United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of
Administration
Washington, D.C. 20460
 PB91-904202
April-June 1991
Library Systems Staff
EPA Publications
Bibliography
Quarterly Abstract
Bulletin

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                                          PB91-904202
                                        April-June 1991
EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
    QUARTERLY ABSTRACT BULLETIN
                SPONSORED BY
              Library Systems Staff
         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
              401 M Street, S.W.
             Washington, D.C. 20460

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                      FOREWORD
    le  EPA Cumulative  Bibliography, 1970-1976, published  in
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reports entered into  the NTIS collection  and published in the EPA
Publications Bibliography, Quarterly Abstract  Bulletin from  its inception
in  1977 through December 1983. This cumulated volume contains all
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                      CONTENTS

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                                    USERS'  GUIDE
   Report entries  are arranged alphanumberically by  NTIS order number—alphabetic data  precedes
   numeric.
    NTIS Order/Accession
            Number  '
   Sponsoring EPA Office •


                Title •


        Personal Author.

         Contract
         Grant Number"
             Media Code

             /
' PB85-169597/REB    PC A02/MF A01 -

. Environmental Research Lab-. Athens, GA


- PAH (Polycychc Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Uptake by Plants: Methodology
 and Initial Investigations. Clemson Univ.. SC. Dept. of Environmental .
 Systems Engineering
- J. Coates. A. W. Elzerman. and A. W. Garrison. Feb 85.  18p EPA/600/D-
 85/036 -*•	_^	^^^^
. Contract EPA-68-01-2281


. An analytical protocol was developed  that allows quantification of 16
 PAHs in grain sorghum and fescue grass. Compounds are extracted from
 the plant stem and foliage by homogenation/solication using acetonitrile
 as the primary solvent. The extract is cleaned up by solvent partitioning
 into pentane followed by absorption chromatography on silicic acid, then
 analyzed by GC-FID. This method can be used to measure  PAH concen-
 trations at the 25 micrograms/kg level in the plant.
                                                                                    NTIS Price Code
                                                                                      PC   paper copy
                                                                                      MF  - microfiche
Corporate Author


Report Number
                                                                                    Keywords
                           Keywords. 'Plants (botany),  'Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons,
                           •Environmental surveys, 'Chemical analysis. Vegetation, Extration, Sam-
                           pling. Field tests. Concentration (Composition), Gas chromatography,
                           'Organic materials. Natural emissions.
Index entries  are  arranged  alphanumerically. Titles are included  in  all  indexes except
Contract/Grant  Number  Index.  Sample entries for each index follow:
            Title: Reports are  listed alphabetical-
              ly by  title; A, An, and The at the
              beginning of  a title  are ignored  in
              alphabetizing.
                             PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
                             Uptake by Plants: Methodology and Ini-
                             tial Investigations
                               PB85-169S97/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Keyword: Entries are sequenced by
              major subject term, second paired
              term, and NTIS order number.
                             Plants (Botany)
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
                               Uptake by Plants: Methodology and Ini-
                               tial Investigations
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Sponsoring EPA  Office:  Publications
              are sorted alphabetically by  title
              under the sponsoring EPA office. The
              EPA office is listed alphabetically
              beginning with the major EPA Head-
              quarters Office. Laboratories  and
              Divisions are listed alphabetically
              within the appropriate office.
                             Environmental Research Lab., Athens,
                             GA
                               EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic
                               Hydrocarbons) Uptake
                               by Plants:  Methodology
                               and Initial Investigations
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Corporate  Author: Entries are se-
              quenced by corporate author name,
              report number, and NTIS order number.
              The monitor agency number is given
              following the report title.
                             Clemson Univ., SC, Dept.of Environmen-
                             tal Systems Engineering
                               EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar-
                               bons) Uptake by Plants: Methodology
                               and Initial Investigations
                               EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Personal Author. Entries are sequenced
              by personal author, report  title, and
              NTIS order number.
                             J. Coates, A. W. Elzerman and
                             A. W. Garrison
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic
                               Hydrocarbons) Uptake
                               by Plants:  Methodology
                               PB8S-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            Contract/Grant Number: Entries are
              sequenced by contract or grant num-
              ber, corporate author, and NTIS order
              number.
                             EPA-68-01-2281
                               Clemson Univ., SC, Dept. of
                               Environmental Systems Engineering
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
            NTIS Order/Report Number: Entries
              are sequenced by NTIS order, report,
              or monitor agency number.
                             EPA/600/D-85/036
                               PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic
                               Hydrocarbons) Uptake
                               by Plants:  Methodology
                               PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01

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EPA   PUBLICATIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Quarterly Abstract Bulletin
   The full bibliographic report entries in this section are arranged alphanumerically by
   NTIS order number. Alphabetic data precedes numeric.
THE THREE LETTERS AT THE END OF THE NTIS ORDER NUMBERS HAVE BEEN PLACED THERE TO HELP
NTIS DETERMINE THE MOST EFFECTIVE MEDIA IN BRINGING VARIOUS TYPES OF INFORMATION TO
READERS' ATTENTION.

PLEASE DO USE THE MEDIA CODES AT THE ENDS OF THE ORDER NUMBERS WHEN ORDERING. THE
INFORMATION THEY PROVIDE IS VERY HELPFUL TO NTIS.
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               NTIS Order Number/Media
                     Code Price Codes

                          Report Title
                      Corporate Author

                      Personal Authors
                              Date
                             Pages
                       Report Number

                      Contract Number

                            Abstract
          Keywords (Descriptors & Identifiers)
                                      PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01
PAH (Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hyrdocarbons) Uptake by Plants:
Methodology and Initial Investigations

Clemson Univ., SC, Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

COATHES J., ELZERMAN A. W. and GARRISON A. W.
February 85
18p
EPA/600/D-85/036

EPA-68-01-2281

An analytical protocol was developed that allows quantification
of 16 PAHs in grain sorghum and fescue grass. Compounds are
extracted from the plant stem and foliage by homogenation/so-
lication using acetonitrile as the primary solvent. The extract
is cleaned up by solvent partitioning into pentane followed  by
absorption chromatography on silicic acid, then analyzed by GC-
FID. This method can be used to measure PAH concentrations
at the 25 micrograms/kg level in the plant.

"Plants (botany, 'Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, Environ-
mental surveys, "Chemical analysis, Vegetation, Extration,
Sampling, Field tests, Concentration (Composition), Gas chrom-
atography, "Organic materials. Natural emissions.
                                                VI

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                           EPA   PUBLICATIONS   BIBLIOGRAPHY
                                       Quarterly   Abstract  Bulletin
PB90-274531/REB               PCA11/MFA02
CERCLA Site  Discharges to POTWs:  Guidance
Manual.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Aug 90, 226p EPA/540/G-90/005
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The purpose of the guidance manual is to provide the
current regulatory framework and technical and admin-
istrative  guidance that is necessary tot a  Feasability
Study (FS) evaluating the remedial alternative of dis-
charging wastes from Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
sites to POTWs. The remedial alternative is to be eval-
uated and compared to other alternatives developed in
the FS. The POTW discharge alternative consists of
discharging untreated or pretreated wastes to a POTW
for  treatment  and disposal. Aqueous  wastes from
CERCLA sites can constitute a majority of waste treat-
ed during remedial clean-up efforts. These wastes can
include  groundwater,  leachate, surface runoff,  and
other aqueous wastes.

Keywords: 'Water pollution,  'Ground water, 'Water
treatment, 'Waste water disposal,  'Industrial waste
treatment,  'Remedial  actions, 'Sewage  treatment
plants, Manuals, Guidelines, Feasability, Regulations,
'Site discharges, CERCLA(Comprehensive Environ-
mental  Response Compensation  and  Liability Act),
POTW(Publicly Owned Treatment Works), Case stud-
PB91-110528/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Pesticide Fact Sheet No. 217: 'Gliocladium vlrens'
GL-21.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
Nov 90,6p EPA/540/FS-91 /118

The document  contains up-to-date chemical informa-
tion, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory
position and rationale,  on the pesticide, Gliocladium
Viriens GL-21. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the
following actions has occurred: Issuance or reissuance
of a registration standard, Issuance of each special
review document,  Registration  of a  significantly
changed use pattern, Registration of a new chemical,
or An  immediate need for information to resolve con-
troversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use
pattern.

Keywords: "Pesticides,  'Fungicides, Hazardous mate-
rials. Chemical properties. Regulations, Ecology, Toxi-
cology,  Agricultural  products,  'Toxic  substances,
'Gliocladium virens GL-21, Path of pollutants. Chemi-
cal information fact sheet, Use patterns.
PB91-110536/BEB               PC A02/MF A01
Pesticide  Fact Sheet Number 218: Trichoderma
harzlanum' Rifai Strain KRL-AG2.
Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
Nov 90,6p EPA/540/FS-91 /I19

The document contains up-to-date chemical informa-
tion, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory
position and rationale,  on the pesticide, Trichodema
harzianum. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the fol-
lowing actions has occurred: Issuance or reissuance of
a  registration standard. Issuance  of  each special
review document.  Registration  of a  significantly
changed use pattern, Registration of a new chemical,
or An immediate need for information to resolve con-
troversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use
pattern.

Keywords: 'Pesticides,  'Fungicides, Hazardous mate-
rials, Chemical properties. Regulations. Ecology, Toxi-
cology, Agricultural products, 'Toxic substances, 'Tri-
choderma  harzianum Rifai Strain KRL-AG2, Path of
pollutants,  Chemical information fact sheet, Use pat-
terns.
PB91-129155/REB              PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Mutagenic  Activity of  Paniculate  Matter  from
Wood Smoke. Symposium paper.
NSI Technology Services  Corp., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
T. E. Kleindienst, D. F. Smith, E. E. Hudgens, E. Perry,
and L. T. Cupitt. 1990,10p EPA/600/D-90/175
Contract EPA-68-02-4443
Presented at  American  Association for  Aerosol Re-
search Annual Meeting on  Atmospheric Aerosols and
Climatic Effects, Philadelphia, PA., June  18-22,  1990.
Prepared in cooperation with Environmental Health
Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park,
NC. Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,
Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research
and Exposure Assessment Lab.

The formation of mutagenic products through combus-
tion and by atmospheric processes has become an
area of increased interest. Experiments  were per-
formed to examine the effect  oxidation  processes
have on the mutagenicity  from compounds found in
the paniculate phase from wood combustion  emis-
sions. Experiments were carried out in  a 22.7  cu m
Teflon  environmental chamber. Two types of experi-
ments were performed, (1) wood smoke irradiations in
the presence of nitrogen oxides which are representa-
tive of the types of oxidation expected to occur  under
daytime conditions; (2) wood smoke oxidation by the
nitrate  radical (NO3) representative  of processes ex-
pected to occur under nighttime conditions. The panic-
ulate matter from the oxidized and non-oxidized mix-
tures were collected on Teflon-impregnated glass fiber
filters. Extractable organic mass was then recovered
from the filters and tested for mutagenic activity using
the Ames  Test  bacteria Salmonella  typhimurium
strains TA100 and TA98.

Keywords: 'Smoke, 'Toxicity, 'Wood,  'Air pollution,
Oxidation, Combustion,  Salmonella typhimurium, Ni-
trogen oxides, Irradiation, 'Mutagenicity tests, Particu-
lates, Dose-response relationships.
 PB91-129205/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab.,  Ada,
 OK.
 Total Organic Carbon Determinations in  Natural
 and Contaminated Aquifer Materials, Relevance
 and Measurement Symposium paper.
 NSI Technology Services Corp., Ada, OK.
 R. M. Powell. 1990,14p EPA/600/D-90/159
 Contract EPA-68-C8-0025
 Pub. in Ground Water Management, n2 p1245-1258.
 Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research
 Lab., Ada, OK.

 Quantifying the total organic carbon (TOC) content of
 soils and aquifer materials is essential for understand-
 ing subsurface chemistry  during environmental site
 characterization. Contaminant fate and transport, mi-
 crobial ecology, and effective treatment methodology
 are all influenced by the quantity of both naturally oc-
 curring and  anthropogenic organic  carbon present.
 Unfortunately, the determination both in natural and
 contaminated settings is complicated by many factors.
 These include the system chemistry and heterogene-
 ity, sampling methodology,  and analytical limitations.
 Accurate determination becomes increasingly difficult
 as the total carbon (TC):TOC ratio increases, due to
 carbonate components of the TC and the difficulty of
 removing them without affecting the TOC. Interlabora-
tory data shows variations of 39% between laborato-
ries analyzing the same sample, even with appropriate
pretreatment. Further errors occur, enhanced by the
limited sample sizes used in most instruments, when
widely dispersed  or  heterogeneously  distributed
carbon particles are present. Additional complexity is
introduced when the  sample  is from the saturated
zone  and  contaminated with  volatile organic com-
pounds (VOCs). This is  illustrated by data from the
aviation gasoline and JP-4 jet fuel spills at the Traverse
City Coast Guard Air Station bioremediation projects.
Carbonate removal is impossible in this case and re-
quires a separate  determination, doubling the TOC
measurement inaccuracy. This, combined with vola-
tiles losses during handling and potential transport of
unreacted  volatiles through the instrument, results in
observed coefficients of variation of 52%, with values
73% lower than a gas chromatographic (GC) method.
Standardizing TOC determinations of subsurface ma-
terials, from both the saturated and unsaturated zones,
must  be accomplished for consistent interlaboratory
results. Standard reference aquifer materials are nec-
essary. Attempts  to increase  sample integrity, from
field collection to  analysis, particularly with volatile
contaminants present, are needed An  instrument
design prototype that should be useful for water-satu-
rated, volatiles contaminated aquifer materials  is pre-
sented. Cooperation between field investigators, ana-
lysts,  and instrument manufacturers will be required to
improve data quality and usefulness.

Keywords: 'Soil analysis, 'Aquifers, Chemical  analy-
sis,  Measuring  instruments,  Hazardous  materials,
Ground water, Gas chromatography, Mass spectros-
copy, Reprints, 'Total organic carbon,  'Water pollu-
tion sampling, 'Water pollution detection. Site charac-
terization,  Organic matter,  Volatile  organic  com-
pounds, Environmental transport.
 PB91-129742/REB              PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 Development of Sampling Methodology for Dilu-
 tion Air Sampling of Condensible Emissions from
 Stationary Sources. Summary rept.
 Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL.
 W. E. Farthing, and T. E. Ward.  Dec 90, 50p EPA/600/
 3-90/093
 Contract EPA-68-02-4442
 Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
 Exposure Assessment Lab.

 The report describes the initial  development of a tech-
 nique using dilution of stack gas with conditioned am-
 bient air for measurement of the paniculate mass of
 condensible emissions from stationary  sources. The
 methodology developed is designed for widespread
 application to measure  emissions which are  in the
 vapor phase at temperatures greater than that of the
 Method 5 filter and which immediately condense to the
 particulate phase upon mixing in a temperature-con-
 trolled chamber with air that has been cooled, dried,
 and filtered. The front half of the condensibles air dilu-
 tion train (CADT)  is a Method  5 probe and filter. The
 promulgated EPA Method 17  or the PM-10 methods
 (with a glass-lined probe) could be used for the CADT
 front half. The portion of the train for collection of cpn-
 densibles (back half)  includes a dilution air injection
 cone and a mixing chamber followed by a separate
 filter for condensibles. The temperature selected for
 the separate filter for condensibles is 20 C, and the di-
 lution factor is 15:1 on a volume basis, high enough to
 prevent condensation of moisture. In the field testing,
 the stack gas  condensible emission concentrations
 measured by the CADT ranged from 25.2 to 27.6 mg/
 dscm, and the average difference between the CADT
 and the impinger catch (1C) approach was 2%.
                                                                                                                                              1

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords: 'Condensates, 'Flue gases, Dilution, Air fil-
ters, Gas injection.  Field tests. Air pollution control
equipment, *Air pollution sampling, 'Particulates, Lab-
oratory tests. Stationary sources.
PB91-129759/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
URrox International  Ultraviolet Radiation/Oxida-
tion Technology: Applications Analysis Report
PRC Environmental Management, Inc., Chicago, IL.
G. Welshans, K. Topudurti, B. Sootkoos, and S.
Weinberg. Sep 90,79p EPA/540/A5-89/012
Contract EPA-68-03-3484
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen-
cy's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evalua-
tion (SITE) Program, the report evaluates both treat-
ment  efficiency and  economic cost  from the SITE
demonstration and seven case studies. The Ultrox
technology simultaneously uses ultraviolet (UV) radi-
ation, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize dis-
solved organic contaminants found in groundwater or
wastewater. Under the SITE Program, the Ultrox tech-
nology demonstration was conducted at the Lorentz
Barrel and Drum (LB&D) site, San Jose, California, in
February and March of 1989. During  the demonstra-
tion, the Ultrox system achieved volatile organic com-
pound (VOC) removals greater than 90 percent. The
majority of VOCs were removed through chemical oxi-
dation. However, stripping also contributed toward re-
moval of a few VOCs,  such as  1,1,1-trichloroethane
(1,1,1-TCA) and  1,1-dichloroethane  (1,1-DCA). The
treated groundwater met the applicable National Pol-
lutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stand-
ards for discharge into a local waterway. In addition,
there were no harmful air emissions to the atmosphere
from the Ultrox system, which is equipped with an off-
gas treatment unit.

Keywords: 'Water treatment, 'Waste water, 'Ground
water,  Organic wastes. Ultraviolet  radiation. Field
tests. Ozone, Hydrogen peroxide. Oxidation,  ' Ultrox
technology,  'Technology  assessment,  'Remedial
action,    'Syperfund,    Volatile    matter,    San
Jose(Califomia)
PB91-129817/REB               PC A04/MF A01
SoHditech, Inc. Solidification/Stabilization Proc-
ess: Applications Analysis Report
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
W. E. Grube. Sep 90,59p* EPA/540/A5-S9/005

The Soliditech process mixes and chemically treats
waste material with Urrichem (a  proprietary reagent),
additives, pozzolanic materials or cement, and water,
in aten-cubic yard batch concrete mixer to form a more
stable material. This technology was demonstrated in
December 1988 at the Imperial Oil Company/Champi-
on Chemical Company Superfund site in Morganvilte,
New Jersey. Contaminated soil, waste filter cake ma-
terial, and oily  sludge, containing  PCBs, various
metals,  and petroleum hydrocarbons were treated.
The process  was evaluated based on contaminant
mobility, measured by leaching and permeability tests;
structural and integrity of the solidified material, meas-
ured by physical,  engineering,  and  morphological
tests; and economic analysis, using cost information
supplied by Soliditech. Inc. The conclusions drawn
were: (1) process can solidify waste materials contain-
ing high oil and grease concentrations;  (2) heavy
metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc are
successfully immobilized; (3) short-term physical sta-
bility of the treated waste was high; (4) some long-term
tests of the treated wastes  indicate a potential for
physical degradation, white others indicate stability, (5)
treatment  results in a 22 percent average volume in-
crease and an average bulk density increase of 33 per-
cent and (6) the process is economical.

Keywords:  'Chemical  stabilization.  'Solidification,
Sludge. Arsenic, Zinc, Cadmium, Lead,  Economic
analysis. Sites, 'Superfund, 'Remedial action, 'Tech-
nology assessment, 'Soliditech process. Solid wastes,
Morganville(New Jersey),  Polychlorobiphenyl  com-
pounds.
PB91-130153/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Water Quality Modeling in Distribution Systems.
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
R. M. Clark. 1990, 53p EPA/600/D-90/184
Presented at  the Proceedings of the Symposium on
Water Modeling, Sponsored by the Madrid Water Utili-
ty, Madrid, Spain, October 17,1990.

The paper reviews the  use of models for  predicting
water quality in distribution systems. Results of an  ex-
tensive field study conducted by the USEPA and North
Penn Water Authority are examined. A case study of
the  model application to a waterborne disease out-
break in Cabool, Missouri is presented. The application
and extension of the model to the South Central Con-
necticut Regional Water Authority (SCCRWA) is dis-
cussed. It may be concluded that models can be used
to predict water quality changes and human exposure
in drinking water distribution systems. Based  on field
studies, water quality can vary widely over a short time
in a given place. Tank operations can have a signifi-
cant impact on water quality.  As standards become
more stringent system design have had to be reconsid-
ered in order to meet water quality objectives.

Keywords: 'Water quality management, 'Mathemati-
cal models, 'Distribution systems, Field tests, Water
distribution. Water pollution,  Potable water, Water
treatment, Operating,  Path of pollutants, Water quality
maintenance,  Case studies, Water pollution standards,
Pollution regulations.
PB91-130195/REB               PC A18/MF A03
Emissions Testing of a Precalciner Cement Kiln at
Louisville, Nebraska.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste.
S. Garg, A. Meiners, J. Onstot, A. Romeu, and G.
Scheil. Nov 90,410p EPA/530/SW-91 /016
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The  EPA  is  developing regulations to control emis-
sions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs)
from cement kilns. The emission parameters planned
for use in this regulation are total hydrocarbons (HCs)
and  carbon  monoxide (CO).  To support the use of
these parameters as surrogates for PICs, more infor-
mation from full-scale testing of dry cement kilns is
needed. As a part of this data-gathering effort a test
was  conducted at the Ash Grove Cement Company
precalciner kiln in Louisville, Nebraska.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Combustion efficien-
cy,   'Kilns,   Hazardous  materials.   Hydrocarbons,
Carbon monoxide. Cements,  Process charting,  Fuel
systems, Tables(Data),  Design criteria, Electrostatic
precipitators,   Concentration(Composition),  Quality
control,  Quality assurance, 'Air pollution sampling.
Pollution regulations, Waste utilization, Refuse derived
fuels, Louisville(Nebraska),  Pyroclone  precalciner,
Total organic carbon, Cocombustion.
PB91-130203/REB               PC A20/MF A03
Emissions Testing of a Wet Cement Kiln at Hanni-
bal, Missouri. Draft Report
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste.
S. Garg, S. Klamm, D. March, J. Onstot, and A. Romeu.
Dec 90,466p EPA/530/SW-91 /017
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The  EPA is developing regulations to control  emis-
sions of products of incomplete combustion  (PICs)
from cement kilns. The emission parameters planned
for use in  this regulation are total hydrocarbons and
carbon monoxide. To investigate the use of these pa-
rameters as surrogates for PICs, more  information
from full-scale testing of wet cement kilns is needed.
Data are also needed for development of regulations
to control emissions of hydrogen chloride. As part  of
this data-gathering effort, a test was conducted at the
Continental Cement Company in Hannibal, MO. One
reason that Continental was selected by EPA for the
test is that the facility uses a wet process kiln and also
burns  both liquid and solid (powdered) hazardous
waste as supplementary fuels in the kiln. All test activi-
ties were conducted for and under the direction  of
EPA/OSW, Waste Treatment Branch.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Kilns, 'Combustion
efficiency.   Hazardous   materials,   Hydrocarbons,
Carbon monoxide. Hydrogen chloride. Cements, Proc-
ess charting, Fuel systems, Tables(Data), Design crite-
ria, Concentration(Composition), Quality control. Qual-
ity assurance, 'Air pollution sampling, Pollution regula-
tions,  Waste  utilization,  Refuse   derived  fuels,
Hannibal(Missouri),  Wet  methods.  Total  organic
carbon, Cocombustion.
PB91-130211/REB               PC A03/MF A01
State Authorization Manual. Volume 1.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Solid Waste.
S. Brugler-Jones. Oct90, 50p EPA/530/SW-91/018A,
OSWER DIRECTIVE-9540.00-9A
See also PB91-130229.

The State Authorization Manual (SAM) (Vol. I) provides
guidance for States applying for program revisions to
their authorized RCRA State program. The SAM is an
updated version of the 1988 State Consolidated RCRA
Authorization Manual (SCRAM). It focuses on program
revision applications rather than  initial applications
since most States have received initial authorization
for the  RCRA program. The SCRAM should continue
to be used to assist States not yet authorized under
the RCRA program.

Keywords:  'Waste disposal, 'Hazardous  materials,
State government, Regulations, Documents, Revi-
PB91-130229/REB               PC A99/MF A99
State Authorization  Manual. Volume  2. Appendi-
ces.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Solid Waste
S. Brugler-Jones. Oct 90,1941 p EPA/530/SW-91 /
018B, OSWER  DIRECTIVE-9540.00-9A-1
See also PB91-130211.

The document  provides the supportive appendices for
Volume 1  of the State Authorization Manual (SAM),
which provides guidance for States applying for  pro-
gram revisions to their authorized  RCRA State  pro-
gram. Among  the appendices are: various program
checklists, lists of revision checklists by cluster, model
Federal Register Notices, guidance for State Authori-
zation Files, and guidance for using WordPerfect files
and for CFR files.

Keywords: 'Waste disposal, 'Hazardous materials.
State government, Regulations.
PB91-131227/REB               PC A12/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
User's  Guide  for the  Urban  Airshed  Model.
Volume 1. User's Manual for UAM (CB-IV).
Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, CA.
R. E. Morris, and T. C. Myers. Jun 90,272p EPA/450/
4-90/007A,, EPA/SW/MT-91/002A
Contracts EPA-68-02-4352, EPA-68D90066
See also Volume 2, PB91-131235. For system on mag-
netic tape, see PB91-505578. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle  Park,
NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

The user's guide for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) is
divided into five volumes. Volume I provides historical
background on the model and describes in general the
scientific basis for the model. It describes the structure
of the required unformatted (binary) files that are used
directly as input to UAM. The volume also presents the
formats of the output files and information on how to
run an actual UAM simulation. For those user's that al-
ready possess a UAM modeling data base or have pre-
pared inputs without the use of the standard UAM pre-
processors, the volume should serve as a self-suffi-
cient guide to running the model.

Keywords: 'User  manuals(Computer programs), Doc-
umentation, Air quality, Data base management, File
maintenance(Computers),    Computer   programs,
Concentration(Composition), Meteorological data. Pol-
lution sources. Air pollution, Atmospheric diffusion,
Photochemical reactions,  "Urban  Airshed  Model,
'Carbon-Bond  Chemical Mechanism,  Emission fac-
tors.
PB91-131235/REB               PC A22/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
        Vol.91,  No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
User's  Guide  for  the  Urban  Airshed  Model.
Volume  2. User's  Manual for the  UAM (CB-IV)
Modeling System.
Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, CA.
R. E. Morris, T. C. Myers, E. L. Carr, M. C. Causley, and
S. G. Douglas. Jun 90,504p EPA/450/4-90/007B,,
EPA/SW/MT-91 /002B
See also Volume  1, PB91-131227 and Volume 3,
PB91-131243.  For system on magnetic tape, see
PB91-505578.  Sponsored by Environmental  Protec-
tion Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air
Quality Planning and Standards.

The user's guide for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) is
divided into five volumes. Volume II describes the file
formats and software for each of the standard UAM
preprocessors  that are part of the UAM  modeling
system. The preprocessor input files are ASCII files
that are generated from raw input data (meteorologi-
cal, air quality, emissions). The preprocessor input files
are then read by individual preprocessor programs to
create the unformatted (binary) files that are read di-
rectly by the UAM. Included in the volume is an exam-
ple problem that illustrates how inputs were created
from measurement data for an application of the UAM
in Atlanta. The preprocessors available for generating
wind fields and emission inventories for the UAM  are
described separately in Volumes III and IV, respective-
ly.

Keywords: *User manuals(Computer programs), Doc-
umentation, Meteorological data, Air quality, Data base
management, File maintenance(Computers), Comput-
er programs, Concentration(Composition), Case stud-
ies, Pollution sources, Air pollution,  Tables(Data),
'Urban   Airshed   Model,   Emission    factors,
Atlanta(Georgia).
PB91-131243/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
User's  Guide for  the   Urban  Airshed  Model.
Volume 3. User's Manual for the Diagnostic Wind
Model.
Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, CA.
S. G. Douglas, R. C. Kessler, and E. L. Carr. Jun 90,
65p EPA/450/4-90/007C,, EPA/SW/MT-91/002C
Contracts EPA-68-02-4352, EPA-68D90066
See also  Volume 2, PB91-131235  and  Volume  4,
PB91-131250.  For system on magnetic  tape, see
PB91-505578.  Sponsored  by Environmental Protec-
tion Agency,  Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air
Quality Planning and Standards.

The user's guide for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) is
divided into  five volumes.  Volume III  is the user's
manual for the Diagnostic  Wind Model (DWM). The
model is a stand-alone interpolative wind model that
uses surface- and upper-level wind observations at se-
lected sites within the modeling domain of  interest to
provide hourly, gridded, three-dimensional estimates
of winds using objective techniques.  It provides one
means of formulating wind field inputs to the UAM.

Keywords: 'User manualsfComputer programs), Doc-
umentation, Air quality, Data base management. File
maintenance(Computers),    Computer    programs,
Concentration(Compositiqn),  Meteorological   data,
Wind(Meteorology), Pollution sources, Air pollution, At-
mospheric diffusion, *Urt>an Airshed Model, Diagnos-
tic Wind Model, Emission factors.
PB91-131250/REB               PC A13/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
User's  Guide  for the  Urban  Airshed  Model.
Volume 4. User's  Manual for the Emissions Pre-
processor System.
Systems Applications, Inc.. San Rafael, CA.
M. C. Causley, J.  L. Fieber, M. Jimenez, and L.
Gardner. Jun 90,285p EPA/450/4-90/007D,, EPA/
SW/MT-91/002D
Contracts EPA-68-02-4352, EPA-68D90066
See  also Volume 3, PB91-131243 and  Volume 5,
PB91-131268. For  system on magnetic tape,  see
PB91-505578. Sponsored by Environmental  Protec-
tion Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air
Quality Planning and Standards.

The user's guide for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) is
divided into five volumes. Volume IV describes in detail
the Emission Preprocessor System (EPS). The soft-
ware package is used to process anthropogenic area
and point source emissions for UAM from countywide
average total hydrocarbon, NOx, and carbon monox-
ide emissions available from national emission inven-
tories, such as the National Emissions Data System or
the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.
An appendix to the volume describes the Biogenic
Emissions Inventory System (BEIS), which can be
used to generate gridded, speciated biogenic emis-
sions. Software for merging the anthropogenic area,
mobile, and biogenic emission files into  UAM input
format is also described in the volume.

Keywords: 'User manuals(Computer programs), Doc-
umentation, Meteorological data. Air quality, Data base
management, File maintenance(Computers), Comput-
er programs,  Concentration(Composition), Pollution
sources,  Air pollution, Tables(Data), Point sources,
'Urban Airshed Model,  'Emission inventories, Emis-
sion factors.
PB91-131268/REB               PC A11/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
User's  Guide  for  the  Urban  Airshed  Model.
Volume 5. Description  and Operation of the ROM -
UAM Interface Program System.
Computer Sciences Corp., Research  Triangle  Park,
NC.
R. T. Tang, S. C. Gerry, J. S. Newsome, A. R. Van
Meter, and R. A. Wayland. Jun 90,233p EPA/450/4-
90/007E,, EPA/SW/MT-91/002E
Contract EPA-68-01 -7365
See also Volumes, PB91-131250. For system on mag-
netic tape, see PB91-505578. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Research  Triangle  Park,
NC. Atmospheric Research  and Exposure Assess-
ment Lab.

The user's guide for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) is
divided  into five volumes. Volume V  describes the
ROM-UAM interface program  system,  a  software
package that can be used  to generate UAM input files
from inputs and outputs  provided by the EPA Regional
Oxidant Model (ROM).

Keywords:  'User manualsfComputer programs),  Air
quality,     Data    base    management,    File
maintenance(Computers),    Computer   programs,
Concentration(Composition), Documentation, Meteor-
ological  data,   Pollution  sources,   Air  pollution,
Tables(Data), Computer programming, Atmospheric
diffusion, Wind(Meteorology), Case studies, 'Urban
Airshed Model,  Emission  factors,  Regional Oxidant
Model.
PB91-131300/REB               PC A10/MF A02
Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC.
National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program.
Proficiency Report.
ICF, Inc., Fairfax, VA.
Feb 91,222p EPA/520/1 -91 /002
Contract EPA-68-D90170
See also PB91-157222 and PB91-125922. Sponsored
by Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC.

The report lists those  individual contractors who have
met the requirements of the Radon Contractor Profi-
ciency (PCP) Program  as of December 15, 1990.
These requirements are designed to provide minimum
proficiency criteria for individuals who design and su-
pervise the installation of radon mitigation systems in
buildings. The RCP Program measures the proficiency
of an individual contractor, not their company. The
report provides the program requirements, RCP miti-
gation guidelines, State Radon contacts, and informa-
tion on how to use the  RCP tables.

Keywords:   'Mitigation,   'Contractor  personnel,
'Radon, Manuals, Tables(Data), Education,  Records
management, Performance testing, Standards, Occu-
pational safety, 'Proficiency report.
PB91-131672/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Oxygenated  Organic Compound Concentrations
Near a Roadway in Lithuania, SSR. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC.  Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
F. M. Black, S. B. Tejada, and L. Gage. 1989,20p
EPA/600/D-90/174
Prepared in cooperation with NSI Technology Services
Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
During the period June 1 to June 9, 1989, aldehyde
and other oxygenated organic compound concentra-
tions were examined at sites  3, 10, and 80 meters
northeast of the Vilnius-Kaunas highway in  Lithuania,
SSR by collecting 120 liter (1 L/min for 120 min) sam-
ples on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated  silica gel
cartridges acidified with hydrochloric acid. The car-
tridges were preceded in the sampling system by po-
tassium iodide-coated denuders to remove interfering
ozone from the sample stream. Collected compounds
were eluted from the cartridges with acetonitrile and
analyzed  using High Performance Liquid Chromatog-
raphy with a UV (360 nm) detector, a Zorbax ODS ana-
lytical column, and a gradient water-acetonitrile mobile
phase. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde,  and  acetone
were the most  abundant  oxygenated organic com-
pounds observed, with lesser amounts of propionalde-
hyde, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde,  valeraldehyde,
and tolualdehyde also generally observed. Formalde-
hyde concentrations ranged from 1.1 ppb (1.4 micro-
gram/cu m) to 5.7 ppb (7.0 microgram/cu m), acetal-
dehyde from 1.2 ppb (2.2 microgram/cu m) to 5.0 ppb
(9.0 microgram/cu m), and acetone from 2.3 ppb (5.4
microgram/cu m) to 6.8 ppm (16.2 microgram/cu m);
the concentrations varied  with  wind  direction and
speed, and distance from the highway.

Keywords: 'Formaldehyde, 'Acetaldehyde, 'Acetone,
'Aldehydes,  'Vehicular traffic.  Highways,  Lithuania,
Field tests, Wind velocity, Wind direction, 'Air pollution
monitoring. Liquid chromatography.
PB91-131987/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
Hazardous  Substances  in  Our  Environment: A
Citizen's Guide to Understanding Health  Risks
and Reducing Exposure. Final rept.
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
W. H. Desvousges, J. A. Mauskopf, and A. Forrest.
Sep 90,137p EPA/230/9-90/081
Sponsored   by  Environmental Protection  Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Policy, Planning and Eval-
uation.

The publication, 'Hazardous Substances  in Our Envi-
ronment', is aimed at the aware citizen who is already
concerned about an environmental issue and wants to
know more. The first part explains how risk is estimat-
ed and what is being done or can be done to reduce
exposures. The rest lists additional sources of informa-
tion.

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Public health, 'Pol-
lution control.  Guidelines,  Identifying,  Communities,
Legislation,  Accidents,  Exposure,  Risk,   Dosage,
Humans, Estimates, Government policies, Education,
Cleanup.
PB91-132118/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Statistical  Properties  of Designs for Sampling
Continuous Functions in Two Dimensions Using a
Triangular Grid. Technical rept.
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Statistics.
W. S. Overton, and S. V. Stehman. Aug 90,39p EPA/
600/3-90/095
Prepared in cooperation with State Univ. of New York
Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syra-
cuse. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research
Lab., OR.

The proposed monitoring design involves sampling re-
sources systematically via a triangular grid that is over-
laid on the United States. This grid is applied in differ-
ent ways to sample different types of resources.  For
continuous resources, such as extensive waterbodies,
the observations may be point measurements  of the
response variable. The specific problem investigated
in the paper is motivated by design considerations for
open-water sampling in the estuary component of the
Near Coastal resource.  Statistical properties of  two
sampling design alternatives imposed on the triangular
grid are explored, and contrasted to a third design that
does not use the grid. The three designs were evaluat-
ed on the criteria of precision and suitability of variance
estimation, by a mixture  of analysis and simulation.
The surface models used throughout the evaluation to
explore properties of the designs were planar, quadrat-
ic, and sinusoidal.

Keywords: 'Water resources, 'Sampling, 'Statistical
analysis,  Experimental  design,  Grids(Coordinates),
                                                                                                                              June 1991

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Mathematical models, Variance(Statistics), Estimating,
Tables(Data), Environmental Protection Agency, Envi-
ronmental Monitoring and Assessment Program.


PB91-132845/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Fish Hepatocyte Model for Investigation of the Ef-
fects of Trihatomethanes, (Chapter 27).
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
S. M. Baksi. 1990,8p EPA/600/D-90/185, CONTRIB-
P08
Pub. in Water Chlonnation, v16 p341 -3461990.

Chlorination of drinking water and wastewaters results
in the formation of numerous compounds, including tri-
halomethanes (THMs). The THM  formed most  fre-
quently during the chlorination  of drinking water is
chloroform.   However,   in  coastal  areas  where
wastewaters may be introduced into a marine environ-
ment, the relative concentration  of brominated THMs
increases dramatically- The toxicity of chloroform has
been the most widely investigated of all the THMs, al-
though the  extent of its lexicological effects is  not
known. Most of this information has been determined
for mammalian species. Experimental data on the toxi-
cological effects of THMs on aquatic species are limit-
ed.  The chapter presents data on the toxicity of THMs
to isolated hepatocytes from  striped bass (Morone
saxatJKs). This test system was  chosen because the
primary target organ in chloroform toxicity is the liver.
Additionally, use of this in vitro system allows for great-
er control over the portion of the  applied dose that ac-
tually reaches the target cells,  and it is possible to
measure more than one endpoint simultaneously.

Keywords:   'Chloroform, 'Bass,  *Uver,  'Toxicity,
•Chlorination. Waste water. Potable water, Halohydro-
carbons.  Proteins. Biosynthesis, Reprints, 'Water pol-
lution effects(Animals),  Morone saxatilis.  Cultured
cells. Coastal waters.
PB91-132944/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
Human Clinical Inhalation Exposures Experimen-
tal  Design, Methodology, and  Physiological  Re-
sponses.
Environmental Monitoring and Services, Inc., Chapel
Hill, NC.
L J. Folinsbee. C1988,27p EPA/600/D-90/171
Pub. in Toxicology of the Lung, p175-199 1988. Pre-
pared in cooperation with  North Carolina  Univ. at
Chapel Hill. Dept. of Medicine. Sponsored by Health
Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

Knowledge of the effects of inhaled pollutants on man
is the underlying purpose of research in inhalation toxi-
cology. Specifically, the aims of  the chapter are to
summarize some experimental design issues, illustrate
them with  study results demonstrating the use of cer-
tain procedures, and discuss the importance of par-
ticular methodology. Several important factors in the
design and implementation of human exposure studies
have been addressed by other reviewers. It is not the
author's intent to provide a comprehensive review of
either methodology  or  the pulmonary responses of
man to air pollutants, neither of which is feasible in a
brief chapter. The results of many investigations of am-
bient or toxic air contaminants have been and will be
used in Hie establishment of air quality standards.
Therefore,  certain aspects  of experimental  design,
such as subject selection  and characterization,  de-
scription of symptoms, and details of mode of expo-
sure, require  specific attention to elucidate the rel-
evance of these studies to ambient exposure condi-
tions.

Keywords:  'Air pollution, 'Respiration, 'Physiology,
Design. Allergies, Asthma,  Exercise(Physiology),  Re-
prints,  'Toxic  substances.  Environmental exposure
pathways. Respiratory function tests, Dose-response
relationships
PB91-132951/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Transfection  of Cytochrome P450 cDNAs into
Mammalian Cells Used hi Mutation and Transfor-
mation Assays. Book chapter.
National Inst of Environmental Hearth Sciences,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Cellular and Genetic Toxi-
cology Branch.
R. Langenbach, C. Crespi, R. Davies, K. Rudo, and P.
Smith. c19«0,12p EPA/600/D-90/169
Contract EPA-68-02-4456
Pub. in Proceedings of the ICEM Meeting (5th), July
1989. Prepared in cooperation with  Environmental
Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle
Park,  NC., and Gentest Corp., Woburn, MA. Spon-
sored by Health Effects Research Lab., Research Tri-
angle Park, NC.

The present work demonstrates that cDNAs coding for
cytochrome P450  enzymes can be transfected into
mammalian cells and expressed. Two different cell
systems were used for transfection. The 10T 112 cells
can be treated with a nontransforming dose of an ini-
tiator followed by continuous treatment with a second
chemical that requires cytochrome P450 specific me-
tabolism to manifest its promoting activity. By this ap-
proach, greater insight into the role of chemical metab-
olism in the promotion process (and presumably other
nongenotoxic effects) can be  obtained. Additionally,
the role of specific cytochrome P450s in the metabo-
lism of different classes of carcinogens/drugs can be
elucidated. A  major advantage of having the metabo-
lizing enzymes actually present in the target cell is that
effects of chemicals can be studied in  long-term, low-
dose exposure protocols which will eliminate the acute
toxic effects which are associated with many current
protocols.

Keywords:  'Deoxyribonucleic  acids,  'Mutagens.
Cells(Biology), Mammals,  In vitro analysis,  Carcino-
gens,  Reprints, 'Transfection,  'Mutagenicity  tests,
 Genetic transformation, * Cytochrome P450, Cell sur-
vival,  Enzymologic gene expression regulation, Car-
cinogenicity tests.
PB91-132969/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
Synaptonemal  Complex Analysis of Mutagen Ef-
fects on Meiotic  Chromosome Structure and Be-
havior. Journal article.
Wellcome Research Labs., Research Triangle Park,
NC.
J. W. Allen, P. Poorman-Allen, L. C. Backer, B.
Westbrook-Collins, and M. J. Moses. C1990,17p EPA/
600/D-90/167
Contract EPA-68-02-4456, Grant EPA-R-812736
Pub. in Banbury Report 34: Biology  of Mammalian
Germ Cell Mutagenesis, p155-169 Aug 90. Prepared in
cooperation with Environmental Hearth Research and
Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC., and Duke
Univ.  Medical Center, Durham, NC.  Sponsored by
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.

Homologous chromosome synapsis and crossing-over
at metosis are basic to mammalian gamete develop-
ment They achieve genetic recombination, regulate
chromosome segregation, and are believed to function
in repair  and maturation. Synaptonemal complexes
(SCs) are axial correlates of meiotic chromosome biva-
lents and develop in conjunction  with homologous
chromosome  synapsis. It is shown here that various
mutagens/anti-mitotic agents-cydophosphamide (al-
kylating agent), cofchicine (anti-tubulin alkaloid), amsa-
crine or m-AMSA (topotsornerase inhibitor), bleomycin
(radkxnimetic  agent), and gamma radiation-induce di-
verse structural  and synaptic errors in SCs of treated
mice and  hamsters. Conventional types of clastogenic
effects as well as damage unique to meiotic prophase
appear to be manifested in the SC. Distinctive patterns
of damage are  associated with specific mutagemc
agents/mechanisms. Some SC aberrations are  sug-
gestive of a site specificity possibly related to crossing-
over. (Copyright  (c) 1990, Cold Spring Harbor Labora-
tory Press.)

Keywords: 'Mutagens. * Metosis, Mutations, Reprints,
'Synaptonemal  complexes,  'Chromosome aberra-
tions. Toxic  substances,  Recombination(Genetics),
Dose-response relationships.
PB91-132993/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Hearth Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
Does Chronic Ozone Exposure Lead to Lung Dis-
Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC. Center for
Extrapolation Modelling.
D. L. Costa, G. E. Hatch, and J. D. Crapo. 1990,11 p
EPA/600/D-90/168
GrantEPA-R-813113
Sponsored  by Health Effects  Research Lab.,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology
Div.

The potential role of  ozone (O3) in the induction of
chronic lung diseases remains unclear. Using an ambi-
ent profile  adopted from aerometric data from the
Southwest Air Basin, rats were exposed to O3 for up to
18 months  before assessments of pulmonary struc-
ture, function and biochemistry. Small, but significant
alterations in lung function were observed at 52 and 78
weeks of exposure which were consistent with an
overall 'restrictive' functional lesion; these effects sub-
sided  during the post-exposure in clean air. Evidence
of augmented lung permeability to  plasma proteins
and shifts in the antioxidant balance of lung tissues,
free cells and lavage fluids were consistent with chron-
ic oxidant  stress. EM-morphometry revealed alter-
ations in proximal bronchoalveolar epithelia and inter-
alveolar interstitium  which  largely  resolved  during
clean  air post-exposure. However,  fibrotic  activity
within the epithelial basement membrane and intersti-
tium persisted.  These collective  data  suggest  that
chronic exposure to O3 in an ambient exposure  pat-
tern induces alterations of lung infrastructure at  pre-
sumptive O3 deposition  sites  resulting in functional
and biochemical consequences.

Keywords: 'Ozone, 'Respiratory diseases, Rats,  Bio-
chemistry,  Blood proteins, Exposure, *Air pollution
effects(Humans), Respiratory function  tests,  Health
hazards.  Basement   membrane,   Bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid, Fibrosis.
PB91-133025/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Biological  and Chemical Methodologies for As-
sessing Human Exposure to  Airborne Mutagens
Indoors.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
H. Matsushita, S. Goto, O. Endo, M. Koyano, and K.
Tanabe. 1990,8p EPA/600/D-90/162
Presented at the International Conference on Indoor
Air Quality  and  Climate (5th), Toronto, Canada, July
29-August 3, 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Na-
tional Inst. of Public Hearth, Tokyo (Japan), and Azabu
Univ., Sagamihara (Japan). School of Veterinary Medi-
cine.

Two highly  sensitive methods have been developed
and applied to the monitoring of personal exposure to
airborne mutagens and carcinogenic  polycyclic aro-
matic hydrocarbons (PAH). The  automatic method for
PAH analysis consists of ultrasonic extraction and mul-
ticolumn HPLC/computer controlled spectrofluorome-
tric detection, by which 7 PAHs in indoor and/or per-
sonal paniculate samples  were  analyzed. Concentra-
tion of PAHs, e.g., benzo(a)pyrene, indoors increased
remarkably  by smoking in a poorly ventilated room.
The second method, an ultra microsuspension forward
mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium TM677,
is about 100 times more sensitive than the ordinary
Ames mutation bioassay. Mutagenicity of airborne par-
ticles collected by personal sampling was determined
by this method. Personal exposures to ETS were
greatest for smokers, followed by passive smokers
and lowest for nonsmokers suspension.

Keywords: 'Mutagens, 'Carcinogens, Exposure, Aro-
matic polycyclic hydrocarbons.  Salmonella typhimur-
ium. Smoke, Personnel monitoring, 'Foreign technolo-
gy, 'Indoor  air pollution, Mutagenicity tests, Air pollu-
tion  effects(Humans),  Benzo(a)pyrene,  Fluorimetry,
High pressure liquid chromatography.
PB91-133264/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Swirl Device for Regulating and Treating Com-
bined Sewer Overflows.
Foster Wheeler Boiler Corp., Livingston. NJ.
R. Field. 1977,26p* EPA/625/2-77/012
Contract EPA-68-C9-0033
Portions of this document are not fully legible. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,
OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

An intensive study to develop a new type of combined
sewer overflow regulator device, called swirl, was con-
ducted under the general supervision of the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency's Storm and Combined
Sewer Technology Program, Risk Reduction Engineer-
ing  Laboratory,  Cincinnati. Ohio. The design of this
        Vol. 91,  No. 2

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
device was based on hydraulic and mathematical mod-
eling to optimize its configuration. The report describes
the results of a full-scale prototype swirl unit that con-
trolled real overflows in the city of Syracuse, New
York, and discusses other areas of operation.

Keywords: 'Sewage  treatment, 'Prototypes, 'Over-
flows, 'Combined sewers,  Swirling, Water treatment,
Performance  evaluation,  Hydraulic models.  Storm
sewers, Outfall sewers, Waste water.
PB91-133314/REB               PC E99/MF E99
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control Options
at 200 Coal-Fired Plants.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Nov 90,2066p-in 5v
Set  includes  PB91-133322 through   PB91-133363.
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
Research Lab.

No abstract available.
PB91-133322/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control Options
at 200  Coal-Fired  Plants. Volume 1. Introduction
and Methodology. Final rept. 1985-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. Emmel, and M. Maibodi. Nov 90,98p EPA/600/7-
90/021 A
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See also Volume 2, PB91-133330. For system on dis-
kette, see PB91-506295. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air
and Energy Engineering  Research Lab.
Also available in set of 5 reports  PC E99/MF  E99,
PB91-133314.

The report gives results of a study, the objective of
which was to significantly improve engineering cost es-
timates  currently being used to evaluate the economic
effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large
SO2-emitting coal-fired  utility plants. To accomplish
the  objective,  procedures were developed and used
that account for site-specific retrofit factors. The site-
specific information was obtained from aerial photo-
graphs,  generally available data bases, and input from
utility companies. Cost estimates are presented for six
control technologies: lime/limestone flue gas desulfur-
ization, lime spray drying, coal switching and cleaning,
furnace  and duct sorbent injection,  low NOx combus-
tion  or natural gas reburn, and selective catalytic re-
duction. Although the cost estimates provide useful
site-specific cost information on retrofitting acid gas
controls, the costs are estimated for a specific  time
period and do not reflect future changes in boiler and
coal characteristics (e.g.,  capacity factors and fuel
process) or significant changes in control technology
and performance.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Retrofitting, 'Air pol-
lution economics, Site surveys, Documentation, Cost
estimates, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Combustion
products,  Performance evaluation,  Coal  preparation.
Calcium oxides. Limestone, Injection, Spray drying. Af-
terburning, Catalysis, Coal fired power plants. Flue gas
disulfurization.
PB91-133330/REB                PC A19/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Retrofit Costs for S02 and NOX Control Options
at 200 Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 2. Site Specific
Studies for Alabama,  Delaware, Florida, Georgia,
Illinois. Final rept. 1985-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. Emmel, and M. Maibodi. Nov 90,447p EPA/600/7-
90/021 B
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See  also Volume  1, PB91-133322 and  Volume 3,
PB91-133348. For system  on diskette, see  PB91-
506295.  Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC. Air and Energy
Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in set of 5 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-133314.

The report gives results of studies  pertaining to Illinois,
Alabama, Delaware, Florida, and Georgia  coal fired
power plants. The objective of which was to signifi-
cantly improve  engineering cost estimates currently
being used to evaluate the economic effects of apply-
ing SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting
coal-fired  utility plants.  To accomplish the objective,
procedures were developed and used that account for
site-specific retrofit factors.  The site-specific informa-
tion was obtained from aerial photographs, generally
available data bases, and input from utility companies.
Cost estimates  are presented for six control technol-
ogies: lime/limestone flue  gas desulfurization, lime
spray drying, coal switching and cleaning, furnace and
duct sorbent injection, low NOx combustion or natural
gas reburn, and selective catalytic reduction. Although
the cost estimates provide useful site-specific cost in-
formation  on  retrofitting acid gas controls, the costs
are estimated for a specific time period and do not re-
flect future changes in boiler and coal characteristics
(e.g.,  capacity factors and fuel process) or significant
changes in control technology and performance.

Keywords: 'Air polltipn economics, 'Air pollution con-
trol, 'Retrofitting, 'Site surveys, cost estimates, Docu-
mentation, Illinois, Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Geor-
gia, Coal preparation. Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides,
Performance evaluation, Combustion products, Calci-
um oxides, Limestone,  Injection,  Spray drying, After-
burning,  Catalysis,  Tables(Data), Coal fired power
plants, Flue gas desulfurization.
PB91-133348/REB               PC A18/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control Options
at 200  Coal-Fired Plants.  Volume 3. Site Specific
Studies for Indiana,  Kentucky,  Massachusetts,
Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota. Final rept. 1985-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. Emmel, and M. Maibodi Nov 90, 425p EPA/600/7-
90/021C
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See also Volume  2,  PB91-133330 and Volume  4,
PB91-133355. For system  on  diskette, see  PB91-
506295. Sponsored  by Environmental Protection
Agency, Research  Triangle  Park, NC. Air and Energy
Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in set  of 5 reports PC E99/MF  E99,
PB91-133314.

The report  gives results of studies pertaining to Indi-
ana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland,  Michigan,
Minnesota  coal fired power  plants. The  objective  of
which was to significantly improve engineering cost es-
timates  currently being used to evaluate the economic
effects of applying SO2 and  NOx controls at 200 large
SO2-emitting coal-fired  utility plants. To accomplish
the objective, procedures were  developed and used
that account for site-specific retrofit factors. The site-
specific information was obtained from aerial  photo-
graphs,  generally available data bases, and input from
utility companies. Cost estimates are presented for six
control technologies: lime/limestone flue gas desulfur-
ization, lime spray drying, coal switching and cleaning,
furnace and duct sorbent injection, low NOx combus-
tion or natural gas  reburn, and selective catalytic re-
duction. Although the cost  estimates  provide useful
site-specific cost information  on retrofitting acid gas
controls, the costs are estimated for a specific time
period and  do not reflect future changes  in boiler and
coal characteristics (e.g., capacity factors and fuel
process) or significant changes  in control technology
and performance.

Keywords:  'Air pollution control, 'Retrofitting, 'Site
surveys, 'Air pollution  economics, Cost estimates, In-
diana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan,
Minnesota,  Documentation,  Coal preparation, Sulfur
dioxide,  Nitrogen  oxides,  Performance evaluation,
Combustion products. Calcium oxides. Injection, Spray
drying,  Afterburning,  Catalysis, Tables(Data),  Coal
fired power  plants, Flue gas desulfurization.
PB91-133355/REB                PC A23/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control Options
at 200 Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 4. Site Specific
Studies for Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New  York, Ohio.
Final rept. 1985-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. Emmel, and M. Maibodi. Nov 90, 527p EPA/600/7-
90/021 D
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See also  Volume  3,  PB91-133348  and Volume 5,
PB91-133363. For system  on diskette, see  PB91-
506295.  Sponsored   by Environmental  Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC. Air and Energy
Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in set of 5 reports PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-133314.

The report gives results of studies pertaining to Mis-
souri, Mississippi, North  Carolina, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New York, Ohio coal fired power plants,
the objective of which was to significantly improve en-
gineering cost estimates currently being used to evalu-
ate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx
controls at 200  large  SO2-emitting  coal-fired utility
plants. To accomplish the objective, procedures were
developed and used that account for site-specific ret-
rofit factors. The site-specific information was obtained
from  aerial photographs, generally  available data
bases, and input from utility companies. Cost esti-
mates are presented for six control technologies: lime/
limestone  flue gas  desulfurization, lime spray drying,
coal switching and cleaning, furnace and duct sorbent
injection, low NOx combustion or natural gas reburn,
and selective catalytic reduction. Although the cost es-
timates provide useful site-specific cost information on
retrofitting acid gas controls, the costs are estimated
for a specific time period and do not reflect future
changes in boiler and coal characteristics (e.g., capac-
ity factors and fuel process) or significant changes in
control technology and performance.

Keywords:  'Air pollution  control, 'Retrofitting, 'Site
surveys, *Air pollution economics, Missouri, Mississip-
pi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Ohio,  Cost  estimates, Documentation, Coal
preparation, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Perform-
ance evaluation,  Combustion   products,  Calcium
oxides, Injection, Spray drying, Afterburning, Catalysis,
Tables(Data), Coal fired power plants. Flue gas desul-
furization.
PB91-133363/REB               PC A24/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control Options
at 200 Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 5. Site Specific
Studies for Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennes-
see, Virginia, Wisconsin, West  Virginia. Final rept.
1985-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. Emmel, and M. Maibodi. Nov 90, 569p EPA/600/7-
90/021 E
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See also Volume 4, PB91-133355. For system on dis-
kette, see PB91-506295. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  Air
and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Also available in set of 5 reports PC  E99/MF E99,
PB91-133314.

The report gives results of  a studies pertaining to
Pennsylvania,  South Carolina, Tennessee,  Virginia,
Wisconsin, West Virginia, coal fired power plants. The
objective of which  was to significantly improve engi-
neering  cost estimates currently being used to evalu-
ate the  economic effects of  applying SO2 and NOx
controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility
plants. To accomplish the objective, procedures were
developed and used that account for site-specific ret-
rofit factors. The site-specific information was obtained
from  aerial  photographs, generally  available data
bases, and input from utility  companies.  Cost esti-
mates are presented for six control technologies: lime/
limestone  flue gas  desulfurization, lime spray drying,
coal switching and cleaning, furnace and duct sorbent
injection, low  NOx combustion or natural gas reburn,
and selective catalytic reduction. Although the cost es-
timates provide useful site-specific cost information on
retrofitting acid gas controls, the costs are estimated
for a  specific  time period and do not reflect future
changes in boiler and coal characteristics (e.g., capac-
ity factors and fuel proces) or significant changes in
control technology and performance.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control,  'Retrofitting, 'Site
surveys, 'Air  pollution economics,  Coal fired power
plants, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vir-
ginia, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Documentation, Cost
estimates, Coal preparation, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen
oxides, Performance evaluatin, Combustion products,
Calcium oxides, Injection, Spray drying.  Catalysis,
Tables(Data),  Flue gas desulfurization.
                                                                                                                                 June  1991

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-133512/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Integrated Air Pollution Control System, Version
4.0. Volume 1. User's Guide. Final rept. Jun 89-Sep
90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. Maibodi, A. L Blackard, and R. J. Page. Dec 90,
51 p EPA/600/7-90/022A,, EPA/SW/DK-91 /074A
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See also Volume 2, PB91-133520. For system on dis-
kette, see  PB91-506469  and PB91-506477.  Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. Air  and Energy Engineering Re-
search Lab.

The  Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS)
was developed to estimate costs and performance for
emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility
boilers.  The model can project a material balance,
equipment list, capital investment and revenue require-
ments based on user-specific input data.  Included in
the model  are conventional and emerging technol-
ogies affecting SO2. NOx, and paniculate matter pre-
combustion, in-situ,  and  post-combustion  emission
controls. A variety of technology modules built into the
model can  be incorporated  and  combined. Cost and
performance estimates can be analyzed in terms of in-
tegrated  technologies.  Conventional  and emerging
technologies included in IAPCS Version 4.0 are over-
fire air/low  NOx burners, lime  injection multistage
burners, physical coal  cleaning, coal switching and
blending, spray humidification, electrostatic precipita-
tor, fabric fitter, lime spray drying, wet limestone flue
gas desutfurizatipn, dry sorbent injection,  natural gas
reburmng. selective catalytic reduction, atmospheric
fluidized bed combustion,  pressurized fluidized bed
combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle,
and pulverized coal burning boiler. The model gener-
ates capital, annualized, and unitized pollutant removal
costs in either constant or current dollars for any year.

Keywords: "Coal fired power plants, "Air pollution con-
trol  equipment,  'Cost  estimates.   Mathematical
models. User manuals(Computer programs), Particu-
lates. Sulfur  dioxide.   Nitrogen  oxides.  Stationary
sources. Combustion, Documentation,  Integrated Air
Pollution Control System.
PB91-133520/REB               PC A10/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Integrated Air Pollution  Control System, Version
4.0. Volume 2. Technical Documentation Manual.
Final rept. Jun 89-Sep 90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. Maibodi, A. L. Blackard, and R. J. Page. Dec 90,
223p EPA/600/7-90/022B,, EPA/SW/DK-91 /074B
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See  also  Volume 1, PB91-133512 and  Volume 3,
PB91 -133538. For system on diskette,  see  PB91-
506469 and  PB91-506477. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Research  Triangle Paris,
NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The Integrated  Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS)
was developed to estimate costs and performance for
emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility
boilers.  The model can project a material balance,
equipment list capital investment and revenue require-
ments based on user-specific input data.  Included in
the model are  conventional  and emerging technol-
ogies affecting SO2. NOx, and paniculate matter pre-
combustion, in-situ,  and  post-combustion  emission
controls. A variety of technology modules built into the
model can be incorporated and  combined. Cost and
performance estimates can be analyzed in terms of in-
tegrated technologies.  Conventional  and emerging
technologies included in IAPCS Version 4.0 are over-
fire air/low  NOx burners, lime injection multistage
burners, physical coal cleaning, coal  switching and
blending, spray humidification. electrostatic precipita-
tor, fabric filter, lime spray drying, wet limestone flue
gas desulfurizafion. dry sorbent injection,  natural gas
rebuming. selective  catalytic reduction, atmospheric
fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed
combustion, integrated gasification combined  cycle,
and pulverized coal burning boiler. The model gener-
ates capital, annualized, and unitized pollutant removal
costs in either constant or current dollars for any year.

Keywords: 'Coal fired power plants, 'Air pollution con-
trol  equipment,  'Cost  estimates.   Mathematical
models, Particulates, Sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen oxides,
Stationary sources. Electrostatic precipitators. Burn-
ers, Rlters, Gasification, Fluidized bed combustion. In-
tegrated Air Pollution  Control Systems,  IAPCS 4-0
computer program.
PB91-133538/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Integrated Air  Pollution  Control System, Version
4.0. Volume 3. Programmer's Maintenance Manual.
Final rept. Jun 89-Sep 90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. Maibodi, A. L. Blackard, and R. J. Page. Dec 90,
138pEPA/600/7-90/022C,,EPA/SW/DK-91/074C
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See also Volume 2, PB91-133520. For system on dis-
kette, see  PB91-506469  and PB91-506477.  Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. Air and  Energy Engineering Re-
search Lab.

The Integrated Air Pollution  Control System (IAPCS)
was developed to estimate costs and performance for
emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility
boilers.  The model can project a material balance,
equipment list, capital investment and revenue require-
ments based on user- specific input data. Included in
the model  are conventional  and  emerging technol-
ogies affecting SO2. NOx, and paniculate matter pre-
combustion, in-situ,  and  post-combustion emission
controls. A variety  of technology modules built into the
model can  be incorporated and combined. Cost and
performance estimates can be analyzed in terms of in-
tegrated  technologies. Conventional and emerging
technologies included in IAPCS Version 40 are over-
fire air/low NOx  burners, lime injection  multistage
burners, physical  coal cleaning, coal switching and
blending, spray  humidification. electrostatic precipita-
tor, fabnc filter,  lime spray drying, wet limestone flue
gas desulfurizatiqn, dry sorbent injection, natural gas
returning, selective  catalytic reduction,  atmospheric
fluidized  bed  combustion, pressurized fluidized bed
combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle,
and pulverized coal burning  boiler. The model gener-
ates capital, annualized, and unitized pollutant removal
costs in either constant or current dollars for any year.

Keywords: 'Coal fired power plants, 'Air pollution con-
trol  equipment  'Cost  estimates.   Mathematical
models, Programming manuals, Particulates, Sulfur di-
oxide. Nitrogen  oxides, Stationary sources. Combus-
tion, Documentation, Integrated Air Pollution Control
System.
PB91-136317/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Paris, NC.  Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Gas  Chrornatography/Matrix  Isolation-Infrared
Spectrometry for Air Sample Analysis.
Northrop Services, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.
J. W. Childers. Oct 90,149p EPA/600/3-90/097
Contract EPA-68-02-4444
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
Exposure Assessment Lab.

The report describes the application of gas chroma-
tography/matnx-isotation infrared (GC/MI-IR) spec-
trometry to the analysis of environmental air sample
extracts. Samples that were analyzed include extracts
from woodsmoke-impacted air,  XAD-2 blanks, indoor
air, and carpet samples. The  emphasis of the report is
on the use of GC/MI-IR to identify semivolatile organic
compounds in these extracts. The complementarity of
GC/MI-IR  spectrometry and conventional electron-
impact lonizaUon gas chromatography/mass spec-
trometry (EI-GC-MS) is illustrated.  The capability of
GC/MI-IR  to discriminate  between  isomeric  com-
pounds that are difficult to separate chromatographi-
cally and to distinguish by EI-GC/MS is demonstrated.
Preliminary results regarding the potential of GC/MI-IR
spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons in air sample extracts are pre-
sented. Problem areas and modifications of a commer-
cial GC/MI-IR system are discussed.

Keywords: 'Gas chromatography, 'Infrared spectros-
copy, 'Organic compounds,  'Vapors,  Composite ma-
terials.  Aromatic polycyclic  hydrocarbons, Infrared
spectra. Mass spectra, Air  pollution, Isomers,  'Air
samples.
PB91-136523/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Noncarcinogenic Effects of Chromium: Update to
Health Assessment Document Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Environmental Criteria  and Assessment
Office.
W. Victery, S. D. Lee, P. Mushak, and M. Piscator. Apr
90,104p EPA/600/8-87/048F, ECAO-R-0117
See also PB91-115905.

The document updates the 1984 Health Assessment
Document for Chromium by addressing issues regard-
ing noncarcinogenic health effects of chromium:  oxi-
dation states and persistence of these states in the en-
vironment, sampling and analytical methodology to dif-
ferentiate these oxidation states and amounts at sub-
microgram ambient air levels, the degree of human ex-
posure to  chromium in the environment, both short-
term and long-term, in vivo reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr
(III), and effects from environmentally relevant levels
on pulmonary function and renal function.  Trivalent
chromium  is chemically stable;  Cr (VI)  is readily re-
duced to Cr (III). Oxidation state of chromium in ambi-
ent air depends on proximity to sources emitting  one
form over  the other. Reliable monitoring methods to
speciate oxidation states at ambient air levels below 1
microgram/cu m are not available. Ambient levels of
total chromium (obtained from EPA's National Air Data
Branch) range from a high of 0.6 microgram/cu m to
below the detection limit of 0.005 microgram/cu m.
Reduction of hexavalent chromium in vivo occurs in
several organ systems and therefore, small  amounts
of inhaled  Cr (VI) will be reduced before systemic ab-
sorption can occur. Trivalent chromium is an essential
trace  metal which potentiates actions of insulin-medi-
ated glucose transport.

Keywords: 'Carcinogens,  'Toxicology,  'Chromium,
Kidney, Respiratory system, Environmental exposure
pathways,  Glucose, Chemical analysis, Quality control.
Quality assurance,  Metabolism, Teratogens, 'Health
risk assessment.
PB9M36531/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Musts for  USTs: A Summary of the Regulations
for Underground Storage  Tank  Systems.  Final
rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Underground Storage Tanks.
Jul 90,42p EPA/530/UST-88/008
Also available from Supt. of Docs. Supersedes PB89-
215180.

The booklet summarizes in laymans' terms the federal
technical requirements for Underground Storage Tank
systems.

Keywords:  'Underground storage,  'Storage tanks,
'Fuel tanks, 'Chemical compounds, "Petroleum  prod-
ucts, 'Leakage, Standards, 'Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act, 'Pollution Regulations, US  EPA,
State programs, Service stations.
PB91-136549/REB               PC A04/MF A01
User's Guide to the Personal Computer Version of
the Biogenic Emissions  Inventory System (PC-
BEIS). Final rept. Jun 89-Dec 90.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
T. Pierce. Jan 91,51 p EPA/600/8-90/084

The Personal Computer Version of the Biogenic Emis-
sions  Inventory System (PC-BEIS) has been  devel-
oped  to allow users to estimate  hourly emissions of
biogenic non-methane hydrocarbon emissions for any
county in the contiguous United States. PC-BEIS has
been compiled using Microsoft FORTRAN and tested
on IBM-compatible personal computers. The source
code was written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and should be
transportable to most other computers. Emission rates
depend on land use, leaf biomass, and emission fac-
tors. PC-BEIS also includes adjustments due to tem-
perature  and sunlight. A simple leaf  energy balance
module is included to allow more refined calculations
of leaf temperature and sunlight through forest cano-
pies. The user's guide briefly describes the technical
background,  provides an overview of computer as-
pects, and shows an example test case.

Keywords: 'Vegetation, "Trees, 'Computerized simu-
lation,  'Terpene hydrocarbons, 'Manuals, 'Emission
factors, Leaves(Botany),  Surface temperature, Sun-
6      Vol.  91, No.  2

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
light, Air pollution, United States, Rural areas, Station-
ary sources, Crops.
PB91-136556/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment U.S.
Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island,
New York.
Science Applications International Corp., Paramus,
NJ.
Jan 91,129p EPA/600/2-90/062
Contract EPA-68-C8-0061
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The report focuses on a waste minimization assess-
ment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Gover-
nors Island in New York. The assessment details both
management initiatives and technical  changes that
can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas
that were assessed were paint removal operations
using  blasting grit, buoy painting, and on-site solvent
recovery.

Keywords: 'Waste management, 'Hazardous materi-
als, US Coast Guard, Governors Island, New York, Ma-
terials recovery.  Assessments, Forms(Paper),  Paint-
ing, Paint removers, Waste disposal, Feasibility stud-
ies, 'Waste minimization, 'Source reduction.
PB91-136564/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
User's Guide to the Complex Terrain Dispersion
Model Plus  Algorithms for  Unstable Situations
(CTDMPLUS): Volume 2. The Screening  Mode
(CTSCREEN).
Computer Sciences Corp.,  Research Triangle Park,
NC.
S. G. Perry, D. J. Burns, and A. J. Cimorelli. Oct 90,71 p
EPA/600/8-90/087
Contract EPA-68-02-7365
See  also PB89-181424. Sponsored  by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. At-
mospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

The  EPA's Technology-Transfer Workgroup has de-
veloped a screening version (denoted as CTSCREEN)
of   the   Complex    Terrain   Dispersion   Model,
CTDMPLUS. CTSCREEN uses an array of predeter-
mined meteorological conditions to model the user
supplied  source-terrain  configuration.  CTSCREEN
yields estimates of  maximum 1-h, 3-h,  24-h, and
annual impacts that  are conservative with respect to
CTDMPLUS estimates using a full year of on-site data.
In comparison with other complex  terrain screening
models,  CTSCREEN  provides  estimates that most
consistently reflect those of CTDMPLUS.

Keywords: 'Air pollution. Terrain models, Meteorologi-
cal  data, User manuals(Computer  programs), Esti-
mates, "Air quality display model, 'Complex Terrain
Dispersion model, Screening(Selection).
PB91-136572/REB                PC A10/MF A02
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Projection of Response of Trees and Forests to
Acidic Deposition and Associated Pollutants.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
A. R. Kiester, E. D. Ford, A. Avery, C. Gay, and T.
Droessler. Sep 90,222p EPA/600/3-90/096
Prepared in cooperation with Forest Service, Washing-
ton, DC., and Washington Univ., Seattle. Center for
Quantitative Science. Sponsored by Corvallis Environ-
mental Research Lab., OR.

In 1986 the National Acid Precipitation Assessment
Program  (NAPAP) established the Forest Response
Program (FRP) to assess the effects of acidic deposi-
tion and  associated pollutants on forests.  Modeling
studies were developed in  parallel with both field stud-
ies on the pattern and trends of forest condition and
physiological  studies  of  seedlings,  saplings, and
branches of mature trees. The goals of the modeling
effort were to simulate the dynamics of the processes
by which acidic deposition and ozone affect tree physi-
ological processes and therefore lead to changes in
growth. Results from models of the physiological func-
tion of leaves, branches, roots, xylem, and canopies
are presented here. These models illustrate three as-
pects of  the dynamics of  these processes. First,
growth and the effects of pollutants are stochastic
processes; that is, they vary randomly over time. The
models help to account for the large amount of varia-
bility seen in normal field conditions. Second, some
physiological processes can compensate for  the ef-
fects of acidic  deposition or ozone. Third, pollutants
may have more than one effect on tree growth, and
these effects may be synergistic. The  potential nonlin-
earities and the variabilities demonstrated by these
models lead to the conclusions that forest health ef-
fects may be developing that are not yet apparent; and
for regulation of acidic  deposition and associated pol-
lutants to have a detectable effect, regulatory changes
will probably have to be of substantial magnitude.


Keywords: 'Precipitation(Meteorology), 'Acidification,
'Forest trees, Response, Plant physiology. Mathemat-
ical models, Growth, Deposition, Ozone, Morphology,
Vegetation, Dosage, Genetics, Variations, Quality as-
surance, Nutrients, Stochastic processes.
PB91-136580/REB                PC A09/MF A01
Region 10 Environmental Indicators, FY 89 Sum-
mary.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Seattle,  WA.
Region X.
R. Albright, J. Armstrong, E. Barrick, J. Cabreza, and J.
Cartin. Oct 90,182p EPA/910/9-90/018
See also report for FY 88, PB90-125360.


This is EPA Region 10's third annual summary of envi-
ronmental indicators for air, water and land media. The
Region's programs in air, water, toxics, pesticides and
hazardous waste are attempting to characterize their
progress in addressing environmental degradation via
the measures described in the report. The FY 89 report
builds  upon the FY 88 document with the addition of
(1) FY 89 data;  (2) new measures and deletions; and
(3) new programmatic areas  where indicators have
been developed, including Underground Injection Con-
trol (UIC), Accidental Releases, and Terrestrial Envi-
ronments. Each chapter includes  an introduction pro-
viding  pertinent  background information and, for each
environmental indicator.


Keywords:  'Degradation,  'Environmental  impacts,
'Pollution control, 'Management,  Project planning. Air
pollution, Water pollution, Toxicity, Pesticides, Hazard-
ous materials, Ground  water. Accidents, Standards,
Surface waters, Washington(State), Alaska,  Environ-
mental indicators, *EPA Region 10, Wetlands.
PB91-136598/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Exposure Indices Consideration for Rural Ozone
Relationships  in the United  States. Symposium
paper.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
E. H. Lee, D. T. Tingey, and W. E.  Hogsett. c1990,8p
EPA/600/D-90/192
Contract EPA-68-C8-0006
Pub. in  Proceedings of American Statistical Associa-
tion's Business  and Economic  Sections, p517-522
1990.  Sponsored  by Corvallis  Environmental  Re-
search Lab., OR.


The objective of the study is to  develop an ambient
ozone air quality indicator for examining 03 and its ef-
fects  on vegetation and  forests. The scientific  and
technical information on O3 and  its effects on vegeta-
tion and natural ecosystems indicate that a secondary
ambient air quality standard is needed that correlates
well  with both  short-  and long-term  exposures.  Air
quality analysis of hourly ozone  monitoring data from
the National Air Data Branch for  82 non-urban sites in
the United States was performed to identify the rela-
tionships of various ozone exposure indices. A three-
month maximum period between April and September
is adequate for capturing about 70% of the hourly con-
centrations of 0.06 ppm or higher. The cumulative cen-
sored indices that adequately predict crop loss  are
strongly correlated with a long-term single peak index.
These indices that integrate hourly concentrations of
0.06 (or 0.7) ppm or higher have  potential for setting a
standard that minimizes the risk of adverse effects.


Keywords: 'Ozone, 'Rural areas, 'Air pollution moni-
toring, United States,  Exposure, Standards, Applica-
tions  of  mathematics,   Air  quality,  Air  pollution
effects(Plants), Crops, Reprints.
PB91-136606/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Air Quality and Deposition (Chapter 3). Book chap-
ter.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
M. Bqhm. C1990,73pEPA/600/D-90/193
Pub. in Air Pollution and Western Forests, 1990. Pre-
pared in  cooperation with  NSI  Technology Services
Corp., Corvallis, OR.

The pollution climate of an area is influenced by mete-
orology and emissions of air pollutants at local and re-
gional scales. The physical and chemical state of the
atmosphere determines pollutant transport, dilution,
chemical transformation, and ultimately deposition. In
many cases meteorology  is more important than at-
mospheric chemistry in controlling the location and the
form in which the pollutants are  deposited. Estimating
pollutant concentrations and loading to forests in the
West requires a detailed analysis of emissions, pollut-
ant transport, dilution, chemical transformations, and
deposition processes, together  with estimates of the
relative contribution  by each depositional process to
total deposition. The first portion of the chapter exam-
ines atmospheric conditions that influence the trans-
port and deposition of pollutants and applies this infor-
mation to conditions experienced within western for-
ests. A brief discussion of the chemistry of sulfur, nitro-
gen, and ozone is included. A  glossary of technical
terms is available in Appendix II.  The second portion of
the chapter discusses air quality and wet deposition in
and around western forests. Emphasis is placed on ni-
trogen and sulfur oxides and their oxidation products.
These pollutants contribute to acid rain as well as to
other air pollution problems such as ozone and visibili-
ty reduction. All aspects of air quality are presented;
from emissions of pollutants to ambient concentra-
tions of important chemical species in gaseous, panic-
ulate matter, and precipitation forms.

Keywords: 'Sulfur oxides, "Nitrogen oxides, "Ozone,
•Forests,    'Air     pollution     effects(Plants),
Wind(Meteorology), Atmospheric circulation, Air pollu-
tion, Acid rain, Atmospheric chemistry, Reprints, West-
ern Region(United States).
PB91-136614/REB                PCA01/MFA01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
IBI: A Quantitative, Easily Communicated Assess-
ment of the Health and Complexity of Entire Fish
Communities. Symposium paper.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
R. M. Hughes. C1990, 5p EPA/600/D-90/194
Contract EPA-068-C8-0006
Pub. in Biological Report, v90 n5 p26-28 1990. Spon-
sored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Data on species and their abundances be made under-
standable to the public and to water resource regula-
tors while retaining the ecological information that is
meaningful to biologists. A recent attempt to communi-
cate such information is the Index of Biotic Integrity, or
IBI (Karr 1981; Karr et al. 1986). The IBI is a means of
quantifying ichthyologists' judgments of the relative
quality of a fish assemblage. It is based on a sample of
the entire fish assemblage, not  just game fish. The
index incorporates professional judgment of fish as-
semblage health in 12 metrics and their scoring crite-
ria, which are based on regional ideals. These regional
standards are determined from historical data and
data from minimally affected sites that characterize the
region. The individual metrics  differ in their range of
sensitivity for detecting perturbations, and a degree of
redundance  is built into the IBI because no single
metric can reliably indicate integrity.

Keywords:  'Assessments, "Health,  'Fishes, Abun-
dance, Populations, Scoring, Standards,  Sites,  Reli-
ability, Water resources, Ecosystems, Index of Biotic
Integrity, Fish assemblages.
PB91-136622/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Factors  Controlling the  Emissions  of  Monoter-
penes and Other Volatile Organic  Compounds.
Book chapter.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
D. T. Tingey, D. P. Turner, and J. A. Weber. c1990,62p
EPA/600/D-90/195
Pub. in Trace Gas Emissions from Plants', 1990. Pre-
pared in  cooperation with  NSI Technology Services
Corp., Corvallis, OR.

Plants  contain a  number  of  volatile  organic com-
pounds,  including  isoprene, mono-  and  sesquiter-
                                                                                                                                June 1991

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
penes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters. Indi-
vidual  plant species have unique combinations of
these compounds; consequently, the emission pattern
for each species is also specific. The factors control-
ling the emissions were evaluated from the literature
and with a simulation model. While unresolved ques-
tions  remain concerning  monoterpene production,
storage, and emissions, the literature and model are in
general agreement. Environmental factors influence
the rate of emission while genetic factors control the
pool  size  and types of chemicals in the  plant. The
emission of compounds stored in resin ducts of leaves
are primarily controlled by temperature, concentration
in the resin ducts,  and diffusion path from the resin
duct  to the intercellular air space, and that stomatal
conductance plays a minor role.

Keywords: 'Plant   chemistry,  *Plant  metabolism,
*Plant     genetics,     *Terpene     compounds,
Leaves(Botany), 'Volatile organic compounds. Spe-
cies specificity.
PB91-136630/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Modulation of Eicosanoid Production by Human
Alveolar Macrophages Exposed to Silica 'In vitro'.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
H. S. Koren, M. Joyce, R. B. Devlin, S. Becker, and K.
Driscoll. C1990, 30p EPA/600/D-90/196
Prepared in cooperation with North Carolina Univ. at
Chapel Hill. School of Medicine, Procter and Gamble
Co., Cincinnati, OH. Miami Valley Labs., and ABB Envi-
ronmental, Inc.. Chapel Hill, NC.

The objective of the study was to determine the eico-
sanoid production by human alveolar macrophages in
response to silica exposure in vitro and to assess their
contribution to silica-induced fibrosis  and inflamma-
tion. Macrophages were obtained from healthy volun-
teers and were incubated for 3 or 24 hours in the pres-
ence of silica (100,60, and 0 microgram/ml). Superna-
tants were removed for eicosanoid analysis. Eicosan-
oids were analyzed by both HPLC and RIA. The data
suggested that silica caused an increased release of
LTB4, LTC4/D4/E4, and 5-HETE after  3 hours; and
decreases  in PGE2 and  TXB2 production after  24
hours exposure to 100 microgram/ml silica. In addi-
tion. 12-HETE and 15-HETE production remained un-
changed  at either time point. These opposing effects
seen with the metabolites of lipoxygenase and cy-
clooxygenase pathways could contribute to silica-in-
duced fibrosis. The  pattern of eicosanoid production
after exposure to silica was different from that ob-
tained when macrophages were stimulated with LPS
for 3 or 24 hrs, indicating that the response to the parti-
cles was not just due to general cellular activation.

Keywords:  'Silicon  organic  compounds,  'Toxicity,
'Dust,  Particles, Respiration, In vitro analysis. Liquid
chromatography. Inflammation,  Lung, Humans, Labo-
ratory  animals, 'Pulmonary  alveoli, 'Macrophages,
'Eicosanoids,  Dose-response  relationships,  Bron-
choarveolar lavage fluid, Lipoxygenases, Prpstaglan-
din synthase. Cell survival, Leukotrienes, Radioimmun-
oassay.


PB91-136895/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
DMA Adducts in  Marine Mussel •Mytttus galtopro-
vindatts' Living in  Polluted and Unpolluted Envi-
ronments. Chapter 12. Book chapter.
Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX.
B. Kurelec. A. Garg, S. Krca, and R. C. Gupta. C1990,
15pEPA/600/D-90/197
Grant EPA-R813840
Pub  in Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination.
P217-227.  1990. Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
search Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

A generally applicable (32)P-postlabelmg assay was
used to examine the presence of DNA adducts in mus-
sels experimentally  exposed to known carcinogens
and in mussels collected from  sites  impacted  by
wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially
polluted with 2-aminofluorene showed exclusively one
adduct which was identified to be dG-C8-2-aminofluor-
ene. Under the same experimental conditions, Diesel-
2 oil did  not induce any detectable adducts. When
mussel digestive gland DNA was collected and ana-
lyzed from one unpolluted site, two moderately impact-
ed sites,  and one site heavily  impacted by cannery
wastewaters. mussel DNA from the unpolluted and
only one moderately polluted site snowed  the pres-
                                           ence of 6 to 10 adducts. This indicates they were not
                                           related to the pollution. This was further supported by
                                           the absence of dose-related adducts. Clear evidence
                                           for the  presence of pollution-related DNA  adducts
                                           was, however, found in juvenile mussels  collected
                                           from an oil refinery site. One major and three minor ad-
                                           ducts were detected in these mussels with no adducts
                                           detected in juvenile mussels from an unpolluted site.

                                           Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Mussels, Diesel fuels.  Environ-
                                           mental surveys.  Sea water, Carcinogens,  Reprints,
                                           'Water pollution effects(Animals), *DNA damage, *2-
                                           Aminofluorene, 'Mytilus galloprovincialis, Carcinogen-
                                           icity tests. Dose-response relationships.
                                           PB91-136903/REB                PC A04/MF A01
                                           Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
                                           Park, NC. Toxicology Branch.
                                           Toxic  Effects  of Xenobiotics on the  Pituitary
                                           Gland.
                                           Smith Kline Beecham Corp., King of Prussia, PA. Dept.
                                           of Toxicology.
                                           R. F. Walker, and R. L. Cooper. C1990,55p EPA/600/
                                           D-90/198
                                           Sponsored by Health  Effects  Research Lab., Re-
                                           search Triangle Park, NC. Toxicology Branch.

                                           The document provides a summary of adverse effects
                                           of xenobiotics upon the pituitary gland, an endocrine
                                           gland that plays an important role in the regulation of
                                           reproductive function. The  most common histopatho-
                                           logical pituitary lesions observed following exposure to
                                           drugs and chemicals are reviewed along with the po-
                                           tential consequences of these lesions on physiological
                                           function and the maintenance of homeostasis. In addi-
                                           tion, other mechanisms involved in the alteration of pi-
                                           tuitary function are discussed. These include changes
                                           in function that occur in response to a toxicant's effect
                                           on the central nervous system or target gland and thus
                                           indirectly influence pituitary gland activity.

                                           Keywords:   'Toxicity,   'Pituitary  gland,   Metals.
                                           Reproduction(Biology), Homeostasis, Estrogen, Pesti-
                                           cides, Hypothalamus. Pituitary neoplasms, 'Xenobio-
                                           tics, 'Toxic substances, Monoamines, Carcinogenicity
                                           tests.
                                           PB91-136911/REB                PC A03/MF A01
                                           Control of Motor Vehicle Emissions - The U.S. Ex-
                                           perience. Final rept.
                                           Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
                                           Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
                                           sessment Lab.
                                           F. M. Black. C1990,33p EPA/600/D-90/199

                                           An historical overview of the U.S. experience with con-
                                           trolling emissions from highway motor vehicles is pre-
                                           sented. The evolution of new motor vehicle emissions
                                           certification practice, end-of-assembly-lme inspection,
                                           in-use surveillance and recall,  inspection and mainte-
                                           nance, and antitampering programs are discussed.
                                           The changes in motor vehicle designs and fuel formu-
                                           lations resulting from  these practices are also  de-
                                           scribed, along with associated changes in the charac-
                                           teristics of emissions.  Future  possible directions for
                                           further improvements are described as the U.S. Con-
                                           gress considers changes to the Clean Air Act requiring
                                           increasingly stringent  new motor vehicle  emission
                                           standards,  changes in  procedures for identification
                                           and repair of motor vehicles that have been tampered
                                           with  or poorly maintained, and  requirements for use of
                                           cleaner, more  environmentally benign alternatives to
                                           conventional petroleum-based fuels.

                                           Keywords: 'Motor vehicles, "Exhaust emissions, 'Air
                                           pollution control  equipment, Exhaust gases,  Crank-
                                           case fumes. Fuel consumption. 'Automobile exhaust,
                                           Clean Air Act,  Historical aspects, Automotive compo-
                                           nents.
                                           PB91-136945/REB                PC A03/MF A01
                                           Overview of Risk Assessment for Toxic and Path-
                                           ogenic Agents.
                                           Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
                                           vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
                                           N. E. Kowal, R. J. F. Bruins, and C. Sonich-Mullin.
                                           C1990,17pEPA/600/D-90/216
                                           Pub. in Proceedings: Water Quality Technology Con-
                                           ference, American Water Works Association, Philadel-
                                           phia, PA., November 12-16,1989. p905-919.

                                           Risk assessment is a process that defines the adverse
                                           hearth consequences of exposure to toxic or patho-
genic agents. When  used  in  regulatory  decision
making, risk assessment is an important component of
risk management, which combines the  risk assess-
ment with the directives  of regulatory legislation, to-
gether with socioeconomic, technical, political, and
other considerations, to reach a decision as to whether
or how much to control future exposure to the suspect-
ed toxic agents. (1) The conceptual framework for risk
assessment as it is currently practiced was outlined by
the National Academy of Science in 1983 as a four-
phased process. The elements in this process include
hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-re-
sponse assessment, and risk characterization. The
paper will discuss each of these elements, with par-
ticular emphasis  on  their application to  risk assess-
ment of pathogens.

Keywords:  'Microorganisms,  'Toxic  substances,
'Risk assessment, Epidemiology, Communicable dis-
eases, Structure-activity relationship, Dose-response
relationships,  Health hazards, Feeding stuffs, Environ-
mental exposure pathways, Reprints.
PB91-136952/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Retrofit Costs for Lime/Limestone FGD and Lime
Spray Drying at Coal-Fired Utility Boilers.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. E. Emmel, and J. W. Jones. C1990,29p EPA/600/
D-90/217
Contract EPA-68-02-3994
Presented at the  Workshop  on Emission  Control
Costs-Methodology and Example Cases.  Esslingen.
FRG, September 28-October 1, 1987. Sponsored by
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper gives results of a research program the ob-
jective of which was to significantly improve engineer-
ing cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the
economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing
coal-fired utility  boilers. The costs of retrofitting con-
ventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurizatjon
(L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-
200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under
this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating proce-
dures used for L/LS FGD and LSD  FGD make two
cost adjustments to current procedures used to esti-
mate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally
included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and re-
location of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to
adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and
underground obstructions).

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, Cost estimates, Com-
bustion products, Spray drying. Performance evalua-
tion, Retrofitting, Sulfur dioxide, Calcium oxides, Lime-
stone injection. Wet methods, Dry methods, Coal fired
power plants, Reprints, 'Flue gas desulfurization.
PB91-136978/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Material Selection.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
W. G. Tucker. Aug 90,10p EPA/600/D-90/220
Presented at the Plenary Meeting of the NATO/CCMS
Pilot Study on Indoor Air Quality, (3rd), Sainte-Adele,
Quebec, Canada, August 6-8,1990.

The paper summarizes various criteria that can be
used in selecting material used in the construction, fur-
nishing, maintenance, and operation  of a building. It
also summarizes the types of material and product
testing that can be especially useful  in the selection
process.  In broad terms, materials in buildings are
classified as building materials,  furnishings,  mainte-
nance  materials, and other contents. At any  given
time, emissions  from materials and products in any of
these four categories can dominate the impact on
indoor air quality (IAQ) in a building. Responsibility for
the selection of these materials may be that of the de-
signer, owner, or occupants.  Information on IAQ im-
pacts of materials therefore needs to be developed for
a wide range of people.

Keywords: 'Indoor air pollution,  "Construction materi-
als, 'Air pollution control, Building materials, Particles,
Furniture, Selection.
8
Vol. 91,  No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-136986/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ecological Status and Trends Program: EPA's Ap-
proach  to Monitoring Condition of the Nation's
Ecosystems. Symposium paper.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
J. F. Paul, A. F. Holland, K. J. Scott, and D. A. Flemer.
C1989,11pEPA/600/D-90/221,ERLN-1050
Pub.  in Oceans '89, an International Conference Ad-
dressing  Methods for Understanding  the  Global
Ocean,  Seattle, WA., September 18-21,  1989, v2
P579-582. Also pub. as Environmental Research Lab.,
Narragansett, Rl. rept. no. CONTRIB-1050.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is
initiating an  Environmental Monitoring  and Assess-
ment  Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and
trends of the nation's near coastal waters,  forests,
freshwater wetlands, surface waters, and agroecosys-
tems. The program is also intended to evaluate the ef-
fectiveness of Agency policies at protecting ecological
resources occurring in these systems. Monitoring data
collected for all ecosystems will be integrated for na-
tional status and trends evaluations.

Keywords: Trends, Surface waters, Law enforcement,
Regional planning, Reprints, 'Environmental Monitor-
ing and Assessment Program, "Ecosystems, "Environ-
mental protection. Forests, Coastal regions, Natural
resources management, Wetlands,  Pollution regula-
tions.
PB91-136994/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Stress  Proteins:  Potential as  Multitiered  Bio-
markers (Chapter 9). Book chapter.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
B. Sanders. C1990,17p EPA/600/D-90/222,, ERNL-
X177
Pub. in  Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination,
p165-190 1990. Also  pub. as Environmental Research
Lab., Narragansett, Rl. rept. no. CONTRIB-X177. Pre-
pared in cooperation  with California State Univ., Long
Beach.

The article deals specifically with the application of
biomarkers for two different purposes: to diagnose
sublethal stress in an organism, designated as a tier I
biomarker, and to detect exposure to specific contami-
nants, a tier II biomarker. Important criteria for evaluat-
ing the utility of tier I biomarkers for diagnosing suble-
thal stress would include: (1) its ability to be used in a
broad range of organisms when exposed to a wide va-
riety of stress conditions in their environment, (2) that it
correlates with decreased physiological function and
survival of the organism, and (3) that, in practicality, it
can be easily measured in a cost efficient manner. Tier
II biomarkers, used  to identify exposure  to specific
contaminants, should be detected in organisms ex-
posed to a particular class of contaminants in their en-
vironment and be easily measured. By integrating both
kinds of biomarkers into a multitiered approach to envi-
ronmental monitoring, one could develop  a series of
assays  in which organisms are initially screened with
biomarkers to detect  general stress and, if the  results
were positive,  could be assayed with an array of tier II
biomarkers, each of which identifies exposure to a par-
ticular class of contaminants or physical  conditions.
(Copyright (c) 1990 by Lewis Publishers.)

Keywords: "Biological markers, "Heat-shock proteins,
•Environmental pollution, "Environmental  monitoring,
Toxicity, Genetics, Cell physiology, Cell survival, Polya-
crylamide gel electrophoresis, Enzymes, Immunology.


PB91-137018/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Protocol for  Testing   Bioremediation  Products
against Weathered Alaskan Crude Oil.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
A. D. Venosa, J. R. Haines, W. Nisamaneepong, R.
Govind, and S. Pradhan. C1990,26p EPA/600/2-90/
208
Prepared in cooperation with Engineering and Eco-
nomics Research, Inc.,  Reston, VA., and Cincinnati
Univ., OH.

In the summer of 1989, EPA and Exxon Corp. conduct-
ed a joint field study to determine if natural biodegrada-
tion of the Prudoe Bay crude oil spilled from the Exxon
Valdez could  be accelerated by application of oleophi-
lic and water soluble fertilizers. Numerous private firms
have since submitted proposals to have their microbial
products tested for bioremediation enhancement. EPA
commissioned the National Environmental Technolo-
gy Applications Corporation (NETAC) to coordinate an
effort to select and test commercial products for effica-
cy against Alaskan  crude oil. A panel of experts was
assembled to review the proposals, and nine products
were selected for the first tier  of testing. The experi-
ments were  conducted  at the Risk Reduction Engi-
neering Laboratory in Cincinnati. Three lines  of evi-
dence were used to select the final products for further
testing: cumulative  oxygen uptake  via electrolytic re-
spirometry, microbial growth, and compositional analy-
sis of treated oil by GC and GC/MS. The commercial
products  were compared against oleophilic  and inor-
ganic fertilizers in a comprehensive protocol incorpo-
rating sterile and non-sterile controls.  Respirometric
vessels and shaker flask microcosms were set up for
the comparative testing using weathered oil and natu-
ral seawater from Prince William Sound. The  paper
presents the protocol, the test results, and conclusions
derived from the study.

