cooperation with  Adirondack  Lakes Survey
 Corporation, Pennsylvania State  University,  and the
 U.S. Geological Survey  initiated  field work in the
 autumn of 1988 to examine the effects of acidic depo-
 sition on aquatic ecosystems. During the  first nine
 months of study, significant results were obtained, thus
 the interim report was produced.

 Keywords:     'Acidification,    'Water    pollution
 effects(Animals), 'Water chemistry, 'Aquatic ecosys-
 tems, 'Streams, Hydrology, Deposition, Bioassay, Air
 water     interaction,      Experimental      tests,
 Precipitation(Meteorology), Fisheries, Fishes, Biologi-
 cal effects, New York,  'Episodic Response Project,
 Benthic invertebrates, Adirondack mountains, National
 Acidic Deposition Assessment Program.


 PB91-176735/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Fundamental  Evaluation  of an  Electronic  Air
 Cleaner.
 Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, NC.
 J. T. Hanley, D. D. Smith, P. A. Lawless, D. S. Ensor,
 and L. E. Sparks. C1990,8p EPA/600/D-91 /020
 Grant EPA-R814169-03
 Presented at IAQ '90 held in Toronto (Canada) on July
 29-August 3, 1990.  Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
 tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and
 Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper gives results of a fundamental evaluation of
an electronic air cleaner (EAC). The ozone generation
rate and particle-size-dependent  (0.01-10 microme-
ters) filtration efficiency  of an in-duct residential EAC
were measured. Filtration efficiencies were typically
70-90%, showing decreasing efficiency with increas-
ing flowrate. Ozone generation rates were about 3 mi-
crograms/s.  Scans of the aerosol concentration on
the downwind face of the EAC were used to locate,
then eliminate, areas of  aerosol sneakage. Sneakage
was detected along the top and bottom of the  EAC
face, apparently due to incomplete  aerosol charging
for aerosol passing near the ends of the ionizing wires.
Areas away from the top and bottom had near-zero
aerosol penetration. Based on these results, the inlet
to the EAC was masked to eliminate airflow through
the sneakage areas.  The resultant  efficiency of the
masked EAC was nearly 100% for particles larger than
0.1  micrometer diameter; however,  the filtration effi-
ciency for particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer was
not significantly affected by masking.
 Keywords: 'Air pollution control equipment, *Air clean-
 ers, 'Aerosols, 'Indoor air pollution, 'Ozone, Particle
 size, Filtration, Performance  evaluation, Residential
 buildings,   Ventilation,   Air   pollution  sampling,
 Concentration(Composition), Reprints.
 PB91-176743/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Simple Model for Describing Radon Migration and
 Entry Into Houses. Rept. for Jul-Dec 90.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 R. B. Mosley. C1990,32p EPA/600/D-91 /021
 Presented at the Hanford Symposium on Health and
 the Environment (29th), Richland, WA. on October 15-
 19,1990.

 The paper discusses a  simplified model  for soil-gas
 transport through soil surrounding the substructure of
 a house. The model  provides the ability to answer, in
 semi-quantitative terms, such fundamental questions
 as: (1) What role does diffusion  play in transporting
 radon to the house/soil interface, where pressure-
 driven flow tends to dominate the process of entry into
 the house. (2) Do active subslab depressurization miti-
 gation systems significantly increase the rate of emis-
 sion of radon into the ambient air.  (3) At what flow rate
 through the subslab depressurization system does di-
 lution of the radon in the soil gas contribute significant-
 ly to the performance of the mitigation system. Simpli-
 fying assumptions about the distribution of entry routes
 and driving forces are used to relate indoor air  radon
 levels to soil characteristics and to dynamics within the
 house. Preliminary validation of the model predictions
 consists  of  demonstrating  reasonable  values  for
 indoor radon concentrations. While it is quite possible
 to formulate a fairly  rigorous mathematical model to
 describe radon transport through soil, such  a model
 would require rather complex numerical solutions that
 would be time consuming and expensive to evaluate.
 Numerical solutions are also cumbersome for evaluat-
 ing both the relative importance of the individual mech-
 anisms and the appropriateness of alternative bound-
 Keywords:  'Mathematical  models, 'Radon,  'Soil
 gases, 'Environmental transport, 'Indoor air pollution,
 Flow rate, Gas flow, Houses, Residential buildings, Ra-
 dionuclide migration, Concentration(Composition), Soil
 mechanics,  Diffusion, Radioactive contaminants, Air
 pollution control, Subslab depressurization systems.
 PB91-176750/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Operational Experience of the EPA Owned Bench
 Scale Pilot Plant for Evaluating SCR DeNOx Cata-
 lysts.
 Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 S. C. Tseng, W. Jozewicz, and C. B. Sedman. c1991,
 16pEPA/600/D-91/022
 Contract EPA-68-02-4701
 Presented at the AlChE Annual Meeting held in Hous-
 ton, TX. on April 11,1991. Sponsored by Environmen-
 tal Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air
 and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

 The paper discusses the use of EPA's bench-scale
 pilot plant to evaluate catalysts used in the ammonia
 (NH3)-based technology and process  for selective
 catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen  oxides. A key ob-
jective was to establish the performance of SCR cata-
 lysts on  U.S. fuels and combustion sources. A rudi-
 mentary catalyst produced inhouse and two commer-
 cial catalysts were evaluated. The temperature ranged
from 327 to 440 C. The space velocity ranged from
 7650 to 36,500 hr to the -1 power. The combustion gas
was doped with  nitric oxide (NO) and NH3, and the
NH3/NO ratio ranged from about 0.6 to 2.2. Sulfur di-
oxide (SO2) was added to the combustion gas in some
runs to investigate its effect on NO conversion over
one commercial catalyst. The  formation  of nitrous
oxide (N20) on the same catalyst at 400 C was also in-
vestigated. The evaluation indicated that,  for the in-
house catalyst, the space velocity  has a  significant
effect on  NO conversion. For the two  commercial cata-
lysts, the NO conversion was 90%  and higher when
the NH3/NO ratio was near or above  unity, and the NO
conversion was approximately proportional to the NH3
concentration at the inlet of the reactor when the ratio
was less than unity. Flue gas SO2 was found to be poi-
sonous to one commercial catalyst.  Furthermore, the
amount of  N2O  formed over the same commercial
catalysts was negligible.
16     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords: *Air pollution  control, "Nitrogen oxides,
'Catalyic effects, 'Selective catalytic reduce, US EPA,
Operating,   Denitrification,   Catalysis,  Flue   gas,
Reduction(Chemistry), Pilot plants, Ammonia, *DeNOx
process.
PB91-176768/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Bioassessment Methods for Determining the Haz-
ards of Dredged Material Disposal in the Marine
Environment. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
J. H. Gentile, G. G. Pesch, K. J. Scott, W. Nelson, and
W. R. Munns. c1991,19p EPA/600/D-91 /023, ERLN-
1209
Pub. in In situ Evaluations of Biological Hazards of En-
vironmental Pollutants, p31-47 1990. Prepared in co-
operation with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,
MA., and  Science  Applications International Corp.,
Narragansett, Rl.

Approximately  325 million cu  m of  sediment  are
dredged annually for navigation purposes in the United
States. Of this, 46 million cu m are disposed of annual-
ly in the ocean. Decisions regarding the ocean dispos-
al of dredged material result, in large part,  from bioas-
sessment-based  estimates of contaminant exposure
and ecological impacts. Predictions of  impacts for an
individual dredging project are estimated from labora-
tory determinations of the magnitude, bioavailability,
bioaccumulation, and  hazards  (toxicity)  of dredged
material contaminants. Disposal site management of
individual and multiple dredging projects requires mon-
itoring for contaminant transport, availability and accu-
mulation in biota, and the hazards to ecologically and
commercially important populations. Because of their
importance, suites of bioassessment methods repre-
senting several levels of biological organization have
been proposed for predicting and assessing the haz-
ards resulting from the ocean  disposal of dredged ma-
terial.

Keywords: "Ocean disposal, 'Marine biology, 'Dredge
spoil,   'Biological effects,  'Water pollution  effects.
Sediments, Ecosystems, Bioaccumulation, Dredging,
Toxic   substances,  Exposure,  Waste management,
Biota, Assessments, Reprints.
PB91-176776/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Kinetics of Chemical and Microbiological Con-
taminants in Distribution Systems.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. A. Goodrich. c1991,19p EPA/600/D-91 /024
Presented at the AWWA Computers and Automation
Specialty Conference, Denver, CO., April 2-4,1989.

Once treated drinking water enters the distribution
system, substantial microbial, chemical,  and physical
changes can occur. Examples of such changes can in-
clude loss of disinfectant  residual,  increases in disin-
fection byproducts (DBP), growth of microbial diversity
and population or an increase in heavy metal concen-
tration. These  water  quality changes often  result in
aesthetic problems such as turbid water, red and/or
black water  or tastes and odors. Such conditions do
not necessarily pose a threat to human health. Howev-
er,  several water quality changes  in distribution sys-
tems  could  violate Maximum Contaminant Levels
(MCLs) proposed by  the  Safe Drinking Water  Act
Amendments and pose a threat to human health. As-
bestos fibers can be released into drinking water from
deteriorated  asbestos-cement water mains (1). Treat-
ed waters may also have mutagenic potential from in-
creases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons because
of the leaching of asphalt-lined pipes (2).  Lead, trihalo-
methanes (THMs), other  DBPs,  or  coliforms  may
exceed the regulations at the tap although the water
leaving the treatment plant was in compliance.

Keywords: "Water quality, 'Potable water,  'Distribu-
tjpn systems, 'Chemical compounds, 'Aquatic micro-
biology, 'Kinetics, Water treatment, Water chemistry,
Physical  properties, Odors, Taste, Pollution regula-
tions,  Asbestos,  Disinfection,  Byproducts, Heavy
metals, Standards compliance, Aromatic polycyclic hy-
drocarbons,  Halomethanes, Reprints.
PB91-176784/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Monitoring Strategies for Water Distribution Sys-
tems. Proceedings paper.
Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. School of Public Health.
R. A. Deininger, and B. H. Lee. 1989,13p EPA/600/D-
91/025
Grant EPA-R-814324
Presented at AWWA Computers and Automation Spe-
cialty Conference, Denver, Co., April 2-4, 1989. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,
OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The current monitoring procedures seem to select a
geographically representative sample, with an almost
complete disregard of the underlying water distribution
network. However, the quality of water changes as it
travels from the treatment plant to the consumer.
Thus, the purpose of the paper is to distinguish  be-
tween aspects of macrolocation and microlocation of
sampling  stations for not only  compliance purposes
but to more accurately characterize water quality. Ma-
crolocation determines a general geographic area and
microlocation determines the specific house or tap.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Water distribution, 'Distri-
bution systems,  'Potable water, Environmental moni-
toring, Water treatment plants,  Water analysis, Sam-
pling, Chlorine, Halomethanes, Coliform bacteria. Re-
prints.
PB91-176792/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Overview of Metals Recovery Technologies for
Hazardous Wastes. Symposium paper.
PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
E. R. Krishnan, P. W. Utrecht, and R. J. Turner. Dec 90,
30pEPA/600/D-91/026
Contract EPA-68-03-3413
Presented at and pub. in proceedings from the Nation-
al Research  and Development Conference on the
Control of Hazardous Materials, Anaheim, CA., Febru-
ary 20-22, 1991. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineer-
ing Lab.

The paper presents information on the state-of-the-art
of metals recovery technologies to assist in identifying
waste-management options dealing with recovery for
metal-bearing sludges and wastewaters that may be
regulated under RCRA  and the Clean  Water Act.
Waste treatment technologies (e.g., chemical precipi-
tation) that  could eventually result in recovery of spe-
cific metals are also included in the paper. Metals re-
covery technologies addressed in the paper include
the following: chemical  precipitation,  electrolytic re-
covery,  high-temperature metals recovery  (HTMR),
membrane  separation, leaching, ion  exchange,  and
evaporation. For each of these technologies, the fol-
lowing parameters are summarized:  (1) design specifi-
cations of applicable processes, (2) waste characteris-
tics affecting  performance,  (3) pretreatment/post-
treatment requirements,  (4) available  performance
data, and (5) availability of the technology and feasibili-
ty for treating various hazardous waste  categories.

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Materials recovery,
'Metals,  'Waste treatment, Evaporation,  Electrolysis,
Leaching, Ion exchanging, Precipitation(Chemistry),
Sludge disposal, Ground disposal, Pollution regula-
tions, Technology utilization,  State  of the art,.Waste
disposal, Liquid wastes, Waste water, Industrial waste,
High temperature tests,  'Land Disposal Restrictions,
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
PB91-176800/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Use of Pipe  Loop  Tests for Corrosion Control
Diagnostics. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. Levin, and M. R. Schock. 1990,29p EPA/600/D-
91/027
Pub. in Proceedings of American Water Works Asso-
ciation Water  Quality Technology  Conference, San
Diego, CA., 1990.

Well-designed test rigs allow the systematic control
and evaluation of many variables affecting corrosion
processes and corrosion  rates. They provide a rela-
tively simple screening procedure for determining pos-
sibly favorable corrosion control water treatment strat-
egies.  They cannot, however, be used as a substitute
for tap water  monitoring. The better the  pipe loop
mimics the conditions it is  intended to model, the more
applicable the test results are likely to be.
Keywords: 'Water utilities, 'Water pipes, 'Corrosion
tests, Water treatment, Copper, Monitors, Corrosion
control.
PB91-176818/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Closure of a Dioxin Incineration Facility. Symposi-
um paper Jan-Sep 89.
Foster Wheeler Enviresponse, Inc., Edison, NJ.
J. M. Perdek, F. J. Freestone, D. Sandifer, and A.
Sherman. 1991, 6p EPA/600/D-91 /028
Contract EPA-68-03-3255
Presented at the DIOXIN '90  Conference, Bayreuth,
Germany,  September 1990. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.  Risk Re-
duction Engineering Lab.

The EPA Mobile Incineration System  treated approxi-
mately six million kilograms of dioxin wastes when it
was in operation at the Denney Farm site in southwest-
ern Missouri between 1985 and  1989. At the conclu-
sion of operations, the site soils, equipment, and build-
ings  were decontaminated  in accordance  with  ap-
proved closure plans.

Keywords: 'Incinerators, 'Remedial action,  'Dioxins,
'Waste disposal, 'Portable equipment, Soil contami-
nation, US EPA, Buildings, Sampling,  Decontamina-
tion,  Hazardous materials, On-site investigations, Clo-
sures,    'Cleanup      operations,     Southwest
Region(Missouri).
PB91-176826/REB                PC A03/MF A01
EPA Clean Products Research Program.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
M. A. Curran, and A. R. Robertson. 1991,11p EPA/
600/D-91/029
Pub. in Proceedings from the Air and Waste Manage-
ment Association International  Symposium on Re-
search and Developments for Improving Solid Waste
Management, Cincinnati, OH., February 6, 1991. See
also PB91-108977.

The recent emphasis on developing information  on
achieving pollution  prevention  has resulted  in  in-
creased research activity by the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) in the area of clean product devel-
opment. Currently the EPA's Pollution Prevention Re-
search  Branch  (PPRB)  has  six  funded research
projects under the Clean Products Research Program.
These projects include (1) compilation of background
information, (2) profiling case studies of industries im-
plementing changes, (3) identification of safe substi-
tutes for toxic products, (4) life-cycle analysis method-
ology development, (5) development of guidance  for
industry to use in self-evaluations of product and proc-
ess design, and  (6) development of a method  for
measuring pollution prevention. A brief description with
the status of each project is included in the paper. The
paper should be of interest to other researchers,  in-
dustry and consumers who want  to follow the ad-
vances made by EPA in the area of clean product and
life-cycle analysis research.

Keywords: 'Pollution abatement, 'Research and de-
velopment, 'Environmental  impact assessments,  US
EPA, Case studies, Industrial plants, Guidelines, Con-
sumer products,  Public  information, Environmental
chemical  substitutes,  Marking,  Toxic   substances,
Service life, 'Clean Products Research Program.
 PB91-176834/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Rainfall Data Analysis Using the Gamma Distribu-
 tion Function.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. G. Eilers. Mar 91,28p EPA/600/D-91 /030
 Presented at the Annual EPA Conference on Statistics
 (7th), Richmond, VA., March 1991.

 The Gamma distribution function can be useful for fit-
 ting rainfall data. An integral part of the assessment of
 storm loads on water quality is the statistical evalua-
 tion of rainfall records. Hourly rainfall records of many
 years duration are cumbersome and  difficult to ana-
 lyze. The Gamma distribution can be a tool to examine
 variables of interest  (volume, duration, intensity, and
 time between storms) which are of importance  in de-
 termining seasonal trends and selecting control alter-
 natives for storm related runoff.
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     17

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Keywords:  'Rainfall, 'Meteorological data, *Water
 quality, "Gamma function, 'Computerized simulation,
 Seasonal variations, Storm water runoff,  Statistical
 analysis, Water pollution control, 'Gamma distribution.
 PB91-176842/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA.
 Technical Assistance for Waste Minimization.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 B. A. Westfall, F. W. Kirsch, and G. P. Looby. 1991,
 16pEPA/600/D-91/031
 Presented at the  EPA/AESF Environmental Control
 Conference, Orlando, FL., January 28-30,1991. Spon-
 sored by University City Science Center, Philadelphia,
 PA.

 Many metal finishing facilities are  small businesses
 which lack in-house  expertise or resources to initiate
 waste minimization programs. In 1988 the Risk Reduc-
 tion Engineering Laboratory began a pilot project with
 the University City Science Center to provide waste
 minimization assessments for small businesses at no
 out-of-pocket expense to the host facility.  Several
 metal finishing operations were included among the
 plants visited. The results of waste minimization as-
 sessments at two  of these plants are discussed. The
 recommended waste minimization options and the
 actual  experience with  implemented recommenda-
 tions are presented.

 Keywords:  *Metal finishing,  'Waste management,
 'Pollution  abatement, Assessments, Recommenda-
 tions, Technology utilization, Forecasting, Industrial
 wastes, Case studies, 'Waste minimization, Source re-
 duction. Small systems.
 PB91-1768S9/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Sludge Organics Bioavailability.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 G. E. Eiceman, C. A. Bellin, J. A. Ryan, and G. A.
 O'Connor. 1991,8p EPA/600/D-917032
 Pub. in Proceedings from  1989 International Battelle
 Symposium on Solid/Liquid Separation: Waste Man-
 agement and Productivity  Enhancement. Prepared in
 cooperation with New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.
 Dept. of Agronomy and Horticulture.

 Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that
 can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land
 application of sludge. Available data, however, show
 that  concentrations  of  priority organics  in  normal
 sludges are low. Sludges applied at agronomic rates
 yield chemical concentrations in soil-sludge mixtures
 50 to 100 fold lower. Plant uptake at these pollutant
 concentrations (and at much higher concentrations) is
 minimal. Chemicals are either (1) accumulated at ex-
 tremely low levels  (PCBs), (2) possibly accumulated,
 but then rapidly metabolized within plants to extremely
 low levels (DEHP),  or (3) likely degraded so rapidly in
 soil that only minor contamination occurs (PCP and
 2,4-DNP).

 Keywords:  'Sewage  sludge,  'Sludge  disposal, 'Or-
 ganic compounds, 'Soil contamination, 'Biological ef-
 fects. Toxic substances, Polychlorinated  biphenyls,
 Plants(Botany),  Path of  pollutants,   Farm  crops,
 Concentration(Composition), Plant metabolism, Bioac-
 cumulation.  Degradation.  Reprints,  Phthalic  acid/
 df(ethylhexvl-«ster), Phenol/pentachloro, Phenol/dini-
 tro.
PB91-176867/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Technical Baste of Pathogen and  Vector Attrac-
tion Reduction Requirements  in  EPA's  Sludge
Regulation  Proposed  February 1989. Symposium
paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. B. Farrell. 1989,34pEPA/600/D-91/033
Presented at American Water Works Association/
Water  Pollution Control Federation Joint  Residuals
Management Conference, San Diego, CA., August 13-
16,1989.

In response  to the requirements of the Clean Water
Act, EPA is developing comprehensive regulations for
the use and disposal of sewage sludge, and published
proposed regulations in  the Federal Register on Feb-
ruary 6. 1989. A portion of these regulations covers
disposal and use of sludge on land. The requirements
for pathogen and vector attraction reduction in the


18     Vol. 91, No. 3
 sludge to be disposed to the land are presented, and
 their technical bases are described. The proposed reg-
 ulation is similar in approach to the current regulation
 but corrects its deficiencies. Instead of requiring use of
 specifically described  processes that individually must
 reduce pathogen densities and vector attraction to the
 desired level, the proposed regulation instead  sets
 performance goals. For example, Allowable maximum
 microbial densities (usually fecal indicator densities) in
 the final sludge product have been identified instead of
 describing process conditions to achieve these densi-
 ties.  For  vector attraction reduction,  performance
 goals could be set, but they are not independent of
 process type. The presentation provides scientific evi-
 dence supporting the approach taken. Publication of
 the regulation after consideration of public comment is
 expected in January 1992.

 Keywords: 'Pollution  regulations,  'Sewage  sludge,
 'Sludge  disposal,  'Pathogens,  'Disease vectors,
 Ground disposal, Waste  disposal, US EPA, Perform-
 ance standards. Pollution abatement, Waste manage-
 ment, Public health, Environmental effects, Infectious
 diseases,  Risk  assessment,  Food chain, Sewage
 treatment, Bacteria, Clean Water Act.
 PB91-176875/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.
 Design and Performance of Slow Sand Filters in
 the Pacific Northwest
 Environmental  Protection  Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
 Drinking Water Research Div.
 G. Logsdon, S. Tanner, M. Grimm, and R. James.
 1989,15p EPA/600/D-91 /034
 Pub. in Proceedings, Annual Conference, American
 Water Works Association, p279-302,  Los Angeles,
 CA., June 18-22,  1989. Prepared in cooperation with
 Idaho Div. of Environmental Quality, Coeur d'Alene,
 and Oregon State  Health  Div.,  Portland.  Drinking
 Water Program. Sponsored by American Water Works
 Association, Denver, CO.

 The paper was prepared as a review of slow sand fil-
 tration design and operating practices  at 13 filtration
 plants constructed between 1958 and 1988 in the Pa-
 cific Northwest. It  represents an attempt to learn from
 the past in order to do a better job in the future. Among
 the topics presented are plant construction features,
 including media characteristics, filter design, and hy-
 draulics; water quality; and operation and maintenance
 practices. Narrative  descriptions of each plant are
 given, and some specific design and operating exam-
 ples are presented. Data from the  plants have been
 tabulated  so that frequently observed or common
 characteristics of design and operation  can be noted.
 Finally, some comments  are made  about  recent
 design and operating practices, in order to assist those
 who will design or operate  slow sand filters in  coming
 years.

 Keywords: 'Filtration, 'Water treatment, Water pro-
 duction, Maintenance, Water  quality.  Water filters,
 Water  supply. Hydraulics,  Purification,  Sand, Water
 treatment   devices,   Reprints,   Pacific   Northwest
 RegionfUnited States).
PB91-176883/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Slow Sand  Filtration in the United States (Book
Chapter).
Environmental Protection  Agency, Cincinnati,  OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
G. Logsdon, K. Fox, and N. J. D. Graham. C1991,11p*
EPA/600/D-91/035
Pub. in Slow Sand Filtration: Recent Developments in
Water  Treatment Technology, Section 1.3, p29-45
1988. See also PB88-238118.

Interest in slow sand filtration has increased dramati-
cally in the United States in the past ten years. Re-
search conducted to evaluate removal of Giardia cysts
and bacteria, showed that stow sand filtration is very
effective in removal of these contaminants. Slow sand
filters are much simpler and easier to operate than
plants that employ coagulation. Thus they are very well
suited for treatment of previously unfiltered  surface
waters and would be well suited for small utilities serv-
ing from 25 to 3000 persons. The U.S. EPA estimates
that about 1000 slow sand filters may be  built as a
result of proposed EPA regulations on surface water
treatment.

Keywords: 'Sand filtration, 'Water treatment, Water
supply, Potable water, Water  services, Bacteria,  Vi-
 ruses, Giardia, Utilization, Water pollution, Slow sand
 filtration.
 PB91-176891/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Demonstration Projects Under the  U.S. EPA Su-
 perfund  Innovative  Technology  Evaluation Pro-
 gram. Symposium paper.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 J. F. Martin. 1991,10p EPA/600/D-91/036
 Pub. in the Annual Army Environmental Research and
 Development Symposium (14th) Proceedings, Novem-
 ber 14-16,1989, p25-32.

 The U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA) is
 engaged in an initiative called the Supertund Innova-
 tive Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. This pro-
 gram offers a mechanism for conducting joint technol-
 ogy demonstration/evaluation  projects between the
 private sector and EPA. The purpose of the program is
 to  provide an opportunity for developers to demon-
 strate the performance of their technologies on actual
 hazardous waste materials, and provide  reliable and
 accurate information for future cleanup activities at Su-
 perfund sites. Currently there are 38 active projects in
 the Demonstration Program. Eight of these projects in-
 volve solidification/stabilization, nine concentrate on
 thermal processes, five are biological processes, and
 the  remaining  16 include  separation  techniques,
 chemical treatment,  and in-place  vitrification. The
 paper briefly describes the active program and high-
 lights those demonstrations which have been complet-
 ed.

 Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, "Waste treatment,
 'Demonstration programs, US EPA, Remedial action,
 Waste  disposal, Biological  treatment, Incinerators,
 Separation, Vitrification,  Solidification, Stabilization,
 Technology utilization, Reprints, 'Superfund Innova-
 tive Technology Evaluation Program, Cleanup, Chemi-
 cal treatment.
 PB91-176909/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Demonstration of Hazardous Waste Site Treat-
 ment Technologies. Symposium paper.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 J. F. Martin. 1989,10p EPA/600/D-91/037
 Pub.  in Berlin Recycling Congress Proceedings, Berlin,
 Germany, November 1989, p1-8.

 The SITE Program is intended to accelerate the use of
 new  and innovative treatment processes that provide
 permanent control  of hazardous waste as well as
 evaluate  innovative measurement  and  monitoring
 techniques and pursue an active technology transfer
 program. Within the SITE Program, the Demonstration
 Program and the Emerging Technology Program are
 responsible  for alternative technology development.
 The  SITE Demonstration Program has as its major
 thrust the documentation of reliable performance and
 cost  information  for innovative alternative  technol-
 ogies. The demonstration projects identify limitations
 of the technology, the need for pre- or post-treatment
 of wastes, applicable wastes and waste media, poten-
 tial operating problems, and the approximate cost of
 applying the technology.

 Keywords: 'Demonstration   programs,  'Hazardous
 materials, 'Waste treatment, Technology  utilization,
 Substitutes,  Incineration, Waste disposal,  Solidifica-
 tion,  Cost analysis, Operating, Stabilization, Waste
 forms, Waste management, Extraction, Oxidation, Re-
 prints, 'Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation.


 PB91-176917/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Review of Federal/State Medical Waste Manage-
 ment
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 C. C. Lee, and G. L. Huffman. Feb 91,17p EPA/600/
 D-91/038

The paper will discuss what  has been learned as a
result of the following recent activities: (1) EPA's/Risk
Reduction Engineering  Laboratory's (RREL's) state-
of-the-art assessment of medical waste thermal treat-
ment; (2) the four medical waste management work-
shops co-sponsored by EPA's RREL, OSW,  and the
California Air Resources Board; (3) the passage of the
Medical Waste Tracking Act (MWTA) in 1988; (4) the
two-year Demonstration Program  required  by  the

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
MWTA in the 'covered' States; (5) the promulgation of
medical  waste  incineration standards  by  several
States; and (6) EPA's/Office of Solid Waste's (OSW's)
submittal of their first Interim Report to Congress. Be-
cause of the  information needed to support these ac-
tivities, both the Federal Government and States have
conducted various studies. The paper is to discuss
what has been learned as a result of these studies.

Keywords: 'Waste management, Waste  disposal,
Hospital solid wastes, Incineration, State of the art,
Meetings,  Pollution  regulations,   Standards compli-
ance, National government, Reviews,  State govern-
ment, Information transfer, Reprints, 'Medical wastes,
Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act,  Medical
Waste Tracking Act of 1988.
PB91-176925/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Membrane  Summary:  Performance,  Concerns,
and Regulations.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
B. W. Lykins. 1991,12p EPA/600/D-91 /039
Presented at the American Water Works Association
Membrane Processes  Conference,  Orlando,  FL,
March 10-13,1991.

Several Federal regulations have been promulgated
and many more are expected for limiting the concen-
trations of contaminants in drinking water. As  these
regulations are developed, Best Available Technology
(BAT) has to be stipulated for meeting these regula-
tions. Various treatment technologies have proven ef-
fective in controlling many drinking water  contami-
nants of concern. For instance, one of the most prom-
ising methods for halogenated by-product control in-
cludes removal of precursors before disinfection. Re-
search studies in Florida indicate that membranes are
effective in removing halogenated by-product precur-
sors from certain waters. There are also other regula-
tory concerns  where membranes can provide ade-
quate treatment.  Membranes can  be used for remov-
ing inorganics and  radionuclides. Also, with appropri-
ate pilot-scale and field  scale data, membranes could
possibly be considered  BAT for meeting the Surface
Water Treatment Rule requirements.

Keywords: 'Membranes, 'Thin films, 'Cellulose ace-
tate, "Polymeric films, 'Ultrafiltration, Water pollution
control, Ground  water,  Potable water,  Regulations,
Laboratory tests, Field tests, Technology assessment,
Best technology.
PB91-176933/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Production and Processing of Metals: Their Dis-
posal and Future Risks. Book chapter.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. C. Wilmoth, S. J. Hubbard, J. O. Burckle, J. F.
Martin, and E. Merian. c1991,49p EPA/600/D-91 /040
Pub. in Metals and Their Compounds in the Environ-
ment, Chapter I.2, p19-65 1991.

The report describes the various wastes streams that
are generated during the production and processing of
both metals and nonmetals. The waste  streams cre-
ated by these techniques are presented as well as
many of the current disposal practices used for these
wastes. The potential for environmental degradation
while handling these  wastes is  characterized.  A
number of waste disposal techniques are discussed.

Keywords:  'Beneficiation, 'Metals,  'Waste disposal,
'Tailings,    'Minerals,   Processing,   Production,
Reduction(Chemistry),  Lead(Metal),  Copper,  Iron,
Zinc,  Silver, Gold, Uranium, Mining, Phosphates, Re-
prints.
 PB91-176941/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Significance of DNA Damage and Repair Mecha-
 nisms in Health Risk Assessment
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
 L Rhomberg, V. L Dellarco, W. H. Fartand, and R. S.
 Cortesi. Oct 89,9p EPA/600/D-917041
 Presented at Brookhaven Symposium in Biology No.
 36, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY., Oc-
 tober 1-4,1989.

 Estimations of human risk are  generally based  on
 animal studies, and thus require a species-to-species
 extrapolation. Such data are usually obtained at expo-
 sure levels much higher than those ordinarily encoun-
tered by humans; consequently, estimates of low-dose
risk require a consideration of how the animal dose-re-
sponse can be extrapolated to lower exposures. Infor-
mation on mechanisms and rates of DNA repair and on
similarities and differences among different cell types
and species is important in the development of biologi-
cally based extrapolation models for quantitative risk
assessment. Such information serves to guide or to
provide  insight  into predicted  shapes  of  dose-re-
sponse curves at low exposures and how to extrapo-
late risk across species. The paper will present a con-
ceptual outline  for considering how information  on
DNA damage and repair mechanism may be applica-
ble to the  assessment of  health  risks,  particularly
those posed by exposure to carcinogens and muta-
gens.

Keywords:  'Risk assessment,  *DNA damage, 'Toxi-
cology, 'Health  hazards, DNA repair, Dose-response
relationships, Extrapolation, Carcinogens, Mutagens,
Quantitative analysis,  Species specificity,  Cultured
cells, Pharmacokinetics, Cytokinetics, Reprints.
PB91-176958/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Quantitative Approaches to Human Risk Assess-
ment for Noncancer Health Effects. Journal article.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
C. A. Kimmel. c1990,11 p EPA/600/D-91 /043
Pub. in NeuroToxicology 11, p189-198 1990. Present-
ed at International Neurotoxicology Conference (7th),
Little Rock, AR., September 18-21,1989.

The estimation of risk for health effects due to chemi-
cal exposure is important to the development of stand-
ards for regulating the manufacture, use and release of
chemicals into the environment. The quantitative data
used to develop risk estimates usually come from labo-
ratory animal studies employing relatively high dose
levels. Thus, both interpolation from high to low dose
levels  and extrapolation from laboratory  animals to
humans are required. The approach most widely used
for noncancer end points is to determine  the no-ob-
served-adverse-effect level (NOAEL)  for the critical
effect and then apply uncertainty factors (UFs) to ac-
count for scientific uncertainties in the total data base,
such as response variability within and between spe-
cies, the lack of chronic exposure data, and lack of a
NOAEL, etc. The resulting value is a reference dose
(RfD), the dose at or below which there is unlikely to be
any excess risk. Research is currently underway to fur-
ther develop and explore the application of such ap-
proaches.

Keywords: "Health hazards, 'Risk assessment, 'Haz-
ardous substances, 'Environmental pollutants, Dose-
response relationships,  Quantitative analysis, Evalua-
tion. Reprints,  'Reference doses, "Noncancer health
effects, No-observed-adverse effect level(NOAEL).
 PB91-176966/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 OOAS Urban Pollution Measurements.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 R. K. Stevens, and T. L. Vossler. 1991,13p EPA/600/
 D-91/044

 During July and August of 1990, a differential optical
 absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc.
 was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three
 separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 (1099
 m) and path  2 (1824 m), ozone  (O3), sulfur dioxide
 (SO2), nitrogen dioxide  (NO2), nitrous acid (HNO2),
 formaldehyde (HCHO),  benzene,  toluene, and o-
 xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia
 (NH3) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data
 quality and data capture depended on the compound
 being measured and the path over which it was meas-
 ured. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations
 measured over path 2, which crossed over an inter-
 state highway, were higher than concentrations meas-
 ured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles
 on the highway as a significant source of these com-
 pounds.  Federal  Reference Method  (FRM)  instru-
 ments and a gas chromatograph  (GC) were located
 near the DOAS light receivers  and operated concur-
 rently. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were
 obtained between the DOAS and  FRM's for O3, NO2,
 and NO; however, there was a difference between the
 mean values  obtained by the two methods for O3 and
 NO. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were ob-
 tained between the DOAS and GC measurements of
 benzene and o-xylene. However, the correlation coef-
ficient between the DOAS and GC measurements of
toluene averaged only 0.15 for the two DOAS meas-
urement paths. The lack of correlation and other fac-
tors indicate the possibility of a localized source of tol-
uene near the GC.

Keywords:  'Air pollution  detection,  "Urban areas,
'Gas analysis, Xylenes, Absorption spectroscopy, Pol-
lution sources, Exhaust emissions, Chemical analysis,
Gas chromatography,  Concentration(Composition),
Toluene, Benzene, Ammonia, Nitrogen oxide(NO), Air
pollution sampling, Ozone, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen di-
oxide, Nitrous acid, Formaldehyde, 'Differential optical
absorption spectrometers.
PB91-176974/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-Tetrach-
lorodibenzo-p-dioxin and Related Compounds in
Aquatic Ecosystems.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
P. M. Cook, M. K. Walker, D. W. Kuehl, and R. E.
Peterson. C1990,38p EPA/600/D-91/045
Prepared in cooperation with  Wisconsin Univ.-Madi-
son.

In order to complete ecological or human health risk
assessments,  exposure  of  aquatic  organisms to
2,3,7,8-tetrachorodibenzo-p-dioxin  (TCDD)  and relat-
ed chemicals must be linked to toxic or other biological
effects in fish, wildlife, or man.

Keywords:  "Water  pollution  effects(Animals),  *Te-
trachlorodibenzodioxin, 'Aquatic ecosystems, Risk as-
sessment, Health hazards, Pharmacokinetics, Fishes,
Food chains, Biological availability, Reprints.
 PB91-176982/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC.
 Effects of Ozone Exposure on Lipid Metabolism in
 Human Alveolar Macrophages.
 North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill. Center for Environ-
 mental Medicine and Lung Biology.
 M. Friedman, M. C. Madden, J. M. Samet, and H. S.
 Koren. c1991,29p EPA/600/D-91 /046
 Grant EPA-R-812738
 Sponsored  by  Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC.

 Alveolar macrophages (AM) store arachidpnic acid
 (AA)  which is esterified in  cellular phospholipids until
 liberated by phpspholipase A2 or C after exposure to
 inflammatory stimuli. Following release, there can be
 subsequent metabolism of  AA into various potent, bio-
 logical active mediators including prostagiandins and
 platelet activating factor (PAF). To examine the possi-
 bility that these mediators may account for some of the
 pathophysiologic alterations seen in the lung following
 O3 exposure, human AM were collected by bronchoal-
 veolar lavage of normal subjects, plated into tissue cul-
 ture dishes, and the adherent cells were incubated
 with 3H-AA or 3H-lysoPAF. Human AM exposed 1.0
 ppm O3 for 2 hr released 65 + or -12% more tritium,
 derived from 3H-AA, than paired air-exposed controls
 into media supernatants. In other  studies using a simi-
 lar 03 exposure protocol, there was also a significant
 increase in human AM PGE2 production (2.0 + or - 0.5
 fold-increase  above air-exposure  values, p<0.01,
 n=17). In additional studies, using a similar O3 expo-
 sure  protocol (1.0 ppm for 1 hr), there was also a sig-
 nificant increase in human AM PAF content (1.7 + or -
 0.2 fold-increase above air-exposure values, p<0.02,
 n=5).

 Keywords:  "Air pollution  effects(Humans),  "Ozone,
 'Pulmonary alveoli, 'Macrophages, 'Lipids, "Metabo-
 lism,  Arachidpnic acids, Phospholipids, Phospholipase
 A2, Phospholipase C, Prostagiandins,  Platelet-activat-
 ing factor, Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, High pressure
 liquid chromatography, Thin  layer chromatography,
 Statistical analysis, Eicosanoids.
 PB91-176990/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Use of Cell Culture for Evaluating Neurotoxicity.
 Book chapter.
 Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
 Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
 B. Veronesi. 1991,68p EPA/600/D-91 /047

 The chapter familiarizes the reader with the need to
 develop, validate and utilize in vitro models to test
 chemicals for neurotoxic  potential. The major advan-
                                                                                                                                Sept1991      19

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
tages and disadvantages of using cell and tissue cul-
ture, factors which have stimulated and hampered the
promulgation of in vitro models for neurotoxicity testing
and recent improvements in tissue culture methodolo-
gies are discussed. The rationale of using tissue cul-
ture for evaluating neurotoxicants and the unique as-
pects of culturing nervous  tissue will be described.
Major considerations for designing screening tests and
factors used in selecting a screening battery are dis-
cussed. Topics such as parameters in the validation
process, choice and  quantification of endpoints (i.e.,
cytotoxic and neurotoxic), cost and technical require-
ments; choice of test chemicals and other quality con-
trol aspects are discussed.

Keywords: 'Nervous system,   'Toxicity,  'Cultured
cells. In vitro analysis, Nerve tissue, Toxic substances,
Cell survival, Reprints.
PB91-177006/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park,NC.
Regression on Medians of Probability  Distribu-
tions.
ManTech  Environmental Technology, Inc., Research
Triangle Park, NC.
M. R. Sumler. H. L Fisher, and L. L. Hall. 1991,20p
EPA/600/D-91/048
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Sponsored by Health  Effects Research Lab., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

The median is a fundamental parameter in the area of
lifetime and survival statistics. In toxicodynamics the
LD50, lethal dose that results in 50% mortality, is fre-
quently used. The median is also used to describe the
incidence of cancer and other disease states. Factors
such as nutritional status, age of animal, and exposure
to a second chemical can cause the LD50 to shift. It is
therefore desirable to determine a functional relation-
ship between the median of a distribution and a cofac-
tor. The paper used SAS to examine the use of median
regression to predict a continuous dependent variable
as a function of a single cofactor and compare these
results to  the standard ordinary least squares regres-
sion techniques. Two data sets were generated  using
the SAS RANUNI and NORMAL functions. In one, the
median line was proportional to  the mean line, and
both the median and mean had positive slopes with re-
spect to a cofactor. In the  other,  the slope of the
median line was positive while that of the mean line
was negative.

Keywords: 'Lethal  dose 50, 'Toxic tolerances, Car-
cinogenesis, Epidemiology, Regression analysis. Sur-
vival analysts,  Dose-response relationships,  Mortality,
Probabilistic   estimation,   'Statistical   Analysis
System(SAS).
PB91-177014/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) Data Base.
Health Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park,NC.
M. D. Waters. H. F. Stack, and M. A. Jackson. 11 Jan
91,21pEPA/600/D-91/049
Prepared in cooperation with Environmental  Health
Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park,
NC.

The report provides an update on the status of the ge-
netic activity profile (GAP) data base which now con-
sists of more than 400 chemicals. The data base is
available in a  personal computer software package
which is described in the report. The report also de-
scribes several of the ways in which the data base and
associated methodology are currently being utilized by
international and U.S. governmental agencies and by
industry. These include: (I)  Evaluation of genetic and
related effects of suspected human carcinogens, (II)
Comparative  evaluation  of genetic activity profiles
using computer-based profile matching techniques,
(III) Testing and evaluation of complex mixtures, and
(IV) Weigm-of-evidence ranking schemes. The funda-
mental techniques and computer programs devised for
the GAP data base  may be used to develop similar
data bases In genetic toxicology and in other disci-
plines.

Keywords:  "Mutagens, 'Carcinogens, Test methods,
Microcomputers, Dose-response relationships, Com-
parative study,  Mutagenicity  tests, Carcinogenicity
tests. Data bases, 'Genetic Activity Profile Database,
Weight-of-evidence ranking.
PB91-177022/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Reply to Discussion by Geoff Kite: Relationship
between Annual Runoff and Watershed Area for
the Eastern United States. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
B. P. Rochelle, M. R. Church, W. A. Gebert, D. J.
Graczyk, and W. R. Krug. C1988,4p  EPA/600/J-88/
558
Pub. in Water Resources Bulletin, v24 n5 p1115-1116
Oct 88. See also PB90-108226. Prepared in coopera-
tion  with NSI  Technology Services Corp.,  Corvallis,
OR., and Geological Survey, Madison, Wl.

The study was  initiated  because annual  runoff is
needed for several analyses  being conducted by the
U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA). The
study was concerned with the existence of a relation-
ship between annual runoff volume per unit area and
area; the reason underlying the relationship is unim-
portant. The variables were chosen based on the esti-
mation procedure used in previous studies. Thus, the
procedure of using runoff maps to estimate  annual
runoff for the Southern  Blue  Ridge  Province and
Northeast has no apparent  bias  due to  watershed
area.

Keywords: 'Estimates, 'Surface water runoff, 'Water-
sheds, Correlation, Volume,  Area, Utilization,  Maps,
Drainage, Hydrology,  Water flow, Statistical analysis,
Eastern Region(United States), 'Annual variations.
 PB91-1770307REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Characterization of Advanced Sorbents for Dry
 SO2 Control (Journal Article).
 Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 W. Jozewicz, J. C. S. Chang, C. B. Sedman, and T. G.
 Bma. C1988,22p EPA/600/J-88/559
 Contract EPA-68-02-3988
 Pub. in Reactivity of Solids, v6 p243-262  1988. See
 also PB88-175857. Presented at the AlChE Spring Na-
 tional Meeting  held in Houston, TX. on March 29-April
 2,  1987.  Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection
 Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy
 Engineering Research Lab.

 The paper discusses the development of new flyash/
 lime sorbents  for removing SO2 from coal-fired flue
 gas. Flyash/lime weight ratios of 1:1 to 10:1 and sever-
 al additives to these sorbents for promoting their reac-
 tivity were evaluated in a bench-scale reactor simulat-
 ing conditions in a fabric filter. Of the additives tested,
 Na2HPO4.7H2O, (NH4)2HPO4, and H3PO4 signifi-
 cantly enhanced the reactivity of the dry sorbents with
 SO2. Alternative sources of silica were reacted with
 lime, and the resultant dry sorbents were shown  to  be
 highly  reactive with  SO2.  Of the siliceous materials
 tested, several diatomaceous earths, montmorillonitic
 clays, and kaolins were identified as containing  reac-
 tive silica. The  morphology of the sorbents developed
 was characterized. The information,  along with the  re-
 actor test results, was used to rate the sorbents  for
 pilot plant evaluation.

 Keywords: 'Sulfur dioxide, 'Adsorbents, 'Air pollution
 control, 'Fly ash, 'Calcium oxides. Chemical reactivity,
 Additives, Silicon dioxide, Flue gases,  Phosphates,
 Stationary sources, Coal combustion, Filters, Surface
 properties,  Technology assessment, Reprints,  'Dry
 sulfur dioxide control.
PB91-177048/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Advanced Electrostatic Stimulation of Fabric Fil-
tration: Performance and Economics (Journal Ar-
ticle).
Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, NC.
A. S. Vmer, G. P. Greiner, and L S. Hovis. C1988,12p
EPA/600/J-88/560
Pub. in JAPCA, v38 n12 p1573-1582 Dec 88. See also
PB87-195368. Prepared in cooperation with ETS, Inc.,
Roanoke, VA. Sponsored by Environmental Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy
Engineering Research Lab.

The paper discusses the performance and economics
of advanced electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration
(AESFF), in which a high-voltage electrode is placed
coaxialty inside a filter bag to establish an electric field
between the electrode and the bag surface. The elec-
tric field alters the dust deposition pattern in the bag,
yielding a much lower pressure drop than that in a con-
ventional bag. Pilot plant results show that AESFF
bags can operate with a rate of pressure loss that is
70% below that for conventional bags. The presence
of the electric field also affects the aging characteris-
tics of the AESFF bags. On the average, the AESFF
bags had residual drags that were 10% below those of
conventional  bags.  The results show that AESFF
baghouses can yield the same pressure  drop perform-
ance  as conventional baghouses while operating at
much higher  air/cloth ratios. An economic analysis
evaluated the capital,  operating,  and  maintenance
costs for electric utility plants ranging from 200 to 1000
MW.  For AESFF baghouses, the capital cost  was
found to be 25 to 48% below that of a conventional
baghouse.  A  lifetime cost analysis predicts a  net
present value  for an AESFF baghouse that is 10 to
30% below that of a conventional baghouse.

Keywords:  'Baghouses, 'Fabric filters, 'Electrostat-
ics, 'Air pollution control equipment, 'Dust filters, Fab-
rics, Dust collectors, Performance tests, Electric power
plants,  Electrodes, Economic analysis, Air pollution
abatement, Filtration, Stimulation.
PB91-177055/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Evaluation of Control Strategies for Volatile Or-
ganic Compounds in Indoor Air (Journal Article).
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
K. Ramanathan, and V. L. Debler. c1988,8p EPA/
600/J-88/561
Grant EPA-R812522
Pub. in Environmental Progress, v7 n4 p 230-235 Nov
88. See also PB8B-158951.  Sponsored by Environ-
mental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper discusses research which evaluates the ap-
plication of adsorption techniques to the control of
indoor organic vapors. The adsorption on activated
carbon of three compounds representing three class-
es of organic species was studied at 30 C in the con-
centration range zero to 200 ppb using  a  microba-
lance. The three were benzene (aromatic), acetalde-
hyde (oxygenated aliphatic), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane
(halogenated aliphatic). Three sorbents (a wood base
carbon, a coal base carbon, and a coconut shell base
carbon) were  examined. Uptakes for all the com-
pounds on all the carbons were low (on the order of 10
to the minus 7th power gmpl/g carbon). Simulation of
a packed bed of carbon indicated that carbon adsorp-
tion may not be practical for continuous removal, but
may be applicable to sudden releases (e.g., spills). Po-
tential alternatives to  activated carbon adsorption are
discussed. Potentially toxic organic vapors are emitted
from a  wide variety of building materials, consumer
products, and human activities. Control of indoor or-
ganic vapors generally involves removing the source
and/or increasing the ventilation rate. The ubiquitous
nature of sources of organic vapors generally makes
source  removal  impractical.  Increased ventilation
causes increased energy usage with its resultant eco-
nomic penalties. Therefore, practical removal methods
are needed.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Indoor air pollution,
'Volatile organic compounds, Adsorption, Activated
carbon  treatment, Construction materials,  Pollution
sources, Ventilation, Substitutes, Consumer products.
Toxic substances, Performance evaluation, Buildings,
Reprints.
PB91-177063/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Mechanisms Governing Transients from the Batch
Incineration  of Liquid Wastes in  Rotary Kilns.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
J. O. L. Wendt, and W. P. Linak. C1988,19p EPA/600/
J-88/562
Pub. in Combustion  Science and Technology, v61
p169-1851988. Presented at the International Sympo-
sium on Combustion (22nd), Seattle, WA., August 14-
19,  1988. Prepared in cooperation with Arizona Univ.,
Tucson. Dept. of Chemical Engineering.

The paper describes mechanisms coveming tran-
sients from the batch incineration of liquid wastes in
rotary kilns. When containerized liquid  wastes, bound
on sorbents, are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch
mode,  transient phenomena involving heat  transfer
into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can
20     Vol.  91, No.  3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
promote the rapid release of waste vapor into the kiln
environment. This rapid vapor release can deplete and
displace excess oxygen from the primary flame, and
form a puff, which can result in temporary failure of the
incinerator. Parametric studies on a specially designed
rotary kiln incinerator simulator showed that puffs are
very easily generated even with small  quantities of
wastes and at excess air  values exceeding  100%.
Furthrmore, their magnitudes and intensities increase
with increasing kiln tempere and rotation speed. A the-
oretical model describing simultaneous heat and mass
transfer into a sorbent aggregate, coupled with vapor-
pressure-driven waste vaporization within the sorbent
aggregate, was combined with a fragmentation model
and was able qualitatively to predict experimentally ob-
served effects relating to puff duration, kiln  rotation
speed and temperature, and stoichiometric oxygen re-
quirement of the waste. The model was extrapolated
to conditions beyond the experimental test matrix.

Keywords:  'Liquid  waste  disposal,   'Incinerators,
'Kilns, Design criteria, Performance evaluation, Sor-
bents, Mass transfer, Mathematical models, Combus-
tion efficiency,  Heat transfer, Stoichiometry, Flame
stability, Oxygenation, Reprints, 'Puffs.
PB91-177071/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Plant Uptake  of  Non-Ionic  Organic  Chemicals
from Soils. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. A. Ryan, R. M. Bell, J. M. Davidson, and G. A.
O'Connor. C1988,27p EPA/600/J-88/563
Pub. in Chemosphere, v17 n12 p2299-2323 1988. Pre-
pared in  cooperation with Liverpool Univ. (England).
Environmental Advisory  Unit, Florida  Univ.,  Gaines-
ville, and  New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

There are over 200 industrial waste  land treatment
sites in the United States, and a larger number of land
treatment sites for  municipal wastewater and sludge
(Loehr and Malina, 1986). Land disposal of wastes has
increased during the past decade and is projected to
continue  to increase in the future (Loehr  and Malina,
1986). The study of organic chemicals in the soil envi-
ronment has been dominated by agricultural chemicals
(e.g., insecticides,  nematicides and herbicides)  and
specific compounds that persist in the soil (e.g., PCB's,
PBB's etc.). Therefore the document discusses meth-
odologies utilizing  simple properties  of  chemicals-
half-life (T(sub 1/2)), log octanolwater partition coeffi-
cient (log K(sub ow)) and Henry's Law constant (Hc)~
are developed to screen organic chemicals for poten-
tial plant uptake.

Keywords:  'Plants(Botany), 'Organic  compounds,
'Waste disposal, 'Soil contamination, 'Land pollution,
Ground  disposal.  Soil  mechanics.  Environmental
transport, Industrial wasts, Sewage sludge, Agricultur-
al  chemicals, Pesticides, Physicochemical properties,
Environmental effects, Reprints.
PB91-177089/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Effect of Methyl Parathion on Food Discrimination
in Northern Bobwhite ('Colinus virginianus'). Jour-
nal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
J. L. Bussiere, R. J. Kendall, T. E. Lacher, and R. S.
Bennett. c1989,9p EPA/600/J-89/510
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and  Chemistry, v8
p1125-1131  1989. Presented at the Annual Meeting of
the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemis-
try (8th), Pensacola, FL, November 9-12, 1987. Pre-
pared in cooperation with Western Washington Univ.,
Bellingham. Inst. of Wildlife Toxicology.

The effect of methyl parathion on dietary discrimina-
tion ability  was assessed  in  two-week-old  northern
bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). An initial oral dose of
methyl parathion (0, 3 or 6 mg/kg: O, O-dimethyl O-(4-
nitrophenyl)ester) was given to two subgroups of bob-
white before a 6-d food discrimination test; one group
was tested with a choice of food treated with 45 ppm
methyl parathion versus normal food and the second
with a choice of 90  ppm treated  food versus normal
food. The average discrimination ratios (i.e., amount of
treated to untreated food consumed) were used to in-
dicate the chicks' ability to discriminate and avoid con-
taminated food. Chicks administered 6  mg/kg methyl
parathion did not discriminate between treated and un-
treated food at either food treatment level and initially
chose  treated over  untreated  food  (ratio=1.28;
p<0.05). Brain cholinesterase activity in the  6 mg/kg
groups averaged 50%  of control levels,  indicating high
exposure to methyl parathion, which correlated with a
behavioral disturbance (i.e.,preference for treated food
on day 1). Cholinesterase activity did not correlate with
the discrimination  ratios throughout the remainder of
the 6-d exposure period due to the strong side prefer-
ence that developed in the treated groups. The study
demonstrates that feeding behavior and taste discrimi-
nation ability of bobwhite chicks was impaired due to
exposure  to  methyl parathion. (Copyright  (c)  1989
SETAC.)

Keywords: 'Methyl parathion,  'Birds, 'Wildlife, 'Feed-
ing behavior, Dose-response relationships, Avoidance
behavior, Body weight, Food  consumption, Cholines-
terase, Food contamination, Reprints, 'Taste discrimi-
nation, 'Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus.
PB91-177097/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Trial  Burn Results and Future Activities of  the
EPA Mobile Incinerator. Journal article.
Foster Wheeler Enviresponse, Inc., Edison, NJ.
J. M. Perdek, F. J. Freestone, G. D. Gupta, G. King,
and R. H. Sawyer. C1989,6p EPA/600/J-89/511
Contract EPA-68-03-3255
Pub. in Chemosphere, v19 n1 -6 p561 -564 1989. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,
OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The EPA Mobile Incinerator has demonstrated its abili-
ty to successfully destroy dioxin. A trial burn conducted
in  1987 demonstrated the incinerator's ability to de-
stroy  a  wide  variety of compounds. The destruction
and removal efficiency (ORE) of carbon tetrachloride,
hexachloroethane, and trichlorobenzene was greater
than the required 99.99%, and the ORE for PCBs was
greater than the required 99.9999%. The field demon-
stration  of the mobile incinerator that began in 1985 is
scheduled for completion  in  1989  after incinerating
4,530,000 kg of waste material.

Keywords:    'Incinerators,   'Portable   equipment,
'Waste  disposal, Combustion efficiency, Demonstra-
tions, Dioxins, Forecasting, Performance evaluation,
US EPA, Carbon tetrachloride, Polychlorinated biphen-
yls, Reprints, Ethane/hexachloro, Benzene/trichloro.
PB91-177105/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Controlling Organics with GAC: A Cost and Per-
formance Analysis. Journal article.
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
J. Q. Adams, R. M. Clark, and R. J. Miltner. c1989,11 p
EPA/600/J-89/512
Pub. in Jnl. of American Water Works Association 81,
n4p132-140Apr89.

The amendments to the US Safe Drinking Water Act
require extensive evaluation of the feasibility of remov-
ing  organic  compounds  using  granular  activated
carbon (GAC). To meet deadlines for the technology
evaluation, the US Environmental Protection Agency
has combined the use of column studies and adsorp-
tion modeling with cost models to make projections for
the performance of full-scale GAC systems. A repre-
sentative list of synthetic organic chemicals was stud-
ied, and cost and performance results for GAC treat-
ment are presented in the article.

Keywords:  'Water  treatment,  'Granular  activated
carbon  treatment, 'Potable water,  'Organic  com-
pounds, Cost  analysis, Performance  evaluation, Ad-
sorption, Mathematical  models,  Feasibility studies,
Technology utilization, Reprints.
 PB91-177113/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Activation and Reactivity of Novel Calcium-Based
 Sorbents for Dry SO2 Control in Boilers (Journal
 Article).
 Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 W. Jozewicz, and D. A. Kirchgessner. c1989,11p
 EPA/600/J-89/513
 Contract EPA-68-02-4701
 Pub.  in Powder Technology 58, p221-229 1989. See
 also PB88-250212. Presented at the Annual Pittsburgh
 Coal  Conference (5th) held in Pittsburgh, PA. on Sep-
 tember 9-11, 1988. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
 tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and
 Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Chemically modified Ca(OH)2 sorbents for SO2 con-
trol in  utility  boilers  were tested in  an electrically
heated, bench-scale isothermal flow reactor, operated
at between 700 and 1000 C and residence times of
from 0.6 to 2  sec calculated from bulk gas flowrates.
Novel  surfactant-modified  Ca(OH)2  (SM-Ca(OH)2)
sorbents  were compared to conventional Ca(OH)2
produced by  dry hydration (DH-Ca(OH)2). Sorbents
were activated in the flow reactor. The gas composi-
tion was 5 vol  % oxygen with the balance nitrogen. Ac-
tivated sorbents, SM-CaO and  DH-CaO,  were size
classified with an  inertial cascade impactor down-
stream of the flow reactor. The structure of each sepa-
rated fraction (six trays plus preimpactor, D50 from
0.74 to >  11.9 micrometers) was characterized by ni-
trogen  adsorption.  For  each size fraction measured,
the surface area was higher for SM-CaO than for DH-
CaO. The effect of thermal sintering was the increase
of median pore size as a result of eliminating fine pores
(below 100  A). Changes  in the pore structure of
Ca(OH)2 sorbents reacting with SO2 were also investi-
gated. The effect of thermal sintering on pore structure
of sorbents reacting with SO2 was  eliminated. The
degree of conversion was controlled by varying gas-
phase  mass transfer resistance (SO2 concentrations
from 50 to 3000 ppm).

Keywords: 'Sulfur dioxide, 'Air pollution control, 'Ad-
sorbents, 'Calcium oxides, Activation, Chemical reac-
tivity, Boilers, Stationary sources, Sintering, Surface
properties, Technology  assessment, Combustion, Re-
prints.
PB91-177121/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Effects of Sewage Sludge  on Di- (2-Ethylhexyl)
Phthalate Uptake by Plants. Journal article.
New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.
J. M. Aranda, G. A. O'Connor, and G. A. Eiceman.
C1989, 8p EPA/600/J-89/514
Pub. in Jnl. of Environmental  Quality, v18 n1 p45-50
Jan/Mar 89. Sponsored by  Environmental Protection
Agency, Cincinnati,  OH. Risk  Reduction  Engineering
Lab.


Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic
pollutant frequently found  in  municipal  sludges.  A
greenhouse study was conducted to determine the ef-
fects of sludge on  plant uptake of (14)C-DEHP (car-
bonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain
crops, lettuce  (Lactuca  sativa  L.), carrot (Daucus
carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and
tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).  Net (14)C
concentration  in plants grown in soil amended with
(14)C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of
sludge rate (at the  same DEHP loading) for lettuce,
chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net (14)C concentration,
however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot
tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not de-
tected in plants by  gas chromatography/mass spec-
trometry analysis. Calculated  plant DEHP concentra-
tions based on measured net (14)C concentrations
and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated
better with DEHP  soil solution  concentrations than
with total DEHP soil concentrations.  Net  (14)C-DEHP
bioconcentration factors  were calculated from initial
soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights.  Bio-
concentration  factors ranged from 0.01  to 0.03  for
fescue, lettuce, carrots,  and  chile,  suggesting little
DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was
not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was
of minor importance and  would not limit  sludge addi-
tions to the soils used to grow these crops. (Copyright
(c) 1989, ASA, CSSA, SSSA.)

Keywords: 'Sewage sludge,  'Plants(Botany), 'Land
pollution, 'Sludge disposal, Soil contamination, Food
chains, Ground disposal, Farm crops, Waste disposal,
Isotopic  labeling, Tracer  techniques, Path of pollut-
ants, Sampling, Concentration(Composition), Phtha-
lates,   Carbon   14,  Reprints,  'Phthalic  acid/
di(ethylhexyl-ester).
 PB91-177139/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency. Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Sources of Error in An
                    &nalysis of Municipal Sludges
 and  Sludge-Amended-Soils for Di(2-etnylhexyl)
 Phthalate. Journal article.
 New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     21

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
 G. A. Eiceman, J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, G. A.
 O'Connor, and N. S. Urquhart. C1989,9p EPA/600/J-
 89/515
 Grant EPA-R812687-02
 Pub. in Jnl.  of  Environmental Quality 18, p374-379
 1989.  Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection
 Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
 Lab.

 Rapid quantitative determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl)
 phtnalate (DEHP) in municipal sludge is described for
 capillary  gas  chromatography/mass   spectrometry
 (GC/MS) using selected ion monitoring with isotope di-
 lution techniques. Propagation of error through a four-
 step technique is measured as an increase in variance
 with each additional step. Stepwise accumulated varia-
 tion (as a percentage of total error) was GC/MS analy-
 sis with data reduction, 3%; analyst (sample prepara-
 tion), 8%  heterogeneity of sludge, 30%; heterogeneity
 in sludge-amended soil,  77%;  and errors  between
 planters, 100%.  The relative standard deviation (RSD)
 associated with  analysis of sludge alone was 16% at
 51 mg/kg DEHP. Analysis precision was dependent on
 sample size and DEHP concentration. The RSD for a
 13 mg/kg DEHP loading in soil/sludge mixtures for a
 greenhouse  study was 26.5%. Detection limits  for
 DEHP in sludges with rapid screening procedures
 were fixed by interfering extractable matrices.

 Keywords:  'Sewage  sludge,  'Chemical  analysis,
 'Error analysis, *Land pollution, *Waste disposal, Gas
 chromatography. Mass spectroscopy. Ground dispos-
 al,   Soil   contamination,   Path   of   pollutants,
 Plants(Botany),  Phthalates, Sample preparation, Re-
 prints, 'Phthalic acid/di(ethylhexyl-ester).
 PB91-177147/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Survival of Bacteria during Aerosoiization. Journal
 article.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 8. Marthi, V. P. Fieland, M. Walter, and R. J. Seidler.
 C1990, 7p EPA/600/J-90/433
 Pub. in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v56
 n11 p3463-3467 Nov 90. Prepared in cooperation with
 NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.

 One form of commercial application of  microorga-
 nisms,  including  genetically engineered  microorga-
 nisms is as an aerosol. To study the effect of aerosol-
 induced stress on bacterial survival, nonrecombinant
 spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants of four orga-
 nisms, Enterobacter cloacae, Erwinia herbicola, Kleb-
 siella planticola,  and Pseudomonas syringae,  were
 sprayed in separate experiments in a greenhouse.
 Samples were collected over a distance of 15 m from
 the spray site for enumeration. Spores of Bacillus sub-
 tilis were used as tracers to estimate the effects of dilu-
 tion on  changes  in population over distance. Viable
 counts of P.  syringae, Enterobacter cloacae, and K.
 planticola decreased significantly over a distance of 15
 m. Erwinia herbicola showed no significant decline in
 counts over the same distance. The degree of survival
 of P. syringae during aerosoiization was dependent on
 ambient environmental conditions (i.e.. temperature,
 relative humidity),  droplet size of the aerosol, and prior
 preparative conditions. Survival was greatest at high
 relative humidities (70 to 80%) and low temperatures
 (12 C). Survival was reduced when small droplet sizes
 were used. The process of washing the cells prior to
 aerosoiization also caused a reduction in their survival.
 Results from these experiments will be useful in devel-
 oping sound methodologies to optimize enumeration
 and for predicting the downwind dispersal of airborne
 microorganisms,   including  genetically   engineered
 microorganisms. (Copyright (c) 1990, American Socie-
 ty for Microbiology.)

 Keywords:  'Bacterial  spores,  'Aerosols, 'Survival
 analysis, Humidity,  Droplets,  Ambient temperature,
 Cell survival, Bacillus subtilis, Reprints, * Enterobacter
cloacae,  'Erwinia herbicola,  'Klebsiella  planticola,
 'Pseudomonas syringe.


 PB91-1771S4/REB               PC A01/MF A01
 Ecotoxlcology: Problems and Approaches (Book
Review). Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
A. Fairbrother. C1990,3p EPA/600/J-90/434
 Pub. in Jnl. of Wildlife Diseases, v26 n1 p1431990.

In today's chemical-oriented  society, any student of
ecology must be cognizant of the potential for environ-
mental toxicants to alter the balances and relation-
ships among the plants, animals and biogeochemical
 cycles in an ecosystem. 'Ecotoxicology: Problems and
 Approaches' provides a well-balanced overview of the
 subject that would be useful for specialists in ecotoxi-
 cology or in related applied ecology disciplines and as
 a supplementary text  for graduate-level courses in
 ecology. (Copyright (c) Wildlife Disease Association
 1990.)

 Keywords: 'Terrestrial ecosystems, 'Toxicology, 'En-
 vironmental pollution, 'Toxic substances, Hazardous
 substances, Wildlife, Reprints, Environmental pollution
 effects(Plants),       Environmental       pollution
 effects(Animals), Biogeochemistry.
 PB91-177162/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 Episodic Acidification of Adirondack Lakes during
 Snowmen. Journal article.
 Syracuse Univ., NY. Dept. of Civil and Environmental
 Engineering.
 D. A. Schaefer, C. T. Driscoll, R. Van Dreason, and C.
 P. Yatsko. cJul 90,7p EPA/600/J-90/435
 Pub. in Water Resources Research,  v26 n7 p1639-
 1647 Jul 90.  Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
 Research Lab., OR.

 Maximum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in
 Adirondack, New York lake outlets generally occur
 during summer and autumn. During spring snowmelt,
 transport of acidic water through acid-sensitive water-
 sheds causes depression of upper lake water ANC. In
 some  systems lake outlet ANC reaches  negative
 values. The authors examined outlet water chemistry
 from II Adirondack lakes during 1986 and 1987 snow-
 melts.  In these lakes, SO concentrations were diluted
 during snowmelt and did not depress  ANC. For lakes
 with high baseline  ANC values, springtime ANC de-
 pressions were primarily accompanied by basic cation
 dilution.  For  lakes with  low baseline ANC, No  in-
 creases dominated ANC  depressions. Lakes with in-
 termediate baseline ANC  were affected by both proc-
 esses and exhibited larger ANC depressions. Ammoni-
 um dilution only  affected wetland systems. A  model
 predicting a linear relationship between outlet water
 ANC minima and autumn ANC was inappropriate.  To
 assess watershed response to episodic acidification,
 hydrologjc flow paths must be considered. (Copyright
 (c) 1990 by the American Geophysical Union.)

 Keywords:    'Acidification,    'Lakes,   'Snowmelt,
 Concentration(Composition),   Watersheds,    Water
 chemistry, Baseline measurements, Hydrology, Water
 pollution. Surface waters, Mathematical models,  Air
 water  interactions,  Hydrogeology, Runoff, Reprints,
 'Acid neutralizing capacity, Adirondack Region(New
 York).
PB91-177170/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Depuration Kinetics of Hexachlorobenzene in the
Clam, 'Macoma nasuta'. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
OR. Mark O. Hatfleld Marine Science Center.
B. L. Boese, M. Winsor, H. Lee, D. T. Specht, and K. C.
Rukavina. Feb90,7p EPA/600/J-90/436, ERLN-
N081
Pub. in Comp. Biochem. Phystal., v96C n2 P327-331
1990.

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmen-
tal pollutant that bioaccumulates in tissues of marine
and fresh water fish. Once taken up by these tissues,
biodegradation is very  slow  with pentachlorophenol
and polar conjugates as possible metabolites in aquat-
ic organisms. Numerous studies have been done on
HCB uptake and depuration in fish. In these studies the
HCB bioconcentration  factors (BCFs)  varied from
5000 to 40,000 (wet weight basis) with half-lives (t 1 /2)
from a few days to  several years. Although several
studies have examined HCB  uptake in invertebrates,
only Oliver's  (1987)  study estimate a BCF. Oliver
(1987) found that the  BCF  of HCB  in oligochaete
worms was 3120 when calculated on a wet weight
basis, with a t(1/2) of 27 days. However,  in Oliver's
study the worms were buried in the contaminated sedi-
ment and the BCF  calculated using the  interstitial
water concentration. As a  portion of the HCB body
burden was likely due to the ingestion of participates,
the reported BCF value may be in error.

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Clams,
'Hexachlorobenzene,   Environmental  monitoring,
Pharmacokinetics, Half-life,  Biodeterioration, Reprints,
'Depuration, Macoma nasuta.
 PB91-177188/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Taxonomic Level and Sample Size Sufficient for
 Assessing Pollution Impacts on the Southern Cali-
 fornia Bight Macrobenthos. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
 OR. Mark O. Hatfield Marine Science Center.
 S. P. Ferraro, and F. A. Cole. c1990,14p EPA/600/J-
 90/437, ERLN-N124
 Pub. in Marine Ecology Progress Series, v67 p251-262
 1990.


 Macrobenthic data from samples taken in 1980,1983
 and 1985 along a pollution gradient in the Southern
 California Bight (USA) were analyzed at 5 taxonomic
 levels (species, genus, family, order, phylum) to deter-
 mine the  taxon and sample size sufficient for assess-
 ing  pollution impacts on 5 measures of community
 structure. Two statistical designs were compared: a t-
 test for differences between reference and impacted
 stations where the error term was (1) among-year vari-
 ation at the reference station (impact effects design),
 (2) replicate (within-station) sampling error (location ef-
 fects design). The estimated statistical power (1-Beta)
 to detect impacts was a function of type and magni-
 tude of impact, level of taxonomic identification, the
 statistical design, and the sample size (ni  = number of
 sampling  years at the reference station for the impact
 effects design, and nl  = number of replicate samples
 per station for the location effects design). Four repli-
 cate 0.1 sq m van Veen grabs per station were needed
 to ensure community-wide,  unbiased estimates  of
 Shannon's,  1-Simpson's  and   Mclntosh's   Index.
 Family-level identification  appeared to be  a good
 choice for assessing pollution impacts at the study site
 as it ensured a high probability (1-Beta > or = to 0.80)
 of detecting intermediate or larger impacts on most
 (impact effects design) or all (location effects design)
 of 5 measures of community structure when ni  and nl
 > or = to 4, The level of taxonomic identification and
 sample size should be considered  along  with other
 sampling variables (e.g. sample unit size, sieve mesh
 size) when seeking a statistically rigorous, cost-effec-
 tive  study design sufficient to meet pollution assess-
 ment objectives.


 Keywords:  'Environmental  impact assessments,
 'Benthos,  'Taxonomy,  'Environmental  monitoring,
 'Water pollution effects. Sample preparation. Classifi-
 cation, Marine ecosystems, Site surveys, Water pollu-
 tion  sampling,   Experimental  design,  Systematics,
 Santa Monica Bay, Reprints, Southern California Bight.
 PB91-177196/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Particle Size Distributions for an Office Aerosol.
 Journal article.
 Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, NC.
 M. K. Owen, D. S. Ensor, L. S. Hovis, W. G. Tucker, and
 L. E. Sparks. C1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/438
 Grant EPA-R-814169
 Pub. in Aerosol Science and Technology, v13 n4 p486-
 492 1990.  Sponsored  by Environmental  Protection
 Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy
 Engineering Research Lab.


 The article discusses an evaluation of the effect of per-
 cent outdoor air supplied and occupation level on the
 particle size distributions and mass concentrations for
 a  typical office  building. (NOTE: As attention has
 become focused on  indoor air pollution control, it has
 become important to obtain basic information on the
 effects  of  heating,  ventilating,  and air-conditioning
 system parameters on office aerosols. In addition, it is
 important to know the particle size distributions in a
 typical office environment) The  outdoor, return, and
 supply air streams, as  well as hallway air, were sam-
 pled using measuring equipment covering particle di-
 ameters from < 0.1 to > 10.0 micrometers. The mass
 concentrations,  when the building was occupied, in-
 creased by a factor of about 2 when all return air was
 used over all outdoor air. The concentrations when un-
 occupied using  no outdoor air were as low or lower
 than were those when the building was occupied using
 all outdoor air. All of the occupied concentrations were
 < 200 micrometers/cu m. As expected, the outdoor
air was cleaner than  the other  streams. The next
lowest concentrations were for supply air, then return
air, with hallway air  showing the highest concentra-
tions. The  normalized  number  distributions had a
single mode consistently near 0.13 micrometer; the
volumetric distributions peaked at 0.3 micrometer.
22     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords:  "Particle  size  distribution,  "Aerosols,
"Indoor air pollution, "Office buildings, Air pollution
control, Environmental engineering. Air pollution sam-
pling, Concentration(Composition), Mass distribution,
Reprints.
PB91-177204/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
Biodegradation of Diphenyl Ethers  by a Copper-
Resistant Mutant of 'Erwinia' sp. Journal article.
Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Dept. of Microbi-
ology.
H. J. Liaw, and V. R. Srinivasan. C1990, 9p EPA/600/
J-90/439
Grant EPA-R-813088-01
Pub. in Jnl. of Industrial Microbiology, v6 n4 p235-242
Dec 90. Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental
Research Lab., Ada, OK.


A bacterium tentatively identified as an Erwinia sp. was
isolated from sewage by enrichment  on menthanol
and lignin. Several mutants developed from this strain
were studied for  their  ability to degrade  aromatic
ethers. Different concentrations of the chemicals were
incubated with the organisms and the degradation was
estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC). Among these mutants, one isolate, Erwinia sp.
strain  CU3614, showed resistance to copper ions
(>20 mM CuSO4) and the ability to degrade 4-hydrox-
ydiphenyl ether (4-HDPE), 4-chlorodiphenyl ether (4-
CDPE), 4-nitrodiphenyl ether (4-NDPE), and 2,7-dich-
lorodibenzo-p-dioxin  (2,7-DCDD)  in the presence  of
copper ions. Increased concentrations of copper in the
medium resulted in  higher degradation  of 4-HDPE.
Further  studies with copper-sensitive mutants ob-
tained from Erwinia sp. CU3614 by Tn5 transppson-in-
duced  mutagenesis  showed  a  corresponding de-
crease in the ability to degrade 4-HDPE. These results
suggest the presence of copper-associated activity in
the biotransformation of aromatic ethers. (Copyright
(c) 1990 Society for Industrial Microbiology.)


Keywords: "Erwinia, "Biodeterioration, "Phenyl ethers,
•Copper ions, "Microbial drug resistance, High pres-
sure liquid chromatography, Sewage,  Mutation, Bio-
transformation,  DNA  insertion elements, Thin  layer
chromatography, Reprints.
PB91-177212/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Use of DNA Purified In situ from Celts Embedded
in Agarose Plugs for the Molecular Analysis of tk
(-/-) Mutants  Recovered in the L5178Y tk ( + /-
)3.7.2C Mutagen Assay System. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
M. Applegate, G. Juhn, M. Moore, and J. Hozier.
C1990,7p EPA/600/J-90/440
Pub. in Mutation  Research, v245 n1 p55-59 Sep 90.
Prepared in cooperation with Florida State Univ., Talla-
hassee. Dept. of Biological Science.


It has been reported  that tk-/- mutants recovered in
the  mouse L5178Y TK + /-  3.7.2C mutagen assay
have often lost the tk+  allele. Allele loss in tk-/- mu-
tants is documented on Southern blots as the absence
of a 6.3-kb Nco I fragment seen in both tk+/+ and
tk+/- cell DMAs. For the routine screening of large-
and small-colony tk-/- mutant DNAs for the absence of
the  genomic fragment, it has been found that cells can
be lysed in agarose plugs, and DNA of cells embedded
in plugs can be purified, restricted with Nco I,  electro-
phoresed, and analyzed on Southern blots without sig-
nificant band distortion or diffusional loss of tk-specific
fragments in the 2- to 7-kb range. Purification and re-
striction analysis  of DNA in agarose plugs, originally
developed to allow pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of
very large DNA fragments, represents a convenient al-
ternative to conventional DNA purification methods, al-
lowing quantitative recovery of DNA from small num-
bers of cells, eliminating centrifugation, phenol extrac-
tion, and ethanol precipitation  steps, and requiring
smaller quantities of reagents. (Copyright (c) Elsevier
Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division).)


Keywords: "Mutagens, "Thymidine kinase, "Deoxyri-
bonucleic acids, Mutagenicity tests, Southern blotting,
Agar gel electrophoresis, Alleles, Mutation, Cell line,
Reprints.
PB91-177220/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Serum Chemistries of 'Coturnix coturnix japonica'
Given Dietary Manganese Oxide (Mn3O4). Journal
article.
Health  Effects  Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
F. W. Edens, and J. W. Laskey. c1990,6p EPA/600/J-
90/441
Pub. in Comparative Biochemistry  and Physiology,
v97C n1  p130-142 Oct 90. Prepared in cooperation
with North Carolina State Univ. at  Raleigh.  Dept. of
Poultry Science.

Plasma creatinine and inorganic phosphorus were in-
creased in  manganese  oxide (Mn3O4)-treated adult
male Coturnix quail, but BUN, BUN/creatinine ratio,
uric acid, and total calcium were decreased. Serum en-
zymes  (alkaline  phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic
transminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and lactic
dehydrogenase)  were  elevated in  Mn3O4-treated
adult male Coturnix quail, but creatine phosphokinase
was not affected. Dietary Mn3O4 at 5000 ppm did not
produce overt signs of toxicosis. (Copyright  (c) 1990
Pergamon Press pic.)

Keywords: "Blood chemistry,  "Coturnix, "Diet, "Man-
ganese oxide,  Liver function tests, Kidney function
tests, Reprints.
PB91-177238/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Epidemiology Branch.
Chronic Respiratory Effects of Indoor Formalde-
hyde Exposure. Journal article.
Arizona Univ. Health Sciences Center, Tucson.
M. Krzyzanowski, J. J. Quackenboss, and M. D.
Lebowitz. C1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/442
Pub. in Environmental  Research, v52 n2 p117-125
Aug 90.  Prepared in  cooperation  with  Panstwowy
Zaklad  Higieny, Warsaw  (Poland).  Sponsored by
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Epidemiology Branch, and  National Insti-
tutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pul-
monary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes
was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of
age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made
with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on
chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breath-
lessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis
and asthma were collected with self-completed ques-
tionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were ob-
tained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14
consecutive  days for  each  individual.  Significantly
greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bron-
chitis were found in children from houses with HCHO
levels 60-120 ppb than  in those less exposed,  espe-
cially in children  also exposed to environmental tobac-
co smoke. In children,  levels of PEFR linearly  de-
creased with HCHO exposure, with  estimated  de-
crease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of
PEFR  level  in  nonexposed children.  (Copyright (c)
1990 Academic Press, Inc.)

Keywords:   "Respiratory   system,   "Air  pollution
effects(Humans), "Formaldehyde, "Indoor air  pollu-
tion, Adults, Children, Dose-response relationships,
Flow rate, Asthma, Bronchitis,  Chronic disease,  To-
bacco, Smoking, Prevalence, Reprints.
PB91-177246/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Potentiation  of Organophosphorus-lnduced De-
layed Neurotoxicity by Phenylmethylsulfonyl Flu-
oride. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
C. N. Pope, and S. Padilla. c1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/
443
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and  Environmental Health,
v31 n4 p261-273 Dec 90. Prepared in cooperation with
Northeast Louisiana Univ., Monroe. School of Pharma-
cy.

It is well known that pretreatment with the serine ester-
ase inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) can
protect experimental animals from organophosphorus-
induced delayed neurptoxicity (OPIDN), presumably by
blocking the active site of neurotoxic esterase (NTE)
such that binding and 'aging' of the neuropathic OP is
thwarted. The authors report here that while PMSF (60
mg/kg, s.c.) given  4  hours before the neuropathic OP
mipafox (50 mg/kg, i.m.) completely prevented the
clinical expression of  OPIDN  in hens, the identical
PMSF treatment markedly amplified the delayed neur-
otoxicity (relative to hens treated with the OP only) if
administed 4 hours after mipafox (5 or 50 mg/kg, i.m.).
Moreover, in a separate experiment using diisopropyl-
phosphorofluoridate  (DFP)  as the  neurotoxicant in
place of mipafox, posttreatment  with PMSF 4 hours
after DFP (0.5 mg/kg) also accentuated the severity of
the ataxia. These data indicate that PMSF only pro-
tects against OPIDN if given prior to exposure to the
neurotoxicant; treatment with PMSF after OP exposure
critically exacerbates the delayed neurotoxicity from
exposure to organophosphorus  compounds. (Copy-
right (c) 1990 by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.)

Keywords:  "Nervous  system,  "Organophosphorus
compounds, "Toxicity,  "Antidotes, * Phenylmethylsul-
fonyl fluorides, Delayed hypersensitivity, Enzyme in-
hibitors, Esterases, Chickens, Reprints, "Organophos-
phorus induced delayed neurotoxicity(OPIDN).
PB91-177253/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method for
the Advection-Diffusion Equation. Journal article.
Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Civil Engineering and Op-
erations Research.
M. A. Celia, T. F. Russell, I. Herera, and R. E. Ewing.
c1990,22p
Grant NSF-8657419-CES
Pub. in Advances in Water Resources, v13 n4 p187-
206 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Colorado Univ.
at Denver. Dept. of Mathematics, and  Universidad Na-
cional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst.  de
Geofisica. Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental
Research Lab., Ada, OK., and National Science Foun-
dation, Washington, DC.

The  paper presents a space-time localized adjoint
method  (LAM) approximation for the advection-diffu-
sion transport equation. The formulation is based on a
space-time discretization  in  which specialized test
functions are defined. These functions locally satisfy
the homogeneous adjoint equation within each ele-
ment. The formulation leads to a general approxima-
tion that subsumes many specific methods based on
combined Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches,  so-
called characteristic methods (CM's). The  authors
refer to  the method as an Eulerian-Lagrangian local-
ized  adjoint method (ELLAM). The ELLAM approach
not only provides a unification of CM methods, but also
provides a systematic framework for  incorporation of
boundary conditions in CM approximations. Example
calculations were presented to demonstrate that the
ELLAM  procedure can handle all types  of boundary
conditions.

Keywords: "Transport theory, "Diffusion theory, Nu-
merical  solution,  Approximation, Advection, Reprints,
Localized adjoint methods.
PB91-177261/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
General  Mass-Conservative  Numerical  Solution
for the Unsaturated Flow Equation. Journal article.
Princeton Univ., NJ. Dept. of Civil Engineering and Op-
erations Research.
M. A. Celia, E. T. Bouloutas, and R. L Zarba. C1990,
16p EPA/600/J-90/445
Contract NRC-04-88-074, Grant NSF-8657419-CES
Pub. in American Geophysical Union, v26 n7 p1483-
1495  Jul  90.  Prepared  in cooperation with Camp,
Dresser and McKee, Inc., Boston, MA. Sponsored by
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab., Ada,
OK., Nuclear  Regulatory Commission,  Washington,
DC., and National Science Foundation,  Washington,
DC.

The  paper investigates  the  numerical  behavior of
standard approximation methods for  the unsaturated
flow equation. Solution using the h-based formulation
and a backward Euler time discretization is  shown to
produce unacceptably large mass balance errors for
many example calculations. This is true for any iter-
ation method (Picard, Newton-Raphson, etc.). It is also
true for both  finite  difference and finite element ap-
proximations  in space, although finite elements are
generally inferior to finite differences. A modified nu-
merical approach is proposed that alleviates the mass
balance problems discussed above. This approach is
based on a fully implicit (backward Euler) time approxi-
                                                                                                                                Sept1991     23

-------
                                                   EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
  mation applied to the mixed form of the unsaturated
  flow equation.

  Keywords: "Flow equations, Computational fluid dy-
  namics, Partial differential equations, Numerical inte-
  gration, Ground water, Approximation, Soils, Reprints.
 PB91-177279/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 Hydrologic Sensitivities of  the Sacramento-San
 Joaquin River Basin, California, to Global Warm-
 ing. Journal article.
 Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Civil Engineering.
 D. P. Lettenmaier, and T. Y. Gan. cJan 90,19p EPA/
 600/J-90/446
 Pub. in Water Resources Research, v26 n1 p69-86
 Jan 90. Prepared in cooperation with Asian Inst. of
 Tech.,  Bangkok (Thailand). Div. of Water Resources
 Engineering.  Sponsored by Corvallis  Environmental
 Research Lab., OR.

 The  hydrologic  sensitivities  of four  medium-sized
 mountainous catchments in the Sacramento and San
 Joaquin River basins to long-term global warming were
 analyzed. The hydrologic response of these catch-
 ments, all of which are dominated by spring snowmelt
 runoff, were simulated by the coupling of the snowmelt
 and the soil moisture accounting models of the U.S.
 National Weather Service River Forecast System. In
 all four catchments the global warming pattern, which
 was indexed to CO2 doubling scenarios simulated by
 three (global)  general circulation models, produced a
 major seasonal shift in the snow accumulation pattern.
 Under the alternative  climate scenarios  more winter
 precipitation fell as rain instead of snow, and winter
 runoff increased while  spring  snowmett runoff de-
 creased. In addition,  large increases  in the annual
 flood maxima were simulated, primarily due to an in-
 crease in rain-on-snow events,  with the time of ocur-
 rence of many  large  floods shifting from  spring to
 winter. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the American Geophysi-
 cal Union.)

 Keywords: 'Global warming, *Air water interactions,
 * Hydrology, California, Long term effects, Sacramento
 River, San Joaquin River, Watersheds(Basins), Gener-
 al  circulation  models,  Evapotranspiration,  Flooding,
 Soil water,  Snowmelt, Carbon  dioxide, Runoff, Sea-
 sonal  variations,  Climatic  changes,  Air  pollution,
 Precipitation(Meteorology), Reprints.
 PB91-177287/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Plant Uptake of Sludge-Borne PCBs. Journal arti-
 cle.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 G. A. O'Connor, D. Kiehl, G. A. Eiceman, and J. A.
 Ryan. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/447
 Pub. in Jnl, of Environmental  Quality, v19 p113-118
 1990. Prepared in cooperation  with New Mexico State
 Univ., Las Cruces.

 Plant uptake of sludge-borne potychlorinated biphen-
 yls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a
 greenhouse study with two  food-chain crops and a
 grass species. Polychlorinated  biphenyl loading to two
 soils was varied in one experiment by adding different
 rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contami-
 nated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment,
 Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils
 amended with another sludge containing  <1 mg/kg
 PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was  by GC/MS with a reliable
detection limit  in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual
chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphen-
yls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were
contaminated with PCBs,  and  contamination was re-
stricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for
land  application of sludges based on sludge PCB con-
tent are shown to be extremely conservative.

Keywords:        'Polychlorinated       biphenyls,
*Plants(Botany), "Soil contamination, "Land pollution,
•Sludge disposal, Sewage sludge.  Food  chains,
Ground disposal, Soil contamination, Path of pollut-
ants. Ecosystems, Farm crops, Waste disposal, Re-
prints.
PB91-177295/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.


24    Vol. 91, No. 3
  Behavior of Toluene  Added to Sludge-Amended
  Soils. Journal article.
  New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Dept. of Agrono-
  my and Horticulture.
  Y. Jin, and G. A. O'Connor. c1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/
  448
  Pub. in Jnl. of Environmental Quality, v19 p573-579
  1990.   Sponsored   by  Environmental   Protection
  Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk  Reduction Engineering


  Toluene is a priority pollutant that can be introduced to
  soils in a variety of wastes,  including some municipal
  sludges. Laboratory experiments were conducted to
  study the behavior of toluene in two soils in the pres-
  ence and absence of municipal sludge. Sludge addi-
  tions increased toluene adsorption in two soils  be-
  cause of increased organic C content. The source of
  organic C (soil or sludge) and soil clay content also in-
  fluenced toluene adsorption. Toluene adsorption-de-
  sorption was reversible in one soil, but slightly hystere-
  tic in the other soil. An air-flow incubation system was
  used to evaluate toluene volatilization and degrada-
  tion. The primary fate of surface-applied toluene in
  both soils  was volatilization. Toluene  volatilization
  rates were independent of sludge treatments. Toluene
  degradation was negligible in all treatments because
  of rapid volatilization  losses. Despite increased tolu-
  ene adsorption in the presence of sludge and reduced
  volatilization in saturated soils, gaseous transfer domi-
  nated all soils and treatments so that no toluene re-
  mained after 10 d.

  Keywords: "Sewage sludge,  "Toluene, "Soil contami-
  nation, "Soil analysis, "Sludge disposal, Waste dispos-
 al, Adsorption, Desorption, Air flow, Degradation, Land
 pollution, Vaporizing,  Path of pollutants, Anaerobic
 processes, Reprints.


 PB91-177303/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Sorption and Degradation of Pentachlorophenol
 In Sludge-Amended Soils. Journal article.
 New Mexico State Univ., Las  Cruces. Dept of Agrono-
 my and Horticulture.
 C. A. Bellin, G. A. O'Connor, and Y. Jin. c1989,8p
 EPA/600/J-90/449
 Pub. in Jnl. of Environmental  Quality 19, p603-608
 1990.  Sponsored  by   Environmental   Protection
 Agency,  Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction  Engineering
 Lab.

 Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)
 by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the
 presence and absence of sewage sludge. The PCP
 concentrations used  (0.1-10 mg/kg) included PCP
 rates expected with land application of normal  munici-
 pal sewage sludges. Sorption/desorption isotherms,
 derived using batch equilibrium techniques, were de-
 scribed by the freundlich equation. The PCP sorption
 increased with increasing sludge additions. Desorption
 in the alkaline soils was completely reversible  and no
 irreversible residues were formed. Leaching of PCP
 would be most likely in the unamended alkaline soils.
 Degradation of PCP at low (0.75 mg/kg) initial concen-
 tration was rapid (t(sub  1/2) approximately equal to
 10-15 d) in alkaline soils, but  much slower (t(sub 112)
 approximately  equal to 38 d)  in the acid soils.  Sludge
 additions to  the soils did not  substantially affect PCP
 degradation. More rapid degradation of PCP in the al-
 kaline vs. acid soils was attributed to less sorption and
 more favorable conditions for microbial activity. Rapid
 degradation in  the alkaline soil, and greater sorption in
 the acid  soil, reduces the chance of PCP leaching.
 However, longer  PCP residence times in the acid soil
 increase the possibility for plant uptake.

 Keywords: 'Sewage sludge,  "Sludge disposal, 'Soil
 contamination, 'Soil analysis, Pesticides, Chlorine or-
 ganic compounds, Ground disposal, Waste disposal,
 Plants(Botany), Path  of  pollutants,  Land pollution,
 Sorption, pH,  Toxic  substances. Degradation, Re-
 prints, 'Phenol/pentachloro.


 PB91-177311/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Plant Uptake of Pentachlorophenol from Sludge-
 Amended Soils. Journal article.
 New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Dept. of Agrono-
 my and Horticulture.
C. A. Bellin, and G. A. O'Connor. c1990,7p EPA/600/
J-90/450
 Pub. in Jnl. of Environmental Quality, v19 p598-602
 1990.   Sponsored  by   Environmental  Protection
 Agency, Cincinnati, OH.  Risk  Reduction Engineering
 Lab.

 A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the
 effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachloro-
 phenol  (PCP). Plants included all fescue  (Festuca
 arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca saliva L), carrot
 (Daucus carota  L), and chile  pepper (Capsicum
 annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the
 fescue  and lettuce  by  gas  chromatography/mass
 spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was
 detected in the carrot tissue  extracts.  Chile pepper
 was not analyzed for intact  PCP because methylene
 chloride extracts contained minimal 14C. The GC/MS
 analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life
 of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or
 PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil
 apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Biocon-
 centration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP  con-
 centration) based on intact  PCP were  <0.01  for all
 crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain
 crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit
 land application of sludge.

 Keywords:  "Sewage sludge, "Sludge disposal, "Soil
 contamination, "Plants(Botany),  Farm  crops,  Pesti-
 cides, Chlorine organic compounds, Waste disposal,
 Path of pollutants, Land pollution, Ground disposal,
 Food  chains, Toxic substances, Reprints,  "Phenol/
 pentachloro.
 PB91-177329/HEB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Adsorption, Degradation, and Plant Availability of
 2,4-Dlnitrophenol In Sludge-Amended Calcareous
 Soils. Journal article.
 New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Dept of Agrono-
 my and Horticulture.
 G. A. O'Connor, J. R. Lujan, and Y. Jin. c1990,9p
 EPA/600/J-90/4S1
 Pub. in Jnl. of Environmental Quality,  v19 p587-593
 1990.   Sponsored   by  Environmental   Protection
 Agency, Cincinnati,  OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
 Lab.

 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a moderately weak acid that
 is expected to be highly labile  (leachable and plant
 available) in high-pH soils. The adsorption  and degra-
 dation behavior of DNP  in two sludge-amended, cal-
 careous soils was determined  and used  to explain
 DNP uptake by plants grown in the soils in the green-
 house.  The DNP adsorption was minor in both soils
 and was only slightly affected by sludge. The DNP deg-
 radation was rapid in both soils and was unaffected by
 sludge. Thus, despite limited soil  adsorption,  plant
 uptake of DNP was minor in all crops and  plant parts
 owing to rapid soil DNP degradation. Even  if a munici-
 pal sludge highly contaminated with DNP was identi-
 fied (an unlikely occurrence), concerns over possible
 plant contamination should not  limit sludge applica-
 tions to calcareous soils or leaching of DNP to ground-
 water, given careful water management.

 Keywords: 'Industrial wastes, "Sludge disposal, "Soil
 contamination, 'Soil analysis, 'Plants(Botany), Waste
 disposal,  Adsorption,  Degradation,  pH, Nitrogen or-
 ganic compounds, Toxic substances, Path of pollut-
 ants, Reprints, 'Phenol/dinitro.


 PB91-177337/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Using  Powdered Activated  Carbon: A  Critical
 Review. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati,  OH.
 Drinking Water Research Div.
 I. N. Najm, V. L. Snoeyink, B. W. Lykins, and J. Q.
 Adams. cJan 91,14p EPA/600/J-91 /005
 Pub. in Jnl. of American Water Works Association v83
 n1p65-76Jan91.

 Because  the  performance of powdered  activated
carbon (PAG) for uses other than taste and odor con-
trol is poorly documented, the purpose of the article is
to critically review uses that have been reported and to
analyze means of employing PAC more efficiently. The
extent of adsorption of synthetic organic chemicals on
PAC is strongly dependent on  the type  of compound
being removed. The reported removals of trihalometh-
anes and trihalomethane precursors by PAC range
from poor to very good. In selecting the point of addi-
tion of PAC, consideration must be given to the degree

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 of mixing, the contact time between the PAC and the
 water, the PAC residence time, and the minimization of
 interference of adsorption  by treatment chemicals.
 One of the main advantages of PAC is its low capital
 cost.


 Keywords: "Water treatment, 'Potable water, Activat-
 ed carbon treatment, Organic compounds, Reviews,
 Hale-methanes,  Performance evaluation, Adsorption,
 Capitalized costs, Cost analysis, Taste, Odor control,
 Reprints, *Powdered activated carbon.
 PB91-177345/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Conference  Summary: Practical  Aspects of  the
 Design and Use of GAC. Journal article.
 Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
 Drinking Water Research Div.
 J. L. Oxenford, and B. W. Lykins. c1991, 8p EPA/600/
 J-91/006
 Pub. in Jnl. American Water Works Association, v83 n1
 p58-64Jan91.

 A conference on the design and use of granular acti-
 vated  carbon (GAC)  was  cosponsored May 9-10,
 1989, by the AWWA Research Foundation (AWWARF)
 and  the  U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency
 (USEPA) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Twenty-one US experts
 presented papers that focused on practical issues as-
 sociated with GAC system design and use. The article
 is a synopsis of that conference and discusses some
 of the major points a utility should consider when eval-
 uating GAC. The information presented here comes di-
 rectly from the manuscripts prepared for the confer-
 ence presentations.

 Keywords:  "Granular  activated  carbon  treatment,
 'Meetings, 'Water treatment, 'Water pollution control,
 'Potable water, Design criteria, Performance evalua-
 tion, Oil spills, Chemical spills, Waste disposal, Substi-
 tutes,  Comparison,  Chemical  removal(Water  treat-
 ment), Reprints.
PB91-1773S2/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Effects of Phosgene Exposure on Lung Arachi-
donic Add Metabolism. Journal article.
North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill. Center for Environ-
mental Medicine and Lung Biology.
M. C. Madden, M. Friedman, L. L. Keyes, H. S. Koren,
and G.  R. Burleson. C1991,20p EPA/600/J-91/007
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in Inhalation Toxicology, v3 p73-90 Jan 91. Pre-
pared  in cooperation  with  North  Carolina Univ. at
Chapel Hill. Center for Environmental Medicine and
Lung Biology, and Health Effects Research Lab.,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

Phosgene is a pulmonary toxicant that can produce
lung edema,  bronchoconstriction, and  immune sup-
pression following an acute exposure. In the report,
the effects of acute in vivo and in vitro phosgene expo-
sure on lung arachidonic acid metabolism were exam-
ined. Fischer-344 rats were exposed either  to air or to
phosgene (0.05-1.0 ppm) for 4 hr and the lungs la-
vaged at 0.4,20, and 44 hr post exposure. Leukotriene
B4 (LTB4), leukotrienes  C4, D4, and E4 (LTC4/D4/
E4), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were  measured in
lavage  fluid by radioimmunoassay. With the exception
of the  LTC4/D4/E4 concentration in 1.0 ppm  phos-
gene-exposed rats, in vivo phosgene exposure at > or
= 0.1 ppm produced significant decreases in the con-
centrations of PGE2, LTB4, and LTC4/D4/E4 in  the
lavage  fluid collected immediately after  exposure.
Temporally associated with the decreased eicosanoid
production was a smaller number of alveolar macro-
phages recovered in the lavage fluid of phosgene-ex-
posed rats. Dose  response studies  were performed.
Phosgene exposure in vitro of rat and human alveolar
macrophages  was then performed to determine if  the
toxicant could directly inhibit the formation of eicosan-
oids by alveolar macrophages.

Keywords: 'Phosgene, 'Toxicity, 'Lung, 'Arachidonic
acids, Metabolism, Bronchoalyeolar  lavage fluid, Ma-
crophages, Pulmonary alveoli,  Eicosanoids, Leuko-
trienes, Prostaglandins, In vitro analysis, High pressure
liquid chromatography, Statistical  analysis, Radioim-
munoassay, Dose-response relationships, Reprints.
 PB91-177360/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 High Doses of Aspartame  Have No Effects on
 Sensorimotor Function or Learning  and Memory
 in Rats. Journal article.
 Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC.
 H. A. Tilson, J. S. Hong, and T. S. Sobotka. c30 Apr 90,
 11pEPA/600/J-91/008
 Pub. in Neurotoxicology and Teratology, v13  p27-35
 Jan 91. Prepared in cooperation with National Inst. of
 Environmental Health Sciences,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC., and Food and Drug Administration, Wash-
 ington, DC. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutri-
 tion.

 Acute or  repeated (14 days) intragastric administration
 of  L-d-aspartyl-L-phenyla-lanine  methyl ester  sus-
 pended in saline and Tween-80 in doses of up to 1,000
 mg/kg had no significant effect in male Fischer-344
 rats on routine measures of sensorimotor function, in-
 cluding spontaneous motor activity, acoustic startle
 reflex  and  prepulse  inhibition.  Other experiments
 found that aspartame (500 or 1,000 mg/kg) had no sig-
 nificant effect on acquisition of passive or active avoid-
 ance or a spatial, reference memory task in the Morris
 water maze. A series  of separate studies found that
 aspartame had no effects in rats fasted 24 hours prior
 to testing, or if it were suspended in carboxymethylcel-
 lulose  or administered by the intraperitoneal  route.
 Under the  conditions of these  experiments, large
 doses of aspartame have no significant neurobiologi-
 cal effects  in adult rats as measured  by procedures
 known to be sensitive to the neurobiological effects of
 neurotoxicants, including convulsants, organochlorine
 insecticides and heavy metals.

 Keywords:  'Aspartame,  'Learning, 'Memory, *Psy-
 chomotor performance, Rats, Dose-response relation-
 ships, Avoidance learning, Spatial  discrimination, Star-
 tle reaction, Statistical analysis, Reprints.
PB91-177378/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Climatic  Sensitivity of  California  Water  Re-
sources. Journal article.
Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Civil Engineering.
D. P. Lettenmaier, and D. P. Sheer. c1991,11 p EPA/
600/J-91/009
Pub. in Jnl. of Water Resources Planning and Manage-
ment, v117 p108-125 Jan/Feb 91. Prepared in coop-
eration with Water Resources Management, Inc., Co-
lumbia,  MD. Sponsored  by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.

The  possible effects  of climate change on the com-
bined Central  Valley Project-California State Water
Project  (CVP/SWP) were evaluated using a three-
stage approach. In the first stage, runoff from four
headwater 'study catchments' was simulated using
rainfall/snowmelt-runoff models, with climatic input
taken from CO2 doubling scenarios from three general
circulation models (GCMs). In the second stage, long-
term inflows to the CVP/SWP reservoir system were
simulated, conditioned on the study catchment flows,
using a stochastic disaggregation model.  In the third
stage, a system simulation model was used to evalu-
ate the performance of the reservoir system. For all of
the alternative climate scenarios, runoff would be shift-
ed from the spring to the winter. Significantly lower
water deliveries from the SWP would occur under the
CO2 doubling scenarios. The reduced deliveries would
occur because  some of  the increased winter runoff
would be spilled from the reservoirs instead of being
stored in the snowpact, even though the mean annual
runoff increased slightly under some climate scenar-
Keywords: 'Climatic changes, 'Runoff, 'Water supply,
Catch  basins,  Rainfall,  Snowmelt,  Mathematical
models, Carbon dioxide. Atmospheric circulation, Sto-
chastic processes, Reservoirs, Water flow, Winter,
Spring  season. Performance evaluation,  California,
Central Valley Project, State Water Project.
PB91-177386/REB               PC A02/MF A01
CH2M/HHI, Reston, VA.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ground Water Ex-
traction Systems. Journal article.
Robert S. Kerr  Environmental  Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
J. L. Haley, B. Hanson, C. Enfield, and J. Glass. C1991,
8pEPA/600/J-91/010
Pub. in Ground  Water Monitoring  Review,  v11 n1
p119-124, Winter 1991.  Sponsored by  CH2M/Hill,
Reston, VA.

The most common process for remediating contami-
nated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data
from 19 on-going and completed ground water extrac-
tion systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate
the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup
concentration goals for ground water. This analysis in-
dicated several  trends  including:   containment of
ground water plumes was usually achieved; contami-
nant concentrations dropped significantly initially fol-
lowed by a leveling out; after the period of initial rapid
decline, the continued decreases  in concentration
were usually slower than anticipated; and certain data
important  to optimizing  system design and operation
had often not been collected during the site character-
ization phase. Factors limiting the  achievement of
cleanup concentration goals fell into four basic catego-
ries: hydrogeological factors; contaminant-related fac-
tors; continued migration from source areas and the
size of the plume itself; and system design factors. The
findings of the study indicate that ground water extrac-
tion is an effective method for preventing additional mi-
gration of contaminant plumes and achieving risk re-
duction. However, the findings indicate that in  many
situations, it may not be practicable to rely solely on
ground water extraction  and treatment  to achieve
health-based cleanup concentrations throughout the
contaminated zone and fulfill the primary goal of re-
turning ground water to beneficial use. This suggests
several recommendations for improving ground water
response  actions including: actions  to contain  con-
taminant plumes should be initiated early; data on ver-
tical variation of hydraulic conductivity, distribution of
the contaminant mass, and partitioning of contami-
nants to soil or a stationary phase  in the saturated
zone should generally be collected as part of the site
characterization process; remedial actions should be
implemented in stages to better utilize information on
aquifer response as the system is being designed and
implemented; remedial  actions should be monitored
and modified during operation to optimize  system effi-
ciency; and methods to enhance extraction effective-
ness and efficiency should be considered.

Keywords: 'Water pollution control, 'Ground water,
'Extraction,  Waste disposal,  Remedial  action,  Per-
formance  evaluation, Hydrogeology, Environmental
transport, Soil contamination, Industrial wastes, Super-
fund, Plumes, Aquifers,  Operating, Case studies, Site
characterization,  Reprints, 'Cleanup operations.  Re-
medial response, Resource Conservation  and Recov-
ery Act.
PB91-177394/REB                PC A01/MF A01
Assay for beta-Glucuronldase in Species of the
Genus  'Escherichia'  and  Its  Applications for
Drtnking-Water Analysis. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
E. W. Rice, M. J. Allen, D. J. Brenner, and S. C. Edberg.
c1991, 4p EPA/600/J-91 /011
Pub. in Applied and  Environmental Microbiology, v57
r>2 p592-593 Feb 91. Prepared in  cooperation with
American Water Works Association Research Foun-
dation, Denver, CO., Centers for Disease Control, At-
lanta, GA., and Yale  Univ., New Haven, CT. School  of
Medicine.

Recently species of the genus Escherichia other than
E. coli have been isolated from potable water. Environ-
mental isolates as well as clinical isolates of E. adecar-
boxylata, E. blattae, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii and  E.
vulneris were assayed for the enzyme Beta-glucuroni-
dase using EC MUG medium and the Colilert system.
None of the isolates were positive for the enzyme by
either method. (Copyright (c)  1991  American Society
for Microbiology.)

Keywords: 'Escherichia, 'Water microbiology, 'Pota-
ble water, 'Glucurpnidase, Species specificity, Culture
media, Bacteriologic techniques, Reprints.
PB91-178418/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Strawman II. Recommendations for a Regulatory
Program for Mining Waste  and Materials  under
Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Re-
covery Act. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste.
21 May 90,119p
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991    25

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
The package, referred to as 'Strawman II', is a working
document that represents EPA's latest staff position
on an effective program to regulate wastes and other
materials uniquely associated with  noncoal  mining.
Strawman II does not represent a proposed rule. The
package consists of two parts: (1) the Foreward, which
describes the pre-rulemaking  Strawman process, a
background and overview of the mining waste program
as envisioned  in the  package,  and discussions of
major issues concerning the program and  its scope;
and (2) the Regulatory Approach,  presented as '40
CFR XXX, XXY, and XXZ' to reflect how the program
might appear in regulatory language. Discussions and
amplifications of specific points are also interspersed
throughout the Regulatory Approach. EPA encourages
all interested parties to convey their views on any and
all aspects of the program concept.

Keywords: 'Mine wastes, 'Pollution regulations, 'Pol-
lution abatement,  'Waste management. Legislation,
US EPA, State programs, State implementation plans,
Mineral wastes, Standards,  Performance standards.
Financing, Administrative procedures. Law enforce-
ment 'Strawman II, Resource Conservation and Re-
covery Act.
PB91-178996/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Radiation  Data. Report 61, Janu-
ary-March 1990. Quarterly rept.
National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Mont-
gomery, AL
Sep 90.41 p EPA/520/5-90/031
SeealsoPB90-182197.

Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data
from the  Environmental Radiation Ambients Monitor-
ing System (ERAMS). Date from similar networks op-
erated by contributing States, Canada,  Mexico, and
the Pan American Health Organization are reported in
the ERD when available. The ERAMS is comprised of
nationwide sampling stations that provide air, surface
and drinking water and milk samples from which envi-
ronmental radiation levels are derived. Sampling loca-
tions are selected to provide optimal population cover-
age while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear
devices and other forms of radioactive contamination
of the environment. The radiation analyses performed
on these  samples include gross alpha and gross beta
levels, gamma analyses for fission products and spe-
cific analyses for uranium, pkitonium, strontium, iodine,
radium krypton, and tritium.

Keywords: 'Radioactive contaminants, 'Environmen-
tal monitoring, 'Air pollution, 'Water pollution, Radio-
active wastes, Potable water, Milk, Food contamina-
tion,  Plutonium, Uranium, Carbon-14, Tritium, Stronti-
um-90, Krypton-85, Tables(Data), Fallout, Alpha parti-
cles, Beta particles.
PB91-179002/REB               PC A03/MF A01
NAREL  Standard   Operating  Procedures  for
Radon-222 Measurement Using Diffusion  Barrier
Charcoal Canisters. Final rept.
National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Mont-
gomery, AL.
D. J. Gray, and S. T. Windham. Nov 90,36p EPA/520/
5-90/032
See also PB87-215877.

The passive nature of activated charcoal allows both
adsorption and desorption of radon, and since the ad-
sorbed radon under goes radioactive decay during the
exposure period, the ability of the non-diffusion barrier
(open-faced) canister to  uniformly integrate over the
entire exposure period can be impaired. To help allevi-
ate the problem, the  EPA  open-face  canister was
modified  by  inserting a polyethylene membrane be-
tween the retaining screen and the carbon bed. This
decreased the water vapor and radon adsorbed by the
carbon, reduced the rate of adsorption/desorption be-
tween the carbon and the environmental, and im-
proved integration capability.

Keywords: 'Radon, 'Charcoal, 'Adsorption, 'Activat-
ed carbon, Measurement Standards, Radioactive iso-
topes, Equipment, Exposure,  Polyethylene, Mem-
branes,  Water  vapor,   Desorption,  Laboratories,
'Indoor air pollution, Canisters, Radon 222.
PB91-179010/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Improving the Viability of Existing Small Drinking
Water Systems.
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
Jun 91,50p EPA/570/9-90/004

The report investigates options  for assisting failing
drinking water systems by (1) contracting for  oper-
ations and maintenance services, (2) establishing co-
operatives, (3) encouraging satellite management, and
(4) acquisition and merger with successful systems.

Keywords: 'Potable water,  'Water pollution standards,
'Viability, State implementation plans, Standards com-
pliance, Operation and maintenance, Cooperatives,
Satellite observation, Technology utilization, Recom-
mendations,  Permits, Financing,  Performance stand-
ards,  'Small systems, Safe  Drinking Water Act of
1986.
PB91-179028/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Establishing Programs to Resolve Small Drinking
Water System Viability: A Summary of the Feder-
al/State Workshop. Held in Scottsdale, Arizona on
September 22-24,1990.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
Feb 91,60p EPA/570/9-91 /002

The report summarizes activities and presentations
given at the Federal/State Workshop on small drinking
water system viability held in Scottsdale, Arizona, Sep-
tember 22-24,1990. The report is intended to be used
as a reference  guide for other states interested in
taking a similar approach to developing viability pro-
grams.

Keywords:  'Meetings,   'Potable  water,  'Viability,
'Water pollution standards, Guidelines, National gov-
ernment,  State implementation plans, Cooperatives,
Pollution regulations, Cost analysis, Technology utili-
zation. Financial assistance, Permits, 'Small  systems,
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986.
PB91-179036/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufactur-
er of Printed Plastic Bags. Research brief.
University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA.
F. W. Kirsch, and G. P. Looby. Dec 90,5p EPA/600/M-
90/017
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size
manufacturers who want to minimize their generation
of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise  to do
so.   Waste  Minimization   Assessment  Centers
(WMACs) were  established at selected universities
and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste
Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/
625/7-88/003, July  1988). The WMAC team at the
University of Tennessee performed an assessment at
a plant manufacturing printed plastic bags for snack
foods-approximately 1.8 million Ib/yr. Plastic stock is
ink printed and oven cured. To make single-layer bags,
a heat seal process is used, and the bags are then
packaged and shipped. For certain products, a plastic
or metalized film is laminated to the printed plastic film,
the rolls are slit to obtain individual bags, and the bags
are packaged and shipped. The team's report, detail-
ing findings and recommendations, indicated the most
waste was  generated in the lamination process and
that the  greatest savings could be obtained by install-
ing an automatic adhesive/solvent mixing system to
reduce (75%) the waste from the  unused metalized
film adhesive/solvent mixture.

Keywords:  'Hazardous  materials,  'Plastic   bags,
'Waste   management   Assessments,   Industrial
wastes,  Laminated plastics, Laminates,  Manufactur-
ing, Adhesives,  'Waste minimization. Source reduc-
tion, SIC 20-39.
PB91-179044/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Bioassay Protocol  for Lethal and Sub-Lethal Ef-
fects  of  Fungal  Pathogens  on  'Chrysoperla
camea' (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
K. Donegan,and B. Lighthart. Apr 91,18p EPA/600/3-
91/025
Prepared in cooperation with ManTech Environmental
Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR.

The protocol describes procedures for evaluating the
lethal and  sublethal  effects of exposure  to  fungal
pathogens on larvae and adults of the predatory insect
Chrysoperla camea (Stephens). The protocol was de-
veloped and tested with the fungal insect pathogen
Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) under environmental
conditions selected to maximize insect susceptibility to
the pathogen.  The procedures have  not been per-
formed with viral or protozoan preparations and only in
part with bacterial pathogens. Successful execution of
the procedures will require training in microbiological
techniques, arthropod rearing and elementary statisti-
cal analysis.

Keywords: 'Biological pest control, 'Fungi, 'Insects,
'Pathogens, Bacteria,  Viruses,  Protozoa, Bacteria,
Bioassay, Quality control, Lethal dosage, * Chrysoperla
carnea, Beauveria bassiana.
PB91-179051/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Design of Shoreline Surveys  for  Aquatic Utter
Pollution.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
C. A. Ribic. Apr 91,23p EPA/600/3-91 /026

Recently there has been legislation  to limit the dis-
charge of litter into the aquatic environment. The U.S.
EPA Office of Water has responded by implementing
pilot studies to detect changes in trends of litter in the
aquatic environment associated with the implementa-
tion of legislation. A general survey design for detect-
ing changes in trend of aquatic litter on the nation's
shorelines was presented. Specific recommendations
for number of survey units and frequency of sampling
depend on required confidence and power as well as
study-specific economic constraints.  The particular
model used for sample size calculation is based on
normally distributed errors and efforts should be made
to validate the model. With a planned survey, impacts
of legislation and educational efforts in reducing aquat-
ic litter can be evaluated.

Keywords: 'Ocean waste disposal, 'Litter, 'Beaches,
'Land pollution,  Waste  disposal, 'Surface  waters,
'Legislation, Water pollution, Case studies, Quality as-
surance, Quality control, Pollution regulations, Trends,
Water quality, Field tests,  Sampling.
PB91-179069/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Investigation  of the Indoor Air Quality of the
North  Carolina Department  of  Environment,
Health, and Natural Resources  Located at 3800
Barrett Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
V. R. Highsmith, and A. B. Lindstrom. Dec 90,39p
EPA/600/9-91/008

A limited-scale indoor air quality investigation was con-
ducted over a 4 day period at the North Carolina De-
partment of Environment,  Health, and Natural Re-
sources' offices located at 3800 Barrett Drive, Raleigh,
NC. Integrated 9 hour particle, aldehyde, and volatile
organic compound samples were collected at three
different monitoring sites during normal office hours.
Continuous temperature, relative humidity, and carbon
dioxide measurements were also recorded. The limited
study results indicate that the office's indoor air quality
during the monitoring study was acceptable. However,
periods when indoor temperatures and carbon dioxide
levels reached or exceeded the American Society of
Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers'
guidelines were noted. Targeted volatile organic com-
pound and aldehyde concentrations were low, with all
species concentrations well below any established ex-
posure limit. In many cases, the organic species con-
centrations were at or below the analytical detection
limit. Commonly observed species (e.g., trichloroethy-
lene, toluene, formaldehyde) were measured at con-
centrations similar to the  levels reported by other
indoor air investigators in office buildings. The study
results suggests no significant sources of indoor air
contaminants. Minor modifications to the heating and
ventilation system may be needed to increase the per-
centage of outside air, provide increased total air flow,
and provide better control for indoor temperatures.
26     Vol.  91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords: 'Indoor air pollution, 'Volatile organic com-
pounds,  *Air pollution  monitoring,  "Aldehydes,  Air
quality. Carbon  dioxide, Humidity, Ambient tempera-
ture, Air conditioning, Raleigh(North Carolina).
PB91-179077/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Final Quality Assurance Report: Connecticut Wet-
lands Study.
ManTech Environmental Technology,  Inc., Corvallis,
OR.
A. Sherman. Apr91,160p EPA/600/3-91/030
Contract EPA-68-C8-0006
See also PB91-179101. Sponsored by Corvallis Envi-
ronmental Research Lab., OR.

The report examines the data quality achieved during a
field  study  implemented by the EPA's Wetland Re-
search  Program (WRP) at the  Environmental Re-
search Laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon. The project
was conducted by Connecticut College as part of the
WRP's ongoing  research on created wetlands. It was
one of three pilot projects aimed at developing meth-
ods for comparing natural wetlands with created wet-
lands. Soils, vegetation, hydrology, and site morpholo-
gy data were recorded. Root specimens were collect-
ed and tested for the presence of vescular-arbuscular
mycorrhizae.  In addition, each site was  surveyed,
mapped, and photographed. One objective of the
study was to identify field procedures which correctly
differentiated wetlands based on their structural char-
acteristics. High quality field data is required to distin-
guish environmental differences between sites, s ex-
tensive data quality assessments were included.
Wherever possible, field procedures were evaluated
for data errors occurring during sample collection, data
recording, sample storage, and analysis.  The report
outlines the data quality assessment procedures used
and summarizes the results of the assessment.

Keywords: 'Wetlands, 'Quality assurance, 'Data anal-
ysis,  'Mitigation, 'Water pollution abatement,  'Site
characterization, Connecticut, US EPA, Field tests,
Soil surveys, Forms(Paper), Auditing, Sampling, Com-
parison, Law enforcement, Environmental policy, EPA
Wetlands Research Program.
PB91-179085/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Alternative  Biological Treatment Processes for
Remediation of Creosote-and PCP-Contamfnated
Materials: Bench-Scale Treatability Studies.
Southern BioProducts, Inc., Pendleton, SC.
J. G. Mueller, S. E. Lantz, B. O. Blattman, D. P.
Middaugh, and P. J. Chapman. Mar 91,97p
Contract EPA-68-033479
Prepared in  cooperation with Technical Resources,
Inc., Gulf  Breeze, FL.  Sponsored  by  Environmental
Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to
determine the most effective of two bioremediation ap-
plication strategies to ameliorate creosote- and pen-
tachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soils present  at
the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensa-
cola,  Florida: solid-phase  bioremediation  or slurry-
phase bioremediation.  When  indigenous microorga-
nisms were  employed  as biocatalysts, solid-phase
bioremediation was slow and ineffective (8-12 weeks
required to biodegrade >50% of resident organics).
Biodegradation was limited to lower-molecular-weight
constituents  rather than the more hazardous, higher-
molecular-weight (HMW)  compounds; POP and HMW
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing 4
or more fused rings resisted biological  attach. More-
over, supplementation with aqueous solution of inor-
ganic nutrients had little effect on the overall effective-
ness of the  treatment strategy. Alternatively, slurry-
phase  bioremediation  was  much  more  effective:
>50% of  targeted organics were biodegraded in 14
days.  Again,  however, more persistent contaminants,
such as PGP and HMW  PAHs, were not extensively
degraded when subjected to the action of indigenous
microorganisms.

Keywords: 'Biological  treatment, 'Remedial  action,
'Creosote, 'Superfund, 'Waste disposal, Wood pre-
servatives, Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, Microor-
ganisms,  Substitutes, Soil  contamination,  Catalysts,
Biodeterioration, Chlorine organic compounds, Bench-
scale      experiments,      'Phenol/pentachloro,
Pensacola(Florida).
PB91-179093/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
National  Surface  Water Survey:  Eastern  Lake
Survey - Phase 2  Northeastern Lakes, Database
Dictionary.
Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, CA.
M. M. Jimenez, R. G. Johnson, T. C. Myers, T. R.
Whittier, and A. T. Herlihy. 15 Mar 91, 74p
Contracts EPA-68-03-3439, EPA-68-C8-0006
See also DE87011956. Prepared in cooperation with
ManTech Environmental  Technology, Inc., Corvallis,
OR., and Utah State Univ., Logan. Sponsored by Cor-
vallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

The purpose of the  data dictionary is to provide infor-
mation pertaining to the contents and structure of the
Eastern Lakes Survey-Phase II (ELS-II) chemistry da-
tabase. The data dictionary  does not describe the
design, protocols, or findings of the study, which are
described in Herlihy et a). (1991). Section 2 describes
the overall design and development of the ELS-II data-
base. Section 3 is a summary of data quality. Section 4
identifies all variables in the database, and Section 5
provides detailed definitions of the variables. Section 6
describes 'tags' and 'flags' which are two types of data
qualifiers.

Keywords: 'Lakes,  'Information systems, 'Seasonal
variations, 'Water pollution effects, 'Dictionaries, Sur-
face waters, Data base management, Chemical prop-
erties, Physical  properties, Water chemistry,  Spring
season, Summer, Autumn, Error analysis, Acid neutral-
izing   capacity,   Hydrologic   data,   'Northeast
Region(United States), Eastern Lake Survey, National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.
PB91-179101/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Quality Assurance Project Plan: Connecticut Wet-
lands Study.
ManTech Environmental Technology,  Inc., Corvallis,
OR.
A. Sherman, and S. Gwin. Apr 91,138p EPA/600/3-
91/029
Contract EPA-68-C8-0006
See also PB91-179077. Prepared in cooperation with
Connecticut  Coll.,  New London.  Dept.  of  Botany.
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

EPA's  Wetland Research Program has supported a
major effort to study wetlands mitigation projects in the
field. The field studies were designed to: (1) evaluate
the project plans; (2) compare the projects with natural
wetlands in the same land use setting; and (3) describe
the development of the projects over time. The infor-
mation from the studies will be used as technical guid-
ance for setting performance criteria  and developing
design guidelines for mitigation projects.  Pilot studies
have been conducted in Oregon, Washington, Florida,
and Connecticut. The  report presents the methods
and associated  quality  assurance procedures used
during the Connecticut study. A major objective of the
pilot study was to evaluate the field procedures and
the data quality assessment protocols used. The au-
thors are in the process of performing that evaluation.
They anticipate that in some cases they will adopt the
procedure, while  others will  be refined or discarded.
Therefore, the authors caution the user of the docu-
ment that,  at this point,  the EPA  makes no claims or
endorsement of the use of the field, laboratory, or data
quality assessment procedures associated with the
study.

Keywords: 'Wetlands,   'Water pollution  abatement,
'Site  characterization,  'Mitigation, 'Data analysis,
'Quality assurance, Guidelines, Connecticut, US EPA,
Auditing, Sampling, Research and development, State
programs, Management planning, Vegetation, Hydrol-
ogy, Environmental policy, Pollution regulations, Law
enforcement, Personnel development, EPA Wetlands
Research Program.
PB91-179119/REB               PC A14/MF A02
Proceedings of the St. Michaels Workshop on Re-
sidual  Radioactivity and Recycling  Criteria. Held
in St.  Michaels, Maryland,  on September  27-28,
1989.
Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC.
A. B. Wolbarst, H. Terada, and A. C. B. Richardson.
Sep 89, 305p EPA/520/1-90/013
Prepared in  cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy
Research Inst., Tokai.
The report is the Proceeding of a Workshop sponsored
jointly by the Office of Radiation Programs of EPA and
the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Topics
for discussion fell into five general categories: Extent
of the Clean-up Problem; Impacts of Clear-up Tech-
nologies and  Economics of Criteria; Health Effects;
Desirable Characteristics of Criteria;  and Recycling of
Materials and Equipment.

Keywords: 'Radioactive materials, 'Meetings, 'Reme-
dial action, 'Pollution regulations, Standards compli-
ance, Waste recycling, Site surveys, Decontamination,
Decommissioning, Public health, US  EPA, Japan, Bio-
logical  effects,  Radioactive wastes,  Environmental
protection, Technology utilization, Economic analysis,
'Cleanup, Foreign technology.
PB91-179168/REB               PC A21/MF A03
State  Program  Advisory  Number  8.  Directive
(Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
1 Mar 91,483p EPA/530/SW-91 /047, OSWER
DIRECTIVE-9541.00-13

The directive discusses State and Regional Programs
Branch, which has periodically issued State Programs
Advisories (SPAs) to update the 'State Consolidated
Authorization  Manual'  (SCRAM)  as new  RCRA pro-
gram policies, regulations, and self-implementing stat-
utory provisions come into effect. Since the SCRAM
was  recently  replaced  by  the  State  Authorization
Manual (SAM) which includes RCRA program changes
through 6/30/89, current SPAs (SPA 8 and higher) will
now update the SAM.  SPA 8, covers RCRA program
changes for the period 7/1/89 - 12/31/89. Included
are 7 new revision checklists, model Attorney Gener-
al's Statement language for the changes covered by
the SPA, and other revised materials. A revision to the
First Third Scheduled Wastes is included here. SPA 8
introduces  Revision  Checklist   70  which  covers
changes to Part 124 which were inadvertently not in-
cluded as checklists in previous guidance.

Keywords: 'State programs, 'Guidelines, 'Superfund,
'Waste management,  Revisions, State implementa-
tion plans, Pollution regulations,  Tables(Data),  List-
ings, Hazardous materials, 'Office of Solid Waste and
Emergency Response, Resource Conservation and
Recovery Acts, State Authorization Manual.
PB91-179697/REB               PC A21/MF A03
Feasibility of Environmental Monitoring and Expo-
sure Assessment for a Municipal Waste Combus-
tor: Rutland, Vermont Pilot Study. Appendices.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Jan 91,492p* EPA/600/8-91/007A

In response to a Congressional mandate, a study was
undertaken by the Office of Research and Develop-
ment to monitor several metal and organic pollutants
in air and other environmental media near the Rutland,
Vermont Municipal Waste Combustor (MWC) facility;
and to estimate  the  magnitude  of any increases in
health risk. As data became available, it became ap-
parent that there was no obvious  relationship between
the operation of  the  MWC and ambient air pollution
levels. Therefore, the focus of the study shifted from
one of health risk assessment to one of more sophisti-
cated statistical analysis to determine whether any in-
fluence of the MWC was detectable. The final report
(EPA/600/8-91/007) was intended as a summary of
the study undertaken in Rutland, Vermont and  some
practical  applications af the feasibility of conducting
environmental monitoring and  exposure assessment
of such facilities. These Appendices support the final
report by providing the monitoring data and analyses
used in the report.

Keywords: 'Public health,  'Incinerators, 'Hazardous
materials, Monitoring, Organic compounds, Exposure,
Industrial wastes, Metals,  Sediments, Municipalities,
Toxicity,  Tables(Data), Concentration(Composition),
Sites,    Feasibility    studies,    'Air    pollution,
*Rutland(Vermont), Risk assessment, Soil contamina-
tion.
PB91-180174/REB                PC A99/MF A04
Environmental Protection Agency, Philadelphia, PA.
Region III.
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     27

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cleaning Up Our Coastal Waters: An  Unfinished
Agenda. A  Regional  Conference. Held In River-
date, New York on March 12-14,1990.
Dynamac Corp.. Rockville. MD.
M. T. Southerland, and K. Swetlow. 1990,611 p
Contract EPA-68-C8-0052
Also available from Supt. of Docs. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental  Protection   Agency, Philadelphia,  PA.
Region III, and Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently
funding three major water quality management plan-
ning efforts for the coastal waters in the New York-
New Jersey-Connecticut  region:  The Long  Island
Sound Study, The New York-New Jersey Harbor Estu-
ary Program; and The New York Bight  Restoration
Plan. Each of these efforts is overseen by a Manage-
ment Conference established by the Administrator of
the Agency. Since the Sound, Harbor, and Bight func-
tion, in many respects, as a single ecosystem,  and
since the regulated community will be required to im-
plement provisions contained in all three  plans, there
is a compelling need for inter-plan coordination. For
this reason, on March  12-14, 1990, the Management
Conferences, in conjunction with Manhattan College
and their 50th anniversary of environmental engineer-
ing, sponsored the regional conference: (Cleaning Up
Our Coastal Waters: An Unfinished Agenda.) The ulti-
mate purpose of the conference was to guide the con-
tinued deliberations of  the Management Conferences
overseeing the Long Island Sound  Study, the New
York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program, and the
New York Bight Restoration Plan.

Keywords: 'Coastal zone management, 'Water pollu-
tion control, 'Meetings, Regional analysis,  Remedial
action,  Pollution  sources,  New Jersey,  New York,
Water  pollution abatement, Ocean waste disposal,
Marine biology, Toxic substances, Regulations, Habi-
tats, Ecosystems, Dredge spoil, 'Cleanup, Long Island
Sound,  New York-New Jersey  Harbor Estuary Pro-
gram, New York Bight Restoration Plan.


PB91-181586/REB              PC A05/MF A01
Landfill and Surface Impoundment Performance
Evaluation Manual (Revised Edition).
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
AprB3,84p EPA/530/SW-00/869R, EPA/SW-869R
See also PB81 -166357.

The technical resource document provides recom-
mended procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of
liquid transmission  control  systems for hazardous
waste landfill and surface impoundments. The proce-
dures described  allow  an evaluates to determine the
performance of (1)  compacted day liners intended to
impede the vertical flow of liquids, (2) sand or gravel
drainage layers used to convey liquids  laterally into
collection systems  (3) slopes  on  such liner/drain
layers,  and (4) spacings of collector drain pipes.  The
mathematical principles that describe the transport of
liquids through hazardous waste landfills  and surface
impoundments are technically complex.  Faced with
the situation, it is tempting to circumvent these difficul-
ties by reverting to empiricism or rules of thumb. In the
manual, however, this has been avoided  by using lin-
earized  versions  of complicated mathematical equa-
tions and by using simplified  boundary conditions.
Thus, the evaluator is able to assess the performance
of a design using algebraic equations.

Keywords: 'Earth fills,  'Surface impoundments, 'Lin-
ings, 'Land  pollution control, 'Waste disposal, Revi-
sions, Performance evaluation, Leaching,  Design crite-
ria. Drainage, Hazardous materials.
PB91-181743/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Study on  Distribution* and Recoveries  of 10-
trachlorodlbenzo-p-DloxIn   and   OctachlonxH-
barao-p-CMoxIn In a MMS Sampling Train.
Southern Research Inst, Birmingham, AL
J. M. Finkel, R. H. James, and K. W. Baughman. Dec
90, SBp EPA/600/3-81 /033
Contract EPA-68-02-4442
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
•earch Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
Exposure Assessment Lab.

(14)Odioxin tracers were used to evaluate whole MMS
sampling train recoveries of dioxin and to determine
the distribution of dioxins spiked into a sampling train
that was concurrently sampling emissions from a burn
of either natural gas ('clean' bum) or kerosene ('dirty'
burn). The spike tests were made with a pilot-scale fur-
nace constructed and operated in the laboratory. Re-
covery of (14)C-dioxin from the MMS sampling train
was determined by scintillation spectrometry. The ex-
perimental results indicate that the amount of spiked
TCDD-(14)C recovered was approximately 85% during
a natural gas test and 83% during a kerosene test. The
amount of spiked OCDD-(14)C recovered was approxi-
mately 88% during a kerosene test. Also, the data indi-
cate that during the kerosene tests OCDD-(14)C is col-
lected primarily in the front half  of the sampling train
but TCDD-(14)C is often found in the XAD and the rear
filter bell, riser and condenser of the sampling train.
During the natural gas tests, TCDD-(14)C was primarily
in the XAD. The distribution of the TCDD-(14)C in the
kerosene tests was dependent on the rigid operation
of the sampling train. The information from the study
will be used to determine procedural areas that need
improvements  or modifications to allow the efficient
collection and  accurate determination of trace levels
of dioxins and furans using the MMS Method.

Keywords: *Furans, 'Dioxins, 'Air sampling, Effluents,
Incinerators, Natural gas. Kerosene, Isotopic labeling,
Laboratory  tests, Tables(Data),  Technology  assess-
ment.
PB91-181750/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Forced Air Ventilation for Remediation of Unsatu-
rated Soils Contaminated by VOC.
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
J. S. Cho. May 91,91 p EPA/600/2-91 /016

Parameters which were expected to control the  re-
moval process of VOCs from contaminated soil during
the SVE operation were studied by means of numerical
simulations and laboratory experiments in the project
Experimental results of SVE with soil columns in the
laboratory indicated that  the removal efficiency of
VOCs from soil columns was a complicated function of
air flow and the hydrogeometry inside. The partition
process between air and the  immobile liquid was not
an equilibrium  one, and the interfacial mass transfer
varied with the residual amount of VOCs in the soil. Ad-
ditional experiments under various conditions should
be conducted to obtain further insight into SVE proc-
ess. Two computer models were developed to study
soil air and VOC movement during the SVE  process.
The first  one was  an analytical approximate model
which could be used for the  simulation of air move-
ment in the SVE operation with multiple wells in homo-
geneous soil media. The second one was a numerical
model in three-dimensional geometry  which used a
finite difference solution scheme. A simple pneumatic
pump test was conducted, and part of test data were
used for the validation of the simple analytical model.

Keywords: 'Land pollution control, 'Volatile organic
compounds, 'Remedial action,  Soil contamination,
Mathematical models. Experimental design,  Air flow,
Computerized simulation, Three-dimensional calcula-
tions,  Performation  evaluation,   Finite difference
theory, 'Soil vacuum extraction, Cleanup operations.
PB91-181768/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Toxic  Treatments  'In-sltu1 Steam/Hot-Air Strip-
ping Technology. Applications Analysis Report.
Rept. for Jun 89-Jun 90.
Science Applications  International Corp., San Diego,
CA.
f. Jackson. Mar 91,49p EPA/540/A5-90/008
Contract EPA-68-03-3485
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

A SITE Demonstration of the Toxic Treatment (USA)
Inc. in-situ steam/hot-air stripping technology (Detoxi-
fier) was conducted beginning in the fall of 1989 at the
GATX Annex Terminal site located in San Pedro, CA.
The  chemical storage and transfer facility was con-
taminated with various solvents due to spillage and a
fire. Contamination extended into the salt water table
(1.8  meters).  Based on  the  SITE Demonstration and
other data, K was concluded that 85% of the volatile
organic compounds and 50% of the semivolatile  or-
ganic compounds were removed from the soil. Fugitive
air emissions are very low, and lateral and downward
migration of contaminants due to the treatment were
minimal. Finally, it was concluded that this in-situ proc-
ess is cost competitive.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Soil treatment, 'Land pollu-
tion control, 'Waste management, "Stripping, 'Reme-
dial action. Soil contamination, Soil mechanics, Tech-
nology utilization,  Volatile organic compounds, Per-
formance evaluation, Steam, In-situ processes, Oper-
ating, Economic analysis,  'TTUSA process, Cleanup
Operations, Toxic treatments(USA).
PB91-181776/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Field Comparison of Ground-Water Sampling De-
vices for Hazardous Waste Sites: An Evaluation
Using Volatile Organic Compounds. Summary rept.
Jan 87-Sep 90.
Nevada Univ. System, Las Vegas. Water Resources
Center.
K. F. Pohlmann, R. P. Blegen, and J. W. Hess. May 91,
114p EPA/600/4-90/028
Sponsored by  Environmental  Monitoring Systems
Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

To determine whether ground-water  contamination
has occurred or remediation efforts have been effec-
tive, it is necessary to collect ground-water samples in
such a way that the samples are representative of
ground-water conditions. Unfortunately, formation of
stagnant water within conventional monitoring wells
requires that these wells be purged prior to sampling, a
procedure that may introduce significant bias into the
determination of concentrations of sensitive constitu-
ents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The
use  of in situ ground-water sampling devices, which
minimize or eliminate the need for well purging, may
help alleviate some of the difficulties associated with
sampling ground-water  at hazardous waste sites. In
the study, several ground-water sampling devices, in-
cluding two in situ systems, were field-tested to deter-
mine their capability for yielding representative VOC
data. Sampling devices included a bladder pump, a
bladder pump below an inflatable packer, a bailer, a
bailer with a bottom-emptying device, an in situ West-
bay MP System, two in situ BAT devices, and a proto-
type BAT well probe. The devices were field-tested at
a site contaminated by a VOC plume, and the compari-
son was based on the ability of the devices to recover
representative concentrations of the VOCs. The  re-
sults of the study indicate that the tested in situ de-
vices may eliminate the need for well purging prior to
sample collection and that the resulting samples are at
least as representative as those collected with a blad-
der pump in a conventional monitoring well.

Keywords: 'Water pollution sampling, 'Hazardous ma-
terials, 'Waste disposal, 'Samplers, Volatile organic
compounds,           Remedial           action,
Concentration(Composition), Performance evaluation,
Best technology, Diaphragms(Mechanics), Field tests,
Comparison,  Site  surveys, Experimental  design.
Ground water, Westbay MP System, Bailers, Bladder
pumps.
 PB91-181784/REB               PC A07/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 National Dry Deposition Network:  Third  Annual
 Progress Report (1989).
 Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Gaines-
 ville, FL.
 E. S. Edgerton, T. F. Lavery, and H. S. Prentice. Jul 91,
 142p EPA/600/3-91/018
 Contract EPA-68-02-4451
 See also PB90-187238. Sponsored by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. At-
 mospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

 The National Dry Deposition Network is ultimately to
 provide long-term estimates of dry acidic deposition
 across the continental United States. Fifty sites oper-
 ated during  1989, 41 in the east and 9 in the west
 Weekly average atmospheric concentrations of sul-
 fate, nitrate, ammonium, sulfur dioxide, and nitric acid
 were measured  (using three  stage  filter  packs)
 throughout the year, while sodium, potassium, calcium,
 and magnesium were measured from January through
 September. Results showed species-dependent varia-
 bility in  atmospheric concentrations from site to site,
 season to season, and day to night In general SO4(-
 2), NH4(+),  SO2, and HNO3 concentrations were
 28    Vol. 91,  No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
much higher (factor 5-10) at eastern sites than at west-
em. On the other hand, NO3(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(+2),
and Mg(+2) concentrations were frequently compara-
ble  at eastern and western sites.  Average SO4(-2),
NH4(+),  and  HNO3 concentrations were typically
highest during summer and lowest during fall. In con-
trast, SO2  and NO3(-) were  highest in winter and
lowest in summer. Day/night  variability was low for
aerosols, but frequently pronounced for  SO2  and
HNO3, especially during the summer and at sites sur-
rounded by complex terrain. Ozone data for 1988 and
1989 showed marked differences between years, with
notably higher concentrations in 1988. Approximations
of annual dry deposition rates for SO4(-2), SO2, NO3(-
), and HNO3 suggest that gaseous deposition greatly
exceeds  aerosol deposition and that dry fluxes  are
similar to wet deposition at numerous sites in the east-
em  U.S.  Application  of  site-specific dry deposition
models are needed to refine these estimates.

Keywords: 'Deposition, *Air pollution sampling, *Dry
methods, Meteorology, Air quality data, Quality control,
Long term effects, Concentration(Composition), Study
estimates, Site surveys, Seasonal variations, Ozone,
Aerosols, Data  quality,  Diurnal variations, 'National
Dry Deposition Network.
PB91-181792/REB               PC A12/MF A02
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Seattle,   WA.
Region X.
Everett Harbor Action Plan: Data Summaries. Draft
rept.
Tetra Tech, Inc., Bellevue, WA.
Sep85,263pTETRAT-TC-3991-03, EPA/910/9-88/
195
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Seat-
tle, WA. Region X.

The report provides a synthesis of information describ-
ing  the geographic extent and severity of chemical
contamination in Everett Harbor within Puget Sound in
Washington State. Summaries of existing data are pro-
vided for  chemical  contamination of  sediment and
biota, biological effects,  contaminant  sources, and
beneficial  uses  associated with  the estuarine  study
area. Original, summarized, tabulated, and mapped
data are presented. The objective of the Data Summa-
ries and Problem Identification report  is to provide a
mechanism for  comprehensively evaluating pollution
problems in the more urbanized embayments and for
providing a basis for prioritizing corrective actions. A
decision making framework is presented for evaluating
and prioritizing both  sub-areas and specific contami-
nant sources. The  decision making  framework  in-
cludes (1) a review and quality assurance check of all
available environmental data; (2)  analyses of spatial
and temporal trends of chemical contamination; (3) a
limited ranking of the problem areas; and (4) identifica-
tion of data gaps and  provision of recommendations
for  improved characterization  of specific pollution
sources.

Keywords: 'Everett Harbor, 'Water pollution sampling,
'Water pollution effects,  'Chemical compounds, Bio-
logical indicators, Sediments, Biota, Pollution sources.
Biological  effects,  Tables(Data), Puget Sound, Toxici-
ty, Fish diseases, Bioassay, Quality assurance, Spatial
distribution, Temporal distribution, Ranking, Data proc-
essing, Reviews.


PB91-181800/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Seattle,   WA.
Region X.
Sampling and Analysis Design for Development of
Elliott Bay Toxics Action Plan. Final rept.
Tetra Tech, Inc., Bellevue, WA.
Jul 85, 94p TETRAT-TC-3991 -01, EPA/910/9-88/196
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Seat-
tle, WA. Region X.

The report is one  component of an urban  Bay action
program. The program identifies existing problems of
toxic contamination and associated biological effects
within the study area,  identifies historic and ongoing
sources of pollution, and identifies appropriate remedi-
al actions and agency responsibilities for implementing
defined corrective actions. The objective of the report
is to provide the design for a sampling effort which will
fill specific data and information gaps. This step was
identified as being necessary for completing the inter-
agency action plan. Specific components of the report
include objectives for a sediment quality survey and bi-
ological effects studies (including bioassays, benthic
invertebrate communities, bioaccumulation, and fish
pathology), identification of sample variables,  sam-
pling methods, and laboratory analyses.

Keywords:  'Elliott  Bay,  'Water pollution  sampling,
'Water pollution effects,  Pollution sources, Remedial
action, Biological effects, Bioaccumulation, Bioassay,
Design criteria. Sediments,  Fish diseases, Data proc-
essing, Toxicity, Seattle(Washington).
PB91-181818/REB               PC A14/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Feasibility  of Hydraulic Fracturing of Soil to Im-
prove Remedial Actions.
Cincinnati Univ., OH.
L. C. Murdoch, G. Losonsky, P. Cluxton, B. Patterson,
and I. Klich. Apr 91,308p EPA/600/2-91 /012
Contract EPA-68-03-3379
Sponsored  by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

Hydraulic fracturing, a method of increasing fluid flow
within the subsurface, should improve the effective-
ness of several remedial techniques, including  pump
and treat, vapor extraction, bio-remediation, and soil-
flushing. The technique  is widely used to increase the
yields of oil wells, but is untested under conditions typi-
cal of contaminated sites. The project consisted of lab-
oratory experiments, where hydraulic  fractures were
created in a triaxial pressure cell,  and two field tests,
where fractures were created at shallow depths in soil.
The lab tests showed that hydraulic fractures are read-
ily created in clayey silt, even when it is saturated and
loosely-consolidated.  Many of  the lab observations
can  be explained  using parameters and  analyses
based on linear elastic fracture  mechanics. Following
the field tests, the vicinity of the boreholes was exca-
vated to reveal details of the hydraulic fractures. Maxi-
mum lengths  of the fractures, as  measured from the
borehold to the leading edge, averaged 4.0 m, and the
average area was  19 sq m. Maximum thickness  of
sand ranged from 2 to 20 mm,  averaging 11 mm. As
many as four fractures were created from a single bor-
ehold, stacked one over the other at vertical spacing of
15 to 30 cm.

Keywords: 'Remedial action, 'Land pollution control,
'Hydraulic fracturing, 'Hazardous materials, 'Chemi-
cal compounds, Soil contamination, Soil environment,
Water  pollution control, Biological treatment,  Fluid
flow, Soil mechanics, Boreholes, Field tests, Feasibility
studies, Technology utilization, Soil flushing.
PB91-181826/REB                PC A06/MF A01
Status of Selected Air Pollution Control Programs,
May 1990.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
May 90,123p EPA/450/2-90/008

The collection of status reports has been prepared in
order to provide a timely summary of selected EPA air
pollution control activities to those individuals who are
involved with the implementation of these programs.
The report contains ozone/CO programs,  air toxics
programs, PM-10/lead/visibility implementation pro-
grams, NSR/PSD program, acid rain/stack heights/
SO2 programs, compliance/enforcement program, in-
formation transfer activities, and other programs.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Research programs,
'Air pollution abatement, Prevention of Significant De-
terioration  Regulations,  Ozone,  Carbon  monoxide,
Toxic substances, Risk assessment, State programs,
Particles, Stacks, Information  transfer, Law enforce-
ment, Acid rain, Visibility,  Lead(Metal), State  imple-
mentation plans,  Sulfur dioxide, Standards compli-
ance, New Source Review.
PB91-181834/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Technology Transfer and Regulatory Sup-
port.
Ground-Water Research: Technical Assistance Di-
rectory- Third Edition. Directory revision.
Environmental Management Support,  Silver Spring,
MD.
Mar 91, 53p EPA/600/9-91 /006
Contract EPA-68-DO-0171
Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection  Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Technology Transfer and
Regulatory Support.
This is the third revision on the Directory, originally
published  by ORD, in  March 1987. It is intended  to
foster communication among scientists and engineers
throughout EPA's Office of Research and Develop-
ment (ORD) and among EPA, state, and local person-
nel involved in the  protection  and management  of
ground-water resources. In addition to listing ORD re-
searchers by location and subject matter, the Directory
provides  brief  organizational  descriptions  of the
ground-water research programs for each ORD office.
These descriptions may aid in locating assistance in
areas not covered by the subject indices.  To ensure
cross-office integration of research programs, in 1987
ORD designated  a  Ground-Water Research Matrix
Manager to coordinate ORD, Program Office, and Re-
gional Input on issues and priorities in the areas of pre-
diction, monitoring, and cleanup.

Keywords: 'Research projects, 'Ground water, 'Di-
rectories, Water resources. Protection, Scientists, En-
gineers, Technical assistance. Monitoring, EPA re-
gions, Listings, Cleanup.
PB91-181842/REB                PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Locating  and  Estimating Air  Emissions  from
Sources of Formaldehyde (Revised).
Midwest Research Inst., Cary, NC.
C. Vaught. Mar91,125p EPA/450/4-91 /012
See also PB84-200633. Sponsored  by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

To assist  groups interested in  inventorying air emis-
sions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is
preparing  a series of documents such as this to com-
pile available information on sources and emissions of
these substances. The  document  deals specifically
with formaldehyde.  Its  intended audience  includes
Federal, State and  local air pollution personnel  and
others interested in locating potential emitters of form-
aldehyde and in making gross  estimates of air emis-
sions therefrom. The document presents information
on (1) the types of  sources that may emit formalde-
hyde, (2)  process variations and release points  that
may be expected within  these sources, and  (3) avail-
able emissions information indicating the potential for
formaldehyde release into the air from each operation.
The document updated a report published in 1984.

Keywords: 'Formaldehyde, 'Air pollution, 'Toxic sub-
stances, Sources, Sampling, Chemical analysis, Indus-
trial wastes, Design criteria, State government, Nation-
al government, Air pollution control. Emission factors.
 PB91-181859/REB               PC E99/MF E99
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 MAGIC/DDRP Final Report and Results.
 Virginia Univ., Charlottesville.  Dept. of Environmental
 Sciences.
 May91,1073p-in5v
 Set includes PB91 -181867 through PB91 -181909. Pre-
 pared in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Lab.,
 TN.  Environmental Sciences Div.,  and  Geological
 Survey,  West Trenton, NJ.  Water  Resources Div.
 Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
 OR.

 No abstract available.
 PB91-181867/REB               PCA11/MFA02
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 MAGIC/DDRP Final  Report. Models, Calibration,
 Results, Uncertainty Analyses, QA.QC. Volume 1.
 Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. Dept. of Environmental
 Sciences.
 B. J. Cosby, G. M. Hornberger, P. F. Ryan, and D. M.
 Wolock. May 91,232p EPA/600/3-91 /034A
 See also Volume 2, PB91-181875. Prepared in coop-
 eration with Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmen-
 tal Sciences Div., and Geological Survey, West Tren-
 ton, NJ. Water Resources Div. Sponsored by Corvallis
 Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 Also available in set  of 5 reports PC E99/MF E99,
 PB91-181859.

 The report is a completion of the project Predictive
 Modeling of Longterm Dynamics of the Effects  of
 Acidic Deposition on surface Water Quality of Selected
 Intensively Studied Catchments. MAGIC= Model  of
 Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments.  It con-
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     29

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
sists of five volumes. This volume discusses Models,
Calibration, Results, Uncertainty Analyses, and quality
assurance/quality control (QA/QC).  The document
contains Description of the Chemical Response Model
(MAGIC), Description of the Hydrotogical Model (TOP-
MODEL), Coupling of MAGIC and TOPMODEL, Model
Calibration Procedure, and Results, Uncertainty, QA/
QC.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Computerized simulation,
'Deposition, 'Watersheds(Basins), 'Water pollution,
'Acidification, Calibrating, Quality assurance, Quality
control, Long term effects, Soil surveys, Water chemis-
try, Dry methods, Wet methods, pH,  Chemical reac-
tions, Air pollution. Hydrology, Runoff,  Surface waters,
Surface-groundwater relationships, Air water interac-
tions, 'Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catch-
ments, 'MAGIC, Cooperative agreements, TOPMO-
DEL.
PB91-181875/REB               PC A09/MF A02
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
MAGIC DDRP Final Report Regional Analyses of
Results (Summary Tables and Plots). Volume 2.
Virginia Univ., Clwlottesville. Dept of Environmental
Sciences.
B. J. Cosby, G. M. Homberger, P. F. Ryan, and D. M.
Wolock. May 91,199p EPA/600/3-91/034B
See also  Volume  1, PB91-181867 and  Volume 3,
P891-1S1SS3. Prepared  in  cooperation with Oak
Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sciences Div.,
and Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ. Water Re-
sources Div.  Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.
Also available in set of 5 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-181859.

The volume contains five appendices analyzing the re-
sults of MAGIC calibrations for the DDRP catchments.
The analyses in the volume are regional in that they
are presented across all catchments in the northeast-
em and southeastern regions. A separate volume con-
tains summaries of the calibration results for individual
catchments within each region. The analyses are per-
formed across all catchments in each region for which
successful calibrations of MAGIC were obtained. The
catchment data are drawn from the results files for-
warded to Corvallis. Each appendix contains tables
summarizing  the statistics of the distributions of  a
number of variables for each region (both unweighted
and weighted using the inverses of the DDRP inclusion
probabilities). Each appendix also contains plots of the
distributions of the variables for each region (both un-
weighted and weighted using the inverses of the
DDRP inclusion probabilities). Each appendix contains
an  index and begins with a  brief description of the
tables, plots and variables presented.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Computerized simulation,
'Deposition, 'Watersheds(Basins),  'Water pollution,
'Acidification,  Air water interactions, Air pollution,
Region analysis, Tabtes(Data), Graphs(Charts), Statis-
tical analysis, Surface-groundwater relationships, Hy-
drology, Soil surveys,  'Model  of  Acidification  of
Groundwater  In  Catchments,  'MAGIC,  Northeast
Region(Unrted States),   Southeast  Region(United
States).
PB91-181883/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
MAGIC  DDRP Final Report Summary of Results
for Individual Catchments. Volume 3.
Virginia Univ., Chariottesville. Dept of Environmental
Sciences.
B. J. Cosby, G. M. Homberger, P. F. Ryan, and D. M.
Wolock. May 91,177p EPA/600/3-91 /034C
See  also  Volume 2,  PB91-181875 and  Volume 4,
PB91-181891.  Prepared in cooperation with Oak
Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sciences Div.,
and Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ. Water Re-
sources Div. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.
Also available in set of 5 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-181859.

The volume contains summary results of MAGIC cali-
brations for the DDRP catchments. The summaries are
presented for individual catchments within the north-
eastern and southeastern regions. A separate volume
contains regional analyses of the results across all
catchments in the northeastern  and southeastern re-
gions. The summaries are given for all catchments in
each  region  for which successful  calibrations of
MAGIC were obtained. The catchment data are drawn
from the results files forwarded to Corvallis. The cali-
bration protocol for MAGIC applied to the DDRP catch-
ments  involved multiple calibrations for each catch-
ment. Ten calibrations were attempted for each catch-
ment. A catchment was not considered calibrated until
at least three calibrations were successful. The multi-
ple calibrations were performed in order to estimate
the uncertainty in the calibrated model for each catch-
ment. The procedure is described in detail in  another
volume. Because multiple calibrations are available for
each catchment, the results summarized here  for sim-
ulated values (or changes in simulated values) are the
median (MED) values of all calibrations for an individ-
ual  catchment. The uncertainies in simulated values
(or changes in simulated values) are presented as the
difference in  the maximum and  minimum (MX-MN)
values resulting from the multiple calibrations.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Computerized simulation,
'Deposition,  'Watersheds(Basins), 'Water pollution,
'Acidification, Calibrating,  Regional analysis,  Statisti-
cal  analysis.  Air water interactions, Air pollution, Sur-
face-groundwater    relationships,    Tables(Data),
Concentration(Composition), Average, Hydrology, Soil
surveys, 'Model  of  Acidification  of Groundwater In
Catchments,   'MAGIC,   Northeast  Region(United
States), Southeast Region(United States).
PB91-181891/REB               PC A09/MF A02
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
MAGIC  DDRP Final Report Processing Stream, I/
O Hies and Formats, Deliverables. Volume 4.
Virginia  Univ., Chariottesville. Dept. of Environmental
Sciences.
B. J. Cosby, G. M. Homberger, P. F. Ryan, and D. M.
Wolock. May 91,200p EPA/600/3-91 /034D
See also Volume 3, PB91-181883 and  Volume 5,
PB91-181909. Prepared  in cooperation with Oak
Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sciences Div.,
and Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ. Water Re-
sources Div.  Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.
Also available in set of 5 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-181859.

The volume contains five appendices describing the
processing stream and input/output files for calibration
and simulation of the DDRP catchments using MAGIC.
A flow chart for the processing of data is included. Ex-
amples and formats of all intermediate files produced
in the processing stream are given. The edited input
data (as used in the calibration/simulation process)
are listed for each of the DDRP catchments. The deli-
verables provided to Corvallis and Battelle (in the form
of computer readable files) are also summarized. The
volume forms part of the QA/QC report for the project.
All files transmitted from UVa to the sponsors or their
agents are listed. These files were transmitted twice to
each recipient to insure data integrity during the trans-
mission process. The input data used by UVa are listed
here for future reference and to provide a ready check
against other reports generated using these data in the
DDRP project.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Computerized simulation,
'Deposition,  'Watersheds(Basins), 'Water pollution,
'Acidification, Air pollution, Air water interactions, Data
processing, Calibrating, Tables(Data), Soil surveys,
Hydrology, Data base management, Input/output rou-
tines, Quality assurance, Quality control, Data quality,
Statistical  analysis,   Surface-groundwater relation-
ships, 'Model of Acidification  of Groundwater  In
Catchments, 'MAGIC.
PB91-181909/REB               PCA12/MFA02
Gorvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
MAGIC DDRP Final Report Processing  Stream,
Program Listings. Volume 5.
Virginia Univ., Chariottesville. Dept. of Environmental
Sciences.
B. J. Cosby, G. M. Homberger, P. F. Ryan, and D. M.
Wolock. May 91,265p EPA/600/3-91 /034E
See also  Volume 4, PB91-181891. Prepared in coop-
eration with Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmen-
tal Sciences Div., and Geological Survey, West Tren-
ton, NJ. Water Resources Div. Sponsored by Corvallis
Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Also available in set of 5 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-181859.

The volume contains five appendices describing the
processing stream and programs for calibration and
simulation of the  DDRP catchments using MAGIC. A
flow chart snowing the interrelationships of the  pro-
grams and data files is included. The appendices are
Processing stream for the MAGIC calibration and sim-
ulation programs, MAGIC calibration and multiple-run
programs, MAGICIN file preparation program, TOP-
MODEL calibration and simulation programs, and TO-
POGEN topographic index program. The volume forms
part of the QA/QC report for the project. All programs
used  in the calibration and  simulation of the DDRP
catchments are listed in their entirety.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Computerized simulation,
'Deposition, 'Watersheds(Sasins), 'Water pollution,
'Acidification, Air water interactions, Air pollution, Sur-
face-groundwater relationships, Hydrology, Soil sur-
veys.  Input/output routines. Data base management,
Flow  charts, Calibrating, Data processing, Statistical
analysis, Computer programming, Quality assurance,
Quality control, 'Model of Acidification of Groundwater
In Catchments, TOPMODEL, TOPOGEN computer
program, 'MAGIC.
PB91-181917/REB               PC A14/MF A02
Feasibility of Environmental Monitoring and Expo-
sure Assessment for a Municipal Waste Combus-
tor: Rutland, Vermont Pilot Study. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
C. Sonich-Mullin. Jan 91,308p ECAO-CIN-753, EPA/
600/8-91/007

The purpose of the mulWpollutant, multimedia study
was to determine levels of contaminants in the ambi-
ent air, soil, sediment, water and agricultural products
attributable to operation of the municipal waste com-
bustor (MWC) in Rutland, Vermont. Samples were col-
lected between October 1987 and February 1989 at or
near locations predicted to have maximum deposition.
The measured pollutant concentrations could not be
correlated with  the  emissions or  operation of the
MWC. Evidence for this conclusion comes from both
qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the measured
pollutant concentrations in the ambient air and envi-
ronmental media, as well as comparison with predicted
ambient air concentrations of the pollutants using local
meteorologic information.

Keywords: 'Environmental monitoring, 'Waste dispos-
al, 'Municipal wastes, 'Incineration,  Polychlorinated
dibenzodioxins, Concentration(Composition), Meteor-
ological data, Air pollution sampling,  Water pollution
sampling, Sediments, Polychlorinated  dibenzofurans,
Polychlorinated biphenyls, Soil analysis. Land pollu-
tion,  Agricultural products,  Deposition, Vermont, At-
mospheric diffusion, Environmental transport, Metals,
Rutland (Vermont).
PB91-181925/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Texas Univ. Health Science Center at Houston.
Arsenic(3) and Arsenic(S) Removal from Drinking
Water in San Ysidro, New Mexico. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
D. Clifford, and C. C. Lin. Apr 91,119p EPA/600/2-91 /
011
Sponsored by Texas  Univ. Health Science Center at
Houston.

The removal of a natural mixture of As(lll) (31 micro-
grams/L) and As(V) (57 micrograms/L) from a ground-
water high in total dissolved solids  (TDS), and also
containing fluoride (2.0 mg/L), was  studied in San
Ysidro, NM using the University of Houston (UH)/U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mobile Drink-
ing Water Treatment Research Facility. The objective
of the study was to establish a cost-effective means of
removing As(lll), As(V), and fluoride from this and simi-
lar waters. Arsenic adsorption into fine-mesh activated
alumina gave better-than-expected results.  Approxi-
mately 9000 bed volumes (BV) could be treated at pH
6  before  the arsenic maximum  contaminant  level
(MCL) (0.05 mg/L) was reached. At the natural pH of
7.2, however, only 1900 BV could be treated before
exceeding the MCL Reverse Osmosis (RO) treatment
resulted in > 97% arsenic removal and > 94% TDS re-
moval.  Electrodialysis (ED) removed  73% of the ar-
senic and was able to meet the arsenic MCL on the
City Water containing 89 micrograms/L total arsenic;
however, ED removed only 28% of the As(lll) from a
new well containing 100% As(lll) at a level of 230 mi-
crograms/L. Chloride-form anion exchange also per-
formed better-than-expected (200 BV) but  not well
enough for it to be considered seriously for treatment
Point-of-use (POU) RO treatment was effected in re-
30     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA  PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
moving > 91 % of the arsenic and > 94% of the TDS at
low (< 15%) water recovery.

Keywords:  "Arsenic,  *Fluorides,  'Potable  water,
'Ground  water, "Chemical removal(Water treatment),
Water pollution, Laboratories, Mobile equipment, Ad-
sorption,  Electrodialysis,  Ion  exchanging, Aluminum
oxide, Technology assessment, Reverse osmosis.
PB91-181933/REB                PC A07/MF A01
State Drinking Water Administrative Penalty Pro-
grams: An Inventory of State Practices.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
Jan91,144p EPA/570/9-91/001

The report presents an overview of state enforcement
practices,  provides  case-study descriptions of six
states with administrative penalty authority, includes a
comparative analysis of state programs, and discusses
and  provides examples of legislative authority  lan-
guage for administrative penalty assessment powers.

Keywords: 'Water pollution abatement, 'Pollution reg-
ulations, 'Law enforcement, State programs, Penal-
ties, Case studies, Administrative procedures, Legisla-
tion, Comparison, National government, Assessments,
Safe Drinking Water Act.
PB91-181941/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Sorption  of  lonizable  Organic  Compounds  to
Sediments and Soils.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA. Office of
Research and Development.
C. T. Jafvert, and E. J. Weber. Mar 91, 31 p EPA/600/
3-91/017

The sorption of ionizable organic compounds to sedi-
ments and saturated soils is examined. The sorption of
pentachlorophenol to two sediment silt-clay fractions
as a function of pH is described. Sorption of both the
neutral and the ionic species was shown to occur; re-
sults were quantitatively interpreted by accounting for
sorption of both the neutral and ionic  species and by
accounting for acid dissociation in the aqueous phase.
In addition, factors influencing the sorption of several
organic bases to sediments are described, as well as
some of the inherent difficulties encountered in apply-
ing phenomenological data to distinguish among vari-
ous physical and  chemical processes. Finally, proc-
esses influencing the distribution of neutral and anion-
ic surfactants are discussed briefly.

Keywords:  'Pentachlorophenol,   'Anilines,   'Soils,
'Sediments, 'Sorption,  pH,  lonization, Organic com-
pounds, Organic acids, Surfactants, Reprints, Organic
bases.
PB91-181958/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Microbial  Transformation   Rate  Constants   of
Structurally Diverse Man-Made Chemicals.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
W. C. Steen. Mar 91,19p EPA/600/3-91 /016

To assist in  estimating microbially mediated transfor-
mation rates of man-made chemicals from their chemi-
cal  structures, all second order rate constants that
have been measured under conditions that  make the
values comparable have been extracted from the liter-
ature and combined with rate constants not reported
before to compile a comprehensive list of second
order  rate constants for chemicals of diverse struc-
tures.  Chemicals for which constants are presented in-
clude  seven chlorinated carboxylic acid esters of 2,4-
dichlqrophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), phenol and seven
substituted phenols,  three phthalate esters,  three ani-
lines, seven amides, and  seven acetanilides. The  35
constants were measured in the laboratory by a proto-
col that measures disappearance of the chemical sub-
strate as a function of time in the presence of suspend-
ed natural populations  from unpolluted  aquatic sys-
tems.  Second order rate constants, k2 (L/org/hr),
range from 4,2 x 10 to the -8 for the hexyl acid ester of
2,4-D to 4.2 x 10 to the -15 for the di-ethylhexyl phthal-
ate ester.

Keywords:   'Biodeterioration,   'Reaction  kinetics,
'Phenols, 'Amines, 'Amides, 'Acetanilides,  'Anilines,
Toxic  substances, Bacteria,  Herbicides,  Water pollu-
tion. United  States,  Tables(Data),  'Chlorophenoxya-
cetic acids.
PB91-181966/REB                PC A12/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Cost and Feasibility of the Temporary Total  En-
closure Method for De Tmining Capture Efficien-
cy. Final rept.
Midwest Research Inst.,   ry, NC.
S. W. Edgerton. Nov 90,   I p EPA/450/3-91 /005
Contract EPA-68-02-43
Sponsored by Environr    al Protection Agency,  Re-
search Triangle Park,  '    Office of Air Quality Plan-
ning and Standards.

The document present,   j findings of  a study of the
cost and feasibility of df termining  VOC capture  effi-
ciency using  the gas/gr> temporary total enclosure
method. For the study, fi 'e coating and printing facili-
ties were visited, and site-specific cost  and feasibility
analyses were conducted.  The five site visit  reports
and individual cost and feasibility  analyses are  ap-
pended.

Keywords: 'Environmental tests, 'Air pollution, 'Cost
analysis, Feasibility studies, Standards, Test methods,
Facilities, Printing, Coatings, Sites, Regulations, Com-
pliance, Diagrams, Design criteria,  Industrial  plants,
Exhaust gases, Incinerators, Drying apparatus,  Ovens,
Performance   evaluation,   'Volatile organic  com-
pounds. Temporary total enclosure, 'Capture efficien-
cy, Fugitive exhaust.
PB91-181982/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Radiation Data: Report 59, July-
September 1989. Quarterly rept.
National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Mont-
gomery, AL.
Mar 90, 54p EPA/520/5-90/003
SeealsoPB90-182197.

Environmental  Radiation Data  (ERD) contains data
from the Environmental Radiation Ambients Monitor-
ing System (ERAMS). Data from simitar networks oper-
ated by contributing  States, Canada, Mexico, and the
Pan American Health Organization are reported in the
ERD when available. The ERAMS is comprised of na-
tionwide sampling stations that provide air, surface
and drinking water and milk samples from which envi-
ronmental radiation levels are derived. Sampling loca-
tions are selected to  provide optimal population cover-
age while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear
devices and other forms of radioactive contamination
of the environment. The radiation analyses performed
on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
levels, gamma  analyses for fission products, and spe-
cific analyses of uranium, plutonium, stronium, iodine,
radium, krypton, and tritium.

Keywords:  'Radiation  monitoring,  'Environmental
monitoring,  'Radioisptopes, Tritium, Krypton, Radioe-
cological concentration, Concentration(Composition),
Tables(Data), Air pollution, Water pollution, Radium,
Iodine, Uranium, Plutonium, Stronium, Land pollution,
Fission product release, Ecology, 'Radioactive pollut-
ants.
PB91-181990/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Radiation Data, Report 60: Octo-
ber-December 1989. Quarterly rept.
National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Mont-
gomery, AL.
Jun 90, 42p EPA/520/5-90/018

In 1973, the  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
Office of Radiation Programs established the Environ-
mental  Radiation    Ambient  Monitoring   System
(ERAMS) to provide continuous, accurate, and usable
environmental  radiation data to the public. For com-
pleteness, ERAMS data for all specific radionuclide
analyses are reported as the  calculated results indi-
cate, whether the numbers are negative, zero, or posi-
tive. Frequently, there is little or no radioactivity in envi-
ronmental media. Thus, tne results of laboratory analy-
ses should statistically show a distribution of negative
and positive numbers about zero. A  negative value
occurs when  a  previously  determined background
value is subtracted from n sample value that is less
than that  of the background. Prior  to  July 1975,
ERAMS data were not reported numerically when the
results were less than a specified reporting  level or
minimum detectable level. The present reporting pro-
cedure allows all the data to be reported and evaluat-
ed statistically  without an arbitrary cutoff of small or
negative numbers.  The approach will facilitate  esti-
mates of  bias  in the  nuclide analyses and will allow
better evaluation of distributions and trends in environ-
mental data.

Keywords:  'Radiation  monitoring,  'Environmental
monitoring, 'Radioisotopes, Tritium, Krypton, Radioe-
cological concentration, Concentration(Composition),
Tables(Data), Air pollution, Water  pollution, Radium,
Iodine, Uranium, Plutonium, Strontium, Land pollution.
Fission product release, Ecology, 'Radioactive pollut-
ants.
PB91-182006/REB                PC A05/MF A01
Carbon Adsorption for Control of VOC Emissions:
Theory and Full Scale System Performance.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Aug 88, 84p EPA/450/3-88/012

The report presents the  results of an investigation into
the performance and operation of vapor phase carbon
adsorption systems. The investigation was initiated as
a result of comments recieved by the E.P.A. in refer-
ence to the draft new source performance standards
(NSPS) for control of VOC emissions from the manu-
facture of magnetic tape. In order to respond to these
comments, the EPA requested additional information
from manufacturers and users of carbon adsorber sys-
tems to further investigate system performance and
costs. The EPA also again reviewed information ob-
tained from previous studies by the agency. Section 2
presents the conclusions of the study. Section 3 pre-
sents  a description  of  the  vapor  phase adsorption
process, discusses impacts of changes in inlet vent
stream characteristics on adsorber performance, and
presents supporting test data. Section 4 presents a de-
scription of the carbon adsorber system  which the
commenter used as a basis for developing their com-
ments, and a discussion of the design and operation of
that system.

Keywords: 'Adsorption,  'Activated carbon treatment,
'Volatile  organic  compounds, Coating processes,
Emission factors, Air pollution  control equipment,
Technology assessment, Magnetic tapes.
PB91-182014/REB                PC A04/MF A01
How to Develop Your Own UST Field Citation Pro-
gram.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Underground Storage Tanks.
Feb 91,65p EPA/530/UST-91 /014

The handbook provides the steps involved in design-
ing, setting up and implementing a field citation pro-
gram. Also, a variety of streamlined enforcement tech-
niques are provided that might be valuable for any UST
Program faced with the problem of how to enforce
UST preventive requirements.

Keywords: 'Land pollution abatement, 'Underground
storage, 'Storage tanks, 'Pollution regulations, Guide-
lines, Law enforcement, Inspection, Field tests. Legal
aspects,  Penalties, Notice  of probable  violation,
Design criteria, Revisions, Administrative procedures,
Decision making, 'Field citation program.
PB91-182022/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air Risk Information Support Center.
Health Hazard  Assessment  Summary: Steel Mill
Emissions.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Sep 90, 61p DCN-89-239-009-07-02, EPA/450/3-90/
026
Contract EPA-68-D9-0011
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Air Risk Information Support
Center.

Report contains information residing in EPA's Integrat-
ed Risk Information System (IRIS). It was prepared to
assist State and local air pollution control officials in
the identification of possible health hazards associat-
ed with steel mill emissions.  One  objective is  to
present the Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL)
and the No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL) for the
noncancer health effects associated with exposure to
steel mill emissions. For some pollutants, these effects
are used  to calculate a Reference Dose (RfD). Infor-
mation is also presented on the carcinogenic potential
of steel mill emissions.
                                                                                                                                 Sept  1991     31

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Keywords:   'Risk  assessment,   'Air   pollution
 effects(Humans),  'Environmental  surveys,  'Public
 health. Steel plants, Air pollution control. Exposure,
 Metals, Coking, Industrial wastes, Inhalation, Carcino-
 gens, Organic matter, Epidemiology, Toxicity, Lowest
 Observed Effect Levels, No Observed Effect Levels.
 PB91-182048/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Fly Ash Recycle in Dry Scrubbing. Journal Article.
 Texas Univ. at Austin. Dept. of Chemical Engineering.
 W. Jozewicz, and G. T. Rochelle. c1986,8p EPA/600/
 J-86/553
 Pub. in Environmental Progress, v5 n4 p219-224 Nov
 86. See also PB86-119088. Sponsored  by Environ-
 mental Protection  Agency, Research Triangle  Park,
 NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

 The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in
 dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the
 recycle of product solids improves the  utilization of
 slaked lime-Ca(OH)2-for sulfur dioxide (SO2) remov-
 al by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale
 experiments with a packed-bed reactor, utilization was
 increased several-fold  when the Ca(OH)2  was first
 slurried with one of several different fly ashes. The en-
 hancement increased with the higher loading of  fly
 ash-g fly ash/g Ca(OH)2. Much higher Ca(OH)2 utili-
 zation was achieved when silic acid was used instead
 of fly ash. Scanning electron microscopy supports the
 explanation that Ca(OH)2 and silica dissolve and  re-
 precipitate as a more reactive calcium silicate. Other
 major constituents of fly ash have less or no effect at
 all on Ca(OH)2 utilization.  The amount of calcium in
 the fly ash did not affect the overall SO2 removal after
 Ca(OH)2 was added. Slurrying for longer than 2 hours
 at higher than  60 C can improve the utilization  of
 Ca(OH)2 slurried with fly ash.

 Keywords: 'Fly ash, 'Calcium oxides.  'Scrubbers,
 'Recycling,  Air pollution control, Sulfur dioxide, Sta-
 tionary  sources, Inorganic silicates, Slurries, Spray
 drying, Reprints.
PB91-182055/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Generalized Soft Water Acidification Model. Jour-
nal article.
Iowa Univ., Iowa City.
N. P. Nikolaidis, H. Rajaram, J. L Schnoor, and K. P.
Georgakakos. C1988,16p EPA/600/ J-88/565
Pub. in Water  Resources Research, v24 n12 p1983-
1996 Dec 88.  Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.

A generalized soft water acidification model has been
developed. The enhanced trickle-down (ETD) rrottel is
driven by  precipitation, evaporation, acidity  sulfate,
and chloride loading time series daily input c.dta. The
hydrologic component simulates snowmeli, interflow,
overland flow,  groundwater flow, frozen ground proc-
esses,  seepage,  and  evapotranspiration.  Physico-
chemical and biological processes that affect the alka-
linity or sulfate balance and are included in the formu-
lation are cation exchange, chemical weathering, sul-
fate sorption, and sulfate reduction. The system of 20
ordinary differential equations is solved by using a van-
able time step fourth-order predictor-corrector numeri-
cal scheme. Shown  here is calibration of the ETD
model for  two  lakes  in the Adirondack Park of New
York. ETD is relatively simple and requires limited input
data, and yet it  accounts for the predominant hydrolog-
ic and  biochemical  processes  of the ecosystem.
(Copyright (c)  1988  by the American  Geophysical
Union.)

Keywords: 'Acidification, 'Mathematical models, 'Hy-
drology, 'Surface waters, 'Ecosystems, 'Water pollu-
tion effects, Time series analysis, Deposition, pH, Air
water interactions, Snowmelt, Lake Woods, Lake Pan-
ther, Watersheds. Water chemistry, Physicochemical
properties, Water flow, Evapotranspiration, New York,
Case  studies,   Biochemistry,  Reprints, 'Enhanced
Trickle-Down Model, Soft water, Adirondack Park.
PB91-182063/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Toxlctty of Complex Waste Mixtures: A Compari-
son of Observed and Predicted Lethality. Journal
article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park,NC.
 J. E. Simmons, and E. Berman. C1989,13p EPA/600/
 J-89/524
 Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
 v27p275-286Aug89.

 The ability to predict the biological effect of complex
 waste mixtures from chemical characterization data
 was examined by comparing observed mortality to that
 predicted by a mathematical additivity model with liter-
 ature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the
 mixtures. Male F344 rats were exposed to one of ten
 samples of complex industrial waste by gavage. Seven
 of the ten waste samples caused death within 24 hours
 of administration at dosages ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg
 body weight. Two of the seven lethal waste samples
 produced 100% mortality at a dosage of 2.5 ml/kg; an-
 other two waste samples produced 100% mortality at
 5 ml/kg. The partial chemical analysis, although pro-
 viding more extensive information on chemical compo-
 sition than might normally be available for most com-
 plex waste mixtures, was not sufficient to distinguish
 lethal from  nonlethal waste samples  or to indicate
 lethal potency.

 Keywords:  'Hazardous wastes, 'Toxic substances,
 Predictive value of  tests. Lethal dose 50, Mixtures,
 Pharmacokinetics, Dose-response relationships, Incin-
 erators, Drug interactions, Rats, Reprints.
 PB91-182071/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 Modeling  of  Long-Term  Lake  Alkalinity  Re-
 sponses to Add Deposition. Journal article.
 Iowa UnK/., Iowa City.
 N. P. Nikolaidis, J. L.  Schnoor, and K. P. Georgakakos.
 C1989,14p EPA/600/J-89/523
 Pub. in Jnl. Water Pollution Control Federation, v61  n2
 p188-199 1989. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
 Research Lab., OR.

 A watershed acidification model for  two New York
 state  lakes was verified by simulating an additional
 year of field data that was excluded during the calibra-
 tion period. The findings confirmed calibration and indi-
 cated that the most sensitive physicochemical and bio-
 chemical processes were chemical weathering, ion ex-
 change, sulfate reduction by lake sediments, and sul-
 fate adsorption by the terrestrial compartments. Long-
 term simulations showed that both lakes will reach
 steady state after a change in loading in fewer than  10
 years. It was determined that 25 to 50% of the ex-
 changeable bases in the upper soil will be depleted in
 the next 50 years without chemical weathering to re-
 supply the base exchange complex. The sulfate sorp-
 tion mechanism is the only one that could delay water-
 shed response after a change in loading. Some alka-
 linity in one lake could be recovered if  acid deposition
 was decreased by a factor  of two. The other would
 remain alkaline even with twice as much acid deposi-
 tion; however, in spring snowmelt events, lakes would
 become more acidic.

 Keywords: 'Mathematical models, 'Acidification, 'Hy-
 drology, 'Lakes, 'Ecosystems,  'Water  pollution ef-
 fects, Alkalinity, Deposition, Time series analysis, Long
 term effects, Lake Woods, Lake Panther, New York,
 Acid  rain,  Snowmelt, Physicochemical  properties,
 Water chemistry, Soil surveys,  pH, Graphs(Charts),
 Reprints, 'Enhanced Trickle-Down Model, Adirc
Park.
, Adirondack
PB91-182089/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Recursive Parameter  Estimation  of Hydrologic
Models. Journal article.
Iowa Univ., Iowa City.
H. Rajaram, and K. P. Georgakakos. c1989,16p EPA/
600/J-89/522
Pub. in Water Resources Research, v25 n2 p281-294
Feb 89. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Re-
search Lab., OR.

Proposed is a nonlinear filtering approach to recursive
parameter estimation of  conceptual  watershed re-
sponse models in state-space form. The conceptual
model state is augmented by the vector of free param-
eters which are to be estimated from input-output data,
and the extended Kalman filter is used to recursively
estimate and predict the augmented  state. The  aug-
mented model  noise covariance is parameterized as
the sum of two components: one due to errors in the
augmented model input and another due to errors in
the specification of augmented model constants that
were estimated from other than input-output  data.
               These components depend on the sensitivity of the
               augmented model to input and uncertain constants.
               Such a novel parameterization allows for non-station-
               ary model  noise statistics that are consistent with the
               dynamics  of watershed  response  as they are de-
               scribed by  the conceptual watershed response model.
               Prior information regarding uncertainty in input and un-
               certain constants in the form of degree-of-belief esti-
               mates of hydrologists can be used directly within the
               proposed formulation.  Even though model structure
               errors are  not explicitly parameterized in the  present
               formulation, such errors can be identified through the
               examination of the one-step ahead predicted  normal-
               ized residuals and the parameter traces during conver-
               gence. The formulation is exemplified by the  estima-
               tion of the parameters of a conceptual hydrologic
               model with data from  the 2.1-sq km watershed of
               Woods Lake located in the Adirondack  Mountains of
               New York.  (Copyright (c)  1989 by the American Geo-
               physical Union.)

               Keywords:  'Water management(Applied), 'Hydrology,
               'Mathematical models, ^Watersheds, Environmental
               effects.  Spatial  distribution,  Temporal  distribution,
               Water pollution, Flood forecasting, Data quality, Proba-
               bility theory. Case studies. Study  estimates, Reprints,
               Enhanced Trickle Down Model.
               PB91-182097/REB               PC A02/MF A01
               EPA Site Demonstration of the Terra Vac In situ
               Vacuum Extraction Process in Groveland, Massa-
               chusetts. (Site Program Update: Part VII). Journal
               article.
               Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
               Reduction Engineering Lab.
               M. K. Stinson. C1989,10p EPA/600/J-89/520
               Pub. in Jnl. of the Air Pollution Control Association, v39
               n8p1054-1062 Aug 89.