Keywords: "Oil spills,  "Biodeterioration, "Crude oil, Oil
pollution  removal, Prudoe Bay, Alaska, Experimental
design.   Weathering,  Biological   treatment,  Micro-
cosmes,  Fertilizers, Chemical composition, Respiro-
meters, Bioinstrumentation, "Remedial action, "Clean-
up operations.
 PB91-137026/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Analysis of Ozone Air Quality Over the New York
 Metropolitan Area.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 S. T. Rao, G. Sistla, K. Schere, and J. Godowitch.
 C1990,12p EPA/600/D-90/200
 Presented at the NATO/CCMS ITM on Air  Pollution
 Modeling and  Its Application (18th), Vancouver, BC.,
 May 13-17, 1990. Prepared in  cooperation with New
 York State Dept.  of  Environmental  Conservation,
 Albany. Div. of Air Resources,  and National Oceanic
 and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. Air
 Resources Lab.

 The paper presents an assessment of the  temporal
 and spatial behavior of  measured ozone concentra-
 tions over the tri-state area around New York City, and
 an examination of  the variability of modeled ozone
 concentrations due to variations  in meteorology and
 emissions. Measurements of ozone and precursors
 from monitoring sites in the tri-state area from 1980-
 1989 were analyzed.  The results indicate  a distinct
 downward trend in ozone levels over  Connecticut
 during the period, however, no trend was evident in the
 ozone values over the  New Jersey and New York
 areas. The photochemical modeling results  from the
 Urban Airshed Model (UAM) revealed that peak ozone
 concentrations over Connecticut are  strongly influ-
 enced by the wind fields input to the model. Model re-
 sults also indicate that unless  emissions reduction is
 substantial, variability in the meteorology can obscure
 any improvement in ozone levels.

 Keywords: "Ozone, "Urban areas, "Air pollution moni-
 toring,  Graphs(Charts),  New  Jersey,  Connecticut,
 Summer, Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen dioxide, Air qual-
 ity, Emission factors, "New York City(New York).
 PB91-137034/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Evaluation of  an  Atmospheric Corrosion  Rate
 Monitor as a Time-of-Wetness  Meter. Symposium
 paper.
 Environmental  Research Center,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC.
 F. H. Haynie, and D. C. Stiles. C1990,15p EPA/600/D-
 90/201
 Prepared in cooperation with Northrop Services, Inc./
 Environmental Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC.

 A polarization resistance type sensor has been de-
 signed and has been evaluated with  an Atmospheric
 Corrosion Rate Monitor (ACRM). A year of hourly aver-
 age data were evaluated with respect to simultaneous-
 ly collected environmental  data at a site in the Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC. The system can be used as
 a time-of-wetness meter. The primary effect on time-
 of-wetness is the  difference between dew point and
 surface temperature. Sensor responses to wetness
 are reproducable between  sensors and are sensitive
 enough to detect significant environmental changes
 other than the primary effects of surface temperature
 and air moisture content.

 Keywords: "Atmospheric corrosion, "Measuring instru-
 ments, Humidity, Dew point, Field  tests, Surface tem-
perature, Design, Thermistors, "Time of wetness, Re-
search Triangle Park(North Carolina).
PB91-137042/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Non-Polar Volatile Organic Compounds in Whole
Air Samples from the AutoEx Studies.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
J. D. Pleil, and K. D. Oliver. C1990,21 p EPA/600/D-
90/202
Prepared in cooperation with NSI Technology Services
Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.


Air samples were captured in SUMMA  polished stain-
less steel canisters and returned to the laboratory for
analysis of trace level volatile organic  compounds by
gas chromatography  - mass spectrometry. Sampling
was performed  over  2-hour periods at  various dis-
tances from heavily traveled highways in three cooper-
ative studies between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. as a
part of the AutoEx series of experiments. The  paper
discusses the canister work performed in two of these
studies,  AutoEx-2 near Leningrad,  U.S.S.R. and
AutoEx-3 near Vilnius,  Lithuania, U.S.S.R.  Data are
presented from these experiments and the sampling
and analytical methodology is discussed. AutoEx re-
sults are compared to analogous studies  performed in
the U.S.


Keywords: "Chemical analysis, "Air pollution sampling,
"Air    pollution    detection,    Trace     amounts,
Concentration(Composition),  Gas  chromatography,
Exhaust emissions, Vilnius(USSR), Leningrad(USSR),
Mobile pollutant sources. Containers, Mass spectros-
copy, States(United  States), "Volatile organic com-
pounds, "AutoEx studies, Foreign technology.
 PB91-137059/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Swedish Natural  Science  Research Council, Stock-
 holm.
 Organic  Chemical  Transport  to  Groundwater.
 Book chapter.
 Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research Lab.,  Ada,
 OK.
 C. G. Enfield, and S. R. Yates. C1990,34p EPA/600/
 D-90/203
 Pub. in Pesticides in the Soil Environment: Processes,
 Impacts, and Modeling, No. 2 in  SSSA Book Series,
 p271-289 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Califor-
 nia Univ., Riverside. Dept. of Agriculture. Sponsored by
 Swedish Natural  Science  Research Council, Stock-
 holm,  and National Swedish Environment Protection
 Board, Solna.

 The use of pesticides in the production of agricultural
 commodities is widespread. Since nearly one-half of
 the  U.S.  population  relies on groundwater as their
 source for drinking water,  contamination potential of
 groundwater, because of pesticide manufacture and
 use, must  be understood. The processes of sorption,
 biotic  and  abiotic transformation,  and vapor transport
 have been discussed in previous chapters of the book.
 Theobjective of the chapter is to integrate the above
 processes into chemical mass transport models that
 can be used to  forecast environmental  exposure.
 Almost any modeling activity related to groundwater
 starts with a water flow model, since, for any significant
 change to take place in the flow field, flow is an essen-
 tial ingredient. Van der Heijde et al reviewed several
 hundred  groundwater  management  models  from
 around the world and classified them in a variety of
 ways. The review included  both saturated and unsatu-
 rated flow models along with identifying the source and
 availability of computer codes for the models. Consid-
 ering the review and several other reviews, the chapter
 will  emphasize chemical transport  rather than  mass
 water flow. For completeness, a  brief overview of
 water flow through saturated and unsaturated soils will
 be included. Decoupling the water and chemical trans-
 port is a major assumption in the discussion.

 Keywords:  "Water pollution,  "Pesticides,  "Ground
 water, "Hydrology,  Potable  water, Organic  com-
 pounds,   Water   flow.    Transport    properties,
 Formulas(Mathematics),  Soil  water.  Mathematical
 models, Reprints.
                                                                                                                                 June  1991

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 PB91-137067/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Anaerobic In-situ Treatment of Chlorinated Eth-
 enes. Symposium paper.
 Robert  S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
 OK.
 G. W. Sewell, S. A. Gibson, and H. H. Russell. c1990,
 16p EPA/600/D-90/204
 Pub. in In-situ  Bioremediation of Groundwater and
 Contaminated Soils, Proceedings WPCF Annual Con-
 ference, p68-79 October 7-11, 1990. Prepared in co-
 operation with NSI Technology Services Corp., Ada,
 OK.

 For chlorinated ethenes anaerobic bacterial remedi-
 ation designs may prove to be the most cost effective
 measure available to actually reduce the mass of con-
 tamination in-situ. In tight and low yield aquifers, the in-
 digenous anaerobic population may be amenable to
 stimulation by introduction of only small doses of elec-
 tron donors, or other required growth factors and still
 produce the desired  effects.  Anaerobic  treatment
 processes may  not require the alteration of the in-situ
 redox  conditions  in  mixed  waste  contaminated
 aquifers, hence the addition of oxygen with its inherent
 problems and limitations can be avoided. Thus if we
 can leam to control and harness the reductive dechlor-
 ination process in an effective in-situ technology it may
 have advantages in cost, applicability and operation
 over existing aerobic  bforemediation and  physical-
 chemical treatment methods.

 Keywords:  *Biodeterioration,  'Ground water,  *Te-
 trachloroethylene,  'Anaerobic  processes,  Electron
 donors,  Water pollution, Organic solvents, Chlorogy-
 drocarbons, Toluene, Feasibility, Field tests, 'Trichlor-
 oethylene, Remediation, Traverse City(Michigan).
PB91-137075/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Fish Acute Toxictty Syndromes In the Develop-
ment of Mechanism-Specific QSARS.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MM.
S. P. Bradbury, T. R. Henry, and R. W. Carlson. c1990,
23p EPA/600/D-90/205
See also PB88-214762.

The focus of the report is to summarize the develop-
ment and status of the fish acute toxicity syndrome
(FATS)  research effort. Thus far, FATS  associated
with  nonpolar narcotics,  polar  narcotics,  oxidatjye
phosphorylation uncouplers, respiratory membrane ir-
ritants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, cyclo-
diene insecticides, pyrethrotd insecticides,  and strych-
nine have been described.

Keywords:  'Structure-activity  relationship,  'Fishes,
'Toxic substances,  Oxidative phosphorylation.  Irri-
tants, Insecticides, Narcotics, Chplinesterase inhibi-
tors,  Strychnine, Physiologic monitoring, *FATS(Fish
acute toxicity syndrome).
PB91-137083/REB               PC A02/MF A01
ASTER: An Integration of the AQUIRE Database
and the QSAR System for Use in Ecological Risk

Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MM.
C. L Russom, E. B. Anderson, B. E. Greenwood, and
A. Pilli. C1990,6p EPA/600/D-90/206
Presented at QSAR 1990 Meeting Proceedings, Sep-
tember 16-20, 1990. Prepared in cooperation with
Computer Sciences Corp., Duluth, MM.

Ecological risk assessments are used by the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and other gov-
ernmental agencies to assist in determining the proba-
bility and magnitude of deleterious effects of hazard-
ous chemicals on plants and animals. These assess-
ments are important steps in formulating regulatory de-
cisions. The completion of an ecological risk assess-
ment requires the gathering of ecotoxicological hazard
and environmental exposure information. The informa-
tion is evaluated in the risk characterization section to
assist in making the final risk assessment ASTER (As-
sessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk) was de-
signed by the USEPA Environmental Research Labo-
ratory-Duluth (ERL-D) to assist regulators in producing
risk assessments. ASTER is  an integration of the
AQUIRE   (AQUatic  toxicity  Information   Retrieval
System) and QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Re-
lationships) systems. AQUIRE is a database of aquatic
toxicity tests and QSAR is comprised of a database of
measured phystcochemical properties, and various
QSAR models that estimate physicochemical and eco-
toxicological endpoints. ASTER will be  available to
international  governmental  agencies  through the
USEPA National Computing Center.

Keywords: 'Data bases, 'Risk assessment. Carcino-
gens, Mutagens, Environmental protection, Toxic sub-
stances.
PB91-137091/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Effect of Background Organic Matter from  Sur-
face Waters on the Activated Carbon Adsorption
of Specific Organic Compounds. Final rept.
Cincinnati Univ., OH. Dept. of Civil and Environmental
Engineering.
R. S. Summers, and T. Speth. C1990,16p EPA/600/D-
90/207
Contract EPA-68-03-4038
Proceedings of Annual AWWA Conference, Cincinnati,
OH., June 18-21, 1990.  Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction En-
gineering Lab.

A study was conducted to evaluate how background
organic matter found in surface waters can affect the
adsorption kinetics and capacity of cis-1,2-dichloroeth-
ene. The study further addressed how ozone/biofilter
and anion exchange pretreatment improves the per-
formance of the GAC columns, and the ability of GAC
columns  to  attenuate shock loadings.  The results
showed that the carbon's capacity for cis-1,2-dichlor-
oethene was reduced with time of preloading. In some
cases, the reduction in capacity was found even when
it was determined that no total organic carbon (TOC)
preloaded onto the carbon. Work with different carbon
particle  sizes showed that  the  capacity reductions
were not related to the diffusion  of organic matter as
measured by TOC. The  ozone/biofilter and anion ex-
change pretreatment columns increased the GAC col-
umns operation time and increased its ability to attenu-
ate shock loadings.

Keywords:     'Activated    carbon,    'Chemical
removal(Water treatment), Adsorptiyity,  Ozone,  Sur-
face properties, Water pollution, Ohio River, Organic
wastes, Surface waters,  Ion exchange, 'Ethylene, 1,2-
dichloro.
PB91-137109/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Contamination of  U.S. Arctic  Ecosystems  by
Long-Range Transport of  Atmospheric Contami-
nants. Symposium paper.
Forest Service, Washington, DC.
J. Ford, and D. H. Landers. c3 Oct 90,15p EPA/600/
D-90/190
Contract EPA-DW12931230
Proceedings of the International Conference on the
Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change, Fairbank,
AK., June 11-15, 1990. Sponsored by Corvallis Envi-
ronmental Research Lab., OR.

Various kinds of atmospheric pollutants are found in
Arctic environments, including organic contaminants,
radionuclides. and pollutants  associated  with  fossil
fuel combustion, smelting, and industrial development.
While some of these  contaminants originate in the
Arctic itself, others are likely  a result of  long-range
transport from lower latitudes. Recent studies suggest
that at least some atmospheric contaminants may be
susceptible  to poleward  redistribution, sequestration,
and  accumulation as a  result of  their physical and
chemical properties. Thus, contamination of the Arctic
may be exacerbated by the tendency of selected con-
taminants produced at lower latitudes to be transport-
ed to polar regions and incorporated into high-latitude
food chains. Although  awareness of exotic contami-
nants in high-latitude food chains is not new, interna-
tional and regional baseline data are needed to docu-
ment the magnitude, distribution, and  ecosystem ef-
fects of this potentially serious global (hemispheric)
problem. The United States has given little attention to
Arctic studies relative to several other circumpolar na-
tions (e.g. Canada, Sweden). However, over the next
year,  the   U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
(USEPA) will be designing regional  studies to begin
remedying this information gap. A major focus of this
activity will be to ensure compatibility with international
studies of Arctic contamination and with the USEPA's
Environmental  Monitoring and Assessment Program
(EMAP).

Keywords: 'Alaska, *Air pollution, 'Atmospheric circu-
lation, 'Ecosystems, Haze, Food chains, Environmen-
tal transport, Path of pollutants,  Radionuclide migra-
tion, Reprints.
PB91-137117/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Immunotoxicology  of  Captive and Wild  Birds.
Book chapter.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
A. Fairbrother. C1990,27p EPA/609/D-90/191
Pub. in Population Ecology and Wildlife Toxicology of
Agricultural Pesticide Use, 1990.

Environmental  chemicals, including  pesticides, have
the potential to alter the immune response of laborato-
ry or free-ranging animals. As a consequence, wild ani-
mals may become more susceptible to  microbial or
parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-
ranging  wildlife frequently are diseased. Mathematical
models predict that disease and parasitism could alter
host population growth rates and that host susceptibili-
ty is  an important component of the growth rate func-
tion.  Laboratory studies have shown that all classes of
insecticides and fungicides have  immunosuppressive
properties. Only a few studies have been done with
wildlife species (fish, mallards, wild mice, and earth-
worms). A battery of immune function tests that has
been developed recently for captive birds  is now being
used in free-ranging birds to determine if pesticide use
or chemical disposal may be at least partially responsi-
ble for recent  increases  in the incidence of disease
outbreaks in free-ranging wildlife.

Keywords:  'Pesticides,  'Immunology,  "Toxicology,
Birds, Wildlife,  Parasitic diseases, Disease outbreaks,
Immune tolerance, Insecticides,  Fungicides,  Mathe-
matical models. Population dynamics. Reprints.
PB91-137125/REB               PC A03/MF A01
American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.
X-ray, Microscope, and Wet Chemical Techniques:
A Complementary Team for Deposit Analysis.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
M. R. Schock, and K. W. Smothers. C1989,15p EPA/
600/D-90/209
Proceedings,  AWWA Water Quality Technology Con-
ference, Philadelphia, PA., November 12-16, 1989.
Prepared  in  cooperation with Illinois State  Water
Survey Div., Champaign. Aquatic  Chemistry Section.
Sponsored by American Water Works Association,
Denver, CO.

Commonly used techniques for the analysis of potable
water scale and  corrosion deposits  do  not provide
equivalent information about the chemical nature and
significance of the deposits. Optical examination, with
unaided eye  and with microscopes,  provides some
useful information.  X-Ray Fluorescence-based tech-
niques, such as EDXA using a Scanning Electro Micro-
scope, can give  elemental analysis  information for
metals, but not anionic species (such as CO3, OH) that
are very important in understanding scale and corro-
sion mechanisms. Wet chemical analyses can provide
the most accurate analyses of metals and some other
important constituents (eg, CO3, PO4, SK32), but can
be very laborious. None of these mentioned approach-
es can specifically identify compounds, which is fre-
quently essential in understanding corrosion or scaling
processes. X-ray diffraction, particularly  when com-
bined with the other methods,  produces the informa-
tion in most cases.

Keywords: 'Scale(Corrosion), 'Potable water. Water
chemistry,  Mineral deposits. Water pipes. Chemical
analysis, Electron microscopy, X ray analysis. Lead in-
organic compounds, Calcium  inorganic compounds,
Water quality.  Reprints.
PB91-137133/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Experience with the EPA Manual for Waste Mini-
mization Opportunity Assessments.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. S. Bridges. C1990,22p EPA/600/D-90/210
Pub. in the Proceedings of the Annual DOE Low Level
Waste Management Conference (12th), Chicago, IL,
1990.

The EPA  Waste  Minimization  Opportunity Assess-
ments Manual  (EPA/635/7-88/003) is designed to
assist those responsible for planning, managing, and
implementing  waste  minimization  activities  at  the
waste generating  operation and at all management
10     Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
levels. The Manual defines waste minimization and in-
centives as it describes how the assessment proce-
dure is carried out, beginning with the planning and or-
ganizational  aspects  that  provide  the  foundation
through the assessment phase, evaluation phase, and
option implementation phase. Since the Manual's pub-
lishing in July 1988, the Manual has been tested at var-
ious and numerous waste generating operations. The
procedure is a sound, practical approach and is flexi-
ble to be adapted to the specific circumstances within
a particular waste generating operation. A set of work-
sheets useful in carrying out waste minimization as-
sessments is included in Appendix A of the Manual to
assist the user. EPA has used the Manual in the con-
duct of waste minimization assessments within the pri-
vate and public sectors  and the paper will highlight
some of the results and experiences. Of great impor-
tance was the involvement of plant personnel  in all
phases of the waste minimization assessment since it
is essential for the acceptance and eventual imple-
mentation of  the  recommended waste  minimization
options.

Keywords: "Waste treatment, 'Waste management,
'Environmental protection, Waste disposal, Manuals,
Shipyards, Field tests, Environmental surveys, Auto-
motive industry, Economic analysis, *Waste minimiza-
tion assessments.
PB91-137141/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Impact of Drinking Water Treatment on Assimila-
ble Organic Carbon. Final rept.
Cincinnati Univ., OH. Dept. of Civil and Environmental
Engineering.
E. M. Mogren, P. V. Scarpino, and R. S. Summers.
1990,19p EPA/600/D-90/211
Contract EPA-68-03-4038
Presented at the Proceedings, Annual AWWA Confer-
ence Cincinnati, OH., June 18-21,1990. Sponsored by
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system  is a
primary concern for water utilities. The  disinfection
process, although normally efficient for primary inacti-
vation, is not always enough to discourage microbial
regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously,
the available substrate in drinking water has been as-
sessed by culturing the sample with suspended bacte-
rial seeds at specific counts and relating increased
bacterial counts to a concentration of a specific sub-
strate. Besides being labor intensive, this approach,
termed assimilable organic carbon (AOC), does  not
account for the indigenous bacterial population or the
biofilm aspects of degradation. Joret et al. and Gimbel
and Maelzer overcame these problems by using indig-
enous populations attached to  a  sand  media and
measuring decreases in  dissolved organic  carbon
(DOC); Jpret et al. in a batch system and Gimbel and
Maelzer in a recirculating batch reactor. Both systems
were site specific i.e., the acclimated biofilm and sam-
ples were from the same treatment plant. The objec-
tives of the study were to develop, assess and demon-
strate a non-site specific system for the determination
of the biodegradable DOC concentration in  drinking
water, and show applications to samples from several
treatment plants.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Bacteria, 'Biodeteriora-
tion, 'Sewage treatment, Technology  assessment,
Water chemistry, Humus, Ozonization, Water pollution,
Ohio River, Delaware River.
 PB91-137158/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 New Source Reduction Project: The Potential for
 Safe Substitutes.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 M. A. Curran. cNov 90,7p EPA/600/D-90/212
 Presented  at the  National  Household  Hazardous
 Waste Management Conference (5th), San Francisco,
 CA., November 6,1990.

 One of the clean product research projects  being
 funded by the EPA's Pollution Prevention Research
 Branch in Cincinnati, Ohio, involves evaluating the
 possibility of dramatic reductions in hazardous waste
 and toxic chemical exposure associated with commer-
 cial products. By identifying priority products for substi-
 tution and evaluating the feasibility of safe substitutes
 for those products, this project can be an important
 shift toward  preventing  toxic chemical pollution at the
source. The paper describes the project's objectives
and gives a brief description of the approach the Uni-
versity of Tennessee (Waste Management Institute)
plans to take to accomplish the objectives. The project
started in September 1990 and will continue for three
years.

Keywords: 'Substitutes, 'Consumer products, Feasi-
bility, Risk,  Consumer protection,  Environmental pro-
tection,  Exposure,  University of  Tennessee Waste
Management Institute.
PB91-137166/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Flexibility in Bacteriological Monitoring.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
E. E. Geldreich. 1990,27p EPA/600/D-90/213
Presented at and pub. in the Proceedings from the
AWWA  Water Quality Technology  Conference, San
Diego, CA., November 11-15,1990.

The monitoring strategies for characterizing the micro-
biological quality of water in the distribution system re-
quire a thorough understanding of a variety of interre-
lated aspects: the treated  water  quality, the water
supply retention in storage, and infrastructure deterio-
ration. Evaluation of the routine monitoring strategies
practiced by 1796 utilities suggests some water sys-
tems need to revise their programs to focus more on
sampling at the peripheries of the pipe network and on
monitoring water quality more uniformly over a 30 day
period. Monitoring strategies must be flexible, being in-
dividually designed on a case by case basis. The plan
must also be usable  for all three levels of monitoring
activity: (a) routine monitoring to meet the regulatory
requirements; (b) specialized monitoring during sea-
sonal biofilm occurrences; and (c) priority monitoring
during periods of boil water conditions.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Potable water, 'Aquatic
microbiology, 'Bacteria, Water analysis, Water supply,
Pipelines, Utilities, Microbiological  techniques,  Envi-
ronmental monitoring.
 PB91-13726S/REB               PC A12/MF A02
 Development of  Risk Assessment  Methodology
 for Municipal Sludge Landfilling. Final rept.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Aug 89, 261 p EPA/600/6-90/008

 This is one of a series of reports that present method-
 ologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or
 other organisms from the disposal or reuse of munici-
 pal  sludge. The sludge  management practices ad-
 dressed by this  series include land application prac-
 tices, distribution and  marketing programs, landfilling,
 incineration and ocean disposal. These  reports pro-
 vide methods for evaluating potential health and envi-
 ronmental  risks from  toxic  chemicals that may be
 present in sludge. The document addresses risks from
 chemicals  associated with  landfilling of municipal
 sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures
 are designed as tools to assist in the development of
 regulations for sludge  management practices. The cri-
 teria may address management practices  (such as site
 design  or  process control specifications), limits on
 sludge disposal  rates  or limits on toxic chemical con-
 centrations in the sludge.

 Keywords:   'Earth  fills,  'Sludge disposal,  'Public
 health,  'Water pollution. Specifications, Toxicity, Mu-
 nicipalities,  Regulations,  Management,  Incinerators,
 Concentration(Composition), Potable water. Humans,
 Exposure,  Design  criteria, Environmental transport,
 Sites, Risk assessment, Land application,  Chemicals.
 PB91-137273/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Indoor Air - Assessment Methods of Analysis for
 Environmental Carcinogens.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park,  NC. Environmental Criteria  and Assessment
 Office.
 M. R. Peterson, D. F. Naugle, and M. A. Berry. Jun 90,
 49p EPA/600/8-90/041, ECAO-R-0440

 The monograph describes, in a general way, published
 sampling procedures  and analytical approaches for
 known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus
 is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the
 methods described are applicable to other media or
 environments. In cases where there are no published
 methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air,  meth-
ods developed for the workplace and for ambient air
are included since they should be adaptable to indoor
air. Known and suspected  carcinogens have been
grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and
related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, or-
ganic compounds,  inorganic species, particles, and
non-ionizing radiation. Some  methods of assessing ex-
posure that are not specific to any particular pollutant
category are covered in a separate section. The report
is  the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria
and Assessment Office Monographs.

Keywords: 'Indoor air pollution,  'Carcinogens, Radio-
active  air pollutants, Exposure, Toxicity,  Asbestos,
Radon,  Organic compounds, Inorganic compounds,
Particulates, Non-ionizing radiation.
PB91-137281/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Modeling,  Monitoring Systems and Quality
Assurance.
Total Human Exposure and Indoor Air Quality: An
Automated Bibliography (BUS) with Summary Ab-
stracts. Volume 2. Final rept. Jan 87-Dec 89.
AScI Corp., McLean, VA.
M. Dellarco, and W. Ott. Oct 90,139p
Contract EPA-68-D9-0094
Sponsored by  Environmental  Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Modeling, Monitoring Sys-
tems and Quality Assurance.

The Bibliographical  Literature  Information  System
(BLIS) is a computer database that provides a compre-
hensive review of available  literature on total human
exposure to environmental  pollution.  Brief abstracts
(often condensed versions of the original abstract) are
included; if the original document had no abstract, one
was prepared. Unpublished draft reports are listed, as
well as final reports of the U.S. Government and other
countries, reports by governmental research contrac-
tors, journal articles, and other publications on expo-
sure models field data, and  newly emerging research
methodologies. Emphasis on those field studies meas-
uring all the concentrations to which people may be
exposed, including indoors, outdoors, and in-transit.

Keywords:  'Indoor air pollution, 'Humans,  'Bibliogra-
phies,  'Air  pollution  effects(Humans),  Exposure,
Public  health,  Radioactive  materials,   Abstracts,
Radon,  Technical  reports, Air quality, Toxic  sub-
stances.
 PB91-137307/REB               PC A15/MF A02
 Methods for the Investigation and Prevention of
 Waterborne Disease Outbreaks.
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.
 G. F. Craun. Sep 90,328p EPA/600/1 -90/005A
 See also PB91 -125716 and PB91 -137315.

 The publication is Volume I of a series of articles based
 on selected presentations made at the U.S. Environ-
 mental  Protection Agency (EPA) and Association of
 State Drinking  Water  Administrators Workshop  on
 Methods for Investigation of Waterborne Disease Out-
 breaks held on  October 11-13, 1988, in Denver, Colo-
 rado. Articles were selected to provide background on
 the etiologies and causes of previous outbreaks, vari-
 ous aspects of epidemiologic methods, disease  sur-
 veillance and reporting,  and laboratory analysis. It is in-
 tended to serve as a handbook to assist in the investi-
 gation of waterborne outbreaks. A number of previous-
 ly published articles have been reprinted in Volume II
 to supplement information contained in the handbook.
 These articles provide examples of outbreak investiga-
 tions and surveillance activities. They have  been re-
 printed  to illustrate principles discussed in the hand-
 book and compiled as a convenience to those investi-
 gators with limited access to library facilities.

 Keywords: 'Water microbiology, 'Disease outbreaks,
 'Microorganism control(Water), Public health, Envi-
 ronmental monitoring, Water treatment, Water analy-
 sis,  Water quality, Epidemiology, Disinfection, Filtra-
 tion.
 PB91-137315/REB               PC A06/MF A01
 Waterborne  Disease  Outbreaks:  Selected  Re-
 prints of Articles on Epidemiology, Surveillance,
 Investigation, and Laboratory Analysis.
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.


                           June 1991     11

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
G. F. Craun. Sep 90,102p EPA/600/ 1-90/005B
See also PB91-125716 and PB91-137307.

The publication is Volume II of  a series of  articles
based on selected presentations made at the U.S. En-
vironmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Association
of State Drinking Water Administrators Workshop on
Methods for Investigation of Waterbome Disease Out-
breaks held on October 11-13, 1988, in Denver, Colo-
rado. Volume  II  contains reprinted  previously  pub-
lished articles to supplement information contained in
the handbook. These articles provide examples of out-
break investigations and surveillance activities. They
have been reprinted to illustrate principles discussed in
the handbook and compiled as a convenience to those
investigators with limited access to library facilities.

Keywords: 'Water microbiology, 'Disease outbreaks,
•Microorganism control(Water), Public health, Gastro-
intestinal diseases, Surface waters, Water treatment,
Communicable diseases, Epidemiology, Giardia, Ver-
mont, Colorado, Cryptosporidium.
PB91-138420/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Air Quality Criteria for Lead: Supplement to  the
1986 Addendum.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Environmental Criteria  and  Assessment
Office.
J. M. Davis, and L D. Grant. Aug 90,87p EPA/600/8-
89/049F, ECAO-R-0297
See also PB87-142386.

The 1986 U.S. EPA document Air Quality Criteria for
Lead  (EPA-600/8-83/028 aF-dF) evaluated in detail
the latest scientific information concerning  sources,
routes, and levels of lead (Pb) exposure and associat-
ed  health effects and potential risks. An Addendum
(1986) to that document focuses on additional, newer
studies concerning the effects of lead on cardiovascu-
lar function and on early physical and neurobehavioral
development. The present Supplement to the above
materials  evaluates further still  newer information
emerging  in  the  published literature  concerning (1)
lead effects on blood pressure and other cardiovascu-
lar  endpoints and (2) the effects of lead  exposure
during pregnancy or early  postnatally on  birth out-
comes and/or the  neonatal physical and neuropsy-
chological development of affected children.

Keywords: 'Public health, 'Lead(Metal), 'Toxicity, 'Air
pollution.      Humans,      Risk,      Exposure,
ConcentratJon(Composition), Blood pressure, Preg-
nancy, Cardiovascular system, Children, Growth, Nerv-
ous system disorders. Tests, Tables(Data), Health as-
sessment. Air pollution effects(Humans).
PB91-138818/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Revision of CERCLA Civil Judicial Settlement Au-
thorities under Delegations 14-13-B and 14-14-E.
Directive (Final).
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
17 Jun 88,8p EPA/9012.10-A

The directive implements revisions to the consultation
and concurrence requirements of the civil judicial set-
tlement delegations, which are designed to streamline
the enforcement process and help achieve Agency re-
medial action and cost recovery goals. These revisions
expand Regional authority to approve CERCLA settle-
ments. The directive supplements a portion of directive
No.  9012.10  'Redelegation  of  Authority  Under
CERCLA and SARA,' dated May 25,1988.

Keywords: 'Refuse disposal, 'Penalties, 'Office of
Solid Waste  and Emergency Response, 'Comprehen-
sive Environment Response Compensation and Liabil-
ity Act, Directives, Civil judicial settlement authorities.
PB91-138826/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Waiver of Concurrence on De Minimis Generator
Settlements. Directive (Final).
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
15 Jul 68,5pEPA/9012.10-A-l

The directive authorizes Region I at Type Level 2 of
the revised CERCLA civil judicial settlement authorities
under Delegation 14-13-B  and 14-14-E, providing the
Region with delegated authority to transmit de minimis
settlements under section  122(g)(1)(A) to the Depart-
ment of Justice with Headquarters  consultation. The
directive  supplements a  portion of  directive  No.
9012.10-a 'Revision of CERCLA Judicial Settlement
Authorities Under Delegations 14-13-B and 14-14-E,'
dated June 17,1988.

Keywords: 'Refuse  disposal, 'Penalties,  'Office of
Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 'Comprehen-
sive Environment Response Compensation and Liabil-
ity Act, 'Generator settlements, Directives, Amend-
ments, Civil judicial settlement authorities.
PB91-138834/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Redelegation of Civil Judicial Settlement Authori-
ties under Delegation 14-13-B and 14-14-E. Direc-
tive (Final).
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
18 Aug 88,9p EPA/9012.10-B

The document is composed of redelegatipns and con-
sultation on judicial settlements and de minimis settle-
ments to Director of the Office of  Waste Programs,
fromAA/OSWER.

Keywords: 'Refuse disposal, 'Penalties,  'Office of
Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 'Comprehen-
sive Environment Response Compensation and Liabil-
ity Act, Directives, Amendments, Civil judicial settle-
ment authorities.
PB91-139006/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Small Cost Recovery Referrals. Final rept.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
12 Jul 85,10p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9832.6

The directive clarifies EPA policy on referring CERCLA
cost recovery cases valued at less than $200,000.
There are two memoranda attached, the first of which
is entitled 'Preparation of Hazardous Waste Referrals,'
dated July 30,1985. The memorandum provides guid-
ance on preparing referral packages meeting Depart-
ment of Justice requirements. The second memoran-
dum, entitled 'Small Cost Recovery Referrals,' dated
July 12,1985, states that although the Agency places
high priority  on larger cases, there are situations in
which cost recovery of small cases is appropriate.

Keywords: 'Supertund,  'Waste management,  'Haz-
ardous materials, Benefit cost analysis, Cost repay-
ment, US EPA, Law enforcement. Case studies, Ex-
penses, Financing, 'Office of Solid Waste and Emer-
gency Response, Comprehensive Environmental Re-
sponse Compensation and Liability Act.
PB91-139014/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Guidance   Regarding   CERCLA  Enforcement
against Bankrupt Parties. Final rept
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
24 May 84,47p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9832.7
See also PB91 -139022.

The  directive  assists the  Regions  in developing
CERCLA enforcement actions against bankrupt par-
ties. The guidance is intended to encourage agressive
enforcement against insolvent parties and ensure na-
tional consistency in  current and future bankruptcy
cases brought by the Agency. The guidance is supple-
mented by directive no. 9832.7-1 a,  which used to be
directive no. 9832.8, 'Revised Hazardous Waste Bank-
ruptcy Guidance,' dated May 23,1986.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Hazardous  materials, 'Waste
management, Guidelines, Law enforcement,  Bank-
ruptcy, Benefit  cost analysis. Expenses,  Cost repay-
ment, Administrative procedures, Liabilities, Financing,
'Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensa-
tion and Liability Act Potentially responsible parties.
PB91-139311/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Municipal Settlements. Final rept.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
6 Dec 89,39p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9834.13

The directive establishes EPA's interim policy on set-
tlements involving municipal waste.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Waste management, 'Munic-
ipal wastes, 'Remedial action. Law enforcement US
EPA,  Pollution regulations, Sewage  sludge,  Waste
treatment, 'Municipal Settlement  Policy,  'Office  of
Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Comprehen-
sive Environmental Response Compensation and Li-
ability Act, Cooperative agreements.
PB91-139329/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Interim CERCLA Settlement Policy.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
5 Dec 84,24p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.0
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The directive discusses private party cleanup and con-
tribution proposals under CERCLA. It is supplemented
by directives no. 9835.2 and 9834.2.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Waste management, 'Haz-
ardous materials, Remedial action, Law enforcement
Financing, Notice of probable violation. Pollution regu-
lations, Expenses, 'Office of Solid Waste and Emer-
gency Response, Cleanup operations, Comprehensive
Environmental Response Compensation and Liability
Act, Potentially responsible parties.
PB91-139337/REB
                                PC A03/MF A01
Interim  Guidance  on  Potentially  Responsible
Party Participation in Remedial Investigations and
Feasibility Studies. Final rept.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
16 May 88,42p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.1 A
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The directive sets forth policies and procedures gov-
erning potentially responsible party participation in the
remedial investigations and feasibility studies process,
including initiation of PRP searches, PRP notifications,
development of agreements, and oversight of RI/FS
activities.  The document supersedes directive no.
9835.1 'Participation of Potentially Responsible Par-
ties in Development of RIs and FSs under CERCLA,'
dated March 3,1984.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Waste management  'Haz-
ardous      materials,      'Remedial      action,
Law(Jurisprudence), Law enforcement, Pollution regu-
lations, Feasibility studies, Guidelines,  'Office of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response, 'Potentially respon-
sible parties, Cooperative agreements, Comprehen-
sive Environmental Response Compensation and Li-
ability Act.
PB91-139345/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Guidance on Drafting Consent Decrees in Hazard-
ous Waste Cases.
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
1 May 85,26p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.2

The directive focuses on the consent decree provi-
sions which are vital to settlement in hazardous waste
cases, and are handled  differently or not at all under
other  programs. The directive supplements directive
no. 9835.0 'Interim CERCLA Settlement Policy,' dated
Decembers, 1984.

Keywords: 'Superfund,  'Waste management, 'Haz-
ardous materials, Consent orders, Case studies, Ad-
ministrative procedures,  Guidelines, Notice of proba-
ble violation, Law enforcement Expenses, Penalties,
'Office of Solid Waste  and Emergency Response,
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensa-
tion and Liability Act.
PB91-139352/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Revisions to the Interim Guidance on PRP Partici-
pation In Remedial Investigations and Feasibility
Studies. Final rept
Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
7 Feb 89,42p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.2A
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The directive sets forth policies and procedures gov-
erning potentially responsible party participation in the
remedial investigations and feasibility studies process,
including initiation  of PRP searches, PRP notification,
development of agreements and oversight of RI/FS
activities.  The  directive supersedes  directive  no.
9835.1 'Participation of PRPs in Development of RIs
12     Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
and FSs under CERCLA1 and directive no. 9355.3-01
'Guidance on RI/FS.'

Keywords: "Superfund,  'Waste management, "Haz-
ardous materials, Law enforcement, Guidelines, Re-
medial action, Feasibility studies, Notice of probable
violation,  Administrative procedures,  Legal aspects,
'Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Po-
tentially responsible parties, Cooperative agreements,
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensa-
tion and Liability Act.
PB91-139360/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Guidance of the Use  of  Stipulated Penalties in
Hazardous Waste Consent Decrees.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
27 Sep 89, 22p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.2B

The directive provides guidance on the use of stipulat-
ed penalties in hazardous waste consent decrees. The
directive supplements directive no. 9835.2 'Guidance
on  Draft  Consent Decrees  in  Hazardous  Waste
Cases,' dated May 1,1985.

Keywords: "Superfund,  "Waste management,  "Haz-
ardous materials, Law enforcement, Penalties, Per-
mits, Guidelines, Remedial action.  "Office of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response, Comprehensive En-
vironmental  Response  Compensation and Liability
Act.
PB91-139378/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Administrative Order on Consent for Remedial In-
vestigations/Feasibility Study.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
5 Feb 90,34p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.3-1 A

The directive provides a model order that is designed
to replace the outdated model order that was issued
prior to the CERCLA amendments. The model order is
designed to facilitate settlement negotiations by serv-
ing as an opening handposition, and to facilitate na-
tional consistency. The directive supersedes directive
no. 9835.3  'Model Administrative Order for  Private
Party Conduct for RI/FSs,'  dated January 31, 1985,
and supplements directive no. 9835.8 'Model State-
ment of Work for Remedial Investigations and Feasibil-
ity Study Conducted by Potentially  Responsible Parties
(PRPs),' dated June 2,1989.

Keywords:  "Remedial  action, "Superfund, "Waste
management, "Hazardous  materials. Administrative
procedures, Feasibility  studies, Pollution regulations,
Law enforcement, Community relations, Risk assess-
ment, Public health, "Office of Solid Waste and Emer-
gency Response, Potentially responsible parties, Prer-
emedial actions,  Comprehensive  Environmental Re-
sponse Compensation and Liability Act.
PB91-139436/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Model Statement of Work for a Remedial Investi-
gation and Feasibility Study Conducted by Poten-
tially Responsible Parties. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
2 Jun 89.35p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.8

The directive provides potentially responsible parties
with direction in performing tasks that are required to
successfully complete a  remedial  investigation  and
feasibility study. The model statement of work is used
in conjunction with OERR's October 1988 RI/FS guid-
ance, and closely follows the model  RI/FS administra-
tive order on consent. The directive supplements di-
rective no, 9355.3-01.

Keywords:  "Superfund, "Waste management, "Haz-
ardous materials, "Remedial action,  Law enforcement,
Pollution regulations. Feasibility study, Administrative
procedures, Community  relations,  "Office of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response, "Potentially respon-
sible parties, Remedial response.
PB91-139477/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Comparative Analysis of Remedies  Selected in
the Superfund Program during FY 87, FY 88 and
FY 89. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
20 Jun 90,179p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9835.13
The directive determines if there are differences be-
tween remedies selected at  Fund-lead and Enforce-
ment-lead sites. For the bulk of the analysis,  sites
whose remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS)
was  conducted with Superfund  money  (Fund-lead)
were compared with those whose RI/FS was conduct-
ed by potentially responsible  parties (PRPs) (Enforce-
ment-lead). In addition, sites  whose remedial design/
remedial action (RD/RA) is expected to be conducted
by PRPs  were compared with sites where the Fund
was expected to conduct RD/RA. The latter compari-
son was  developed to consider potential influence
where PRPs do not conduct the RI/FS, but offer or are
expected to conduct the RD/RA.

Keywords: "Hazardous  materials, "Superfund, "Waste
management,  "Remedial action, Law enforcement,
Feasibility studies, Comparison, Site surveys, Financial
assistance, "Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Re-
sponse,   Remedial  designs,   Potentially  responsible
parties, Record of Decision.
PB91-139840/REB               PC A03/MF A01
RCRA Section 3008(h) Interim Status Corrective
Action Authority.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
16 Dec 85,21 p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9901.1
See also PB91-139857.

The directive provides the Agency's initial interpreta-
tion of the terms used in section 3008(h) of RCRA. The
guidance also discusses current delegations of author-
ity and requirements and procedures for taking admin-
istrative enforcement  actions,  suggests situations in
which civil judicial action may be appropriate, and de-
scribes the relationship between section 3008(h) ac-
tions and other enforcement and permitting authorities
relevant to corrective  action. The directive is supple-
mented by directive no. 9901.1a, which used to be di-
rective no. 9901.2.

Keywords: "Superfund, "Waste management, "Haz-
ardous materials, Law enforcement, Pollution regula-
tions, Administrative  procedures,  Remedial  action,
Law(Jurisprudence), "Resource Conservation and Re-
covery Act,  "Remedial response,  "Office of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response.
PB91-139857/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Enforcement of Financial Responsibility Require-
ments for RCRA Treatment, Storage, and Dispos-
al Facilities That Are Closing.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
20 Apr 87, 9p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9901.1A
See also PB91-139840.

The directive describes the  process for  determining
whether closing RCRA treatment, storage, and dispos-
al facilities that did not establish financial assurance
may use a more flexible schedule to meet closure and
post-closure costs in Part A  of the document. Part B
describes enforcement  of  liability  requirements for
closing treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The
directive supplements directive no. 9901.00. 'Enforce-
ment of Liability  Requirements for  Operating RCRA
Treatment,  Storage, and Disposal  Facilities,' dated
October 29,1988.

Keywords: "Superfund,  "Waste management, "Haz-
ardous materials, Law enforcement,  Waste treatment,
Waste storage, Waste disposal, Financing, Cost analy-
sis, Pollution regulations, Remedial  action, "Office of
Solid Waste and  Emergency Response, Comprehen-
sive Environmental Response Compensation and  Li-
ability Act, Potentially responsible parties, Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act, Preremedial actions.
PB91-139865/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Guidance for Public Involvement in RCRA Section
3008(h) Actions. Final rept.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
5 May 87, 8p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9901.3

The directive provides guidance on public involvement
actions taken under section 3008(h) of RCRA.

Keywords: "Superfund, "Waste management, "Haz-
ardous materials, Public information, Guidelines, Re-
medial action.  Law enforcement,  "Office of Solid
Waste and  Emergency  Response, Cleanup  oper-
ations, Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act,
Community relations.
PB91-139907/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Policy for  Managing  Leachate at PCB Landfills.
Final rept.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
16 Jan 87,18p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9903.1
Portions of this document are not fully legible.

The  directive sets forth requirements that apply  to
owners and operators of TSCA-approved landfills with
regard to the  management of PCB-containing lea-
chates.

Keywords:  "Superfund, "Waste management, "Haz-
ardous materials, Earth fills, Leaching,  Operating, Law
enforcement, Environmental transport, Pollution regu-
lations, Guidelines, "Office of Solid Waste and Emer-
gency  Response,  "Polychlorinated biphenyls,  Toxic
Substances Control Act, Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act.
PB91-139915/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Transmittal of the RCRA Ground-Water Enforce-
ment Strategy. Final rept.
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
22 Jul 85, 24p OSWER DIRECTIVE-9905.0

The directive provides strategy to improve compliance
at land disposal facilities subject to ground-water mon-
itoring requirements; and establishes a nationally con-
sistent baseline of information on land disposal facili-
ties and assists Regions in implementing Regionally-
specific efforts.

Keywords: "Superfund,  "Waste  management, "Haz-
ardous materials.  Land disposal, Law enforcement,
Ground water,  Water pollution  sampling, Standards
compliance. Regional analysis, Inspections, Decision
making, "Office of Solid Waste  and Emergency Re-
sponse, Baseline measurements. Resource Conserva-
tion and Recovery Act.
PB91-140376/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Chromosomal Aberration Data Analysis and Inter-
pretation System. Version 1.0. User's Guide.
Integrated Lab. Systems, Research Triangle Park, NC.
R. R. Tice, and A. C. Pellom. Jan 91,157p EPA/600/8-
90/086
Contract EPA-68-C8-0068
Sponsored  by  Environmental Monitoring  Systems
Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

The user's manual provides guidance to researchers
and the regulatory  community for interacting with a
data analysis and statistical interpretation system, des-
ignated as CA (Chromosomal Aberration). CA is dedi-
cated to the  in vivo chromosome aberration assay, a
routinely used genetic toxicology assay for chemical
compounds which may be of health concern.  The ob-
jective in developing this system has been to promote
consistency and intercomparability  of assay  test re-
sults across  laboratories, thus providing researchers
and government decision  makers with a means to
assure comparable analyses of test data. The  CA data
analysis system  has been  developed in consultation
with a panel of biostatisticians and experts in  the field
of cytogenetics.  Software for  executing CA and two
sets of test data, contained on two 5.25 inch floppy
disks, accompany the user's guide.

Keywords: "Toxicology,  "Chromosomes, "Chemical
analysis, "Assaying, "Chemical compounds, In vivo
analysis.  Statistical  analysis,  Biomedical measure-
ment. User manuals(Computer programs), Laborato-
ries, Comparison, Interpretation, Regulations, Guide-
lines,  "Genetic toxicology, "Chromosome aberration
assay. Computer software, Biostatisticians.
PB91-141796/REB               PC A19/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
                                                                                                                              June  1991     13

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment  Pro-
gram: Ecological Indicators.
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. Environmental Sciences
Div.
C. T. Hunsaker, and D. E. Carpenter. Sep 90,432p
EPA/600/3-90/060
Contract EPA-68-02-4444
Prepared in cooperation with NSI Technology Services
Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC. Sponsored by En-
vironmental  Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.

EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated
the Environmental  Monitoring  and Assessment Pro-
gram (EMAP) to provide data for better assessments
of the condition of the nation's ecological  resources.
Over the next five years, several integrated  monitoring
networks will be implemented to (1) estimate current
status, extent, changes, and trends in indicators of ec-
ological condition, (2)  monitor indicators of pollutant
exposure and habitat condition and seek associations
among indicators that  provide plausible explanations
for adverse condition; and (3) provide periodic reports
on status and trends to the EPA Administrator and the
public. These networks will yield statistically unbiased
estimates with quantifiable confidence limits on region-
al and national scales for periods of years to decades.
The report presents the approach  proposed to de-
scribe ecological condition; defines a common strate-
gy within the program  for selecting, prioritizing, and
evaluating indicators. The  report also summarizes the
indicators chosen for  evaluation  as core  indicators,
which will be  implemented in regional and national
monitoring of six categories of resources: near-coastal
waters,  inland  surface  waters, wetlands, forests, arid
lands, and agroecosystems.

Keywords; 'Ecology, 'Pollution, Monitoring, Indicator
species. Exposure,  Periodic variations. Trends, Yield,
Risk assessment. Habitats.
PB91-141804/REB                PC A06/MF A01
National Stream Survey Database Guide.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
M. E. Mitch, P. R. Kaufmann, A. T. Hertihy, W. S.
Overton. and M. J. Sale. Jut 90,104p EPA/600/8-90/
055

The National Stream Survey (NSS), conducted in the
spring of 1985 and 1986, is one component of the U.S.
Environmental  Protection  Agency's National Surface
Water Survey. This effort is in support of the National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. The NSS was
a synoptic, spring survey of 500 streams in regions of
the Southeastern and  Mid-Atlantic United States ex-
pected  to contain larger numbers of  low alkalinity
streams. The NSS is based on a probability sample
from an explicitly defined population of surface waters.
In the NSS, 500 streams were sampled, representing a
regional  population  of 64,700 stream  reaches. The
NSS database includes stream and watershed physi-
cal characteristics, in situ measurements, and water
chemistry data. Accompanying the database is a com-
prehensive user's guide that provides an overview of
the NSS design, database structure,  and transfer
media.

Keywords:  'Acidification,  'Surface  waters, Surveys,
Streams, Alkalinity,  Populations,  Sampling,  Water-
sheds, Measurement, Observation,  Water chemistry,
Variance(Statistics),  Estimates, Distribution functions,
'Acid precipitation. Data base, Users guide.
PB91-141812/REB                PC A09/MF A02
Environmental Monitoring Systems  Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Direct/Delayed Response Project Laboratory Op-
erations and Quality Assurance Report for Prepa-
ration of Soils from the  Mid-Appalachian Region
of the United States.
Lockheed Engineering  and Sciences Co., Inc., Las
Vegas, NV.
M. L Papp, and R. D. Van Remortel. Jul 90,194p EPA/
600/4-90/017
Contracts EPA-68-03-3249, EPA-68-03-3246
Sponsored  by Environmental Monitoring Systems
Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

The Mid-Appalachian soil  survey was conducted in
1988-89 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency  (EPA)  Direct/Delayed  Response  Project
(DDRP). The DDRP is a research program designed to
predict the long-term response of watersheds and sur-
face waters in the United States to acidic deposition.
The document describes the quality assurance pro-
gram  and operations of the preparation laboratory
during the Mid-Appalachian survey and the results of
the data quality assessment. The document was pre-
pared primarily for the data users who will utilize the
data for prediction and analysis of soil and aquatic re-
sponses to acidic deposition. Data quality was evaluat-
ed by using quality evaluation and control samples to
describe the precision, accuracy, completeness, rep-
resentativeness, and comparability of the data.

Keywords: "Acidification, 'Watersheds, 'Soil surveys.
Preparation, Quality control, Laboratories, Aquatic ani-
mals,  Evaluation, Accuracy, Tests, Recommendations,
Equipment, Soil properties. Soil  water, Middle Appa-
lachian Region(United States).
PB91-141820/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
User's Guide to TSCREEN: A Model for Screening
Toxic Air Pollutant Concentrations. Final rept.
Pacific Environmental Services, Inc., Durham, NC.
K. Stroupe, S. Boone, and C. Thames. Dec 90,37p
EPA/450/4-90/013
Contract EPA-68-02-4464
See also PB89-134340. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

The user's guide describes how to start, enter/edit,
use help system, back up data  and  compile  the
TSCREEN model. TSCREEN is a model for estimating
ambient pollutant concentrations for a variety of re-
lease   scenarios  from  Superfund sites and other
sources of air toxics  releases. The computer program
implements the procedures developed in a document
entitled 'A Workbook of Screening Techniques for As-
sessing Impacts of Toxic Air Pollutants,' PB89-134340
and should be used in conjunction with the workbook.
TSCREEN has a front-end control program that also
provides, by use of interactive menus and data entry
screens, the same steps as the workbook. An exten-
sive help system is  provided to  guide the user. Text
edit and graphical display capabilities are also provid-
ed.

Keywords: 'Toxic substances, 'Air pollution, 'Com-
puterized simulation, 'User manuals(Computer pro-
grams), 'Hazardous  materials, Mathematical models.
Atmospheric  diffusion, Concentration(Composition),
Superfund, Waste disposal, Pollution sources, Air qual-
ity display  model, Meteorology, Plumes, Chemical
compounds, 'TSCREEN model.
PB91-141838/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
5-Methylhexanoic Acid Developmental  Toxicity
Testing.
ManTech Environmental Technology,  Inc., Research
Triangle Park, NC.
M. G. Narotsky. Jan 91,23p EPA/600/1-91 /001
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Sponsored  by Health  Effects Research  Lab., Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.

As part of an investigation of the developmental ef-
fects and structure-activity relationships of aliphatic
acids,  5-methylhexanoic acid was  administered by
gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestation days 6-15
at doses of 0, 300, and 400  mg/kg/day. The dams
were allowed to deliver and their litters were examined
through postnatal day 6. Pups that  were found dead
were examined for soft-tissue alterations. On day 6,
two survivors per litter were preserved for skeletal ex-
amination. Maternal toxicity was demonstrated at both
300  and 400 mg/kg by reduced weight gains, altered
respiration  (rales, dyspnea) and death. Body weight
losses early in the treatment period were also evident
at 400 mg/kg. In spite of the marked maternal toxicity
present, there were no clear  developmental effects;
litter size, pre- and postnatal viability, and pup weights
were unaffected by treatment. Skeletal examinations
of selected pups also revealed no compound effects.

Keywords:  'Toxicity,  'Aliphatic  acids,  'Valproate,
'Teratogens,  Rats, Dose-response  relationships. Fe-
males,      Body      weight,       Tables(Data),
Reproduction(Biology),  Litter  size.  Structure-activity
relationship, Parturition, * 5-Methylhexanoic acid.
PB91-141846/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Compilation of  Information on  Alternative Bar-
riers for Liner and Cover Systems. Interim rept.
Texas Univ. at Austin. Dept. of Civil Engineering.
D. E. Daniel, and P. M. Estornell. Oct 90,93p EPA/
600/2-91/002
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

On June 7-8, 1990, a Workshop attended by approxi-
mately 75 people was held  in Cincinnati, Ohio, to
present and discuss alternative barriers for liner and
cover systems. Alternative barriers include thin, manu-
factured,  low-permeability materials  that are being
used and being proposed for use in liner and cover
systems for landfills, waste impoundments, site reme-
diation projects,  secondary  containment structures,
and other facilities. In some cases, the materials are
being considered as an extra component of a liner or
cover system, e.g., to  back up a flexible membrane
liner (FML), and in other cases the alternative barriers
are being considered as a substitute for a thicker layer
of compacted,  low-permeability soil. The report con-
tains a compilation of information available concerning
alternative barrier materials and summarizes the main
points  brought out in the workshop. There are four
main alternative barrier materials currently being pro-
duced. Three of them consist of a thin layer of benton-
ite sandwiched between  two  geotextiles, and the
fourth consists of a thin layer of bentonite glued to an
FML. All of the materials appear to have a very low hy-
draulic conductivity to  water (between 1 x 10 to the
10th power cm/s and 1 x 10  to the 8th power cm/s,
depending upon the conditions of testing). All of the
materials are seamed in the  field  by overlapping
sheets of the material and relying upon the bentonite
to form its own seal when it hydrates. Data on the hy-
draulic integrity of the seams are much less complete
compared to data on the materials themselves. The
expansive nature of bentonite provides the bentonitic
blankets with the capability of selfhealing small punc-
tures,  cracks, or other defects. The materials have
many advantages, including fast installation with light-
weight equipment. The most serious shortcomings are
a lack of data, particularly on field  performance, and
the low shear strength of bentonite.

Keywords:  'Earth fills, 'Barrier materials, 'Linings,
'Bentonite,   Waste   storage,   Solid   wastes,
Graphs(Charts), Tables(Data), Remedial action. Meet-
ings, Literature surveys, Hydraulic conductivity.
PB91-142794/REB                PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Atrazine.
Dynamac Corp., Rockville, MD.
May 90,126p
Supersedes PB89-192082.  Sponsored  by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Criteria
and Standards Div.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Atrazine through the review of several studies.
These studies include animal  and humans. Physical
and chemical properties are discussed. Carcinogen-
icity of the compound is reviewed and  evaluated
through various studies. Any existing guidelines and
standards are presented.

Keywords:  'Potable water,  'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Herbicides, Physical properties, Chemical prop-
erties, Public health, Exposure, Humans, Reaction ki-
netics,   Animals,    Neoplasms,    Food,   Tests,
Tables(Data), Mammals, 'Drinking  water, 'Water pol-
lution standards, 'Health assessment, "Atrazine.
PB91-142802/REB                PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Pentachlor-
ophenol. Final rept.
Syracuse Research Corp., NY.
D. L. Tullis, D. A. Gray, and P. R. Durkin. Jan 91,127p
ECAO-CIN-407
Contract EPA-68-03-3112
Supersedes PB89-192249.Portions  of this document
are not fully legible. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Environmental Criteria
and Assessment Office.
 14    Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Pentachlorophenol through the review of sev-
eral  studies.  These  studies include animal  and
humans. Physical  and chemical properties are dis-
cussed. Carcinogenicity of the compound is reviewed
and evaluated through various studies. Any existing
guidelines and standards are presented.

Keywords:  *Potable water,  'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Organic compounds, Pesticides,  Physical prop-
erties, Chemical properties. Public health, Exposure,
Humans,  Reaction  kinetics,  Wood  preservatives,
Workers, Skin(Anatomy), Respiratory system, 'Drink-
ing water, 'Water pollution standards, 'Health assess-
ment, 'Pentachlorophenol.
PB91-142810/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Drinking Water  Criteria Document  for  Aldicarb.
Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
J. F. Risher. Oct 90,178p ECAO-CIN-420
Supersedes PB89-192066.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Aldicarb through the review of several studies.
These studies  include animal and  humans. Physical
and chemical properties are discussed.  Carcinogen-
icity of  the  compound  is  reviewed and  evaluated
through  various studies. Any existing guidelines and
standards are presented.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Insecticides, Physical properties. Chemical prop-
erties, Public health. Exposure, Humans, Reaction ki-
netics, Dosage, Animals, Malignant neoplasms, Inges-
tion,   Stomach,   Metabolism,   Tissues(Biology),
Tables(Data), 'Drinking water, 'Water pollution stand-
ards, 'Health assessment, 'Aldicarb.
PB91-142828/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Drinking Water  Criteria Document  on Selenium.
Draft rept.
Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.
31 Oct 90,192pTR-1242-65
Contract EPA-68-C8-0033
Supersedes  PB89-192264.  Sponsored  by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC. Criteria
and Standards Div.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Selenium through the review of several stud-
ies. These studies include animal and humans. Physi-
cal and chemical properties are discussed. Carcino-
genicity of the  compound is reviewed and evaluated
through various studies.  Any existing  guidelines and
standards are presented.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy,  'Selenium, Physical  properties. Chemical proper-
ties,  Public health, Exposure, Humans,  Reaction kinet-
ics, Animals, Mining, Copper, Coal,  Byproducts, Air
pollution,   Adsorption,   Gastrointestinal   system,
Tables(Data), 'Drinking water, 'Water pollution stand-
ards, 'Health assessment.
 PB91-142836/REB                PC A08/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
 Criteria and Standards Div.
 Drinking Water Criteria Document on Nitrate/Ni-
 trite.
 Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.
 21 Dec 90,161pTR-1242-60B
 Contract EPA-68-C8-0033
 Supersedes PB89-192223.  Sponsored by  Environ-
 mental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Criteria
 and Standards Div.

 The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
 fects of Nitrate/Nitrite through the review of several
 studies. The studies include animal and humans. Phys-
 ical and chemical properties are discussed.  Carcino-
 genicity of the compound is reviewed and evaluated
 through various studies. Any existing guidelines  and
 standards are presented.

 Keywords:  'Potable water,  'Water  quality, 'Toxicol-
 ogy, 'Inorganic  nitrates,  'Nitrites,  Physical properties.
 Chemical   properties,   Public   health,  Exposure,
 Humans,      Reaction      kinetics,       Animals,
 Reproduction(Biology), Cardiovascular system, Blood,
Carcinogens,   Fertilizers,  Food  processing,  Risk,
'Drinking water, 'Water pollution  standards,  'Health
assessment.
PB91-142844/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Drinking Water Criteria Document on Chromium.
Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.
20 Dec 90,186p TR-1242-64A
Contract EPA-68-C8-0033
Supersedes  PB89-192124.  Sponsored  by  Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC. Criteria
and Standards Div.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Chromium through the review of several stud-
ies. The studies include animal and humans. Physical
and chemical properties  are discussed.  Carcinogen-
icity  of  the  compound  is reviewed and evaluated
through various studies.  Any existing guidelines and
standards are presented.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality,  'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Chromium, Physical properties, Chemical prop-
erties, Public health, Exposure, Humans, Reaction ki-
netics,   Animals,   Carcinogens,   Skin(Anatomy),
Cells(Biology), Respiration, Risk, Chromates,  Industrial
plants, Tables(Data), 'Drinking water, 'Water pollution
standards, 'Healthassessment.
PB91-142851/REB                PC A09/MF A02
Drinking Water Criteria  Document  for Lindane.
Final draft rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
W. Thompson, and M. Melzer. Jan 88,195p ECAO-
CIN-402
Supersedes PB89-192199.  Prepared  in cooperation
with Franklin Research Center, Philadelphia, PA.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Lindane through the review of several studies.
These studies include animal and humans. Physical
and chemical properties are discussed. Carcinogen-
icity of the compound  is  reviewed  and evaluated
through various studies.  Any existing  guidelines  and
standards are presented.

Keywords:  'Potable water,  'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Chlorobenzenes, 'Pesticides, Physical proper-
ties, Chemical  properties,  Public  health, Exposure,
Humans, Reaction kinetics, Animals,  Halohydrocar-
bons, Carcinogens, Adsorption, Skin(Anatomy), Blood,
Immunologic diseases, 'Drinking water, 'Water pollu-
tion standards, 'Health assessment.
 PB91-142869/REB               PC A08/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Criteria and Standards Div.
 Drinking Water Criteria Document on Barium.
 Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.
 20 Dec 90,162p TR-1242-62A
 Contract EPA-68-C8-0033
 Supersedes PB89-192090.  Sponsored by Environ-
 mental Protection  Agency, Washington, DC. Criteria
 and Standards Div.

 The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
 fects of Barium through the review of several studies.
 These studies include animal and humans. Physical
 and chemical  properties are discussed. Carcinogen-
 icity  of the compound  is reviewed  and evaluated
 through various studies. Any existing guidelines and
 standards are presented.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
 ogy,  'Barium, Physical properties. Chemical proper-
 ties. Public health, Exposure, Humans, Reaction kinet-
 ics.        Animals,         Children,        Tests,
 Concentration(Composition),  Cardiovascular system,
 Metabolism, 'Drinking water, 'Water pollution stand-
 ards, 'Health assessment.
 PB91-142877/REB               PC A14/MF A02
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Drinking Water Criteria Document for Heptachlor,
 Heptachlor Epoxide and Chlordane. Final rept.
 Syracuse Research Corp., NY.
 S. B. Wilbur, D. K. Basu, M. B. Remington, and P.
 Durkin. 13 Aug 90,303p ECAO-CIN-406
Contract EPA-68-03-3112
Supersedes  PB89-192157. Sponsored by  Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.  Environ-
mental Criteria and Assessment Office.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and chlordane
through the review of several studies. The studies in-
clude animal and  humans. Physical  and chemical
properties are discussed. Carcinogenicity of the com-
pound is reviewed and evaluated through various stud-
ies. Any existing guidelines and standards are present-
ed.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy,  'Insecticides, Heptachlor, Physical  properties,
Chemical   properties,  Public   health,  Exposure,
Humans, Reaction kinetics, Diets,  Carcinogens, Risk,
Chloradane, Reproduction(Biology), Respiration,  Air
pollution.  Food,   Animals, Tables(Data),  'Drinking
water, 'Water  pollution standards, 'Health assess-
ment.
PB91-142885/REB                       PC A07
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
Addendum to Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis of
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for
Synthetic Organic Chemicals (April 1989).  Final
rept.
Miller (Wade) Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.
Oct 90,126p*
See also PB89-192405.Portions of this document are
not fully legible. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion  Agency,  Washington,  DC.  Office  of  Drinking
Water.

The document contains the executive summary of the
number of systems affected, national cost estimates,
national benefit estimates, and impacts on small sys-
tems.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Regulations,  'Cost analy-
sis, 'Water  pollution control,  Benefit cost  analysis,
Water treatment, Monitoring, State government, Na-
tional  government,   Estimates,   Ground   water,
Tables(Data),  'Synthetic organic chemicals,  Small
water systems, 'Drinking water.
 PB91-143081/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Update  of  the Regulation and Policy Matrices
 Dated September 1988.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Municipal Pollution Control.
 Sep 88,24p
 SeealsoPB89-114219.

 The document is an update to the publication entitled
 'Regulations and Policy Matrices - A Guide to  Rules
 Governing Grants Awarded Under the Construction
 Grants Programs - Update - 1988'  (September  1988)
 (PB89-114219/AS).

 Keywords: 'Grants, 'Construction, 'Water pollution,
 Regulations,  Municipalities,  Financing,  Guidelines,
 'Sewage treatment  plants, Construction Grants Pro-
 gram.
 PB91-143370/REB                PC A12/MF A02
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Drinking  Water  Criteria  Document  for  Styrene.
 Final rept.
 Syracuse Research Corp., NY.
 B. C. Hansen, D. A. Gray, and J. Santodonato. Jan 91,
 253p ECAO-CIN-409
 Contract EPA-68-03-3112
 Supersedes PB89-192272. Sponsored by Environ-
 mental  Protection Agency, Cincinnati,  OH. Environ-
 mental Criteria and Assessment Office.

 The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
 fects of Styrene through the review of several studies.
 These studies include animal and humans. Physical
 and chemical  properties are discussed. Carcinogen-
 icity of the compound  is  reviewed and evaluated
 through various studies. Any existing guidelines and
 standards are presented.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality,  'Toxicol-
 ogy, 'Styrene, Physical properties, Chemical proper-
 ties, Public health, Exposure, Humans, Reaction kinet-
                                                                                                                                June 1991      15

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
 ics,  Animals,  Carcinogens, Kidney,  Liver, Nervous
 system, Mutagens. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, 'Drinking
 water, 'Water pollution  standards, 'Health  assess-
 ment.
PB91-143388/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Drinking Water Criteria Document for 1,2-Dichlor-
opropane. Final rept.
Syracuse Research Corp., NY.
D. K. Basu, J. R. Anderson, and J. T. Coleman. 3 Aug
90, 99p ECAO-CIN-404
Contract EPA-68-03-3112
Supersedes PB89-192322.  Sponsored  by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,  OH. Environ-
mental Criteria and Assessment Office.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects  of 1,2-Dichloropropane through the review of
several studies. These studies  include animal and
humans.  Physical and chemical  properties are dis-
cussed. Carcinogenicity of the  compound is reviewed
and evaluated through various studies.  Any existing
guidelines and standards are presented.

Keywords:  'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Chloroprqpanes, Physical properties, Chemical
properties, Public health, Exposure, Humans, Reaction
kinetics. Air pollution, Fumigation, Soils,  Animals, Car-
cinogens,  Neoplasms, Tests, Dosage, Tables(Data),
'Drinking water, 'Water pollution standards, 'Health
assessment, "Dichloropropane.
PB91-143396/REB               PC A09/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Drinking  Water Criteria  Document  for  Dichlor-
oethylenes (1,1-Dichloroethylene),  (eis-1,2-Dich-
loroethytene), and (trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene).
Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.
F. P. Guengerich, C. Klaassen, J. Lantz, and D.
Jenkins. 19 Dec 90,200p
Contract EPA-68-02-3659
Supersedes PB89-192512.  Sponsored  by  Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Criteria
and Standards Div.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Dichloroethylenes through the review of sever-
al studies. These studies include animal and humans.
Physical and chemical properties are discussed. Car-
cinogenicity of the compound is reviewed and evaluat-
ed through various studies. Any existing guidelines and
standards are presented.

Keywords:  'Potable water, 'Water quality,  'Toxicol-
ogy,  Physical properties, Chemical properties. Public
health. Exposure, Humans, Reaction kinetics, Plastic
coatings,      Food      packaging,       Animals,
Concentration(Comppsition),  Tests,  Kidney,   Liver,
Tables(Data), 'Drinking water, 'Water pollution stand-
ards, 'Health assessment, 'Dichloroethylene,  'Vola-
tile organic compounds.
PB91-143404/REB               PC A10/MF A02
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Toxaphene.
Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
S. Q. Hee, and M. Radicke. Feb 87,218p ECAO-CIN-
426
Supersedes  PB89-192306. Prepared in  cooperation
with Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
Environmental Criteria and  Assessment Office.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Toxaphene through the review of several stud-
ies. The studies include  animal and humans. Physical
and chemical properties are  discussed.  Carcinogen-
icity  of the  compound  is reviewed  and  evaluated
through various studies. Any existing guidelines and
standards are presented.

Keywords: 'Potable  water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Insecticides, Physical properties, Chemical prop-
erties.  Public health,  Exposure, Humans,  Reaction ki-
netics. Animals, Birds, Residues, Liver, Blood, Metabo-
lism, Tests, 'Drinking water,  'Water pollution stand-
ards, 'Health assessment  'Toxaphene.
PB91-143412/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Drinking Water Criteria Document on Carbofuran.
Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.
28 Jun 90,102p TR-1242-59
Contract EPA-68-C8-0033
Supersedes PB89-192108.  Sponsored  by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Criteria
and Standards Div.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Carbofuran through the review of several stud-
ies. These studies include animal and humans. Physi-
cal and  chemical properties are discussed. Carcino-
genicity  of the compound is reviewed  and evaluated
through  various studies. Any existing guidelines and
standards are presented.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Insecticides, Physical properties, Chemical prop-
erties, Public health, Exposure, Humans, Reaction ki-
netics,     Metabolism,    Carcinogens,     Risk,
Reproduction(Biology),  Genetics,   Animals,   Liver,
'Drinking water,  'Water pollution standards,  'Health
assessment, 'Carbofuran.
PB91-143420/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Quantification of Toxicological Effects for Alach-
lor.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
30May90,51p
Prepared in cooperation with Dynamac Corp., Rock-
ville, MD.

The document quantifies the drinking water health ef-
fects of Alachlor through the review of several studies.
The studies include animal and humans. Physical and
chemical properties are discussed. Carcinogenicity of
the compound is reviewed and evaluated through vari-
ous studies.

Keywords:  'Potable water, 'Water quality,  'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Pesticides, Physical properties, Chemical prop-
erties. Public health. Exposure, Humans, Reaction ki-
netics,  Concentration(Composition),  Mortality, Ani-
mals, Dosage,  Peproduction(Biology),  Carcinogens,
'Drinking water, 'Water pollution  standards, 'Health
assessment, 'Alachlor.
PB91-143438/REB               PC A13/MF A02
Technologies and Costs for the Removal of Syn-
thetic  Organic  Chemicals  from  Potable Water
Supplies.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Sep 90,290p*
Supersedes PB89-192363.

The document covers various types of treatment (re-
moval) of several synthetic organic compounds and
their cost for the treatment. The best available technol-
ogies are discussed in relation to their removal of or-
ganic contaminants for drinking water.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water treatment, 'Water
supply, 'Cost analysis.  Activated carbon treatment.
Pilot plants. Aeration, Fluid filtration, Herbicides.  Diffu-
sion, Ozonation,  Cost estimates, Solvents,  Insecti-
cides, Chemical reactions, Ground water, Vinyl  chlo-
ride, Chlorohydrocarbons, Toluene, Ultraviolet lamps,
Tables(Data),  'Synthetic organic compounds.  Best
Available Technology, Aldicarb, Case studies.
PB91-143446/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
Information Collection Request National Primary
Drinking Water Regulations:  Phase  2 Synthetic
Organic and Inorganic Chemicals Rules. Final rept
Miller (Wade) Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.
Oct90,190p
Portions of the document are  illegible.  Supersedes
PB89-192421.  Errata sheet inserted. Sponsored by
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC-
Office of Drinking Water.

The  document estimates  the information burden of
water systems and the states to implement the regula-
tory requirements.
Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Data acquisition, 'Water
treatment,  Water  pollution  control,   Constraints,
States(United States),  Regulations, National govern-
ment, Requirements, Water supply, Statistical  data,
Monitoring, Laboratories,  'Drinking water, Synthetic
organic chemicals. Inorganic chemicals, Justification.
PB91-143453/REB               PC A12/MF A02
Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
Addendum to Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis of
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for
Inorganic Chemicals (March 31,1989). Final rept.
Miller (Wade) Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.
Oct90,271p*
See also PB89-192413. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Drinking
Water.

The document updates the March 31, 1989 RIA to
consider the revised impacts of 8 inorganic chemicals
on States and water suppliers.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Regulations, 'Cost analy-
sis, 'Water pollution  control,  Inorganic compounds,
Water  treatment  Monitoring,  National government,
State government, Water supply, Cost estimates,
Tables(Data),  'Inorganic chemicals, Small water sys-
tems. Drinking water.
PB91-143461/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Methoxych-
tor. Final rept.
Syracuse Research Corp., NY.
S. B. Wilbur, and M. W. Neal. Aug 90,175p ECAO-CIN-
425
Contract EPA-68-03-3112
Supersedes PB89-192215.  Sponsored by  Environ-
mental  Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.  Environ-
mental Criteria and Assessment Office.

The document deals with the drinking  water health ef-
fects of Methoxychlpr through the review of several
studies. The studies include animal and humans. Phys-
ical and chemical properties are discussed.  Carcino-
genicity of the compound is reviewed and evaluated
through various studies. Any existing guidelines  and
standards are presented.

Keywords: 'Potable  water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy,  *DDT,  Chlorine organic compounds,  Physical
properties. Chemical properties, Public health, Expo-
sure, Humans, Reaction kinetics, Animals, Inhalation,
Skin(Anatomy),   Carcinogens,  Metabolism,  Liver,
Tables(Data), 'Drinking water, 'Water pollution stand-
ards, 'Health assessment.
PB91-143479/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Quantification of Toxicological Effects of Tetrach-
loroethylene.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
Dec90,39p
Supersedes PB89-192280.

The document quantifies the drinking water health ef-
fects of tetrachloroethylene through the review of sev-
eral  studies.  These studies  include  animal  and
humans.  Physical and chemical properties  are  dis-
cussed. Carcinogenicity of the compound is reviewed
and evaluated through various studies.

Keywords: 'Potable  water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Tetrachloroethylene, Physical properties, Chem-
ical properties,  Public health, Exposure, Humans,  Re-
action kinetics, Animals, Dosage, Epidemiology, Math-
ematical  models, Risk,  Ingestion(Biology), Children,
Carcinogens, Inhalation, 'Drinking water, 'Water  pol-
lution standards, 'Health assessment. Adults.
PB91-143487/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Drinking Water  Criteria  Document  for Toluene.
Final rept.
Syracuse Research Corp., NY.
J. M. Becker, and M. W. Neal. Jul 90,187p ECAO-CIN-
408
Contract EPA-68-03-3112
16     Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Supersedes  PB89-192298.  Sponsored  by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Environ-
mental Criteria and Assessment Office.

The document deals with the drinking water health ef-
fects of Toluene through the review of several studies.
The studies include animal and humans. Physical and
chemical properties are discussed. Carcinogenicity of
the compound is reviewed and evaluated through vari-
ous studies. Any existing guidelines and standards are
presented.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Toxicol-
ogy, 'Toluene, Physical properties, Chemical proper-
ties, Public health, Exposure, Humans, Reaction kinet-
ics,  Air  pollution, Inhalation,  Vapors,  Headache,
Fatigue(Biology),  Psychoses,  'Drinking water, "Water
pollution standards, 'Health assessment.
PB91-144667/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Atmospheric Transport  and Deposition  of Poly-
chlorinated Dlbenzo-'P'-Dioxins  and  Dibenzofur-
ans.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
R. A. Hites, and R. L Harless. Jan 91,123p EPA/600/
3-91/002
Prepared in cooperation with Indiana Univ. at Bloom-
ington.

Polychlorinated  dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and  poly-
chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are  toxic com-
pounds which are dispersed through the environment
by atmospheric transport and deposition. It has been
previously shown that there is a varying mixture of
these  compounds produced  by combustion  (the
source of these compounds). Therefore, the goal of
the project was to study PCDO/F in ambient air and
rain samples (the transport media linking source to
sink) in an effort to enhance the understanding of the
physical/chemical parameters controlling the transfor-
mation which take place during atmospheric transport
and deposition.  Analytical  methods  included  high-
volume air sampling,  wet-only rain sampling, column
chromatographic cleanup, and an electron capture,
negative ionizatipn form of gas chromatographic mass
spectrometry. Air and rain samples were divided into
vaporphase and particle-bound or dissolved and parti-
cle-bound fractions, respectively. The results showed
that total PCDD/F concentrations in Bloomington, In-
diana, has a geometric  standard deviation range from
 1.4 to 4.4 pg/cu m in air and from 63 to 220 pg/L in
 rainwater. The vapor-to-particle ratio for individual con-
geners ranged from 0.01 to 30. The ratio is controlled
by the individual congener's vapor pressure and the
 ambient air temperature. Estimates of washout and the
 Henry's law constants  were obtained  using  average
ambient air and rain data.

 Keywords: 'Dioxins,  'Furans, 'Deposition, 'Pollution
 transport, Air pollution monitoring, Urban areas, Rural
 areas, Bloomington(lndiana), Indiannapolis(lndiana),
 Trout Lake(Wisconsin), Rain, Incinerators, Vapor pres-
 sure, Tables(Data), Qraphs(Charts).
 PB91-144675/REB               PC A06/MF A01
 Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
 NV.
 Evaluation of Exposure Markers.
 Integrated Lab. Systems, Research Triangle Park, NC.
 R. R. Tice. Dec 90,109p EPA/600/4-90/034
 Contract EPA-68-C8-0069
 Sponsored by  Environmental  Monitoring Systems
 Lab., Las Vegas, NV., and Army Biomedical Research
 and Development Lab., Fort Detrick, MD.

 The primary purpose of the research has been to de-
 termine the suitability of the single cell gel (SCG) assay
 technique for detecting DNA damage induced by gen-
 otoxic pollutants in cells sampled from various organs
 of rodents and  in cells  sampled  from humans. The
 major chemicals evaluated include acrylamide, trich-
 loroethylene, and dimethylbenzanthracene. The focus
 of the research has been on: (1) evaluating the speci-
 ficity and sensitivity of the technique  by determining
 the magnitude and kinetics of DNA damage induced in
 cultured mammalian cells by a variety of genotoxic
 chemicals; (2) developing appropriate methods for iso-
 lating individual cells from organs of rodents; (3) evalu-
 ating the kinetics of DNA damage induced in various
 organs of male mice; (4) examining the applicability of
 the assay to peripheral blood leukocytes obtained
 from humans exposed to genotoxic agents; and (5)
comparing the levels of DNA damage in the organs of
mice collected at an EPA Superfund site. Based on the
results obtained, the technique will provide, with great-
er sensitivity than any other method  currently avail-
able, data on the induction and persistence of organ-
specific levels of DNA damage resulting from environ-
mental exposure to genotoxic pollutants.

Keywords:   'Toxicity,  'Mutagenicity  tests, *DNA
damage,  'Biological  markers, 'Environmental pollut-
ants, Acrylamides, Trichloroethylene, In vivo analysis,
Leukocytes, Mice, Superfund sites, Chinese hamsters,
Metabolic activation,  In vitro analysis,  Carcinogenicity
tests, Hazardous wastes, 'Single gel electrophoresis,
Dimethyl benzanthracenes.
PB91-144683/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Catalog  of Superfund  Program Publications, FY-
91.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Oct90, 82p* EPA/540/8-90/015

The catalog includes the available Superfund publica-
tions for  the fiscal year 1991. Includes document ab-
stracts, ordering information, subject and numeric in-
dexes.

Keywords: 'Superfund,  'Waste management, 'Haz-
ardous materials,  *Catalogs(Publications), US EPA,
Abstracts, Documents,  Subject  indexing,  Remedial
action, Technology utilization, Purchasing,  Program
management. Computer  applications,  Preremedial
action.
 PB91-144691/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Health  Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
 Multiple Effects of Ethane Dimethanesulfonate on
 the Epididymis of Adult Rats. Journal article.
 NSI, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 G. R. Klinefelter, J. W. Laskey, N. R. Roberts, V. Slott,
 and J. D. Suarez. C1990,19p EPA/600/J-90/284
 Contract EPA-68-02-4450
 Pub.  in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, v105
 n2 p271-287 Sep 90. Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
 search  Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC. Reproduc-
 tive Toxicology Branch.

 Ethane dimethanesultonate (EDS), a compound cyto-
 toxic to Leydig cells which causes transient infertility,
 was used in a 4 d post-exposure experimental protocol
 designed to identify any effects this compound might
 exert on the epididymis. The techniques of efferent
 duct  ligation and  testosteronefT)  implantation were
 used to negate the role of testicular effects on the epi-
 didymal parameters. EDS was shown to affect the epi-
 didymis in a dose-dependent fashion. The action of
 EDS on the epididymis is in part due to the androgen
 deprivation caused by the elimination of Leydig cells in
 the testis since T implantation prevented some of the
 morphological  changes in the epididymis,  as  well as
 some of the changes in sperm proteins and motility.
 However, neither efferent duct ligation nor T implana-
 tation prevented the formation of sperm granulomas in
 the caput epididymis, the distinct morphological alter-
 ations  of the corpus epididymis,  the modification of
 certain sperm membrane proteins, or the decrease in
 the progressive motility and velocity of sperm following
 EDS treatment.

 Keywords:  'Toxicity,  'Epididymis,  Rats, Electron mi-
 croscopy, Dose-response relationships, Spermatozoa,
 Cell survival, Leydig cells, Sperm motility, Morphology,
 Membrane proteins, Sex  hormones, Testis,  Organ
 weight, Infertility, Reprints, 'Ethane dimethanesulfon-
 ate.
 PB91-144709/HEB               PC A03/MF A01
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 Paleoecologlcal  Investigation of  Recent  Lake
 Acidification in the Adirondack Mountains,  N. Y.
 Journal article.
 Indiana Univ. at Bloomington.
 D F. Charles, M. W. Binford, E. T. Furlong, R. A. Hites,
 and M. J. Mitchell. c1990,49p EPA/600/J-90/266
 Pub. in Jnl. of Paleolimnology 3, p195-241 1990. Pre-
 pared in cooperation with State Univ. of New York at
 Albany. Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry,
 and Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School
 of Design. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Re-
 search  Lab., OR., and National Science Foundation,
 Washington, DC.
Paleoecological analysis of the sediment record of 12
Adirondack lakes reveals that the 8 clearwater lakes
with  current pH<5.5 and alkalinity  <10  microeq/l
have acidified recently. The onset of the acidification
occurred between 1920 and 1970. Loss of alkalinity,
based on quantitative analysis of diatom assemblages,
ranged from 2 to 35 microeq/l. The acidification trends
are substantiated by several lines of evidence includ-
ing stratigraphies of diatom, chrysophyte, chironomid,
and cladoceran remains, Ca:Ti and Mn:Ti ratios, se-
quentially  extracted forms of  Al. and  historical fish
data. Acidification trends appear to be continuing  in
some lakes, despite reductions in atmospheric sulfur
loading that began in the early 1970s. The primary
cause of the acidification trend is clearly increased at-
mospheric deposition of strong acids derived from the
combustion of fossil fuels. Natural processes and wa-
tershed disturbances  cannot account for the changes
in water chemistry that have occurred, but they may
play a role. Sediment core profiles of Pb, Cu, V, Zn, S,
polycyclic  aromatic hydrocarbons, magnetic particles,
and  coa! and oil  soot provide a clear record of in-
creased atmospheric input of materials associated
with the combustion of fossil fuels beginning in the late
1800s and early 1900s.

Keywords: 'Acid  rain, 'Paleoecology,  'Lakes, Sedi-
ments, pH, Water chemistry, Graphs(Charts), Environ-
mental monitoring, Adirondack Mountains, Reprints.
 PB91-144717/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Fluid Modeling  Applied to Atmospheric Diffusion
 in Complex Terrain. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 W. H. Snyder. C1990,20p EPA/600/J-90/138
 Pub. in Atmospheric Environment, v24A nB p2071-
 20881990.

 Wind-tunnel and towing-tank studies conducted over
 the past 10 years at the U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency's Fluid Modeling Facility (FMF) of flow and dif-
 fusion in complex terrain are reviewed. A primary impe-
 tus for the work was EPA's Complex Terrain Model De-
 velopment Program (CTMDP)--designed to develop re-
 liable  atmospheric dispersion  models applicable to
 large pollutant sources in complex terrain, with primary
 emphasis on plume impaction during nighttime stable
 conditions. The FMF interacted closely with model de-
 velopers participating in the CTMDP and provided sup-
 port in various ways through the conduct of a wide
 range of  laboratory studies. At the beginning of the
 program, the FMF  provided direct support as an aid to
 planning the details and strategies of the field experi-
 ments and testing the limits of applicability of the divid-
 ing-streamline concept. Later work included exercises
 of 'filling in the gaps' in the field data, furthering the un-
 derstanding of the physical mechanisms important to
 plume impaction in complex terrain and in stably strati-
 fied flows in general, testing various modeling assump-
 tions, providing data for 'calibration' of various model-
 ing parameters, and testing the ability of the laboratory
 models  to  simulate  full-scale conditions.  Simulta-
 neously, the FMF responded to the needs of the regu-
 latory arm of EPA, the Office of Air Quality Planning
 and Standards (OAQPS), by providing guidance con-
 cerning expected  terrain effects  and by conducting
 demonstration studies. These latter studies were con-
 cerned primarily with simulation of diffusion in the neu-
 tral atmospheric boundary  layer.  Finally, several sup-
 plemental studies were conducted, broadening and
 expanding upon the specific requests of the model de-
 velopers  and the OAQPS. The highlights of the FMF
 complex-terrain research work are described herein.

 Keywords: 'Fluid flow, 'Atmospheric diffusion, 'Model
 tests. Air pollution. Plumes,  Terrain, Wind  tunnels,
 Hills, Field tests, Streamline shape. Research projects,
 Reprints.
 PB91-144733/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Database Assessment of Phytotoxicity Data Pub-
 lished on Terrestrial Vascular Plants. Journal arti-
 cle.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 J. S. Fletcher, F. L. Johnson, and J. C. McFarlane.
 C1988,10p EPA/600/J-88/556
 Pub. in  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v7
 p615-622 1988. Prepared in cooperation with Oklaho-
 ma Univ., Norman. Dept. of Botany and Microbiology.


                            June 1991    17

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
The PHYTOTOX database was analyzed to determine
the taxonomic and geographical scope of information
published on the toxicity of organic chemicals to ter-
restrial vascular plants. The data tabulated show the
20 most frequently  tested chemicals,  the 35 most
often used plant genera and species, and the frequen-
cy of toxicity testing conducted on plants maintained
under different growth conditions (greenhouse, culti-
vated field, wild, etc.). The information is discussed
with regard to its applicability to environmental issues
of concern. Examination of the data indicated that the
influence of toxic waste compounds on plants is virtu-
ally unknown and that little research attention has
been focused on the influence of chemical insult on
the growth and development of wild plants.

Keywords: 'Environmental pollutants, 'Toxicity, Spe-
cies   diversity,   Taxonomy,   Toxic   substances,
Tables(Data), (Geography, Reprints, 'Terrestrial  vas-
cular plants, * PHYTOTOX database.
PB91-144741/HEB               PC A03/MF A01
Effects of Natural Sediment Features on Survival
of the  'Phoxocephalid amphipod',  'Rhepoxynius
abronius'. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
OR. Mark O. HatfreW Marine Science Center.
T. H. DeWitt, G. R. Ditsworth, and R. C. Swartz. c1988,
28p EPA/600/J-88/555, ERLN-N040
Pub. in  Marine Environmental Research 25, p99-124
1988. Prepared  in  cooperation with  Oregon  State
Univ., Newport. Hatfield Marine Science Center.

Effects Of sediment particle size and water content on
the survival of the amphipod. Rhepoxynius abronius,
were  examined by manipulating these natural sedi-
ment features within  static  laboratory microcosms.
Mean amphipod survival in fine, uncontaminated, field
sediments (> or = to 80% silt-clay) can be 15% lower
than survival in native sediment. Storage of sediments
at 4 C over 7-14 days did not change sediment toxicity,
but handling  (i.e. elutriaton  and  recombination) of
muddy sediments increased toxicity. Sediment particle
size  and organic content had greater impact on the
survival of ft. abronius than did sediment water content
in modifying amphipod survival, but one can not inde-
pendently  separate the effects of these two sediment
variables. A new set of criteria is proposed to interpret
toxicity results from the amphipod bioassay in the light
of the mortality associated with fine sediment particle
Keywords: 'Water pollution effectsfAnimals), 'Marine
biology, "Sediments, Field tests, Puget sound. Particle
size, Bioassay, Environmental monitoring.  Mortality,
Chemical  water  pollutants.  Reprints, 'Rhepoxynius
abronius.
PB91-144758/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Contaminant Loading from Fox  River  to  Lower
Green Bay. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
OR.
M. A. Abdelrhman, and J.F.Paul. c1989,12pEPA/
600/J-89/493, ERLN-1120
Pub. in Estuanne and  Coastal Modeling, D452-461
1989. Prepared in cooperation with Kuwait InsL for Sci-
entific Research, Safat

The heavily industrialized lower reach of the Fox River,
downstream of  the  DePere  Dam, and lower Green
Bay, Lake Michigan, are modeled. Hydrodynamics and
contaminant transports to the bay are obtained from
three-dimensional numerical models. The effect of
outfalls located on the river is included in the analysis.
Model  results indicate that the contaminant transport
in the  river is dominated by: the dam outflow, which
tends  to slowly  flush contaminants  downstream
through the river and into the bay; winds which vertical-
ly mix  contaminants in the river and produce uniform
vertical distributions; and bay  seiche  activity which
delays loadings  to the bay during half the seiche cycle
then enhances  it  during the other half. Wind mixing,
wind-generated  currents, and seiching control con-
taminant transport in the lower bay.

Keywords: 'Mathematical  models, 'Environmental
transport 'Water pollution. 'Green Bay, Fox River, In-
dustrial wastes, WmcKMeteorology), Hydrodynamics,
Water    flow,  Stream   flow.   Lake   Michigan,
Currents(Water), Great Lakes, Vertical migration.
PB91-144766/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Designing Fixed-Bed Adsorbers to Remove  Mix-
tures of Organics. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. W. Hand, J. C. Crittenden, H. Arora, J. M. Miller, and
B. W. Lykins. Jan 89,13p EPA/600/J-89/490
Pub. in Jnl.  of American  Water Works  Association,
p67-77Jan89.

A liquid-phase granular activated carbon (GAC) pilot
plant and a full-scale GAC adsorber  were designed,
built, and operated in  order to evaluate their perform-
ance for treating  a groundwater  contaminated with
several volatile and synthetic  organic chemicals. Sev-
eral empty bed contact times  (EBCTs) ranging from  1
to 30 min were used during the pilot-plant study, and  a
simple method for evaluating the GAC use rate as  a
function of the EBCT was developed and demonstrat-
ed for dichloroethene and trichloroethene (TCE). Pilot-
plant data were compared with the pore surface diffu-
sion model, which considers external and internal
mass transfer mechanisms of pore and surface diffu-
sion. Natural organic matter in the water was found to
decrease GAC capacity and kinetics for TCE.

Keywords:  'Activated  carbon  treatment,  'Ground
water,  'Pilot plants,  'Field  tests, Graphs(Charts),
Water       pollution,       Organic       solvents,
Wausdu(Wisconsin), Trichloroethene,  Dichloroethene,
Surface properties. Organic wastes. Adsorbents, Re-
prints.
PB91-144774/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
Metabolism of  Chlorinated Methanes, Ethanes,
and Ethylenes by a Mixed Bacterial Culture Grow-
ing on Methane. Journal article.
RMT, Inc., Greenville, SC.
J. M. Henson, M. V. Yates, and J. W. Cochran. c1989,
9pEPA/600/J-89/489
Grant EPA-R-812220
Pub. in Jnl. of Industrial Microbiology,  v4 n1  p29-35
Jan 89. Prepared in cooperation with California Univ.,
Riverside. Dept. of Soil and Environmental Sciences,
Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Cham-
paign.  Hazardous Waste Research  and Information
Center, and Northrop Services, Inc.,  Ada, OK. Spon-
sored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research  Lab.,
Ada, OK.

Soil was taken from the top 10 cm of a soil column that
removed halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the
presence of natural gas. The soil was used as an en-
richment inoculum to determine that  the  removals
seen in the soil column were in fact of a microbiologi-
cal nature. Methane served as  the source of carbon
and energy and was consumed immediately by the en-
richments. After several transfers of the enrichments,
a stable consortium of at least three bacterial types
was obtained. The predominant  bacterium was a non-
motile, gram-negative coccus. The stable consortium
was able to remove chlorinated methanes, ethanes,
and ethyfenes when grown with methane and oxygen
in the headspace. Methane was required for the re-
movals to be observed. Acetylene inhibited th remov-
als, which further suggests the involvement of methan-
otrophs. Benzene and toluene were  removed by the
mixed culture with or without methane in the head-
space. Fatty acid analysis ol the  mixed culture resulted
in a profile that indicated that the predominant orga-
nism was a type II methanotroph. The study provides
further evidence that methanotrophic bacteria are ca-
pable of cometabolizing a wide range  of chlorinated
methanes,  ethanes,  and  ethylenes. (Copyright (c)
1989 Society for Industrial Microbiology.)

Keywords: 'Water pollution control,  'Land  pollution,
'Biodeterioration,  'Chlorine aliphatic  compounds,
Cultures(Biology), Subsurface investigations. Microor-
ganisms, Methane, Waste disposal,  Soil contamina-
tion. Ground water. Natural gas. Ethanes, Ethylenes,
Reprints.
PB91-144782/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Methodology Used for  a Laboratory Determina-
tion of Relative Contributions of Water, Sediment
and Food Chain Routes of Uptake for 2,3,7,8-
TCDO Bioaccumulation by Lake Trout in Lake On-
tario. Journal article.
Minnesota Univ.-Duluth. Natural Resources Research
Inst.
A. R. Batterman, P. M. Cook, K. B. Lodge, 0. B.
Lothenbach, and B. C. Butterworth. C1989,10p EPA/
600/J-89/488
Pub. in Chemosphere, v19 n1-6 D451-458 1989. Spon-
sored by Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.

A long-term laboratory exposure of lake trout to Lake
Ontario  sediment  and smell (food  chain)  provided
comprehensive  bioaccumulation  relationships  for
2,3,7,8-TCDD. The laboratory exposure was designed
to investigate the  rates of TCDD uptake via water,
sediment, and food under simulated Lake Ontario con-
ditions. Innovative methods of preparing sediment,
dosing sediment, preparing food and feeding the fish
were developed. Results indicated that bioaccumula-
tion of 2,3,7,8-TCDD occurs primarily through the food
chain and secondarily through contact with  contami-
nated sediment. The water exposure route, even under
simulated equilibrium conditions, and  low  suspended
solids concentrations did not appear to make a signifi-
cant contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD bioaccumulation.

Keywords:  'Water pollution effects(Animajs), *Te;
trachlorodibenzodioxins, 'Trout, 'Lake Ontario, 'Envi-
ronmental exposure pathways, Food chains, Pharma-
cqkinetics, Sediments,  Chemical water pollution, Re-
prints.
PB91-144790/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Settling and Coagulation Characteristics of Fluo-
rescent Particles Determined by Flow Cytometry
and Fluorometry. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
K. A. Newman, F. M. M. Morel, and K. D. Stolzenbach.
C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/268, ERLN-NX05
Pub. in Environmental  Science and Technology, v24
n4 p506-513 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Mas-
sachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Ralph  M. Par-
sons Lab.

A new technique for  detecting particles  in natural
waters relies upon analysis of fluorescent emission by
flow cytometry. Fluorescent pigment particles ranging
in radius from around 0.1 to 5 micrometers are avail-
able in sufficient quantity to be useful as model parti-
cles. Laboratory coagulation and settling experiments
analyzed by fluorometry demonstrate that the efficien-
cy  with which  the pigment  particles coagulate with
sewage particles is very low (less than 0.0005). Hence,
in field applications these particles provide the limiting
case of low-interaction  behavior relative to natural par-
ticles. Removal from laboratory columns occurs  pri-
marily by noninteractive settling while thermal convec-
tion currents maintain nearly uniform particle concen-
tration within the columns. Observed decreases in par-
ticle number are exponential (first order) for each size
class as predicted for settling from well-mixed suspen-
sions. The decrease in total suspended particle mass
is higher order as a result of the difference in settling
rates among particles. Thus, a system in which nonin-
teractive settling dominates mimics systems in which
coagulation processes  are important.  Flow cytometric
analysis of particles removed by noninteractive settling
shows the fluorescent  emission from individual parti-
cles to be proportional to the particle surface area.
These results enable  flow  cytometry to be used to
detect, count, and size large numbers of particles rap-
idly. (Copyright (c) by the American Chemical Society,
1990.)

Keywords: 'Particle size distribution, 'Water, 'Cell
flow systems, 'Fluorescence, "Sewage treatment, Co-
agulation, Settling, Laboratory tests, Reprints.
PB91-144808/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Effect, Uptake and Disposition of Nitrobenzene in
Several Terrestrial Plants. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
C. McFariane, T. Pfleeger, and J. Fletcher. c1990,10p
EPA/600/J-90/267
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v9
p513-520 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Oklaho-
ma Univ., Norman. Dept. of Botany and Microbiology.

Eight species of plants were exposed to nitrobenzene
in a hydroponic solution. Four species experienced no
depression of either  transpiration  or  photosynthetic
rates, while one was rapidly killed and the other three
were temporarily  affected but  recovered from the
treatment. Uptake of nitrobenzene was passive and
was  shown to be proportional to the rate of water flux
in each species. The transpiration stream concentra-
tion  factor (TSCF) was 0.72. The root concentration
 18    Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
factor (RCF) was variable between the  species and
was higher than expected, presumably due to deposits
of insoluble metabolic products. All of the species ex-
amined displayed a capacity to chemically alter nonpo-
lar nitrobenzene into both polar and insoluble prod-
ucts. Volatilization of nitrobenzene from the leaves
was a major route of chemical loss.

Keywords: * Water pollution effects(Plants), 'Nitroben-
zenes,  'Toxicity,  Pharmacokinetics,  Water  intake.
Dose-response relationships, Plant metabolism, Pho-
tosynthesis,  Species specificity,  Volatilization, Re-
prints.
PB91-H4816/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Most Dilute Lake in the World. Journal article.
E and S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., Corvallis, OR.
J. M. Eilers, T. J. Sullivan, and K. C. Hurley. c1990,8p
EPA/600/J-90/265
Contract EPA-69-03-3246
Pub. in Hydrobiologia 199, p1-6 1990. Prepared in co-
operation with NSI Technology Services Corp., Corval-
lis,  OR. Sponsored by  Corvallis  Environmental  Re-
search Lab., OR.

Lake Nptasha,  near the crest of the Oregon Cascade
mountain range, is the most dilute lake known. The
measured conductivity during two visits was 1.3 and
1.6 microS/cm, with a sum of base cations of 9 and 18
microequivalents/L; bicarbonate  was the dominant
anion. Most of the cations in the lake can be account-
ed for by evapoconcentration of precipitation although
input of weathering products cannot be excluded as a
source. The topographic watershed has a mixed conif-
erous forest, but the hydrologic setting of the lake ap-
parently minimizes watershed contributions. This fea-
ture makes lakes such as Notasha appropriate recep-
tors for monitoring atmospheric contaminants. (Copy-
right (c) 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

Keywords:  'Lakes,  Electrical resistivity,   Cations,
Anions, Hydrology, Precipitation(Meteorolpgy), Evapo-
ration,  Concentrating, Air pollution monitoring.  Cas-
cade Range, Oregon, Reprints.
PB91-144824/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Variation  in  Adirondack,  New  York,  Lakewater
Chemistry as Function of Surface Area. Journal ar-
ticle.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
T. J. Sullivan, D. L. Kugler, M. J. Small, C. B. Johnson,
and D. H. Landers. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/264
Contract EPA-68-C8-0006
Pub. in Water  Resources Bulletin, v26 n1 p167-176
Feb 90. Prepared in cooperation with E and S Environ-
mental Chemistry,  Inc.,  Corvallis, OR.,  Carnegie-
Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA., and Oregon State Univ.,
Corvallis. Dept. of Statistics. Sponsored by Corvallis
Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Data from a recent survey conducted by the Adiron-
dack Lake Survey Corporation were used to evaluate
the influence of lake  surface area on the acid-base
status of lakes in Adirondack State Park, New York.
Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC)  in the small lakes (<4
ha) occurred  more  frequently at extreme  values
(>200, <0 microeq/L), whereas larger lakes tended
to be intermediate in ANC. Consequently, acidic (ANC
= or < 0) and lowpH lakes were typically small. The
small lakes also exhibited lower Ca(2 + ) concentration
and higher dissolved  organic carbon than did  larger
lakes. Lakes = or > 4 ha were only half as likely to be
acidic as were lakes = or > 1 ha in area. These data
illustrate the dependence of lake  chemistry on lake
surface area and the importance of the lower lake area
limit for a statistical survey of lakewater chemistry.

Keywords: 'Adirondack Lake, 'Water chemistry, *pH,
'Acidification, Area,  New York, Acid  rain,  Air water
interactions, Deposition, Air pollution, Water pollution,
Regional analysis, Statistical analysis,  Reprints, 'Acid
neutralizing capacity.
PB91-144832/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Adequacy  of  Interval  Estimates of Yield  Re-
sponses to Ozone Estimated  from NCLAN Data.
Journal article.
North Carolina State Univ. at Raleigh.
M. C. Somerville, K. A. Dassle, and J. O. Rawlings.
C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/263
Pub. in Crop Science,  v30 n4 p836-844 1990. Spon-
sored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Three methods of estimating confidence  intervals for
the parameters of Weibull nonlinear models are exam-
ined. These methods are based on linear approxima-
tion  theory  (Wald), the likelihood  ratio test,  and
Clarke's (1987) procedures.  Analyses  are based on
Weibull dose-response equations, developed from the
National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN),
that estimate  yield as a function of ozone concentra-
tion. Comparisons among the three methods of confi-
dence interval construction were also made for relative
yield loss, a nonlinear  function of the Weibull param-
eters. The results of these comparisons are consid-
ered along  with  the   conclusions  indicated  using
Clarke's measures of parameter-effects curvature and
his seriousness criteria.  Plots of the Wald and likeli-
hood ration confidence intervals are shown for com-
parison. It is shown that in two cases the Wald confi-
dence intervals are misleading, but in a third case they
are entirely adequate. Clarke's methods identified the
two  cases where the linear  approximation is inad-
equate and also showed whether his adjustment to the
Wald would result in acceptable confidence intervals.
The failure of  the linear approximation appeared to be
due to  high variability and/or incomplete  coverage of
the response  curve by the data. Comparisons of the
Wald and likelihood ration confidence interval esti-
mates for six other data sets showed  the linear ap-
proximation to be adequate.

Keywords: 'Ozone, "Plant reproduction, 'Air pollution
effects(Plants), 'Crop  yield,  Mathematical  models,
Confidence limits, Comparative evaluations, Dose-re-
sponse relationships,  Reprints, '(NCLAN)National
Crop Loss Assessment Network.
PB91-144840/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Effects of Ozone, Sulfur Dioxide, Soil Water Defi-
cit, and Cultivar on Yields of Soybean. Journal arti-
cle.
Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD. Climate
Stress Lab.
H. E. Heggestad, and V. M. Lesser. C1990,10p EPA/
600/J-90/262
Pub. in  Jnl.  of Environmental Quality, v19  D488-495
Jul-Sep 90. Prepared in cooperation with North Caroli-
na Univ. at Chapel  Hill. Dept. of Biostatistics.  Spon-
sored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

The effects of ozone (O3) stress on bean yields and
seed size of four soybean cultivars grown in open-top
chambers in 1981,1982, and 1983 are presented. The
O3 treatments included charcoal filtered (CF) and non-
filtered (NF) air, and p.OS, 0.06, and 0.09 microL/L O3
added 7 h/d to NF air. The effects of SO2 in concen-
trations from 0.005 to 0.224 microL/L (4 h/d, 5 d/wk)
from the seedling stage to maturity were studied  in
1981  and  1982. In 1982 and 1983 the effects  of soil
moisture stress (SMS) and  well-watered  (WW) soil
conditions on the response of soybean to O3  stress
were determined. The  primary objective was the eval-
uation of 3 yr of soybean data from the site using the
nonlinear Weibull and the polynomial dose-response
models to relate yield responses to 03  exposure
doses. The variables also included SO2, soil moisture,
and cultivar. The homogeneity of the response equa-
tions  were compared  to permit development  of the
smallest set of homogeneous equations over  years.
Both O3 and SO2 negatively impacted bean yields and
seed size. No interactions between O3 and SO2 were
indicated.  With the Weibull  model,  interactions be-
tween O3  and soil moisture were observed  with 'For-
rest' in 1982 and 'Williams' in 1983. With an O3 level
considered typical in soybean production areas com-
pared to background O3 and using all data from 3 yr of
experiments, the Weibull model predicted  the  same
(15%) mean yield loss under both SMS and WW re-
gimes.

Keywords: 'Soybeans, 'Ozone,  'Sulfur dioxide, 'Soil
water, 'Air  pollution effects(Plants),  Dose-response
relationships,  Mathematical  models, Plant growth,
Seeds, Plant reproduction, Reprints.


PB91-144857/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Robert  S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
Field  Evaluation  of  In-situ  Biodegradation  of
Chlorinated  Ethenes:  Part  1,  Methodology and
Field Site Characterization. Journal article.
Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Civil Engineering.
P. V. Roberts, G. D. Hopkins, D. M. Mackay, and L.
Semprini. c1990,17pEPA/600/J-90/261
Pub. in Ground Water, v28 n4 p591-604 Jul/Aug 90.
Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research
Lab., Ada, OK.

Careful site  characterization  and implementation of
quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a
convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for
aquifer restoration. The paper describes the character-
ization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain
View, California, and the implementation of a data ac-
quisition system  suitable for real-time monitoring of
subsequent aquifer restoration experiments.  A shal-
low, confined aquifer  was chosen  for the enhanced
biodegradation demonstration, and  was shown to
have suitable hydraulic and geochemical characteris-
tics. Injection and extraction wells were installed at a
distance of 6 m, with intermediate monitoring  wells at
distances of 1, 2.2, and 4  meters  from the injection
well. Bromide tracer tests revealed travel times of 8 to
27 hours from the injection well to the various monitor-
ing wells, and 20 to 42 hours from the injection well to
the extraction well.  Complete breakthrough  of the
tracer at the monitoring wells was facilitated by choos-
ing a line of  wells aligned with the regional flow, and
selecting injection and extraction flow rates of approxi-
mately 1.5 and 10 liters/min. Transport studies were
conducted with selected halogenated organic com-
pounds. The retardation factors were found to range
from  approximately 2 to  12.  The breakthrough re-
sponses  for the more strongly sorbing  compounds,
e.g. TCE, exhibited pronounced tailing,  such that a
minimum period  of several weeks was  required to
achieve complete saturation of the aquifer.

Keywords: 'Ground water, 'Aquifers, 'Water pollution
control, 'Chlorine aliphatic compounds, 'Biodeteriora-
tion, Water  supply, Remedial action, Water quality,
Field tests,   Performance  evaluation,  Observation
wells, Environmental  transport, Chlorohydrocarbons,
Vinyl chloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Site characteriza-
tion, Reprints, Ethylene/trichloro, Ethylene/dichloro.
PB91-144865/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
Copper Complexation by Natural Organic Matter
in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Ground
Water. Journal article.
Illinois State Water Survey Div., Champaign. Aquatic
Chemistry Section.
T. R. Holm. C1990,16p EPA/600/J-90/260
Pub. in Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, v2 n2
p63-76, 6 Apr 90. Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Envi-
ronmental Research Lab., Ada, OK.

Ground-water samples were collected from an uncon-
taminated and a contaminated site. Copper complexa-
tion  was characterized by  ion-selective electrode
(ISE), fluorescence quenching  (FQ),  and  cathodic
stripping voltammetric (CSV) titrations. All of the sam-
ples were titrated at their natural pH values and some
of the samples were also titrated at other pH values.
For a total Cu concentration of ten to the minus  sixth
M, the free  Cu(2+)  concentrations  in the samples
from the uncontaminated site were all less than ten to
the minus seventh M, while free Cu(2+)  in the sam-
ples from the contaminated site were all less than ten
to the minus eighth M. For a particular sample and total
Cu concentration, the free Cu(2+) concentration de-
creased as the pH increased. Relative to  ISE, FQ un-
derestimated and CSV  overestimated the degree of
Cu(2+) binding. The Cu(2+)-complexing properties of
the ground waters are similar to many published re-
sults for the same pH and for ligand  concentrations
normalized to T.O.C.  Chemical equilibrium computa-
tions indicate that organic complexes would dominate
Cu speciation in the uncontaminated ground waters for
ten to the minus seventh to ten to the minus fifth M
total Cu.  In the contaminated ground  waters, sulfide
complexes would  be the predominant  Cu species for
total Cu less than the total S(-11) concentration. Or-
ganic complexes  would dominate Cu speciation for
total Cu greater than total S(-11).

Keywords: 'Ground water,  'Chemical water pollut-
ants,  'Copper,  Electrochemistry, pH, Fluorescence,
Graphs(Charts), Biological availability, Metal complex-
es, Reprints.
                                                                                                                                 June 1991      19

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                                                   EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 PB91-144873/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Reductive Dehalogenation: A Subsurface Biore-
 mediation Process. Journal article.
 Robert  S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab, Ada
 OK.
 J. L. Sims, J. M. Suflita, and H. H. Russell. c1990 21 p
 EPA/600/J-90/259
 Pub. in Remediation, v1 n1 Winter 90/91. Prepared in
 cooperation with Utah Water Research Lab., Logan,
 and Oklahoma Univ.,  Norman. Dept. of Botany and
 Microbiology.

 Introduction and large-scale production of synthetic
 halogenated organic chemicals over the last fifty years
 has resulted in a group of contaminants that tend to
 persist in the environment and resist both biotic and
 abiotic degradation. The low solubility of these types of
 contaminants, along with their toxicity and tendency to
 accumulate in food chains, make them particularly rel-
 evant targets  for  remediation activities.  Among the
 mechanisms that  result in dehalogenation of some
 classes of organic contaminants are  stimulation  of
 metabolic sequences through introduction of electron
 donor and acceptor combinations; addition of nutrients
 to meet the needs of dehalogenating microorganisms;
 possible use of engineered microorganisms; and use
 of enzyme systems capable of catalyzing reductive de-
 halogenation. The current state of research and devel-
 opment in the area of reductive dehalogenation is dis-
 cussed along with possible technological application
 of relevant processes and mechanisms to remediation
 of soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated
 organics. In addition, an overview of research needs is
 suggested, which might be of interest for development
 of in-situ systems to reduce the mass of halogenated
 organic contaminants in soil and groundwater.

 Keywords: 'Biodeterioration, 'Dehalogenation,  'Re-
 medial action,  * Water  pollution control, 'Land pollu-
 tion, Ground  water, Soil  contamination, Microorga-
 nisms, Research and development, Halogen organic
 compounds, Enzymes,  Catalysis, Oxidation reduction
 reactions, Anaerobic processes, Subsurface investiga-
 tions, Reprints, Chemical reaction mechanisms.
 PB91-144881/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Robert S.  Kerr  Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
 OK.
 Adsorption of Organic Cations to Natural Materi-
 als. Journal article.
 Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Chemistry.
 B. J. Brownawell, H. Chen, J. M. Collier, and J. C.
 Westall. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/258
 Grant EPA-R-814501
 Pub.  in Environmental Science and Technology, v24
 n8 p1234-1241  1990. Sponsored by  Robert S. Kerr
 Environmental Research Lab., Ada, OK.

 The factors that control the extent of adsorption of am-
 phiphilic organic  cations on environmental and pristine
 surfaces have been studied. The sorbents were kaolin-
 ite, montmoriltonrte, two aquifer materials, and a soil;
 solutions contained various  concentrations of NaCI
 and CaO2, at various pH values. The distribution ratio
 of the dodecylpyridinium was strongly dependent on
 the nature and concentration of the inorganic cations
 in solution, but virtually independent  of solution pH.
 The adsorption  isotherms were  distinctly nonlinear,
 even at very low  surface concentrations of organic ca-
 tions. A multisite adsorption  model has been devel-
 oped to describe adsorption over a wide range of do-
 decytpridinium, NaCI, and CaCI2 concentrations. Two
 types of adsorption reactions were found to be signifi-
 cant:  exchange  of pyridinium with  an alkali-metal
 cation,  and adsorption  of pyridinium with  chloride
 counterion. (Copyright (c) by the  American Chemical
 Society, 1990.)

 Keywords:  'Pyridinium compounds,  'Cations, 'Clay
 minerals, 'Adsorption,  Sorbents,  Isotherms, Water,
 Solutions, Ion exchange, Reprints.
PB91-144899/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research  Lab., Ada,
OK.
Hydrologte-Hydrochemical  Characterization  of
Texas Frio  Formation Used for Deep-Well Injec-
tion of Chemical Wastes. Journal article.
Texas Univ. at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology.
C. W. Kreitlec, M. S. Akhter, and A. C. A. Donnelly.
C1990.15p EPA/600/J-90/257
Grant EPA-R-812786
Pub. in Environmental Geological Water Science, v16
n2 p107-120 1990. See also PB88-242573. Prepared
 in cooperation with Radian Corp., Austin, TX. Spon-
 sored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab
 Ada, OK.

 Hydrologic-hydrochemical  investigations were con-
 ducted to determine the long-term fate of hazardous
 chemical waste disposed in the Texas Gulf Coast Ter-
 tiary formations by deep-well injection. The study fo-
 cused on the hydrostatic section of the Frio Formation
 because it is the host of a very large volume of injected
 waste and because large databases of formation pres-
 sures and water chemistry are available. Three hydro-
 logic regimes exist within the Frio Formation: a shallow
 fresh to moderately saline water section in the upper
 3,000 to 4,000 ft (914 to 1,219 m): an underlying 4,000-
 to 5,000-ft-thick (1,219 to 1,524-m) section with mod-
 erate to high salinities: and a deeper overpressured
 section with moderate to high salinities. The upper two
 sections are normally pressured and reflect either
 fresh-water or  brine hydrostatic pressure gradients.
 Geopressured conditions are encountered as shallow
 as 6,000 ft (1,829 m). The complexity of the hydrologic
 environment is enhanced due to extensive depressuri-
 zation in the 4,000- to 8,000-ft-depth (1,219 to 2,438-
 m) interval, which presumably results from the estimat-
 ed production of over 10 billion barrels (208 x 10 to the
 power of 6 cu m)  of  oil equivalent and associated
 brines from the Frio in the past 50 yrs. Because of the
 higher fluid density and general depressurization in the
 brine hydrostatic section, upward migration of these
 brines to shallow fresh ground waters  should  not
 occur. Depressured oil and gas fields, however, may
 become sinks for the injected chemical wastes. (Copy-
 right (c) Springer Veriag 1990.)

 Keywords: 'Industrial wastes, 'Texas Guff, Coastal re-
 gions. Hydrology, Hydrogeochemistry, Injection wells,
 Water pollution. Path of pollutants. Brines, Reprints,
 •Texas Gulf Coast.
 PB91-144907/REB
                                  PC A03/MF A01
 Solubility and Toxicity of Eight Phthalate Esters
 to Four Aquatic Organisms. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 D. L. DeFoe, G. W. Holcombe, D. E. Hammermeister,
 and K. E. Biesinger. cMay90,16p EPA/600/J-90/256
 Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v9
 D623-636 1990.

 Solubility values for eight phthalate esters investigated
 ranged from 0.020 to 121 rng/L. Acute toxicity tests
 were  conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales
 promelas) and  all eight phthalate esters. Acute and
 chronic tests were conducted with rainbow trout (On-
 corhynchus mykiss) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias
 latipes) using di-2-ethylhexylphtha|ate. In addition,  the
 chronic toxicity  of the three di-n-butylphthalates and a
 mixture of these three phthalates was examined using
 daphnids (Oaphnia magna). Di-n-octyl-ortho-phthalate,
 di-n-octyl-iso-phthalate and di-n-octyl-tere-phthalate
 were not acutely toxic to fathead minnows at concen-
 trations that exceeded the water solubility estimates
 for each phthalate.  Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate was  not
 acutely toxic to any  tested species at  the  highest
 tested concentrations. No significant  adverse effects
 were observed  on hatchability, survival or growth of
 rainbow trout exposed to a mean di-2-ethylhexylphtha-
 late concentration of 0.502 mg/L (the highest concen-
 tration tested) in a 90-d embryo-larval test. However,
 exposure to a mean dn2-ethylhexylphthalate concen-
 tration of 0.554  mg/L significantly reduced the growth
 of Japanese medaka during a 168-d larval test. Signifi-
 cant adverse effects on reproduction occurred in 21-d
 chronic tests with D. magna at concentrations of 1.91,
 0.20 and 0.64 mg/L for di-n-butyl-ortho-phthalate, di-n-
 butyl-iso-phthalate  and  di-n-butyl-tere-phthalate,  re-
 spectively. A daphnid mixture test with these three
 phthalates showed  complete additivity,  which sug-
 gests a similar mode of toxic action.

 Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Freshwater fishes, 'Water pollu-
 tion effects(Animals),  Solubility,  Dose-response rela-
 tionships, Bioassay, Reprints, 'Phthlate esters, Pime-
 phales promelas,  Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oryzias  la-
tipes.
PB91-144915/REB                PC A03/MF A01
VentNatory Patterns of Blueglll ('Lepomis macro-
chirus') Exposed to Organic Chemicals  with Dif-
ferent Mechanisms of  Toxic  Action (Revised).
Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
R. W. Carlson. c1990,18p EPA/600/J-90/255
 Pub. in Comparative  Biochemistry and  Physiology,
 v95Cn2p181-1961990.

 Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to 13 or-
 ganic chemicals representing five known toxic mecha-
 nisms and their ventilatory patterns examined for dif-
 ferential responses related to mechanism. Two quanti-
 fiable characteristics of the ventilatory pattern, ventila-
 tory frequency and cough frequency,  had diagnostic
 utility as clinical signs to differentiate  chemicals that
 killed through narcosis from those that killed by other
 toxic mechanisms. Bluegill were also exposed to 2-
 chloroethanol and 2,4-pentanedione, chemicals previ-
 ously considered as narcotic poisons but tested here
 as unknowns. Ventilatory patterns induced by these
 chemicals and time to death in LC100 concentrations
 support current theories that they kill by mechanisms
 other than narcosis.

 Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Chemi-
 cal water pollutants, 'Freshwater fishes, 'Respiration,
 Structure-activity  relationship.  Mucus membranes,
 Cholinesterase inhibitors.  Electron transport. Cough,
 Reprints, 'Lepomis macrochirus.
 PB91-144923/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Interactions   between   'Bacillus   thurlngiensis
 subsp. 'Israelensls' and Fathead Minnows, 'Pime-
 phales promelas'  Rafinesque, under Laboratory
 Conditions. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 V. M. Snarski. C1990,7p EPA/600/J-90/253
 Pub. in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v56
 n9 p2618-2622 Sep 90.

 Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. is-
 raelensis and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas,
 were studied in laboratory exposures to two commer-
 cial  formulations, Vectobac-G and Mosquito Attack.
 Mortality among fatheads exposed to 2.0 x 10 to the
 sixth power to 6.5 x 10 to the sixth power CFU/ml with
 both formulations was attributed to severe dissolved
 oxygen depletion due to formulation ingredients rather
 than to direct toxicity from the parasporal crystal. No
 adverse effects were observed at 6.4 x 10 to the fifth
 power CFU/ml and below. Fathead minnows rapidly
 accumulated high numbers of spores with 1 h of expo-
 sure to 2.2 x 10 to the fifth power CFU of Mosquito
 Attack per ml, producing whole-body counts of 4.0 x 10
 to the sixth power CFU per fish. Comparison of counts
 on gastrointestinal tract samples and whole-body sam-
 ples and high numbers of spores  in  feces indicated
 that ingestion was the major route of exposure. B. thur-
 ingiensis subsp. israelensis spore counts decreased
 rapidly after transfer of fish to clean water, with a drop
 of over 3 orders of  magnitude in 1  day. Spores were
 rarely detected in fish after 8 days but were detectable
 in feces for over 2 weeks. These findings suggest that
 fish could influence the dissemination of B. thuringien-
 sis subsp.  israelensis,  and possibly  other microbial
 agents, in  the aquatic environment.  (Copyright (c)
 1990, American Society for Microbiology.)

 Keywords:  'Biological pest control, 'Bacillus thurin-
 giensis, 'Water microbiology, Feces, Bacteriological
 techniques. Water pollution effects(Animals), Bacterial
 spores, Colony-forming units, Reprints, 'Pimephales
 promelas.
PB91-144931/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Identification and  QuantJtation of Alkylated Nu-
cleobases by High-Performance  Liquid Chroma-
tography with UV Photodlode Array Detection.
Journal article.
Minnesota Univ.-Duluth. Dept. of Chemistry.
W. Xue, A. K. Samanta, and R. M. Carlson. C1990, 7p
EPA/600/J-90/252
Grants EPA-R813144-02, EPA-R813943
Prepared in cooperation with Academia Sinica, Beijing
(China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sci-
ences. Sponsored by Environmental Research Lab -
Duluth, MN.

The application of UV diode  array detection in high-
performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) identifica-
tion and quantification of several classes of synthetic
and commercially available alkylated nucleobases  is
investigated. Quantitative  spectral overlays of these
compounds to methyl  standard  references from  a
spectral library and absorbance ratios at two maximal
wavelengths are found to be useful in categorizing the
solutes. They can be grouped into classes of com-
20     Vol. 91, NO.  2

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                                                   EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 pounds  originating from a specific nucleobase  and
 classes  of analogs having different alkyl substituents
 (e.g., methyl, ethyl,  propyl, allyl, and benzyl) at the
 same position of the heterocycle. At a selected wave-
 length for alkylated nucleobases in the same class, the
 detector response factors are independent of the alkyl
 group (+ or - 10%). This technique provides a practi-
 cal means for both qualitative and quantitative analysis
 of product distribution of DNA base  alkylation by using
 only readily obtainable methylated  derivatives as the
 reference standards.

 Keywords: 'Nucleosides, * Liquid chromatography, Ul-
 traviolet  detectors, Alkylation,  Molecular structure. Re-
 prints.
 PB91-144949/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 Assessment of the Propensity for Covalent Bind-
 ing of Electrophiles to Biological Substrates. Jour-
 nal article.
 Minnesota Univ.-Duluth.
 R. M. Carlson. c1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/251
 Grants EPA-R813144-02, EPA-R813943
 Pub. in Environmental Health Perspectives, v87 p227-
 232 1990. Sponsored by  Environmental Research
 Lab.-Duluth, MN.

 Electrophilic character is associated with the ability of
 external  agents to  interact with centers  of electron
 density in biological  macro-molecules and to cause the
 interruption or alternation of normal activity. With the
 observation  of  site  specificity in  mutagenic events,
 Pearson's hard/soft acid-based (HSAB) theory is pre-
 sented as a useful concept in correlating chemical ob-
 servations in the absence of detailed direct knowledge
 of the process. Methods for the evaluation of carbon
 electrophiles (e.g., carbocation character) as reactants
 are reviewed as potential  physical parameters that
 could be applied in developing quantitative structure-
 activity relationships.

 Keywords: 'Deoxyribonucleic acids, *Electrophilic re-
 actions, 'Chemical bonds, Carbonium ions, Molecular
 structure, Molecular biology, Reprints, Hard and soft
 acids.
 PB91-144956/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Effects of Chlorpyrifos on the Diet and Growth of
 Larval Fathead Minnows, •Pimephales promelas',
 in Littoral Enclosures. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 J. C. Brazner, and E. R. Kline. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-
 90/250
 Pub. in Canadian Jnl. of  Fisheries and Aquatic Sci-
 ence, v47 p1157-1165 Jun 90. Prepared in coopera-
 tion with Wisconsin Univ.-Superior. Center for Lake Su-
 perior Environmental Studies.

 A series of 12 littoral enclosures constructed within a 2
 ha, mesotrophic pond near Duluth, Minnesota were
 used to determine if sublethal concentrations of the in-
 secticide Chlorpyrifos (0,0,-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-
 pyridyl) phosphorothioate) could lead to changes in
 the diet and  growth of fathead minnow larvae. Chlor-
 pyrifos was added to the  enclosures at nominal con-
 centrations of 0.0, 0.5, 5.0, and 20.0 microgram/L in a
 single application on June 16, 1986. Growth rates of
 larvae were significantly reduced in the treated enclo-
 sures during  the 32-d study period. The most dramatic
 differences in the mean size of larvae from the four
 treatment groups were observed 15 d posttreatment.
 These  differences corresponded to the most  signifi-
 cant reductions in cladoceran, copepod, rotifer, and
 chironomid populations  in the treated  enclosures.
 These results indicate that toxicity to chlorpyrifos-sen-
 sitive invertebrate forage species forced  dietary
 changes that led to reduced growth of native fathead
 minnow larvae in the treated enclosures.

 Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals),  'Durs-
 ban, 'Feeding behavior, 'Littoral zone, 'Freshwater
 fishes.  Growth, Larvae,  Body weight, Reprints, Pime-
 phales promelas.
PB91-144964/REB                PC A02/MF A01
National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.
Lack of Myoglobin Function in the Isolated Per-
fused  Buffalo  Sculpin('Enophrys bison') Heart.
Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett, Newport,
OR. Mark O. Hatfield Marine Science Center.
 J. W. Nichols, and L. J. Weber. C1989, 7p EPA/600/J-
 90/248
 Pub. in Canadian Jnl. of Zoology, v68 p825-829 May
 90.  Sponsored by National Inst. of Environmental
 Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC.

 The contribution of myoglobin to cardiac performance
 and 02 consumption was investigated using an isolat-
 ed perfused buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) heart
 preparation.  Dose-response studies  at ambient (150
 Torr)(1 Torr= 133.322 Pa) O2 tensions were conduct-
 ed as a means of selecting an oxidizing agent with high
 activity toward  myoglobin, while minimizing the possi-
 bility of toxic side effects. Treatment with 10.0 microM
 phenylhydroxylamine oxidized greater than 95% of in-
 tracellular myoglobin but did  not affect pulse pressure,
 peak dP/dt, or heart rate. The functional importance of
 myoglobin  was investigated by perfusing electrically
 paced hearts with 10.0 microM phenylhydroxylamine
 at physiological (32 Torr) O2 tensions. Inactivation of
 myoglobin by oxidation with phenylhydroxylamine had
 no effect on cardiac performance or O2 consumption.

 Keywords:  'Myoglobin, 'Heart,  'Buffalpes,  Oxygen
 consumption, Heart function tests,  In vitro analysis,
 Dose-response  relationships.  Heart rate,  Reprints,
 'Enophrys bison, Phenylhydroxylamine.


 PB91-144972/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Evaluation of Sucrose as an Alternative to Sodium
 Chloride  in the  Microtox (Trade Name) Assay:
 Comparison to  Fish  and Cladoceran Tests with
 Freshwater Effluents. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 G. T. Ankley, G. S. Peterson, J. R. Amato, and J. J.
 Jenson. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/210
 Pub.  in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,  v9
 p1305-1310 1990. Prepared in cooperation with AScI
 Corp., Duluth, MN.

 The toxicity of 44 freshwater effluents was evaluated
 using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a
 cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photo-
 bacterium phosphoreum). The latter  assay was con-
 ducted with both sodium chloride (NaCI) and sucrose
 for osmotic protection of the bacteria in an effort to de-
 termine whether the use of sucrose increased the sen-
 sitivity of Microtox to samples exhibiting toxicity to the
 fish and cladoceran species. Twenty-three of the ef-
 fluents tested were toxic to fathead minnows and/or
 C. dubia; of these, Microtox was sensitive to 10 when
 tested in NaCI and seven when tested in sucrose. In
 one  instance testing in sucrose  predicted toxicity  to
 the fish and cladoceran species when testing in NaCI
 did not. Single  chemical tests demonstrated that Mi-
 crotox sensitivity was greater to  zinc chloride,  nickel
 chloride and methanol when tested in sucrose as op-
 posed to NaCI, about equal to  copper sulfate and
 phenol in sucrose and NaCI, and was far greater  to
 chlorine when tested in NaCI than in sucrose. These
 results, as well  as data from Microtox assays with ef-
 fluents containing known toxicants, suggest that the
 use of sucrose, in conjunction with NaCI, for osmotic
 adjustment in the assay could be helpful as part of a
 suite  of tests for  identifying general  classes of com-
 pounds responsible for toxicity in freshwater effluents.

 Keywords: 'Aquatic biology, 'Mutagenicity tests, 'Su-
 crose, 'Sodium chloride, 'Toxic substances,  Water
 pollution  effects(Animals),  Industrial effluents, Re-
 prints, * Microtox assay,  Pimephales promelas, Cerio-
 daphnia dubia.
PB91-144980/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Sorption  of Organic  Acid Compounds to Sedi-
ments: Initial Model Development. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA. Office of
Research and Development.
C. T. Jafvert. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/172
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v9
n1 Op1259-1268 Oct 90.

The adsorption to sediments and soils of selected or-
ganic acid compounds was examined as a function of
compound  and sediment  properties. Intrinsic  com-
pound properties examined included the dissociation
constant (pKa) and hydrophobic character. Properties
of the sediment examined included ionic strength and
composition, organic carbon  content and aqueous
phase pH. By varying these properties, adsorption of
both the  neutral and  anionic forms of these com-
pounds was shown to occur. Adsorption of the neutral
species occurs similarly to that of other hydrophobic
compounds  that  do not  contain acidic  functional
 groups. Adsorption of the anionic species was influ-
 enced, however, by intrinsic chemical as well as elec-
 tostatic factors. Adsorption of the anionic species to a
 specific sediment was modeled as a linearly depend-
 ent function of pH. Compounds used in this study in-
 cluded   2,4-dinitro-o-cresol   (DNOC),     2-(2,4,5-
 trichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (silvex), pentachloro-
 phenol          (PCP),          4-chloro-alpha-(4-
 chlorophenyl)benzeneacetic acid  (DDA) and 4-(2,4-
 dichlorophenoxy-butyric acid (2,4-DB).

 Keywords: 'Organic  acids,  'Sediments,  'Sorption,
 'Chemical water pollutants, pH, Chemical properties,
 Reprints, Dinitro-o-cresols, Trichlorophenoxy propano-
 ic acid, Pentachlorophenol, Chloro-alpha-chlorophenyl
 benzeneacetic  acid,  Dichlorophenoxybutyric  acid,
 DDA insecticide, Silvex, PCP herbicide, DNOC herbi-
 cide.
 PB91-144998/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Characteristics of Surfactants in Toxicity Identifi-
 cation Evaluations. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 G. T. Ankley, G. S. Peterson, M. T. Lukasewycz, and D.
 A. Jensen. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/254
 Pub. in Chemosphere, v21 n1-2 p3-12 1990. Prepared
 in cooperation with AScI Corp., Duluth, MN.

 The behavior of a number of anionic, nonionic and cati-
 pnic surfactants in manipulations associated with tox-
 icity  identification evaluations was studied.  It was
 found that toxicity of the surfactants could be removed
 from  aqueous  samples   via  aeration,  apparently
 through sublation. Filtration through a 1 micron glass
 fiber filter also effectively removed certain surfactants;
 the removal process appeared to be enhanced by the
 presence of particulate matter in samples. A final ma-
 nipulation which efficiently removed toxicity caused by
 all three classes of surfactants was passage  over a
 C18 solid phase exchange column; however, recovery
 of different types of surfactants from the C18 column
 with methanol/water elutions was quite variable.

 Keywords: 'Surfactants,  'Toxicity, 'Water pollution,
 Anipns, Cations, Particle identification, Extraction, Fil-
 tration, Reprints.
 PB91-145003/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Transfer of Toxic Concentrations of Selenium
 from Parent to Progeny in the Fathead  Minnow
 ('Pimephales promelas'). Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth,  Monticello, MN.
 Monticello Ecological Research Station.
 R. Schultz, and R. Hermanutz. C1990,8p EPA/600/J-
 90/249
 Pub. in Bulletin of  Environmental Contamination and
 Toxicology 45, p568-573 1990.

 Selenium, an essential trace element, may become
 concentrated in aquatic ecosystems to levels that are
 toxic to fish. Finley  (1985) and Gillespie and Baumann
 (1986) have shown that  selenium in  overflow water
 from coal burning power plant settling basins contribut-
 ed to a decline in fish populations. The leaching of se-
 lenium from the soil into water systems used for irriga-
 tion in highly seleniferous areas of the country poses
 another serious problem. Studies demonstrated that
 female bluegill sunfish transfer selenium to their proge-
 ny. The objective of the study was to determine wheth-
 er the selenium levels within fathead minnow embryos
 in a  semi-natural  ecosystem resulted from  direct
 uptake  by the  embryos following spawning,  from
 female-to-progeny transferral, or from  some combina-
 tion of these two occurrences.

 Keywords: 'Minnows, 'Toxicity, 'Selenium, 'Environ-
 mental monitoring,  'Water pollution effects(Animals),
 Maternal-fetal exchange,  Edema, Lordosis, Reprints,
 'Pimephales promelas.
PB91-145011/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Development of Chicken Embryos in  a Pulsed
Magnetic Field. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
E. Berman, L. Chacon, D. House, B. A. Koch, and W E
Koch. C1990,14p EPA/600/J-90/287
Pub. in Bioelectromagnetics, v11 n2 p168-187 May 90.
Prepared in  cooperation with Centra Ramon y Cajal,
Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Investigacion, North Carolina
Univ. at Chapel Hill, Umea Univ. (Sweden), and Univer-
sity of Western Ontario, London.
                                                                                                                                 June 1991     21

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Six independent experiments of common design were
 performed in laboratories in Canada, Spain, Sweden,
 and the United States of America. Fertilized eggs of
 domestic chickens were incubated as controls or in a
 pulsed magnetic field (PMF); embryos were then ex-
 amined for developmental anomalies. Identical equip-
 ment in each laboratory consisted of two incubators,
 each containing a Helmholtz coil and electronic de-
 vices to develop, control, and monitor the pulsed field
 and to monitor temperature, relative humidity and vi-
 brations. A unipolar, pulsed, magnetic field was ap-
 plied to experimental eggs during 48 h of incubation. In
 each laboratory, ten eggs were simultaneously sham
 exposed in a control incubator (pulse generator not ac-
 tivated) while the PMF was applied to ten eggs in the
 other incubator. The procedure was  repeated  ten
 times in each laboratory, and incubators were alter-
 nately used as a control device or as  an active source
 of the PMF. After a 48-h exposure, the eggs were eval-
 uated for fertility. All embryos were then assayed in the
 blind for development, morphology, and stage of matu-
 rity. In five of six laboratories, more exposed embryos
 exhibited  structural  anomalies than  did controls, al-
 though  puntatively  significant differences were  ob-
 served in only two laboratories, and the significance of
 the difference in a third laboratory was only marginal.

 Keywords: 'Chickens,  'Embryo,  'Magnetic fields,
 Eggs,  Morphology, Incubators, Abnormalities, Re-
 prints, Helmholtz coil.
PB91-145029/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Effect of Chemotherapy on the In vivo Frequency
of Glycophorin A 'Null' Variant Erythrocytes (Re-
vised). Journal article.
Lawrence Livermore National Lab.,  CA. Biomedical
Sciences Div.
W. L. Bigbee, A. J. Wyrobek, R. G. Langlois, R. H.
Jensen, and R. B. Everson. C1990,14p EPA/600/J-
90/286
Grants EPA-R-808642-01, EPA-R-811819-02-0
Pub. in Mutation Research, v240 n3 p165-175 Mar 90.
Sponsored in  part by contract DE-W-7405-ENG-48.
Prepared in cooperation with National Inst. of Environ-
mental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Epidemiology Branch. Sponsored by Health Effects
Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC., and De-
partment of Energy, Washington, DC.

A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enu-
meration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of
an allelic form of the cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, gly-
cophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples
from patients obtained prior to, during,  and following
chemotherapy  for malignant disease in order to deter-
mine the effect of mutagenic chemical agents on the
frequency of variant cells. Significant elevations in the
mean frequency of variant cells over pre-therapy and
normal  levels  were  observed in samples  obtained
during  and after  therapy.  In  a time-series study; 14
breast  cancer  patients treated with CAP  (cyclophos-
phamide. adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil), CMF (cyclophos-
phamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil), or VMF (vinb-
lastine, methotrexate, 5-fluorouacil) adjuvant chemo-
therapy were  sampled repeatedly during and after
therapy. For the CAF and CMF patients an increase in
the frequency of variant cells was observed with a lag
in the appearance of induced variants after initiation of
therapy,  variant   frequencies  gradually  increased
during therapy  reaching a maximum at or shortly after
the end of therapy, then declined  to near pre-therapy
levels within 6 months. The maximum level of induced
variants ranged from 2- to 7-fold over pre-therapy or
normal levels depending on the combination of agents
used.

Keywords: 'Combined antineoplastic agents, "Toxici-
ty. 'Mutagenicity tests, 'Erythrocytes, SGIycophorin,
Alleles.  Breast neoplasms,  Cross-sectional studies,
Reprints.
PB91-145037/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Thermoregulatkm at a High Ambient Temperature
Following the Oral Administration of Ethanol in
the Rat. Journal article.
Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
C. J. Gordon, and F. S. Mohter. c1990,7p EPA/600/J-
90/285
Pub. in Alcohol, v7 n6 p551 -555 Nov 90.
 The study was designed to assess the thermoregula-
 tory mechanisms responsible for the elevation in body
 temperature following ethanol administration when ex-
 posed to a high ambient temperature (Ta). Male rats of
 the Fischer 344 strain were gavaged with 20% ethanol
 at doses of 0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, or 8.0 g/kg and were then
 placed in an environmental chamber set at a Ta of 37
 C. Oxygen consumption (metabolic rate), evaporative
 water loss (EWL), and activity recorded for 60 min. Co-
 Ionic temperature was measured at the end of the 60
 min  period. Ethanol at doses of 2.0 g/kg and greater
 caused significant reductions in activity. EWL was sig-
 nificantly depressed at doses > 4.0 g/kg. Colonic
 temperature of animals given 6.0 and 8.0 g/kg was sig-
 nificantly greater than controls. Oxygen  consumption
 was unaffected by ethanol dose. Visual observation of
 the behavior of the ethanol treated rats indicated that
 animals given doses > 4.0 g/kg were unable to groom
 saliva onto their fur which would contribute to the re-
 duction in EWL in the heat.

 Keywords:  'Body temperature regulation,  'Ethanol,
 'Tpxicity, Heat stress, Rats, Oxygen  consumption,
 Animal behavior, Oral administration, Metabolism, Re-
 prints.
PB91-145045/REB                PC A02/MF A01
1-MethyM-PhenyM,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine
(MPTPHnduced Damage of Striatal Dopaminergic
Fibers  Attenuates  Subsequent  Astrocyte Re-
sponse to MPTP. Journal article.
Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
J. P. O'Callaghan, D. B. Miller, and J. F. Reinhard.
C1990, 8p EPA/600/J-90/283
Pub. in Neuroscience Letters, v117 n1 and 2 p228-233
9 Apr 90. Prepared in cooperation with Wellcome Re-
search Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC.

Acute administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxi-
cant,     1 -methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
(MPTP) to the C57B1/6  mouse caused a rapid de-
crease in  the amount of Striatal tyrosine hydroxylase
(TH), a marker of dopaminergic neurons, followed by a
large increase in the astrocyte protein, glial fibrillary
acidic protein (GFAP). The astrocyte (GFAP) response
declined to baseline 3 weeks after administration of
MPTP. Administration of a second dosage of MPTP at
this time evoked a second GFAP response. The mag-
nitude of  the  second response,  however, was de-
creased in comparison to the response seen after only
a single exposure to MPTP.  Increasing the initial
dosage of MPTP resulted in greater reductions of the
second GFAP response. These  data  indicate that
damage to Striatal dopaminergic neurons reduces the
signal available for initiating a second astrocyte re-
sponse to MPTP.

Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Corpus striatum, 'Dopamine re-
ceptors, 'Astrocytes, Glial fibrillary acidic protein, Ty-
rosine hydroxylase, Nerve cells, Mice, Dose-response
relationships. Reprints, 'Methyl phenyl tetrahydropyri-
dine.
PB91-145052/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Importance of Alignment between Local DC Mag-
netic Field  and an Oscillating Magnetic Field in
Responses  of Brain Tissue In vitro and In vivo.
Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
C. F. Blackman, S. G. Benane, D. E. House, and D. J.
Elliott. C1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/282
Pub. in Bioelectromagnetics, v11  p159-167 Sep 90.
Prepared in cooperation with NSI Technology Services
Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The same underlying mechanism was  initially consid-
ered to be responsible for the influence of the local
geomagnetic field (LGF) in the in vitro  chick-brain ex-
periments  of Blackman et al and the in  vivo rat behav-
ioral experiments of Thomas et al. However, subse-
quent work with the chick brain model showed that the
effective LGF vector was effective only when there
was a component orthogonal to the alternating field,
while recently published results with an in vivo diatom
model showed that a parallel orientation was required.
A review of the exposure conditions in the rat behav-
ioral experiments provides evidence  that supports
both the orthogonal and the parallel field components
as potential bases for the phenomenon. Investigators
who attempt to  replicate  the rat behavioral experi-
ments must be aware of the conflicting exposure con-
ditions that  can  be assumed to  be operative, and
design their experiments accordingly. Further testing is
necessary to resolve the issue.

Keywords: 'Magnetic fields, 'Brain, in vivo analysis, In
vitro  analysis,  Animal  behavior, Chickens,  Rats,
Tissues(Biology), Oscillations, Reprints.
PB91-145060/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Biomarkers of  Inflammation  in  Ozone-Exposed
Humans: Comparison of the Nasal and Bronchoal-
veolar Lavage. Journal article.
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.
D. E. Graham, and H. S. Keren. cJun 89,7p EPA/600/
J-90/280
Pub. in American Review of Respiratory Disease, v142
n1 p152-156Ju!90.

An influx of neutrophils (PMNs), a primary feature of
acute inflammation, has been associated with the de-
velopment of lower lung disorders, such as emphyse-
ma and idiopathic fibrosis, as well as airway hyperreac-
tivity and increased mucus secretion. It was previously
established that an acute inflammatory response in the
upper respiratory tract of humans could be studied by
analysis of nasal lavages  (NL),  which is inexpensive,
non-invasive, and atraumatic. However, the relation-
ship of the cellular changes in  the  upper respiratory
tract to changes in the lower airways has not been
thoroughly investigated  in humans.  Here  the cellular
changes detected in the NL with those detected in the
bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) taken from the same in-
dividual have been compared. Ten subjects were ex-
posed to either filtered air or 0.4 ppm ozone (O3), with
exercise, for 2  hrs. The NL was done prior to, immedi-
ately following  an 18 hr  post exposure, while the BAL
was done only at 18 hr post exposure. A significant in-
crease in PMNs  was detected in the NL immediately
post exposure  to 03, (7.7-fold increase; p=.003), and
remained elevated in the 18 hr post-03 NL (6.1-fold in-
crease; p<.001).

Keywords:   'Ozone,   'Toxicity,   'Air   pollution
effects(Humans), 'Bronchoalveolar  lavage fluid, 'In-
flammation, Biological markers, Nose(Anatomy), Em-
physema, Fibrosis, Neutrophils, Reprints.
PB91-145078/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
Learning and Memory Deficits in Rats Following
Exposure to 3,3'-lminodipropionitrite. Journal arti-
cle.
NSI  Technology Services  Corp., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
D. B. Peele, S. D. Allison, and K. M. Crofton. C1990,
14pEPA/600/J-90/279
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, v105
n2 p321-332 Sep 90. Sponsored by Health Effects Re-
search Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC. Neurotoxi-
cology Div.

The effects on learning and memory produced by beta,
beta prime-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) were examined
in rats 4 weeks after dosing.  IDPN (600 mg/kg) pre-
vented acquisition of a olfactory discrimination  task
and disrupted performance of passive avoidance con-
ditioning in separate groups of animals. The disruptive
effects  on  passive  avoidance  conditioning  were
dosage dependent. Rats from  both control and treated
groups were then tested using a standard hot-plate
test.  The results suggest that  treatment with IDPN did
not produce the observed effects  on  learning and
memory by altering sensitivity  to painful, external stim-
uli. In summary, administration of IDPN  is capable of
producing  profound  and  long lasting  disruption of
learning and memory in rats. (Copyright (c) 1990 by
Academic Press, Inc.)

Keywords:  'Toxicity,  'Learning  disorder,  'Memory,
Avoidance learning. Pain, Rats, Smell, Taste, Reprints,
'Iminodipropionitriles.
PB91-145086/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Effects of Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorine, and
Monochloramine on  'Cryptosporidium  parvum'
Oocyst Viability. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. G. Korich, J. R. Mead, M. S. Madore, N. A. Sinclair,
andC. R. Sterling. c1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/278
22     Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Pub. in Jnl of Applied and Environmental Microbiology,
v56 n5 p1423-1428, May 90. Prepared in cooperation
with Arizona Univ., Tucson.

Purified  Cryptosporidium parvum  oocysts were  ex-
posed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and mon-
ochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were
comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability.
Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivat-
ed oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine  did.
Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infec-
tivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of
ozone (1  mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of
chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h,
while  80 ppm of monochloramine required approxi-
mately 90 min. for 90% inactivation. The data indicate
that C.parvum oocysts are 30 times more resistant to
ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide
than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants
under the same conditions. With the possible excep-
tion of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not
be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drink-
ing water. (Copyright (c) 1990, American Society for
Microbiology.)

Keywords: "Ozone,  'Chlorine, "Parasitic diseases,
•Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Potable water, Disinfection,
Kinetics,  Mice, Reprints, 'Chlorine dioxide, 'Monoch-
loramine, Oocysts.
 PB91-145094/REB                PC A01/MF A01
 Research to Support the SDWA: Pushing Back the
 Envelope. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. M. Clark. C1990, 3p EPA/600/J-90/277
 Pub. in AWWARF (American Water Works Association
 Research Foundation) Water Research Quarterly, v8
 n2.

 Changes in the drinking water utility industry are being
 driven by state and federal regulations and general ad-
 vances in science and technology. These changes are
 forcing the industry to reexamine much of the  knowl-
 edge one has taken for granted especially when writ-
 ing or rewriting regulations. The need for sound infor-
 mation presents a real challenge to the research com-
 munity. Establishments of a new type of relationship
 between federal and non-federal  organizations  has
 been made possible by the passage of the Federal
 Technology Transfer Act of 1986. The stakes  are so
 high and time so short,  and the consequence of error
 so great that ultimately  USEPA and the water utilities
 will be forced to work together to solve these difficult
 problems.

 Keywords:  'Potable water, *Safe Drinking Water Act
 of 1974,  'Research projects, Regulations, Technology
 transfer,  National government. State government, US
 EPA, Water supply, Water  utilities. Water treatment.
 Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986.
 PB91-145102/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Update on Building and Structure Decontamina-
 tion. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 N. P. Barkley. cJun 90, 7p EPA/600/J-90/276
 Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
 tion, 1990.

 Cleanup of the nation's  hazardous waste sites is one
 of the top environmental priorities. Since the ultimate
 objective of many cleanup programs is to return the
 contaminated site and buildings on the site to active
 use, additional information regarding both established
 and emerging technologies for building decontamina-
 tion is needed. A pilot scale study was performed at an
 actual Superfund Site to evaluate, side by side, the effi-
 ciency of  PCB removal using two  decontamination
 processes. One process entails the use of a shotblast-
 ing  technique in  which contaminated concrete sur-
 faces are cut away and physically removed. The  other
 process involves application of an alkali metal/poly-
 ethylene glycolate mixture directly  to contaminated
 concrete  surfaces for  insitu degradation  of PCB's.
 (Copyright (c) 1990-Air & Waste Management Asso-
 ciation.)

 Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Buildings, 'Decon-
 tamination, Concretes, Removal, Shot blasting, Struc-
 tures, Comparison, Prototypes,  Waste  treatment,
 Floors, Concentration(Composition), Tests, Sampling,
'Superfund,  Cleanup,  'Polychlorinated  biphenyls,
Alcali metals, Polyethylene glycolate.
PB91-145110/REB                PC A02/MF A01
SITE Demonstration of the CF Systems Organics
Extraction System. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. Valentinetti, J. McPherson, and L. Staley. C1990,8p
EPA/600/J-90/275
Pub. in Jnl. of Air and Waste Management Association,
v40 n6 p926-931 Jun 90. Prepared in cooperation with
Science  Applications  International Corp., McLean,
VA., and Vermont Agency of Natural Resources,  Wa-
terbury.

The CF Systems Organic Extraction System was used
to remove PCBs from contaminated sediment dredged
from the New Bedford  Harbor. This work was done as
part of a field demonstration under the Superfund In-
novative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The
purpose of the SITE program is to provide  an inde-
pendent and objective evaluation of innovative proc-
esses. The purpose of this paper is to present the re-
sults of the SITE demonstration of this technology. Re-
sults of the demonstration tests show that the system,
which uses high pressure liquefied propane, success-
fully removed PCBs from contaminated sediments in
New Bedford Harbor. Removal efficiencies for all test
runs exceeded 70%. Some operational problems oc-
cured  during the  demonstration which may  have af-
fected the efficiency with which PCBs were  removed
from the dredged sediment. Large amounts of  resi-
dues were generated  from  the demonstration. Costs
for using  this process are estimated to be  between
$150/ton and  $450/ton. (Copyright  (c) 1990--Air &
Waste Management Association.)

Keywords: 'Superfund,  'Waste treatment,  'Dredge
spoil,  'Water pollution control, 'Solvent extraction,
Sediments, New Bedford Harbor, Performance evalua-
tion, Remedial action, Hazardous materials, Technolo-
gy  utilization, Separation, Reprints, 'Polychlorinated
biphenyls.
 PB91-145128/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Incineration Research Facility. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. C. Thurnau, and C. R. Dempsey. C1990,11p EPA/
 600/J-90/274
 Pub. in Waste Management and Research, v8 1990.

 The  Cincinnati-based Risk  Reduction Engineering
 Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S.
 EPA operates the Incineration Research Facility (IRF)
 in Jefferson, Arkansas. The facility's pilot-scale experi-
 mental incineration  systems  include a Rotary Kiln
 System and a Liquid Injection System. Each system in-
 corporates primary and secondary combustors and as-
 sociated waste handling equipment, process control-
 lers, safety equipment and  air pollution  control de-
 vices. These 'state-of-practice' incinerators are fully
 permitted to test the entire range of RCRA hazardous
 wastes normally encountered in the hazardous  waste
 treatment industry. Due to the magnitude of hazardous
 waste disposal problems that might  be managed by
 thermal destruction and the  unique capabilities  of the
 facility, it is  believed  that the utilization  of the  IRF
 should be expanded  and made available to industry,
 academia, and other governmental agencies to pursue
 cooperative studies that would be of mutual benefit.
 The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act, as
 amended by the  Federal Technology Transfer  Act of
 1986, provides a great deal of flexibility for the Federal
 Government to develop and fund cooperative studies
 that were previously not possible. The purpose  of the
 article \s to briefly describe the facility and its capabili-
 ties, and to make it known to potential third-party users
 that one is interested in conducting cooperative  re-
 search at the IRF.

 Keywords: 'Incinerators, Hazardous materials,  Waste
 treatment, Jefferson(Arkansas),  Environmental pro-
 tection. Kilns, Reprints, Risk reduction.
 PB91-145136/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Airborne  Asbestos  Levels  Measured  Before,
 during and After Abatement. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. R. Kominsky, R. W. Freyberg, T. J. Powers, R. C.
Wilmoth, and C. P. Frebis. c1990,7p EPA/600/J-90/
273
Pub. in NAC (National Asbestos Council) Jnl., p29-33,
Spring 1990. Presented at the National  Asbestos
Council Conference,  Anaheim,  CA.,  March 29-31,
1989.  Prepared in cooperation with PEI Associates,
Inc., Cincinnati, OH.

Airborne  asbestos concentrations  were measured
before, during, and after removal of asbestos-contain-
ing fireproofing at three university  buildings. These
three  abatement  studies were  not subject to the
AHERA regulations and the procedures followed were
not necessarily in compliance with AHERA; however,
to the extent that the data allowed, post abatement air-
borne asbestos concentrations were evaluated with
the AHERA Z-test. Of the three sites studied, all would
have  passed  the AHERA X-test when the work area
asbestos levels were compared to perimeter levels
(outside the abatement area but inside the  building).
Two sites also would have passed the Z-test when
work  area and outdoor air  levels were compared. At
one site, contamination of the perimeter area occurred
at some point during  the abatement project. Had this
area been used in the Z-test clearance comparison,  a
contaminated site would have been falsely released.

Keywords:  'Asbestos,  'Abatement,   'Air  pollution
monitoring, Electron microscopy, Indoor air pollution,
Buildings, Universities, Regulations, Statistical analy-
sis, Reprints.
 PB91-145144/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Incinerability Index: A Measure of Incinerator Per-
 formance. (Journal Article).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. C. Thurnau. C1990,13p EPA/600/J-90/272
 Pub. in Waste Management, v10 p185-195 1990. See
 also PB89-223663.  Presented  at  the  International
 Conference on Incineration of Hazardous, Radioac-
 tive, Infectious and Mixed Wastes (8th), Knoxville, TN.,
 May 1-5,1989.

 A series of ten incineration tests were performed on a
 synthetic hazardous waste containing tetrachloroethy-
 lene, toluene, chlorobenzene, and  pentachloroben-
 zene  as principal  organic hazardous  components
 (POHCs). Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was also injected
 into the mixture just prior to incineration and the result-
 ing destruction removal efficiencies (ORE) were meas-
 ured. Primary combustion chamber temperature was
 varied from 871C to 1249C and the oxygen concentra-
 tion from 1.3 to 9.2 percent. The test data indicated
 poor correlations between the variables of tempera-
 ture and oxygen with POHC ORE. A temperature/SF6
 ORE linear relationship was observed. The research
 also indicated that SF6 was more difficult to incinerate
 than any of the other POHCs, and might represent a
 lower boundary for evaluating incinerator  perform-
 ance.

 Keywords: 'Incinerators,  'Waste disposal, "Combus-
 tion efficiency, 'Chlorobenzenes, 'Toluene, 'Tetrach-
 loroethylene, 'Sulfur hexafluoride, 'Air pollution con-
 trol, 'Performance evaluation, Hazardous materials,
 Oxygen, Temperature, Graphs(Charts), Reprints.
 PB91-145151/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Seaming of Geosynthetics. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. E. Landreth. C1990,7p EPA/600/J-90/271
 Pub. in Geotextiles and Geomembranes, v9 p481-485
 1990.

 Owners of containment facilities are using geosynthe-
 tics at an increased rate. A major concern in their use
 is the ability to field seam the materials such that the
 design  function of the  geosynthetic is transferred
 through the seam. The paper discusses potential con-
 cerns and describes quality assurance techniques that
 will, when utilized, help ensure that the facility will be
 constructed according to the  design. (Copyright  (c)
 1990 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, England.)

 Keywords: 'Geotechnical fabrics, 'Seaming, 'Inspec-
 tion, Sampling, Nondestructive tests,  Seams(Joints),
 Quality assurance,  Defects,  Folding, Pollution abate-
 ment, Reprints, 'Geosynthetic materials.


                           June  1991     23

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-145169/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Evaluation of Two Cleaning Methods for the Re-
moval of Asbestos Fibers from Carpet. (Journal
Article).
PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
J. R. Kominsky, R. W. Freyberg, J. Chesson, W. C.
Cain, and T. J. Powers. C1990,7p EPA/600/J-90/270
Pub.  in Jnl. of American Industrial Hygiene Associa-
tion, v51 n9 p500-504 Sep 90. See also PB91-125740.
Presented at National Asbestos Council Conference,
Indianapolis, IN., September 9-28, 1990. Prepared in
cooperation with Chesson Consulting, Washington,
DC. Sponsored by Environmental  Protection Agency,
Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The research study examined the effectiveness of dry
vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbes-
tos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for
fiber  reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities.
Routine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficien-
cy paniculate air (HEPA) filtered dry vacuum cleaners
and HEPA-filtered hot-water extraction cleaners were
simulated on carpet  artificially contaminated with as-
bestos fibers. Overall, wet cleaning the carpet with a
hot-water extraction cleaner reduced the level of as-
bestos contamination by approximately 70 percent.
There was no significant evidence of either an in-
crease or a decrease in the asbestos concentration
after dry vacuuming. The level of asbestos contamina-
tion had no significant  effect on the  difference be-
tween the carpet asbestos concentrations before and
after cleaning. Airborne asbestos concentrations were
between two and four times greater during the carpet
cleaning activities. The  level of asbestos contamina-
tion in the carpet cleaning activities. The level of as-
bestos contamination in the carpet and the type of
cleaning method used had no statistically significant
effect on the difference between the airborne asbes-
tos concentrations before and during cleaning.

Keywords:  'Asbestos,  'Removal, 'Carpets,  'Dry
cleaning, 'Wetting, Vacuum cleaners, Indoor air pollu-
tion.  Air pollution monitoring. Electron  microscopy,
Laboratory tests. Reprints.
PB91-145177/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
Flow Cytometric Detection and Sizing of Fluores-
cent Particles Deposited at a Sewage Outfall Site.
Journal article.
Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Ralph M.
Parsons Lab.
K. A, Newman, S. L. Frankel, and K. D. Stolenbach.
C1990, 9p EPA/600/J-90/269, ERLN-NX06
Pub. in Environmental Science and Technology, v24
n4 p513-519 1990. Sponsored by Environmental Re-
search Lab., Narragansett, Rl.

A suspension of fluorescent  pigment  particles (total
mass,  120  kg) was injected over a period of several
hours into  a  sewage outfall  discharging  into Salem
Sound, MA. Row cytometric analysis was successfully
used to identify, quantify, and size the fluorescent pig-
ment particles in bottom sediment and sediment trap
samples collected 1-8 days after their release. Typical
areal concentrations after  8 days were 1000 micro-
grams/cu m (or roughly 100 ppb in the top 0.5 cm of
sediment cores) corresponding to approximately 7%
of the  total released. The size distributions of recov-
ered pigment particles are identical with the size distri-
bution  in the initial suspension, indicating that, despite
their exceptionally low coagulation efficiency,  net dep-
osition of the pigment particles is effected by coagula-
tion with other solids either in the water column or at
the sediment-water interface. (Copyright (c) by the
American Chemical Society, 1990.)

Keywords:  'Particle size distribution,  'Cell flow sys-
tems, "Fluorescence, 'Sewage treatment, Water pol-
lution.  Coagulation, Settling.  Field tests, Massachu-
setts. Reprints, Salem Sound.


PB91-145433/REB              PCA11/MFA02
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
Center for Environmental Research Information.
Physical/Chemical   Treatment  of   Hazardous
Waste Sites: Speaker Slide Copies and Supporting
Infonii3tk>n.
PEER Consultants, Inc., Dayton, OH.
Apr 90,243p CERI-90-16
Also available from Supt. of Docs. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Center
for Environmental Research Information.

Contents: Process-Based Treatment Decision Making;
Treatability Studies and Data Quality Objectives; Mate-
rial Handling Including Debris Separation and Decon-
tamination; Separation  of Inorganic  Contaminants
from Soils and Sludges; Separation and Treatment of
Inorganics in Aqueous Matrices; Separation of Organic
Contaminants from Soils and Sludges; Separation and
Treatment of Organics in Liquids; Collection and Treat-
ment of Gases; Databases Supporting Technology Se-
lections.

Keywords:   'Hazardous   materials,   'Separation,
'Waste treatment, 'Meetings, Organic compounds,
Decision making, Inorganic  compounds,  Materials
handling,    Volume,    Soils,    Liquids,    Debris,
Precipitation(Concentration),  Neutralizing,   Inciner-
ators, Capping, Solidification, pewatenng, Solvent ex-
traction, Diagrams, Waste minimization, Superfund,
Recycling, Reverse osmosis.
PB91-14S441/RE8               PC A08/MF A01
Aluminum, Copper, and Nonferrous Metals Form-
ing and Metal Powders Pretreatment Standards: A
Guidance Manual.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Dec 89,172p
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The National Pretreatment  Program establishes an
overall strategy for controlling the introduction of non-
domestic wastes to publicly owned treatment works
(POTWs) in accordance with the overall objectives of
the Clean Water Act. The manual provides guidance to
POTWs on the implementation and enforcement of the
categorical pretreatment standards for the aluminum
forming, copper forming, and nonferrous metals form-
ing and metal powders categories. This guidance is
based primarily on two sources: Federal Register no-
tices, which contain the official announcements of the
categorical standards, and the final development doc-
uments for aluminum forming,  copper forming, and
nonferrous metals forming and metal powders catego-
ries, which provide a summary of the technical support
for the regulations.

Keywords: "Aluminum,  'Water  treatment,  'Metal
working, Manuals, Standards, Copper, Metal powder.
Casting, Waste water. Oils, Metal rolling, Metal press-
ing, Berillium alloys, Operations, Extruding, Lubricants,
Coatings,     Zinc,     Cyanides,     Tables(Data),
Pretreatment(Water),      'Nonferrous      metals,
Discharge(Water).
PB91-145458/REB               PC A13/MF A02
Toxic  Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical
Substance  Inventory:  1990 Supplement to  the
1985 Edition of the TSCA Inventory. User Guides
and Indices.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Jun 90,280p EPA/560/7-90/003
Also available from Supt.  of Docs. See also PB85-
204592.

The 1990 Supplement to EPA's 1985  Edition of the
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Sub-
stance  Inventory covers approximately 5,000  sub-
stances that have been added to the Inventory since
the 1985 publication. However, substances that were
added to the Inventory after February 1, 1990 are not
included in the publication.  Together, the 1985 Edition
and the 1990 Supplement constitute a revised Invento-
ry representing a total of 68,000 chemical substances.
From a regulatory standpoint, the  Inventory defines
what chemical substances are 'existing' in U.S. com-
merce for purposes  of implementing  TSCA.  Sub-
stances that are not included on the Inventory are con-
sidered 'new' by EPA and are subject to the Premanu-
facture Notification (PMN) requirements under Section
5(a)ofTSCA.

Keywords: 'Toxic substances, 'Inventories,  Indexes,
Definitions, Registries, 'Toxic Substances Control Act,
CAS numbers. Chemical Registry Numbers.
PB91-145466/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Guidance on  Remedial Actions  for  Superfund
Sites with PCB Contamination.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Aug 90,151 p EPA/540/G-90/007
Also available from Supt of Docs.

The document describes the recommended approach
for evaluating and  remediating  Superfund  sites with
PCB contamination. It provides starting point cleanup
levels for various media that may become contaminat-
ed and identifies other considerations important to en-
suring protection of human  health and the environ-
ment that these cleanup levels may not address. The
guidance also describes how to develop  remedial al-
ternatives for PCB contaminated materials that are
consistent with Superfund program expectations and
requirements. The guidance  concludes with a discus-
sion of considerations unique to PCBs that  should be
considered in the nine criteria  evaluation  and  likely
tradeoffs between options that are likely to occur.

Keywords: 'Chlorine organic compounds, 'Hazardous
materials, 'Pollution control,  Investigations,  Feasibility
studies,              Guidelines,             Sites,
Concentration(Composition), Biphenyl, Dechlorination,
Incinerators, Regulations, Waste treatment, Solvent
extraction, Licenses, Removal, Cost estimates, Reme-
dial  Action,  'Superfund,  Polychlorinated  biphenyls,
Cleanup, Alternative planning.
PB91-145474/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Saving  Bays and Estuaries: A Primer for Estab-
lishing and Managing Estuary Projects.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Aug 89,173p EPA/503/8-89/001
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

Contents: National  Estuary Program: An  Overview;
The Planning Initiative: Building a Management Frame-
work; Characterization and Problem  Definition; The
Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan;
and Implementing the CCMP.

Keywords:  "BaysfTopographic Features), 'Estuaries,
'Coasts, 'Conservation, 'Water quality management,
Project planning, History, Chesapeake Bay, Local gov-
ernment, Government policies, National government,
Water pollution, Sources, Aquatic plants, Aquatic ani-
mals, Citizens participation. Protection, Technical  as-
sistance, Water Quality Act of 1987, Organic loading.
 PB91-145482/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 ORD Ground Water  Research Plan: Strategy for
 1991 and Beyond.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Research and Development.
 Sep 90,18p EPA/600/9-90/042
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 Ground water research at EPA encompasses several
 different ORD programs which are contributing to the
 body of knowledge in this emerging science. Efforts
 are  focused on serving EPA programs which are re-
 quiring an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base
 and greater technical  assistance in  order to develop
 and implement environmental programs. Two major
 themes or objectives for future research are preven-
 tion and remediation of ground water contamination.
 These objectives can  continue to be met through fo-
 cused research products for EPA program clients, sup-
 ported by basic research on subsurface processes,
 monitoring and remediation methods, while evaluating
 and refining research results based on field experi-
 ence.

 Keywords:   'Research  projects,   'Ground  water,
 'Water pollution,  Technical assistance.  Monitoring,
 Prevention,  Technology transfer, Proposals, Project
 planning, Remedial action.
 PB91-145490/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Cross-Connection Control Manual.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Jun 89,50p EPA/570/9-89/007
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 Plumbing  cross-connections,  which are defined  as
 actual or potential connections between a potable and
 24    Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
non-potable water supply, constitute a serious public
health hazard. There are numerous, well-documented
cases where cross-connections have been responsi-
ble for contamination of drinking water, and have re-
sulted in the spread of disease. The Manual has been
designed as a tool lor health officials, waterworks per-
sonnel, plumbers,  and any others involved directly or
indirectly in water supply distribution systems.

Keywords:  'Plumbing,   'Water  pipelines,  'Water
supply, 'Water pollution, Manuals,  Connectors, Public
health, Hazards, Installing, Water distribution, Distribu-
tion  systems.  Test methods,  Prevention,  Drinking
water, Backflow.
PB91-145508/REB               PC A12/MF A02
Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Re-
quirements for Municipal Sewage Sludge.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
May 90,256p EPA/505/8-90/001
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

Contents: Applicability of this Guidance; Overview of
Sludge Treatment  Processes and Their  Effect on
Sludge Properties; Summary of Permitting Procedures
and Requirements; Landfilling; Land Application; Dis-
tribution and Marketing; Incineration; Surface Dispos-
al.

Keywords: 'Licenses, 'Requirements, 'Sludge  dis-
posal,   'Pollution   control,   Manuals,   Utilization,
Law(Jurisprudence), History, Toxicity, National govern-
ment, State government, Earth fills, Incinerators, Oper-
ations,             Sewage             treatment,
Concentration(Composition), Disease vectors. Air pol-
lution.  Ground water, Standards,  Acceptability, Case
by  state  basis, Clean Water Act, 'Land application,
Chemicals.
 PB91-145516/HEB                PC A09/MF A02
 Guide  to  the  Office  of  Water  Accountability
 System and  Regional Evaluations:  Fiscal  Year
 1991.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Mar90,200p
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 The Office of  Water Accountability System (OWAS)
 consists of a set of qualitative and quantitative meas-
 ures that provide the basis  for evaluating Regional
 Office performance  against National program objec-
 tives. The measures in the system include all meas-
 ures included in the Agency's Strategic  Targeted Ac-
 tivities for Results System (STARS; formerly  referred
 to as SPMS) as well as additional qualitative and quan-
 titative  measures which are needed to  evaluate fully
 performance against the Office of Water's FY 1991
 National program objectives. In general, the measures
 from the STARS relate to selected areas of the Agen-
 cy's Priority List and are among the highest priority pro-
 gram activities.

 Keywords:  'National government,  'Water  supply,
 'Water pollution, 'Accountability, Regional analysis.
 Performance  evaluation,  Project  planning,  Sewers,
 Water  distribution,   Distribution  systems.  Injection
 wells. Estuaries, Protection, Ground water, Standards,
 'Waterprojects, 'Priorities, Wetlands.


 PB91-145524/REB               PC A99/MF A04
 Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of Haz-
 ardous Waste.  Proceedings  of the Annual Re-
 search Symposium (15th). Held in Cincinnati, Ohio
 on April 10-12,1989.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Feb 90,612p EPA/600/9-90/006
 Also available from Supt.  of Docs. Prepared  in coop-
 eration with JACA Corp.,  Fort Washington, PA., and
 PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.

 The purpose  of the Symposium was to  present the
 latest significant research findings from ongoing and
 recently completed projects funded by the Risk Re-
 duction Engineering Laboratory (RREL).  These Pro-
 ceedings are organized in four sections:  Sessions A, 8,
 and A/B consist of paper presentations. Session C
 contains the poster abstracts. Subjects include reme-
 dial action treatment and  control  technologies  for
 waste  disposal, landfill liner and cover systems, per-
 sonnel protection,  underground  storage tanks,  and
 demonstration and development of innovative/alter-
native treatment technologies for hazardous waste. Al-
ternative technology subjects include thermal destruc-
tion of hazardous wastes, field evaluations, existing
treatment  options,  emerging treatment processes,
waste  minimization, and biosystems  for  hazardous
waste destruction.

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Waste treatment,
'Waste disposal, 'Meetings, Abstracts, Pyrolysis, Or-
ganic compounds. Thermal  degradation, Incinerators,
Sampling, Prototypes, Underground storage, Storage
tanks,  Cyanides, Oxidation reduction reactions, Elec-
troplating,          Anaerobic          processes,
Digestion(Decomposition),  Remedial  action,  Waste
minimization.
PB91-145631/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Research Inst., Ada, OK.
Injection Well Mechanical Integrity.
Robert  S. Kerr Environmental Research  Lab., Ada,
OK.
J. T. Thornhill, and B. G. Benefield. Feb 90,123p EPA/
625/9-89/007
Also available from Supt. of Docs. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Research Inst., Ada, OK.

The initial research project examining the question of
mechanical injection well integrity, was conducted by
the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laborato-
ry and funded in 1981. The first phase of the project re-
sulted in a separate report entitled, 'Methods for Deter-
mining  the Mechanical  Integrity of Class II Injection
Wells,'  EPA  600/2-84-121.  The report  represented
state-of-the-art methods available for determining me-
chanical integrity of Class II wells. The technology de-
scribed may also be applied  to other classes of injec-
tion wells. The second and  third phases of study in-
volved  test wells constructed for mechanical integrity
testing: 'Logging Well No. 1' to test for channels in the
cement behind the casing; 'Logging Well No. 2' to test
fr channels in the cement behind the casing  and to
evaluate cement behind fiberglass casing; 'Fiberglass
Calibration Well' for use in calibrating tools to free fi-
berglass casing; 'Leak Test Well' for developing meth-
ods for testing the  integrity of the tubing, casing and
packer as well as locating fluid movement in channels
behind the casing; and three monitoring wells to deter-
 mine fluid movement and pressure buildup as a result
 of injection.

 Keywords: 'Injection wells,  'Leak testing, US EPA,
 Well logging, Mechanical tests, Packings, Linings, Re-
 liability, Pressurizing, Well tests, Fibergass, Oklahoma.
 PB91-145649/REB                PC A04/MF A01
 Abstract Proceedings: Forum on Innovative Haz-
 ardous Waste Treatment Technologies; Domestic
 and  International  (2nd). Held  in  Philadelphia,
 Pennsylvania on May 15-17,1990.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
 Sep 90,65p EPA/540/2-90/009
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 Contents:  Physical  Chemical  Treatment  Methods;
 Thermal Treatment; Biological Treatment;  Solidifica-
 tion/Stabilization  Treatment;  and  Poster  Presenta-
 tions.

 Keywords:  'Hazardous materials, 'Waste treatment,
 •Meetings, Abstracts, Soils, Extraction, Ground water,
 Ultraviolet spectrum, Irradiation, Thermal degradation.
 Ion exchanging. Removal, Washiing, Incinerators, Py-
 rolysis, Solidification,  Stabilization,  Activated sludge
 process, Ozonization, Superfund, RCRA, Cleanup.
  PB91-145656/REB               PC A10/MF A02
  Recognition and Management of  Pesticide Poi-
  sonings. Fourth Edition.
  Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
  Office of Pesticide Programs.
  D. P. Morgan. 1989,216p EPA/540/9-88/001
  Also available from Supt. of Docs. Prepared in coop-
  eration with Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Medicine.

  The fourth edition of Recognition and Management of
  Pesticide Poisonings is  an update and expansion of
  the  1982 third edition. The purpose of the fourth edi-
  tion is to provide health professionals with recently
  available information on the health hazards of  pesti-
  cides currently in use, and current consensus recom-
  mendations for management of poisonings and inju-
ries caused by them. The book deals almost entirely
with short-term (acute) harmful effects of pesticides.

Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Poisoning, 'Emergency medi-
cal  services, Insecticides,  Herbicides,  Toxic sub-
stances, Health hazards. Fungicides, Diagnosis, Toxi-
cology, Fumigants, Signs and symptoms, Antidotes.
PB91-145664/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Annual Hazardous Waste Research Symposium
(16th): Remedial  Action, Treatment and Disposal
of Hazardous Waste. Held in Cincinnati, Ohio on
April 3-5,1990.
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati,  OH.
Center for Environmental Research Information.
Apr 90, 66pCERI-90-04
Also available from Supt. of Docs. Prepared in coop-
eration with PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH., and
JACA Corp., Fort Washington, PA.

The report includes different processes for treatment
of waste. Some of these papers include: Thermal deg-
radation, waste minimization; Biological and chemcial
treatment, ozone/ultraviolet light, steam stripping, and
solvent washing of contaminated soil.

Keywords:  'Hazardous materials, 'Waste treatment,
'Waste disposal, 'Meetings, Incinerators,  Biodeterior-
ation, Chlorine organic compounds, Sludge disposal,
Fluidized bed process, Solid waste disposal, Earth fills,
Linings,  Microorganism  Control(Sewage), Genetics,
Remedial  action, Polychlorinated  biphenyls,  Lea-
chage.
 PB91-145672/REB               PC A05/MF A01
 NPDES Compliance  Monitoring Inspector Train-
 ing: Overview.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
 Office of Water Enforcement and Permits.
 Aug 90,92p
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 The document is one of five training modules devel-
 oped  by the  Office  of  Water  Enforcement  and
 Permits(OWEP),   U.S.   Environmental   Protection
 Agency (EPA) to introduce the National Pollutant Dis-
 charge Elimination System (NPDES) program to  new
 inspectors. Information in each module provides train-
 ing to an inspector unfamiliar with the NPDES  pro-
 gram. The moddules address the following topics: The
 Overview Module; The Legal Issues Module; The Bio-
 monitoring Module; The Sampling Procedures Module;
 and the Laboratory Analysis Module.

 Keywords: 'Licenses,  'Water pollution control,  "In-
 spection, Manuals, Regulations,  Law enforcement,
 Legislation,  Sampling,  Evaluation, Laboratories, In-
 structions, Training, 'Training modules.
 PB91-145680/REB               PC A06/MF A01
 Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Water Enforcement and Permits.
 NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training
 Module: Legal Issues.
 Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA.
 Aug 90,123p*
 Contracts EPA-68-01-7050, EPA-68-C8-0066
 Also available  from Supt. of Docs. See also PB88-
 221098.  Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection
 Agency, Washington, DC.  Office of Water Enforce-
 ment and Permits.

 To familiarize new NPDES inspectors with the legal as-
 pects of compliance monitoring, the module discusses
 how the law should be taken  into account during
 NPDES inspections as well as hearings or trials arising
 from such inspections. The module begins with a short
 review of sources of statutory authority and briefly de-
 scribes the legal basis for NPDES inspections. It then
 emphasizes the  legal considerations which facilitate
 the inspector's ability to perform his/her prescribed
 functions-namely,  to gain  access and to  identify,
 gather, preserve, and present evidence.

 Keywords:  'Instructional materials, 'Legal aspects,
 'Water pollution control, 'Water  pollution abatement,
 'Environmental  monitoring,  Pollution  regulations,
 Standards compliance,  Law(Jurisprudence), Law en-
 forcement,  US EPA, Permits, Decisions and orders,
 Warranties, Administrative procedures, Liabilities, 'Na-
 tional Pollutant Discharge Elimination  System, Clean


                            June 1991     25

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Water Act of 1977, Water Quality Act of 1987, Testi-
 mony.
 PB91-145698/REB               PC A05/MF A01
 Program Recommendations for State Section 313
 Program Coordinators.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Toxic Substances.
 Sep 90,84p EPA/560/1-90/001
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 Acting out of concern for the public's exposure to po-
 tentially harmful chemicals the U.S.  Congress passed
 the Emergency  Planning and Community Right-to-
 Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA, also referred to as Title III
 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
 Act). State-level Section 313 programs are in the best
 position to  play an essential role in  providing release
 information to, and interpreting the information for, the
 public. By providing information and references, the
 manual  is intended to help state Section 313 Program
 Coordinators enhance the basic elements of their ex-
 isting programs and to  help  states  set up programs
 where none currently exist.

 Keywords: 'Hazardous  materials,  'Program manage-
 ment, Manuals, State government, Personnel, Project
 planning, Reporting, Public health.  Accidents, Emer-
 gency Planning and Community Right To Know Act of
 1986, 'Superfund.
PB91-145706/REB                PC A09/MF A02
Environmental Protection  Agency, Cincinnati,  OH.
Center for Environmental Research Information.
Assessing the Geochemical Fate of Deep-WeU-ln-
jected Hazardous Waste: A Reference Guide.
Eastern Research Group. Inc., Arlington, MA.
J. R. Boulding, and A. C. Jones. Jun 90,200p EPA/
625/6-89/025A
Also available from Supt. of Docs. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Center
for Environmental Research Information.

The geochemical fate of deep-well-injected wastes
must be thoroughly understood to help avoid problems
when incompatibility between the injected wastes and
the injection-zone formation is a possibility. An under-
standing of geochemical fate also will be useful when a
geochemical  no-migration  demonstration must  be
made. This reference  guide was written to address
both of these needs by presenting state-of-the-art in-
formation on the geochemical fate of hazardous deep-
well-injected wastes. Furthermore, operators  of any
new industrial-waste injection well who must consider
the possibility of incompatibility will find this guide help-
ful  in identifying  geochemical reactions of potential
concern and methods for testing incompatibility.

Keywords: 'Geochemistry, 'Hazardous materials, 'In-
jection wells,  'United States, Guidelines, Identifying,
Sources, Geography,  Waste  disposal, Adsorption,
Precipitation(Chemistry),   Neutralizing,   Hydrolysis,
Thermal degradation,  Environmental  transport, pH,
Salinity, Chemical properties. Hydrocarbons, Mathe-
matical models. Maps, Deep wells, Case studies.
PB91-145714/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Public Private Partnerships for Environmental Fa-
cilities: A Serf-Help Guide for Local Governments.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
May 90,4Bp
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The guide is primarily designed to give local officials
the key information necessary to establish public-pri-
vate partnerships. Specifically, the guide provides: a
primer on what public-private partnerships are and the
benefits that can be gained by working with the private
sector an action checklist, explained how to build a
partnership; a review of financing, procurement, and
the service agreement that binds public and private in-
terests; and a list of potential contacts and information
related to municipal services, finance,  and public-pri-
vate partnerships. The document was written for local
governmental officials (e.g., mayors, city managers,
department heads, and city council members) who are
interested in  developing public-private partnerships;
state governmental officials who need  information on
how to put together a partnership to use in working
with local government officials; and leaders in busi-
ness,  finance, banking, and industry who need to un-
derstand  the  constraints  under which  local officials
must operate in implementing a public-private partner-
ship.

Keywords:  'Environmental  protection, 'Public rela-
tions, 'Private  organizations, 'Government/industry
relations. Guidelines, Case studies, Local government.
Coordinated procurement, Information  transfer, 'Co-
operative agreement.
PB91-145722/REB                PC A05/MF A01
Seminar Publication: Risk Assessment,  Manage-
ment and Communication of Drinking Water Con-
tamination.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
Jun 90,90p EPA/625/4-89/024
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The topic of the publication is how one identifies, as-
sesses, and manages the occurrence of potentially
toxic  chemicals  in  drinking water. Obviously  one
cannot become an expert in toxicology, chemistry, and
drinking water treatment by attending a workshop or
reading the publication. The purpose of the document
is to present a broad range of relevant information
from the fields of toxicology, chemistry, and engineer-
ing, thus assisting the reader in assessing and manag-
ing drinking water contamination problems. Technical
information is presented on U.S. EPA programs, toxi-
cology,  chemistry, treatment principles, and  media
coverage and risk communication during an emergen-
cy.

Keywords:   'Management,   'Hazardous  materials,
'Water pollution control, 'Meetings, Standards, Public
health,  Dosage, Humans,  Exposure,  Carcinogens,
Toxicrty, Adsorption, Metabolism, Chemical analysis,
Water treatment, Activated carbon  process, Pesti-
cides,  Aeration,  Mass  communication, Diagrams,
'Drinking  water,  'Risk assessment. Safe Drinking
Water Act of 1986 and Volatile Organic Compounds,
Amendments.
PB91-145730/REB                PC A12/MF A02
National Water Quality Inventory. 1988 Report to
Congress.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Apr 90,259p EPA/440/4-90/003
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

Contents:  Part One: Introduction; Part Two: Surface
Water Quality; (Rivers and Streams, Lakes and Reser-
voirs, The Great Lakes, Estuaries and Coastal Waters,
Wetlands,  Public Health/Aquatic Life Concerns); Part
Three: Ground-Water Quality; (Current Ground-Water
Use, Ground-Water Protection Programs); Part Four:
Water Pollution Control Programs; (Point Source Con-
trol Program, Nonpoint Source Control Program, Sur-
face Water Monitoring, Costs and Benefits of Pollution
Control, and State Recommendations).

Keywords:  'Water pollution control, 'Water  quality
management, *States(United States), Inventories, As-
sessments, Surface waters.  Rivers, Lakes, Estuaries,
Public hearth,  Aquatic  biology,  Fisheries,  Industrial
wastes,  Coasts, Benefit cost analysis. State govern-
ment, Monitoring, Recommendations, Tables(Data),
Clean Water Act, Wetlands, Point sources,  Nonpoint
sources.
PB91-145755/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Guide to Ground-Water Supply Contingency Plan-
ning for Local and State Governments. Technical
Assistance Document
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Ground-Water Protection.
May 90,148p EPA/440/6-90/003
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The purpose of the Technical Assistance Document is
to assist States and local communities in establishing,
providing, maintaining, and updating certain emergen-
cy response procedures that may become necessary if
a partial or total loss of public water supply service
occurs. The development  and integration  of  these
emergency response procedures into a workable plan
constitutes the  Contingency Planning Process. The
Wellhead Protection Program was developed primarily
to protect the ground waters  that supply wells and
wellfields that contribute drinking water to public water
supply  systems.  The  periodic  occurrence of natural
disasters,  chemical contamination, physical disrup-
tions, and civil disorders all threaten the supply and
distribution network of public drinking water supplies to
some degree.

Keywords:  'Ground  water, 'Management  planning,
'Water supply, 'Emergencies, Guidelines, Response,
Personnel, Legislation, Water distribution, Distribution
systems. Local government, Replacing, Sources, Fi-
nancing,  State government, Water consumption, Re-
duction, 'Wellhead Protection Program.
PB91-145847/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Preliminary Analysis of the Public Costs of Envi-
ronmental Protection: 1981-2000.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
May 90, 58p*
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The study documents the costs of environmental pro-
tection for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), the states, and local governments and uses
these data to: Examine differences between current
expenditures and future costs of environmental pro-
tection; Assess  trends in the distribution  of costs
among EPA, the states, and local governments; and
Identify the cost impact of environmental policies on
local governments, capital markets, and households.
The report examines the public costs of environmental
protection over the period  1981-1987 and projects
them  to the year 2000. These projections are esti-
mates of the future costs of  maintaining existing envi-
ronmental standards, assuming the same level of qual-
ity as in 1987. In addition, the report examines the local
costs of selected new environmental regulations and
programs  that  local governments  will bear  in  the
future.

Keywords: 'Economic analysis, 'Costs,  'Programs,
'US EPA, State government. Local government. Eco-
nomic impact, Expenses,  Government policies. Cap-
ital, Households, Methodology, Regulations, Trends.
 PB91-145854/REB               PC A05/MF A01
 NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training
 Module: Biomonitoring.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Water Enforcement and Permits.
 Aug 90,86p*
 Also available from Supt. of Docs. See also PB82-
 136367.

 The document is one of five training modules devel-
 oped by the Office of Water Enforcement and Permits,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to intro-
 duce  the  National  Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination
 System (NPDES) program to new inspectors. Informa-
 tion in each module provides training to an inspector
 unfamiliar with the NPDES program. The modules ad-
 dress the following topics: The Overview presents an
 overview of the  entire  NPDES  program  and briefly
 summarizes different types of inspections conducted
 under the program;  Legal issues discusses the legal
 issues which must be addressed during an inspection
 and provides legal information to assist inspectors in
 performing  their  duties; Biomonitoring outlines the
 principles of biomonitoring and the role of biological
testing in the inspection program;  Sampling  proce-
 dures details procedures to be used when conducting
 a sampling inspection; and  Laboratory analysis out-
 lines procedures and information necessary to perform
an effective evaluation of a permittee's laboratory. The
 module is designed to introduce new inspectors to the
 concepts and  practices of toxicity testing as it relates
to CBIs (Compliance Biomonitoring Inspections). It is
 not intended to be a definitive source of material on
toxicity testing; rattier, its focus is on explaining the
points pertinent to CBIs. After mastering the material in
 the module, an inspector should be able to  define
terms used in whole effluent toxicity testing, describe
whole effluent toxicity testing procedures, list key as-
pects of toxicity critical to interpretation of results, and
 list guidance documents that can be used  to imple-
ment CBIs. Appendix A contains questions and an-
swers that an inspector can  use to self-test him/her-
self after completing the module.

 Keywords: 'Water pollution control, 'Instructional ma-
terials,  'Inspection,  'Bioindicators,  'Environmental
 monitoring, 'Water pollution abatement, Toxicity, Per-
sonnel development, Legal aspects, Water pollution
sampling, Pollution regulations, Laboratory tests, Per-
 mits, Bioassay, Ecosystems,  Toxicity, Standards com-
pliance, 'National  Pollutant Discharge  Elimination
26     Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
System Clean Water Act of 1977, Water Quality Act of
1987.
PB91-145870/REB               PC A07/MF A01
NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training
Module: Laboratory Analysis.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Water Enforcement and Permits.
Aug90,139p*
Also available from Supt. of  Docs.  See also PB82-
136383.

The document is one of five training modules devel-
oped by the Office of Water Enforcement and Permits,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to introduce the
National  Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination  System
(NPDES) program to new inspectors. This module has
been organized to highlight the major components in-
volved in a laboratory evaluation conducted as part of
a CEI, (Compliance Evaluation Inspection) and in  a
more comprehensive laboratory evaluation conducted
during  a PAI (Performance  Audit  Inspection). The
module discusses the following subjects for  the two
types of inspections:  Performance Audit Inspection-
(completing preinspection planning, conducting the ini-
tial meeting, observing sampling techniques,  assess-
ing the laboratory's sample control, reviewing the lab-
oratory's analytical methods, evaluating the laborato-
ry's Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) tech-
niques, reviewing the  laboratory's Discharge Monitor-
ing Reports (DMR) QA lab data and records, conduct-
ing an audit of the laboratory's  facilities and  equip-
ment, conducting the  exit  meeting, and preparing the
final report). Compliance  Evaluation  lnspection-(re-
viewing records and reports,  completing a review of
self-monitoring data and procedures, and conducting a
review of the laboratory facilities). The objective of the
module is to provide the inspector with background in-
formation necessary to conduct an appropriate evalua-
tion of the permittee's  laboratory  procedures for
sample control, sample analysis, and quality  assur-
ance, as well as to assess the adequacy of the labora-
tory facilities and equipment. Additional sources of in-
formation  are  provided in the references identified
throughout the text of the module and summarized  in
Appendix A. A glossary of terms used in the module
appears as Appendix B.

Keywords:  'Instructional  materials,  "Water pollution
control, 'Water pollution abatement,  'Laboratory
tests, 'Inspection, 'Environmental  monitoring, Water
analysis, Chemical analysis. Performance  standards,
Auditing, Standards compliance, Water  pollution de-
tection, Water pollution sampling, Quality assurance,
Quality control, 'National Pollutant Discharge Elimina-
tion System Program, Clean Water Act of 1977, Water
 Quality Act of 1987.
 PB91-145888/REB                PC A10/MF A02
 RCRA Orientation Manual 1990 Edition.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Solid Waste.
 D. R. Clay. 1990, 212p EPA/530/SW-90/036
 Also available from Supt. of  Docs. See also PB89-
 213169. Prepared in cooperation with Booz-Allen and
 Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC., and ICF, Inc., Wash-
 ington, DC.