               The paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented
               Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that
               was field-demonstrated  on a trichloroethylene (TCE)
               contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA
               Superfund Innovative  Technology Evaluation (SITE)
               program. The Terra Vac process employs vacuum for
               removal and venting of volatile organic compounds
               (VOCs), such as TCE, from the subsurface soil without
               excavation. The demonstration  site was a property of
               an operating machine shop in Groveland, MA. The site
               was contaminated with VOCs, mainly TCE, which had
               been used as a degreasing  solvent. The Terra Vac
               system was designed, installed, and operated by Terra
               Vac, Inc. Evaluation of the process was performed by
               EPA based on the results from an extensive sampling
               and analytical program and on daily observation of the
               operations.

               Keywords: 'Remedial action, 'Land pollution control,
               'Volatile organic compounds, Extraction, Soil contami-
               nation, Ethylene/trichloro, Field tests, Vacuum appor-
               atus, In-situ  processes, Design criteria, Performance
               evaluation, US EPA, Soil gases, Reprints, 'Superfund
               Innovative Technology Evaluation  Program,  'Terra
               Vac System, 'Soil vacuum extraction. Soil venting,
               Groveland(Massachusetts), Cleanup operations.
              PB91-182105/REB                PC A02/MF A01
              Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
              Lake Acidification Studies: The Role of Input Un-
              certainty in Long-Term Predictions. Journal article.
              Iowa Univ., Iowa City.
              K. P. Georgakakos, G. M. Valle-Filho, N. P. Nikolaidis,
              and J. L. Schnoor. C1989,10p EPA/600/J-89/521
              Pub.  in Water Resources Research, v25 n7 p1511-
              1518  Jul 89. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
              Research Lab., OR.

              An assessment of the importance of input uncertainty
              in long-term predictions of lake acidification is present-
              ed. Mathematical models that simulate the behavior of
              hydrologic catchments under acid deposition require
              input data of precipitation, temperature, and deposition
              chemistry. In long-term studies of lake acidification it is
              necessary to hypothesize a scenario of future input to
              the mathematical models. The present study indicates
              that uncertainty in precipitation amount and acid con-
              centrations can be very important in the characteriza-
              tion of future lake alkalinity levels. It also suggests that
              the natural day-to-day  variability present in precipita-
              tion and other weather variables significantly affects
              long-term predictions of lake  alkalinity in watersheds
              with short response time, even more than weta nd dry
32     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
weather cycles do. (Copyright (c) 1989 by the Ameri-
can Geophysical Union.)

Keywords:   'Acidification,  "Mathematical   models,
•Lakes, 'Hydrology, 'Water pollution effects, Alkalini-
ty, Long term effects, Alkalinity, pH, Deposition, Water
chemistry, Monte  Carlo  method, Weather,  Air water
interactions, Wet methods, Dry methods, Meteorology,
Precipitation(Meteorology),  Probability  theory,  Re-
prints.
PB9M82113/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
Induction of Micro-nuclei in Cultured Human Bron-
chial Epithelial Cells by  Direct-Acting  Carcino-
gens. Journal article.
Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.
P. G. Andrews, S. E. Owens, and J. M. Siegfried.
C1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/479
Contract EPA-68-02-4456
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology in Vitro, v4 n6 p735-743 Nov
90. Prepared in cooperation  with Pittsburgh Univ., PA.
School of Medicine.  Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
search Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to in-
duction of micronuclei was determined in cultures de-
rived from different donors. Two direct-acting carcino-
gens, (+ or -)-7,8 -dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10- te-
trahydrobenzo (a)- pyrene (BPDE) and N-methyl-N'-
nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) were used to induce
micronuclei.  Both agents increased the incidence of
micronuclei  in  a concentration-dependent  fashion,
even at concentrations which did not produce cytotoxi-
crty. Cytokinesis was blocked with cytochalasin B so
that micronuclei were counted only in binucleate cells,
thereby decreasing the total  number of cells that need
to be examined and  also eliminating variations due to
possible differences in cell growth rates.  The results
demonstrate the potential usefulness of the micronu-
cleus assay as a sensitive measure of genetic damage
in human epithelial cells. (Copyright (c) 1990 Perga-
mon Press pic.)

Keywords: 'Micronucleus tests, 'Bronchi,  'Carcino-
gens, Epithelium,  Cultured  cells, Methylnitronitroso-
guanidine, Cell survival, Cytokinetics,  Fluorescence
microscopy,                              Reprints,
Dihydroxyepoxytetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrenes.
PB91-182121/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Sources of Mutagenic Activity in Urban Fine Parti-
cles. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
R. K. Stevens, C. W. Lewis, T. G. Dzubay, L T. Cupitt,
and J Lewtas. C1990,16p EPA/600/J-90/478
Pub. in Toxicology and Industrial Health, v6 n5 p81-94
Sep 90. See also PB89-222632.

Samples were collected during the winter of 1984-
1985 in the cities of Albuquerque, New Mexico and Ra-
leigh,  North Carolina as part of a US Environmental
Agency study to evaluate methods to determine the
emission sources contributing to the mutagenic prop-
erties of extractable organic matter (EOM) present in
fine particles. Data derived from  the analysis of the
composition of these fine particles served as input to a
multi-linear regression (MLR) model used to calculate
the relative contribution of wood burning and motor ve-
hicle sources to mutagenic activity observed in the ex-
tractable organic matter. At both sites the mutagenic
potency of EOM was found to be greater (3-5 times)
for mobile sources when compared to wood smoke ex-
tractable organics. Carbon-14  measurements which
give a direct determination of the amount of EOM that
originated from wood burning were in close agreement
with the source apportionment results derived from the
MLR model. (Copyright (c) 1990 Princeton Scientific
Publishing Co., Inc.)

Keywords: 'Air pollution sampling, 'Pollution sources,
'Organic matter, 'Mutagens, 'Particles, 'Air pollution
effects(Humans), Urban areas, Wood fuels, Exhaust
emission, Regression analysis, Rnes, North Carolina,
New   Mexico,  Aerosols,  Mathematical   models,
Concentration(Composition), Mobile pollutant sources.
Reprints, Albuquerque(New Mexico), Raleigh(North
Carolina).
PB91-182139/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Coupled Mass and Energy Transport Phenomena
in Aerosol/Vapor-Laden Gases-1.  Theory of the
Hygroscopic Aerosol Effects on Temperature and
Relative Humidity Patterns of Inspired Air. Journal
article.
Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
A. D. Eisner, R. C. Graham, and T. B. Martonen. c1990,
18p EPA/600/J-90/477
Pub. in Jnl. of Aerosol Science, v21 n7 p833-848 Dec
90. Prepared  in cooperation with Northrop Services,
Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

A  quantitative theory has been developed to predict
coupled  energy  and  mass transport phenomena
during inhalation of hydroscopic aerosol-laden air. It is
shown that hygroscopic particle-induced vapor scav-
enging will influence temperature and  relative humidity
patterns within the respiratory system. Consequently,
particle growth kinetics will depend on its number con-
centration.  Monodisperse hygroscopic aerosol will
become polydisperse and stratified, which may subse-
quently affect the deposition probabilities.  (Copyright
(c) 1990 Pergamon Press.)

Keywords:  'Energy transfer, 'Mass  transfer,  'Aero-
sols, 'Respiration, 'Mathematical models,  Hygrosco-
picity, Respiratory system, Temperature, Humidity, Ki-
netics, Reprints, Particle growth, Vapor scavenging.
PB91-182147/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Inertia! Impactlon and Gravitational Deposition of
Aerosols  in Curved  Tubes  and  Airway Bifurca-
tions. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
I. Balashazy, T. B. Martonen, and W. Hofmann. c1990,
16pEPA/600/J-90/476
Pub. in Aerosol Science and Technology, v13 n3 p308-
321 Oct 90. Prepared in cooperation with Duke Univ.
Medical Center, Durham, NC. Center for Extrapolation
Modelling.

A theoretical model of the simultaneous action of iner-
tial  impaction and gravitational forces on a particle
moving in three dimensional circular  bends is present-
ed.  Deposition efficiencies are computed for three dif-
ferent idealized flow patterns: (1) uniform; (2) radially-
dependent, or rotational; and (3) parabolic. The bend
is in a vertical plane, the inclusive angle of the bend is
a variable, and its inlet can be at any angle of align-
ment to the horizontal.  The results of these new simu-
lations are compared with available experimental data
and theoretical computations. The differential distribu-
tions of deposition along the length of the tubes are
examined. The relative contributions of the inertial im-
paction and sedimentation mechanisms to total (i.e.,
simultaneous) deposition are studied. The applicability
of simple  pipe  bend  models,  and  their  appropriate
limits, are examined for the deposition of aerosols in
human tracheobronchial bifurcations. The conceptual
model is further developed for the case in which an
airway bifurcation is characterized  as a contiguous
system of straight and bent tubes. The results of differ-
ent  bifurcation  simulations are compared with each
other and laboratory data published in the open litera-
ture. (Copyright (c) 1990 Elsevier Science Publishing
Co., Inc.)

Keywords: 'Anatomy,  'Trachea,  'Gravity, Humans,
Aerosols, Respiration, Mathematical  models, Reprints,
'Airway bifurcations.
PB91-182154/REB                PC A02/MF A01
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Hormonal Regulation of  Gonadotropin-Releasing
Hormone Receptors and  Messenger RNA Activity
in Ovine Pituitary Culture. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
S. C. Sealfon, S. C. Laws, J. C. Wu, G. Boaz, and W. L.
Miller. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/475
Grants NIH-HD-10773, USDA-86-CRCR-1-2181
Pub. in Molecular Endocrinology, v4 n12 p1980-1987
Dec 90.  Prepared  in cooperation with  Mount Sinai
School of Medicine, New York. Dept. of Neurology,
and North Carolina State Univ. at Raleigh. Dept. of Bio-
chemistry. Sponsored by National Institutes of  Health,
Bethesda, MD., and Department of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, DC.

Previous studies demonstrate  that gonadotroph re-
sponsiveness to GnRH, GnRH binding, and the appar-
ent number of GnRH receptors are all increased by 17
beta-estradiol (E) or inhibin (IN) in ovine pituitary cul-
tures. Progesterone attenuates these effects. To ex-
plore differences between the effects of IN and E on
GnRH binding, a detailed time-course was performed.
The results indicate that after 48 h  IN had a greater
effect on binding of a GnRH agonist (5-fold increase)
than E (3-fold increase), but was slower to act initially.
A combined treatment of IN and E gave a partially ad-
ditive  effect at 48 h (6.5-fold increase).  The mecha-
nism of receptor regulation in this system is not known,
but could involve synthesis, recycling, or modification
of GnRH receptors. To investigate the contribution of
altered receptor biosynthesis to the regulation of re-
ceptor levels, a functional  Xenopus oocyte-based
assay for GnRH receptor mRNA activity was em-
ployed. After 48 h of treatment, IN or E each led to a 7
to 8-fold increase in GnRH receptor mRNA activity.
Treatment with both hormones led to a 19-fold in-
crease.  The increase in mRNA activity induced by
either hormone was greatly attenuated by progester-
one. (Copyright (c) 1990 by The Endocrine Society.)

Keywords:  'Hormones,  'Gonadoliberin receptors,
'Messenger RNA,  'Pituitary  gland,  Sheep, Cultured
cells,  Estradiol, Inhibin,  Progesterone,  Xenopus,
Ovum, Reprints.
PB91-182162/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
PIRLA 2 Project:  Regional Assessment of Lake
Acidification Trends. Journal article.
Indiana Univ. at Bloomington.
D. F. Charles, and J. P. Smol. 01990,9p EPA/600/J-
90/474
Pub. in Verh. Internal.  Verein. Limnol. v24 p474-480.
Prepared in cooperation with Queen's Univ., Kingston
(Ontario). Sponsored by  Corvallis Environmental Re-
search Lab., OR.

PIRLA II (Paleoecological Investigation of Recent Lake
Acidification) is the  first  paleolimnological study de-
signed to make statistically based regional population
estimates of lake acidification. It is also the first project
in which only tops and  bottoms of cores are analyzed
so that a large number of lakes  can  be studied. The
PIRLA II project consists of several components that
are designed to address specific questions and are in-
tegrally  related to  several other projects.  PIRLA II
builds on the foundation laid by PIRLA I; together they
make up one of the largest paleolimnological projects
in terms of number of lakes investigated (over 120
lakes analyzed stratigraphically). PIRLA has made and
will continue to make important contributions to the un-
derstanding of lake acidification  and to the develop-
ment of the field of paleolimnology. (Copyright (c) 1990
E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.)

Keywords: 'Acidification, 'Lakes, 'Water pollution ef-
fects, 'Water chemistry, 'Paleolimnology,  Regional
analysis, Statistical analysis, Trends, Deposition, Air
water interactions, pH,  New York, Acid neutralizing ca-
pacity, Diatoms, Chrysophyta, Reprints, 'Paleoecolo-
gical  Investigation  of  Recent  Lake  Acidification
Project,  National Acid  Precipitation Assessment Pro-
gram, Adirondack Park.
PB91-182170/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Effects of Parameter Uncertainty on Long-Term
Simulations of Lake Alkalinity. Journal article.
Iowa Univ., Iowa City.
S. Lee, K. P. Georgakakos, and J. L. Schnoor. c1990,
11p EPA/600/J-90/473
Pub. in Water Resources Research, v26 n3 D459-467.
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

A first-order second-moment uncertainty analysis has
been applied to two lakes in the Adirondack Park, New
York, to assess the long-term response of lakes to
acid deposition. Uncertainty due to parameter error
and initial condition error was considered. Because the
enhanced trickle-down (ETD) model is calibrated with
only 3 years of field data and is used to simulate a 50-
year period, the uncertainty In the lake alkalinity predic-
tion is relatively large. When a best estimate of param-
eter uncertainty is used,  the annual average alkalinity
is predicted to be -11  + or - 28 mteroeq/L for Lake
Woods and 142 + or  -139 mlcroeq/L for Lake Pan-
ther after 50 years. Hydrologlc parameters and chemi-
cal weathering rate constants contributed most to the
uncertainty of the simulations. Results indicate that the
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     33

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
uncertainty in long-range predictions of lake alkalinity
increased significantly over a 5- to 10-year period and
then reached a steady state. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the
American Geophysical Union.)

Keywords:  'Alkalinity,  'Lakes,  'Water chemistry,
'Water  pollution  effects, 'Probability theory, New
York, Acidification,  Deposition,  Lake Woods, Lake
Panther, pH, Case studies, Wet  methods, Dry meth-
ods, Soil surveys, Air water interactions. Weathering,
Reaction kinetics, Reprints, Adirondack Park, En-
hanced Trickle-Down Model.
PB91-182188/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Gas Exchange in 'Quercus rubra' (Northern Red
Oak) during  a Drought  Analysis  of Relations
among Photosynthesis Transpiration, and Leaf
Conductance. Journal article.
Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.
J. A. Weber, and D. M. Gates. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-
90/472
Pub. in Tree Physiology, v7 p215-225. Sponsored by
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Development of water stress in leaves of mature Quer-
cus rubra  L caused a marked midday depression in
photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E). At external
CO2 partial pressures of 100-110 Pa, a constant tem-
perature of 30 C and a constant photosynthetic photon
flux density of about 1000 micromol/sq m/s, A was 8
micromol/sq m at low leaf water potentials (-1.5 to -2.0
MPa),  whereas it was 20 micromol/sq m/s in non-
stressed leaves (-1.0 ,Pa). At lower external CO2 par-
tial pressures, the effect of low leaf water potential on
A was less. The  midday depression in gas exchange
was relieved by an overnight rain of 2.5 cm. No differ-
ence in carboxylation efficiency or CO2 compensation
point was found between leaves before and after rain.
The relationship between A and E was linear for a
given external CO2 partial pressure,  but the  slope
varied with CO2 concentration. Modification of the
model of stomatal  response proposed by Ball  et al.
(1987) produced a linear relationship between leaf
conductance and a factor incorporating A, relative hu-
midity, and OO2. (Copyright (c) 1990 Heron Publishing
- Victoria, Canada.)

Keywords:      'Photosynthesis,     'Transpiration,
'Droughts, 'Trees, Plant physiology, Carbon dioxide,
Leaves(Botany),  Humidity, Reprints, 'Gas exchange,
'Quercus rubra.
PB91-182196/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Survival and  Degradattve Capacity of 'Pseudo-
monas putida' Induced or Constttutively Express-
Ing Ptasmkf-Medlated Degradation of 2,4-Dtahlor-
ophenoxyacetate (TFD) in Soil. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
K. A. Short, R. J. Seidler, and R. H. Olsen. c1990,8p
EPA/600/J-90/471
Pub. in Canadian Jnl. of Microbiology, v36 n12 T321-
826  1990. Prepared in cooperation with Michigan
Univ., Ann Arbor.

The  survival of  genetically  altered  Pseudomonas
putida strains harboring an inducible plasmid, pR0101,
or a constitutive  plasmid,  pR0103, was  compared.
These plasmids encode for the degradation of 2,4-
dichlorophenoxyacetate (TFD) to 2-chloromaleylace-
tate, and the maintenance of either plasmid did not
alter survival  of P.  putida  PPO301(pRO101) or
PPO301(pRO103) in an unamended agricultural soil.
Moreover, in TFD-amended soil, survival of PPO301,
PPO301 (pRO101), and PPO301 (pRO103) was statisti-
cally the same  after 50 days. Reapplication of TFD to
soil 50  days after the original application did  not
change   the  numbers  of  PPO301(pRO101)  or
PPO301(pRO103), which cannot use TFD as a sole
source  of  carbon.  However, a   mutant  strain,
PPO301KS(pRO101), which is able to use TFD  as a
sole source of  carbon, was stimulated by the second
addition of TFD:PPO301KS(pRO101) cfu/g soil in-
creased by greater than 20-fold. Although the micro-
biota indigenous to the study soil was capable of de-
grading TFD, the addition of plasmid-bearing PPO301
had a dramatic effect on TFD degradation. In a parallel
study, Raphanus sativus (radish) seeds failed to germi-
nate in uninoculated and PPO301 -inoculated  soil
amended with 500 ppm TFD. Seed germination was 53
and 80%  in soils inoculated  with PPO301(pRO101)
and PPO301(pRO103), respectively (P> 0.001).  How-
ever, the difference in the rate of TFD degradation be-
tween the native soil and soil inoculated with plasmid-
bearing P.putida was probably related to the relatively
high inoculum density of P.putida strains (10 to the
eighth  power cfu) and the relatively low population
density of TFD metabolizers indigenous to the soil.

Keywords:  'Biodeterioration,  'Soil  contamination,
Plasmids, Bacterial genes, Genetic engineering, Bras-
sica, Plant growth, Statistical analysis, Cell survival,
Reprints, 'Pseudomonas putida, 'Dichlorophenoxya-
cetic acid, Chloromaleylacetic acid.
PB91-182204/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Design Stream Flows Based on Harmonic Means.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
L. A. Rossman. C1990,7p EPA/600/J-90/470
Pub. in Jnl. of Hydraulic Engineering, v116 n7 p946-
950Jul90.

Design streamflows are frequently used in water qual-
ity studies to provide adequate protection against pol-
lutant exposure periods of a given duration. By analyz-
ing the effect that simple streamflow dilution has on x-
day average exposure levels of a pollutant, it appears
that the x-day harmonic mean flow is a more meaning-
ful statistic to use in computing design flows than is the
customary arithmetic mean flow. The significance of
the result was examined by computing design flows for
sixty rivers throughout the country. For 7- and 30-day
average annual low flows  the impact was minimal.
Substantial differences  were  found for the overall
mean daily flow-a design flow suggested for use with
water quality criteria based on protecting human health
against lifetime exposures. The overall harmonic mean
daily flow is typically 20 to 60 percent as large as the
arithmetic mean daily flow. For ungaged streams it can
be estimated from estimates of the arithmetic mean
flow and  the 7-day,  10-year low flow by regional re-
gression analysis.

Keywords: 'Stream flow, 'Water quality, 'Water pollu-
tion  standards,  'Fourier  analysis,  'Mathematical
models, Concentration(Composition), Statistical analy-
sis, Risk assessment, Water pollution effects, Rivers,
Water flow.  Environmental  protection, Public health.
Study estimates, Reprints.
PB91-182212/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Technique for  Controllable Vapor-Phase Deposi-
tion of 1-Nitro(14C)pyrene and Other  Polycyclic
Aromatic  Hydrocarbons onto Environmental Par-
ticulate Matter. Journal article.
Battelle Columbus Labs., OH.
S. V. Lucas, K. W. Lee, C. W. Melton, J. Lewtas, and L.
M. Ball. C1991,16p EPA/600/J-91/042
Contract EPA-R-811817
Pub. in Aerosol Science and Technology, v14 n2 p210-
223 Feb 91. Prepared in cooperation with North Caroli-
na Univ. at Chapel Hill. Dept. of Environmental Sci-
ences and Engineering. Sponsored by Health Effects
Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

To produce environmental particles fortified with a po-
lycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon  (PAH)  for toxicology
studies, an experimental apparatus  was devised  for
deposition of the desired chemical species onto parti-
cles in a  controlled and  reproducible manner. The
technique  utilized consists of dispersion of the  parti-
cles on a gaseous stream at a controlled rate, thermal
vaporization of a solution of PAH, delivery of the vapor-
ized PAH into the aerosol of particles at a controlled
rate, subsequent condensation of the PAH onto the
particles,  and final  recovery of the coated particles.
The effectiveness of this approach wcs demonstrated
by vapor-coating a 14C-labeled PAH (1-nitro(14Q-
pyrene) onto diesel engine exhaust particles that had
previously been collected  by tunnel dilution sampling
techniques. Using the 14C label as a tracer, the coated
particles were characterized with respect to degree of
coating, integrity of particle structure and absence of
chemical decomposition of the coating substrate. The
study demonstrates that the described method pro-
vides a controllable means for depositing a substance
uniformly and with a high coating efficiency onto aero-
solized particles. The  technique was also used to
vapor-coat benzo(a)pyrene onto diesel engine exhaust
and unban ambient  air paniculate matter, and 2-nitro-
fluoranthene onto unban ambient air paniculate matter.
Coating efficiencies of about 400 micrograms/g panic-
ulate matter were routinely obtained on a single coat-
ing run, and up to 1200  micrograms/g (1200  ppm)
were achieved after a second pass through the proc-
ess. The coated particles were subsequently utilized in
biological fate, distribution and metabolism studies.

Keywords: 'Air pollution detection, 'Tracer studies,
'Aerosol  generators,  'Aromatic polycyclic hydrocar-
bons, 'Diesel engine exhaust, Experimental design,
Gas chromatography, Carbon 14, Exhaust emissions,
Benzopyrene, Chemical analysis. Toxicology, Coat-
ings, Substrates, Design criteria, Particles, Mass spec-
troscopy, Urban area, Biological effects, Metabolism,
Reprints, Pyrene/nitro, Fluoranthene/nitro.
PB91-182220/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
International Programme  on  Chemical Safety's
Collaborative Study on Plant Test Systems. Status
rept.
Research Triangle inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
S. S. Sandhu, F. J. deSerres, H. N. B. Gopalan, W. F.
Grant, and J. Veleminsky. c1991, 9p EPA/600/J-91 /
041
Grant EPA-R-814700
Pub. in Mutation Research, v257 n1 p19-25 Jan 91.
Prepared in cooperation with  Nairobi  Univ. (Kenya),
Macdonald Coll., Ste. Anne de Bellevue (Quebec), and
Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Experi-
mental™  Botaniky. Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
search Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC. Genetic
Toxicology Div.

The  article presents the status report on the Interna-
tional Program's Collaborative Study On Plant Test
Systems. In the first phase of this program,  16 labora-
tories submitted data on the genetic effects of EMS
evaluated in three bioassays; i.e., Vicia faba root hair,
Tradescantia micronuclei,  and Arabidopsis embryo
assays. In  general,  all participating laboratories ob-
tained positive results with EMS, but some laboratories
yielded data that showed significantly higher levels of
spontaneous mutagenic effects, perhaps due to con-
taminants in the water or air. Research is in progress
on evaluating the genotoxic effects of  four additional
chemicals. The first phase of this project is scheduled
to be completed in December 1990. Upon the evalua-
tion of the results of the first phase, recommendations
will be made regarding the initiation of the second
phase. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publish-
ers B.V. (Biomedical Division).)

Keywords:  'Toxic substances,  'Mutagenicity tests,
'Plants(Botany),   Bioassay,   Carcinogens,  Ethane
methanesulfonate, Mutations,  Chromosome abberra-
tions, Micronucleus tests.  Reprints,  Vicia  root-tip
assay, Arabidopsis  embryo  assay,   Tradescantia
stamen hair assay.
PB91-182238/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
Stage-Specific  Damage to Synaptonemal Com-
plexes and Metaphase Chromosomes Induced by
X Rays in Male Mouse Germ Cells. Journal article.
Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.
L. C. Backer, M. R. Sontag, and J. W. Allen. c1991,12p
EPA/600/J-91/040
Contract EPA-68-01-4456
Pub. in Radiation Research, v125 n1 p187-196 Jan 91.
Prepared  in  cooperation with  Duke  Univ. Medical
Center, Durham, NC. Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
search Lab.,  Research Triangle Park, NC. Genetic
Toxicology Div.

Synaptonemal complexes  (SCs) reveal mutagen-in-
duced effects in germ cell meiotic chromosomes. The
study was aimed at characterizing relationships  be-
tween SC and metaphase I chromosome damage fol-
lowing  radiation exposure at various stages of sper-
matogenesis. Male mice were irradiated with doses of
0, 2, or 4 Gy, and spermatocytes were harvested at
times consistent  with earlier exposures as spermato-
gonial stem cells, preleptotene cells (premeiotic DNA
synthesis), or meiotic prophase cells. After stem-cell
exposure, twice  as many rearrangements were  ob-
served in SCs as in metaphase I chromosomes. Irra-
diation during premeiotic DNA  synthesis resulted in
dose-related increases in SC breakage and rearrange-
ments (including novel forms) and in metaphase chro-
mosomal aberrations. Following prophase exposure,
various  types and  levels of  SC and metaphase
damage were observed.  Irradiation of zygotene cells
34     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
led to high frequencies of chromosome multivalents in
metaphase I without a correspondingly high level of
damage in preceding prophase SCs. Thus, irradiation
of premeiotic and meiotic cells results in variable rela-
tionships between SC and metaphase chromosome
damage.

Keywords:  'Synaptonemal complex,  "Chromosome
aberrations,  'Metaphase,  *X rays,  "Spermatozoa,
Mice, Mutagens, Deoxyribonucleic acids, Cell cycle,
Electron microscopy, Reprints.
PB91-182246/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
Environmental Factors Affecting Toluene Degra-
dation in Ground Water at a Hazardous Waste
Site. Journal article.
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Microbiology.
A. Q. Armstrong, R. E. Hodson, H. M. Hwang, and D. L.
Lewis. C1991,14p EPA/600/J-91/037
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v10
n2 p147-158 Feb 91. Sponsored by Environmental Re-
search Lab., Athens, GA.

The  microbial ecology of pristine and  contaminated
ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was in-
vestigated.  Recently, it was determined that ground
water downslope from the disposal site contained ele-
vated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, tol-
uene, xylene and methylene chloride, as well as iron
and manganese. Microbial mineralization and uptake
of radio-labeled glucose and amirto acids indicated a
metabolically active microflora  in both  pristine (ups-
lope from  the  contamination) and   contaminated
groundwater samples collected  from monitoring wells
at the site. However, microbial uptake and mineraliza-
tion of  glucose and amino acids were  up to fourfold
slower in  the contaminated well water than in the con-
trol well. Rates of mineralization  and uptake of toluene
were easily measurable in water from the contaminat-
ed but were negligible  in water from the pristine well,
suggesting that the subsurface  microflora in the con-
taminated region had adapted to degrade toluene. Ad-
ditions of  the inorganic  nutrients  N, K, and P enhanced
toluene mineralization in water from the  contaminated
well, with the addition of K and  P enhancing mineral-
ization twofold. The addition of  these inorganic nutri-
ents, therefore, presents an opportunity for biorestora-
tion of the site. An increase in the incubation tempera-
ture  also enhanced toluene mineralization; however
manipulation of pH and dissolved oxygen concentra-
tion had no measureable effects.

Keywords: *Water pollution, 'Ground water, "Environ-
mental  effects, 'Toxic  substances, 'Biodeterioration,
Waste disposal, pH, Dissolved oxygen, Nutrients, Min-
eralization,  Hazardous materials, Benzene, Toluene,
Xylenes, Methylene chloride, Reprints.
PB91-182253/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Modelling Bioaccumulation of Organic Pollutants
In Fish with an Application to PCBs in Lake Ontar-
io Salmonids. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
M. C. Barber, L. A. Suarez, and R. R. Lassiter. c1991,
22p EPA/600/J-91/036
Pub. in Canadian  Jnl. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci-
ence, v48 n2 p318-337 Feb 91.

A model describing passive accumulation of organic
chemicals from the  aqueous environment and  con-
taminated food in fish is developed. The model consid-
ers both biological attributes of the fish and physico-
chemical properties of the  chemical that determines
diffusive exchange across gill membranes and intesti-
nal mucosa. Important biological characteristics ad-
dressed by the model are the fish's gill morphometry,
feeding and growth rate, and fractional aqueous,  lipid,
and nonlipid organic composition. Relevant physico-
chemical properties are the  chemical's molar volume
and noctanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), which
are used to estimate the chemical's aqueous diffusivity
and partitioning to the fish's lipid and nonlipid organic
fractions, respectively. The model is used to describe
and to analyze the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated
biprtenyls (PCBs) in Lake Ontario alewife (Alosa pseu-
doharengus),  coho salmon  (Oncorhynchus kisutch),
rainbow trout  (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown  trout
(Salmo trutta), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Lake
Ontario,  'Organic  compounds,  "Bioaccumulation,
'Salmonids, Mathematical models, Great Lakes, Bio-
logical effects, Physicochemical properties, Polychlori-
nated biphenyls, Ecosystems, Fish physiology, Fishes,
Reprints.
PB91-182261/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Evaluating the Costs  of  Packed-Tower Aeration
and GAC for Controlling Selected Organics. Jour-
nal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. Q. Adams, and R. M. C
                   . Clark. C1991,11p EPA/600/J-
91/035
Pub. in Jnl. of the American Water Works Association,
v83n1 p49-57Jan91.

The article focuses on a preliminary cost analysis that
compares liquid-phase  granular activated  carbon
(GAC) treatment with  packed-tower aeration (PTA)
treatment, with and without air emissions control. The
sensitivity of cost to design and operating variables is
also discussed. For most of the contaminants exam-
ined,  PTA appears to be  more  cost-effective than
liquid-phase GAC, even when vapor-phase GAC is re-
quired in the stripping system.

Keywords: "Potable  water,  'Activated  carbon treat-
ment, "Aeration,  "Water pollution,  "Cost  anylysis,
Chemical removal(Water  treatment),  Air pollution con-
trol, Chlorine organic compounds, Hydrocarbons, Re-
prints.
PB91-182279/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
EPA  Site  Demonstration  of BioTrol  Aqueous
Treatment System. Journal article.
Science Applications International Corp., Paramus,
NJ.
M. K. Stinson, T. J. Chresand, and H. S. Skorronek.
C1991, 9p EPA/600/J-91 /034
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air Pollution Control Association, v41
n2 p228-233 Feb 91. Prepared in cooperation with Bio-
Trol, Chaska, MN. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.  Risk Reduction Engi-
neering Lab.

BioTrol's pilot scale, fixed-film biological system was
evaluated, under the EPA's SITE program, for its effec-
tiveness at removing pentachlorophenol from ground-
water.  The  demonstration was performed  in  the
summer of  1989 at a wood  preserving site in  New
Brighton, Minnesota. The system employs indigenous
microorganisms amended with a specific pentachloro-
phenol-degrading bacterium. Groundwater from a well
on the site was  fed to the system at 1, 3, and 5 gpm
with no pretreatment other than pH adjustment, nutri-
ent addition, and temperature control. Each  flowrate
was maintained for about two weeks while samples
were collected for extensive analyses. At 5 gpm, the
system was capable of eliminating about 96 percent of
the pentachlorophenol in the groundwater and produc-
ing effluent  with pentachlorophenol concentrations to
about 1 ppm. At  the lower flows (1 and 3 gpm) removal
was higher (about 99 percent) and effluent pentachlor-
ophenol concentrations were well below 0.5 ppm. The
system consistently produced a completely nontoxic
effluent  at all three flowrates. Review of other data
provided by BioTrol indicates  that the process is also
effective on other  hydrocarbons, including solvents
and fuels. The system appears  to be a compact and
cost-effective    treatment    for    contaminated
wastewaters  requiring  minimal operating attention
once  acclimated. (Copyright  (c) 1991--Air & Waste
Management Association.)

Keywords:  'Biological  treatment,  'Water pollution
control,  'Ground water, 'Waste disposal, Minnesota,
Microorganisms, Performance evaluation, Cost effec-
tiveness, Operating, Wood preservatives, Superfund,
Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, Design criteria, Re-
prints, "BioTrol  aqueous  treatment system,  "Super-
fund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, New
Brighton(Minnesota).
PB91-182287/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Conditional Simulation  of  Flow  and  Transport.
Journal article.
Agricultural Research  Service, University Park,  PA.
Northeast Watershed Research Center.
A. S. Rogowski, J. K. Wolf, and D. E. Simmons. c1991,
29pEPA/600/J-91/033
Pub. in Jnl. of Contaminant  Hydrology, v7 p95-121
1991.  Sponsored   by  Environmental  Protection
Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
Lab.

Leachate and outflow below a compacted layer of clay
subsoil were sampled and compared with conditionally
simulated flux based on standard  methods and  1:1
soil-water extracts.  Results showed that  infiltration
rates  based on  double  ring infiltrometer  and total
chemical loads based on 1:1  extracts and respective
flux can be used to provide spatially distributed outflow
and leachate quality in a compacted clay layer derived
from a subsoil. (Copyright (c) 1991-Elsevier Science
Publishers B.V.)

Keywords:  "Leachates,  "Environmental  transport,
Clays, Soils, Ground water, Fluid infiltration, Extraction,
Simulation, Reprints, Infiltrornetry.
PB91-182295/REB               PC A02/MF A01
RBC  Nitrification  of High  Ammonia Leachates.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
E. J. Opatken, and J. J. Bond. 1991, 6p EPA/600/J-
91/032
Pub. in Environmental Progress, v10 n1 p60-63 Feb
91.

A study was conducted on treating a simulated leach-
ate  that contained high concentrations of ammonia-ni-
trogen ranging between  20 and 1000  mg/L. A pilot
sized rotating biological contractor (RBC) was used to
treat a surrogate leachate composed of primary efflu-
ent  that was adjusted with glucose and ammonium
chloride to achieve various concentrations of dis-
solved organic carbon and ammonia-nitrogen. Experi-
ments were conducted to determine: The rate of am-
monia conversion; The drop in pH at high  ammonia
concentrations; The effect of low pH on ammonia con-
version; The effect of high ammonia levels (1000 mg/
L) on ammonia conversion, and The effect of tempera-
ture on the reaction rate constant. The results  from
these experiments and the applicability of a RBC to
treat leachates containing high concentrations of am-
monia-nitrogen are reported.

Keywords: 'Leachates, 'Nitrification, 'Ammonia, 'Pol-
lution control, Ground water, Environmental transport,
pH, Reaction kinetics, Waste water, Biomass, Bacte-
ria,  Technology  assessment, Reprints,  'Rotating bio-
logical contractors.
PB91-182303/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Evaluation of Methods  for  Sampling, Recovery,
and Enumeration of Bacteria Applied to the Phyl-
loplane. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
K. Donegan, C. Matyac, R. Seidler, and A. Porteous.
C1991, 8p EPA/600/J-91 /031
Pub. in Applied and  Environmental Microbiology, v57
n1 p51-56. Prepared in cooperation with NSI Technol-
ogy Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.

Determining the fate and  survival of genetically-engi-
neered microorganisms released into the environment
requires the development and  application of accurate
and practical methods of detection and enumeration.
Several experiments  were performed  to  examine
quantitative recovery  methods  that are commonly
used or that have potential applications. In these ex-
periments, Erwinia herbicola and Enterobacter cloa-
cae were applied in  greenhouses to Blue Lake bush
beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Cayuse oats (Avena
saliva). Sampling indicated that the variance in bacte-
rial counts among leaves increased over time and that
this increase caused an overestimation of the mean
population size by bulk leaf samples relative to single
leaf samples. An increase in the number of leaves in a
bulk sample, above a minimum number, did not signifi-
cantly reduce the variance between samples. Experi-
ments evaluating recovery methods demonstrated
that recovery of bacteria from leaves was significantly
better with stomacher blending, than with blending,
sonication, or washing and that the recovery efficiency
was constant over a range of sample inoculum densi-
ties. Delayed processing of leaf samples, by storage in
a freezer, did not significantly lower survival and recov-
ery of microorganisms when storage was short term
and leaves were not stored in buffer. The drop plate
technique for  enumeration of bacteria did not signifi-
cantly differ from the spread plate method. Results of
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     35

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
these sampling, recovery, and enumerations experi-
ments indicate a need for increased development and
standardization of methods used by researchers as
there are significant differences among, and also im-
portant limitations to, some of the methods used.
(Copyright (c) 1991 American Society for Microbiolo-
gy-)

Keywords:  'Bacteria, 'Genetic engineering, Environ-
mental   monitoring,  Erwinia, Enterobacter,  Beans,
Oats, Microbial colony count, Freezing, Reprints.
 PB91-182311/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Remediation of  Sites  Contaminated with  TCE.
 Journal article.
 Robert S. Kerr  Environmental Research Lab.,  Ada,
 OK.
 H. H. Russell, J. E. Matthews, and G. W. Sewell.
 c1991,19p EPA/600/J-91 /030
 Pub. in Remediation, Winter 1990/91, p167-183.

 Widespread use of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the U.S.
 has resulted in  its frequent detection  in  soil and
 groundwater. TCE can become a health hazard after
 being processed in the human liven or reductive deha-
 togenatton in the environment may result in production
 of vinyl chloride, a known carcinogen. This has gener-
 ated a high degree of interest in efficient and cost-effi-
 cient technologies that can be used to remediate soil
 and groundwater contaminated with TCE. The purpose
 of the paper is to present and discuss relevant prtys-
 icochemical  properties and reactive  mechanisms of
 TCE, and to delineate and discuss promising remedi-
 ation methodologies that have been proposed and/or
 demonstrated for restoring contaminated subsurface
 environments. The information in the article has been
 funded wholly or in part by the U.S. EPA under contract
 No. 68-C8-0058 to Dynamac Corporation; it has been
 subjected to the Agency's peer  and administrative
 review process and approved for publication.

 Keywords: 'Remedial action, *Land pollution control,
 *Water pollution control, 'Ground water, 'Ethylene/
 trichkxo, Physicochemical properties,  Site surveys.
 Chemical spills, Waste disposal.  Technology utiliza-
 tion, Biological  treatment, Bkxteterioration, Reprints,
 'Cleanup operations. Chemical reaction mechanisms.
 PB91-182329/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Development and Use of Site-Specific Chemical
 and Biological Criteria for Assessing New Bed-
 ford Harbor Pilot Dredging Project Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
 W. G. Nelson, and 0. J. Hansen. C1991,10p EPA/
 600/J-91 /029, ERLN-1090
 Pub. in Environmental Management v15 n1 p105-112
 1991.

 Numerical site-specific chemical and biological criteria
 were established to assess the impact of a pilot dredg-
 ing project on water quality at the New Bedford Harbor,
 Massachusetts,  USA, Superfund site. Because most
 existing chemical concentrations in the  water column
 and  indigenous biota exceeded federal and state
 water quality limits, the derivation of site-specific crite-
 ria was required. Prior to any operational phases of the
 project (i.e.,  dike  construction,  dredging),  criteria
 values  were developed from background concentra-
 tions of PCBs and metals in water and biota, as well as
 for the toxic effects  of water quality on  the biota.
 During each operational phase of the project water
 samples were collected, analyzed within 16 h, and the
 data supplied to a management committee in order to
 assess the environmental impact of the previous days
 operation. The ambient unfiltered water concentration
 of PCBs and metals were the only chemical or biologi-
 cal criteria exceeded. Modification  of the next days'
 operations resulted in a return of these concentrations
 to background levels. The combined use of site-specif-
 ic criteria and a real-time decision making manage-
 ment process allowed for successful completion of the
 project with  a minimal effect on water quality. (Copy-
 right (c) 1991 Springer-Vertag New York Inc.)

 Keywords: 'Water quality management  'Water pollu-
tion. 'Dredging, 'Biological effects, 'Water chemistry,
Superfund, Water pollution effects.  Waste disposal,
Water             pollution              sampling,
Concentration(Composition),   Ecology,   Decision
making, Porychkxinated biphenyls,. Massachusetts,
Reprints, 'New  Bedford Harbor, National Priorities
List
PB91-182337/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Comparative Analysis  of  Health  Risk  Assess-
ments for Municipal Waste Combustors. Journal
article.
Alliance Technologies Corp., Lowell, MA.
A. Levin, D. B. Fratt, A. Leonard, R. J. F. Bruins, and L.
Fradkin. c1991,14p EPA/600/J-91 /039
Contract EPA-68-02-4396
Pub. in Jnl. of Air Waste Management Association, v41
n1 p20-31 1991. Prepared in  cooperation with Chem-
Cycle Corp., Boston, MA. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.  Environmental Cri-
teria and Assessment Office.

Quantitative health risk assessments have been per-
formed for a number of proposed municipal waste
combustor (MWC) facilities  over  the past several
years. The article  presents the results of a compara-
tive analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing
on seven of the most comprehensive methodologies.
The analysis concentrates on stack emissions of non-
criteria pollutants and is comparative rather than criti-
cal in nature. Overall, the risk assessment methodolo-
gies used were similar whereas the assumptions and
input values used  varied  from study to study. Some of
the variability results directly  from  differences in site-
specific characteristics, but much  of it is due to ab-
sence of data, lack of field validation,  lack of specific
guidelines from regulatory agencies, and reliance on
professional judgment. The results indicate that carci-
nogenic risks are more significant than chronic non-
carcinogenic risks. In most instances polychlorodiben-
zodioxins,  polychlorpdibenzofurans,  and  cadmium
contribute more significantly  to the total carcinogenic
risk  from MWC stack emissions than other contami-
nants. In addition, the contribution to total risk of all in-
direct routes of exposure (ingestion and dermal con-
tact) exceeds that of the direct inhalation route for
most studies reviewed. (Copyright (c)  1991-Air &
Waste Management Association.)

Keywords:  'Risk   assessment,  'Air   pollution
effects(Humans),  'Public  health,  'Waste  disposal,
'Municipal  wastes,   Exposure,   Ingestion(Biology),
Skin(Anatomy), Carcinogens,  Comparison, Deposition,
Atmospheric diffusion, Toxicity, Incineration, Permits,
New Source Performance Standards, Standards com-
pliance, Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, Reprints.
 PB91-182345/REB               PC A05/MF A01
 Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
 OK.
 Denttrmcation in Nonhomogeneous Laboratory
 Scale Aquifers: 4. Hydraulics, Nitrogen Chemistry,
 and Microbiology in a Single Layer. Final rept.
 Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Soil Science.
 F. T. LJndstrom, L. Boersma, D. Myrold, and M. Barlaz.
 Apr 91,91 p EPA/600/2-91 /014
 See also PB90-186305. Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr
 Environmental Research Lab., Ada, OK.

 A two-dimensional mathematical model for simulating
 the transport and fate of organic chemicals in a labora-
 tory scale, single layer aquifer is presented. The aqui-
 fer can be nonhomogeneous and anisotropic with re-
 spect to  its fluid flow properties. The physical model
 has open inlet and outlet ends and is bounded by im-
 permeable walls on all sides. Fully penetrating injec-
 tion and/or extraction wells can be placed anywhere in
 the flow  field. The inlet and outlet boundaries have
 user prescribed hydraulic  pressure fields. The steady
 state hydraulic pressure field is obtained first by using
 the two-dimensional Darcy flow law and the continuity
 equation. The chemical transport and fate equation is
 then solved  in terms of  user stipulated  initial  and
 boundary conditions.  The  model  accounts for  the
 major physical processes  of storage, dispersion,  and
 advection, and also can account for linear equilibrium
 sorption, first-order loss processes, microbial denitrifi-
 catkm, irreversible sorption and/or dissolution into the
 organic phase, metabolism in the  sorbed state, and
 first order loss in the sorbed state.

 Keywords: 'Aquifers, 'Mathematical models, 'Organic
 compounds,  'Environmental transport, 'Denitrifica-
tion, 'Water pollution, Ground water. Boundary layer
flow, Nitrates, Hydraulics, Environmental models, Lab-
oratory equipment.
PB91-182352/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Preliminary Risk Assessment for Parasites In Mu-
nicipal Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Mar 91,126p EPA/600/6-91 /001

Section 405 of the Clean Water Act requires the U.S.
Environmental Protection  Agency to  develop and
issue regulations that identify: (1) uses for sludge in-
cluding disposal; (2) specific factors (including costs)
to be taken into account in determining the measures
and practices applicable for each use or disposal; and
(3) concentrations of pollutants that interfere with each
use or disposal. To comply with the mandate, the U.S.
EPA  has  embarked on a program to develop four
major technical regulations: Land application, includ-
ing distribution and marketing; landfilling; incineration
and surface disposal. The  development of these tech-
nical  regulations requires  a consideration of patho-
gens as well as chemical constituents of sludge. Public
concern related to the reuse and disposal of municipal
sludge often focuses on the issue of pathogenic orga-
nisms. The purpose of the report is to use the patho-
gens methodology. Pathogen Risk Assessment for
Land Application of Municipal Sludge, to develop a
preliminary assessment of risk to human health posed
by parasites in municipal sewage sludge applied  to
land as fertilizer or soil conditioner. The preliminary risk
assessment includes a description of the most critical
data gaps that must be filled before development of a
definitive risk assessment and recommends research
priorities.

Keywords: 'Risk assessment  'Parasites,  'Sewage
sludge, 'Ground disposal, 'Public health. Pollution
regulations, Fertilizers, Pathogens, Municipal wastes,
Mathematical models, Waste treatment Environmen-
tal transport, Exposure, Epidemiology, On-site investi-
gations.
 PB91-182451/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 Predicting and Forecasting Surface Water Acidifi-
 cation: A Plan for Assessing Data Aggregation Ef-
 fects.
 ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc.,  Corvallis,
 OR.
 M. G. Johnson, P. W. Shaffer, D. L. Stevens, K. W.
 Thornton, and R. S. Turner. Apr 91,66p EPA/600/3-
 91/024
 Prepared in cooperation with FTN  Associates,  Little
 Rock, AR., and Oak Ridge  National Lab., TN. Spon-
 sored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

 A major goal of the Direct/Delayed Response Project
 (DDRP),  a project within the U.S. Environmental Pro-
 tection Agency's (EPA) Aquatic Effects Research Pro-
 gram (AERP) is to project potential changes in surface
 water chemistry in lakes in the northeastern U.S. and
 streams  in the Mid-Appalachians  and southeastern
 U.S., over the next 50 years as a function of  current
 and alternative levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP
 projection are based on various types of simulations
 models that predict surface  water and soil chemistry.
 All models-  statistical, empirical, mechanistic, logical
 or others - represent a simplification or abstraction of
 the real world. A major question associated with the
 application of an model is how to prepare subset, and
 aggregate, or lump, data so that they will represent the
 processes and system  being simulated. The models
 used in the DDRP require physical and chemical data
 on watershed soils as part of the model inputs. In con-
 junction with the DDRP, soil surveys were conducted
 in selected watersheds in each of the three regions.
 The document describes and discusses the approach-
 es used in the DDRP for aggregating soil chemical and
 physical data for use in the various DDRP analyses.

 Keywords: 'Water pollution  effects, 'Surface waters,
 'Acidification, 'Soil surveys, 'Agglomeration, Simula-
 tion,  Soil science, Forecasting, Deposition,  Water-
 sheds, Mathematical models, Hydrology, US EPA, Ad-
 sorption, SuHates, Cations, Water chemistry, Regional
 analysis,  Physical  properties, Chemical properties,
 'Direct/Delayed   Response   Project,   Northeast
 Region(United  States),  Southeast  Region(United
 States), Appalachian Mountain Region(United States).
36     Vol.  91,  No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-182469/REB               PC A06/MF A01
MINTEQA2/PRODEFA2, A Geochemical Assess-
ment Model for Environmental Systems: Version
3.0 User's Manual.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
J. D. Allison, D. S. Brown, and K. J. Novo-Gradac. Mar
91,117p EPA/600/3-91 /021
Prepared in cooperation with  Computer Sciences
Corp., Athens, GA., and AScI Corp., Athens, GA.

The attention of environmental decision makers is in-
creasingly being focused on the movement of pollut-
ants into ground water. Of particular importance is the
transport and speciation of metals.  The MINTEQA2
model is a versatile, quantitative tool for predicting the
equilibrium behavior of metals in a variety of chemical
environments. MINTEQA2 is a gepchemical speciation
model capable of computing equilibria among  the dis-
solved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environ-
mental setting.  MINTEQA2  includes an extensive da-
tabase of reliable thermodynamic data that is also ac-
cessible to PRODEFA2, an interactive program de-
signed to be executed prior to MINTEQA2 for the pur-
pose  of creating the required MINTEQA2 input file.
The  report describes how to use  the MINTEQA2
model. The chemical and mathematical structure of
MINTEQA2 and the structure of the database files also
are described. The use of both PRODEFA2 and MIN-
TEQA2 are illustrated through the presentation of an
example PRODEFA2 dialogue reproduced from inter-
active sessions  and the presentation  of MINTEQA2
output files and error diagnostics. The content and
format of database files also are explained.

Keywords:  'User   manuals(Computer   programs),
•Computerized simulation, 'Geochemistry, 'Chemical
equilibrium, 'Environment management.  Information
systems, Thermodynamics, Oxidation reduction reac-
tions. Electrostatics, Adsorption, Path of pollutants,
Environmental transport, Probability  theory, Decision
making,  Water  pollution,  Water chemistry,  *MIN-
TEQA2 model,  PRODEFA2  model, Activity  coeffi-
cients.
PB91-182477/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
PC BEEPOP (Personal Computer Honey Bee Pop-
ulation  Dynamics Model) for Ecological Assess-
ments. User's Guide.
Montana Univ., Missoula. Div. of Biological Sciences.
J. J. Bromenshenk. Apr 91,68p EPA/600/3-91 /032
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey
bee (Apis mellifera L.)  colony population  dynamics.
The model consists of a system of interdependent ele-
ments, including colony condition, environmental vari-
ability, colony energetics, and  contaminant exposure.
It includes a mortality module (BEEKILL) and a chemi-
cal-toxicity data base (BEETOX). PC BEEPOP builds
upon  BEEPOP, a  mainframe-based colony dynamics
model. PC BEEPOP is a research and assessment tool
for assessing the responses of honey bees as ecologi-
cal indicators  of environmental condition. The combi-
nation of BEETOX, BEEKILL, and BEEPOP provides a
means of  examining the influence  of xenobiotics on
colony population dynamics, including energetics, and
not just adult  or brood mortality. The authors simula-
tions  indicate  that PC BEEPOP is capable of making
plausible predictions of colony structure, size, and en-
ergetics. In addition, the model can help identify proba-
ble causes of colony growth and decline.

Keywords:  'User  manuals(Computer  programs),
'Computerized  simulation,  'Biological   indicators,
'Bees,  'Environmental surveys.  Risk assessment,
Population  dynamics,  Exposure,  Pollution, Toxicity,
Probability theory, Waste disposal, Hazardous materi-
als, Ecology,  Mortality, Dose-response relationship,
Pesticides, 'PC BEEPOP model, BEEKILL data base,
BEETOX data base.
PB91-182493/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Operations and Research at the U.S. EPA Inciner-
ation Research Facility: Annual Report for FY90.
Acurex Corp., Jefferson, AR.
L R. Watertand, and J. W. Lee. Apr 91,67p EPA/600/
9-91/010
Contract EPA-68-C9-0038
See also report for FY89, PB90-186339. Sponsored by
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.

The U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency's Inciner-
ation Research Facility in  Jefferson, Arkansas, is an
experimental facility that houses two pilot-scale incin-
erators and the associated waste handling, emission
control, process control, and safety equipment; as well
as onsite laboratory facilities. During  fiscal year 1990,
two major test programs were completed at the facility:
an evaluation of the thermal-stability-based principal
organic hazardous constituent incinerability ranking for
the Office of Solid Waste (OSW), and an incinerability
evaluation of five contaminated materials  from the
Purity Oil Sales  and the McColl Superfund sites lor
Region 9 and the Office of Emergency and Remedial
Response (OERR). In addition, results of two test pro-
grams completed in  FY89 were reported: an evalua-
tion of the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incin-
erator equipped with a single-stage ionizing wet scrub-
ber for air pollution control for OSW, and an incinerabi-
lity evaluation of arsenic and pesticide contaminated
soils from the Baird  and McGuire Superfund  site for
Region 1  and OERR. Several facility and equipment
construction and upgrade efforts were also completed.

Keywords: 'Incineration,  'Waste disposal, 'Hazard-
ous materials, 'Air pollution control equipment, 'Envi-
ronmental research, US EPA, Superfund, Soil contami-
nation, Incinerators, Performance evaluation, Ranking,
Thermal stability, Combustion  efficiency, Scrubbers,
Principal organic hazardous constituent, EPA region 1,
EPA region 9.
PB91-182618/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Pesticide Fact Sheet No. 221: Sumithrin.
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Nov87, 7pEPA/540/FS-91/131

The document contains up-to-date chemical informa-
tion,  including a summary of the Agency's regulatory
position and rationale, on Sumithrin, an industrial and
agricultural  insecticide. A Fact Sheet  is  issued after
one of the following actions has occurred: (1) Issuance
or reissuance of a registration standard; (2) Issuance
of each special review document; (3) Registration of a
significantly changed use pattern; (4) Registration of a
new  chemical; or (5) An immediate need for informa-
tion to resolve controversial issues relating to a specif-
ic chemical or use pattern.

Keywords:  'Pesticides,  'Insecticides, 'Toxic sub-
stances,  Pyrethrins,  Hazardous  materials, Chemical
properties, Regulations, Toxicology, Ecology, Agricul-
tural products. Path of pollutants, Chemical informa-
tion fact  sheet, Science  findings, Use patterns, CAS
26002-80-2, 'Sumithrin.
PB91-182626/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Pesticide Fact Sheet No. 75.1: Captan.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
10 Feb 89,12p EPA/540/FS-91 /132

The document contains up-to-date chemical informa-
tion, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory
position and rationale, on Captan, a fungicide. A Fact
Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has
occurred: (1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration
standard; (2)  Issuance of each special review docu-
ment; (3) Registration of a significantly changed use
pattern; (4) Registration of a new chemical; or (5) An
immediate need for information to  resolve controver-
sial issues relating to a  specific chemical or use pat-
tern.

Keywords:  'Pesticides,   'Fungicides,  'Toxic  sub-
stances, Hazardous materials. Chemical properties,
Regulations, Toxicology,  Ecology, Agricultural  prod-
ucts.  Path  of pollutants, 'Captan, *n-trichlorpmeth-
ylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide, Chemical in-
formation fact sheet, Science  findings, Use patterns,
CAS 133-06-2.
 PB91-182634/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Pesticide Fact Sheet No. 220: Cadmium Chloride.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
 1 Apr91,7pEPA/540/FS-91/130
The document contains up-to-date chemical informa-
tion, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory
position and rationale, on cadmium chloride, a fungi-
cide. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following
actions has occurred. (1)  Issuance or reissuance of a
registration standard, (2) Issuance  of each  special
review document, (3) Registration  of a significantly
changed use pattern, (4) Registration of a new chemi-
cal, or (5) An immediate need for information to re-
solve controversial issues relating to a specific chemi-
cal or use pattern.

Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Fungicides, 'Cadmium chlo-
ride, 'Toxic substances, Hazardous materials, Chemi-
cal properties, Regulations, Toxicology, Ecology, Agri-
cultural  products, Path of pollutants, Chemical infor-
mation fact sheet, Science findings, Use patterns, CAS
13-5.
PB91-182642/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Assessment of Trace Organic Emissions Test Re-
sults from the Montgomery County South MWC in
Dayton, Ohio.
Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Durham, NC.
W. S. Lanier, T. R. von Alien, and J. D. Kilgroe. 1990,
18pEPA/600/D-91/051
Contract EPA-68-03-3365
Presented at the American Flame Research Commit-
tee Meeting, 1990 Fall  International Symposium, NOx
Control, Waste Incineration  and Oxygen Enriched
Combustion, San Francisco, CA., October 8-10,1990.
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
Research Lab.

The paper gives results of an evaluation of the forma-
tion and removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
and polychlorinated  dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) at
various locations throughout the Montgomery County
South municipal waste incinerator in Dayton, OH. It is a
mass burn refractory incinerator, consisting of an  igni-
tion chamber,  rotary  kiln,  mixing  chamber, water
quench chamber, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and
stack. Three tests at each of six test conditions were
used to evaluate the effects of ESP inlet temperature,
sorbent injection, and combustion temperature on pol-
lutant formation and emission. Test results indicated
two sources of PCDD/PCDF formation: the combustor
upstream of the mixing chamber and the ESP. PCDD/
PCDF leaving the combustor appears to be associated
predominantly with entrained particulate matter (PM)
with particles larger than 10 micrometers. Increases in
PCDD/PCDF concentrations across the  ESP were
found at lower temperatures (148 C) than previously
reported. Indicated PCDD/PCDF formation rates in the
ESP were highly dependent on ESP inlet temperature.

Keywords: 'Organic compounds, 'Incinerators,  'Air
pollution control, Waste disposal, Halohydrocarbons,
Furans, Dioxins,  Tests, Electrostatic precipitators,
Temperature     control,     Stationary     sources,
Dayton(Ohio).
 PB91-182659/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Integrated Approach to Research on the Impact
 of Sources on Indoor Air Quality.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 L. E. Sparks, M. D. Jackson, B. A. Tichenor, J. B.
 White, and J. D. Dorsey. 1990,8p EPA/600/D-91 /052
 Presented at the International Conference on Indoor
 Air  Quality and Climate (5th),  Toronto, Canada, July
 29-August3,1990.

 The paper describes an approach  for analyzing the
 impact of sources of indoor air quality (IAQ) based on
 chamber studies, modeling, and test house  studies.
 Source  emission factors  are developed in chamber
 studies.  The emission  factors are  used in  an IAQ
 model that incorporates room-to-room air movement,
 sinks, and air exchange with the outdoors to predict
 indoor air pollution concentrations  from the source.
 Test house experiments are used to verify the model
 and identify unmodeled factors. The agreement be-
 tween model predictions based on chamber emission
 factors and test house data is excellent.

 Keywords: 'Indoor air  pollution,  'Emission  factors,
 'Mathematical models, Houses, Test chambers, Vola-
 tile organic compounds, Air quality, Stationary sources.
                                                                                                                               Sept 1991     37

-------
                                                  EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 PB91-182667/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 EPA's Global Climate Change Program. Program
 Plan for Methane Emissions from Landfills and
 Other Waste Disposal Facilities.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 S. A. Thomeloe. 26 Mar 91,19p EPA/600/D-91 /053
 Presented at the Solid Waste Association Meeting of
 North America's  Annual International  Landfill Gas
 Symposium (14th), San Diego, CA.,  March 26,1991.

 The paper discusses a portion of EPA's global climate
 change program,  a program plan  for methane emis-
 sions from landfills and other waste disposal facilities.
 In response to concerns about global climate change,
 the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development
 (ORD) has initiated an  emissions and mitigation pro-
 gram. ORD's Air  and Energy Engineering Research
 Laboratory (AEERL) has begun research on green-
 house gas emission estimation, biomass and methane
 utilization, tropospheric ozone, and evaluation of po-
 tential mitigation opportunities for emissions contribut-
 ing to global climate change. The emissions program
 has begun to identify and quantify emission sources of
 greenhouse gases for anthropogenic sources includ-
 ing landfills, coal mines, natural gas production/distri-
 bution,  cookstoves, and biomass  burning. Develop-
 ment of enhanced emission estimates will improve the
 understanding of atmospheric chemistry and feedback
 effects, target mitigation opportunities,  and  ensure
 cost-effective mitigation strategies. The  focus of the
 paper is on AEERL's research efforts on global landfill
 methane.

 Keywords:  'Climatic changes, "Air pollution, 'Waste
 disposal,  'Methane,  Global  aspects,  Greenhouse
 effect, Earth fills, US EPA, Pollution sources, Municipal
 wastes, Atmospheric chemistry.
 PB91-182675/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Biomass and Fossil Fuel to Methanol and Carbon
 via  the Hydrocarb  Process:  A  Potential New
 Source of Transportation and Utility Fuels.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 R. H. Borgwardt, M. Steinberg, E. W. Grohse, and Y.
 Tung. 1991,29p EPA/600/D-91 /054
 Presented at the Conference on Energy from Biomass
 and Wastes (15th), held in Washington, DC. on March
 27, 1991. Prepared in cooperation with Brookhaven
 National  Lab., Upton, NY. Dept. of Applied Science,
 and Hydrocarb Corp-, New York.

 The paper discusses the production of methanol and
 carbon from biomass and fossil fuels, utilizing the Hy-
 drocarbon process. The process has the potential to
 minimize dependence on imported fuels for the trans-
 portation and utility sectors by increasing the yield and
 reducing the cost of methanol obtainable from domes-
 tic natural gas. This is accomplished by utilizing bio-
 mass as a co-feedstock in an energy-efficient, three-
 step conversion. An equally important product of the
 process is a carbon that is free of ash, sulfur, and nitro-
 gen. The carbon can be used as a clean industrial and
 utility fuel to eliminate the pollution associated with the
 use of coal and reduce the cost of emission controls.
 The possibility of  global climate change implies that
CO2 emissions should be taken into account when as-
sessing options for producing future alternative fuels.
 From mis, as well as the  other environmental stand-
points, Hydrocarb offers advantages.

 Keywords: 'Methyl alcohol. 'Carbon,  'Air pollution
abatement,  Biomass, Fossil fuels, Alcohol fuels, Cost
effectiveness,  Alternative  fuels, Performance stand-
ards, Fuel supplies, Energy source development, 'Hy-
drocarb process.
PB91-1S2683/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Exposure to Lead In U.S. Drinking Water. Symposi-
um paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. Levin, M. R. Schock, and A. Marcus. c1991,28p
EPA/600/D-91/055
Presented at the Annual Conference on Trace Sub-
stances in Environmental Health (23rd), May 30-June
1, 1989.  Prepared in cooperation with Battelle, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Statistics and Data Analysis
Systems.

In the US, lead occurs primarily as a corrosion by-prod-
uct in public drinking  water supplies. That is, its source
is the corrosive action of the water upon the materials
 used in the water distribution system and private
 plumbing. Historically, drinking water has not been a
 major source of lead exposure for most Americans.
 However, as other sources of lead exposure continue
 to decline in this country, particularly decreased air-
 borne lead from reduced use of leaded gasoline and
 decreased dietary lead,  the  relative  contribution of
 drinking water as an exposure source has increased.
 This has occurred simultaneously with increasing evi-
 dence that lead's health effects occur at lower expo-
 sure  levels, levels  previously thought to be  'safe'.
 There is, however, no single, available data base for
 assessing exposure to lead in drinking water. In the ar-
 ticle, the authors use a variety of data sources to de-
 velop a  profile of lead levels in US public drinking water
 supplies, providing some upper and lower bound esti-
 mates of likely exposures as well as identifying some
 risk factors.

 Keywords: 'Lead(Metal), 'Potable water, Plumbing,
 PipesfTubes), Hazards, Exposure, United  States, In-
 formation systems, pH, Reprints.
 PB91-182691/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Current State of Corrosion Control: Technologies
 and Costs.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. Levin, M. R. Schock, and R. M. Clark. c1991,33p
 EPA/600/D-91/056
 Presented at the American Water Works Association
 Water Quality Technology Conference,  Philadelphia,
 PA., November 12-16,1989.

 Corrosion control has been  known both as a cost-
 saving and as a health protection method for almost a
 century. But, surprisingly, relatively little field and labo-
 ratory research has been conducted contrasting alter-
 native approaches or  presenting results before  and
 after such water treatment programs were implement-
 ed. A thorough review of chemical treatment strategies
 and engineering  technologies,  a presentation  and
 analysis of field trials, and a summary of costs incurred
 for various treatment approaches is needed. Unfortu-
 nately, the data are far from complete.  However, all
 water systems across the country, public and private,
 are  being required now to address both the health
 risks of drinking water  contaminated by corrosion by-
 products and the cost-reducing potential of  corrosion
 treatment. The paper presents a snapshot summary of
 the state of current knowledge about control of internal
 corrosion, focussing particularly on lead and  copper
 corrosion.

 Keywords: 'Corrosion  prevention, 'Water treatment,
 'Cost analysis. Potable water,  Lead(Metal), Copper,
 PipesfTubes), Tables(Data),  Plumbing,  Carbonates,
 Reprints.
PB91-182709/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Polyphosphate Water-Treatment Products: Their
Effects on the Chemistry and Solubility of Lead in
Potable Water Systems.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
T. R. Holm, S. H. Smothers, Z. Xiaofeng, and R. R.
Schock. c1991,16pEPA/600/D-917057
Presented at the Water Quality Conference held in
Philadelphia, PA. on November 12-16,1989. Prepared
in cooperation with Illinois State Water Survey  Div.,
Champaign.

Three  commercial  polyphosphate-containing water
treatment  products were evaluated for their ability to
affect lead solubility in drinking water. A 'Competing-
Ligand Spectrophotometry'  Technique  was  used to
characterize Pb(2+) complexation at 20 degrees C in
ionic strength of 0.1, pH = 8, and calcium concentra-
tion of .001 mol/L The pH was buffered by  HEPES,
and the colorimetric reagent was 4-(2-pyridylazo)-re-
sourcinol (PAR). Results  were also  compared  to a
DPASV method. The data was fit by a 2- ligand model.
The experiments suggested a significant ability to en-
hance lead solubility by complexation at the pH and
hardness tested.

Keywords: 'Potable water,  'Lead(Metal),  'Complex
ions, 'Mathematical models, 'Water pollution, 'Water
chemistry, Phosphorus  polymers,  Water treatment.
Water softening, Toxic substances, Solubility, Chemi-
cal  equilibrium,  Plumbing, Corrosion inhibitors.  Re-
prints.
 PB91-182717/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Using Linear and Polynomial Models to Examine
 the Environmental Stability of Viruses (Chapter 7).
 Book chapter.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 C. J. Hurst. C1991,27p EPA/600/D-91/058
 Pub. in Modeling the Environmental Fate of Microorga-
 nisms, p137-164 1991. Prepared in cooperation with
 American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

 The article presents the development of model equa-
 tions for describing the fate of viral infectivity in envi-
 ronmental samples. Most of the models were based
 upon the use of a two-step linear regression approach.
 The first step employs regression of log base 10 trans-
 formed viral liter ratios from various sampling dates as
 the dependent variable versus the length of time that
 the viruses were incubated in the test material as the
 independent variable. The slope values derived from
 this first step of the regression  technique are then
 used as the dependent variable in the second step of
 the analysis, when they are linearly regressed against
 either a single independent variable such as soil mois-
 ture level or incubation temperature, or against a set of
 independent variables in a multiple regression. A varie-
 ty of examples based upon  experimental  data were
 used to demonstrate the application and benefits of
 this two-step regression technique.

 Keywords:  'Viruses,  'Statistical models,  Regression
 analysis, Water microbiology, Soil microbiology, Waste
 water, Sewage, Soil  water,  Soil chemistry, Reprints,
 'Environmental stability.
PB91-182725/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Control  of Transient  Incinerator Emissions with
an Oxygen Based Combustion System. Symposi-
um paper.
Union Carbide Industrial Gases, Inc., Tarrytown, NY.
M. D. Ho, R. Rossi, J. P. Stumbar, J. M. Perdek, and F.
J. Freestone. 1990,25p EPA/600/D-91 /059
Contract EPA-68-03-3255
Presented  at  the Haztech  International  '90 held in
Houston, TX. on May 8-10,1990. Prepared in coopera-
tion with Foster Wheeler  Enviresponse, Inc., Edison,
NJ.  Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,
Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The subject of the paper is the experience with a novel
and field-proven method for the enhanced control of
transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using
oxygen enrichment. When high-BTU content wastes
are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent
mode (typical of ram feed systems), the transient com-
bustion behavior of these  materials creates unsteady
releases of combustible gases which may momentarily
deplete the oxygen content of kiln gases. These tem-
porary oxygen-deficient conditions could cause the re-
lease of  products of incomplete combustion  (PICs).
Release of PICs from incinerators has raised public
concern and has been the subject of research projects
sponsored by the EPA. The enhanced control of tran-
sient emissions was demonstrated by the field oper-
ation of the EPA Mobile Incineration System (MIS) at
the Denney Farm Superfund Site in McDowell, Missou-
ri. During the field operation of the MIS, large quantities
of high-BTU content wastes were burned periodically.
These materials were ram-fed into the rotary kiln at a
frequency of about twice a minute.  To  respond to the
transient oxygen demand resulting from the burning of
these materials, a  unique oxygen  feedforward-feed-
back control  logic  was designed into  the  LINDE
Oxygen Combustion System (OCS) which was retro-
fitted into the MIS in 1987. After implementation of the
OCS, transient upset conditions were significantly re-
duced during the operation of the MIS. Low NOx emis-
sions were also achieved.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Incineration,  'Kilns,
'Combustion efficiency,  'Waste disposal, Perform-
ance evaluation,  Case studies,  Nitrogen  oxides,
Design criteria, Combustion products, Hazardous ma-
terials, Portable  equipment, Field tests, Reprints,
'Oxygen  combustion system, Principal organic haz-
ardous constituent,  Destruction and removal efficien-
cy.
PB91-182733/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
38     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Evaluation of the Thermal Stability POHC Inciner-
ability Ranking in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Kiln Inciner-
ator.
Acurex Corp., Jefferson, AR.
J W. Lee, L. R. Waterland, W. E. Whitworth, and G. J,
Carroll. 1991,18p EPA/600/D-91/060
Contract EPA-68-C9-0038
Presented at the Annual  Air and Waste Management
Association Meeting (84th), Vancouver, BC., June 16-
21, 1991. Sponsored by  Environmental Protection
Agency, Cincinnati, OH.  Risk Reduction Engineering
Lab.

A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed
at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the
thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In
the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted inciner-
ability spanning the range of most to least difficult to in-
cinerate class were combined with a clay-based sor-
bent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale  rotary
kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln
operating conditions were varied to include a baseline
operating condition, three modes of attempted inciner-
ation failure, and a worst case combination of the three
failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99
percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline,
mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix fail-
ure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs
were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests;  corre-
sponding DREs were  generally greater  than 99.999
percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and
worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and  matrix
failure) tests resulted  in  substantially decreased kiln
exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or
less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for
the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General
agreement between relative kiln exit POHC ORE and
predicted incinerability class was observed.

Keywords: 'Incineration,  "Waste disposal, *Air pollu-
tion control,  "Combustion efficiency,  'Kilns, Ranking,
Pollution regulations, Pilot plants, Performance  stand-
ards, Thermal stability, Baseline measurements, 'Prin-
cipal organic hazardous constituent, 'Destruction and
removal efficiency.
PB91-182741/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Treatment of  Hazardous Waste with Solidifica-
tion/Stabilization. Symposium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
C. C. Wiles. 1991,13p EPA/600/D-91 /061
Pub. in APCA Specialty Conference Proceedings 'Per-
formance and Costs of Alternatives to Land Disposal
of Hazardous Wastes', p60-70.

The paper describes the use of solidification/stabiliza-
tion (S/S) technology for treating hazardous waste. Al-
though it has been used for 20 or more years to treat
U.S. industrial waste, the banning of selected untreat-
ed waste to the  land has resulted in an increased inter-
est in the technology. S/S involves the addition of
binders (e.g., portland cement, lime, fly ash, etc.) to the
waste to alter the waste form and decrease the mobili-
ty of the pollutants. Advantages and disadvantages of
S/S vary with the process, the binders, the waste, site
conditions and  other factors. As an alternative treat-
ment technology, S/S best potential use is to treat
wastes that are banned from land disposal. However,
there are important factors which will affect the use of
S/S.  These  include waste characteristics, process
types, S/S waste treatment and management objec-
tives, regulatory requirements, and economics. These
and other specific factors must be carefully considered
to ensure acceptable S/S performance.

Keywords:  'Waste treatment, 'Hazardous materials,
'Solidification, 'Stabilization, 'Waste forms, Industrial
wastes  Technology utilization, Environmental  trans-
port.  Binders, Waste management, Substitutes, Pollu-
tion regulations. Performance standards, Reprints.
 PB91-182758/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Risk Assessment  for  Organic  Micropollutants:
 US. Point of View.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. L Chaney, J. A. Ryan, and G. A. O'Connor. c1991,
 21pEPA/600/D-91/062
 Presented at the EEC Symposium  on the Treatment
 and Use of Sewage Sludge  and Liquid Agricultural
 Wastes, Athens, OH., September 1990. Prepared in
 cooperation with Agricultural Research Service, Belts-
ville, MD. Soil-Microbial System Lab.,  and Florida
Univ., Gainesville. Dept. of Soil Science.

Basic research  and monitoring  of sludge utilization
programs have identified specific Pathways by which
potentially toxic constituents of  sewage sludge can
reach and cause toxicity to livestock, humans, plants,
soil biota, wildlife, etc. In the process of preparing a
new regulation for land application of sewage sludge in
the US, a Pathway approach to risk assessment was
undertaken. Two Pathways  were found to comprise
the greatest risk from persistent lipophilic organic com-
pounds such as RGBs: (1) direct ingestion of sludge by
children; and  (2) adherence  of sludge to forage/pas-
ture crops from surface application of fluid sludge, fol-
lowed by grazing and ingestion of sludge by livestock
used as human food. Each Pathway considers risk to
Most Exposed Individuals (MEIs)  who have high expo-
sure to sludge. Because 1990 sewage sludges contain
very low levels of  PCBs, the estimated risk level to
MEIs was less 0.0001, low sludge PCBs and low prob-
ability of simultaneously meeting all the constraints of
the MEI indicate that MEIs are at less 0.0000001  life-
time risk. The authors conclude  that  quantitative risk
assessment   for  potentially toxic  constituents  in
sewage sludge can be meaningfully conducted be-
cause research has provided transfer coefficients from
sludges and sludge-amended soils to plants  and ani-
mals needed for many organic compounds.

Keywords: 'Risk assessment, 'Sewage sludge, 'Toxic
substances,  'Environmental surveys, Ground dispos-
al.  Path of pollutants, Ecosystems, Waste disposal,
Sludge      disposal,     Organic     compounds,
Ingestion(Biology),  Polychlorinated  biphenyls, Food
chains, Grazing, Soil contamination.
 PB91-182766/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Pesticide Removal by Membrane Processes.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 C. A. Frank, and D. Baker. 1991,26p EPA/600/D-91 /
 063
 Presented at the 1990 Annual Conference, American
 Water Works Association held in Cincinnati, OH.  on
 June 17-21, 1990.  Prepared in cooperation with Hei-
 delberg Coll., Tiffin, OH. Water Quality Lab.

 Approximately 21  billion pounds of pesticides have
 been applied to United States farmlands since 1964. In
 agricultural  regions,  high  pesticide  concentrations
 occur in surface and groundwaters because of spring
 runoff or leaching. Because many of these compounds
 pose health  risks,  the United  States Environmental
 Protection Agency (USEPA) has a mandate, under the
 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, to reg-
 ulate several of these compounds.  Others will be un-
 dergoing regulatory scrutiny because they are included
 in EPA's First Drinking Water Priority List, as well as
 the National Pesticide Survey. In an attempt to under-
 stand possible compliance problems, an investigation
 was conducted on  river water containing Alachior, Al-
 trazine, Cyanazine, Linuron, Metolachlor, Metribuzin,
 and Simazine. The purpose of the study was to deter-
 mine to what extent several treatment processes such
 as reverse osmosis were able to remove pesticides
 from the  Sandusky River at the Tiffin,  Ohio  Water
 Treatment Plant. In addition pilot scale studies were
 conducted using several different types of polymeric
 membranes to remove pesticides from spiked ground-
 water.

 Keywords:  'Water  pollution  control,  'Pesticides,
 'Membranes, 'Polymeric films, Ground water, Surface
 water, Leaching, Environmental transport, Agricultural
 runoff,  Water pollution abatement, Pollution regula-
 tions, Water treatment plants, Reverse osmosis, Pota-
 ble water. Reprints, Safe Drinking Water Act
 PB91-182774/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Removal of Glyphosate from Drinking Water.
 Environmental  Protection  Agency, Cincinnati,  OH.
 Drinking Water Research Div.
 T. F. Speth. C1991,17pEPA/600/D-91/064
 Presented at the 1990 Annual Conference, American
 Water Works Association held in Cincinnati, Ohio on
 June 17-21,1990.

 The effectiveness  of granulated  activated carbon
 (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional
 treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing gly-
 phosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indi-
 cate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing
glyphosate, while oxidation with chlorine was very ef-
fective.

Keywords:  'Potable water,  'Herbicides,  'Chemical
removal(Water treatment), Activated  carbon  treat-
ment, Oxidation,  Chlorine,  Ohio  River,  Isotherms,
Water pollution, Reprints, 'Glyphosate.
PB91-182782/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Safe Drinking Water for the Little  Guy: Options
and Alternatives. Symposium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. A. Goodrich, B. W. Lykins, and R. M. Clark. C1990,
24pEPA/600/D-91/065
Pub. in AWWA Annual Conference Proceedings, Cin-
cinnati, OH., June 17-21,1990, p1111 -1132.

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its Amend-
ments  sets regulations applicable to  all community
water systems that have 15 or more service connec-
tions and/or serve at least 25 people.  At first glance,
this may appear most inclusive, but in reality there are
numerous private homeowners, non-community, and
transient populations potentially at risk to contaminat-
ed drinking water. In addition, the tens of thousands of
very small community  systems (approximately 500
population served)  currently regulated have  little
chance of complying with the ever increasing number
of regulated contaminants or instituting Best Available
Technology (BAT). Their problems are  well document-
ed  as is the lack of resources to correct those prob-
lems. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to provide
a practical overview to the 'little guy' attempting to pro-
vide safe drinking water. The overview  will present the
advantages, disadvantages, and costs of several treat-
ment technologies focusing on those aspects of cost,
reliability, and ease of operation for those technologies
that make them more amenable to package plant and
Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry   (POU/POE)   operation
rather than  traditional  full-scale  central  treatment
plants.

Keywords: 'Water treatment, 'Potable water, 'Water
pollution abatement. Performance evaluation, Operat-
ing, Design criteria, Best technology, Pollution regula-
tions, Technology utilization, Cost analysis, Reprints,
'Small systems, Safe Drinking Water Act.
 PB91-182790/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Toxicity Assessment of Dredged Materials: Acute
 and Chronic Toxicity as Determined by Bioassays
 and  Bioaccumulation Tests. Proceedings of the
 International Seminar  on the Environmental As-
 pects of Dredging Activities (Actes du Seminaire
 International sur les Aspects Environnementaux
 lies aux Activities de Dragages).
 Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
 B. D. Melzian. C1990,25p EPA/600/D-91 /066, ERLN-
 1123
 Proceedings of the International Seminar of the Envi-
 ronmental Aspects  of  Dredging  Activities,  Nantes,
 France, November 27-December 1, 1989, Session 1,
 p49-64.

 Whenever dredged  materials  are  disposed  into  the
 ocean, the potential effects of the materials on human
 health, fishery resources, and marine ecosystems may
 range from being negligible or unmeasureable to im-
 portant. Because these effects may differ greatly at
 each dredged material extraction or disposal site, each
 site must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. In the
 United States, the manual entitled  Ecological Evalua-
 tion of Proposed Discharge of Dredged Material  into
 Ocean Waters: Implementation  Manual for Section
 103  of Public Law  92.532 (Marine  Protection,  Re-
 search, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972) (the 'Implemen-
 tation Manual' or 'Green Book') was published in 1977
 to give guidance on  determining the potential biologi-
 cal effects caused by dredging operations. The Green
 Book provides detailed guidance on the conduct of the
 required  bioassays on the liquid, suspendEd particu-
 late, and solid phases of a dredged material, in addi-
 tion, guidance is given on how to conduct the bioas-
 says and bioaccumulation tests. The U.S. Environmen-
 tal  Protection  Agency  (EPA) recently  published  a
 manual that gives guidance on the appropriate length
 of the bioaccumulation tests  (i.e., 28 days), recom-
 mended test speCles, and conduct of the tests. In the
 past, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 'Action
 Limits' and international fish and shellfish standards
 have occasionally been used in the interpretation of
 dredged  material bioaccumulation  data. Even though


                            Sept 1991      39

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 they may be useful in some cases, there are limitations
 to using Action  Limits  and international standards
 when evaluating bioaccumulation test data.

 Keywords: 'Ocean waste disposal, 'Water pollution
 effects,  'Dredge  spoil, 'Toxicity, 'Risk assessment,
 Bioaccumulation,  Bioassay, Biological effects, Guide-
 lines, Ecosystems, Site surveys, Sediments, Stand-
 ards, Food chains, Public  health, Fishes,  Reprints,
 Green book, Marine Protection Research and Sanctu-
 aries Act of 1972.
 PB91-182808/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Application  of a  Hazard-Assessment  Research
 Strategy for Waste  Disposal at 106-Mile  Ocean
 Disposal Site (Chapter 14). Book chapter.
 Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
 J. F. Paul, V. J. Bierman, H. A. Walker, J. H. Gentile,
 and D. W. Hood. C1989,15p EPA/600/D-91 /067,
 ERLN-1215
 Pub. in Oceanic Processes in Marine Pollution, Chap-
 ter 14, v4 p149-1601989. Also pub. as Environmental
 Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl. rept no. CONTRIB-
 412. Prepared in cooperation with  Washington Univ.,
 Seattle, and  National  Oceanic  and Atmospheric Ad-
 ministration, Washington, DC.

 An application of a hazard-assessment research strat-
 egy was made using waste disposal at Deepwater
 Dumpsite-106 (DWD-106) as an example. The strate-
 gy involved the synthesis of results from separate ex-
 posure and effects components in  order to provide a
 scientific basis for estimating the risk to the aquatic en-
 vironment The exposure assessment related  source
 inputs of contaminants to environmental concentration
 fields through considerations of transport  and  fate.
 The effects assessment related environmental  con-
 taminant concentration fields  to  biological  effects
 through considerations of toxicity  and bioaccumula-
 tion. The implementation  of the hazard-assessment
 strategy for 106-Mile Site was made with the currently
 available information. Upper bounds on the  time-aver-
 aged concentration fields for selected contaminants in
 the water column were developed corresponding  to
 the physical transport patterns that occur in the vicinity
 of the site.

 Keywords: 'Ocean waste disposal, 'Risk assessment,
 •Water pollution effects, Water quality. Biological ef-
 fects,  Environmental  transport, Exposure, Toxicity,
 Bioaccumulation, Deep water, New Jersey, Chemical
 compounds, Sewage sludge, Oceanography, Reprints.
PB91-182816/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Effects of Pond Characteristics on  Blotto Expo-
sures.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
L A. Bums, and F. B. Taub. 1991,48p EPA/600/D-
91/069
Prepared in cooperation with Washington Univ., Seat-
tle. School of Fisheries.

Different aquatic  communities, although apparently
equivalent, can exhibit a variety  of responses when
challenged with the same initial total toxicant concen-
tration. Differences in realized actual exposure con-
centrations can result from differences in physical
morphology, water and sediment chemistry, and physi-
cal transport processes. Seasonal differences in cli-
matology and biological community structure also alter
ecosystem responses. Simulation models and com-
parative studies provide methods for extrapolation.

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals),  'Toxic
substances,  'Ponds,  Seasonal  variations.  Water
chemistry, Sediments, Climate, Aquatic ecosystems,
TablesfData), Graphs(Charts), Dose-response rela-
tionships.
PB91-182824/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Review of NAPAP Integrated Assessment Visibill-

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
R. K. Stevens, and T. L. Vossler. 1991,12p EPA/600/
D-91/070

The National Acid Precipitation Program (NAPAP) Inte-
grated  Assessment  discussion of visibility, and  its
more  detailed  supporting document  State-of-Sci-
ence/Technoiogy  (SOS/T) Report 24, have been re-
viewed with regard to completeness in their discussion
 of visibility measurement methods, chemical analysis
 procedures to determine the species responsible for
 visibility impairment and methods to calculate light ex-
 tinction b(sub ext) budgets. The supporting document,
 SOS/T Report 24, contains citations and  substantial
 discussion and interpretation of past and ongoing re-
 search and monitoring associated with visibility. While
 both documents are a masterpiece in terms of compil-
 ing abbreviated discussions, some aspects  of the doc-
 uments reflect the biases of the authors, as evidenced
 by omissions of discussions related to visibility studies
 performed by the U.S.  Environmental  Protection
 Agency at Research Triangle Park, NC.  The work by
 the EPA group is of substantial significance in that im-
 portant complex  problems associated with uncertain-
 ties in b(sub ext) budgets were addressed  and  meth-
 odology developed to minimize or estimate the uncer-
 tainties. The b(sub ext) budget protocols developed by
 the EPA group should be incorporated into  the model-
 ing and methods interpretation sections. More empha-
 sis should be given to the status of measurement tech-
 nologies which support visibility assessments. In par-
 ticular, the shortcomings of elemental carbon meas-
 urements need to be emphasized.

 Keywords: 'Visibility, 'Air pollution detection, 'Air pol-
 lution  monitoring,  'Aerosols,  'Atmospheric effects,
 Assessments,  Chemical analysis, Luminous intensity,
 Technology utilization, Particles, Extinction, Carbon,
 Light transmission,  Fines, Absorption,  Reviews, At-
 mospheric composition,  'National Acid  Precipitation
 Assessment Program.
 PB91-182832/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Source Apportionment of  Mutagenic Activity of
 Fine Particle Organlcs in Boise, Idaho.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 C. W. Lewis, R. K. Stevens, R. B. Zweidinger, L. D.
 Qaxton, and D. Barraclough. 1991,14p EPA/600/D-
 91/071
 Proceedings of the A&WMA Annual Meeting  (84th),
 Vancouver B.C., Canada, June 16-21,1991. Prepared
 in cooperation with National Inst of Standards and
 Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

 A multiple linear regression receptor model has been
 used to apportion ambient concentrations of fine parti-
 cle extractable organic matter (EOM) and associated
 mutagenicity  (Salmonella typhimurium  TA98  +S9),
 measured in Boise ID during the 1986-1987 winter. Ex-
 tensive (14)C measurements were also employed to
 verify the accuracy of the wopdsmoke contribution es-
 timate given by the regression approach. In general
 the Boise results are found to be consistent with those
 of earlier studies in Albuquerque NM and Raleigh NC,
 with mutagenic potencies of about 1  and 3 revertants
 per microgram of EOM for  woodsmoke and mobile
 source emissions, respectively. The measurements
 were performed as part of the U.S.  EPA's Integrated
 Air Cancer Project.

 Keywords: 'Air pollution sampling, 'Pollution sources,
 •Organic matter, 'Mutagens,  'Particles, *Air pollution
 effects(Humans),  Regression  analysis,  Aerosols,
 Mathematical  models, Mobile pollutant sources, Idaho,
 Wood      fuels,      Combustion      products,
 Concentration(Composition),   Exhaust   emissions,
 Boise(ldaho).
PB91-182840/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Sector Sampling for VOC's during Remediation of
Superfund Site at Shaver's Farm, Georgia.
ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Research
Triangle Park, NC.
J. D. Pleil, G. M. Russwurm, and K. D. Oliver. 1991,18p
EPA/600/D-91/072
Contract EPA-68-DO-0106
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
Exposure Assessment Lab.

The sector sampling approach for the determination of
the spatial contributions of volatile organic compounds
to  the ambient air was employed at a Superfund site
under remediation. Two canister based sampling sys-
tems were deployed  and whole air samples were col-
lected at the Shaver's Farm Superfund Site in north-
west Georgia near  Chattanooga, Tennessee,  while
chemical waste drums were excavated and repack-
 aged. The method is based upon the collection of a
 constant stream of air into one of two SUMMA pol-
 ished canisters depending on wind direction; when the
 wind comes towards the sampler from the suspected
 emissions area, sample is routed into the 'IN' sector
 canister, otherwise, sample is collected in the 'OUT'
 sector canister. Upon  analysis, the  comparison  be-
 tween the IN and OUT sample results indicates com-
 pounds that are emitted from the suspected source
 area. Data from the  week-long Shaver's Farm  field
 study  are presented  along,  with  a  mathematical
 method for interpretation.