 The U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency (EPA) de-
 veloped the manual to provide introductory information
 on the  solid and hazardous waste  management pro-
 grams under the Resource Conservation and Recov-
 ery Act (RCRA). The  manual outlines the basic frame-
 work of the regulatory program for new EPA and State
 employees, those persons new to RCRA assignments,
 and others interested in the Act. The manual is not,
 however, meant to replace in-depth analysis of the
 statute and  its associated regulations and Agency
 guidance. The manual  is an update of the original
 RCRA Orientation Manual issued in 1986. Revisions
 contained in the  update reflect the many  regulatory
 changes that have resulted from both the Hazardous
 and Solid Waste  Amendments (HSWA) of 1984 and
 the Medical Waste Tracking Act of  1988 (RCRA Sub-
 title J).

 Keywords: 'Manuals,  'Hazardous materials,  'Solid
 waste  disposal. Law enforcement. Licenses, State
 government, Local government. Regulations, Storage
 tanks, Underground storage, 'Resource Conservation
 and Recovery Act, Medical wastes.
PB91-145896/REB                PC A10/MF A02
Pilot  Study  on  Indoor Air  Quality:  Managing
Indoor  Air Quality  Risks.  Report on a Meeting
Held in St. Michaels, Maryland on October 25-27,
1989.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Jun 90, 214p EPA/400/7-90/005
Also available from Supt. of Docs. Prepared in coop-
eration with NATO Committee on the Challenges of
Modern Society, Brussels (Belgium).

Contents: Quantifying Future Trends Of  Indoor Air
Quality As A Basis For Government Policy Plans; As-
sessing Indoor Air Quality Risks of Pesticides; Formal-
dehyde Emission Standards In The Federal Republic
of Germany; Orientations and Actions of the European
Community in the Assessment  and Prevention of
Indoor Air Pollution; EPA and Indoor Air Quality; The
Non-Regulatory Approach to  Reducing Risks from
Radon Exposure; U.S. Consumer Product Safety Com-
mission; A Builders Guide to Healthy Homes; WHO Air
Quality Guidelines for Europe; The Approach to Con-
trol Indoor Air Quality in Italy; Guidelines - Ventilation
Classes; Energy Consequences of Upgrading  Indoor
Air Quality; Canada's  Guidelines for Residential Indoor
Air Quality: Rationale  and Scope; Canadian Ventilation
and Venting Standards; Indoor Air Quality Building Sur-
veys Case Studies; Design of Indoor Air Quality Stud-
ies; Summary Findings of Inter-Ministerial  Committee
On Indoor Air Quality  (Ontario); The  Quebec Ap-
proach; Employee Survey EPA Headquarters; Pollu-
tion in Closed Spaces and Its Consequences in Con-
servation of Works of Art; How Norwegian Health Au-
thorities Will Handle Indoor Air Quality Problems.

Keywords:  'Indoor air pollution, 'Meetings, 'Houses,
'Risk assessment, 'Buildings, Air quality. Regulations,
Radon, Formaldehyde, Field tests, Europe, Ventilation,
Standards, Canada,  Tables(Data), Graphs(Charts),
Construction  materials. Air pollution monitoring.
 PB91-145904/REB               PC A06/MF A01
 Public-Private Partnership Case  Studies: Profiles
 of Success in Providing Environmental Services.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Sep89,11 Op
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 The goal of the Public-Private Partnerships initiative is
 to bring together public and private interests to meet
 the  demands  of future environmental protection. The
 case studies  report provides  concrete examples to
 local officials  of how successful partnerships  can be
 formed and work for the benefit of both the public and
 private sectors. Many municipalities around the coun-
 try already have extensive experience and expertise in
 the  formation and implementation of public-private
 partnerships.  The purpose of the report is to provide
 examples of how partnerships work and how they are
 developed, to indicate lessons learned in implement-
 ing  partnerships and why they are  successful, and to
 provide local communities useful information on devel-
 oping or choosing partnership options.

 Keywords:  'Environmental protection, Cost analysis.
 Forecasting, Case  studies.  Local government. Infor-
 mation transfer, Technology transfer, Private organiza-
 tions, Public relations, US EPA, Waste management,
 Water pollution, Air pollution.  Potable water, 'Public-
 private partnerships, Cooperative agreements.
 PB91-145912/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Quality of Our Nation's Water: A Summary of the
 1988 National Water Quality Inventory.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 May 90, 27p EPA/440/4-90/005
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 Contents: The Quality of Our Nation's Water; Our Na-
 tion's Water Resources; What Is Water Pollution; Mon-
 itoring  Our  Nation's Waters;  Rivers and Streams;
 Lakes  and Reservoirs; The Great Lakes; Estuaries;
 Coastal Waters; Wetlands; Ground Water; Water Qual-
 ity Protection; and You Can Make a Difference.

 Keywords:  'Water  resources,  'Water   pollution,
 'United  States,  Surface  waters,  Streams,  Rivers,
 Lakes, Estuaries, Coasts,  Ground water,  Protection,
 Maps, Booklet, Wetlands.
PB91-145920/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Managing Asbestos  in Place: A Building Owner's
Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs
for Asbestos-Containing Materials.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Jul90,50p
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The guide is primarily  directed to owners and manag-
ers of office buildings, shopping centers, apartment
buildings, hospitals, and similar  facilities which may
contain  asbestos  materials. Managers  of industrial
plants and other types of structures may need to sup-
plement the information with  additional  specialized
guidance. The document gives building owners, man-
agers, workers, and other key building staff basic infor-
mation on how to develop and  carry out high-quality
operations and maintenance programs for managing
asbestos in place to safeguard the health of all building
occupants. An operations and maintenance program
can be defined as a formulated plan of training, clean-
ing, work practices, and surveillance to  maintain  as-
bestos-containing materials in good condition.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Asbestos, 'Build-
ings, Guidelines, Maintenance, Construction materials,
Management, Workers, Cleaning, Inspection, Industri-
al plants, Commercial  buildings, Education, Cost effec-
tiveness.
 PB91-145938/REB                PC A04/MF A01
 Review of Sources of Ground-Water Contamina-
 tion from Light Industry.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Ground-Water Protection.
 May 90, 56p EPA/440/6-90/005
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 The document addresses the potential impact of light
 industrial activities on wellhead protection areas. The
 term 'light industry' refers to industrial, commercial, or
 retail establishments that  manage substances  or
 engage in manufacturing, fabrication, or service activi-
 ties that are one step or more removed from the pro-
 duction of primary products  from raw material. These
 activities, which may pose a potential threat to ground-
 water quality, are minimally-regulated or non-regulated
 by Federal laws. Several States  and  local govern-
 ments have adopted innovative approaches for con-
 trolling light industries. These approaches may involve
 source identification, zoning  and other controls to limit
 land uses in wellhead areas, and public education and
 technology transfer to encourage industries to adopt
 management controls. Other jurisdictions have also
 placed strict prohibitions on  activities that are allowed
 in wellhead areas, including restricting specific light in-
 dustry types.

 Keywords: 'Ground water, 'Water pollution, Business-
 es, Water wells, Protection, Sites,  State government,
 Local government, Protection, Regulations,  Land use,
 Classifying, Education, Technical assistance, Small in-
 dustries.
 PB91-145953/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Citizen's Guide to Pesticides (Fourth Edition).
 Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
 Apr90,28p
 Also available from Supt. of Docs.

 The United States Environmental Protection Agency
 has published a citizen's guide for the correct use of
 pesticides in the home. The guide provides tips on se-
 lecting the pesticide that is best to use, information on
 the correct dosage, instructions on storage and dis-
 posal, ways to choose a pest control company, and
 how to reduce personal exposure to pesticides. Final-
 ly, advice on what to do if someone is inadvertently
 poisoned is provided.

 Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Gardening, Toxic substances,
 Dose  rates, Storage, Waste disposal,  Guidelines, Poi-
 soning. 'Foreign technology, 'Home usage.
 PB91-145961/REB               PC A05/MF A01
 Environmental  Pollution  Control  Alternatives:
 Drinking Water Treatment for Small Communities.
 Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
 Center for Environmental Research Information.
 Apr 90, 85p EPA/625/5-90/025


                           June  1991     27

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The document provides information for small system
owners,  operators,  managers,  and  local decision
makers,  such as town  officials, regarding drinking
water treatment requirements and the treatment tech-
nologies suitable for small systems. It is not intended
to be a comprehensive manual for water treatment and
protection of public water supplies from sources of
contamination. Rather, it is designed to give an over-
view of the problems a small system may face, treat-
ment options that are available to solve specific prob-
lems, and resources that can provide further informa-
tion and assistance. For the purpose of the document,
small systems are defined as systems that serve 25 to
1,000 people, or that have a flow of 9,500 to 380,000
liters (2,500 to 100,000 gallons) per day. They include
small community systems as well as  noncommunity
systems, such as campgrounds and restaurants.

Keywords: "Water treatment, 'Potable water, 'Water
pollution abatement. Water  pollution control. Substi-
tutes, Pollution regulations. Filtration, Disinfection, Or-
ganic compounds, Inorganic  compounds,  Perform-
ance evaluation, Small systems.
PB91-145979/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC)  Pro-
cedures for Hazardous Waste Incineration. Hand-
book.
Environmental  Protection  Agency, Cincinnati,  OH.
Center for Environmental Research Information.
T. Dux, P. Gilford, F. Bergman, B. Boomer, and D.
Hooton. Jan 90,84p EPA/625/6-89/023
Also available from Supt. of Docs.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has pro-
mulgated regulations for hazardous waste incinerators
under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
These regulations require the permit applicant to con-
duct trial burns to demonstrate compliance with the
regulatory limits and provide data needed to write the
individual permits. Trial burns require a Quality Assur-
ance Project Plan  (QAPjP) with  quality assurance/
quality  control (QA/QC) procedures to control and
evaluate data quality. The primary focus of the hand-
book is the trial bum itself; however, a discussion of
the QA/QC  for  routine incinerator monitoring and
permit compliance is  included in a separate chapter.
The area has slightly different requirements and objec-
tives from those of the trial bum. The trial burn should
be viewed as a short-term project with a defined begin-
ning and end, while compliance monitoring is consid-
ered an ongoing process.

Keywords: 'Handbooks, 'Hazardous materials, 'Incin-
eration, 'Air pollution standards,  'Waste  disposal,
Quality assurance, Quality control, Standards compli-
ance, Air pollution sampling. Permits, Operating, Con-
tinuous  sampling, Pollution  regulations, Combustion
products, Air pollution control equipment. Chemical
analysis, Air pollution detection.
PB91-146027/REB               PCA11/MFA02
Methods for the Determination of Organic Com-
pounds in Drinking Water. Supplement 1.
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Cincinnati,
OH.
Jul 90,241p EPA/600/4-90/020
Supersedes PB91-108266.

Nine analytical methods covenng 54 organic contami-
nants which may be present in drinking water or drink-
ing water sources are described in detail. Seven of
these methods cover compounds designated for regu-
lation under the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments
of 1986. Regulations for the group are in the proposal
stages with promulgation scheduled for June 1992.
The other two methods are for chlorination disinfection
byproducts and may be regulated as part of EPA's dis-
infectants and disinfectant byproducts rule scheduled
for proposal early in 1992. Most of the analytes may be
classified as non-volatile and three of the  methods
entail separations by high performance liquid chroma-
tography. The remainder employ capillary column gas
chromatography. One of these requires detection of a
potentially very toxic contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-
dibenzo-p-dioxin, at the low parts per trillion level. La-
beled isotopes of the analyte are employed as tracers
and high resolution mass spectrometry is required for
detection and identification.  Three of the  methods
herein offer new and simplified liquid-solid extraction
procedures.
Keywords: 'Organic compounds, 'Chemical analysis,
'Water pollution, Regulations, Test methods, Chlorina-
tion, Monitoring, Separation,  Gas  chromatography,
Liquids, Chlorine  organic compounds,  Herbicides,
Concentration(Composition),  Columns(Process engi-
neering), Isptope labeling. Mass spectroscopy, Extrac-
tion, 'Drinking water. Safe Drinking Water Act, Chemi-
cals, Listings, Synthetic organic compounds, Dioxin/
tetrachloro-dibenzo.
PB91-146308/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Effects of Soil Moisture on  Structural and  Bio-
mass Characteristics of Four Salt Marsh Plants.
Journal article.
Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Marine Studies.
D. M. Seliskar. C1987,12p EPA/600/J-87/539
Grant EPA-R806013010
Pub. in Jnl. of Experimental Botany, v38 n192 p1193-
1202 1987. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Re-
search Lab., OR.

In a controlled greenhouse experiment young  Des-
champsia  cespitosa, Grindelia  integrifolia,  Distichlis
spicata and Salicornia virginica plants were subjected
to dry, field capacity,  and saturated soil conditions.
Plant height, stem diameter, stem density, number of
leaves, number and length of internodes, and number
of primary and secondary branches varied among the
three treatments. The quantity of aerenchyma in S. vir-
ginica was greatest in the saturated treatment. In G. in-
tegrifolia the amount of secondary xylem was greatest
in the dry treatment. Maximum  above-and  below-
ground biomass occurred under field capacity condi-
tions for the four species. Root to shoot ratios of D. ce-
spitosa and S.  virginica were not affected by changes
in soil moistre while that of D. spicata was lowest in the
saturated  treatment and that  of  G.  integrifolia was
lowest in the dry treatment. (Copyright (c) Oxford Uni-
versity Press 1989.)

Keywords: 'Soil water, 'Plants(Botany), 'Horticulture,
'Marine biology, Comparative evaluation, Plant anato-
my,  Biomass,  Morphology,  Reprints,  'Salt  marsh
plants, Deschampsia cespitosa, Grindelia integrifolia,
Distichlis spicata, Salicornia virginica.
PB91-146316/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Avoidance  Behavior of  Mallards and Northern
Bobwhite Exposed  to  Carbofuran-Contaminated
Food and Water. Journal article.
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.
D. W. Kononen, J. R. Hochstein, and R. K. Ringer.
C1987,10p EPA/600/J-87/540
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v6
p41-50 1987. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.

Food and water avoidance experiments were conduct-
ed on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) and northern
bobwhite (Colinus virginianus L) exposed to a range of
dietary carbofuran  concentrations.  A dietary avoid-
ance concentration 50 (analogous to an LC50) was
calculated for each avoidance experiment. The statis-
tic describes the dietary toxicant concentration thresh-
old  at which, when exceeded, exposed animals are
likely to discriminate between  untreated and treated
feed or water. The food avoidance concentration 50s
(FACSOs) for mallards and bobwhite were 10 and 159
ppm, respectively. The water avoidance concentration
50(WAC50) for mallards was 3 ppm. For bobwhite the
WAC50 for carbofuran was estimated to exceed 50
ppm. (Copyright (c) 1987 SETAC.)

Keywords:  'Animal  behavior,  'Toxicology,  'Carbo-
furan, 'Avoidance learning. Dose-response relation-
ships,  Tables(Data),  Food contamination.  Potable
water, Reprints,  "Northern bobwhite, "Mallards, Co-
linus virginianus. Anas platyrhynchos.
PB91-146324/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Acute Toxicity of Aqueous and Substrate-Bound
Copper to the Midge, 'Chironomus decorus'. Jour-
nal article.
California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Land, Air and Water
Resources.
P. Kosalwat, and A. W. Knight. C1987,10p EPA/600/
J-87/541
Pub. in Archives of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology, v16  p275-282  1987.  See also PB91-
146332. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Re-
search Lab., OR., and Lawrence Livermore National
Lab., CA.

Fourth instar larvae of the midge, Chironomus de-
corus, were exposed to copper in water and copper in
food and substrate (bound forms). Copper present in
aqueous forms was  more toxic than  when  it was
present in  bound forms.  The  relationship  between
copper in water and copper in midges could  be de-
scribed by an exponential  equation  while the relation-
ship between copper in substrate and midges was best
described  by a  simple linear  regression equation.
Midge larvae accumulated  copper from water and pos-
sessed some mechanisms to regulate copper  uptake
and excretion when exposed to copper concentrations
of 0.05-1.0  mg/L(aqueous forms) and lost that ability
when the concentration exceeded  1.0 mg/L. On the
contrary, the midge larvae  were unable to accumulate
copper from food, since the estimated bioconcentra-
tion factor  was between  0.10  and 0.16. When the
midge larvae were exposed to copper in water, the
uptake rate increased rapidly from 0-10 hr and then the
rate increased very slowly or in some cases it reached
a steady state after 10 hr. The steady state was at-
tained within 1 to 3 hr when the midges were exposed
to copper in food and substrate. (Copyright (c) Spring-
er-Verlag New York Inc.)

Keywords: "Toxicity, 'Copper, 'Chemical water pollu-
tion, Dose-response  relationships, Larvae,  Environ-
mental monitoring, Bioassay, Reprints, 'Chironomus
decorus.
PB91-146332/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Chronic Toxicity of Copper to a Partial Life Cycle
of the Midge, 'Chironomus decorus'. Journal arti-
cle.
California Univ., Davis. Dept. of  Land, Air and Water
Resources.
P. Kosalwat, and A. W. Knight. C1987,10p EPA/600/
J-87/542
Pub. in Archives of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology, v16  p283-290  1987.  See also  PB91-
146324. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Re-
search Lab., OR., and Lawrence Livermore National
Lab., CA.

The development and hatchability of Chironomus de-
corus eggs were not affected by 0.1 to  5 mg/L 'of
copper in water. The embryos developed normally and
hatched at about the same time (after 55 hrs of incuba-
tion). All larvae survived the duration of the test (72 hr)
except those subjected to 5 mg/L of copper in water,
which died after only partial emergence from the egg
shell.  Apparently eggs were protected by  their shell
from copper. Growth of C. decorus larvae was reduced
significantly when they were reared in copper-spiked
food-substrate (bound copper) from the age 1  to 15
days old (900-4,500 mg/kg of copper). The substrate
copper concentration at which larval growth was re-
duced to 50% (EC50) was 1,602  mg/kg. Substrate
copper caused deformities in the epipharyngeal plate
of larval mouthparts and copper  concentration higher
than 1,800 mg/kg delayed adult emergence. The
copper concentration in pupal exuviae and adults were
positively correlated to copper concentration in the
substrate in which they had been  reared  as larvae.
Larval stage appeared to be the most sensitive to
copper toxicity, while eggs were the least sensitive.
Larval  growth  was the best indicator in detecting
copper pollution, since it could detect copper at rela-
tively low concentrations. The time to adult emergence
was not considered a very good indicator, while larval
deformities offered a quick tool to evaluate copper pol-
lution. (Copyright (c) 1987 Springer-Verlag New York,
Inc.)

Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Copper, 'Chemical water pollut-
ants. Larvae, Substrate specificity,  Bioassay, Terato-
gens, Reprints, 'Chironomus decorus, 'Egg hatchabil-
ity.
PB91-146340/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Hybrid Fast Hankel Transform Algorithm for Elec-
tromagnetic Modeling. Journal article.
Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
W. L. Anderson. c1989,6p EPA/600/J-89/495
Pub. in Geophysics, v54 n2 p263-266 Feb 89. Spon-
sored by Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las
Vegas, NV.
28     Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
A hybrid fast Hankel transform algorithm has been de-
veloped that uses several complementary features of
two existing algorithms: Anderson's digital filtering  or
fast Hankel transform (FHT) algorithm and Chave's
quadrature and continued fraction algorithm. A hybrid
FHT subprogram (called HYBFHT) written in standard
Fortran-77 provides a  simple  user interface to call
either subalgorithm. The hybrid approach is an attempt
to combine the best features of the two subalgorithms
in order to minimize the user's coding requirements
and to provide fast execution and good accuracy for a
large class of electromagnetic problems involving vari-
ous related Hankel transform sets with multiple argu-
ments. Special cases of HanKel transforms of double-
order and double-argument are discussed, where use
of HYBFHT is shown to be advantageous for oscillato-
ry kernel functions.

Keywords: 'Electromagnetic fields, 'Models, 'Hankel
transformation, 'Algorithms, Hankel functions, Digital
filters, Electromagnetic testing, Fourier transformation.
Reprints, HYBFHT computer program.
PB91-146357/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Field  Strategy for Sorting Volatile Organics into
Source-Related Groups. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
W. A. McClenny, K. 0. Oliver, and J. D. Pleil. c1989,9p
EPA/600/J-89/496
Pub. in Environmental Science  and Technology, v23
n11 p1373-1379 Nov 89. Prepared in cooperation with
NSI Technology Services Corp.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC.

A new monitoring strategy, referred to as temporal pro-
file  analysis  (TPA), has been  developed.  TPA uses
fixed-site, ambient air monitoring of volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) to determine the number, VOC
composition, and approximate trajectories of  nearby
source-related emissions. The strategy involves the in-
terpretation of sequential ambient air gas  chromato-
grams generated with sufficient frequency  (hourly) to
reveal the pronounced temporal variability of individual
compounds. VOCs were monitored at a fixed site in the
Richmond-Hopewell area of the Commonwealth of Vir-
  ?inia in September 1987 as a demonstration of TPA.
  he emissions from each  of 12  nearby sources or
source types were identified by  comparing  the promi-
nent features in concentration time profiles. Two com-
pound groups contain compounds usually associated
with automotive emissions  and as such constitute a
VOC background that is generally prevalent in urban
areas. All other groups, including one composed of
Freon 12 and ethylene oxide, and a second  composed
of Freon 11, acetone, carbon tetrachloride,  and some-
times chloroform  are site  specific. This  monitoring
strategy appears to be a direct and practical means to
identity site-specific local sources and to improve mor-
tality risk assessment.  (Copyright (c) 1989 American
Chemical Society.)

 Keywords: 'Air pollution monitoring, *Gas chromatog-
 raphy, 'Hydrocarbons,  'Chlorine organic compounds,
 Data processing, Risk assessment. Atmospheric circu-
lation, Field tests, Reprints, 'TPAfTemporal  profile
analysis),   Richmond(Virginia),  Hopewell(Virginia),
 Richmond-Hopewell Demonstration Study.
 PB91-146365/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 UNIPALS:  Software  for  Principal  Components
 Analysis and Partial Least  Squares  Regression.
 Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 W. G. Glen, M. Sarker, W. J. Dunn, and D. R. Scott.
 C1990,22p EPA/600/J-89/497
 Pub.  in Tetrahedron Computer Methodology, v2 n6
 p377-396 1989. Prepared in cooperation with Illinois
 Univ. at Chicago.

 Software for the analysis of multivariate chemical data
 by principal components and partial least squares
 methods is included on  disk. The methods extract
 latent variables from the chemical data with the UNI-
 versal PArtial  Lease Squares (UNIPALS)  algorithm.
 The software is written in BASIC, provides a number of
 editing  and preprocessing options and is interactive.
 The method provided here is limited to the analysis of
 20 x 20 matrices.  It contains options for the graphical
 display of scores and loadings for interpretation of the
results of analyses.  (Copyright  (c) 1990  Pergamon
Press pic.)

Keywords:  'Multivariate  analysis,  'Data analysis,
'Chemical analysis, 'Computer applications, Comput-
er software, Least squares method, Regression analy-
sis. Algorithms, Interactive systems. Data processing,
Preprocessing, Reprints, Principal components analy-
sis, Partial least squares, UNIPALS computer program.
PB91-146373/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Principal Components Analysis and Partial Least
Squares Regression. Journal article.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC.  Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
W. G.  Glen, W. J. Dunn, and D. R. Scott. c1989,28p
EPA/600/J-89/498
Pub. in  Tetrahedron Computer  Methodology, v2 n6
p349-376  1989. Prepared in cooperation with Illinois
Univ. at Chicago.

The mathematics behind  the techniques of principal
component analysis and partial least squares regres-
sion is presented in detail, starting from the appropri-
ate extrema conditions. The meaning of the resultant
vectors  and many of their mathematical interrelation-
ships  are also presented.  Also, partial least squares is
developed as a 'modification' of principal component
analysis to underline the  relationship between these
two techniques.

Keywords: 'Multivariate analysis, 'Data analysis, Pat-
tern recognition. Classifying, Algorithms, Mathematical
models.     Correlation,     Regression     analysis,
Variance(Statistics),  Reprints, 'Principal component
analysis, 'Partial least squares regression.
PB91-146381/HEB               FC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Effects  of Ultraviolet-B  Radiation  on  Loblolly
Pine. 1. Growth, Photosynthesis and Pigment Pro-
duction  in Greenhouse-Grown Seedlings. Journal
article.
Maryland Univ., College Park. Dept. of Botany.
J. H. Sullivan, and A. H. Teramura. c1989,8p EPA/
600/J-89/499
Grant EPA-R-814-017-01-0
Pub. in Physiologia Ptantarum, v77 p202-207  1989.
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

One-year old  loblolly  pine(Pinus taeda L.) seedlings
were grown in an unshaded greenhouse for  seven
months under four levels of ultraviolet-B(UV-B) radi-
ation simulating stratospheric ozone reductions of 16,
25, and 40% and included a control with no UV-B radi-
ation.  Seedlings receiving  the lowest  supplemental
UV-B irradiance showed reductions in growth and pho-
tosynthetic capacity after only one month of irradiation.
These reductions persisted and resulted in lower bio-
mass production, while no increases in UV-B-adsprb-
ing compounds in  needles were observed. Seedlings
receiving UV-B radiation which simulated a 25% strat-
ospheric ozone reduction showed an increase  in UV-
B-absorbing-compound   concentrations   after  six
 months, which paralleled a recovery in photosynthesis
and growth after an initial decrease in these character-
 istics. The seedlings grown at the highest UV-B irradi-
 ance (40%  stratospheric ozone reduction) showed a
 more rapid increase in the concentration of  UV-B-ab-
 sorbing compounds and no effects of UV-B radiation
 on growth or phtosynthetic capacity  until after four
 months  at this irradiance. Changes in photosynthetic
 capacity were probably the result of direct effects on
 light-dependent processes, since no effects were ob-
 served on either needle chlorophyll concentrations or
 stomatal conductance.

 Keywords:  'Solar ultraviolet radiation,  'Pine  trees,
 Photosynthesis, Plant tissues, Dose-response rela-
 tionships, Plant growth, Seedlings, Ozone,  Seasonal
 variations. Reprints, 'Ultraviolet B, 'Pinus  taeda  L.,
 Loblolly pine trees.


 PB91-146399/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 UV-B Effects on Terrestrial Plants. Journal article.
 Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst. und
 Botanischer Garten.
 M. Tevini, and A. H. Teramura. c1989,11 p EPA/600/
 J-89/500
Pub. in  Photochemistry  and Photobiology, v50  n4
p479-487 1989. Prepared in cooperation with Mary-
land Univ., College Park.  Dept. of Botany. Sponsored
by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

The potential impacts of an increase in solar UV-B ra-
diation reaching  the  Earth's  surface due to  strato-
spheric ozone depletion  have been  investigated by
several research groups during the last 15 years. Over-
all, the effectiveness of UV-B varies both among spe-
cies and among cultivars  of a given species. Sensitive
plants often exhibit reduced growth (plant height,  dry
weight, leaf area, etc.),  photosynthetic  activity  and
flowering. Competitive interactions may also be altered
indirectly by differential growth responses. Photosyn-
thetic activity  may  be reduced by direct effects on
phtosynthetic  enzymes,  metabolic  pathways or indi-
rectly through effects on photosynthetic  pigments or
stomatal  function.  The  fluence response of these
changes  has yet to be clearly demonstrated in most
cases. Plants  sensitive to UV-B may also respond by
accumulating  UV-absorbing compounds in their outer
tissue layers,  which presumably protect sensitive  tar-
gets from UV damage. Several key enzymes in the bio-
synthetic pathways of these compounds have been
shown to be specifically  induced by UV-B irradiation.
Further studies are needed to understand the mecha-
nisms  of  UV-B  effects and  the interactions  with
present stresses and future projected changes in the
environment.

Keywords: 'Solar ultraviolet radiation,  'Terrestrial eco-
systems,  'Ultraviolet  divergences, 'Plants(Botany),
Photosynthesis, Dose-response relationships, Stoma-
ta, Plant growth,  Pigments, Ozone,  Reprints, 'Biologi-
cal effects(Plants), 'Ultraviolet B.
 PB91-146407/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 Functional  Bioassays Utilizing Zooplankton:  A
 Comparison. Journal article.
 Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Dept. of  Ecology and
 Behavioral Biology.
 D. C. McNaught. C1989, 7p EPA/600/J-89/501
 Grant EPA-R-810775
 Pub. in Hydrobiologia 188/189, p117-121 1989. Spon-
 sored by Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.

 Functional zooplankton bioassays based on ingestion,
 reproduction and respiration are described, with meth-
 ods for a new ingestion bioassay included. All bioas-
 says are compared using three indices,  including the
 variability of controls, the  range of experimental  re-
 sponses, and a listing of contaminants causing inhibi-
 tion/stimulation of response. The ingestion bioassay
 showed the  greatest range of response, and was sen-
 sitive to pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. It was
 also commonly characterized by a hormesis response.
 The reproduction bioassay showed the lowest variabil-
 ity, illustrated a reduced range of response, and was
 sensitive to  nutrients and heavy  metals.  In one study,
 the  respiration bioassay was sensitive only to PCBs.
 (Copyright (c) 1989 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

 Keywords: 'Toxicity, "Zooplankton, 'Chemical water
 pollutants, Bioassay, Polychlprobiphenyl compounds,
 Heavy      metals,     Pesticides,     Respiration,
 Reproduction(Biology). Reprints.
 PB91-146415/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 Partitioning Studies of Dioxin between Sediment
 and Water: The Measurement of Koc for Lake On-
 tario Sediment. Journal article.
 Minnesota Univ.-Duluth. Natural Resources Research
 Inst.
 K. B. Lodge, and P. M. Cook. C1989, 8p EPA/600/J-
 89/502
 Pub. in Chemosphere, v19 n1 -6 p439-444 1989. Spon-
 sored by Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.

 A desorption experiment is described  in which the
 sediment-to-water partition  coefficient for 2,3,7,8-te-
 trachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is measured for a sample
 from Lake Ontario. After a contact period of 4 days, the
 logarithm of the partition  coefficient on  an  organic
 carbon basis, LogKoc, ranges from 7.25 to 7.59. Infor-
 mation on the partitioning behavior of dioxin  between
 water and dissolved or suspended matter derived from
 the sediment is provided.

 Keywords: 'Lake Ontario, 'Water pollution sampling,
 'Sediment    water   interfaces,     'Desorption,
                                                                                                                                  June  1991     29

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Concentration(Composition), Soil analysis, Adsorption,
Organic matter, Land pollution. Carbon, Experimental
design.  Chlorine organic compounds. Linear regres-
sion, Soil contamination, Reprints, *Dibenzodioxin/tet-
rachloro, "Partition coefficient, Organic carbon, Diox-
ins.
PB91-146423/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Evaluation of  the Fathead  Minnow Seven-Day
Subchronic Test for Estimating Chronic Toxicity.
Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
T. J. Norberg-King. C1989,17p EPA/600/J-89/503
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v8
p1075-1089 1989.

Renewal and flow-through subchronic tests were con-
ducted on  fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)
with nine chemicals and the results compared to early
life  stage (ELS) or life cycle toxicity values for one
water type.  In addition, ELS  tests were conducted si-
multaneously with four chemicals to  compare 7-d and
32-d test values. Reproducibility of  the 7-d  test was
high.  The  no  observable effect concentrations
(NOECs)  and lowest observed  effect concentrations
(LOECs) of the 7-d tests  agreed with those of the life
cycle test for 60% of the chemicals tested, similar to
the  agreement of the ELS tests to the life cycle tests
for  the same chemicals.  ELS and  7-d  NOECs and
LOECs for seven of the nine chemicals agreed within a
factor of two. For four chemicals, embryos exposed
before the 7-d renewal test did not show greater  sensi-
tivity than unexposed embryos; with carbaryl, exposed
embryos were less sensitive  than the unexposed fish.
Renewal and  flow-through tests agreed well. Growth
was the most sensitive parameter for 59% of the tests
and survival was the most sensitive lor only 11%.

Keywords:      'Toxicity,      'Water      pollution
effects(Animals), Life cycles(Biology), Embryo, Chemi-
cal  water pollutants. Reprints,  'Pimephales prome-
lase,  'No  observable effect concentration(NOEC),
'Lowest observed effect concentration(LOEC), 'Fat-
head minnows.
PB91-146431/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Contamination of Fish  by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodi-
benzo-P-Dioxin: A Survey of Fish from Major Wa-
tersheds in the United States. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
D. W. Kuehl, B. C. Butterworth, A. McBride, S. Kroner,
and D. Bahnick. C1989,20p EPA/600/J-89/504
Pub. in Chemosphere, v18 n9/10 p1997-2014  1989.
Prepared in cooperation with Wisconsin Univ.-Superi-
or. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies.

A survey of contamination of fish from major water-
sheds in the United States by 2.3.7.8-TCDD has been
conducted by the U.S. EPA. Bottom feeding and pred-
ator fish were collected at 90 statistically selected and
305 regionally selected sites and analyzed by GC/MS.
It was found that 19% of the statistically sampled sites
and 31 % of the regionally selected sites were contami-
nated at or above a minimum level of detection varying
from 0.5 to 2.0 pg/g. Ten percent of all samples were
contaminated at levels greater  than 5.0 pg/g. It was
also  observed that a  subset of samples collected at
sites near discharge from pulp/paper  manufacture
(N = 28) had a higher frequency of TCDD contamina-
tion above 5.0 pg/g (38%). The subset of samples
also  contained the sample  of  the  greatest level  of
TCDD contamination (85 pg/g).

Keywords: 'Water pollution effects(Animals),  *Te-
trachlorodibenzodioxins, 'Toxicity,  Mass spectrosco-
py. Sediments, Soil contamination. Quality assurance.
Quality control, United States, Reprints, 'Watersheds.


PB91-146449/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Effects of Northern Bobwhite  ('Colinus virgin-
ianus') Age  and Weight on Results of the Avian
Dietary Toxicity Test Journal article.
NSI Technology Services Corp.,  Corvallis, OR.
S. M. Meyers. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/296
Contract EPA-68C8000G
Pub. in Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxi-
cology. v45 p667-674 1990. Sponsored by Corvallis
Environmental Research Lab., OR.

The question  of test animal age is  not new  in wildlife
toxicology. Researchers at  the U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency, Environmental  Research Labora-
tory in Corvallis, OR have noted that LC50 values also
increased with test animal weight. Previous studies re-
ported  that food consumption in proportion to body
weight decreased with increased age and that the nat-
ural reduction in food consumption  could reduce po-
tential exposure by 60%. They did not attribute the
phenomenon to differences in body weight among dif-
ferent aged birds. Rather, they attributed it to matura-
tion of biochemical and physiological processes asso-
ciated with increased  age. The study investigated how
age and body weight  and the interaction of these two
factors of northern bobwhite affected  results of the
avian dietary toxicity test.

Keywords:   'Birds,   'Wildlife,  'Aging(Physiology),
'Body weight, Diet, Food consumption, Biochemistry,
Physiology, Mortality,  Insecticides, Reprints, "Northern
bobwhite, 'Colinus virginianus, 'Avian dietary toxicity
test.
PB91-146456/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Stand History: An Alternative Explanation of Red
Spruce Radial Growth Reduction. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
G. Reams, and M. M. P. Huso. C1989, 6p EPA/600/J-
90/297
Summary in French. Pub. in Canadian  Jnl. of Forest
Research 20, p250-253 1990. Prepared in cooperation
with Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Forest Re-
sources.

Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites from northern
Maine was  classified by radial growth release history.
Two major releases were apparent for a majority of the
sites. The first was  a reduction and subsequent in-
crease in radial increment in 1920. The second was an
increase in radial increment from 1935 to 1955.  Red
spruce radial growth reduction in the 1960s is apparent
only for sites released from 1935 to 1955 (approxi-
mately 54% of the sites in the study). These sites are
now approaching the radial growth rates of the unre-
leased stands. Birch dieback is suggested as a proba-
ble contributor to the 1935-1955 red spruce growth in-
crease and subsequent 1960s growth reduction.

Keywords:   'Plant  growth,  'Forestry,  'Defoliation,
Canada, Longitudinal studies. Reprints, 'Red spruce,
'Radical growth reduction, Picea rubens Sarg.
PB91-146472/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.
PIRLA Project (Paleoecological Investigation  of
Recent Lake Acidification): An Introduction to the
Synthesis of the Project. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
D. R. Whitehead, D. F. Charles, and R. A. Goldstein.
C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/291
Pub. in Jnl. of Paleolimnology, v3 p187-194 1990. Pre-
pared in cooperation with Indiana Univ. at Blooming-
ton. Dept. of Biology. Sponsored by Electric Power Re-
search Inst.,  Palo  Alto, CA.,  and National  Science
Foundation, Washington, DC.

Collected  sets of papers synthesizing data derived
from the PIRLA project (Paleoecological Investigation
of Recent Lake Acidification) will appear in coming
issues of the  Journal of Paleolimnology. The paper is
designed to highlight these forthcoming papers, review
the development and  objectives of  PIRLA,  and ac-
knowledge the many who have supported PIRLA in so
many crucial  ways. (Copyright (c) 1990 Kluwer Aca-
demic Publishers. Printed in Belgium.)

Keywords:  'Lakes,  "Acidification, 'Aquatic  ecosys-
tems, "Paleontology,  "Limnology. Air  water intera-
tions. Long term effects, Precipitation(Meteorology),
Biogeochemistry, pH, Water pollution, Deposition,  Air
pollution, Acid rain, Reprints, 'Paleoecological Investi-
gation of Recent Lake Acidification Project.
PB91-146480/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Regional  Framework for  Establishing Recovery
Criteria. Journal article.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
R. M. Hughes, T. R. Whittier, C. M. Rohm, and D. P.
Larsen. c1990,13p
Contract EPA-68-C8-0006
Pub. in Environmental Management, v14 n5  p673-683
1990.  Sponsored  by Corvallis Environmental  Re-
search Lab.. OR.
Effective assessments of aquatic ecosystem recovery
require ecologically  sound endpoints against which
progress can be measured. Site-by-site assessments
of end points and potential recovery trajectories are
impractical for water resource agencies. Because of
the natural variation among ecosystems, applying a
single set of criteria  nationwide is  not appropriate
either. The article demonstrates the use of a regional
framework for stratifying  natural variation and for de-
termining realistic biological criteria. A map of ecore-
gions, drawn from landscape characteristics, formed
the framework for three  statewide case studies and
three separate studies at the river basin scale. State-
wide studies of Arkansas, Ohio, and Oregon, USA,
streams demonstrated patterns in  fish assemblages
corresponding to ecoregions. The river basin study in
Oregon  revealed a distinct change at the  ecoregion
boundary; those in Ohio  and Montana demonstrated
the value of regional reference sites for assessing re-
covery. Ecoregions can be used to  facilitate the appli-
cation of ecological theory and to set  recovery criteria
for various regions of states or of the country. Such a
framework provides an important alternative between
site-specific and national approaches for assessing re-
covery rates  and  conditions.  (Copyright   (c)  1990
Springer-Verlag New York Inc.)

Keywords: 'Aquatic ecosystems, 'Water quality, 'Bio-
logical effects,  "Water pollution control,  Water re-
sources.  Natural resources management,  Regional
analysis. Standards  compliance,  Water  pollution
standards, State government,  Pollution regulations,
Arkansas, Ohio, Oregon, Reprints.
PB91-146498/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Regional Variation in Growth Response of Coast-
al Douglas-Fir to Nitrogen Fertilizer in the Pacific
Northwest. Journal article.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
C. E. Peterson, and J. W. Hazard. c1990,18p EPA/
600/J-90/293
Pub. in Forest  Science, v36  n3 p625-640 Sep 90.
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

Hypothesis-testing for differences in growth responses
among physiographic strata, thinning levels, and fertil-
izer dosage levels resulted in a set of empirical models
for predicting volume increment response  of even-
aged coastal Douglas-fir to nitrogen fertilizer. Absolute
and percent responses are estimated for stands both
thinned and unthinned, as a function of dosage levels
and physiographic provinces. Although not 'highly' sig-
nificant, the physiographic factor was  retained in the
models for purposes of refinement.

Keywords: 'Plant growth, 'Forestry, Dose-response
relationships,  Coastal  regions, Comparative evalua-
tion, Tables(Data), Graphs(Charts), 'Nitrogen fertiliz-
ers, Reprints,  'Douglas  fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii,
Tsuga  heterophylla. Pacific Northwest Region(United
States).
PB91-146506/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Confidence Intervals for a Crop  Yield Loss Func-
tion in Nonlinear Regression. Journal article.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
E. H. Lee, D. T. Tingey, and W. E. Hogsett. C1990,22p
EPA/600/J-90/294
Contract EPA-68-C8-0006
Pub. in Communications in Statistics (Simulation and
Computation), v19 n3 p951-970  1990. Sponsored  by
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

Quantifying the relationship between chronic pollutant
exposure and  the  ensuring biological  response re-
quires  consideration  of nonlinear  functions that are
flexible enough to generate a wide  range of response
curves. The linear approximation (i.e., Wald's) interval
estimates for ozone-induced relative crop yield loss
are sensitive to parameter curvature effects in nonlin-
ear regression. The adequacy of Wald's confidence  in-
terval for proportional response is studied using the
nonlinearity measures proposed by Bates and  Watts
(1980), Cook and Goldberg (1986),  and Clarke (1987a
& b) and the profile t plots of Bates and Watts (1988).
Numerical  examples  comparing  Wald's,  likelihood
ratio, the bootstrap, and Clarke's adjusted 95% confi-
dence intervals for relative crop yield loss are present-
ed for a number of ozone exposure studies conducted
by  the  National Crop  Loss  Assessment Network
30     Vol. 91, No.  2

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
(NCLAN) program. At ambient levels of ozone concen-
tration, the effects of nonlinearity were significant and
invalidated the adequacy of Wald's confidence inter-
val. Depending upon the severity of the curvature ef-
fects, an alternative  interval (i.e., Clarke's adjustment
to Wald's interval or the likelihood ratio interval) for
proportional yield loss should  be considered (Copy-
right (c) 1990 Marcel  Dekker, Inc.)

Keywords: "Ozone, * Air pollution effect(Plants), 'Farm
crops, "Confidence limits, Seasonal variations, Mathe-
matical  models,  Dose-response relationships, Plant
growth, Reprints, "Crop yield.
PB91-146514/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Climatically  Induced  Rapid  Acidification  of  a
Softwater Seepage Lake. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
K. E. Webster, A. D. Newell, L A. Baker, and P. L.
Brezonik. c1990,4p EPA/600/J-90/295
Pub. in Nature, v347 n6291 p374-376, 27 Sep 90. Pre-
pared in cooperation with Wisconsin Dept. of Natural
Resources, Madison, NSI Technology Services Corp.,
Corvallis, OR., and Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis.

To establish a relationship between levels of atmos-
pheric pollutants such  as  SO2 and  the acid-base
chemistry of lakes is an important but elusive goal of
studies on acid precipitation. But the direct effect of
acid deposition on the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC)
of lake waters is  difficult to isolate, because rates of
change of  the latter are small and  ANC is also influ-
enced by other factors. The authors report here the
observation of changes in the ANC  of a seepage lake
in Michigan driven  by the effects of  drought on the
local hydrology. While levels of acidic wet deposition at
the lake remained at a constant,  moderate level over a
five-year period, a rapid, major loss of ANC occurred
because of changes in the input of ANC-rich ground-
water. Thus even  modest  climate fluctuations can
have substantial affect on lake chemistry, and must be
taken into account when interpreting temporal trends.
Sustained drought conditions might similarly alter the
acidbase chemistry of other softwater systems. (Copy-
right (c) Macmillan Magazines Ltd.. 1990.)

Keywords:   "Water pollution, "Acidification,  "Water
chemistry,  "Lakes, 'Climatic  changes, Air water inter-
actions,  Air pollution, Sulfur dioxide, pH, Acid rain,
Deposition, Hydrology, Michigan,  Temporal  distribu-
tion, Reprints, Acid neutralizing capacity.
PB91-146522/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.,  Las Vegas,
NV.
Evaluation of Methods for Determining the Verti-
cal Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity. Journal
article Jan-Feb 90.
Nevada Univ. System, Reno. Desert Research Inst.
K. Taylor, S. Wheatcratt, J. Hess, J. Hayworth, and F.
Molz. C1990,14p EPA/600/J-90/298
Grant EPA-R-812713
Pub. in Groundwater, v28 n1 Jan/Feb 90.  Prepared in
cooperation with Auburn Univ., AL. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

Six borehole methods for determining the  vertical dis-
tribution of hydraulic conductivity in unconsoiidated
geologic formations are  evaluated. Staddle  packer
tests are inappropriate if  there  is a  hydraulic path
around the packer on the outside of the well screen.
Methods based on grainsize analysis fail  to incorpo-
rate the influence of small-scale structure and packing.
Methods based  on relationships between electrical
and hydraulic conductivity require special conditions
and are site-  and formation-specific. Borehole effects
invalidate methods based on the natural flow of fluid
through a well bore. Stoneley wave attenuation meth-
ods are not effective in unconsoiidated formations. A
single-well electrical tracer test  is effective,  but  re-
quires the injection of significant volumes of fluid.

Keywords:   "Boreholes,   "Hydraulic  conductivity,
"Ground water, "Contamination, Formation tests. Res-
ervoir engineering,  Electrical  conductivity.  Well log-
ging, Well tests, Electrical prospecting, Fluid flow, Re-
prints.
PB91-146530/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity and Po-
rosity Logs in Wells with a Disturbed Annulus.
Journal article.
Nevada Univ. System, Reno. Desert Research Inst.
K. Taylor, and F. Molz. c1990,17p EPA/600/J-90/299
Grant EPA-R-812713
Pub. in Jnl.  of  Contaminant  Hydrology, v5 p317-332
1990. Prepared in cooperation with Auburn Univ., AL.
Sponsored  by Environmental  Monitoring  Systems
Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

A method is developed to determine the Hydraulic
conductivity  and porosity of the formation surrounding
a well as a function of depth. An electrically anomalous
fluid \s injected into a fully screened well and tne radius
of invasion  is determined  by induction loynng.  The
radius of invasion  is determined  at severaf times so
that the rate of invasion and the hydraulic head re-
quired to inject the tracer, a hydraulic conductivity log
can be calculated. A  porosity log can be obtained
using  Archie's rule and a model of formation electrical
conductivity that accounts for the influence of the elec-
trical conductivity of the formation matrix. The logs cal-
culated by this method  are  insensitive to near-hole
drilling disturbances. Field  trials demonstrate that the
results of the method agree well with other methods.
(Copyright (c) 1990 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

Keywords: "Porosity, "Ground water, "Hydraulic con-
ductivity,  "Formation tests, "Contamination, Electrical
prospecting,  Transport properties, Well tests. Well log-
ging,  Reservoir engineering,  Electrical conductivity.
Reprints.
PB91-146548/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas
NV.
Bromo- and Bromochloro-Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and
Dibenzofurans in the Environment. Journal article.
Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Inc., Las
Vegas, NV.
J. R. Donnelly, A. H. Grange, N. J. Nunn, G. W.
Sovocool, and J. J. Breen. c1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/
300
Contract EPA-68-03-3249
Pub. in Chemosphere, v20 n10-12 p1423-1430  1990.
Sponsored  by  Environmental Monitoring Systems
Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

At least 36 million pounds of brominated flame  retar-
dants are used  in the  U.S. annually. Most if not all of
these materials enter  the waste stream via landfilled
plastic waste, municipal incinerator fly ash, or automo-
tive fluff waste. Analytical methodology is summarized
which is suitable for environmental monitoring of  these
wastes, and the significance of the analytical results is
discussed.

Keywords:  "Environmental monitoring, "Waste  man-
agement,  Bromine organic compounds,  Earth fills,
Waste disposal, Plastics, Municipal wastes,  Fly ash,
Automobiles, Reprints,  "Dibenzodioxin/bromo, *Di-
benzofuran/bromo, "Dibenzodioxin/bromochloro, "Di-
benzofuran/bromochloro.
PB91-146555/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Purity and Heat of Fusion Data for Environmental
Standards as Determined by Differential Scanning
Calorimetry. Journal article.
Lockheed Engineering  and Sciences Co.,  Inc., Las
Vegas, NV.
J. R. Donnelly, L A. Drewes, R. L. Johnson, W. D.
Munslow, and K. K. Knapp. C1990, 35p EPA/600/J-
90/301
Contract EPA-68-03-3249
Pub. in  Thermochimica  Acta, v167 p155-187 1990.
Sponsored  by  Environmental  Monitoring   Systems
Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been ap-
plied to  273 environmental standards, including pesti-
cides, herbicides and related compounds. Members of
the following chemical classes were analyzed: organo-
phosphorus,  organochlorine, phenol, triazine,  uracil,
phenoxy acid, urea, carboxylic acid, amide, and others
including amines, organometallics, esters and hetero-
cycles.  Values  for the  heat of  fusion,  experimental
temperature onset, theoretical temperature  onset  for
100% pure compound, and percent purity are present-
ed. DSC was found to be a widely applicable method
to  most classes of organic environmental standards
and their metabolites.
Keywords:  "Differential  thermal analysis, "Heat  of
fusion,  'Herbicides,  "Pesticides,  "Organic  com-
pounds, 'Calorimetry,  Purity, Data acquisition, Tem-
perature, Reprints, "Environmental standards.
PB91-146563/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Characterization of  Emissions from a  Variable
Gasoline/Methanol Fueled Car. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure  As-
sessment Lab.
P. A. Gabele. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/302
Pub. in Jnl. Air and Waste  Management Association,
v40n3Mar90.

In response  to the occurrence of the increasingly
severe ambient ozone exceedances, regional environ-
mental managers are examining the possibility of  a
cleaner fuel for automobiles. At this time the leading
candidate is  methanol. In  anticipation of  a shift to
methanol, variable-fueled automobiles capable  of op-
erating on gasoline and/or  methanol are being  devel-
oped. The study examines both the exhaust and evap-
orative emissions from a prototype General Motors
Variable  Fuel Corsica. Results are reported for tests
conducted at  temperatures  of 40, 75, and 90 f, and for
fuels MO, M25, M50, M85, and M100. In addition to
regulated emissions and fuel economy, emission rates
for methanol,  aldehydes, and a large number of  hydro-
carbon compounds were determined. The data indi-
cate that increasing the fuel's methanol content does
not affect the exhaust organic emission rate (calculat-
ed in accordance with  the regulation) from variable-
fueled cars, but formaldehyde and methanol comprise
increasingly greater portions of the organic material
while hydrocarbons comprise less. The effect of ambi-
ent  temperature on  both  exhaust  and evaporative
emissions is similar to its effect on gasoline cars: or-
ganic and  carbon  monoxide  exhaust  emissions in-
crease substantially at the lower temperatures,  and
evaporative emissions increase steadily with increases
in temperature. (Copyright (c) 1990 Air & Waste Man-
agement Association.)

Keywords: "Air pollution abatement, "Alternative fuels,
"Methanol fuels, "Gasohol, Internal  combustion  en-
gines, Ozone, Air pollution  control, Carbinols, Alcohol
fuels, Test chambers,  Experimental design, Perform-
ance standards, Mobile pollutant sources,  Evapora-
tion, Air  pollution sampling, Fugitive emissions,  Ex-
haust emissions, Formaldehyde, Reprints.
PB91-146571/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Seasonal Impact of Blending Oxygenated Organ-
ics with Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and
Evaporative Emissions. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure  As-
sessment Lab.
F. D. Stump, K. T. Knapp, and W. D. Ray. c1990,11 p
EPA/600/J-90/303
Pub. in Jnl. Air and Waste  Management Association,
v40 n6 p872-880 Jun 90.

The  evaporative and exhaust emissions from a 1988
GM  Corsica with  adaptive  learning were  measured
with  4 fuels at 40F, 75F, and 90F. Test fuels were un-
leaded summer grade gasoline and a blend of this gas-
oline containing 8.1% ethanol. A refiner's blend stock
and the  blend stock containing 16.2 % methyl tertiary
butyl ether (MTBE) were also included in  the study.
Regulated emissions (total hydrocarbons, CO, and
NOx), detailed aldehydes, detailed hydrocarbons, eth-
anol, MTBE, benzene,  and  1,3-butadiene were deter-
mined. Results indicated that higher levels of regulat-
ed emissions were produced at low temperatures. The
blended fuels produced almost twice the evaporative
hydrocarbon emissions at  high temperatures  as did
the base fuels. 1,3-butadiene emissions decreased
slightly  with increasing temperatures.  Ethanol and
MTBE evaporative and exhaust emissions were great-
er at higher test temperatures.  Acetaldehyde  emis-
sions from the use of ethanol fuel blend doubled. The
MTBE fuel blend appeared to offer the most reduction
in total hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide,  and oxides of
nitrogen for the fuels and temperatures tested.

Keywords: "Exhaust emissions, "Fugitive emissions,
"Air pollution abatement, "Unleaded gasoline, "Gaso-
hol,  Seasonal  variations,  Ethanol  fuels, Alternative
fuels, Evaporation, Performance standards, Air pollu-
tion sampling, High temperature tests, Mobile pollutant
                                                                                                                                 June 1991     31

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
sources. Fuel additives, Blends, Test chambers. Ex-
perimental design, Reprints, Ether/methyl-butyl.
PB91-146589/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC.  Atmospheric  Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Wind Tunnel Evaluation of PM10 Samplers. Journal
article.
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. B. Ranade, M. C. Woods, F. L. Chen, L. J. Purdue,
and K. A. Rehme. c1990,21p EPA/600/J-90/304
Contract EPA-68-02-4550
Pub. in Aerosol Science and Technology, v13 p54-71
1990.   Sponsored   by  Environmental  Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Re-
search and Exposure Assessment Lab.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has pro-
mulgated new national ambient air quality standards
for PM10 (particles smaller than 10 micrometers aero-
dynamic diameter). Samplers used to collect PM10
must be subjected to wind tunnel tests before they can
be approved as part of a designated reference or
equivalent method. Monodisperse liquid and solid par-
ticles are used over a range of particle sizes and wind-
speeds to characterize the sampling effectiveness and
50 percent cutpoint of candidate samplers. The paper
describes an EPA wind tunnel test facility, sampler test
procedures, and results of selected sampler tests with
liquid and solid test particles. The agreement between
wind tunnel results and observations from field meas-
urements  of ambient paniculate matter is also dis-
cussed. (Copyright (c) 1990 Elsevier Science Publish-
ing Co., Inc.)

Keywords:  *Air samplers,  'Particles, *Air  pollution
sampling, Wind tunnels, Test chambers. Performance
evaluation,    Field     tests.    Particle     size,
Concentratiqn(Composition), Solids, Federal test pro-
cedure, Design criteria,  Specifications, Aerosols, Liq-
uids, Reprints.
PB91-146597/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Dense Gas Removal from a Valley by Crosswinds.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
G A Briggs, R. S. Thompson, and W. H. Snyder.
C1990,40p EPA/600/J-90/305
Pub. in Jnl. of Hazardous Materials, v24 p1 -38 1990.

Wind tunnel experiments were made to determine how
rapidly dense gas trapped in a topographic depression
could be removed by an entraining  crosswind. The
two-dimensional outflow volume flux, vo, was assumed
equal to the inflow rate during 92 steady-state experi-
ments with CO2 continuously supplied into the bottom
of two-dimensional, V-shaped valleys. As predicted by
theory, at large Reynolds numbers it was found that vo
is approximately equal to Us(3)/gi, where Us is the
speed just above the dense gas pool and gi' is gravity
times the relative density difference. The width of the
pool, w, does not affect vo when the primary Froude
number < 1, except at low Reynolds numbers; in this
case the data suggest vo is approximately equal to (Us
wK)112 as an asymptote, where k is the molecular dif-
fusrvity. A universal relationship is suggested for vo
bridging these two asymptotes. Transient experiments
were conducted by filling a valley with dense gas, turn-
ing it off, then quickly removing a sliding cover, vo was
measured as  a function of time with an array of sam-
plers downwind. These experiments essentially con-
firmed predictions based on the steady-state results,
even when SF6 was substituted for CO2.

Keywords:  "Dissipation,  •Valleys,  'Wind  effects,
'Gases, 'Hazardous materials. Wind tunnels. Simula-
tion, Topographic features. Air pollution, Carbon diox-
ide,  Sulfur  fluorides,  Reynolds   numbers,  Froude
number. Reprints.


PB91-146605/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Identifying Ecological Indicators: An Environmen-
tal Monitoring and Assessment  Program. Journal
article.
Environmental Protection Agency.  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research  and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
S. M. Bromberg. C1990,5p EPA/600/J-90/306
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
tion, v40 n7 Jul 90.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is initiating
an Environmental Monitoring and  Assessment  Pro-
gram (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the
nation's near coastal waters, forests, freshwater  wet-
lands, surface waters, agrosystems, and arid lands.
The program is intended to evaluate the effectiveness
of Agency policies at protecting ecological resources
occurring in these systems. Monitoring data collected
for all ecosystems will be integrated for national status
and trends assessments.

Keywords: 'Research program administration, 'Pollu-
tion control, 'Ecology, 'Natural resources, Monitoring,
Coasts, Surface  waters,  Agriculture, Arid land,  Pro-
gram evaluation,  Government policies. Effectiveness,
Protection,  Trends, Forest land, Quality assurance,
Reprints, 'Ecosystems, Wetlands, Habitats.
PB91-146613/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Meta-Analytic Reappraisal of Statistical Results in
the Environmental Sciences: The Case of a Hy-
drological Effect of Cloud Seeding. Journal article.
Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Inst. of Earth Sci-
ences.
D. Sharon. C1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/307
Pub. in Jnl. of Applied Meteorology, v29 n5 May 90.
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
Exposure Assessment Lab.

A frequent problem in the statistical analysis of data in
environmental sciences is the synthesis of results ob-
tained independently from various sets of data such as
from different measuring points or from replicated ex-
periments, etc. Unlike the analysis of the separate sets
themselves,  their ultimate  combined evaluation has
been  mostly given in descriptive terms only. It is that
critical final stage of data synthesis where meta-analy-
sis comes in. Some principles of the method are pre-
sented  and  their usefulness is discussed. The ap-
proach is illustrated using previously published results
on the hydrological effect of rainfall enhancement in
Israel. It is shown that while the resulting increase in
discharge from separate hydrologic zones is  statisti-
cally insignificant, the integrated totality of results (as-
suming independence) is significant at less than 5 per-
cent

Keywords:  'Statistical  analysis,  'Hydrologic  cycle,
'Cloud  seeding,  'Mathematical  models,  Air water
interactions,  Water resources,  Water runoff, Case
studies, Rainfall, Data processing, Discharge(Water),
Reprints, 'Meta-analysis.


PB91-146621/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research  and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Comparison  of Measurements  of Atmospheric
Ammonia by Filter  Packs,  Transition-Flow Reac-
tors,  Simple  and Annular Denuders and Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal article.
Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview (Ontar-
io).
H. A. Wiebe, K. G. Anlauf, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer,
and H. W. Biermann. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/308
Pub.  in Atmospheric Environment, v24A n5  p1019-
1028 1990.  Sponsored by Environmental  Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park. NC. Atmospheric Re-
search and Exposure Assessment Lab.

Using data obtained during the 1985 Nitrogen Species
Methods Comparison Study (Atmos. Environ. 22,1517
(1988)). several  measurement  methods for sampling
ambient ammonia are compared. Eight days of contin-
uous  measurements at Pomona College, a smog re-
ceptor site in Los Angeles, provided an extensive data
base  for assessment of the following methods: Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), three filter
pack  configurations, a simple and an annular denuder,
and the transition flow reactor. FTIR was defined as
the reference method and it reported hourly NH3 con-
centrations ranging from >60 to 2280 nM/cu m (> 1.5
- 57 ppb) during the  course of the study, the highest
values coming from the influence of nearby livestock
operations.  Although only limited quality  assurance
procedures were carried out, the following conclusions
can, nevertheless, be drawn: relative to the FTIR aver-
age values, (1) for 4-6 h sampling periods, the aver-
ages of the three filter packs from  three research
groups were 83-130% and the annular denuder aver-
age was 87%, and (2) for 10-12 h sampling periods,
the simple denuder averaged 90% and the two transi-
tion flow reactors were 77-98%. Possible reasons for
the reported  systematic biases are presented, but
these are not able to fully explain the large range of dif-
ferences reported by the various methods.

Keywords: 'Air pollution sampling,  'Ammonia,  *Air
pollution detection, Aerosols, Comparison, Quality as-
surance,  Fourier transform  spectrometers, Infrared
spectroscopy,         Continuous         sampling,
Concentration(Composition), Livestock,  Filters,  Agri-
cultural products,  Reactors, Reprints, Annular den-
uders, Los Angeles(California).
PB91-146639/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Control of PCDD/PCDF Emissions from Municipal
Waste Combustion  Systems. Journal  article Sep-
Nov 89.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
T. G. Brna, and J. D. Kilgroe. c1990,10p EPA/600/J-
90/310
Pub. in Chemosphere, v20 n10-12 p1875-1882 1990.

The article gives results of tests on five modern munic-
ipal waste combustors (MWCs) to characterize or de-
termine the performance of representative combustpr
types and associated air emission control systems in
the regulatory development process. Test results for
uncontrolled (combustor outlet) and controlled (flue
gas cleaning system outlet) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-
dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are re-
ported, along with pertinent information on other tests.
The EPA is revising air pollutant emission rules for new
MWCs and preparing guidelines for existing MWCs.
These rules will limit emissions of PCDDs,  PCDFs,
CO2, and acid gases (HCI and SO2) as well as require
tighter control of paniculate matter emissions.

Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Incinerators, Munici-
pal wastes, Waste disposal, Performance evaluation,
Flue gases, Particles, Pollution regulations. Air pollu-
tion standards, Reprints,  'Polychlorinated  dibenzo-
dioxins, 'Polychlorinated dibenzofurans.
 PB91-146647/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Effect of Metal Catalysts on the Formation of Pol-
 ychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Polychlorinat-
 ed Dibenzofuran Precursors. Journal article Oct 88-
 Oct 89.
 Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 B. K. Gullett, K. R. Bruce, and L. O. Beach. c1990,11 p
 EPA/600/J-90/309
 Contract EPA-68-02-4701
 Pub. in Chemosphere, v20 n10-12 p1945-1952 1990.
 Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
 Research Lab.

 The paper gives results of an examination of the cata-
 lytic effects of copper and iron compounds for their be-
 havior in promoting formation of chlorine  (C12), the
 major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated  dibenzo-p-
 dioxins (PCDDs)  and polychlorinated dibenzofurans
 (PCDFs), in an environment simulating that of munici-
 pal waste fly ash. C12 formed as a  result of a metal-
 catalyzed reaction of HC1 with O2. Catalytic activity
 was greatest at a temperature of about 400 C, support-
 ing a theory of de novo synthesis of PCDDs  and
 PCDFs on fly ash particles downstream of waste com-
 bustion.

 Keywords:    'Catalysis,    'Fly   ash,   'Chlorine,
 'Synthesis(Chemistry).  'Air pollution control. Metals.
 Municipal wastes.  Waste  disposal,  Copper  com-
 pounds,  Experimental design, Toxic substances. Re-
 prints, 'Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, "Polychlori-
 nated dibenzofurans, Chemical reaction mechanisms.
 PB91-146654/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Total Particle, Sulfate, and Acidic Aerosol Emis-
 sions from Kerosene Space  Heaters. Journal arti-
 cle Jul 88-Apr 89.
 John B. Pierce Foundation Lab., New Haven, CT.
 B. P. Leaderer, P. M. Boone, and S. K. Hammond.
 C1990, 8p EPA/600/J-90/311
 Grant EPA-R-813594-020
 32    Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Pub. in Environmental Science and Technology, v24
n6 p908-912 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Yale
Univ., New Haven, CT. School of Medicine, and Mas-
sachusetts Univ. Medical School, Worcester. Dept. of
Community and Family Medicine. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The article discusses chamber studies of four unvent-
ed kerosene space  heaters to  assess emissions of
total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters
tested represented four burner designs currently in use
by the public. Kerosene  space heaters are a potential
source of fine particles (= or < 2.5 micrometer diame-
ter), sulfate, and acidic  aerosol  indoors.  Fine particle
concentrations in  houses in which the heaters  are
used may be increased  in excess of 20 micrograms/
m3 over background levels. Sulfate and acidic aerosol
levels in such houses could exceed average and peak
outdoor  concentrations.  Maltuned   heaters  could
produce exceptionally high levels of all air contami-
nants measured. (Copyright (c) 1990 American Chemi-
cal Society.)

Keywords: *Air pollution sampling, 'Combustion prod-
ucts, *lndoor air pollution, *Space heaters, Test cham-
bers, Particles, Aerosols, Sulfates, Kerosene, Heating
fuels,             Fines,              Acidification,
Concentration(Composition),  Residential  buildings.
Reprints.


PB91-146662/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Effects of Burnrate, Wood Species, Altitude, and
Stove Type on Woodstove Emissions. Journal arti-
cle Mar 87-May 88.
OMNI Environmental Services, Inc., Beaverton, OR.
R C McCrillis, and P. G. Burnet. c1990,11 p EPA/
600/J-90/312
Contract EPA-68-02-4277
Pub. in Toxicology and Industrial Health, v6 n5 p95-
 102 1990. Presented  at Workshop  on Air  Toxics,
Amersfoort, The Netherlands, May 16-18,1988. Spon-
 sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Research
 Triangle Park, NC.  Air  and  Energy  Engineering Re-
 search Lab.

 The paper discusses an emission  measurement pro-
 gram in Boise, ID, designed to identify the  potential
 mutagenic impact of residential wood burning on ambi-
 ent and indoor air. One facet of this field sampling in-
 volved  obtaining  emission samples  from  chimneys
 serving wood burning appliances in  Boise. A parallel
 project was undertaken in an instrumented woodstove
 test laboratory to quantify woodstove emissions during
 operations typical of Boise usage. Test results showed
 wide variability probably due primarily to the difficulty in
 duplicating  conditions  during  stove start-up.  Total
 woodstove dilution  sampling system  (WSDSS) emis-
 sions showed the expected inverse  correlation with
 bumrate for the conventional stove and nearly flat for
 the catalytic stove. While there appeared to be little or
 no correlation of total WSDSS emissions with altitude,
 the sum of the 16 polynuclear aromatic  hydrocarbons
 (PAHs) quantified showed a direct correlation with alti-
 tude: higher PAH emissions at the higher altitude. Two
 woodstoves were operated in the test laboratory over
 a range of burnrates,  burning either eastern oak or
 white pine from the Boise area. A conventional stove,
 manufactured in the Boise area, was tested at altitudes
 of 90 and 825 m. A catalytic stove was tested only at
 the high altitude. Pine  produced a higher PAH emis-
 sion rate than oak.

 Keywords: *Air pollution sampling, 'Wood burning ap-
 pliances, 'Stoves,  Burn rate,  Combustion efficiency,
 Wood  fuels, Altitude,  Aromatic polycyclic hydrocar-
 bons, Residential buildings. Indoor air pollution, Muta-
 gens, Reprints.


 PB91-146670/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection  Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 High-Temperature, Short-Time Sulfation  of Calci-
 um-Based Sorbents. 2.  Experimental Data and
 Theoretical Model Predictions. Journal article Mar
 87-Mar 89.
 Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Dept. of Chemical Engmeer-

 C. R. Milne. G. D. Silcox, D. W. Pershing, and D. A.
  Kirchgessner. c1990,17p EPA/600/J-90/313
 Grant EPA-R-811001
Pub. in Industrial  and  Engineering Chemistry  Re-
search, v29 p2201-2214 1990. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle Park,
NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The paper gives results of an analysis of the funda-
mental processes for  the  injection of CaCOS  and
Ca(OH)2 for  the  removal  of  SO2  from combustion
gases of coal-fired boilers, on the basis of experimen-
tal data and a comprehensive theoretical model. Sulfa-
tion data were obtained in a 30-kW isothermal gas-par-
ticle transport reactor at conditions simulating those of
upper-furnace injection. The  theoretical  model  ac-
counts for particle structure, calcination, sintering, sul-
fation,  and heat and mass transfer. Pore diffusion,
product-layer diffusion,  and sintering appear to be the
principal processes that govern the rate of S02 cap-
ture for the hydrate particles of interest for commercial
dry sorbent injection. (Copyright (c) 1990 American
Chemical Society.)

Keywords: *Air pollution control, 'Sorbents, "Injection,
'Sulfation,    Mathematical   models,   Experimental
design, High temperature tests,  Heat transfer, Mass
transfer, Sulfur dioxide, Diffusion, Dry methods, Ther-
modynamics, Calcium  carbonates,  Calcium hydrox-
ides, Reprints, 'Flue gas desulfurization.
 PB91-146688/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 High-Temperature, Short-Time Sulfation of Calci-
 um-Based  Sorbents.   1.  Theoretical  Sulfation
 Model. Journal article Mar 87-Mar 89.
 Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Dept. of Chemical Engineer-
 ing.
 C. R. Milne, G. D. Silcox, D. W. Pershing, and D. A.
 Kirchgessner. C1990,13pEPA/600/J-90/314
 Grant EPA-R811001
 Pub. in Industrial Engineering Chemical Research, v29
 n11 p2192-2201 1990. Sponsored by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air
 and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

 The paper discusses a mathematical model for the sul-
 fation of CaO, developed around the overlapping grain
 concept. The potential influence of high mass-transfer
 rates from simultaneous calcination of CaCOS or
 Ca(OH)2 is incorporated in  the mass-transfer coeffi-
 cient for SO2  diffusion to  the particle. A  solution
 scheme for the nonlinear differential equation govern-
 ing pore diffusion with changing  particle structure is
 developed. The influence oi grain overlap on product-
 layer diffusion  is quantified. The model predictions
 show good agreement with published, fundamental dif-
 ferential reactor data which include the influences of
 surface area, temperature, and SO2 partial pressure.
 (Copyright (c) 1990 American Chemical Society.)

 Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Sorbents, 'Injection,
 'Sulfation, 'Mathematical models, Sulfur dioxide, Cal-
 cium carbonates, Calcium hydroxides, High tempera-
 ture tests, Roasting,  Diffusion, Area,  Temperature,
 Partial pressure, Porosity, Reprints.


 PB91-146696/HEB               PC A02/MF A01
 Impact of Particulate  Emissions Control on  the
 Control of Other MWC Air Emissions. Journal arti-
 cle Feb-Mar 90.
 Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 T. G. Brna, and J. D. Kilgroe. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-
 90/315
 Pub. in Jnl. of Air and Waste Management Association,
 v40 n9 p1324-1330 Sep 90.

 On December 20,  1989, the Environmental Protection
 Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source perform-
 ance standards for new municipal waste combustion
 (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The
 proposed national regulations require tighter particu-
 late matter control and address precombustion, com-
 bustion, and post-combustion controls, the latter two
 depending on capacity and age of the facility. The air
 pollutants of  concern when  municipal solid waste
  (MSW) is burned will be discussed. Generally, panicu-
 late control is an inherent part of the systems used to
  limit the emissions of these  air pollutants. The relation-
 ships  between MWC air emissions (acid gases,  trace
  organics, and trace heavy metals) control and particu-
  late control will be discussed. Test results to quantify
  air pollutant emissions from MWC units and their con-
  trol will be presented and compared with the proposed
regulations. (Copyright (c) 1990-Air & Waste Manage-
ment Association.)

Keywords: 'Air pollution control,  'New Source  Per-
formance Standards, 'Air pollution abatement, 'Mu-
nicipal wastes, Air pollution standards, Pollution regu-
lations, Waste disposal, Particles, Standards compli-
ance, Organic  compounds,  Combustion  products,
Trace amounts, Heavy metals, Acids, Reprints.
PB91-146704/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Recovery of Lotic Communities and Ecosystems
Following Disturbance:  Theory and Application.
Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
J. D. Yount, and G. J. Niemi. c1990, 28p EPA/600/J-
90/316
Pub. in Environmental Management, v14 n5 p547-569
1990. Prepared in cooperation with Minnesota Univ.-
Duluth. Natural Resources Research Inst.

The authors present a narrative account of case stud-
ies of the recoveryof flowing water systems from dis-
turbance, focusing on the investigators' conclusions
about recovery time and the factors contributing to re-
covery. They restrict their attention to case studies in
which the recovery of some biological  property of the
system has been examined, excluding those that deal
only with physical or chemical  properties.  Although
natural processes and  rates of recovery  are empha-
sized,  studies of reclamation  or  restoration of dam-
aged ecosystems are included where they contribute
to  an  understanding of recovery processes. For the
majority  of  studies examined,  the systems recovered
quite rapidly. In general,  longer recovery times were
observed in  disturbances, such as channelization, that
resulted  in  alterations to  physical conditions. The
review also  indicates that much of their knowledge if
recovery in lotic ecosystems is fragmented and unco-
ordinated. In addition to establishing the bounds of re-
covery time, their review identifies some research gaps
that need to be filled.

 Keywords:   'Ecosystems,  'Water  flow, 'Biological
 communities, 'Recovery, 'Reclamation, Water pollu-
 tion, Ecological  distribution, Case studies, Reviews,
 Environment managment, Flooding, Thermal pollution,
 Acid  mine   drainage,  Biota,  Pesticides,  Streams,
 Drought, Damage  assessment,  Fish management,
 Chemical spills, Reprints.
 PB91-146712/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Airborne  Mercury  Deposition  and  Watershed
 Characteristics in Relation to Mercury Concentra-
 tions in Water, Sediments, Plankton, and  Fish of
 Eighty Northern Minnesota Lakes. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 J A. Sorensen, G. E. Glass, K. W. Schmidt, J. K.
 Huber and G. R. Rapp. C1990,14p EPA/600/J-90/
 317
 Pub. in Environmental Science and Technology, v24
 n11  p1716-1727 1990. Prepared in cooperation with
 Minnesota Univ., Duluth. Coll. of Science  and Engi-
 neering.

 In light of increasing fish consumption advisories in
 several states, a comprehensive  multimedia database
 was created to answer a variety of questions.  Mercury
 concentrations in precipitation, lake water and sedi-
 ment, zooplankton, and fish were measured and ana-
 lyzed together  with  extensive watershed and lake
 chemistry data for 80 lake  watersheds  in the study
 region of northeastern Minnesota including the Superi-
 or  National  Forest,  Voyageurs  National  Park, and
 Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Atmospher-
 ic deposition of mercury, transport, water column life-
 times, and sedimentation in lakes are determined. The
 factors relating mercury concentrations within the lake
 watershed components are analyzed  and  discussed.
 The notable correlates with mercury residue  levels in
 northern pike of a standard length and weight (55 cm,
 1.0 kg) were mercury concentrations  in zooplankton
 and water, total organic carbon concentration, and pH.
 The primary source of mercury was found to  be of at-
 mospheric origin. (Copyright (c) 1990 American Chem-
 ical Society.)

 Keywords: 'Watersheds, 'Mercury(Metal), 'Water pol-
 lution  sampling,  Biological effects, Air water interac-
 tions,  Deposition, Air pollution, Sediments, Plankton,
 Fishes, Wildlife, Pollution  sources, Aquatic  ecosys-
 tems,  Minnesota, Lakes, Precipitation(Meteorology),


                            June 1991      33

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Environmental transport,  Atmospheric  diffusion,  Re-
 prints, Northeast Region(Minnesota).
 PB91-146720/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Simple Flow-Limited Model for Exchange of  Or-
 ganic Chemicals at Fish Gills. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MM.
 R. J. Erickson, and J. M. McKim. C1990,9p EPA/600/
 J-90/318
 Pub.  in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v9
 P159-165 1990. Presented at the Symposium on Toxi-
 cokinetics, Annual Meeting of the Society of Environ-
 mental  Toxicology and Chemistry (8th), Pensacola,
 FL, November 9-12,1987.

 A mathematical  model for the exchange of organic
 chemicals by fish gills was formulated based solely on
 the limitations imposed by the flows of water and blood
 into the gills. For large rainbow trout, the model was
 found to closely follow the magnitude and trends of ob-
 served gill uptake rates over a range of octanol/water
 partition coefficient from 1  to ten to the sixth power.
 Observations averaged only about 30%  less than
 model predictions.  The modest lack-of-fit is presum-
 ably due to the effects of diffusional barriers and ioni-
 zation which would further limit uptake,  although un-
 certainties in model parameters and data are likely
 also partly responsible. The analysis suggests  that
 these basic  physiologicalparameters are of major im-
 portance in the regulation of exchange at fish gills and
 should be accounted for in more detailed toxicokinetic
 models.  Also,  the  simple  model could  by itself be
 useful for approximate assessments of accumulation
 of organic chemicals by fish.

 Keywords:  "Pharmacokinetics,  'Toxic  substances,
 "Gills, 'Trout, Mathematical models, Biological trans-
 port, Reprints.
PB91-148262/REB               PC A13/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program, 1989.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
R. A. McAllister, W. H. Moore, J. Rice, E. Bowles, and
D. P. Dayton. Oct 90,278p EPA/450/4-91/001
Contract EPA-68D80014
See also PB88-148556. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

From January 1989 through January 1990 samples of
ambient air were collected at 14 sites in the eastern
part of the U.S. Every 12 days, air was integrated over
24-hour periods into passivated stainless steel canis-
ters. Simultaneously, air was  drawn through cartridges
containing dinitrophenylhydrazine  to collect  carbonyl
compounds. The samples were analyzed at a central
laboratory for a total of 37 halogenated and  aromatic
hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other
oxygenated species. The hydrocarbon species were
analyzed by gas chromatography/multiple detectors
and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,  while
the carbonyl species were analyzed by liquid chroma-
tography. An extensive quality assurance program was
carried on to secure high quality data. Complete data
for all  the carbonyl samples  are presented  in the
report.

Keywords: 'Air pollution monitoring, *Air pollution de-
tection,  'Toxic substances,  'Urban areas, Air sam-
plers,   Carbonyl   compounds,    Site    surveys,
Concentration(Composition),  Chemical analysis.  Gas
chromatography. Aldehydes, Oxygen organic  com-
pounds, Mass spectroscopy,  Quality assurance. Liquid
chromatography, Halohydrocarbons,  Formaldehyde,
Acetaldehyde, Aromatic hydrocarbons.
PB91-148270/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Alternative  Control Technology  Document: Or-
ganic Waste Process Vents. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Dec 90,189p EPA/450/3-91 /007

The purpose of the Alternative Control  Technology
(ACT) document is to provide technical information to
address air emissions of volatile organic compounds
(VOC) from organic process vents on waste manage-
ment units treating organic-containing wastes that are
exempted from the RCRA process vent air emission
standards (40 CFR Parts 264 and 265, Subpart AA).
The document contains technical information on air
 emission rates, control technologies, and environmen-
 tal and cost impacts of alternative  control  technol-
 ogies.

 Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Waste treatment,
 'Air pollution control, Vents, Exhaust gases, Stand-
 ards, Air pollution, Cost analysis, Economic impact, Ex-
 clusion, Technical  assistance, Storage, 'Volatile or-
 ganic  compounds,  Alternative  planning, Resource
 Conservation and Recovery Act.
 PB91-148288/REB               PC A07/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
 Urban Air Toxics Monitoring  Program Aldehyde
 Results, 1989. Final rept.
 Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 R. A. McAllister, D. L. Epperson, and R. F. Jongleux.
 Jan 91,149pDCN-90-262-045-09, EPA/450/4-91/
 006
 Contract EPA-68D80014
 See also PB91-148262. Sponsored by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
 of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) de-
 veloped  the  Urban Air  Toxics  Monitoring Program
 (UATMP) to help state and local  agencies assess the
 nature and magnitude of their air toxics problems. The
 UATMP sampler collects ambient air samples at urban
 sites in 6-liter (L) SUMMA -treated stainless steel can-
 isters. At the same time,  through a separate heated
 sample line, ambient air samples are drawn in parallel
 through duplicate cartridges which trap  the carbonyl
 compounds from the ambient  air. The aldehyde car-
 tridges collected at the UATMP sites  for 1989 were ex-
 tracted and analyzed  by the Atmospheric Research
 and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the
 U.S. EPA at Research Triangle Park, NC for formalde-
 hyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone.  These carbonyls
 were selected  as target compounds  for the 1989
 UATMP.  The report presents the data summaries and
 other data assessments for the carbonyl samples col-
 lected during the 1989 UATMP season. The air toxics
 compounds collected in canisters for the 1989 UATMP
 season are reported separately.

 Keywords:  'Air pollution monitoring,  'Air pollution de-
 tection,   'Aldehydes,  'Toxic  substances,  'Urban
 areas,  Acetone,  Formaldehyde,  Acetaldehyde,  Air
 samplers, Site surveys, Concentration(Comppsition),
 Chemical analysis, Sample preparation, Liquid chro-
 matography, Carbonyl compounds, Quality assurance,
 Data processing.
PB91-148296/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Workshop on Innovative Technologies for Treat-
ment of Contaminated Sediments. Held in Cincin-
nati, Ohio on June 13-14, 1990. Summary Report.
Rept. for Apr-Jul 90.
PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
R. B. Sukol. Nov 90, 59p EPA/600/2-90/054
Contract EPA-68-03-3413
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The Workshop on Innovative Technologies for Treat-
ment  of Contaminated Sediments was held in Cincin-
nati, Ohio  June 13-14, 1990. Its twofold purpose was:
(1) to provide interested individuals and organizations
with current information on innovative treatment tech-
nologies for contaminated sediments, and (2) to pro-
vide Risk Reduction Engineering  Laboratory  staff with
an opportunity to increase their understanding of the
problems  associated with the management of con-
taminated  sediments at various locations throughout
the United States. The Workshop was organized into
six segments related to policy  and technology devel-
opment. 'Setting the Scene' included presentations by
representatives from  RREL, Office of Water Regula-
tions and Standards (OWRS), EPA's Great Lakes Na-
tional Program Office (GLNPO), Environment Canada,
and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The suc-
ceeding four segments were entitled 'Dredged Materi-
als Removal,  Pretreatment and Disposal', 'Extraction
Technologies', 'Biological/Chemical Treatment Tech-
nologies',  and 'Other Technologies of Interest'. The
Workshop Summary  Report contains summaries of
each presentation and panel discussion. The  final seg-
ment of the workshop consisted of an open discussion
on  'Future Direction  for Contaminated  Sediments
Treatment'. The questions raised by  attendees cov-
ered overall approaches to pollution prevention and
forthcoming strategies, development of criteria for
action  and  target levels,  monitoring requirements,
cost/benefit concerns, snort-term versus long-term
considerations,  and characterization of  ecosystems.
The open discussion is summarized in the final report
section.

Keywords: 'Meetings,  'Technology utilization, 'Sedi-
ments, 'Dredged spoil, 'Water pollution  control, Bio-
logical  treatment, Waste disposal, Pollution  abate-
ment,  Benefit  cost  analysis,  Sediment  water  inter-
faces, Aquatic ecosystems. Extraction, 'Cleanup oper-
ations, Chemical treatment.
PB91-148304/REB               PC A10/MF A02
Polymer Manufacturing Industry - Background In-
formation for Promulgated Standards. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Oct 90, 215p EPA/450/3-83/019B
See also PB88-114996.

Standards of performance for the control of volatile or-
ganic compoud emissions from the polymer manufac-
turing industry are being promulgated under Section
111  of the  Clean Air Act. These standards apply to
new, modified, and reconstructed facilities that manu-
facture  polypropylene, polyethylene,  polystyrene,  or
poly(ethylene terephthalate). The document contains
a summary of public comments, EPA responses, and a
discussion of differences between the proposed and
promulgated standard.

Keywords:  "Environmental impact statements-Final,
'Air pollution control, 'Volatile organic compounds,
'Plastics industry,  'Rubber  industry,  Performance
standards. Air pollution standards, Industrial wastes.
Polymerization,  Polypropylene, Polyethylene,  Polysty-
rene, Polyethylene terephthalate, Composite materi-
als. Clean Air Act.
PB91-148312/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Preparation Aids for the Development of Catego-
ry 1: Quality Assurance Project Plans.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
G. F. Simes. Feb 91,75p EPA/600/8-91 /003

Data collection activities performed for the Risk Re-
duction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. En-
vironmental Protection Agency are divided into four
categories, depending on the intended use of the data.
Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to
ensure that project needs will be met and that quality
control procedures are sufficient for obtaining data of
known quality. The level of QA required, however, de-
pends  on the project category selected for a given
project. Projects that  are of sufficient  scope and  sub-
stance that their results could be used directly, without
additional support, for compliance or other litigation
are identified as Category I projects. Such projects are
of critical importance to the Agency goals and must be
able to withstand legal challenge. Accordingly, the QA
requirements will be the most rigorous and detailed in
order to ensure that such goals are  met. To assist pro-
fessional scientists and engineers in preparing QA
Project Plans, separate guidance manuals in an easy-
to-read format have been developed for each catego-
ry. The Category I manual contains detailed descrip-
tions of each of the 15 required elements of a Catego-
ry I QA Project Plan. Also included are definitions and
explanations of frequently used terms, examples of QA
forms and charts, sample equations and  numerous
types of tables suggested for summarizing information.

Keywords:   'Manuals,  'Environmental   surveys,
'Project  planning, 'Environmental protection, Man-
agement planning, Pollution regulations, Law enforce-
ment,  Risk assessment, Data processing, Standards
compliance, Sampling,  Quality  control, Performance
evaluation, Records management, 'Quality Assurance
Project Plans.
PB91-148320/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental  Monitoring Systems Lab., Las Vegas,
NV.
Evaluation of a Remote Sensor for Mobile Source
CO Emissions.
Denver Univ., CO. Dept. of Chemistry.
D. H. Stedman, G. A. Bishop, and M. L. Pitchford. Jan
91,92p EPA/600/4-90/032
34     Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Contract EPA-R-815778-01-0
Portions of this document are not fully legible. Spon-
sored by Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab  Las
Vegas, NV.

Carbon monoxide  (CO) emission  measurements of
thousands of vehicles per day are possible with a re-
cently evaluated remote sensor (Fuel Efficiency Auto-
mobile Test) developed at the University  of Denver.
Funded by the Environmental Monitoring Systems
Laboratory - Las  Vegas (EMSL-LV)  Innovative  Re-
search Program, the evaluation has demonstrated the
comparability of volume concentration measurements
made by the method with traditional emission monitor-
ing instrumentation. Measurements are made unobtru-
sively as vehicles pass through an infrared light beam
directed across one traffic lane about 25 centimeters
above the pavement. A video camera records the vehi-
cle registration  number of each vehicle as its CO emis-
sions are measured so that characteristics of individual
vehicles and vehicle fleet categories can be associat-
ed with each measurement. Determining appropriate
applications and monitoring protocols for the technolo-
gy is the second phase of the Innovative Research
Project. Similar remote  sensing technology for moni-
toring mobile hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emis-
sions can be developed to address the urban ozone
non-attainment problem.

Keywords: *Air pollution monitors, 'Remote sensing,
'Carbon monoxide, "Mobile pollutant sources,  Ex-
haust emissions, Concentration(Composition), Hydro-
carbons, Nitrogen oxides, Ozone,  Computer systems
performance,  Combustion  efficiency,  Urban   areas,
Performance evaluation, Design criteria, Tables(Data),
Carbon dioxide, 'Fuel Efficiency Automobile Test.
 PB91-148338/REB                PC A05/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Assessment of  Asbestos Removal  Carried Out
 Using EPA Purple Book Guidance. Final rept.
 PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
 Jan 91,86p EPA/600/2-91 /003
 Contract EPA-68-03-4006
 Prepared in  cooperation  with Computer Sciences
 Corp., Cincinnati, OH. Sponsored  by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction En-
 gineering Lab.

 A statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data col-
 lected before, during, and after removal of spray-ap-
 plied asbestos-containing fireproofing at three univer-
 sity buildings is presented. Each abatement project
 was conducted in accordance with the work practices
 and procedures recommended by  the  U.S.  Environ-
 mental Protection Agency in 'Guidance for Controlling
 Asbestos-Containing  Materials  in  Buildings,'  (the
 Purple  Book). Containment barriers should be de-
 signed to effectively prevent a significant increase in
 airborne concentrations outside the work area during
 and after abatement. An increase in asbestos concen-
 tration outside the work area could allow an abatement
 site to be cleared when the level inside the  contain-
 ment is similarly  elevated. This holds true  whether
 PCM or TEM is used for the clearance. This weakness
 in the guidance for location of sampling  outside of the
 containment barrier is one of the major findings of the
 study. A requirement to monitor the concentration of
 asbestos  outside  the work  area  before and  after
 abatement is recommended to be added to the clear-
 ance procedure.

 Keywords: 'Asbestos, 'Removal, 'Construction mate-
 rials, 'Air pollution  monitoring, Recommendations,
 Buildings, Microscopy, Statistical analysis, Indoor air
 pollution, Graphs(Charts), Tables(Data).
PB91-148346/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research Lab.,  Ada,
OK.
In-situ Biotransformation of Carbon Tetrachloride
under Anoxic Conditions.  Research rept. Aug 89-
Nov 90.
Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Civil Engineering.
L. Semprini, G. D. Hopkins, D. B. Janssen, M. Lang,
and P. V. Roberts. Jan 91,107p EPA/600/2-90/060
Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research
Lab., Ada, OK.

A field and laboratory project evaluated the possibility
of stimulating a native bacterial population to biotrans-
form  carbon  tetrachloride (CT) under anoxic condi-
tions. In addition, the transformation of 1,1,1 -trichlor-
oethane (TCA), Freon-11, and Freon-113 present as
background contaminants in the test zone groundwat-
er were also  evaluated. After biostimulation by injec-
tion of acetate into a shallow confined aquifer consist-
ing of unconsolidated alluvial sand, the following de-
grees of  transformation were  observed: CT,  95%:
TCA,  15%; Freon-11, 68%; Freon-113, 20%.  These
biotransformations were achieved in a biostimulated
zone within 2 meters of the injection point. Laboratory
and  mathematical modeling  were also considered.
Mathematical modeling of the transport and transfor-
mation process confirmed that the behavior observed
in the field demonstration was consistent with the re-
sults of the laboratory research and theoretical expec-
tations.

Keywords: 'Carbon tetrachloride, *Biotransformation,
'Anaerobic bacteria, Chemical water pollutants, Field
tests, Mathematical models, Trichloroethanes, Freons,
Ground  water,  Graphs(Charts),  Soil contamination,
Aquifers, Gas chromatography.
PB91-148353/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Manual for the  Evaluation  of Laboratories  Per-
forming Aquatic Toxicity Tests.
Environmental Monitoring Systems  Lab., Cincinnati
OH.
D. J. Klemm, L. B. Lobring, and W. H. Horning. Oct 90
119p EPA/600/4-90/031
See  also PB85-205383, PB89-220503,  and  PB89-
207013.

The  manual describes guidelines and standardized
procedures for conducting on-site audits  and evalua-
tions of laboratories performing toxicity tests. Included
are pre-survey information activities, on-site evaluation
activities, evaluation criteria, organizational history and
laboratory staff, facilities, equipment, instruments, sup-
plies, culturing and testing methodology,  sample col-
lection, handling, preservation, preparation, quality as-
surance and data handling, safety and general prac-
tices, evaluation report and performance rating. Sup-
plementary information on chain-of-custody  guide-
lines, quality  control  checklist for self-biomonitoring
toxicity tests, standard operating procedures (SOPs)
format, culturing criteria SOP format, pre-survey infor-
mation forms, on-site laboratory evaluation forms and
checklists, and on-site toxicity test conditions and test
acceptability criteria checklists is provided in the Ap-
pendices.

Keywords:   'Aquatic  biology,   'Water   pollution
effects(Animals), 'Toxicity,  Test methods, Manuals,
Quality assurance, Environmental monitoring,  Bioas-
say,  'Laboratory evaluation, Standard operating pro-
cedures manuals.
PB91-148361/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Chemical-Specific Parameters for Toxicity Char-
acteristic Contaminants.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
J. J. Ellington, C. T. Jah/ert, H. P. Kollig, E. J. Weber,
and N. L. Wolfe. Jan 91, 26p EPA/600/3-91/004

Acid, base, and neutral hydrolysis rate constants and
partition coefficients are given for 44 toxicity charac-
teristic contaminants. Both calculated and laboratory-
determined octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow))
and  organic-carbon-normalized  partition  coefficient
(K(oc)) values are included. Log (K(oc)) values were
calculated at pH 7 for ten ionizable acids and one ioni-
zable base.

Keywords: 'Chemical properties, 'Toxicity, 'Chemical
water pollution, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Phenols, Ha-
lohydrocarbons, pH, Hydrolysis, Volatile organic com-
pounds.
PB91-148379/REB                PC A99/MF A04
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of Haz-
ardous Waste. Proceedings of the Annual  RREL
Hazardous  Waste  Research  Symposium  (16th).
Held in Cincinnati, Ohio on April 3-5,1990.
PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
Aug 90, 668p EPA/600/9-90/037
Contract EPA-68-03-3413
See also PB89-174403. Prepared in cooperation with
JACA Corp., Fort Washington, PA. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
duction Engineering Lab.
 The purpose of the Symposium was to present the
 latest significant research findings from ongoing and
 recently completed projects funded by the Risk Re-
 duction Engineering Laboratory. These Proceedings
 are organized in three sections: Sessions A and B con-
 sist of paper presentations. Session C contains the
 poster abstracts.  Subjects include  remedial action
 treatment and control technologies for waste disposal,
 landfill liner and cover systems, underground storage
 tanks, and demonstration and development of innova-
 tive/alternative treatment technologies for hazardous
 waste. Alternative technology subjects include thermal
 destruction of hazardous wastes, field evaluations, ex-
 isting treatment options, emerging treatment process-
 es, waste minimization, and biosystems for hazardous
 waste destruction.

 Keywords:  'Hazardous  materials, 'Waste  disposal,
 'Water treatment,  'Meetings,  Earth  fills,  Linings,
 Water pollution control. Ground water, Storage tanks,
 Underground storage, Incinerators, Kilns, Air pollution
 control, Metals, Scrubbers, Recovery, Soils, Fungi,
 Biodeterioration,  Organic  compounds,   Remedial
 action, Steam stripping.
 PB91-148387/REB                PC A99/MF A04
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Environmental Challenge of the 1990's. Proceed-
 ings. International  Conference on Pollution Pre-
 vention: Clean Technologies and Clean Products.
 Held in Washington, DC. on June 10-13,1990.
 Science Applications International Corp., McLean  VA
 Sep 90, 760p EPA/600/9-90/039
 Contract EPA-68-C8-0062
 Sponsored by  Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
 cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab., Interna-
 tional Association for Clean Technology, Vienna (Aus-
 tria), Department of Defense, Washington, DC.,  and
 Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

 The International Conference on Pollution Prevention:
 Clean  Technologies and Clean Products was held in
 Washington, DC, June 10-13,1990. With support from
 the  Department of  Defense,  the  Department  of
 Energy, and the International Association for Clean
 Technology, the conference  explored the innovative
 technologies and socio-economic issues arising in the
 field of pollution prevention. These Proceedings in-
 clude papers and transcripts of most of the presenta-
 tions made during the three-day conference.

 Keywords:  'Prevention,  'Pollution,  'Meetings, Eco-
 nomic  impact,  Hazardous materials.  Public  health,
 Coal gasification. Protection, Ground water, Technolo-
 gy transfer, Legislation, Materials, Substitutes, Techni-
 cal assistance, Corporations,  Risk,  Liabilities, Manu-
 facturing,  Europe, Cost  analysis,  Recycling, Waste
 minimization, Clean Water Act, Tanning.
PB91-148395/REB                PC A10/MF A02
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Watershed  Manipulation Project: Quality Assur-
ance Implementation Plan for 1986-1989.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
H. E. Erickson, M. Morrison, J. Kern, L. Hughes, and J.
Malcolm. Jan 91,223p EPA/600/3-91 /008
See also PB91-148403. Prepared  in cooperation with
FTN Associates, Little Rock, AR.  Sponsored by Cor-
vallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

The Watershed Manipulation Project (WMP)  was im-
plemented by EPA to: identify and quantify the relative
importance of various processes in controlling surface
water acidification with particular emphasis on the role
of sulfate  adsorption and base cation  supply in the
long-term  watershed response to acidic deposition;
assess the quantitative and  qualitative watershed re-
sponse  to various levels of acidic deposition; and
evaluate the  assumptions that underlie the Direct/De-
layed Response Project (DDRP) models and their abili-
ty to predict short-term watershed responses to exper-
imental  manipulation.  These objectives   will  be
achieved through a series of experiments at various
spatial and temporal scales ranging from laboratory,
plot, hillslope, and catchment manipulations. The doc-
ument describes the quality assurance and quality
control (QA/QC) program implemented by WMP for
measurements made during the first three years of the
project. Companion documents describe the field pro-
cedures  implemented during that time, and the ration-
ale for the WMP hypotheses.
                                                                                                                                 June  1991     35

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keywords:  'Watersheds,  'Water quality,  'Acidifica-
tion, 'Water analysis, Bear Brook, Maine, Water pollu-
tion control, Air water interactions, Quality assurance,
Sampling, Quality control, pH, Spectrum analysis, Per-
formance evaluation. Project planning, Lead Mountain,
Data processing, Sulfates, Deposition, Water chemis-
try. Cations,  Field tests, 'Watershed Manipulation
Project, Direct/Delayed Response Project.
PB91-148403/REB                PC A05/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Watershed Manipulation Project: Field Implemen-
tation Plan for 1986-1989.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
H. E. Erickson, L. E. Rustad, A. M. Narahara, and S. C.
Nodvin. Feb 91,93p EPA/600/3-91 /007
See also PB91-148395. Prepared in cooperation with
Maine Univ. at Orono. Sawyer Environmental Chemis-
try  Lab. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Re-
search Lab., OR.

The Field Implementation Plan (FIP) of the Watershed
Manipulation Project (WMP) has been developed for
the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The doc-
ument  provides details on field activities  for site and
task groups for the period 1986 to October 1989. Spe-
cific objectives of the FIP are to: describe the Bear
Brook manipulation site; detail field experimental and
sampling designs for hypothesis testing at the BBWM;
and, summarize field methods used at the Bear Brook
site.

Keywords: 'Watersheds, 'Water quality, 'Biogeoche-
mistry,   'Acidification,  Water pollution, Bear  Brook,
Maine, Lead Mountain, Field tests. Site characteriza-
tion, Implementation, pH, Water chemistry, Mathemati-
cal models, Forests,  Soil surveys, Deposition, Sam-
pling,  Hydrology, Air  water interactions, 'Watershed
Manipulation  Project, 'Field implementation  plan,
Direct/Delayed Response Project.


PB91-148411/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
PM10 Emission Factor Listing Developed by Tech-
nology Transfer and Airs Source Classification
Codes with Documentation.
Engineering Science, Gary, NC.
Nov89, 71 p EPA/450/4-89/022
Contract EPA-68-02-4398
See also PB89-128631. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

The report provides a listing of paniculate matter emis-
sion factors,  size-specific  =  or  <  10  micrometers
(PM10) for fuel combustion, industrial and commercial
operations,  and solid wastes disposals. The factor list
is identified with appropriate EPA AIRS Facility Sub-
system (AFS) Source Classification Codes (SCCs) and
their process descriptions. An appendix to the listing
provides documentation of technology transfer ration-
ale for the PM10 emission factors.

Keywords: 'Air pollution, 'Emission factors, 'Particu-
lates. Particle size  distribution. Solid waste disposal.
Industrial wastes,  Combustion products,  Pollution
sources, Listings, Technology transfer. Source Classi-
fication Codes, Stationary sources.
PB91-148429/REB                PC A05/MF A01
Risk  Management  Recommendations for Oioxin
Contamination at Midland, Michigan. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Region
V.
Dec 88,81 p EPA/905/4-88/008
SeealsoPB88-249818.

The report sets out risk management  recommenda-
tions for contamination  with  2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodi-
benzo-p-dioxin (2378-TCDD) and other polychlorinat-
ed  dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDS) and polychlorinated di-
benzofurans (CDFs) in and around Midland, Michigan.
Included are: (1) a summary of the results of environ-
mental studies undertaken by the U.S. EPA, the State
of Michigan, and the Dow Chemical Company, includ-
ing monitoring of air, soil,  surface water, waste water,
fish tissue, and garden vegetables for CDDs/CDFs; (2)
a summary of possible health risks to Midland area
residents resulting from exposures to CDDs/CDFs; (3)
actions for minimizing emissions and discharges to the
environment  from Dow Chemical;  (4)  recommenda-
tions for  residents of the Midland area on how to mini-
mize exposures to CDDs/CDFs, and thus the possible
health risks associated with these exposures; and (5)
additional monitoring programs to delineate long-term
trends in emissions and discharges of CDDs/CDFs,
and to document changes in environmental contami-
nation for the more significant human exposure routes.
A summary of public comments on  the Risk Assess-
ment and on the Risk Management Recommendations
is presented in an appendix.

Keywords: 'Risk  assessment, Management, Environ-
mental monitoring, 'Public health, 'Ecology, 'Pollution
control.  Environmental  surveys. Exposure, Recom-
mendations, Environmental exposure pathway, Public
opinion, Fishes, Water  pollution.  Air pollution, Land
pollution, Vegetables, 'Dioxins, Midland(Michigan), Di-
benzodioxin/tetrachloro, Polychlorinated  dibenzofur-
ans,  Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins.
PB91-148437/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago. IL. Great
Lakes National Program Office.
Great  Lakes Demonstration  Program, Section
108a. Final rept. 1972-87.
Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA.
R. Fares. Oct 88,20p EPA/905/8-88/005,, GLNPO-1
Contract EPA-68-04-5041
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Chi-
cago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

The report contains  a review of Great Lakes Demon-
stration  projects  funded under Section 108a of the
Water Quality Act PL 92:580. The program provided
data and information vital to the establishment of the
national nonpoint source control efforts of the U.S. En-
vironmental  Protection Agency and the U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture.

Keywords: 'Project planning, 'Water pollution control,
'Great Lakes, Agriculture, Urban areas, Drainage, Cul-
tivation,    Government  agencies,   Demonstration
project, Nonpoint source, Institutional cooperation.


PB91-148452/REB                PC A03/MF  A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Laboratory Evaluation of  the Low  Temperature
Characteristics of Four Protective Clothing Mate-
rials.
Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.
P. P. Costas, and A. D. Schwope. Jan 91,33p ADL-
54995-35, EPA/600/2-91/001
Contract EPA-68-03-3293
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,  Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

The objective of the study was to evaluate several low-
temperature characteristics of Challenge 5100, a new
protective clothing material  developed by Chemical
Fabrics Corporation. The low temperature characteris-
tics of three other protective clothing materials were
also evaluated and used as a basis for comparison and
interpretation of the Challenge results. The other cloth-
ing materials were chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl
chloride/nylon, and  butyl/nylon/butyl. The results of
two stiffness tests indicated  that the stiffening charac-
teristics  of the Challenge 5100 material as a function
of temperature are comparable to those of polyvinyl
chloride/nylon. Chlorinated polyethylene exhibited the
most stiffening as the temperature was lowered,  and
butyl/nylon/butyl exhibited the least stiffening. The re-
sults of  the hardness  measurements indicate similar
material performance. Since the results of both stiff-
ness tests are in agreement with the known field  per-
formances of the materials, either test method can be
used to evaluate clothing materials.

Keywords: 'Protective clothing,  'Low temperature
tests, 'Polyvinyl chloride,  'Polyethylene fibers, 'Stiff-
ness tests, Comparative evaluation, Materials testing,
•Challenge 5100.
PB91-148460/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Ecological  Exposure  and  Effects  of  Airborne
Toxic Chemicals: An Overview.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
T. J. Moser, J. R. Barker, and D. T.  Tingey. Jan 91,
171 p EPA/600/3-91/001
Prepared in cooperation with ManTech Environmental
Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

Since the release of the Environmental  Protection
Agency's (EPA's) toxic  release inventory (TRI) esti-
mates for 1987, there has been a heightened concern
over the nation's air quality. Primarily, the concern has
been directed  at human health effects  in industrial-
urban areas. The fact that many airborne chemicals
pose hazards to human health is only one aspect of
the problem.  The continued deposition  of airborne
toxic chemicals pose  threats  to both terrestrial and
aquatic ecosystems, the discussion is limited to terres-
trial vegetation.

Keywords: *Air pollution effects(Plants),  "Vegetation,
'Toxic substances, 'Terrestrial ecosystems, Biologi-
cal effects,  Exposure,  Environmental effects, Deposi-
tion, Environmental transport,  Air water interactions.
Recommendations, Atmospheric  diffusion, Forests,
Plants(Botany), Chemical compounds, Pesticides.
PB91-149518/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Self-Consistent Deutschian ESP Model. Final rept.
Oct 86-Dec 87.
Southern Research Inst, Birmingham, AL.
M. G. Faulkner, and J. L. DuBard. Jan 91,93p EPA/
600/7-91/001
Sponsored by  Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
Research Lab.

The report presents a new version of the EPA/South-
ern Research Institute electrostatic precipitator (ESP)
model. The primary difference  between this and the
standard (Revision 3) versions  is in the treatment of
the participate space charge. Both models apply the
Deutsch equation to  narrow  particle  size  bands over
short  ESP  lengths to determine collection efficiency.
The standard version estimates  space charge by a for-
mula which predicts an effective mobility for ions and
particles and a reduced ion density for particle charg-
ing. The estimated values are  used  to calculate the
electric field at the plate and  the particle charge, both
required for the Deutsch equation. However,  in the
new version the paniculate space charge is treated ex-
plicitly, allowing the interrelation of the particle charge
and electric field  calculations.  The charge and field
calculations are alternated until  they become self-con-
sistent within each length increment of the ESP. Self-
consistency occurs when  the  charge used for the
space charge  in the  field calculation is the same as
that calculated using the results of the field calculation.
The explicit treatment of the space charge directly re-
lates the particle charge and electric field calculations,
and therefore the collection  efficiency calculation, to
the dust load present in the gas stream. The report
gives operating instructions for the new model.

Keywords:  'Electrostatic precipitators, *Air pollution
control  equipment, 'Mathematical models. Perform-
ance evaluation, Particles,  Space charge, Ions, Elec-
tric fields, Operating, Particle size, Deutsch equation.
PB91-149526/REB                PC A09/MF A01
Environmental Monitoring  and Assessment Pro-
gram: Research Plan for Monitoring Wetland Eco-
systems. Final draft rept.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
N. C. Leibowitz, L. Squires, and J. P. Baker. Jan 91,
191 p EPA/600/3-91/010
Prepared in cooperation with  ManTech Environmental
Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The overall goal of Environmental Monitoring and As-
sessment Program-Wetlands is to provide a quantita-
tive assessment of the current status and long-term
trends in wetland condition on regional and national
scales.  The specific, long-term objectives of EMAP-
Wetlands are as follows: Quantify the regional status
of wetlands, by measuring indicators of ecological con-
dition and  also  hydrology, pollution exposure,  and
other major factors known to influence  or stress wet-
lands; Monitor changes  through time,  on a regional
scale, in the condition of wetlands and in hydrology,
pollution exposure, and other factors that influence or
stress wetlands;  and Identify plausible causes for de-
graded or improved conditions, by evaluating associa-
tions between wetland condition and hydrology, pollu-
tion exposure, and other factors that affect wetland
condition.

Keywords: 'Ecology, 'Swamps, 'Marshes, 'Pollution
control, Assessments, Monitoring, Hydrology, Environ-
mental impacts, Degradation, Project planning. Classi-
fications, Drainage, Government policies.  Effective-
 36    Vol. 91,  No. 2

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                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
ness, Statistical analysis, 'Wetlands, Ecosystems, Re-
ginal.
PB91-149534/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Approach for Estimating Global Landfill Methane
Emissions. Final rept. Apr-Sep 90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
R. L. Peer, A. E. Leininger, B. B. Emmel, and S. K.
Lynch. Jan 91, 54p DCN-90-239-005-48-09, EPA/
600/7-91/002
Contract EPA-68-02-4288
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
Research Lab.

The report is an overview of available country-specific
data and modeling approaches for  estimating global
landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill
methane indicate that landfills account for  between 4
and 15% of the global methane budget. The report de-
scribes an approach for  using country-specific and
field test data to  develop a less uncertain estimate of
global landfill  methane. Development of enhanced
emissions factors for landfills and other major sources
of methane will improve the understanding of atmos-
pheric chemistry and feedback effects, will  target miti-
gation opportunities,  and  will  ensure  cost-effective
mitigation strategies.

Keywords: *Methane, "Estimating,  "Earth fills, "Air
pollution, Sources, Mathematical models, Evaluation,
Accuracy, Decision  makers, Climatic changes, Gas
flow, Atmospheric  composition, Chemical  analysis,
Emission,  Rates(Pertime),  Temperature,   United
States, Refuse, Moisture content, Foreign countries,
Global  Climate Research  Program, Scholl Canyon
Model.
PB91-149542/REB                PC A05/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Calibration Methodology for the Double Sample
of the National  Lake  Survey  Phase  II Sample.
Technical rept.
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Statistics.
W. S. Overton, and S. V. Stehman. Nov 89,90p TR-
130, EPA/600/3-91 /009
Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab.,
OR.

The Phase II Lake Surveys of the U. S. Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPA) National Surface Surveys,
were conducted on a probability  subsample of the
Phase I Lake Survey sample. The design allowed esti-
mates to be made both by double sample methodolo-
gy and by direct probability estimation. The paper de-
scribes the adaptation of double sampling methodolo-
gy to the objectives focusing specifically on the cali-
bration issues  involved   in  those  procedures. The
Phase II Data Analysis Plan includes specification for
the calibration protocol to be used in the case of single
Phase II strata, and for simple, one-to-one prediction
equations. For more general and complex prediction
equations, the  general  protocol  was indicated, but
some details were not supplied; these are  given here.
Also, the issue of calibration in the case of mixed strata
is addressed.

Keywords: 'Calibrating,  "Sampling, "Lakes,  "Water
quality. Surveys, Methodology, Experimental design,
Specifications, Probability, Mathematical models,  Al-
gorithms,  pH,  Density   functions,  Graphs(Charts),
Double sampling.


PB91-149567/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Seattle,  WA.
Region X.
Everett Harbor Action Program:  1989 Action Plan.
Puget Sound Estuary Program.
PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA.
Mar 89,38p EPA/910/9-89/006
Contract EPA-6B-D8-0085
See also PB90-227117. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Seattle, WA. Region X.

The Everett Harbor Urban Bay Action Program was de-
veloped to reduce toxic  contamination in the Everett
Harbor system. The Program (1)  identifies  existing
areas of toxic contamination, (2) identifies  known and
potential  sources of toxic  contaminants, (3) estab-
lishes schedules for corrective actions to eliminate ex-
isting problems, and (4) identifies appropriate agencies
for implementing corrective actions. Corrective actions
may include both source controls and sediment clean-
up.  Source controls may be reduction of contaminant
discharge  or application of best  management prac-
tices.

Keywords: "Toxicity, "Water pollution control, "Everett
Harbor, "Snohomish River, Sites, Identifying, Sources,
Project  planning,  Sediments, Dredging,  Industrial
wastes.  Fishes, Animal diseases,  Lagoons(Ponds),
Capping, Runoff,  Government agencies, Diagrams,
Maps, Cleanup, Best management practices.
PB91-149575/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Seattle,  WA.
Region X.
Effects of Sediment Holding Time on Sediment
Toxicity. Puget Sound Estuary Program.
PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA.
D. S. Becker, and T. C. Ginn. Jun 90, 50p EPA/910/9-
90/009
Contract EPA-68-D8-0085
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Seat-
tle, WA.  Region X.

Four of the sediment bioassays commonly used to
assess the toxicity of Puget Sound sediments were
used to  evaluate the influence of sample  holding time
on the toxicity of sediment samples collected from a
highly contaminated site and a reference area in the
sound. The four sediment bioassays evaluated includ-
ed the following: 10-day amphipod mortality test, 20-
day Neanthes biomass test, 15 minute Microtox test
(saline extract), 48-hour echinoderm  embryo abnor-
mality test. The results of the amphipod mortality test
suggests that  sediment  holding times longer than 6
weeks may result in bioassay responses that are sub-
stantially different from those observed after a 2-week
holding time. The results from the Neanthes biomass
test indicate that holding times of 6 weeks or  longer
may result in  bioassay  responses that are different
from those observed after a 1 week holding time. The
results of the Microtox  test suggests that sediment
holding times of 4 weeks or longer may result in bioas-
say responses that are  substantially different from
those observed after a 2-week holding time. The re-
sults of the echinoderm embryo abnormality test were
not evaluated.

Keywords:     "Sediments,     "Water     pollution
effects(Animals), "Puget Sound, "Marine biology, Time
dependence,       Comparison,      Tables(Data),
Graphs(Charts),  "Toxicity tests,  Amphipod  mortality
test, Neanthes biomass test, Microtox test.
PB91-149583/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Environmental  Protection  Agency,   Seattle,   WA.
Region X.
Elliot Bay Action Program: 1988 Action Plan. Final
rept.
PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA.
Sep 88,  116p EPA/910/9-88/240
Contract EPA-68-02-4341
Prepared in cooperation with Tetra Tech, Inc., Belle-
vue, WA.  Sponsored  by Environmental Protection
Agency, Seattle, WA. Region X.

The Urban Bay Action Program (1) identifies priority
problem  areas of contamination; (2) identifies current,
historical, and potential sources of contamination; (3)
establishes schedules to take corrective actions to
eliminate existing problems and to investigate poten-
tial problems;  (4)  identifies appropriate agencies for
implementing corrective actions; and (5) ensures im-
plementation of the resulting plan. The action plan rep-
resents  the concerted efforts and commitments of
many regulatory agencies and local governments to
reduce contamination in Elliott Bay. Representatives
of regulatory agencies and local government formed
the Interagency Work Group which has  met on a regu-
lar basis since 1985 to develop and oversee  a correc-
tive plan of action. Corrective actions may include both
source controls and remedial (cleanup) actions such
as capping or  removal of  contaminated sediments.
Source  controls may include permit revisions to re-
quire reduction of contaminant concentrations or vol-
umes of discharges, or application of  best  manage-
ment practices to reduce contamination of surface
water runoff.

Keywords:  "Water  pollution  control,  "Elliott   Bay,
"Puget  Sound, Sources,  Removal, Sediments, Li-
censes,  Requirements, Capping, Reduction,  Maps,
National government.  Requirements,  Local govern-
ment,      Runoff,      Inspection,      Sampling,
Washington(State), Urban Bay Action Program, Clean-
up,  Discharge(Water),  Best management practices,
Listings.
PB91-149591/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental   Protection  Agency,  Seattle,  WA.
Region X.
Neanthes Long-Term Exposure Experiment: The
Relationship  between Juvenile Growth and  Re-
productive Success. Puget Sound Estuary Pro-
gram.
PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA.
D. M. Johns, and T. C. Ginn. Jun 90,20p EPA/910/9-
90/010
Contract EPA-68-D8-0085
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Seat-
tle, WA. Region X.

Long-term sediment bioassays were conducted  on
sediments from three sites individually and a mixture of
sediments from two of those sites from  Puget Sound
(i.e. a  total of four  treatments). The  survival  and
change in biomass of juvenile Neanthes was related to
reproductive success in adult Neanthes.

Keywords: "Sediments, "Worms, "Toxicity, "Organic
compounds, "Puget Sound, Bioassay, Growth, Surviv-
al, Reproduction(Biology), Tests, Exposure, Elliot Bay,
Behavior, Neanthes.
PB91-149609/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
State-of-the-Art Procedures and Equipment for
Internal   Inspection  of  Underground Storage
Tanks. Rept. for Mar 89-Sep 90.
PEI Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.
S. E. Boone, P. J. Mraz, J. M. Miller, J. J. Mazza, and M.
Borst. Jan 91,133p EPA/600/2-90/061
Contract EP A-68-03-3409
Also available from Supt. of Docs.  Prepared in coop-
eration with COM Federal Programs Corp., Fairfax, VA.
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

Preventing leaks from underground storage tanks is of
paramount importance in this decade as environmen-
tal resources are seriously threatened by the release
of toxic substances and costs of reparation are exorbi-
tant. Inspecting underground  storage tanks is one
action that helps prevent and correct potential tank
failures that could  result in such release.  The  study
identifies and characterizes the types of internal prac-
tices (current, emerging, and outmoded) to conduct in-
ternal inspections of underground storage tanks. EPA
sponsored this survey of state-of-the-art  internal in-
spection  methods as an  initial  compilation of this im-
portant information, for dissemination to the regulated
community. The document addresses those methods
pertaining to tanks; description of the inspections per-
formed on ancillary equipment (pipes, vents, etc.) of
UST systems is not within the scope of the report. The
report is the result of an effort  to examine the various
tools and techniques used for  conducting internal in-
spections. The study documents the significant factors
evaluated during an inspection. It examines the appli-
cation of each inspection method by identifying the ob-
jectives of the technique,  its procedural steps, the nec-
essary equipment and instrumentation, the consider-
ations for use in the field.

Keywords: "Land pollution abatement, "Underground
storage,  "Storage  tanks, "Toxic substances. Water
pollution abatement, State of the art, Inspection, Leak-
age, Operating,  Nondestructive testing,   Petroleum
products, Visual observation. Maintenance, State pro-
grams, On-site investigations, Materials tests,  Hazard-
ous materials.
PB91-149617/REB               PC A01/MF A01
Up and Running: New EPA Case History Database
and Library System. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R.W. Hillger.c1990, 5p
Pub. in LUSTLine, Bulletin 12, p5 and p12 Feb 90.

Early in the UST program, EPA and State environmen-
tal programs recognized the need to facilitate technol-
ogy transfer among all personnel involved in  UST pro-
grams  nationwide. It has been  noted many times at
                                                                                                                                June 1991     37

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) work-
shops that the level of experience of personnel in the
UST programs varies widely. This is generally attrib-
uted to the recent development of the UST programs,
high turnover within the program staff, and the intro-
duction of new  commercial technologies to contend
with the large number of UST cleanups. COLIS (Com-
puterized On-Line Information System) was designed
and implemented to support some of these pressing
program needs.

Keywords:  'Case  studies,   'Information  systems,
•Storage tanks, "Land  pollution, US  EPA, Under-
ground storage. Leakage,  Environmental  transport,
Technology  transfer,  Historical  aspects,  Remedial
action. Decision making.  Management planning, 'An-
nouncement bulletin, *COLIS(Computerized On-Line
Information System), Cleanup operations.
PB91-149625/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Bioassay Procedures for Predicting Coliform Bac-
terial Growth in Drinking Water. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
E. W. Rice, P. V. Scarpino, G. S. Logsdon, D. J.
Reasoner, and P. J. Mason. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-
90/322
Pub. in Environmental Technology,  v11 n9 p821-828
Sep 90. Prepared in cooperation with Cincinnati Univ.,
OH. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and
Black and Veatch, Cincinnati, OH.

Water quality degradation due to the growth of micro-
organisms is an area of concern for many water  utili:
ties. To date, the procedures developed for determin-
ing the amount of biodegradable material present in
potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform
bacteria  as  bioassay  seed  organisms. A procedure
was developed  which utilized coliform bacteria as the
bioassay organisms for determining the ability of the
water to support and promote growth of coliform bac-
teria. The bioassay procedure can be used to evaluate
the effect of various unit processes upon the biological
stability of the product water.

Keywords:       'Bioassay,       "Microorganisms
control(Water),  'Water pipelines, 'Water treatment,
Coliform bacteria,  Biodeterioration,  Growth,  Evalua-
tion, Potable water, Enterobacteriaceae, Tests, Mem-
branes, Fluid Alteration,  Sampling,  Temperature, Es-
chericha coli, Ozonization, Water distribution, Distribu-
tion systems, 'Drinking water, Total organic carbon.
 PB91-149633/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Documenting  the   U.S.   Landfill/Impoundment
 Permit: A Guide to Technical Resources. Journal
 article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 R. E. Landreth. C1990, 9p EPA/600/J-90/323
 Pub. in Waste Management and Research,  v8 p307-
 3181990.

 Designing and constructing  a landfill or impoundment
 are complex undertakings, as are applying for and re-
 viewing the necessary  documents  involved with a
 permit to construct. Each of the five elements of land-
 fill/impoundment  design and  construction  (founda-
 tions, dike integrity and  slope stability, liner systems,
 cover systems, and run-on/run-off controls) are con-
 sidered and a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 guide of technical literature references is cited to aid
 the designer, permit reviewer, or owner/operator seek
 the permit.

 Keywords: 'Guidelines, 'Earth fills, 'Surface impound-
 ments, 'Permits, 'Waste disposal. Design criteria, Op-
 erating, Construction, Standards compliance. Technol-
 ogy utilization. Reprints.


 PB91-149641/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Air  Emissions from the Incineration of Hazardous
 Waste. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 E. T. Oppelt. C1990,31 p EPA/600/J-90/324
 Pub. in Toxicology and Industrial Health, v6 n5 p23-51
 1990.

 In the United States over the last ten years, concern
 over important disposal practices of the past has mani-
 fested itself in the passage of  a series of federal and
 state-level hazardous waste clean-up and control stat-
utes of unprecedented scope. The impact of these var-
ious statutes will be a significant modification of waste
management practices. Of all  of the 'terminal' treat-
ment  technologies,  properly-designed  incineration
systems are capable of the highest overall degree of
destruction and control for the  broadest range of haz-
ardous waste streams.  Substantial design and oper-
ational experience exists and a wide variety of com-
mercial systems are available. Consequently, signifi-
cant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and
other  thermal destruction methods. The objective of
the paper is to examine the current state of knowledge
regarding air emissions from hazardous waste inciner-
ation  in an effort to put the associated technological
and environmental issues into perspective. (Copyright
(c) 1990 Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc.)

Keywords:  'Hazardous materials,  'Incinerators, "Air
pollution, Waste disposal, Organic wastes,  Oxidation
reduction reactions.  Volume, Preparation, Combustion
chambers, Dewatering, Design criteria, Exhaust gases.
Air  pollution control, Flue gases,  Flow charts, Regula-
tions,  Effectiveness, Removal,  Reprints, High temper-
ature.
PB91-149658/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Neurotoxic Effects of Colchicine. Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
W. R. Mundy, and H. A. Tilson. cApr 90,12p EPA/600/
J-90/325
Pub. in NeuroToxicology (Tradename) 11, p539-548
1990.

Neurotoxicants have found increasing use as tools to
study the structure and function of the central nervous
system. One class of compounds which block mitosis
and disrupt axoplasmic transport includes colchicine, a
chemical which is highly toxic to certain neuronal pop-
ulations.  Colchicine administered  directly  into  the
hippocampus of rats results in the preferential destruc-
tion of dentate gyrus granule cells without affecting the
surrounding pyramidal cells. Injection of colchicine into
other brain areas  also destroys neurons but  with less
selectivity than is observed  in the hippocampus. The
neurotoxicity of colchicine appears to be related to the
ability to bind to tubulin, although its exact mechanism
remains to be elucidated. (Copyright (c)  1990 Intox
Press, Inc.)

Keywords:  'Toxicology, 'Nervous  system,  'Colchi-
cine, Hippocampus, Neurons, Axons, Mitosis, Tubu-
lins,  Rats, Reprints, Dentate gyrus.
PB91-149724/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Role of Short-Term Tests in Evaluating Health Ef-
fects Associated with Drinking Water. Journal arti-
cle.
Health  Effects Research  Lab., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
J R. Meier, and F. B. Daniel. cOct 90,12p EPA/600/J-
90/326
Pub in Jnl. of the American Water Works Association,
V82n10p480ct90.

Short-term bioassays such as the Ames test are used
to assess genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of
specific drinking water contaminants as well as  con-
centrated samples of drinking water. The authors dis-
cuss the development, limitations,  and interpretation
of short-term  tests;  qualitative  and quantitative as-
pects of the utility of the tests for predicting carcino-
genicity; and general approaches to using the tests in
analyzing potential health effects of  drinking water.
They conclude that although uncertainties regarding
interpretation limit the application of such tests for risk
assessment, short-term tests provide public health of-
ficials with a useful tool for obtaining timely and cost-
efficient information about potential health risks asso-
ciated with drinking water.

Keywords:  'Bioassay,   'Toxicity,  'Public health,
 'Water  pollution, Carcinogens,  Genetics,  Potable
water.  Risk,   Assessments,   Humans,   Exposure,
Concentration(Composition), In  vitro  analysis,   Ro-
dents, Comparison, Time studies, Cost effectiveness,
 Reprints, Drinking water, 'Health assessment, Ames
test.
 PB91-149732/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.
Acute  Inhalation  Exposure  to Epichlorohydrin
Transiently Decreases Rat Sperm Velocity. Journal
article.
NSI Technology Services  Corp., Research Triangle
Park, NC.
V. L. Slott, J. D. Suarez, J. E. Simmons, and S. D.
Perreault. C1990,13p EPA/600/J-90/327
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in Fundamental and Applied Toxicology,  v15 n3
p597-606 Oct  90. Sponsored by Health Effects  Re-
search Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The effect of inhaled epichlorohydrin (E) on rat sperm
motility characteristics was  evaluated. Male F-344 rats
were exposed to 10Oppm E via inhalation for 4 hrs on
the morning of d 0 and killed immediately and on d 1, 2,
6 and 14 postexposure. Videotapes of cauda epididy-
mal sperm were analyzed (300-350 sperm/sample)
with a Hamilton Thorn Motility  Analyzer.  E did not
affect the percentage of motile sperm at any time.
However, transient changes in  sperm velocity were
found.  On d   1  postexposure mean progressive
(straight-line) and mean path (smoothed curvilinear)
velocity were significantly decreased to 80% and 85%
of control, respectively. The progressive velocities of
sperm from both control and treated rats were normal-
ly distributed, indicating a  general effect of E on all
sperm as opposed to a more severe effect on a specif-
ic sperm  subpopulation.  Both  velocities remained
slightly but significantly decreased on d 2 (92%  and
93% of control for progressive and path velocity, re-
spectively), and were  unaffected at later timepoints.
Other endpoints (testis and epididymis weights, testic-
ular spermatid  counts and cauda epididymal sperm re-
serves) were unaltered by E. Thus, inhaled E produced
specific,  transient  decreases in rat sperm velocity.
(Copyright (c) 1990 by the Society of Toxicology.)

Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Sperm motility, 'Epichlorohy-
drin,  'Velocity,  Rats, Spermatozoa,  Organ  weight,
Respiration,    Air    pollution    effects(Animals),
Reproduction(Biology), Reprints.
 PB91-149740/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Acute, Subchronic, and Chronic  Exposure  to a
 Simulated Urban Profile of Ozone: Effects on Ex-
 trapulmonary Natural Killer Cell Activity and  Lym-
 phocyte Mitogenic Responses. Journal article.
 Health Effects  Research Lab., Research  Triangle
 Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
 M. K. Belgrade, M. J. Daniels, and E. C. Grose. C1990,
 18p EPA/600/J-90/328
 Pub. in Inhalation Toxicology, v2 n4 p375-389 Oct 90.

 Rats were  exposed for 1,3,13,52 or  78 wk to air or a
 simulated urban  profile of O3 designed to mimic diur-
 nal exposure patterns frequently seen in worst case
 summer environments. Daily exposures consisted of a
 background level of 0.06 ppm for a  period of 13 h, a
 broad exposure  spike  rising from 0.06 ppm to 0.25
 ppm and returning to 0.06 ppm over 9 h and a 2 h
 downtime.  Integration of the spike portion of the  expo-
 sure pattern was equivalent to a 9 h square wave of
 0.19 ppm. Rats were exposed to the profile 5  days/wk;
 weekend exposures were to background levels only.
 Spleens were removed and blood was drawn at the
 end of the exposure periods. O3 exposure had no
 effect on  NKC   activity,  nor  were any  OS-related
 changes  in  mitogen  responses or histopathology
 noted. Spleen cell mitogen responses, but  not NKC
 activity, were significantly depressed, presumeably as
 a result of age, following the 52 and 78 wk exposures.
 Effects of age were apparent in the PBL responses to
 mitogens following the 13 wk as well  as the 52 and 78
 wk exposures. For comparative purposes, effects of a
 single, 3 h, exposure to 1 ppm  03 on spleen cell re-
 sponses to the same mitogens were also determined
 24, 48, and 72 h  after exposure; there were also  no ef-
 fects due to the acute exposure.

 Keywords: 'Ozone, 'Natural  killer cells, *T lympho-
 cytes, 'Mitogens, Rats, Dose-response relationships.
 Spleen, Histology, Lymph nodes, Reprints.
 PB91-149757/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Effects of Chlorine Dioxide on the Developing Rat
 Brain. Journal article.
 Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
 G. P. Toth, R. E. Long. T. S. Mills, and M. K. Smith.
 C1990,19p EPA/600/J-90/329
 Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
 v31 p29-44 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Pathol-
 38     Vol.  91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
ogy Associates, Inc., West Chester, OH., and Comput-
er Sciences Corp., Cincinnati, OH.

Male and female Long-Evans rat pups, exposed to an
oral dose of 14 mg chlorine dioxide CIO2/Kg/d (post-
natal d 10), were examined for effects on  brain devel-
opment and for  changes in thyroid activity. Body
weight reductions were observed  on postnatal (pn) d
11, 21, and 35. Forebrain weight and protein content
were decreased on pnd 21 and 35, as were the DNA
content on d 35 and the number of dendritic spines on
cerebral cortical pyramidal cells, a marker for synapse
formation. Otherwise, cell proliferation in the forebrain,
cerebellum, and olfactory bulbs was normal, as were
migration  and aggregation of neuronal cells in three
areas of the cerebral cortex. Histopathology of the for-
ebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem showed no gross le-
sions loss of myelin, or change in the cells staining
positive for Nissl substance. Serum T3 and T4 levels,
as well as hepatic mitochondrial  alpha-glycerophos-
pnate  dehydrogenase activity, were unchanged by
CI02 treatment. The results indicated that CIO2  may
have central neurotoxic potential. No underlying antith-
yroid activity was evident.

Keywords'. 'Toxicity, *Brain, Rats,  Deoxyribonucleic
acids, Synapses,  Histopathology, Thyroid hormones,
Organ weight, Body weight, Liver mitochondria,  Gly-
cerolphosphate dehydrogenase, Radioimmunoassay,
Reprints, 'Chlorine dioxide.


PB91-149765/REB               PC A03/MF A01
lexicological Mechanisms of Implantation Failure.
Journal article.
Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
A. M. Cummings. c1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/330
Pub. in Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, v15 n3
p571-5790ct90.

Implantation in mammals requires the successful com-
pletion of a series of integrated phenomena, including
uterine preparation, synchronized embryo transport,
embryonic attachment, uterine transformation, placen-
ta! development, and the requisite hormonal milieu to
support each step. Potential for toxic interference with
early pregnancy exists at several points in the course
of events via a variety of anatomical and physiological
sites. An improved understanding of the mechanisms
of implantation failure due to toxic insult is necessary in
order to assess risKs of reproductive toxicants to the
human female population. As an approach to providing
such information, a panel of tests has been assembled
and developed to probe the mechanisms by which
chemicals affect  fertility  in rodents. These  assess-
ments are performed only if adverse effects  on litter
size or pregnancy are evident from previous reproduc-
tive studies. The evaluation of methoxychlor, a weakly
estrogenic pesticide, has served to partially  validate
the panel.  The early pregnancy protocol provides
does-response information on the  effects of short-
term exposure of animals to compounds during early
pregnancy. (Copyright (c)  1990 by the Society of Toxi-
cology.)

Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Ovum implantation, "Terato-
gens, Dose-response relationships, Embryo, Rodentia,
Methoxychlor, Litter  size, Ovariectomy, Risk assess-
ment, Reprints.
 PB91-149773/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Immune Alterations in Rats Following  Subacute
 Exposure to Tributyltin Oxide. Journal article.
 Health  Effects  Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
 Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
 R. J. Smialowicz, M. M. Riddle, R. R. Rogers, R. W.
 Luebke, and C. B. Copeland. c1990,13p EPA/600/J-
 90/331
 Pub. in Toxicology, v64 n2 p 169-178 Nov 90. Prepared
 in cooperation with NSI  Technology Services Corp.,
 Research Triangle Park,  NC.

 Adult male Fischer 344 rats were dosed by oral gavage
 with bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) in peanut oil on ten
 consecutive days, at dosages ranging from 1.25 to 15
 mg/kg/day. Other groups of rats were dosed daily for
 10 days by oral gavage with cyclophosphamide (CY) at
 dosages ranging from .75 to 6 mg/kg/day.  These rats
 served as positive controls for the immune assays em-
 ployed. The immune function parameters examined in-
 cluded  the following: delayed-type hypersensitivity
 (DTH) and antibody responses to bovine serum albu-
 min (BSA), primary antibody responses to sheep red
 blood cells (SRBC)  and trinitrophenyl lipopqlysacchar-
 kte (TNP-LPA),  and enumeration  of splenic lympho-
cyte populations. The DTH and antibody responses to
BSA were not effected by TBTO exposure; however
these responses were suppressed in rats dosed with
CY at 6 mg/kg/day. The plaque forming cell (PFC) re-
sponse to the T cell-dependent antigen SRBC was en-
hanced in rats dosed with TBTO at from 5 to 15 mg/
kg/day. On the other hand, the PFC response to the T
cell-independent antigen TNP-LPS was unaffected by
TBTO exposure. Rats dosedwith CY had suppressed
PFC responses to SRBC and TNP-LPS at dosages of
3 and 6 mg/kg/day, respectively. (Copyright (c) 1990
Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.)

Keywords: 'Toxicology, 'Immune system, 'Pesticides,
Rats,  Dose-response  relationships, Cyclophospha-
mide,  Lipopolysaccharides,   Erythrocytes,  Plaque
assay, T lymphocytes, Suppressor cells, Kinetics, De-
layed hypersensitivity. Reprints, 'Tributyltin oxide.
PB91-149781/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Effects of Wastewater Treatment and Seawater
Dilution in Reducing Lethal Toxicity of Municipal
Wastewater to Sheepshead Minnow ('Cyprinodon
variegatus')  and Pink  Shrimp ('Penaeus duor-
arum'). Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Narragansett,  Newport,
OR. Mark O. Hatfield Marine Science Center.
D. R. Young, D. J. Baumgartner, S. C. Snedaker, L.
Udey, and M. S. Brown. C1989,12p EPA/600/J-90/
332, ERLN-N070
Pub. in Research Jnl. of the Water Pollution Control
Federation, v62 n6 p763-770 1990.

The study was conducted to determine the effects of
treatment  and  seawater  dilution  of  municipal
wastewater on marine organisms. An experimental fa-
cility was built in southeast  Florida that provided both
unchlorinated  and chlorinated  effluent from  three
standard treatments: primary settling, chemical floccu-
lation, and activated  sludge secondary treatment. Ex-
posure tests lasting longer that one month were con-
ducted on the Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon varie-
gatus) and the pink shrimp (Panaeus duorarum), with
each of these six effluent types at seawater dilution
ratios of 30:1 100:1, and 300:1. The shrimp showed a
much  more  sensitive response than the   minnow.
Almost 100% mortality occurred for shrimp exposed to
the unchlorinated 30:1 seawater dilutions of primary-
settled wastewater, while mortality for the other two ef-
fluents were similar to controls. Mortality could not be
attributed  to any of  the  chemicals  measured in the
wastewater. For the 30:1 dilution experiments, chlorin-
ation usually resulted in much higher toxicity, increas-
ing the dilution factor from 30:1 to 100:1 reduced the
mortality observed (in both unchlorinated and chlorin-
ated tests) essentially to control levels.

Keywords:   'Marine   biology,  'Water    pollution
effects(Animals),  'Toxicity,  'Wastewater treatment,
'Seawater, Mortality, Environmental monitoring, Chlor-
ination, Reprints, 'Sheepshead minnow, 'Pink shrimp,
Cyprinodon variegatus, Panaeus duorarum.


PB91-149799/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Use of the Blue Mussel, 'Mytilus edulis',  in Water
Quality Toxicity Testing and In situ Marine Biolog-
ical Monitoring. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, Rl.
W. G. Nelson. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/333, ERLN-
 1022
Pub  in Aquatic Toxicology  and Risk  Assessment,
ASTM STP 1096, v13 p167-175 1990.

An effort was undertaken at the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency's (EPA)  Environmental Research Labora-
tory, Narragansett (ERL-N), Rhode Island, to evaluate
the integration of in situ biological monitoring with the
 blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., into EPA's Complex Ef-
 fluent Toxicity Testing Program. The scope for growth
 (SFG) index, an instantaneous measure of energy bal-
 ance in an organism, was used to assess the physio-
 logical condition of the mussels. The initial step  in the
 program,  assessing the sensitivity of M. edulis to sev-
 eral known toxicants in the laboratory, indicated that
 the SFG of the mussel is comparable in sensitivity  to
 those of  other  endpoints and  test species currently
 used for assessing receiving waters. A second step in-
 volved using the mussel in situ to assess the impact of
 a municipal sewage outfall on receiving water quality in
 Greenwich Cove, East Greenwich, Rhode Island. This
 was completed twice; once before the initiation of an
 upgrade of the facility, and once when the upgrade
 was  about half complete. Mussels  were  deployed
 along a dilution gradient from the sewage outfall to a
control station for a period of one month. Subsets of
mussels were collected after a 7-day and 30-day expo-
sure period.

Keywords: 'Chemical water pollutants, 'Environmen-
tal  monitoring, 'Mussels, 'Toxicity,  'Water quality,
Energy metabolism, Field tests, Metabolic clearance
rate, Copper, Species specificity, Reprints, 'Complex
Effluent Toxicity Testing Program, 'Mytilus edulis.
PB91-149807/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Quantitative  Method for Evaluating Avian Food
Avoidance Behavior. Journal article.
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.
D. W. Kononen, J. R. Hochstein, and R. K. Ringer.
C1986,11 p EPA/600/J-86/533
Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v5
p823-830 1986. Sponsored by Corvallis Environmental
Research Lab., OR.

Food avoidance experiments could contribute to as-
sessments of animals' behavioral responses to envi-
ronmental toxicants. Food avoidance tests with mal-
lards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) and northern bobwhite
(Colinus virginianus L.) as the test species were pat-
terned after avian 5-d dietary LC50 tests. Animals in
each treatment group were  given free access to un-
treated feed and feed treated with various concentra-
tions  of   methiocarb  (3,5-dimethyl-4-(methylthio)-
phenyl methylcarbamate), a widely used bird repellent.
Prior to food avoidance testing, 5-d dietary LC50 tests
were conducted to provide baseline data for compari-
son. A measure of avoidance response was estimated
from a log (dose)-probit(response) analysis. The pre-
centage of total (treated plus untreated) feed con-
sumption  as  treated  feed consumption  was the re-
sponse variable. The  detectable dietary concentration
at which mallards and bobwhite began to avoid a spe-
cific contaminant was determined by calculating  a
median food  avoidance concentration 50(FAC50). In
the  absence  of detectable  avoidance behavior, test
animals' total feed consumption can be expected to
consist of equal amounts of treated and untreated
feed. An  effective avoidance index (EAI), LC50/
FAC50, was used as a measure of toxicant's 'margin
of safety.'  (Copyright (c) 1986 SET AC.)

Keywords: 'Animal  behavior,  'Avoidance learning,
'Methiocarb,  Food contamination, Water contamina-
tion, Dose-response relationships, Food consumption,
Reprints,  'Mallards, 'Northern bobwhite, Colinus vir-
ginianus, Effective avoidance index(EAI), Anas platyr-
hynchos.
 PB91-149815/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Dose  Paradigms for  Inhaled  Vapors of  Primary
 Carcinogens  and Their Impact on Risk Assess-
 ment. Journal article.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
 R. P. Beliles, and J. C. Parker. c1989,11 p EPA/600/J-
 89/494, OHEA-C-339
 Pub. in Jnl. of the Health Physics Society, v57 Sup1
 P333-340 Jan 90.

 In the assessment of risk, several factors affect predic-
 tions: selection of reactive agent, selection of tumor in-
 cidence data,  modeling of dose, scaling across spe-
 cies, adjustment  for differences in duration and fre-
 quency of exposure, and selection of the most suitable
 risk extrapolation model. If  the end points, exposure
 regimen, and the model for risk extrapolation are con-
 stant,  then the review of dose paradigms will illustrate
 the effect of dose modeling  on risk,  since by definition
 the reactive agent is the primary carcinogen. The re-
 sponse incidence in  lifetime inhalation bioassays of
 two primary carcinogens, ethylene  oxide and formal-
 dehyde, was used with different dose paradigms to es-
 timate risk  from maximum lifetime occupational expo-
 sures. The dose paradigms  that will be considered in-
 clude: concentration, concentration time product, re-
 tained  dose,  integrated blood  concentration,  and
 tissue exposure.  (Copyright (c)  1989 Health Physics
 Society.)

 Keywords:  'Carcinogens, 'Risk assessment, 'Air pol-
 lution  effects(Animals), Dose-response relationships,
 Risk assessment, Bioassay, Formaldehyde,  Ethylene
 oxide.  Rats,  Occupational  exposure, Tables(Data),
 Squamous cell carcinoma,  Nose(Anatomy), Species
 specificity.  Reprints.


                           June 1991     39

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 PB91-151472/REB               PC E99/MF E99
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
 Wastewater Sludge Incinerators.
 Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 1990,1343p-in8v
 Set includes  PB91-151480 through  PB91-151555.
 Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cin-
 cinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

 No abstract available.
 PB91-151480/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
 Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume 1. Sum-
 mary Report Final rept. 1987-90.
 Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 M. A. Vancil, C. R. Parrish,  and M. A. Palazzolo. Sep
 89, 38p EPA/600/2-91 /007A
 Contract EPA-68-02-4288
 See also Volume 2, PB91-151498. Sponsored by Envi-
 ronmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
 duction Engineering Lab.
 Also available in set of 8 reports PC E99/MF E99,
 PB91-151472.

 Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four
 wastewater  sludge  incinerators  were  determined.
 Three multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed com-
 bustor were tested. Emissions were controlled with a
 combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrub-
 bers.  One site incorporated an afterburner as well.
 Flue gas testing was conducted at the inlet and outlet
 to the air pollution control devices at two of the plants.
 Feed sludge was also extensively tested for moisture,
 metals, and organics, as well as overall feed rate and
 heating value. Testing operating conditions were cate-
 gorized as short-term versus long term  (transients,
 start-up, interruptions, etc.). The metals found in great-
 est concentrations in the sludge were lead, chromium.
 and nickel; and the highest metal emission rates were
 of lead and cadmium.  Organics were tested  for in
 terms of volatile species (B.P. 30C - 100C) and semi-
 volatiles species. For the volatile species, toluene had
 the highest concentrations in the sludge and acryloni-
 trile, benzene, toluene, chloroform, and vinyl chloride
 had the highest emission rates. Few of the target semi-
 volatile compounds were detected in either the sludge
 feed or at the stack.

 Keywords:  *Air  pollution  sampling,  'Incineration,
 'Sludge disposal, 'Municipal wastes, Air pollution con-
 trol, Flue gases. Metals, Organic compounds, Volatile
 organic compounds, Fluidized bed processors.  After-
 burners,   Concentration(Composition),   Scrubbers,
 Emission factors.
PB91-151498/REB                PC A13/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume 2. Site 1
Final Emission Test Report Final rept. 1987-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
0. R. Knisley, L. M. Lamb, and A. M. Smith. Feb 89,
300p EPA/600/2-91 /007B
Contract EPA-68-02-6999
See also Volume 1, PB91-151480 and Volume 3.
PB91-151506. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineer-
ing Lab.
Also available in set  of  8 reports PC E99/MF  E99,
PB91-151472.

The Site I plant treats 36MGO of wastewater and the
blended primary/secondary sludge is dewatered to ap-
proximately 16 to 20 percent solids. Sludge is inciner-
ated by a six-hearth unit at approximately 6.0 wet tons
per hour. Emissions are controlled by a three tray im-
pingement scrubber using either  a mixture of primary
and secondary effluent or just secondary effluent as
the scrubber  liquor. Tests were  conducted to deter-
mine paniculate, metals, and organic parameters of
sludge,  inlet scrubber water,  and scrubber  exhaust
gases. Lead was the most prominent metal emission
while beryllium was below the detection limit in the flue
gas. Chromium had the highest concentrations in the
sludge and arsenic was below the detection limit. All
target volatile organics were detected in the flue gas
samples, while only 2 of the 14 species were detected
in sludge feed and scrubber water samples. The most
 concentrated species found in the flue gas were ben-
 zene, acrylonitrile and tetrachloroethane. Only four of
 the target semi-volatile organics were found in the flue
 gas samples while none were found in sludge feed and
 scrubber  water  samples. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
 and three dichlorobenzenes were the compounds de-
 tected.

 Keywords: 'Air pollution sampling, 'Municipal wastes,
 'Sludge disposal, 'Incineration,  'Air pollution detec-
 tion. Sewage sludge, Flue gases, Air pollution control,
 Scrubbers,      Metals,      Emission      factors,
 Concentration(Composition),    Quality   assurance,
 Tables(Data),  Volatile organic compounds,  Organic
 compounds. Gas analysis. Quality control.
PB91-151506/REB               PC A12/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume 3. Site 2
Final Emission Test Report. Final rept 1987-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. A. Vancil, C. R. Parrish, D. R. Knisley, K. W. Barnett,
and D. J. Holder. Aug 89,253p EPA/600/2-91 /007C
Contract EPA-68-02-4288
See also  Volume  2, PB91-151498  and Volume 4,
PB91-151514. Sponsored by Environmental  Protec-
tion Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction  Engineer-
ing Lab.
Also available in set of 8 reports PC E99/MF  E99,
PB91-151472.

The Site 2 plant treats 38 MGD of municipal and to a
lesser degree  industrial wastewater. The blended pri-
mary/secondary sludge  (approx 65-86% primary)  is
dewatered using centrifugation to about 18 to 25 per-
cent solids. Sludge is fed to an eight-hearth incinerator
at approximately 7.0 wet tons per hour. Emissions are
controlled by  a variable-throat  venturi/impingement
scrubber which uses secondary effluent as the scrub-
ber liquor. Tests were conducted to determine panicu-
late, metals, and organic emissions. In addition to sam-
pling flue gases at the scrubber inlet and outlet, sludge
feed,  incinerator ash and scrubber  inlet and outlet
water was also sampled. Lead had the highest scrub-
ber inlet flue gas  concentrations during  both short-
term and long-term tests.  Emission rates of  cadmium,
nickel, chromium and arsenic were also detected. Av-
erage scrubber removal efficiencies exceeded 53 per-
cent for all metals. All of the target volatile organics
except 1,2  dichloroethane were detected in the flue
gas samples. The species detected in the highest con-
centrations were acrylonitrile, toluene, benzene, and
vinylchloride.  Up to seven target semi-volatile com-
pounds  were detected in the flue gas samples with
phenol being the most prominent.

Keywords:  'Air pollution  sampling,  'Incineration,
'Sludge      disposal,      'Municipal      wastes,
Concentration(Comppsition), Flue gases. Scrubbers,
Sewage sludge. Emission factors. Volatile organic
compounds,  Air   pollution   control, Tables(Data),
Graphs(Charts), Metals, Organic compounds.
PB91-151514/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume 4. Site 2
Final  Emission Test  Report Appendices. Final
rept. 1987-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. A. Vancil, C. R. Parrish, D. R. Knisley, K. W. Barnett,
and D. J. Holder. Aug 89,8p EPA/600/2-91 /007D
Contract EPA-68-02-6999
See also  Volume 3,  PB91-151506 and Volume 5,
PB91-151522. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineer-
ing Lab.
Also available in set of 8 reports  PC E99/MF E99,
PB91-151472.

The Site 2 plant treats 38 MGD of municipal and to a
lesser degree industrial wastewater. The blended pri-
mary/secondary sludge  (approx 65-86% primary) is
dewatered using centrifugation to about 18 to 25 per-
cent solids. Sludge is fed to an eight-hearth incinerator
at approximately 7.0 wet tons per hour. Emissions are
controlled  by a variable-throat venturi/impingement
scrubber which uses secondary effluent as the scrub-
ber liquor. Tests were conducted to determine panicu-
late, metals, and organic emissions. In addition to sam-
pling flue gases at the scrubber inlet and outlet, sludge
 feed, incinerator ash and scrubber inlet  and outlet
 water was also sampled. Incinerator operating data,
 sample calculations, additional volatile and semi-vola-
 tile data, CEM one-minute averages, and XAD prepa-
 ration and QC checks are presented.

 Keywords: 'Air pollution sampling, 'Sludge disposal,
 'Incineration,  'Municipal wastes, Emission factors,
 Sewage sludges, Site surveys, Air pollution control,
 Performance      evaluation,      Flue      gases,
 ConcentrationfComposifon),  Metals, Organic com-
 pounds, Scrubbers, Volatile organic compounds, Qual-
 ity control.
 PB91-151522/REB               PC A08/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
 Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume S. Site 3
 Final Emission Test Report. Final rept. 1987-90.
 Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 M. A. Vancil, C. R. Parrish, D. R. Knisley, K. W. Barnett,
 and D. J. Holder. Jun 89,151 p EPA/600/2-91 /007E
 Contract EPA-68-02-6999
 See also  Volume  4, PB91-151514  and Volume 6,
 PB91-151530. Sponsored by  Environmental  Protec-
 tion Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineer-
 ing Lab.
 Also  available in set of 8 reports PC E99/MF E99,
 PB91-151472.

 The Site 3  plant treats 2.5 MGD (designed  for 7.5
 MGD) of municipal  wastewater. The blended primary/
 secondary  sludge  is dewatered using  2 belt filter
 presses to about 22 to 24 percent solids. Sludge is fed
 to a fluidized bed incinerator which is designed to burn
 2.75 dry tons per hour. Emissions are controlled by a
 variable throat venturi followed by a three-tray im-
 pingement scrubber.  The scrubber uses tertiary-treat-
 ed nonchlorinated plant effluent. Tests were conduct-
 ed to determine particulate, metals, and organic emis-
 sions. In addition to sampling flue gases at the scrub-
 ber outlet stack, scrubber influent water and sludge
 feed  samples were also taken. Nickel was the most
 prominent metal emission and also had the  highest
 concentration in the sludge feed. Ten of the fourteen
 target volatile organic compounds were detected in
 the flue gas in at least one of the VOST runs. The most
 concentrated species detected were chloroform and
 benzene in the stack gas; toluene, tetrachloroethene
 and ethylbenzene in  the sludge feed; and chloroform
 and methylene chloride  in the process water. Bis(2-
 ethylhexyl)phthalate  was detected  in the flue gas,
 sludge feed, and process water semi-volatile samples.
 No other semi-volatile compound was detected in the
 flue gas samples.

 Keywords: 'Incineration, 'Sludge disposal, 'Air pollu-
 tion sampling,  'Municipal wastes. Sewage  sludge,
 Flue  gases, Emission factors, Air pollution  control,
 Scrubbers, Metals,  Fluidized bed processors, Organic
 compounds, Volatile organic  compounds, Particles,
 Site            surveys,            Tables(Data),
 Concentration(Composition).
PB91-151530/REB               PC At3/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume 6. Site 4
Final Emission Test Report Final rept. 1987-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. A. Vancil, C. R. Parrish, D. R. Knisley, K. W. Barnett,
and M. A. Palazzolo. Sep 89,293p EPA/600/2-91 /
007F
Contract EPA-68-02-4288
See  also  Volume 5,  PB91-151522 and Volume 7,
PB91-151548. Sponsored by Environmental Protec-
tion Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineer-
ing Lab.
Also available in set of  8 reports PC E99/MF  E99,
PB91-151472.

The  Site 4 plant treats 11 to 12 MGD of wastewater
from domestic (80%  of influent)  and industrial (20% of
influent)  sources. The  treated  primary/secondary
sludge is dewatered using cloth filter presses to ap-
proximately 35 percent solids. The dried filter cakes
are incinerated in a six-hearth unit and emissions are
controlled with an afterburner, a precooler, a water in-
jection venturi, and tray scrubber. Tests were conduct-
ed to determine particulate, metals, and organic emis-
sions at the control device inlet and outlet sampling lo-
40     Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
cations. Under normal operating conditions, the most
prominent metal at the scrubber inlet flue gas stream
was lead while zinc had the highest concentrations at
the flue gas outlet. Of the target volatile organics, acry-
lonitrile and acetonitrile were detected  in the highest
concentrations. The venturi/tray scrubber showed 40
percent removal  of  acrylonitrile, chlorobenzene, and
ethylbenzene. The following compounds appeared to
be stripped from the scrubbing liquor into the flue gas:
carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene  chloride,
tetrachloroethene, toluene,  1,1,1-trichloroethane and
trichloroethene. Three of the  target  volatile  com-
pounds (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and benzene) were
products of incomplete combustion (PICs) regardless
of incinerator conditions. Semi-volatile organic com-
pounds were tested only at the incinerator exit. Testing
revealed phenol  and naphthalene as the only com-
pounds present.  Dioxin/furan tests indicate average
2378-TCDD  emission rates of 1.45  microgram/hr
during cool  furnace tests  and 0.35  microgram/hr
during hot furnace tests.

Keywords: 'Incineration,  "Sludge disposal, "Air pollu-
tion sampling, 'Municipal wastes, Metals,  Organic
compounds,   Scrubbers,   Air   pollution    control,
Concentration(Composition),  Flue gases, Volatile or-
ganic  compounds, Combustion efficiency.  Emission
factors.
PB91-15154B/REB                PC A09/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume 7. Site 4
Final Emission  Test  Report.  Appendices.  Final
rept. 1987-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. A. Vancil, C. R. Parrish, D. R. Knisley, K. W. Barnett,
and M. A. Paiazzolo. Sep 89,184p EPA/600/2-91 /
007G
Contract EPA-68-02-4288
See also  Volume 6,  PB91-151530  and Volume  8,
PB91-151555.Portions of this document are not fully
legible.  Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection
Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering
Lab.
Also available in set of 8 reports PC E99/MF  E99,
PS91-151472.

The Site 4 plant treats 11 to 12 MGD of wastewater
from domestic (80% of influent) and industrial (20% of
influent)  sources.  The treated  primary/secondary
sludge is dewatered using cloth filter presses to ap-
proximately 35 percent solids. The dried filter cakes
are  incinerated in a six-hearth unit and emissions are
controlled with an afterburner, a precooler, a water in-
jection venturi, and tray scrubber. Tests were conduct-
ed to determine paniculate, metals, and organic emis-
sions at the control device inlet and outlet sampling lo-
cations. Incinerator  operating data,  sample calcula-
tions, additional volatile and semi-volatile data,  XAD
preparation and DC checks, sludge  analysis results,
and internal audit results are presented.

Keywords:  *Air  pollution  sampling,  'Incineration,
'Sludge disposal, 'Municipal wastes. Sewage sludge,
Air pollution control. Metals, Organic compounds, Flue
gases,  Auditing,  Emission  factors,  Tables(Data),
Concentration(Composition),  Volatile organic  com-
pounds.
PB91-151555/REB                PC A06/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Emissions of Metals and Organics from Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume  8.  GC/
MS Tapes Review Report. Final rept. 1987-90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
M. A. Vancil, C. R. Parrish, and M. A. Paiazzolo. Jul 90,
115p EPA/600/2-91 /007H
Contract EPA-68-02-4286
See also Volume 7, PB91-151548. Sponsored by Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
duction Engineering Lab.
Also available in set of 8 reports PC E99/MF  E99,
PB91-151472.

Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four
municipal wastewater sludge incinerators were deter-
mined. Three multiple hearth units and one fluidized
bed combustor were  tested.  Emissions were  con-
trolled with  a combination of venturi  and/or tray im-
pingement scrubbers. One site incorporated an after-
burner as well. In order to obtain additional data on or-
ganics emissions, test results from both the Volatile
Organic Sampling Trains (VOST) and the semi-volatile
trains were retrieved. The gas chromatographic/mass
spectroscopy (GC/MS) tapes containing the original
chromatograms for the scrubber outlet flue gas sam-
ples from all four test sites were reviewed. A screening
analysis of the tapes was performed in which peaks
meeting a  minimum  area criteria were identified by
computer. From the peak  areas,  flue gas concentra-
tions and emissions were determined. At the majority
of sites, greater than 60 additional volatile compounds
were detected. The majority of these were simple satu-
rated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. As with the initial
test results, fewer additional semrvolatiles than vola-
tiles were detected. With three of the four test sites,
fewer than 40 additional semi-volatiles were detected.

Keywords:  'Air pollution detection, 'Sludge disposal,
'Incineration, 'Municipal wastes,  Sewage sludge, Air
pollution control, Gas analysis, Metals,  Organic com-
pounds,  Emission  factors,  Volatile  organic  com-
pounds, Scrubbers, Afterburners,  Gas  chromatogra-
phy, Mass spectroscopy,  Flue gases,  Site surveys,
Volatile organic sampling trains.
PB91-153775/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean
Environment. A Summary. Final rept.  1972-2000.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
A. Carlin. Dec 90, 53p* EPA/230/12-90/084
See also PB91-153783.  Prepared in cooperation with
Environmental Law Inst, Washington, DC.

The document summarizes the results of a report to
Congress which estimates comprehensively the direct
costs of pollution control activities in the United States.
Estimates of  annual  pollution control costs over the
years 1972-2000 for various levels of the public sector,
as well as for the private sector  are presented. Cost
estimates are given for five categories of environmen-
tal media (air, water, land, chemicals, multi-media) and
basic types of costs (capital, operating, annualized).
Distinctions are made among the costs of existing reg-
ulations,  new regulations, and full implementation of
existing laws, regulations, and programs for which at-
tainment of environmental goals was not achieved by
1987. The estimates are also used to provide  some
comparisons  with several Western European nations
and to make a number of other cost comparisons that
may prove important over the next several years. In
the current  report, several points stand out: first,
spending on environmental problems is rising; second,
the allocation of resources between  environmental
media is changing; and third, the costs of pollution
control are rising at a time when unmet environmental
needs are still quite large.

Keywords: 'Cost analysis, 'Investments,  'Pollution
control, 'United States,  Cost estimates, Air pollution,
Water  pollution,  Hazardous  materials,  Radioactive
wastes, Capitalized costs. Operating costs, Expenses,
Cost comparison, Western  Europe, Regulations, Law
enforcement, Inflation(Economics), Trends, Land pol-
lution, Chemicals.
PB91-153783/REB               PC A22/MF A03
Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean
Environment. Report of the Administrator of the
Environmental  Protection Agency to  the  Con-
 fress of the United States. Final rept. 1972-2000.
 nvironmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
Nov 90, 511 p* EPA/230/11 -90/083
See also PB91-153775.  Prepared in cooperation with
Environmental Law Inst., Washington,  DC.

The report to Congress estimates comprehensively
the direct costs of pollution control  activities in  the
United States. Estimates of annual pollution control
costs over the years 1972-2000 for various levels of
the public sector, as well as for  the private sector are
presented. Cost estimates are given for five categories
of environmental media (air, water, land,  chemicals,
multi-media) and basic types of  costs (capital, operat-
ing, annualized).  Distinctions are made among  the
costs of existing regulations, new regulations, and full
implementation of existing laws, regulations, and pro-
grams for which attainment of environmental  goals
was not achieved by 1987. The estimates are also
used to provide some comparisons with several West-
ern European nations  and to make a  number of other
cost comparisons that may prove important over the
next several years. Trends in environmental quality,
the 'output' of environmental pollution control expendi-
tures, are also presented. In the current report, several
points  stand  out: first, spending on  environmental
problems is rising; second, the allocation of resources
between environmental media is changing; and third,
the costs of pollution control are rising at a time when
unmet environmental needs are still quite large.

Keywords: 'Cost analysis, 'Investments, 'Pollution
control, 'United States, Cost estimates, Periodic vari-
ations,  Air pollution, Water pollution.  Hazardous mate-
rials, Protection, Ground water,  Surface  waters, Im-
provement, Cost effectiveness,  Law(Jurisprudence),
Regulations,  Radioactive  wastes, Cost comparison,
Western Europe, Land pollution, Chemicals.
PB91-154211/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Asbestos-Containing Materials in  School  Build-
ings:  Bulk Sample  Analysis Quality Assurance
Program. Bulk Sample Rounds 16,17 and 18.
Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.
K. K. Starner, R. L. Perkins, B. W. Harvey, and S. H.
Westbrook. Feb 90,156p EPA/600/4-90/004
Contracts EPA-68-02-4125, EPA-68-02-4550
Also available from Supt. of Docs. See also PB86-
222353.  Sponsored   by  Environmental   Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Re-
search and Exposure Assessment Lab.

The report presents the performance results of labora-
tories participating in  the sixteenth, seventeenth and
eighteenth rounds of the Bulk Sample Analysis Quality
Assurance Program sponsored by the  United States
Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). Round  16 of
the program operated along the guidelines established
in previous rounds and was a voluntary quality assur-
ance program. The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Re-
sponse Act of 1986 (AHERA), directed the National In-
stitute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to estab-
lish and maintain a laboratory  accreditation program
for  bulk sample  analysis of asbestos. The program
began in October 1988 by  evaluating enrolled polari-
scope laboratories in the interim prior to the initiation of
the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Pro-
gram  (NVLAP) for bulk asbestos laboratories,  spon-
sored by NIST.

Keywords:   'Asbestos,   'Construction   materials,
'School buildings, Sampling, Quality assurance, Lab-
oratories, Identifying,  Chrysotile, Polariscope, Quanti-
tative analysis, Evaluation,  Insulation, Classifications,
Errors, Tables(Data),  Asbestos Hazard Emergency
Response Act of  1986, Accreditation.
PB91-154617/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Pesticide Assessment Guidelines, Subdivision F,
Hazard Evaluation: Human and Domestic Animals.
Series 81,82, and 83 Neurotoxicity. Addendum 10.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
W. F. Sette. Mar 91,63p EPA/540/09-91 /123

The  new revised Neurotoxicity Test Guidelines are
being added to Subdivision F of the Pesticide Assess-
ment Guidelines, which provides  guidance for regis-
trants in the conduct of test to support registration of
pesticides under the Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The guidelines will also
apply to future testing  requirements  for industrial
chemicals under the Toxic Substances Act (TSCA).
These revised neurotoxicity guidelines have been re-
viewed and approved by the FIFRA Scientific Advisory
Panel and made available for public comment. The fol-
lowing guidelines are included in the package: (1)
Neurotoxicity Screening Battery including  Functional
Observational Battery, Motor Activity, and Neuropath-
ology, including  an assay for Glial  Fibrillary Acidic Pro-
tein; (2) Delayed Neurotoxicity of  Organophosphorus
Substances following Acute and 28-day Exposures, in-
cluding an assay for Neurotoxic Esterase; (3) Develop-
mental  Neurotoxicity Study; (4) Schedule-Controlled
Operant Behavior; and (5) Peripheral Nerve Function.

Keywords:  'Pesticides, 'Nervous system,  'Toxicity,
Guidelines, Glial fibriallary acidic protein, Organophos-
phorus  insecticides,  Esterases,  Behavior, Humans,
Animals, Peripheral nerves, Test methods, 'Develop-
mental neurotoxicity.
                                                                                                                                 June 1991     41

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-156331/REB               PC A05/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Comparison of Recording Current Meters in Shal-
low  Waters  of San  Francisco  Bay, California.
Water resources investigation-
Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA. Water Resources
Div.
J. W. Gartner, and R. N. Oltmann. 1990,89p USGS/
WR1-90-4018
Also available from Supt. ol Docs. Prepared in coop-
eration with California State Water Resources Control
Board, Sacramento. Sponsored by Environmental Pro-
tection Agency, Washington, DC., and National Oce-
anic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD.

The report describes a study by  the U.S. Geological
Survey to determine whether reliable current-meter
data can  be  collected in shallow, tidally  affected
waters under the influence of wind-generated waves.
Four types of recording current meters with different
speed sensors were tested, and the accuracy of data
recorded by the meters  under  different conditions
(slack water and maximum-flood and maximum-ebb
periods during  calm and windy conditions) was com-
pared.  It is important to  note that the  four meters
tested are not  necessarily representative of all avail-
able designs. The report describes the various current
meters and mooring configurations  used in the study,
the procedures used to deploy and retrieve the meters
and moorings,  the  methods for data translation  and
analysis, and the results of the comparison of current-
meter records.

Keywords: *San Francisco Bay,  'Ocean  currents,
•Current meters, Comparison, Shallow water, Califor-
nia, Tidal waters, Performance evaluation. Moorings,
Data processing. Design criteria.
PB91-156737/REB               PC A20/MF A03
Hazardous Waste Data Management System Ex-
tract Tape. Data Tape Documentation.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Solid Waste.
31 Dec 90, 467p' EPA/DF/MT-91/080A
For system on magnetic tape, see PB91-592000. See
also PB91-156745.

Within  the  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
(OSWER) is  responsible for the development and
management  of a national program to safely handle
solid and hazardous waste. The national program, for
the most part, is authorized by the Resource Conser-
vation  and Recovery  Act (RCRA). The  Hazardous
Waste Data Management System (HWDMS) was de-
veloped to automatically track the status of permits, re-
ports, inspections, enforcement activities, and finan-
cial data to assist EPA in managing the data generated
by RCRA. As with many  computer systems, HWDMS
has  outgrown its capabilities, so a new system  is
needed. The new system is called the Resource Con-
servation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS).
The goal of the RCRIS system is to provide a more ef-
fective means for tracking hazardous waste handlers
regulated under RCRA. RCRA Notification, Permitting,
and Compliance Monitoring and Evaluation  data  is
available through the National Technical Information
Service (NTIS) on IBM compatible tapes. From now
until HWDMS is  completely archieved, there will be
two  data tapes from NTIS. There will be a tape for
HWDMS and  a separate one for HCRIS. The HWDMS
tape will include  data from all States and Territories.
except for Mississippi and general enforcement data,
sensitive information is not included.

Keywords:  'Hazardous  materials, 'Information sys-
tems,  'Waste  management. Pollution regulations,
Documentation,  Waste  treatment,  Waste disposal.
Waste storage,  Permits.  Compliance, Law enforce-
ment. State government. Standard industrial classifi-
cation. Regional analysis, States(United States), Infor-
mation transfer, 'Hazardous Waste Data Management
System, Resource Conservation and Recovery Infor-
mation System, Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act.
 PB91-156745/REB               PC A20/MF A03
 Resource Conservation  and Recovery Informa-
 tion System Extract Tape. Data Tape Documenta-
 tion.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Solid Waste.
 31 Dec 90,467p' EPA/DF/MT-91/080B
For system on magnetic tape, see PB91-592000. See
also PB91-156737.

Within the Environmental Protection  Agency (EPA),
the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
(OSWER)  is responsible for the development and
management of a national program to safely handle
solid and hazardous waste. The national program, for
the most part, is authorized by the Resource Conser-
vation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Hazardous
Waste Data Management System (HWDMS) was de-
veloped to automatically track the status of permits, re-
ports, inspections, enforcement activities,  and finan-
cial data to assist EPA in managing the data generated
by RCRA. As with many computer systems, HWDMS
has  outgrown  its  capabilities,  so a  new system  is
needed. The new system is called the Resource Con-
servation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS).
The goal of the RCRIS system is to provide a more ef-
fective means for tracking hazardous  waste handlers
regulated under RCRA. RCRA Notification, Permitting,
and  Compliance Monitoring and Evaluation  data  is
available through the National Technical Information
Service  (NTIS) on IBM  compatible tapes.  From now
until HWDMS is completely archived, there will be two
data tapes from NTIS. There will be a tape for HWDMS
and a separate one for RCRIS. The HWDMS tape will
include data from all States and Territories, except for
Mississippi. The RCRIS tape  will only contain the data
from Mississippi and general  enforcement data, sensi-
tive information is not included.

Keywords: 'Hazardous materials, 'Information sys-
tems, 'Waste  management.  Pollution  regulations.
Documentation, Waste treatment, Waste disposal,
Waste storage, Permits, Information transfer, Compli-
ance, Law enforcement. State government, Standard
industrial classification, Regional analysis, Mississippi,
•Resource Conservation and  Recovery Information
System, Hazardous Waste Data Management System,
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
 PB91-157222/REB               PC A07/MF A01
 Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC.
 National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program.
 Proficiency Report Supplement
 ICF, Inc., Fairfax, VA.
 Feb91,129p EPA/520/1-91/002-SUPPL
 Contract EPA-68-D90170
 See also PB91-131300. Sponsored by Office of Radi-
 ation Programs, Washington, DC.

 The report, a supplement  to the RCP  Proficiency
 Report, will further assist governmental officials in pro-
 viding advice to the public on the selection of proficient
 radon mitigation contractors. These reports list 1,123
 contractors who have met  the requirements of the
 RCP Program as of December 15,1990. The Proficien-
 cy Report provides information on each contractor's
 name, RCP identification number, company name, ad-
 dress, phone number, and geographic  service area.
 The report provides two additional tables, indexed by
 company name and by RCP identification number. The
 report is intended to help users quickly identify a profi-
 cient contractor if only the company name is known, or
 to verify which contractor is associated with a particu-
 lar ID number.

 Keywords: 'Contractor personnel, 'Radon,  'Mitiga-
 tion, Position(Location), Number codes,  Tables(Data),
 * Proficiency report.
 PB91-158394/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Pesticide Assessment Guidelines, Subdivision F,
 Hazard Evaluation: Human and Domestic Animals.
 Series 84, Mutagenteity. Addendum 9.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Pesticide Programs.
 K. L. Dearfield. Feb91,16p EPA/540/09-91/122
 See also PB86-108958 and PB89-124085.

 In response to the need to improve scientific and regu-
 latory decisions and to provide additional guidance for
 the investigators performing oncogenicity studies, a
 position  statement is presented by the Toxicology
 Branch of the Hazard Evaluation Division in the Office
 of Pesticide Programs. The position statement reflects
 the scientific thoughts of only the Office of Pesticide
 Programs (OPP) and should not be construed to be
 guidance from any other Office within EPA.

 Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Hazardous materials, 'Toxic
 substances, Toxicity, Carcinogenicity tests.  Risk as-
sessment. Humans, Domestic animals, Metabolic acti-
vation, Mutagenicity tests, 'Assessment guidelines.
PB91-159590/REB               PC A11/MF A02
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Temporal Variability  in Lakewater Chemistry in
the Northeastern United States: Results of Phase
2 of the Eastern Lake Survey.
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR.
A. T. Herlihy, D. H. Landers, R. F. Cusimano, W. S.
Overton, and P. J. Wigington. Feb 91,233p EPA/600/
3-91/012
Contracts EPA-68-C8-0006, EPA-68-03-3249
See also PB89-138432. Prepared in cooperation with
Lockheed  Engineering and Sciences Co.,  Inc.,  Las
Vegas, NV., Kilkelly Environmental Associates, Inc.,
Raleigh, NC., and Utah State Univ., Logan. Sponsored
by Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

The Eastern Lake Survey - Phase II (ELS-II) was con-
ducted in spring, summer, and fall of 1986 as part of
the U. S.  Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)
National Surface Water Survey (NSWS). The NSWS is
a contribution to the National Acid Precipitation As-
sessment  Program (NAPAP), which was charged by
the U. S. Congress to provide policymakers with sound
technical information regarding the effects of acid dep-
osition. The major component of ELS-II was the spring,
summer, and fall seasonal surveys and Fall Variability
Study  of  lakewater chemistry in the  northeastern
United States. ELS-II lakes  were sampled once in the
spring, summer, and fall at the same location on the
lake where the ELS-I sample was collected. In the fall
variability study, a subset of ELS-II lakes was sampled
on two additional dates at two independently selected
locations believed to be the deepest point in the lake.
ELS-II data, in conjunction with ELS-I data can be used
to assess between-year, within-season, and  among-
season chemical variability, as well as spatial variabili-
ty due to site selection.

Keywords: 'Lakes, 'Surface  waters,  'Acidification,
'Variability, 'Seasonal variations, Water quality, Water
pollution, Water chemistry, Northeastern region(United
States), Surveys, Acid deposition.
 PB91-159608/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 Global Warming Mitigation Potential of Three Tree
 Plantation Scenarios. Final rept. Sep 89-Jun 90.
 Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
 R. L. Peer, D. L. Campbell, and W. G. Hohenstein. Feb
 91,68p EPA/600/7-91/003
 Contract EPA-68-02-4286
 Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering
 Research Lab.

 The report gives results of an analysis of three alterna-
 tive uses of forests in the U.S. to reduce atmospheric
 carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations:  (1) planting
 trees with no harvesting, (2) traditional forestry, and (3)
 short-rotation intensive culture of trees for biomass. In-
 creasing concentrations  of CO2 and other radiatively
 important trace gases (RITGs) are of concern due to
 their potential to alter the Earth's climate. Some scien-
 tists,  after reviewing the results of general circulation
 models, predict rising average temperatures and alter-
 ations in the Earth's hydrologic cycle. While the debate
 continues over the actual magnitude of global warm-
 ing, most scientists agree that some change will occur
 over the next century. This places a burden on policy-
 makers to address global warming and to develop miti-
 gation measures. Since forests provide a sink  for
 carbon by fixing CO2 to produce biomass, halting de-
 forestation and creating new forests have been pro-
 posed as ways to slow the buildup of carbon in the
 Earth's atmosphere.

 Keywords: 'Global warming, 'Forestry, 'Air pollution
 control,  'Carbon dioxide, 'TreesfPlants), 'Mitigation,
 Climatic   changes,   Biomass,   General   circulation
 models,  Hydrologic  cycle, Reforestation,  Cost analy-
 sis. Pollution sources. Harvesting, Land use, Green-
 house effect, Emission inventories.
 PB91-159616/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Watershed Manipulation Project Rationale for Hy-
 pothesis Formulation and Testing.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 42    Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
K W. Thornton, and P. J. Wigington. Feb 91, 67p EPA/
600/3-91/006
See also PB91-148395 and PB91-148403. Prepared in
cooperation with FTN Associates, Little Rock, AR.

The Watershed Manipulation Project  (WMP) was im-
plemented by EPA to: identify and quantify the relative
importance of various processes in controlling surface
water acidification with particular emphasis on the role
of sulfate adsorption and base cation supply in the
long-term watershed response to acidic deposition;
assess the quantitative and qualitative watershed re-
sponse to various levels of  acidic deposition; and
evaluate the assumptions that underlie the Direct/De-
layed Response Project (DDRP) models and their abili-
ty to predict short-term watershed responses to exper-
imental  manipulation.   These objectives   will  be
achieved through a series of  experiments at various
spatial and temporal scales ranging 1rom laboratory,
plot, hillslope, and catchment manipulations. The doc-
ument presents the  rationale  for these hypotheses,
their importance for WMP objectives, the probability of
a conclusive outcome, and the decision criteria that
will be used, and in  general terms, the experimental
approach.

Keywords'. 'Water pollution  control, 'Acidification,
•Mathematical models, 'Hypotheses, Land pollution,
Sulfates, Water chemistry. Long term effects, Experi-
mental design, Surface waters, Deposition, Acid rain,
Cations, Decision making. Air pollution, Manipulators,
Air water interactions.  Spatial distribution,  Temporal
distribution, Error  analysis, Substitutes,  "Watershed
Manipulation Project, Aquatic  Effects Research Pro-
gram, Direct/Delayed Response Project.


PB91-159624/REB               PC A08/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Cancer  Risk  from Outdoor  Exposure  to  Air
Toxics. Volume 1. Final rept.
Pacific Environmental Services, Inc., Durham, NC.
K.Meardon. Sep90,166pEPA/450/1-90/004A
Contract EPA-68-02-4393
See also Volume 2, PB91-159632 and PB85-225175.
Sponsored by Environmental  Protection Agency, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Plan-
ning and Standards.

The report presents an analysis of cancer risks in the
United States from  outdoor  exposures to  airborne
toxic pollutants. It is intended to provide updated infor-
mation to suggest priorities for air toxics control. The
study is an update of an EPA report issued in 1985 en-
titled The Air Toxics  Problem in the United States: An
Analysis of Cancer Risks for Selected Pollutants. The
analysis is based primarily on information derived from
recent studies and reports. Results are expressed as
cancer risk from individual pollutants and source cate-
gories in terms of excess lifetime individual cancer
risks and nationwide  annual cancer cases. Health risks
due to indoor exposure and noncancer health effects
resulting from outdoor exposure are not included in the
analysis, but are addressed in separate studies.

 Keywords: *Air pollution effects(Humans),  'Cancer,
 'Toxic  substances,  Risk  assessment. Toxicology,
 Health status indicators. Health hazards, Public health.
 Epidemiology, Radioactive  air pollutants, Volatile or-
 ganic compounds.


 P891-159632/REB                PCA11/MFA02
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
 Cancer  Risk  from  Outdoor Exposure  to Air
 Toxics. Volume 2. Appendices. Final rept.
 Pacific Environmental Services, Inc., Durham, NC.
 Sep 90, 227p EPA/450/1-90/004B
 Contract EPA-68-02-4393
 See also Volume 1, PB91-159624. Sponsored by Envi-
 ronmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
 NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

 The report presents  an analysis of cancer risks in the
 United States from outdoor  exposures to  airborne
 toxic pollutants. It is  intended to provide updated infor-
 mation to suggest priorities for air toxics control. The
 study is an update of an EPA report issued in 1985 en-
 titled The Air Toxics Problem in the United States: An
 Analysis of Cancer Risks for Selected Pollutants. The
 analysis is based primarily on information derived from
 recent studies and reports. Results are expressed as
 cancer risk from individual pollutants and source cate-
 gories in terms  of excess lifetime individual cancer
risks and nationwide annual cancer cases. Health risks
due to indoor exposure and noncancer health effects
resulting from outdoor exposure are not included in the
analysis, but are addressed in separate studies.

Keywords:  'Air pollution  effects(Humans), 'Cancer,
'Toxic substances, Toxicology,  Health status indica-
tors, Tables(Data), Health hazards, Public health, Epi-
demiology,  Volatile  organic  compounds,  Hazardous
wastes.
PB91-1596407REB               PC A05/MF A01
Army Medical Research and Development Command,
Fort Detrick, MD.
Health Advisory for 1,3-Dinitrobenzene. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Criteria and Standards Div.
N. P. Hajjar, M. E. Brower, P. A. Turck, C. L. Kruger,
and W. R. Hartley. Jan 91, 83p
Sponsored by Army Medical Research and Develop-
ment Command, Fort Detrick, MD.

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report on the chemical, 1,3-dinitrobenzene. 1,3-Dinitro-
benzene is manufactured by the nitration of nitroben-
zene or benzene and is a by-product formed during the
production of nitrobenzene, TNT explosives, and nitro-
benzoic acid. The report covers the following areas:
the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its
environmental fate; the  chemical's absorption, distri-
bution, metabolism, and excretion  in the human body;
and its health effects on humans and animals, includ-
ing its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteris-
tics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicologi-
cal effects.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution effects(Humans),  'Toxicology, Health hazards,
Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
Mutagenicity  tests,  Teratogens,  Water  pollution
effects(Animals),  Chemical analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, 'Dinitrobenzene, CAS 99-65-0.
 PB91-159657/REB                PC A04/MF A01
 Health Advisory for Hexachloroethane. Final rept.
 Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
 Office of Drinking Water.
 L. Gordon, W. R. Hartley, and W. C. Roberts. Jan 91,
 74p
 Prepared in cooperation with Army Medical Research
 and Development Command, Fort Detrick, MD.

 The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on the chemical, hexachloroethane. Hexachlo-
 roethane is a chlorinated alkane which has been used
 in high pressure lubricants, rubber and insecticidal for-
 mulations, moth repellants, fire extinguishing  fluids,
 fermentation retardants, chemical precursors, and ro-
 denticides. The report covers the following areas: the
 occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its en-
 vironmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribu-
 tion, metabolism, and excretion in the human body;
 and its health effects on  humans and animals, includ-
 ing  its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity  characteris-
 tics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicologi-
 cal effects.

 Keywords: 'Potable water,  'Water quality, 'Water pol-
 lution effects(Humans), 'Toxicology, Health  hazards,
 Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
 Mutagenicity   tests,  Teratogens,  Water   pollution
 effects(Animals), Chemical analysis,  Skin(Anatomy),
 Eyes, 'Hexachloroethane, CAS 67-72-1.


 PB91-159665/REB                PC A13/MF A02
 Environmental Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office of Toxic Substances.
 Toxic Substances  Control  Act  Chemical Sub-
 stance  Inventory: 1990 Supplement to the 1985
 Edition of the TSCA Inventory.  User Guides  and
 Indices.
 Chemical Abstracts Service, Columbus, OH.
 Jun 90, 282p EPA/560/7-90/003
 See  also PB85-204568,  PB85-204584  and  PB85-
 204592  Sponsored  by  Environmental  Protection
 Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

 The 1990 Supplement to EPA's 1985 Edition of the
 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Sub-
 stance  Inventory covers  approximately 5,000 sub-
 stances that have been  added to the Inventory since
the 1985 publication. However, substances that were
added to the Inventory after February 1, 1990 are not
included in the publication. The 1990 Supplement con-
tains all the appendices and indices that are included
in the 1985 Edition, with the exception of the Molecular
Formula Index.

Keywords: 'Chemical compounds, 'Inventories, Reg-
istries,  Indexes(Documentation), Definitions,  'Toxic
Substances  Control Act, 'Toxic substances, *CAS
numbers.
PB91-159673/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 93.1: 'Bacillus thur-
ingiensis (Revised).
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
Dec 90, 9p EPA/540/FS-91 /124

The document contains up-to-date chemical informa-
tion on Bacillus thuringensis, including a summary of
the Agency's regulatory  position and rationale, on a
specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet
is issued after one of the following actions has oc-
curred: Issuance or reissuance of a registration stand-
ard; Issuance of each special review document; Regis-
tration of a significantly changed use pattern; Registra-
tion of a new chemical; or An immediate need for infor-
mation to resolve controversial  issues relating to a
specific chemical or use pattern.

Keywords: 'Pesticides, 'Bacillus thuringiensis, 'Bio-
logical pest control,  Hazardous materials, Chemical
properties. Toxicology, Ecology, Agricultural products,
Path of pollutants, Chemical information fact sheet,
Use patterns, Science findings.
 PB91-159681/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 "esticide  Fact Sheet Number  219: Tribenuron
 Methyl.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office of Pesticide Programs.
 Jun 89,13p EPA/540/FS-91 /123

 The document contains up-to-date chemical informa-
 tion, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory
 position  and  rationale,  on Tribenuron methyl. A Fact
 Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has
 occurred: (1) Issuance  or reissuance of a registration
 standard; (2) Issuance  of each special review docu-
 ment;  (3) Registration of a significantly changed use
 pattern;  (4) Registration of a new chemical; or (5) An
 immediate need for information to reesolve controver-
 sial issues relating to a specific chemical or use pat-
 tern.

 Keywords: 'Pesticides,  'Herbicides, Hazardous mate-
 rials, Chemical properties,  Regulations,  Toxicology,
 Ecology, Agricultural products, Toxic substances, 'Tri-
 benuron methyl, 'Methyl benzoates, Path of pollut-
 ants, Chemical information  fact sheet, Use patterns,
 Science findings, CAS 101200-48-8.
 PB91-159699/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Toxic Substances.
 Mass Spectral Confirmation of  Chlorinated and
 Brominated Diphenylethers in Human Adipose
 Tissues. Final rept.
 Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MC.
 P. H. Cramer, J. S. Stanley, and K. R. Thornburg. 15
 Jun 90, 65p EPA/560/5-90/012
 Contract EPA-68-02-4252
 Sponsored  by  Environmental   Protection  Agency,
 Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

 The study has resulted in the detection and confirma-
 tion of polyhalogenated diphenylethers (PHDPEs) in
 human adipose tissues. The identifications are based
 on both full scan  and  selected ion monitoring  (SIM)
 high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis
 efforts. The samples that were analyzed were selected
 from composites of the fiscal year 1987 (FY87) Nation-
 al Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) repository.
 The specific analysis effort to confirm the presence of
 the PHDPEs was  conducted as  a  result of observa-
 tions of response to these compounds during the anal-
 ysis of the FY87 NHATS composites for polyhalogen-
 ated  dibenzo-p-dioxins   and  dibenzofurans.   The
 PHDPEs are of interest as a result of their planar aro-
 matic structure and potential toxicological properties.
 The PHDPEs are commercially produced as brominat-


                            June 1991     43

-------
                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
ed fire retardants and are known contaminants in other
commercial products such as pentachlorophenol The
concentrations of the PHDPEs were estimated from
the preliminary  analysis for the polyhalogenated  di-
benzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. The analysis  ef-
forts summarized in the report were conducted using
available PHDPE standards.

Keywords:   'Adipose   tissue,  'Chemical  analysis,
"Mass spectroscopy, Lipids, Tables(Data), 'Chlorinat-
ed diphenylethers, "Brominated diphenylethers.


PB91-159707/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure  As-
sessment Lab
Two  Indoor Air  Exposure  Modeling  Studies:
CONTAM Modeling Results, and Serial Correlation
Effects.
Computer Sciences Corp.,  Research Triangle Park,
NC.
R. E. Stogner, J. S. Irwin, W. B. Petersen, M Aissa. and
A. Lansari. Jan 91.42p EPA/600/3-91 /013
Contract EPA-66-01-7365
Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency,  Re-
search Triangle Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and
Exposure Assessment Lab.

Two studies are reported on factors influencing indoor
pollution levels.  In the first, two mass balance comput-
er models. CONTAM87 and CONTAM88, were used to
estimate indoor pollution levels for a hypothetical four
story building exposed to  measured outdoor  ozone
(O3) concentrations 1or a 24-hour period The building
contained 50 rooms; exterior rooms contained win-
dows, interior rooms did not Modeled indoor concen-
trations  indicated  that ozone levels  generally   de-
creased along a partial cross section from peripheral
rooms actually experience lower ozone concentrations
than interior rooms. CONTAM88 analysis  also  re-
vealed  that simple actions such as opening interior
office doors could significantly change indoor ozone
distribution. In the second, a sensitivity study was con-
ducted to quantify the factors affecting serial correla-
tion in the time series of indoor pollution levels  Fur-
ther, the authors investigated in a very preliminary way
the use of personal exposure monitoring data to infer
the values of variables needed to estimate indoor con-
centrations, such as the rates of air exchange, pollut-
ant removal, and pollutant generation.

Keywords: 'Emission factors. 'Indoor  air pollution,
•Computerized  simulation,  'Air quality. Time  series
analysis, Concentration(Composilion), Ozone. Statisti-
cal analysis. Sulfur dioxide. Mass balance. Ventilation,
Environmental engineering. Buildings. Air infiltration,
CONTAM87 model, CONTAM88 model.
 PB91-160549/REB             PCS95.00/MF E09
 Proceedings of the International  Symposium on
 Oil and Gas Exploration and  Production Waste
 Management Practices (1st). Held in New Orleans,
 Louisiana on September 10-13,1990.
 Environmental Protection Agency.  Washington, DC.
 Office of Solid Waste
 Sep 90.1110p EPA/530/SW-91 /030

 The document contains the proceedings of the First
 International Symposium on Oil and Gas Exploration
 and Production Waste Management Practices, Sep-
 tember 10-13,1990, New Orleans. Louisiana

 Keywords: 'Meetings, "Waste  management. 'Oil re-
 covery, 'Gas production, Crude  oil.  Natural gas. Ex-
 ploratory wells. Pollution regulations. Waste disposal,
 Hazardous materials transportation


 PB91-1605S6/REB               PC A12/MF A02
 Treatment Technology Background Document
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of Solid Waste.
 L  Rosengrant. Jan91,271p
 See also PB90-234253.

 The document provides a discussion of the treatment
 technologies applicable to wastes that are subject to
 the land disposal restrictions (LDR), which were man-
 dated by Congress as part of the 1984 HSWAs to the
 RCRA. The document does not include every possible
 technology that may be used to treat wastes subject to
 the LDR. but discusses those most  commonly  used.
 The technologies discussed include those that are
 demonstrated (commercially available) and have been
proven to substantially diminish the toxicity of hazard-
ous constituents and/or to reduce the likelihood of mi-
gration of  such constituents from the waste of con-
cern.  These technologies include  those that  treat
wastewaters (wastes containing less than or equal to
1 % filterable solids and less than or equal to 1 % total
organic carbon) and those that treat non-wastewaters.