 Keywords:  'Air   pollution sampling,  'Superfund,
 'Waste disposal, 'Waste  storage, 'Volatile organic
 compounds,  'Remedial action, Spatial  distribution,
 Georgia, Chemical compounds, Wind direction, Experi-
 mental  design,   Data  processing,  Reid tests,
 Tables(Data),  Concentration(Composition),  Shavers
 Farm.
 PB91-1B2857/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Total Volatile Organic Concentrations in 2700 Per-
 sonal, Indoor, and Outdoor Air Samples Collected
 in the US EPA TEAM Studies.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 L. Wallace, E. Pellizzari, and C. Wendel. Dec 90,37p
 EPA/600/D-91/073

 Sick Building Syndrome may be caused in part by vola-
 tile organic compounds (VOCs). One hypothesis is that
 the total volatile organic concentration (TVOC), rather
 than individual compounds, is a main factor in the syn-
 drome. The TVOC level at which symptoms occur has
 been estimated to be in the range of 1-2 mg/cum,
 based on  measurements employing GC-FID tech-
 niques. Very few measured data are available to deter-
 mine the frequency with which homes and buildings in
 the United States may approach TVOC levels of this
 magnitude. However, data on 12-hour average values
 of individual VOCs from 750 homes and 10 buildings
 were available from EPA's TEAM Studies (1981-88).
 An initial study to determine the feasibility of obtaining
 a TVOC value from stored GC/MS  data showed that
 TVOC estimated could be obtained with  satisfactory
 precision ((+ or -) 30-60%). Therefore TVOC values
 were calculated from about 2700 personal, indoor, and
 outdoor air samples collected in the TEAM Studies.

 Keywords:  *Air pollution sampling,  'Volatile organic
 compounds, 'Public health, 'Occupational safety and
 health,  Personnel  monitoring,  Indoor air  pollution,
 Concentration(Composition),  Residential   buildings,
 Buildings,  Exposure,  Graphs(Charts),  Tables(Data),
 Seasonal variations, Diurnal variations, Site surveys,
 Baseline measurements, Air pollution detection, 'Sick
 Building Syndrome, Microenvironments.
PB91-182865/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Identification of  Polar  Volatile  Organic  Com-
pounds in Consumer Products and Common Mi-
croenvironments.
Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, NC.
L. A. Wallace, W. C. Nelson, E. Pellizzari, J. H. Raymer,
and K. W. Thomas. 1 Mar 91,16p EPA/600/D-91 /074
Contract EPA-68-02-4544
Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste
Management  Association (84th),  Vancouver,  BC.,
June 16-21, 1991. Sponsored by Environmental  Pro-
tection Agency, Research  Triangle Park, NC. Atmos-
pheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

Polar volatile organic compounds were identified in the
headspace of 31  fragrance products  such as  per-
fumes, colognes  and soaps.  About   150 different
chemicals were identified  in a semiquantitative fash-
ion,  using two methods to analyze the headspace:
direct injection into a gas chromatograph and  collec-
tion by an evacuated canister, each followed by GC-
MS analysis. The canister method displayed  low re-
coveries for most of the 25 polar chemical standards
tested. However, reconstructed ion chromatograms
(RICs) from the canister showed good agreement with
RICs from the direct injection method except for some
high  boiling point compounds. Canister samples col-
lected in  15 microenvironments expected to contain
the fragrance products tested (potpourri stores, fra-
grance sections of department  stores,  etc.) showed
40     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
relatively low concentrations of most of these polar
chemicals compared with certain common nonpolar
chemicals. The results presented will be useful for
models of personal exposure and indoor air quality.

Keywords: *Air pollution detection, 'Volatile organic
compounds,  Indoor air pollution, Consumer products,
Air quality, Gas chromatography, Mass spectroscopy.
Polarization(Charge     separation),     Containers,
ConcentrationfComposition),  Exposure, Construction
materials. Enclosures, Sample preparation, Microen-
vironments.
PB91-182873/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
US EPA TEAM Study of Inhalable Particles (PM10):
Study Design, Response Rate, and Sampler Per-
formance.
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
L Wallace, E. Pellizzari, J. Spengler, P. Jenkins, and L
Sheldon. 1 Mar 91,14pEPA/600/D-91/075
Contract EPA-68-02-4544
Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste
Management  Association  (84th),  Vancouver,  BC.,
June 16-21, 1991. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmos-
pheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

The  US EPA studied the exposures of 175 residents of
Riverside, CA to inhalable particles (<10 micrometers
diameter) in the early fall of 1990.  Participants  were
probabilistically selected to represent most of the Riv-
erside nonsmoking population over the  age of 10.
They wore a newly-designed personal monitor (4 Lpm
pump and filter) for two consecutive 12-hour periods
(day and night) to determine their exposure to PM-10.
Exposure to nicotine  was also determined by a citric
acid treated filter. Indoor and outdoor  samples  were
collected  concurrently at each  home.  Air exchange
rates were determined for each household for the day
and  night periods. The response rate of  the population
was  about  50%, roughly  comparable to  previous
TEAM Studies. The personal and fixed particle moni-
tors  showed excellent precision of about 4% RSD.

Keywords: *Air pollution effects(Humans), 'Particles,
•Public health, *Air pollution monitors, Indoor air pollu-
tion,  Inhalation, Houses, Air samplers, Performance
evaluation. Exposure, Nicotine. Air  flow, Quality con-
trol,  Public information.
 PB91-182881/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Overview of the Technical Implications of Metha-
 nol and Ethanol as Highway Motor Vehicle Fuels.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 F. M. Black. 1991,32p EPA/600/D-91 /076

 The characteristics of methanol and ethanol as high-
 way motor vehicle fuels are contrasted with those of
 conventional gasolines and diesel fuels. The implica-
 tions of the physical and chemical differences of these
 fuels for motor vehicle design and emissions are dis-
 cussed.  Potential material compatibility  concerns,
 such as  elastomer swelling and metal corrosion, and
 safety concerns, such as fire hazard, flame luminosity,
 and human tqxfcity are examined. A number of possi-
 ble air quality impacts are examined including changes
 in ozone, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, particu-
 late matter, toxic  compounds (benzene,  aldehydes,
 1,3-butadiene), and global climate 'greenhouse' gases
 (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide).

 Keywords: *Methanol, *Ethanol,  'Automotive  fuels,
 Air pollution. Combustion products. Environmental im-
 pacts, Technology assessment, US EPA, Safety engi-
 neering,  Automobile exhaust.
 PB91-182899/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 Determination of Routes of Exposure of Infants
 and Toddlers to Household Pesticides: A Pilot
 Study. Rept. for Mar 90-Mar 91.
 Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 R. G. Lewis, A. E. Bond, R. C. Fortmann, L. S. Sheldon,
 and D. E. Camann. 1991,18p EPA/600/D-91/077
 Contract EPA-68-02-4544
Prepared in  cooperation with Southwest  Research
Inst., San Antonio, TX. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC. At-
mospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

The U.S. EPA recently completed a study of nqnoccu-
pational exposure to household pesticides. During that
study, house dust and yard soil were recognized to be
potential major sources of exposure for infants and
toddlers. Consequently, a pilot study was  initiated in
the fall of 1990 to evaluate exposure methodology and
obtain preliminary comparative data on routes of expo-
sure for the susceptible population. Nine homes with
children aged six months to five years were selected
on the basis of pesticide use. House dust was collect-
ed using a newly-designed cyclone vacuum system.
Dislodgeable  residues were collected from floors by
means of a polyurethane foam (PUF) roller weighted to
simulate a 9 kg child. Investigator's hand-presses and
child's hand rinses were performed for comparison to
the PUF roller. Soil and entry-way dirt samples were
collected and air was sampled at 12 cm and 75 cm
above the floor. All samples were analyzed for a list of
30  common  household pesticides. Questionnaires
were administered to participants regarding pesticide
usage, child activities (including frequency of hand-to-
mouth contact), and dietary habits.

Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Infants,  'Children, 'Toxicity,
'Environmental exposure pathway, Dust, Susceptibili-
ty, Soil contamination, Organochlorine insecticides,
Indoor air pollution, Pesticide residues.
PB91-182907/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Protocol  for  the Field Validation  of Stationary
Source Emission Measurements. Technical rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
J. E. Knoll. 1991,8p EPA/600/D-91/078

A protocol has been developed to enable source oper-
ators to comply with provisions of Title III of the Clean
Air Act Amendments of 1990 which allows certain ex-
emptions  if reductions in emissions can be demon-
strated  and validated  source emission test methods
are not available. Essentially, the procedures consist
in determining the method's bias and precision, the
former by using known concentrations of analyte, and
the latter by means of  collocated sampling trains. The
use  of isotopically-labelled  materials,  comparisons
with a validated method, or analyte spiking are tech-
niques that may be employed. There is a requirement
tht the analyst use an EPA audit material. Equations
are given  to calculate precision, to determine if bias is
statistically significant, and to calculate correction fac-
tors if applicable. The protocol disallows the use of test
methods having a bias greater than 30% or a precision
greater than 50% at the level of the applicable stand-
ard.

Keywords:  'Air   pollution   sampling,  'Stationary
sources,   Field   tests,   Standards  compliance,
Concentration(Composition),  Pollution  sources,  Air
pollution  control, Air  pollution  abatement,  Pollution
regulations, Auditing, Statistical analysis, Clean Air Act
of 1990.
 PB9M82915/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Criteria to Protect Wetland Ecological Integrity.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 W. Sanville. 1991,19p EPA/600/D-91 /080

 Wetlands have been a minor element in EPA's water
 quality  regulatory frame  but  their importance  will
 expand following their mandatory inclusion into Waters
 of the States in 1993 (EPA 1990). They have historical-
 ly been regulated under Section 404 of the  Clean
 Water Act, and although water quality is an issue in
 404 decisions, it has not been the driving variable. The
 presentation is based on the premise that a range of
 criteria are necessary to protect wetland ecological in-
 tegrity from a  range of stressors. The author will dis-
 cuss possible  protective criteria, some in use in exist-
 ing  regulatory  programs  and others  under develop-
 ment. The order of presentation is biological, aquatic
 life, hydrologic, sediments and  wildlife criteria.  In the
 conclusion, the author briefly  discusses using land-
 scape  approaches to extrapolate criteria to spatial
 scales  beyond the traditional  site-specific  analysis
 used in most water quality decisions.

 Keywords: 'Wetlands, 'Ecology, 'Environmental pro-
 tection, 'Water pollution abatement, 'Pollution regula-
tions, Aquatic biology, Water quality, Biological effects,
Hydrology,  Sediments,  Wildlife, Spatial distribution,
Habitats, Clean Water Act.
PB91-182923/REB               PC A02/MF A0.1
Aquatic Information and Retrieval (Aquire) Data-
base System.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
R. Hunter, G. Niemi, A. Pilli, and G. Veith. 1991, 9p
EPA/600/D-91/079
Pub. in International Society for Environmental Protec-
tion  (ISEP), p42-48.  Proceedings of the Computer
Workshop on Environmental  Systems, Vienna, Octo-
ber 25-26, 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Com-
puter Sciences Corp.,  Duluth,  MN., and Minnesota
Univ.-Duluth. Natural Resources Research Inst.

The  AQUIRE  database  system is one of the foremost
international resources for finding aquatic toxicity infor-
mation. Information in the system is organized around
the concept of an 'aquatic toxicity test.' A toxicity test
record contains information about the chemical, spe-
cies, endpoint, endpoint concentrations, and test con-
ditions under which the toxicity test was conducted.
For  the past  10 years aquatic literature has been  re-
viewed and entered into the system.  Currently, the
AQUIRE database system contains data on more than
2,400 species, 160 endpoints, 5,000 chemicals, 6,000
references, and 104,000 toxicity tests.

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects, 'Toxicity, 'Toxic
substances,  'Information systems,  'Water  quality,
Concentration(Composition),  Chemical compounds,
Data processing,  Aquatic animals, Ecosystems, Risk
assessment,  Public health, Reprints, 'AQUIRE data-
base system.
 PB91-183046/REB
                                 PC A08/MF A01
 Textile Dye Weighing Monitoring Study.
 Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Toxic Substances.
 Apr 90,171 p EPA/560/5-90/009

 Dye weighers in textile dyeing and printing plants are
 involved in the weighing and transfer of relatively small
 quantities of numerous powder dyes and other chemi-
 cals. The results in a potential exposure to a diverse
 range of chemicals which exhibit a broad spectrum of
 lexicological properties. In order to gain  more detailed
 information  about  workplace  exposure  to  powder
 dyes, a study has been conducted to measure concen-
 trations of dyes in the workplace air, and to character-
 ize worker activities and industrial hygiene practices.
 The study was unique in that both government (U.S.
 Environmental Protection Agency) and industry (Amer-
 ican  Textile  Manufacturers  Institute  and Ecological
 and Toxicological  Association of Dyestuffs Manufac-
 turing Industry) collaborated on an impartial basis and
 the dyehouses studies participated on a strictly volun-
 tary basis. The study included a survey of 24 randomly
 selected textile dyeing or printing sites which used
 power dyes. At each site, one worker was observed for
 an 8-hour shift; personal monitoring and  area sampling
 data were taken. Certified industrial hygienists record-
 ed worker activities, duration of potential exposure,
 personal and engineering  controls in  use, and quanti-
 ties and frequency of use of each dye  that was han-
 dled during the monitoring  period. Bulk samples  of
 each dyes were also taken. The particulates collected
 on the air monitoring filters were analyzed for commer-
 cial dye content using a spectrophotometric method
 developed for the study.

 Keywords: 'Textile processes, 'Air pollution monitor-
 ing,  'Occupational safety and health,  'Industrial hy-
 giene, 'Dyeing, Weight measurement, Air pollution de-
 tection, Concentration(Composition), Occupational ex-
 posure, Particles,  Spectrophotometry, Data analysis,
 Quality control,  Statistical analysis, Site characteriza-
 tions.
 PB91-183053/REB                PC A07/MF A01
 Textile Dye Weighing Monitoring Study. Supple-
 ment.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Toxic Substances.
 Apr 90,150p EPA/560/5-90/010

 Dye weighers in textile dyeing and printing plants are
 involved in the weighing and transfer of relatively small
 quantities of numerous powder dyes and other chemi-
 cals. This results in a potential exposure to a diverse
                                                                                                                                  Sept 1991     41

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
range of chemicals which exhibit a broad spectrum of
lexicological properties. In order to gain more detailed
information about workplace  exposure to  powder
dyes, a study has been conducted to measure concen-
trations of dyes in the workplace air, and to character-
ize worker activities and industrial hygiene  practices.
The study was unique in that both government (U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency) and industry (Amer-
ican  Textile Manufacturers  Institute  and Ecological
and lexicological Association of Dyestuffs Manufac-
turing Industry) collaborated on an impartial basis and
the dyehouses studies participated on a strictly volun-
tary basis. The document contains quality assurance
project plans, data quality objectives, letters to encour-
age plant participation, first phase questionnaire, and
irvplant questionnaire.

Keywords: 'Textile processes, *Air pollution monitor-
ing, 'Occupational safety and health, 'Industrial  hy-
giene, 'Dyeing, Weight measurement. Quality assur-
ance, Data processing, Questionnaires,  Air pollution
detection, ConcentrationfComoosition), Occupational
exposure, Chemical analysis.
PB91-183079/REB               PC A06/MF A01
MIMTEQA2/PRODEFA2,  A Geochemical  Assess-
ment Model for Environmental Systems: Version
3.0 User's Manual.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, QA.  Office of
Research and Development
J. D. Allison, D. S. Brown, and K. J. Novo-Gradac. Mar
91,117p EPA/600/3-91 /021
Prepared  in  cooperation with Computer Sciences
Corp., Athens, GA., and AScI Corp., Athens, GA.

MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation
model capable of computing equilibria among the dis-
solved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environ-
mental setting. MINTEQA2 includes an extensive da-
tabase of reliable thermodynamic data that is also ac-
cessible to PRODEFA2, an interactive program de-
signed to be excuted prior to  MINTEQA2 for the pur-
pose  of creating the required MINTEQA2 input file.
The  report describes how to use the MINTEQA2
model. The chemical and mathematical structure  of
MINTEQA2 and the structure of the database files also
are described. The use of both PRODEFA2 and MIN-
TEQA2 are illustrated through the presentation of an
example PRODEFA2 dialogue reproduced from inter-
active sessions and the presentation of MINTEQA2
output files and error diagnostics. The  content and
format of database files also are explained.

Keywords:   'Environmental   impact  assessments,
'Computerized simulation, 'Geochemistry, 'Chemical
equilibrium, 'Metals, Phase rule, Oxidation reduction
reactions, Adsorption, Error analyses.  Data process-
ing, Thermodynamics, Data base management. User
manuals(Computer programs), 'MINTEQA2 model,
PRODEFA2 model.
PB91-183160/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Human Impacts to Minnesota Wetlands. Journal ar-
ticle.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
C. A. Johnston. C1989,6p EPA/600/J-89/519,
CONTRIB-46
Pub. in Jnl. of the Minnesota Academy of Science,
(special issue on Minnesota's water resource), p120-
124Oct89.

Minnesota's 3.6 million ha of wetlands have been im-
pacted by a variety of human activities, including agri-
cultural drainage, urbanization, water control, and non-
point source pollution. More than half of Minnesota's
wetlands have been destroyed since the first Europe-
an settlers arrived, an average loss of about 35,600
ha/yr.  Drainage  for agriculture is the major cause of
wetland loss in Minnesota, particularly in southern Min-
nesota and the Red River Valley. In addition to impact-
ing wetlands directly, wetland drainage  affects down-
stream areas by increasing flood flows, and releasing
sediment and nutrients.  Urban development and high-
way construction affect a smaller proportion of Minne-
sota's wetlands, but substantially alter their physical,
chemical,  and biological properties. Hydrology has a
major influence on the structure and function of wet-
lands,  so  changes in the frequency, duration, depth,
and  timing of wetland flooding can severely impact
wetlands.  White wetlands can assimilate tow levels of
sediment  and nutrient enrichment, excessive inputs
can be detrimental. Peat harvesting is not currently ex-
tensive in Minnesota, but could cause substantial im-
pacts. Cumulative impact the incremental impact of an
action when added to other past, present, and reason-
ably forseeable future actions, is becoming an area of
increasing concern.

Keywords: 'Man environment interactions, 'Wetlands,
'Water pollution, 'Drainage effects, 'Land use, Minne-
sota, Hydrology,  Urbanization, Agriculture, Nonpoint
sources, Peat, Water quality. Forests, Reprints.


PB91-183178/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Evaluation of Ozonation By-Products from Two
California Surface Waters. Journal article.
North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of Environmen-
tal Sciences and Engineering.
W. H. Glaze, M. Koga, D. Cancilla, K. Wang, and M. J.
McGuire. c1989,11 p EPA/600/J-89/518
Pub. in Jnl. of the American Water Works Association,
v81 n8 p66-73 Aug 89.  Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction En-
gineering Lab., Southern California Metropolitan Water
District, Los  Angeles, National  Science  Foundation,
Washington,  DC., and California Univ., Los Angeles.
Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program.

Ozonation by-products were analyzed for two surface
water sources in Southern California-Los Angeles Aq-
ueduct Water (LAAW) and State Project Water (SPW).
Included are data obtained when LAAW was  being
treated at the Los Angeles Aqueduct Filtration Plant
and similar data obtained during a two-day experiment
in which the plant was treating SPW. Some batch-
scale ozonation studies are also reported. Ozonation
by-products  were monitored using three methods:
closed-loop stripping analysis, nonionic resin accumu-
lation, and a direct aqueous  derivatization method for
low-molecular-weight aldehydes, each followed by gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the
extracts. The major neutral by-products appear to be
aliphatic aldehydes,  but the levels are unexpectedly
low in SPW compared with LAAW treated under similar
conditions. Low levels of several other compounds
were found in  ozonated water, including bromoform
and some compounds tentatively identified as ke-
tones.

Keywords: 'Surface waters, 'Ozonization, Water treat-
ment Chemical analysis, Field tests. Laboratory tests.
Byproducts,  Contaminants,  Aqueducts,  Aldehydes,
Ketones,    Bromoform,     Reprints,    Southern
Region(Califomia).
PB91-183186/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Advanced Oxidation  Processes. Test of a Kinetic
Model for the  Oxidation of Organic Compounds
with Ozone  and Hydrogen Peroxide in a Semi-
batch Reactor. Journal article.
California Univ.,  Los Angeles.
W. H. Glaze, and J. W. Kang. C1989,11 p EPA/600/J-
89/517
Pub. in Industrial Engineering  Chemistry  Research,
v28 n11  P1580-1587  1989.  Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
duction Engineering Lab., Los Angeles City Dept.  of
Water and Power, CA., and National Science Founda-
tion, Washington, DC.

Experimental  data are presented to test a kinetic
model  of the OE/H2O2 process in a semibatch reac-
tor. The effect of bicarbonate and carbonate ions is
measured and found to be in  concurrence with model
predictions. The effect of pH in the ozone mass-trans-
fer-limited region was examined in bicarbonate-spiked
distilled water. Since the reaction is mass transfer limit-
ed, the primary effect above pH  7 is the result  of
changes in the distribution of inorganic carbon species
which are OH-radical scavengers. Below pH 7, there is
a lag period during which, ozone and peroxide increase
until the chain reaction begins. The effects of chloride
ion and the concentration of radical scavengers other
than carbonate species in ground waters are also
measured. The mass-transfer/reaction rate model has
been used to estimate rate constants for the reaction
of hydroxyl radicals with trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibro-
moethane, l,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane,  carbon tet-
rachloride, and  two bicyclic alcohols, 2-methylisobor-
neol and geosmin. While the model developed for the
distilled water system was successful in predicting the
rate  of tetrachloroethylene (PCE)  oxidation  and the
concentration of residual ozone and peroxide in re-
gions I and III, respectively, there are several features
of the model that remain unresolved when the matrix is
changed to a real surface or ground water. This and
subsequent papers will investigate these effects.

Keywords: 'Reaction kinetics, 'Mathematical models,
'Oxidation, 'Organic compounds,  Water pollution ef-
fects, Experimental design,  Surface waters, Ground
water, Ozone, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroxyl radicals,
Mass transfer, Bicarbonates, pH, Reprints.
PB91-183194/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Advanced Oxidation Processes. Description of a
Kinetic Model for the Oxidation  of Hazardous Ma-
terials In  Aqueous Media with Ozone and  Hydro-
gen Peroxide in a Semibatch Reactor. Journal arti-
cle.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Office of Environmental
Science and Engineering.
W. H. Glaze, and J. W. Kang. c1989,11 p EPA/600/J-
89/516
Pub. in Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research 28,
n11 p1573-1580 1989.  Prepared in cooperation with
North Carolina Univ. at  Chapel Hill. Dept. of Environ-
mental Sciences and Engineering. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
duction Engineering  Lab., Los Angeles City Dept.  of
Water and Power, CA., and National Science Founda-
tion, Washington, DC.

A model is presented that describes the kinetics of the
oxidation of micropollutants in water with the combina-
tion of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in a sparged, se-
mibatch reactor. The model is based on known reac-
tions of the O3/H2O2 system plus mass-transfer char-
acteristics of the reactor. The principal kinetic species
for micropollutant oxidation is assumed to be the hy-
droxyl radical. The model is tested and validated in dis-
tilled water spiked with an excess of bicarbonate, a
known hydroxyl radical scavenger.

Keywords: 'Water pollution control, 'Oxidation, 'Re-
action kinetics, "Ozone, 'Hydrogen peroxide,  Labora-
tory tests, Organic  compounds,  Hydroxyl radicals,
Technology assessment, Bicarbonates, Reprints.
PB91-183202/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Water Relations of Differentially Irrigated Cotton
Exposed to Ozone. Journal article.
California Univ., Riverside.
P. J. Temple. C1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/469
Pub. in Agronomy Jnl., v82 n4 D800-805 1990. Spon-
sored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis
that plants chronically exposed to O3 may be more
susceptible to drought because O3 typically inhibits
root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants.
Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford
coarse  sandy loam in Riverside,  CA.  Plants were
grown under three  irrigation regimes: optimum  water
for lint  production  (OW), suboptimum or moderate
drought stress (SO),  and severely drought stressed
(SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000)
O3 concentrations of 0.015,0.074,0.094, or 0.111/mi-
croLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psifsub 1) and
soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly
from June to October. Mean seasonal  Psi(sub 1) in-
creased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high 03
treatments,  averaged across  soil  water  regimes.
Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton,
but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by
O3 in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-
stressed  plants  extracted  proportionally  greater
amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than
OW cotton, and O3 had no apparent effect on this re-
distribution of roots in the soil. Since O3 had no appar-
ent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to
maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth rela-
tive to shoot growth, this suggests that O3 may have
little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to
or tolerate drought.

Keywords:  'Air pollution  effects(Plants),  'Ozone,
'Soil-water-plant relationship,  'Drought  tolerance,
'Cotton plants, Field tests, Biological stress. Crop pro-
duction, Growth inhibitors,  Exposure, Plant growth,
Soil water, Irrigation, Agronomy, Water utilization, Re-
prints, Riverside(California).
 42    Vol. 91,  No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-183210/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Significance of the Surface Microlayer to the En-
vironmental Fate of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Pre-
dicted from Marine Microcosms. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
E. W. Davey, K. T. Perez, A. E. Soper, N. F. Lackie, and
G. E. Morrison. C1990, 38p EPA/600/J-90/468,
ERLN-942
Also pub. as Environmental Research Lab., Narragan-
sett, Rl. rept. no. CONTRIB-942. Pub. in Marine Chem-
istry, v31 p231-269 1990. Prepared in cooperation with
Science Applications International Corp., Narragan-
sett, Rl., and Rhode Island Univ., Kingston. Dept. of
Statistics.

The quanitative significance of the surface microlayer
(SMI) to the environmental fate of the industrial plasti-
cizer  di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate  (DEHP),  in  marine
coastal systems was established by the use of experi-
mental microcosms. The effects of season, sea-state
and associated solvents were investigated. The re-
sults demonstrated that the SML community rapidly
degraded DEHP to  such an extent that under certain
treatment conditions biodegradation was the dominant
removal process compared with  physical transport.
Biodegradation of DEHP by trie SML biota was esti-
mated to account for at least 30% of the total budget.
Extrapolation of the laboratory results to the simulated
field system (the West Passage of Narragansett Bay,
Rl), is discussed within  the context of potential arti-
facts of the marine  microcosms. (Copyright (c)  1990-
Elsevier Science Publishers B V.)

Keywords: "Aquatic ecosystems, 'Surface layers, *Air
water interactions, "Water pollution effects, Marine at-
mosphere,  Plasticizers,  Physicochemical properties.
Environmental transport, Industrial wastes, Biodeter-
ioration, Toxicology, Marine biology,  Biota, Reprints,
'Phthalic acid/di(ethylhexyl-ester), 'Microcosms.
PB91-183228/HEB               PC A03/MF A01
Spatio-Temporal  Fluctuations in the Distribution
and Abundance of Demersal Fish and Epibenthlc
Crustaceans in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Journal arti-
cle.
Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
OR. Mark O. Hatfield Marine Science Center.
W. A. De Ben, W. D. Clothier, G. R. Ditsworth, and D. J.
Baumgartner. c1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/467, ERLN-
N043
Also pub. as Environmental Research Lab.-Narragan-
sett, Newport, OR. Mark O. Hatfield Marine Science
Center rept. no. CONTRIB-N043. Pub. in  Estuaries,
v13n4p469-478Dec90.

A total of over 32,000 demersal fish and epibenthic
crustaceans belonging to 62 species were caught in
42 biweekly trawls from 10 stations in Yaquina Bay,
Oregon, during  1967 and  1968.  English sole, Par-
ophrys vetulus, was the most abundant species. Sev-
enteen species (13 fishes and 4 crustaceans) consti-
tuted 95% of the catch. Total numerical abundances
of both individuals  (mainly juvenile fishes) and species
were greatest in the lower 12 km of the estuary during
summer and early  fall, a period of water mass stability
and increased water  temperature and salinity. This
section of the estuary is used by many immature fishes
and crustaceans as a 'nursery area.' These fishes gen-
erally emigrate from the estuary as subadults in the fall
around the onset of the rainy season. The fewest spe-
cies were taken in January 1968  from the  central,
upper-estuarine, and  riverine areas of the bay, this
being  a time when high rainfall and river  discharge
result  in  low salinity  and  temperature. Crustaceans
(shrimp and  subadult crabs)  were generally  most
abundant in late winter and early spring throughout the
estuary. Changes  in diversity  indices  reflected vari-
ations in community structure, the influences of migra-
tory  species and juvenile  fishes,  and  seasonal
changes  in  dominance. Year-to-year  fluctuations in
abundance may be due, in part, to local hydrographic
and  meteorological  conditions  along the  central
Oregon coast. (Copyright (c) 1990 Estuarine Research
Federation.)

Keywords: 'Crustacea, 'Yaquina Bay, 'Fishes, Spe-
cies diversity, Seasonal variations, Population density,
Abundance, Salinity, Temperature, Oregon, Reprints,
'Demersal fish.
PB91-183236/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
Preliminary Field Verification of Daily Growth In-
crements in the Lapillar Otoliths of Juvenile Gun-
ners. Journal article.
Rhode Island Univ., Kingston. Agricultural Experiment
Station.
T. R. Gleason, and C. Recksiek. C1990,6p CONTRIB-
2426, EPA/600/J-90/466 ,, ERLN-X181
Sponsored by Environmental Research Lab.,  Narra-
gansett, Rl.

Seventy-five field-captured juvenile cunners Tautogo-
labrus adspersus were immersed for 2 hours in solu-
tion of tetracycline hydrochloride (500mg/L) and mon-
ovalent salts nearly isotonic to seawater. After immer-
sion, the 64 surviving cunners were released on an ar-
tificial reef in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Eight
tetracycline-marked juvenile cunners were recaptured
13-19 days after release. Ultraviolet and bright-field mi-
croscopy confirmed the presence of daily growth in-
crements in the lapillar Otoliths of five of these  recap-
tured fish. (Copyright (c) 1990 American Fisheries So-
ciety.)

Keywords: 'Marine biology, 'Growth, 'Narrangansett
Bay, Tetracycline, Sea water, Ultraviolet rays,  Rhode
Island, Reprints, 'Juvenile cunners, Tautogolabrus ad-
spersus.
PB91-183244/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC.  Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Infrared Method for Plume Rise Visualization and
Measurement. Journal article.
Washington State Univ., Pullman. Lab. for Atmospher-
ic Research.
C. Rickel, B. Lamb, A. Guenther, and E. Allwine.
C1990, 6p EPA/600/J-90/465
Grant EPA-R-812775
Pub. in Atmospheric Environment, v24A n11 p2835-
2838  1990. Sponsored by Environmental Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Re-
search and Exposure Assessment Lab.

An infrared video camera and recording system were
used to record near-source plume rise  from a low tur-
bine stack on an oil-gathering center at Prudhoe Bay,
Alaska. The system provided real-time, continuous vis-
ualization of the plume using a color monitor while the
images were recorded with a standard video tape re-
corder. Following the field study, single frame images
were digitized using a micro-computer video  system.
As part of the digitization, the plume centerline was
captured as well as an isotherm of the plume outline. In
the application, one frame from  each  two-minute
period in the record was captured and digitized. The
results were used to calculate the variability in plume
centerline  during each hour. During strong winds with
blowing snow, the mean plume rise for the hour at 15
m downwind was 6 + or - 2 m. The observed plume
rise from the turbine stack was greater than that calcu-
lated using momentum-only, buoyancy-only, or com-
bined momentum-buoyancy plume rise models.

Keywords: 'Plumes, 'Dispersing, "Infrared cameras.
Pollution transport,  Diffusion, Atmospheric circulation,
Arctic regions, Field tests,  Isotherms, Sulfur hexafluor-
ide. Chimneys,  Reprints,  'Image analysis, Prudhoe
Bay(Alaska), Tracer gas.
PB91-183251/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Comparison of Mutagenic Activities of Several
Peroxyacyl Nitrates. Journal article.
NSI  Technology Services  Corp., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
T. E. Kleindienst, P. B. Shepson, D. F. Smith, E. E.
Hudgens, and C. M. Nero. c1990,13p EPA/600/J-90/
464
Contract EPA-68-02-4443
Pub. in Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis,
v16  p70-80 1990. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmos-
pheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 was exposed to
a series of peroxyacyl nitrates including peroxyacetyl
nitrate (PAN),  peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), peroxy-
butyryl nitrate (PBN),  peroxybenzoyl nitrate (PBzN),
and  chloroperoxyacetyl nitrate  (CPAN). Gas phase
concentrations for the individual exposures were in the
high ppbv range. The dose was  determined from the
deposition rate and measured from the net decrease
of the test compound in the exposure chamber and the
exposure time. The mutagenic activity for each com-
pound determined from the dose-response relation-
ship gave values ranging from 250  (PBN) to 6570
(PBzN) revertants/micromol. The difficulties of quanti-
fying the actual gas-phase chemical dose the bacteria
are exposed to in this variant of the Ames Test are de-
lineated. (Copyright (c) 1990 Wiley-Liss, Inc.)

Keywords:  'Mutagens,   Comparative  evaluations,
Dose-response relationships, Salmonella typhimurium,
Mutagenicity tests, Reprints, 'Peroxyacyl nitrates.
PB91-183269/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Elevated Plume Transport  and Diffusion: 20-150
km Downwind of Beijing, P.R.C. Journal article.
Washington State Univ., Pullman. Lab. for Atmospher-
ic Research.
B. Lamb, Z. X. Fu, R. E. Eskridge, R. Benner, and H.
Westberg. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/463
Grants EPA-R-810230-01, EPA-R-812632-01
Pub. in Atmospheric Environment, v24A n4 p859-870
1990. Prepared in cooperation with Academia Sinica,
Beijing (China), and Computer Sciences  Corp., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Sponsored by Environmen-
tal Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. At-
mospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

Three mobile continuous analyzers and an  array of
fixed sequential syringe samplers were used to meas-
ure plume dispersion rates of SF6 released from a 300
m tower in Beijing  during strong, steady winds with
neutral conditions. The plume trajectories over the flat,
open terrain downwind of  Beijing  were  relatively
straight.- Predicted plume trajectories based on inter-
polated wind fields from surface and upper air data ex-
hibited a mean separation error  of 4  km at 70 km
downwind. Maximum predicted concentrations from a
Gaussian puff model agreed within a factor of two with
observed surface profiles when the source was given
an initial vertical distribution to account  for the effects
of wind shear upon horizontal dispersion. Short-term
(i.e., 10 to 20 min averaging time) horizontal dispersion
rates were essentially equal to the neutral Pasquill-Gif-
ford curve. Dispersion coefficients from hourly-aver-
aged concentration profiles were 30% larger than the
PG neutral curve, but 50% smaller than a linear neutral
curve based upon dispersion data collected downwind
of a power plant.

Keywords: 'Plumes, 'Dispersing, Atmospheric circula-
tion, Pollution transport. Simulation, Diffusion,  Sulfur
hexafluoride, Field tests, Mathematical models, Gauss
equation, Reprints, Tracer gas,  Beijing(Peoples Re-
public of China).
 PB91-183277/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Determination of Organic Emissions  from New
 Carpeting. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure  As-
 sessment Lab.
 J. D. Pleil, and R. S. Whiton. C1990, 9p EPA/600/J-90/
 462
 Pub. in Appl. Occup.  Environ. Hyg.,  v5 n10 p693-702
 Oct 90. Prepared  in cooperation with Northrop Serv-
 ices, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

 New carpeting has been the source of a number of
 indoor air health and odor complaints. Investigations of
 a variety of carpet samples have shown that there is a
 diversity of  organic emissions  among  carpet types;
 some of the compounds found have been listed in the
 NIOSH Registry of Toxic  Effects of Chemical Sub-
 stances. The paper describes two complementary an-
 alytical methods  for  screening carpet  samples, a
 'headspace' method for volatile emissions and a Soxh-
 let extraction method using methylene chloride for the
 semi-volatile and non-volatile compounds. The analyti-
 cal results from seven carpet types are presented with
 special emphasis on the compound 4-phenylcyclohex-
 ene, one of the causes of 'new carpet smell,' which
 has also been anectdotally linked  to adverse short
 term health  effects. Other compounds of possible in-
 terest that were found include dichlorobenzene, bis(2-
 ethylhexyl)-phthalate, triethyl phosphate, epsilon-ca-
 prolactam, and methylene-bis(4-isocyanatobenzene).
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     43

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords: 'Indoor air pollution, 'Carpets, 'Air pollu-
tion detection, 'Air pollution sampling, Volatile organic
compounds. Organic compounds, Odors, Solvent ex-
traction,   Design  criteria,  Performance  evaluation,
Concentration(Composition), Reprints, Headspace de-
livery system,  Cyclohexene/phenyl, Benzene/dich-
loro,  Phthalic acid/bis(ethylhexyt-ester).  Phosphoric
ackj/(triethy1-ester),  Caprolactam,  Benzene/methyl-
ene-bis(isocyanato).
PB91-183285/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Use of Scavenging Ratios  for the  Inference of
Surface-Level  Concentrations and  Subsequent
Dry Deposition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+),  Na(1 + ), and
K(1 + ). Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
B. K. Eder, and R. L Dennis. C1990,22p EPA/600/J-
90/461
Pub. in Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, v52 p197-216
1990.

The importance of the dry deposition of aerosols as a
pathway for the transfer of alkaline material to ecosys-
tems is discussed, as is the difficulty investigators face
when trying to measure such deposition. Accordingly,
an inference technique is developed which allows for
the estimation of the annual and monthly dry deposi-
tion of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+), based upon
the linear relationship exhibited between the measured
surface concentrations and wet deposition at  23 sta-
tions in Ontario, Canada for the period  1983-1985.
Theoretically, this inference technique is based upon
the premise that precipitation efficiently scavenges the
aerosols, resulting in a strong  correlation between
concentrations within precipitation and the surface air
concentrations. Because of the  stochastic nature of
such an approach,  care must be taken to ensure that
the assumptions inherent to precipitation scavenging
and therefore this  inference technique are carefully
considered. Under such considerations,  annual and
monthly dry deposition of the alkaline aerosols can be
estimated at many locations  across North America
where  wet deposition  measurements  are routinely
made.  (Copyright (c) 1990  Kluwer Academic Publish-
ers.)

Keywords: "Aerosols, 'Air pollution, 'Deposition, *Dry
methods, 'Ecosystems, Air water interactions, Land
pollution, Concentration(Composftion),  Water pollu-
tion, Wet methods, Calcium ions, Magnesium ions, Po-
tassium ions,  Sodium  ions,  Alkalinity, Comparison,
North  America,  PrecJpitatkxi(Meteorology), Path of
pollutants, Reprints.
PB91-183293/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Velocity Oscillations and  Plume  Dispersion in a
Residential  Neighborhood   during  Wintertime
Nights. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
R. E Eskridge, B. Lamb, and E. Allwine. c1990,18p
EPA/600/J-90/460
Pub. in Atmospheric Environment,  v24A n7 p1781-
1796 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Washington
State Univ., Pullman. Lab. for Atmospheric Research.

Measurements of velocity and tracer plume concentra-
tions during stable atmospheric conditions  were ob-
tained in the Boise river valley as part of the EPA Inte-
grated Air  Cancer Project during  December,  1986.
Wind speed, temperature, and  wind direction were
measured at two levels on a 30 m tower. Spectral and
autocorrelation analyses of the velocity component
data dearly indicate the occurrence of wave-like oscil-
lations in the flow and almost complete lack of turbu-
lent energy. The predominate wave-like motion had an
oscillation period of about 1000 s. Hourly averaged
horizontal dispersion coefficients were very large com-
pared to the Pasquill-Gifford curves and the  urban
McElroy-Pcoter dispersion curves. The time-averaged
dispersion coefficients formed an upper bound on very
short-term  dispersion  coefficients  obtained  from
mobile traverses of the tracer plume with a continuous
SF6 analyzer.  Vertical dispersion rates were slightly
smaller than the Pasquill-Gifford class F curve. Results
from a single tracer release from a side canyon near
the neighborhood showed that drainage flow from the
tributary impacted the main residential sampling site at
Elm Grove Park and represented a significant fraction
of the upstream  air flow at Elm  Grove  Park.  For
sources with equal emission rates, a source in the trib-
utary adds about 10% to the mean of the concentra-
tion caused by a neighborhood source.

Keywords: 'Plumes, 'Dispersing, Atmospheric circula-
tion, Pollution transport. Simulation, Smoke, Wind ve-
locity.  Oscillations,  Mathematical   models,  Urban
areas, Reid tests. Sulfur hexafluoride, Valleys, Meteor-
ological data, Reprints, US EPA Integrated Air Cancer
Project, Boise(ldaho), Tracer gas.
PB91-183301/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Summary of the 1990 EPA/A and WMA Interna-
tional Symposium: Measurement of Toxic and Re-
lated Air Pollutants. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
R. K. M. Jayanty, and B. W. Gay. C1990,9p EPA/600/
J-90/459
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air Pollution Control Association, v40
n12 p1631-1637 Dec 90. See also PB90-197757. Pre-
sented at the Air and Waste Management Association
and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assess-
ment Symposium (5th), Raleigh, NC., May 1-4, 1990.
Prepared in cooperation with Research Triangle Inst.,
Research Triangle Park, NC.

The technical program consisted of 187 presentations
held in 20 separate sessions on recent advances in
the measurement and monitoring of toxic and  related
pollutants found in ambient, source, and indoor atmos-
pheres.  The  symposium  covered a wide range  of
measurement topics and was supported by 66 exhibi-
tors of instrumental and consulting services. More than
850 attendees from the United States and other coun-
tries attended. An overview of selected highlights from
the technical presentations is given in this summary.

Keywords: 'Meetings, 'Air pollution, Radon, Air pollu-
tion control, Air pollution monitoring, Acid rain, Atmos-
pheric chemistry, Toxic substances. Indoor air pollu-
tion, Ecology, Site surveys, Nicotine, Superfund, Air
pollution effects(Plants), Occupational exposure, Re-
prints, Tobacco smoke.
PB91-183319/REB                PC A01/MF A01
Hearth Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
Stability of the Mutagenicity In Stored Cigarette
Smokers' Urine and Extract Journal article.
Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.
R. W. Williams, R. Watts, J. Inmon, T. Pasley, and L
Claxton. c1990,5p EPA/600/J-90/458
Contract EPA-68-02-4456
Pub. in  Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis,
v16 p246-249 Sep 90. Sponsored by Health Effects
Research Lab.,  Research Triangle Park, NC. Genetic
Toxicology Div.

Urine  from  cigarette  smokers was  analyzed for the
effect upon mutagenic activity when stored for as long
as 175 days. Frozen aliquots of urine were thawed out
at various time points in the study and prepared for bio-
assay. These urine extracts were not bioassayed im-
mediately, but rather  refrozen until all of the unproc-
essed urine samples had eventually been prepared for
bioassay. All extracts were obtained using cyanopropyl
solid phase extraction techniques. At the end of 175
days,  all extracts were bioassayed  using a microsu-
spension assay of  Salmonella  typhimurium TA98.
Urine from smokers was found to be mutagenic (14.4-
30.9 revertants/ml equivalent) while a control set  of
urine from nonsmokers was not. Data from the storage
study  when  analyzed by analysis of  variance  tech-
niques indicated no  statistical loss  of mutagens oc-
curred over the  175-day  period although near signifi-
cance was  observed (P  =  0.054). This near signifi-
cance was the result of decreasing mutant response
as storage time  increased for two of the higher doses
tested. (Copyright (c) 1990 Wiley-Liss, Inc.)

Keywords: 'Mutagens, 'Smoking, 'Urine, Liquid chro-
matography, Mutagenicity tests, Bioassay, Salmonella
typhimurium, Dose-response relationships, Reprints.
PB91-183327/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Ester Hydrolysis Rate  Constant Prediction from
Infrared Interferograms. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
T. W. Collette. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/456
Pub. in Environmental Science and Technology, v24
n11 p1671-1676 Nov 90.
A method for predicting reactivity parameters of organ-
ic chemicals from spectroscopic data is being devel-
oped to assist in assessing the environmental fate of
pollutants. The prototype system, which employs mul-
tiple linear regression analysis using selected points
from the Fourier transforms of mid-infrared gas-phase
spectra, has been applied to the prediction of the alka-
line hydrolysis rate constants (kOH) of 41 carboxylic
acid esters. True predictions (calculations made for
compounds not used to generate the calibration equa-
tion on which the prediction is made) of log kOH aver-
age within 43% of the experimental value for 36 of the
esters (about 88% of the data set).  For these com-
pounds, a plot of calculated versus predicted log kOH
values yields a correlation coefficient of 0.887.

Keywords:  'Esters, 'Reaction kinetics, 'Hydrolysis,
'Predictions, 'Infrared  spectra, Spectrum  analysis,
Regression analysis, Accuracy, Chemical reactivity,
Reprints, Environmental reactivity.
PB91-183335/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
DO  Model  Uncertainty with  Correlated  Inputs.
Journal article.
Nanjing Univ. (China).
Q. Song, and L. C. Brown. C1990,19p EPA/600/J-90/
457
Pub. in Jnl.  of  Environmental Engineering, v116 n6
pi 164-1180 Nov/Dec 90. Prepared in cooperation
with Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Dept. of Civil Engineer-
ing.  Sponsored  by Environmental  Research Lab.,
Athens, GA.

The effect of correlation among the input parameters
and variables on the output uncertainty of the Streeter-
Phelps water quality model is examined. Three uncer-
tainty analysis techniques are used: sensitivity analy-
sis, first-order error analysis, and Monte Carlo simula-
tion. A modified version of the Streeter-Phelps model
that includes nitrification, net algal oxygen production,
and sediment oxygen demand is used. Analyses are
performed for a wide variety of simulated stream flow
conditions. Results show that the standard deviation of
the predicted dissolved oxygen deficit (DOD) with cor-
related inputs potentially can be 20-40% larger than
with independent inputs. Under conditions of moderate
to high velocity, the reaeration and bio-oxidation coeffi-
cients are the dominant contributors to DOD uncertain-
ty, while net  oxygen production from algal activity and
sediment oxygen demand are the major factors at low
velocity. The largest effect of input correlation on DOD
occurs in the vicinity of the sag point. Uncertainty re-
sults from first-order analysis differ by  at most 10%
from those of a Monte Carlo simulation for both corre-
lated  and independent inputs. (Copyright (c)  1990,
ASCE.)

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Computerized simulation,
'Mathematical  models,  Nitrification,   Biochemical
oxygen demand, Monte Carlo method, Algae, Sedi-
ments, Oxygenation, Stream flow. Reprints, 'Streeter-
Phelps water quality model.
PB91-183343/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Reductive Dechlorination  of Dichlorophenols by
Nonadapted and Adapted Microbial Communities
in Pond Sediments. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
D. D. Hale, J. E. Rogers, and J. Wiegel. cl 990,14p
EPA/600/J-90/455
Pub. in Microbial Ecology, v20 p185-196 Sep/Oct 90.
Prepared in cooperation with Technology Applications,
Inc., Athens, GA., and Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of
Microbiology.

Fresh and  dichlorophenol (DCP)-adapted sediments
from two ponds near Athens GA exhibited distinctly dif-
ferent dechlorinating activities. These differences cen-
tered on the relative rates of reductive dechlorination
in both fresh and adapted sediments and on the sub-
strate specificity of the adapted sediments.  Fresh
Cherokee Trailer Park Pond sediment  dechlorinated
2,3-, 2,4-  and 2,6-DCP to monochlorophenols at a
faster rate  and  after a shorter lag period than fresh
Bolton's Pond sediment.  Lag periods  were not ob-
served in e.ither Cherokee or Bolton's sediments that
had been adapted to dechlorinate either 2,3-, 2,4- or
2,6-DCP.  Adapted  Cherokee  sediments  exhibited
faster dechlorinating rates and a broader  substrate
specificity than the adapted Bolton's sediments. The
broad substrate specificity of each of the adapted
Cherokee sediments  contrasted sharply  with  the
44     Vol.  91. No.  3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
narrow specificity of the 2,6-DCP-adapted Bplton's
sediment. The preference for reductive dechlorination
was  ortho>meta or para in  sediments from  both
ponds. (Copyright (c) Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
1990.)

Keywords: 'Dechlorination, *Water pollution control,
* Anaerobic processes, * Sediments, * Ponds, "Microbi-
al  degradation,  Biodeterioration, DCP 2-4 herbicide,
Chlorine organic compounds, Sewage  sludge, Sedi-
ment-water interfaces,  Soil surveys,  Aquifers, Re-
prints, *Phenol/dichloro.
PB91-183350/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
Remobilization of Toxic Heavy Metals Adsorbed
to Bacterial Wall-Clay Composites. Journal article.
Guelph Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Microbiology.
C. A. Flemming, F. G. Ferris, T. J. Beveridge, and G. W.
Bailey. C1990,15p EPA/600/J-90/454
Grant EPA-R-813605
Pub. in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v56
n10 p3191-3203 Oct 90. Sponsored by Environmental
Research Lab., Athens, GA.

Significant quantities of Ag(l), Cu(ll), and Cr(lll) were
bound to isolated Bacillus subtilis 168  walls, Escheri-
chia coli K-12 envelopes, kaolinite and  smectite clays,
and the corresponding organic  material-clay  aggre-
gates (1:1, wt/wt). These sorbed metals were leached
with HNO3, Ca(NO3)2, EDTA, fulvic acid, and lyso-
zyme at several concentrations over 48 h at room tem-
perature. The remobilization of the sorbed metals de-
pended on the physical properties of the organic and
clay surfaces and on the  character and concentration
of the leaching agents. Cr was very stable in the wall,
clay, and composite  systems; pH 3.0,  500 microM
EDTA, 120-ppm (mg/liter) fulvic acid, and 160-ppm Ca
remobilized less than 32% (wt/wt) of  sorbed  Cr. Ag
(45  to 87%) and Cu (up to 100%) were  readily re-
moved by these agents. Although each leaching agent
was effective at mobilizing certain metals, elevated Ca
or acidic pH produced the greatest overall mobility.
The organic chelators were less effective.  Lysozyme
digestion of Bacillus walls remobilized Cu from walls
and  Cu-wall-kaolinite composites, but Ag, Cr, and
smectite partially inhibited enzyme activity, and  the
metals remained insoluble. The extent  of metal remo-
bilization was not always  dependent on  increasing
concentrations of leaching agents; for example, Ag
mobility decreased with some clays and some com-
posites treated with high  fulvic acid, EDTA, and lyso-
zyme concentrations.  It is apparent that remobilization
of toxic heavy metals in sediments,  soils, and  the
vadose zone is a complicated issue.

Keywords: 'Heavy metals, "Environmental transport,
'Bacteria,  'Waste disposal, Earth fills, Soil science,
Desorption, Adsorption, Organic matter, Clays, Micro-
biology,  pH, Leaching, Toxic substances, Sediments,
Vadose  water, Water pollution,  Land pollution, Re-
prints.
PB91-183368/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Distribution of  Hydrophobic lonogenic Organic
Compounds between Octanol and Water: Organic
Acids. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
C. T. Jafvert, J. C. Westall, E. Grieder, and R. P.
Schwarzenbach. C1990,11p EPA/600/J-90/453
Pub. in Environmental Science and Technology, v24
n12 p1795-1803 Dec 90. Prepared in cooperation with
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Chemistry, and
Etdgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Ab-
wasserreinigung und  Gewaesserschuitz, Duebendorf
(Switzerland).

The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally
significant organic acid compounds were determined
as a  function of aqueous-phase salt concentration
(0.05-0.2 M LiCI, NaCI, KCI, CaCI2, or MgCI2) and pH.
The compounds were pentachlorophenol,  2,3,4,5-te-
trachlorophenol,  (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid,
4-chloro-alpha-(4-chlorophenyl)benzeneacetic acid, 2-
methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol,  (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic
acid, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic  acid, 3,6-dich-
loro-e-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,3,6-trichlorobenzenea-
cetic  acid, and  2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic
acid. The experimental results were interpreted quanti-
tatively with an  equilibrium model  that accounts for
acid dissociation in the aqueous phase and partitioning
into the octanol phase by the neutral organic species,
free inorganic and organic ions, and ion pairs. The par-
tition constants for the neutral ion pairs correlate well
with the partition constants of the neutral acids. Two
experiments address the applicability of these octanol-
water distribution data to the distribution of ipnogenic
compounds in the environment: the distribution of 2-
methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol  on  a  natural sorbent as a
function of  salt  concentration (NaCI and CaCI2) and
pH, and competitive adsorption of pentachlorophenol
and  2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenoI  on an  environmental
sorbent. (Copyright (c) 1990 American Chemical Soci-
ety.)

Keywords: 'Water pollution, 'Sorbents, 'Organic com-
pounds, * Water chemistry, 'Environmental research,
Sediments, Soil science, Ion exchanging, Adsorption,
Desorption, Mathematical models, pH, Chemical equi-
librium, Octanol, Chlorine organic compounds. Acids,
Reaction kinetics, Reprints, Chemical reaction mecha-
nisms,  Phenol/methyl-dinitro,   Activity  coefficients,
CAS Registry No: 7732-18-5,111 -87-5.
PB91-183376/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Apparatus for Short  Time  Measurements in a
Fixed-Bed Gas/Solid Reactor. Journal article.
Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
B. K. Gullett, K. R. Bruce, and R. M. Machilek. C1990,
8p EPA/600/J-90/452
Contract EPA-68-02-4701
Pub. in Review of Scientific Instruments, v61 n2 p904-
906 Feb 90. Sponsored by Environmental Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy
Engineering Research Lab.

The article describes an apparatus for the exposure of
a solid to reactive process gas. The switch makes pos-
sible short time exposures (equal to or greater than 0.3
s) in a fixed-bed reactor for kinetic studies of rapid re-
actions.

Keywords: 'Chemical reactors, 'Air pollution control,
Reaction kinetics, Design,  Sorbents, Technology as-
sessment, Reactivity, Calcium hydroxides, Sulfur diox-
ide, Calcium  sulfates, Laboratory  tests,  Stationary
sources, Reprints, 'Fixed bed reactors, Gas solid re-
actions.
PB91-183384/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Isotopic Exchange between Carbon Dioxide and
Ozone via O((sup 1)0) in the Stratosphere. Journal
article.
California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena.
Y. L. Yung, W. B. DeMore, and J. P. Pinto. C1991, 6p
CONTRIB-4889, EPA/600/J-91/027
Grants EPA-R-816418, EPA-9D4-25-NALX
Pub. in Geophysical Research Letters, v18 n1 p13-16
Jan 91. Prepared in cooperation with Jet  Propulsion
Lab.,  Pasadena, CA.  Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research  Triangle  Park, NC. At-
mospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.,
and National  Aeronautics and Space Administration,
Washington, DC.

The authors propose a novel mechanism for isotopic
exchange between CO2 and O3 via O ((1)D) +  CO2 -
> CO3 followed by COS -> CO2 + O((3)P). A one-di-
mensional model calculation  shows that the mecha-
nism can account for  the enrichment in  18O  in the
stratospheric  C023 observed by Gamo et al. (1989),
using the heavy O3 profile observed by Mauersberger
(1981). The implication of the mechanism for other
stratospheric  species and as a source  of isotopically
heavy CO2 in the troposphere are briefly discussed.

Keywords:  'Atmospheric chemistry,  'Stratosphere,
'Carbon  dioxide, 'Ozone, 'Isotopic exchange, Molec-
ular energy levels,  Reaction  kinetics, Photochemical
reactions, Air pollution, Troposphere, One-dimensional
calculation, Mathematical models, Reprints, Chemical
reaction mechanisms.
PB91-183392/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Particulate Characteristics and Visual Effects of
the Atmosphere at Research Triangle Park. Jour-
nal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
W. D. Conner, R. L. Bennett, W. S. Weathers, and W.
E. Wilson. c1991, 9p EPA/600/J-91 /026
Pub. in Jnl. of Air and Waste Management Association,
v41 p154-1601991.

During a one-month period in the fall of  1987 a wide
range in the visual quality of the atmosphere at Re-
search Triangle Park, NC, was  observed. During the
period, the light scatter coefficient; SO2, N02, and O3
concentrations; temperature; relative humidity; and ra-
diation intensity of the atmosphere were  continuously
monitored. In addition, 60 filter samples were intermit-
tently collected with two dichotomous (large and small
particle) size-selective  samplers. The dichotomous
samplers were operated concurrently to obtain sam-
ples on Teflon and quartz filters for different analyses.
Also collected  were six impactor samples for sulfate
size distribution analysis; and at selected times during
the study, long-path measurements were made of the
atmospheric extinction coefficient and the extinction of
contrast by the atmosphere. (Copyright (c) 1991 -Air &
Waste Management Association.)

Keywords: 'Aerosols, 'Atmospheric effects, 'Visibility,
'Light scattering, 'Particle size distribution,  Sulfur,
Carbon, Sulfates, Meteorological data,  Atmospheric
chemistry, Reprints, 'Research Triangle ParkJNorth
Carolina).
PB91-183400/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Particle Transmission Characteristics of an Annu-
lar Denuder Ambient Sampling System. Journal ar-
ticle.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
C. W. Lewis, Y. Ye, C. J. Tsai, and D. Y. H. Pui. c1991,
12pEPA/600/J-91/025
Pub. in Aerosol Science and Technology, v14 p102-
111  1991.  Prepared in cooperation with Minnesota
Univ., Minneapolis. Particle Technology Lab.

Transmission measurements have been performed  on
University Research Glassware, Inc. model 2000-30B
glass annular denuders at 10 L/min using monodis-
perse particles in the 0.01-1-micrometer diameter size
range. Through control of the aerosol charge state,
particle losses due  to diffusion and electrostatic  ef-
fects were  separately measured and  theoretical de-
scriptions of  both  were developed. For Boltzmann
charged (atmospheric) particles in the important 0.1-1 -
micrometer diameter size range total losses averaged
only a few percent or less. Particle transmission meas-
urements also confirmed the design value of  2.5 mi-
crometer for the 50% outpoint diameter of the  URG
2000-30EN cyclone inlet used with these annular den-
uders. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishing
Co., Inc.)

Keywords:  'Air samplers, 'Aerosols,  Charged parti-
cles. Air  pollution,  Surface properties,  Laboratory
tests, Performance  evaluation, Electrostatics, Diffu-
sion, Transmission,  Scattering loss. Annular nozzles,
Reprints, 'Annular denuders.
 PB91-183418/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Chemical Reactions and Transport of Alkanes and
 Their Products in the Troposphere. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure  As-
 sessment Lab.
 A. P. Altshuller. c1991,45p EPA/600/J-91 /024
 Pub. in Jnl. of Atmospheric Chemistry, v12 p19-61
 1991.

 The product distributions have been calculated for the
 more abundant  alkanes contributing most of  the
 carbon atoms in the alkane fraction of an ambient air
 hydrocarbon mixture reasonably representative of U.S.
 emissions. The effects of ambient temperatures  on
 product yields has been calculated for a range of tem-
 peratures from 250K to 330K. Chemical lifetimes are
 estimated at 300K under summertime conditions  for
 hydrocarbons and for products of alkane photooxida-
 tion in the atmosphere. The calculations predict a sub-
 stantial effect of temperature on product yields. A large
 decrease in alkyl nitrate yields and a smaller decrease
 in ketpne yields occurs with increasing  temperature.
 The yields of the short-lived more reactive aldehydes
 undergo substantial increases with increasing temper-
 ature. Four lower molecular weight oxygenated prod-
 ucts account for over half of the  total alkane carbon
 atoms converted to products. The effects of increased
 temperature on product reactivity and radical produc-
 tion may also influence 03 production.
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     45

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords:  *Alkanes, *Air pollution, 'Pollution trans-
port. Urban areas, 'Photochemical reactions, United
States, Troposphere, Reaction kinetics, Hydroxyl radi-
cals, Temperature,  Summer,  Aldehydes, Reactivity,
Tables(Data), Reprints, Alkyl nitrates.
PB91-183426/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Accumulation Factors for Eleven Polychlorinated
Biphenyl Congeners. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
OR. Mark O. Hatfield Marine Science Center.
S. P. Ferraro, H. Lee, L. M. Smith, R. J. Ozretich, and D.
T. Specht. c4 Jul 90,9p EPA/600/J-91 /028, ERNL-
N107
Pub. in Environmental Contamination and Toxicology,
V46p276-2831991.

According to the  fugacity  approach (Mackay 1979),
pollutant uptake by an organism is determined by the
chemical fugacity differential between  the organism
and its environment. The Accumulation  Factor (AF =
(concentration of  pollutant in animal tissue, C(sub t)
(nanograms/g dry wt)/animal lipid {%/100))/(concen-
tration of pollutant in sediment, C(sub s) (nanograms/g
dry wt)/sediment total organic carbon, TOC (% /100)))
is a simple, fugacity-based model which  has been
shown to be useful for predicting the bioaccumulatipn
potential of hydrophobic neutral organic compounds in
sediment-dwelling animals (Rubinstein et al. 1987;
McElroy and Means 1988; Clarke et al.  1988; Ferraro
et al. 1990). The theoretical basis for the AF model is
discussed in  Mackay (1979), Mackay and Paterson
(1981, 1982),  McFarland (1984),  McFarland  and
Clarke (1986), and Lake et al. (1987). The model as-
sumes chemical equilibrium or steady-state in the ani-
mals and the sediments to which they are exposed, no
chemical transformation or phase transfer resistance,
and chemical partitioning primarily between the organ-
ic pool in the sediment and the lipid pool in the animal.


Keywords: 'Water pollution effects, 'Bioaccumulation,
'Polychlorinated biphenyls, 'Sediments, 'Aquatic ani-
mals,     'Mathematical     models,      Exposure,
Concentration(Composition), Tissues(Biology), Biolog-
ical effects, Toxicity, Reprints, 'Accumulation factors,
'Chemical fugacity.                     t
PB91-183434/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Identification of Nonpolar Toxicants in Effluents
Using  Toxicity-Based FracUonation   with  Gas
Cnromatography/Mass Spectrometry.  Journal arti-
cle.
National Effluent Toxicity Assessment Center, Duluth,
MN.
L. P. Burkhard, E. J. Durhan, and M. T. Lukasewycz.
C1991, 8p EPA/600/J-91 /023
Pub. in Analytical Chemistry, v63 p227-283 1991. Pre-
pared in cooperation with AScI Corp., Duluth, MN.

A toxicity-based method to identify nonpolar organic
toxicants  in  effluents  has  been developed.  The
method has low artifactual toxicity and excellent de-
tection limits, allows multiple toxicant situations to be
easily handled, and features the use of cladocerans
and fishes as test organisms and gas chromatogra-
phy/mass spectrometiry (GC/MS) to identify the toxi-
cants. The method uses reverse-phase chromatogra-
phy techniques to extract and fractionate the nonpolar
organic toxicants from the effluent. GC/MS analyses
are performed on the toxic fractions, and lists of tenta-
tive compound identifications are made by interpreta-
tion of the mass spectra and elution information from
trie chromatographic separations. These initial lists are
refined by assembling  and then comparing toxicity
data of the identified  chemicals to the toxicity of the
fraction. The refined lists of suspect chemicals are fur-
ther evaluated by pure chemical toxicity  testing, and
this process ultimately leads to toxicant identification.
The fractionation  scheme, instrumental  parameters,
the toxicant identification process, an example illus-
trating the  method,  and discussion relevant  to the
method are presented. (Copyright (c) 1991 American
Chemical Society.)

Keywords:  'Toxicology, 'Effluents, 'Organic  com-
pounds,  'Water  pollution,  'Liquid chromatography,
'Mass spectroscopy,  Aquatic animals, Fractionation,
Lethal dosage, Validation, Reprints.
PB91-183442/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Ecology of Quiescent Microbes. Viewing Microbial
Habitats as Interacting Zones of Proliferation and
Quiescence Can Give New Insights into the Oper-
ation of Microbial Communities in the Environ-
ment. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
D. L. Lewis, and D. K. Gattie. C1991,8p EPA/600/J-
91/022
Pub. in ASM News, v57 n1 p27-32 Jan 91. Prepared in
cooperation  with  Technology  Applications,   Inc.,
Athens, GA.

Viewing microbial habitats as interacting zones of pro-
liferation and quiescence  can give new insights into
the operation of microbial communities in the environ-
ment. Microorganisms proliferate in diverse  circum-
stances and are the principal mediators of  many proc-
esses affecting the world. However, not all microorga-
nisms are reproducing. The total microbial  biomass, in
fact, includes many cells in a state of suspended ani-
mation, or quiescence. Although scant attention is usu-
ally given  to this 'sleeping'  portion of the microbial
community, quiescent microbes may be critically im-
portant in  ecosystems, especially in system-level re-
sponses to  environmental changes.  Quiescent  mi-
crobes play roles in processes such as photosynthe-
sis, nutrient  cycling, and productivity. Thus, from the
perspective of ecological studies, it is  particularly im-
portant to expand the research focus beyond the tradi-
tional examination of what microorganisms are doing
when they are doing something. This expanded ap-
proach would include studies of where, when, and how
quiescent  microbial forms occur in the environment
and the ramifications of temporarily storing various
fractions of microbial populations in a quiescent state.

Keywords: 'Microorganisms, 'Ecology, Water microbi-
ology. Soil microbiology, Cell division, 'Quiescent mi-
crobes.
PB91-183459/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Effects of  3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
on Autonomic Thermoreregulatory Responses of
the Rat Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
C. J. Gordon, W. P. Watkinson, J. P. O'Callaghan, and
D. B. Miller. c1991, 8p EPA/600/J-91 /021
Pub. in Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, v38
P339-3441991.

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine   (MDMA),  a
substituted amphetamine analogue which  stimulates
serotonin  release in the CNS, has been  shown to
induce near  lethal elevations in core temperature in
the rat. To characterize the effects of MDMA on  tem-
perature  regulation,  the  study measured  metabolic
rate (MR), evaporative water loss (EWL), motor activity
(MA),  and colonic temperature (Tc)  in male, Long-
Evans rats at 60 min following 30 mg/kg (s.c.) MDMA
or saline at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 10, 20, and
30C. MDMA  caused an elevation in MR at Ta's of 20
and 30C but had no effect at 10C. At a Ta of 30C, MR
of the MDMA group was double that of the saline
group. EWL was elevated by MDMA, an effect which
was potentiated with increasing Ta. MDMA  also elicit-
ed an  increase in MA at all three Ta's. MDMA led to a
3.2C increase in Tc at 30C, no change in Tc at 20C,
and a 2.0C decrease in Tc  at 10C. The data suggest
that, at relatively warm Ta's, MDMA-induced stimula-
tion of serotonergic pathways causes an elevation in
MR and peripheral vasocpnstriction, thus  producing
life-threatening elevations in Tc. The increase in EWL
following  MDMA partially attenuates the hyperthermia
at warm Ta's and leads to hypothermia in the rat main-
tained at a cold Ta of 10C.

Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Body temperature regulation,
'Autonomic nervous system, Rats, Vasoconstriction,
Hypothermia, Hyperthermia, Sodium  chloride, Motor
activity, Heart rate, Metabolism, Reprints, 'Methylene-
dtoxyamphetamines.
PB91-183467/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Comparative Effects of  Hypoxia on  Behavioral
Tnermoregulation in the Rats, Hamsters, and
Mice. Journal article.
Health  Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
C. J. Gordon, and L. Fogelson. 1991, 8p EPA/600/J-
91/020
Pub. in  American Jnl. of  Physiology, v260 n1 pt2
pR120-R125Jan91.
Recent studies  using reptiles and other ectothermic
species have shown that hypoxia lowers the set-point
for the control of body temperature. This is character-
ized by a preference for cooler ambient (T(sub a)) and
deep body temperatures (T(sub b)) when  placed in a
temperature gradient. To elucidate  the presence of
this effect in mammals, the selected T(sub a) and
Tfsub b) of three rodent species, mouse, hamster, and
rat, were measured while subjected to graded hypoxia
in  a temperature  gradient.  Individual animals were
placed in the gradient for 30 min. Percentage O2 of air
entering the gradient was then reduced to a constant
level for a period of 60 min  by dilution with nitrogen.
T(sub b) was significantly reduced in all species at O2
levels of 5.5 to 10%. Selected T(sub a) was significant-
ly reduced in the mouse at O2 levels of 5.5 and 7.3%.
Selected T(sub a) of the hamster and rat were reduced
slightly at percentage O2 levels of 5.8 and 7.4%, re-
spectively; however, the effect was not statistically sig-
nificant. Both species exhibited a significant reduction
in selected T(sub a) during hypoxia concomitant with
hypothermia. These data support the hypothesis that
hypoxia lowers  the set-point for the control of body
temperature in rodents.

Keywords: 'Hypoxia, 'Animal behavior, 'Body temper-
ature  regulation,  Rats,  Mice, Hamsters,  Statistical
analysis, Species diversity, Comparative evaluations,
Oxygen, Reprints.
PB91-183475/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Comparison of  Mutagenicity  Results  for  Nine
Compounds Evaluated at the 'hgprt' Locus in the
Standard and Suspension CHO Assays. Journal ar-
ticle.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
M. M. Moore, L. Parker, J. Huston, K. Harrington-
Brock, and K. L. Dearfield. c1991,11 p EPA/600/J-91 /
019
Pub. in Mutagenesis, y6 n1 p77-85 Jan 91. Prepared in
cooperation with Environmental Health Research and
Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) assay, which meas-
ures newly induced mutations at the hypoxanthine-
guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) locus, has
been widely used for mutagenesis testing. The insensi-
tivity of the standard assay to some genotoxic agents
has been speculated to be due to the relatively small
number of cells used in the assay. The present study
compares the standard monolayer assay with a sus-
pension adapted assay which uses cell numbers com-
parable to that of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay.
Nine  compounds,  ethyl  methanesulfonate (EMS),
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), 2-methpxy-6-chlpro-
9-(3-(ethyl-2-chloroethyl)-aminopropylamino)-acridine
2HCI (ICR 170),  methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate,  te-
traethylene glycol  diacrylate,  trimethylolpropane tria-
crylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and dicyclopentenylox-
yethyl methacrylate were evaluated in  the monolayer
and suspension assays. Both assays gave the same
overall positive/negative evaluation for the test com-
pounds. There were some quantitative differences in
the mutant frequency for the three compounds found
to be mutagenic (EMS, MMS, and ICR 170). The acry-
lates (many of which appear  to exert their genotoxic
effect through a clastogenic mechanism) were nega-
tive in both test systems. The use of the suspension
assay did not improve the ability of the hgprt locus to
detect the genotoxicity of the acrylates.

Keywords: 'Mutagens, 'Chromosome  mapping, *Hy-
poxanthine  phosphoribosyltransferase, Mutagenicity
tests, Chinese hamsters, Comparative evaluations,
Acrylates, Ethyl  methanesulfonate, Methyl methane-
sulfonate, Acridines, Tables(Data), Dose-response re-
lationships, Thymidine kinase, Reprints, Mouse lym-
phoma assay.
PB91-183483/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Functional Deficits Produced by  3-Methylindole-
Induced Olfactory Mucosal Damage Revealed by
a Simple Olfactory teaming Task. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
D. B. Peele, S. D. Allison, B. Bolon, J. D. Prah, and K. F.
Jensen. C1991,14p EPA/600/J-91/018
Pub. in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, v107
n2 p191-201  Feb 91.  Prepared in cooperation with
Northrop Services, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.,
and Chemical Industry Inst.  of Toxicology, Research
Triangle Park, NC.
46     Vol.  91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Methods for assessing functional consequences of ol-
factory mucosal damage were examined in rats ex-
posed to 3-methylindole (3-MI). Treatment with  3-MI
(400 mg/kg) induced severe degeneration of olfactory
sensory epithelium followed by regeneration, fibrous
adhesions and osseous remodeling of the nasal pas-
sagas. At 100 mg/kg, there was mild Bowman's gland
hypertrophy while the sensory epithelium remained
intact. Rats treated with  3-MI demonstrated a dosage-
related deficit in acquiring  an  olfactory learning task
which was not due to altered cognitive abilities, as de-
termined by subsequent testing in a step-through pas-
sive avoidance task. The results confirm the conclu-
sion that alterations in functional indices resulted from
3-MI-induced anosmia and demonstrate the utility of
simple learning tasks  in  assessing functional capacity
following olfactory epithelial damage in rats. (Copyright
(c) 1991 Academic Press, Inc.)

Keywords: "Toxicology, "Skatple,  'Nasal   mucosa,
Rats, Sensory thresholds, Cognition, Animal behavior.
Pathology, Reprints, "Olfactory learning.
PB91-183491/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Murine  Susceptibility to  Organophosphorus-ln-
duced Delayed Neuropathy (OPIDN). Journal arti-
cle.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
B. Veronesi, S. Padilla, K. Blackmon, and C. Pope.
C1991, 16pEPA/600/J-91/017
Pub. in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, v107
n2 p311-324  Feb 91.  Prepared in cooperation with
North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill.

The study reports that CD-1  strain mice are neuropath-
ologically  and  biochemically responsive to  acute
doses of tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP).  Young
(25-30 g) male and female animals were exposed (po)
to a single dose of TOCP (580-3480 mg/kg) and sam-
pled for neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity at 24 and
44 hr postexposure and for neuropathic  damage  14
days later. Biochemically, high intragroup variability ex-
isted at the lower doses, and at higher levels of TOCP
exposure (i.e., > or =  1160 mg/kg), mean brain NTE
inhibition never exceeded 68%. Hen and mouse brain
NTE activity, assayed in vitro for sensitivity to inhibition
by tolyl saligenin phosphate (TSP), the active neuro-
toxic metabolite of TOCP, showed similar IC50 values.
Histologically, highly variable spinal cord damage was
recorded throughout  treatment groups  and  mean
damage scores followed a dose-response pattern with
no apparent correlation  to  threshold (i.e.,  >  or  =
65%) inhibition of brain NTE activity. Topographically,
axonal degeneration in the mouse spinal cord pre-
dominated in  the lateral and ventral columns of the
upper cervical cord. Unlike the rat,  which displays de-
generation in the upper cervical cord's dorsal columns
(i.e., gracilis fasciculus) in response to TOCP intoxica-
tion,  treated mice showed  minimal damage to this
tract. To examine this discrepancy further, ultrastruc-
tural morphometric analysis of axon diameters  in the
cervical cord was performed in control mice and rats.
These results indicated that in both species, the larg-
est diameter (> or =  4 microm) axons are housed in
the ventral columns of the cervical spinal cord, sug-
gesting that axon length and diameter may not be the
only  criteria  underlying fiber  tract vulnerability  in
OPIDN. (Copyright (c) 1991 Academic Press, Inc.)

Keywords: "Toxicology, "Disease susceptibility, "Trito-
lyl phosphates,  Mice, Histology, Spinal cord, Axons,
Esterases, Enzyme inhibitors, Reprints, "Organophos-
phorus-induced delayed neuropathy(OPIDN).
PB91-183509/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Analysis of  the  Genotoxicity of  Anthraquinone
Dyes in the Mouse Lymphoma Assay. Journal arti-
cle.
Health  Effects  Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
K. Harrington-Brock, L. Parker, C. Doerr, M. C. Cimino,
andM. M. Moore. C1991,14p EPA/600/J-91/016
Pub. in Mutagenesis, v6 n1 p35-46 Jan 91. Prepared in
cooperation with Environmental Health Research and
Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

Despite their widespread use and potential for signifi-
cant human exposure, genotoxicity data on anthra-
quinones and other dyes are generally limited. The
study examined 16 anthraquinones and one azo dye
(Solvent Red 1) using the thymidine kinase (tk) locus
and micronucleus (MN)  analysis in  L5178Y/TK(sup
+ /-) -3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. Disperse Blue 7,
2-aminoanthraquinone,  1 -amino-2-methylanthraquin-
one, Disperse Blue 3, and Disperse Red 11 were geno-
toxic.  Reactive Blue 19 was weakly mutagenic. Vat
Yellow 4 and Solvent Red 1, with exogenous activa-
tion, were also mutagenic. With activation  1-nitro-2-
methylanthraquinone was judged to give an equivocal
mutagenicity response. Those chemicals that did not
induce mutation or cytotoxicity at the limits of solubility
were classified separately. Compounds which were
not evaluated without exogenous activation because
of insolubility but were evaluated with activation in-
clude  1-nitro-2-methylanthraquinone, Solvent Red  1,
and Vat Yellow 4. Compounds which were not evaluat-
ed either with or without S-9 activation because of their
insolubility in the culture medium include 1 -amino-2,4-
dibromoanthraquinone, D&C Green, Disperse Blue 1,
Disperse Red 60, Vat Blue 4, Vat Blue 20, Vat Brown 1,
and Vat Brown 3.

Keywords:  "Anthraquinones,  "Dyes,  "Mutagenicity
tests, Thymidine kinase, Metabolic activation, Carcino-
genicity tests,  Mutation, Tables(Data), Cell survival,
Reprints, "Mouse lymphoma assay.
PB91-183517/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Physiological Consequences  of  Early Neonatal
Growth  Retardation:  Effects  of alpha-Difluoro-
methylornithine on Renal Growth and Function in
the Rat. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Perinatal Toxicology Branch.
J. A. Gray, and R. J. Kavlock. c1991,10p EPA/600/J-
91/015
Pub. in Teratology, v43 n1 p19-26 Jan 91.

The physiological consequences of  early neonatal
growth retardation in  the  kidney were investigated
using DFMO (alpha-difluoromethylornithine), a specific
irreversible inhibitor of prnithine decarboxylase (ODC),
a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines. The
study  administered 500 mg/kg/day DFMO, or saline,
to Sprague-Dawley  rat pups  from the day of birth
through postnatal day (PD) 6 and evaluated renal func-
tion on PD 4, 7, 10, and 13 using tests of basal renal
clearance and  urinary concentrating  ability.  Kidney
weights and gross pathology were also obtained. On
PD 39, serum chemistries and organ weights were de-
termined. In a second experiment, the study evaluated
concentrating ability on PD 7-10, and basal renal func-
tion, concentrating ability,  diuretic response, serum
chemistries and organ weights on PD 132-140. DFMO
selectively inhibited renal growth, but did not inhibit
glomerular  and  tubular functional  maturation. The
rates of filtration and reabsorption (per g renal tissue),
and concentrating  ability were increased in  treated
pups.  The renal growth retardation induced by neona-
tal administration of DFMO was associated with an ap-
parent precocious maturation of function in the early
postnatal period and dysfunction in adulthood, thus
demonstrating that the physiological consequences of
growth retardation are not always obvious and predict-
able, and must be evaluated on a case by case basis.

Keywords:  "Alpha-difluoromethylornithine,  "Enzyme
inhibitors, "Growth disorders,  Kidney, Organ  weight,
Ornithine decarboxylase, Kidney function tests, Blood
chemical analysis, Kidney concentrating ability, Rats,
Reprints.
PB91-183525/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
RCRA Ground-Water Monitoring Decision Proce-
dures Viewed as Quality Control Schemes. Journal
article.
Nevada Univ., Las Vegas.  Environmental  Research
Center.
T. H. Starks, and G. T. Flatman. c1991,21 p EPA/600/
J-91/014
Grant EPA-R-814342
Pub. in Environmental  Monitoring and  Assessment,
v16 p19-37 1991. Sponsored by Environmental Moni-
toring Systems Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

The problems of developing and comparing statistical
procedures appropriate to the monitoring of ground
water at hazardous waste sites are discussed. It is sug-
gested  that  these  decision procedures should  be
viewed as quality control  schemes and compared in
the same way that industrial quality control schemes
are compared. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation
study of run-length  distribution of a combined She-
whart-CUSUM quality control scheme are reported.
(Copyright (c) 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)
Keywords: "Water pollution sampling, "Hazardous ma-
terials, "Waste disposal,  "Ground water, Quality con-
trol, Statistical analysis, Decision making, Comparison,
Monte Carlo method, Pollution regulations, Reprints,
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
PB91-183533/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab.,
Fort Detrick, MD.
Multilaboratory Evaluation of Methods for Detect-
ing Enteric Viruses in Soils. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
C. J. Hurst, S. A. Schaub, M. D. Sobsey, S. R. Farrah,
and C. P. Gerba. cFeb 91, 9p EPA/600/J-91/013
Pub. in Applied  and Environmental Microbiology, v57
n2  p395-401  Feb 91. Prepared in  cooperation with
North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill.  Dept. of  Environ-
mental  Sciences and Engineering,  Florida  Univ..
Gainesville. Dept. of  Microbiology and Cell Science,
and Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of  Microbiology and
Immunology.  Sponsored  by Army  Biomedical Re-
search and Development Lab., Fort Detrick, MD.

Two candidate methods for the recovery and detection
of viruses in soil were subjected to  round robin com-
parative testing  by members of the American Society
for Testing and  Materials 019:24:04:04 Subcommittee
Task Group.  Selection of the methods was  based
upon results of an initial screening which indicated that
both met  basic criteria considered essential by the
task group. Both methods utilized beef extract solu-
tions to achieve desorption and recovery of viruses
from representative soils: a  fine sand soil; an organic
muck soil; a sandy loam soil; and a clay soil. The Berg
method seemed to produce slightly higher virus  recov-
ery values, however the differences  in virus  assay
tilers for samples produced  by the two methods were
not statistically significant (p < or = 0.05) for any one
of the four soils. Despite this lack of a Method  Effect,
there was a statistically significant  Laboratory  Effect
exhibited by assay liters from the independent versus
reference  laboratories for two of the soils, the  sandy
loam and clay.

Keywords: "Enteroviruses,  "Soil microbiology,  pH,
Statistical  analysis, Soil chemistry, Wastewater, Water
microbiology, Reprints.
 PB91-183541/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Incineration Treatment  of Arsenic-Contaminated
 Soil. Journal article.
 Acurex Corp., Mountain View, CA.
 L. R. Waterland, C. King, M. K. Richards, and R. C.
 Thurnau. c1991,13p EPA/600/J-91 /012
 Contract EPA-68-C9-0038
 Pub. in Remediation,  p227-237 Spring  1991.  Spon-
 sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,
 OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

 An incineration test program was conducted at the US
 Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Re-
 search Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration
 as a treatment option for contaminated soils  at the
 Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massa-
 chusetts. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate
 the mcinerability of these  soils  in terms of the fate of
 arsenic and lead and the destruction of organic con-
 taminants during the  incineration process. The test
 program consisted of a series of bench-scale experi-
 ments with  a muffle furnace and a series of inciner-
 ation   tests  in  a  pilot-scale rotary  kiln  incinerator
 system. The study reported in the paper was funded by
 the Environmental  Protection Agency under Contract
 68-C9-0038 to Acurex Corporation. It has been sub-
 jected to the Agency's review and has been approved
 for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial
 products does not  constitute endorsement or recom-
 mendation for use.

 Keywords: "Incineration, "Remedial action, "Soil con-
 tamination,  "Waste management,  "Superfund,  "Air
 pollution control, Organic compounds,  Lead(Metal),
 Arsenic, Land pollution control, Pesticides, Perform-
 ance    evaluation,   Soil    treatment,   Reprints,
 Holbrook(Massachusetts), EPA region 1, Cleanup op-
 erations.
 PB91-183566/REB               PCA11/MFA02
 Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC.
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991      47

-------
                                                  EPA PUBUCATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Pro-
 gram. Proficiency Report, June 1991.
 ICF, Inc., Fairfax, VA.
 Jun 91,234p EPA/520/1-91/016
 Contract EPA-68-D-90170
 See also PB91-131300. Sponsored by Office of Radi-
 ation Programs, Washington, DC.

 The primary objective of the  U.S. Environmental Pro-
 tection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor
 radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings
 throughout the country. Achieving the objective re-
 quires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation
 contractors. In the Indoor Radon  Abatement Act of
 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a pro-
 gram to evaluate radon mitigation  contractors and to
 provide the information to the public in cooperation
 with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency
 (RCP) Program was developed to  assist States, EPA
 Regions, local government officials, and the public in
 selecting contractors  who have demonstrated  their
 proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The pro-
 gram is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Pro-
 grams' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program,
 radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by
 meeting  specific Program  requirements. Individual
 contractors who meet these  requirements are  then
 listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports.

 Keywords: "Air pollution control, 'Indoor air pollution,
 'Radon,  'Radionuclide migration, 'Contractors, State
 government, US EPA, Buildings, Public information,
 Performance    standards,   Regional    analysis,
 Tables(Data), Information transfer, 'Radon Contractor
 Proficiency Program, Cooperative agreements, Indoor
 Radon Abatement Act of 1988.
PB91-186965/REB                       PC A20
Biological Assessment of  Toxicity  Caused by
Chemical Constituents Eluted from Site Soils Col-
lected  at the Drake Chemical Superfund Site,
Lock Haven, Clinton Co., Pennsylvania.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
J. Greene. Fab 91,456p EPA/600/3-91 /011
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The site was used to manufacture specialty intermedi-
ate chemicals for the producers of dyes, pharmaceuti-
cals, cosmetics, herbicides, and pesticides. The herbi-
cide Fenac (2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid) is a major
on- and off-site contaminant. One-hundred-twenty-
eight soils were collected. Elutriates were prepared for
toxicity  evaluation  of water extractable constituents.
The chemical nature of the elutriates was so complex
that it was impossible to determine chemical cause/bi-
ological effect relationships based on chemical analy-
ses alone. Bioassays identified locations of toxicity on
the site without identifying the causative agents; impor-
tant because numerical criteria are not available for
many organic chemicals and there is little understand-
ing of the affects of mixtures of chemicals in complex
wastes  on test organisms or the environment The
measured response represents an actual assessment
of any synergistic  or antagonistic interactions. Fifty-
nine percent  of the 128 elutriates were toxic to the
algae Selenastrum capricomutum  and   43  percent
were toxic to Daphnia magna. Both organisms indicat-
ed that toxic sample numbers increased with depth of
sampling.  The Toxi-chromotest  (bacteria)  revealed
toxicity in 2.3% of the 128 elutriates; all had been iden-
tified by algae and  Daphnia. Ten elutriates were toxic
only to Daphnia and 30 only to S.  capricomutum. Fifty-
one were toxic to both algae and Daphnia, but Daphnia
was most sensitive in only 8 elutriates. If one test was
used, 10 to 30 toxic elutriates would have not been
identified, depending on the test organism selected.

Keywords: 'Biological effects, 'Chemical compounds,
•Superfund,  'Land pollution,  'Waste disposal, Soil
contamination, Toxicity, Microorganisms, Site surveys,
Bioassay,  Herbicides, Toxic substances, Chemical
analysis. Hazardous materials, Algae, Bacteria, Pesti-
cides, Dyes, Drugs, Cosmetic industry, Fenac, Clinton
County(Pennsytvania).
PB91-187062/REB               PC A02/MF A01
PestJckte Fact Sheet No. 222: Fenamlphos.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Jun 87,10p EPA/540/FS-91 /133

The document contains up-to-date chemical informa-
tion, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory
position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group
of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the
following actions has occurred which are: Issuance or
reissuance of a registration standard; Issuance of each
special review document; Registration of a significantly
changed use pattern; Registration of a new chemical;
or An immediate need for information to resolve con-
troversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use
pattern.

Keywords:  'Regulations,  'Pesticides,  Nematocides,
Pest control, Nematoda, Farm crops, Vegetable crops,
Fruit crops, Utilization, Toxicology, Toxicity, Mammals,
Spraying, Soils, Irrigation, Emulsions, Granular materi-
als, Birds, Phosphorus organic compounds, 'Fenami-
phos, CAS: 22224-926.
PB91-187500/REB                PC A07/MF A01
Toxic Release  Inventory,  1989. Magnetic  Tape
Documentation.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Toxic Substances.
1989,130p EPA/DF/MT-91 /085A
For system on magnetic tape, see PB91-507509.

Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Communi-
ty Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Su-
perfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish
an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain
facilities. Facilities subject to this reporting require-
ment are required to complete a Toxic Chemical Re-
lease Form (Form R) for specified chemicals. The form
must be submitted to EPA and those state officials
designated by the govenor, on or before July 1,1988,
and annually thereafter on July 1. The reports should
reflect releases during the preceding calendar year.
The purpose of the reporting requirement is to inform
the public and government officials about routine and
accidental releases of toxic chemicals to the environ-
ment It will also assist in research and the develop-
ment of regulations, guidelines, and standards.

Keywords:  'Toxic substances, 'Environmental sur-
veys. Documentation, Chemical compounds, Pollution
regulations, Superfund, Public information, Manage-
ment  planning,  Standard  industrial  classification,
'Toxic Release Inventory, Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act, Emission inventories.
PB91-187575/REB                PC A99/MF ACM
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
NAT1CH Data Base Report  on State,  Local and
EPA Air Toxics Activities. Interim rept
Radian Corp., Austin, TX.
T. K. Moody, C. E. Oldham, and C. E. Norris. Jul 90,
662p* DCN-90-203-099-27-06, EPA/450/3-90/012
Contract EPA-68-D8-0065
Supersedes PB90-131459. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle Park,
NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

The purpose of the report is to inform State and local
agencies and other Clearinghouse users of current re-
search and regulatory development projects underway
at the EPA, NIOSH, ATSDR, and State and local agen-
cies, and to help them identify sources of specific air
toxics information.  Every effort has been  made to
ensure accuracy as of March 31, 1990, the date that
compilation of project information was collected.