Keywords: 'Waste treatment, 'Technology utilization,
'Hazardous  materials,  'Water  pollution  control,
'Waste disposal, 'Best technology.  Ground disposal,
Pollution regulations, Biological treatment. Oxidation,
Reduction(Chemistry),  Radioactive materials.  Materi-
als     recovery,      Separation,      Incineration,
Precipitation(Chemistry), Encapsulating,  Vitrification,
Electrolysis, Waste utilization, Waste recycling.
PB91-160564/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Chloromethane: Health Advisory.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Oct 89, 26p

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report on the chemical, methyl chloride. Methyl chlo-
ride is used in the production of other chemical prod-
ucts. The report covers the following areas: the occur-
rence of the chemical in the environment; its environ-
mental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution.
metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its
health  effects on humans and animals, including its
mutagenicity and carcinogenicity charactenstics Also
included  is the quantification of  its lexicological ef-
fects.

Keywords.  'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution effects(Humans). "Methyl chloride, "Toxicology,
Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
Mutagenicity  tests,   Teratogens,   Water  pollution
effects(Animals), Chemical analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, Health hazards. CAS 74-87-3.
 PB91-160572/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Bromochloromethane: Health Advisory.
 Environmental  Protection Agency. Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Oct 89,18p

 The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on the  chemical, bromochloromethane.  Bro-
 mochloromethane is primarily used as  a fire-extin-
 guishing fluid, particularly in aircraft and portable extin-
 guishers. It is also used  in  organic syntheses.  The
 report covers the following areas: the occurrence of
 the chemical in the environment;  its  environmental
 fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabo-
 lism, and excretion in the human body, and its health
 effects on humans and animals, including its mutage-
 nicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also includ-
 ed is the quantification of its lexicological effects.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
 lution effects(Humans), 'Toxicology, Health hazards,
 Pharmacokinetics. Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
 Mutagenicity  tests,  Teratogens,  Water   pollution
 effects(Animals),  Chemical analysis,  Skin(Anatomy),
 Eyes,' Bromochloromethane. CAS 74-9705
 PB91-160580/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Dichtorodifluoromethane: Drinking Water Health
 Advisory.
 Environmental Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water
 Sep 89,20p

 The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on the chemical, dichlorodifluoromethane  Dich-
 lorodifluoromethane's applications include use primar-
 ily as a refrigerant and blowing agent, with minor use
 as a food freezant. Miscellaneous uses are as a leak
 detection agent, for chilling of cocktail glasses and as
 a low temperature solvent. The report covers the fol-
 lowing areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the en-
 vironment; its environmental fate, the chemical's ab-
 sorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the
 human body; and its health effects on humans and ani-
 mals, including  its mutagenicity  and carcinogenicity
 charactenstics. Also included is the quantification of its
 lexicological effects.
Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution effects(Humans),  'Toxicology, Health hazards,
Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
Mutagenicity  tests,  Teratogens, Water  pollution
effects(Animals), Chemical analysis,  Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, 'Dichlorodifluoromethane, CAS 75-71-8.
PB91-160598/REB               PC A03/MF A01
o-Chlorotoluene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Sep 89,17p

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report on the chemical, o-chlorotoluene.  o-Chloroto-
luene is used as a solvent and as a chemical interme-
diate in the manufacture of pesticides, dyestuffs, Phar-
maceuticals, and peroxides. The report covers the fol-
lowing areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the en-
vironment; its environmental fate; the chemical's ab-
sorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the
human body; and its health effects on humans and ani-
mals,  including mutagenicity and  carcinogenicity char-
acteristics. Also included is the quantification of its tox-
icological effects.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality,  "Water pol-
lution effects(Humans), 'Toxicology,  Health hazards,
Pharmacokinetics,  Metabolism,  Tests, Teratogenic
compounds, Carcinogens, Mutagens, Water pollution
effects(Animals), Chemical analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, 'o-Chlorotoluene, CAS 95-49-8.
PB91-160606/REB                PC A03/MF A01
1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene: Drinking Water Health Ad-
visory.
Environmental Protection Agency.  Washington, DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Sep 89,17p

The Drinking Water  Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report on the chemical, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. The
chemical 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene is used as a chemical
intermediate; in the  synthesis of explosives; in pesti-
cides; and in electrical insulation material. The report
covers  the  following areas: the occurrence  of the
chemical in the environment; its  environmental fate;
the chemical's absorption,  distribution, metabolism,
and excretion in the human body; and its health effects
on humans  and animals, including mutagenicity and
carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included  is the
quantification of its lexicological effects.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution effects(Humans), 'Toxicology, Health hazards,
Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
Mutagenicity  tests,  Teratogens,  Water  pollution
effects(Animals), Chemical  analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, 'Trichlorobenzenes, CAS 108-70-3.
 PB91-160614/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Bromomethane: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
 Environmental Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
 Office ot the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Sep 89.22p

 The Drinking Water  Health Advisory, Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on  the chemical, bromomethane Bromometh-
 ane is used primarily as a fumigant in soil to control
 fungi, nematodes and weeds and in the space fumiga-
 tion of food commodities and storage facilities to con-
 trol insects and rodents. The report covers the follow-
 ing areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the envi-
 ronment;  its environmental fate;  the chemical's ab-
 sorption, distribution, metabolism,  and excretion in the
 human body; and its health effects on humans and ani-
 mals, including mutagenicity and carcinogenicity char-
 acteristics. Also included is the quantification of its tox-
 icological effects.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
 lution effects(Humans), "Toxicology, Health hazards,
 Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
 Mutagenicity   tests,  Teratogens,  Water   pollution
 effects(Animals), Chemical analysis,  Skin(Anatomy),
 Eyes. 'Bromomethane. CAS 74-83-9.
 44    Vol. 91, NO. 2

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                                                  EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-160622/REB               PC A03/MF A01
8IS-(2-Chloroisopropyl)  Ether.  Drinking  Water
Health Advisory.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Sep89,16p

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report on the chemical, bis-(2-chloroisopropy) ether.
Bis-{2-chloroisopropyl) ether is used as a solvent for
fats, waxes, and greases; in textile manufacturing;  in
the manufacturing of cleaning solutions and spotting
agents; in paint and varnish removers; and as an inter-
mediate in chemical synthesis. The report covers the
following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the
environment; its environmental fate;  the chemical's
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion  in
the human body; and its health effects on humans and
animals, including  mutagenicity  and  carcinpgenicity
characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its
lexicological effects.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, *Water pol-
lution effects(Humans), 'Toxicology, Health hazards,
Phamnacokinetics,  Metabolism,   Teratogenic  com-
pounds, Tests, Carcinogens,  Mutagens, Water pollu-
tion    effects(Animals),     Chemical    analysis,
Skin(Anatomy), Eyes,  *Bis(chloromethyl  ethyl)ether,
CAS 108-60-1.
 PB91-160630/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: Drinking Water Health Advi-
 sory.
 Environmental  Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Sep89,24p

 The Drinking Water Health Advisory. Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on the chemical,  1,1,2-Tnchlorpethane.  1,1,2-
 Trichloroethane is used as a feedstock intermediate in
 the production of 1,1-dichloroethylene; a  solvent for
 chlorinated rubbers;  and  in fats,  oils,  waxes, and
 resins. The report covers the following areas: the oc-
 currence of the chemical in the environment; its envi-
 ronmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution,
 metabolism, and  excretion in the human body; and its
 health effects on  humans and animals, including muta-
 genicily and carcinogenicity characteristics.  Also in-
 cluded is the quantification of its lexicological effects.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
 lution effects(Humans),  'Toxicology,  'Trichloroeth-
 anes. Health hazards, Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism,
 Carcinogenicity tests, Mutagenicity tests, Teratogens,
 Water pollution effects(Animals), Chemical analysis,
 Skin(Anatomy), Eyes, CAS 79-00-5.


 PB91-160648/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Trichlorofluoromethane:   Drinking  Water  Health
 Advisory.
 Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington,  DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 SepB9,31p

 The Drinking Water  Health  Advisory, Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on the chemical, trichlorofluoromethane. Trich-
 lorofluoromethane is used primarily as a plastic foam
 blowing agent,  refrigerant, and solvent/degreasing
 agent in the aerospace  and electronics industry. The
 report covers the following areas: the occurrence of
 the chemical in  the environment; its environmental
 fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabo-
 lism, and excretion in the human body; and its health
 effects on humans and animals, including mutagenicity
 and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also  included  is
 the quantification of its lexicological effects.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
 lution effects(Humans),  'Toxicology, Health hazards,
 Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests.
 Mutagenicity   tests,  Teratogens,  Water  pollution
 effects(Animals), Chemical analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
 Eyes, 'Trichlorofluoromethane, CAS 75-69-4.


 PB91-160655/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 1A4-Trichlorobenzene: Drinking Water Health Ad-
 visory.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Sep89,25p
The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report on the  chemical, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. The
chemical 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is used as a solvent in
chemical manufacturing; in dyes and intermediates; in
dielectric fluid; in synthetic transformer oils;  in lubri-
cants; in heat-transfer medium; and in insecticides.
The report covers the following areas: the occurrence
of the chemical in the environment; its environmental
fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabo-
lism, and excretion in the human body; and its health
effects on humans and animals, including mutagenicity
and carcinogenicity characteristics.  Also included is
the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Keywords: "Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution effects(Humans),  'Toxicology, Health hazards,
Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
Mutagenicity   tests,   Teratogens,  Water  pollution
effects(Animals), Chemical analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, 'Trichlorobenzenes, CAS 120-82-1.
PB91-160663/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Hexachlorobutadiene:  Drinking  Water Health Ad-
visory.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Sep89,23p

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report on the chemical, hexachlorobutadiene. Hexach-
lorobutadiene is used as a solvent in chlorine gas pro-
duction, an intermediate in the manufacture of rubber
compounds and lubricants, a  gyroscope fluid, and a
pesticide. The report covers the following areas: the
occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its en-
vironmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribu-
tion, metablism, and excretion in the human body; and
its health effects on humans and animals, including its
mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also
included is  the quantification  of  its toxicological  ef-
fects.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution effects(Humans),  'Toxicology, Health hazards,
Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
Mutagenicity  tests,  Teratogens,  Water pollution
effects(Animals), Chemical analysis,  Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, 'Hexachlorobutadiene, CAS 87-68-3.
 PB91-160671/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane: Drinking  Water Health
 Advisory.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Sep 89,20p

 The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on the chemical, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane. Te-
 trachloroethane is used as a feedstock for the produc-
 tion of solvents such as trichloroethylene and tetrach-
 loroethylene.  The report covers the following areas:
 the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its
 environmental fate; the chemical's absorption,  distri-
 bution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body;
 and its health effects on humans and animals, includ-
 ing its mutagenicity and  carcinogenicity characteris-
 tics. Also included is the quanitification of its toxicologi-
 cal effects.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
 lution etfects(Humans), 'Toxicology, Health hazards,
 Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
 Mutagenicity   tests,   Teratogens,   Water  pollution
 effects(Animals),  Chemical analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
 Eyes, 'Tetrachloroethane, CAS 74-87-3.


 PB91-160689/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Naphthalene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Mar90,28p

 The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office  of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has  issued its
 report on the chemical, naphthalene.  Naphthalene is
 used  in  the manufacture  of phthalic  and anthranilic
 acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the
 manufacture   of  resins,  celluloid,  lampblack and
 smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecti-
 cide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic.
The report covers the following areas: the occurrence
of the chemical in the environment; its environmental
fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabo-
lism, and excretion in the human body; and its health
effects on humans and animals, including its mutage-
nicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also includ-
ed is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution  effects(Humans),  'Naphthlene,  'Toxicology,
Health hazards,  Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Car-
cinogenicity  tests, Mutagenicity  tests,  Teratogens,
Water  pollution effects(Animals),  Chemical analysis,
Skin(Anatomy), Eyes, CAS 91-20-3.
PB91-160697/REB                PC A03/MF A01
1,2,3-Trichloropropane: Drinking Water Health Ad-
visory.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
Sep89,17p

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
report  on the chemical, 1,2,3-trichloroprppane. Trich-
loropropane is used as a paint and varnish remover,
solvent, degreasing  agent, and crosslinking agent in
the elastomer Thiokiol ST. The report covers the fol-
lowing areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the en-
vironment;  its environmental  fate; the chemical's ab-
sorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the
human body; and its health effects on humans and ani-
mals,  including its mutagenicity  and carcinpgenicity
characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its
toxicological effects.

Keywords:  'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
lution  effects(Humans), 'Toxicology, Health hazards,
Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
Mutagenicity tests,   Teratogens,   Water pollution
effects(Animals),  Chemical analysis, Skin(Anatomy),
Eyes, 'Trichloropropane, CAS 96-18-4.
 PB91-160705/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 p-Chlorotoluene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
 Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
 Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.
 Jun89,16p

 The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water,
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its
 report on the chemical, p-chlorotoluene. p-Chloroto-
 luene is used as a solvent and as a chemical interme-
 diate in the manufacture of pesticides, dyestuffs, phar-
 maceuticals, and peroxides. The report covers the fol-
 lowing areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the en-
 vironment; its environmental fate; the chemical's ab-
 sorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the
 human body; and its health effects on humans and ani-
 mals,  including its  mutagenicity and  carcinpgenicity
 characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its
 toxicological effects.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Water pol-
 lution effects(Humans), 'Toxicology,  Health hazards,
 Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Carcinogenicity tests,
 Mutagenicity  tests,  Teratogens,  Water  pollution
 effects(Animals), Chemical  analysis,   Skin(Anatomy),
 Eyes, *p-Chlorotoluene, CAS 106-43-4.
 PB91-160739/REB                PC A17/MF A03
 Santa Clara Valley Integrated Environmental Man-
 agement Project: Revised Stage One Report. Final
 rept.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
 Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
 K. Hinman, D. Schwartz, and E. Softer. 30 May 86,
 393p
 See also PB91-160747.

 The report presents the results of the first phase of the
 Santa Clara Valley Integrated Environmental Manage-
 ment Project (IEMP), an innovative project designed to
 address the environmental and public health problems
 posed by toxic chemicals in  California's Santa Clara
 Valley.  Integrated environmental  management is in-
 tended  to be a practical  tool for  controlling pollution
 that threatens public health. EPA, in partnership with
 state and local leaders, can use estimates of the public
 health impacts of a wide range of environmental prob-
 lems to compare those problems and set priorities for
 risk management. Setting priorities provides a way of


                            June 1991     45

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
working through an environmental agenda by targeting
the worst problems first in order to get the most risk re-
duction (and thus public health benefit) for any given
level of resources.

Keywords:  'Public health, 'Pollution control, 'Santa
Clara Valley, Toxicity, Risk assessment, Humans, Ex-
posure, Carcinogens, Industrial wastes,  Water  pollu-
tion, Organic compounds, Metals, Air pollution. Gases,
Monitoring, Maps, California, Integrated Environmental
Management Project, Chemicals, Priorities.
PB91-160747/REB               PC A11/MF A02
Santa Clara Valley Integrated Environmental Man-
agement Project Stage Two Report
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.
K. Hinman, P. Risler, J. Ruffolo, E. Softer, and A.
Steckel. Sep 87,245p
See also PB91 -160739.

The report presents the results of the second phase of
the Santa Clara Valley Integrated Environmental Man-
agement Project (IEMP), an innovative project de-
signed to address environmental and  public health
problems posed by  toxic  chemicals  in California's
Santa Clara Valley. The project's goals are: to evaluate
and compare the health risks - of cancer and other
chronic, toxic effects - from toxic pollutants in the envi-
ronment; to use the  evaluation  to set informed prior-
ities for further analysis and possible control;  to work
closely with government agencies and the community
to manage environmental public health problems ef-
fectively.

Keywords: 'Public health. 'Pollution control, 'Santa
Clara Valley,  Toxicity, Risk assessment, Monitoring,
Air pollution. Water pollution. Water wells. Aquifers. Or-
ganic compounds, Sources, Ground water. Disinfec-
tion, Standards,  Tables(Data),  California, Integrated
Environmental Management Project, Trihalomethane.
Institutional analysis.  Cleanup.
PB91-161026/REB               PC A05/MF A01
White Phosphorus Health Advisory. Final rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Office of Drinking Water.
L. Gordon. W. R. Hartley, and W. C. Roberts. Dec 90,
83p
Prepared in cooperation with Army Medical Research
and Development Command, Fort Detrick, MD.

The Health Advisory (HA) provides information on the
health effects, analytical  methodology and treatment
technology that would be useful in dealing with White
Phosphorus contamination of drinking water. Due to
the extreme toxicity of White Phosphorus following
oral ingestion. One-day, Ten-day, and Longer-term
(child and adult) HAs are  not recommended. The Life-
time HA is 0.0001 mg/l. White Phosphorus is not clas-
sifiable as to human carcinogenicity Health Advisories
describe nonregulatory  concentrations  of drinking
water contaminants  at which adverse health effects
would not be anticipated  to occur over specific expo-
sure durations.

Keywords: 'Public health, 'White phosphorus, 'Water
pollution,       'Toxicity,        Ingestion(Biology),
ConcentrationfComposition),   Exposure,   Necrosis,
Musculosketetal disorders. Humans, Laboratory ani-
mals. Inhalation, Skin. Absorption. Mortality. Health as-
sessment, Drinking water.
PB91-161380/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum  for Chlorinated Naphthalenes.  Draft  rept.
(Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
May 89. Up ECAO-CIN-629
See also PB81-117426.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987.
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Chlorin-
ated Naphthalenes.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), 'Naphthalene compounds,
Toxic tolerances.  Laboratory  animals. Toxicology,
Aquatic  biology,  Marine  biology, Exposure, Carcino-
gens, Water pollution standards, Potable water, Re-
search and development, Public health, Risk assess-
ment, Aquatic ecosystems, Biological effects, Environ-
mental health. Maximum permissible exposure, Food
chains, 'Naphthalene/chloro, Clean Water Act, Phar-
macokinetics,  Naphthalene/dichloro,  Naphthalene/
trichloro, Naphthalene/tetrachloro, Naphthalene/pen-
tachloro, Naphthalene/hexachloro, Naphtrtalene/hep-
tachloro, Naphthalene/octachloro.
PB91-161398/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Acrylonitrile. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Jun 89,21p ECAO-CIN-615
See also PB81-117285.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Acryloni-
trile.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), 'Acrylonitriles, Toxic toler-
ances.  Laboratory animals. Toxicology, Aquatic biol-
ogy. Marine biology, Exposure, Food chains, Carcino-
gens, Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosys-
tems. Biological effects,  Environmental health, Maxi-
mum permissible exposure. Potable water, Research
and  development. Water pollution standards. Clean
Water Act Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161406/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Nitrosamines. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Sep 89, 44p ECAO-CIN-662
See also PB81 -117756.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent  an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Nitrosa-
Keywords: 'Water quality. 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), 'Nitrosamines, Toxic toler-
ances. Laboratory animals. Toxicology, Aquatic biol-
ogy,  Marine biology.  Exposure, Carcinogens, Water
pollution standards, Potable water, Research and de-
velopment, Public health, Risk assessment,  Aquatic
ecosystems, Biological effects, Environmental health.
Maximum  permissible exposure,  Food chains, Clean
Water Act Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161414/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Nttrophenols. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Dec 89, 24p ECAO-CIN-661
See also PB81-117749.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to  re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Nitro-
phenols.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), 'Nitrophenols, Water pollu-
tion standards, Toxic tolerances, Laboratory animals.
Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Exposure,
Carcinogens, Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic
ecosystems, Biological effects, Environmental health,
Maximum  permissible  exposure, Food chains.  Re-
search and development, Potable waters, Clean Water
Act, Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161422/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
dum  for  Hexachlorocyclopentadiene.  Draft rept.
(Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Jun 89,20p ECAO-CIN-654
Also see PB81-117665.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. The addenda represent
an updated literature search current as of 1988, plus
additional information from Agency files and Program
Offices. The addendum is to update the existing Ambi-
ent Water Quality Criteria Document for Hexachlorocy-
clopentadiene.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), Water pollution standards,
Toxic tolerances, Laboratory animals, Chlorine organic
compounds. Toxicology, Aquatic biology,  Marine biol-
ogy.  Exposure, Research and  development,  Food
chains, Maximum permissible exposure, Carcinogens,
Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosystems,
Biological  effects, Environmental  health,  Potable
water, 'Cyclopentadiene/hexachloro, Clean  Water
Act, Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161430/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Fluoranthene. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency. Cincinnati. OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Apr 90,19p ECAO-CIN-648
See also PB81-117608.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years.  These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria  Document for Fluoran-
thene.

Keywords: 'Water quality, "Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution  effects(Humans),  Condensed  aromatics.
Water  pollution standards. Research and develop-
ment, Toxic tolerances. Laboratory animals, Toxicol-
ogy, Aquatic biology.  Marine biology, Potable water.
Food chains. Maximum permissible exposure. Environ-
mental health, Exposure, Carcinogens, Public health.
Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosystems. Biological ef-
fects, 'Fluoranthene, Clean Water Act, Pharmacokine-
tics.
PB91-161448/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Diphenylhydrazine. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Jul 89,16p ECAO-CIN-644
See also PB81-117731.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency to develop
46     Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria  Document for 1, 2-Di-
phenylhydrazine.

Keywords:  'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), Toxic tolerances, Laborato-
ry animals. Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biol-
ogy, Exposure, Carcinogens, Water pollution stand-
ards, Potable water, Public health. Risk assessment,
Aquatic ecosystems, Biological effects, Environmental
health, Maximum permissible exposure,  Food chains.
Research  and  development,  'Hydrazine/diphenyl,
Clean Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.
PB9M61455/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
dum for Hexachlorobutadiene. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Jun 89,15p ECAO-CIN-652
See also PB81-117640.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Hexach-
lorobutadiene.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), Water pollution standards,
Toxic tolerances, Laboratory animals, Chlorine organic
compounds,  Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biol-
ogy, Exposure, Research and development,  Potable
water. Carcinogens,  Public health,  Risk assessment,
Aquatic ecosystems, Biological effects, Environmental
health, Maximum permissible exposure. Food chains,
'Butadiene/hexachloro, Clean Water Act, Pharmaco-
kinetics.
 PB91-161463/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
 dum for Heptachlor. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 May 89,24p ECAO-CIN-651
 See also PB81-117632.

 Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
 ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
 These criteria were published in  1980. Under Section
 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
 the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
 these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
 sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
 plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
 gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
 Ambient Water  Quality Criteria Document  for Hepta-
 chlor.

 Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
 pollution effects(Humans), 'Heptachlor, Insecticides,
 Toxic tolerances,  Laboratory  animals,  Toxicology,
 Aquatic biology, Marine biology. Exposure, Water pol-
 lution standards. Carcinogens, Public health, Risk as-
 sessment. Aquatic ecosystems. Biological effects, En-
 vironmental health.  Maximum permissible  exposure,
 Food chains, Research  and development, Potable
 water, Clean Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.


 PB91-161471/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
 dum for DDT. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Sep 89,22p ECAO-CIN-636
 See also PB81-117491.
Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in  1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act  as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and  update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria  Document  for DDT/
ODD/DDE.

Keywords:  'DDE  insecticide,  'Water quality,  'Toxic
substances, 'Water pollution effects(Humans), *DDT,
*DDD insecticide, Insecticides, Toxic tolerances, Lab-
oratory  animals, Toxicology, Aquatic biology,  Marine
biology, Exposure, Carcinogens, Public health, Risk
assessment, Aquatic ecosystems,  Biological  effects,
Environmental health,  Maximum  permissible expo-
sure, Food chains. Research and development, Pota-
ble water, Water pollution standards, Clean Water Act,
Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161489/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
dum for Ethylbenzene. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Dec 89,18p ECAO-CIN-647
See also PB81-117590.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Ethylben-
 Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
 pollution effects(Humans), 'Ethyl benzene, Water pol-
 lution  standards, Toxic tolerances,  Laboratory ani-
 mals, Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Ex-
 posure,  Biological  effects,  Environmental  health,
 Aquatic ecosystems, Risk assessment, Carcinogens,
 Public health, Maximum permissible  exposure, Food
 chains, Research and development, Potable water.
 Clean Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.


 PB91-161497/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document- Adden-
 dum for 2,4-Dimetnylphenol. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Apr 90,16p ECAO-CIN-642
 See also PB81-117558.

 Under the  1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
 ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
 These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
 the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
 these criteria every five years. These addenda  repre-
 sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
 plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
 gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria  Document for 2, 4-Di-
 methylphenol.

 Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
 pollution   effects(Humans),   'Xylenols,  Toxic  toler-
 ances, Laboratory animals,  Toxicology, Aquatic biol-
 ogy Marine biology, Exposure, Carcinogens,  Water
 pollution standards,  Potable water, Research and de-
 velopment, Public health. Risk assessment, Aquatic
 ecosystems, Biological effects, Environmental health,
 Maximum permissible exposure, Food chains,  Clean
 Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.


 PB91-161505/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
 dum for Endrin. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Dec 89,20p ECAO-CIN-646
 See also PB81-117582.
Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent  an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Endrin.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), 'Endrin, Insecticides, Toxic
tolerances, Laboratory animals, Toxicology, Aquatic
biology, Marine biology, Exposure, Potable water, Re-
search and development, Food chains, Maximum per-
missible exposure, Carcinogens,  Public health, Risk
assessment,  Aquatic ecosystem,  Biological effects,
Environmental health, Clean Water Act, Pharmacokin-
etics.
PB91-161513/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
dum for Acenaphthene. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Apr 90,16pECAO-CIN-613
See also PB81-117269.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority Pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document  for Ace-
naphthene.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), 'Acenaphthene, Toxic tol-
erances, Laboratory animals, Toxicology, Aquatic biol-
ogy,  Marine  biology, Exposure, Carcinogens, Water
pollution standards.  Potable water,  Research and de-
velopment, Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic
ecosystems,  Biological effects, Environmental  health,
Maximum permissible exposure, Food chains, Clean
Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.
 PB91-161521/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
 dum for Aldrin/Dieldrin. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Sep 89,24p ECAO-CIN-616
 See also PB81-117301.

 Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
 ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
 These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
 the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
 these criteria every five years. The addenda represent
 an updated literature search current as of 1988, plus
 additional information from Agency files and Program
 Offices. The addendum is to update the existing Ambi-
 ent Water Quality Criteria Document for Aldrin/Diel-
 drin.

 Keywords: 'Dieldrin,  'Water quality,  'Toxic  sub-
 stances, 'Water  pollution  effects(Humans), 'Aldrin,
 Potable water,  Toxic tolerances, Laboratory animals,
 Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Exposure,
 Food  chains, Maximum  permissible exposure, Car-
 cinogens,  Public health. Risk assessment, Aquatic
 ecosystems,  Biological effects, Environmental health,
 Water  pollution standards,  Research  and develop-
 ment, Insecticides, Clean Water Act,  Pharmacokine-
 tics.
 PB91-161539/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
 dum for Antimony. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 May 89,20p ECAO-CIN-617
 See also PB81-117319.


                           June 1991     47

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority Pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent  an  updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Antimo-
ny-

Keywords: 'Water  quality, "Toxic substances, "Water
pollution effects(Humans), "Antimony, Water pollution
standards, Toxic tolerances, Laboratory animals, Toxi-
cology, Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Exposure, Re-
search and development, Potable water,  Food chains.
Maximum permissible exposure, Carcinogens, Public
health, Risk  assessment, Aquatic ecosystems. Envi-
ronmental health, Biological effects. Clean Water Act,
Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161547/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Chlordane. Draft rept (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Sep 89,21 p ECAO-CIN-625
See also PB81-117384.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as  amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent  an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Chlor-
dane.

Keywords: "Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), "Chlordane, Carcinogens,
Insecticides, Toxic tolerances, Toxicology, Aquatic bi-
ology, Marine biology, Exposure, Potable water, Water
pollution  standards.  Research  and development,
Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosystems,
Biological  effects. Environmental  health, Maximum
permissible exposure. Food chains, Clean Water Act,
Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161554/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Carbon Tetrachloride. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency. Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Aug 89,21 p ECAO-CIN-624
See also PB81-117376.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)( 1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. The addenda represent
an updated literature search current as of 1988, plus
additional information from Agency files and Program
Offices. The addendum is to update the existing Ambi-
ent Water Quality Criteria Document for Carbon Tetra-
chloride.

Keywords: "Water quality, "Toxic substances, "Water
pollution effects(Humans),   "Carbon tetrachloride.
Toxic  tolerances. Laboratory animals.  Toxicology,
Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Exposure, Carcinr>
gens, Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosystems, Biologi-
cal effects, Public health, Maximum permissible expo-
sure. Food chains. Research and development,  Pota-
ble water. Water pollution  standards, Environmental
health.
PB91-161562/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Chloroform. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Aug 89,22p ECAO-CIN-631
See also PB81-117442.
Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent  an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Chloro-
form.

Keywords: "Water quality, "Toxic substances, "Water
pollution  effects(Humans), "Chloroform, Water pollu-
tion standards. Toxic tolerances, Laboratory animals,
Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Exposure,
Research and  development,  Potable water,  Food
chains, Maximum permissible exposure, Carcinogens,
Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosystems,
Biological effects, Environmental health, Clean Water
Act, Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161570/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for 2-Chlorophenol. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Jul 89,17p ECAO-CIN-632
See also PB81-117459.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram  Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for 2-Chloro-
phenol.

Keywords: "Water quality, "Toxic substances, "Water
pollution effects(Humans), Phenols, Toxic  tolerances,
Laboratory animals, Aquatic biology. Marine biology,
Exposure, Carcinogens, Public health, Water pollution
standards, Risk assessment. Aquatic ecosystems, Bi-
ological effects, Environmental health, Maximum per-
missible exposure. Food chains, Research and devel-
opment, Potable water, "Phenol/chloro, Clean Water
Act, Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161588/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Toxaphene. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
May 89,17p ECAO-CIN-674
See also PB87-105375 and PB81 -117863.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority Pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Toxa-
phene.

Keywords: "Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humans), 'Toxaphene, Water pollu-
tion standards. Toxic  tolerances, Laboratory animals.
Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Exposure,
Potable water, Research  and  development,  Food
chains. Maximum permissible exposure, Carcinogens,
Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosystems.
Biological effects, Environmental hearth. Insecticides,
Clean Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.
 PB91-161596/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
 dum for 2,4-Dichlorophenol. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Jun 89,17p ECAO-CIN-640
 See also PB81-117533.
Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for 2,4-Dich-
lorophenol.

Keywords: 'Phenol/dichloro, 'Water quality, "Toxic
substances,  "DCP 2-4 herbicide,  "Water pollution
effects(Humans),  Potable   water,  Toxic tolerances,
Laboratory  animals,  Toxicology, Aquatic  biology,
Marine biology, Exposure, Carcinogens, Public health,
Risk  assessment, Aquatic ecosystems, Biological ef-
fects. Environmental health, Maximum permissible ex-
posure, Water pollution standards, Research and de-
velopment,  Food chains, Insecticides, Clean Water
Act, Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161604/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
dum for Benzldene. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
May 89,18pECAO-CIN-621
See also PB81-117343.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient  Water  Quality Criteria Document for Benzi-
dine.

Keywords: "Water quality, "Toxic substances, "Water
pollution  effects(Humans), "Benzidine, Toxic toler-
ances, Laboratory animals, Toxicology, Aquatic biol-
ogy. Exposure,  Carcinogens, Public health, Nitrogen
organic  compounds,  Water  pollution  standards.
Marine biology, Risk assessment,  Aquatic ecosys-
tems, Biological effects.  Environmental  health, Maxi-
mum permissible exposure. Food chains.  Research
and development,  Potable water, Clean Water Act,
Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161612/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
dum for Acrolein. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Sep 89,16p ECAO-CIN-614
See also PB81-117277.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. The addenda represent
an updated literature search current as of 1988, plus
additional information from Agency files and Program
Offices. The addendum is to update the existing Ambi-
ent Water Quality Criteria Document for Acrolein.

Keywords: "Water quality, "Toxic substances, "Water
pollution effects(Humans),  "Acrolein, Toxic  toler-
ances, Laboratory animals, Toxicology, Aquatic biol-
ogy,  Marine  biology,  Exposure, Carcinogens,  Re-
search and development. Public  health, Risk assess-
ment. Aquatic ecosystems, Biological effects, Environ-
mental health. Maximum permissible  exposure, Food
chains, Water pollution standards,  Potable  water,
Clean Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.
 PB91-161620/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document Adden-
 dum for Chtoroalkyl Ethers. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 Jun 89,25p ECAO-CIN-628
48     Vol.  91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
See also PB81-117418.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaiuate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the ex/sting
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Chloroal-
kyt Ethers

Keywords:  "Chlorine organic  compounds,  'Water
quality,  "Toxic   substances,   'Water   pollution
effects(Humans), 'Ethers, Toxic  tolerances, Laborato-
ry animals, Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine  biol-
ogy, Exposure, Carcinogens, Water pollution  stand-
ards,  Potable  water.  Research and development,
Public health, Bisk assessment, Aquatic ecosystems,
Biological  effects, Environmental health, Maximum
permissible exposure, Food chains, Clean Water Act,
Pharmacokinetics.
P091-161638/HEB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Qualify Criteria Document: Adden-
dum for Phenol. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency,  Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Dec 89, 17pECAO-CIN-664
See also PB81-117772.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
3Q4(aKn ol trie Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search  current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Phenol.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution effects(Humar\s), 'Phenol, Toxic tolerances,
Laboratory   animals,  Toxicology,  Aquatic  biology,
Marine biology.  Exposure, Carcinogens, Water pollu-
tion standards.  Potable water. Research and develop-
ment, Public health. Risk assessment, Aquatic ecosys-
tems, Biological effects,  Environmental health, Maxi-
mum permissible exposure, Food chains, Clean Water
Act Pharmacokinetics.
 PB91-161646/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water duality Criteria Document: Adden-
 dum for Haloethers. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
 May 89,16p ECAO-ClN-649
 See also PB8M176t6.

 Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
 ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
 These criteria were published in  1980. Under Section
 304(a)( t) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
 the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
 these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
 sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
 plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
 gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
 Ambient Water Quality  Criteria  Document for  Ha-
 loethers.

 Keywords:   "Halogenated  aromatic  hydrocarbons,
 'Water  quality,  'Toxic substances, 'Wafer pollution
 effects(Humans),  Ethers,  Water pollution standards,
 Toxic tolerances.  Laboratory  animals.  Toxicology,
 Aquatic biology, Marine biology. Exposure,  Research
 and development, Potable water, Food chains. Maxi-
 mum permissible  exposure,  Carcinogens,  Public
 health, Risk assessment. Aquatic ecosystems, Biologi-
 cal effects, Environmental health, Clean Water  Act,
 Pharmacokinetics.


 PB91-161653/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Adden-
 dum for Phthalate Esters. Draft rept. (Final).
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
 vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Sep 89, 41 p ECAO-CIN-665
See also PB8M17780.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every five years. These addenda repre-
sent an  updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Phthalate
Esters.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, "Water
pollution effects(Humans),  'Phthalates,  Toxic  toler-
ances,  Laboratory animals,  Toxicology,  Aquatic biol-
ogy,  Marine biology, Exposure, Carcinogens, Water
pollution standards.  Potable water. Research and de-
velopment, Public health, Risk assessment, Aquatic
ecosystems, Biological effects, Environmental health,
Maximum permissible exposure, Food chains, Carbox-
ylic acid esters, Clean Water Act, Pharmacokinetics.
PB91-161661/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document- Adden-
dum for Chlorinated Phenols. Draft rept. (Final).
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. En-
vironmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Jul 89,30p ECAO-CIN-630
See also PB81-117434.

Under the 1977 Clean Water Act, Congress mandated
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop
ambient water quality criteria for 129 priority pollutants.
These criteria were published in 1980. Under Section
304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987,
the U.S. EPA is mandated to re-evaluate and update
these criteria every live years. These addenda repre-
sent an updated literature search current as of 1988,
plus additional information from Agency files and Pro-
gram  Offices. The addendum is to update the existing
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Chlorin-
ated Phenols.

Keywords: 'Water quality, 'Toxic substances, 'Water
pollution eflects(Humans), 'Phenols, Toxic tolerances,
Laboratory  animals, Chlorine organic  compounds.
Toxicology, Aquatic biology, Marine biology, Exposure,
Potable water,  Research  and development.  Food
chains, Carcinogens, Public health, Risk assessment,
Aquatic ecosystems, Biological effects, Environmental
health, Maximum permissible exposure, Clean Water
Act, Pharmacokinetics.
 PB91-161679/REB               PC A09/MF A02
 Biological  Remediation of  Contaminated  Sedi-
 ments, with Special Emphasis on the Great Lakes:
 Report  of  a Workshop,  Manitowoc, Wisconsin,
 July 17-19,1990.
 Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
 C. T. Jafvert, and J. E. Rogers. Jan 91,193p EPA/
 600/9-91/001

 These proceedings describe a workshop at which bio-
 logical  remediation of contaminated sediments was
 discussed. For the purpose of the workshop, contami-
 nated sediments of primary interest were those  within
 six of the Areas  of  Concern (AOC) identified in the
 U.S./Canada International Joint Commission's  Great
 Lakes Water Quality  Board; five of these AOC are pri-
 ority concerns of the U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency's Assessment and Remediation of  Contami-
 nated Sediments (ARCS) Program. The workshop was
 organized around four topic areas: (1) Overview  of the
 Areas of Concern, (2) Biological degradation of PCBs;
 (3) Biological degradation of PAHs, and (4) Biological
 treatment of metal species. For the first topic area,
 presentations were made describing site characteris-
 tics of the Ashtabula River, OH; the Buffalo River, NV;
 the Sheboygan River, Wl; the Grand Calumet River, IN;
 the Saginaw  River  and  Bay, Ml;  and the  Hamilton
 Harbor, Ontario,  Canada.  For  the remaining   topic
 areas, presentations were made by investigators ac-
 tively involved in either bench, pilot, or full-scale stud-
 ies concerning these areas. The document provides
 extended abstracts and brief summaries of the presen-
 tations and  discussion sessions at the workshop.

 Keywords:  'Sediments, 'Meetings, 'Biological  treat-
 ment 'Water pollution,  'Sediment-water interfaces,
 'Biod'egradation,  Great Lakes, Biodeterioration, Aro-
matic polycyclic hydrocarbons, Site characterization,
Remedial action, Laboratory tests, Metals, Leaching,
Aerobic processes, Anaerobic processes, Field tests,
Polychlorinated biphenyls.
PB91-161687/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
Global Inventory of Volatile Organic Compound
Emissions  from  Anthropogenic  Sources. Final
rept. Mar 88-Sep 90.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
J. J. Watson, J. A. Probert, and S. D, Piccot. Jan 91,
74p EPA/600/8-91 /002
Contracts EPA-68-02-4288, EPA-68-02-4274
Prepared in cooperation with Alliance Technologies
Corp., Chapel Hill, NC. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.  Air
and Energy Engineering Research Lab.


The report describes a global inventory of  anthropo-
genic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that
includes a separate inventory for each of Seven pollut-
ant groups-paraffins, otefins, aromatics,  formalde-
hyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginal-
ly reactive compounds. The inventory, one input to at-
mospheric chemistry models required to estimate the
global atmospheric concentration of ozone, is part of
an assessment of the potential environmental impacts
associated with global climate change. Study results
show total global  anthropogenic emissions of about
121 million short tons of VOCs per year. The  U.S. is the
largest emitter with  21 %  of the  total. Globally, fuel-
wood combustion and savanna burning are the largest
sources, together  accounting for over 35% of global
VOC emissions. The approach used to develop the in-
ventory involved:  (1) identifying the major  anthropo-
genic sources of VOC emissions in the U.S. and group-
ing them into categories; (2) developing emission fac-
tors by dividing the U.S. emissions by the amount of
production or consumption of the related commodity in
the U.S.; (3) multiplying the U.S. emission  factors by
production/consumption statistics for other countries
to yield global VOC emission estimates; and (4? geo-
graphically distributing the emissions.

Keywords: 'Air pollution,  'Environmental impact  as-
sessments, Global aspects, Pollution sources, Climatic
changes, Atmospheric chemistry, Ozone, Alkene  hy-
drocarbons, Alkanes, Geographical distribution, Emis-
sion factors, Statistical analysis, Aromatic compounds,
Formaldehyde,  Aldehydes,   'Volatile organic com-
pounds, 'Emission inventories.
 PB91-16169S/REB                PC A04/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Asbestos  Fiber  Reentrainment during  Dry Va-
 cuuming and Wet Cleaning of Asbestos-Contami-
 nated Carpet. Rept. for Jan 88-Jul 89.
 PEl Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
 J R. Kominsky, and R. W. Freyberg. Mar 91, 53p EPA/
 600/2-91 /004
 Contract EPA-68-03-4006
 See also PB89-221246. Sponsored by Environmental
 Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction En-
 gineering Lab.

 A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for as-
 bestos fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet
 contaminatecf wiffi asbestos. Two types of carpet
 cleaning equipment were evaluated at two carpet con-
 tamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations
 were determined before and during  carpet cleaning.
 Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to
 four times greater during the carpet cleaning activity.
 The level of asbestos contamination and the type of
 cleaning method used had  no statistically significant
 effect on  the relative increase of airborne asbestos
 concentrations during carpet cleaning.

 Keywords: 'Asbestos, 'Carpet, 'Indoor air pollution,
 'Air  pollution sampling,  'Air pollution control, Dry
 methods,   Wet  methods,  Vacuuming,   Cleaning,
 Concentration(Composition),  Experimental   design,
 Particle size distribution. Quality assurance, Occupa-
 tional exposure, Buildings, Tables(Data|, Occupational
 safety and health, Field tests, High efficiency particu-
 late air filters.


                           June 1991    49

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-161703/REB               PC A04/MF A01
Multispectral Identification of Potentially Hazard-
ous  Byproducts  of  Ozonation and Chlorination.
Part 1. Studies of Chromatographic and Spectros-
copic Properties of MX.
Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.
T. W. Collette, R. F. Christman, J. M. McGuire, and C.
Trusty. Mar 91,72p EPA/600/4-91 /004
Prepared in cooperation with North Carolina Univ. at
Chapel Hill. School of Public Health, and Technology
Applications, inc., Athens, GA.

The gas Chromatographic (GC) and Fourier transform
infrared and mass spectroscopic (FT-IR and MS, re-
spectively)   properties  of  (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloro-
methyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (MX) (a highly mutagenic
byproduct of drinking water Chlorination) and several
related compounds were studied. Specifically, MX, the
methyl ester of MX (MX-OMe), and three MX-model
compounds-mucochloric  acid  (MCA),  mucobromic
acid (MBA), and  2,4-(3H,5H)-furandione (2,4 FD)-
were analyzed on the GC/FT-IR and GC/MS systems.
A concentration study of MX on the GC/FT-IR system
revealed a  minimum identifiable quantity of approxi-
mately 10 ng, with linear response over the range of 10
to 600 ng. MX was stable to approximately 260 C. The
thermal decomposition product produced above that
temperature was tentatively identified by GC/MS as 2-
(dichloromethyl)-3-chloro-2-propenal.  The GC/FT-IR
detector response for 600 ng of MX was compared to
that of 600 ng  of MX  that had been methylated. The
ratio of the detector response indicated that the meth-
ylation efficiency was, at best, 40%. Additionally, sev-
eral extracts of chlorinations of dissolved organic ma-
terial were analyzed.  No MX was detected. The ap-
proximate extraction efficiencies of MX and MCA were
determined for several organic solvents, of which ethyl
acetate was the most efficient for both compounds.

Keywords:  'Chlorine  organic  compounds,  'Potable
water,  'Water pollution, Chlorination. Mass spectros-
copy. Gas chromatography,  Infrared spectroscopy,
Solvents, Extraction, Pyrolysis, Bromine organic com-
pounds, Graphs(Charts).


PB91-161711/REB               PC A06/MF A01
Preliminary Testing, Evaluation and Sensitivity
Analysis for the  Terrestrial Ecosystem Exposure
Assessment Model (TEEAM).
Environmental  Research Lab., Athens, GA. Office of
Research and Development.
S. L. Bird, J. M. Cheplick, and D. S. Brown. Mar 91,
123p EPA/600/3-91/019
See also PB90-119959. Prepared in cooperation with
Computer Sciences Corp., Athens, GA.

The report documents an initial testing and sensitivity
analysis of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Exposure As-
sessment Model (TEEAM). TEEAM calculates the ex-
posure concentrations of contaminants in plants and
animals in terrestrial ecosystems. The project was per-
formed in two phases. First, a sensitivity analysis was
performed using a simple system-an American robin
inhabiting a typical peanut field in Georgia that had
been treated with diazinon. The primary food source
for the robin was  the earth-worms living in the pesti-
cide-contaminated soil. Second, an  intensive  model
testing and evaluation effort was undertaken to exam-
ine each major model component. Results of the test-
ing suggest that continued model development should
focus on better simulation of surface ponding, plant
transport, and uptake by soil dweller and above ground
insect populations.

Keywords:  "Terrestrial ecosystems,  'Mathematical
models,  'Pesticides, 'Land pollution, 'Environmental
surveys, Plants(Botany), Animals, Food chains. Expo-
sure, Environmental transport, Sensitivity analysis, Air
pollution, Water  pollution.  Hydrology,  Performance
evaluation, 'Terrestrial Ecosystem Exposure Assess-
ment Model.
PB91-161729/REB                PC A13/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Modal Aerosol Dynamics Modeling.
Computer Sciences Corp.,  Research Triangle Park,
NC.
E R Whitby, P. H. McMurry, U. Shankar, and F. S.
Binkowski. Feb 91,281p EPA/600/3-91 /020
Contract EPA-68-01-7365
See also PB86-212685. Prepared in cooperation with
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Protection Agency, Research Triangle  Park,
NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure Assess-
ment Lab.

The report presents the governing equations for repre-
senting aerosol dynamics, based on several different
representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analyt-
ical and numerical solution techniques for these gov-
erning equations are also reviewed. Described in detail
is a computationally efficient numerical technique for
simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing si-
multaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer
in and between the gas and condensed phases. The
technique belongs to a general class of models known
as modal  aerosol  dynamics (MAD)  models. These
models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of
the particle size  distribution function. Computational
efficiency is achieved by  representing the complete
aerosol  population as a sum of additive overlapping
populations (modes),  and  solving for the time rate of
change  of integral moments of each mode. Applica-
tions of  MAD models  for simulating aerosol dynamics
in continuous stirred  tank aerosol reactors  and flow
aerosol  reactors  are provided. For the application to
flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in
terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with
the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980).
Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Par-
ticylate Model are also described. Numerical and ana-
lytical techniques for evaluating the size-space inte-
grals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are de-
scribed. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an
analytical expression  for the coagulation integrals of
the MDEs,  applicable for all size regimes, is derived,
and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of
the same moment coagulation integrals. A computa-
tionally  efficient  integration technique,  based on
Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

Keywords:  'Aerosols, 'Coagulation,  'Dynamics,  Nu-
cleation. Mathematical models,  Accuracy,  Particle
PB91-161737/REB                PC A06/MF A01
Benzene  Enabling Document for Standards on
Benzene  Transfer and Waste Operations. Final
rept.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Mar 90,108p EPA/450/3-90/009

On February 27, 1990, standards for Benzene were
promulgated for benzene transfer and benzene waste
operations. The benzene enabling document summa-
rizes these standards. The basic purpose of the docu-
ment is to assist the EPA regional enforcement per-
sonnel in the understanding of these regulations and
the implementation plan for benzene NESHAPs. Flow
diagrams that can assist in the determination of the ap-
plicability of the standards to the sources and example
forms to be filled out by the waste  operations listing
stream characteristics are also included.

Keywords: 'Air pollution standards, 'Benzene, 'Air
pollution abatement, 'Waste management, 'Hazard-
ous materials transportation, Air pollution control,
State implementation  plans, Standards compliance,
Regional analysis, Law enforcement, Pollution regula-
tions, Personnel,  Waste waters. Performance stand-
ards, Sources, 'National Emission Standards for Haz-
ardous Air Pollutants.
 PB91-161745/REB               PC A08/MF A01
 Polymer Manufacturing Industry - Enabling Docu-
 ment Final rept.
 Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
 Dec 90,175p EPA/450/3-90/019
 See also PB91-148304.

 The enabling document summarizes the standards
 that  were  promulgated  in  December  1990  (55
 FR51010) for new stationary sources of polypropyl-
 ene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and poly (ethylene ter-
 ephthalate) manufacturing industry. The basic purpose
 of the document is to assist the EPA regional enforce-
 ment personnel in the understanding of these regula-
 tions and the implementation plan for these regula-
 tions. Row diagrams that can assist in the determina-
 tion of the applicability of the standards to the sources
 are also included.
Keywords: 'Polymers. 'Stationary pollutant sources,
US EPA, Standards, Emission, Regulations, Manufac-
turing, Polyethylene, Polystyrene, Polypropylene, Poly-
ethylene terephthalate, Volatile organic compounds,
Industrial plants.
PB91-161752/REB               PC A10/MF A02
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Ongoing Research and Regulatory Development
Projects. Final rept.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
T. K. Moody, C. E. Oldham, and C. E. Norris. Jul 90,
216p DCN-90-203-099-26-10, EPA/450/3-90/013
Contract EPA-68-D8-0065
See also PB90-113531. Sponsored by Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

The National Air  Toxics Information Clearinghouse
(NATICH) has been established by the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards for the purpose of facilitating
information transfer among Federal, State, and local
air quality management agencies. The document is di-
vided into three sections and an appendix. The first
section  is  an  introduction that explains document
scope and use. Section 2 lists 230 air toxics projects in
progress as of March 31, 1990, at  EPA, NIOSH,
ATSDR, and State and local agencies. A brief descrip-
tion of each project and a  contact name, office, and
telephone number are  given. The third section of the
document contains the index that allows readers  to
locate projects of interest. The appendix lists regula-
tory development projects  on toxic chemicals under
way at the EPA's Office of Drinking Water (ODW).

Keywords:  'Research and development,  'Information
transfer,  'Air pollution, 'Toxic substances, 'Pollution
regulations. Pollution  sources.  Local  government,
State  programs.  Occupational  safety  and health,
Public health, Water pollution, Bibliographies, Subject
indexing. Radioactive  materials,  'National Air Toxics
Information Clearinghouse.
 PB91-162404/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Ultrasonic Flowmeters  That Are Insensitive to
 Suspended Solids.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 W. J. Averett.  1990,17p EPA/600/D-90/225
 Presented at the ISA/89 International Conference, Ex-
 hibit and Training Conference, Philadelphia, PA., Octo-
 ber 22-28,1989.

 The report describes the results of an investigation of
 the performance of state-of-the-art and standard pora-
 ble ultrasonic Doppler flowmeters that do not require
 particles or bubbles in the fluid to make an accurate
 measurement. Both the standard and new state-of-
 the-art flowmeters measured flow within their claimed
 accuracy in tap water without any particles or bubbles
 added. All testing was performed at the U.S. Environ-
 mental Protection Agency (USEPA)  Test and Evalua-
 tion Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. All testing conformed
 to Scientific Apparatus Makers Association (SAMA)
 standards. The test  results from both flowmeters are
 presented so that an easy comparison may be made
 and that the improvement in performance can be de-
 termined. The velocity range of all testing was from 0 -
 21.58 ft/sec. The state-of-the-art ultrasonic flowmeter
 was superior in measuring lower values of flow and
 performed about the same  as  the control flowmeter
 over the upper range of the velocities tested. However,
 these advancements in ultrasonic technology do not
 abrogate the  normal loss of  accuracy above 16.25 ft/
 sec in tap water. The loss seems to be a function of
 Reynolds Number.

 Keywords: 'Flowmeters, 'Ultrasonics, 'Water meters,
 Doppler effect,  Flow measurement. Water pollution,
 Experimental data,  Quality  control. Errors,  Anemo-
 meters, Reynolds number.
 PB91-162412/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Development  and  Implementation  of the  U.S.
 EPA's Waste  Reduction  Innovative Technology
 Evaluation (WRITE) Research Program.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 M. L. Apel, and H. M. Freeman. 1990,10p EPA/600/
 D-90/226
 50    Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Presented at the Waste Minimization and Clean Tech-
nology: Moving Toward the 21st Century, Geneva,
Switzerland, May 29-June 1, 1989. Prepared in coop-
eration with American  Public Works Association, Chi-
cago, IL.

The Waste Reduction  Innovative Technology Evalua-
tion (WRITE) Program  is one of EPA's major pollution
prevention research programs. The program encour-
ages joint interaction by industry and government in
the development,  demonstration and implementation
of effective techniques and practices for minimizing
the generation of non-hazardous as well as hazardous
wastes. Through the program, technical and economic
evaluations of industrial manufacturing and processing
operations use  to reduce the volume or toxicity of
wastes are conducted. Research studies are  also
being  conducted  under the WRITE Program to  ad-
dress  long-term chemical and industry-specific pollu-
tion prevention issues. The paper describes the devel-
opment and  implementation  of EPA's  WRITE  Pro-
gram.  Summaries  of the Program findings and conclu-
sions to date are also presented.

Keywords: 'Pollution abatement,  'Hazardous materi-
als, 'Waste  management, Research  and develop-
ment,  Environmental protection,  US EPA, Industrial
wastes, Long term effects, Economic analysis, Toxic
substances, Reprints, 'Waste Reduction Innovative
Technology Evaluation Program, Waste minimization,
Source reduction.
PB91-162420/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Cost Estimates  for Controlling SOCs by  GAC
Treatment.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. Q. Admas, and R. M. C
                   . Clark. 1990,31 p EPA/600/ D-
90/227
Presented at Design and Use of Granular Activated
Carbon - Practical Aspect, American Water Works As-
sociation Research Foundation/U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH., May 9-10,1989.

The Drinking Water Research Division of EPA has a
major role in evaluating the cost and performance  of
technology considered as part of drinking water regu-
lations. The paper examines cost estimates for con-
trolling various SOCs by GAC treatment using predict-
ed use rates, and then evaluates the sensitivity of cost
to variations in design and operating variables. Strate-
gies for reducing the cost of GAC systems is discussed
utilizing optimization of  EBCT,  in-series  contactors
versus a single contactor configuration, and off-site
carbon reactivation.

Keywords:  'Cost estimates, 'Water pollution control,
•Granular activated carbon treatment, 'Water  treat-
ment,  'Synthetic resins, Pollution regulations, Tech-
nology utilization, Organic compounds,  Performance
standards.   Adsorption,  Design  criteria.   Operating
costs.  Empty bed contact time,  Safe Drinking Water
Act.
PB91-162438/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Ozonation and Biological Stability of Water in an
Operating Water Treatment Plant
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. J. Reasoner, E. W. Rk
                   Rice, and L. C. Fung. 1990, 22p
EPA/600/D-90/228
Pub. in Proceedings of the American Water Works As-
sociation, Water Quality Conference, San Diego, CA.,
November 1990. Prepared in cooperation with  Hack-
ensack Water Co., Haworth, NJ.

Ozonation of drinking water may adversely affect the
biological stability of the finished water. The study was
designed to assess the effect of ozone as a preoxidant
on the nutrient status of  water treated in a full-scale
water treatment plant. The study was conducted over
a ten  week period  with analyses performed on  a
weekly basis. The Haworth Water Treatment Plant is a
direct filtration plant utilizing ozonation, alum and cati-
onic polymer flocculation, flotation-skimming, and dual
media (anthracite-sand)  filtration.  Chlorine  is added
just prior to the filtration process to maintain a residual
in the filter effluent. Chlorine and ammonia are added
after filtration to produce a chloramine residual in the
finished water. Samples collected were the raw source
water, water from  the  ozone contactor, and the fin-
ished product water collected at the entry point of the
distribution system. Standard water quality parameters
analyzed included total coliform bacteria, heterotro-
                                                  phic place count bacteria, total organic carbon (TOC),
                                                  pH,  turbidity, hardness, alkalinity,  specific  conduct-
                                                  ance, sulfate, nitrate and chloride.  Biological stability
                                                  of the water was determined by the assimilable organic
                                                  carbon  (AOC) bioassay using  Pseudomonas fluores-
                                                  cens strain P-17 and Spirillum strain NOX, and by the
                                                  coliform growth response (CGR) bioassay with Entero-
                                                  bacter cloacae and Escherichia coli as the bioassay
                                                  organisms.

                                                  Keywords:  'Water treatment plants, 'Ozonation, 'Po-
                                                  table water, 'Biological  effects,  'Water  pollution,
                                                  Water quality, Bioassay, Physical chemical treatment,
                                                  Flocculation,  Filtration,   Chlorination,  Disinfection,
                                                  Aquatic microbiology, Biodeterioration, Halomethanes,
                                                  Bacteria, Reprints.
                                                   PB91-162446/REB                PC A03/MF A01
                                                   Succeeding at  Waste Minimisation. Symposium
                                                   paper.
                                                   Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
                                                   Reduction Engineering Lab.
                                                   M. A. Curran, and H. M. f
                    .Freeman. 1990,12p EPA/
600/D-90/229
Presented at Special Wastes Symposium,  Geneva,
Switzerland, September 20-22,1989.

The EPA's progress over the last eighteen years in im-
proving environmental quality through its media-specif-
ic  pollution control programs has  been substantial.
However, EPA realizes that further improvements can
be realized by pursuing pollution prevention strategies
through a multi-media waste  minimization approach.
Many public and private organizations in the United
States support waste minimization as an approach to
reducing waste  generation.  The  EPA  encourages
waste generators to carry out assessments in their fa-
cilities to identify opportunities for waste minimization.
The paper describes the six elements of a waste mini-
mization program as recommended by the EPA.

Keywords:  'Pollution abatement,  'Waste  manage-
ment, 'Hazardous  materials, US EPA, Assessments,
Waste treatment, Waste disposal, Cost analysis, Fea-
sibility studies, Pollution regulations, Operating, Man-
agement planning,  Administrative procedures,  Re-
prints, 'Waste minimization, Source reduction.
PB91-162453/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Cost Modeling for Drinking Water Unit Treatment
Processes.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. G. Eilers. Jun 90,11p EPA/600/D-90/230
Proceedings of American  Water Works Association,
Sunday Seminar Session, 1990 Annual Conference,
Cincinnati, OH., June 17-21,1990.

Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and
expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the
economics of building and  operating drinking water
treatment facilities. The cost data is important to the
EPA  decision  making process when formulating new
regulations and to water  utilities as they implement
these regulations. The cost estimates based upon the
data  must  accurately reflect the true cost of current
technology used for drinking water treatment.

Keywords:  'Water treatment plants, 'Potable water,
'Cost estimates, 'Mathematical modeling, Operating
costs, Decision making, Pollution regulations, Water
quality, Water pollution abatement,  Cost analysis,
Forecasting, Economic analysis, Reprints, Safe Drink-
ing Water Act, Small systems.


PB91-162461/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Standardized Costs  for Water Supply Distribution
Systems.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. G. Eilers. 1990,11p EPA/600/D-90/231
Proceedings of American  Water Works  Association
Engineering  and  Construction  Symposium  Annual
Conference, Los Angeles, CA., June 18-22,1989.

There are a significant number of water supply distribu-
tion systems in the United States that are deteriorat-
ing resulting in a potential threat to the future quality of
drinking water. Corrective  measures will directly influ-
ence the cost of providing water. It would be  useful to
have a mechanism for examining the economics of
various alternative solutions for handling problems af-
fecting water  quality within the distribution system. A
                                                   cost data base has been developed to aid the design
                                                   engineer in this type of analysis.

                                                   Keywords: 'Water distribution(Applied),  'Distribution
                                                   systems, 'Potable water, 'Water quality, 'Economic
                                                   analysis, Water supply,  Water  costs,  Substitutes,
                                                   Design  criteria, Water  utilities, Standards,  Sources,
                                                   Corrosion, Water pollution abatement,  Performance
                                                   standards, Civil engineering,  Reprints, Safe  Drinking
                                                   Water Act.
PB91-162479/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Results from the Stabilization Technologies Eval-
uated by the Site Program. New England Environ-
mental Expo 90. Symposium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
P. R. de Percin. 1990,16p EPA/600/D-90/232
Proceedings of the New England Environmental Expo
90,  Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA., April  10-
12,1990.

The Superfund  Innovative Technology Evaluation
(SITE) Program was developed to assist  the develop-
ment of hazardous waste treatment technologies nec-
essary to implement new cleanup standards which re-
quire greater reliance on permanent remedies. As part
of the SITE program, four stabilization and solidifica-
tion processes have been performed, six treatability
studies are underway, and five demonstrations are in
the planning and site selection phase. During these
demonstrations, the effectiveness of the stabilization/
solidification processes was evaluated by measuring
the chemical and physical characteristics before and
after treatment. An overall conclusion, from the com-
pleted SITE demonstration on Stabilization Processes,
is that a Treatability study should be required before
selecting a remediation technology. Also,  it appears
that each  stabilization process has similar capabilities
to treat metals and inorganics, and significantly differ-
ent capabilities to handle organics.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Hazardous materials, 'Waste
treatment, 'Stabilization, 'Remedial  action.  Stand-
ards, Technology utilization. Solidification, Metals, Or-
ganic compounds, Inorganic  compounds, Perform-
ance standards, Site surveys, Reprints, Cleanup oper-
ations.
 PB91-162487/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Novel Delivering of Nutrients and Oxygen to  Aid
 In situ Bioreclamation.
 Cincinnati Univ., OH.
 W. J. D. Hoover, L. C. Murdoch, S. J. Vesper, H. R.
 Pahren, and O. L. Sprockel. 1990, 30p EPA/600/D-
 90/233
 Contract EPA-68-C9-0031
 Prepared in cooperation with National Urban League,
 Inc., Cincinnati, OH. Center Hill Lab. Sponsored by En-
 vironmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.

 A serious problem in the implementation of in situ bior-
 eclamation is the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to
 soil  of low permeability. The problem commonly re-
 quires contaminated soil to be excavated for biorecla-
 matipn, resulting in increased exposure to toxic materi-
 als, liability and cost. The authors demonstrated that it
 is feasible to create  hydraulic fractures  at shallow
 depths (several m) in  silty clay till. Fractures created
 during a recent field test were flat-lying and  roughly
 equant in plan with a maximum dimension  of 8 m.
 Coarse sand was pumped into the fractures  to hold
 them open. The sand was an average  of 1.1 cm in
 maximum thickness. As many as four fractures were
 created from the same borehole, stacked at  vertical
 spacing of 15 or 30 cm. The technique will be used to
 deliver slow-releasing granules of nutrients and encap-
 sulated oxygen compounds in an effort to enhance in
 situ bioreclamation of contaminated soil.


 Keywords: 'Biodeterioration, 'Land  reclamation, 'Nu-
 trients, 'Land pollution control, 'Oxygenation, In situ
 processes, Soil contamination, Subsurface investiga-
 tions. Aerobic processes, Hydraulic  fracturing, Hydro-
 gen  peroxide. Encapsulating,  Soil  contamination,
 Microorganisms, Slow releasing chemical.


                           June 1991      51

-------
                                                    EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
   PB91-162495/REB               PC A03/MF A01
   Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
   Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
   sessment Lab.
   Comparison  of Modified Carson and EPA Mixing
   Height Estimates Using Data from Five Field Ex-
   periments.
   Computer Sciences  Corp.,  Research Triangle  Park,
   NC.
   J. O. Paumier, and J. S. Irwin. 1990,14p EPA/600/D-
   90/234
   Prepared in cooperation with National Oceanic and At-
   mospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD.  Atmos-
   pheric Sciences Modeling Div. Sponsored by Environ-
   mental Protection  Agency,  Research Triangle  Park
   NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assess-
   ment Lab.

   The performance of two mixing height models are
   compared to observed mixing  heights during convec-
   tive conditions. The first model  integrates  the hourly
   surface heat flux and friction velocity to compute con-
   vective and mechanical estimates,  respectively. The
   second model uses an  interpolation approach that is
   currently recommended by  the U.S.  Environmental
   Protection Agency for use in air quality regulating anal-
   ysis. The  results suggest that both models perform
   best when estimating late afternoon mixing heights-
   nearly  85% of the estimates  from  both models are
   within 40% of the observed values. For the entire day-
   time period, the first model produced the least biased
   results; all the estimates, on average were within a
  factor of two  of the observed  mixing  heights.  The
  second model performed poorly in the hours shortly
  after sunrise, but was comparable to the first model for
  the latter part of the day.

  Keywords: 'Mathematical models, 'Atmospheric diffu-
  sion, 'Atmospheric circulation, 'Height,  Field tests
  Meteorology,  Performance  evaluation,  Mixing,  Air
  quality,  Convective flow, Atmospheric boundary layer
  flow, Comparison, Air pollution. Environmental trans-
  port, 'CWB model, 'EPA model, CRSTER model.
  PB91-162503/REB               PC A03/MF A01
  Evaluation of  the EPA  Complex Terrain Disper-
  sion  Model (CTDMPLUS) with  the  Lovett Power
  Plant Data Base.
  Environmental Protection  Agency, Research Triangle
  Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure  As-
  sessment Lab.
  S. G. Perry, J. O. Paumier, and D. J. Burns. 1991,13p
  EPA/600/D-90/235
  Prepared in cooperation with National Oceanic and At-
  mospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. Air Re-
  sources Lab.,  and  Computer Sciences  Corp., Re-
  search Triangle Park, NC.

 The conference preprint describes the results of the
 first performance evaluation of the Complex Terrain
 Dispersion Model (CTDMPLUS),  which  is  currently
 being considered by the USEPA as a regulatory guide-
 line model. The CTDMPLUS performance is also com-
 pared with that  of  Rough Terrain  Diffusion  Model
 (RTDM). For the one-year Lovett Power  Plant data
 base,  where plume impactioh  is fairly uncommon
 CTDMPLUS tends to overpredict the high  end of the
 concentration distribution by about a factor of two  for
 1-hour, 3-hour, and 24-hour averages. In comparison,
 RTDM overpredicted the high concentrations by about
 a factor of five.

 Keywords:  'Air pollution, 'Air quality display model,
 •Mathematical models, 'Plumes, Complex  terrain, At-
 mospheric diffusion, Environmental transport,  US EPA,
 Guidelines,         Performance        evaluation,
 Concentration(Composition), Meteorology,  'Complex
 Terrain Dispersion Model, 'CTDMPLUS model, Rough
 Terrain Diffusion Model.
PB91-162511/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Toxicity and  Fate  of Total  Residual Chlorine in
Outdoor Experimental Streams (Book Chapter).
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, Monticello, MN
Monticello Ecological Research Station.
R. O. Hermanutz, K. N. Allen, and S. F. Hedtke c1990
19pEPA/600/D-90/237
Pub. in Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact and
Health Effects, Chapter 37, v6 D463-477. See also
PB88-102728.  Proceedings of Conference on Water
Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health  Ef-
fects, Oak Ridge, TN., May 3-8,1987.


52     Vol.  91, No. 2
   The purpose of the study was to determine in outdoor
   streams the relative sensitivity of selected organisms
   to chlorine, to evaluate the degree to which the 4-d cri-
   terion protects the structure and function of aquatic
   ecosystems,  and to compare the toxicity and persist-
   ence or fate of different forms of TRC. In 1985 chlorine
   alone was tested and in 1986 chlorine was tested with
   and without the addition of  ammonia. The  compari-
   sons of the fprms of TRC are based on the supposition
   that the addition of ammonia (as ammonium chloride
   and ammonium hydroxide) caused a shift in the com-
   position of TRC to a higher percentage of chloramines
   (Copyright (c) 1990 Lewis Publisher, Inc.).

   Keywords: 'Chlorine,  'Environmental  monitoring
   'Streams, 'Water pollution effects(Animals), Ammo-
   nia, Freshwater fishes. Water quality. Reprints.


   PB91-162529/REB               PC A03/MF A01
   Fish Acute Toxicity Syndromes: Application to the
   Development of Mechanism-Specific QSARS.
   Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
   S. P. Bradbury, T. R. Henry, and R. W. Carlson. C1990
   23p EPA/600/D-90/238
   Pub.  in Environmental Chemistry  and  Toxicology
   P295-315, 1990. See also  PB88-214762. Proceedings
  of International Workshop on Quantitative Structure-
  Activity  Relationship in  Environmental  Toxicology
  (3rd), Knoxville, TN., 1990.

  The  U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA)
  under a variety of legislation,  is charged with the re-
  sponsibility of assessing the hazard of chemicals to
  human health and the  environment.  In  some in-
  stances, EPA incorporates predictive techniques in its
  decision-making process (Auer et al.,  1990). Predictive
  lexicological methods are  often employed as  cost-ef-
  fective components in an overall strategy for prioritiz-
  ing chemicals for in-depth investigation. Predictive ap-
  proaches are also used where empirical toxicological
  data is either unavailable or not required under a spe-
  cific statute. For example, under Section 5 of the Toxic
  Substances Control Act (TSCA) the EPA Office of
  Toxic Substances must review and assess the poten-
  tial hazard of a new industrial chemical within 90 d,
  generally with little accompanying information  beyond
  the compound's structure (Auer et al., 1990) The im-
  plementation of TSCA illustrates the need to establish
  reliable predictive techniques  because laboratory  re-
  sources are limited and the potential  number of com-
  pounds for study is large. (Copyright  (c) 1990 ECSC
  EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg.)

  Keywords:     'Toxicology,    'Water     pollution
 effects(Animals), Structure-activity relationship, Math-
 ematical models,  Toxic substances, Cardiovascular
 system, Respiratory system, Oxidative phosphoryla-
 tion,    Trout,     Dose-response    relationships,
 Graphs(Charts), Narcotics, Reprints, 'Fish acute toxic-
 ity syndrome.
 PB91-162537/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Controlling PCDD/PCDF Emissions  from Inciner-
 ators by Flue Gas Cleaning.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab
 T. G. Bma. Aug 90,8p EPA/600/D-90/239
 Presented at International Conference on Organohalo-
 gen Compounds (10th), Bayreith, FRG, September 10-


 The paper discusses controlling polychlorinated di-
 benzo-p-dioxin  (PCDD)  and dibenzofuran (PCDF)
 emissions from incinerators by flue gas  cleaning. New
 Source  Performance Standards for municipal waste
 combustors (MWCs) and guidelines for existing incin-
 erators in the U.S., proposed on December 20, 1989
 are to be promulgated in December 1990. The pro-
 posed national regulations require more stringent con-
 trol of particulate matter and include pre-combustion,
 combustion,  and post-combustion controls, the  last
 two  depending on size  and age of the  facility.  Dry
 scrubbing processes  have been used exclusively on
 recent MWCs and are planned for future MWCs in the
 U.S. for flue gas cleaning (post-combustion control).
 They inherently  include  particulate matter control
 along with their primary function of acid gas removal.
These technologies are also generally effective in con-
trolling PCDDs, PCDFs, and trace heavy metals. Test
results quantifying air pollutant emissions, especially
PCDD/PCDF, and their control will be presented and
compared with the proposed regulations.
   Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Incineration, 'Waste
   disposal, 'Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, 'Polychlori-
   nated dibenzofurans,  Flue gases, Municipal wastes
   Particle, Air pollution standards, Heavy metals, Com-
   parison, Pollution regulations, Air cleaning systems, Air
   pollution abatement. Reprints,  New Source Perform-
   ance Standards.
   PB91-162545/REB               PC A03/MF A01
   Acid Rain Control Options.
   Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
   Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab
   F. T. Princiotta. 1990,26p EPA/600/D-90/240
   Presented at the Electric Power Industry and the New
   Clean Air Act Conference, Washington, DC., Decem-
   ber 10-11,1990.

   The paper discusses acid rain control options available
   to the electric utility industry. They include coal switch-
   ing, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower
   cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage
   Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE),
   both developed by EPA, selective use of gas to reduce
   nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in coal-
  fired boilers, and the use of Integrated Coal  Gasifica-
  tion Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology.

  Keywords: 'Acid rain, 'Air pollution control, 'Air pollu-
  tion abatement, Precipitation(Meteorology),  Nitrogen
  oxides, Coal, Sulfur dioxide. Electric power plants, Cal-
  cium silicates, Combined-cycle power plants, Industrial
  wastes, Fuel substitution, Reprints, Flue gas desulfuri-
  zation, Limestone Injection Multistage Burners Clean
  Air Act.
  PB91-162S52/REB               PC A02/MF A01
  Combustion Control  of PCDD/PCDF Emissions
  from Municipal Waste Incinerators in North Amer-
  ica.
  Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
  Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab
  J. D. Kilgroe. 1990,8p EPA/600/D-90/241
  Presented at International Conference on Organohalo-
  gen Compounds  (10th), Bayreuth,  FRG, September
  10-14,1990.

  The paper discusses combustion control  of emissions
  of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and poly-
  chlorinated  dibenzofurans  (PCDF) from  municipal
  waste incinerators in North America. New regulations
  to control air pollution emissions from municipal waste
  incineration  have  been enacted in  Canada and are
  being developed in the U.S. Regulations in both coun-
  tries will require the  use of good combustion practice
  (GCP). The U.S. EPA defines three goals for their GCP
  strategy: to maximize furnace destruction of organics,
 to limit the relative amount of flyash carried from com-
 bustors with  flue gases, and to operate flyash collec-
 tion devices  at temperatures which minimize the de
 novo synthesis of  PCDD/PCDF. The paper describes
 the rationale for  the GCP  strategy,  presents data
 showing the effects of electrostatic precipitator operat-
 ing temperature on PCDD/PCDF formation rates, and
 brieflydescribes  current North American  incinerator
 design and  operating  practices  which  must  be
 changed to reduce formation and emission of PCDD/
 PCDF.

 Keywords: 'Air pollution control, 'Incinerators, 'Waste
 disposal, 'Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, 'Polychlori-
 nated dibenzofurans,  Canada, United States, Combus-
 tion efficiency, Air pollution abatement, Air pollution
 standards, Pollution regulations, Municipal wastes, Fly
 ash, Electrostatic  precipitators.  Design criteria, Per-
 formance evaluation,  Reprints, Foreign technology.


 PB91-162560/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Bioassay of  Complex Mixtures of  Indoor Air Pol-
 lutants. Chapter 7.
 Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC.
 J. Lewtas,  L. Claxton, J. Mumford, and G. Lofroth
 1990,21 p EPA/600/D-90/242
 Prepared in cooperation with Nordic School of Public
 Health, Goeteborg (Sweden).

There are  several strategies for conducting  bioassay
studies of indoor air pollutant mixtures. One approach
is to generate indoor pollutants from sources under
laboratory conditions suitable for human, animal, or in
vitro bioassay  studies. This approach was used exten-
sively to evaluate  tobacco smoke and to  a  lesser

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
extent for other indoor combustion sources such as
kerosene heaters. A second approach is to simulate
these complex mixtures  by simpler mixtures of pure
chemicals which can be used in biological studies. The
third approach, which is described in more detail here,
is to use bioassays in the direct evaluation of complex
mixtures of indoor air pollutants. The mixtures of or-
ganics found indoors from combustion sources, build-
ing materials, household products and human activi-
ties are extremely complex. They consist of thousands
of components which  are not well characterized or
quantified. Many of these mixtures and certain compo-
nents are potential human carcinogens. The develop-
ment of short-term bioassays to detect mutagens and
potential carcinogens has facilitated studies of com-
plex mixtures including air pollutants and combustion
emissions. Chapter 7 will focus on the development
and application of bacterial mutagenicity assays to
complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants.

Keywords: "Indoor air pollution, 'Toxicology, *Air pol-
lution effects(Humans), Exposure,  Mutagenicity  tests,
Risk assessment, Combustion, Carcinogens, Salmo-
nella typhimurium.


PB91-162578/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
Patk,NC.
32P-Po*flabeling DNA  Adduct  Assay:  Cigarette
Smoke-Induced ONA Adducts In the Respiratory
and Nonrespiratory Rat Tissues. Book chapter.
Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Graduate Center for Toxi-

RC^upta, and C. G. Gairola.  c1990,12p EPA/600/
D-90/243
Pub. in Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures, v39
p303-312 1990. Sponsored  by  Health  Effects Re-
search  Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC., and Public
Health Service, Rockville, MD.

An analysts of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the
sensitive  (32)p-postlabeling  assay  showed one  to
eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx,
heart and bladder of the  sham controls. Chronic expo-
sure of animals to  mainstream cigarette  smoke
showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts
in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke con-
tains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of
them are known or potential  carcinogens, the  differ-
 ence between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other
tissues may reflect  the diversity of reactive constitu-
 ents and their differential ab'sorption in  different tis-
 sues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the ad-
 ducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of
 the predominant adducts was further investigated by
 comparison with several reference DNA adducts from
 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these
 chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results
 suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke
 may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA
 adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed
 animals.

 Keywords: *DNA damage, 'Respiratory system, *Air
 pollution      effects(Animals),       'Carcinogens,
 Tissues(Biology), Aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons,
 Mutagens, Phosphorus radioisotopes, Carboxyhemog-
 tobin, Thin layer chromatography,  Reprints, 'Cigarette
 smoke.
cally increase after photooxidation processes and that
a variety of atmospheric hydrocarbons can be trans-
formed  into  mutagenic species through these same
processes. A review of the Salmonella bioassay geno-
toxicity of volatile organic pollutants and their atmos-
pheric transformation products is presented.

Keywords: 'Mutagenicity tests, 'Air pollutants, Salmo-
nella  typhimurium,  Bioassay, Photochemistry,  Re-
prints,  'Atmospheric transformation, Volatile organic
compounds.
 PB91-162594/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Assessment of the Mutagenicity  of  Volatile Or-
 ganic Air Pollutants Before and After Atmospher-
 ic Transformation.
 Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park,NC.
 L D. Claxton, T. E. Kleindienst, E. Perry, and L. T.
 Cupitt.c1990,10p EPA/600/D-90/245
 Pub. in Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures, p103-
 1111990. Prepared in cooperation with Northrop Serv-
 ices, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC., and Environ-
 mental  Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research
 Triangle Park, NC.

 During the past decade, there has been renewed effort
 examining the extent to which hazardous compounds
 (particularly mutagens and carcinogens) are found in
 the urban atmosphere. Most of these studies exam-
 ined organic material associated with  the particles
 emitted from specific sources. In contrast, few studies
 have examined the volatile airborne organics before
 and after they  undergo atmospheric transformation.
 Such studies have shown that the mutagenicity of or-
 ganic material from  combustion sources can dramati-
PB91-162602/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Future  Directions In Research  on  the  Genetic
Toxicology of Complex Mixtures.
Health  Effects Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Genetic Toxicology Div.
J. Lewtas. c1990,11 p EPA/600/D-90/246
Pub. in  Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures, v39
P353-361  1990.

The future assessment of complex mixtures of  envi-
ronmental pollutants will increasingly rely on new inter-
disciplinary strategies including state-of-the-art genetic
and molecular methodologies. Integrated multidiscipli-
nary studies will assess human exposure, dosimetry
and cancer risk to complex mixtures of pollutants and
apportion the exposure and risk to the various pollution
sources. Strategies which hold promise for future stud-
ies include: (1) biomonitoring environmental levels,
fate, transformation and human exposure; (2) charac-
terization  of the  genotoxic components  of complex
mixtures using advanced chemical and bioassay meth-
ods; (3) source apportionment of human exposure to
mutagens; (4) molecular dosimetry of complex mix-
tures, and (5) mechanistic studies of the effects of
complex mixtures induced by both genetic and non-ge-
netic mechanisms. Important advances in understand-
ing the genetic and carcinogenic effects of complex
environmental mixtures will increasingly  rely on the
successful implementation of multidisciplinary integra-
tion of  environmental, laboratory  and human studies
using state-of-the-art biological, chemical and molecu-
lar methods.

Keywords:  'Toxicology,  'Environmental  pollutants,
'Mutagens, Health hazards, Predictive value of  tests,
Carcinogenicity tests, Bioassay, Risk assessment, Mu-
tagenicity tests, DNA damage, Reprints.


 PB91-162610/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 In vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity.
 Health  Effects  Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
 S. Perreault-Darney. C1990,16p EPA/600/D-90/247

 Drugs and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive
 function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby
 blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or
 chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or
 birth defects.  Standard measures of gamete integrity,
 such as morphology, motility (sperm), or fertilizing abili-
 ty, while  useful in identifying and characterizing  ad-
 verse effects, may not identify genetic damage  in the
 gametes. To better assess gamete integrity, methods
 capable of detecting DNA or chromosomal damage in
 individual sperm or egg cells are needed. The  report
 summarizes recent advances in in vitro technologies
 for assessing both the pathophysiologic and genetic
 integrity of gametes with emphasis on the latter.

 Keywords: 'Spermatozoa, 'Ovum, 'Fertility, 'Xeno-
 biotics, 'Toxicity, In  vitro analysis, Deoxyribonucleic
 acids, Chromatin, DNA damage, Aneuploidy, Mutation,
 Sperm motility.


  PB91-162628/REB               PC A03/MF A01
  Robert S. Kerr  Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
  OK.
 Soil Bioventing Demonstration Project.
  New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark.
  J  S Cho D.H.Kampbell, J.T.Wilson, and D.C.
  DiGiulio. C1990,16p EPA/600/D-90/248
  Pub. in New Jersey Institute of Technology, Division of
  Continuing Education, November 1990. Sponsored by
  Robert S. Kerr  Environmental Research  Lab., Ada,
  OK.

  A pilot scale demonstration project of a soil bioventing
  system  which utilizes the biodegradation  in soil  and
  physical removal of VOC by induced air flow, is in oper-
  ation at  the  U.S. Coast Guard Aviation Field in  Tra-
  verse  City, Michigan. The system is being tested to de-
termine its  suitability  for remediation of the vadose
zone in conjunction with aquifer remediation at a site
contaminated by an aviation gas spill. Several micro-
cosm studies with soil  obtained from the vertical profile
of the  contaminated site showed rapid  microbial de-
compositions of hydrocarbon fumes with NPK nutrient
and  moisture addition.  Basic removal  kinetics data
were obtained from these experiments. Field pneumat-
ic pump tests for  soil-air characterization have been
conducted.  The soil-air permeability and pressure dis-
tributions under the air injection/withdrawal systems
were obtained. On the basis of information from the
laboratory and field tests,  a conceptual design at a
field scale was made.  The system will be implemented
on the selected study  site and the operation will start in
fall, 1990. Additional soil core samplings and continu-
ous monitoring of operation are planned.

Keywords:  'Biodeterioration, 'Land pollution control,
'Water pollution control, 'Remedial action, 'Volatile
organic compounds,  Oil pollution control,  Aquifers,
Ground water, Vadose  water,  Oil spills,  Leakage,
Fuels, Site  characterization, Environmental transport,
Microorganisms, Biochemistry, Hydrocarbons, Oxida-
tion, Soil gases, Nutrients, Reaction kinetics, Aeration,
Reprints, 'Cleanup operations, 'Soil venting.
 PB91-162636/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Bilateral Wastewater Land Treatment Research.
 Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research  Lab., Ada,
 OK.
 L. E. Leach, B. E. Bledsoe, D. Zhen-Bo, and W. Shao-
 Tang. C1990, Bp EPA/600/D-90/249
 Pub.  in Water Environment and Technology, v2  n12
 Dec 90. Prepared in cooperation with Beijing Municipal
 Research Inst. of Environmental Protection (China).

 Diplomatic relations between the United States  and
 China, established in 1979, opened the door for devel-
 opment of 1985 bilateral environmental research and
 technology transfer between the USEPA's Robert S.
 Kerr  Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, Okla-
 homa, and China's Beijing  Municipal  Research Insti-
 tute of Environmental Protection. The research  was
 aimed at optimizing rapid infiltration treatment for nitro-
 gen removal so that municipal wastewater could be
 used to recharge and improve nitrogen-rich, over-ex-
 tracted  ground-water  aquifers.  Complimentary  re-
 search evaluated USEPA's selected priority pollutant
 volatile organics and fecal  coliforms.  During a three-
 year study period, several cyclic schedules of flooding
 and drying were systematically tested using duplicate
 lysimeters. Soils selected from a potential full scale
 site,  lysimeter studies indicated that 16 days' flooding
 followed by a 5 day drying period provided the most ef-
 ficient treatment. Nitrate and total nitrogen levels were
 consistently  reduced to below 1.5 and 2.5  mg/l, re-
 spectively, while BOD, Kjeldal nitrogen, ammonia, or-
 ganic nitrogen, and phosphorus  were all reduced to
 less than 1.0 mg/l. Four volatile organic priority pollut-
 ants were slightly degraded during the winter but were
 significantly  reduced during warmer months. The re-
 search  also  indicated   that  percolation  of   the
 wastewater through 370 cm of soil reduced fecal coli-
 forms more  than  6 orders of magnitude to below 6
 counts per 100 ml.

 Keywords: 'Waste water,  'Land disposal,  'Sewage
 disposal,  'Induced  infiltration,   'Industrial  wastes,
 Groundwater recharge, Research and  development,
 Municipal wastes, Technology   transfer, US EPA,
 Sewage treatment, Water pollution control, Design cri-
 teria, Remedial action, Water quality, Coliform bacte-
 ria, Aquifers, Reprints, Foreign technology, China.
  PB91-162644/REB               PC A03/MF A01
  Microbial Carbon Dioxide Generation and Oxygen
  Utilization in the  Unsaturated Subsurface at a
  Gasoline Spill Site. Rept. for Mar 89-Oct 90.
  Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research Lab.,  Ada,
  OK.
  D. H. Kampbell. C1990,12p EPA/600/D-90/250
  Pub  in Proceedings of the Conference on Hazardous
  Waste Research, Manhattan, KS., May 21-22, 1990,
  v2  p789-796. Prepared  in cooperation with Kansas
  State Univ., Manhattan.

  Twenty years after an estimated spill of 36,000 gallons
  of aviation gasoline at an airport location a major por-
  tion still remains as oily phase residue just above the
  water table.  The plume  extends downgradient 360
  meters. The vertical profile is a uniform beach sand to
  15 meters with the water table near five meters. Soil


                            June 1991    53

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
gas measurements have been done at various depths
throughout the vertical profile. Generally the relation-
ship was direct with depth for fuel vapor, methane, and
carbon dioxide, but not with oxygen where active deg-
radation processes occurred.  Bioprocess  enhance-
ment occurred beneath a turf area receiving fertilizer
and sprinkler water.

Keywords: *Gas spills, 'Remedial action, 'Biological
treatment, *Biodeterioration, 'Land pollution control.
Anaerobic processes. Water table. Soil gases, Oxy-
genation, Microorganisms,  Carbon dioxide, Aviation
gasoline, Water pollution control, Aerobic processes,
Site surveys, Reprints.


PB91-162651/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Simplified Soil Gas Sensing Techniques for Plume
Mapping and Remediation Monitoring.
Robert S. KBIT Environmental  Research Lab., Ada,
OK.
D. H. Kampbell, J. T. Wilson, and D. W. Ostendorf.
C1991,17pEPA/600/D-91/001
Pub. in Petroleum Contaminated Soils, v3  p125-139,
Sep 90. Prepared in cooperation with Massachusetts
Univ., Amherst. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

Soil gas measurements were taken in a beach sand
matrix of the unsaturated zone above a ground water
plume contaminated from a spill  near 35,000 gallons of
aviation gasoline. The soil gas sampling and analysis
strategy provided required information for mapping the
plume and vertical profile measurements with a mini-
mal expenditure of resources and work time. Analysis
of a calibration gas and replicate sampling showed
that the apparatus used  gave reasonably correct soil
gas contituent measurements. Boundaries of  the
plume were defined and a hot spot was located down-
gradient from the original spill location. Elevated
carbon dioxide above the contaminated capillary fringe
indicated microbial respiration activity. A biodegrada-
tion model developed from the vertical profile data pre-
dicted very low oxygen at the water table and little or
no loss of hydrocarbon emissions to the atmosphere.

Keywords: "Soil gases, 'Gas spills, 'Remedial action,
'Environmental monitoring, 'Plumes, 'Land pollution,
Aviation gasoline, Ground water, Mapping,  Water pol-
lution control. Volatile organic compounds, Mathemati-
cal model,  Biodeterioration, Water table.  Sampling.
Soil   contamination,   Environmental   transport,
Concentration(Composition), Reprints,


PB91-162669/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Hydrocarbon Spill Exposure Assessment Model-
ing.
Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research  Lab.,  Ada.
OK.
J. W. Weaver, and R. J. Charbeneau. c1991,19p EPA/
600/D-91/002
 Proceedings of the Petroleum  Hydrocarbons and Or-
ganic Chemicals in Ground Water. Prevention, Detec-
tion, and Restoration Conference, Houston, TX., Octo-
 ber 31-November 2,1990. Library of Congress catalog
 card  no. 90-46654.  Prepared in  cooperation  with
 Texas Univ. at Austin. Center for Research in Water
 Resources.

 Hydrocarbon spills impact drinking water  supplies at
 down gradient locations. Conventional finite difference
 and finite element models of multiphase, multicompon-
 ent flow have extreme requirements for both computer
 time and site data. Site data and the intent  of the mod-
 eling often do not warrant the application of such
 models. An alternative approach is proposed which is
 based on semi-analytic models for vertical product in-
 filtration, radial  spreading on  the  water  table, and
 transport of aqueous phase contaminants  in the aqui-
 fer. Three individual models for these processes are
 linked to estimate exposure at a down gradient well. A
 time record of concentration can be determined for
 any desired location in  the aquifer. The presentation
 outlines the methodology and examines parameter
 sensitivity within the combined vadose zone, oil lens,
 and aquifer transport models.

 Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Oil spills, 'Chemical spills.
 •Hydrocarbons,  'Water   pollution,   'Mathematical
 models, Water supply, Exposure, Environmental trans-
 port   Ground water. Environmental  impact  assess-
 ments. Water table. Aquifers, Vadose water,  Subsur-
 face investigations, Reprints.
PB91-162677/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Do  Behavioral Responses to  Pesticide Exposure
Affect Wildlife Population Parameters. Symposium
paper (Draft).
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
R. S. Bennett. C1991,29p EPA/600/D-91 /003
Pub. in Proceedings of the Population Ecology and
Wildlife Toxicology of Agricultural  Pesticide Use: A
Modelling Initiative for Avian Species, 1990.

Avian behavioral responses to exposure to agricultural
pesticides are reviewed in relation to ultimate effects
on   survival  and  reproduction.   Pesticide-induced
changes in foraging behaviors may lead to the forma-
tion of conditioned aversions that affect subsequent
dietary exposure and, consequently, survival. Although
laboratory birds can readily detect  the presence of
pesticides in food and prefer untreated alternatives if
present, there are several other factors in the field that
affect the ability of birds to modify their exposure to
pesticides. Pesticides also can affect reproductive be-
haviors of birds at several periods, including pairing
and nest building, egg laying, incubation, and rearing of
young. Behavioral effects at these periods have been
observed to reduce reproductive success. Research is
needed to identify how pesticide effects on avian pop-
ulation parameters are influenced by their behavioral
responses.

Keywords: 'Wildlife,  'Pesticides, 'Animal  behavior,
'Birds,  'Carbamate insecticides, Feeding  behavior,
Reproduction(Biology), Eggs, Reprints.
 PB91-162685/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Initial  Growth and Ontogeny  of Bigleaf Maple
 'Acer macrophyBum' in an Enriched Carbon Diox-
 ide Environment. Symposium paper.
 Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
 J. D. Bailey, R. K. Dixon, and R. Rose. 1991.15p EPA/
 600/D-91/004
 Presented at IN INDO-US Workshop on Global Climat-
 ic Change, New Delhi, India, January 8-11,1991. Pre-
 pared  in cooperation with ManTech Environmental
 Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR., and  Oregon State
 Univ., Gowallis. Agricultural Experiment Station.

 A controlled-environment experiment was initiated to
 evaluate the  influence  of CO2  enrichment on the
 growth and  ontogeny of bigleaf maple (Acer macro-
 phyllum).  Development of seedlings was monitored
 from seed germination through the first five months of
 ontogeny in growth chambers containing 350 (ambi-
 ent), 575 and  700 ppm CO2. Seedling shoot elonga-
 tion, leaf and branch expansion, and foliage retention
 were altered by ambient CO2 conditions. These pre-
 liminary morphological responses are consistent with
 reports from previous  experiments which employed
 tree seedlings pre-conditioned in ambient CO2 condi-
 tions. Alterations in seedling crown and leaf morpholo-
 gy due to CO2 enrichment may influence future adapt-
 ive responses of tree species to environmental stress
 agents.

 Keywords: 'Carbon dioxide, 'Maple trees,  Dose-re-
 sponse relationships. Plant growth. Seedlings, Germi-
 nation, Morphology, Ontogenesis, 'Acer macrophyl-
 lum.
 PB91-162693/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Advanced  Screening Model  for Complex Terrain
 Applications.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tnangle
 Park,  NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
 sessment Lab.
 A J Cimorelli,S.G.Perry,andD.J.Burns.1991,14p
 EPA/600/D-91/005
 Prepared  in  cooperation with Computer Sciences
 Corp  Research Triangle Park,  NC., and National Oce-
 anic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring,
 MD. Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Div.

 A methodology has been developed to use the ad-
 vanced techniques of the Complex Terrain Dispersion
 Model in  situations where on-site  meteorological
 measurements are limited  or unavailable. The ap-
 proach, known as CTSCREEN, uses actual source and
 terrain characteristics to model plume impacts with  an
 extensive array of predetermined meteorological con-
 ditions. CTSCREEN  compares favorably with other
 complex  terrain screening models (ones that require
 collection of on-site meteorological data) and is a great
 improvement over screening models that also use pre-
 determined meteorology.
Keywords: 'Plumes, 'Air pollution, 'Air quality display
model. Meteorology, Mathematical models,  Environ-
mental transport, Complex terrain, Comparison, Per-
formance  evaluation, 'Complex Terrain  Dispersion
Model, 'CTSCREEN model, CTDMPLUS model.


PB91-162701/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Proceedings Hazardous  Materials  Management
Conference/Central  (3rd).  O'Hare  Exposition
Center Held at Rosemont, Illinois, on March 13-15,
1990.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
J. S. Bridges, and M. A. Curran. Mar 90,11 p EPA/600/
D-91 /006

The purpose of the paper is to provide  an overview of
the Waste Reduction Evaluations at  Federal Sites
(WREAFS) Program and to discuss the  results of com-
pleted waste minimization opportunity assessments
within the Federal community. The overview contains
documentation of waste  minimization assessments
conducted at the Philadelphia Navy  Shipyard,  Fort
Riley (Kansas) Army Forces Command, the Naval Un-
dersea Warfare Engineering Station (Keyport, Wash-
ington), and the VA Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.
In addition, an ongoing assessment is  being conduct-
ed at the AWBERC (EPA, Cinn., OH), and a waste
minimization research study is being  conducted on
waste solvents under an interagency agreement with
the US Air Force. These projects have investigated
waste minimization opportunities for a wide variety of
waste streams  and the recommendation  presented
significantly  reduced waste  generation and provide
savings in raw material and disposal costs.