Keywords:  'Research and development,  'Air  pollu-
tion, 'Toxic substances, 'Public health, 'Information
transfer, US EPA, State government, Local govern-
ment. Risk assessment, Information systems, Pollution
regulations, Air pollution standards, Pollution sources,
Permits, Concentration(Composition), 'National  Air
Toxics  Information Clearinghouse, Emission invento-
ries.
PB91-187583/REB               PC A09/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency,  Ann  Arbor,  Ml.
Office of Mobile Sources.
Assessment of Unregulated Emissions from Gas-
oline Oxygenated Blends.
Southwest Research Inst, San Antonio, TX.
M. A. Wamer-Selph, and L R. Smith. Mar 91,199p
EPA/460/3-91/002
Contract EPA-68-C9-0004
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Ann
Arbor, Ml. Office of Mobile Sources.
Four gasoline or gasoline-oxygenate blend fuels were
used  in the evaluation of regulated and unregulated
emissions for five test vehicles. The fuels listed below
were  all prepared from a common base gasoline and
were  blended to have equal octane ratings. They were
Baseline,  aromatic-enriched,  10%  Ethanol  blend,
16.4% Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) blend, and
19.1 % Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) blend. The five
test vehicles represented different types of emissions
control  technology: pre-catalyst. oxidation catalyst,
three-way catalyst  with closed-loop carburetor oper-
ation  and an air pump, three-way catalyst with throttle
body  fuel  injection, and three-way catalyst with port
fuel injection.  Each vehicle was operated with each
fuel over the Federal Test Procedure (including evapo-
rative emissions) for  a total of 15 tests per vehicle.
Several unregulated exhaust emissions were meas-
ured  including ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, isobutylene,
benzene,  toluene,  o-, m-,  and p-xylenes, formalde-
hyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, MTBE, and nitrous oxide.
In addition, evaporative emissions were analyzed for
MTBE, benzene, and ethanol. The emission data from
tests  using the ethanol, MTBE, and ETBE blends were
compared to emissions produced from tests using the
aromatic-enriched baseline fuel to determine if there
were any statistically significant differences associated
with the use of the blends.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control,  'Exhaust emissions,
'Fugitive emissions, 'Fuels, Federal test procedures,
Baseline measurements, Motor vehicles, Blends, As-
sessments, Air pollution detection, Statistical analysis,
Quality  assurance, Gasoline, Light  duty  vehicles,
Ether/methyl-butyl, Ether/ethyl-butyl.
PB91-190850/REB               PC A01/MF A01
CERCLA  Removal Actions  at  Methane Release
Sites. Directive.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
23 Jan 86,4p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9360.0-08

The directive clarifies OERR policy on the appropriate-
ness of  removal actions at methane gas release sites
under authority of CERCLA. CERCLA responses to
methane gas releases should be carefully evaluated
on  a case-by-case basis. Although the proposed re-
moval action is authorized under CERCLA 104(a)(1),
the responsible party may not be liable under section
107 for removal action costs.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Superfund, 'Waste
disposal, 'Methane, Earth fills, Pollution regulations,
Case studies,  Cost analysis, Environmental  policy,
'Office  of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensa-
tion and Liability Act
PB91-190959/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Approximate Multiphase Flow Modeling by Char-
acteristic Methods. Summary rept. Oct 88-Sep 90.
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
J. W. Weaver. May 91,129p EPA/600/2-91 /015

The flow of petroleum hydrocarbons, organic solvents
and other liquids that are immiscible with water pre-
sents the nation with some of the most difficult subsur-
face remediation problems. One aspect of contami-
nant transport  associated releases of such liquids is
the transport as a water-immiscible liquid phase. In the
document approximate models of immiscible flow are
presented for two- and three-phase flow. The approxi-
mations are constructed by representing the flow by
hyperbolic equations which have method of character-
istics solutions. This approximation has the additional
benefit of being based on the fundamental wave be-
havior of the flow, which is revealed by the solutions of
the models. An important result is that for three-phase
flow, two flow regimes exist The first is characterized
by the displacement of one of the liquids into a bank
which moves ahead of the other liquid. The second is
characterized by almost complete bypassing of a liquid
by the other. The occurrence of the flow regimes is de-
pendent on the organic liquid properties, soil type and
the initial amounts of the fluids present

Keywords: 'Water pollution, 'Environmental models,
'Mathematical models, 'Pollution transport, Fluid flow,
Organic solvents, Hydrocarbons, Groundwater, Petro-
leum, Immiscible liquids.
48     Vol.  91, No.  3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-190975/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Air/Superfund National Technical Guidance Study
Series. Emission Factors for Superfund  Remedi-
ation Technologies.
Radian Corp., Austin, TX.
P. Thompson, A. Inglis, and B. Eklund. Mar 91,91 p
EPA/450/1-91/001
Contract EPA-68-02-4392
Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection  Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Emergency and Remedial
Response.

The report contains procedures and example calcula-
tions for estimating air emissions that occur from treat-
ing contaminated  material at Superfund sites.  Emis-
sion factors for six treatment technologies are present-
ed. These are: (1) Thermal Treatment, (2) Air Stripping,
(3) Soil Vapor Extraction, (4) Solidification and Stabili-
zation, (5) Physical and Chemical Treatment, and (6)
Biotreatment and Land Treatment. For each of the six
technologies, a literature review was conducted to de-
velop a flow diagram  and identify emission points, as
well as to analyze available air emissions data. For
most of the technologies examined, emission factors
were based on available data as well as assumed 'typi-
cal' operating conditions. Where possible,  however,
emission factors were presented on actual operating
data from the site studies. Emission factors are pre-
sented for volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals,
particulate matter, SO2, NOx,  CO, HCI, and HF. The
report also contains an extensive bibliography related
to waste treatment technologies.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Emission factors, 'Remedial
action,  'Waste  treatment, 'Air pollution, Guidelines,
Toxic substances,  Technology utilization, Soil treat-
ment Incineration, Metals,  Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen
oxides,  Solidification, Stabilization,  Stripping, Soil
gases. Extraction, Biological treatment, Physical treat-
ment, Carbon monoxide, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen
fluoride, 'Superfund, Chemical treatment.
PB91-190983/REB                PC A08/MF A01
Guidance on  the Application of  Refined Disper-
sion Models for Air Toxics Releases. Final rept.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
J. S. Touma, D. Guinnup, and T. Spicer. Mar 91,163p
EPA/450/4-91/007
See also PB89-134340 and PB86-245248. Prepared in
cooperation with Arkansas Univ. at Little Rock.

Refined air toxics models are increasingly being used
to assess the  impact of toxic air pollutants released
into the atmosphere. The purpose of the  guidance
document is to provide general  guidance  consider-
ations for applying dispersion models to such releases
and to show the thought process required by the non-
expert user to develop all  model input parameters.
Two example applications for each model are provided
with a step-by-step explanation of all model input pa-
rameters and model output. Four specific models are
currently included in the document. These are the DE-
GADIS, HEGADAS, and SLAB models appropriate for
denser-than-air releases and  the AFTOX model  for
neutrally buoyant releases of toxic air pollutants.

Keywords: *Air quality dispersion models, "Toxic sub-
stances, 'Computerized simulation,  "Atmospheric dif-
fusion,  'Air   pollution,  Guidelines,  Mathematical
models, Meteorological data,  Densrry(Mass/volume),
Environmental   transport,   Atmospheric  chemistry,
Physical properties, Chemical  properties,  Plumes,
Wind(Meteorology),  Dense gas dispersion  model,
Heavy gas dispersion model, Gaussian plume models,
Air force  toxic chemical  dispersion  model,  SLAB
model.
 PB91-190991/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Radon Concentrations Around the L-Bar Uranium
 Mill Site.
 Office of Radiation Programs, Las Vegas, NV.
 R. J. Lyon, F. H. F. Au, and J. M. Hans. Oct 88,29p
 EPA/520/6-88/059

 The report gives the results of measurements of radon
 concentrations that were made in the vicinity of the
 uranium mill tailings pile of SOHIO L-Bar site near Se-
 boyeta, New  Mexico,  using passive Environmental
 Radon Monitors.  Radon concentrations were deter-
 mined monthly and the results of the data showed that
radon concentrations decreased with distance from
the centroid of the tailings pile.

Keywords: 'Radon, 'Tailings, 'Air pollution  abate-
ment,        'Air         pollution        control,
Concentrations(Composition),  Radiation  monitoring,
Uranium ores, Ore processing, Standards compliance.
Pollution standards, Licenses, Radioactive waste dis-
posal, Seboyeta(New Mexico), Uranium Mill Tailings
Radiation Control Act.
PB91-191007/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Basic Concepts of Contaminant Sorption at Haz-
ardous Waste Sites (Ground Water Issue).
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
M. D. Piwoni, and J. W. Keeley. Oct 90,9p EPA/540/4-
90/053

The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a
group of  ground-water scientists, representing EPA's
Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange
up-to-date information related to ground-water remedi-
ation of Superfund sites. One of the major issues of
concern to the Forum is the transport and fate of con-
taminants in soil and ground water as related to sub-
surface remediation. Processes which influence the
behavior  of contaminants in the subsurface must be
considered both in evaluating the potential for move-
ment as well as in designing remediation activities at
hazardous waste sites.  Such factors not only tend to
regulate the mobility of contaminants, but  also their
form and stability. Sorption is often  the paramount
process controlling the behavior of contaminants in
the subsurface. The paper summarizes the basic con-
cepts of Sorption in soil and ground water with empha-
sis on nonpolar organic contaminants.

Keywords: 'Ground  water, 'Hazardous   materials,
'Sorption, 'Superfund, 'Remedial action, 'Waste dis-
posal, 'Water pollution control, Soil chemistry, pH, Soil
contamination,  Land pollution control, Organic com-
pounds,     Chemical      reactions,     Solubility,
Reduction(Chemistry),   Oxidation,   Environmental
transport. Path of pollutants, Subsurface  investiga-
tions, Design criteria, Water chemistry.
PB91-191015/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Fate  Constants  for  Some  Chlorofluorocarbon
Substitutes. Environmental research brief.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
H. P. Kollig, and J. J. Ellington. Mar 91, 8p EPA/600/
M-91/007

The availability of fate constants for 16 aqueous clean-
ers and terpenes is addressed. These compounds are
likely substitutes for chlorinated solvents and chloro-
fluorocarbons. Comparison of fate data available from
EPA's Office  of Toxic Substances,  the  database
CHEMFATE, and additional fate data computed for the
report shows how few experimental values are current-
ly published. Almost  all can be estimated, however,
using computational techniques.

Keywords:  'Environmental research, 'Environmental
chemical substitutes,  'Fluorohydrocarbons, Chlorohy-
drocarbons, Cleaners, Solvents, Henrys law, Informa-
tion systems, Information transfer, Solubility, Con-
stants, Dissociation, Chemical reactions, Terpene  hy-
drocarbons, Tables(Data), CHEMFATE data base.
 PB91-191049/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Directory of OAQPS Information Services.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
 J. Padgett. Nov 90,16p EPA/450/2-91 /001

 The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning  and Standards
 (OAQPS) provides various types of information serv-
 ices to EPA  Regional Offices, State and local agen-
 cies, consultants, industry, and the public. The directo-
 ry provides a brief listing of  these services so that
 users can more easily determine what is available and
 how to obtain it. Information is grouped into four major
 activities. These are (1) pollutant/program, (2) techni-
 cal support, (3) administrative support, and (4) compli-
 ance.  Each major activity is further divided  into sub-
 categories; within each, line items describing informa-
 tion services are categorized by the type of delivery
 mechanism used. These include electronic bulletin
 boards,  clearinghouses,  conferences, telecasts,  re-
 ports  and  manuals,  newsletters, support  centers,
 workshops, and direct training such as  classroom and
self-instructional courses. Each line item contains a
brief description of the information available and, most
important, the name and telephone number of a con-
tact person who will help you to obtain it.

Keywords: 'Directories,  'Information  services,  'Air
pollution abatement, 'Air pollution control, 'Air quality,
Tables(Data), US EPA, Information transfer, Technolo-
 §y transfer,  Information  industry, Regional analysis,
 tate implementation plans,  Information  systems,
State government, Administrative procedures, Compli-
ance, Pollution regulations,  Mathematical  models,
'Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
PB91-191056/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Reductive Dehalogenation of Organic Contami-
nants in Soils  and Ground Water. Ground Water
Issue.
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
J. L Sims, J. M. Suflita, and H. H. Russell. Jan 91,15p
EPA/540/4-90/054

Introduction and large scale production of synthetic
halogenated organic chemicals over the last 50 years
has resulted in a group of contaminants which tend to
persist in  the environment and resist both biotic and
abiotic degradation. The low solubility of these types of
contaminants, along with their toxicity and tendency to
accumulate in food chains, make them particularly rel-
evant targets for remediation activities. Although the
processes involved in dechlorination of many of these
organic compounds are well understood in the fields of
chemistry and microbiology, technological applications
of these processes to environmental remediation are
relatively  new--particularly at pilot or field scale. It is
well established,  however,  that there are several
mechanisms which result in dehalogenation of some
classes of-organic contaminants, often rendering them
less offensive environmentally. These include; stimula-
tion of metabolic  sequences through introduction of
electron donor and acceptor combinations; addition of
nutrients to meet the needs of dehalogenating micro-
organisms; possible  use of engineered micro-orga-
nisms; and use of enzyme systems capable of catalyz-
ing reductive dehalogenation.

Keywords: 'Land pollution control, 'Water pollution
control, 'Remedial action,  'Superfund, 'Waste dis-
posal,  'Dehalogenation,  Environmental persistance,
Subsurface investigations,  Environmental  transport,
Ecosystems, Halogen organic compounds, Biological
treatment,  Microorganisms,  Reduction(Chemistry),
Biodeterioration, Soil contaminants,  Ground  water,
Chemical reaction mechanisms.
 PB91-191064/REB               PC A07/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
 Designing and  Implementing  an Air Toxics Con-
 trol Program: A Program Development Manual for
 State and Local Agencies.
 Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 M. H. Keating, and M. A. Trutna. Jul 90,128pEPA-
 450/2-90/012
 Sponsored by Environmental  Protection Agency, Re-
 search Triangle  Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Plan-
 ning and Standards.

 The manual  is intended to assist State and local air
 pollution  control  agencies in making  informed deci-
 sions about the development of air toxics control pro-
 grams and to enhance consistency among the State
 and local program approaches. In particular, insight is
 provided  into how to make critical decisions regarding
 program scope and stringency, evaluation of program
 impacts,  and achievement of overall program goals.
 The manual addresses these issues by illustrating the
 experiences  of State and local  agencies and EPA in
 making air toxics program decisions. The manual was
 developed by seeking the advice and  experiences of
 State and local agencies in various stages ol their own
 program development.  While the information does not
 represent EPA policy, it should  prove  useful to many
 State and local agencies now actively engaged in air
 toxics program development.

 Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Planning, 'Manuals,
 Government agencies, Local  government, State gov-
 ernment, Air pollution, Risk assessment, Project plan-
 ning, Decision making, 'Air toxics control programs.
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     49

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-191072/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Evaluation of Dense Gas Simulation Models. Final
rept.
TRC Environmental Consultants, Inc., East Hartford,
CT.
J. G. Zapert, R. J. Londergan, and H. Thistle. May 91,
107p EPA/450/4-90/018
Contract EPA-68-02-4399
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Plan-
ning and Standards.

The report describes the approach and presents the
results of an evaluation study of seven dense gas sim-
ulation models using data from three experimental pro-
grams. The models evaluated  are two in the public
domain (DEGADIS and SLAB) and five that are propri-
etary (AIRTOX, CHARM, FOCUS, SAFEMODE, and
TRACE). The data bases used in the evaluation  are
the Desert Tortoise Pressurized Ammonia Releases,
Burro Liquefied Natural Gas Spill Tests and the Gold-
fish Anhydrous Hydroflouric Acid Spill Experiments. A
uniform set of performance statistics are calculated
and tabulated to compare maximum observed concen-
trations and cloud half-width to those predicted by
each model. None of the models demonstrated good
performance consistently for all three experimental
programs.

Keywords: *Air pollution, 'Simulation, 'Environmental
models,  'Pollution transport, Dispersing,  Evaluation,
Hazardous materials, Data bases, Ammonia,  Hydro-
fluoric acid, Liquefied natural gas, 'Dense gas models.
PB91-191080/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Lake and Stream Indicators for U.S. EPA's Envi-
ronmental Monitoring and Assessment Program.
Symposium paper.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
R. M. Hughes, T. R. Whittier, S. A. Thiele, J. E. Pollard,
and D. V. Peck. 24 Jan 91,56p EPA/600/D-91 /095
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Eco-
logical Indicators, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Oct 90. Pre-
pared in cooperation with ManTech Environmental
Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR., and  Lockheed Engi-
neering and Sciences Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV.

The paper summarizes the indicators proposed for a
pilot study by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agen-
cy's (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Program for lakes and streams (EMAP-LS). An addi-
tional lake and stream monitoring program is needed
because current programs do not provide regional or
national estimates of ecological condition or trends
with known levels of confidence. Because national and
regional monitoring must necessarily  focus on spatial
issues, the authors explain why and how they concen-
trate their sampling at particular index periods and in
particular index  locations. They  provide 10 criteria for
selecting response indicators and outline the 18 indi-
cators selected and being developed for lakes and
streams. Finally, the authors discuss how they propose
to determine waterbody impairment through use of re-
gional reference sites, regional experts, historical data,
models, and empirical distributions of indicator values.

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects, 'Biological indica-
tors, 'Lakes, 'Streams, 'Aquatic ecosystems,  US
EPA, Regional analysis, Spatial distribution, Site sur-
veys,  Biological stress, Ecosystems, Habitats,  Dia-
toms, ZooplankUxi, Benthos, Data processing. Statisti-
cal analysis,  Water  quality  data. Surface  waters,
Fishes,  'Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Program.
PB91-1S1098/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Terrestrial Plants (Chapter 3). Book chapter.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
M. Tevini, A. H. Teramura, G. Kulandaivelu, M. M.
Caldwell, and L. O. Bjoem. 1991,15p EPA/600/D-91/
096
Pub. in Report on the Environmental Effects of Ozone
Depletion, United States Environment  Programme,
p25-391989.

Most of the authors knowledge concerning the effects
of ultraviotet-B(UV-B) radiation was obtained with artifi-
cial UV radiation sources supplementing either artificial
white  light in growth chambers, or solar radiation in
greenhouses and in the field. However, these artificial
sources do not precisely match the solar  spectrum.
Few studies have documented the effects of UV-B on
total plant yield under field conditions. One notable ex-
ception is a six-year field study with soybean demon-
strating harvestable yield reductions under a simulated
25% ozone depletion. These effects are further modi-
fied by prevailing microclimatic conditions. Plants tend
to be less sensitive to UV-B radiation under drought or
mineral deficiency, while  sensitivity increases  under
low levels of visible light. Further studies are needed to
understand the mechanisms of UV-B effects and the
interactions with present stresses and future projected
changes in the environment.

Keywords: 'Environmental effects, 'Ozone depletion,
'Ultraviolet radiation, 'Plants(Botany), 'Radiation ef-
fects,  Air  pollution,  Test  chambers.  Experimental
design, Crop yield. Solar radiation, Dose-response re-
lationship. Plant growth, Plant reproduction, Plant pig-
ments, Reprints.
PB91-191106/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Evaluating Amphibian Responses in Wetlands Im-
pacted by Mining Activities in the Western United
States.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
G. Under, J. Wyant, R. Meganck, and B. Williams.
1991, 41 p EPA/600/D-91 /097
Pub. in Proceedings: Thome Symposium, Apr 91. Pre-
pared  in  cooperation  with  ManTech Environmental
Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR.

An increasing awareness of declining amphibian popu-
lations in the  United States requires that the authors
develop strategies for evaluating anthropogenic im-
pacts on  wetlands  and the biota dependent upon
these habitats.  For  example, in the western  United
States, mining activities may impact a wetland and its
biota directly through habitat destruction or run-off of
sediments and contaminants generated during mining
operations. Amphibians which frequent these transi-
tion zones between terrestrial  and aquatic habitats
may be key biological indicators of a wetland's status.
Through a demonstration project located in the mining
regions of western Montana, the authors are currently
using laboratory and field methods for a wetland eval-
uation required within a Superfund ecological risk as-
sessment.

Keywords:  'Mining,  'Environmental impacts,  'Am-
phibia, 'Habitability, 'Water pollution, Populations, Re-
sponses,  Mortality, Field tests, Damage assessment,
Runoff, Sediments, Monitoring, Indicator species, Tox-
icity,  Laboratories,  Montana,  'Wetlands,  Western
RegionfUnited States), Case studies.
PB91-191114/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Colloidal FE2O3 Transport Studies in Laboratory
Model Systems Using Shallow Aquifer Material.
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
R. W. Puls, and R. M. Powell. 1991, 5p EPA/600/D-
91/098
Presented at the American Chemical Society National
Meeting (201st), Atlanta, GA., April 14-19, 1991. Pre-
pared in cooperation with NSI Technology Services
Corp., Ada, OK.

The stability and transport of radio-labeled Fe2O3 col-
loids were studied using laboratory batch and column
techniques. Core  material collected from  a shallow
sand and gravel aquifer near Globe, Arizona was used
as the column matrix material.  Scintillation counting
and laser light scattering with photon correlation spec-
troscopy (PCS) were used as means of colloid detec-
tion.  PCS  and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
were used to verify the size of the colloids and their
stability. Variables in the study included flow rate, pH,
ionic strength, electrolyte composition (anion/cation),
colloid concentration, and colloid size. Transport was
highly dependant  upon colloidal stability. Iron oxide
colloids in the 100-900 nm particle diameter range
were not only mobile to a significant extent, but under
some hydrogeochemica! conditions were transported
faster than a conservative tracer, tritium. The rate of
colloid transport was over 21 times that of  the dis-
solved arsenate. Extent of breakthrough was depend-
ant upon a complex variety of parameters, however
the highest statistical correlation was  observed  with
particle size and ankmic composition of the supporting
electrolyte.

Keywords: 'Iron oxides, 'Aquifer systems, 'Environ-
mental transport, 'Colloids, 'Water pollution,  Adsorp-
tion, Porous media, Experimental design, Tracer stud-
ies, Isotopic labeling. Statistical  analysis, Flow rate,
pH,    Electrolytes,    Particle    size,    Reprints,
Globe( Arizona).
PB91-191122/REB                PC A03/MF A01
IACP: Overview of the Boise, Idaho, and the Roa-
noke, Virginia, Field Studies. Symposium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure  As-
sessment Lab.
V. R. Highsmith, A. J Hoffman, R. B. Zweidinger, L. T.
Cupitt, and D. B. Walsh. 26 Apr 91,28p EPA/600/D-
91/099
See also PB87-209235. Prepared in cooperation with
Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc.,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

Large-scale  field studies were conducted initially in
Boise, Idaho, and then in Roanoke, Virginia, during the
1986-87 and 1988-89 winter heating seasons, respec-
tively, to evaluate the impact of residential wood com-
bustion  (RWC),  residential  distillate oil combustion
(RDOC), and automotive  emissions on  the ambient
and indoor air quality.  Consecutive 12-h samples were
collected over a 4-month period at three primary and
four auxiliary fixed sampling sites in each  city. Each
ambient site consisted of one or more paniculate, or-
ganic, and gaseous samplers as well as selected crite-
ria pollutant and meteorological monitors. Twelve-hour
participate, organic, and gaseous samples were con-
currently collected inside 10 pairs  of residences in
each city over a 4-day period (2 weekdays and 2 week-
end days). Each pair of Boise residences consisted of
one home with and one home without an operating
RWC appliance. The pair of Roanoke residences con-
sisted of one home with and one home without an op-
erating RDOC appliance. Similar sample sets were col-
lected immediately outside the residence without the
RWC/RDOC appliance. The samples have been ana-
lyzed and the key results  summarized herein along
with an overview of the monitoring program.

Keywords: 'Air pollution effects(Humans),  'Air pollu-
tion sampling, US EPA, Pollution sources, Indoor air
pollution, Air quality,  Combustion  effeciency, Field
tests,            Automobile             exhaust,
Concentration(Composition), Mobile pollutant sources,
Wood burning appliances, Mutagens,  Carcinogens,
Public  health, Site  surveys,  *IACP(lntegrated  Air
Cancer Project), Boise(ldaho), RoanokefVirginia).
PB91-191130/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Modeling  Carbon   Monoxide  (CO)  Exposures
within Microenvironments Given  Personal Expo-
sure Monitoring Data.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
J. S. Irwin, and W. P. Petersen. 1991,10p EPA/600/D-
91/100

Data collected at ambient fixed sites may not  ade-
quately reflect personal CO exposures, as they most
often  miss exposures resulting from CO  emissions
from sources in the immediate physical surroundings
of individuals, such as within automobiles. The SHAPE
model was proposed to account for this missing com-
ponent of exposure and provides the basis for the
model to be discussed. The viewpoint of the model
construct is to follow a person over a 24 or 48  hour
time interval. In the study, activity  pattern data ob-
tained in the Denver, CO and Washington, D.C. are
used to define the sequence of  microenvironments
and  durations within  each microenvironment.  The
focus of the study is development of the concentration
values experienced by individuals  over 1-hour and  8-
hour time periods.

Keywords: 'Air pollution  effects(Humans), 'Carbon
monoxide,    Exposure,    Mathematical   models,
GraphsjCharts), Smoking,  Exhaust  emissions, Field
tests, District of Columbia, SHAPE model, Personal ex-
posure monitors, Denver(Colorado).
PB91-191148/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Receptor  Modeling  of  Fine  Particles  in  the
Tacoma Tideflats Airshed.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
T. L. Conner, and R. K. Stevens. 1991,18p EPA/600/
D-91/101
50     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
A  receptor modeling  study was  conducted in the
Tacoma tideflats airshed. The tideflats area is a small
but heavily industrial area adjacent to the Commence-
ment Bay waterway of Puget Sound. It is surrounded
by urban centers and rural and residential areas. Fine
and coarse particles were sampled tor 12 hours twice
daily beginning at 7 AM and  7 PM from  12/5/89
through 12/15/89 and from 1/2/90 through 1/8/90.
Concentrations of total fine particle mass, nitrate and
sulfate ions, organic carbon, elemental carbon, and a
suite of elements were measured  in the fine particle
samples. Organic carbon was by far the dominant spe-
cies in the fine particle fraction. Gaseous species were
collected in evacuated canisters concurrently with par-
ticulate samples to measure volatile organic species
for the purpose of searching for potential motor vehicle
tracers. Receptor modeling  results  indicate that resi-
dential woodsmoke, not industrial sources, was the pri-
mary contributor (greater than half) to the total  fine
particle mass. Other major sources identified by recep-
tor modeling are, in order of predominance,  aluminum
production (one site only), residual oil  boilers, motor
vehicle exhaust, scrap metal fugitives, and hogged fuel
boilers.

Keywords:  *Air pollution monitoring,  'Urban areas,
'Fines, 'Tidal marshes, Particles. Air pollution. Emis-
sion  factors,  Smoke,  Carbon,   Puget   Sound,
Washington(State), 'Receptor modeling,  Residential
woodsmoke, TacomajWashington).
PB91-191155/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Regional Patterns in Three Biological Indicators
of Stream Condition in Ohio.
ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc.,  Corvallis,
OR.
T. R. Whittier, and E. T. Rankin. 14 Jan 91, 39p EPA/
600/D-91/094
Contract EPA-68-C8-0006
Presented at the International Symposium on Ecologi-
cal Indicators held in Ft. Lauderdale,  FL. in October,
1990. Prepared in cooperation with Ohio State Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Columbus. Sponsored
by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

There is an increasing awareness of the need to sup-
plement site-specific environmental assessments with
those done at regional and global scales. In the paper,
the authors review some of the issues important to
broad-scale assessments.  They then develop a re-
gional-scale assessment of environmental conditions
using fish assemblage data collected between 1983
and  1989  by the  Ohio  Environmental  Protection
Agency from 2100 stream  sites. They use Omernik's
ecpregions  as the geographic framework and minimal-
ly impacted regional reference sites as definitions of
regional health. The authors evaluate  native fish spe-
cies  richness, the Modified Index of Well-being, and
the Index of Biotic Integrity to characterize regional
patterns in  fish assemblage condition (as part of a
suite of potential indicators of environmental health).
For these three indicators, values at reference sites in
the Huron/Erie Lake  Plain(HELP) were significantly
tower than in the other four ecoregions, demonstrating
a lower potential for supporting fish assemblages. Ref-
erence site values in the other four regions did not
differ substantially. Difficulties related to determining a
reference condition in regions with extensive land use
impacts are discussed. Regional indicator scores for
all sites (all levels of impacts) in the HELP were the
lowest, when compared  to all reference site values
statewide. When index values from all sites were com-
pared to their ecoregional  reference site  scores, the
deviation in scores of HELP'S index values were com-
parable to or higher than all other regions. Regional
index values for all sites in the Erie/Ontario Lake Plain,
which is heavily industrialized, were the second lowest
compared  to  the statewide models,  and the lowest
when compared to  its own regional model. .In  the
study, the simplest indicator (species richness) pro-
duced essentially the same regional-scale assessment
of environmental health as did more complex indica-
tors. These results imply that valid assessments of ec-
ological condition may be made at regional scales
using simple indicators when more complex indices
are not available.

Keywords:  'Biological indicators, 'Streams,  'Water
pollution effects(Animals), 'Aquatic ecosystems, Ohio,
Regional analysis,  Biological stress,  Environmental
impact assessments, Fishes, Data processing, Envi-
ronmental health, Pollution sources, Graphs(Charts),
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program.
PB91-191163/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Review  of  Treatment  for   Hazardous  Waste
Streams (Chapter 21). Book chapter.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Cincinnati,  OH.
Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.
D. W. Grosse. 1991, 74p EPA/600/D-91 /088
Pub. in Library of Environmental Science, v3 Aug  90
and Advances in  Environmental Technology and Man-
agement, Mar 90.

The  publication will examine some of the practices
being used or considered for use at on-site or commer-
cial hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal
facilities (TSDF).  Options  for managing  hazardous
wastes containing heavy metals and/or cyanide com-
pounds involve conventional treatment processes,  re-
cycle/reuse  applications  and waste minimization.
Some of the technologies to be reviewed in this sec-
tion include: precipitation applications such as hydrox-
ide (e.g. lime, magnesium and iron oxyhydroxide), sul-
fide and carbonate systems; reduction  techniques em-
ploying  chromium, mercury and selenium reducing
agents; adsorption/selection techniques using activat-
ed carbon ion exchange and hydrous solids; stabiliza-
tion/fixation with discussion on applications, interfer-
ences and landfill design; cyanide destruction, includ-
ing chemical oxidation (e.g.  alkaline chlorination, ozon-
ation/photolysis), electrolytic decompostion and incin-
eration;  and pollution prevention measures such  as
source reduction, recycling and reuse. Each of these
options will be described in terms of effectiveness of
treatment in removing the  hazardous  constituents of
interest and characterization of the generated treat-
ment residuals or in the case of waste minimization
practices, the degree to which the constituents of con-
cern are eliminated at the point of waste generation.

Keywords: 'Waste management,  'Hazardous materi-
als, 'Heavy metals, Reviews, Waste treatment, Waste
disposal, Waste  recycling,  Waste utilization, Waste
processing, Precjpitation(Chemistry), Adsorption, Sta-
bilization, Earth fills, Incineration, Pollution abatement,
Pollution sources,  Reprints, Waste minimization,
Source reduction.
PB91-191171/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Airborne  Particle Sizes  and  Sources  Found in
Indoor Air. Rept. for Sep 89-Feb 90.
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. K. Owen, D. S. Ensor, and L. E. Sparks. Feb 90,8p
EPA/600/D-91/081
Grant EPA-R81 -4169-03
Presented at IAQ '90 held in Toronto (Canada) on July
29-August 3, 1990. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air  and
Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper summarizes results of a literature search
into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles
in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal,
mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radio-
active aerosols. The information, presented in a sum-
mary figure, has been gathered for use in  designing
test methodologies for air cleaners  and other mitiga-
tion approaches and ti aid in the selection of air clean-
ers. (NOTE: As concern about indoor air quality  has
grown, understanding indoor aerosols has become in-
creasingly important so that control techniques may be
implemented to reduce damaging health effects  and
soiling problems. Particle diameters must be known to
predict dose or soiling  and to determine efficient miti-
gation techniques.)

Keywords: 'Indoor air pollution, 'Particle size, 'Pollu-
tion  sources,  *Air  pollution  control,  'Aerosols,
Concentration(Composition),  Air  pollution  sampling,
Mitigation, Radioactive materials, Environmental trans-
port, Minerals, Plants(Botany), Air quality. Environmen-
tal surveys, Public health. Combustion products, Ani-
mals, Air cleaners.
PB91-191189/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Quantification of Particluate Emission Rates from
Vacuum Cleaners.
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
D. D. Smith, R. P. Donovan, D. S. Ensor, and L. E.
Sparks. 1989, 8p EPA/600/D-91/082
Presented at IAQ '90 held in Toronto (Canada) on July
29-August 3, 1990. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and
Energy Engineering Research Lab.

Vacuum cleaner operations appear to be a significant
source of indoor aerosol particles as shown by limited
measurements carried out in randomly selected resi-
dences. The objective of the study is to measure aero-
sol particle emission rates under well-defined and con-
trolled conditions that are representative  of general
vacuum  cleaning  operations.  Residential   upright
carpet vacuum cleaners were studied. The authors de-
termined from the data obtained by this procedure: (1)
the total aerosol particle emission rate for the vacuum-
ing process and (2) the particle size distribution of the
reentrained particles.

Keywords:  'Vacuum  cleaners, 'Indoor air pollution,
'Particulates,  'Emission  factors, Dust,   Paniculate
sampling, Aerosols, Laboratory tests, Particle size  dis-
tribution.
PB91-191197/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Use of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein  in First-Tier
Assessments of Neurotoxicity.
Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
J. P. O'Callaghan. 1991,29p EPA/600/D-91 /050

Diverse neurotoxic insults result in proliferation and hy-
pertrophy of astrocytes, a subtype of central nervous
system glia.  The hallmark of the response, often
termed 'reactive gliosis', is the enhanced expression
of the major intermediate filament protein of astro-
cytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These mor-
phological observations suggest that GFAP may be a
useful biochemical indicator of neurotoxicity. To inves-
tigate the  possibility the authors  administered proto-
type neurotoxicants to experimental animals and then
assessed the effects of these agents on the tissue
content of GFAP, as determined by radioimmunoas-
say. The study found that assays of GFAP reveal dose-
time- and region-dependent patterns of neurotoxicity
at toxicant dosages below those  that  cause light mi-
croscopic evidence of cell loss or damage. No false
positives have been seen following exposure to a vari-
ety of pharmacological agents. By using regional as-
sessments of GFAP in a first-tier evaluation, it should
be possible to localize areas of damage. A second-tier
evaluation, using assays of proteins or transmitters as-
sociated with cells in the affected region, may reveal
the cellular targets of neurotoxicity.

Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Nervous system, 'Glial fibril-
lary acidic protein, 'Toxic substances, Brain chemistry,
Radioimmunoassay,   Dose-response   relationships,
Cell  survival,  Dopamine,  Tyrosine  hydroxylase.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Astrocytes.
PB91-191205/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental QA: A Plan for Consistency in the
90s.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Quality Assurance Management Staff.
G. L. Johnson. 1991,14p EPA/600/D-91/083
Presented at the Rocky Mountain Quality Conference
held in June, 1991.

The mandatory quality assurance program require-
ments  for the  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) have been in place for more than ten years, as
have two critical pieces of guidance which described
the development of QA Program Plans and QA Project
Plans.  During  the period, the  absence of a formal
standard or criteria for QA fay the EPA  has led to vary-
ing interpretation of the guidance by different groups,
both inside and outside the Agency. The situation has
frequently created confusion and uncertainty among
those who must prepare and  implement the QA plans
as well as among those who must review and approve
them. EPA has been working with other Federal agen-
cies and the private sector to develop a national con-
sensus standard for  QA/QC activities performed in
support of environmental  programs,  which may  be
adopted and used Government-wide. In anticipation
that a standard will emerge from the process, EPA has
begun to reflect the proposed standard by revising old
guidance and developing new guidance for use both
by EPA and the general public. The paper discusses
the current status of the  standard and of EPA guid-
ance, and how both will provide  increased consistency
and uniformity in the 1990s.
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     51

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Keywords:   'Environmental  surveys,   "Standards,
 •Guidelines, Federal agencies, US EPA, National gov-
 ernment. Quality  control, Pollution  regulations. Per-
 formance standards, Waste  management,  Reprints,
 •Quality Assurance Program Plans, "Quality Assur-
 ance Project Plans, Total Quality Management.
 PB91-191213/REB              PC A03/MF A01
 Wind Retd Development for the EPA Regional Ox-
 Want Model.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 C. J. Coats, and K. L. Schere. 1991,18pEPA/600/D-
 91/084
 Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Air and
 Waste Management Association (84th), Vancouver,
 BC., June 16-21, 1991. Prepared in cooperation with
 Computer Sciences Corp., Research Triangle Park,
 NC., and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis-
 tration, Rockville, MD.

 Regional scale (approximately  1000 km) air  quality
 simulation models require hourly inputs of u and v wind
 components for each vertical layer of the model and
 for each grid cell in the horizontal. The standard North
 American meteorological observation  network is used
 to derive the wind field inputs for the Regional Oxidant
 Model (ROM) and other regional models. While a fairly
 dense surface network with hourly observations exists,
 upper air data are obtained only twice per day at moni-
 toring sites typically separated by 300-500 km dis-
 tances. Using these data to derive the more spatially
 and temporally resolved gridded wind fields needed by
 the ROM introduces uncertainties and errors into the
 model. The authors present a method of developing
 gridded wind fields for the ROM that accounts for
 these non-deterministic  features. The method pro-
 duces a family of potential gridded wind fields allowing
 for the stochastic nature of the interpolation process.
 Examples of the derived wind fields are given for the
 Northeast U.S. Potential differences between the wind
 fields, in terms of their effects on air quality modeling,
 are inferred from following multi-day flow trajectories
 using various members of the wind field family.

 Keywords:  'Ozone, 'Pollution transport, 'Wind pro-
 files, Mathematical models. Wind velocity. Wind direc-
 tion, Simulation, Meteorological data, 'Regional Oxi-
 dant Model, Northeastern Region(United States).
PB91-191221/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Sensitivity Analysis of a Nested Ozone Ah- Quality
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
G. SistJa, S. T. Rao, and J. Godowitch. 1991, 8p EPA/
600/D-91/085
See also PB90-221920. Presented at the AMS/AWMA
Conference on Application of Air Pollution Meteorol-
ogy (7th), New Orleans, LA., January 14-18,1991. Pre-
pared in cooperation with New York State Dept. of En-
vironmental Conservation, Albany.

A series of Urban Airshed Model (UAM) simulations
were performed using inputs derived from Regional
Oxidant Model (ROM) data files. The gridded ROM re-
sults employed in the UAM simulations included con-
centrations for specifying initial and boundary condi-
tions, wind fields, other  meteorological and  surface
geophysical parameters, and biogenic emissions. Two
approaches were applied to nest  the 3-D UAM grid (a
four and a five level scheme) inside the regional model
grid framework. The model sensitivity study was con-
ducted with the variation  in a single gridded input pa-
rameter or method in order to assess the impact on
ozone  concentrations  for different high ozone days
during 1980 over a domain covering the greater New
York metropolitan area.  Differences  in the  domain
peak ozone and maximum ozone concentration at indi-
vidual grid cells from the sensitivity runs are compared
to base case simulations for each  day. Maximum
ozone levels were examined for different wind fields,
with/without surface land use  for the dry deposition
method, with/without  biogenic emissions, and the
number of UAM vertical levels and nesting approach
for initial and boundary concentrations. The magni-
tudes of peak ozone concentration changes from sev-
eral sensitivity simulations were found to be compara-
ble to those obtained from previous model runs with
emissions control strategy reductions for the greater
New York City urban domain.
Keywords:   'Air  quality,   'Mathematical  models,
'Ozone, 'Sensitivity analysis, 'Air pollution, New York,
Metropolitan   areas,   Concentration(Composition),
Urban areas, Meteorological data, Three-dimensional
calculations, Response functions, Natural emissions,
Wind(Meteorology), Performance evaluation, Reprints,
"Urban Airshed Model, 'Regional Oxidant Model.
PB91-191239/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Air Quality Monitoring in Atlanta with the Differen-
tial Optical Absorption Spectrometer.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
T. L. Conner, and R. K. Stevens. 1991,16p EPA/600/
D-91/086

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) eval-
uated a differential optical absorption spectrometer
(DOAS) long path pollutant monitoring system during
July and August of 1990 in Atlanta, GA. Federal Refer-
ence Method (FRM) instruments and a gas chromato-
graph (GC), which measure a number of gas phase air
pollutants at a point, were operated concurrently as
part of a larger US EPA study of ozone and its precur-
sors in Atlanta. The DOAS was configured to measure
the pollutant concentrations of SO2, NO2,03, nitrous
acid, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene and o-xylene
over two open paths with 1099 m and  1824 m, respec-
tively, between light source and  light receiver. Nitric
oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) were measured over a
third path of only 143 m. In the communication the fea-
tures of the DOAS system are described and results of
the Atlanta, GA  evaluation  of the system are dis-
cussed.  Comparisons are made  between the  DOAS
open path measurements and FRM or GC measure-
ments made concurrently at a location near the DOAS
light receivers.

Keywords:  *Air pollution monitoring, 'Optical spec-
trometers, Standards, Field tests, Performance eval-
uation, Nitrogen oxides, Ozone, Sulfur dioxide, Formal-
dehyde, Benzene, Toluene, Xylenes, Nitrous acid, Gas
chromatography,  "Atlanta(Georgia), 'Differential opti-
cal absorption spectrometry.
PB91-191247/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Inventory of Constructed Wetlands for Municipal
Wastewater Treatment In the U.S. Interim rept. Dec
89-Mar91.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
Office of Research and Development.
D. S. Brown, and S. C. Reed. 1991, 9p EPA/600/D-
91/087
Pub. in Proceedings, ASCE Nat.  Env. Eng. Confer-
ence, July 1991.

The U.S. EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laborato-
ry is conducting an inventory of constructed wetlands
(CW) for muncipal wastewater treatment in the U.S.
The inventory is one part of an effort to gather better
data on which to base CW design. The inventory is
being conducted in two phases; the paper presents
data from the first phase. A total of 143 communities
were identified as either considering or using CW. Of
this total, 31 operating free water surface (FWS) and
26 operating subsurface flow  (SF)  systems  were
found. Systems range in size from 200 to 76,000 cu m/
d (0.05 to 20 mgd) for FWS and from 5 to 11,400 cu ml
d (0.001 to 3.0 mgd) for SF. Design approaches and
performance goals vary widely:  as a result hydraulic
loading rates and costs vary widely. Limited flow data
show hydraulic surface area loading rates range from 4
to 530 L/sq m/d (230 to 1.8 ac/mgd) for FWS systems
and from 30 to 410 L/sq m/d (31 to 2.3 ac/mgd) for SF
systems.  Limited cost data show  construction costs
range from $16 to $770 per cu nVd ($0.06 to $2.90 per
gpd) for FWS systems and from $60 to $790 per cu ml
d ($0.23 to $3.00 per gpd) for SF systems. Because of
the limited data, all of these figures should be viewed
with caution.

Keywords: 'Sewage treatment 'Wetlands, 'Structural
engineering, 'Waste water, United States, Operating,
Performance evaluation, Cost analysis, Construction
costs, Design criteria, Biochemical oxygen demand,
Sediments.
PB91-191254/REB               PCA03/MFA01
Preparation Aids for the Development of Catego-
ry IV: Quality Assurance Project Plans.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
G. F. Simes. Feb 91,46p EPA/600/8-91 /006
See also PB91-167569.

Data collection activities performed for the Risk Re-
duction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. En-
vironmental Protection Agency are divided into four
categories, depending on the intended use of the data.
Quality Assurance (QA)  Project Plans are written to
ensure that project needs will be met and that quality
control procedures are sufficient for obtaining data of
known quality. The level of QA required, however, de-
pends  on the project category selected for a given
project. Projects that produce results for the purpose
of assessing suppositions are identified as Category IV
projects. 'Pure' research and development projects
frequently fit into the category. To assist professional
scientists  and engineers in preparing  QA  Project
Plans,  separate guidance manuals in an easy-to-read
format have been developed for each category. The
Category IV manual  contains detailed descriptions of
each of the 5 required elements of a Category IV QA
Project Plan. Also included are definitions and expla-
nations of frequently used terms, examples of QA
forms  and charts, sample  equations and numerous
types of tables suggested for summarizing information.

Keywords:  'Manuals,   'Environmental   surveys,
'Project planning, 'Data processing, Research and
development,  Quality assurance,  Quality  control,
Records management,  Forms(Paper),  Management
planning, Sampling, 'Quality Assurance Project Plans.
PB91-191262/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Diaper Industry Workshop Report.
Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA.
May 91,37p EPA/600/2-91/018
Contract EPA-68-C8-0061
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The report is the product of a one-day workshop on the
diaper industry that was sponsored by the U.S. EPA.
Four topics covered during the workshop were public
hearth and safety, recycling, composting, and product
life cycle analysis. The primary objective of the work-
shop  was to identify areas within the diaper industry
that need further research in order to  lessen the ad-
verse impacts that diapers have on the environment.
Summaries of each of the four topics as well as sum-
maries of discussion comments and research needs
identified during the  workshop are included  in the
report. A large number of research ideas were generat-
ed during the workshop. These ideas included deter-
mining the health risks associated with handling dia-
pers, developing methods for improving the recyclabi-
lity of plastics used  in diapers, determining  where
diaper-related life cycle analysis should begin and end,
and determining the economic viability of composting.

Keywords:  'Recycling,  'Environmental  pollutants,
'Meetings, Plastics, Health hazards, Composting, Life
cycles, 'Diaper industry.
PB9M91270/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Critical Health Issues Associated with Review of
the Scientific Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen. Sym-
posium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Environmental Criteria  and  Assessment
Office
D. J. Kotchmar, B. M. Comfort, and R. W. Elias. Jun 90,
18p EPA/600/D-91 /093, ECAO-R-0386
Presented at the Annual Meeting of Air and Waste
Management Association (83rd), Pittsburgh, PA., June
24-29,1990.

The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires periodic  review of ex-
isting criteria that form the basis for nitrogen oxides air
quality  standards. These  air quality criteria are to re-
flect the latest scientific information useful indicating
the kind and extent of all  identifiable effects on public
health that may be expected from the presence of ni-
trogen  oxides in ambient air. In keeping with the re-
quirements of the  CAA, the U.S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency is  reviewing the criteria  for nitrogen
oxides. During the initial  review,  a number of critical
issues germane to the review were identified and are
presented here. Additional session papers provide
more detailed discussion of these issues. The paper
discusses specific  health  issues pertaining to: (1)
mechanisms of action of nitrogen oxides;  (2) exposure
52     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
assessment; and (3) specific health effects occurring
in groups of individuals considered to be at greatest
risk to nitrogen oxides at ambient or near-ambient ex-
posure levels.

Keywords:    'Public    health,    *Air    pollution
effects(Humans),   *Risk   assessment,   'Nitrogen
oxides, Air pollution standards, Air quality, Exposure,
Pollution regulations, Reviews, Immunology, Respira-
tory infections, Children, Inhalation, Absorption, Respi-
ratory system, Epidemiology,  Respiratory diseases,
Clean Air Act.
PB91-191288/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Multimedia  Risk Assessment  for  Environmental
Risk Management.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental  Criteria and Assessment
Office.
S. D. Lee. Oct 89,19p EPA/600/D-91 /092, ECAO-R-
0375

Through the  combined experience of industrialized na-
tions during the last two to three decades of environ-
mental protection, the authors have gained a critical
recognition of the limitations of the natural resources
(air, water and land) around us. The authors have seen
a  continued  rapid industrial development during the
last 30-40 years; however, the authors have witnessed
previous mistakes of industrialized countries being re-
peated. Such mistakes have resulted in overwhelming
environmental deficits. These  environmental  debts
became very obvious in many forms: the air in many in-
dustrial zones became so dirty it was deemed un-
healthy; many lakes and rivers became too polluted for
recreational  use; and pesticides and other agricultural
chemicals were exerting adverse effects on wildlife. In
order to manage such crises, governmental agencies
were established throughout the world to control envi-
ronmental problems.  In the United States, Congress
enacted a series of laws  to clean up the pollution.
These accomplishments were very significant in light
of a tremendous increase in population and economic
growth during the same period. However, through our
experience  in approaches to remove contaminants
from individual environmental media, the authors have
come to recognize that we must accord more attention
to cross-media approaches for controlling our pollution
problems. Selected examples of current efforts in pre-
vention oriented multimedia risk  assessment and risk
management will be discussed to emphasize the need
for enhanced efforts in the area.

Keywords: 'Risk assessment, 'Environment manage-
ment, 'Pollution control, 'Pollution abatement, Reme-
dial  action.  Environmental protection, Cost effective-
ness, Forecasting, Technology utilization, Information
transfer, US EPA, Environmental impact assessments.
Cleanup operations.


PB91-191296/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Communicating  Risk  Information  to  State  and
Local Air  Pollution  Control  Agencies via U.S.
EPA's Air  Risk  Information Support  Center (Air
RISC). Symposium presentation.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park,  NC.  Environmental Criteria  and  Assessment
Office.
W. Victery, K. Blanchard, and D. J. Guth. Jun 89,10p
 EPA/600/D-91 /091, ECAO-R-0311
 Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution
 Control Association (82nd), Anaheim, CA., June 25-30,
 1989.

 The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) has
 been organized by U.S. EPA's  offices of Air Quality
 Planning and Standards and Health and Environmen-
 tal Assessment. The center has been developed in co-
 operation with the State and Territorial Air Pollution
 Control Program Administrators and the Association of
 Local Air Pollution Control Officials. These officials are
 encouraged to contact Air RISC for assistance in ob-
 taining health, exposure and risk assessment informa-
 tion on toxic air pollutants. Questions may be tele-
 phoned in via a Hotline and are referred to an appropri-
 ate EPA expert who will attempt to provide the infor-
 mation requested.  EPA Health Assessment Docu-
 ments, risk information databases, and other appropri-
 ate sources are  used  to provide rapid, scientifically-
 valid information. Technical assistance (defined as
 more in-depth review of a particular air toxics problem)
 is also provided, typically when there is no existing
 health documentation on a particular air toxic or when
 the requesting office needs assistance in reviewing
risk assessment information provided to it. When there
is a demonstrated need, Air RISC will provide technical
guidance in the form of documents and workshops on
health risk assessment methodology and toxicology.
In each of these forms of assistance, it is anticipated
that valuable lines of  communication will be estab-
lished between air toxics control officials and the EPA
staff involved in the program.

Keywords:  'Risk assessment, 'Information transfer,
'Air pollution effects(Humans), Air quality, Air pollution
standards,  Public  health, environmental  impact  as-
sessments,  Cooperation  agreements,   Exposure,
Technology utilization, State government, Toxic sub-
stances, 'Air Risk Information Support Center.
PB91-191304/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Critical Health Issues Associated with Review of
the Scientific Criteria for Carbon Monoxide. Sym-
posium presentation.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.  Environmental  Criteria and Assessment
Office.
J. A. Raub, and L D. Grant. Jun 89,18p EPA/600/D-
91/090.ECAO-R-0308
Presented at the Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the
Air and Waste Management Association (82nd), Ana-
heim, CA., June 25-30,1989.

The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires periodic review of ex-
isting criteria that form the basis for carbon monoxide
(CO) air quality standards. These air quality criteria are
to reflect the latest scientific information useful in indi-
cating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on
public health that may be expected from the presence
of CO in ambient air. In keeping with the requirements
of the CAA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
has started to review the criteria for CO. A number of
critical issues germane to  the review are presented.
Additional session papers  provide more detailed dis-
cussion of these issues. The paper discusses specific
health issues pertaining to: (1) mechanisms of action
of CO, particularly an evaluation of intracellular mecha-
nisms secondary to impaired oxygen delivery caused
by the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb); (2) ex-
posure assessment, including an evaluation of the ac-
curacy and reliability of different methods for determin-
ing COHb;  and (3) specific health effects occurring in
groups of individuals considered to be at greatest risk
to CO at ambient or near-ambient exposure levels in-
cluding a  reevaluation of previous dose-response
functions for CO utilizing the information gained from
recently completed studies. These critical issues will
need to be resolved in order to determine the extent to
which adverse effects are occurring in the population,
particularly at the lower COHb levels of greatest inter-
est to standard setting.

Keywords: 'Air pollution standards, 'Air quality, 'Air
pollution effects(Humans),  'Carbon monoxide, 'Public
health, Exposure, Dose-response relationship,  Car-
boxyhemoglobin,  Anoxia, Risk assessment, Behavior
disorders, Nervous system disorders, Quality control,
 Pollution regulations, Biological effects, Epidemiology,
Toxicity, Cardiovascular system, 'National Ambient Air
 Quality Standards, Clean Air Act.


 PB91-191312/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 MOBILE4  Sensitivity Analysis.  Final rept. Apr 90-
 Mar91.
 Alliance Technologies Corp., Chapel Hill, NC.
 M. G. Smith, and T. T.  Wilson. Apr 91,46p EPA/600/8-
 91/032
 Contract EPA-68-D9-0173
 Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC.  Air and Energy Engineering
 Research Lab.

 The report identifies the MOBILE4 input variables that
 can have significant impacts on highway vehicle emis-
 sions inventories and gives priorities for the develop-
 ment of improved guidance for specifying MOBILE4
 inputs. Two major factors are considered:  (1) the likeli-
 hood and potential range of variability in values for
 each MOBILE4 input; and (2) the potential magnitude
 of the effect of these variations, in terms of impact on
 typical mobile source inventories. The analysis up-
 dates previous work based  on  MOBILES by using
 MOBILE4 for the sensitivity  analysis and by adding
 new MOBILE4 variables. The approach used in previ-
 ous work is modified to address the specific concerns
 of the project-the State  Implementation Plan (SIP)
and National Emissions Data System (NEDS) invento-
ry/guidance context. An additional level of detail is in-
cluded for two critical variables (speed and tempera-
ture).  Sensitivity to basic vehicle inspection/mainte-
nance program specifications (waiver and compliance
rate) is also considered. The primary sensitivity analy-
sis is  structured around two base cases representing
ozone and carbon monoxide (C) season conditions.
The  report describes:  (1) MOBILE4  input variable
values for the ozone and CO base cases, (2) the varia-
bles and ranges or alternate values applied in the sen-
sitivity analysis, (3) sensitivity analysis  results, and (4)
conclusions.

Keywords: 'Mathematical models, 'Highway transpor-
tation, 'Ozone, 'Carbon monoxide, 'Emission factors,
Vehicular traffic,  Air pollution, Air pollution  control,
Analyzing,  Graphs(Charts),  Tables(Data), Velocity,
Temperature,  Maintenance,  Inspection,  'MOBILE4
model, 'Sensitivity analysis.
 PB91-191320/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 EMAP Monitor, January 1991 Edition.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Modeling, Monitoring Systems and Quality
 Assurance.
 C. G. Saint, P. Kellar, and A. Beach. Jun 91,26p EPA/
 600/M-90/022

 EMAP is a complex and diverse program that requires
 efficient communications to ensure continuity and con-
 sistency in the program and to avoid duplication. The
 Monitor is a regularly published document intended to
 provide an efficient and effective tool for EMAP man-
 agers to communicate the status and progress of the
 program to EPA and the scientific community and to
 transfer technical  information to a  broad  audience.
 The first edition of the EMAP Monitor contains a fea-
 ture article on the EMAP Near Coastal Demonstration
 Project in  the Mid Atlantic region  preformed in  the
 spring and summer of 1990. It also contains a summa-
 ry of the current activities of all EMAP components, a
 listing of  recent publication and presentations,  and
 recent and upcoming events.

 Keywords: 'Environmental monitoring, 'Environmen-
 tal impact assessments,  'Information transfer, Estu-
 aries, US  EPA, Listings, Quality assurance, Quality
 control, Technology  transfer, Management planning,
 Data processing, Natural resources management, Re-
 search and development, Integration,  Coordination,
 'Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program,
 Total Quality Management.
 PB91-191338/REB                PC A05/MF A01
 State Revolving Fund (SRF)  Interim  Report to
 Congress: Financial  Status and  Operations of
 Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Apr 91,95p EPA/430/09-9/004
 See also PB88-169784.

 The Report presents findings in the following areas:
 funding  needs for the nine study States, the available
 sources of funding, the financing mechanisms used to
 meet their needs, how the States administer the SRF
 program, and the impacts of implementing the SRF
 program. The SRF program is a significant step in re-
 storing  responsibility for financing wastewater treat-
 ment from the Federal government to the States and
 municipalities.

 Keywords: 'Water pollution  control, 'Sewage treat-
 ment, Funds, Financing, State government, Congres-
 sional inquiries, Grants, Local government, National
 government,  Operating, Financial assistance, Water
 quality  management,   State  implementation plans,
 Comparison,   Standards  compliance,  'Revolving
 funds, Clean Water Act,  Publicly owned wastewater
 treatment works.
  PB91-191346/REB               PC A10/MF A02
  Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
  Reduction Engineering Lab.
  Factors Controlling Minimum  Soil  Liner  Thick-
  ness.
  Brown (K.W.) and Associates, Inc., College Station,
  TX.
  D. C. Anderson, M. J. Lupo, J. A. Rehage, J. 0. Sai,
  and R. L. Shiver. May 91,223p EPA/600/2-91/008
  Contract EPA-68-03-1816
                                                                                                                                  Sept 1991     53

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Prepared in cooperation with Texas A and M Univ.,
College Station. Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences, and
Texas Univ. at Austin. Dept. of Civil Engineering. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,
OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The report describes a three-part study to gather infor-
mation on liquid flow through soil liners in hazardous
waste disposal facilities. In the first part of the study a
model  was developed to  simulate flow  occurring
through discreet channels in lifts (a layer of compacted
soil)  and in the horizontal  layer between lifts. The
model  indicated that high overall field hydraulic con-
ductivity values may result from horizontal flow be-
tween lifts.  In the second part of the study, laboratory
tests  using  large  60-cm-diameter  permeameters
showed that the conductivity to  water typically  in-
creased by one order of magnitude with depth in a 23-
cm-thick  lift of compacted  clay. Clod sizes  ranging
from 2.5 to 7.5-cm had little influence on the hydraulic
conductivity. Exposure of the compacted soil to the at-
mosphere for as little as 24 hr resulted in severe crack-
ing and associated high conductivities resulting from
flow  through the desiccation cracks. Bulk density was
a poor predictor of the conductivity of a compacted
soil.  Dye patterns in the permeameters also indicated
flow  through  preferential channels  and  inter-clod
spaces. In the third part, field studies of a 3-lift liner re-
vealed that horizontal flow does indeed occur at the
interface between the lifts when channels penetrate
the overlying lift.

Keywords:  'Land pollution control, 'Linings,  'Waste
disposal, 'Hazardous materials, 'Dimensional meas-
urement, Soil mechanics, Mathematical  models, Per-
formance standards, Fluid flow,  Design criteria, Infor-
mation systems, Strength, Leakage, Channel flow, In-
formation transfer, Experimental design. Field tests,
Soil  compacting, Soil properties, Fluid infiltration, Hy-
draulic conductivity, Thickness.


PB91-191353/REB               PCA11/MFA02
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Background  Hydrocarbon Vapor Concentration
Study for Underground Fuel Storage Tanks. Final
rept
Geoscience Consultants Ltd., Albuquerque, NM.
P. B Durgin.Jun 91,228p EPA/600/4-91/009
Contract EPA-68-03-3409
Sponsored by  Environmental  Monitoring  Systems
Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

The project was initiated to investigate the effective-
ness of soil gas sampling in leak  detection. Soil gas
surveys were performed at 27 active gasoline service
stations in three diverse geographic regions. Hydrocar-
bon vapor concentrations in the backfill surrounding
the  underground storage tanks were sampled and
analyzed. The 27 gasoline service stations were se-
lected as non-leaking sites and the three regions were
selected for their active underground storage tank reg-
ulatory programs, as well as their differences in geolo-
gy, hydrology arid climate. A comparison was made
with contaminated site data obtained from Tracer Re-
search Corporation's historical records and significant
differences can be seen between the two distributions.
 It was determined that the best  approximation of total
hydrocarbon  (less light aliphatics)  concentrations,
based on available calibration data,  was  achieved
using  average response factor calculated  from the
daily response factors of benzene, toluene, ethylben-
 zene, and ortho-xylene.

 Keywords: 'Soil gases, 'Land pollution, 'Underground
 storage, 'Storage tanks. 'Hydrocarbons, Fuel storage,
 Soil contamination, Gas analysis,  Sampling, Leakage,
 Quality assurance, Quality control. Climates,  Hydrolo-
 gy, Geological surveys. Environmental transport. Serv-
 ice  stations,  Pollution regulations, Pollution abate-
 ment,     Site      surveys,     Case      studies,
 Concentration(Composition), Comparison.
PB91-191361/REB                PC A14/MF A02
Risk Assessment and Risk Management Journal
article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
M. A. Mehlman, and S. D. Lutkenhoff. c1989,304p
EPA/600/J-89/525, ISBN-0-911131-98-1
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Industrial Health, v5 n5
352p 1989 (Special Issue). Library of Congress catalog
card no. 89-060644.
                                                  Risk assessment of mixtures of environmental pollut-
                                                  ants has become a subject of increasing public and
                                                  regulatory concern. Typically, assessment of mixtures
                                                  has been based on aggregating the risks associated
                                                  with the individual constituents of the mixture. This ap-
                                                  proach does not consider the potential synergistic and
                                                  antagonistic effects of the components, and does not
                                                  incorporate the risk associated with unidentified con-
                                                  stituents or constituents for which the individual risks
                                                  are not known. On June 7-9, 1988 the U.S. Environ-
                                                  mental Protection Agency (EPA) held an 'International
                                                  Symposium on Chemical Mixtures: Risk Assessment
                                                  and Management' in Cincinnati, OH, to provide a forum
                                                  where  critical issues concerning assessment of mix-
                                                  tures could be presented and discussed. Approximate-
                                                  ly 200 scientists attended, representing  a wide variety
                                                  of disciplines, institutions,  and  countries. During the
                                                  two-and-one-half days of the symposium, leaders in
                                                  the multidisciplinary field of risk assessment presented
                                                  state-of-the-art approaches and techniques for quanti-
                                                  fying the potential health risks from exposure to chemi-
                                                  cal mixtures. They also addressed current knowledge
                                                  in the various disciplines of risk assessment, as well as
                                                  recent developments in sources of exposure, pharma-
                                                  cology, and toxicology. The symposium was dedicated
                                                  to the memory of Dr. Jerry Strata, founder and director
                                                  of the EPA Environmental Criteria and Assessment
                                                  Office.

                                                  Keywords:  'Risk assessment, 'Meetings, 'Chemical
                                                  compounds,  'Environmental  surveys,  'Toxic sub-
                                                  stances, 'Health surveys, State of the  art, Exposure,
                                                  Toxicology, Public health, Mixtures, Bioassay, Occupa-
                                                  tional safety and health, Biological effects, Laboratory
                                                  animals, Exhaust emissions. Industrial medicine, Reg-
                                                  ulations.
                                                  PB91-191379/REB                PC A03/MF A01
                                                  New Approaches in the Derivation of Acceptable
                                                  Daily Intake (ADI). Journal article.
                                                  Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
                                                  vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
                                                  M. L. Dourson. C1986,16p EPA/600/J-86/554
                                                  Pub. in Comments Toxicology, v1 n1 p35-48 1986.

                                                  Current methods for estimating human health risks
                                                  from exposure to threshold-acting toxicants in water or
                                                  food, such as those established by the U.S. EPA, the
                                                  FDA, the NAS, the WHO and the FAp, consider only
                                                  chronic or lifetime exposure to individual chemicals.
                                                  These methods generally estimate a single, constant
                                                  daily intake rate which is low enough to be considered
                                                  safe or acceptable. The intake rate is termed the ac-
                                                  ceptable daily intake (ADI). Two problems with the ap-
                                                  proach have been recognized. The first problem is that
                                                  the method does not readily account for the number of
                                                  animals used  to determine the appropriate  'no-qb-
                                                  served-effect-level' (NOEL). The second problem with
                                                  the current approach is that the slope of the dose-re-
                                                  sponse curve of the critical toxic effect is generally ig-
                                                  nored in estimating the ADI. The report illustrates both
                                                  a revised  approach to  estimate ADIs with all toxicity
                                                  data  which includes methods  for partial  lifetime as-
                                                  sessment, and novel methods for ADI estimation with
                                                  quanta! or continuous toxicity data. The latter method
                                                  addresses to a degree the common problems with the
                                                  current approach.

                                                  Keywords: 'Caloric intake, 'Health hazards, 'Toxicity,
                                                  Water contamination, Food contamination, Mathemati-
                                                  cal models,  Dose-response relationships, Reprints,
                                                   'Acceptable Daily Intake.
PB91-191387/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Leachate Collection in Landfills: Steady Case.
Journal article.
Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicks-
burg, MS.
B. M. McEnroe, and P. R. Schroeder. c1988,8p EPA/
600/J-88/566
Pub. in  Jnl.  of Environmental Engineering, v114  n5
p1052-1062  Oct 88.  Prepared  in  cooperation with
Kansas  Univ., Lawrence. Dept  of Civil Engineering.
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The paper analyzes the performance of landfill leach-
ate collection systems with low-permeability soil liners
under steady-state  conditions.  Algebraic equations
and graphs are presented for predicting the average
arid maximum saturated depth on the liner, the loca-
tion of the maximum saturated depth, and the leakage
                                                  rate. The equations and graphs are developed from
                                                  numerical solutions of the governing differential equa-
                                                  tion. Some surprisingly simple relationships are shown
                                                  to be applicable over much of the practical range. In
                                                  general, saturated depth over the liner is sensitive to
                                                  four parameters: the liner slope, the drainage length or
                                                  drain  spacing, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of
                                                  the drain layer, and the difference between the im-
                                                  pingement rate on the liner and the liner's hydraulic
                                                  conductivity. Under normal conditions, leakage  rate is
                                                  sensitive only to the hydraulic conductivity of the liner.
                                                  Within the practical range, liner  thickness has little
                                                  effect on either saturated depth or leakage rate.

                                                  Keywords: 'Earth fills,  'Leachates,  'Linings, 'Leak-
                                                  age, Subsurface drainage,  Ground water, Mathemati-
                                                  cal models, Stabilization, Hydraulic conductivity, Envi-
                                                  ronmental transport, Reprints.
PB91-191395/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Field Verification of HELP  Model for Landfills.
Journal article.
Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicks-
burg, MS. Environmental Lab.
R. L. Peyton, and P. R. Schroeder. C1988,14p EPA/
600/J-88/567
Pub. in Jnl. of the Environmental Engineering, v114 n2
p247-269  Apr 88. Prepared in cooperation with Mis-
souri Univ.-Columbia. Dept. of Civil Engineering. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,
OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

Long-term simulations of 17  landfill cells from six sites
are  performed  using  the  Hydrologic  Evaluation of
Landfill Performance (HELP) computer model. Results
are compared with field data from a variety of landfills
to verify the model and to identify shortcomings. The
sites are located in California, Kentucky, and Wiscon-
sin. Since site data are not  available for some of the
model input parameters, default values are used in
many instances. It is found that model predictions are
generally  bracketed  by field measurements.  Good
agreement between the predictions and  measure-
ments is obtained by calibrating the hydraulic conduc-
tivity of the cover materials while staying within the
range of hydraulic conductivity values reported in the
literature for these materials. The results indicate that
the HELP model can be a very useful tool for designing
and evaluating landfills.

Keywords: 'Hydrology, 'Earth fills, Performance eval-
uation, Hydraulic  conductivity, Mathematical models,
Sites,  Runoff,  Evapotranspiration,  Water balance,
Drainage, Soil water, Field tests, California, Kentucky,
Wisconsin, Leachate.


PB91-191403/REB               PC A03/MF A01
International Approaches to  Developing  Stand-
ards for Noncriteria Pollutants. Symposium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental  Criteria  and Assessment
Office.
S. D. Lee, and J. M. Kawecki. 1988,17p EPA/600/J-
88/568, ECAO-R-0127
Pub. in Toxic  Air Pollutant Guidelines:  Review of
Recent Progress and Problems, p45-56. Presented at
the  American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH., 1988.

Much of the initial interest in the control of pollutants,
both in the United States and abroad, focused on such
'traditional'  pollutants as  sulfur dioxide, paniculate
matter, Total Suspended Particulate (JSP) and partic-
ulate  matter,  nitrogen oxides, carbon  monoxide,
ozone, and lead.  While there is still substantial room
for progress in the control of some of the criteria pollut-
ants, substantial  progress has been made in under-
standing the impact of these pollutants and in regulat-
ing most of them. At the same time, another new group
of pollutants has come to the forefront of the scientific
and regulatory community.  These  non-criteria pollut-
ants include organic compounds such as chlorinated
organics,  dioxins, aldehydes, and  polycyclic organic
compounds, as well as heavy metals such as cadmium
and mercury. For many of the uncommon noncriteria
pollutants, relatively little is known  about their effects
on health and the environment, and many of the po-
tential effects could take decades to emerge. Similarly,
 ambient air emissions of many of these substances
 have not been systematically regulated in the past. Be-
 cause most of the elevated  exposures to these chemi-
54     Vol. 91,  No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
cals were thought  to occur  only in the workplace,
widely divergent  controls and regulations were en-
acted. Now that  one realizes the pervasiveness of
these pollutants in the ambient environment, they are
grappling with ways to assess safe exposure levels to
them.  Cadmium  is  presented as an  example of a
standard-setting approach used to regulate noncriteria
pollutants.

Keywords: 'Air pollution standards, *Cadmium, 'Plan-
ning, 'Standards, Air pollution, Toxic substances, Air
pollution control,  Organic compounds, Metals, Expo-
sure,  Reprints,  'Noncriteria air pollutants,  World
Health Organization.
PB91-191411/REB               PCA03/MFA01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Combustion Control  of  Organic Emissions from
Municipal Waste Combustors. Journal  article Oct
88-Aug 89.
Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Durham,
NC.
J. D. Kilgroe, L. P. Nelson, P. J. Schindler, and W. S.
Lanier. C1990,24p EPA/600/J-90/480
Contract EPA-68-03-3365
Pub. in  Combustion Science  and Technology, v74
p223-244 1990.  Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and
Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The article (1) identifies specific  combustion  condi-
tions which are postulated to lead to  low emission of
organics-components  of  good combustion practice
(GCP), (2) summarizes experimental  correlations be-
tween GCP components and organic emissions, and
(3) briefly discusses strategies for applying GCP to
ensure continuous control of organic emissions. Back-
ground information on chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
and -furan (CDD/CDF) formation theories is also pre-
sented and additional  research needed to establish
the effectiveness of combustion strategies for control
of municipal waste combustor (MWC) organic emis-
sions is discussed. (NOTE: GCP is defined as combus-
tion conditions which lead to low emissions of trace or-
ganic  pollutants.)  CDD/CDF are some of the most
widely studied organic compounds of environmental
concern.  EPA has announced that it intends to pro-
pose new rules  for control of MWC air emissions.
Technical background studies for these rules consid-
ered the control of CDD/CDF as a surrogate for con-
trolling emission of 'MWC organics.' These studies on
the control of CDD/CDF from  MWC facilities provide
useful information on strategies for controlling total or-
ganic emissions from combustion sources.

Keywords:  'Air  pollution  abatement,  'Municipal
wastes,  'Waste disposal, 'Organic compounds, 'In-
cineration, Combustion efficiency, Performance eval-
uation,  Information  transfer,  Pollution  regulations,
Dioxins, Furans,  Reprints.
PB91-191429/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Control of PCDD/PCDF Emissions  from Refuse-
Derived Fuel Combustors. Journal article.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
J. D. Kilgroe, T. G. Brna, A. Finkelstein, and R. Klicius.
C1990, 9p EPA/600/J-90/481
Pub. in Chemosphere, v20 n10-12 p1809-1815 1990.
Prepared in cooperation with Environment Canada,
Ottawa (Ontario).

The paper presents preliminary results of performance
tests conducted at the Mid-Connecticut  Refuse-de-
rived Fuel  Facility in  February 1989.  Objectives  of
these tests were to evaluate the effects of combustion
and flue gas cleaning process conditions on air pollu-
tion emissions and residue properties. A cursory analy-
sis  of test results support the following tentative con-
clusions: (1) Combustor emissions of CO and PCDD/
PCDF as measured at the SDA inlet were sensitive to
the amount and distribution of OFA. Combustion air
distributions which result in  poor  mixing and low
excess air  margins are believed to  be the primary
causes of increased CO emissions. (2) PCDD/PCDF
stack emissions of < 0.40 nanpgram/standard cubic
meter were achieved at the Mid-Connecticut  Facility
when good operating conditions were maintained on
both the combustion and FGC processes. (3) FF outlet
concentrations of  PCDD/PCDF depend on SDA/FF
operating conditions. The lowest emissions were asso-
ciated with  medium to low gas temperatures at the
SDA outlet, while the SDA lime slurry flow rate was set
to provide medium to low SO2 concentrations at the
FF outlet.

Keywords: 'Refuse derived fuels, 'Air pollution con-
trol, 'Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, 'Polychlorinated
dibenzofurans, 'Combustion products, Waste utiliza-
tion,    Flue    gas,    Performance    evaluation,
Concentration(Composition), Air pollution sampling,
Calcium  oxides,  Carbon  monoxide, Sulfur  dioxide,
Dioxins, Furans, Reprints, Overfire air.
PB91-191437/REB               PC A03/MF A01
EPA's Control Technology Approach to Assisting
States and Regions with Air Toxics  Problems:
Five Case Studies. Journal article Jan 87-Apr 88.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
S. L. Nolen, and W. F. Dimmick. c1990,13p EPA/600/
J-90/482
Pub. in Toxicology and Industrial Health, v6 n5 p257-
2671990.

The paper discusses a new U.S. strategy to  reduce
public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient
air.  The strategy calls for state and local authorities to
take on more of the lead regulatory role. The  shift in
emphasis and responsibility prompted EPA's  Offices
of Research and Development (ORD) and Air  Quality
Planning  and Standards (OAQPS) to develop and im-
plement an innovative technical assistance program,
called the Control Technology Center (CTC). It has
since been expanded to include technical assistance
in the areas of control of air toxics, particulate  matter,
and volatile organic  compounds (VOCs); emission
measurements;  and other areas  where expertise is
available  to ORD and OAQPS. Available through the
CTC are three categories of technical assistance: tele-
phone HOTLINE calls, direct engineering  assistance,
and technical guidance projects. The CTC HOTLINE is
a special  telephone number that state and local agen-
cies can  call for easy access to EPA personnel who
can provide prompt  assistance. Engineering  assist-
ance projects require more in-depth engineering analy-
sis; these projects are short-term (less than 3 months)
and specific in  nature. Technical guidance projects
result from  problems identified by  more than one
agency; they are longer-term and of national interest.
The paper discusses five CTC projects to illustrate the
assistance provided.

Keywords:  'Air pollution control,  'Toxic substances,
'Information transfer, Case studies, Particles, Volatile
organic compounds, US EPA, State  government, Air
pollution  abatement, Regional analysis, Research and
development. Technology  utilization, Permits, Strip-
ping, Plastics, Reprints, 'Control Technology Center.
PB91-191445/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Bench-Scale Evaluation of Calcium Sprbents for
Acid Gas Emission Control. Journal article Oct 88-
Mar 89.
Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
W. Jozewicz, J. C. S. Chang, and C. B. Sedman.
C1990, 8p EPA/600/J-90/483
Contract EPA-68-02-4701
Pub. in Environmental Progress, v9  n3 p137-142 Aug
90. See also PB89-221352. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper gives results of an evaluation of calcium
sorbents for acid gas emission control for  effective-
ness in removing SO2/HCI and SO2/NOx from simu-
lated incinerator and  boiler flue gases. All tests were
conducted in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor simulat-
ing fabric filter conditions in an acid gas removal proc-
ess. Reagent grade Ca(OH)2 was  used to establish
baseline sorbent performance. The reactivity of rea-
gent grade Ca(OH)2 with HCI from SO2/HC1 mixtures
gradually increased with decreasing  approach to satu-
ration  temperature.  SO2 reactivity  toward Ca(OH)2
was very  sensitive to approach to  saturation.  Novel
calcium silicate sorbents were tested for reactivity with
both SO2  and HCI. A thermal window for optimum NOx
removal was found at 90 C when Ca(OH)2 was used at
SO2/NO  ratios of 1:1. Reactivity of Ca(OH)2 toward
S02 from SO2/NO mixtures was very sensitive to ap-
proach to saturation, while reactivity with NO was in-
sensitive.  Several additives were subsequently tested
to determine optimum sorbent combinations for SO2/
NO control. To date, the most promising additives are
Mg(OH)2  and Na2HPO4 at 10 mo! % concentrations.
As with SO2/HCI, calcium silicate has been shown to
be superior for SO2/NO capture. Some implications
for larger-scale process configurations and sorbent se-
lection for HCI/SO2/NO control are discussed.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Flue gases,  'Sor-
bents, 'Calcium hydroxides, Boilers, Incinerators, Per-
formance evaluation, Fabric filters, Comparison, Base-
line measurements, Additives, Sulfur dioxide, Hydro-
chloric acid, Nitrogen oxide(NO), Reprints.
PB91-191452/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Fish Consumption Advisories: Toward a Unified,
Scientifically Credible Approach. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
M. L. Dourson, and J. M. Clark. C1990,19p EPA/600/
J-90/484
Pub. in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 12,
p161-178 1990.

A model is proposed for fish consumption advisories
based on consensus-derived risk assessment values
for common contaminants in fish and the latest risk as-
sessment methods. The model accounts in part for the
expected tpxicity to mixtures of chemicals, the underly-
ing uncertainties in the health and exposure data, and
the amount of contaminated fish consumed. Applica-
tion of the model to a larger number of chemicals is
possible. Noncancer  toxicity is used as an example,
but this model is applicable for risks from cancer as
well. A second related model is proposed that is useful
for comparing potential  risks among sites (e.g., rivers
and lakes). (Copyright (c) 1990 Academy Press, Inc.)

Keywords:  'Fishing  industry,  'Toxicology,  'Health
hazards, 'Food contamination, Models, Risk assess-
ment,  Food  consumption, Graphs(Charts),  Public
health. Toxic  substances, Cancer, Contaminants,  Cri-
teria.
 PB91-191460/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Evaluation of Landfill-Liner Designs. Journal arti-
 cle.
 Missouri Univ.-Columbia. Dept. of Civil Engineering.
 R. L. Peyton, and P. R. Schroeder. c1990,11 p EPA/
 600/J-90/485
 Pub. in Jnl. of Environmental Engineering, v116 n3
 p421-437 May/Jun 90. Prepared in cooperation with
 Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicks-
 burg, MS.  Sponsored  by Environmental  Protection
 Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
 Lab.

 The effectiveness of landfill-liner designs is evaluated
 in terms of the slope, drainage length,  and saturated
 hydraulic conductivity of the lateral  drainage layer, the
 saturated hydraulic conductivity  of the  soil  liner, and
 the fraction of the area under a  synthetic liner where
 leakage is occurring. The  evaluation  is  performed
 using Version 1 of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill
 Performance  (HELP) model. The effectiveness is
 quantified by comparing the lateral drainage rate to the
 vertical percolation rate expressed as percentages of
 the total inflow. The two multiple-liner systems speci-
 fied in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments
 (HSWA) minimum technology guidance are shown to
 have different  leakage-detection characteristics. One
 system detects significant leakage before leakage per-
 colates out of the landfill, whereas the other system
 detects leakage only after significant leakage perco-
 lates out of the landfill. Four other designs were also
 examined-two  with single liners  and two with double
 liners. The two HSWA designs  detected leakage at
 lower synthetic-liner-leakage fractions, but all designs
 with composite liners were nearly equally effective in
 reducing leakage from landfills.  (Copyright (c)  1990,
 ASCE.)

 Keywords: 'Linings, 'Earth  fills,  'Land  pollution con-
 trol, 'Hazardous materials,  "Waste disposal, Design
 criteria, Performance evaluation, Hydraulic conductivi-
 ty, Leakage, Mathematical models. Soil compacting,
 Subsurface  drainage. Membranes, Slope, Reprints,
 Geosynthetic  materials,  Hydrologic  Evaluation  of
 Landfill Performance Model.
 PB91-191478/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research  Lab.,  Ada,
 OK.
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991    55

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Production and Transport of Carbon Dioxide in a
 Contaminated Vadose Zone: A Stable and Radio-
 active Carbon Isotope Study. Journal article.
 Arizona  Univ., Tucson. Environmental  Radioisotope
 Center,
 K. H. Suchoi lei, A. Long, and D. K. Kreamer. C1990,
 10p EPA/600/J-90/486
 Grant EPA-R-812583
 Pub. in Environmental  Science and Technology, v24
 n12 P1824-1831 1990. Prepared in cooperation with
 Nevada  Univ. System,  Las Vegas. Water Resources
 Center. Sponsored by  Robert S. Kerr Environmental
 Research Lab., Ada, OK.

 Analyses of soil gas compositions and stable and ra-
 dioactive carbon isotopes in the vadose zone  above
 an alluvial aquifer were conducted at an organic sol-
 vent disposal site in southeast Phoenix, AZ. The study
 investigated the source and movement of carbon diox-
 ide above a plume of organic solvent contamination.
 Two soil gas monitor wells, each screened and grout-
 ed at four discrete depths above the water table, pro-
 vided sampling access. One well penetrated the un-
 contaminated vadose zone, the other penetrated  a
 contaminated area now covered with asphalt. Carbon
 dioxide concentrations in the  uncontaminated area
 range from 1.45% at 8 ft to 3% at 19 ft below land sur-
 face. Isotopic evidence suggests root respiration and
 minor oxidation of  organic matter as C02 sources at
 this site. Carbon dioxide in soil gas samples from the
 contaminated area exceeded 15% while O2  levels
 were as low as 1%. Carbon dioxide concentrations
 and carbon isotope values are consistent with  in situ
 aerobic  biodegradation of the organic  pollutants.
 (Copyright (c) 1990 American Chemical Society.)

 Keywords: 'Water  pollution, 'Vadose water, 'Path of
 pollutants,  * Isotopic   labeling,  'Tracer  studies,
 Aquifers, Carbon dioxide. Organic solvent, Waste dis-
 posal, Biodeterioration, Aerobic processes, Volatile or-
 ganic compounds. Environmental transport, Biological
 indicators, Reprints, 'Soil gases.
 PB91-191486/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Ozone Concentration and Pulmonary Response
 Relationships  for  6.6-Hour Exposures with  Five
 Hours of Moderate Exercise to 0.08,0.10, and 0.12
 PPM. Journal article.
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Clinical Research Branch.
 D. H. Horstman, L. J. Folinsbee, P. J. Ives, S. A.
 Salaam, and W. F. McDonnell. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-
 90/487
 Pub. in American Review of Respiratory Disease, v142
 n5 p1158-1163 Nov 90.

 The magnitudes of pulmonary responses the authors
 previously observed (1) following 6.6-h  exposure to
 0.12 ppm ozone (OS) suggested that responses would
 also occur with similar exposures at lower O3 concen-
 trations. The objective of the study was to determine
 the extent of pulmonary function decrements, respira-
 tory discomfort, and increased airway  reactivity to
 methacholine induced  by exposure to O3 below 0.12
 ppm. Separate 6.6-h chamber exposures to 0.00,0.08,
 0.10, and 0.12 ppm O3 included six 50-min periods of
 moderate exercise (VE =  39 L/min, HR  = 115 bpm,
 and VO2 = 1.5 L/min). Each exercise period was fol-
 lowed by 10 min of rest A 35-min lunch break was in-
 cluded midway through the exposure. Although not in-
 tended as an exact simulation, the overall duration, in-
 tensity,  and metabolic requirements of the exercise
 performed were representative of a day of moderate to
 heavy work or play. Preexposure FEV,  averaged 4.39
 L, and essentially no change (+0.03 L) occurred with
exposure to  0.00 ppm  O3. Significant decreases
 (p<0.01) of -0.31, -0.30, and -0.54 L were observed
with exposures to 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm, respec-
tively. The  study concludes that exposure to O3 at
levels often found in ambient air while engaged in ac-
tivity representative  of a typical day of  moderate to
 heavy work or play induced clinically meaningful pul-
monary responses.

Keywords:   'Ozone,   'Exercise,  'Air   pollution
effects(Humans), Dose-response relationships, Respi-
ratory function tests, Airway resistance. Exposure, Sta-
tistical analysis, Signs and symptoms. Reprints.
PB91-191494/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Mechanisms  of  Inorganic  Particle  Formation
 during Suspension Heating of Simulated Aqueous
 Wastes. Journal article.
 Massachusetts Inst.  of  Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of
 Chemical Engineering.
 J. A. Mulholland, and A. F. Sarofim. c1991, 9p EPA/
 600/J-91/039
 Contract EPA-68-02-4247
 Pub.  in Environmental Science and Technology, v25
 n2 p268-274 1991. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
 tection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC. Air and
 Energy Engineering Research Lab.

 The paper gives results of measurements of metal par-
 titioning between the fine condensation aerosol and
 the larger particles produced during rapid heating of
 polydisperse droplet streams of aqueous solutions
 containing nitrates of Cd, Pb, and Ni in a laboratory-
 scale furnace. Trimodal particle size distributions were
 observed. Partitioning of the larger particles between
 residual and intermediate modes is consistent with the
 dependence of particle porosity on condensed phase
 transformations during nitrate decomposition. In addi-
 tion, ultrafine particles were produced. In the Ni tests,
 where vaporization is not a reasonable mechanism for
 inorganic aerosol formation over the range of tempera-
 tures studied (900-1500 K), 30-35% pf the particles
 had aerodynamic diameters of<1  micrometer. Fur-
 thermore, a preponderance of cenospheres was ob-
 served in the large particle size fractions.  It is conjec-
 tured that the NiO cenospheres form and burst to
 produce the submicron particles. In the Ca and Pb ex-
 periments,  the  amount  of submicron  particles pro-
 duced was in qualitative agreement with  the amount
 calculated for the time-dependent vaporization of the
 thermodynamically dominant monoxide species. How-
 ever,  two findings suggest that fragmentation contrib-
 uted to submicron particle formation in these tests as
 well.

 Keywords:   'Particle   size  distribution,  'Cadmium,
 'Nickel, 'Lead(Metal), 'Aerosols, Partitions, Fines, In-
 cinerators, Nitrates, Oxides, Air pollution. Air pollution
 control. Simulation, Condensates, Reprints, Aqueous
 wastes.
PB91-191502/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Integrated Model for Predicting the Fate of Or-
ganics in Wastewater Treatment Plants. Journal ar-
ticle.
Cincinnati Univ., OH. Dept. of Chemical Engineering.
R. Govind, L. Lai, and R. Dobbs. c1991,13p EPA/600/
J-91/043
Grant EPA-R-812939-01
Pub. in Environmental Progress, v10 n1 p13-23 Feb
91. Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,
Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

An integrated Fate Model has been developed for pre-
dicting the fate of organics in a wastewater treatment
plant. The Fate Model has been validated using experi-
mental data from a pilot-scale facility. The biodegrada-
tion kinetic constants for some compounds in the Fate
Model were estimated using the group contribution ap-
proach.  The  Fate Model has been  compared with
other existing models in the literature. Potential  appli-
cations of the Fate Model include assessment of vola-
tile organic  compound (VOC)  emissions from  a
wastewater treatment plant, evaluate pretreatment re-
quirements prior to discharge to the sewer system,
predict concentrations of toxic compounds on sludges,
and provide a general framework for estimating the re-
moval of toxic compounds  during activated sludge
treatment.

Keywords: 'Sewage treatment plants, 'Organic com-
pounds, Biological treatment, Biodeterioration,  Envi-
ronmental impact assessments, Volatile organic com-
pounds,  Activated  sludge   treatment,  toxic  sub-
stances, Vaporizing, Sorption, Aeration, Reaction ki-
netics,             Physical            properties,
Concentration(Composition), Comparison, Pilot plants.
Design criteria, Operating, Reprints, 'Fate model, Pre-
treatment process.
PB91-191510/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Hypothermic Effects of a  Homologous Series of
Short-Chain Alcohols in Rats. Journal article.
Hearth Effects  Research Lab., Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
F. S. Mohler, and C. J. Gordon. c1991,13p EPA/600/
J-91/044
 Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
 v32n2p129-1391991.

 The purpose of the study was to assess the toxicity of
 various short-chain alcohols using the thermoregula-
 tory system of the rat as an endpoint. Male Fischer rats
 developed significant hypothermia following acute ad-
 ministration (i.p.) of methanol, ethanol, 1 -propanol, 2-
 propanol, 1-butanol, or 2-butanol. The hypothermic re-
 sponses to the six alcohols all showed similar bimodal
 responses characterized by a threshold  dose below
 which no change in body temperature occurred, and a
 suprathreshold  regression with increasing dose caus-
 ing greater hypothermia. Relative efficacy of the alco-
 hols was compared using both  the threshold dose to
 cause hypothermia and  the dose which would cause
 body temperature to decrease by 1 C. Both measures
 gave the progression of toxicity from least  to most
 potent of:  methanol < ethanol <2-propanol<1-propa-
 nol < 2-butanol < 1-butanol. The effective  dose of an
 alcohol was compared to its membrane/buffer parti-
 tion coefficient (P(sub m/b)), and there was a  high in-
 verse-correlation between the hypothermic dose of an
 alcohol and its lipid solubility.

 Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Body temperature regulation,
 'Hypothermia,  'Propanol,  'Butanol, Rats, Dose-re-
 sponse relationships, Reprints.
 P891-191528/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Toxic-Induced Hypothermia and Hypometabolism:
 Do They Increase Uncertainty In the Extrapolation
 of Toxicological Data from Experimental Animals
 to Humans. Journal article.
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC.
 C. J. Gordon. 1991,7p EPA/600/J-91/045
 Pub. in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, v15
 n1 p95-98Jan91.

 Commonly used experimental mammals, such as the
 rat and mouse, exhibit hypothermia and hypometabc-
 lism when exposed acutely to many drugs and other
 chemical substances. This toxic-induced hypothermic/
 hypometabolic state may be an inherently protective
 response that can reduce the lethality of a toxic insult.
 However, as body mass increases, the ability to lower
 body temperature in response to toxic insult is dimin-
 ished. Hence, the presence of a protective hypometa-
 bolic/hypothermic response in small laboratory mam-
 mals and apparent lack thereof in larger species, such
 as humans, may represent an additional physiological
 dissimilarity which may underestimate the risk assess-
 ment of acute lexicological data.