Keywords: 'Waste management,  'Hazardous materi-
als, Federal agencies, Cost analysis, Waste disposal,
Environmental protection, Technology transfer. Re-
prints, 'Waste minimization,  'Waste Reduction Eval-
uations at Federal Sites Program.
 PB91-162719/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
 Three  Case  Studies  of  Waste  Minimization
 through Use of Metal Recovery Processes.
 Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Rome (Italy).
 M  L Apel J S  Bridges, M. F. Szabo, and S. H.
 Ambekar. 1989,27p EPA/600/D-91/007
 Contract EPA-68-03-3389
 Presented at International Symposium on Metals Spe-
 ciation (2nd), Separation and Recovery, Rome, Italy,
 May 14-19, 1989. Prepared in cooperation with Illinois
 Inst. of Tech., Chicago. Notre Dame Industrial Waste
 Elimination Research Center. Sponsored by Environ-
 mental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Re-
 duction Engineering Lab., and PEI Associates, Inc.,
 Cincinnati, OH.

 Metal bearing wastestreams containing heavy metals
 are generated  through several industrial processes.
 Standard pretreatment practices  usually involve  re-
 moval of  these metals from the effluent prior to dis-
 charge using a  variety of techniques, often resulting in
 production of a sludge which must be disposed as a
 hazardous waste. With the increased costs of hazard-
 ous waste disposal, waste minimization practices and
 techniques designed to reduce the quantity of hazard-
 ous waste generated in industrial countries are becom-
 ing more prevalent. The paper presents the findings of
 three waste minimization case studies concerned with
 the recovery of  metals from two industrial  wastes-
 treams in the printed circuit board industry and one in
 the automotive repair industry. The purpose of these
 studies was to technically and economically evaluate
 the effectiveness of three metal recovery operations in
 minimizing the  volume of hazardous waste generated
 at each facility.

 Keywords: 'Materials recovery, 'Heavy metals, 'Haz-
 ardous materials, 'Waste management, Case studies.
 Industrial wastes. Waste disposal, Cost analysis. Elec-
 tronic circuits. Automotive industry, Repair shops. Re-
 prints, 'Waste  minimization, Source reduction.


 PB91-162727/REB                PC A02/MF A01
 Future of Expert Systems in the Environmental
 Protection Agency.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
 Reduction Engineering Lab.
  54    Vol. 91,  No. 2

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                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
D. Greathouse, and J. Decker. C1989,10p EPA/600/
D-91/008
Presented at the American Chemical Society Confer-
ence, Miami, FL, September 10-15,1989. Prepared in
cooperation with Computer Sciences Corp., Cincinnati,
OH.

As in other organizations, the history of expert systems
in the Environmental Protection Agency is very short.
Approximately five years ago, the focus of the expert
systems activities was to assess the feasibility and util-
ity  as environmental decision aids. Last year the
Agency approved a five year funding initiative to sup-
port development of a number of systems to assist in
management and implementation of Superfund activi-
ties. Whereas initial  systems were limited to a few en-
gineering and technical issues, the scope of todays
systems includes legal, regulatory and administrative
issues.  Notwithstanding this rapid evolution in scope
and funding, expert systems are  not currently main-
stream  decision making tools  in the Environmental
Protection Agency.  Many decision makers are either
not familiar with expert systems or are skeptical that
they can provide meaningful and reliable advice. Since
expert systems are so new and  have not yet  been
proved for wide spread application in regulatory envi-
ronment, their  future is  uncertain. With  this  back-
ground, the paper will propose one or more scenarios
tor the future of expert systems in the Environmental
Protection  Agency.  (Copyright (c)  1990  American
Chemical Society.)

Keywords: 'Environmental tests, *US EPA, 'Environ-
mental  management, Forecasting, Superfund, Waste
management. Legal aspects. Pollution regulations, De-
cision making, Technology transfer, 'Expert systems.
PB91-162743/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Expert Systems to Assist in Evaluation of Meas-
urement Data. Symposium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
D. G. Greathouse. c1991, 7p EPA/600/D-91 /010
See also PB89-129449. Presented at the International
Symposium (1st),  Field  Screening  Methods,  Las
Vegas, NV., October 1988.

Expert systems are computer programs designed to
provide advice in a specialized area that is comparable
to the advice which would be provided by an expert or
knowledgeable  person in the area.  Development of
these systems for a particular application is feasible if
expert(s) are available who can perform the evaluation
in a reasonable  length of time. Evaluation of measure-
ment data that are collected according to standard
protocols can usually be performed by experts in the
laboratory sciences and application fields with possi-
ble assistance from a professional statistician. Expert
systems have the potential for improving the productiv-
ity of less experienced persons responsible for evalu-
ating or interpreting measurement data. The Risk Re-
duction Engineering  Laboratory  has developed  an
expert system to assist in evaluation of the chemical
compatibility of flexible membrane liners based on the
data  from  prescribed  physical measurements per-
formed on sample specimens of the liner material. The
goal of these tests is to determine if a liner material will
be chemically resistant to a leachate from a hazardous
waste landfill. The system provides an example of the
type of systems that could  be developed to improve
the quality  of decisions based on measurement data.
The system will  be described and demonstrated (if de-
sired) to illustrate the type of systems that could be de-
veloped for other types of measurement data interpre-
tations.

Keywords:  'Environmental tests, 'Environmental sur-
veys, 'Data processing, Technology transfer, Quality
control, Waste  disposal, Decision making. Geophys-
ics, Quality assurance, Reprints, 'Expert systems,
Flexible Membrane Liner System(FLEX).


PB91-162750/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Development and Application of a Research  Data-
base for Drinking  Water Systems Evaluation. Sym-
posium paper.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
S. Campbell, and J. Finkeldey. Apr 89,15p EPA/600/
D-91/011
Presented  at the AWWA (American Water Works As-
sociation)  Computer Specialty Conference, Denver,
CO., April 2-4,1989.
The Computer Information System (CIS) that was de-
veloped by the Drinking Water Research Division gives
fast, easy access to more than 521,000 records from
nearly 20 past and current research projects. The data
base management system  can generate simple  re-
ports as well  as perform complex statistical functions
for analysis of water quality data.

Keywords: 'Water  treatment,  'Potable water,  'Infor-
mation systems, Water quality, Data base manage-
ment. Water pollution.
PB91-162768/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Database  Management  Techniques  to  Ensure
Project Integrity. Annual SAS Users Group Inter-
national Conference (14th). Held in San Francisco,
California on April 9-12, 1989.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
S. Campbell, and J. Finkeldey. 1989, 9p EPA/600/D-
90/012
Prepared  in  cooperation  with  Computer  Sciences
Corp., Cincinnati, OH.

The Drinking Water Research Division of the Risk Re-
duction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati,  Ohio is
responsible  for conducting  field  scale  research
projects on the cost and performance of drinking water
treatment technology in support of the Safe Drinking
Water  Act. To ensure  project integrity (prevent  gar-
bage in/garbage out); the data base manager should
be an integral part of the project design from the begin-
ning. Failure to use data base management tech-
niques can lead to a variety of problems. Such problem
areas include: extensive data re-entry, data entry error,
duplicate  or missing records,  and difficulty of data
analysis. The purpose of the paper is to highlight these
problem areas and methods to ameliorate them. Case
study control data entry and analysis to  ensure rele-
vant project results.  Suggestions are also provided to
improve future projects.

Keywords: 'Data base management, 'Water treat-
ment,  'Potable water,  'Research and development,
Technology  utilization. Cost  analysis,  Performance
evaluation. Information transfer, Information systems,
Management planning, Data processing, Personnel
management, Reprints, Safe Drinking Water Act of
1974.
PB91-162776/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
Assay of Beta-Glucuronidase in Non-coli Escheri-
chia  Using  EC-Mug   Medium   and the Colilert
(Trade Name) System.
American Water Works  Association Research Foun-
dation, Denver, CO.
E. W. Rice, M. J. Allen, D. J. Brenner, and S. C. Edberg.
1990,11 p EPA/600/D-91 /013
Pub. in Proceedings of the American Water Works As-
sociation, Water Quality Technical Conference, San
Diego CA., November 1990. Prepared in cooperation
with Yale Univ., New Haven, CT.  School  of Medicine,
and Centers  for Disease Control,  Atlanta, GA. Spon-
sored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati,
OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

Recently, Escherichia species other than Escherichia
coli have been isolated  from potable water. Environ-
mental isolates as well as clinical isolates of E. fergu-
sonii, E. hermannii, and  E. vulneris were assayed for
the enzyme  B-glucuronidase by using  EC  MUG
medium and  the Colilert system. None of the isolates
were positive for the enzyme by either method.

Keywords:  'Glucuronidase,   'Escherichia,  'Water
microbiology, 'Culture media, 'Potable water, Predic-
tive value of tests, Enterpbacteriaceae, Species speci-
ficity. Waste water, Reprints, 'Colilert system.


PB91-162784/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Factors Affecting the Applicability of Plasma Sys-
tems to the Cleanup of Superfund Sites.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction  Engineering Lab.
L J Staley. 1991,11pEPA/600/D-91/014
Presented at Annual Conference on Plasma Applica-
tions, (1st) Idaho Falls, ID., January 15-17,1991.

For the past ten years, the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) has been evaluating plasma-based
thermal treatment systems for hazardous  waste. Al-
though many attempts have been made to evaluate
these devices, very little performance data have been
gathered. EPA is still interested in evaluating the use-
fulness of plasma based  hazardous waste treatment
and routinely receives proposals for testing new and
different plasma systems.  Unfortunately, however, ele-
ments of many of these proposals suggest that these
studies would be a little more successful than previous
ones. Part of the reason for this may be that the devel-
opers of plasma systems do not clearly understand
what is required  of a hazardous  waste treatment
system, especially one which will be used to treat haz-
ardous wastes onsite.  The  paper discusses  factors
that, based  on EPA's experience, are key to the suc-
cessful implementation of a plasma-based waste treat-
ment process.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Remedial action, 'Hazardous
materials, 'Waste treatment, 'Plasma heating, On-site
investigations, US  EPA, Plasma devices, High temper-
ature tests, Site characterization, Technology utiliza-
tion, Operating, Soil contamination,  Water pollution,
Pollution regulations, Standards compliance, Reprints,
'Cleanup.
PB91-162792/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Methods of Removing Drinking  Water Contami-
nants and  Their Limitations: Inorganics and  Ra-
dionuclides. Technical paper.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
T. J. Sorg. 1991,15p EPA/600/D-91 /015
Presented at Water Quality Association, Annual Con-
vention and Exposition, San Antonio, TX., March 14-
18,1990.

In 1986, Congress amended the Safe Drinking Water
Act requiring USEPA  to  regulate  83 contaminants
within 3 years according to a specified scheduled time,
and 25 more contaminants every three years starting
in 1990. The majority of the 83 contaminants to be reg-
ulated will be organic compounds with only about 15
being inorganics  and radionuclides. When EPA sets a
regulation (a maximum  contaminant level) for a con-
taminant, it must also specify the 'best available tech-
nology' (BAT) that can be used to remove the contami-
nant.  Because the regulations apply to community
water systems,  the technologies selected  are ones
that are commonly used to treat community size water
systems. Thus, EPA R&D program has focused its ef-
forts on evaluating primarily community applied tech-
nologies  such as conventional coagulation-filtration,
lime softening, ion exchange, adsorption, and mem-
brane process. When BAT is identified for  a specific
contaminant, frequently the BAT will be listed with its
limitations because the process is often not effective
under all water quality conditions. These  same limita-
tions  would also apply  to POU/POE treatment.  The
paper discusses  EPA's regulations on inorganic con-
taminants,  the best available technologies cited by
EPA, and the limitations of these processes. Using ar-
senic as an example, the impact of the contaminant
chemistry and water quality on removals is presented.

Keywords:  'Potable water, 'Water treatment, 'Water
purification, 'Water pollution abatement, 'Best tech-
nology, Water pollution  control, Water quality control,
Pollution  regulations,   Water  pollution  standards,
Standards compliance, Filtration, Adsorption, Technol-
ogy utilization, Membranes, Ion exchanging, Liming
agents.
 PB91-162800/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Evaluating Capacities of GAC Preloaded with a
 Natural Water.
 Environmental Protection  Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
 Drinking Water Research Div.
 T. F. Speth. 1991,16p EPA/600/D-91/016
 Presented at the American Water Works Association
 Annual Conference, Los Angeles,  CA., June 18-22,
 1989.

 Granular activated carbon (GAC) has been shown to
 be a viable treatment technique for the removal of a
 broad spectrum of organic contaminants. To accurate-
 ly model effluent concentrations from a GAC column,
 the effects of background organics must be taken into
 account. Background organics can affect adsorption
 by either competing directly with the target compound,
 or by restricting adsorption by loading onto the carbon
 ahead of the target compound. Recently, there has
 been substantial progress in evaluating the effects of
 preloading on adsorption. In the study,  cis 1,2-dichlor-


                           June 1991     55

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
oethene (DCE) was spiked into water from the Great
Miami aquifer (GMA) and fed to pilot columns which
were preloaded with unspiked GMA water for various
lengths of time. The objectives of the study, therefore,
were to:  (a) evaluate how  preloading of a  natural
groundwater affects the capacity and rate kinetics of
adsorption in pilot columns; (b) evaluate the microco-
lumn scale-up procedure developed by Crittenden, et
at; and (c) determine if different isotherm techniques
have any effect  on the final capacity of  preloaded
carbon.

Keywords: 'Water pollution control, "Granular activat-
ed carbon treatment, Adsorption, Mass transfer, Or-
ganic matter, Aquifers, Ground water, Chlorine organic
compounds, Kinetics, Isotherms,  Scale(Corrosion),
Performance evaluation, "Ethene/dichloro.
PB91-162818/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Coll. of Engineering.
Concept of Presence Absence Testing.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Cincinnati,  OH.
Drinking Water Research Div.
D. J. Reasoner. C1990,17p EPA/600/D-91/017
Presented at a seminar 'Biological Advances in Water
and Wastewater Treatment', Ann Arbor, Ml., February
7-9, 1990. Sponsored by Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.
Coll. of Engineering, Michigan Water Pollution Control
Association, Ann Arbor, and Michigan Dept. of Public
Health, Lansing.

The new Coliform Rule (June 29,  1989) ushered in a
new era in conform compliance requirements for drink-
ing water. The new Coliform Rule sets the maximum
contaminant level goal (MCLG) for coliforms at 0 per
100 ml and adopts a frequency-of-occurrence concept
for  compliance  monitoring. The presence-absence
(PA) approach establishes a coliform compliance limit
based on the fraction of samples that contain coli-
forms during a given time period, in contrast to the old
rule in which compliance was based on the arithmetic
average of coliforms detected in water by the mem-
brane filter (MF) method or the percentage of positive
fermentation  tube (FT) tests  found  over a  30 day
period. The paper discusses the P-A concept as ap-
plied to coliform  compliance monitoring. The  newest
approved method for total coliform testing, the minimal
medium ONPG-MUG (MMO-MUG) test,  is also dis-
cussed. Although the adoption of the P-A concept sim-
plifies coliform reporting, the P-A test may be  a more
sensitive test than either the standard MF or  FT test
for coliform detection. This factor and the sampling re-
quirements for coliform monitoring may force utilities
to be more aggressive in evaluating preventath/e main-
tenance procedures, monitoring the function  of filter
beds and other treatment  processes, and modifying
distribution system management to assist in  meeting
the new coliform rule compliance requirements.

Keywords: 'Potable water, 'Water pollution standards,
'Water  pollution sampling, 'Water treatment. *Coli-
form bacteria, Aquatic microbiology, Distribution sys-
tems. Regulations, Comparison, Water quality man-
agement Biotechnology, Reprints, 'Coliform Rule,
National Primary  Drinking Water Regulations.
PB91-162826/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Service Life of Geosynthetlcs in Hazardous Waste
Management Faculties.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. E. Landreth, and I. D. Peggs. C1990,11p EPA/600/
D-91/018
Pub. in Geosynthetics: Microstructure and Perform-
ance, ASTM STP 1076, p26-33 1990. Presented at the
ASTM Symposium on Microstructure and the Perform-
ance of Geosynthetics. Orlando, FL. January 1989.
Prepared  in cooperation with American Society for
Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

The potential service life of synthetic polymer materi-
als (geosynthetics) is of immediate importance in all
countries where municipal solid waste and hazardous
waste landfills are lined with these materials. Because
of the  need to know more about the aging characteris-
tics and the potential service life of polymeric products
as they are used in modem waste disposal environ-
ments, experts met (December 1987) to review the
current state of knowledge of the service life of flexible
membrane liners (FML) and other polymeric materials
used in such environments. Part of the meeting  also
addressed potential research needs so that geosynth-
etic researchers can apply their know-how and talents
to pressing, first-order research.  The  general  un-
knowns of landfill liner systems are outlined here.

Keywords: 'Geotechnical fabrics, Hazardous wastes,
Solid wastes, Membrane structures. Polymeric films,
Aging tests(Materials), Microstructure, Flexibility, Sani-
tary landfills, Liners.
PB91-162834/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Governmental  Refuse Collection and Disposal Asso-
ciation, Silver Spring, MD.
Geosynthetic  Leachate Collection Systems.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
R. E. Landreth. C1990,13p EPA/600/D-91/019, GR-
0028
Presented at  GRCDA's Annual International Solid
Waste Exposition (27th), Tulsa, OK., August 14-17,
1989. Sponsored by Governmental Refuse Collection
and Disposal Association, Silver Spring, MD.

The   Resource  Conservation   and  Recovery  Act
(RCRA) of 1976 and its 1984  Hazardous and Solid
Waste Amendments  (HSWA) required the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection  Agency (EPA) to develop criteria
and/or standards for the management,  including land
disposal and long-term containment, of hazardous and
nonhazardous  wastes  that would be  protective of
human health  and the environment. EPA has been
conducting laboratory and field investigations to im-
prove containment strategies that incorporate state-of-
the-art materials and design alternatives. Geosynthe-
tics, including flexible membrane liners  (FMLs), geon-
ets, geotextiies,  and plastic pipe, are  playing an in-
creasing role as structural components of containment
facilities. One must be mindful to utilize these relatively
new materials in ways that will not exceed their design
limitations. The paper will discuss factors important to
the use of geosynthetic materials in the design and
construction of the leachate collection system parts of
the containment unit. Laboratory testing of these ma-
terials to assist in material selection is also briefly dis-
cussed.

Keywords: 'Leaching, 'Waste  disposal, 'Land pollu-
tion  control,  'Waste  management,  Environmental
transport,  Pollution regulations, Forecasting, Perform-
ance  evaluation, Design  criteria, Laboratory tests.
Field tests, Reprints, 'Geosynthetic materials, Flexible
membrane liners, Resource Conservation and Recov-
ery Act.


PB91-163493/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Field Evaluation of Barriers  to Walleye Egg  and
Larva Survival in the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin.
Journal article.
Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton.
N. A. Auer, and M. f. Auer. c1987,11 p EPA/600/J-
87/543
Pub. in American Fisheries Society Symposium 2, p93-
101  1987. Sponsored  by  Environmental Research
Lab.-Duluth, MN.

A substantial  population of walleye Stizostedion vi-
treum inhabits the lower Fox River between  DePere
and Green Bay,  Wisconsin. Once an indigenous spe-
cies,  walleyes are  now maintained through stocking;
natural recruitment has not been observed over the 7-
year stocking period. In the manuscript an examination
is conducted of the potential importance of water qual-
ity as a barrier to walleye egg hatching  success in the
river. A novel technique involving dialysis membranes
was employed to study the effect of river water quality
on egg development uninfluenced by factors such as
fungal infestation, predation,  or siltation. Gametes
were stripped from  several ripe walleyes collected
from the lower Fox River in April 1985.  Fertilized eggs
and filtered river water were placed  in dialysis tubes
and rotated on a rack in a large tank receiving a contin-
uous flow of river water. Hatch success  averaged 61 %
(range, 34-82%) and varied with the size of the female
used as an egg source. The observed hatching suc-
cess is similar to the best egg survivals measured in
many field and laboratory studies. Measurements of
pH, dissolved oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia-
and nitrite-nitrogen offered additional support for the
conclusion that water quality was not a barrier to wal-
leye egg development in the Fox River.  Spawning sub-
strate, sediment chemistry, water temperature fluctua-
tions, predation, and fungal infestation  may be impor-
tant barriers to natural recruitment of walleyes in the
lower Fox River. (Copyright (c) American Fisheries So-
ciety, 1987.)
Keywords: 'Salmon, 'Fox River(Wisconsin), 'Fisher-
ies, Field tests, Reproduction(Biology), Water quality,
pH, Sediments, Temperature, Fungi, Ovum, Reprints,
'Stizostedion vitreum.
PB91-163501/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Optical Heterogeneity in Green Bay. Journal article.
Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton. Dept. of Civil
Engineering.
S. W. Effler, and M. T. Auer. C1987,7p EPA/600/J-87/
544
Grants EPA-R810076010, EPA-R809521010
Pub. in Water  Resources Bulletin, v23 n5 p937-941
1987. Prepared in cooperation with Upstate Freshwa-
ter Inst, Inc., Syracuse,  NY. Sponsored by Environ-
mental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.

Differences in  light penetration and light attenuating
components and processes are  documented  along
112 km of the major (NE/SW) axis of Green Bay (Lake
Michigan) during a three-day cruise (May 25-27,1982).
Measurements included diffuse attenuation of down-
welling irradiance (K(sub d)), Secchi disk transparency
(SD),  phytoplankton  pigments  (chlorophyll a and
phaeophytin), turbidity (T(sub n)), and dissolved color
(absorbance). The heterogeneity is due to the charac-
teristics  and positions of  entry of fluvial discharges to
the bay as they influence levels of  dissolved color
(Gelbstoff), phytoplankton standing crop, and inorgan-
ic participates, identification of key processes regulat-
ing light penetration and their potential for response to
pollution control measures can aid in the development
of a water quality management plan for Green Bay.

Keywords: 'Water quality management, 'Green Bay,
'Lightpenetration, 'Attenuation, 'Heterogeneity, Lake
Michigan, Optical properties, Water pollution control,
Turbidity, Color, Phytoplankton, Color, Reprints.


PB91-163519/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Economies of Scale and Scope in Water  Supply.
Journal article.
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Cincinnati, OH.
Water Engineering Research Lab.
H. Y. Kim, and R. M. Clark. C1988,26p EPA/600/J-88/
557
Pub. in  Regional Science and Urban Economics 18,
D479-502 1988. Prepared in cooperation with Western
Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green.

The study examines the  multiproduct nature  of water
supply relative to economies of scale and scope. The
water utility is viewed as a  multiproduct firm providing
residential and nonresidential services with spatial var-
iation. There are no significant economies  of scale in
the utility's  overall  operation. The  utility, however,
enjoys  considerable economies for nonresidential
water supply but suffers from diseconomies in residen-
tial supply. The economies of scale achieved in water
treatment are  mostly lost in the distribution of  water.
The utility on  the whole experiences economies of
scope associated with joint production of the two serv-
ices. Furthermore, water utilities have no perceptible
tendency to behave as a natural monopoly. (Copyright
(c) 1988, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Hol-
land).)

Keywords:  'Water supply,  'Cost estimates-, 'Water
utilities, 'Economies of scale, Water treatment, Spatial
distribution,  Water   distribution(Applied),  Economic
analysis. Mathematical models, Operating costs, Eco-
nomic forecasting, Economic models, Cost engineer-
ing, Reprints.
 PB91-163527/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Little Rock Lake (Wisconsin): Perspectives on an
 Experimental Ecosystem Approach to  Seepage
 Lake Acidification. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 C. J. Watras, and T. M. Frost. c1989,11p EPA/600/J-
 89/505
 Pub. in Archives of Environmental Contamination and
 Toxicology 18, pi 57-165 1989. Prepared in coopera-
 tion with Wisconsin Univ.-Madison. Center for Limnolo-
 gy, and Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madi-
 son. Bureau of Research.

 Ecosystem-level experiments are essential  in  assess-
 ing the effects  of  environmental  perturbations like
 acidification. The Little Rock Lake Acidification Project
 was initiated to expand insights from previous acidifi-
 56     Vol. 91, No. 2

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
cation experiments with  whole drainage lakes to a
seepage lake system. It involves the gradual acidifica-
tion of a small (18 ha), seepage lake in northcentral
Wisconsin. The goals are to document the biological
and chemical changes which occur,  to identify the
direct and indirect mechanisms which regulate  re-
sponses, and to expand  insights to a class  of lakes
previously understudied. In the paper, the authors de-
scribe the history and rationale of the project and they
discuss in general terms  the utility and constraints of
whole-ecosystem manipulations.

Keywords: "Little Rock Lake, 'Acidification, 'Ecosys-
tems, *Water pollution, pH,  Wisconsin, Environmental
effects, Air water interactions, Air  pollution, Experi-
mental design, Biological  effects. Chemical properties.
Seepage, Hydrology, Acid rain, Reprints.
PB91-163535/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Randomized Intervention Analysis and the Inter-
pretation of Whole-Ecosystem Experiments. Jour-
nal article.
Wisconsin Univ.-Madison. Center for Limnology.
S. R. Carpenter, T. M. Frost, D. Heisey, and T. K. Kratz.
C1989,13pEPA/600/J-89/506
Grants NSF-DEB80-12313, NSF-BSR83-08918
Pub. in Ecology 70, n4 p1142-1152 1989. Sponsored
by Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MM., and Na-
tional Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

Randomized intervention  analysis  (RIA) is used  to
detect changes in a manipulated ecosystem  relative to
an undisturbed reference system. It requires paired
time series of data from both ecosystems before and
after manipulation. RIA is  not affected by non-normal
errors in data. Monte Carlo simulation indicated that,
even when serial autocorrelation was substantial, the
true P value (i.e., from nonautocorrelated data) was
<.05 when the P value from autocorrelated data was
<.01. The authors applied RIA to data from 12 lakes
(3 manipulated and 9 reference ecosystems) over 3 yr.
RIA consistently indicated changes after major manip-
ulations and only rarely indicated  changes in  ecosys-
tems that were not manipulated. Less than 3% of the
data sets they analyzed had equivocal results because
of serial  autocorrelation. RIA appears to be a reliable
method for determining whether a nonrandom change
has occurred in a manipulated ecosystem. Ecological
arguments must be combined with statistical evidence
to determine whether the changes demonstrated  by
RIA can be attributed to a  specific ecosystem manipu-
lation. (Copyright (c) 1989  by the Ecological  Society of
America.)

Keywords:  'Ecosystems,  'Stochastic  processes,
'Lakes,  'Random  processes, Time series analysis,
Monte Carlo method, Experimental design,  Biological
effects, Statistical analysis, Limnology,  Water  pollu-
tion, pH, Acidification, Little Rock Lake, Reprints.


PB91-163543/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Effects  of Dicofol on  Mallard  Eggshell Quality.
Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
J. K. Bennett, S. E. Dominguez, and W. L. Griffis.
C1990,8p EPA/600/J-90/340
Pub. in Archives of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology 19, p907-912  1990. Prepared in coopera-
tion with NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis,
OR.

Dicofol is an organochlorine acaricide structurally simi-
lar to DDE and there is concern that it may effect avian
reproduction.  Effects of  dietary  dicofol on  mallard
(Anas platyrhynchos) egg production and eggshell
quality were evaluated; the mallard is moderately sen-
sitive to DDE shell-thinning toxicity. Hens in egg pro-
duction were fed either 0, 3,10, 30, or 100 microgram/
g dicofol for 42 days (the formulation of dicofol con-
tained <0.1 % DDT-related impurities). A positive con-
trol study was also conducted in which mallard hens in
egg production were fed 0, 3,10, and 100 microgram/
g DDE for 42 days. Egg weight, shell thickness, shell
strength, and dried shell weight were measured for all
eggs produced. Egg production was not affected by di-
cofol diets but the percentages of cracked and soft-
shelled eggs from birds on the 100 microgram/g dico-
fol  diet  were significantly (p  <0.05)  greater. Shell
strength, thickness, and weight were negatively relat-
ed to dicofol dietary concentrations.

Keywords: 'Organochlorine insecticides,  'Toxicology,
Food consumption, Reproduction(Biology),  Diet, Body
weight,  Reprints,  'Acaricides,  'Dicofol,  'Mallards,
'Eggshells.
PB91-163550/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Subchronic Effects of Sodium Selenite and Selen-
omethionine on Several Immune-Functions in Mal-
lards. Journal article.
Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
A. Fairbrother, and J. Fowles. c1990,11 p EPA/600/J-
90/341
Pub. in Archives of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology 19, p836-844 1990.

The subchronic effects of selenomethionine  (SeM)
and sodium selenite (SeL) on several immunologic,
hematologic, and serologic parameters in mallards
were measured, using concentrations in drinking water
of 0, 0.5, and 3.5 mg/L selenium (se) as SeL and 2.2
mg/L (Se) as SeM. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used
as an immunosuppressive control at 20 mg/L. A bat-
tery of in vivo and in vitro immunologic assays was per-
formed  on each bird throughout the  12 week study.
The SeM-treated group also exhibited a significantly
increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ac-
tivity and an increased plasma glutathione peroxidase
(GPX) activity (p < or = 0.05). Body weight and water
consumption of treated birds did not differ from con-
trols. Organ weights were not significanlty affected by
any Se  treatment.  Sodium selenite-treated birds  dis-
played not detectable differences in immune-function
or Se accumulation in tissues as compared to controls.
Serum ALT  activity was significantly increased  in the
3.5 mg/L group, although to a lesser extent than in
SeM-treated birds. Cyclophosphamide significantly de-
pressed white blood cell number, testes weights,  and
also suppressed the DTH reaction. Concentrations of
Se  as SeL did not affect the immune system, whereas
low concentration of SeM (2.2  mg/L Se) appeared to
suppress  certain aspects  of the mallard immune re-
sponse.

Keywords: 'Toxicity, 'Immune system, 'Water pollu-
tion effects(Animals),  Body weight, Water consump-
tion, Cyclophosphamide, Glutathione peroxidase, Leu-
kocyte count, Cellular  immunity, Antibody formation,
Blood chemistry, Organ weight, Hemagglutinins,  Re-
prints, 'Sodium selenite, 'Selenomethionine,  'Mal-
lards.
PB91-163568/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Toxicity of  Sediments from Western Lake Erie
and the Maumee River at Toledo, Ohio, 1987: Im-
plications for Current Dredged Material  Disposal
Practices. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
R. A. Hoke, J. P. Giesy, G. T. Ankley, J. L. Newsted,
and J. R. Adams. C1990,18p EPA/600/J-90/342
Pub. in Jnl. of Great Lakes Research 16, n3 p457-470
1990. Prepared  in cooperation with  Michigan State
Univ., East Lansing, and Corps of Engineers, Buffalo,
NY. Buffalo District.

The toxicity of sediments in the Maumee River, the
Maumee River-western Lake Erie federal navigation
channel, and selected areas of western Lake Erie was
measured  using  four assays:  Photobacterium phos-
phoreum 15-minute bioluminescence inhibition (Micro-
tox) in sediment porewaters and elutriates; Ceriodaph-
nia dubia 7-day survival and reproduction; Pimephales
promelas 7-day larval survival and growth in sediment
elutriates; and Chironomus tentans 10-day growth inhi-
bition in whole sediments. The Microtox assay gener-
ally was the most sensitive of the four assays used in
the investigation. Sediment  elutriates were  always
equally or more toxic than porewaters from the same
location when tested using the Microtox assay. The
greatest toxicity in the Microtox and C. tentans assays
was observed with porewaters or elutriates and sedi-
ments collected near point sources of contaminants to
the Maumee River. Very little toxicity was observed in
any assay using open-lake navigation channel or dis-
posal site sediments or sediment extracts. Previous in-
vestigations also  have reported little acute toxicity and
little or  no bioaccumulation of any measured sediment
contaminants from study area sediments during labo-
ratory toxicity or  bioaccumulation assays. Sediments
from the Lake Erie portion of the navigation channel
evaluated  during the investigation were suitable  for
open-lake  disposal based on the lack of observed ef-
fects in the four assays.

Keywords:      'Toxicity,      'Water     pollution
effects(Animals),  'Sediments, 'Lake  Erie, 'Maumee
River,    Bioassay,     Environmental    monitoring,
Tables(Data), Luminescence, Dose-response relation-
ships, Reproduction(Biology),  Reprints,  Pimephales
promelas, Chironomus tentans, Ceriodaphnia dubia.


PB91-163576/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Overview of Case Studies on Recovery of Aquatic
Systems from Disturbance. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
G J  Niemi, P. DeVore, N. Detenbeck, D. Taylor, and
A. Lima. C1990, 18p EPA/600/J-90/343
Pub. in Environmental Management, v14 n5 p571-587
Sep/Oct 90. Prepared in cooperation with Minnesota
Univ.-Duluth. Natural Resources Research Inst., and
Washington  Univ.,  Seattle. Center  for  Streamside
Studies.

An extensive review of the  published literature identi-
fied more than 150 case studies in which some aspect
of resilience in freshwater systems was reported. Ap-
proximately 79% of systems studied were lotic and the
remainder lentic. Most of  the stressor  types were
chemical with DDT (N = 29) and rotenone (N = 15)
the most common. The most common nonchemical
stressors were logging activity (N =  16), flooding (N  =
8), dredging (N = 3), and drought (N = 7). Based on
these criteria, all systems in these studies seem to be
resilient to most disturbances with most recovery times
being less than three years. Exceptions included when
(1) the disturbance resulted  in physical alteration of the
existing habitat, (2) residual pollutants remained in the
system, or (3) the system was isolated and recoloniza-
tion was suppressed.

Keywords:  'Aquatic  ecosystems,  'Environmental
impact assessments,  'Recovery, 'Water pollution ef-
fects, Case studies, Freshwater, Site surveys, Long
term  effects, Quality assurance, Biological  effects,
Chemical compounds, Flooding, Dredging, Drought,
Lumbering, Reprints.
 PB91-163584/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Optimal Characterization of Structure for Predic-
 tion of Properties. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 S. C. Basak, G. J. Niemi, and G. D. Veith. c1990,22p
 EPA/600/J-90/344, CONTRIB-64
 Pub. in Jnl. of Mathematical Chemistry 4, p185-205
 1990. Prepared in cooperation with Minnesota  Univ.-
 Duluth. Natural Resources Research Inst.

 Different topological and physicochemical parameters
 have been used to predict hydrophobicity (log P, octa-
 nol-water) of chemicals. The authors calculated a hy-
 drogen bonding parameter (HB1) and a large number
 of molecular connectivity and complexity indices for a
 diverse set of 382 molecules.  It is known from earlier
 studies that topological  indices (TIs) predict properties
 of congeneric sets reasonably well. Since HB1 is an
 approximate quantifier of  hydrogen bonding and has
 integral values, the authors used HB1 to classify the di-
 verse set into strongly and weakly hydrogen bonding
 subsets. In an attempt to  examine the utility of TIs in
 predicting properties of relatively similar groups of mol-
 ecules, they carried out a  correlation of log P with TIs
 for a subset (n = 139) of the original diverse set
 (n=382)  with  a  weak  hydrogen  bonding  ability
 (HB1 =0). Results show that TIs give a better predic-
 tive model for the more  homogeneous subset as com-
 pared to the diverse set  of  molecules.

 Keywords:  'Molecular structure, 'Hydrogen bonding,
 'Physicochemical properties,  'Organic compounds,
 'Risk assessment. Toxicology, Parametric equations,
 Statistical  analysis,  Octanols,  Water,  Topology,
 Tables(Data), Reprints,  'Partition coefficients, 'Struc-
 ture activity relationships, Hydrophobicity.
 PB91-163592/REB                PCA01/MFA01
 Seven-Day Tests and Chronic Tests. Journal arti-
 cle.
 Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
 T. J. Norberg-King. C1990,2p EPA/600/J-90/345
 Pub. in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,  v9
 p1435-1436 Dec 90.

 The article 'Predicting Chronic Toxicity with Fathead
 Minnows' by Teresa J. Norberg-King presents valuable
 data concerning the 5 or 7 d larval (5-7dL) test with fat-
 head minnows. However, the literature review and the
 analysis of results give the reader the impression that
 the 5-7dL and the  early  life-stage (ELS)  tests  are
 equivalent to  chronic (i.e., life cycle-LC) tests. The


                           June 1991    57

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
letter to the editor questions the author's criterion for
prediction of chronic toxicity.


Keywords: 'Minnows, 'Toxicity, Bioassay, Test meth-
ods, Reproduction(Biology), Reprints.
PB91-163600/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Effect of Lindane on  Intestinal Nitroreductase,
Azoreductase,  SS-Glucuronidase,  Dechlorinase,
and Dehydrochlorinase Activity. Journal article.
Health Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC.
R. W. Chadwick, J. Chang, L. R. Forehand, J. E. Long,
and M. C. Duffy. C1990,11p EPA/600/J-90/346
Pub. in Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, v38
p48-56 Sep 90.  Prepared  in cooperation with North
Carolina  Univ. at Chapel  Hill, and Environmental
Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle
Park, NC.

The effect of daily P.O. injections of 20 mg/kg lindane
on nitroreductase,  azoreductase,  B-glucuronidase,
dechlorinase and dehydrochlorinase enzyme activity in
the rat intestinal  tract was  investigated after  2 weeks
and 5  weeks of  treatment. Antibiotics were  adminis-
tered to half of the treated  rats after 4 weeks of treat-
ment.  Results  of the study indicated that lindane sig-
nificantly increased nitro reductase and azoreductase
activity in the small intestine, that there were regional
differences in  the effect of lindane as well as differ-
ences dependent on the exposure duration. The  re-
sults also suggest the presence of substantial levels of
mucosal enzyme in the small intestine.

Keywords:  'Lindane, 'Small intestine, 'Enzymology,
Glucuronidase, Rats, Intestinal mucosa, Gas chroma-
tography,  Enterobacteriaceae,  Reprints, Nitroreduc-
tase, Azoreductase, Dechlorinase, Dehydrochlorinase.
 PB91-163618/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.
 Interdisciplinary  Approach  to  Assessing  the
 Health Risk of Air Toxic Chemicals: An Overview.
 Journal article.
 Northrop Services, Inc./Environmental Sciences, Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC.
 E. C. Grose. M. J. K. Selgrade, P. J. Busneli, J. E.
 Simmons, and J. Allen. c1990,15p EPA/600/J-90/
 347
 Contract EPA-68-02-4450
 Pub. in Toxicology and Industrial  Health, v6 n5 p157-
 169 Sep 90. Sponsored by Health Effects Research
 Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.


 To assist the regulatory branch of the Environmental
 Protection Agency in addressing the risk assessment
 of air toxics, the Health Effects Research Laboratory
 initiated a comprehensive inhalation toxicology pro-
 gram to provide key health effects data missing from
 the current data base. A priority ranking of chemicals
 based on the potential for substantial human exposure
 and the need for health effects data was developed to
 identify  candidate  chemicals  for lexicological  re-
 search. The major goal of the program is to evaluate
 the concentration-response  from acute,  intermittent
 and subchronic inhalation exposures to developmen-
 tal,  genetic, hepatic, immunologic, neurologic, pulmo-
 nary and reproductive toxicity. Although the main em-
 phasis is on inhalation as the primary route of expo-
 sure, some of the laboratories will compare inhalation
 to other routes, such as oral, to better understand the
 influence of route of exposure and hence the potential
 applicability of existing health data. Acute and intermit-
 tent exposures will be done for all compounds. Upon
 evaluation of the acute results, a decision will be made
 as to whether  subchronic studies are needed. End-
 points that show unusual sensitivity may be investigat-
 ed in greater detail. The total length of exposure will
 vary from 1 to 21 days. The daily length of exposure
 will range from 1 to 8 hr. If adverse effects are ob-
 served at ambient levels, the time to recovery after ex-
 posure will be investigated. (Copyright (c) 1990 Prince-
 ton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc.)

 Keywords: 'Air pollution effects(Humans), 'Risk as-
 sessment,  'Health hazards, Reproduction(Biology),
 Mutagenicity tests, Liver, Immune system,  Nervous
 system. Lung, Biochemistry, Teratogens, Environmen-
 tal exposure pathways, Reprints.
PB91-163626/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Effect of Acute Exposure  to  Boric Acid on  the
Male Reproductive System  of the Rat. Journal  arti-
cle.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
R. L. Under, L. F. Strader, and G. L. Rehnberg. C1990,
16pEPA/600/J-90/348
Pub. in Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
v31 n2p133-146Oct90.

Adult  male rats were dosed with 0 or 2000mg/kg of
boric acid and killed at 2,14,28, or 57 d posttreatment,
or dosed with 0,250, 500,1000, or 2000mg/kg of boric
acid and killed at 14 d posttreatment. At d  14, struc-
tures which appeared to be enlarged atypical cytoplas-
mic lobes were observed in Stage VIII seminiferous tu-
bules of rats dosed with 1000 and 2000mg/kg. Abnor-
mal retention  of Step 19 spermatids and residual
bodies was also observed in Stage IX-XIII tubules of
these rats. Abnormal caput  epididymal  sperm mor-
phology, and  reduced caput epididymal sperm re-
serves were observed at 1000mg/kg and higher.  At d
28, rats dosed with 2000mg/kg exhibited continued re-
tention of Step  19 spermatids into Stage  X, abnormal
caput and cauda sperm morphology  and decreased
percentages of motile cauda spermatozoa with re-
duced straight line swimming  velocities. By d 57 reten-
tion of Step 19 spermatids into  Stage X  tubules  was
still present in  some rats but the sperm parameters
had returned to control values. The study shows that
acute exposure to boric acid can  adversely affect sper-
miation and sperm quality. These effects  appeared
readily reversible at the dosage levels tested.

Keywords: 'Boric acid, 'Reproductive system, 'Males,
'Toxicology,  'Insecticides,  Dose-response relation-
ships, Pathology, Organ weight,  Seminiferous tubules,
Epididymis, Testis, Spermatozoa, Reprints.
 PB91-163634/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Evidence for an Involvement of Associative Con-
 ditioning In Reflex Modification of the Acoustic
 Startle Response with Gaps in Background Noise.
 Journal article.
 Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
 K. M. Crofton, K. F. Dean, L. P. Sheets, and D. B.
 Peele. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/349
 Pub. in Psychobiology, v18  n4 O467-474 Dec 90. Pre-
 pared in cooperation with Northrop Services, Inc., Re-
 search Triangle Park, NC.

 The experiments reported here were designed to de-
 termine  the role of associative conditioning in  reflex
 modification of  the  acoustic startle response  using
 gaps in background noise. Experiments were conduct-
 ed with independent, naive groups of adult Long Evans
 hooded rats tested using 20-msec gaps in white noise
 (ON 80dB/OFF 35dB) as the prestimulus (S1,  ISI  =
 190 msec) and a 120-dB, 40-msec 13-kHz pure tone
 as the eliciting stimulus (S2). The first experiment char-
 acterized the effects of  repeated testing for 9 days.
 The second experiment was a test of associative con-
 ditioning. Three groups of rats were tested daily for 6
 days under one of the following conditions: S1 and S2
 paired in a contingent manner, S2 only, or S1 only. All
 groups then received the contingent pairing of S1 and
 §2 for an additional 9 days of testing. In the third ex-
 periment, a separate group of rats was tested using
 either contingent or  non-contingent presentation of
 stimuli in a contingent fashion. Results  indicate that
 the amount of inhibition increases with repeated, daily
 testing, and achieve asymptotic levels of inhibition 5-6
 daily sessions.

 Keywords:  'Startle reaction, 'Acoustic  reflex.  Rats,
 Acoustic stimulation,  Background  noise,  Reprints,
 'Psychobiology, 'Associative conditioning.


 PB91-163642/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Modelling  Working and  Reference  Memory  in
 Rats: Effects of Scopolamine on Delayed Match-
 ing-to-Positton. Journal  article.
 Health  Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC. Neurotoxicology Div.
 P. J. Bushnell. C1990,11 p EPA/600/J-90/350
 Pub. in Behavioural Pharmacology, v1 p419-427 Nov
 90.

 A model of working and reference memory in  rats  is
 described, based on a discrete-trial operant procedure
 with concurrent spatial matching and nonspatial dis-
 crimination components. Working memory  was as-
sessed by delivery of food to rats for pressing one of
two retractable levers  after a delay if that lever had
been presented in the prior sample phase of the trial.
Reference memory was assessed on other trials  by
delivering food by pressing the lever illuminated by a
cue light after the delay interval. The model was tested
with scopolamine (0.10 to 0.56 mg/kg, ip),  which re-
duced matching  accuracy in  a dose-related manner.
Linear slope and intercept estimates of retention gradi-
ents showed that intercepts declined and slopes re-
mained unchanged with increasing scopolamine dose,
suggesting that cholinergic blockade disrupts  encod-
ing processes while sparing retention. In contrast, sco-
polamine had no effect on nonspatial  discrimination
accuracy,   suggesting  insensitivity  of   reference
memory to cholinergic blockade. To  compare the  ef-
fects of scopolamine on spatial  and nonspatial dis-
criminations, a second group of rats was trained to dis-
criminate between the spatial locations of two levers.

Keywords: 'Scopolamine, 'Memory, 'Pharmacology,
Rats, Drug dose-response relationship, Cholinergic  re-
ceptors,   Reprints,  'Delayed  matching-to-position,
Spatial discrimination, Methylscopolamine.
PB91-163659/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Health  Effects Research  Lab.,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
Examination of Immune Parameters and Host Re-
sistance Mechanisms in  B6C3F1 Mice Following
Adult Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-'p'-
Dioxin. Journal article.
Chemical Industry Inst. of Toxicology, Research Trian-
gle Park, NC.
R. V. House, L. D. Lauer, M. J. Murray, P. T. Thomas,
and J. P. Ehrlich. C1990,15p EPA/600/J-90/351
Contract EPA-68-02-4450
Pub. in  Jnl. of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
v31 n3 p203-215 Nov 90. Prepared in cooperation with
IIT Research  Inst., Chicago, IL.  Life Sciences  Re-
search  Div.  Sponsored by  Health Effects Research
Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC. Environmental Toxi-
cology Div.

Adult female B6C3F1 mice were given a single IP dose
of 0,0.1,1.0, or 10.0 micrograms/kg TCDD and exam-
ined for immune function and host resistance seven to
ten days later. Exposure to TCDD resulted in a signifi-
cant dose-related decrease in induction of both IgM
and IgG antibody-forming cells. The suppression was
noted for both T-dependent and T-independent  anti-
gens. TCDD at a dosage  of 10  micrograms/kg  was
shown  to suppress production of viral hemagglutinin.
In contrast, TCDD exposure had no significant effect
on natural killer cell function, production of interferon,
or various parameters  of macrophage function.  Host
resistance assessment revealed a significant increase
in susceptibility to fatal infection with influenza virus,
but no significant alteration in susceptibility to infection
with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. (Copyright
(c) 1990 by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.)

 Keywords:  'Immune  system,  'Tetrachlorodiberzo-
 dioxins, 'Toxicology, Antibody formation, Mice,  IgM,
 IgG, Dose-response relationships, Macrophage, Dis-
 ease susceptibility, Viral antigens, Virus diseases, Lis-
 teria monocytogenes. Reprints, Viral hemagglutinins.
 PB91-163667/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Cyclophosphamide Teratogenesis: Evidence  for
 Compensatory Responses  to Induced Cellular
 Toxicity. Journal article.
 Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Developmental Toxicology Div.
 B. M. Francis, J. M. Rogers, K. K. Sulik, A. J. Alles, and
 K. H. Elstein. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/352
 Pub. in Teratology, v42 n5 D473-482  Nov 90. Prepared
 in cooperation with North Carolina Univ. at Chapel  Hill,
 and NSI Technology Services Corp., Research Trian-
 gle Park, NC.

 Cyclophosphamide (CP)  administered ip to pregnant
 mice on day 10 of gestation causes  severe malforma-
 tions at 20 mg/kg and is embryolethal at higher doses.
 In the present study, CP was administered at 1, 5, 10
 or 20 mg/kg. Embryos were removed at 8 and 28 hrs
 post dosing for immediate staining with Nile Blue sul-
 fate to identify areas of cell death.  Forelimb buds of
 other embryos were removed for flow cytometric anal-
 yses. Additional litters were examined at term for mal-
 formations. Although only the highest dose produced
 malformations, a dose-related increase in the percent-
 age of limb bud cells in S phase block was detectable
 58     Vol.  91,  No. 2

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
at all doses at 8 hours post exposure and persisted
through 28 hours for doses equal to or > 10 mg/kg.
Nile Blue sulfate staining showed increased cell death
in the limb buds 28 hours after exposure to 10 mg/kg
CP, or higher. The cell death was most pronounced in
areas of rapid cell proliferation. The absence of an ob-
vious teratogenic  response  at dose  levels  that pro-
duced  significant  cellular  toxicity indicates  that  a
measure of embryonic damage can be repaired and/or
compensated. The implications of these findings for
the existence of thresholds in developmental  toxicity
are discussed.

Keywords:  *Cyclophosphamide,  "Toxicity,  "Terato-
gens. Cell survival, Flow cytometry, Cell cycle, Deoxyr-
ibonucleic acids, Histology, Fluorescence spectrome-
try, Reprints, Nile blue sulfate.
PB91-163675/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Flow Cytometric Analysis of the Mechanism of
Methylmercury Cytotoxicity. Journal article.
Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Developmental Toxicology Div.
R. M. Zucker, K. H. Elstein, R. E. Easterling, and E. J.
Massaro. C1990,13p EPA/600/J-90/353
Pub. in American Jnl. of  Pathology, v137 n5  p1187-
1198 Nov 90. Prepared in cooperation with NSI Tech-
nology Services Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The target and degree of methylmercury cytotoxicity
are dose-dependent. Following 6 h exposure  to 2.5 -
7.5 microMolar, methylmercury (MeHg) progressively
inhibits DNA  synthesis and induces chromosomal
damage in murine erythroleukemic cells. However, fol-
lowing exposure to 10 - 50 microMolar MeHg, the
plasma membrane/cytoplasm complex is grossly per-
turbed, cell cycle progression is blocked, and chromo-
somes appear in ring formations. These findings, to-
gether with those previously observed following organ-
otin exposure, also suggest that severe and nonspeci-
fic toxicity may be a common endpoint of exposure to
 high levels of organometals.

 Keywords: "Methylmercury compounds, *Toxicity, Flu-
 orescence spectrometry, Cell survival, Flow cytometry,
 Dose-response relationships, Cell membrane, Erythro
 leukemia, Culture tumor cells, Cell  cycle, Chromo-
 somes, Mitosis, Computerized simulation, Reprints.


 PB91-163683/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Increasing Sensitivity of the Ortho Analytical Cy-
 tofluorograph  by Modifying the  Fluid System.
 Journal article.
 Health Effects  Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
 Park, NC. Developmental Toxicology Div.
 R. M. Zucker, K. H. Elstein, E. L. Gershey, and E. J.
 Massaro. C1990, 6p EPA/600/J-90/354
 Pub. in Cytometry, v11 n7 p848-851 Nov 90. Prepared
 in cooperation with NSI  Technology Services Corp.,
 Research Triangle  Park, NC., and Rockefeller Univ.,
 New York.

 By adding Teflon tubing of varying lengths and inner di-
 ameters to the effluent line of the Ortho 50H analytical
 cytofluorograph, the  authors were able to triple the
 sensitivity of fluorescence and scatter detection with-
 out compromising  resolution. By  increasing sheath
 backpressure, the additional tubing increases particle
 residence time within the detection area and thereby
 increases the total  photon  emission density per parti-
 cle. The resulting increase  in sensitivity is desirable in
 applications requiring detection of particles exhibiting
 low-level fluorescence. The effect of the altered hydro-
 dynamics on resolution is also discussed.

 Keywords: *Flow cytometry, Fluorescence spectrome-
 try, Hydrodynamics,  Photons, Signal-to-noise  ratio,
 Reprints, Tubing.


 PB91-163691/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Immunohistochemical Detection of Tumour-Asso-
 ciated  Aldehyde  Dehydrogenase  in  Formalin-
 Fixed Rat and Mouse Normal Liver and  Hepato-
 mas. Journal article.
 Health  Effects  Research  Lab., Research  Triangle
 Park, NC.
 R E  Richmond, A. B. DeAngelo, F. B. Daniel, and R.
  Lindahl. C1990,6p EPA/600/J-90/355
  Pub  in Histochemical Jnl., v22 n10 p526-529 Oct 90.
  Prepared in cooperation with Northern Kentucky Univ.,
  Highland Heights.  Dept. of Biological Sciences, and
  Alabama Univ., University.
The paper describes a method and the results of the
immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of tumor-associ-
ated isozyme of aldehyde dehydrogenase (B-ALDH).
The method can be used to demonstrate B-ALDH ex-
pression  in cells of formalin-fixed, low melting-point
paraffin-embedded liver tissue of rats and mice. Thus
the method is a substantial improvement over stand-
ard histochemical detection  methods  which  require
either frozen, or mild preservative-fixed  tissue sec-
tions. Using the IHC method, B-ALDH expression was
detected in hepatocarcinomas of Sprague-Dawley rats
treated with the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DENA)
and in mice treated with either DENA, ethylnitrosourea
(ENU), or dichloroacetic acid (DCA). B-ALDH  expres-
sion has not been previously reported in mice treated
with the latter two carcinogens and these results sub-
stantiate further the use of B-ALDH as a histochemical
marker for mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

Keywords:  "Aldehyde  dehydrogenase,  "Hepatoma,
"Liver, Rats, Mice, Immunohistochemistry, Formalin,
Fixatives, Carcinogenicity tests. Carcinogens,  Dichlor-
oacetate, Diethylnitrosamine, Ethylnitrosourea, Tumor
markers, Reprints.
 PB91-163709/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Respiratory Tract Dosimetry Model for Air Toxics
 (October 1990). Journal article.
 Health  Effects  Research  Lab., Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Inhalation Toxicology Div.
 J. H. Overton. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/356
 Pub in Toxicology and Industrial Health, v6 n5 p171-
 180 Oct 90. See also PB88-211735.

 The development of a physiologically based pharma-
 cokinetic model for the whole body in which inhalation,
 exhalation, and metabolism in respiratory tract tissues
 are taken into account is described. As an example of
 the model's use, the results of several experiments in
 which rats and humans were exposed to styrene were
 simulated; these results are discussed. The predicted
 results agree with the empirical data and with the mod-
 eling results of others. (Copyright (c) 1990 Princeton
 Scientific Publishing Co., Inc.)

 Keywords:   "Respiratory  system,   "Air  pollution
 effects(Animals), "Air pollution effects(Humans), Res-
 piration, Dose-response relationships, Health hazards,
 Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution, Pulmonary al-
 veoli. Metabolism, Reprints.
 PB91-163717/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency's  Inhala-
 tion RFD Methodology: Risk Assessment  for Air
 Toxics. Journal article.
 Health  Effects Research Lab.,  Research  Triangle
 Park, NC. Inhalation Toxicology Div.
 A. M. Jarabek, M. G. Menache, J. H. Overton, M. L.
 Dourson, and F. J. Miller. C1989, 25p EPA/600/J-90/
 357
 Pub. in Toxicology and Industrial Health, v6 n5 p279-
 301 Oct 90. Prepared in cooperation with NSI Technol-
 ogy Services Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.

 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)
 has advocated the establishment  of general and sci-
 entific guidelines for the evaluation  of toxicological
 data and their use in deriving benchmark values to pro-
 tect exposed populations from adverse health effects.
 The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for
 deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity origi-
 nally addressed risk assessment  of  oral  exposures.
 The paper presents a brief background on the devel-
 opment of the inhalation reference dose (RFDi) meth-
 odology, including concepts and issues related to ad-
 dressing the dynamics of the respiratory system as the
 portal of entry. Different dosimetric adjustments are
 described that were incorporated into the  methodolo-
 gy to account for the nature of the inhaled agent (parti-
 cle or gas) and the site of the observed toxic effects
 (respiratory  or extrarespiratory). Impacts of these ad-
 justments on the extrapolation of toxicity data of  in-
 haled agents for human  health risk assessment and
 future research directions are also discussed. (Copy-
  right (c) 1989 Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc.)


  Keywords:  "Air pollution effects(Humans), "Risk as-
  sessment, "Health hazards, Respiration, Neoplasms,
  Dose-response relationships, Reprints,  "Reference
  doses.
PB91-163725/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Importance of Glycolysable Substrates for In vitro
Capacitation of Human Spermatozoa. Journal arti-
cle.
Health Effects  Research  Lab.,  Research Triangle
Park NC. Reproductive Toxicology Branch.
B. J. Rogers, and S. D. Perreault. C1990,8p EPA/600/
J-90/358
Pub. in Biology  of Reproduction, v43 n6 p1064-1069
Dec 90. Prepared in cooperation with Vanderbilt Univ.,
Nashville, TN. School of Medicine.

To  investigate  the importance of glycolysable sub-
strate for supporting the ability of human sperm to ca-
pacitate and penetrate oocytes in vitro, washed sper-
matozoa were incubated with or without various sugars
in BWW culture medium containing pyruvate and lac-
tate. Sperm penetration was assayed using zona-free
hamster oocytes. After an 18-h preincubation, glucose
(1 mg/ml) supported higher penetration of sperm into
oocytes than either mannose or fructose (60.7% vs
28.2% or 21.5%, respectively) at the same concentra-
tion. Penetration was even lower when medium con-
tained the nonmetabolizable sugar galactose (2.1 % at
1 mg/ml). On the other  hand, higher concentrations (5
or 10 mg/ml) of glucose, but not fructose, suppressed
penetration,  provided   the  glucose  was  present
throughout the  18-h preincubation. When caffeine, a
stimulant of glycolysis  in human  sperm, was present
along with glucose, sperm penetration was enhanced,
but only  after 6 h of sperm preincubation. The effect
was not  observed in glucose-free medium, however,
where penetration remained low over a 10-h incuba-
tion period. In these experiments, the percentage of
motile sperm was unaffected by treatment, but  the
quality of motility was diminished in the absence of glu-
cose. Stimulation of glycolysis may promote capacita-
tion of human spermatozoa in vitro and that optimiza-
tion of penetrating ability of sperm is dependent upon
 both the type and concentration of glycolysable sugar
 present.

 Keywords: "Culture media, "Spermatozoa,  "Glycoly-
 sis, Humans, Sperm-ovum interactions, Sperm motility,
 Sugars, In vitro analysis, Dose-response relationships,
 Zona pellucida. Reprints.
 PB91-163733/REB                PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Monitoring Systems  Lab., Las Vegas,
 NV.
 ISIM3D: An ANSI-C Three-Dimensional Multiple In-
 dicator Conditional Simulation Program.  Journal
 article.
 Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Applied Earth Sciences.
 J. J. Gomex-Hernandez, and R. M. Srivastava. C1990,
 50p EPA/600/J-90/359
 Grant EPA-R81499
 Pub. in Computers and Geosciences, v16 n4 p395-440
 1990. Sponsored by Environmental Monitoring Sys-
 tems Lab., Las Vegas, NV.

 The indicator conditional  simulation  technique  pro-
 vides stochastic  simulations  of a  variable that (1)
 honor the initial data and (2) can feature a richer family
 of spatial structures not limited by Gaussianity.  The
 data are encoded into a series of indicators which then
 are used  to estimate the conditional probability distri-
 bution (cpdf) of the variable under study at any unsam-
 pled location. Once  the cpdf has been estimated, any
 particular simulated value is obtained by straightfor-
 ward Monte-Carlo drawing. Each new simulated value
 is included in the conditioning data set so that the next
 simulated values  at other locations be conditioned to
 it. The technique  has the advantage over other more
 traditional techniques  such  as the turning bands
 method in that it is not multiGaussian related. The user
 has full control of the bivariate  (2-point) statistics im-
 posed on the simulated field  instead of controlling a
 mere covariance  model. The source code is provided
 in C according to the ANSI standard.  (Copyright  (c)
  1990 Pergamon Press pic.)

  Keywords: "Earth sciences,  "Mathematical models,
  "Statistical analysis, "Computerized simulation,  Data
  file, Kriging, Variance(Statistics), Stochastic process-
  es, Monte Carlo method. Conditional probability, Algo-
  rithms, Three dimensional  models, Computer pro-
  grams, Reprints, ISIM3D computer program.
                                                                                                                                   June 1991     59

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-163741/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Field Demonstration of the UV/Oxidatlon Tech-
nology to Treat Ground Water Contaminated with
VOCs. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
N. Lewis, K. Topudurti, G. Welshans, and R. Foster.
C1990,10pEPA/600/J-90/360
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
tion, v40 n4, Apr 90. Prepared in cooperation with PRC
Environmental Management, Inc., Chicago, IL.

The paper presents the field evaluation results of the
ultraviolet radiation (UV)/oxidation technology devel-
oped by  Ultrox International, Santa Ana,  California.
The field evaluation was performed at  the  Lorentz
Barrel & Drum  (LB&D) site in San Jose, California
under the Superfund Innovative Technology  Evalua-
tion program in February and March of 1989. The UV/
oxidation technology uses UV radiation, ozone, and
hydrogen peroxide to oxidize organic contaminants in
water. At the LB&D site, this technology was evaluated
in treating ground water contaminated with volatile or-
ganic compounds (VOCs). The Ultrox system achieved
VOC removals greater than 90 percent. Most VOCs
were removed through chemical oxidation. However,
for a few VOCs, such as 1,1,1 -trichloroethane and 1,1 -
dichloroethane,  stripping also contributed toward re-
moval. The treated ground water  met the  applicable
discharge standards for discharge into a local water-
way at 95 percent confidence  level. There were no
harmful air emissions to the  atmosphere from  the
Ultrox system, which is equipped with an off-gas treat-
ment unit. (Copyright (c) 1990-Air & Waste Manage-
ment Association.)

Keywords:  "Water pollution control, "Volatile organic
compounds,  'Ground water,   'Ultraviolet radiation,
'Oxidation, Waste storage, Superfund, Hazardous ma-
terials, Site surveys. Field tests. Sampling, Technology
utilization, Reprints,  'Ultrox system,  Chemical treat-
ment.
PB91-163758/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Control Technology: Estimating Innovative Tech-
nology Costs for the SITE Program. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk
Reduction Engineering Lab.
G. M. Evans. C1990, 7p EPA/600/J-90/361
Pub. in Jnl. of the Air and Waste Management Associa-
tion, v40 n7 Jul 90.

The paper provides the reader with an overview of the
cost estimation approach employed by the Superfund
Innovative  Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program.
The paper identifies 4 areas of concern which confront
the cost analyst as the question of technology cost is
considered.  These  concerns are then addressed
through a 5 part cost methodology subsequently em-
ployed on ail SITE technology demonstrations. The
final section of the paper review the cost data gath-
ered from the first nine technology demonstrations
completed and reported on.

Keywords: 'Superfund, 'Cost estimates, 'Waste treat-
ment 'Waste disposal, 'Hazardous materials, Tech-
nology utilization, Substitutes, Research and develop-
ment. Operating, Public information, Site surveys. Per-
mits, Pollution regulations. Capitalized costs, Hazard-
ous  materials transportation, Maintenance, Reprints,
'Superfund Innovative Technology  Evaluation  Pro-
gram.
PB91-163766/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Characterizing the Dispersive State of Convective
Boundary Layers for Applied Dispersion Model-
ing. Journal article.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
J. S. Irwin, and J. O. Paumier. c1990,30p EPA/600/J-
90/362
Pub. in Boundary-Layer Meteorology,  v53 p267-296
1990.  Prepared in cooperation  with Computer Sci-
ences Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.

Estimates from semiernpirical models that character-
ize surface heat flux, mixing depth, and profiles of tem-
perature, wind, and turbulence are compared with ob-
servations from atmospheric field studies conducted in
Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnestoa. In addition,
for wind and turbulence profiles, sodar observations
are compared with tower measurements at the Colora-
do site. The median surface  heat flux,  as calculated
using surface-layer flux-profile relationships  and an
energy budget model, was consistently overestimated
from 20% to  80%. Wind profiles were derived using
surface-layer  flux-profile relationships, a wind-profile
power-law based on  Pasquill stability category, and
sodar measurements. The sodar measurements were
superior to both types of model estimates. Turbulence
profiles were  derived  from  sodar measurements and
from semiernpirical similarity relationships  based on
mixing depth and Obukhov length. The scatter in the
comparisons with the  sodar observations is twice that
seen in the comparisons with empirical profile relation-
ships. Overall, it appears that uncertainty of as low as
20% to 30% in the characterization of the diffusion
meteorology is the exception rather than the rule.

Keywords:  'Boundary layer, 'Convection, 'Atmos-
pheric diffusion, Wind velocity, Atmospheric circula-
tion, Atmospheric motion, Turbulence, Heat flux. Math-
ematical  models, Turbulent diffusion, Wind profiles,
Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Field tests, Re-
prints.
PB91-163774/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.
Field Comparison  of  Methods for the Measure-
ment of Gaseous and Paniculate Contributors  to
Acidic Dry Deposition. Journal article.
Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, NC.
J. E. Sickles, L. L. Hodson, W. A. McClenny, R. J. Paur,
andT. G. Ellestad. C1990,13pEPA/600/J-90/363
Contract EPA-68-02-4544
Pub. in Atmospheric Environment, v24A n1 p155-165
1990. Prepared in cooperation with Atmospheric Envi-
ronment Service, Downsview (Ontario),  Unisearch As-
sociates, Inc., Toronto (Ontario), and Northrop Serv-
ices, Inc., Research  Triangle Park, NC.  Sponsored  by
Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Atmospheric Research  and  Exposure As-
sessment Lab.

A field study was conducted to compare methods  for
sampling and analysis  of atmospheric constituents
that are important contributors to acidic dry deposition.
Three multicomponent samplers were used: the Cana-
dian filter  pack  (FP),  the  annular denuder system
(ADS), and the transition flow reactor (TFR). A tunable
diode laser absorption spectrometer (TOLAS) provid-
ed  continuous reference measurements of NO2 and
HNO3. Nitrogen dioxide was also monitored with con-
tinuous luminol-based  chemiluminescence monitors
and with passive sampling devices (PSDs). The study
was designed to provide a database for  statistical
comparison of the various methods with emphasis on
the multicomponent samplers under consideration  for
use in a national dry deposition network. The study
was conducted at the EPA dry deposition station in Re-
search Triangle Park, NC between 29 September and
12  October, 1986. Daily averaging and/or sampling
times were employed for the  13-day  study; weekly
samples were also  collected, but  results from these
samples are not compared in  the paper. Different
measurements of ambient concentrations of the fol-
lowing constituents  are compared: total  paniculate
and gaseous N03(-),  HNO3, NO2, total  paniculate
NH4(-), NH3, total paniculate SO4(-), and SO2.

Keywords: 'Air pollution sampling, 'Air pollution detec-
tion, 'Deposition, *Dry methods, Air samplers, Acidifi-
cation,  Nitrogen oxides, Sulfur oxides,  Continuous
sampling, Canada, Comparison, Gas analysis, Chemi-
cal  analysis. Ammonia, Nitrogen hydrides. Field tests.
Reprints, Foreign technology.


PB91-163782/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Genes Encoding Mercuric Reductases from Se-
lected Gram-Negative Aquatic  Bacteria Have a
Low Degree of Homology with merA of Transpo-
son TN50. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
T. Barkay, M. Gillman, and C. Liebert. C1990, 9p EPA/
600/J-90/364, CONTRIB-689
Pub. in Applied and  Environmental Microbiology, v56
n6  p1695-1701  1990.  Prepared in cooperation with
Technical Resources, Inc., Gulf Breeze, FL.

The Hg(2-t-) resistance mechanism was  studied in four
freshwater and four coastal marine bacteria that did
not hybridize with a mer operonic probe.  Inducible
Hg(2+)-volatilization was demonstrated for all eight
organisms  and  NADPH-dependent-mercuric  reduc-
tase activities were detected in crude cell extracts of
six of the strains. Hybridization with a merA probe, the
gene encoding the mercuric reductase polypeptide, at
a stringency permitting hybrid formation between dis-
tant merA genes (as exists between gram positive and
negative  bacteria) detected  merA sequences in the
genomes of all tested strains. Because these strains
represented random selections of bacteria from three
aquatic environments, it is concluded that merA en-
codes a common molecular mechanism for  Hg(2+)
resistance and volatilization  in aerobic  heterotrophic
aquatic communities.

Keywords:  'Bacterial genes, 'Water  microbiology,
'Nucleic  acid sequence homology,  'Gram-negative
bacteria,  *DNA  insertion elements. Nucleic acid  hy-
bridization,  Volatization, Deoxyribonucleic acids, Re-
prints, 'Mercuric reductase.
PB91-163790/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Comparison  of the  Seagrass  'Thalassia  testu-
dinum' and Its Epiphytes in the Field and in Labo-
ratory Test Systems. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
J. R. Clark, and J. M. Macauley. C1990,12p EPA/600/
J-90/365
Pub. in Plants for Toxicity Assessment, p59-68 1990.

Thalassia testudinum and associated epiphytes from
field plots were compared with plants from  laboratory
microcosms to determine if laboratory observations re-
flected responses characteristic of plants  in natural
systems. Changes in leaf chlorophyll and protein con-
tent and rhizome carbohydrate in Thalassia and stand-
ing crop and chlorophyll content of epiphyte communi-
ties were compared for 3 experiments conducted over
6-week  intervals at different times  of the growing
season and for one 12-week laboratory-field compari-
son. Thalassia plants in the laboratory followed similar
trends of field plants during the 6-week experiments
but the laboratory plants differed significantly from field
plants at 12 weeks. Chlorophyll content of epiphyte
communities colonizing Thalassia leaves was  signifi-
cantly different  in the laboratory compared to  field
samples.

Keywords: *Sea grasses, Leaves(Botany),  Compara-
tive evaluations, Chlorophyll, Protein, Carbohydrates,
Field tests,  Reprints,  *Thalassia testudinum,  Epi-
phytes.
 PB91-163808/REB               PC A02/MF A01
 Pericyte of a Teleost Fish: Ultrastructure,  Posi-
 tion, and Role in Neoplasia as Revealed by a Fish
 Model. Journal article.
 Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
 J. A. Couch. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/366
 Pub. in Anatomical Record 228, p7-141990.

 The morphology and position of the pericyte, a perien-
 dothelial cell, is described for a teleost fish, Cyprino-
 don variegatus. The cell was found attached to the ab-
 luminal surfaces of capillaries, venules, and arterioles
 of the submucosa of the midgut of the fish. The cell
 was encompassed by a thin basal lamina, possessed
 numerous plasmalemmal vesicles, a sole region which
 contained  thinner actin-like filaments and possibly
 thicker myosin-like filaments, and ranged in form from
 ovoid to stellate, with long cytoplasmic extensions that
 partially covered the endothelium of the associated mi-
 crovessel.  The  pericyte of  C. variegatus  has  been
 shown to give rise to hemangiopericytomas. The ana-
 tomical position, in relationship to microvasculature in
 the fish is  very similar to other vertebrate pericytes.
 Limited evidence suggests that small fish species may
 be  excellent  study models  for further elucidation  of
 pericyte form, function, and role in disease.

 Keywords:  'Fishes,  'Neoplasms,  'Cytology, Blood
 vessels,  Electron microscopy,  Reprints,  'Pericytes,
 *Cyprinodon variegatus.
PB91-163816/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Dynamics of Plasmid  Transfer on Surfaces. Jour-
nal article.
Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Dept. of Zoology.
L. Simonsen. C1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/367
Grant NIH-GM33782
Pub. in Jnl. of General Microbiology 136, p1001-1007
1990. Sponsored by Environmental Research Lab.,
Gulf Breeze, FL., and National Institutes of Health, Be-
thesda, MD.
60     Vol.  91, No.  2

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
A protocol was developed to study the dynamics of
growth and plasmid transfer in surface populations of
bacteria. The method allows for quantitative estimates
of cell population densities over time, as well as micro-
scopic observations of colony growth and interactions.
Using the 'surface slide system' (SSS), the dynamics
of the plasmid R1 and its permanently derepressed
mutant R1drd19 in surface cultures of Escherichia coli
K12 was examined. A hypothesis for plasmid transfer
between colonies that explains these observations as
a consequence of the geometry of the surface habitat
and the effect of transitory derepression of the synthe-
sis of pili is proposed.

Keywords:  'Plasmids,  *Eschericrtia  coli,  Cultured
cells, Mutation, Kinetics, Growth, Reprints, 'Surface
slide system.


PB91-163824/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Effect  of Growth  Rate and Hydrophobicity on
Bacteria Surviving Protozoan Grazing. Journal arti-

Cornell  Univ. Agricultural Experiment  Station, Ithaca,
NY. Dept. of Agronomy.
K R. Gurijala, and M. Alexander. c1990,8p EPA/600/
J-90/368
Pub in  Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v56
n6 p1631-1635 Jun 90. Sponsored by Environmental
Research Lab.,  Gulf  Breeze, FL., and  Andrew W.
 Mellon Foundation, New York.

 Measurements were made of the predation by Tetra-
 hymena thermophila on several  bacterial species  in
 media containing heat-killed Escherichia  coli cells  to
 serve as an alternative prey. If grazing pressure was
 initially  not intense on a mixture of bacterial species,
 the species that survived protozoan feeding at greater
 densities were those that  grew  quickly  before the
 onset of active predation. If members of several spe-
 cies were incubated individually at similar initial densi-
 ties with actively grazing T. thermophila, some species
 survived at ca. 10,000/ml, some survived at ca. 100/
 ml, and others were eliminated. Members of the first
 two groups but not the third group were able to multiply
 in the medium in the absence of the protozoan, but the
 growth rates in the protozoan-free medium did not cor-
 relate with the number of survivors. However, the spe-
 cies that persisted at the higher densities possessed
 highly hydrophobic cell surfaces. The size of the sur-
 viving  population  of four  bacterial  species  whose
 growth was prevented by chloramphenicol correlated
 with the initial cell density that was incubated with T.
 thermophila. It is concluded that the individual species
 surviving predation on a mixture of species is related to
 the capacity of the bacterium to grow, the hydrophobi-
  city of its cell surface, and the population density of the
  species before the onset of intense grazing. (Copyright
  (c) 1990, American Society for Microbiology.)

  Keywords:  * Escherichia coli, Species diversity, Soil
  microbiology, Population dynamics, Graphs(Charts),
  Chloramphenicol,  Reprints, "Protozoan  predation,
  •Tetrahymena thermophila.


  PB91-163832/REB               PC A03/MF A01
  Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
  Dynamic Interactions of  'Pseudomonas aerugin-
  osa' and Bacteriophages in  Lake Water.  Journal

  Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Center for Environmental

  0°AeOgunseitan, G. S. Sayler, and R. V. Miller. c1990:
  17pEPA/600/J-90/369
  Grant EPA-R8115234
  Pub. in  Microbial Ecology 19,  p171-185 1990.  Pre-
  pared in cooperation with Stritch School of Medicine,
  Maywood, IL. Dept. of Biochemistry. Sponsored by En-
  vironmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.

  The persistence and interaction between newly isolat-
  ed strains o1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and  resident
  bacteriophages indigenous to a freshwater  environ-
  ment was monitored over 45 days in lake water micro-
  cosms.  The interaction between susceptible and re-
  sistant bacteria with pure  phage (UT1) particles or a
  mixed phage population (M1) was investigated by fol-
  lowing temporal  changes in host  density, phage-to-
  bacteria ratio (PBR), and the appearance of apparent
  orophage carriers within the host  population. Decay
  rates  of the phage (UT1)  ranged from  0.054/hour in
  natural water to 0.027/hour in natural water to 0.027/
  hour in filtered lake water. About 45% of sensitive bac-
  teria incubated with phase UT1 were pseudolysogenic
within 12 hours of incubation in natural lake water.
Phage UT1 appeared to stabilize the density of host
bacteria in lake water at a level of 10 to  the fourth
power colony-forming units (cfu)/ml. Bacterial coexist-
ence with the mixed phage (M1) population  resulted in
an oscillating equilibrium with the  PBR stabilizing at
about 3. (Copyright (c) Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.
1990.)

Keywords:  *8acteriophages,  'Water  microbiology,
•Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Base  sequence, Lakes,
Colony formation, Nucleic acid hybridization,  Electron
microscopy, Viral DNA, Agar gel electrophoresis, Re-
prints.


PB91-163840/REB                PC AQ3/MF A01
National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Field Observations  of the Ecology and Habits of
Mangrove Rivulus ('Rivulus marmoratus') in Belize
and Florida (Teleostei: Cyprlnodontiformes: Rivu-
lidae). Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
W P  Davis, D.S.Taylor, and B.J.Turner. c1990,14p
EPA/600/J-90/371, CONTRIB-693
Contract NSF-BSR-8506417
Pub  in Ichthyological Exploration  of Freshwaters, v1
n2 p123-134 Apr 90. Prepared in cooperation with Bre-
vard  Mosquito Control District, Titusville, FL., and Vir-
ginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.
 Dept. of  Biology. Sponsored by National Science
 Foundation, Washington, DC., and Smithsonian Insti-
tution, Washington, DC.

 The report provides a synopsis of field studies of Rivu-
 lus marmoratus from two population surveys of man-
 grove islands adjacent to  the Belize barrier reef and
 observations made over fifteen years at several sites
 in South Florida. This small, cryptically colored killifish
 is the only known vertebrate selfing hermaphrodite.
 Florida populations consist nearly exclusively of her-
 maphrodites (>  99%), while the Belize  populations
 contained a significant proportion (10-25%) of males.
 The  combined observations demonstrate that this spe-
 cies  is not 'rare' as previously thought, but elusive and
 highly adapted to microhabitats within mangrove for-
 ests. Standard ichthyological collecting techniques are
 ineffective in the habitat and have previously failed to
 reveal the strength of the association of R.  marmora-
 tus with the mangral  ecosystem. (Copyright (c) 1990 by
 Verlog Dr. Frederick Pfeil, Munchen, FRG.)

 Keywords-  'Marine fishes, 'Animal behavior, 'Animal
 ecology,   Habitats,   Coastal    waters,    Florida,
 Reproduction(Biology), Reprints, * Rivulus  marmora-
 tus,  Belize Barrier Reef.


 PB91-163857/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
 Diversity  and Origin of  'Desulfovibrio' Species:
 Phylogenetic Definition of a Family. Journal article.
 Illinois Univ. at Urbana-Champaign. Dept. of Veterinary
 Pathobiology.
  R Devereux  S. H. He, C. L. Doyle, S. Orkland, and 0.
 A Stahl  C1990,13pEPA/600/J-90/372
  Grants EPA-R812496, NSF-PCM-8351355
  Pub. in Jnl. of Bacteriology, v172 n7 p3609-3619 Jul
  90.  Prepared  in  cooperation  with  Georgia  Univ.,
  Athens. Sponsored by Environmental Research Lab.,
  Gulf Breeze, FL., National Science Foundation, Wash-
  ington, DC., and Georgia Power Co., Atlanta.

  The different nutritional properties of several Desulfo-
  vibrio desulfuricans strains suggest that  either  the
  strains are misclassified or there is a high degree of
  phenotypic diversity within the  genus  Desulfovibrio.
  The results of partial  16S rRNA and 23S rRNA se-
  quence determinations demonstrated that Desulfovi-
  brio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 and 'Desulfovibrio mul-
  tispirans' are closely related to the type strain (strain
  Essex 6) and that strains ATCC  7757, Norway 4, and
  E! Agheila are not. Therefore, these latter three strains
  of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans are apparently misclas-
  sified. A correlation between 16S rRNA sequence sim-
  ilarity and percentage of DNA relatedness showed that
  these five deep lineages are related at levels below
  the minimum genus level suggested by Johnson. It is
  proposed that this  branch should be grouped into a
  single family,  the  Desulfovibrionaceae.  The other
   branch includes other genera of sulfate-reducing  bac-
  teria and  contains Desulfovibrio sapovorans and De-
   sulfovibrio baarsii  as  separate,  distantly related  line-
   ages. (Copyright (c) 1990, American Society for Micro-
   biology.)
Keywords:  'Phytogeny, Phenotype,  Bacterial  DNA,
Bacterial genes,  Ribosomal RNA, Species diversity.
Base  sequence. Reprints,  * Desulfovibrio desulfun-
PB91-163865/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Bioaccumulation of Kepone by Grass Shrimp ('Pa-
laemonetes pugio'): Importance of Dietary Accu-
mulation and Food Ration. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
D. J. Fisher, and J. R. Clark. C1990,22p EPA/600/J-
90/373
Pub. in Aquatic Toxicology 17, p167-186 1990. See
also PB87-179636. Prepared in cooperation with Mary-
land Univ., Queenstown. Wye Research  and Educa-
tion Center, and Manhattan Coll., Bronx,  NY.

The relative extent of dietary accumulation  and bio-
concentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemon-
etes pugio)  was quantitatively  evaluated at  food ra-
tions of 4 and 8% of the  average wet weight of the
shrimp. (14)C-Kepone was utilized to determine bio-
concentration  and dietary accumulation separately,
while (14)C-Kepone-contaminated food (grass shrimp)
and unlabeled Kepone in  water were  used  to deter-
mine accumulation from both sources simultaneously.
Grass shrimp and their food were exposed to the same
aqueous Kepone concentration (0.04 micrograms/l). A
first-order  pharmacokinetic  equation  was  used to
model Kepone accumulation  kinetics  during the 16-
 day uptake  and  21-day clearance phases. A doubling
 of contaminated food ration caused a significant in-
 crease in the whole-body Kepone concentration in the
 shrimp. Shrimp fed either a 4% or 8% ration of uncon-
 taminated food and exposed to 0.04 micrograms/l
 Kepone in water bioconcentrated Kepone to  the same
 level.  When shrimp were  exposed to contaminated
 water  and  food, Kepone contributions from each
 source were additive.

 Keywords:  "Water pollution effects(Animals), 'Pesti-
 cides, 'Kepone, 'Shrimp,  Ingestion(Biology), Pharma-
 cokinetics,   ConcentrationfCompositipn),   Reprints,
 'Bioaccumulation, 'Palaemonetes pugio.


 PB91-163873/REB               PC A03/MF A01
 Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
 Effect of  Fluorinated Analogues of  Phenol and
 Hydroxybenzoates on the Anaerobic Transforma-
 tion of Phenol to Benzoate. Journal article.
 Technical Resources, Inc., Gulf Breeze, FL.
 B R  S Genthner, G. T. Townsend, and P. J.
 Chapman. C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/374
 Contract EPA-68-03-3479
 Pub.  in Biodegradation, v1 p65-74 1990. Also pub. as
  Environmental  Research  Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL. rept.
 no. CONTRIB-692. Sponsored by Environmental Re-
  search Lab., Gulf Breeze,  FL.

  Effects of fluorinated analogues on transformation of
  phenol to benzoate by an  anaerobic, phenol-degrading
  consortium were examined. At concentrations of > or
  = to 250 microM,  2- and 3-fluorophenol inhibited
  transformation of phenol  as seen by a lag in its disap-
  pearance.  Benzoate accumulated in the presence 01
  > or = to 250 microM 3-fluorophenol. In contrast, 4-
  fluorophenol had no significant effect  on either phenol
  transformation  or  benzoate  accumulation  when
  present to 2  mM. Phenol and  2-, or 3-fluorophenol
  were transformed  simultaneously, but phenol was
  transformed more rapidly than either  fluorophenol. 2-
  Fluorophenol was  converted to 3-fluorobenzoate in
  the presence or absence of phenol; however, the pres-
  ence of phenol enhanced the  rate and extent of its
  transformation.

   Keywords: 'Biodeterioration,  'Anaerobic bacteria,
   'Phenols, 'Benzoic acid, Sediments, Sludge, Fluonna-
  tion, Reprints, Hydroxybenzoates.


   PB91-163881/REB               PC A03/MF A01
   Effects of Temperature and  Salinity on 'Menidia
   beryllina' Embryos Exposed  to Terbufos. Journal
   article.
   Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
   M J. Hemmer, D. P. Middaugh, and J. C. Moore.
   C1990,12p EPA/600/J-90/375, CONTRIB-667
   Pub. in Aquatic Toxicology, v8 p127-136, 7 Jun 90.

   Embryos  of the inland  silverside, Menidia  beryllina,
   were exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide ter-
   bufos at nine combinations of temperature (20, 25 and


                             June 1991     61

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                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
30 C) and salinity (5, 12.5 and 20 levels of salinity).
Nominal exposure concentrations were  12.5, 25, 50
and 100 microgram terbufos/1  with an acetone and
seawater control for each temperature/salinity combi-
nation. Test durations were temperature dependent
and ranged from 5 to 14 days. Endpoints were embryo
survival, hatching and percentage  of  larvae  with
normal vertebrae. Survival was significantly (alpha =
0.05) lower in tests conducted at 20 C for all salinities.
Salinity affected survival only at combinations of 20
levels of salinity and 100 microgram terbufos/1. Both
temperature and  salinity affected the  percentage
hatch, with the lowest hatching occuring in 20 C tests,
and in tests conducted at 20 levels of salinity. Anoma-
lies in the development of vertebrae occurred across
all temperature/salinity combinations.

Keywords: 'Temperature, 'Salinity, 'Embryo, pH, Re-
gression analysis, Muttivariate analysis. Reprints, *Ter-
bufos, 'Menjdia beryllina, Dissolved oxygen, 'Organo-
phosphorus insecticides.
PB91-163899/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Testing  of  Insect  Mierosporidians  (Microspora:
Nosernatidae) in Nontarget Aquatic Species. Jour-
nal article.
Environmental Research Lab., GuK Breeze, FL.
J. W. Foumie, S. S. Foss, L. A. Courtney, and A. H.
Undeen. C1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/376, GONTRIB-
680
Pub. in Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, v8 p137-144,
7 Jun 90. Prepared in cooperation with Science and
Education Administration, Gainesville, FL. Insect Af-
fecting Man and Animals Research Lab.

The paper reports results of single-species tests with
the mosquito rnicrosporidian Nosema algerae and the
orthopteran  rnicrosporidian  N.  locustae on nontarget
aquatic organisms. Organisms  tested were the fresh-
water grass  shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis), the
estuarine grass shrimp (P.  pugio), the marine rotifer
(Brachionus  plicatilis), and the inland silverside (Meni-
dia beryllina). These organisms were exposed by intra-
hemocoelic injection,  gavage, or ingestion. Infections
did not develop in either the freshwater grass shrimp
or estuarine grass shrimp that were gavaged with N. al-
gerae spores. However, infections did develop in both
species of grass shrimp after  intrahemocoelic  injec-
tions with N. algerae spores. Infected tissues included
the gills, antenna! gland, eyes,  skeletal muscle, heart,
and gonads. Proof of infection was demonstrated ul-
trastructurally by the presence of mature spores and
developmental stages in infected tissues.

Keywords: 'Microsporum, 'Aquatic biology, 'Biologi-
cal pest control, Shrimp, Infections, Gills, Eye, Mus-
cles,  Myocardium,  Gonads,   Pathology,  Reprints,
'Nosema algerae, 'Nosema locustae.
PB91-163907/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Natural Transformation of a Marine 'Vibrio' Spe-
cies by Plasmid ONA. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., GuK Breeze, FL.
W. H. Jeffrey, J. H. Paul, and G. J. Stewart. c1990,12p
EPA/600/J-90/377
Pub. in Microbial  Ecology, v19  p259-268 1990. Pre-
pared in cooperation with University of South Florida,
St. Petersburg.

A series of thirty marine and estuarine bacterial iso-
lates was examined for the  ability  to naturally trans-
form with plasmid  DNA. One isolate from Tampa Bay,
Florida, identified as  Vibrio  parahaemolyticus,  suc-
cessfully incorporated  and maintained the broad host
range  plasmid pKT230 in both filter transformation
assays and sterile sediment microcosms, at frequen-
cies ranging from  0.3 to 3.1  x 10 to the minus eighth
power  transformants per recipient. Transformation oc-
curred  without deletions and transformation of multi-
meric forms of the plasmid. Results suggest that natu-
ral transformation may be one  mechanism by which
estuarine bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance  plas-
mids.

Keywords: 'Vibrio, 'Water microbiology, 'Marine biol-
ogy, 'Deoxyribonucleic acids,  Plasmids,  Chromo-
somes, Southern blotting, Autoradiography, Reprints,
' Genetic transformation.
PB91-163915/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Tributyltin and Invertebrates of a Seagrass Eco-
system: Exposure and Response of Different Spe-
cies. Journal article.
Cornell  Univ.,  Ithaca,  NY.  Ecosystems  Research
Center.
J. R. Kelly, D. T. Rudnick, R. D. Morton, L. A. Buttel,
and S. N. Levine. C1990,34p EPA/600/J-90/378
Pub. in Marine Environmental Research, v29 p245-276
1990. Prepared in cooperation with University of West
Florida, Pensacola. Sponsored by Environmental Re-
search Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.

Effects of TBT dosing on common species of macroin-
vertebrates  associated with  Thalassia  testudinum
were  documented,  and compared with measured
tracer burdens of different  species. Species with the
strongest response,  some snowing virtual population
lethality  after 3 to 5 weeks of dosing at the highest
dosing rate, included polychaetes (Pista quadrilobata
and  Nereis  pelagica),  an  amphipod  (Cymadusa
compta), and molluscs (Crepiduia maculosa and Cu-
mingia tellinoides). Tissue  tracer concentration  at a
given dose level varied over about an order of magni-
tude across 18 affected and unaffected species. Accu-
mulated burden of TBT was, in part, inversely related
to the size of an organism, but the variability suggested
that diet/ecological role of species may be a signifi-
cant aspect to consider in dose-burden models.

Keywords: 'Tributyltin, 'Sea grasses, 'Water pollution
effects(Plants), 'Aquatic ecosystems. Species speci-
ficity, Abundance, Body weight. Reprints.
PB91-163923/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Regula-
tion of a 'Pseudomanas pickettii' PKO1 Gene En-
coding Phenol Hydroxylase and Expression of the
Gene in 'Pseudomonas aeruginosa' PAO1C. Jour-
nal article.
Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Medical School.
J. J. Kukor, and R. H. Olsen. c1990,9p EPA/600/J-
90/379
Pub. in Jnl. of Bacteriology, v172 n8 D4624-4630 Aug
90. Sponsored by Environmental Research Lab., Gulf
Breeze, FL., and Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources,
Lansing.

A 26  kilobase BamHI  restriction endonuclease  DNA
fragment has been cloned from Pseudomonas pickettii
PKO1, a strain isolated from a soil microcosm that had
been amended with benzene, toluene, and xylene. The
DNA fragment, cloned into vector plasmid pRO1727
and  designated  pRO1957,  allowed  P.  aeruginosa
PAOIc to grow on phenol as sole source of carbon.
Physical and functional restriction endonuclease maps
have been derived for the cloned DNA fragment. Dele-
tion and subcloning analyses of these fragments indi-
cated that the gene encoding phenol hydroxylase is
positively regulated. Phenol and m-cresol were shown
to be inducers of the enzyme.  o-Cresol and p-cresol
did not induce enzymatic activity, but could be metabo-
lized by cells that had been previously exposed to
phenol or m-crespl, moreover the enzyme was sensi-
tive to thiol-inhibiting reagents. A novel polypeptide
with an estimated molecular mass of 80,000 daltons
was detected in extracts of phenol-induced cells of P.
aeruginosa carrying plasmid pRO1959.

Keywords:  'Bacterial  gene expression  regulation,
'Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 'Bacterial DNA, Molecu-
lar cloning, Plasmids, Restriction mapping, Restriction
endonucleases. Soil microbiology. Genetic transcrip-
tion,  Polyacrylamide gel  electrophoresis,  Benzene,
Toluene,  Xylene,  Reprints,  'Pseudomonas pickettii,
'Phenol hydroxylase.
PB91-163931/REB
                                 PC A03/MF A01
Use of Thalassia' and Its Epiphytes for Toxicity
Assessment Effects of a Drilling Fluid and Tribu-
tyltin. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
J. M. Macauley, J. R. Clark, and A. R. Pitts. c1990,14p
EPA/600/J-90/380
Pub. in Plants for Toxicity Assessment, American Soci-
ety for Testing  and Materials, p255-266 1990. Pre-
pared in cooperation  with University of West Florida,
Pensacola.

Concurrent 12-week laboratory and field studies were
conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended par-
ticulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testu-
dinum  and its epiphytes. Test  systems were treated
once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of
100  mg/L  SPP. Chlorophyll  content  of  Thalassia
leaves and epiphyte biomass and chlorophyll content
were  monitored during each test.  Laboratory expo-
sures were conducted in 7-L, flow-through (7 L/h) mi-
crocosms consisting of Plexiglas cylinders containing
intact cores of Thalassia from a local seagrass  bed.
Field exposures were conducted in water-tight plexig-
las chambers (2 m x 2 m x 1.5 m) placed over test plots
in a seagrass bed for 24 h during SPP additions. Epi-
phyte biomass was reduced  after 6 weeks of intermit-
tent exposure to SPP in laboratory and field tests. After
12 weeks, epiphyte biomass had increased to densi-
ties similar to control values.

Keywords: 'Environmental monitoring, 'Sea grasses,
'Water pollution effects(Plants), 'Tributyltin, 'Drilling
fluids, Chlorophyll,  Graphs(Charts), Leaves(Botany),
Reprints, 'Thalassia testudium, 'Epiphytes.
PB91-163949/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Alterations in the Energy Metabolism of an Estua-
rine Mysid 'Mysidopsis bahia' as  Indicators of
Stress from  Chronic Pesticide Exposure. Journal
article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
C. L. McKenney, and E. Matthews. C1990,21 p EPA/
600/J-90/381
Pub. in  Marine  Environmental Research, v30 p1-19
1990.

Various aspects of the energy metabolism of an estua-
rine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined for dif-
ferent life stages during a life-cycle exposure to the or-
ganophpsphate pesticide, fenthion. Dose-response re-
lationships were developed for several metabolic rate
functions (oxygen consumption and ammonia excre-
tion) and their combined bioenergetic and physiologi-
cal indices (K2 values and O:N ratios). Initial exposure
to fenthion resulted in elevated respiration rates of ju-
venile mysids. As shown by lower net growth efficiency
(K2 values), these increased metabolic demands re-
duced the amount of assimilated energy available for
production of new tissue, resulting in retarded juvenile
growth rates. Results,  when  compared  with similar
studies with two other pesticide classes, suggest that
measurements of alterations in the energy metabolism
of contaminated individuals from sensitive zooplank-
ton populations (e.g. mysids) may be used as indica-
tors of  reductions in population performance from
chronic exposure to toxic organics.