 Keywords: 'Toxic substances, 'Hypothermia 'Animal
 disease models, Rats, Mice, Risk assessment, Body
 weight, Toxicity, Body temperature,  Reprints,  'Hypo-
 metabolism.
PB91-191536/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Prediction of the Reactivities of Cyclopenta-po-
lynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by  Quantum
Mechanical Methods. Journal article.
Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.
J. R. Rabinowitz, and S. B. Little.  C1991,15p EPA/
600/J-91/046
Contract EPA-68-02-4456
Pub. in Xenobiotica, v21 n2 p263-275 Feb 91. Spon-
sored by Health Effects Research Lab., Research Tri-
angle Park, NC.

The direction of epoxide ring opening may be predict-
ed  using the  techniques of theoretical chemistry by
comparing the computed total energy of the two possi-
ble carbocations formed. To  predict  the direction of
epoxide ring  opening and the potential binding of
aceanthrylene 1,2-epoxide  to biopolymers, quantum
mechanical calculations were performed on the two
potential hydroxy carbocations.  The 2-hydroxy carbo-
cation (II) was favored over  the 1 -hydroxy carbocation
by 11.8 kcal/mol. Molecule II had more positive charge
at the meso carbon group than  at the nominally elec-
trostatic potential confirm this result, and indicate the
possibility of unusual  adducts to biopolymers. Similar
calculations on the equivalent epoxides of acenaph-
thylene and acephenanthrylene do not show the same
results. Modeling the addition  products of II with small
nucleophiles indicates that these unusual addition
products do not form, and that the interaction is con-
56     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 trolled by electronic effects and not electrostatic ef-
 fects. The calculations on acephenanthrylene demon-
 strate the importance of including the hydroxyl group
 when making predictions relative to epoxide ring open-
 ing. Molecular descriptors are surrogates for the inter-
 actions of that molecule with an often unknown biolog-
 ical target. In cases where molecular descriptors are
 used without information about the target, small quan-
 titative differences may not be appropriate discrimina-
 tors. (Copyright (c) 1991 Taylor and Francis Ltd.)

 Keywords: "Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, "Epox-
 ides, 'Chemical reactivity, 'Quantum theory, "Predic-
 tions,  Molecular  structure,  Mathematical  models,
 Charge density. Organic ions, Biopolymers, Reprints.


 PB91-191544/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Health Effects  Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.
 Potentiation of 2,6-Dlnitrotoluene Genotoxlcity in
 Fischer 344 Rats by Pretreatment with Pentach-
 lorophenol. Journal article.
 North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill.
 R. W. Chadwick, S. E. George, J. Chang, M. J. Kohan,
 and J. P. Dekker. c1991,14p EPA/600/J-91 /047
 Grant EPA-R-815941
 Pub. in Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, v39 n2
 P168-181 Feb 91. Prepared in cooperation with Envi-
 ronmental Health Research and  Testing, Inc., Re-
 search Triangle Park,  NC. Sponsored by Health Ef-
 fects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

 The   organochlorine  pesticide,  pentachlorophenol
 (PCP), a  potent sulfotransferase  inhibitor,  reduces
 binding of  the hepatocarcinogen, 2,6-dinitrotoluene
 (DNT), to hepatic DNA by 95% after a single i.p. injec-
 tion. Activation of DNT to genotoxic metabolites in-
 volves enzymes  in both the liver  and the intestinal
 flora. Since PCP also has bactericidal activity and in-
 duces  hepatic mixed function  oxidase activity after
 longer treatment, the  effect of  PCP on intestinal
 enzyme activity and the biotransformation of DNT to
 genotoxic metabolites, after 1,  2, 4,  and  5 weeks of
 treatment, was studied.  Male Fischer 344 rats were
 dosed daily, by gavage, with either 20 mg/kg PCP or
 the peanut oil vehicle. After 1,2,4, and 5 weeks, select
 control and treated animals were injected P.O. with 75
 mg/kg 2,6-dinitrotoluene and transferred to  metabo-
 lism cages, where urine was  collected and tested for
 mutagenic activity. At 2 and 4 weeks, 6 control and 6
 treated animals were sacrificed and nitroreductase,
 azo reductase, beta-glucuronidase, dechlorinase and
 dehydrochlorinase activities were analyzed in homog-
 enates of the small intestine, large intestine, and
 cecum. At 5 weeks, hepatic DNA adduct formation
 was assayed by the (32)P-postlabeling of DNA. Re-
 sults of the study indicated that PCP accelerated the
 biotransformation of DNT to genotoxic  metabolites
 and potentiated the formation of DNT - induced DNA
 adducts in the liver.

 Keywords: "Mutagens, "Pesticides, Sulfotransferases,
 Enzyme inhibitors, Mutagenicity tests, Rats, Metabolic
 activation, DNA damage, Chemical  stimulation, Re-
 prints, "Dinitrotoluenes, "Pentachlorophenol, Liver en-
zymes.
PB91-191551/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Comparison of Rats of the Fischer 344 and Long-
Evans Strains in Their Autonomic Thermoregula-
tory  Response to  Trimethyltin  Administration.
Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
C. J. Gordon, and L. Fogelson. c1991,14p EPA/600/
J-91/048
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
V32p141-1521991.

The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of
genetic strain on the acute and long-term thermoregu-
latory  response  to the neurotoxicant,  trimethyltin
(TMT) in rats of the Long-Evans (LE) and Fischer 344
(FCH) strains. In one study basic thermoregulatory re-
sponses including colonic temperature (Tc), metabolic
rate (MR), evaporative water loss (EWL), motor activity
(MA), and thermal conductance (Cd) were measured in
both rat strains at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 10, 28,
and 37 C. It was found that the LE rat has a significant-
ly higher Tc when it is measured in their home cage.
Because of its smaller mass the FCH rat has a higher
MR at all Ta's. The  FCH rat also has a greater rate of
EWL during exposure to a Ta of 37 C. Following i.v. ad-
ministration of 8.0 mg/kg TMT both rat strains become
significantly hypothermic; however, the effect differed
significantly between the strains. At 26 to 34 days after
TMT exposure thermoregulatory responses at Ta's of
10 to 37 C were generally similar to that of the saline
controls. However, there was a significant elevation in
MR and MA of the TMT-treated FCH rat which  merits
further study.  Overall, it appears that autonomic ther-
moregulatory  responses measured 26 to 34 days after
TMT are near normal in the FCH and LE rat strains.

Keywords: "Toxicology, "Body temperature regulation,
"Trimethyltin,  "Species specificity, Autonomic nervous
system, Rats, Environmental pollutants, Motor activity,
Metabolism, Reprints.
PB91-191569/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
In vitro/In vivo Effects of Ethane Dimethanesul-
fonate on Leydlg Cells of Adult Rats. Journal arti-
cle.
NSI  Technology Services  Corp., Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
G. R. Klinefelter, J. W. Laskey, and N. L. Roberts.
C1991,14pEPA/600/J-91/049
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in  Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, v107
n3 0460-471 Mar 91. Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
search Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC. Reproduc-
tive Toxicology Branch.

Ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) is well-recognized
as a Leydig cell toxicant. Although this compound has
been studied extensively to date, certain toxicological
criteria have not been met. For instance, the dose-re-
sponsiveness of Leydig cells to EDS, both in vitro and
in vivo, is not well established. In addition, the data re-
garding the cellular site of action of EDS during Leydig
cell toxicity and the status of Leydig cell viability during
the affected period remains controversial. The study
used both highly purified  (98 %) and interstitial (14 %)
Leydig cell preparations to determine the in vitro EC50
(370 micro M) and in vivio (sub  50) (60 mg/kg) for
hCG-stimulated testosterone (T) production, respec-
tively. Leydig cells were recovered in approximately
equal number following all in vivo and in vitro EDS ex-
posures. Test results indicate that when Leydig cells
are exposed to EDS either in vitro or in vivo, the bio-
synthesis of T is compromised between the production
of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (CAMP) activa-
tion of protein kinase and  the cholesterol side chain
cleavage enzyme.

Keywords: "Toxicology, "Leydig cells, Rats, Testoster-
one, Biosynthesis, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate,
Protein kinases. Cholesterol, In vitro analysis, In vivo
analysis, Electron microscopy, Enzyme  activation,
Chorionic gonadotropins, Reprints,  "Ethane  demeth-
anesulfonate.
PB91-191577/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Rat Flash-Evoked Potential Peak N160 Amplitude:
Modulation by Relative Flash Intensity. Journal ar-
ticle.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
D. W. Herr, W. K. Boyes, and R. S. Dyer. c1991,13p
EPA/600/J-91/050
Pub. in Physiology and Behavior, v49 n2 p355-365 Feb
91.

The flash evoked potential (FEP) of rats has a large
negative peak (N(sub 160)) approximately 160 msec
following stimulation. The peak has been reported to
be modulated by the subject's state of behavioral
arousal  and  influenced by several test  parameters.
These experiments examine the influences of repeat-
ed testing, the number of stimuli/session, interaction
of ambient illumination and flash intensity,  and the
effect of pupillary dilation on the development and am-
plitude of  peak N(sub 160).  The amplitude  of peak
N(sub 160) increased with daily testing,  and  reached
an asymptotic amplitude by about day 10. This ampli-
tude was affected by the intensity of the flash stimulus
relative  to the ambient illumination (RFI),  and  ap-
peared to reach a ceiling amplitude at greater than 50
dB RFI. The number of stimuli/session and dilation of
the subject's pupils did not have a large influence on
the growth or asymptotic level of peak N(sub 160) am-
plitude. The data are consistent with the hypothesis
that the growth of peak N(sub  160) may represent  a
sensitization-like phenomenon.
Keywords:  "Visual  evoked  potentials,  'Flashing,
'Photic  stimulation, Animal  behavior, Lighting, Pupil,
Tests, Reprints.
PB91-191585/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Carcinogenicity of Dichloroacetic Acid in the Male
B6C3F1 Mouse. Journal article.
Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
A. B. DeAngelo, F. B. Daniel, J. A. Stober, and G. R.
Olson. c1991,13p EPA/600/J-91 /051
Pub. in Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, v16 n2
P337-347 Feb 91. Prepared in cooperation with Pathol-
ogy Associates, Inc., West Chester, OH.

Groups of male B6C3F mice (N=50) were provided
drinking water containing  2  g/liter sodium chloride
(control) and 0.05, 0.5 and 5 g/liter dichloroacetic acid
(DCA). Treatment of 30 animals in each group was car-
ried out to 60 or 75 weeks. In a separate experiment,
mice exposed to 3.5 g/liter DCA and the correspond-
ing acetic acid control group were killed at 60 weeks.
Groups of 5 mice were killed at 4,15,30 and 45 weeks.
Time=weighted mean daily doses of 7.6, 77,410, and
486 mg/kg/day were calculated for 0.05,0.5, 3.5, and
5 g/liter DCA treatments. Animals exposed to 3.5 and
5 g/liter DCA had final body weights that were 87 and
83%, respectively of the control value. Relative liver
weights of 136, 230, and  351% of the control value
were measured for 0.5, 3.5 and  5 g/liter, respectively.
At 60 weeks mice receiving 5.0 g/liter DCA had a 90%
prevalence of liver neoplasia with a mean  multiplicity
of 4.50 tumors/animal. Exposure to 3.5 g/liter DCA for
60 weeks resulted in a 100% tumor prevalence with an
average of 4.0 tumors/animal.  No liver tumors were
found in the group treated with acetic acid. Hyperplas-
tic nodules were seen in the 3.5 (58%; 0.92/animal)
and 5 g/liter DCA groups (83%; 1.27/animal).

Keywords: 'Dichloroacetate,  'Potable water, 'Water
pollution effects(Animals),  'Carcinogens, Mice, Liver
neoplasms, Carcinogenicity tests, Hyperplasia, Adeno-
ma, Organ weight,  Body weight, Pathology, Reprints.
PB91-191593/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Amplification of CCI4  Toxicity by Chlordecone:
Destruction  of  Rat Hepatic Microsomal Cytoch-
rome P-450 Subpopulatlon. Journal article.
Mississippi Univ. Medical Center, Jackson. Dept. of
Pharmacology and Toxicology.
S. Chaudhury, and H. M. Mehendale. C1991,20p EPA/
600/J-91/052
Grant EPA-R-814053
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
v32  p277-294 Mar 91. Sponsored by Health Effects
Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle Park, NC., and
Harry G.  Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research
Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.

Previous work has shown that chlordecone (CD)-am-
plified CCI4 hepatoxicity and lethality can be mitigated
by pretreatment  with (+)-cyanidanol. These studies
also revealed that stimulated hepatocellular regenera-
tion might  play an important role in the cyanidanol pro-
tection of CD-amplified CCI4 toxicity. The present stud-
ies conducted over a time course of 0 to 120 hr after
CCI4 challenge describe sequential changes in hepat-
ic (3)H-thymidine incorporation into hepatocellular nu-
clear DNA, polyamines and related enzymes, and his-
tomorphometry of liver sections from variously treated
rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (125-150 g) were
maintained on a control diet or on a diet contaminated
with CD (10 ppm for 15 days) and/or pretreated with
cyanidanol (250 mg/kg, ip) at 48, 24 and 2 hr before a
single ip injection of 50 microliter CCI4/kg(L) to 100 mi-
croliter CCI4/kg(H) on day 16 of the dietary protocol.
Cyanidanol-stimulated (3)H-thymidine  incorporation
was highly suppressed in rats receiving the  CD  +
CCI4(H) combination treatment up to 36 hr, but after
this time point a marked increase was observed. Hepa-
tocellular  regeneration,  quantified histomorphometri-
cally as volume density of cells in metaphase was pro-
gressively  increased in rats protected from CD + CCI4
interaction by cyanidanol, starting at 36 hr and lasting
until 72 hr.

Keywords: 'Chlordecone,  'Carbon  tetrachloride,
'Liver  microsomes,  "Cytochrome  P-450, "Toxicity,
Liver regeneration,  Rats, Cathechin, Ion  exchange
chromatography, Mixed  function  oxidases,  Organ
weight, Liver enzymes, Reprints.
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     57

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-191601/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Thermostability of Sperm Nuclei Assessed by Mi-
croinjection into Hamster Oocytes. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
K. Yanagida, S. D. Peneault, R. G. Kleinfeld, and R.
Yanagimachi. C1991,10pEPA/600/J-91/053
Pub. in Biology of Reproduction, v44 n3 p440-447 Mar
91. Prepared in cooperation with John A. Bums School
of Medicine, Honolulu, HI. Dept. of Anatomy and Re-
productive Biology.

Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species
(golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fissh
tilapia) were heated at 50 -125 deg for 20-120 min and
then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine
whether they  could decondense and develop into
pronuctei. Mature, mammalian sperm nuclei, which are
stabilized by protamine disulfide bonds, were moder-
ately heat resistance. For example, they remained ca-
pable of pronucleus formation even after pretreatment
for 30 min at 90 C. Indeed, a  temperature of 125 C
(steam) was required to  inactivate hamster sperm
nuclei completely. On the other hand, nuclei of rooster
and tilapia spermatozoa and those of immature ham-
ster and mouse spermatozoa, which are not stabilized
by protamine disulfide bonds, were sensitive to  heat-
ing; although some of them decondensed after expo-
sure to 90 C,  none formed male pronuclei. Further-
more, nuclei of mature hamster sperm became heat
labile when they were pretreated with dithiothreitol to
reduce their protamine disulfide bonds. These obser-
vations suggest that the thermostability shown by the
nuclei of mature spermatozoa of eutherian  mammals
is related to disulfide  cross-linking of  sperm  prat-
amines.

Keywords: 'Heat,  'Spermatozoa, "Cell  nucleus, Mi-
croinjections,  Ovum, Golden  hamsters, Autoradio-
grapriy,  pH, Species  specificity,  Chickens,  Mice,
Cross-linking reagents, Reprints.
PB91-191619/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Glutamate Neurotoxicity in Rat Auditory System:
Cochlear Nuclear Complex. Journal article.
Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
L Schweitzer, K. F. Jensen, and R. Janssen. c1991,
7p EPA/600/J-91/054
Pub. in Neurotoxicology and Teratology, v13 n2 p189-
193 Mar 91.  Prepared in cooperation with Louisville
Univ., KY. School of Medicine.

In other systems such as the hypotnalamus and hippo-
campus, it has been shown that cells postsynaptic with
respect to glutamatergic inputs degenerate when ex-
posed to large doses of glutamate ('glutamate neuro-
toxicrty'). Studies show that large doses of glutamate
administered intraperitoneally are toxic to spiral gangli-
on cells in the inner ear of the rat The present study in-
vestigated whether similar levels of glutamate cause
alterations in the neurons of the cochlear nuclei. Spe-
cifically, the study investigated morphology and size of
the cochlear nuclear complex and its subdivisions as
well as the size and density of cochlear nucleus neu-
rons following administration of glutamate. The mor-
phological evidence indicates that glutamate caused
severe anatomical alteration of the cochlear nuclei.
The changes were most pronounced in the anteroven-
tral cochlear nucleus, especially in the neurons that re-
ceive terminals of the end bulbs of Held from the coch-
lear nerve. This could be a direct effect of glutamate in
the cochlear  nuclei or secondary to degeneration of
cochlear nerve fibers in the inner ear. (Copyright  (c)
Pergamon Press pic, 1991.)

Keywords: 'Glutamates,  "Nervous system, 'Toxicity,
•Cochlea,  Histology,   Denervafion,  CeMBtotogy),
Rats, Reprints, 'Cochlear nuclear complex.
PB9M91627/REB                PCA02/MFA01
Structure-Activity  Study  of  Paracetamol  Ana-
logues: Inhibition of RepUcative DNA Synthesis in
V79 Chinese Hamster Cells. Journal article.
Health  Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park,NC.
A. M. Richard, J. K. Hongslo, P. F. Boone, and J. A.
Holme. c1991, 9p EPA/600/J-91 /055
Pub. in Jrri. of Chemical Research in Toxicology, v4 n2
P151-156  Mar 91. Prepared in cooperation with  Na-
tional Inst of Public Health, Oslo (Norway), and Envi-
ronmental Health Research and Testing, Inc.,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.
 Experimental and theoretical evidence pertaining to
 cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of paracetamol in bio-
 logical  systems was used  to formulate  a  simple
 mechanistic hypothesis to explain the relative inhibi-
 tion of  replicative DNA synthesis by a series of 19
 structurally similar paracetamol analogues, 5 of which
 were specifically analyzed for the current study. It was
 hypothesized that the observed activity variation of the
 paracetamol  analogues  was based on the relative
 abilities of these compounds to undergo H atom loss
 at the phenolic oxygen, and on the relative stabilities of
 the resulting free-radical species. Three calculated pa-
 rameters were found to be relevant-the partial atomic
 charge  on  the ring  carbon attached to the  phenolic
 oxygen, the  partial  charge  on the  phenoxy radical
 oxygen, and the energy difference between the parent
 phenolic paracetamol analogue and the corresponding
 radical dissociation products. The variation in parame-
 ter values was significantly correlated with the relative
 inhibition of DNA synthesis and was easily rationalized
 in terms of  the mechanistic  hypothesis proposed.
 More specifically, competive reaction with a tyrosyl
 radical species involving the transfer of a  hydrogen
 atom at the active site of ribonucleotide reductase was
 suggested as the underlying mechanistic basis for the
 observed activity variation of the paracetamol ana-
 logues. (Copyright (c) 1991 by the American Chemical
 Society.)

 Keywords: 'Acetaminophen,  *DNA replication, "Anal-
 gesics,  'Toxicity, Structure-activity relationship,  Chi-
 nese hamsters, Cultured cells, Cell survival, Mutage-
 nicity tests, Reprints.
PB91-191635/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Aerosol Therapy Implications of Particle Deposi-
tion Patterns In Simulated Human Airways. Journal
article.
Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
T. B. Martonen. c1991,18p EPA/600/J-91 /056
Pub. in Jnl. of Aerosol Medicine, v4 n1 p25-40 Feb 91.
Prepared in cooperation with North Carolina Univ. at
Chapel Hill. Dept. of Medicine.

The efficacy of inhalation therapy may be improved by
the selective deposition of aerosolized medicines, by
explicitly targeting and delivering drugs to prescribed
lung sites. Here, the deposition patterns of test aero-
sols, mapped in surrogate respiratory tracts consisting
of replica laryngeal casts and fabricated tracheobron-
chial models, are analyzed. Particles were preferential-
ly deposited  at bifurcations,  specifically  at carinal
ridges. Evidence from other investigations indicates
that mucociliary clearance may be impeded at such
sites in vivo. When these two effects are coupled, the
findings suggest that epithelial cells and receptors at
airway branching sites may  receive  concentrated
doses of inhaled pharmacological agents. To focus the
effects of airborne drugs the lung should, therefore, be
considered as a serial network of Y-shaped bifurcation
units. The findings have important implications to aero-
sol  therapy protocols including: (1) the treatment of
bronchogenic carcinomas because malignant tumors
have a predilection for upper airway bifurcations; and
(2)  lung  diseases related to  the  afferent  nervous
system since components of neural pathways frequent
such locations.

Keywords: 'Aerosols,  'Drug  administration routes,
'Trachea, 'Bronchi,  Inhalation, Humans, Bronchial
neoplasms, Respiratory system, Anatomical models,
Reprints, 'Particle deposition.
PB91-191643/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Comparability of Rat and  Human Visual-Evoked
Potentials. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
H. K. Hudnell, and W. K. Boyes. C1991, 8p EPA/600/J-
91/057
Pub. in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, v15
p159-164 Mar 91.

A series of experiments was conducted to assess the
comparability of  physiological processes in rat and
human visual systems. In the first set of experiments,
transient visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were elicited
by the onset of sine-wave gratings of various spatial
frequencies. The spatial frequency-response profiles
of the first positive and immediately succeeding nega-
tive components  differed from one another, but were
similar in the two species. In addition, amplitude of the
negative, but not the positive, component was strongly
 attenuated in both species following stationary pattern
 adaptation. In the second set of experiments, steady-
 state VEPs were elicited by the onset and offset of the
 gratings. The spatial frequency profiles of  the 1F (re-
 sponse amplitude at the frequency of stimulus onset-
 offset) and 2F response components differed from one
 another, put were similar in both species. The final set
 of experiments  indicated that diazepam, a GABA
 agonist, reduced amplitude of 2F, but not  1F, in both
 species.

 Keywords: 'Visual  evoked potentials,  Comparative
 evaluations,  Rats,  Humans, Diazepam,  Amplitude,
 Species specificity, Reprints.
PB91-191650/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Assessment of the Hepatotoxlcity of Acute and
Short-Term Exposure to Inhaled p-Xylene in F-344
Rats. Journal article.
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
J. E. Simmons, J. W. Allis, E. C. Grose, J. C. Seely, and
B. L. Robinson. c1991,14p EPA/600/J-91 /058
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
v32 p295-306 Mar 91. Prepared  in cooperation with
PATHCO, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

Due to the ubiquitous presence of p-xylene in air and
the existing  uncertainty regarding its hepatotoxic po-
tential, the authors examined the effect of acute and
short-term exposure to inhaled p-xylene on the liver.
Male F-344 rats were exposed to 0 or to 1600 ppm p-
xylene,  6 h/d, for 1 or 3 d. Exposure to inhaled p-
xylene caused no histopathological evidence of hepat-
ic damage and had little or no effect  on the  serum
levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino-
transferase,  lactate dehydrogenase, ornithine carba-
myl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total biliru-
bin. Exposure to p-xylene for 1 or 3 d resulted in an in-
crease in relative liver weight on d 1 post-exposure.
The concentration of hepatic cytochrome P-450 was
increased by both p-xylene exposure regimens on d 1
postexposure and had returned to control levels by d 3
following the single p-xylene exposure and by d 2 fol-
lowing the 3-d exposure. These observations provide
consistent evidence that acute and short-term expo-
sure to  1600 ppm p-xylene by inhalation  did  not
produce overt hepatotoxicity but resulted in a signifi-
cant increase in the concentration of hepatic cytoch-
rome P-450, the principal enzyme system involved in
the metabolic biotransformation of xenobiotics. (Copy-
right (c) 1991 by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.)

Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Xylenes, 'Liver, 'Air pollution
effects(Animals),  Rats, Liver enzymes. Metabolic acti-
vation, Enzyme induction, Body weight, Organ weight,
Blood chemical analysis, Dose-response relationships,
Reprints.
PB91-191668/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Use of the Spiral Salmonella Assay to Detect the
Mutagenicity of Complex Environmental Mixtures.
Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park,NC.
V. S. Houk, G. Early, and L. D. Claxton. C1991,12p
EPA/600/ J-91 /059
Pub. in Environmental  and Molecular Mutagenesis,
v17 p112-121  Mar 91. Prepared in cooperation with
Saint Augustine's College, Raleigh, NC.

Three sets of combustion emissions were selected for
evaluation: automotive  diesel exhaust,  woodsmoke,
and a  coal combustion emission. Each sample was
tested in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay according
to standard  protocol  (plate incorporation) and spiral
assay techniques. Two assays demonstrated the fol-
lowing: (1) Diesel exhaust was generally the most mu-
tagenically potent sample in both assays. (2) Samples
were more mutagenic on rev/microgram basis in the
spiral assay, especially when metabolic activation was
added. (3) The spiral assay required 1 /20 the sample
mass of the  standard assay to test equivalent doses.
(4) Dichloromethane extracts of the complex mixtures
could be tested for mutagenicity in the spiral assay.

Keywords: 'Mutagenicity tests, 'Environmental pollut-
ants,  'Salmonella typhimurium,  Mixtures,  Exhaust
emissions, Solvents, Metabolic activation, Diesel fuels,
Reprints, Wood smoke, Coal combustion emissions.
58     Vol.  91,  No.  3

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-191676/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Phosphor-
ylatlon Is Not Altered by Amygdaloid  Kindling.
Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
L. J. Burdette, and J. P. O'Callaghan. c1991,  7p EPA/
600/J-91/060
Pub. in Brain Research Bulletin, v26 n3 p455-459 Mar
91.

The effects of amygdaloid kindling on Ca(2+)/Calmo-
dulin (CaM)-dependent protein phosphorylation were
assessed using one- and two-dimensional gel electro-
phoresis.  In vitro phosphorylation of  membrane and
cytosol fractions  in  the presence or  absence  of
Ca(2+)/CaM did  not differentiate between kindled
and non-kindled amygdaloid tissue. The results sug-
gest that  changes in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent  phos-
phorylation are not related to the mechanism(s) under-
lying the  establishment of an  amygdaloid kindled
focus.

Keywords:          *Calmodulin,          "Calcium,
*Kindling(Neurology),  "Amygdala,  Phosphorylation,
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,  Electric stimula-
tion, Rats, Reprints.
PB91-191684/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Use and Development of Environmentally Con-
trolled  Chambers  (Mesocosms)  for  Evaluating
Biotechnology Products: The Proceedings of the
Workshop  on the Use and Development  of Ter-
restrial Mesocosms.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
R. J. Seidler, and J. Settel. May 91,104p EPA/600/9-
91/013
Prepared in cooperation with Environment Canada,
Hull (Quebec).  Commercial  Chemicals Branch, and
Technical Resources, Inc., Rockville, MD.

The purpose of gathering an international expert panel
for the workshop was to discuss containment technol-
ogies and to design a mesocosm chamber for use in
the development of ecology databases and the cali-
bration of test  protocols for genetically engineered
microorganism  (GEM)  risk  assessments.  Data ob-
tained from GEMs mesocosm testing would provide a
critical knowledge base for regulation of environmental
releases of GEMs. Workshop presentations covered
the positive and negative design features of specific
microcosm  and mesocosm systems that are currently
being used in biotechnology and other  kinds of re-
search. Information  from these presentations was
used as the basis for design of a hypothetical meso-
cosm chamber that would meet appropriate contain-
ment and environmental control needs. The meso-
cosm was designed to support regulatory initiatives. It
was not conceived to serve as a standard procedural
tool mandated by regulatory agencies for evaluating
risk assessments.

Keywords: "Genetic engineering, "Ecology, "Biotech-
nology, "Meetings,  Databases, Terrestrial  ecosys-
tems, Insects, Plants(Botany), Bacteria, Soil  microbi-
ology,  Carbon dioxide,  "Mesocosms,  Environmental
chambers.
PB91-191692/REB                PC A06/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
MOFAT:  A Two-Dimensional  Finite Element  Pro-
gram for Multiphase  Row and  Multicomponent
Transport. Program  Documentation  and  User's
Guide.
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.
Center for Environmental and  Hazardous  Material
Studies.
A. K. Katyal, J. J. Kaluarachchi, and J. C. Parker. May
91,119p EPA/600/2-91 /020
Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research
Lab., Ada, OK.

The  manual describes  a two-dimensional finite ele-
ment model for coupled  multiphase flow and multicom-
ponent transport in planar or radially symmetric vertical
sections. Flow and transport of three fluid phases, in-
cluding water, nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), and
gas are considered by the program. The program can
simulate flow only or coupled flow and transport. The
flow module can be used to analyze two phases, water
and NAPL, with the gas phase held at constant pres-
sure, or explicit three-phase flow of water, NAPL, and
gas at various pressures. The transport module can
handle up to five components which partition among
water, NAPL, gas and solid phases assuming either
local equilibrium  or first-order  mass transfer. Three
phase permeability-saturation-capillary  pressure rela-
tions are defined  by an extension of the van Genuch-
ten model. The governing equations are solved using
an efficient upstream-weighted finite element scheme.
The report describes the required inputs for flow analy-
sis and transport analysis. Time dependent boundary
conditions for flow and transport analysis can  be han-
dled by the program and are described in the report.
Detailed instructions for creating data files needed to
run the program and example input and  output  files are
given in appendices.

Keywords: "Path  of pollutants, "Computerized simula-
tion,  "Environmental  transport,  "Multiphase  flow,
Finite element method, Two-dimensional calculations,
Ground water, Vapor phases, User manuals(Computer
programs), Documentation,  Land  pollution, Soil con-
tamination.  Mass transfer,  Water  pollution, Vapor
phases, Permeability,  "MOFAT  model, "Nonaqueous
phase liquid.
PB91-191700/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental   Protection  Agency,   Seattle,   WA.
Region X.
Current and Target Recovery Rates for Plastics
Packaging in Oregon. Final rept.
Oregon State Dept. of Environmental Quality, Port-
land.
Oct90,134p EPA/910/9-91/016
Grant EPA-X1-000466-01
Prepared in cooperation  with  Resource Integration
Systems, Ltd.,  Portland, OR. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA. Region X.


The study focuses on the generation  and recovery of
post-consumer plastic packaging  manufactured from
six common plastic resins. The study includes informa-
tion on current recycling rates; economic,  regulatory
and technological trends; and collection and process-
ing costs. It also projects recovery rates by resin type
by utilizing assumptions for voluntary and  regulatory
changes in  current Oregon plastics recovery  pro-
grams. The study will be used by the ORDEQ to devel-
op recommendations on effective recycling rates for
plastic resins for the years 1992 to  2000.

Keywords: "Materials recovery,  "Waste management,
"Plastics, "Packaging materials, Oregon, Waste recy-
cling. Forecasting,  Technology utilization,  Research
and   development,  Polymers,  Economic  analysis,
Waste processing, Regulations,  Recommendations.
PB91-191718/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Seattle,  WA.
Region X.
Decisionmaker's Guide to Recycling Plastics. Final
rept.
Oregon State Dept. of Environmental  Quality, Port-
land.
Dec 90,41 p EPA/910/9-91 /008
Grant EPA-X1-000466-01
Prepared  in cooperation with  Resource Integration
Systems, Ltd., Portland, OR. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA. Region X.

The 'Decisionmaker's Guide to Recycling Plastics' is
designed to assist community decisionmakers in de-
termining the feasibility of plastics recycling by resin
types. The guide outlines characteristics of successful
plastics  recycling  programs,  policy considerations,
market considerations, and pros and cons of different
types of collection programs. The document also pre-
sents information on determining what type of plastic
to collect and how to collect it. It includes data and
worksheets which enable decisionmakers to estimate
amount of material to be recovered as well as startup
and operating costs based on the type of recycling
program which is implemented. A resource section list-
ing other sources of information on markets, program
planning, and new developments in plastics recycling
is also contained in the guide.

Keywords: "Plastics  recycling, 'Guidelines,  "Waste
management, Decision making, Marketing, Waste re-
cycling, Environmental policy, Economic analysis, Ma-
terials recovery, Collecting methods, Plastics industry,
Resins, Costs.
PB91-191726/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Assessment of Single-Stage Trickling Filter Nitrifi-
cation.
HydroQual, Inc., Mahwah, NJ.
O. K. Scheible, and A. Gupta. May 91, 95p EPA/430/
9-91 /005
Contract EPA-68-08-0023
Sponsored by  Environmental   Protection  Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of the Assistant Administrator
for Water.

The report is part of a larger effort to cpmpare different
wastewater technologies that can achieve nitrification.
It evaluates specific technologies and reports on their
capabilities and limitations.

Keywords: "Water treatment, "Waste water, "Nitrifica-
tion, "Trickling filtration,  Field tests, Technology as-
sessment,    Water    pollution,    Tables(Data),
Graphs(Charts), Municipalities.
PB91-193649/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Intensive Survey  of the Big Muddy Main Stem
from Rend Lake to the Mississippi River, 1988.
Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Spring-
field. Div. of Water Pollution Control.
R. L. Hite, M. R. Matson, C. A. Bickers, and M. M. King.
Jan 91,111p IEPA/WPC/91-56
Prepared in cooperation  with Southern Monitoring,
Marion, IL.

In July and August 1988, the Illinois Environmental
Protection  Agency conducted  an intensive  stream
quality survey of the lower Big Muddy River main stem.
The survey focused on water quality, fish populations,
contaminants in fish, instream habitat,  and sediment
chemistry in a 104-mile segment of the Big  Muddy
River between Rend Lake and the Mississippi River.
The Big- Muddy main stem  survey was designed to
assess stream quality in the vicinity of mine drainage
sources and major municipal point source dischargers.
A major objective of the project was to identify sources
of acid mine drainage contributing to water quality deg-
radation and fish kills in the Big Muddy River upstream
from the public water supply intake at Royalton, Illinois.
EPA staff  successfully  identified  two  abandoned
mines believed to be the major sources of  mine-relat-
ed water quality problems in the Big Muddy River in the
vicinity of the Royalton. Water quality samples  collect-
ed in summer 1988 at 14 main stem sites indicated Big
Muddy River water quality was considered between
fair/good and was generally not significantly impacted
by point source dischargers. Main stem biotic integrity
evaluated from  fish population sampling at six sites
was considered fair.

Keywords:   "Water  quality,  "Acid  mine  drainage,
"Water  pollution effects, "Big  Muddy  River,  Illinois,
Pollution sources, Fishes, Habitats, Sediments, Biolog-
ical  effects, Fish population, Point sources, Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Industrial wastes, Municipal
wastes.
 PB91-193847/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Indoor Air-Assessment: Indoor Concentrations of
 Environmental Carcinogens.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park,  NC. Environmental Criteria  and Assessment
 Office.
 K. W. Gold, D. F. Naugle, and M. A. Berry. Jan 91,54p
 EPA/600/8-90/042, ECAO-R-0382
 Prepared in cooperation with Research Triangle Inst.,
 Research Triangle Park, NC.

 In the report, indoor concentration data are presented
 for the following general categories of air pollutants:
 radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), as-
 bestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde,
 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides,
 and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either
 known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbes-
 tos) or more complex mixtures  or classes of com-
 pounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens.
 Concentration data for individual carcinogenic com-
 pounds in complex mixtures are usually far from com-
 plete. The data presented for complex mixtures often
 include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for
 which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity.
 Their inclusion is justified, however, by the  possibility
 that further work  may show them to be carcinogens,
 cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or  that they
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     59

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein)
for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures.

Keywords:  'Indoor air pollution, "Air pollution sam-
pling.      'Carcinogens,      'Public      health,
Concentration(Composition), Exposure, Tables(Data),
Radon 222, Aromatic polycyclic compounds, Formal-
dehyde,  Pesticides,  Asbestos,  Mixtures,  Cigarette
smoking, Inhalation.
PB91-195941/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Conversion of Methanol-Fueted 16-Valve, 4-Cylln-
der  Engine  to Operation on Gaseous  2H2/CO
Fuel Interim Report 3. Technical rept
Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, Ml. Con-
trol Technology and Applications Branch.
R. M. Schaefer, G. K. Piotrowski, and J. C. Martin. Apr
91,27p EPA/AA/CTAB-91/01
See also interim report 2, PB89-193353.

The report is the third in a series of progress reports to
date on a project to convert a Nissan CA1 BED engine
previously modified for operation on M100 neat metha-
nol to operation on dissociated methanol gaseous fuel.
The  report describes the modifications made  to the
engine and summarizes the results of testing.

Keywords: 'Motor vehicle engines, 'Automotive fuels,
'Methanol, 'Methyl alcohol, Internal combustion en-
gines, Exhaust emissions, Fuel consumption, Test fa-
cilities, US EPA.
PB91-195958/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Criteria for Assessing the Rote of Transported
Ozone/Precursors   In  Ozone   Nonattainment
Areas.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
May 91,55p EPA/450/4-91 /015

A series of modeling analyses appropriate for charac-
terizing transport of ozone and its precursors into non-
attainment areas is discussed in the report Air quality
and meteorological measurements needed to charac-
terize transport in identified modeling techniques are
also identified. The report fulfills requirements in Sec-
tion 184(d) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,
in which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is
directed to identify criteria for estimating  transport of
pollutants into ozone nonattainment areas.

Keywords:  'Environmental transport,  'Ozone, 'Air
pollution control, Requirements, Monitoring,  Design
criteria, Sources, Estimates, Regional analysis, Mathe-
matical models, Nitrogen oxides, Carbon monoxide,
Hatohydrocarbons,  Trajectories, Urban  areas, Oxi-
dizers,     Rural     areas,    Wind     velocity,
Concentration(Composrtion),  'Clean Air Act Amend-
ments of 1990, Volatile organic compounds.
PB91-19S966/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Recommended  Operating  Procedure  No.  51:
Glass  Source  Assessment  Sampling  System
(Glass SASS). Final rept Jul 90-Jan 91.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, IMC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
R. A. Grote. May 91,38p EPA/600/8-91 /036
Prepared in cooperation with Research Triangle Insl,
Research Triangle Park, NC.

The report is a recommended operating procedure
(ROP), prepared for use in research activities conduct-
ed by EPA's  Air and Energy Engineering Research
Laboratory (AEERL). The method described is applica-
ble to the stack sampling of flue gas from a rotary kiln
and to associated equipment of AEERL's Combustion
Research Branch. It has been the standard method of
sampling kiln flue gas due to the transient nature of the
puff development and its capability to sample the max-
imum volume over the shortest time period. ROPs de-
scribe non-routine  or  experimental research oper-
ations where  some judgment in application may  be
warranted. ROPs may  not be applicable to activities
conducted by other research groups, and should not
be used  in place of standard operating  procedures.
Use of ROPs must be accompanied by an understand-
ing of the purpose and scope. Questions should be di-
rected to the author.

Keywords: 'Flue gases, 'Kilns, 'Air sampling, Air pol-
lution  control,  Combustion  products,  Toxic  sub-
stances.  Stationary sources, Analyzing, 'Source as-
sessment sampling system,  'Recommended operat-
ing procedure 51.
PB91-195974/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids. Ground Water
Issue.
Robert S. Kerr  Environmental Research  Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
S. G. Huling, and J. W. Weaver. Mar 91,22p EPA/540/
4-91/002

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids  (DNAPLs)  are
present at numerous hazardous waste sites and are
suspected to exist at many more. Due to the numerous
variables influencing DNAPL transport and fate in the
subsurface, and consequently,  the ensuing complex-
ity, DNAPLs are largely undetected and yet are a sig-
nificant limiting factor in site remediation. The paper is
a literature evaluation focusing on DNAPLs and pro-
vides an overview from a conceptual fate and trans-
port point of view, DNAPL phase distribution, monitor-
ing, site characterization, remediation, and modeling.

Keywords: 'Liquids, 'Phase studies, 'Environmental
transport, 'Hazardous materials, Ground water. Sites,
Water pollution  control, Density(Mass/volume), Mix-
tures, Hydrocarbons, Water, Interfacial tension, Moni-
toring, Hatohydrocarbons, Mathematical models, Per-
meability, Diagrams, Stratigraphy,  'Volatile organic
compounds, Remedial action, Listings.
PB91-195982/REB               PC A03/MF A01
ORD Hearth Biomarkers Program. Research Strat-
egy Document Final rept.
Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
J. R. Fowle, and E. Collins. Apr 91,29p EPA/600/9-
91/009
Prepared  in  cooperation  with  Eastern  Research
Group, Inc., Arlington, MA.

The document outlines the framework for developing,
validating, and applying biomakers that Office of Re-
search and Development (ORD) uses to facilitate plan-
ning,  budget  allocations,  and collaboration  in  bio-
marker research. Within  the framework of the  bio-
markers research plan, ORD evaluates EPA's regula-
tory needs, its own capabilities, and the state-of-the-
science. In the evaluation, ORD considers biomarker
techniques as tools in understanding life processes:
thus,  rather  than  exploring biomarkers  as ends in
themselves, ORD incorporates biomarker research ef-
forts into ongoing and future research programs. The
document also defines terms and concepts used in the
research in an effort to standardize their use across
ORD laboratories.

Keywords: 'Biological markers, 'Environmental expo-
sure,  Research projects, Risk assessment, Toxicol-
ogy, Health hazards, Dose-response relationships, Po-
table water, US EPA, Hearth Biomarkers Program.
PB91-195990/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Molecular Optical Spectroscopic Techniques for
Hazardous Waste Site Screening.
Lockheed  Engineering and Sciences Co., Inc.,  Las
Vegas, NV.
D. Eastwood, and T. Vo-Dinh. Jun 91,118p EPA/600/
4-91/011
Contracts EPA-68-03-3249, DE-1824-B124-A1
Prepared in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Lab.,
TN. Sponsored by  Environmental Monitoring Systems
Lab., Las  Vegas,  NV., and Department of Energy,
Washington, DC.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is interest-
ed in field screening hazardous waste sites for con-
taminants  in  the soil and surface  and ground water.
The study is an initial technical overview of the princi-
pal  molecular spectroscopic techniques and instru-
mentation  currently available for field screening. The
goal has been to describe the power and utility of mo-
lecular (optical) spectroscopic techniques for hazard-
ous waste site screening  and to define  the main
strengths,  weaknesses,  and applications of each
major spectroscopic technique.  A  brief  discussion is
also given for some other techniques that rely on spec-
troscopic detection: cotorimetry and fluorometry, as
well as immunoassay and  fiber-optic chemical sen-
sors. The cost of instrumentation and analysis and the
time requirements are briefly discussed. Broad guide-
lines are provided  for the three categories of instru-
mentation: portable, field-deployable  and semi-field-
deployable. An outline of the spectroscopic principles
and instrumentation for each particular spectroscopic
techniques is given along with a description of state-of-
the-art approaches. Advantages, limitations, sensitivi-
ties and examples of specific techniques and their ap-
plications to environmental contaminants are also dis-
cussed.

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Soil contamination,
'Land pollution, 'Water pollution detection, 'Chemical
analysis, Fiber optics, US EPA, Water analysis, Soil
analysis, Site surveys, Ultraviolet spectroscopy, Mo-
lecular spectroscopy, Waste disposal, Fluorescence,
Infrared spectroscopy, Raman  spectroscopy,  Spec-
trum analysis.
PB91-196006/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Final Technical  Report for the Preliminary Field
Survey and on-Site, In-situ and Laboratory Eval-
uations Completed at Mllltown Reservoir (FY90).
ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis,
OR.
G. Under, M. Bollman, D. Wilborn, J. Nwosu, and W.
Baune. Jun 91,156p EPA/600/3-91 /037
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

The technical report contains work that was completed
at Milltown  Reservoir near Missoula Montana during
the last quarter of FY90. Field and laboratory methods
were screening  in character, and were  intended to
contribute to future studies and development of the
Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and the Quality As-
surance Project Plan (QAPjP) for FY91.  Appropriate
caution must be exercised in interpreting the results of
these screening methods, and the biological informa-
tion gained.

Keywords: 'Water pollution, 'Ecology, 'Milltown Res-
ervoir, Vegetation, Field tests. Sampling, Germination,
Food chains, Amphibia,  Metals, Mammals, Earth-
worms, Bacteria, Chemical analysis, Soils, Water qual-
ity, Maps, Tables(Data), 'Missoula(Montana), 'Wet-
lands.
PB91-196014/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Design of Terrecosm Enclosures for Use In Ecor-
Isk Assessment Evaluations.
Technical Resources, Inc., Davis, CA.
C. M. Knapp, E. Heske, V. Marble, H. Weeks, and W.
Eichler. Jun 91,36p EPA/600/3-91 /038
Contract EPA-68-CO-0021
Prepared in cooperation with New Mexico Univ., Albu-
querque, California Univ., Davis, and Oregon State
Univ., Corvallis. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.

The project has been designed to provide large, out-
door enclosures (terrecosms) for use in evaluating the
risk assessment methodology used by the US EPA.
These enclosures have been designed to permit test-
ing effects  of insecticide applications on non-target
populations (voles) existing  in  nearly natural  condi-
tions.  The  study is necessitated because  recent evi-
dence indicates that the existing method (the quotient
method, which  compares an organism's exposure
level to the level of hazard observed at that exposure
level)  has failed to anticipate ecological damage re-
sulting from insecticide applications. As a result, EPA's
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPTS) has
requested assistance from EPA's Environmental Re-
search Laboratory in Corvallis, OR (ERL-C) in field vali-
dating or improving the quotient method.

Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Terrestrial ecosystems, 'Risk
assessment. Voles, Health hazards.  Exposure, 'Terre-
cosm  enclosures, Non-target populations.
PB91-196022/REB
                                PC A02/MF A01
Sensitivity Analysis on the Effects of Serial Corre-
lation on Exposure Estimates.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
W. B. Petersen, and J. S. Irwin. c1991, 8p EPA/600/D-
91/102
Prepared in cooperation with National Oceanic and At-
mospheric Administration,  Research Triangle Park,
NC. Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Div.
60     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Statistical methods of estimating concentration values
for use in human exposure estimates have become in-
creasingly  more popular because of the complexities
in correlating the temporal and spatial concentration
variations within microenvironments with the location
of people. The number of variables and their associat-
ed uncertainty make deterministic models difficult to
use. Monte-Carlo simulations of exposure conducted
thus far have made no provision for serial correlation
effects, and therefore tend to underestimate the high-
est exposures and overestimate the lowest exposures.
The purpose of the sensitivity study is to quantify the
factors affecting  serial correlation  in the indoor mi-
croenvironments. Further, the authors investigate in a
very preliminary way use of personal exposure moni-
toring data to infer the value of variables needed to es-
timate indoor concentrations such as the rates of air
exchange,  pollutant removal, and pollutant generation.
The authors conclude that the use  of personal expo-
sure monitoring data to derive rate  constants may be
useful for order of magnitude estimates.

Keywords:   "Exposure,   *Humans,   'Sulfur dioxide,
'Study estimates,  'Indoor air pollution, Simulation, Air
pollution monitoring, Statistical analysis, 'Sensitivity
analysis, Microenvironments.
PB91-196048/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Bake-Out of a Portion of a New High-Rise Office
Building. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
A. B. Lindstrom, R. M. Taft, L. C. Michael, and M. C.
Oberg. c1991,16p EPA/600/D-91 /104
Presented at the annual meeting of the Air and Waste
Management  Association  (84th),  Vancouver,  B.C.
(Canada), June 16-21. 1991. Prepared in cooperation
with Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park,
NC. Dreyfus Lab., and Certified Health Services, Rich-
mond, CA.

A partial building bake-out was  performed  in U.S.
EPA's new Region  IX Headquarters'  Building in San
Francisco, California in July, 1990. The intent of the
bake-out was to reduce indoor air contaminant con-
centrations associated with residual  volatile  organic
compounds (VOCs) found in  a  variety  of common
building  materials and finishing agents.  Four nearly
identical floors from the 21 story office building were
heated above 30 C for 34, 38, 54, and 86 hours to de-
termine the effect of bake-out duration on post-bake
pollutant concentrations. VOC and aldehyde sampling
was conducted before, during, and after the bake-out.
The results indicate that total volatile organic  com-
pound (TVOC) source strengths were reduced during
the bake-out by 45-76%. Similar reductions in targeted
VOC source  strengths were also  observed from the
pre-to post-bake  monitoring periods.  While the most
abundant aldehyde  species concentrations increased
approximately 65% during the mid-bake monitoring
period, post-bake aldehyde concentrations remained
similar to pre-bake levels.

Keywords: 'Office buildings, 'Indoor air pollution, US
EPA, California, Construction materials, Volatile organ-
ic  compounds,  Concentration(Composition),  Alde-
hydes, 'Bake-out,  San Francisco(California),  EPA
region 10.
PB91-196055/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Chemical Characterization of Extractable Organic
Matter from Ambient Aerosols Collected in Boise,
Idaho.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
R. B. Zweidinger, J. Lewtas, and D. J. Thompson.
C1991,10p EPA/600/D-91 /105
Prepared in cooperation with ManTech Environmental
Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

Fine fraction (2.5 micron) ambient air aerosols were
collected in Boise, ID between November, 1986, and
February,  1987,  under the  Integrated  Air Cancer
Project Two composite samples of extractable organ-
ic matter (EOM) were prepared with partial resolution
of chemicals from  Boise's  wood smoke (WS) and
mobile source (MS) emissions. The samples were sep-
arated by a nonaqueous anion solid phase extraction
(SPE) method into  neutral, polar  neutral/weak acid,
weak  acid and strong acid fractions. The neutral frac-
tion of the WS and MS composites contained 23% and
35% of the mass, respectively. However, the neutral
fraction was the most mutagenic containing 48% of
the mutagenicity in the WS sample and 59% in the MS
sample. Concentrations of many PAH and nitro-PAH
were higher in the MS sample.

Keywords: 'Wood burning furnaces, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, 'Combustion products, 'Air pollution detec-
tion,  'Bioassay, 'Aerosols, Exhaust emission, Chemi-
cal analysis, Idaho, Organic  matter, Aromatic polycy-
clic hydrocarbons, Air pollution  sampling, Extraction,
Nitrogen organic compounds, Carcinogens, Mutagens,
Integrated Air Cancer Project, Boise(ldaho).
PB91-196063/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Evaluation of Methodology for Determination of
Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-'p'-Dioxins and Diben-
zofurans in Ambient Air.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC.  Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
R. L. Harless, R. G. Lewis, D. D. McDaniel, J. F.
Gibson, and A. E. Dupuy. 1991,10p EPA/600/D-91 /
106
Prepared in cooperation with National Aeronautics and
Space Administration, Bay Saint Louis,  MS. John C.
Stennis Space Center.

General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an
analytical method based on high resolution gas chro-
matography  - high resolution  mass  spectrometry
(HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of
polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
(PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-diox-
ins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) in ambient air.
Dilute solutions of these compounds and 13C12-1234-
TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air sam-
plers which were then operated 24 hours to sample
350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-
fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were  spiked
with 13C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF,  PBDD, and PBDF
internal standards before separate Spxhlet extractions
with benzene. The extracts were subjected to clean-up
procedures using microcolumns of  silica gel, alumina
and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Re-
sults derived from this study satisfied QA/QC require-
ments for  analytical data and demonstrated that the
methodology could accurately determine pg/cu m and
sub-pg/cu m  levels of these compounds in ambient
air. Background levels detected in ambient air are also
discussed.

Keywords: 'Air pollution sampling, 'Air pollution detec-
tion, 'Dioxins, "Furans, 'Metal industry,  Polychlorinat-
ed  dibenzodioxins,  Polychlorinated  dibenzofurans,
Gas chromatography, Mass spectroscopy, Quality as-
surance, Quality control, Isotopic labeling, Solvent ex-
traction, Polybrominated dibenzodioxins, Polybromin-
ated dibenzofurans.
PB91-196071/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Climate Data and Analysis for the  New England
Forest Health Monitoring  Project (NEFHM/EMAP
Forests).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Air Resources Lab.
E. J. Cooler, S. K. LeDuc, L. Truppi, and D. R. Block.
C1991,25p EPA/600/D-91 /107
Presented at the AMS Conference on  Applied Clima-
tology (7th) held in Salt Lake City, Utah on September
10-13, 1991.  Prepared in  cooperation  with ManTech
Environmental Technology,  Inc., Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Sponsored by Environmental  Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Re-
search and Exposure Assessment Lab.

The paper describes the development of climatologi-
cal  information  products to support ecological  data
collection and analysis. Characteristics of climatologi-
cal  persistence and recurrence that are critical to New
England forest health and productivity are identified.
The appropriate data  are assembled  and presenta-
tions  developed which address specific issues perti-
nent to climate change research; background  (status
and persistence); most recent  decade  (short-term
trends); and near-term impacts (modeling and  predic-
tion).  A Geographic Information System (GIS) is used
for presentation, data management and analysis. Pre-
liminary results of the research have been incorporat-
ed in  United  States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service monitoring program reports. The application of
regional climate research  techniques to assessment
and integrated activities of the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and As-
sessment Program (EMAP) is being actively explored.
Its future use  in climate/forest integrated modeling is
anticipated.

Keywords: 'Climatology,  'Ecology,  'Environmental
surveys, Data processing, Forests,  Climatic changes,
Mathematical  models,  'New England Forest Health
Monitoring Project, Environmental Monitoring and As-
sessment Program.
PB91-196089/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ongoing Fundamental Hazardous Waste Inciner-
ation Research at EPA/RTP Facility.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
R. E. Hall, P. M. Lemieux, W. P. Linak, and J. H.
Wasser. C1991,17p EPA/600/D-91/108
Presented  at the  Incineration  Conference  held in
Knoxville, TN. on May 13-17,1991.

The paper describes five combustors, results of some
completed  research, and plans for future studies at
EPA/AEERL's RCRA-permitted facility at Research
Triangle Park, NC. Research is conducted to examine
the effect of operating parameters such as residence
time, temperature, turbulence, and waste characteris-
tics on incineration of principal organic hazardous con-
stituents (POHCs), the formation of products of incom-
plete combustion  (PICs), and the  transformation of
trace metals. The five combustion systems include a
rotary kiln incinerator simulator, a package boiler simu-
lator, a horizontal tunnel combustor, a two-stage fluid-
ized-bed combustor, and a commercial package boiler.

Keywords:  'Hazardous materials,  'Waste disposal,
'Incinerators, 'Research and development, US EPA,
Operating, Combustion efficiency, Fluidized bed proc-
essors,  Boilers,  Kilns, Design criteria, Resource Con-
servation and Recovery Act, Principal organic hazard-
ous constituents.
PB91-196097/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Innovative  Thermal  Destruction   Technologies
(Chapter 7). Book chapter.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
C. C. Lee, G. L. Huffman, G. Ondich, and S. C. James.
1991,40pEPA/600/D-91/109
Pub. in CRC Handbook of Incineration of Hazardous
Wastes, Chapter 7, p256-2921991.

Ten innovative technologies for thermally destroying
hazardous wastes were selected and described in the
paper. These technologies were either supported by
EPA's RCRA or SARA programs or developed by in-
dustry since 1980. Two of the important criteria used in
selecting these technologies are that they are (or had
been) at least at the stage of pilot-scale demonstration
and appear to be promising in terms of destruction ef-
fectiveness. The  10 technologies are: Oxygen-En-
riched Incineration,  Westinghouse/O'Connqr Com-
bustor, Fluidized  Bed Combustion, Circulating  Bed
Combustion,  Molten   Salt  Combustion,   Infrared
System, Advanced  Electrical  Reactor, Plasma  Arc,
Wet Air Oxidation and Supercritical Fluid.

Keywords:  'Incinerators, 'Waste disposal,  'Hazard-
ous materials,  Technology utilization, Performance
evaluation. Industrial wastes, Combustion efficiency,
Fluidized bed processing, Supercritical state, Oxida-
tion, Wet  methods,  Oxygen  enrichment, Circulating
systems, Fused salts, Infrared equipment, Electric re-
actors, Plasma jets,  Reprints, Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act, Westinghouse/O'Connor Combus-
tors.
 PB91-196105/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Status of Land Treatment as a Hazardous Waste
 Management Alternative in the United States.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 J. Matthews, M. McFarland, R. Sims, and E. Barth.
 c1991,7pEPA/600/D-91/110
 Pub. in Proceedings of the Application of U.S. Pollution
 Control Technology  in  Korea,  Conference No.  2,
 Seoul, Korea, May 1-3,1989.

 Land treatment systems are widely used in the United
 States for treating petroleum refinery waste. Many of
 the petroleum compounds are degradable  in bench
                                                                                                                               Sept 1991     61

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
scale studies. Proper operation of the treatment is criti-
cal for successful performance.

Keywords:  *Soil  treatment,  'Waste management,
'Hazardous materials,  Petroleum  refining,  Perform-
ance evaluation, Technology utilization, Substitutes,
Biodeterioration, United States,  Chemical reaction
mechanisms.
PB91-196113/BEB               PC A02/MF A01
Detection of Radicals Produced 'In vivo' during
Inhalation  Exposure to Ozone: Use of Various
Spin Traps.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
C. H. Kennedy, G. E. Hatch, R. Slade, and R. P.
Mason. C1991, 9p EPA/600/D-91 /111
Prepared in cooperation with National Inst. of Environ-
mental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Ozone is known to induce lipid peroxidation of lung
tissue, although no direct evidence of free radical for-
mation has been reported. The study used the electron
paramagnetic resonance  (EPR)  spin-trapping tech-
nique to search for free radicals produced in vivo by
ozone exposure.  The spin trap  alpha-(4-pyridyl  1-
oxkte)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) was administered
i.p. to male Sprague-Dawley rats.  The rats were then
exposed for 2 hrs to either 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 ppm
ozone with 8% CO2 to increase their respiratory rate.
A 6-line  4-POBN/radical spin adduct signal  a(sup
N)=15.02 G and afsup H)beta-3.27 G) was detected
by EPR spectroscopy in lipid extracts from lungs of
rats treated with 4-POBN and then exposed to ozone.
Only a very weak signal was observed in the corre-
sponding solution from rats exposed to 0  ppm ozone
(air with CO2 only). The concentration of the radical
adduct increased  as  a function of ozone concentra-
tion. After administration of 4-POBN,  rats  were ex-
posed for either 0.5,1.0,2.0 or 4.0  hrs to either 0 or 2.0
ppm ozone (with CO2). These results demonstrate
that ozone  induces the production of free radicals in
rat lungs during inhalation exposure and  that radical
production  may be involved in the induction of lung
edema by ozone.

Keywords:  'Free  radicals, 'Ozone,   'Air  pollution
effects(Animals), Rats, Electron spin  resonance, Pul-
monary edema. Carbon dioxide, Lipid peroxidation.
PB91-196121/REB                PC A06/MF A01
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
PanXNC.
Interpretations  and  Limitations  of Pulmonary
Function Testing in Small Laboratory Animals.
ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Research
Triangle Park, NC.
D. L Costa, J. S. Tepper, and J. Raub. 1991,104p
EPA/600/D-91/112
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Sponsored by Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the re-
searcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung
to perform its essential function of gas exchange. To
meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate
efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as
provide an optimally minimal barrier to diffusion. Tests
of lung function permit the nondestructive assessment
of a continuum of lung performance, a continuum that
may be influenced temporarily or permanently by in-
flammatory events or structural alterations. In theory,
any function test conducted in human subjects can be
applied to animals and largely interpreted in the same
manner. Fortunately, those physiologic principles that
form the basis for clinical assessments  of function
seem to apply to animals in a quantitative as well as
qualitative manner. Nevertheless, being aware of the
species differences and technical pitfalls is critical to
the ultimate interpretation of the tests, especially when
comparing  them to their human analogues in health
and disease. The test described in the paper will be
useful  to OAQPS and  ECAO as a resource tool for
analyzing toxicotogical  data from animals for use in
regulatory procedures.

Keywords:  'Respiratory function tests, 'Laboratory
animals.  Toxicology, Inflammation,  Animal  disease
models, Anesthesia, Air pollution effects(Animals), Irri-
tants.
PB91-196139/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Model of 'Giardia  lambda' Inactivation by Free
Chlorine. Book chapter.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati,  OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
R. M. Clark. c1991,14p EPA/600/D-91 /113
Pub. in Modeling the Environmental Fate in Microorga-
nisms, p242-2531991.

The 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act
require the U. S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency
(EPA) to promulgate primary drinking water regulations
(1) specifying criteria under which filtration would be
required, (2) requiring disinfection as a treatment tech-
nique for all public water systems, and (3) establishing
maximum  contaminant levels or  treatment  require-
ments for control of Giardia lamblia, viruses Legionella
spp., heterotrophic plate count bacteria, and turbidity.
EPA has promulgated treatment  technique  require-
ments to fulfill the Safe Drinking  Water Act  require-
ment for system using surface waters and groundwat-
ers under the direct influence of surface water (Federal
Register, 1969). Additional regulations specifying dis-
infection requirements for systems using groundwater
sources not under the direct influence of surface water
will  be proposed and promulgated at a later date. A
model has been developed that relates pH, tempera-
ture, chlorine concentration, and inactivation level  to
Giardia inactivation by free chlorine.  It was found that
C times T (the product of disinfectant concentration
(milligram per liter) and disinfectant contact (minutes)
values increased with level of inactivation, disinfectant
concentration and pH  and decreased with tempera-
ture.

Keywords: 'Giardia, 'Potable water,  'Microbiology,
'Chlorine, 'Disinfection, 'Water treatment, Legionella,
Turbidity, Viruses, Filtration, pH, Temperature, Viru-
lence, Reprints, *Safe Drinking Water Act, Microbial
colony count.
PB91-196147/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Principles of Water Filtration. Book chapter.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Cincinnati,  OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
G. S. Logsdon. C1991,17p EPA/600/D-91 /114
Pub. in Methods for the Investigation and Prevention of
Waterbome Disease Outbreaks, p169-183.

The paper reviews principles involved in the processes
commonly used to filter drinking water for public water
systems. The most common approach is to chemically
pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-112 to 3 ft)
bed of granular media (coal or sand  or combinations of
these). The process may involve coagulation and filtra-
tion; coagulation, flocculation and filtration; or coagula-
tion, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. In any
case, pretreatment with coagulant chemical is neces-
sary,  because  particle  removal  occurs through the
mechanism of attachment to grains of filtering materi-
al. In contrast,  in typical diatomaceous  earth filtration
practice, coagulant is not used and particle removal by
straining is an important aspect of  the process.  Slow
sand filters are used to treat high quality water. No pre-
treatment coagulants  are used, but a biological popu-
lation develops in  the 3 to 4 foot deep sand filter and
removal by predation and attachment to sand surfaces
and the top slimy layer above  the sand (schmutz-
decke) cause the quality improvement in the process.

Keywords:  'Water treatment,  'Filtration,  'Potable
water, Diotomaceous earth, Coagulation, Flocculating,
Sedimentation, Sand filters, Reprints.
PB91-196154/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Microorganisms  in  Municipal Solid  Waste  and
Public Health Implications. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
H. R. Pahren. c1987,44p EPA/600/J-87/547
Pub. in CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control,
V17 Issue 3 p187-228 1987.

The composition of municipal solid waste is quite het-
erogeneous. This mixed composition results in the
presence of a variety of microorganisms that reach
densities which are relatively high, and which remain
high even after many years in a landfill. Microorganism
densities in the air at municipal solid waste processing
plants tend to be higher than levels near wastewater
treatment facilities. This may be due to indoor oper-
ations. Composting can  inactivate essentially all of the
microorganisms associated with fecal matter, but ther-
mophilic fungi  may cause adverse  health problems.
The  presence of  microorganisms in municipal solid
waste does not mean that there is a high risk of infec-
tion or disease if a person is occupationally exposed to
the waste. Dose-response relationships with various
microorganisms have shown that  a relatively large
number of microbes are necessary to initiate an infec-
tion or cause disease.

Keywords:   'Earth  fills,   'Microorganisms,  'Solid
wastes, 'Municipal wastes, 'Public health, Health haz-
ards, Dose-response relationships, Fungi, Feces, Viru-
lence, Microbial colony count, Enteroviruses, Entero-
bacteriaceae, Reprints.
PB91-196162/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Study
of Mixed Haloacetic Acids Found  In Chlorinated
Drinking Water. Journal article.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati,  OH.
Water Engineering Research Lab.
J. C. Ireland, L. A. Moore, H. Pourmoghaddas, and A.
A. Stevens. C1988,6p EPA/600/J-88/569
Pub. in Biomedical  and Environmental Mass Spec-
trometry, v17 p483-4861988.

Over the last two years, the laboratory and others have
identified mono-, di-,  and trichloro-  acetic acids as
major  byproducts of  drinking water disinfection.  In
areas of the country where relatively high levels of bro-
mine ion are naturally present in the source water, it is
expected that significant amounts of  the correspond-
ing bromo and mixed chloro-bromo acetic acids will be
formed. While developing  an automated GC/MS pro-
cedure to 'screen' for both previously identified disin-
fection byproducts as well as the haloacetic acids it
was discovered that reference mass spectra for 4 of
the 9  possible  chloro/bromo acetic acids (as their
methyl esters) were unavailable. The paper presents
experimental reference spectra for the methyl esters
of the four acids mentioned above. All nine acids were
synthesized in-situ by reacting an aqueous solution of
phenol  with  chlorine  in  the presence of various
amounts of bromide ion.

Keywords:  'Potable water, 'Chlorine  organic com-
pounds, 'Bromine organic compounds, 'Esters, 'Gas
cnromatography,  'Mass  spectroscopy,   Spectrum
analysis, Chlorination, Disinfection, Reprints, 'Haloa-
retic acids, Reference spectra.
PB91-196170/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Modeling Contaminant  Propagation  In  Drinking
Water Distribution Systems. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. M. Clark, W. M. Grayman, R. M. Males, and J. A.
Coyle. C1988,17p EPA/600/J-88/570
Pub. in Aqua, n3 p137-151 1988. Prepared in coopera-
tion with RMM Technical Services, Inc., Cincinnati,
OH., and North Penn Water Authority, Lansdale, PA.

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 requires
that the  U. S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
(USEPA)  establish  maximum  contaminant levels
(MCLs) for each  contaminant which may have an ad-
verse  effect on  the  health of persons. The SDWA
clearly specifies  that  these MCLs shall be met at the
consumers tap. Nevertheless most regulatory concern
has been focused on water as it leaves the  treatment
plant before entering  the distribution system. There is,
however, growing interest in determining the factors
that cause water quality variation in drinking  water dis-
tribution systems.  In order to study the effort, the
Drinking Water Research Division of EPA  initiated a
cooperative agreement with the North Penn  Water Au-
thority. The  cooperative agreement has resulted in a
series of field monitoring and systems modeling  stud-
ies that lend insight  into  the movement of contami-
nants  in distribution systems. Previous research has
resulted in development of a steady state model the
propogation of contaminants in distribution systems. In
the paper a more intensive approach is taken to exam-
ining the actual pathways of water flow and the time of
passage and percentage of water from a given source
to a given node in a distribution system. A major finding
of the research study is the importance of adequate
hydraulic modeling of the systems being studied and
the importance of field studies in verifying systems per-
formance. The approach  suggested in  the research
will provide  useful  insight  into the water quality varia-
tion that may impact consumers at the tap and the de-
velopment of monitoring strategies.
62     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords: 'Distribution systems, 'Water quality, 'Po-
table water, 'Water pollution sampling, 'Mathematical
models, Water  treatment, Performance evaluation,
Field  tests,  Hydraulics,  Samplers, Water  pollution
standards, Tracer studies, Path of pollutants, Compari-
son, Standards  compliance, Reprints, Safe Drinking
Water Act of 1974.
PB91-196188/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Destruction  of  Enteric  Bacteria  and  Viruses
during Two-Phase Digestion. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
K. M. Lee, C. A. Brunner, J. B. Farrell, and A. E. Eralp.
C1989,11p EPA/600/J-89/526
Pub. in Jnl. of Water Pollution Control Federation, v61
n8 p1421-1429 Aug 89. Prepared in cooperation with
Cincinnati Univ., OH. Dept. of Civil and Environmental
Engineering.

The pathogenic microorganism destruction  obtained
during two-phase anaerobic digestion was compared
to that for a conventional single-stage digester using
municipal wastewater treatment  sludge. Operation
was draw-and-fill. Total digester residence times of 10
days and 20 days were evaluated. Evaluations were
carried out at 35 and 53 C. Microorganisms measured
included fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, fecal strep-
tococci, and enterovirus. Pathogen reductions were
compared to those calculated from a kinetic relation-
ship developed specifically for draw-and-fill operation.
Ascaris were added to digested sludge and held at 53
C for up to 8 hours to observe their decline  with time
under thermophilic conditions. Common digester oper-
ating parameters were also measured. At the thermo-
philic temperature of 53 C essentially all the microor-
ganisms  measured were reduced  to undetectable
levels.  At 35  C, two-phase  digestion  achieved  from
0.48 to 0.91 greater log reduction of bacterial indica-
tors, but essentially the same reduction in virus.

Keywords: 'Enterobacteriaceae, 'Enteroviruses,  Ki-
netics,   Escherichia  coli,  Streptococcus,  Feces,
Sludge, Heat, Decontamination, Water microbiology,
Microbial colony count, Reprints.
PB91-196196/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Presence-Absence Coliform Test for Monitoring
Drinking Water Quality. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
E. W. Rice, E. E. Geldreich, and E. J. Read. C1989,8p
EPA/600/J-89/527
Pub. in Public Health Reports, v104 n1  p54-58 Jan-
Feb 89. Prepared in cooperation with  Computer Sci-
ences Corp., Cincinnati, OH.

Data from four comparative studies were analyzed to
compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from
drinking water using the presence-absence test, the
multiple fermentation tube procedure  and  the  mem-
brane filter  technique. Combined recoveries showed
the presence-absence  test  detected  significantly
higher numbers of samples with coliforms than either
the fermentation tube or  membrane  filter methods,
P<0.01. The fermentation tube procedure detected
significantly  more positive samples than  the  mem-
brane filter  technique,  P<0.01.  The presence-ab-
sence test offers a viable  alternative to water utilities
using frequency-of-occurrence monitoring for compli-
ance regulation.

Keywords: 'Water treatment, 'Potable water, 'Water
pollution sampling, 'Coliform bacteria,  Comparison,
Materials recovery, Performance evaluation, Compli-
ance, Pollution  regulations,  Reprints, Presence-ab-
sence  test,  Multiple fermentation  tube procedure,
Membrane filter technique.
PB91-196204/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Changing Solar Ultraviolet Climate and the Eco-
logical Consequences for  Higher Plants. Journal
article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
M. M. Caldwell, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini. C1989,
6p EPA/600/J-89/528
Pub. in Trends in Evolution and Ecology, v4 n12 p363-
366 Dec 89. Prepared in cooperation with Utah Univ.,
Salt  Lake City, Maryland  Univ.,  College  Park, and
Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany, F.R.).

There is compelling evidence that a general erosion of
the global ozone layer is occurring. Since ozone in the
stratosphere absorbs much of the shortwave solar ul-
traviolet radiation (UV-B), diminished ozone means
that more UV-B of a very specific wavelength composi-
tion will be received at the earth's surface. Evaluating
the implications for vegetation  involves consideration
of the wavelength specificity of biological photochemi-
cal reactions and their  sensitivity to the extent and
future solar spectrum. Recent  research suggests the
occurrence of direct damaging reactions and of indi-
rect morphological and chemical responses with impli-
cations at the community and ecosystem levels.

Keywords: 'Ozone layer, 'Atmospheric composition,
'Solar ultraviolet radiation,  'Vegetation,  'Climatic
changes, Depletion, Air pollution, Ecosystems, Photo-
chemical    reactions,    Atmospheric    chemistry,
Plants(Botany),  Biological effects, Plant growth, Re-
prints.
PB91-196212/REB               PC A03/MF A01
National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Relationships between Laboratory and Pilot-Scale
Combustion of Some Chlorinated Hydrocarbons.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. P. Y. Chang, N. W. Sorbo, C. K. Law, R. R. Steeper,
and M. K. Richards. C1989,13p EPA/600/J-89/529
Grant NSF-CBT86-12579, Contract ARB-A6-051-32
Pub. in-Environmental Progress, y8 n3 pi 52-162 Aug
89. Prepared  in cooperation with  California Univ.,
Davis, and Sandia  National Labs.,  Livermore, CA.
Combustion Research Facility. Sponsored by National
Science Foundation, Washington, DC., and California
State Air Resources Board, Sacramento.

Factors governing the occurrence of trace amounts of
residual organic substance emissions (ROSEs) in full-
scale incinerators are not fully understood. Pilot-scale
spray combustion experiments involving  some liquid
chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) and the dilute mix-
tures  with hydrocarbons (HC) were undertaken at the
USEPA's Center Hill  Laboratory. Individual droplet-
burning characteristics of CHCs and HCs were also
studied at the University of California, Davis on a more
fundamental level to isolate and identify potentially im-
portant phenomena. The practical implications of the
experimental observations  on incinerability ranking,
formation of  ROSEs, and strategies for  reducing
ROSEs are discussed.

Keywords: 'Drops(Liquids), 'Combustion, 'Chlorohy-
drocarbons, 'Incinerators, Laboratory tests, Mixtures,
Alkanes, Decontaminatio, Pyrolysis, Reprints.
PB91-196220/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Risk Equivalent Seasonal Waste Load Allocation.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
L A. Rossman. C1989,10p EPA/600/J-89/530
Pub. in Water Resources Research, v25 n10 p2083-
2090 Oct 89.

Seasonal wastewater discharge programs employ dif-
ferent effluent standards during different times of the
year to  take  maximum advantage of  a  receiving
water's natural capacity to assimilate pollutants. The
rational design of the programs should  try to achieve
the maximum economic benefits possible without in-
creasing the risk of water quality impairment. A method
is developed for designing seasonal programs for indi-
vidual dischargers that limits the risk of one or more
water quality standard violations in any year. The key
elements involve: (1) treating seasonal receiving water
assimilative capacity as a random variable; (2) assum-
ing Markov-like behavior of these  random  variables
between  seasons; and (3) using a nonlinear program-
ming model to find seasonal discharge limits that mini-
mize waste treatment efforts while maintaining an ac-
ceptable  annual risk of water quality violation. A case
study of controlling ammonia toxicity is presented as
well as a  comparison of the potential savings available
from seasonalization  for  several  pollutants on  two
rivers with differing seasonal regimes.

Keywords: 'Water quality management, 'Water pollu-
tion standards,  'Risk assessment, 'Computerized
simulation, Seasonal  variations,  Pollution regulations.
Load  distribution,  Stochastic processes, Statistical
analysis,  Water  pollution sampling, Water  pollution
control,   Concentration(Composition),  Stream flow,
Comparison, Reprints.
PB91-196238/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Incineration of Solid Waste. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
C. C. Lee, G. L. Huffman, and S. Stelmack. C1989,11p
EPA/600/J-89/531
Pub. in Environmental Progress, v8 n3 p143-151 Aug
89.

The concern over solid waste disposal and dump-site
clean-up has resulted in the passage of three  major
U.S. environmental laws. They are the Resource Con-
servation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of  1976, Public
Law 94-580, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
of 1976, Public Law 94-469, and the Comprehensive
Environmental  Response,  Compensation and Liability
Act (CERCLA) of 1980, Public Law 96-510. The imple-
mentation of these three laws has considerably  inten-
sified incineration research,  because  incineration rep-
resents the highest degree of destruction and environ-
mental control  possible for various waste types (types
such as hazardous, medical and municipal waste). The
objective of the paper is to review the fundamentals of
incineration (combustion) and to provide an incinerator
design example to show how combustion fundamen-
tals are applied to an incineration system.

Keywords: "Solid waste disposal,  'Incineration, 'Pol-
lution laws, Land pollution  abatement, Reviews, Incin-
erators, Design criteria, Performance evaluation, Com-
bustion efficiency, Industrial wastes, Municipal wastes,
Hazardous  materials, Reprints, Medical  wastes, Re-
source Conservation and  Recovery  Act, Toxic Sub-
stances Control  Act, Comprehensive Environmental
Response Compensation and Liability Act.
PB91-196246/REB                PC A02/MF A01
SITE Demonstration of the American Combustion
Pyretron Oxygen-Enhanced Burner. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
L. J. Staley, and R. E. Mo
                   dournighan. C1989,7p EPA/
600/J-89/532
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
tion, v39 n2 p149-153 Feb 89.

A demonstration of the American Combustion Pyretron
(TM) oxygen-enhanced burner was conducted under
the Superfund  Innovative  Technology Evaluation
(SITE) program. The Demonstration was conducted at
the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) in
Jefferson, Arkansas. An eight week  test series was
conducted which involved burning a mixture of listed
waste K087 with contaminated soil from the Stringfel-
low Acid Pits under both oxygen enhancement and air-
only conditions. Performance under both modes of op-
eration was compared. Results show that the Pyretron
operating  with  oxygen  enhancement  could  meet
RCRA emissions  limitations at  a  throughput  rate
double that for air-only operation. Scrubber liquor and
kiln ash from the tests contained no detectable levels
of contaminants from either  waste stream. (Copyright
(c) 1989 Air and Waste Management Association.)

Keywords: 'Incinerators, 'Air  pollution  abatement,
'Waste disposal,  'Air  pollution control equipment,
Oxygen enrichment, Soil  contamination, Arkansas, Air
intakes, Performance evaluation, Scrubbers, Pollution
regulations,  Operations,  Kilns,  Design criteria, Com-
bustion  efficiency, Reprints, 'Superfund  Innovative
Technology  Evaluation  Program,  'Pyretron burners,
Jefferson(Arkansas).
PB91-196253/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Analysis  of Inactiyation of  'Giardia lambda' by
Chlorine. Journal article.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
R. M. Clark, E. J. Read, and J. C. Hoff. c1989,13p
EPA/600/J-89/533
Pub. in ASCE Jnl. of Environmental Engineering, v115
n1 p80-90 Feb 89. Prepared in cooperation with Com-
puter Sciences Corp., Cincinnati, OH.

Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-93-
523) highlight the continuing problem of waterborne
disease by mandating the EPA to promulgate: (1) Cri-
teria by which  filtration  will be required for surface
water supplies; and (2) disinfection requirements for all
water supplies in the United States. There is interest
on the part of the EPA in applying the Ct concept for
determining  the inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts as
a key criterion for determining  exceptions to the filtra-
                                                                                                                                 Sept  1991     63

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
tion aile. If a utility, in addition to meeting other require-
ments, can demonstrate that through effective disin-
fection, manifested by a sufficient Ct value, it can
reduce Giardia levels by 99.9%, then it will be exempt-
ed from surface water filtration. In the paper, a model
for calculation of Ct values based on animal infectivity
data is developed. The model, based on first-order ki-
netics, relates Ct values to chlorine concentration, pH
and temperature. The model predictions are compared
to laboratory data.

Keywords:  'Drinking  water,  "Water  microbiology,
'Giardia lamblia, 'Chlorine,  'Decontamination, Kinet-
ics,  pH, Temperature, Water treatment,  Reprints,
'Safe Drinking Water Act.
PB91-196261/REB               PC A02/MF A01
NATO/CCMS Conference on the Demonstration
of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminat-
ed Land and Groundwater. Held in Bilthoven, The
Netherlands on November 7-11, 1988. Journal arti-
cle.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
S. C. James, and D. E. Sanning. c1989,9p EPA/600/
J-89/534
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
tion, v39  n9 p1178-1184 Sep 89. See also PB90-
263229.

The problem of contamination to land and groundwat-
er from improper handling  of hazardous materials/
waste is faced by all countries. Also the need for reli-
able, cost-effective technologies to address the prob-
lem at contaminated sites exists throughout the world.
Many countries have only started to develop new inno-
vative/alternative technologies while others have al-
ready started to apply these technologies to the clean-
up of contaminated sites. The purpose of the NATO/
CCMS Pilot Study is to discuss and evaluate new inno-
vative/alternative technologies and/or existing sys-
tems that may be applicable to the cleanup of contami-
nated sites. Through the pilot study the exchange of in-
formation on new and existing technologies for dealing
with problem hazardous waste sites is promoted. The
pilot study is made up of an international group of ex-
perts drawn from the participating  countries. The
study, which was initiated in 1986, is planned to last
five years. It is piloted by the United States and copilot-
ed by the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the
Netherlands. The report includes an overview and his-
tory of the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study, but it primarily
presents  a  documentation  of  the  NATO/CCMS
Second International  Conference  on the Demonstra-
tion of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminat-
ed Land and Groundwater held in Bilthoven, the  Neth-
erlands on November 7-11,1988. (Copyright (c)  1 $89,
Air & Waste Management Association.)

Keywords: 'Meetings, 'Remedial action, *'.ind  pollu-
tion,  'Water pollution, 'Waste disposal, 'Hazardous
materials,  Ground water,  Soil  contamination, United
States, Substitutes, Technology transfer, Netherlands,
Federal Republic of Germany, Cost effectiveness, Re-
prints, Cleanup operations, Foreign technology.
PB91-196279/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Interaction  of Elevated  Ultravlolet-B Radiation
and C02  on  Productivity  and  PhotosynthetJc
Characteristics In Wheat, Rice, and Soybean. Jour-
nal article.
Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Botany.
A. H. Teramura, J. H. Sullivan, and L H. Ziska. C1990,
8p SCIENTIFIC-8184, CONTRIB-A6023, EPA/600/J-
90/488
Pub. in Plant Physiology 94,  p470-475 1990. Spon-
sored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Wheat, rice and soybean were grown to determine if
CO2-induced increases in  photosynthesis, biomass,
and yield are modified by  increases in  ultraviolet-B
(UV-B) radiation corresponding to stratospheric ozone
depletion. The  experimental  conditions  simulated
were: (1) an increase in CO2 concentration from 350 to
650 microliters per liter, (2) an increase in UV-B radi-
ation corresponding  to a 10% ozone depletion at the
equator; and (3) a and b combination. Seed yield and
total biomass increased significantly  with  elevated
CO2 in all three species when compared to the con-
trol. However, with concurrent increases in UV-B and
CO2, no increase in either seed yield (wheat and rice)
or total biomass (rice) was observed with respect  to
the control.  In  contrast, CO2-induced increases  in
seed yield and total plant biomass were maintained or
increased in soybean within the elevated CO2, UV-B
environment. Whole leaf gas exchange indicated a sig-
nificant increase in photosynthesis, apparent quantum
efficiency (AQE) and water-use-efficiency (WUE) with
elevated CO2 in all 3 species. Including elevated UV-B
radiation with high CO2 eliminated the effect of high
CO2 on photosynthesis and WUE in rice and the in-
crease in AQE associated with high CO2 in all species.
Elevated CO2 did not change the apparent carboxyla-
tion efficiency (ACE) in the three species  although the
combination of elevated CO2 and UV-B reduced ACE
in wheat and rice. The results of the experiment illus-
trate that increased UV-B radiation may  modify CO2-
induced increases in biomass, seed yield and photo-
synthetic parameters and suggest that available data
may not adequately characterize the potential effect of
future, simultaneous changes  in  CO2 concentration
and UV-B radiation.

Keywords:  'Air pollution effects(Plants), 'Ultraviolet
rays, 'Carbon dioxide,  'Farm crops, 'Photosynthesis,
Soybeans, Rice, Wheat, Biomass, Seeds,  Reprints.
PB91-196287/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Effects of UV-B Radiation on Soybean Yield and
Seed Quality: A Six-Year Field Study. Journal arti-
cle.
Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Botany.
A. H. Teramura, J. H. Sullivan, and J. Lydon. c1990,9p
SCIENTIFICA-6024, CONTRIB-8185, EPA/600/J-90/
489
Grant EPA-R-814017-01-1
Pub. in Physiologia Plantarum, v80 p5-11 1990. Pre-
pared in cooperation with Department of Agriculture,
Beltsville, MD. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.

Two soybean, (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, Essex
and Williams, were grown in the field for 6 consecutive
seasons under ambient and supplemental levels of ul-
traviolet-B radiation to determine the potential for al-
terations in yield or seed quality with a reduction in the
stratospheric ozone column. The supplemental UV-B
fluences simulated a 16 or 25% ozone depletion. The
data presented here represent the first field experi-
ment conducted over multiple seasons which assess-
es the effects of increased  UV-B radiation on seed
yield. Overall, the cultivar Essex was found to be sensi-
tive to UV-B radiation (yield reductions of 20%) while
the cultivar Williams was tolerant. However, the effec-
tiveness of UV-B radiation in altering yield was strongly
influenced by the seasonal microclimate, and the 2
cultivars responded differently to these changing fac-
tors. Yield was reduced most in Essex during seasons
in which water availability was high and was reduced in
Williams only when water was severely limiting. The re-
sults of the experiments demonstrate the necessity for
multiple-year experiments and the need to increase
understanding  of the interaction between UV-B radi-
ation  and  other environmental  stresses in order to
assess the potential consequences of stratospheric
ozone depletion.

Keywords: 'Soybeans, 'Ultraviolet rays, 'Farm crops,
'Seeds, Field  tests, Precipitation,  Ozone, Seasonal
variation, Reprints.
PB91-196295/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Field Study of the Interaction between Solar  Ul-
travlolet-B Radiation and Drought on  Photosyn-
thesis and Growth in Soybean. Journal article.
Maryland Univ., College Park. Qept. of Botany.
J. H. Sullivan, and A. H. Teramura. c1990,8p
SCIENTIFIC-8044, CONTRIBA-4997, EPA/600/J-90/
490
Grant EPA-R-812150-02-0
Pub. in Plant Physiology, v92 p141-146 1990. Spon-
sored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Essex, plants were
grown in the field in a 2x2 factorial design, under ambi-
ent and supplemental levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) ra-
diation (supplemental daily dose of 5.1 effective kilo-
joules per square meter) and were either well-watered
or subjected to drought Soil water potentials were re-
duced to -2.0 megapascals by the exclusion of natural
precipitation in the drought plots and were maintained
at approximately -0.5 megapascal by supplemental irri-
gation in well-watered plots. Plant growth and gas ex-
change  characteristics were  affected  under both
drought and supplemental UV-B radiation. The com-
bined effect of both drought and UV-B radiation on
photosynthetic gas exchange was a reduction in ap-
parent quantum efficiency and the rapid appearance of
biochemical limitations to photosynthesis concomitant
with reduced diffusional limitations. However, the com-
bination of stresses did not result in additive effects on
total plant growth or seed  yield compared to reduc-
tions under either stress independently.

Keywords:  "Ultraviolet rays,  'Photosynthesis, 'Soy-
beans, 'Droughts, 'Farm crops, Field tests, Precipita-
tion, Plant growth, Reprints,  'Plant stress.
PB91-196303/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Biologically Enhanced Oxygen Transfer in the Ac-
tivated Sludge Process. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. S. Mueller, H. D. Stensel, and R. C. Brenner. c1990,
13pEPA/600/J-90/491
Pub. in Research Jnl. WPCF, v63 n2 p193-203  Mar-
Apr 90.  Prepared  in cooperation with Washington
Univ., Seattle, and Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY.

Biologically enhanced oxygen transfer has been a hy-
pothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in
activated sludge systems that were well above that
predicted from aerator  clean-water testing. The en-
hanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests
using  BOD bottle oxygen uptake rates (OURs) on sam-
ples  removed from  the  activated sludge system.
Bench- and full-scale plant studies were performed to
compare results of in situ OUR measurement tech-
niques to BOD bottle OUR measurements. The studies
showed that  the condition of low dissolved oxygen
(DO) and high OUR for  which the greatest enhanced
oxygen transfer was reported resulted in OURs in the
BOD bottle tests well above the actual in situ  OURs.
For high DO and high OUR activated sludge operating
conditions,  the BOD bottle OURs were below the
actual in situ OURs. The BOD bottle OUR values accu-
rately described in situ OURs for endogenous respira-
tion conditions with nonlimiting  DO concentrations.
The results suggest that previously observed biologi-
cally enhanced oxygen  transfer was not actually oc-
curring but was the  result  of the BOD  bottle test
method and activated sludge operating condition.

Keywords: 'Activated sludge process, 'Aeration, 'Bio-
logical treatment, 'Sewage  treatment, Oxygenation,
Mass  transfer, Design criteria,  Performance evalua-
tion, Dissolved oxygen,  Biochemical oxygen demand,
Mathematical  models,  In-situ  processing. Oxygen
demand. Reprints, Oxygen uptake rate.
PB91-196311/REB               PCA01/MFA01
Technical Note: Adsorption Capacity of GAC for
Synthetic Organics. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
T. F. Speth, and R. J. Miltner. C1990,4p EPA/600/J-
90/492
Pub. in Jnl. American Water Works Association,  p72-
76 Feb 90.  Prepared in cooperation with American
Water  Works Association,  Denver, CO.,  Iowa State
Water Resources Research Inst, Ames, Carus Chemi-
cal Co., La Salle, IL, and Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Dept.
of Civil and Environmental Engineering.

Isotherms are presented for 58 compounds in distilled-
deionized water,  filtered river water, and  filtered
groundwater. The compounds, which  ranged   from
volatile organics to insecticides, are either regulated or
being considered for regulation by the US Environmen-
tal Protection Agency.

Keywords:   'Water  pollution   control,  'Isotherms,
'Granular activated  carbon  treatment,  'Chemical
compounds,  Insecticides, Volatile organic compounds,
Adsorption, Performance evaluation, Equilibrium, Pol-
lution regulations, Mathematical models, Tables(Data),
Concentration(Composition), Reprints.
PB91-196329/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Minimization of Transient Emissions from Rotary
Kiln Incinerators, 1990. Journal article.
Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Chemical Engineering.
P. M. Lemieux, W. P. Linak, J. A. McSorley, J. O. L.
Wendt, and J. E. Dunn. C1990,17p EPA/600/J-90/
493
Contract EPA-68-02-4701
64     Vol.  91, No.  3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Pub. in  Combustion Science  and Technology, v74
p311-325  1990.  See  also  report for  1989,  PB90-
112558. Prepared in cooperation with Arkansas Univ.,
Fayetteville. Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, and En-
vironmental  Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper discusses combining experimental  results
from a pilot-scale rotary kiln  incinerator simulator with
a theoretical model  in order to explore the potential of
minimizing transient emissions through changes in kiln
rotation  speed and  temperature, steady state oxygen
enrichment,  and  oxygen  enrichment in  a dynamic
mode. Results indicate that transient organic emis-
sions can  indeed be minimized by changes in these
kiln operating parameters but, because of the complex
interactions of physical and  chemical processes con-
trolling emissions, the  appropriate abatement proce-
dures must be implemented  carefully. Transient emis-
sions of organics occur from rotary  kiln incinerators
when  drums containing liquid wastes bound on sor-
bents are  introduced in batches.  Physical  processes
controlling the release of waste from the sorbent mate-
rial are greatly affected by the rotation speed and tem-
perature of the kiln. Local partial pressure of oxygen in-
fluences the rate of oxidation of the puff formed inside
the kiln. These physical and chemical  phenomena can
be used to control transient  emissions by oxygen en-
richment, where it is done in either a steady or a dy-
namic mode.

Keywords:  *Air pollution  abatement, 'Kilns,  *Solid
waste disposal, 'Incinerators, 'Mathematical models,
Oxygen  enrichment,  Pilot  plants, Sorbents,   Liquid
wastes,  Operating, Physical  properties, Chemical
properties, Performance evaluation, Reprints.
PB91-196337/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Flow and Dispersion of Pollutants within Two-Di-
mensional Valleys. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
W. H. Snyder, L. H. Khurshudyan, I. V. Nekrasov, R. E.
Lawson, and R. S. Thompson. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-
90/494
See also PB90-186362. Prepared in cooperation with
Main Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad (USSR),
and Moscow State Univ. (USSR).

Wind-tunnel experiments and a theoretical model con-
cerning the flow structure and pollutant diffusion over
two-dimensional valleys of varying aspect ratio are de-
scribed  and  compared. Three model valleys were
used, having small, medium, and steep slopes. Meas-
urements of mean and turbulent velocity fields were
made upstream, within, and downwind of each of
these valleys. Concentration distributions were meas-
ured downwind of tracer sources placed at an array of
locations within each of the valleys. The data are dis-
played as maps of terrain amplification factors, defined
as the ratios of maximum ground-level concentrations
in the presence of the valleys to the maxima observed
from sources of the same height located in flat terrain.
Maps are also provided showing the distance to loca-
tions of  the  maximum ground-level concentrations.
The concentration patterns are interpreted in terms of
the detailed  flow structure measured in the valleys.
These data were also compared with results of a math-
ematical  model for treating flow and dispersion over
two-dimensional complex terrain. The model used the
wind-tunnel  measurements to  generate  mean flow
fields and eddy diffusivities, and these were applied in
the numerical solution of the diffusion equation. Meas-
ured concentration fields were predicted reasonably
well by the model for the valley of small slope  and
somewhat less well for the valley of medium slope. Be-
cause flow separation was observed within the steep-
est valley, the model  was not applied in this case.

Keywords: *Air pollution, 'Dispersion, 'Valleys, 'Two
dimensional  flow, Wind tunnel tests, Mathematical
models, Terrain, Diffusion, Natural convection, Slopes,
Eddies, Reprints.
PB91-196345/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Factors  Influencing  Mercury Concentrations In
Walleyes In Northern Wisconsin Lakes. Journal ar-
ticle.
National  Fisheries Contaminant Research Center, La
Crosse, Wl. Field Research Station.
J. G. Wiener, R. E. Martini, T. B. Sheffy, and G. E.
Glass. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/495
Grant EPA-R-809484
Pub. in Transactions of the American Fisheries Socie-
ty, v119 p862-870 1990. Prepared in cooperation with
Wisconsin  Dept.  pf  Natural  Resources, Madison.
Sponsored  by Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth,
MN.

The study examined relations between mercury con-
centrations  in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the
characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which
spanned a  broad range  of  pH values (5.0-8.1) and
acid-neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 micrpgram eq/
L).  Total concentrations  of  mercury  in axial muscle
tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from
0.12 to 1.74 microgram g/g wet weight. Concentra-
tions were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH
less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or
exceeded 0.5 microgram g/g in 88% of the samples
analyzed and 1.0 microgram g/g in 44%. In the five
lakes with pH of 7.0  and above, concentrations ex-
ceeded 0.5 microgram g/g in only 1  of 21 walleyes.
Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total
length  of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in
mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models
with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-
neutralizing capacity  as  independent  variables ac-
counted for 67% of the variation in concentration. The
observed differences in fish mercury concentration be-
tween the low-pH and high-pH lakes could not be logi-
cally attributed to differences  in growth rate  or diet
among the walleye populations. Moreover, it is improb-
able that mercury influxes to the low-pH lakes  were
greater than those to the high-pH lakes, because of
the close proximity and spatial interspersion of low-
and high-pH lakes.

Keywords:    'Water    pollution   effects(Animals),
'Mercury(Metal), 'Toxicity,  'Lakes,  pH, Regression
analysis, Body  size,  Calcium, Biological availability,
Muscles, Concentration(Composition), Reprints, 'Wal-
leye pike, 'Northern Region(Wisconsin), Stizostedion
vitreum.
PB91-196352/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Incinerability Ranking Systems for RCRA Hazard-
ous Constituents. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
C. C. Lee, G. L. Huffman, and S. Stelmack. C1990,33p
EPA/600/J-90/496
Pub. in Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials, v7
n4p385-4151990.

The selection of  Principal Organic Hazardous  Con-
stituents (POHCs) and determination of the incinerabi-
lity ranking have been the subject of considerable sci-
entific and policy debate since the RCRA/hazardous
waste incinerator standards were established in 1981.
POHCs have typically been selected for measurement
of their Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs)
during incinerator trial burns  based on their heats of
combustion. In  1987,  EPA's OSW joined ORD to
evaluate the possibility of developing  an improved
POHC incinerability ranking system based on the con-
cept of thermal stability under oxygen-starved,  post-
flame conditions. A theoretical evaluation of the ther-
mal stability of 320 organic compounds on the Appen-
dix VIII  list was undertaken. These compounds were
grouped in accordance with  their  possible reaction
mechanisms. Selected compounds were tested in a
laboratory-scale thermal decomposition unit equipped
with a gas chromatograph to  determine their Destruc-
tion Efficiencies (DEs)  under  low-oxygen,  post-flame
conditions. The  Paper provides both the 'heat of com-
bustion'  ranking system  and the  'thermal stability'
ranking system for comparison and application.

Keywords: 'Incineration, 'Waste disposal, 'Combus-
tion efficiency,  'Hazardous  materials,  'Air pollution
abatement, Ranking,  Pollution standards, Combustion
heat, Performance standards, Thermal stabijity, Re-
search  and development. Air pollution sampling, Re-
prints, 'Principal organic hazardous constituents, Re-
source Conservation  and Recovery Act, Chemical re-
action mechanisms.
 PB91-196360/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Determination of Total Organic Hallde In Water: A
 Comparative Study of Two  Instruments.  Journal
 article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 D. A. Reckhow, C. Hull, E. Lehan, J. M. Symons, and H.
 S. Kim. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/497
Pub. in International Jnl. of Environmental Analytical
Chemistry, v38 p1-7. Prepared  in cooperation  with
Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Dept. of Civil Engineer-
ing, and Atmospheric Environment Service,  Downs-
view (Ontario).

Total organic halide (TOX) analyzers are commonly
used to measure the amount of dissolved halogenated
organic byproducts in disinfected waters. Because of
the lack of information on the identify of disinfection
byproducts, rigorous testing of the dissolved organic
halide (DOX) procedure for method bias is not always
possible. The note presents the results of a brief study
comparing two commercial TOX analyzers with  neu-
tron activation. The purpose was  to determine if differ-
ential bias exists between the two analyzers, and to
determine analyte recovery of adsorbed disinfection
byproducts. Disinfection byproducts of aquatic fulvic
acid were prepared using the following disinfectants:
chlorine,  bromine, and  monochloramine. Analysis of
the samples indicated that the two commercial  TOX
analyzers gave similar results. Neutron activation anal-
ysis suggested that organic chlorine recovery from the
activated carbon adsorbent was complete, however,
results with organic bromine recovery were inconclu-
sive. Additional tests indicated that one of the  TOX
analyzers is subject to significant interferences from in-
organic  iodide.  (Copyright (c)  1990 Gordon  and
Breach, Science Publishers, Inc.)

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Chlorination, 'Disinfec-
tion,  Performance  evaluation,  Chemical  analysis,
Fulvic acids, Chlorine organic compounds, Bromine or-
ganic compounds, Byproducts, Iodides, Comparison,
Statistical analysis,  Bias, Contaminants,  Reprints,
'Total organic halide analyzers.
 PB91-196378/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Design Information Report: Sludge  Management
 Systems. Journal article.
 Montgomery  (James M.) Consulting Engineers, Inc.,
 Pasadena, CA.
 A. Condren, K. Deeny, R. Dick, R. Hegg, and R. Reed.
 C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/498
 Contract EPA-68-03-3429
 Pub. in Water Environment  and Technology, v2  n7
 p62-69 Jul 90. Sponsored by Environmental Protection
 Agency, Cincinnati,  OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
 Lab..

 Over 270  comprehensive performance  evaluations
 have shown that sludge management  system limita-
 tions were severe enough to contribute to non-compli-
 ance with NPDES permits in 49 percent of the plants
 evaluated. Most  limitations could be attributed to one
 or  more of  the following: inaccurately  estimated
 masses and/or volumes of waste sludge, inadequately
 sized processing equipment to address waste sludge
 mass  and/or volume  variations,  and  inflexibility in
 sludge  processing  operations and sludge manage-
 ment  system  options. The  document  highlights
 common sludge  management system oversights and
 presents concepts to illustrate  how such oversights
 can be addressed by  designers and reviewing agen-
 cies in the future.

 Keywords: 'Waste  management,  'Sludge disposal,
 'Sewage sludge, Performance evaluation,  Permits,
 Sewage treatment,  Standards compliance,  Volume,
 Pollution regulations, Forecasting,  Waste processing,
 Operations, Reprints, 'National Pollutant Discharge
 Elimination System,  'Publicly owned treatment works.
 PB91-196386/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Modeling the Inactivation of Gtardia Lamblia. Jour-
 nal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. M. Clark. C1990,19p EPA/600/J-90/499
 Pub. in Jnl. of Environmental  Engineering, v116 n5
 D837-853 Sep-Oct 90.

 Under the auspices of the Safe Drinking Water Act
 (SDWA) the U.S. EPA has promulagated the Surface
 Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) requiring  public water
 systems using surface water to provide minimum disin-
 fection to control Glardia Lamblia, enteric viruses, and
 bacteria. The CT concept (concentration of disinfect-
 ant in mg/L times time In minutes) is used to establish
 the appropriate criteria for a surface system to achieve
 at least 99.9% inactivation of Giardia  lamblia and
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     65

-------
                                                   EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 99.9% inactivation for viruses. In the SWTR, an empiri-
 cal equation was developed based on water tempera-
 ture, pH, concentration of chlorine, and inactivation
 level to predict required disinfection criteria (C times t
 values).  The paper describes the development of an
 equation based on Chick-Watson kinetics that pro-
 vides equivalent information  but is theoretically more
 consistent

 Keywords:  'Microbiology, *Giardia,  'Potable water,
 'Disinfection, 'Water treatment Chlorine,  Tempera-
 ture, Kinetics,  Enteroviruses,  Virulence,  Reprints,
 'Safe Drinking Water Act Giardia lamblia.
 PB91-196394/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Hazardous Waste Decontamination with Plasma
 Reactors. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 L J. Statey. c1990,7p EPA/600/J-90/500
 Pub. in Jnl. of Hazardous Materials Control, v3 n2 p67-
 71 Mar/Apr 90.

 The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has
 been considered as a potentially efficient means of de-
 contaminating hazardous waste. Only a few attempts
 have been made to actually treat  hazardous waste
 with plasma,  however. The paper discusses  both
 direct and indirect waste heating with plasma. Direct
 heating involves the direct injection of liquid waste into
 the plasma plume. Indirect heating involves using the
 plasma to create a bath of molten solid material which
 is used to heat and decontaminate solid hazardous
 waste. The paper summarizes the experience to date
 with plasma based on hazardous waste treatment and
 discusses the implications of the limited data available.

 Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Decontamination,
 'Waste treatment 'Plasma devices,  Solid wastes,
 Plasma temperature, Heat treatment Technology utili-
 zation,  Design  criteria, Performance evaluation. Re-
 prints.
 PB91-196402/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Pollution Prevention: Not Only 'Where It's At' but
 'Where It's Been'. Journal article.
 Cincinnati Univ., OH. American Inst. for Pollution Pre-
 vention.
 J. T. Ling, and D. G. Stephan. c1990,6p EPA/600/J-
 90/501
 Pub. in Jnl. of the American Academy of Environmen-
 tal Engineers, v26 n4 p13-15, 23, Oct 90. Sponsored
 by Environmental Protection  Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
 Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

 All sectors are beginning to see the inherent advan-
 tages that arise from avoiding the generation of pollut-
 ants in the first place - the reductions  in environmental
 and  health hazards, the avoidance of Federal, State
 and  local regulatory requirements, the more efficient
 use of raw materials, the more economical production
 of goods and services, the conservation of natural re-
 sources, and the elimination of potential liability. The
 report is a brief outline of the mission, structure and ac-
 tivities of the American Institute for Pollution Preven-
 tion.

 Keywords:  'Pollution abatement 'Research and de-
 velopment Economic analysis, Education, Implemen-
 tation, State government Local government Environ-
 ment management Administrative procedures,  Re-
 prints, 'American Institute for Pollution Prevention.
PB91-196410/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Measuring and Modeling Variations in Distribution
System Water Quality. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
R. M. dark, and J. A. Coyte. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-
90/502
Pub. in Jnl. American Water Works Association, v82 n8
p46-53Aug90.

Until recently most interest in drinking water quality
has been in the finished water as it leaves the treat-
ment plant The  Safe  Drinking  Water requires that
MCLs be met at the consumers tap. Because finished
water may  undergo substantial changes while being
transported through the distribution system to the con-
sumer, interest has increased on the effect the system
itself may have on water quality. The paper reports on
 a study that was conducted in cooperation with the
 North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pennsylvania
 to study the effects that hydraulic behavior may have
 on contaminant propagation in the system. The study
 demonstrates that water quality varies not only with
 time but with space as well. Methods for  continuous
 monitoring were evaluated as part of the study. Sever-
 al different types of models were also developed in
 order to provide a framework for studying contaminant
 propagation.

 Keywords: 'Water quality,  'Water pollution effects,
 'Distribution systems,  'Potable water, 'Mathematical
 models, Water pollution sampling, Case studies, Penn-
 sylvania, Water treatment plants, Environmental trans-
 port, Hydraulics, Kinetics, Path of pollutants, Reprints,
 Lansdale(Pennsylvania).
 PB91-196428/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Possible  Red  Spruce  Decline:  Contributions  of
 Tree-Ring Analysis. Journal article.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 P. C. Van Deusen, G. A. Reams, and E. R. Cook.
 C1991, 7p EPA/600/J-91 /061
 Pub. in Jnl. of Forestry, p20-24 Jan 91. Prepared in co-
 operation  with Southern Forest Experiment Station,
 New Orleans, LA.,  Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, and
 Lamont-Doherty  Geological Observatory, Palisades,
 NY.

 In studies of the northeastern  red spruce ecosystem,
 several points evoke some agreement: (1) many high-
 elevation sites exhibit  substantial post-1960 mortality
 that  could be due  to winter injury; (2) there is wide-
 spread pre-1950 growth increase with a subsequent
 post-1960 growth decrease; (3) many locations show
 none of these effects;  and (4)  dendro-climate models
 suggest that  late summer  and early winter tempera-
 tures of the previous year are significant determinants
 of red spruce  year-to-year growth. It is a mistake to ad-
 vocate a single cause at this  time, because there is
 compelling evidence that both climate and stand dy-
 namics are involved to some degree. The study of
 long-term forest trends based on tree-ring data is diffi-
 cult and subject to  interpretation, but it is unlikely that
 other data is available for most natural forest areas. In
 fact, progress made in the study of northeastern red
 spruce owes much to tree-ring analysis, and other eco-
 logical studies could benefit as well.

 Keywords: 'Acid rain, 'Air pollution effects(Plants), Cli-
 mate, Plant growth, Mortality,  Reprints, 'Red spruce,
 'Forest decline, 'Tree-ring analysis, Stand dynamics.
PB91-196436/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Effects of Dietary Exposure to Methyl Parathion
Ci? Egg Laving arid Incubation In Mallards. Journal
article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
R. S. Bennett, 8. A. Williams, D. W. Schmedding, and
J. K. Bennett C1991,9p EPA/600/J-91/062
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v10
p501-507  1991.  Prepared in  cooperation with NSI
Technology Services Corp.. Corvallis, OR.

An outdoor pen study was conducted  with mallards
(Anas platyrhynchos) to evaluate the effects of an 9-d
dietary exposure to methyl parathion (400 ppm) on egg
laying and incubation when treatment was initiated at
different times in the nesting cycle. Treatment groups
were defined as egg laying (chemical  initiated after
fourth egg laid in nest), early incubation  (initiated after
day 4 of incubation), late incubation (initiated after day
16 of incubation) and control (no chemical). Forty-eight
pairs (12/group) were allowed to nest and  hatch
broods.  In the egg laying group, daily egg production
was reduced significantly during the treatment period
compared to controls, but 4 of 10 hens resumed pro-
duction post-treatment. One of ten control hens aban-
doned its nest, whereas 17 of 23 hens in the early and
late incubation groups either died or exhibited changes
in incubation behavior, with 7 hens abandoning their
nests and 6 displaying  reduced nest attentiveness for
one or more days during treatment.  Reproductive pa-
rameters were not significantly different between treat-
ment groups, but the number  of hatchlings per nest
was 61, 43 and 58% of controls for the egg laying,
early incubation and late  incubation groups,  respec-
tively. The study showed that nesting success may be
impacted by short dietary exposures to methyl parath-
ion, particularly during early incubation.

Keywords: 'Methyl parathion,  'Organophosphate in-
secticides,  'Ducks,  'Reproduction(Biology),   Eggs,
 Diet, Food consumption, Mortality, Embryo, Reprints,
 Anas platyrhynchos, Nest abandonment.
 PB91-196444/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Application of Staged Combustion and Rebuming
 to the  Co-Firing of Nitrogen-Containing  Wastes.
 Journal article.
 Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 W. P. Linak, J. A. Mulholland, J. A. McSorley, R. E. Hall,
 and R. K. Srivastava. C1991,17p EPA/600/J-91/063
 Contracts EPA-68-02-3988, EPA-68-02-4701
 Pub. in Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials, v8
 n1 p1-15 1991. Prepared in cooperation with Battelle,
 Columbus,  OH. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
 tion  Agency, Research Triangle  Park,  NC. Air and
 Energy Engineering Research Lab.


 The paper  gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW
 precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-fur-
 nace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and ret-
 rofit applications,  for use with  high nitrogen content
 fuel/waste  mixtures.  The 250- to  750-ms residence
 time precombustion chamber burner  mounted on a
 prototype watertube package boiler simulator used air
 staging and in-furnace natural gas reburning to control
 NOx emissions. The paper reports results of research
 in which the low NOx precombustor was used to exam-
 ine the co-firing characteristics of a  nitrogenated pesti-
 cide,  containing  dinoseb  (2-sec-butyl-4,6  dinitro-
 phenol) in  a fuel-oil/xylene solvent. The dinoseb for-
 mulation as fired contained 6.4% nitrogen. NO emis-
 sions without in-furnace NOx control exceeded 4400
 ppm (at 0% 02). When  NOx controls in the form of air
 staging  and natural gas reburning were used, these
 emissions were reduced to < 150 ppm  (96% reduc-
 tion). Average CO and total hydrocarbon emissions
 were typically < 15 and 2 ppm, respectively.  No dino-
 seb was detected in any emission sample, and the de-
 struction efficiency was determined to be >  99.99%.
 Mutagenicity studies of the dinoseb emissions showed
 that reburning (used for NOx control) reduced the mu-
 tagenic  emission factor about 60-70% from that with
 air staging alone.


 Keywords:  'Waste disposal, 'Air pollution control, 'Af-
 terburning,  'Cocombustion,  'Incinerators,  'Staged
 combustion,  Combustion efficiency,  Performance
 evaluation,   Nitrogen oxides,  Pesticides,  Dinoseb,
 Design criteria.
PB91-196451/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators, 1991. Journal arti-
cle.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
C. R. Parrish, M. A. Palazzolo, M. A. Vancil, H. E.
Bostian, and E. P. Grumpier. C1991,12p EPA/600/J-
91/064
Contract EPA-68-02-4288
Pub. in Trans IChemE, v69,  Part B, Feb  91. See also
PB91-151472. Prepared  in  cooperation with Mobay
Corp., New Martinsville, WV. Sponsored by  Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
duction Engineering Lab.


Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four
wastewater  sludge  incinerators  were  determined.
Three multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed com-
bustor were tested. Emissions were controlled with a
combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrub-
bers.  One site  incorporated an  afterburner  as well.
Flue gas testing was conducted at the inlet and outlet
to the air pollution control devices at two of the plants.
Feed sludge was also extensively tested for moisture,
metals, and organics, as well as overall feed  rate and
heating value. Testing operating conditions were cate-
gorized as short-term versus long term or normal (in-
cludes transients, start-up, feed interruptions, etc.).

Keywords: 'Air  pollution  sampling,  'Sludge disposal,
'Incineration,  'Air  pollution  control   equipment,
Sewage sludge, Metals, Organic compounds, Perform-
ance  evaluation, Scrubbers, Afterburners, Moisture,
Calorific        value,        Feed        systems,
Concentration(Composition), Reprints.
66     Vol.  91,  No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-196469/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Overview and Update of the Superfund Innovative
Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration Pro-
gram. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. F. Martin. C1991, 6p EPA/600/J-91 /066
Pub. in Jnl. of Air and Waste Management Association,
v41 n3 p344-347 Mar 91.

The Superfund  Innovative Technology Evaluation
(SITE) Program is now in its sixth year of demonstrat-
ing technologies applicable to  Superfund sites. The
SITE Program, conducted by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Risk Reduction Engineering Lab-
oratory, is intended to accelerate the use of new and
innovative treatment processes as well as evaluate in-
novative  measurement and monitoring  techniques.
Within the SITE Program, the Demonstration Program
and the Emerging Technologies Program are responsi-
ble for innovative/alternative waste treatment technol-
ogy development. Separate and parallel activities are
progressing for development and evaluation of meas-
uring and monitoring technologies as well as technolo-
gy  transfer operations.  (Copyright (c) 1991, Air and
Waste Management Association.)

Keywords:   *Superfund,   "Technology   utilization,
"Waste management, Substitutes,  Cost analysis, Site
surveys,  Research  and development,  Performance
evaluation,  Reprints, 'Superfund Innovative Technolo-
gy Evaluation Program.
PB91-196477/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental  Impacts   on  the  Physiological
Mechanisms  Controlling  Xenobiotic   Transfer
Across Fish Gills. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
J. M. McKim, and R. J. Erickson. c1991.30p EPA/
600/J-91/067
Pub. in Physiological Zoology, v64 n1 p39-67 Feb 91.

Rsh physiologists have provided the basic information
on gill morphology, gill function, and vascular dynam-
ics with which to understand branchial flux of gases,
water, and ions. In addition, pharmacologists and toxi-
cologists,  working in the area of drug action, have
characterized the physicochemical attributes of xeno-
biotic chemicals that determine their rate of movement
across biological membranes. Recently, aquatic toxi-
cologists have applied the information to the question
of what mechanisms control the movement of organic
chemicals across fish gills and how exchange is affect-
ed by chemical properties. Mathematical models were
developed that predict gill exchange as a  function of
basic processes such as water flow across the gills,
blood flow through the gills, partitioning of the chemi-
cal between water and blood, and diffusion between
blood and water across gill epithelia. Such mechanistic
models can predict the effects of environmental condi-
tions on exchange rates of xenobiotics. To fully devel-
op a predictive capability for xenobiotic uptake and dis-
tribution by fish, it will be necessary  to incorporate
these gill models into emerging, physiologically based
models for the entire animal.

Keywords: * Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Biologi-
cal transport, 'Xenobiotics,  'Gills, 'Fishes, Organic
chemicals, pH, Oxygen, Temperature,  Mathematical
models, Pharmacokinetics,  Metabolism, Respiration,
Reprints.
 PB91-196493/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Interaction of Vapour Phase Organic Compounds
 with Indoor Sinks. Journal article Jun 89-Feb 90.
 Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 B. A. Tichenor, Z. Quo, J. E. Dunn, L. E. Sparks, and M.
 A. Mason. c1991,15p EPA/600/J-91 /069
 Contract EPA-68-02-4701
 Pub. in Indoor Air, v1 p23-35 1991. Prepared in coop-
 eration with Arkansas  Univ.,  Fayetteville. Dept. of
 Mathematical Sciences. Sponsored by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC. Air
 and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

 The interaction of indoor air pollutants with interior sur-
 faces (i.e., sinks) is a well known, but poorly under-
 stood, phenomenon. Studies have shown that re-emis-
 sions  of adsorbed organic vapors can contribute to
 elevated concentrations of organics in indoor environ-
 ments. Research is being conducted in small environ-
 mental test chambers to develop data for predicting
sink behavior. The paper reports on the development
of sink models based on fundamental mass transfer
theory. The results of experiments conducted to deter-
mine the magnitude and rate  of adsorption  and de-
sorption of vapor phase organic compounds for sever-
al materials are presented. Five materials were evalu-
ated: carpet,  painted wallboard, ceiling tile, window
glass, and upholstery. Two organic compounds were
tested  with  each  material:  tetrachloroethylene  (a
common cleaning solvent)  and  ethylbenzene  (a
common constituent of  petroleum-based  solvents
widely used in consumer products). The results of the
experimental work are presented showing the relevant
sink effect parameters for each material  tested and
comparing the sorptive behavior of the two organic
compounds  evaluated.  An  indoor air quality  (IAQ)
model was modified to incorporate adsorption and de-
sorption sink rates. The model was used to predict the
temporal history of the concentration of  total vapor
phase organics  in a test house after application of a
wood finishing product. The predicted results are pre-
sented and compared to  measured values.  Sugges-
tions for further research on indoor sinks are present-
ed. (Copyright (c) 1991 Danish Technical Press.)

Keywords: 'Indoor air pollution, 'Construction materi-
als,  'Carpets, 'Upholstery,  'Volatile  organic com-
pounds, 'Adsorption, 'Desorption, Mass transfer, Test
chambers, Tetrachloroethylene, ethyl benzene, Pollu-
tion control, Stationary sources, Reprints, 'Pollution
sinks.
PB91-196501/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Models for Analyzing Data in Initiation-Promotion
Studies. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
C. Chen, H. Gibb, and A. Moini. Feb 91, 8p EPA/600/
J-91 /070, OHEA-C-326
Pub. in Environmental Health Perspectives, v90 p 287-
292 1991. Prepared in cooperation with Computer Sci-
ences Corp., Falls Church, VA.

The objective of the paper  is to construct a class of
models for analyzing data in initiation-promotion (IP)
studies. After the application of an initiator in animal IP
studies, histochemical and/or histopathologic criteria
are used to define the foci that are postulated to be the
origin of tumors. Thus, the dynamics of foci growth are
of inherent interest in the study of the mechanism of
carcinpgenesis. In the paper, models to explain these
dynamics are developed and can be used to differenti-
ate among proposed mechanisms of tumor formation
and promotion. Examples are given to illustrate useful
concepts for analyzing data from IP studies.

Keywords: 'Carcinogenesis, 'Carcinogens, Histopath-
ology, Etiology, Statistical models. Neoplasms, Adenq-
sine triphosphatase, Hepatectomy, Reprints, *'"F*i-
ation-promotion studies.
'Initi-
 PB91-196519/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Prediction of  Retention Times in Temperature-
 Programmed Multichromatography. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 L. H. Wright, and J. F. Walling. c1991,14p EPA/600/J-
 91/071
 Pub. in Jnl. of Chromatography, v540 p311-322  1991.

 The calculation of retention times for temperature pro-
 grammed serially linked capillary gas Chromatography
 columns is demonstrated. Equations are derived for
 the verification of operating  conditions  via  internal
 standards and for the  precise calculation of mid-point
 pressure corresponding to a given relative retentivity.
 The predicted retention  times for 23 volatile organic
 compounds are compared to experimental results.

 Keywords: 'Gas  Chromatography, 'Prediction  equa-
 tions, Surface properties, Volatile organic compounds,
 Thermodynamic  properties,   Reprints,   'Retention
 times,  'Temperature  programmed  multichromato-
 graphy.


 PB91-196527/REB                        PC A03
 Sources of Air Pollutants Indoors: VOC and Fine
 Particulate Species. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park,  NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 C. W. Lewis. C1991,16p EPA/600/J-91/072
       Pub. in Jnl. of Exposure Analysis and Environmental
       Epidemiology, v1 n1 p31-44 1991.

       The average concentrations of a large number of fine
       particle  aerosol and  VOC species  measured in ten
       Boise, Idaho, residences in wintertime have been ap-
       portioned according  to  their contributions from  all
       inside sources and all outside sources, regarded  as
       two composite source categories. Air change rates for
       the residences were in the range 0.2 - 0.8/hr. None of
       the residences had  obvious major indoor sources
       (smokers, wqodburning appliances, etc.). The two cat-
       egory apportionment  was accomplished through use
       of the single chamber mass balance indoor air quality
       model given by Dockery and Spengler. The method
       depends on the availability of average concentrations
       measured outside each residence  during the same
       sampling periods used for the inside measurements,
       and on the ability to identify one or more species that
       have  negligible indoor sources. Calculated infiltration
       factors  (the indoor/outdoor  ratio in the  absence of
       indoor sources) for fine particle species averaged 0.5,
       and varied in a reasonable way with measured  air
       change rates, essentially independent of species. Infil-
       tration factors for  the VOCs were indistinguishable
       from  unity. The relative importance of indoor and out-
       door  sources to  measured indoor  concentrations
       showed great variation between species and between
       residences. In most homes the indoor source contribu-
       tion was dominant for fine particle Si, Ca, and Fe, while
       the infiltration contribution was dominant for S, K, Pb,
       Zn, mass, and extractable organic matter. Indoor con-
       tributions to individual VOCs were frequently very large
       at a few residences and negligible at the others. (Copy-
       right  (c) 1991 Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc.)

       Keywords: 'Houses, 'Indoor air pollution, 'Volatile or-
       ganic compounds, 'Air pollution monitoring, 'Sources,
       'Pollution transport, 'Fines, Particulate sampling, Aer-
       osols, Metals,  Winter,  Reprints,  'Boise(ldaho),  Air
       quality modeling.
PB91-196535/REB               PC A03/MF A01
EPA Program for  Monitoring Ecological Status
and Trends. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
J. J. Messer, R. A. Linthurst, and W. S. Overton. c1991,
14pEPA-600/J-91/073
Pub. in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 17,
p67-78 1991. Prepared in cooperation with Oregon
State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Statistics.

Despite hundreds of millions of dollars spent annually
in  the  United States  on environmental  monitoring,
policy and decision makers seldom have ready access
to monitoring data to aid in prioritizing research and as-
sessment efforts or to assess the extent to which cur-
rent policies are meeting the desired objectives. EPA is
currently  conducting research  to evaluate options for
establishing an integrated, cooperative monitoring pro-
gram, with  participation by federal, state,  and private
entities, that could  result in annual statistical reports
and interpretive summaries on the status and trends in
indicators of adverse disturbance and corresponding
'health' of the nation's ecosystems on the regional and
national scale.

Keywords:   'Environmental   monitoring,  'Ecology,
Trends,  US  EPA,  Environmental  policy,  Decision
making, Research projects,  Statistical analysis, State
government, Local  government,  Biological indicators,
Regional analysis, Reprints.
        PB91-196543/REB                PC A02/MF A01
        Intercomparison of Atmospheric Nitric Acid Meas-
        urements at  Elevated Ambient  Concentrations.
        Journal article.
        Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
        Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
        sessment Lab.
        K. G. Anlauf, H. A. Wiebe, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer,
        and G. I. Mackay. C1991,9p EPA/600/J-91/074
        Pub. in Atmospheric Environment, v25A n2 p393-399
        1991. Prepared in cooperation with Atmospheric Envi-
        ronment  Service,  Downsview  (Ontario), California
        Univ.,  Riverside. Statewide  Air Pollution Research
        Center, and Unisearch Associates, Inc., Concord (On-
        tario).

        Several methods for measurement of ambient  HNO3
        were compared over a 9-day period during the Carbo-
                                                                                                                                  Sept 1991     67

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
naceous Species Methods Comparison Study at Glen-
dora, CA, in August 1986. Hourly averaged HNO3 con-
centrations were in the range 0.5-25 ppbv, with hourly
maxima each day in excess of 15 ppbv. The measure-
ment methods included absorption by a nylon filter in
an open-face filter pack (FP), a transition flow reactor
tube (TRF) in conjunction with a nylon filter, tunable
diode laser  absorption spectroscopy (TOLAS) and
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The
latter method was chosen as the common method for
comparison  of the daytime  HNO3 measurements
(nighttime concentrations were below the 4 ppbv de-
tection limit of the  FT-IR). Comparing the mean day-
time HNO3 mixing  ratios, the 1-h  FP method yielded
13.9 ppbv (vs 12.9 for FT-IR), the 1-h TOLAS was 11.7
ppbv (vs 13.2 for FT-IR) and the 12-h TFR was 11.4
ppbv (vs 12.0 for FT-IR). For the nighttime periods, the
means of the 2-h FP and the 12-h TER were 1.2 and
0.95 ppbv, respectively. The measured means were
within the uncertainties of the methods.

Keywords:  'Nitric  acid,  *Air  pollution  monitoring,
*Spectroscopic analysis, *Air sampling, Atmospheric
chemistry, Comparison, Air filters. Performance eval-
uation, Reprints, Glendora(Califomia).
PB91-196550/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Preliminary Studies of Video Images of Smoke
Dispersion In the Near Wake of a Model Building.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
A. H. Huber, S. P. Arya, S. A. Rajala, and J. W. Borek.
C1991,13p EPA/600/ J-91 /075
Pub. in Atmospheric Environment v25A n7 p1199-
1209 1991. Prepared in cooperation with North Caroli-
na State Univ.  at Raleigh, and Computer Sciences
Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.

A summary of analyses of video images of smoke in a
wind tunnel study of dispersion in the near wake of a
model building is presented. The analyses provide in-
formation on Both the instantaneous and the time-av-
erage patterns of dispersion. Since the images repre-
sent  vertically-integrated  or  crosswind-mtegrated
smoke concentration, only  the  primary spatial and
temporal scales of pollutant dispersion can be exam-
ined. Special graphic displays of the results are pre-
sented to have great potential as an easily quantifiable
electronic medium  for studying the dispersion  of
smoke.

Keywords: 'Smoke,  'Dispersion, 'Wakes, *Air pollu-
tion. 'Video signals, 'Images, Model tests, Buildings,
Wind(Meterology), Vortices, Wind tunnel tests, Wind
tunnel models. Flow visualization. Reprints.
PB91-196568/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Wind Tunnel and  Gaussian  Phone  Modeling of
Building Wake Dispersion. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC.  Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
A. H. Huber. c1991,15p EPA-600/J-91 /076
Pub. in  Atmospheric Environment  v25A n7 p1237-
12491991.

The paper summarizes a study of the relationship be-
tween Gaussian  plume  models   and wind-tunnel
models. Wind-tunnel measurements of the distribution
of tracer concentrations downwind of a point source in
the near wake of a  rectangular model  building were
evaluated. Profiles of mean velocity and turbulence
were measured to characterize the flow. These experi-
ments were  conducted in both  a low-turbulence
boundary layer and a simulated-atmospheric boundary
layer. The  study covered a range of four flow speeds
arid four different sized buildings. The  differences in
observed velocity and concentrations between the re-
sults for the tow turbulence and simulated atmospheric
boundary layer flow were not significant very near the
building, but  these  differences  increased in signifi-
cance at downstream distance greater than 10 times
the building height The transition from buHding-affect-
ed dispersion levels to levels that were not significantly
different from dispersion without a building was a func-
tion of the size of the building. The application of a
modified Gaussian  plume model showed  it to be a
simple, wen-suited complement to wind-tunnel meas-
urements of mean concentrations.

Keywords: 'Plumes, 'Air pollution, 'Wakes, 'Disper-
sion,  'Wind  tunnel  models. Model tests. Boundary
layer. Turbulent flow, Velocity distribution, Wind tunnel
tests,  Buildings,  Mathematical  models,  Gaussian
quadrature, Reprints.
PB91-196584/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Moderately Stable Flow Over a Three-Dimensional
Hill: A Comparison of Linear Theory with Labora-
tory Measurements. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC.  Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
R. S. Thompson, M. S. Shipman, and J. W. Rottman.
c1991,17p EPA/600/J-91 /078
Pub. in Tellus 43A, p49-63 1991. Prepared in coopera-
tion with NSI Technology Services Corp., Research
Triangle Park, NC., and North Carolina State Univ. at
Raleigh. Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sci-
ences.

Several series  of experiments were performed in  a
stratified towing tank to study the near-field flow of a
linearly stratified  fluid over an isolated three-dimen-
sional hill. The streamlines were obtained in the labo-
ratory using a stereographic method to determine the
paths  of plumes of dye released upstream of the hill.
Velocities over the hill center were obtained by analy-
sis of  video recordings of the dye plumes and with a
propeller anemometer. The  results of these experi-
ments are compared with numerical solutions, comput-
ed using Fast  Fourier Transforms, of the linearized
aquations of motion for an inviscid fluid. Good  agree-
ment is found for Froude numbers (based on the hill
height) greater than about 2.0.  For Froude numbers
greater than about 4.0, flow patterns were observed to
differ only slightly from those for neutral flow.

Keywords: 'Plumes,  'Inviscid  flow, 'Air pollution,
"Hills, Equations  of motion,  Froude number, Fourier
transformation, Mathematical models, Three dimen-
sional flow, Dispersion, Laminar flow. Flow visualiza-
tion, Natural convection, Reprints.
PB91-196592/REB               PC A03/MF A01
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Germinomas and  Teratoid  Siphon Anomalies In
Softshell Clams, 'Mya arenaria', Environmentally
Exposed to Herbicides. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
G. R. Gardner, P. P. Yevich, J. Hurst P. Thayer, and S.
Benyi. c1991,11 p EPA/600/J-91 /079, ERLN-949
Contract NIH-N01-CP-61063
Pub. in Environmental Hearth Perspectives, v90 p43-
51 1991. Prepared in cooperation with Maine State
Dept of Marine Resources, West Boothbay Harbor,
and National Museum of Natural History, Washington,
DC. Sponsored by  National Institutes of Health, Be-
thesda, MD.

Seminomas and dysgerminomas are epizootic in soft-
shell clams, Mya arenaria, from three Maine estuaries
contaminated with herbicides. The first epizootic was
discovered in  22% of clams  collected as Searsport
near Long Cove Brook  and three culverts that con-
veyed heating oil and jet fuel spilled from a tank farm in
1971. Data from subsequent  epizootiological studies
and a series of long-term experimental exposures of
softshell clams to no. 2 fuel oil, JP-4, andJP-5 jet fuel
at the U.S. EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory
in Narragansett, Rhode Island, and in the field did not
support an etiology by these petroleum products. In
the two recent epizootics reported here, the germino-
mas have been observed in 3% of the softshell clams
collected from Roque  Bluffs near Machiasport and
from 35% of softshell clams collecled from Dennys-
ville. Mya collected at Dennysville had pericardial me-
sotheliomas and teratoid siphon anomalies in addition
to gonadal neoplasms. Estuaries at Dennysville had
been contaminated  by herbicides in a 1979 accidental
spray overdrift during aerial  application of Tordon 101
to adjacent forests. Further investigation determined
widespread use of  the herbicides Tordon 101,2,4-D,
2,4,5-T, and other agrochemicals in an extensive for-
estry and blueberry industry in both the Roque Bluffs
and the Dennysville areas.  Herbicide applications at
Searsport were confirmed for railroad property border-
ing Long Cove estuary and for Long Cove Brook adja-
cent to the estuary where a highway department re-
portedly cleans its  spray equipment Herbicide con-
tamination is the only common denominator identified
at all three sites where Mya have been found with go-
nadal neoplasms.

Keywords:  'Clams, 'Herbicides,  'Water  pollution
effects(Animals), Oil spills, Coastal regions, Maine, Pa-
thology, Chemical analysis, Mesothelioma, Reprints,
'Germinoma, 'Clam siphons,  D 2-4 herbicide, Mya
arenaria, T 2-4-5 herbicide.
PB91-196600/REB               PC A03/MF A01
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor Sediment
to the Eastern Oyster and  Trophic Transfer of
Black Rock Harbor Carcinogens from the Blue
Mussel to the Winter Flounder. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
G. R. Gardner, P. P. Yevich, J. C. Harshbarger, and A.
R. Malcolm. C1991,16p EPA/600/J-91 /080, ERLN-
978
Contract NIH-N01-CP-61063
Pub. in Environmental Health Perspectives, v90 p53-
66  1991. Prepared  in  cooperation  with  National
Museum  of Natural History, Washington,  DC. Spon-
sored by National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed
neoplastic disorders  when experimentally  exposed
both in the laboratory and field  to chemically contami-
nated sediment from Black  Rock  Harbor (BRH),
Bridgeport, Connecticut.  Neoplasia was observed in
oysters after 30 and 60 days of continuous exposure in
a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L sus-
pension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods
of 0, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was
13.6% (49 neoplasms in  40, n  = 295) for both expo-
sure. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal  ex-
cretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad,
gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue.
Regression of experimental neoplasia was  not  ob-
served when the stimulus was discontinued. In field ex-
periments, gill  neoplasms developed  in oysters  de-
ployed in cages for 30 days at  BRH and 36 days at a
BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long
Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neo-
plasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days
in Quincy Bay,  Boston  Harbor. Oysters exposed to
BRH sediment in the laboratory and  in the field accu-
mulated  high concentrations  of polychlorinated  bi-
phenyls  (PCBs), polyaromatic  hydrocarbons  (PAHs),
and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demon-
strated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinat-
ed pesticides, and heavy metals in  BRH sediment.
Known genotoxic carcinogens,  cocarcinogens, and
tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The
uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment
observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Myti-
lus edulis). Winter flounder fed  BRH-contaminated
blue mussels contained  xenobiotic chemicals ana-
lyzed in mussels.

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Oys-
ters, 'Carcinogens, 'Flounder, 'Mussels, Black Rock
Harbor, Connecticut Neoplasms, Polychlorobiphenyl
compounds, Polycyclic  aromatic hydrocarbons,  pr-
ganochlorine insecticides, Food chains, Mytilus edulis,
Sediments, Mutagens, Pathology, Reprints.
PB91-196618/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Innovative Practices for Treating Waste Streams
Containing Heavy Metals: A Waste Minimization
Approach. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. W. Grosse. c1991,17p EPA/600/J-91 /081
Pub. in Physical/Chemical Processes, v2 p221 -235.

Innovative practices for treating waste streams  con-
taining heavy metals often involve technologies or sys-
tems that either reduce the amount of waste generat-
ed or recover reusable resources.  With the land dis-
posal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an
accepted waste management alternative, waste  mini-
mization practices have received increasing popularity
in the primary metals industry. Preferred management
practices for reducing or eliminating generated wastes
are source reduction (i.e., material sustitution, recycle/
reuse) and reduction of toxicity in order to meet tech-
nology-based treatment standards.  Major topics to be
discussed in the chapter will focus on waste stream
characterizations, process descriptions, and summa-
rized results on demonstrations and audits. Only state-
of-the-art and innovative approaches will be consid-
ered for review. Particular emphasis will be placed on
waste minimization approaches (e.g. source reduction
techniques, concentration and reuse of waste  con-
taminants, material substitution), recovery techniques
(e.g. electrolytic recovery, membrane technologies,
68     Vol.  91,  No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
ion exchange) and centralized waste treatment facili-
ties.

Keywords:  'Materials  recovery,   "Heavy  metals,
•Waste treatment, Hazardous materials, Waste man-
agement, Waste recycling, State of the art, Standards,
Water pollution  control, Sludge  treatment, Pollution
sources.  Performance  standards.  Design  criteria.
Waste  utilization,  Reprints,  *Waste  minimization,
Source reduction.
PB91-196626/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Development and Demonstration of a Pilot-Scale
Debris Washing System. Journal article.
IT Environmental Programs, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
M. L. Taylor, and N. P. Barkley. c1991,11 p EPA/600/
J-91/082
Contract EPA-68-03-3413
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
tion, v41 n4 p488-496. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction En-
gineering Lab.

Metallic, masonry, and other solid debris that may be
contaminated with hazardous chemicals litter numer-
ous hazardous waste sites in the United States. Poly-
chlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), pesticides, lead or other
metals are some  of the  contaminants of concern. In
some cases cleanup standards have been established
(e.g., 10 micrograms PCB's/100 sq cm for surfaces to
which humans may be frequently exposed).  Decon-
taminated debris could be either returned to the site as
'clean' fill, or,  in the case of the metallic debris, sold to
a metal smelter. The project involves the development
and demonstration of a technology specifically for per-
forming  on-site   decontamination  of  debris.  Both
bench-scale and pilot-scale versions of a debris wash-
ing system (DWS) have been designed, constructed
and demonstrated. The DWS entails the application of
an  aqueous  solution during a  high-pressure spray
cycle, followed by  turbulent wash and rinse cycles. The
aqueous cleaning solution is recovered and recondi-
tioned for reuse concurrently with the debris-cleaning
process,  which minimizes  the  quantity of process
water required to clean the debris. (Copyright (c) 1991,
Air and Waste Management Association.)

Keywords: *On-site investigations, 'Decontamination,
'Hazardous materials, 'Debris, 'Waste treatment, Pol-
ychlorinated  biphenyls,  Demonstration plants,  Pilot
plants,  Pesticides,  Metals, Litter,  Waste  recycling,
Fillers, Spraying, Materials recovery, Cleaning, Waste
utilization, Research  and development, Washing, Re-
prints, 'Cleanup operations.
 PB91-196634/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Presence  of Enteric  Viruses in Freshwater and
 Their  Removal  by  the  Conventional  Drinking
 Water Treatment Process. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 C. J. Hurst. C1991, 9pEPA/600/J-91/083
 Pub. in Bulletin of the World Health Organization, v69
 n1p113-1191991.

 A review of recently published literature  was per-
 formed to  ascertain the levels of indigenous human
 enteric viruses found in untreated surface and subsur-
 face freshwaters, and in drinking water which has been
 subjected to the  complete process of conventional
 treatment.  For the purpose of the review, the criterion
 used for defining conventional drinking water  treat-
 ment was that of an operation which included coagula-
 tion followed by sedimentation, filtration, and disinfec-
 tion.  Also  assessed was  the stepwise efficiency  of
 conventional drinking water treatment, as practiced at
 full-scale  facilities, for removing  indigenous viruses
 from environmental freshwaters. In addition, a list was
 compiled of recently published statistical correlations
 relating to the finding of indigenous viruses in water.

 Keywords: 'Microbiology,  'Potable water, 'Enterovir-
 uses,  'Water treatment, 'Reviews, Surface waters,
 Disinfection, Public health, Statistical analysis, Fresh
 water, Sites, Reprints.
 PB91-196642/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Biodegradation of Hydrocarbon Vapors in the Un-
 saturated Zone. Journal article.
 Robert S  Kerr Environmental Research Lab.,  Ada,
 OK.
D. W. Ostendorf, and D. H. Kampbell. C1991,12p
EPA/600/J-91/084
Pub. in Water Resources Research, v27 n4 p453-462
Apr 91. Prepared in cooperation with Massachusetts
Univ., Amherst. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

The time-averaged concentration of hydrocarbon and
oxygen vapors  were  measured in the  unsaturated
zone  above  the  residually  contaminated capillary
fringe at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse
City, Michigan. Total hydrocarbon and oxygen vapor
concentrations  were   observed  over  a  13-month
period. Supplementary grain size, porosity,  and mois-
ture content data support the assumption of a uniform,
homogenous site geology which, in view of  the planar
hydrocarbon  source  term,  abundant  oxygen,  and
sparse data base, is suitable for simple analytical mod-
eling. In the assumed absence of advection, leaching,
and transcience, the analysis is a straight-forward bal-
ance of gaseous diffusion and biological degradation
coupled stoichiometrically in the two reacting constitu-
ents. Volatilization is shown to be a significant trans-
port mechanism for hydrocarbons at Traverse City,
and biodegradation prevents the escape of apprecia-
ble contamination to the atmosphere for most loca-
tions at the site. Little oxygen is expected to reach the
water table  because  of the  aerobic biodegradation
process in the unsaturated zone. (Copyright (c) 1991
the American Geophysical Union.)

Keywords:  'Biodeterioration,  'Hydrocarbons, 'Soil
contamination, 'Air pollution abatement, 'Water pollu-
tion abatement, 'Oxygen, Land pollution, Zone of
saturation,  Unsaturated flow, Volatile organic com-
pounds, Michigan, Time series analysis,  Environmen-
tal  transport, Soil gases, Mathematical models, Oil
spills, Concentratipn(Composition), Sampling, Chemi-
cal reactions, Reprints, Traverse City(Michigan).
PB91-196659/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Studies  of Benzidine-Based Dyes in Sediment-
Water Systems. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
E. J.Weber. c1991,12p
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v10
n5p609-618May91.

The sorption and degradation of several benzidine-
based dyes were studied in sediment-water systems.
Studies in resaturated sediment demonstrated  that
sorption was strongly dependent on pH and the nature
and concentration of the inorganic salt in solution.
Degradation of the dyes in anaerobic pond sediment
followed  pseudo-first-order  kinetics  with  half-lives
ranging from 2 to 16  d. Product studies indicated that
the amount of recovered benzidine accounted for only
2 to 5% of lost Direct Red 28. Studies in pH-amended
pond sediment demonstrated that degradation is inhib-
ited when the dyes are strongly  sorbed to the sedi-
ment.

Keywords: 'Dyes, 'Benzidine, 'Sediments,  'Water,
•Biodegradation, *Sorptiqn, Reaction kinetics, Water
pollution. Ponds, Anaerobic conditions, Reprints.
 PB91-196667/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Predicting  Chemical Accumulation  in Shoots of
 Aquatic Plants. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
 S. D. Wolf, R. R. Lassiter, and S. E. Wooten. c1991,
 18pEPA/600/J-91/086
 Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v10
 n5 D665-680 May 91. Prepared in cooperation with
 Technology Applications, Inc., Athens, GA.

 Chemical exchange dynamics expected for diffusive
 transfer of a chemical between aqueous solution and
 plant shoots, and expected bioconcentration based on
 partitioning properties of the chemical, are explored by
 using a three-compartment model. The model utilizes
 three  dynamic compartments-leaves,  stems, and
 aqueous exposure medium. Chemical mass flux is de-
 pendent on the morphometry of the plant species, on
 exposure concentration, and on partitioning character
 of the chemical. The steady-state bioconcentration
 factor, K(sub SH), is dependent on composition  of the
 plant species and partitioning character of the chemi-
 cal. The model was parameterized for three species of
 aquatic plants  (Myriophyllum  spicatum, Bacopa caro-
 liniana, and Hydrilla verticillata)  and two chlorinated
 benzenes (1,2.3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) and 1,2-
 dichlorobenzene (DCB)). Predictions  of uptake and
 bioconcentration are compared to results of static lab-
 oratory studies conducted with whole shoots of the
three species over exposure periods ranging from 1 h
to 21 d. Shoots approach steady-state tissue burdens
between  1 and 3 d after initial  exposure. K(sub SH)
values for  TCB  (360-750), the  more hydrophobic
chemical, are at least one order of magnitude greater
than those measured for DCB (11 -28).

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Plants), 'Chlorohy-
drocarbons,  'Aquatic plants, 'Toxicity, Species diver-
sity, Chlorobenzenes, Biological models, Diffusion, Re-
prints.
PB91-196675/REB                PC A05/MF A01
Ecology and  Management of the Zebra  Mussel
and Other Introduced Aquatic Nuisance Species.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
J. D. Yount. Feb91,100p EPA/600/3-91/003
Presented at the  EPA Workshop on Zebra Mussels
and Other Introduced Aquatic Nuisance Species, Sagi-
naw, ML, September 26-28, 1990. Prepared in coop-
eration with AScI Corp., Duluth, MN.

The report presents the content of presentations and
discussions held over 2 1 /2 days in a plenary session
and in working groups at the Environmental Protection
Agency's Introduced Species Workshop held in Sagi-
naw, Michigan on Sept. 26-28, 1990. The purpose of
the workshop was to review and evaluate existing in-
formation on the  ecology and management  of intro-
duced aquatic nuisance species, with a particular em-
phasis on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha),
and make  recommendations  on  how to extend our
knowledge and understanding  in critical areas. Speak-
ers were asked to provide extended abstracts of their
presentations, which are included here in Appendix A.
Two of the speakers, from the Spviet Union, submitted
their entire manuscripts. The  discussions  from  each
working group are presented in the relevant sections.
Recommendations are presented in the introductory
section.

Keywords:  'Ecology, 'Pest control, 'Meetings, Abun-
dance, Animal  behavior, Species diversity. Biological
pest control, Chlorine, Great Lakes, 'Zebra mussels,
Dreissena polymorpha.
 PB91-196683/REB               PCA11/MFA02
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 Acid Precipitation in North America: 1987 Annual
 and Seasonal Data Summaries from Acid Deposi-
 tion System Data Base.
 Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA.
 T. A. Erb, J. C. Simpson, and A. R. Olsen. Oct 89,
 248p* EPA/600/4-90/018
 Contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830
 See also PB88-166897.Portions of this document are
 not fully legible.  Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
 tion Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmospher-
 ic Research and Exposure Assessment Lab., and De-
 partment of Energy, Washington, DC.

 The report summarizes the 1987 wet deposition pre-
 cipitation chemistry data collected in North America
 and available in the Acid Deposition System (ADS)
 data base. Interpretative statistical analyses are not a
 focus of the report; however, users of the report will
 learn about major wet deposition monitoring networks
 in North America, the extent of their geographic cover-
 age, and general characteristics of wet deposition for
 1987. An overview of each network is given. Annual
 and seasonal (winter, summer)  mosaic maps present
 the North American spatial pattern for hydrogen, sul-
 fate, nitrate, ammonium and calcium ion concentration
 and deposition for 1987. An appendix lists 1987 annual
 statistical summaries for pH, hydrogen  ion (derived
 from pH), and the ion species sulfate, nitrate, ammoni-
 um, calcium, chloride, sodium, magnesium and potas-
 sium. Computer-readable and printed copies are avail-
 able for annual  and seasonal (winter, spring, summer,
 fall) statistical summaries for all sites in the monitoring
 network.

 Keywords:  'Acid rain, 'Air pollution monitoring, 'At-
 mospheric  chemistry, North America, Wet methods,
 Deposition,  Statistical  analysis,  Site  surveys, pH,
 Concentration(Composition),   Seasonal   variations,
 Annual variations,  Tables(Data),  'Acid  Deposition
 System data base, Wet deposition.
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991     69

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-196691/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Rate  of Flow of  Leachate  through  Clay Soil
Uners.
Texas Univ. at Austin.
D. E. Daniel, C. D. Shackelford, W. P. Uao, and H. M.
LBjestrand. Jun91,141p EPA/600/2-91/021
Sponsored  by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The objective of the research was to measure the time
ot travel (TOT) of inorganic solutes through laboratory
columns of  compacted clay, to determine the physical
and geochemical  parameters that controlled  solute
transport through the soil columns, and to compare
measured and predicted TOT'S. Two clay soils were
used:  kaolinite (a  low-plasticity, commercially-pro-
duced clay) and Lufkin day (a highly plastic, naturally-
occurring day soil). Anionic tracers were chloride and
bromide; potassium and zinc were the cationic tracers.
Diffusion cells were designed, constructed, and used
to measure the effective  diffusion coefficient  of the
tracers in the two  soils. Diffusion coefficients  for
anions were typically 0.000002 to 0.000007 sq cm/s;
somewhat lower values were determined for cations.
Column tests showed that the effective porosity ratio
(defined as effective divided  by total porosity)  in-
creased with increasing  hydraulic gradient in kaolinite
from a tow of about 0.25 at a gradient of 1 toahighof 1
at a gradient of 20. With Lufkin clay,  the effective po-
rosity ratio was between 0.02 and 0.16. Breakthrough
times were controlled much more by the tow effective
porosities than by molecular diffusion. The computer
program SOILINER predicted times of travel that were
larger than  actual TOT's by a factor  of up to 52. The
failure to account for effective porosity ratios less than
1 was the cause for the poor predictions from SOI-
LINER.

Keywords:  *Kaolinite,  "Diffusion coefficient,  *day
sorts, 'Porosity, 'Inorganic compounds, Soil mechan-
ics, Laboratory tests, Simulation, Solutes, Hydraulic
gradients, Environmental transport, 'Soil liners, "Lea-
chates, Time of travel, Anionic tracers, Cationic trac-
ers.
PB91-197053/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Pesticides in Natural Systems: 'How Can Their Ef-
fects Be Monitored'. Proceedings of the Confer-
ence. HeM in Corvailis, Oregon on December 11-
12,1990.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,   Seattle,  WA.
Region X.
Apr 91.115p EPA/910/9-91 /011

A collection of papers representing some of the  re-
ports given at a Conference on the same subject held
December  11  and 12 at Corvailis Oregon. The  10
papers are grouped under the headings, Aquatic Sys-
tems, Terrestrial  Systems,  Theoretic Studies, and
Frameworks for Longterm Monitoring.  The first three
sessions include papers dealing with Puget Sound,
upland game birds, reference watercourses, lichens as
btomonrtors, effects of a fungicide on soil communi-
ties, and mathematical methods of ordering data into
meaningful groups. The last session contained a paper
on EPArs Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Pro-
gram, EMAP, and the US Geological Survey's River
Basin Surveys (The Yakima River represents a pilot for
these studies). Two of  the papers served as focus
papers on the subjects of Btomonitoring and Risk As-
sessment, respectively. Each of the two papers is fol-
lowed by a transcript of the discussion which took
place in a workshop on the same theme. The volume
includes abstracts of  papers not reproduced there in
full.

Keywords:  'Pesticides,  'Environmental  monitoring,
•Meetings,  Aquatic ecosystems, Terrestrial ecosys-
tems, Birds, Wildlife, Biological markers, Risk assess-
ment Tissue  distribution,  Plants, Non-target  orga-
resrns.
PB91-197061/REB               PC A23/MF A03
Air Emissions from Municipal SoHd Waste Land-
ffite. Background Information for Proposed Stand-
ards and Guidelines.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Mar 91,544p EPA/450/3-90/011A

The Background Information  Document was devel-
oped to support EPA's proposal for New Source Per-
formance Standards and Emission Guidelines under
Section III of the Clean Air Act for air emissions from
municipal solid waste landfills (MSW  landfills). The
standards and guidelines will  apply to  MSW landfills
sized greater than 100,000 Mg of refuse in place and
emit 150 Mg/yr or more annually of non-methane or-
ganic compounds (NMOC's). The document provides
information for Best Demonstrated Technology recom-
mended for the proposal as well as emission guide-
lines for implementation of the regulation.

Keywords: 'Municipal wastes, 'Air  pollution stand-
ards, 'Earth fills, 'Waste management, 'Air pollution
abatement,  Guidelines, New  Source Performance
Standards, Best technology,  Implementation,  Non-
methane hydrocarbons,  Public health.  Environmental
effects,   Waste   disposal,  Pollution  regulation,
Concentration(Composition),  Air  pollution  control,
Toxic substances, Volatile organic compounds.
PB91-197202/REB               PC E99/MF E99
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Proceedings: 1990 SO2 Control Symposium.
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.
C1990,2201 p-in4v
Set includes  PB91-197210 through PB91-197244.
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
Research Lab.

No abstract available.
PB91-197210/REB               PC A99/MF A04
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Proceedings:  1990  SO2  Control  Symposium.
Volume 1. Sessions 1, 2, 3A, and 3B.
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.
C1990,640p EPRI-GS-6963-VOL-1, EPRI-RP-982-
VOL-1, EPA/600/9-91/015A
See also Volume 2, PB91 -197228. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in set of 4 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-197202.

The proceedings are of The 1990 SO2 Control Sympo-
sium held  in New  Orleans, Louisiana, from May 8
through  May 11. The objective of the Symposium was
to provide  a forum for the exchange of technical and
regulatory information on sulfur oxide control technolo-
gy, including wet and dry scrubbing, emerging process-
es, and international developments in clean coal/acid
rain technologies. Specific topics covered during the
Symposium included: SO2 control economics, furnace
sorbent  injection,  byproduct utilization, spray dryer
technology, wet FGD reliability and full scale oper-
ation, combined SOx/NOx  technologies, vendor de-
signs, post-combustion dry  injection, and laboratory/
pilot research. The audience included approximately
800 representatives from electric utilities, government
agencies, industrial users of FGD,  academia, consult-
ants,  process suppliers, equipment  manufacturers,
and R and D firms. The volume covers: International
Overview,  Economics, Furnace Sorbent  Injection -
Demos,  and Byproduct Utilization.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Air pollution control
equipment 'Sulfur dioxide, 'Meetings, 'Research and
development, Flue gases. Nitrogen oxides, Technolo-
gy utilization, Scrubbing, Economic analysis, Waste uti-
lization.  Technology transfer, Sorbents, Dry methods,
Wet methods, Design criteria, Pollution regulations.
Performance standards, Flue gas desulfurization, For-
eign technology.
PB91-197228/REB               PC A24/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Proceedings:   1990   SO2  Control  Symposium.
Volume 2. Sessions 4A, 4B, 4C, and 5.
Electric Power Research Inst, Palo Alto, CA.
C1990.552p EPRI-GS-6963-VOL-2, EPRI-RP-982-
VOL-2, EPA/600/9-91/015B
See also Volume 1,  PB91-197210 and  Volume 3,
PB91-197236. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and
Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in set of 4 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-197202.
The proceedings are of The 1990 SO2 Control Sympo-
sium held in  New  Orleans,  Louisiana, from  May  8
through May 11. The objective of the Symposium was
to provide a forum for the exchange of technical and
regulatory information on sulfur oxide control technolo-
gy, Including wet and dry scrubbing, emerging process-
es, and international developments in clean coal/acid
rain technologies. Specific topics covered during the
Symposium included: SO2 control economics, furnace
sorbent injection,  byproduct utilization, spray  dryer
technology, wet FGD reliability and full scale  oper-
ation, combined SOx/NOx technologies, vendor de-
signs, post-combustion dry injection, and laboratory/
pilot research. The audience included  approximately
800 representatives from electric utilities, government
agencies, industrial users of FGD, academia, consult-
ants,  process suppliers, equipment manufacturers,
and R  and D firms. The volume covers: FSI Recycle,
Wet FGD Reliability, Spray Dryers, and Wet Full Scale
Operation.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Air pollution control
equipment, 'Sulfur dioxide, 'Meetings, 'Research and
development, Technology transfer, Waste  utilization,
Nitrogen oxides, Dryers, Wet methods, Technology uti-
lization, Design criteria, Performance standards, injec-
tion, Sorbents, Flue gas desulfurization. Foreign tech-
nology.
PB91-197236/REB               PC A19/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Proceedings:  1990  SO2  Control  Symposium.
Volume 3. Sessions 6A, 6B, and 6C.
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.
C1990,430p EPRI-GS-6963-VOL-3, EPRI-RP-982-
VOL-3, EPA/600/9-91/015C
See also Volume 2, PB91 -197228 and  Volume 4,
PB91-197244. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion  Agency,  Research Triangle Park,  NC. Air and
Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in set of 4 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-197202.

The proceedings are of The 1990 S02 Control Sympo-
sium held in New Orleans, Louisiana, from May 8
through May 11. The objective of the Symposium was
to provide a forum.for the exchange of technical and
regulatory information on sulfur oxide control technolo-
gy, including wet and dry scrubbing, emerging process-
es, and international developments in clean coal/acid
rain technologies.  Specific topics covered during the
Symposium included: SO2 control economics, furnace
sorbent injection,  byproduct utilization, spray dryer
technology, wet FGD  reliability and full scale oper-
ation, combined SOx/NOx technologies, vendor de-
signs, post-combustion dry injection, and laboratory/
pilot research. The audience included approximately
800 representatives from electric utilities, government
agencies, industrial users of  FGD,  academia, consult-
ants,  process suppliers,  equipment  manufacturers,
and R and D firms.  The volume covers: Emerging
Technologies, Combined SOx/NOx  Technologies,
and Wet FGD Vendor Designs.

Keywords. 'Air pollution control, 'Air pollution control
equipment,  'Sulfur dioxide, 'Meetings, 'Research and
development, Technology transfer, NOXSO process,
Technology utilization. Wet methods,  Design criteria.
Performance standards, Nitrogen oxides, Flue gas de-
sulfurization, Foreign technology.


PB91-197244/REB               PC A25/MF A04
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Proceedings:  1990  S02  Control   Symposium.
Volume 4. Sessions 7A, 78, and Posters.
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.
C1990, 579p EPRI-GS-6963-VOL-4, EPRI-RP-982-
VOL-4, EPA/600/9-91/015D
See also Volume 3, PB91-197236. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in  set of 4 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-197202.

The proceedings are of The 1990 SO2 Control Sympo-
sium held in New Orleans, Louisiana, from May 8
through May 11. The objective of the Symposium was
to provide a forum for the exchange of technical and
regulatory information on sulfur oxide control technolo-
gy, including wet and dry scrubbing, emerging process-
es, and international developments in clean coal/acid
70     Vol.  91, No. 3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
rain technologies. Specific topics covered during the
Symposium included: SO2 control economics, furnace
sorbent injection, byproduct utilization,  spray dryer
technology, wet  FGD reliability and full scale oper-
ation, combined  SOx/NOx technologies, vendor de-
signs, post-combustion dry injection, and laboratory/
pilot research. The audience included approximately
800 representatives from electric utilities, government
agencies, industrial users of FGD, academia, consult-
ants,  process suppliers,  equipment manufacturers,
and R and D firms. The volume covers: Post Combus-
tion Dry Technologies, Wet FGD Research, and Poster
Session.

Keywords. *Air pollution control, 'Air pollution control
equipment, 'Meetings, 'Sulfur dioxide, 'Research and
development,  Technology  utilization,  Technology
transfer, Dry methods, Wet  methods, Design criteria,
Performance  standards.  Post burning process. Flue
gas desulfurization, Foreign technology.
PB91-1974WREB                PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
2-Methylhexanoic Acid Developmental  Toxicity
Testing.
ManTech Environmental Technology,  Inc., Research
Triangle Park, NC.
M. G. Narotsky, and R. J. Kavlock. Jun 91, 22p EPA/
600/1-91/002
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Sponsored  by Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

As part of an investigation of the developmental ef-
fects and structure-activity relationships of aliphatic
acids, 2-methylhexanoic acid was  administered by
gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestation days 6-15
at doses of 0, 300, and 400 mg/kg/day. The dams
were allowed to deliver and their litters were examined
through postnatal day  6. Pups that  were found dead
were examined for soft-tissue alterations. On day 6,
two survivors  per litter were preserved  for skeletal ex-
amination. Maternal toxicity was demonstrated at both
300 and 400 mg/kg by weight loss and altered respira-
tion (rales, dyspnea). In spite of the maternal  toxicity
present, there were no clear toxic effects on develop-
ment; litter size, pre- and postnatal  viability, and pup
weights were unaffected by treatment. Skeletal exami-
nations of selected pups yielded inconclusive  data;  a
slight  increase in the  incidence of lumbar ribs  was
present a 400 mg/kg, but was not clearly attributable
to treatment.

Keywords: *Toxicity, 'Reproduction(Biolpgy), 'Terato-
gens. Dose-response relationships, Survival, Skeleton,
Weight loss, Respiration, Tables(Data), Rats, '2-Meth-
ylhexanoic acid.
PB91-198051/REB                PC A05/MF A01
Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC. Office of
Synthetic Fuels Project.
Parachute Creek Shale Oil Project  Monitoring
Review Committee  Meeting Report, August 9,
1990.
Unocal Corp., Parachute, CO. Energy Mining Div.
1990,89p OSFP/PC-0025
See also PB90-177031. Sponsored by Department of
the Treasury, Washington, DC. Office  of Synthetic
Fuels Project.

The Energy Security Act of 1980  established a pro-
gram to provide financial assistance to private industry
in the construction and operation of commercial-scale
synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil
Program is one of the four projects awarded financial
assistance. The support agreement included develop-
ment of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporat-
ing existing compliance monitoring and supplemental
monitoring  on water, air, solid waste, worker health
and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the
period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce
10,000 barrels per day  of syncrude from oil shale,
using  the Unishale 'B' process. The third annual meet-
ing of the Monitoring Review Committee for the project
included discussions of air, water and biological moni-
toring programs; spent shale pile inspecting; industrial
hygiene monitoring; and medical  assessments.  Re-
sults of sampling 18 supplemental  locations found no
areas of significant environmental concern.

Keywords:  'Environmental monitoring,  'Environmen-
tal engineering, 'Meetings, 'Synthetic fuels refineries,
'Energy source  development, Financial assistance,
Occupational  safety and health, Compliance, Water
pollution, Air pollution. Solid waste disposal, Socioeco-
nomic factors. Shale oil. Spent shales, Auditing, 'Para-
chute Creek Shale Oil Project, Energy Security Act of
1980.
PB91-199844/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Use of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer as a
Remote Sensor at Superfund Sites.
Northrop Services, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.
G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, and W.
A. McClenny. 1991,15p EPA/600/D-91 /115
Contracts EPA-68-02-4444, EPA-68-DO-0106
Prepared in cooperation with MDA Scientific, Inc., Nor-
cross, GA., and  ManTech Environmental Technology,
Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure Assess-
ment Lab.

A Fourier transform infrared remote sensor  (FTIR-RS)
was used to measure chemical emissions at the Shav-
er's Farm Superfund site in northwestern Georgia. The
system was bistatic with a source/receiver at one end
of a 250 m path and a retroreflector at the  other end.
The source/receiver was a Nicolet Model 730  FTIR
system coupled to a telescope with  the appropriate
transfer optics. The average concentrations of target
gases along the path  are  inferred by matching field
spectra with reference spectra of precisely measured
quantities of the target gases. Measurements indicat-
ed that benzonitrile and benzaldehyde concentrations
at the site were lower than the FTIR-RS detection
limits  of 70 and 16 ppm-m, respectively. Background
IR radiation was successfully eliminated by modulating
the IR beam before it was transmitted along the  path.
Quality assurance measurements to establish the pre-
cision and accuracy of known gas burdens (ppm-m)
were carried out using a 15-cm cell  containing high
concentrations of several gases.

Keywords: 'Air pollution detection, 'Remote sensing,
'Superfund, 'Waste  disposal,  'Fourier  transform
spectrometers,  Site surveys, Infrared  spectroscopy.
Performance     evaluation,    Design    criteria,
Concentration(Compositipn),    Quality   assurance,
Northwest Region(Georgia).
PB91-199851/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Comparison of Screening Approaches.
Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
H. A. Tilson. 1991, 36p EPA/600/D-91 /116

Procedures used to identify or screen for the presence
of neurotoxicity are usually designed to test large num-
bers of animals and are not considered to be as sensi-
tive  to subtle effects as more specialized tests for
neurobiological dysfunction. For purposes of screen-
ing, the use of a functional observational battery (FOB)
is now generally accepted. A number of batteries con-
taining different observations and measurements have
been developed in several laboratories for rodents,
dogs, and non-human primates. FOB used in screen-
ing typically assess several neurobiological domains
including neuromuscular (i.e., weakness, incoordina-
tion, abnormal movements, gait, motor seizures, myo-
clonia,  rigidity and  tremor), sensory (i.e., auditory,
visual and  somatpsensory) and autonomic (i.e., pupil
response, salivation) functions.  Most FOB used for
screening do not assess cognitive function (i.e., learn-
ing and  memory). FOB evaluations can yield important
information concerning dose-response  characteriza-
tics and data on the onset, duration and persistence of
an effect. FOB should be able to differentiate neuro-
toxicants from non-neurotoxicants and neurotoxicants
having different mechanism(s) or srte(s) of action.

Keywords:  'Toxicity, 'Nervous system, 'Toxic sub-
stances, Animal behavior, Evoked potentials, Locomo-
tion, Senses, Autonomic nervous  system, Dose-re-
sponse  relationships, Environmental pollutants, Func-
tional observational battery(FOB).
 PB91-199869/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
 Use  of Grass  Shrimp  ('Palaemonetes pugio')
 Larvae in Field Bioassays of the Effects of Agri-
 cultural Runoff into Estuaries.
 Duke Univ., Beaufort, NC. Marine Lab.
W. W. Kirby-Smith, S. P. Thompson, and R. B.
Forward. 1991,10p EPA/600/D-91/117
Presented at 'Pesticides in Terrestrial and Aquatic En-
vironments' Conference. Held in Blacksburg, VA., May
11-12,  1989. Sponsored by Environmental  Research
Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.

Investigations of the effects of runoff from pesticide
sprayed fields on survivorship of the larvae  of the
grass  shrimp  Palaemonetes  pugio  are described.
Gravid shrimp were held in cages in the surface waters
of two estuarine creeks;  one creek received runoff
from fields sprayed with the pesticides permethrin and
thiodicarb while the other creek received runoff  from
an unsprayed forested area.  Larvae released  from
field-exposed shrimp were reared in the laboratory in
runoff water from the farm, from forest drainage, and in
control water. Permethrin was undetectable (< 1 ng/
sample) in  all water except  in one replicate  of  farm
runoff. Survivorship  was high (75-94%) in all treat-
ments  except for larvae reared in farm  runoff water
(27-35%). In a second experiment three weeks  after
pesticide application, survivorship was high (94-98%)
in all treatments. The study concludes that runoff from
agricultural  fields sprayed with pesticides applied in ac-
cordance with labeled  instructions  can significantly
reduce survivorship  of larval grass shrimp, although
cause of mortality is unknown.

Keywords:  'Carbamate insecticides, 'Water pollution
effects(Animals), 'Shrimp, 'Larvae, Estuaries, Agricul-
ture, Mortality, Reprints,  'Palaemonetes pugio,  Run-
off water, Permethrin, Thiodicarb.
PB91-199877/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Environmental and Molecular Characterization of
Systems  Which Affect  Genome  Alteration  in
'Pseudomonas  aerugirosa'.  Chapter 25.  Book
chapter.
Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL.
R. V. Miller, T. A. Kokjohn, and G. S. Sayler. C1990,
19pEPA/600/D-91/118
Pub. in American Society for Microbiology, p252-268
1990. Prepared in cooperation with Tennessee Univ.,
Knoxville.  Sponsored  by  Environmental Research
Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL., and Potts Foundation, Chicago,
IL

Pseudomonas aeruginosa was used as a model orga-
nism to study mechanisms that lead to genome alter-
ation in freshwater microbial populations. The studies
demonstrated horizontal transmission by both  trans-
duction and conjugation in freshwater ecosystems and
provided data that suggest that intracellular genome
instability  may  be  increased  due to environmental
stresses encountered by the cell in the habitat.

Keywords: 'Pseudomonas, 'Water pollution, 'Water
microbiology, 'Bacterial genes, Genomic library, Ge-
netic  conjugation,  Fresh  water,  Transfection,  DNA
repair, Ultraviolet rays, Mutation, recA protein,  DNA
damage, Reprints.
 PB91-199885/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Turbulent  Flame Reactor Studies of Chlorinated
 Hydrocarbon Destruction Efficiency. Journal arti-
 cle.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 L. J. Staley, M. K. Richards, G. L. Huffman, R. A.
 Olexsey, and B. Dellinger. C1989,8p EPA/600/J-89/
 535
 Pub. in Waste Management, v9  p109-114 1989. Pre-
 pared in cooperation with Dayton Univ., OH. Research
 Inst.

 Four mixtures of C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons,
 diluted in heptane, were burned  in a Turbulent Flame
 Reactor (TFR) under high and low oxygen conditions.
 Emissions  of  undestroyed  feed, stable  organic by-
 products, carbon  monoxide,  carbon  dioxide and
 oxygen were measured and compared with the results
 of  other thermal decomposition and  combustion re-
 search  on similar compounds. The results show that
 the volatile compounds emitted in the TFR's exhaust
 could be predicted based on an understanding of both
 the combustion chemistry of the compounds in ques-
 tion and of the physical environment existing within the
 combustion device during operation.  Soot formation
 complicates the characterization  of volatile organic
 emissions. (Copyright (c) Pergamon Press 1989.)
                                                                                                                                 Sept 1991      71

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords:  'Chlorohydrocarbons, 'Pyrolysis,  "Com-
bustion, *Air pollution control, Combustion products,
Soot, Carbon monoxide.  Carbon dioxide, Oxygen,
Technology assessment. Hazardous  materials, Re-
prints, 'Turbulent flame reactor.
PB91-199893/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Morphological and Behavioral Characters in Mos-
qultofish  as Potential Bloindicatlon  of Exposure
to Kraft Mill Effluent Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL
S. A. Bortone, W. P. Davis, and C. M. Bundrick. c1989,
11pEPA/600/J-89/537
Pub. in  Bulletin of  Environmental  Contamination and
Toxicology 43, p370-377 1989. Prepared in  coopera-
tion with University of West Florida, Pensacola.

Although the specific chemicals or factors actually re-
sponsible for induction of arrhenoidy among mosquito-
fish have not yet been identified, it is known that a wide
variety of  potential compounds occur as by-products
from the processing of wood pump. The purpose of the
study was  to investigate the morphological and behav-
ioral responses of mosquitofish environmentally ex-
posed to kraft mill effluent (KME) and to evaluate the
potential of these responses as bioassay endpoints. A
method to quantify the morphological or behavioral re-
sponses of mosquitofish  should  provide an in situ
bJoindicator to assess impact of KME discharge on re-
ceiving water biota.

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Envi-
ronmental monitoring, 'Industrial wastes, Animal be-
havior, Morphology, Animal physiology, Paper industry,
Toxicology, Reproduction(Biology), Reprints,  'Mosqui-
tofish.
PB91-199901/REB              PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Coupled Mass and Energy Transport Phenomena
in Aerosol/Vapor-Laden Gases. 2. Computer Mod-
eling of Water Vapor/Droplet Interaction and En-
trainment Journal article.
NSI  Technology Services  Corp., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
R. C. Graham, and A. D. Eisner. c1991,12p EPA/600/
J-90/504
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in Jnl. of Aerosol Science, v21 n7 p849-858 Nov
90. Sponsored by Health Effects Research Lab., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

A computer program has been developed to simulate
vapor and heat transfer processes in multiphase flow
in a tube. The primary purpose is to apply it to the res-
piratory conditions at which  aerosol-laden air is inhaled
in the human respiratory tract The method of evaluat-
ing the analytical solution and the input needed to run
the program are described. Aerosol-induced coupling
between temperature and vapor concentration  fields
under different respiratory  conditions is investigated.
Simulation results for air-water vapor mixtures agree
well with both simplified  analytical solutions and with
the results of Barrett and dement for an infinite plane.
The effect of tube radius on temperature, relative hu-
midity and particle size is also demonstrated. (Copy-
right (c) 1990 Pergamon Press pic.)

Keywords:  'Aerosols,   'Computerized  simulation,
'Heat transfer, 'Mass transfer, Water vapor, Respira-
tion,  Mathematical models, Temperature gradients,
Tubes, Entrainment, Reprints.
PB91-199919/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Development of Surrogate Lung  Systems with
Controlled   Thermodynamlc  Environments  to
Study  Hygroscopic Particles: Air Pollutants and
Pharmacotogic Drugs. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
T. B. Martonen. c1990,22p EPA/600/J-90/505
Pub. in Particulate Science and Technology, v8 n1 -2
p1-20 Mar 91.  Prepared in cooperation with  North
Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill. Dept of Medicine.

An objective of the text is to demonstrate advantages
of interdisciplinary efforts, specifically, applications of
engineering technology to hearth effects issues. The
work describes the development of surrogate systems
of the human lung for use in studies of hygroscopic
growth kinetics and related deposition of inhaled parti-
cles. The models  have become increasingly more
physiologically realistic. Notable accomplishments are
the successful simulations of in vivo environmental
conditions,  namely: (1) temperature and relative hu-
midity atmospheres; (2) airstream profiles and thermo-
dynamic processes; and, (3) lung morphology. Meas-
urements of hygroscopic characteristics of a laborato-
ry aerosol (NaCI) and bronchodilator drugs used in aer-
osol therapy were made using one of the models and
are reported herein. The data clearly demonstrate the
respective effects of respiratory tract geometry and
particle chemical  composition upon the behavior of in-
haled substances.  The  surrogate  lungs, offering
unique research opportunities detailed within, are in-
tended for experimental investigations that are com-
plementary to inhalation exposures with human sub-
jects.  (Copyright  (c)  1990 by Hemisphere Publishing
Corporation.)

Keywords: 'Respiratory system, 'Simulation, 'Aero-
sols, Hygroscopicity, Inhalation administration,  Bron-
chodilator agents, Fluid dynamics, Sodium chloride,
Water vapor, Temperature, Reprints, 'Pulmonary dep-
osition, 'Hygroscopic growth kinetics.
PB91-199927/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Aerodynamic Classification of Fibers with Aerosol
Centrifuges. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
T. B. Martonen, and D. L. Johnson. c1990,19p EPA/
600/J-90/506
Pub. in Particulate Science and Technology, v8 n1-2
O37-53 Mar 90. Prepared in cooperation with Army En-
vironmental  Hygiene  Agency,  Aberdeen Proving
Ground, MD.

The constituent particles of many ambient  and work-
place aerosols of health effects concerns are of fi-
brous and aggregate geometric shapes. The sites of
deposition in the human respiratory system are primar-
ily related to the mass median aerodynamic diameters
of inhaled  particle size distributions. Therefore, to
assess potential exposure hazards it  is necessary to
have accurate kinetic classifications of airborne panic-
ulate matter. Centrifugal spectrometers give direct and
continuously graded measures of the aerodynamic
size distributions of sampled aerosols. A mathematical
description of particle behavior in spiral channel centri-
fuges has been presented, and substantiated by com-
parisons with laboratory calibration data using polysty-
rene latex spheres. Here, the theory is extended to
non-spherical  forms by incorporating  appropriate dy-
namic particle shape  resistance factors in trajectory
equations. It is demonstrated how optimum centrifuge
performance is made possible by the a priori determi-
nation of  favorable operating conditions  permitting
high-resolution characterization; specifically for fibrous
aerosols.

Keywords: 'Fibers, 'Particle size distribution, Aerody-
namic characteristics,  Centrifuges, Aerosols, Respira-
tory system. Mathematical models. Laboratory tests,
Occupational safety and health. Reprints, Pulmonary
deposition.
PB91-199935/REB               PC A02/MF A01
National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD.
Mteronudei In Epithelial Cells from  Sputum of
Uranium Workers. Journal article.
Health Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
D. P. Loomis, C. M. Shy, J. W. Allen, and G.
Saccomanno. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/507
Pub. in Scandinavian Jnl. of Work, Environment and
Health, v16 n5 O355-362 Oct 90. Prepared in coopera-
tion with North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill. Dept. of
Epidemiology, and Saint Mary's Hospital and Medical
Center, Grand Junction, CO. Sponsored by National
Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD.

The exfoliated-cell micronucleus (MN) assay was used
to assess cytogenettc  effects of exposure to radon
progeny and cigarette smoke among 99 Colorado pla-
teau uranium workers. Subjects were  selected at
random from employees in underground and open-pit
uranium mines, ore mills, laboratories, and offices par-
ticipating in a sputum screening program from 1964-
88. The prevalence of cells with MN was determined
by scoring  one sputum  specimen for each worker.
Data obtained by interview were used to classify expo-
sure to radon progeny and smoking at the time sputum
specimens were taken. Underground miners were con-
sidered exposed to radon progeny, and  others were
considered unexposed. Neither radon progeny expo-
sure nor cigarette smoking had any appreciable effect
on the prevalence of cells with MN; crude prevalence
ratios were 1.0 (95% Cl 0.7-1.4) and 0.9 (95% CE 0.6-
1.3), respectively.  The effects  of radon and smoking
were  not confounded by each other or by age, and
there was no evidence of synergy between exposures.
The findings appear to cast doubt on the epidemiologi-
cal utility of a sputum-based MN assay for studies of
other  populations exposed to occupational or environ-
mental lung carcinogens.

Keywords: 'Sputum, 'Micronucleus tests, 'Epithelium,
'Uranium ores,  'mining,  'Occupational exposure,
Radon,   Daughter  products.  Smoking,  Mutagens,
Cells(Biology), Biological markers. Reprints.
PB91-199943/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Non-Random Cell Killing in Cryopreservation: Im-
plications for Performance of the Battery of Leu-
kocyte Tests (BLT), 1. Toxic and Immunotoxic Ef-
fects. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
G. H. S. Strauss. C1991,17p EPA/600/J-90/508
Pub. in Mutation Research, v252 n1 p1-15 Feb 91.

To eliminate between-tests error in longitudinal stud-
ies, for specimen sharing, convenient scheduling, etc.,
it is necessary to freeze freshly  separated leukocytes
as well as non-transformed,  continuous T lymphocyte
(CTL) lines. To  test the efficacy of a programmable
freezer (temperature falls at an optimal rate), freshly
isolated lymphocytes and  CTLs were each aliquoted
into three sets of vials. The cells were thawed and/or
washed and assayed for viability and T helper (T(sub
h)0/T suppressor (T(sub s)) ratio. It is clear that oma-
dequate freezing non-randomly damages cells of T cell
subpopulations, T(sub h)  being more sensitive than
T(sub s). Further, it is proved that inadequate cryopre-
servation can confound results from a number of as-
sessment methods owing to morphological and func-
tional damages. The Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT)
under development  in the laboratory is  designed to
detect toxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic  effects of in
vivo mutagens exposure to human blood.

Keywords: 'Cell survival, 'Cryopreseryation, Longitu-
dinal  studies, T lymphocytes,  Cell  line, Mutagens,
Toxins,  In vivo  analysis, In vitro analysis. Reprints,
'Battery of leukocyte tests.
PB91-199950/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Development of the U.S. EPA Health Effects Re-
search Laboratory Frozen Blood Cell Repository
Program. Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
G. H. S. Strauss, and S. J. Kelly. c1990,8p EPA/600/
J-90/509
Pub. in Mutation Research, v234 n5 p349-354 Oct 90.
Prepared in cooperation with Environmental  Health
Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park,
NC.

In previous efforts, it was suggested that proper blood
cell freezing and storage is necessary in longitudinal
studies with reduced between tests error, for specimen
sharing between  laboratories  and  for convenient
scheduling of assays. A particular laboratory continues
to develop  and upgrade  programs  for the computer-
ized laboratory notebook (CLN) wherein experimental
protocols, data collection from laboratory equipment,
database storage, data analysis and graphic presenta-
tions are computer automated in support of the battery
of leukocyte tests  (BLT). The  article describes the
design and use of a computer program, CRYOVIAL,
for databased management of frozen cell repositories.

Keywords:  'Blood  banks, 'Blood cells, 'Freezing,
Longitudinal studies, Leukocytes, Microcomputers,
Reprints, Cryovial computer program.
PB91-199968/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
Identification of Organic N-Chloramlnes In vitro in
Stomach  Fluid from the Rat After Chlorination.
Journal article.
Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA. Dept. of Chemical
Sciences.
F. E. Scully, K. E. Mazina, H. P. Ringhand, E. K. Chess,
and J. A. Campbell. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/510
72     Vol.  91, No.  3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Pub. in Chemical Research in Toxicology, v3 n4 p301-
306 Jul 90. Presented at International Symposium on
Health Effects of Drinking Water Disinfectants and Dis-
infection  By-Products (2nd),  Cincinnati, OH., August
27-29,1985. Prepared in cooperation with Battelle Pa-
cific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA., and North Caroli-
na  Univ.  at Chapel Hill. Dept. of Environmental Sci-
ences and Engineering.

When (36)CI-N-cholorpiperidine (NCP) (300 mg/L as
CI2) was  mixed with stomach  fluid from laboratory rats
(fasted either 24 or 48 hr) and incubated in the dark for
30 min at 37 C and at higher pH values, approximately
one-third was reduced  to chloride and between 7%
and 63% of the radiolabel was found to  chromato-
graph in a manner distinctly different from (36)CI-chlo-
ride of (36)CI-NCP. The new fraction is referred to as
the (36)  Cl-chloroorganic fraction. The remainder of
the radiolabel was associated with (36)CI-NCP. Vary-
ing concentrations of (36)CI-NCP (3-200 mg/L as CI2)
have been incubated for 30 min at 37 C with stomach
fluid at varying pH on the product distribution. At low
pH values a threshold concentration of approximately
100 mg/L active chlorine was measured below which
all chloramine was reduced to (36)CI-chloride. As the
pH and concentration of (36)CI-NCP were  increased,
the percentage of chloramine reduced to chloride de-
creased.  Using concentrations between 110  and 120
mg/L (CI2) 7% and  4% of the label was associated
with the (36)CI-chloroorganic fraction at pH 7.1 and at
pH 2.2, respectively.

Keywords: 'Chlorination, 'Stomach contents,  'Chlora-
mines, Rats, In vitro analysis, Temperature,  pH, Iso-
topes, Amino acids, High performance liquid  chroma-
tography, Mass spectrometry, Ions, Reprints.
PB91-199976/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Transductlon of Linked Chromosomal Genes be-
tween 'Pseudomonas aeruglnosa' Strains  during
Incubation In situ in a Freshwater Habitat. Journal
article.
Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL
D. J. Saye, O. A. Ogunseitan, G. S. Sayler, and R. V.
Miller. c1990,8p EPA/600/ J-90/512
Pub. in Applied and  Environmental Microbiology,  v56
n1 p14-145 Jan 90. Prepared in cooperation with Ten-
nessee Univ., Knoxville. Center for Environmental Bio-
technology.  Sponsored by Environmental Research
Lab., GurT Breeze, FL.

Both transduction of single chromosomal loci and co-
transduction of closely linked loci were observed be-
tween lysogenic and nonlysogenic strains of Pseudo-
monas aeruginosa in a freshwater habitat. Transduc-
tants were recovered at frequencies of 10 to the minus
6 to 10 to the minus 5 transductants per CPU. Trans-
ductants of lysogenized strains were recovered 10- to
100-fold more frequently than were transductants of
nonlysogenic parents. Lysogens are thus capable of
introducing phages which  mediate generalized trans-
duction into the natural microbial community and serv-
ing  as recipients of transduced DNA. It would  appear
that lysogeny has the potential of increasing the size
and flexibility of the gene pool available to natural pop-
ulations of bacteria. The ability to generate and select
new genetic  combinations through phage-mediated
exchange can be significant in the face of a continually
changing environment and may contribute to the ap-
parent fitness of the lysogenic state in natural ecosys-
tems. (Copyright (c) 1990, American Society for Micro-
biology.)

Keywords: "Bacterial genes, * Pseudomonas aerugin-
osa, 'Bacterial chromosomes, 'Water microbiology,
'Genetic transduction, Fresh water, Microbial  colony
count, Bacteriophages, Plasmids, Genotype, Reprints,
Lysogens.
PB91-199984/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Risks of Toxic Contaminants to Exploited  Fish
Populations: Influence of Life History, Data Uncer-
tainty and Exploitation Intensity. Journal article.
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sciences
Div.
L. w. Bamthouse, G. w. Suter, and A. E. Rosen.
C1990,17pORNL/PUB-3336, EPA/600/J-90/513
Contract DE-AC05-840R21400
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v9
P297-311 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Martin
Marietta Energy Systems,  Inc., Oak Ridge, TN. Spon-
sored by Department of Energy, Washington, DC., and
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.

Use of toxicity test data for population-level risk as-
sessment  was investigated as follows: (1) the influ-
ence of life history characteristics  of menhaden and
striped bass on vulnerability of contaminant-induced
stress; (2)  the importance of test data availability; and
(3)  the influence of  exploitation  intensity. Menhaden
and striped bass differed in terms of their capacity to
sustain the same level of contaminant-induced mortali-
ty.  Changes  in exploitation intensity affect the re-
sponses of both populations to the same level of addi-
tional contaminant-induced mortality. However,  the
quantitative effects of both factors were small com-
pared to the uncertainty associated with estimating
long-term effects from short-term tests or QSARs.

Keywords:   'Toxic  substances,  'Water  pollution
effects(Animals), 'Marine fishes, Stress, Risk assess-
ment. Life cycles. Dose-response relationships, Bass,
Reprints,  Menhaden,  Quantitative structure-activity
relationship(QSAR), Brevoortia patronus, Morone sax-
atilis.
PB91-199992/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Statistical Issues in Risk  Assessment of Repro-
ductive Outcomes with Chemical Mixtures. Journal
article.
Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
V. S. Hertzberg, G. K. Lemasters, K. Hansen, and H. M.
Zenick. C1991, 7p EPA/600/J-91 /087
Pub. in Environmental Health Perspectives, v90 p171-
175 Jan 91. Prepared in cooperation  with Cincinnati
Univ., OH. Dept. of Environmental Health.

Establishing the relationship between a given chemical
exposure and human reproductive health risk is com-
plicated by exposures or other concomitant  factors
that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover,
when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals,
varying with time in number of components, doses of
individual components,  and  constancy of exposure,
the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot
study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among
male wastewater treatment workers  and their wives is
described. Wives of 231  workers were interviewed to
evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous
early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers
participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/
semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature
of exposure and lack of quantification of specific expo-
sures, six dichotompus variables were used for each
specific job description to give a surrogate measure of
exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response
relationships could be modeled. These six variables
were independently assigned by two environmental
hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed.
Results are presented and further innovations in statis-
tical  methodology are proposed  for further applica-
tions.

Keywords:  'Reproduction(Biology),  'Risk  assess-
ment, 'Toxic substances,  'Mixtures,  'Occupational
exposure,  'Wastewater  treatment, Pregnancy  out-
come, Spermatozoa, Infertility, Spontaneous abortion,
Reprints, Cross-sectional studies.
PB91-200220/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Effects of 2,4-Dlthiobiuret on Sensory and Motor
Function. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
K. M. Crofton, K. F. Dean, R. C. Hamrick, and W. K.
Boyes. c1991,15p EPA/600/J-91 /088
Pub. in Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, v16 n3
0469-481  Apr 91. Prepared in cooperation with Nor-
throp Services, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

2,4-Dithiobiuret  (DTB) exposure  causes  a delayed
onset muscle weakness in rats that has been attrib-
uted to depressed  neuromuscular transmission. The
present study compares the effects of DTB on both
sensory and motor function  in rats. Adult male Long-
Evans hooded rats were exposed to saline, 0.25, 0.5,
or 1.0 mg/kg/day  DTB, ip, for 5 consecutive  days
(Days 1-5). Body weights were monitored throughout
the experiment. Motor activity was measured for 1 hr in
figure-eight mazes on Days 0, 6, 13, and 27. Forelimb
and hindlimb grip strength were assessed on Days 6,
13, and 27. Auditory thresholds were determined for 5-
and 40-kHz tones using reflex modification of the star-
tle response on  Days 0, 7, 14, and 28. Visual function
was examined on Day 6 in animals exposed at 0.5 mg/
kg/day using flash- and pattern-elicited visual evoked
potentials (FEPs and PEPs, respectively). Thermal
sensitivity was measured using the hot plate proce-
dure. All motor endpoints were decreased in a dosage-
and time-dependent manner; the higher the dosage
the longer the effects lasted. There were no effects on
any measure of sensory function with the exception of
peak N2 of the FEP. Both the amplitude and latency of
FEP N2 were altered by DTB exposure. Decreases in
body weight were maximal on Day 9 at 1.0  mg/kg/day
(20%  from control), but recovered by Day 22. (Copy-
right (c) 1991 by the Society of Toxicology.)

Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Psychomotor  performance,
'Motor activity, 'Sensory thresholds, Dose-response
relationships,  Visual cortex,  Body weight,  Visual
evoked  potentials,  Startle  reaction, Heat, Rats, Re-
prints, 'Dithiobiuret.
PB91-200238/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Behavioral and Neurochemical Changes in Rats
Dosed  Repeatedly  with  Diisopropylfluorophos-
phate. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
P. J. Bushnell, S. S. Padilla, T. Ward, C. N. Pope, and
V. B. Olszyk. c1991,11 p EPA/600/J-91 /089
Pub. in Jnl. of Pharmacology and Experimental Thera-
peutics, v256 n2 p741-750 Feb 91. Prepared in coop-
eration  with  Northeast Louisiana  Univ.,  Monroe.
School of Pharmacy, and Northrop Services, Inc., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

Behavioral effects of organophosphates (OPs) typical-
ly decrease with repeated exposure, despite persist-
ence of OP-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase
(AChE) and downregulation of muscarinic acetylcho-
line  (ACh) receptors. To characterize this tolerance
phenomenon, rats were trained to perform an appeti-
tive operant task which allowed daily quantification of
working memory (delayed matching-to-position), refer-
ence memory (visual  discrimination) and motor func-
tion  (choice response latencies  and inter-response
times (IRTs) during delay).  Findings indicate that ani-
mals showing a definitive sign of tolerance to OP ad-
ministration (subsensitivity  to a cholinergic agonist)
were also functionally impaired on  both the motoric
and  mnemonic demands of a working memory task.
The  nature of this impairment suggests further that it
results from compensatory changes in the CNS, e.g.,
muscarinic receptor  downregulation, considered  to
produce 'tolerance' to OPs in exposed animals.

Keywords: 'Animal behavior,  'Toxicology, 'Organo-
phosphorus compounds, 'Neurochemistry, Cholines-
terase   inhibitors,   Acetylcholinesterase,   Down-
regulation(Physiology), Cognition, Memory, Motor ac-
tivity, Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus, Dose-response
relationships. Rats, Reprints, 'Diisopropylfluorophos-
phate.
PB91-200246/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Cytogenetic Studies  of  Ethyl  Acrylate  Using
C57BL/6 Mice. Journal article.
Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., He-
search Triangle Park, NC.
A. D. Kligerman, A. L. Atwater, M. F. Bryant, G. L.
Erexson, and P. Kwanyuen. c1991, 7p EPA/600/J-91 /
090
Contract EPA-68-02-4456
Pub. in  Mutagenesis, v6  n2  p137-141  Mar 91. Spon-
sored by Health Effects Research Lab., Research Tri-
angle Park, NC.

The clastogenicity of ethyl acrylate (EA) was examined
in vivo by injecting i.p. 5 male C57BL/6 mice per dose
group with either 125, 250, 500, 1000  mg/kg EA dis-
solved in saline. Twenty-four hours after injection, the
animals were anesthetized, the spleens aseptically re-
moved, and the splenic lymphocytes cultured for scor-
ing chromosome aberrations (CAs) in first division cells
and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in second divi-
sion cells. In the remaining cultures cytochalasin B
was added to produce binucleated cells for scoring mi-
cronuclei (MN). There was no other significant in-
crease in SCEs or CAs at any of the doses of EA ex-
amined. At the highest dose examined (1000 mg/kg),
EA did cause a small but significant increase in binu-
cleated cell MN. Isolated splenocytes were exposed to
a wide range of concentrations of EA during the G(sub
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     73

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 0) stage of the cell cycle or 23 h after mitogen stimula-
 tion during the late G(sub 1) or early S-phrase of the
 cell cycle. Although EA was toxic for both exposure re-
 gimes, significant increases in chromatid-type aberra-
 tions were found only when the target cells were treat-
 ed 23 h after mitogenic stimulation. No statistically-sig-
 nificant increase  in SCE  frequency was found after
 either treatment regime.

 Keywords: 'Chromosome aberrations,  "Toxicology,
 'Mutagens, In vivo analysis. Dose-response  relation-
 ships, Cytochalasin B, Sister chromatid exchange, Mi-
 tosis, Spleen, Lymphocytes, Micronucleus test, Cell
 cycle, Mice, Reprints, * Ethyl acrylate.
PB91-200253/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Rat Strain and Stock Comparisons Using a Func-
tional Observational Battery: Baseline Values and
Effects of Amitraz. Journal article.
NSI Technology Services  Corp., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
V. C. Moser, K. L McDaniel, and P. M. Phillips. c1991,
19pEPA/600/J-91/091
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in  Toxicology and Applied  Pharmacology, v1Q8
n2 p267-283 Apr 91. Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
search Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

A functional observational battery (FOB) was utilized
to assess the effects of 3-day exposure to the formam-
idine pesticide amitraz in outbred Sprague-Dawley de-
rived and inbred Fischer-344 derived (F344) rats (both
from Charles River Laboratories), and in outbred Long-
Evans rats obtained from two commercial suppliers
(Charles River Breeding Laboratories and Blue Spruce
Farms).  Significant strain and stock differences were
obtained in baseline values for one-third of the FOB
measures.  Characteristic signs of amitraz exposure
consisting  of  increased excitability, hyperreactivity,
and physiological and autonomic changes, were evi-
dent in all treated rats.  These effects increased with
repeated dosing, and many were still present 6 days
after dosing. On individual measures, there were differ-
ences between the strains and stocks in terms of sen-
sitivity and time course  of amitraz effects. In general,
Blue Spruce Long-Evans rats displayed more effects
of amitraz  and F344 rats recovered more quickly than
others.  On the other  hand, Sprague-Dawley  rats
showed the largest increases in  the sensorimotor re-
sponses to stimuli.

Keywords: *Toxicity, 'Pesticides, 'Species specificity.
Rats, Graphs(Charts), Dose-response  relationships,
Nervous system, Physiological effects,  Psychomotor
performance, Reprints, 'Amitraz,  *FOB(Functional ob-
servational battery).
PB91-200261/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Effect of Cadmium and Other Metal Cations on In
vitro Leydig Cell Testosterone Production. Journal
article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
J. W. Laskey, and P. V. Phelps. c1991,14p EPA/600/
J-91/092
Pub. in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, v108
n2p296-3061991.

In  vivo assessment  of toxicant action on Leydig cell
function is subject to homeostatic mechanisms which
make it difficult to determine  whether any changes
seen in serum testosterone (T) concentration are due
to  extragonadal endocrine alterations or to a direct
effect on the Leydig cell. Studies used a testicular cell
culture technique to evaluate Leydig cell testosterone
biosynthesis in the presence of several metal cations.
To determine the site of toxic action,  the Leydig cells
were  stimulated  to  produce testosterone by using
human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), dibutyl cyclic
adenosine monopnosphate (db cAMP) or several sub-
strates required for the biosynthesis  of testosterone.
Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Na(1 +) or Pb(2+)
had no  effect on stimulated testosterone. Dose re-
sponse depression in both hCG and  db-cAMP stimu-
lated testosterone production were seen with Cd(2+),
Co(2+), Cu(2+). Hg(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+) treat-
ment Surprisingly several of the metal cations which
caused a depression in hCG and db cAMP stimulated
testosterone production caused significant increases
in HCHOL and PREG stimulated testosterone produc-
tion over untreated and similarly stimulated cultures.
Keywords:  'Cadmiums,  'Toxicology,  'Leydig  cells,
'Testosterone, Cations, Biosynthesis, In vivo analysis,
Chorionic gonadotropins,  Radioimmunoassay, Dose-
response relationships, In vitro analysis, Cyclic 3',5'-
adenosine monophosphate. Rats, Cultured cells, Re-
prints.
PB91-200279/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Pharmacokinetic Basis of Age-Related Changes in
Sensitivity to Toxicants. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
L. S. Birnbaum. C1991,28p EPA/600/J-91/093
Pub. in Annual Review of Pharmacology, v31 p101-
128 Mar 91.

The article examines the pharmacokinetic behavior of
environmental chemicals and drugs that are altered
during aging. Absorption may be the least sensitive pa-
rameter to age-related perturbations. However, pulmo-
nary and dermal absorption, which are both dependent
upon passive diffusion, do appear to decline. In con-
trast, no evidence  supports a  decrease in  passive
transport across the gut wall, while active processes in
the Gl tract do decline in the aged. Distribution is af-
fected by changes in body composition, the decrease
in lean body mass resulting in a decreased Vd for
water-soluble chemicals and enhanced persistence of
lipophilic ones. Changes in protein binding and blood
flow also alter the concentration of unbound chemicals
reaching the target site. The changes in metabolism
are extremely  complex, with increases, decreases,
and no change being observed for different enzymes
with  varying substrates  in different tissues, sexes,
strain, and species. Only excretion tends to consistent-
ly change with age, in large part due to the altered
blood flow, structure, and physiology of the kidney. He-
patic and pulmonary elimination also tend to decline
with age.

Keywords:  'Toxic  substances,  'Pharmacokinetics,
'Aging, 'Sensitivity,  Environmental pollutants, Adre-
nergic receptors, Environmental  exposure pathways,
Metabolism, Absorption, Excretion, Reprints.
PB91-200287/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating
Effects, Standards,  and Needed  Source  Reduc-
tions:  Part  11.  A  Lognormal  Model Relating
Human Lung Function Decrease to O3 Exposure.
Journal article.
Health Effects  Research Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
R. I. Larsen, W. F. McDonnell, D. H. Horstman, and L
J. Folinsbee. c1991, 8p EPA/600/J-91 /094
Pub. in Jnl. of Air and Waste Management Association,
v41 n4 p455-459 Apr 91. See also Part 10, PB90-
100553. Prepared in cooperation  with ABB Environ-
mental Services, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

Forced expiratory volume in  1 second  (FEV1) was
measured in 21 men exercising while exposed to four
O3 concentrations (0.0, 0.08,  0.10, and 0.12 ppm). A
lognormal multiple linear regression model was fitted
to their mean FEV1 measurements to predict FEV1
percent decrease as a function of O3 concentration
and exposure duration. The exercise level used was
probably comparable to heavy manual labor. The long-
est O3 exposure studied was 6 h. Extrapolating cau-
tiously to an 8-h workday of heavy manual labor, the
model  predicts that O3 concentrations of 0.08, 0.10,
and 0.12 ppm would decrease FEV1 by 9, 15, and 20
percent respectively. (Copyright (c) 1991  Air & Waste
Management Association.)

Keywords:  'Air quality, 'Air pollution effects(Humans),
'Ozone, 'Mathematical models, Exposure, Biological
effects, Linear regression, Regression analysis, Lung,
Respiratory  function  tests,   Respiratory  airflow,
Concentration(Composition),   Data processing,  Re-
prints.
PB91-200295/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Effect of beta-Cyclodextrin on Mucochloric Add
and   3-Chloro-4-(dichlorornethyl)-5-hydrox-2(5H)-
furanone. Journal article.
Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
I. R. Politzer, K. T. Crago, W. Benjamin, J. Joseph, and
K. Amos. C1991, 6p EPA/600/J-91 /095
Pub. in Archives of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology, v20 n3 p371-374 Apr 91. Prepared in co-
operation with Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans.
Using a combination of IR and  UV techniques, evi-
dence is presented for inclusion complex formation
between mucqchloric acid and B-cyclodextrin in acidic
aqueous solutions. UV evidence supports the conclu-
sion that under these acidic conditions mucochloric
acid-B-cycjodextrin complex could be isolated by re-
crystallization of a 1:1  mole ratio of the above com-
pounds from water at  pH2. Solid sample IR (KBr or
nujol) showed a carbonyl shift of approximately 20
cm(sup minus 1)  when mucochloric acid was com-
pared to the mucochloric acid-B-cyclodextrin complex.
No such shift was found upon simply grinding together
the above components. Thus the carbonyl shift is as-
cribed to inclusion complexation of mucochloric acid
into the B-cyclodextrin cavity. Melting point and thin
layer chromatographic analyses also yield supporting
evidence for the formation of solid mucochloric acid-B-
cyclodextrin complexes. Pilot studies with 3-chloro-4-
(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5h)-furanone (MX), sug-
gest a  similar  B-cyclodextrin-complex formation  in
acidic solutions.

Keywords: 'Chemical interactions, 'Cyclodextrins, In-
frared  spectrophotometry,  Ultraviolet  spectrophoto-
metry, pH, Thin layer chromatography,  Melting point,
Fourier analysis, Reprints, 'Mucochloric acid.
PB91-200303/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Health  Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
Suppression of the Luteinlzing Hormone Surge by
Chlordlmeform in Ovariectomized, Steroid-Primed
Female Rats. Journal article.
NSI  Technology Services Corp., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
J. M. Goldman, R. L. Cooper, T. L. Edwards, G. L.
Rehnberg, and W. K. McElroy. cFeb 91, 8p EPA/600/
J-91/096
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in  Pharmacology and Toxicology, v68 n2 p131-
136 Feb 91. Sponsored by Health Effects Research
Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC. Reproductive Toxi-
cology Branch.

The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from
the pituitary provides the physiological trigger in the
mammalian female for the process of ovulation. Ac-
cordingly, any agent that compromises the LH surge
could function as a reproductive toxicant The acari-
cide chlordimeform (CDF) has previously been found
to decrease serum LH, probably by altering the hypo-
thalamic noradrenergic  transmitter control  of LH se-
cretion.  Consequently, the present study focused on
the effect of acute CDF administration on the appear-
ance of the induced LH surge. Single intraperitoneal in-
jections of CDF (0,10,25,50 mg/kg) in OVX, estradiol
-  implanted female Long-Evans rats approximately 5
hrs prior to the expected surge caused a complete
suppression at 25 and 50 mg/kg. Ten mg/kg had no
effect on surge amplitude, but advanced the LH peak
by 2 hrs. Since CDF has been found to elevate serum
cprticosterone (CORT), 10 mg CORT/rat were given at
different times prior to the surge. Following 20 hrs of
CORT exposure, only a partial lowering was seen; 5
hrs exposure were ineffective,  indicating an indirect
adrenal  effect was not the principal route, but may ac-
company an action of CDF on the hypothalamic mech-
anisms regulating the surge.

Keywords:  'Toxicology, *LH,  'Chlorophenamidine,
'Chemical   depression,   Ovariectomy,   Estradiol,
Reproduction(Biology),   Ovulation,   Corticosterone,
Blood chemical analysis, Reprints.
PB91-200311/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Respiratory  Response of  Humans Exposed to
Low Levels of Ozone for 6.6 Hours. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Clinical Research Branch.
W. F. McDonnell, H. R. Kehri, S. Abdul-Salaam, P. J.
Ives, and L J. Folinsbee. cMay 91, 8p EPA/600/J-91 /
097
Pub. in Archives of  Environmental  Health,  v46 n3
p145-150 May 91. Prepared in cooperation with ABB
Environmental Services, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

Recent evidence suggests that prolonged exposures
of exercising men to 0.08 ppm ozone (O3) result in sig-
nificant decrements in lung function, induction of respi-
ratory symptoms, and increases in nonspecific airway
reactivity. The purpose of the study was to confirm or
refute these findings by exposing 38 healthy young
men to 0.08 ppm (O3) for 6.6 h. During exposure, sub-
74     Vol. 91, No.  3

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
jects performed exercise for a total of 5 h, which re-
quired  a minute ventilation of 40 I/mm. Significant
(O3)-induced decrements were observed for forced
vital capacity (FVC, -0.25 1), forced expiratory volume
in 1 s (FEV(sub 1.0), -0.351), and mean expiratory flow
rate between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF(sub 25-75), -
0.57 l/s), and significant increases were observed in
airway  reactivity (35%), specific  airway resistance
(0.77 cm H2O/S), and respiratory symptoms. These re-
sults essentially confirm previous findings.  A large
range in individual responses was noted (e.g., percent-
age change in FEV(sub  1.0): 4% increase to 38% de-
crease). Responses also appeared to be nonlinear in
time under these experimental conditions.

Keywords: *Air pollution  effects(Humans),  "Ozone,
'Respiratory function tests, Exercise, Airway resist-
ance.  Dose-response  relationships, Vital  capacity,
Forced expiratory volume, Reprints.
PB91-200329/REB                PC A03/MF A01
DMA  Sequence Analysis  of Revertants of the
'hisD3052'  Allele   of 'Salmonella  typhimurium'
TA98 Using the Polymerase Chain  Reaction and
Direct Sequencing: Application to 1-Nitropyrene-
Induced Revertants. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
D. A. Bell, J. G. Levine,andD. M. DeMarini. C1991,12p
EPA/600/J-91/098
Pub. in Mutation Research, v252 n1 p35-44 Feb 91.

The study used the polymerase chain  reaction (PCR)
to speed the processing of revertants of Salmonella ty-
phimurium TA98 for DNA sequence analysis. Briefly, a
crude DNA extract from a single colony was prepared
and used in an asymmetric PCR to amplify a 228-bp
fragment containing the hisD3052 mutation approxi-
mately in the center. Following ultra-filtration,  the
ssDNA was  sequenced using an end-labeled probe
and dideoxy sequencing. The most frequent mutation
among the revertants was a -2 deletion of GC or CG
within the sequence CGCGCGCG, which is upstream
of the  hisD3052 mutation.  The deletion occurred in
38% (6/16) of the spontaneous (-S9) revertants and in
94% (15/16) of a set of 1-nitropyrene-induced rever-
tants. Misalignment  of complementary DNA strands
within this repeat may account for  this mutation, al-
though the possible formation of Z-DNA  within this
region  may also play a role. Other mutations, mostly
deletions but also  some complex  mutations (inser-
tions/deletions/substitutions),  occurred within quasi-
palindromic regions of DNA. The  potential DNA sec-
ondary structures within such regions may mediate the
templated production of some of these mutations.

Keywords: 'Bacterial DNA, 'Salmonella typhimurium,
'Mutation, 'Polymerase chain reaction, 'Alleles, Base
sequence, Metabolic activation, Single-stranded DNA,
Nucleic acid conformation, Agar gel electrophoresis,
Reprints, 1-Nitropyrene.
PB91-200337/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Toxicity Tests of Effluents with Marsh Plants in
Water and Sediment Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
G. E. Walsh, D. E. Weber, T. L. Simon, and L. K.
Brashers. cl991,10p EPA/600/J-91 /099,  PUB-686
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v10
p517-525 1991.

Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and
sediment with two varieties of the freshwater marsh
plant  Echinochloa crusgalli (Linneaus)  Palisot de
Beauvois (Poaceae), and complex effluents. Two tests
are described: a seed germination and early seedling
growth test in water, and  a  survival  and seedling
growth test in  natural and synthetic sediments. Effects
of effluents from a sewage treatment plant, tannery,
textile mill, pulp and  paper mill,  coking plant and
sewage treatment plant included inhibition  of germina-
tion, chlorophyll synthesis and growth. The tests with
rooted marsh  plants were sensitive to pollutants and
detected toxicity of a range of pollutants in water and
sediment. Synthetic sediments similar to natural sedi-
ments allowed toxicity tests to be done under carefully
controlled  conditions of particle  size distribution, or-
ganic content, pH, electrode potential (Eh) and cation
exchange capacity (CEC).

Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Aquatic plants, 'Chemical water
pollutants,  'Effluents,  'Marshes,  Waste   water,
Sewage, Germination, Sediments, Reprints, Echinoch-
loa crusgalli.
PB91-200634/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Chicago Dept. of Water, IL. Water Quality Surveillance
Section.
Lake Michigan Water Quality Report, 1988.
Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Spring-
field. Div. of Air Pollution Control.
Jun 90,150p IEPA/WPC/90-172
See also PB88-185871. Sponsored by Chicago Dept.
of Water, IL. Water Quality Surveillance Section.

Evaluation of the water quality of the southwest portion
of Lake Michigan is based on standards as set by the
Illinois Pollution  Control Board (35 IL Adm Code 302).
Because it is a unique and  invaluable resource, Lake
Michigan is protected to a higher level than other lakes
in the State.  Its waters are required to meet: Lake
Michigan  Standards, General  Use  Standards and
Public and Food Processing Water Supply Standards.
Additionally,  a criterion for beach closure was also
used in the  evaluation  (IDPH, 1987). The Executive
Summary covers data for the current year only. Sec-
tion B of the report entitled 'Water Quality Trend Analy-
sis', contains data for the period 1970-88. The water
quality  of the Illinois area of Lake Michigan has im-
proved substantially since the 1960's and 1970's due
to  diversion  of  municipal and  industrial  treated
wastewater discharges  away from Lake Michigan to
the Des Plaines  River Basin. Discharges along the Illi-
nois shore now  consist  primarily of cooling water and
some combined sewer overflows. Major sources of
pollutants along  the Illinois shore of Lake Michigan are
atmospheric deposition, urban runoff and in-place con-
taminants.

Keywords:  'Lake  Michigan,  'Water  quality  data,
'Water pollution abatement, Environmental monitor-
ing, Site surveys, Illinois, Water pollution standards,
Trends, Liquid wastes, Industrial wastes, Water runoff,
Tables(Data), Municipal wastes, Sewage  disposal,
Pollution sources, Air water interactions, Air pollution.
Deposition.
PB91-200659/REB                PC A06/MF A01
Intensive Survey of  Shawnee  National Forest
Region Streams of Southern Illinois, 1986-1987.
Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Spring-
field. Div. of Water Pollution Control.
R. L. Hite, C. A. Bickers, and M. M. King. Jun 90,114p
IEPA/WPC/90-171
Prepared in  cooperation  with Southern  Monitoring,
Marion, IL.

In 1986 and 1987 the Illinois Environmental Protection
Agency and Illinois Department of Conservation con-
ducted a cooperative survey of 14 Shawnee National
Forest  region streams in Southern Illinois. Monitoring
included  collection  of  aquatic  macroinvertebrates,
water quality, sediment chemistry, stream habitat, and
fish  population samples. Biological, chemical, and
physical data collected during the Shawnee study re-
vealed  an unusual assemblage of high quality streams
characterized by excellent biotic integrity and water
quality, and  exceptional physical and  aesthetic at-
tributes. Outstanding streams in the Shawnee National
Forest  include Big, Lusk, and Big Grand Pierre Creeks
in the Ohio River watershed and upper Clear and Miller
Creeks in the Mississippi River watershed. Streams ex-
hibiting lowest quality included lower Bay Creek, Bay
Creek Ditch, and Cedar Creek in the Ohio drainage,
and the lower Clear Creek continuum near the Shaw-
nee's western edge. High quality streams were gener-
ally located in the Shawnee Hills or Ozark Natural Divi-
sions; low quality streams were generally located in
agricultural bottomlands.

Keywords:  'Streams,  'Environmental  monitoring,
'Water quality data, 'Water pollution effects, Illinois,
Regional analysis, Aquatic biology, Sediments, Biologi-
cal  effects,  Tables(Data),  Invertebrates, Chemical
properties, Physical properties,  Vegetation, Fishes,
Hydrology,  'Shawnee  National  Forest,  Southern
Region(lllinois).
PB91-206185/REB                PC A09/MF A02
Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Stand-
ards for Lead: Assessment of Scientific and Tech-
nical Information. Staff paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
J. Cohen, G. Brion, and J. Haines. Dec 90,200p EPA/
450/2-89/022
SeealsoPB89-207914.
The paper evaluates and interprets the updated scien-
tific and technical information that EPA staff believes is
most relevant to the review of the primary (health) and
secondary (welfare) national ambient air quality stand-
ards for lead. The assessment is intended to bridge
the gap between the scientific review in the EPA crite-
ria document and the judgements required of the Ad-
ministrator in setting the ambient air quality standards
for  lead. The  major  recommendations  of the staff
paper are: (1) the range of standards under consider-
ation should be from 0.5  to 1.5 microg/cu  m; (2) a
monthly averaging  period would better  reflect chil-
dren's responsiveness to lead exposures than a quar-
terly averaging period; (3) the most appropriate form of
the standard is the second highest monthly average in
a 3 year span; (4)  with a monthly averaging period,
more frequent  sampling is needed in areas with point
sources; and (5) the hi-volume sampler should be re-
tained to monitor compliance with the lead NAAQS.


Keywords:      'Lead(Metal),      'Air     pollution
effects(Humans), 'Public  health, 'National  Ambient
Air Quality Standards, Risk assessment,  Reviews, Air
pollution  standards, Technology transfer, Exposure,
Biological effects,  Ecosystems, Toxicity, Standards
compliance. Children, Dose-response relationships,
Point sources, Air pollution sampling.
PB91-206193/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Municipal Pollution Control.
Collecting  Household  Hazardous  Wastes   at
Wastewater Treatment Plants. Case Studies.
Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton,
PA.
J. Demuro, and C. Nunley. Dec 90, 39p EPA/430/9-
90/016
Contract EPA-68-C9-0035
Sponsored by  Environmental  Protection  Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Municipal Pollution Control.


The report is intended to provide details on the organi-
zation, development and implementation of HHW pro-
grams related to Wastewater Treatment Plants. It eval-
uates principle  problems  and limitations associated
with HHW collection.


Keywords: 'Household wastes,  'Sewage treatment
plants,  'Collecting methods,  'Hazardous materials,
'Solid waste management, Case studies, Implementa-
tion, Waste disposal, Substitutes, State government,
Regional  analysis, Cost analysis,  Source reduction,
Saint Johns(Michigan),  Palo Alto(California),  New
Haven(Connecticut),   Jefferson    County(Kentucky),
Orange County(California).
PB91-206219/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Impact of Declaring Soybean  Oil  Exempt from
VOC Regulations on the Coatings Program. Final
rept.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. Strum, and C. Blackley. Apr 91, 56p EPA/450/3-
91/011
Contract EPA-68-02-4378
Portions of this document are not fully legible. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning  and
Standards.


The document presents the findings of a study to
evaluate the impact of declaring soybean and other
vegetable seed oils  exempt from VOC regulation on
the coatings program. The physical and chemical char-
acteristics of 10 vegetable seed oils are tabulated  and
their uses are discussed. Tests conducted with EPA
reference Methods 24 and 24a showed no weight loss,
indicating that the oils contain no VOC. However, the
study discloses that  VOC's are emitted during the au-
toxidation reaction which occurs when these oils are in
contact with atmospheric oxygen.


Keywords: 'Air pollution abatement,  'Pollution regula-
tions,  'Volatile organic  compounds,  'Soybean  oil,
'Coating processes, Chemical properties, Physical
properties,  Food processing, Oxidation,  Air pollution
control, Dry methods, Curing, Air pollution detection,
Vegetable oils, Comparison, Chemical analysis, EPA
method 24, EPA method 24A.
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     75

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-206227/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Toxic Substances Control Act A Guide for Chemi-
cal Importers/Exporters. An Overview.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Toxic Substances.
Apr 91,42p EPA/560/1 -91 /001

The publication summarizes the requirements of sec-
tions 12(b), Exports, and 13, Imports, of the Toxic Sub-
stances Control Act (TSCA), and the rules and policies
issued under these sections.

Keywords: 'Guidelines, 'Chemical compounds, 'Inter-
national trade, Pollution regulations, Legal aspects.
Law  enforcement US  EPA,  Customs laws,  *Toxic
Substances Control Act
PB91-206235/REB               PC A03/MF A01
National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report,
1989.  Executive  Summary  and  Chapter 4-Ex-
carpts.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
T. Curran, R. Faoro, T. Fitz-Simons, N. Frank, and W.
Freas. Feb 91,49p EPA/450/4-91 /003B
See also report for 1989, PB91 -172247.

The report presents national and regional trends in air
quality from 1980 through  1969 for total suspended
paniculate, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen
dioxide, ozone and lead. Air quality trends are also pre-
sented for 14 metropolitan areas. Both national and re-
gional trends in each of these pollutants are examined.
National air quality trends are also presented for both
the National Air Monitoring Sites (NAMS) and other
site  categories. In addition to ambient  air quality,
trends are also presented for annual nationwide emis-
sions. These emissions are estimated using the best
available engineering calculations; the ambient levels
presented are averages of direct measurements. The
report also includes a section, Air Quality  Levels in
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Its purpose is to
provide interested members of the air pollution control
community, the private sector  and the general public
with greatly simplified air  pollution information.  Air
quality statistics are presented for each of the pollut-
ants for all MSAs with data in 1989.

Keywords: *Air pollution effects(Humans), 'Air quality,
•Air pollution monitoring, National Ambient Air Quality
Standards,  Air pollution standards, Biological effects.
Trends, Forecasting,  Metropolitan  areas,  Regional
analysis, Site  surveys, Concentration(Composrtion),
Total suspended parfculates,  Lead(Metal),  Sulfur di-
oxide, Information transfer, Public information. Statisti-
cal analysts. Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen dioxide,
Ozone. 'Emission inventories.
PB91-206243/REB              PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
State-of-the-Art   FteM  Hydraulic   Conductivity
T0AUIIQ of Compacted Sous.
IT Environmental Programs, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
J. O. Sai, and D. C. Anderson. Jun 91,95p EPA/600/2-
91/022
Contract EPA-68-03-3413
Prepared in cooperation with Brown (K.W.) and Asso-
ciates, Inc., College Station, TX. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
duction Engineering Lab.

The report documents the available technical informa-
tion on field hydraulic conductivity test methods for soil
liners. The methods discussed are currently used and
readily available for determining the hydraulic conduc-
tivity of soils compacted in the field. Hydraulic conduc-
tivity test methods currently used on soil liners were
evaluated for their ability to meet the minimum require-
ments for field tests; i.e., that the test be capable of
measuring hydraulic conductivities at least as low as 1
x 10 to the -9th power m/s and that the values ob-
tained be representative of the overall soil liner. Of the
few methods capable of meeting the minimum require-
ments, even fewer are both practical to use and rarely
give false low values. Based on the advantages of the
methods evaluated, the best and most practical cur-
    • r available technologies for evaluating  hydraulic
      -- -  are large  single-ring  jnfiltrometers and
                   iltrometers.

Keywords: 'Soil compacting, 'Hydraulic conductivity,
•Linings, 'Waste management 'Hazardous materials.
State of the art. Technology utilization, Field tests, Per-
formance standards, Infiltration, Permeability, Measur-
ing instruments, Lysimeters.
PB91-206250/REB               PC A24/MF A03
Environmental  Impact Statement/State Analysis
Report Cedar  Bay Cogeneration  Project, Jack-
sonville, Florida (EPA and FDER). Including Tech-
nical Appendix. Draft rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA. Region
IV.
May 90,556p EPA/904/9-90/003A, EPA/904/9-90/
003B
Prepared in cooperation with Florida State Dept. of En-
vironmental Regulation, Tallahassee.

AES/Cedar Bay, Inc. proposes to construct and oper-
ate a  cogeneration facility on  and existing industrial
site within the North District of Duval County, approxi-
mately eight  miles north of Jacksonville, Florida The
plant will produce 225 megawatts of electricity for sale
to Florida Power and Light  Company.  In addition,
steam will be sold to the adjacent Seminole Kraft Cor-
poration paper mill. The document prepared pursuant
to the National Environmental Policy Act, assesses the
proposed project and alternatives with respect to im-
pacts on the  natural and man-made environments. Po-
tential  mitigative measures are also evaluated. The
Technical Appendix includes a copy  of U.S. EPA's
draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
permit FDER's Conditions of Power Plant Siting Certi-
fication, as well as other state agency reports pertinent
to the proposed project

Keywords: 'Environmental impact statements-Draft,
'Dual-purpose power plants. Electric power plants,
Cogeneration, Paper industry, Mitigative, Florida, Per-
mits, Performance standards, Design criteria, 'Cedar
Bay Cogeneration Project Jacksonville(Florida), Na-
tional Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.
PB91-206573/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Terbutryre Decision Document
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
Oct 81,37p EPA/540/09-91/136
SeealsoPB87-121877.

Terbutryn is a triazine-related herbicide registered and
used in the U.S. for control of many broadleaf weeds
and grasses on wheat  barley, and sorghum, and in
noncropland areas. The document reports the results
of the Agency's review of currently available informa-
tion concerning the potential  health effects of terbu-
tryn. Part I is the introduction, which describes the or-
ganization of the document Part II presents the chemi-
cal and physical characteristics and other general in-
formation about terbutryn. Part III is a summary of the
chronic effects of terbutryn observed in the laboratory.
Part IV contains the Agency's analysis of terbutryn ex-
posure to both the general population and applicators.
Part V consists of the Agency's quantitative  assess-
ments of risk to these exposed populations. The con-
clusions and recommendations regarding terbutryn as
a RPAR candidate are given in Part VI. Finally, Part VII
is a bibliographic listing of the studies cited in the
report

Keywords: 'Pesticides,  'Risk assessment, 'Pollution
regulations, 'Biological  effects, Reviews,  Herbicides,
Sulfur organic compounds. Toxic  substances, Public
hearth, Toxicrty, Exposure, Occupational  safety and
hearth, Chemical properties, Physical properties. Ecol-
ogy, Environmental  transport,  'Terbutryn, Triazine/
(tert-butylamino)-(ethylamino)-(methylthio)-5,    CAS
886-50-0.
PB91-206581/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Oxydemeton-Methyl  PD-1: initiation of  Special
Review.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
30 Sep 87,53p EPA/540/09-91/135
See also PB88-179643.

The Position Document addresses the risks and bene-
fits of pesticide products containing  Oxydemeton-
Methyl.  The Agency has determined that the use of
products containing Oxydemeton-Methyl may meet or
exceed a risk criterion described in 40 CFR Part 154.
Potential hazards will  be examined further to deter-
mine the nature and extent of the risk, and considering
the benefits  of  Oxydemeton-Methyl, whether such
risks cause unreasonable adverse effects on the envi-
ronment.

Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Risk assessment,  'Pollution
regulations, 'Biological effects. Reviews, Environmen-
tal effects, Toxicity, Public health, Sulfur organic com-
pounds, Laboratory animals. Notification  procedures,
Decisions and orders,  Farm  crops, Environmental
transport,  Legal' aspects,  Ecology,  'Oxydemeton
methyl, Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide
Act,     Phosphorothioic    acid/(dimethyl-ester)-S-
((ethylsulfinyl)ethyl), CAS 301 -12-2.
PB91-206607/REB               PC A99/MF A04
Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste.
Proceedings  of the  National  Conference  on
Household Hazardous Waste Management (5th).
Held In San Francisco, California on November 5-
7,1990.
Duxbury (Dana) and Associates, Andover, MA.
Mar 91,758p* EPA/530/SW-91 /059
Grant EPA-T-901776-01-0
See also PB90-163189.Portions of this document are
not fully legible. Prepared in cooperation with Govern-
mental Refuse Collection  and Disposal  Association,
Silver Spring, MD. Sponsored  by Environmental Pro-
tection  Agency, Washington,  DC.  Office  of  Solid
Waste.

The report is a compendium of presentations made at
the 5th Annual Household  Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment  Conference. The texts were submitted by the
speakers themselves, and except where noted, have
not been summarized or edited. The speeches do not
necessarily reflect EPA's position.

Keywords:  'Household wastes, 'Meetings, 'Hazard-
ous materials, 'Waste management, Waste recycling,
Indoor air pollution, Consumer products, Marketing,
Public opinion, Management planning,  Pollution regu-
lations,  Case studies, Heavy metals,  Paints,  Oil
wastes, Waste utilization, Collecting  methods, Educa-
tion, Public information, Pesticides, Source reduction.
PB91-206722/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Building Serv-
ices Div.
User Manual NBSAVIS CONTAM88. A User Inter-
face for Air Movement and Contaminant Dispersal
Analysis In Multizone Buildings.
National Inst of Standards and Technology (BFRL),
Gaithersburg, MD.
R. A. Grot. Jun 91,150p NISTIR-4585
Sponsored by Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Building Services Div., Consumer Product Safety Com-
mission, Washington, DC. Directorate of Engineering
Science,  and Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
Exposure Assessment Lab.

The manual describes the usage of three computer
programs for analyzing the air movement and indoor
air quality  in mutfeone buildings. The first program
NBSAVIS creates and edits a building description and
generates the leakage, fan and contaminant data nec-
essary to predict the air infiltration  and internal air
movement in a building and perform an indoor air qual-
ity analysis. These  data are  used by the program
CONTAM88 which calculates the air flows and both
dynamic and steady state levels of  indoor contami-
nants. CONTAMEZ also produces an  output file which
can serve  as  the  input for  the  NIST programs
CONTAM86 and CONTAM87 developed by Dr. James
Axley.

Keywords:   'User  manualsfComputer  programs),
•Indoor air quality, 'Air flow, Buildings, Indoor air pollu-
tion. Ventilation, Steady state, Air quality, Contami-
nants, Leakage, Environmental quality, CONTAM88
computer program.
 PB91-206805/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Radiation Data. Report  62, April-
 June 1990.
 National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Mont-
 gomery, AL.
 Dec 90,50p EPA/520/5-91 /013
 See also PB91-178996.

 Environmental Radiation  Data  (ERD) contains  data
 from the Environmental Radiation Ambients Monitor-
 76    Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
ing System (ERAMS). Data from similar networks oper-
ated by contributing States, Canada, Mexico, and the
Pan American Health Organization are reported in the
ERD when available. The ERAMS is comprised of na-
tionwide sampling stations that provide air,  surface,
and drinking water and milk samples from which envi-
ronmental radiation levels are derived. Sampling loca-
tions are selected to provide optimal population cover-
age while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear
devices and other forms of radioactive contamination
of the environment. The radiation analyses performed
on these samples include gross beta levels, gamma
analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for
uranium, plutonium, strontium, iodine, radium, krypton,
and tritium.

Keywords:  'Environmental monitoring,  'Radiation
monitoring, Water pollution sampling,  Air  pollution
sampling,  Potable water,  Milk, Radiation detection,
Data processing, Surface waters, Tables(Data).
PB91-206839/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Comparison and Evaluation of Field and Labora-
tory Toxiclty Tests with Fenvalerate on an Estua-
rine Crustacean. Journal article.
South Carolina Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Environmen-
tal Health Sciences.
D. S. Baughman, D. W. Moore, and G. I. Scott. c1989,
14pEPA/600/J-89/538
GrantEPA-R-813138
Pub. in Environmental  Toxicology and Chemistry, v8
p417-429  1989.  Presented at the Symposium on
Aquatic  Toxicology  of the Pyrethrpid Insecticides,
Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxi-
cology and Chemistry (7th), Alexandria, VA.,  Novem-
ber 2-5,1986. Prepared in cooperation with CH2M Hill,
Charleston, SC.  Sponsored  by Environmental Re-
search Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.

Reid and laboratory toxicity tests were conducted on
the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugip, to evaluate the
usefulness of laboratory testing in estimating mortality
from fenvalerate exposure associated with agricultural
runoff. The study examined an integrated approach for
assessing the  impacts of  fenvalerate on estuarine
fauna, using 96-h static-renewal and 6-h pulsed-dose
laboratory toxicity tests and in situ toxicity tests. The
laboratory toxicity tests  with fenvalerate gave  96-h
LC50 values ranging from 0.007 to 0.071 microgram/L
and 6-h PDLC50  values ranging from  0.100 to 0.130
microgram/L. Comparisons of the results of two field
toxicity tests with  laboratory-derived LC50  values
snowed good agreement between field and laboratory
toxicity data. The variation between field and laborato-
ry toxicity tests may have been due to the limitations ot
the water sampling regime  used in characterizing the
pesticide exposure during the field toxicity tests. These
comparisons suggest that a combination of laboratory
and field toxicity  testing is required to estimate the
actual field mortality from fenvalerate exposure associ-
ated with agricultural runoff. Future studies should in-
clude  composite  water sampling and more frequent
discrete sampling methods to better characterize field
exposure regimes. (Copyright (c) 1989 SET AC.)

Keywords:  'Shrimp,  'Estuaries,  'Water  pollution
effects(Animals),   'Organophosphate  insecticides,
'Toxicity, Field tests,  Dose-response relationships,
Reprints, 'Fenvalerate, Palaemonetes pugio, Agricul-
tural runoff.
PB91-206847/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Expert Systems: Tools for Hazardous Waste Man-
agers. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. G. Greathouse. c1989,5p EPA/600/J-89/539
Pub. in Environmental Software Report, v1 n7 p1, 4,
18, Feb/Mar 1989.

It is well known that protection of human health and
the environment from the risks of hazardous wastes in-
volves evaluation of  numerous complex issues. Ap-
proximately 4 years ago a few people began to explore
the possibility of using expert system techniques to ex-
pedite the transfer of professional decision expertise
to a wider audience of decision makers. Currently sev-
eral organizations are developing expert systems to
expedite hazardous waste decision making and im-
prove the  quality and consistency of resulting deci-
sions. It is anticipated that system development will
proliferate during the  next few years. Expert systems
will change the way in which information is passed be-
tween organizations.

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials,  'Waste manage-
ment, 'Information transfer, 'Expert systems,  Man-
agement planning,  Decision making, Software tools,
Reprints.
PB91-206854/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Determining  the  Nutrient  Status of  Drinking
Water. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
E. W. Rice. C1989, 5p EPA/600/J-89/540
Pub. in the Bench Sheet, v11 n5 p6-7 Sep/Oct 89.

The presence  of biodegradable  organic  matter  in
drinking water can result in biologically unstable water
that has been linked to various taste, odor and color
problems. When the implicated bacteria are members
of the total coliform group, those occurrences can
result in major  compliance violations. The amount of
biodegradable organic matter in potable water is diffi-
cult to measure. The measurement of biodegradable
matter in drinking water is an operationally defined pa-
rameter and can only be expressed in relative terms.
The use of bioassay assays can provide important in-
formation regarding the nutrient status of water.

Keywords:  'Potable  water,  'Nutrients,  'Bioassay,
'Water pollution standards, 'Water analysis,  Biocon-
trol, Microorganism  control(Water),   Odor  control,
Taste, Standards compliance, Color,  Organic matter,
Bipdeterioration, Aquatic bacteria,  Pseudomonas, Re-
prints.
PB91-206904/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Divergence between Populations  of a Monoga-
mous  Polychaete with Male  Parental Care:  Pre-
mating Isolation and Chromosome Variation. Jour-
nal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
J. R. Weinberg, V. R. Starczak, C. Mueller, G. C.
Pesch, and S. M. Lindsay. C1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/
518.ERLN-1308
Pub. in Marine Biology, v107 p205-2131990. Also pub.
as Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA. Dept.
of Biology rept. no. WHOI-CONTRIB-7218. Prepared
in cooperation with Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti-
tution, MA. Dept. of Biology, and South Carolina Univ.,
Columbia. Dept. of Biological Sciences.

Low dispersal and sexual selection are characteristic
of the coastal polychaete Nereis  acuminata Ehlers
1868 (also known as Nereis arenaceodentata Moore
1903  and Nereis (Neanthes) caudate Delle Chiaje
1841). A study assessed levels of premating isolation
between populations of  the polychaete.  Four North
American populations were used, two from the Atlantic
and two from the Pacific. Worms from all sites (1) were
collected in  1987 and 1988 from the same habitat
type, (2) were morphologically similar and keyed out as
N. acuminata, and (3) reproduced monogamously and
exhibited male parental care, an extremely rare repro-
ductive mode in marine invertebrates. Results suggest
strongly that the Atlantic and Pacific populations have
been allopatric for a long time,  and are different spe-
cies.

Keywords:    'Polychaeta,    'Animal    behavior,
'Variation(Genetic), 'Chromosomes,  'Population ge-
netics, Marine biology, Tolerances(Physiology), Cold,
Karyotyping, Reprints, 'Male parental care, 'Premat-
ing isolation. Nereis acuminata, Nereis caudata.
PB91-206912/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Pressure and Temperature Fluctuations in Under-
ground Storage Tank Pipelines Containing Gaso-
line. Journal article.
Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA.
J. W. Maresca, M. P. MacArthur, A. Regalia, J. W.
Starr, and C. P. Wilson. c1990,30p EPA/600/J-90/
519
Contract EPA-68-03-3409
Pub. in Oil and Chemical Pollution Jnl., v7 n1 p29-56
1990.   Sponsored  by  Environmental   Protection
Agency,  Cincinnati,  OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
Lab.

A common method of detecting a small leak in a pres-
surized  underground  storage  tank pipeline system
containing petroleum is to monitor the pressure in the
line. A leak is declared if the pressure drops below a
specified threshold pressure. Small changes  in the
temperature of the product in the line also produce
large changes in pressure which can  easily exceed
those of a small leak. The paper presents theoretical
models to predict the pressure changes  associated
with leaks and product temperature changes in pres-
surized pipelines. These models have been validated
in  experiments at retail petroleum facilities and the
EPA's UST  Test Apparatus.  The magnitude of the
product  temperature changes that can be expected
during a pressure test at a retail  station is predicted
from a heat conduction model. The model includes the
effects of product delivery and product dispensing and
uses experimentally determined values of thermal dif-
fusivity for the product in the pipeline and for the gravel
and soil around the pipeline.

Keywords: 'Leak detectors, 'Pipelines, 'Underground
storage,  Tanks, Subsurface  structures,  Gasoline,
Models, Pressure gradients, Reprints.
PB91-206920/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Human Alveolar and Peritoneal Macrophages Me-
diate Fungistasis Independently of L-Arginine Ox-
idation to Nitrite or Nitrate. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
M. L Cameron, D. L. Granger, J. B. Weinberg, W. J.
Kozumbo, and H. S. Koren. C1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/
520
Pub. in American Review of Respiratory Disease, v142
n6p1313-1319Dec90.

Human alveolar macrophages (HAM) from 28 normal
volunteers were found to inhibit replication of Crypto-
cpccus neoformans. Conditions under which fungista-
sis  occurred  were different than those required for
mouse peritoneal  macrophage-mediated fungistasis.
Inhibition of fungal replication by mouse peritoneal ma-
crophages (MPM) requires  that the macrophages are
activated and that the  cocultures of C. neoformans
and macrophages be done in the presence of serum,
L-arginine, and endotoxin.  HAM-mediated fungistasis
was not  enhaced  by endotoxin  or  by recombinant
human interferon-gamma (rHIFN-gamma). The combi-
nation of  endotoxin and rHIFN-gamma inhibited the
fungistatic effect of HAM.  Human peritoneal macro-
phages (HPM) from women undergoing laparoscopy
were tested for fungistasis and L-arginine nitrogen oxi-
dation. Partial inhibition of cryptocpccal replication oc-
curred; however, there was no evidence of L-arginine
metabolism to NO2- or NO3-. The absence of L-argi-
nine-dependent nitrogen oxidation in HAM and HPM,
compared to MPM, during conditions under which fun-
gistasis occurs suggests that the phenomenon is spe-
cies specific rather than specific to the tissue origin of
the macrophages.

Keywords: 'Macrophages, 'Immunology, 'Arginine,
'Nitrates, 'Nitrites, 'Oxidation,  'Fungicides, Pulmo-
nary alveoli,  Peritoneal cavity, Cryptococcus neofor-
mans, Endotoxins, Interferon type II,  Liquid chroma-
tography, Phagocytosis, Biosynthesis, Reprints.
 PB91-207019/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Brain Cholinesterase Activity of Bobwhite Acutely
 Exposed to Chlorpyrifos. Journal article.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 M. A. Cairns, C. C. Maguire, B. A. Williams, and J. K.
 Bennett. c1991,10p EPA/600/J-91 /108
 Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v10
 D657-664 1991. Prepared in cooperation  with NSI
 Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.

 Northern bobwhite,  Colinus  virginianus, were orally
 dosed with the organophosphorus  insecticide Chlor-
 pyrifos  to examine  effects on brain Cholinesterase
 (AChE) activity. Twp-week-old quail wera acutely ex-
 posed  and  euthanized at selected times  following
 gavage-dpsing, ranging from 1  to  120  h  later. The
 AChE  activity was  determined in  treated  birds and
 compared to  concurrently tested control (corn oil)
 birds. It was found that a lag time of 2 to 4 h following
 dose exposure was necessary to detect  significant
 AChE depression caused by Chlorpyrifos. The lowest
 dose that produced  ChE to detect significant ChE de-
 pression in these tests was between approximately 30
 and 50  mg  chlorpyrifos/kg body weight, with some
 mortality occurring at the  high end of that range. De-
 pression typically persisted for at least 24 h.
                                                                                                                                Sept 1991     77

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords: *Brain chemistry, 'Dursban, 'Cholinester-
ase, *Birds, 'Organophospfiate insecticides, Dose-re-
sponse relationships, Toxicity, Statistical analysis, Re-
prints,  'Northern bobwhite, *Chlorpyrifos, Colinus vir-
ginianus.
PB91-207100/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Causes of Waterbome Outbreaks in the  United
States. Journal article.
Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
G. F. Craun. c1991,6p EPA/600/ J-91/117
Pub. in Water Science Technology, v24 n2 p17-20 Feb
91.

A total of 1648 waterbome outbreaks and 446,377
cases of waterbome disease have been reported in
the United States since  1920. During the most recent
period,  1981-1988, 248 waterbome outbreaks  oc-
curred in community (45%) and noncommunity (34%)
water systems and from  the ingestion of contaminated
water from individual  (11%) and recreational (10%)
water sources. The average annual number  of out-
breaks reported in the period  are only slightly less than
reported during the previous period, 1971 -1980, and is
comparable  to that reported during  1931-1950. Al-
though, several large outbreaks have recently been re-
ported, most waterbome outbreaks since 1971 have
occurred in small community and noncommunity water
systems. The average number of cases of waterbome
disease per outbreak during 1971 -1988 is less than re-
ported during  1920-1940 but more than reported
during 1941-1960.

Keywords: 'Disease outbreaks, 'Water microbiology,
•Epidemiology, 'Potable water, United States, Virus
diseases, Bacterial infections, Toxic substances, Para-
sitic diseases, Reprints.
PB91-207126/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Exposure of Humans to Ambient Levels of Ozone
for 6.6 Hours Causes Cellular  and Biochemical
Changes In the Lung. Journal article.
Health Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
R. B. Devlin, W. F. McDonnell, R. Mann, S. Becker, and
D.E. House. C1991,12pEPA/600/J-91/119
Pub. in American Jnl. of Respiratory, Cellular, and Mo-
lecular Biology, v4 p72-81  Jan  91. Prepared in  coop-
eration with North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill. School
of Medicine, and ABB Environmental Services, Inc.,
Chapel Hill, NC.

An acute (2h) exposure of humans to 0.4 ppm ozone
initiates biochemical changes in the lung resulting in
the production of components which mediate inflam-
mation and acute lung damage as well as components
which have the potential to lead to long term effects
such as fibrosis. However, many people are exposed
to lower levels of ozone than this, but for periods of
several hours. Therefore, it is important to determine if
a prolonged exposure to low levels of ozone is also ca-
pable of causing cellular and biochemical changes in
the lung. Non-smoking males were randomly exposed
to filtered air and either 0.10 ppm ozone or 0.08 ppm
ozone for 6.6  h with  moderate exercise (40 1/min).
Bronchatveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 18 h after
each exposure, and cells and fluid analyzed. The BAL
fluid of volunteers exposed to 0.10 ppm ozone had sig-
nificant  increases  in neutrophils  (PMNs),  protein,
PGE2, fibronectin, interieukin-6 (IL-6), and lactate de-
hydrogenase (LDH) compared with BAL fluid from the
same volunteers exposed to filtered air. The  study
concludes that exposure of humans to low levels of
ozone is sufficient to initiate an inflammatory reaction
in the lung.

Keywords: 'Air pollution  effects(Humans), 'Ozone,
'Biochemistry, 'Toxicology, Inflammation, Pulmonary
fibrosis, Bronchoalveolar  lavage  fluid,  Neutrophils,
Dinoprostone,  Interieukin 6, Lactate dehydrogenase,
Fibronectin, Alpha 1-antitrypsin, Eicosanoids, Super-
oxide, Phagocytosis, Reprints.
PB91-506998/REB                       CP 002
Surface Impoundment Modeling System, Version
2.0 (for Microcomputers). Software.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Oct90,1 diskette* EPA/SW/DK-91/079
System:  IBM Compatible PC;  DOS 2.0 operating
system, 512K. Language: C-compiled. Supersedes
PB90-501115.
The software is contained on one 1.2M, 51/4 inch dis-
kette, high  density. Documentation may be ordered
separately as PB91 -156711 and PB91 -156729.

The Surface Impoundment  Modeling System (SIMS)
estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions
and toxic air pollutant emission from surface impound-
ments and collection system emponents individually or
in series. It can be used to estimate emissions from
wastewater sources at hazardous waste treatment
works,  storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs), publi-
cally owned treatment works (POTW's), and industrial
wastewater treatment facilities. The minimum informa-
tion required to use SIMS is the type of device to be
modeled, the total flow to the device, the total surface
area of the device, and the type of industry discharging
wastewater to the device. Default values for water dis-
charged from typical industries are supplied by the pro-
gram. The  user can adjust these default values  to
match their  particular system. The SIMS is a personal
computer based program designed to estimate the air
emissions from surface impoundments. The emission
estimates are based on mass transfer models devel-
oped by the Emissions Standards Division (ESD)  of
EPA during the evaluation of hazardous waste treat-
ment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDF's). SIMS
allows  the user to specify all the required inputs  to
these emission models when the information is avail-
able, or when only limited information is available, pro-
vides default values for most of the model inputs.

Keywords: "Surface impoundments, 'Software,  'Air
pollution, 'Hazardous materials, Volatile organic com-
pounds. Waste treatment, Waste disposal, Waste stor-
age. Industrial waste treatment Waste management,
Water  pollution control. Sewage treatment. Mass
transfer, State  government, Diskettes,  Study  esti-
mates,  'Surface Impoundment Modeling System.
PB91-507137/REB                       CP D01
Fate Model Program, Version 1.0 (for Microcom-
puters). Software.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
1991,1 diskette EPA/SW/DK-91 /080
System: IBM-PC or compatible; Language: FORTRAN
77.
The software is contained on one, 51/4 inch diskette,
double density. Documentation is on a diskette.

The FATE Model has been developed for predicting
the fate of organics in a  completely mixed activated
sludge  treatment plant operated  under acclimated
conditions. It has been validated using experimental
data from a pilot-scale facility and full-scale treatment
plants.  The biogradation  kinetic constants for some
compounds were estimated using  group contribution
approach. Applications of the model include (1) as-
sessment of emissions of volatile organic compounds
from wastewater treatment plants, (2) estimation of the
concentration of toxic compounds associated  with
sludges, and (3) a general framework for  estimating
the removal of toxic compounds during conventional
primary/activated sludge treatment.

Keywords: 'Software,  'Sewage treatment,  'Activated
sludge  process. Diskettes,  Bkxteterioration,  Volatile
organic  compounds, Air  pollution, Study  estimates,
Toxic substances, Concentration(Composition), Kinet-
ics, 'FATE model.
PB91-507301/REB                       CP T05
Toxic  Substances  Control Act  Chemical  Sub-
stances Inventory: Revised Inventory  Synonym
and Preferred Name File, January 1991. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
9 Jan 91, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /082
System: IBM 3090 400E; MVS/ESA Sp3.1.OE operat-
ing system. File format EBCDIC. Supersedes PB90-
504226. See also PB86-220795 and PB86-220803.
Available in 9-track EBCDIC character set, 1600 bpi.
For 6250 bpi, the price is T05. Documentation includ-
ed; may be ordered separately as PB91 -167767.

The computer tape contains the Inventory Synonym
Name File and the Inventory Preferred Name File of
the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Toxic Sub-
stance Inventory. These files reflect the 60,552 sub-
stances on the  non-confidential Inventory file as of
January 9, 1991. The EPA 'N1 flag, which indicates a
polymeric substance containing no free-radical initiator
in  its Inventory name, but is considered  to cover the
designated polymer made with any free-radical initiator
regardless of the amount  used, appears on these
tapes for the appropriate polymers that were included
in the 1990 Supplement. The tapes do not include this
flag for polymers that were listed in the 1985 Edition. A
review of the statistics for trie amounts of CBI and non-
CBI records  on the source  file and the file that pro-
duced these tapes, as  well  as the types of data ele-
ments selected, confirms that no TSCA CBI data are
on the tapes.

Keywords: 'Data file,  'Chemical compounds, 'Envi-
ronmental surveys, Pollution, Magnetic tapes, Revi-
sions, Polymers, Toxic substances, 'Toxic Substances
Control Act,  'Toxic Substance Inventory, CAS Regis-
try Number, Molecular formula.
PB91-507319/REB                       CP T02
Commenced PMN Case Number Cross-Reference
File  to  Chemical Abstracts Registry Number or
Accession Number, January 1991. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Jan 91, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /083
System: IBM 3090 400E; MVS/ESA SP3.1.OE operat-
ing system. See also PB91 -507301.
Available in 9-track EBCDIC character set, 1600 bpi.
For 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The Commenced PMN Case Number Concordance or
Cross-Reference file  contains  PMN Case Numbers
cross-referenced to Chemical Abstracts (CAS) Regis-
try Numbers  and Environmental Protection  Agency
(EPA) Accession Numbers assigned to the substances
described in PMN Notices of Commencement of Man-
ufacture or Import. If no claim of confidentiality for the
substance identity was made when the Notice of Com-
mencement was submitted, or if the submitter subse-
quently withdrew the claim of confiddEntlality for the
substance identity, then the substance will have a CAS
Registry Number. If Confidentiality was claimed for the
substance in the Notice of Commencement and there
has been no change to that claim, then the substance
will have an EPA Accession Number, which is a unique
five or six-digit number EPA assigns to each confiden-
tial substance added to the Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA)  Inventory. The file is in Case  Number
order. Associated with each Case Number is one or
more CAS Registry Numbers or EPA Accession Num-
bers. Typically there will be only one of these numbers
associated with a Case Number, however where more
than one  unique  substance is encompassed by a
single commenced PMN, the appropriate CAS Regis-
try Number or EPA Accession Number for each sub-
stance will be included in the workunit for that particu-
lar Case number. Each issue of the file is cummulative.

Keywords: 'Data  file, 'Chemicals, Magnetic tapes,
'Commenced PMN case numbers,  'Chemical ab-
stracts, Toxic Substances Control Act, Environmental
Protection Agency.
PB91-507376/REB                      CP D03
OZIPR:  Ozone  Isopleth Plotting  Package  (Re-
search Version) (for Microcomputers). Software.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC.  Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
16 Jul 90,2 diskettes EPA/SW/DK-91 /084
System: IBM or IBM compatible; PC DOS or MS-DOS
Version  2.0 or higher operating system, 256K.  Lan-
guage: FORTRAN.
The software is on two 1.2M, 5 1 /4 inch diskettes, high
density. Documentation included; may be ordered sep-
arately as PB91-175877.

Ozone Isopleth Plotting Package (Research Version)
(OZIPR) is a trajectory-based air quality simulation
model that can be used with complex chemical kinet-
ics mechanisms to relate ozone concentrations to ini-
tial levels of organic and oxides of nitrogens (NOx) pre-
cursors. OZIPR is based on previous versions of EPA's
Ozone Isopleth  Plotting Program, but it contains im-
proved and expanded capabilities that make the model
useful for research purposes. It serves the dual pur-
pose of providing: (1) a simple moving box model ca-
pable of using detailed chemistry, emissions and vari-
ous meteorological parameters to predict oxkJant for-
mation and (2) procedures through which the Empirical
Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA) can be imple-
mented for calculating emission reductions needed to
achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for
ozone. The program is designed to run on an IBM PC/
AT or fully compatible personal computer. The  soft-
ware package includes the executable program as well
78     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
as the source code and input/output files for nine ex-
amples.

Keywords: 'Software, *Air quality, Ozonosphere, Re-
action kinetics.  Photochemical  reactions,  Models,
Emission factors, Oxidants, Nitrogen oxides, Comput-
erized simulation, Diskettes, 'Ozone isopleths, Empiri-
cal Kinetics Modeling Approach.
PB91-507509/REB                       CP T14
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1989. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Toxic Substances.
1989, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /085
System: IBM ES 9000; OS/MVS operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 43,481,350. See also PB90-502030
(1988), PB89-186068 (1987).
Available in 9-track, ASCII character set, 1600 or 6250
bpi. For 6250 bpi, the price is T14. Documentation in-
cluded; may be ordered separately as PB91-187500.

Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Communi-
ty Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Su-
perfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
(Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a Na-
tional Inventory of toxic chemical  emissions from cer-
tain facilities. The final Toxic Chemical Release Form
R and  regulations for  the 1987 reporting year were
published in the Federal Register on February 16,
1988 (53 FR 4500-4554). The list 9) toxic chemicals
subject to  reporting consisted initially of chemicals
listed for similar reporting purposes by the States of
New Jersey and Maryland. There are over 300 chemi-
cals  and  categories on these lists.  The reporting  re-
quirement applies to owners and operators of facilities
that have 10 or more full-time employees, that are in
Standard  Industrial Classification  (SIC)  codes  20
through 39 (i.e., manufacturing facilities) and that man-
ufacture  (including  importing), process or otherwise
use  a  listed toxic  chemical in  excess of specified
threshold quantities. The law mandates that the data
be made  publicly available through  a computer data-
base. The online TRI file should appeal to a  broad
based user audience including industry, state and local
environmental agencies, emergency planning commit-
tees, the Federal Government and other regulatory
groups. Another important user group is likely to  be
concerned citizens who, on their own or through public
interest groups and  public libraries, can use TRI  to ask
questions about chemical releases  in their communi-
ties.

Keywords:  'Data file,  'Toxic  substances,  'Environ-
mental  surveys, Magnetic tapes, Information systems,
Chemical compounds, Pollution  regulations, Super-
fund,  Public  information,  Management  planning,
'Toxic  Release  Inventory, Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act, Emission inventories.
PB91-507541/REB                       CP D02
Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model,  Version
1.1 (for Microcomputers). Software.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Sep 90,1 diskette EPA/SW/DK-91 /081
System: IBM PC; DOS  2.0 operating system, 512K.
Language C.
The software is contained on one 360K, 51/4  inch dis-
kette, double density. File format: ASCII. Documenta-
tion included;  may be  ordered separately as PB91-
167718.

The Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model is an aid
for local and state agencies in estimating landfill air
emission rates for nonmethane organic compounds
and individual air toxics. The program will also be help-
ful to landfill owners and operators affected by by the
upcoming New Source Performance Standard (NSPS)
and Emission  Guidelines for  Municipal Solid Waste
Landfill Air Emissions.  The model is based  on  the
Scholl Canyon Gas Generation Model, used in devel-
opment of the  soon-to-be-proposed regulation  for
landfill air emissions. The Scholl Canyon Model is a
first order decay equation that uses site-specific char-
acteristics for  estimating the gas generation rate. In
the  absence of  site-specific data, the program pro-
vides conservative default values from the sqon-to-be-
proposed NSPS for new landfills and emission guide-
lines for existing landfills. These default values may be
revised based on future information collected by the
Environmental Protection Agency.

Keywords: 'Earth fills, 'Software, 'Air pollution stand-
ards, 'Computerized simulation, Pollution regulations,
Diskettes,   New  Source  Performance  Standards,
Guidelines,           State           government,
Concentration(Composition),  Toxic substances, Non-
methane hydrocarbons, Waste disposal, Site surveys,
Study estimates, 'Landfill Air Emissions Estimation
Model.
PB91-780163/REB           PCS28.75/MFS10.00
Field Citations Training: Instructor's Manual.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Underground Storage Tanks.
Feb 91,153p EPA/530/UST-91 /015
See also PB91-780171.

The manual is designed to be used as part of an over-
all inspector training course or as a stand alone train-
ing on field citation techniques. It contains a basic out-
line for the material to be covered in the course, specif-
ic  instructions for class activities which will reinforce
the training concepts  and encourage class  participa-
tion,  hard copies of hand-puts for the class, and sug-
gestions for program-specific materials that could be
developed at the state or local level.

Keywords: 'Inspection, 'Instructors, 'Environmental
protection,  'Personnel  development,  Specialized
training, Institutional facilities,  Pollution  regulations.
Education,  Implementation,  Administrative  proce-
dures, Law enforcement. Notice of probable violation,
Decision making, 'Training manuals, 'Field citation
program.
PB91-780171/REB           PC$21.25/MF$10.00
Field Citations Training: Student's Manual.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Underground Storage Tanks.
Feb 91, 54p EPA/530/UST-91 /016
See also PB91-780163.

The Student's Manual is designed to be used as part
of an  overall inspector training course or as a stand
alone  training manual on field citation techniques. The
training course covers the steps involved in designing,
setting up and implementing a field citation program.

Keywords:  'Inspection,   'Personnel  development,
'Students, 'Environmental protection, Pollution regu-
lations, Education, Design criteria,  Implementation,
Administrative procedures,  Law enforcement, Notice
of probable violation, Decision making, Institutional fa-
cilities, Specialized training, 'Training manuals, 'Field
citation program.
PB91-921200/REB                Standing Order
Superfund Technical Publication. Irregular repts.
Enyironmental  Protection  Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
1991,1p*
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (U.S., Canada, and Mexico $500; all
others $1000). Single copies also available in paper
copy or microfiche.

The Technical Publications are users manuals, annual
reports,  study summaries, guidance documents, re-
sponses to directives and technology documents.

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Waste treatment,
Manuals,  Abstracts, Instructions, Technical  assist-
ance, Directories, Periodicals, 'Superfund.
PB91-921207/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Superfund: Focusing on the Nation at Large. A
Decade of Progress at National  Priorities List
Sites.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Sep 90,103p* EPA/540/8-90/009
Supersedes PB91-921202. See  also PB91-921209
through PB91-921258.
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $200 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $400). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The publication summarizes the progress made in haz-
ardous site clean-up of sites on the  National Priorities
List (NPL). It also provides a state-by-state summary of
422  improved  sites.  'Superfund: Focusing  on  the
Nation at Large' is supplemented by  individual State
books which contain detailed information on all 1,236
NPL sites.
Keywords: 'Superfund,  'Hazardous materials, 'Re-
medial action, 'Pollution control, Site surveys, Public
opinion,  Industrial plants, National government, Long
term effects, Performance standards. Environmental
effects,  Risk  assessment,  'National  Priorities  List,
'Cleanup.
PB91-921209/REB                Standing Order
National Priorities List Sites.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
1990,50 issues
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $200 U.S., Canada
and Mexico; all others $400). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

Together with the  companion National Overview
volume this publication  provides general Superfund
background information and descriptions of activities
at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The
document  is intended to clearly describe what the
problems are, what EPA and others participating in site
cleanups are  doing, and how the Nation can move
ahead in solving these serious problems. The State
volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each
State site being cleaned up under the Superfund pro-
gram.
   Alabama. 1990, 56p PC A04/MF A01   PB91-
      921209/REB
   Alaska. 1990, 42p PC A03/MF A01   PB91-
      921210/REB
   Arizona and Nevada. 1990, 59p PC A04/MF A01
      PB91-921211/REB
   Arkansas. 1990, 53p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921212/REB
   California. 1990,222p PC A10/MF A02  PB91-
      921213/REB
   Colorado. 1990, 70p PC A04/MFA01  PB91-
      921214/REB
   Connecticut. 1990, 59p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921215/REB
   Delaware. 1990, 75p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921216/REB
   Florida. 1990,147p PC A07/MF A01  PB91-
      921217/REB
   Georgia. 1990, 59p PC A04/MF A01   PB91-
      921218/REB
   Hawaii. 1990,43p PC A03/MF A01   PB91-
      921219/REB
   Idaho. 1990, 50p PC A03/MF A01   PB91-
      921220/REB
   Illinois. 1990,111pPC A06/MFA01   PB91-
      921221/REB
   Indiana. 1990,108p PC A06/MFA01   PB91-
      921222/REB
   Iowa. 1990, 75p PC A04/MF A01   PB91-921223/
      REB
   Kansas. 1990,53p PC A04/MF A01   PB91-
      921224/REB
   Kentucky. 1990,66p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921225/REB
   Louisiana. 1990,53p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921226/REB
   Maine. 1990,49p PC A03/MF A01    PB91-
      921227/REB
   Maryland. 1990,55p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921228/REB
   Massachusetts. 1990,90p PC A05/MF A01
      PB91-921229/REB
   Michigan. 1990,202p PC A10/MF A02  PB91-
      921230/REB
   Minnesota. 1990,122p PC A06/MF A01  PB91-
      921231/REB
   Mississippi. 1990,35p PC A03/MF A01  PB91-
      921232/REB
   Missouri. 1990,82p PC A05/MF A01  PB91-
      921233/REB
   Montana. 1990,54p PC A04/MF A01   PB91-
      921234/REB
   New Jersey. 1990,276p PC A13/MF A02  PB91-
      921235/REB
   Nebraska. 1990,43p PC A03/MF A01  PB91-
      921236/REB
   New Hampshire. 1990,65p PC A04/MF A01
      PB91-921237/REB
   New Mexico. 1990,51 p PC A04/MFA01  PB91-
      921238/REB
   New York. 1990,209p PC A10/MF A02  PB91-
      921239/REB
   North Carolina.  1990,78p PC A05/MF A01
      PB91-921240/REB
   North and South Dakota. 1990,42p PC A03/MF
      A01   PB91-921241/REB
                                                                                                                              Sept 1991     79

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
   Ohio. 1990,100p PC A05/MFA01  PB91-
      921242/REB
   Oklahoma. 1990,51 p PC A04/MF A01   PB91-
      921243/REB
   Oregon. 1990,46p PC A03/MF A01  PB91-
      921244/REB
   Pennsylvania. 1990,245p PC A11 /MF A02
      PB91-921245/REB
   Rhode Island. 1990,54p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921246/REB
   South Carolina. 1990,78p PC A05/MF A01
      PB91-921247/REB
   Tennessee. 1990,61p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921248/REB
   Texas. 1990,92p PC A05/MFA01  PB91-
      921249/REB
   Utah. 1990,54p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-921250/
      REB
   Vermont 1990,45p PC A03/MF A01  PB91-
      921251/REB
   Virginia 1990, 75p PC A04/MF A01  PB91-
      921252/REB
   Washington.  1990,130p PC A07/MF A01  PB91-
      921253/REB
   West Virginia. 1990,39p PC A03/MF A01  PB91-
      921254/REB
   Wisconsin. 1990,117p PC A06/MF A01   PB91-
      921255/REB
   Wyoming. 1990,35p PC A03/MF A01   PB91-
      921256/REB
   Puerto Rico. 1990,47p PC A03/MF A01   PB91-
      921257/REB
   American Samoa, Guam and Trust Territories.
      1990,36pPCA03/MFA01   PB91-921258/
      REB
PB91-921259/REB               PC A11/MF A02
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Analysis of State Superfund Programs: 50-State
Study, 1990 Update.
Environmental Law Inst., Washington, DC.
Sep 90,226p EPA/540/8-91 /002
Contract EPA-68-W8-0098
See also PB90-272733. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Emer-
gency and Remedial Response.
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $200 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $400). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

Updates a study initially conducted in 1989 by the En-
vironmental Law Institute for OERR. The study exam-
ines site cleanup capabilities in all 50 States and pro-
vides  descriptions of statutes, program organization,
funding and cleanup procedures. This revised version
also contains an analysis of political subdivision in-
volvement in the cleanup process. The report provides
detailed information for each State in a 'State Summa-
ries' chapter and in 50-State tables that facilitate com-
parisons between States.

Keywords: 'Superfund,  'State programs, 'Remedial
action, 'Hazardous materials, 'Waste management.
Revisions, States(United States), Tab)es(Data), Waste
disposal, Comprehensive planning, Law enforcement,
Compliance  standards.  Financing, 'Remedial  re-
sponse, 'US EPA Regions 1-10, Cleanup operations,
National Priorities List, Potentially responsible parties,
Cooperative agreements. Community relations.
PB91-921260/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Superfund Emergency Response Actions: A Sum-
mary of  Federally Funded  Removals.  Fourth
Annual Report - Fiscal Year 1989.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Sep 90,130p* EPA/540/8-90/014, EPA/9360.6-05
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $200 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $400). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

Summarizes short-term actions (removals) undertaken
by EPA and the  U.S. Coast Guard in response to haz-
ardous substance Incidents. The documents present
an historical perspective of  the program and summa-
rize removal actions taken.

Keywords: 'Superfund,  'Emergency planning,  'Haz-
ardous materials, 'Waste management, Site charac-
terization,  National government. State  government,
Local government Oil spills. Land pollution, Historical
aspects, Remedial action, Tables(Data), 'Remedial re-
sponse,  Cleanup operations,  Cooperation  agree-
ments, US EPA Regions 1-10, National Priorities List.
PB91-921300/REB                Standing Order
Superfund Fact  Sheet and Directives. Irregular
repts.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
1991,1p*
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (U.S., Canada, and Mexico $150; all
others $300). Also available individually in paper copy
or microfiche.

The fact sheets are brief descriptions of hazardous
waste issues written for public understanding or sum-
maries of technology and technical reports. Directives
contain policy decisions for EPA regional managers.

Keywords: 'Government policies, 'Hazardous  materi-
als, Abstracts, Instructions, Decision making, Manag-
ers, Technical reports, 'Superfund, EPA.
PB91-921301/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Streamlining  the RI/FS for CERCLA  Municipal
Landfill Sites. Fact sheet.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Sep 90, 5p EPA/9355.3-11 /FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum  deposit  $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

Approximately 20 percent of the sites on the National
Priorities List (NPL) are municipal landfills which typi-
cally share similar characteristics. Because of the simi-
larity the Superfund Program anticipates that their re-
mediation will involve  similar waste management ap-
proaches. As stated in the National Contingency Plan,
EPA expects that containment technologies will gener-
ally be appropriate for waste that poses a relatively low
long-term threat or where treatment is impracticable
(Sec. 300.430(a)(1)(iii)(B),55FR8846(March 8, 1990)).
In addition, EPA expects  treatment to be considered
for identifiable areas of highly toxic and/or mobile ma-
terial that constitute the principal threat(s) posed by
the site (Sec. 300.430(a)(1)(iii)(A)). The similarity  in
landfill characteristics and the NCR expectations make
it possible to streamline the RI/FS for municipal land-
fills with respect to site characterization, risk assess-
ment, and the development of remedial action alterna-
tives.  The  fact sheet  outlines available streamlining
techniques for each of these three phases of an Rl/
FS. Additional information, including tools to assist in
scoping activities,  will be included  in the  document
Conducting Remedial  Investigations/Feasibility Stud-
ies for CERCLA Municipal Landfill  Sites (November
1990, Directive No. 9355.3-11). The document will be
available from the Center for Environmental Research
Information (FTS 684-7562 or 513-569-7562).

Keywords:  'Superfund, 'Waste management, 'Reme-
dial action, 'Municipal wastes, 'Earth fills, Feasibility
studies, Site surveys, Ground water. Environmental
transport. Risk assessment, Ground coyer, Leaching,
Technology utilization. Methane,  Substitutes, 'Office
of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 'Compre-
hensive Environmental Response Compensation and
Liability Act, National  Priorities List, National Contin-
gency Plan.
PB91-921302/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Closing the NPL Book under the Original MRS.
Fact sheet.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Nov 90,5p EPA/9320.7-04/FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The Fact Sheet discusses the closing of the Old NPL
under the original HRS. Since 1982, the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) has been preparing
the National Priorities List (NPL). The list informs the
public of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites that war-
rant further investigation to determine if they pose risks
to public health or the environment. Such sites are eli-
gible for long-term 'remedial action' financed under the
Trust  Fund established by the Comprehensive Envi-
ronmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Re-
authorization Act of 1986 (SARA). Sites are placed on
the NPL primarily on the basis of their scores under
EPA's Hazard Ranking System (HRS) model devel-
oped in 1982. EPA has now revised the HRS in re-
sponse to SARA. The revised HRS, which will become
effective late in February 1991,  90 days after its publi-
cation in the Federal Register, is a more comprehen-
sive and accurate scoring system  than the original
HRS and will add new types of sites to the NPL.


Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Waste management, 'Haz-
ardous materials, Pollution regulations, Site surveys,
Public information,  Remedial action,  Long term ef-
fects,  Comprehensive  planning, Risk  assessment,
'Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,
'National Priorities List,  'Hazard Ranking System.
PB91-921303/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Revised Hazard Ranking System: Background In-
formation. Fact sheet.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Nov 90,13p EPA/9320.7-03/FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The Fact Sheet discusses the Hazard Ranking System
(HRS) in response to the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The HRS is the
scoring system EPA uses to assess the relative threat
associated with the release or potential release of haz-
ardous substances from a waste site. The HRS score
is the primary criterion EPA uses to determine whether
a site should be placed on the National Priorities List
(NPL). The NPL identifies sites that warrant further in-
vestigation to determine if they  pose risks to public
health or the environment. Sites  on the NPL are eligi-
ble for long-term 'remedial action' financed under the
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensa-
tion, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended
by SARA. SARA authorizes a 'Hazardous Substances
Superfund' totalling $8.5  billion  over 5 years to pay
costs not assumed by those responsible for problems
at a site. The HRS uses data that can be collected rel-
atively quickly and inexpensively, thus allowing most
Superfund resources to be directed to remedial ac-
tions at sites on the NPL.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Hazardous materials, *On-
site investigations, 'Waste management, US EPA, Re-
visions,  Remedial action.  Risk  assessment, Public
health. Path of pollutants. Decision making, Ecosys-
tems, Air pollution. Exposure, Water pollution, Ground
water. Environmental  transport,  Surface waters, Soil
contamination,   Land  pollution, 'Hazard Ranking
System, 'Office of Solid Waste  and Emergency Re-
sponse, National Priorities List.
PB91-921304/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Exemptions from the Statutory Limits on Removal
Actions. Fact sheet.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Nov 90, 2p EPA/9360.0-12/FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The Fact Sheet summarizes two exemptions from the
statutory time and dollar limits on removal actions pro-
vided for in section 104(c) of CERCLA. The first is the
'emergency'  exemption for when a response action
isimmediately required to protect public health or wel-
fare or the environment. The second is the 'consisten-
cy' exemption for when further response actions are
appropriate and consistent.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Remedial action,  'Waste
management,  Emergency  planning,  Environmental
protection. Environmental transport, Pollution regula-
tions, Exceptions, 'Office of Solid Waste and Emer-
gency Response, 'Comprehensive Environmental Re-
sponse Compensation  and Liability  Act, Remedial re-
sponse.
80     Vol. 91, No. 3

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-921305/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Revised Hazard Ranking System: Qs and As. Fact
sheet.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Nov 90, 8p EPA/9320.7-02/FS
Paper copy available on  Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The Fact Sheet discusses U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency  (EPA) revised Hazard Ranking  System
(MRS) in response to the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act (SARA). These revised HRS Qs
and As address the SARA requirements for the revised
HRS, specific revisions to the HRS, the impact of the
revised  HRS  on the site assessment and remedial
processes, and selection of the cutoff score.

Keywords: *Superfund, 'Hazardous materials,  'Waste
management, US EPA, Site surveys, Remedial action,
Public information,  Risk assessment, Path of pollut-
ants, Environmental transport, Decision making, Revi-
sions, "Office of Solid Waste and  Emergency Re-
sponse, 'Hazard Ranking System, National Priorities
List.
PB91-921306/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Public Awareness Signs at Superfund Sites. Fact
sheet.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Oct 90,2p EPA/9375.5-10/FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The Fact Sheet is designed to inform individuals in-
volved in the Superfund program about the need to
post signs at  every Superfund  site. Superfund sites
have been and will continue to be of interest and con-
cern to people  in surrounding communities and to the
public in general. Through the posting of signs at each
site, the Superfund program can work to promote con-
tinued interaction with communities as well as assure
that  interested parties  can access  information or
report unusual or criminal activities.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Waste management,  'Haz-
ardous materials, Public information, Pollution regula-
tions,  Site surveys,  Remedial action, 'Office of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response, 'Signs.
PB91-921307/REB               PCA01/MFA01
Revised  Hazard  Ranking System: An  Improved
Tool for Screening Superfund Sites. Fact sheet.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Nov 90,4p EPA/9320.7-01 /FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The Fact Sheet discusses the revised HRS which re-
tains the same cutoff score and basic approach as the
original HRS, while incorporating SARA requirements
as well as improvements  identified as necessary  by
EPA  and the public. The revised  HRS retains the
ground water, surface water, and air pathways, drops
the direct contact  and  fire/explosion pathways, and
adds a fourth pathway, soil exposure. Several key pro-
visions of the revised HRS make it more comprehen-
sive. Other provisions make the revised HRS more ac-
curate.  The complexity and  scope  of  the issues  in-
volved in revising the HRS required EPA to get wide-
spread input. The majority of the commenters believed
that the revised HRS represented an improvement
over the original HRS. The  result is a revised HRS that
is a practical and effective tool in identifying the na-
tion's worst hazardous waste sites.

Keywords: 'Superfund,  'Hazardous materials, *On-
site investigations,  'Waste  management, US EPA, Re-
visions, Land pollution, Air pollution, Water pollution,
Decision making, Exposure, Ecosystems, Environmen-
tal transport, Path of pollutants. Soil contamination,
Risk assessment. Public health, 'Office of Solid Waste
and Emergency Response, 'Hazard Ranking System,
National Priorities List.
PB91-921308/REB               PCA01/MFA01
Long-Term  Contracting  Strategy  for Superfund.
Fact sheet.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Sep 90,4p EPA/9242.6-07/FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico;  all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency, as dis-
cussed in the Fact Sheet, has developed a Long-Term
Contracting Strategy for the Superfund program. The
Agency's objectives in developing the strategy were to
analyze  the  long-term contracting needs of the pro-
gram, and to design a portfolio of Superfund contracts
to meet those needs over the next ten years. This stra-
tegic planning effort was recommended by the 1989
Agency report on A Management Review of the Super-
fund Program.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Waste management,  'Haz-
ardous materials, 'Contract administration, Long term
effects, Flow charting, Law enforcement, Pollution reg-
ulations, Remedial action, Budgeting, State implemen-
tation plans, Regional analysis, Hazardous materials
transportation, Waste disposal,  'Office of Solid Waste
and Emergency Response, Preremedial actions.
PB91-921309/REB               PC A01/MF A01
CERCLA  Compliance  with  the RCRA Toxlcity
Characteristics (TC) Rule: Part 2. Fact sheet.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Oct 90, 5p EPA/9347.3-11 /FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The Fact Sheet discusses CERCLA remedial actions
which must comply with the requirements of the Re-
source Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when
they are determined to be applicable or relevant and
appropriate requirements (ARARs) unless a waiver is
justified. For RCRA Subtitle C hazardous  waste  re-
quirements to be applicable, the CERCLA response
action must constitute either treatment, storage, trans-
port, or disposal of a RCRA hazardous waste. There-
fore, to make determinations about the applicability or
relevance  and  appropriateness of RCRA require-
ments, site managers need to understand how to iden-
tify whether a CERCLA waste  is a RCRA hazardous
waste (including when a waste  exhibits the newly pro-
mulgated toxicity characteristics (TC)). The purpose of
the  guide, the  second dealing  with the  TC rule (s