Keywords:  'Organpphosphate insecticides, 'Water
pollution effects(Animals), 'Energy metabolism, 'Zoo-
plankton, 'Fenthion, Stress(Physiology), Oxygen, Ni-
trogen,  Lipids, Oxygen consumption,  Ammonia,  Re-
prints, 'Mysidopsis bahia, Toxic substances.
PB91-163956/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Vertebral Abnormalities in Juvenile Inland Silver-
sides  'Menidia  beryllina'  Exposed  to Terbufos
during Embryogenesis. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
D. P. Middaugh, J. W. Fournie, and M. J. Hemmer. c4
Oct 90,10p EPA/600/J-90/382, CONTRIB-695
Pub. in Disease  of Aquatic Organisms, v9 p109-116
1990.

Embryos of the  inland silverside, Menidia beryllina,
were exposed to a nominal concentration of 50 micro-
grams terbufos/1 during the first five days of embryo-
genesis. Silversides were maintained in clean dilute
seawater until 37 days after hatching. Radiographs re-
vealed compressed and fused vertebrae  and dorsal-
ventral misalignment of pre- and ppstzygapophyseal
processes. Histopathological examination of individ-
uals exposed to terbufos during embryogenesis re-
vealed various vertebral lesions ranging from small hy-
perostoses to almost complete fusion of some verte-
brae.

Keywords:  'Marine  biology, 'Teratogens, Pathology,
Larvae, Reprints, 'Menidia beryllina, 'Terbufos, 'Ver-
tebral abnormalities, 'Organophosphorus insecticides.
PB91-163964/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
General Microbiology of RecA: Environmental and
Evolutionary Significance. Journal article.
Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL.
R. V. Miller, and T. A. Kokjohn. c1990,32p EPA/600/
J-90/383
62     Vol.  91,  No. 2

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                                                  EPA PUBLICATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY
Pub. in Annual Review of Microbiology, v44 p365-394
1990. Sponsored  by Environmental  Research Lab.,
Gulf Breeze, FL.

The recA protein, a molecule of 38,000 M(r), is a multi-
functional polypeptide directing a number of activities,
none of which is completely understood in detail. Its
central role in homologous recombination and DNA-
damage repair has created considerable interest.  Nu-
merous studies in the last eight years to identifying  and
characterize the gene  have revealed the  widespread
distribution and evolutionary conservation of recA. In
the review, authors explore the current knowledge of
the general microbiology of recA and its protein prod-
uct.

Keywords:    "recA    protein,    "Microorganisms,
Recombination(Genetics), DNA damage, DNA repair,
Gene expression  regulation,  Mutagenesis, Base se-
quence, Evolution, Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses,  Bacterio-
phages. Reprints.
PB91-163972/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Genetic Variation in Clonal Vertebrates Detected
by Simple-Sequence DNA Fingerprinting. Journal
article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
B. J. Turner, J. F. Elder, T. F. Laughlin, and W. P. Davis.
01990,7p EPA/600/J-90/384
Pub. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci-
ences, v87 p5653-5657 Aug 90. Prepared in coopera-
tion with Virginia  Polytechnic  Inst.  and State Univ.,
Blacksburg. Dept. of Biology.

Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to un-
derstanding evolutionary and population genetics of
roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genet-
ic recombination. A simple-sequence DNA fingerprint-
ing with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4
was used to detect  heterogeneity  in natural popula-
tions of two clonal fishes, Poecilia formosa, an apomic-
tic unisexual, and Rivulus marmoratus, a selfing her-
maphrodite. The  technique clearly  differentiates allo-
zymically identical laboratory lines  of R. marmoratus
that were previously distinguishable only by histocom-
patibility analysis. The technique also revealed the first
documented cases of apparent  clonal turnover in a
natural population of each species.

Keywords:  "Vertebrates,  "Evolution(Development),
"Genetics, "Fishes,  Measurement,  Deoxyribonucleic
acids. Variations, Populations, Divergence, Histology,
Hybridization, Comparison, Breeding,  Reprints, DNA
fingerprinting, "Clonal  diversity, Poecilia formosa,  Ri-
vulus marmoratus.
PB91-163980/REB                PC A02/MF A01
Hepatic Neoplasms in the Mummichog 'Fundulus
heteroclitus' from a Creosote-Contaminated Site.
Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
W. K. Vogelbein, J. W. Fournie, P. A. Van Veld, and R.
J. Huggett. 1990,10p EPA/600/J-90/385
Pub. in Cancer  Research, v50  p5978-5986, Sep 90.
Also pub. as Virginia Inst. of Marine Science, Glouces-
ter Point rept no. CONTRIB-1603. Prepared in coop-
eration with Virginia Inst. of Marine Science, Glouces-
ter Point, and Virginia State Water Control Board, Rich-
mond.

High prevalences of idiopathic hepatic  lesions were
found in mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus from a site
in the southern branch of  the Elizabeth River, Virginia
contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs). Gross hepatic lesions occurred in 93% of the
individuals from this site,  whereas no hepatic lesions
were detected in fish from  two less contaminated sites.
Lesions included foci of cellular alteration, hepatocel-
lular adenoma, early and advanced hepatocellular car-
cinomas  and cholangiocellular proliferative lesions.
Advanced carcinomas exhibited several distinct cellu-
lar patterns  and some livers contained  multiple neo-
plasms occupying up to 80% of the hepatic parenchy-
ma. These findings indicate a strong positive associa-
tion between exposure to creosote-contaminated sedi-
ments  and the high prevalence of hepatic neoplasms
in a  feral population of  mummichog, and support the
putative role of  PAHs in fish hepatocarcinogenesis.
Additionally, they suggest  that the mummichog may be
a useful indicator of exposure to carcinogens in aquat-
ic environments.

Keywords:   "Water  pollution,  "Toxicity,  "Creosote,
"Liver  neoplasms, "Water pollution effectsfAnimals),
Carcinogenicity tests,  Polycyclic  aromatic  hydrocar-
bons, Sediments, Elizabeth River(Virginia), Pathology,
Reprints, "Fundulus heteroclitus.
PB91-163998/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Anatomy of the Seed and Seedling of 'Spartina al-
terniflora' Lois. (Poaceae). Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
G. E. Walsh. C1990, 19p EPA/600/J-90/386
Pub. in Aquatic Botany 38, p177-193 1990.

Members of the genus Spartina are dominant macro-
phytes in many salt marshes of North and South Amer-
ica, Europe, and Africa. Although the genus is of great
ecological importance, seeds and seedlings of its 16
species have  not been described. The seed and seed-
ling of an American  species, Spartina alterniflora, are
described.  The  embryo is enclosed in a lemma, a
palea, and two glumes.  Vascularization of the embryo
is panicoid. After germination, leaves arise by periclinal
division  of cells of the first  tunica layer. Laminae
assume the adult form by growth of ribs and formation
of furrows on  the adaxial surface. The panicoid anato-
my of each furrow  contains a vascular bundle  sur-
rounded by a mestome sheath and large, nucleated,
parenchyma (Kranz) cells.

Keywords:  "Seeds,  "Seedlings,  Plant growth, Plant
cells, Plant tissues, Plant anatomy, Germination, Spe-
cies specificity, Reprints, "Spartina alterniflora.
PB91-164004/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Artificial Sediments for Use in Tests with Wetland
Plants. Journal article.
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
G. E. Walsh, D. E. Weber, L. K. Brashers, and T. L.
Simon. C1990,9p EPA/600/J-90/387
Pub. in Environmental and Experimental  Botany, v30
n3p391-396 1990.

Artificial sediments are described for use in  studies on
rooted plants. The sediments  are formulated from
commercially available sand, silt,  clay and organic
matter. Survival of seedlings of  Echinochloa crusgalli
var. crusgalli, Scirpus paludosus and Spartina alterni-
flora was the same in natural and artificial sediments.
Average seedling weight of each species was greater
in artificial than in natural sediment, probably, because
of a more suitable pH in the artificial sediments. Parti-
cle size of sand, silt, or clay, percentage sand,  silt or
clay, percentage organic matter, and cation exchange
capacity did not affect growth of E. crusgalli and S. al-
terniflora.  Growth of S. paludosus was related to per-
centage organic matter in sediment and to  interaction
between particle size and percentage sand.

Keywords: "Rooted aquatic plants, "Sediments, "Wet-
lands, "Toxic substances, "Soil-water-plant relation-
ships. Particle size, pH, Water pollution effects(Plants),
Plant growth, Aquatic ecosystems, Statistical analysis,
Freshwater, "Artificial sediments.
PB91-164012/REB               PC A03/MF A01
Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.
Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis of Nucleic Acids
to Trace Sources of Dissolved Substrates  Used
by Estuarine Bacteria. Journal article.
Technical Resources, Inc., Gulf Breeze, FL.
R. B. Coffin, D. J. Velinsky, R. Devereux, W. A. Price,
and  L. A. Cifuentes. C1990,11p EPA/600/J-90/388
Pub. in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v56
n7 p2012-2020 Jul 90. Prepared in cooperation with
Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. Geophysical
Lab., and Illinois Univ. at Urbana-Champaign. Dept. of
Veterinary Pathobiology. Sponsored by Environmental
Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL.

The  natural  abundance  of  stable carbon isotopes
measured in bacterial nucleic acids that were extract-
ed from estuarine bacterial concentrates were used to
trace sources of organic matter for bacteria in aquatic
environments. The stable carbon isotope ratios of P.
aeruginosa and nucleic acids extracted from cultures
resembled the carbon source on which bacteria were
grown. The carbon isotope discrimination (delta) be-
tween substrate and bacterial cultures averages +2.3
 + or - 0.6% (n= 13). Generally the lack of isotope dis-
crimination between bacteria and nucleic  acids that
was noted in the laboratory was observed in the field.
Exceptions to this comparison were due to changes in
bacterial substrate sources as a result of the incuba-
tion  experiments that were used to obtain bacteria for
isotope analysis. The authors results from work in the
field and laboratory indicate that the approach is useful
for tracing sources of and describing the bacterial role
in cycling of dissolved organic matter in aquatic envi-
ronments.

Keywords:  "Aquatic  microbiology,  "Tracer studies,
"Organic matter,  "Nucleic acids, "Isotopic  labeling,
Estuaries, Carbon isotopes, Substrates, Aquatic eco-
systems,  Bioassay,  Deoxyribonucleic  acids.  Mass
spectroscopy, Ribonucleic acids, Extraction, Microor-
ganisms, Bacteria, Water pollution detection, Environ-
mental transport, Reprints.
PB91-164277/REB                PC A03/MF A01
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research  Lab., Ada,
OK.
Movement of Bacteria through  Soil and Aquifer
Sand. Rept. for 1 Oct 87-31 Dec 90.
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.
M. Alexander, R. J. Wagenet, P. C. Baveye, J. T.
Gannon, and U. Mingelgrin. Mar 91,45p EP A/600/2-
91/010
Grant EPA-R-814487
Sponsored by Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research
Lab., Ada, OK.

The transport of microorganisms in  soils is of major im-
portance  for  bioremediation  of subsurface polluted
zones. A procedure for evaluating the relative mobility
and recovery of bacteria in the soil matrix  was devel-
oped. Nineteen bacterial strains were selected that dif-
fered in their ability to be transported through soils.
Measurements were made of sorption partition coeffi-
cient, hydrpphobicity, net surface electrostatic charge,
zeta potential,  cell size, encapsulation, and  flagellation
of the cells. Only sorption and cell length were corre-
lated with transport of the bacteria through soil.  The
breakthough curves for Pseudomonas sp. KL2 moving
through a column packed with a sandy aquifer material
were determined.  Ionic strength of the inflowing solu-
tion, bacterial density, and velocity of water flow were
found to have an effect on breakthrough.

Keywords: "Biodeterioration, "Land  pollution control,
"Environmental transport, "Hazardous materials, Bio-
logical  treatment,  Microorganisms,  Waste  disposal.
Water pollution control, Remedial action, Aquifers, Po-
table water. Bacteria, Soil microbiology, Cleanup oper-
ations.
 PB91-164285/REB               PC A04/MF A01
 Nitrate for Biorestoration of an Aquifer Contami-
 nated with Jet Fuel. Rept. for Jun 88-Sep 90.
 Robert S.  Kerr  Environmental Research Lab., Ada,
 OK.
 S. R. Hutchins, W. C. Downs, G. B. Smith, J. T. Wilson,
 and D. J. Hendrix. Mar 91,64p EPA/600/2-91 /009
 Prepared in cooperation with Solar Universal Technol-
 ogies, Inc., Traverse City, Ml. Ground Water Remedi-
 ation Div., NSI Technology  Services Corp., Ada, OK.,
 Traverse Group, Inc., Traverse City, Ml., and Coast
 Guard District  (9th), Cleveland,  OH.  Shore  Mainte-
 nance Detachment.

 There is little information available in the open litera-
 ture on  the performance of bioremediation  at field
 scale. The report documents the rate and extent of
 treatment of a spill of JP-4 in a drinking-water aquifer,
 using nitrate as  the primary electron acceptor for mi-
 crobial respiration of the contaminant hydrocarbons.
 Nitrate has theoretical advantages over the more tradi-
 tional electron acceptors used  in the United States. It
 is much more soluble than oxygen, and less costly and
 less  toxic  than  hydrogen  peroxide.  Ground  water
 amended with nitrate and mineral nutrients was recir-
 culated through  a 10 m by 10 m study area. After 165
 days the individual concentrations of  benzene, tolu-
 ene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes were below 5 micro-
 gram/I in monitoring wells under the study area. The
 concentration of benzene was below 0.1 microgram/l.
 Some of the removal of alkylbenzenes may have been
 due to low concentrations of oxygen (0.5 mg/l) in the
 recirculation water.

 Keywords: "Oil  pollution removal, "Jet engine fuels,
 "Water pollution control, "Potable water, "Biological
 treatment,  Remedial action, Ground water, Aquifers,
 Nitrates, Electron acceptors, Biodeterioration.
 PB91-164293/REB               PC A13/MF A02
 Environmental  Protection Agency, Washington, DC,
 Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
                                                                                                                                  June 1991     63

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Histological and Histopathological Evaluation of
the Testis.
DynamacCorp., Rockville, MD.
L D. Russell, A. P. Sinha Hikim, R. A. Ettlin, and E. D.
Clegg. C1990,297p ISBN-0-9627422-0-1, EPA/600/8-
91/012,,OHEA-R-382
Contract EPA-68-01 -7266
Library of Congress  catalog card no. 90-83144. Pre-
pared  in  cooperation with  Southern  Illinois  Univ.
School of Medicine, Carbondale. Lab. of Structural Bi-
ology, and Sandoz Pharma Ltd.,  Basel  (Switzerland).
Sponsored by Environmental  Protection  Agency,
Washington, DC. Office of Health and Environmental
Assessment.

The book, the first to describe how the testis is evalu-
ated in research and toxicology testing settings, is a re-
source for individuals who wish to perform a systemat-
ic evaluation of the testis. The book contains 728 illus-
trations and drawings. The book begins with a descrip-
tion  of  normal testis  structure.  It  provides  staging
schemes for the  three species (rat,  mouse and dog)
most commonly used in research and toxicology test-
ing situations. Staging of spermatogenesis is designed
to be self-taught. A  chapter on tissue preparation is
written for the  investigator to examine the options of
tissue preparation available and to make a selection
that suits a particular purpose. Perfusion fixation  of the
testis is described in detail. Histopathology of the testis
is amply illustrated.  Both qualitative and quantitative
evaluation of the testis are stressed.

Keywords: "Pathology, 'Testis, 'Histology, Compara-
tive anatomy, Spermatogenesis, Fixatives, Rats, Mice,
Dogs, Stains and staining, Fertility, Organ weight, Toxi-
cology, Reprints.
PB91-168435/REB               PC A09/MF A01
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse:
Bibliography  of  Selected Reports  and Federal
Register Notices Related to Air Toxics. Volume 4.
Citations, 1990. Final rept.
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
C. A. Owen, L. Y. Cooper, and C. E. Morris. Jul 90,
177p DCN-90-203-099-26-09, EPA/450/3-90/014
Contract EPA-68-D8-0065
See also PB90-270570 and PB91-168443. Sponsored
by Environmental Protection Agency, Research Trian-
gle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Stand-
ards.

The purpose of the report is to provide State and local
agencies with citations of reports and Federal Register
notices useful in developing and operating  air toxics
control programs. The reports selected for the bibliog-
raphy were published by the following agencies: EPA,
NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSOR, CPSC, WHO,
and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State
and local  agencies are also included in this edition.
The citations selected this year  were compiled from
sources available through January 31,1990.

Keywords: 'State government, 'Toxicity, 'Air pollution
control, 'Bibliographies.  Public health, Risk,  Project
planning, Carcinogens, Local government. Technical
reports, Government agencies.
PB91-168443/REB               PC A21/MF A03
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
National  Mr  Toxics Information  Clearinghouse:
Bibliography  of Selected Reports  and  Federal
Register Notices Related to  Air Toxics. Index,
1990. Final rept
Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
C. A. Owen, L. Y. Cooper, and C. E. Norris. Jul 90,
492pDCN-90-203-099-26-11,EPA/450/3-90/014A
Contract EPA-68-D8-0065
See also PB90-113523 and PB90-270570. Sponsored
by Environmental Protection Agency, Research Trian-
gle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Stand-
ards.

The purpose of the report is to provide State and local
agencies with citations of reports of Federal Register
notices useful in developing and operating air toxics
control programs. The reports selected for the bibliog-
raphy were published by the following agencies: EPA,
NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, WHO,
and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State
and local agencies are also included in the edition. The
citations  selected  this year  were  compiled  from
sources available through January 31,1990.

Keywords: 'Toxicity,  'Air pollution,  'Bibliographies,
Government agencies, Sources, Industrial wastes, Or-
ganic chemicals, Hydrocarbons, Carcinogens, Public
health,  Manufacturing, State government,  Local gov-
ernment, Technical reports, Listings.
PB91-172247/REB               PC A07/MF A01
National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report,
1989.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
T. Curran, R. Faoro, T. Fitz-Simons, N- Frank, and W.
Freas. Feb 91,134p' EPA/450/4-91 /003
See also report for 1988, PB90-200114.

The report presents national and regional trends in air
quality from 1980 through  1989 for total  suspended
paniculate, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen
dioxide, ozone and lead. Air quality trends are also pre-
sented for 14 metropolitan areas. Both national and re-
gional trends in each of these pollutants are examined.
National air quality trends are also presented for both
the National Air Monitoring Sites (NAMS) and other
site categories. In addition  to ambient  air  quality,
trends are also presented for annual nationwide emis-
sions. The emissions  are  estimated using the best
available engineering calculations; the ambient levels
presented are averages of direct measurements. The
report also includes a section, Air Quality Levels in
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Its purpose is to
provide interested members of the air pollution  control
community, the private sector and the general public
with  greatly simplified  air  pollution information.  Air
quality statistics are  presented for each of the pollut-
ants for all MSAs with data in 1989.

Keywords: 'Air pollution, 'Air quality, Emission factors,
Particulates, Sulfur dioxide, Carbon monoxide. Nitro-
gen  dioxide.  Ozone,  Lead,  Metropolitan Statistical
Area, Regions, Trends, Statistical data, Tables(Data),
'Environmental Protection Agency, NAMS(National
Air Monitoring Stations).
PB91-505578/REB                        CP T18
Urban Airshed Model. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC.
15 Jun 90, mag tape EPA/SW/MT-91 /002
System:  MVS/ESA  operating  system.  Language:
FORTRAN. Supersedes PB87-173217.
Available in 9-track EBCDIC character set,  1600 bpi.
For 6250 bpi, the price is T18. Price includes docu-
mentation,   PB91-131227,   PB91-131235,  PB91-
131243, PB91-131250, and PB91-131268.

The Urban Airshed Model and user's guide consists of
five  volumes:  (one  volume per magnetic  tape) (1)
Model description and a user's manual describing how
to run the core model using pre-prepared air quality,
meteorological, topographical,  and emissions input
files. (2) A summary description and user's manual for
all UAM  preprocessor programs and their input re-
quirements. These preprocessors can be used to gen-
erate the input files needed to run the core model de-
scribed in volume 1. (3) The Diagnostic Wind Model
(DWM) user's manual contains a detailed description
of the DWM (summarized in volume 2), its underlying
rationale and input requirements. The DWM  is used to
generate three dimensional wind fields. (4) The Emis-
sions Preprocessor System (EPS) user's manual con-
tains a detailed description  of the EPS (summarized
briefly in volume 2), including required emission inputs
and their format. A description of the bipgenics emis-
sions processor, its operation and how it is eventually
merged within the manmade area sources emissions
file to produce the gridded, hourly speciated emissions
data  required by the core  model,  is contained in
volume  IV  as an appendix.  (5) ROM/UAM Interface
Program System user's manual describes procedures
for using Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) simulations
to generate required air quality, meteorological, and
biogenic emissions files to operate the UAM core
model described in volume I.

Keywords:  'Models-Simulation.  'Software,  Magnetic
tapes.  Air  quality.  Meteorological   data,  File
maintenance(Computers), Pollution sources, Air pollu-
tion, Atmospheric diffusion,  Photochemical  reactions,
Wind(Meteorology), 'Urban Airshed Model, Diagnostic
Wind Model, Carbon-Bond Chemical Mechanism, Re-
gional Oxidant Model, Emission inventories, Emission
factors.
PB91-505586/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory  (Version 2): U.S.
Point Source Modelers' Inventory, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /004
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 250,381,092. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file  contains U.S. point source data for 59
chemical species and the associated factors required
to spatially and temporally allocate emissions to grids
1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Point  sources, 'Air pollution,
Mathematical models, Magnetic tapes. Spatial distri-
bution, Temporal distribution, Chemical compounds.
Pollution  sources,  States(United   States),   USA,
Grids(Coordinates), 'National Acid  Precipitation As-
sessment Program, 'Emission inventories.
PB91-505594/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): Canadian
Modelers' Point Source Data, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /005
System: IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 10,867,505. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Canadian emissions data for 59
chemical species  and allocation factors required to
distribute the data to grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6
degree latitude and to hourly values for ^representa-
tive scenarios.

Keywords:  'Data  file,  "Point sources,  'Air pollution.
Mathematical models, Magnetic tapes, Chemical com-
pounds, Grids(Coordinates),  Pollution sources, 'Na-
tional Acid Precipitation Assessment Program,  'Emis-
sion inventories, Canada.
PB91-505602/REB                        CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  THC Mobile Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
Winter Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /006
System:  IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical winter  weekday, temporal
scenario Number 1.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Mobile pollutant sources, 'Air
pollution, Mathematical  models,  Magnetic tapes,
States(United States),  USA, Winter,  Exhaust emis-
sions,   Hydrocarbons,  Nitrogen  oxides,  Pollution
sources,  Grids(Coordinates), 'Emission  inventories,
'National Acid Precipitation Assessment  Program,
Canada.
 PB91-505610/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
 Winter Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /007
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.
 64    Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
 the U.S. and Canada formatted for model input grids
 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude and in
 hourly resolution for the typical Winter Weekday, tem-
 poral scenario Number 1.

 Keywords: 'Data file, 'Stationary sources, *Air pollu-
 tion,  Mathematical  models,  USA,  States(United
 States),   Magnetic   tapes,   Pollution   sources,
 Grids(Cpordinates), Temporal distribution. Hydrocar-
 bons, Nitrogen oxides, "National Acid Precipitation As-
 sessment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-505628/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
 Winter Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /008
 System: IBM 3090;  OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains Particulate,  Particulate Species,
 S02, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
 U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
 4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
 resolution  for the typical Winter  Weekday, temporal
 scenario Number  1.

 Keywords:  'Data  file, 'Mobile pollutant sources, 'Air
 pollution,  Total   suspended particulates,  Magnetic
 tapes, USA, States(United States), Grids(Coordinate),
 Winter,  Temporal  distribution.  Ammonia,  Pollution
 sources, Mathematical models, Sulfur dioxide, Carbon
 monoxide.  Sulfur  oxides,  'National  Acid Precipitation
 Assessment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505636/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian  TSP  Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers'
Tapes - Winter Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /009
System: IBM 3090; OS -  TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
S02, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
in  hourly resolution for the typical  Winter Weekday,
temporal scenario Number 1.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Stationary sources, 'Air pollu-
tion, Total suspended particulates, USA, States(United
States), Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models,  Sulfur
oxides, Carbon monoxide. Ammonia, Temporal distri-
bution, Winter, Pollution sources, "Emission invento-
ries,  'National Acid Precipitation  Assessment Pro-
gram, Canada.
PB91-505644/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes -
Winter Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /010
System:  IBM 3090; OS -  TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the  typical Winter Saturday, temporal
scenario Number 2.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Mobile pollutant sources, 'Air
pollution, Mathematical   models, Winter,  Magnetic
tapes, Pollution sources, States(United States), USA,
Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen  oxides,  Grids(Coordinates),
Temporal  distribution, Exhaust emissions,  'National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission in-
ventories, Canada.
PB91-505651/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Nonmobile Modelers' Tape - Winter
Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91/011
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system.  Ap-
proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.


The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and N02 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted  for model  input on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by  1 /6 degree latitude  and
in  hourly resolution for  the typical Winter  Saturday,
temporal scenario Number 2.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Stationary sources, "Air pollu-
tion, Mathematical models, Magnetic tapes,  Pollution
sources, Grids(Coordinates),  States(United States),
USA, Temporal distribution, Winter, Temporal distribu-
tion. Nitrogen oxides, Hydrocarbons, 'Emission inven-
tories,  'National Acid Precipitation Assessment Pro-
gram, Canada.
PB91-505669/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
Winter Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Proteclion Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /012
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and S04 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution  for the typical Winter Saturday, temporal
scenario Number 2.
Keywords: 'Data file, 'Mobile pollutant sources,  'Air
pollution, Mathematical models, Magnetic tapes, Pollu-
tion sources, Grids(Coordinates), Exhaust emissions,
States(United States), USA, Total suspended particu-
lates, Winter, Sulfur oxides, Carbon monoxide, Ammo-
nia, Temporal distribution, 'National Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505677/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
- Winter Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /013
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Particulate  Species,
SO2, CO, NH3  and S04 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted  for model  input  on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
in  hourly resolution for  the  typical Winter Saturday,
temporal scenario Number 2.


Keywords: 'Data file, 'Stationary sources, "Air pollu-
tion. Mathematical models, Magnetic tapes,  Pollution
sources, Total  suspended particulates, Winter, Tem-
poral  distribution,  Grids(Coordinates),  USA,  Sulfur
oxides.  Ammonia, Carbon monoxide, 'National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program, "Emission inven-
tories, Canada.
PB91-505685/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  THC  Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape,
1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /014
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids  1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical winter Sunday, temporal sce-
nario Number 3.

Keywords: 'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Pollu-
tion   sources,   Grids(Coordinates),  States(United
States), USA, Exhaust emissions, Nitrogen oxides, Hy-
drocarbons, Temporal distribution, Winter,  'National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission  in-
ventories, Canada.
PB91-505693/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes
- Winter Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /015
System: IBM 3090; OS -  TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted for model  input  on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by  1 /6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Winter Sunday, tem-
poral scenario Number 3.

Keywords: 'Data file, "Stationary sources, "Air pollu-
tion,  Magnetic  tapes, Mathematical models, Winter,
Pollution   sources,    Grids(Coordinates),   USA,
States(United States),  Temporal distribution, Hydro-
carbons, Nitrogen oxides, 'National  Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program, "Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505701/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
Winter Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /016
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system.  Ap-
proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Winter Sunday, temporal sce-
nario Number 3.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Mobile pollutant sources,  "Air
pollution, Magnetic tapes, Exhaust emissions, Mathe-
matical models,  Pollution sources, Temporal distribu-
tion, States(United States), Ammonia, Carbon monox-
ide, USA, Grids(Coordinates), Winter, Total suspended
particulates, Sulfur oxides, "National Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program, "Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505719/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
- Winter Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /017
                                                                                                                              June  1991     65

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 System: IBM 3090; OS - ISO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
 SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
 the  U.S. and Canada formatted for model  input on
 grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
 in hourly resolution for the typical Winter Sunday, tem-
 poral scenario Number 3.

 Keywords:  'Data file, 'Stationary sources, *Air pollu-
 tion, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Total sus-
 pended particulates, Sulfur oxides, Carbon monoxide,
 Ammonia,  Pollution sources,  Winter, StatesfUnited
 States),  USA, Temporal-distribution,  'National Acid
 Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission inven-
 tories, Canada.
 PB91-505727/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
 - Fall Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-917018
 System:  IBM  3090: OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
 SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
 the U.S. and Canada formatted for model  input  on
 grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
 in hourly resolution for the typical Fall Weekday, tem-
 poral scenario Number 10.

 Keywords:  'Data  file,  'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
 sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Pollu-
 tion  sources,   Grids(Coordinates),   StatesfUnited
 States),  USA,   Ammonia,  Temporal  distribution,
 Autumn,  Total suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides.
 Carbon monoxide, 'National Acid Precipitation As-
 sessment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505735/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tapes -
Fall Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /019
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Fall Saturday, temporal sce-
nario Number 11.

Keywords: 'Data file,  'Mobile pollutant sources, 'Air
pollution.  Magnetic tapes.  Mathematical  models,
Autumn,   Exhaust emissions,   Pollution  sources,
States(United States),  USA, Grids(Coordinates), Hy-
drocarbons,  Nitrogen oxides, Temporal  distribution,
'National  Acid  Precipitation  Assessment  Program,
'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-50S743/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
Fall Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /020
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted  for model input  on
 grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
 in hourly resolution for the typical Fall Saturday, tem-
 poral scenario Number 11.

 Keywords: 'Data file, 'Stationary sources, 'Air pollu-
 tion, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models. Pollution
 sources. Temporal  distribution,  USA,  StatesfUnited
 States), Grids(Coordinates), Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen
 oxides,  Autumn, 'National Acid Precipitation Assess-
 ment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-505750/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall
 Saturday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91/021
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate  Species,
 S02, CO, NH3  and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
 U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
 4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
 resolution for the typical Fall Saturday, temporal sce-
 nario Number 11.

 Keywords: 'Data  file,  'Air pollution, 'Mobile  pollutant
 sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models. Pollu-
 tion sources,  Temporal  distribution, Exhaust emis-
 sions, USA, States(United States), Grids(Coordinates),
 Autumn, Total  suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides,
 Ammonia, Carbon monoxide,  'Emission inventories,
 'National  Acid Precipitation Assessment  Program,
 Canada.
PB91-505768/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
- Fall Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /022
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
S02, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted  for model input  on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by  1 /6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Fall Saturday, tem-
poral scenario Number 11.

Keywords:  'Data  file,   'Air   pollution,  'Stationary
sources. Magnetic tapes. Mathematical models, Pollu-
tion  sources,  Autumn, USA,  Temporal distribution,
Grids(Coordinates),  Total  suspended  particulates.
Sulfur oxides, Carbon monoxide, Ammonia, 'National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission in-
ventories, Canada.
PB91-505776/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes -
Fall Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91/023
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx,  NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids  1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Fall Sunday, temporal scenar-
io Number  12.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, Nitrogen  oxides, Autumn, Magnetic tapes,
Mathematical  models,  Temporal  distribution,  USA,
States(United  States),  Exhaust emissions, Pollution
sources, Grids(Coordinates), Hydrocarbons, 'National
 Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission in-
 ventories, Canada.
 PB91-505784/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
 Fall Sunday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /024
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.


 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
 the U.S.  and Canada formatted  for model  input  on
 grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
 in hourly resolution for the typical Fall Sunday, tempo-
 ral scenario Number 12.


 Keywords:  'Data file,   'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
 sources,  Nitrogen oxides, Autumn,  Magnetic tapes,
 Mathematical  models.   Pollution  sources,   USA,
 StatesfUnited States), Grids(Coordinates), Temporal
 distribution, Hydrocarbons,  'National Acid Precipita-
 tion Assessment  Program,  'Emission inventories,
 Canada.
PB91-505792/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall
Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /025
System:  IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate  Species,
SO2, CO, NH3  and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Fall Sunday, temporal scenar-
io Number 12.


Keywords: 'Data file,  'Mobile pollutant sources, 'Air
pollution,  Autumn, Magnetic tapes,  Mathematical
models, Pollution sources, Grids(Coordinates), Carbon
monoxide. Ammonia, Exhaust emissions, Temporal
distribution, USA,  States(United States), Total sus-
pended particulates, Sulfur oxides, 'National Acid Pre-
cipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission  invento-
ries, Canada.
PB91-505800/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
- Fall Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /026
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price isT02.


The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S.  and Canada formatted for model input on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Fall Sunday, tempo-
ral scenario Number 12.


Keywords:  'Data  file,  'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
sources.  Autumn,  Magnetic tapes.  Mathematical
models,  Pollution  sources,  USA,   StatesfUnited
States),  Temporal  distribution,  Grids(Coordinates),
Total suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides, Carbon
monoxide, Ammonia, 'National Acid Precipitation As-
sessment Program, "Emission inventories, Canada.
66     Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-505818/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  Natural  Participate  Sources Modelers'
Tape - Winter Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /027
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust  devils for the U.S. and Canada formatted for
model input on grids 1/4 degree  longitude by 1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Winter Weekday, temporal scenario Number 1.

Keywords:  'Data  file, *Air  pollution,  "Natural emis-
sions, Winter,  Magnetic  tapes. Mathematical models,
Roads,  States(United  States),  Grids(Coordinates),
Temporal distribution, Particles, Wind erosion, Dust,
USA,  'National Acid  Precipitation  Assessment Pro-
gram, 'Emission inventories, Canada.


PB91-505826/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  Natural  Particulate  Sources  Modelers'
Tape - Winter Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /028
System:  IBM 3090; OS  - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains paniculate and  paniculate spe-
cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust devils for the U.S. and Canada formatted  for
model input on grids 1/4  degree  longitude by 1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Winter Saturday, temporal scenario Number 2.

Keywords: 'Data  file, 'Air pollution,  'Natural emis-
sions, Winter, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models,
Wind erosion, Particles, Grids(Coordinates), Roads,
Dust, USA, States(United States), Temporal distribu-
tion,  'National  Acid  Precipitation  Assessment Pro-
gram, 'Emission inventories, Canada.


PB91-505834/REB                        CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  Natural  Particulate  Sources  Modelers'
Tape - Winter Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /029
System: IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file  contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust  devils for the  U.S. and  Canada  formatted  for
 model input  on grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Winter Sunday, temporal scenario Number 3.

 Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air  pollution,  'Natural  emis-
 sions, Winter, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models,
 USA, States(United States), Grids(Coordinates), Parti-
 cles, Roads, Dust, Temporal  distribution.  Wind ero-
 sion, 'National Acid Precipitation Assessment Pro-
 gram, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-505842/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada  Natural  Particulate  Sources Modelers'
 Tape - Spring Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /030
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.
The data file contains particulate and paniculate spe-
cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust  devils for the U.S.  and Canada formatted for
model  input on grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Spring Weekday, temporal scenario Number 4.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Air  pollution,  'Natural emis-
sions, Mathematical models, Magnetic tapes, Tempo-
ral distribution, Spring, Particles, Grids(Coordinates),
USA,  States(United  States),  Dust,  Wind  erosion,
Roads, 'National Acid Precipitation Assessment Pro-
grams, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505859/REB                       CP T02
Annual NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version  2):
U.S. Annual Point Sources, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /031
System: IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 71,726,967. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file includes annual emissions and operating
data for U.S.  point sources that emitted greater than
100 TPY at the plant level in base year 1985.

Keywords:  'Data  file,  'Air pollution, 'Point sources,
Magnetic tapes, Operating, Industrial  wastes,  USA,
States(United States), Pollution sources,  'National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission in-
ventories.
 PB91-505867/REB                        CP T02
 Annual NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):
 Canadian Annual Point Sources, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /032
 System:  IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 992,970. Other formats available as
 PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains annual emissions  and facility
 data for Canadian point sources.

 Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution,  'Point sources,
 Magnetic tapes, Pollution sources, Industrial wastes,
 'National Acid  Precipitation  Assessment Program,
 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-505875/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Annual Emissions  Inventory (Version 2):
 U.S. Annual Area Sources, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /033
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system.  Ap-
 proximate bytes: 41,695,683. Other formats available
 as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains emissions and activity rate data
 for U.S. area source categories at the county level.

 Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution. Magnetic tapes,
 Pollution sources,  USA, States(United States), 'Area
 sources, 'National Acid Precipitation Assessment Pro-
 gram, 'Emission inventories.


 PB91-505883/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): Canadian
 Annual Area Sources, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /034
 System: IBM 3090; OS  - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 236,408. Other formats available as
 PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The  data file contains annual emissions and activity
 data for Canadian area source categories.

 Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution. Magnetic tapes,
 Pollution sources, 'Area sources, 'National Acid  Pre-
cipitation Assessment  Program,  'Emission  invento-
ries, Canada.
PB91-505891/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.
Annual Natural Particulate Sources, 1985. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /035
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 692,346. Other formats available  as
PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file  contains  annual  emissions  for U.S.
source categories of natural paniculate for  unpaved
roads, wind erosion and dust devils.

Keywords:  'Data  file,  'Air pollution, 'Natural emis-
sions,  Magnetic tapes,  USA, States(United States),
Particles, Roads, Wind erosion, Dust,  'National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission inven-
tories.
 PB91-505909/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): Canadian
 Annual Natural Particulate Sources, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /036
 System: IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 14,560. Other formats available as
 PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the  price is T02.

 The data file contains the  annual emissions data for
 Canadian natural particulate sources of paved and un-
 paved roads and wind erosion.

 Keywords: 'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Natural emis-
 sions, Magnetic tapes, Particles, Roads, Wind erosion,
 'National Acid  Precipitation  Assessment Program,
 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-505917/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes -
 Spring Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /037
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.

 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
 U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
 4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
 resolution for the typical Spring  Weekday, temporal
 scenario Number 4.

 Keywords: 'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
 sources,  Magnetic  tapes,  Mathematical  models,
 Spring,  Temporal  distribution,  USA,  States(United
 States), Grids(Coordinates),  Hydrocarbons,  Nitrogen
 oxides, Pollution sources, 'National Acid Precipitation
 Assessment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-505925/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
 Spring Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /038
 System: IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 221,78,280. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.

 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
 the  U.S. and  Canada formatted for  model  input on
 grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude and


                            June  1991     67

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
 in hourly resolution  for the typical Spring Weekday,
 temporal scenario Number 4.

 Keywords:  'Data  file,  *Air  pollution,  'Stationary
 sources,  Magnetic  tapes,   Mathematical  models,
 Spring,  Temporal  distribution, USA,  States(United
 States), Grids(Coordinates),  Hydrocarbons,  Nitrogen
 oxides, Pollution sources, 'National Acid Precipitation
 Assessment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505933/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  TSP  Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
Spring Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /039
System:  IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes:  121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669  (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
S02, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and  Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Spring Weekday, temporal
scenario  Number 4.

Keywords: 'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources.  Exhaust emissions, Magnetic tapes,  Mathe-
matical models,  Temporal distribution, Spring, Pollu-
tion sources, USA, States(United States), Total sus-
pended particulates, Sulfur oxides, Carbon monoxide,
Ammonia, 'National Acid Precipitation  Assessment
Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.


PB91-505941/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
- Spring Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and  Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /040
System: IBM 3090; OS -  TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S.  and Canada  formatted for model input  on
grids 1 /4 degree  longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
in  hourly resolution for the typical  Spring Weekday,
temporal  scenario Number 4.

Keywords:  'Data  file, 'Air  pollution,   'Stationary
sources,  Magnetic  tapes,   Mathematical models,
Spring, USA, StatesfUnited States), Temporal distribu-
tion, Grids(Coprdinates),  Total suspended  particu-
lates. Sulfur oxides, Carbon monoxide, Ammonia, 'Na-
tional Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emis-
sion inventories, Canada.
PB91-505958/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes -
Spring Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /041
System: IBM 3090; OS -  TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy)
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids  1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the  typical Spring  Saturday, temporal
scenario Number 5.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution,  'Mobile pollutant
sources. Exhaust emissions, Magnetic tapes, Mathe-
matical   models,   Temporal    distribution,   USA,
States(United States), Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen oxides,
Grids(Coprdinates), Spring, Pollution  sources, 'Na-
tional Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emis-
sion inventories, Canada.
PB91-505966/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes
- Spring Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /042
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S.  and Canada formatted  for model  input  on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by  1 /6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for  the typical Spring Saturday,
temporal scenario Number 5.

Keywords:  'Data  file,   'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Tem-
poral distribution, USA, States(United States), Spring,
Grids(Coordinates), Pollution sources. Hydrocarbons,
Nitrogen oxides, 'National Acid Precipitation Assess-
ment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505974/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
Spring Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /043
System: IBM 3090; OS -  TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Paniculate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution  for the  typical Spring Saturday, temporal
scenario Number 5.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Ex-
haust   emissions,   Temporal   distribution,  USA,
States(United States), Total suspended particulates,
Grids(Coordinates), Pollution  sources, Sulfur oxides,
Carbon monoxide, Spring, Ammonia,  "National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission inven-
tories, Canada.
PB91-505982/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Enventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
- Spring Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /044
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in  9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
S02, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted  for  model input on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by  1 /6 degree latitude and
in  hourly resolution for  the typical Spring Saturday,
temporal scenario Number 5.

Keywords:   'Data  file,   'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
sources, Magnetic  tapes, Mathematical models, Tem-
poral distribution, USA,  States(United States),  Pollu-
tion sources,  Ammonia,  Grids(Coordinates), Spring,
Total suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides, Carbon
monoxide,  'National Acid Precipitation  Assessment
Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-505990/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes  -
Spring Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91/045
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and N02 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Spring Sunday, temporal sce-
nario Number 6.

Keywords: 'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Ex-
haust emissions, USA, States(United States), Tempo-
ral distribution, Spring, Grids(Coordinates), Hydrocar-
bons, Nitrogen oxides,  Pollution sources, 'National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission in-
ventories, Canada.
PB91-506006/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes
- Spring Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /046
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system Ap-
proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S.  and Canada formatted  for model input on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Spring Sunday, tem-
poral scenario Number 6.

Keywords:  'Data  file,  'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
sources,   Magnetic  tapes,  Mathematical  models,
Spring,  Temporal  distribution,  USA,  States(United
States), Grids(Coordinates), Pollution sources, Hydro-
carbons,  Nitrogen oxides, 'National Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-506014/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
Spring Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /047
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate,  Particulate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Spring Sunday, temporal sce-
nario Number 6.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, Magnetic tapes, Exhaust emissions, Mathe-
matical models, Temporal distribution, Spring, USA,
States(United  States),  Grids(Coordinates), Pollution
sources, Total suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides,
Carbon monoxide. Ammonia, 'National Acid Precipita-
tion  Assessment  Program,  'Emission inventories,
Canada.
PB91-506022/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
Spring Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /048
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
68     Vol. 91, No. 2

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
the  U.S. and Canada formatted for model  input on
grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Spring Sunday, tem-
poral scenario Number 6.

Keywords:  'Data  file,  *Air  pollution, 'Stationary
sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Tem-
poral distribution, USA, States(United States), Spring,
Grids(Coordinates),  Total  suspended  particulates,
Sulfur oxides, Carbon monoxide, Ammonia, 'National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission in-
ventories, Canada.
PB91-506030/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes  -
Summer Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Research  Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91/049
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution  for the typical Summer Weekday, temporal
scenario Number 7.

Keywords: 'Data file,  *Air pollution, 'Mobile  pollutant
sources,   Magnetic  tapes,  Mathematical  models,
Summer, Temporal distribution, USA, States(United
States), Grids(Coordinates),  Hydrocarbons,  Pollution
sources, Nitrogen oxides, Exhaust emissions, 'Nation-
al Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission
inventories, Canada.
Pollution sources, Total suspended particulates, Sulfur
oxides, Carbon monoxide. Ammonia,  'National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program,  'Emission inven-
tories, Canada.
PB91-506063/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
Summer Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /052
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Particulate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and  Canada formatted for model  input on
grids 1 /4 degree  longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical  Summer Weekday,
temporal scenario Number 7.

Keywords:  'Data  file,   'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
sources Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Tem-
poral   distribution,   USA,   StatesfUnited  States),
Summer, Grids(Coordinates), Total suspended partic-
ulates,  Sulfur oxides, Carbon  monoxide, Ammonia,
'National  Acid Precipitation Assessment  Program,
'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-506048/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes
 - Summer Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /050
 System:  IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.

 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
 the  U.S. and Canada formatted for  model input on
 grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
 in hourly resolution for the typical Summer Weekday,
 temporal scenario Number 7.

 Keywords:  'Data  file,  'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
 sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Tem-
 poral  distribution,   USA,  States(United   States),
 Summer, Grids(Coordinates), Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen
 oxides. Pollution sources, 'National Acid Precipitation
 Assessment   Programs,   'Emission   inventories,
 Canada.


 PB91-506055/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada TSP Mobile Source Modelers'  Tape  -
 Summer Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /051
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system.  Ap-
 proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
 SO2, CO, NH3 and  SO4 data for mobile sources in the
 U S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
 4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
 resolution for the typical Summer Weekday, temporal
 scenario Number 7.

  Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution,  'Mobile pollutant
 sources, Magnetic tapes,  Mathematical  models, Ex-
 haust  emissions,  Temporal   distribution,  USA,
 States(United States), Summer, Grids(Coordinates),
 PB91-506071/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada  THC Mobile Sources Modelers'  Tapes  -
 Summer Saturday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /053
 System:  IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.

 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources in the
 U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
 4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
 resolution for the typical Summer Saturday, temporal
 scenario Number 8.

 Keywords: 'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
 sources.  Magnetic  tapes,  Mathematical   models,
 Summer, Exhaust emissions, Temporal distribution,
 USA, States(United States), Grids(Coordinates), Hy-
 drocarbons, Nitrogen  oxides, Pollution sources, 'Na-
 tional Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emis-
 sion inventories, Canada.
PB91-506097/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers'  Tape -
Summer Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy  Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /055
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution  for the typical Summer Saturday, temporal
scenario Number 8.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, Summer, Magnetic tapes, Total suspended
particulates. Mathematical models. Temporal distribu-
tion, USA, Exhaust emissions, States(United States),
Grids(Coordinates), Sulfur oxides, Carbon monoxide,
Ammonia, Pollution sources, 'National Acid Precipita-
tion  Assessment  Program,  'Emission  inventories,
Canada.
 PB91-506105/REB                       CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
 Summer Saturday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /056
 System:  IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains Particulate, Particulate Species,
 SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
 the  U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on
 grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
 in hourly resolution for the typical Summer Saturday,
 temporal scenario Number 8.

 Keywords:  'Data file,  'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
 sources.  Summer,  Magnetic  tapes,  Mathematical
 models,  Temporal  distribution,  USA,  States(United
 States),  Grids(Coordinates), Pollution sources, Total
 suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides, Carbon monox-
 ide, Ammonia, 'National Acid Precipitation  Assess-
 ment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-506089/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes
 - Summer Saturday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /054
 System: IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.

 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
 the  U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on
 grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude and
 in hourly resolution for the typical Summer Saturday,
 temporal scenario Number 8

 Keywords:   'Data file,  'Air  pollution,   'Stationary
 sources,  Magnetic  tapes,  Mathematical  models,
 Summer, Temporal distribution, USA, StatesfUnited
  States), Grids(Coordinates), Nitrogen  oxides, Hydro-
  carbons, Pollution sources, 'National  Acid Precipita-
  tion Assessment  Program,  'Emission   inventories,
  Canada.
 PB91-506113/HEB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada THC  Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tapes -
 Summer Sunday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /057
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system.  Ap-
 proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
 as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.

 The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and N02 data for mobile sources in the
 U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
 4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
 resolution for  the typical Summer Sunday, temporal
 scenario Number 9.

 Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
 sources, Magnetic tapes,  Exhaust emissions, Mathe-
 matical  models,   Temporal   distribution,  USA,
 StatesfUnited  States), Grids(Coordinates),  Pollution
 sources, Nitrogen oxides,  Hydrocarbons, Summer,
  'National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program,
  'Emission inventories, Canada.
  PB91-506121/REB                       CP T03
  NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
  Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes
  - Summer Sunday, 1985. Data file.
  Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
  Park NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
  30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /058


                            June 1991    69

-------
                                                EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
System: IBM 3090; OS - ISO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track character set, 1600 bpi. For 6250
bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S.  and  Canada formatted for model input on
grids 1 /4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Summer Sunday,
temporal scenario Number 9.

Keywords:  'Data  file,  *Air pollution,  'Stationary
sources.   Magnetic  tapes,  Mathematical models,
Summer, Temporal distribution, USA,  StatesfUnited
States), Grids(Coordinates),  Pollution sources, Nitro-
gen oxides, Hydrocarbons, 'National Acid  Precipita-
tion Assessment  Program, 'Emission inventories,
Canada.
PB91-S06139/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers- Tape  -
Summer Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /059
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes. 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
SO2, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution  for the  typical Summer Sunday, temporal
scenario Number 9.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources. Magnetic tapes, Exhaust emissions, Mathe-
matical models. Summer, Temporal distribution, USA,
States(United States),  GridsfCoordinates), Pollution
sources, Total suspended partjculates. Sulfur oxides.
Carbon monoxide. Ammonia, 'National Acid Precipita-
tion  Assessment  Program, 'Emission  inventories,
Canada.
PB91-506147/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canadian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape
- Summer Sunday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /060
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 122,567,760. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate  Species,
SO2. CO, NH3 and SO4 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and Canada formatted for model  input  on
grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Summer  Sunday,
temporal scenario Number 9.

Keywords:  'Data file,   'Air pollution,  'Stationary
sources. Magnetic tapes. Mathematical models,  Tem-
poral  distribution,   USA,  StatesfUnited   States),
Summer, Grids(Coordinates),  Pollution sources.  Total
suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides. Carbon monox-
ide, Ammonia,  'National  Acid  Precipitation  Assess-
ment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
 PB91-506154/REB                       CP T03
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada  THC Mobile Sources Modelers; Tapes •
 Fall Weekday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /061
 System:  IBM  3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 220,147,680. Other formats available
 as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T03.

 Tf»e data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
 cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for mobile sources  in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Fall Weekday, temporal sce-
nario Number 10.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution, 'Mobile pollutant
sources, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Ex-
haust emissions, Autumn, Temporal distribution, USA,
StatesfUnited  States), GridsfCoordinates), Hydrocar-
bons, Nitrogen oxides,  Pollution sources, 'National
Acid  Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emission in-
ventories, Canada.
PB91-506162/REB                       CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes
- Fall Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /062
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 221,789,280. Other formats available
as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T03.

The data file contains Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon Spe-
cies, NOx, NO and NO2 data for nonmobile sources in
the U.S. and  Canada formatted for model input on
grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6 degree latitude and
in hourly resolution for the typical Fall Weekday, tem-
poral scenario Number 10.

Keywords:  'Data  file,  'Air  pollution,  'Stationary
sources. Magnetic  tapes. Mathematical models, Tem-
poral distribution, USA, States(United States), Autumn,
Grids(Coordinates), Hydrocarbons,  Nitrogen oxides,
Pollution sources, 'National Acid Precipitation Assess-
ment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
                                        CPT02
                                           and
                                           Fall
PB91-506170/REB
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S.
Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape -
Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /063
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 121,660,560. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains Paniculate, Paniculate Species,
SOZ, CO, NH3 and SO4 data for mobile sources in the
U.S. and Canada formatted for model input on grids 1 /
4 degree longitude by 1 /6 degree latitude and in hourly
resolution for the typical Fall Weekday, temporal sce-
nario Number 10.

Keywords: 'Data file, *Air pollution,  'Mobile pollutant
sources. Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models. Ex-
haust  emissions,   Temporal   distribution,   USA,
StatesfUnited  States),  Autumn,  Grids(Coordinates),
Total suspended particulates, Sulfur oxides, Carbon
monoxide, Ammonia, 'National Acid Precipitation As-
sessment Program, "Emission inventories, Canada.


PB91-506188/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  Natural  Particulate Sources Modelers'
Tape - Soring Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /064
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character  set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust devils for the U.S. and Canada formatted  for
model  input on grids 1/4  degree  longitude by 1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Spring Saturday, temporal scenario Number 5.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Air pollution,  'Natural emis-
sions, Spring, Magnetic tapes. Mathematical models,
USA, StatesfUnited States), Particulates, Roads, Wind
erosion. Dust, Grids(Coordinates), Temporal distribu-
tion, 'National Acid Precipitation  Assessment Pro-
gram, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
                                                 PB91-506196/REB                       CP T02
                                                 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
                                                 Canada  Natural  Particulate  Sources Modelers'
                                                 Tape - Spring Sunday, 1985. Data file.
                                                 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
                                                 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
                                                 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /065
                                                 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
                                                 proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
                                                 as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
                                                 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
                                                 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

                                                 The data file contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
                                                 cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
                                                 dust devils for the U.S. and Canada formatted for
                                                 model  input on grids 1/4 degree  longitude by 1/6
                                                 degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
                                                 Spring Sunday, temporal scenario Number 6.

                                                 Keywords:  'Data file, 'Air pollution,  'Natural emis-
                                                 sions,  Magnetic tapes,  Mathematical models, USA,
                                                 StatesfUnited States), Temporal distribution, Roads,
                                                 Wind erosion, Dust, Spring, Grids(Coordinates), Partic-
                                                 ulates, 'National Acid Precipitation Assessment Pro-
                                                 gram, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-506204/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): US. and
Canada  Natural  Particulate  Sources  Modelers'
Tape - Summer Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /066
System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The  data file contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
cies  data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust  devils for the U.S. and Canada  formatted for
model  input on grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Summer Weekday, temporal scenario Number 7.

Keywords:  'Data file, 'Air  pollution, 'Natural emis-
sions, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Tempo-
ral distribution, USA, StatesfUnited States), Summer,
GridsfCoordinates), Roads, Wind erosion,  Dust, 'Nat-
ural  Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 'Emis-
sion  inventories, Canada.
                                                  PB91-506212/REB                       CP T02
                                                  NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
                                                  Canada Natural Particulate  Sources  Modelers'
                                                  Tape - Summer Saturday, 1985. Data file.
                                                  Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
                                                  Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
                                                  30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /067
                                                  System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
                                                  proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
                                                  as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
                                                  Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
                                                  6250 bpi, the price is T02.

                                                  The data file contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
                                                  cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
                                                  dust  devils  for the  U.S. and  Canada formatted for
                                                  model input on grids 1/4 degree longitude by 1/6
                                                  degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
                                                  Summer Saturday, temporal scenario Number 8.

                                                  Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air  pollution, 'Natural  emis-
                                                  sions,  Particulates,  Magnetic  tapes. Mathematical
                                                  models, Temporal  distribution,  USA, States(United
                                                  States), Grids(Coordinates), Summer, Dust, Roads,
                                                  Wind  erosion,  'National  Acid  Precipitation Assess-
                                                  ment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
                                                  PB91-506220/REB                       CPT02
                                                  NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
                                                  Canada  Natural  Particulate  Sources  Modelers'
                                                  Tape - Summer Sunday, 1985. Data file.
                                                  Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
                                                  Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
                                                  30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /068
                                                  System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
                                                  proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
                                                  as PB91 -119669 (Paper Copy).
 70    Vol. 91,  No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The data file contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust  devils for the U.S. and Canada formatted  for
model input on grids 1/4 degree longitude by  1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Summer Sunday, temporal scenario Number 9.

Keywords:  *Data file, *Air pollution, 'Natural emis-
sions,   Magnetic  tapes,   Mathematical   models,
Summer, Temporal distribution, USA, States(United
States), Grids(Coordinates), Wind  erpsipn, Roads,
Dust, Particulates, 'Natural Acid Precipitation Assess-
ment Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.


PB91-506238/REB                       CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada  Natural Paniculate  Sources  Modelers'
Tape - Fall Weekday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /069
System: IBM 3090; OS  - TSO operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
as PB91-119669 (Paper  Copy).
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02.

The  data file contains paniculate and paniculate spe-
cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
dust devils for the U.S. and  Canada formatted for
model input on  grids 1/4 degree longitude by  1/6
degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
Fall Weekday, temporal  scenario Number 10.

Keywords:  'Data file, *Air  pollution, 'Natural emis-
sions.  Magnetic tapes,  Mathematical models, USA,
Particulates, StatesjUnited States), Autumn, Temporal
distribution, Grids(Coordinates),  'National Acid Pre-
cipitation  Assessment  Program,  'Emission invento-
ries, Canada.


PB91-506246/REB                        CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
Canada Natural  Paniculate Sources  Modelers'
Tape - Fall Saturday, 1985. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /070
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
 as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set,  1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains paniculate  and paniculate spe-
 cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
 dust devils for the U.S. and Canada formatted for
 model input on grids  1/4  degree longitude by 1/6
 degree latitude and in hourly resolution for the typical
 Fall Saturday, temporal  scenario Number 11.

 Keywords:  'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Natural emis-
 sions, Magnetic tapes,  Mathematical models, Particu-
 lates, USA, States(United States), Temporal distribu-
 tion,  Autumn,  Grids(Coordinates), Wind  erosion,
 Roads, Dust, 'National Acid Precipitation Assessment
 Program, 'Emission inventories, Canada.


 PB91-506253/REB                        CP T02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and
 Canada  Natural  Paniculate Sources  Modelers'
 Tape - Fall Sunday, 1985. Data file.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 30 Sep 89, mag tape EPA/DF/MT-91 /071
 System: IBM 3090; OS - TSO operating system. Ap-
 proximate bytes: 126,262,080. Other formats available
 as PB91-119669 (Paper Copy).
 Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
 6250 bpi, the price is T02.

 The data file contains  paniculate and paniculate spe-
 cies data for sources unpaved roads, wind erosion and
 dust devils for the  U.S. and Canada  formatted for
 model input on grids  1/4 degree longitude by  1/6
 degree latitude and in  hourly resolution for the typical
 Fall Sunday, temporal scenario Number 12.

 Keywords: 'Data file,  'Air pollution, 'Natural emis-
 sions, Magnetic tapes, Mathematical models, Autumn,
Temporal  distribution, USA,  States(United States),
Grids(Coordinates), Particulates, Dust, Wind erosion,
Dust,  'National Acid Precipitation  Assessment  Pro-
gram, 'Emission inventories, Canada.
PB91-506295/REB                       CP D02
Retrofit Costs for S02 and NOX Control Options
at Coal-Fired Plants (for  Microcomputers). Data
file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
6 Feb 90, 3 diskettes EPA/DF/DK-91 /073
System:  IBM/PC  AT;  MS  DOS operating system.
Other formats available as  PB91-133314 (5 Volume
Set - Paper Copy).
The datafile is contained on three 1.2M, 5 1 /4 inch dis-
kettes, high density. File format: ASCII.

The cost results for all the technologies presented in
the report entitled, 'Retrofit  Costs  for SO2 and NOx
Control Options at Coal-Fired Plants', are available in
three DBASE III+ files.  Disks 1 and 2 are high density
diskettes  which  contain the following:  plant name,
technology, boiler number, capacity in megawatts, ca-
pacity factor, removal efficiency for both S02 and NOx
removed per year, tons of NOx removed per year, cap-
ital cost in dollars, annual cost in dollars, dollars per kil-
owatt, mills per kilowatt hour, dollars per ton of SO2 re-
moved and dollars per ton of NOx removed. Disk 1 is in
current 1988 dollars, and Disk 2 is in constant 1988
dollars. Disk 3 contains a third DBASE file (200.DBF)
with general plant  boiler and  company information
based on Department of Energy Form 767 data. It also
contains an ASCII file (README.ASC) with a list of ab-
breviations used in  all three database files. The cost
result database can be used to estimate total costs
and emissions for individual  or combined control tech-
nologies for the 200 plants presented in the report.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Air pollution control, "Retrofit-
ting, 'Air pollution economics, Diskettes, Site surveys,
Cost estimates. Sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen oxides, Com-
bustion products, Pertormance evaluation, State gov-
ernment. Coal preparation, Calcium  oxides, Lime-
stone, Injection, Spray  drying, Afterburning, Catalysis.
Coal fired power plants. Flue gas desulfurization.
 PB91-506469/REB                       CP D02
 Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS),
 Executable Model (Version 4.0) (for Microcomput-
 ers). Model-Simulation.
 Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
 Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
 29Oct90,1 diskette* EPA/SW/DK-91/074
 System:  IBM PC/AT; MS DOS  operating  system,
 640K  Language:  FORTRAN and C.  Other  formats
 available as  PB91-506477  (Executable  Model and
 Source Model).
 The software is contained on one 1.2M, 51/4 inch dis-
 kette, high density. File format: ASCII. Price includes
 documentation, PB91-133512 and PB91-133520.

 The Integrated Air Pollution Control System  (IAPCS)
 Cost Model is an IBM PC cost model that can be used
 to estimate the cost of installing SO2, NOx, and panic-
 ulate matter control systems at coal-fired utility electric
 generating facilities. The model integrates various
 combinations of the following technologies:  physical
 coal cleaning, coal switching,  overfire air/low NOx
 burners,  natural gas rebuming, LIMB,  ADVACATE,
 electrostatic precipitator, fabric filter, gas conditioning,
 wet lime or limestone  FGD, lime spray  drying/duct
 spray drying, dry sorbent injection,  pressurized fluid-
 ized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined
 cycle, and pulverized coal burning boiler. The  model
 generates capital, annualized, and  unitized pollutant
 removal costs in either constant or current dollars for
 any year.

 Keywords: 'Models-simulation, 'Software, 'Coal fired
 power plants, 'Air pollution control equipment, 'Cost
 estimates,  Particulates, Sulfur  dioxide,  Nitrogen
 oxides, Stationary sources, Combustion, Diskettes, In-
 tegrated Air Pollution Control System.


 PB91-506477/REB                       CP D03
 Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS),
 Executable Model  and Source Model (Version 4.0)
 (for Microcomputers). Model-Simulation.
  Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
  Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
  29 Oct 90, 3 diskettes* EPA/SW/DK-91 /075
System: IBM PC/AT; MS DOS  operating system,
640K. Language:  FORTRAN and C. Other formats
available as PB91-506469 (Executable Model).
The software is contained on three 1.2M, 5 1 /4 inch
diskettes, high density. File format: ASCII. Price in-
cludes documentation, PB91-133512, PB91-133520,
and PB91-133538.

The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS)
Cost Model is an IBM PC cost model that can be used
to estimate the cost of installing SO2, NOx, and partic-
ulate matter control systems at coal-fired utility electric
generating  facilities.  The  model  integrates  various
combinations of the following technologies: physical
coal cleaning, coal  switching, overfire air/low NOx
burners, natural gas reburning,  LIMB, ADVACATE,
electrostatic precipitator, fabric filter, gas conditioning,
wet lime or limestone FGD, lime  spray drying/duct
spray drying, dry sorbent injection, pressurized fluid-
ized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined
cycle, and pulverized coal burning boiler. The model
generates capital, annualized, and unitized pollutant
removal costs in either constant or current dollars for
any year.

Keywords: 'Models-simulation, 'Software, 'Coal fired
power plants, *Air pollution control equipment, 'Cost
estimates,   Particulates,   Sulfur  dioxide,  Nitrogen
oxides, Stationary sources, Combustion, Diskettes, In-
tegrated Air Pollution Control System.


PB91-506816/REB                        CP T02
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1988: Reporting
Facilities Names and Addresses. Data file.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Toxic Substances.
1988, mag tape* EPA/DF/MT-91 /077
System: IBM 3090; MVS/XA operating system. Ap-
proximate bytes: 4,629,520. The data are derived as a
subset of the 1988 Toxic Release Inventory reporting
requirements.   See  also  PB89-186118  and  PB90-
502030.
Available in 9-track ASCII character set, 1600 bpi. For
6250 bpi, the price is T02. Documentation is on a file.

Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Communi-
 ty Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Su-
 perfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish a Na-
 tional Inventory of toxic chemical emissions from cer-
 tain facilities. The list of toxic chemicals subject to re-
 porting consisted initially of chemicals listed for similar
 reporting purposes  by the States of New Jersey and
 Maryland. There are over 300 chemicals and catego-
 ries on these lists. The  reporting requirement applies
 to owners and operators of facilities that have 10  or
 more full-time employees, that are in Standard Indus-
 trial  Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39 (i.e.,
 manufacturing facilities) and that manufacture (includ-
 ing importing), process or otherwise use a listed toxic
 chemical in excess  of specified threshold quantities.
 The  database contains only the name, location and
 type of business of facilities that have been reported
 for 1988.

  Keywords: 'Data file, "Industrial  wastes, 'Toxic sub-
  stances,  "Chemical effluents,  "Pollution regulations,
  Inventories, Magnetic tapes, Standard Industrial Clas-
  sification, Listings, Emergency Planning and Commu-
  nity Right-to-Know  Act, Superfund Amendments and
  Reauthorization Act of 1986.


  PB91-506964/REB                       CP 002
  Consolidated Ust of Chemical Subject to Report-
  ing under the Emergency  Planning and Communi-
  ty Right to Know Act: SARA Section 302 Extreme-
  ly  Hazardous Substances,  CERCLA  Hazardous
  Substances and SARA Section 313 Toxic Chemi-
  cals (Title III, List  of Lists) (for Microcomputers).
  Data file.
  Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  Office of Toxic Substances.
  Jan 91,1 diskette EPA/DF/DK-91 /078
  System:  IBM-PC; dBase III  operating system. Super-
  sedes PB90-501479.
  The datafile is contained on one  360K, 5 1 /4 inch dis-
  kette double density. File format: ASCII. Documenta-
  tion may be ordered separately as PB91 -110502.

  This is the disk  based version of the  Office of Toxic
  Substances Consolidated list of chemicals subject to
  reporting under Title III of the Superfund Amendments
  and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and SARA


                            June 1991     71

-------
                                                 EPA PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Section 302 Extremely Hazardous Substances, as well
as CERCLA Hazardous Substances. Title III is also
known as the Emergency Planning and Community
Right to Know Act. The disks are designed to generate
either a printout or a dBase III file from any IBM or IBM
compatible system.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Chemical compounds,  'Haz-
ardous materials, 'Toxic substances, 'Waste manage-
ment, Listings, Diskettes, Superfund, Emergency plan-
ning,  'Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act of 1986,  'Emergency Planning and Community
Right to Know Act, Comprehensive Environmental Re-
sponse Compensation and Liability Act.
PB91-592000/REB          SubscriptionS5.320.00
Hazardous Waste Data Management System Ex-
tract Tape. Data file.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Solid Waste.
15 Mar 91, mag tape*
System: IBM 3090-600S; MVS/XA operating system.
File   format:   Unlabeled.   Approximate   bytes:
148,570,340. Supersedes PB90-591300.
Available on subscription, U.S.,  Canada and Mexico
price $5,320; price for others $10,640. Issued quarter-
ly. Available in 9-track EBCDIC character set, 1600 bpi.
The 6250 bpi price is $5,320. Also available individual-
ly; order number PB91-592001, price T12 for either
1600 or 6250 bpi. Documentation may be ordered sep-
arately as PB91-156737 and PB91-156745.

The file contains data compiled for the Resource Con-
servation and Recovery Act, using the  Hazardous
Waste Data Management  System  (HWDMS) data-
base. Notification  of Regulated  Waste  Activity, EPA
Form 8700-12 was used to collect the data. The file
was updated with information compiled from the Appli-
cation for a Hazardous Waste Permit-Part A, EPA form
8700-23. The data includes each facility name, EPA
Identification number, addresses, owner and operator
information, facility contact name and phone number.
The data also indicate whether a facility is a generator,
treatment/storer/disposer, and/or transporter of haz-
ardous waste. Also included is a listing of wastes han-
dled, taken from 40CFR Pt. 261, SIC codes, Permit
Process Codes, Permit Issuance data, and non-sensi-
tive compliance and enforcement data. Data is includ-
ed for all Regions and states except for Mississippi,
which  has already been  implemented  in  RCRIS.
PLEASE NOTE: The computer tape  product consists
of two separate tape files: the Hazardous Waste Data
Management  System (HWDMS) database, and the
Resource  Conservation  and Recovery Information
System (RCRIS)   database.  RCRIS   is  replacing
HWDMS as the official  RCRA notification database.
During the first  year of  RCRIS implementation, both
systems will be operational. As a state converts to
RCRIS from HWDMS, the HWDMS data for that state
is archived; the current plan is to archive all data that is
stored in HWDMS by the end of 1991. In  order to have
a complete record of all RCRA  notification data, the
User must have both tapes.

Keywords: 'Data file, 'Hazardous materials, 'Informa-
tion  systems, 'Waste management  Magnetic tapes.
Pollution regulations. Waste treatment, Waste dispos-
al. Waste  storage, Permits, Information  transfer,
States(United States), Compliance, Law  enforcement.
State government. Standard  industrial  classification,
Regional analysis, Mississippi, 'Hazardous Waste
Data Management System, 'Resource  Conservation
and Recovery Information System, Resource Conser-
vation and Recovery Act.
PB91-904200/REB                   Subscription
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Publica-
tions Bibliography,  Quarterly  Abstract Bulletin.
Quarterly.
Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington,  DC.
Office of Administrator!
1991,4 issues
Supersedes PB90-904200.
Paper copy available  on Subscription, U.S., Canada,
and Mexico price $120.00/yean all others $240.00.
Single copies also available.

EPA Publications Bibliography is a quarterly abstract
bulletin containing  the  abstracts, corporate  source,
subject contract number and title indexes. The fourth
issue of trie year contains bibliographic citations  with
abstracts for the proceeding quarter and cumulative in-
dexes tor the calendar year.
Keywords: 'Bibliographies, 'Air pollution, 'Water pol-
lution, Abstracts, Subject indexing, Authors, Technical
reports,  Regulations,  Standards,  Waste  disposal,
Public health, 'Environmental protection, Air quality
maintenance, Air pollution effects.
PB91-911600/REB                   Subscription
Pesticide Compact Label File -  1990 Updates. Ir-
regular repts.
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
1991, open series
Supersedes PB90-911600.
Microfiche available on subscription, U.S., Canada,
and Mexico price $140/year; all others 280.00. Basic
set available as PB90-911699.

Photographs of updated and new pesticide labels plus
updated index to the entire Compact Label File. Con-
tains a collection of information on registered pesticide
labels. Information  includes active ingredients and per-
centages of same;  common name of active chemicals,
sites and pests for usage, dosage and safety informa-
tion. The subscription update service provides current
updates to the manual (base set).

Keywords:  'Documentation,   'Pesticides,   Photo-
graphs,  Microfilm,  Labels,  Information  retrieval,
lndexes(Documentation).
PB91-911699/REB                   MF$1450.00
Compact Label File - 1991 (Fiche 1 - 4833).
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Pesticide Programs.
1991,4833p
Supersedes PB90-911699.
Demand item. Updates also available on subscription
asPB91-911600.

Photographs of pesticide labels plus updated index to
the entire compact label file. The 1991 file contains
fiche No. 1 - No. 4833 plus the updated index.

Keywords:   'Pesticides,   'Labels,    Photographs,
Indexes(Documentation), Data storage devices. Micro-
film.
PB91-921204/REB               PC A16/MF A02
Progress Toward Implementing Superfund. Fiscal
Year 1989. Report to the Congress (Final).
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Dec 90,369p* EPA/540/8-90/017
Supersedes P891 -921201. See also PB90-249442.
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $100 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $200). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The EPA's Annual Report includes the progress made
by the Agency in implementing the national hazardous
waste law and its amendments (CERCLA and SARA).
The  reports  provide  an overall  perspective  on
progress, contain information that Congress specifical-
ly requested, and  an evaluation of newly developed
feasible  and achieveable permanent treatment tech-
nologies.

Keywords: 'National government, 'Hazardous materi-
als, 'Waste disposal, 'Pollution control, Guidelines,
Regulations, Waste treatment, Removal, Law enforce-
ment Contract administration. Local government, Citi-
zen participation, Requirements,  Statutes, 'Superfund,
Record of decision, Contract awards.
PB91-921205/REB               PC A14/MF A02
Conducting  Remedial  Investigations/Feasibility
Studies for CERCLA Municipal Landfill Sites.
Environmental Protection  Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Feb 91,307p* EPA/540/P-91 /001, OSWER
DIRECTIVE-9355.3-11
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $100 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $200). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

The study aids in the development of methodologies
and tools to assist in streamlining the Remedial Inves-
tigations/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) and selection of
remedy process for landfills. The study: (1) develops
tools to assist in scoping the RI/FS for municipal land-
fill sites, (2) defines strategies for characterizing mu-
nicipal landfill sites that are on the NPL, and (3) identi-
fying practicable remedial action alternatives for ad-
dressing these types of sites.

Keywords: 'Hazardous  materials, "Waste disposal,
'Earth fills, 'Municipalities, Investigations, Sites, Tech-
nical assistance. Engineering, Water pollution control,
Cost effectiveness, Containment, Flushing,  Regula-
tions, 'Superfund, Remedial  action, Alternative plan-
ning.
PB91-921206/REB               PC A07/MF A01
Guidance on  Remedial Actions  for  Superfund
Sites with PCB Contamination.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Aug 90,148p EPA/540/G-90/007, OSWER
DIRECTIVE-9355.4-01
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $200 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $400). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.


The document describes the recommend approach for
evaluating and remediating Superfund sites with PCB
contamination. It should be used as aguide in the in-
vestigation and  remedy selection process for PCB-
contaminated Superfund sites. The guidance provides
preliminary remediation goals for various media that
may  be contaminated and identifies other consider-
ations  important to ensuring  protection  of  human
health and the environment.  In addition, potential ap-
plicable or relevant and appropriate requirements
(ARARs) and 'to-be-considered'  criteria pertinent to
Superfund sites with PCB contamination and their inte-
gration into the RI/FS and remedy selection process
are summarized. The guidance also describes how to
develop remedial alternatives for PCB contaminated
materials that are consistent with Superfund program
expectations and ARARs. To  identify the areas for
which a response action should be  considered, start-
ing point concentrations (preliminary cleanup goals)
for each media are identified.


Keywords: 'Public health, 'Hazardous materials, 'Pol-
lution control. Field tests, Sites,  Guidelines, Regula-
tions,     Containment,      Industrial     wastes,
Concentration(Composition),  Liquids,  Waste  treat-
ment,  Water  pollution.  Environmental   transport,
Ground water. Solvent extraction. Incinerators, Dech-
lorination, Biodeterioration,  'Superfund,  Remedial
action, 'Polychlorinated biphenyl, Cleanup.
PB91-921208/REB               PC A12/MF A02
Guidance for Data Useabiltty in Risk Assessment.
Interim Report
Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Washington, DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Oct 90, 272p EPA/540/G-90/008
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required  (minimum deposit $200 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others $400). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.


The Environmental Protection Agency has established
a Data Useability Workgroup to develop national guid-
ance  for minimum  data quality requirements to  in-
crease the useability of environmental analytical data
in the  cleanup of hazardous waste sites under the
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensa-
tion, and Liability Act of 1980 as amended in the Su-
perfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
(SARA). The guidance manual prvides direction  for
planning and assessing analytical data collection ac-
tivities for the baseline human health risk assessment,
conducted as part of the  remedial  investigation (Rl)
process. The guidance does not address the use of
environmental data for purposes other than baseline
risk asssessment for human health.


Keywords:  'Hazardous  materials,  'Public  health,
'Data acquisition, 'Management planning, Manuals,
Sampling, Guidelines, Instructions, Quality assurance,
Removal,  Data management.  Detection, Selection,
Requirements,  Exposure, Toxicity, 'Superfund, 'Risk
assessment, Remedial action,  Comprehensive Envi-
ronmental Response Compensation and Liability Act
of 1980.
72     Vol.  91, No. 2

-------
                                                 EPA  PUBLICATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
PB91-921312/REB               PC A02/MF A01
Guidance for Data Useability in Risk Assessment.
Fact sheet.
Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,  DC.
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
Sep 90, 8p EPA/9285.7-05/FS
Paper copy available on Standing Order, deposit ac-
count required (minimum deposit $150 U.S., Canada,
and Mexico; all others S300). Single copies also avail-
able in paper copy or microfiche.

EPA is establishing  national guidance  for minimum
data quality requirements to optimize the useability of
data collected under the Comprehensive Environmen-
tal Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
(CERCLA). Data useability is the process of assuring
or determining that the quality of data generated meets
the intended use. The guidance is designed to provide
data users with  a  nationally-consistent  basis for
making decisions about the minimum quality and quan-
tity of environmental analytical data that are sufficient
to support Superfund decisions, regardless of which
parties conduct the investigation. EPA workgroups are
defining the current uses and  associated quality re-
quirements of Superfund data, and developing mini-
mum requirements for each data use category.  The
fact sheet provides an overview of Guidance for Data
Useability in Risk Assessment  (EPA/540/G-90/008),
highlights key points of the manual, and details where
additional guidance is found.

Keywords:  * Public  health,  'Hazardous  materials,
'Data acquisition,  'Management planning, Manuals,
Sampling, Instructions, Quality assurance. Guidelines,
Concentration(Composition), toxicity, Sites, Exposure,
Detection,  Decision  making,  "Superfund,  'Risk as-
sessment,  Comprehensive  Environmental Response
Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, Chemicals.
AD-A230 429/3/REB             PC A13/MF A02
Post Remedial Action Report, Lansdowne Radio-
active  Residence Complex,  Dismantlement/Re-
moval Project. Volume 1. Government Operations.
Final rept. 1 Aug 88-24 Jul 89.
Corps of Engineers North Atlantic,  Baltimore, MD.
Construction Div.
W. C. Wickboldt. Jun 90,289p Rept no. CENAB-CO/
HTW/90-1 /EPA(S)-VOL-1
Contract DACW-45-88-C-0213
See also Volume 2, AD-A230 430.

The  Lansdowne radioactive residence complex and
250'  of municipal sewer became contaminated during
the period 1924-1944 by radium processing. Clean-up
of the site necessitated the removal of contaminated
rubble  generated by  building and sewer dismantle-
ment, and of radioactive soil that became contaminat-
ed because waste products from the radium process-
ing activity were buried in the ground  around the site.
Prior to remediation, radium levels in the soil ranged as
high as 700 pCi/g; following remediation, radium levels
had been reduced to no greater than 5 pCi/g above
the local  background of 2.5 pCi/g. Following removal
of contamination, the site was backfilled to near origi-
nal grade and restored as a grassed lot. A replacement
sewer line was constructed. (MM)

Keywords:  Cleaning,  Contamination,  Corrections,
Processing, Radioactivity, Radium, Removal, Replace-
ment, Sewers,  Sites, Soils,  Wastes, Radium 226,
Borrow material, Lansdowne(Pennsylvania), Enviro-
care disposal facility(Utah),  Superfund sites,  'Radi-
ation hazard removal, Nuclear waste ciean-up, "Radio-
active site remediation, Hazardous  and toxic waste
clean-up, Decontamination, Radiation dosage, Health
physics, Ionizing  radiation,  Hazardous materials, Nu-
clear radiation, Half life, Radium processing, Residen-
tials section, "Hazardous wastes.
DE91002995/REB                PC A04/MF A01
Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Guidance document for prepermit bioassay test-
ing of low-level radioactive waste.
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA.
S. L. Anderson, and F. L. Harrison. Nov 90,60p UCRL-
ID-105266, EPA-520/1-90-012
Contract W-7405-ENG-48
Sponsored by Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the
Marine  Protection,  Research, and  Sanctuaries Act
(MPRSA) of 1972, as amended,  the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to
promulgate regulations  and  criteria to control the
ocean disposal of radioactive  wastes. The EPA seeks
to understand the mechanisms for biological response
of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity
that may arise from the release of these wastes as a
result of ocean-disposal practices. Such  information
will play an important role in determining the adequacy
of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in
support of any disposal  permit  application. Although
the EPA requires packaging  of low-level  radioactive
waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the ma-
terials, some  release of radioactive material  into the
deep-sea environment  may occur when a package de-
teriorates.  Therefore,  methods  for  evaluating  the
impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and
phenotypic responses  are not anticipated at the ex-
pected low environmental levels that might occur if ra-
dioactive materials were released from the low-level
waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay sys-
tems are unsuitable for assessing  sublethal effects on
biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Ra-
diation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program
to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cel-
lular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical
guidance report represents prepermit bioassay proce-
dures that potentially may be applicable to the assess-
ment  of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that
could be released  from  a point source at the ocean
bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a dis-
cussion of uncertainty  are presented for the sediment
benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

Keywords:  Aquatic Organisms, 'Low-Level Radioac-
tive Wastes, Aquatic Ecosystems, Bioassay, 'Biologi-
cal Radiation Effects, Casks, Environmental Exposure,
Genetics, Marine  Disposal,  Mortality, Radiation  Ef-
fects  Radioactive Waste Management, Risk Assess-
ment,  Seas,  Toxicity, EDB/052002,  EDB/560152,
Phenotype.
 DE91005910/REB                PC A08/MF A01
 Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
 Radiation monitoring around United States nucle-
 ar test areas, calendar year 1989. Offsite environ-
 mental monitoring report.
 Environmental Monitoring Systems  Lab., Las Vegas,
 NV.
 May 90 154pDOE/DP/00539-062, EPA-600/4-90/
 016
 Contracts AI08-86NV10522, AI08-76DP00539
 Sponsored by Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Pro-
gram  conducted during 1989  by the  Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring
Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This labo-
ratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring
program in  the  region surrounding the Nevada Test
Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado,
Mississippi, Nevada,  and  New Mexico.  The surveil-
lance program  is designed to  measure  levels, and
trends of radioactivity, if present, in the  environment
surrounding testing areas to ascertain  whether the
testing is in compliance with existing radiation protec-
tion standards, and to take action to protect the health
and well being of the public in the event of any acci-
dental release  of radioactive  contaminants. Offsite
levels of radiation and radioactivity  are assessed by
sampling milk, water, and  air; by deploying thermolu-
minescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using  pressurized
ion chambers (PICs); and  by biological monitoring of
both animals  and humans. To  implement protective
actions,  provide  immediate radiation monitoring, and
obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release
of  radioactivity,  personnel  with  mobile monitoring
equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test
site prior to each test.  Comparison of the measure-
ments and sample analysis results with  background
levels and with appropriate standards and regulations
indicated that there was no radioactivity detected off-
site by the various EPA monitoring  networks and no
exposure above  natural background to the population
living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed
to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble
Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC net-
works, and the Long-Term Hydrological  Monitoring
Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

Keywords: Air, Food, Milk, 'Nevada Test Site, Plants,
Rare Gases, Water, ALARA, Abandoned Sites, Alaska,
Animals, Colorado, Environmental Exposure, Missis-
sippi, Nevada, New Mexico, Public  Health, Radiation
Hazards, 'Radiation Monitoring, Radiation Protection,
Radioactive Materials, Thermoluminescent Dosimetry,
Toxicity,  Tritium, EDB/540130, EDB/540230,  EDB/
540330, 'Environmental monitoring.
 DE91724862/REB                PC A05/MF A01
 Palladium und  dessen Legierungen als Wasser-
 stoff-Permeationsmembranen.    Literaturstudie.
 (Palladium and  its alloys as hydrogen permeation
 membranes. Literature study).
 Eidgenoessische Technische  Hochschule,  Zurich
 (Switzerland).
 P. Hasler. Oct 89, 93p ETDE-mf-1724862, BBW-
 PROC-(89)3, EPA-217.102
 In German.
 U.S. Sales Only.

 This report contains an extensive literature review on
 palladium and its alloys. The emphasis is on the follow-
 ing topics: diffusion coefficient of hydrogen, hydrogen
 solubility of various palladium alloys, alternative hydro-
 gen-permeating  materials, characteristics of the palla-
 dium surface as well as the chemical behaviour and
 the stability of permeating  materials, figs.,  refs. (ERA
 citation 16:000242)

 Keywords: 'Hydrogen, "Palladium,  Copper,  Experi-
 mental Data, Gaseous Diffusion, Palladium Alloys, Sur-
 face  Properties, Ternary Alloy  Systems,   Yttrium,
 Tables(data), 'Foreign technology, EDB/080800, Re-
 views, Permeability, Catalysts.
                                                                                                                                June 1991     73

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TITLE  INDEX
 Reports are listed alphabetically by title. A. An, and The at the beginning of a title are ignored
 in alphabetizing.
THE THREE LETTERS AT THE END OF THE NTIS ORDER NUMBERS HAVE BEEN PLACED THERE TO HELP
NTIS DETERMINE THE MOST EFFECTIVE MEDIA IN BRINGING VARIOUS TYPES OF INFORMATION TO
READERS' ATTENTION.

PLEASE DO USE THE MEDIA CODES AT THE ENDS OF THE ORDER NUMBERS WHEN ORDERING. THE
INFORMATION THEY PROVIDE IS VERY HELPFUL TO NTIS.
SAMPLE  ENTRY
                           Title
 NTIS Order Number/Media Codes Price Codes
PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Uptake by Plants:
Methodology and Initial Investigations

PB85-169697/REB  PCA02/MFA01

-------
                                                                  TITLE  INDEX
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
PB91-160671                         PCA03/MFA01

1,1,2-Trichloroethane: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
PB91-160630                         PCA03/MFA01

1,2,3-Trichloropropane- Drinking Water Health Advisory
PB91-160697                         PCA03/MFA01

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
PB91-160655                         PCA03/MFA01

1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
PB91-160606                         PC A03/MF A01

1-Methyl-4.pheny|.1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine     (MPTP)-ln-
duced Damage of Striatal Dopaminergic Fibers Attenuates
Subsequent Astrocyte Response to MPTP.
PB91-145045                         PC A02/MF A01

5-Methylhexanoic Acid Developmental Toxicity Testing.
PB91-141838                         PCA03/MFA01

32P-Postlabeling DNA Adduct Assay: Cigarette Smoke-In-
duced DNA Adducts in the Respiratory  and Nonrespiratory
Rat Tissues.
PB91-162578                         PC A03/MF A01

Abstract  Proceedings:  Forum  on Innovative  Hazardous
Waste Treatment Technologies; Domestic and International
(2nd).  Held in  Philadelphia. Pennsylvania on  May 15-17,
1990.
PB91-145649                         PC A04/MF A01

Acid Rain Control Options.
PB91-162545                         PC A03/MF A01

Acute  Inhalation Exposure to Epichlorohydrin  Transiently
Decreases Rat Sperm Velocity.
PB91-149732                         PC A03/MF A01

Acute, Subchronic, and Chronic Exposure to a Simulated
Urban Profile of Ozone: Effects on Extrapulmonary Natural
Killer Cell Activity and Lymphocyte Mitogenic Responses.
PB91 -149740                         PC A03/MF A01

Acute  Toxicity of Aqueous and Substrate-Bound Copper to
the Midge, 'Chironomus decorus'.
PB91-146324                         PC A02/MF A01

Addendum 1o Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis of National
Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganic Chemicals
(March 31, 1989).
PB91-143453                         PCA12/MFA02

Addendum to Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis of National
Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Synthetic Organic
Chemicals (April 1989).
PB91-142885                                 PC A07

Adequacy  of  Interval Estimates  of Yield  Responses to
Ozone Estimated from NCLAN Data.
PB91-144832                         PC A03/MF A01

Administrative Order  on Consent for Remedial  Investiga-
tions/Feasibility Study.
PB91-139378                         PC A03/MF A01

Adsorption of Organic Cations to Natural Materials.
PB91-144881                         PCA02/MFA01

Advanced  Screening Model for Complex Terrain Applica-
tions.
PB91-162693                         PC A03/MF A01

Air Emissions from the Incineration of Hazardous Waste.
PB91-149641                         PCA03/MFA01

Air Quality and Deposition (Chapter 3).
PB91-136606                         PCA04/MFA01

Air Quality Criteria  for Lead:  Supplement to the 1986 Ad-
dendum.
PB91-138420                         PCA05/MFA01

Airborne  Asbestos Levels Measured  Before, during  and
After Abatement.
PB91-145136                         PCA02/MFA01

Airborne Mercury Deposition and Watershed Characteristics
in  Relation to Mercury Concentrations in Water, Sediments,
Plankton, and Fish of Eighty Northern Minnesota Lakes.
PB91-146712                         PC A03/MF A01

Alterations in the Energy Metabolism of an Estuarine Mysid
'Mysidopsis bahia'  as Indicators  of Stress from Chronic
Pesticide Exposure.
PB91-163949                         PC A03/MF A01

Alternative Control Technology Document:  Organic Waste
Process Vents.
PB91-148270                         PC A09/MF A01

Aluminum, Copper,  and Nonferrous Metals Forming  and
Metal   Powders Pretreatment Standards:  A  Guidance
Manual.
PB91-145441                         PCA08/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum  for
Acenaphthene.
PB91-161513                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum  for
Acrolein.
PB91-161612                         PCA03/MFA01
Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Acrylonitrile.
PB91-161398                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Aldrin/Dieldrin.
PB91-161521                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Antimony.
PB91-161539                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Benzidene.
PB91-161604                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Carbon Tetrachloride.
PB91-161554                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Chlordane.
PB91-161547                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Chlorinated Naphthalenes.
PB91-161380                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Chlorinated Phenols.
PB91-161661                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Chloroalkyl Ethers.
PB91-161620                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Chloroform.
PB91-161562                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
DDT.
PB91-161471                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Diphenylhydrazine.
PB9M61448                         PC A03/MF A01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Endrin.
PB91-161505                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Ethylbenzene.
PB91-161489                         PC A03/MF A01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Fluoranthene.
PB91-161430                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Haloethers.
PB91-161646                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Heptachlor.
PB91 -161463                         PC A03/MF A01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Hexachlorobutadiene.
PB91-161455                         PC A03/MF A01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene.
PB91-161422                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Nitrophenols.
PB91-161414                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Cnteria Document: Addendum for
Nitrosamines.
PB91-161406                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Phenol.
PB91-161638                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
Phthalate Esters.
PB91-161653                         PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria  Document Addendum for
Toxaphene.
PB91-161588                          PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
2,4-Dichlorophenol.
PB91-161596                          PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
2,4-Dimethylphenol.
PB91-161497                          PCA03/MFA01

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for  2-
Chlorophenol.
PB91-161570                          PC A03/MF A01

Anaerobic In-situ Treatment of Chlorinated Ethenes.
PB91-137067                          PCA03/MFA01

Analysis of Ozone Air  Quality Over the New York Metropoli-
tan Area
PB91-137026                          PCA03/MFA01
Anatomy of the Seed and Seedling of 'Spartina alterniflora'
Lois. (Poaceae).
PB91-163998                         PC A03/MF A01

Annual Hazardous Waste Research Symposium (16th): Re-
medial Action,  Treatmenl  and  Disposal   of Hazardous
Waste. Held in Cincinnati, Ohio on April 3-5, 1990.
PB91-145664                         PC A04/MF A01

Annual NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  Canadian
Annual Point Sources, 1985.
PB91-505867                                 CP T02

Annual NAPAP   Emissions  Inventory  (Version   2):  U.S.
Annual Point Sources, 1985.
PB91-505859                                 CP T02

Approach for Estimating Global Landfill Methane Emissions.
PB91-149534                         PC A04/MF A01

Artificial Sediments for Use in Tests with Wetland Plants.
PB91 -164004                         PC A02/MF A01

Asbestos-Containing Materials  in  School  Buildings:  Bulk
Sample Analysis Quality Assurance Program. Bulk Sample
Rounds 16, 17 and 18.
PB91-154211                         PCA08/MFA01

Asbestos Fiber Reentrainment during  Dry Vacuuming and
Wet Cleaning of Asbestos-Contaminated Carpet.
PB91-161695                         PCA04/MFA01

Assay of Beta-Glucuronidase in Non-coli Escherichia Using
EC-Mug Medium and the Colilert (Trade Name) System.
PB91-162776                         PC A03/MF A01

Assessing  the Geochemical  Fate  of  Deep-Well-lnjected
Hazardous Waste: A Reference Guide.
PB91-145706                         PC A09/MF A02

Assessment of Asbestos Removal Carried  Out Using EPA
Purple Book Guidance.
PB91 -148338                         PC A05/MF A01

Assessment of the Mutagenicity of Volatile Organic Air Pol-
lutants Before and After Atmospheric Transformation.
PB91-162594                         PC A02/MF A01

Assessment of the Propensity for Covalent Binding of Elec-
trophiles to Biological Substrates.
PB91 -144949                         PC A02/MF A01

ASTER: An Integration of the AQUIRE Database and the
QSAR System for Use in Ecological Risk Assessments.
PB91-137083                        PCA02/MFA01

Atmospheric Transport and  Deposition of  Polychlorinated
Dibenzo-'P'-Dioxins  and Dibenzofurans.
PB91-144667                        PC A06/MF A01

Avoidance Behavior of Mallards and Northern Bobwhite Ex-
posed to Carbofuran-Contaminated Food and Water.
PB91 -146316                        PC A02/MF A01

Benzene Enabling  Document for  Standards  on  Benzene
Transfer and Waste Operations.
PB91-161737                         PCA06/MFA01

Bilateral Wastewater Land Treatment Research.
PB91-162636                         PC A02/MF A01

Bioaccumulation of Kepone  by Grass Shrimp ('Palaemon-
etes pugio'): Importance of Dietary Accumulation and Food
Ration.
PB91-163865                         PC A03/MF A01

Bioassay of Complex Mixtures of Indoor  Air Pollutants.
Chapter 7.
PB91-162560                         PCA03/MFA01

Bioassay  Procedures for  Predicting  Coliform  Bacterial
Growth in Drinking Water.
PB91-149625                         PC A03/MF A01

Biological  and  Chemical  Methodologies   for  Assessing
Human Exposure to Airborne Mutagens Indoors.
PB91-133025                         PCA02/MFA01

Biological  Remediation  of Contaminated Sediments, with
Special Emphasis on the Great Lakes: Report of a Work-
shop, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, July 17-19, 1990.
PB91-161679                         PCA09/MFA02

Biomarkers of Inflammation in  Ozone-Exposed  Humans:
Comparison of the Nasal and Bronchoalveolar Lavage.
PB91-145060                         PCA02/MFA01
 BIS-(2-Chloroisopropyl) Ether: Drinking Water Health Advi-

                                     PC A03/MF A01
sory.
PB91-160622
 Bromo- and Bromochloro-Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and Dibenzo-
 furans in the Environment.
 PB91-146548                         PCA02/MFA01

 Bromochloromethane: Health Advisory.
 PB91-160572                         PCA03/MFA01

 Bromomethane: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
 PB91-160614                         PCA03/MFA01
                                                                                                                                                              TI-1

-------
                                                                       TITLE  INDEX
Calibration Methodology for the Double Sample of the Na-
tional Lake Survey Phase II Sample.
PB91-149542                         PC A05/MF A01
Cancer Risk tram Outdoor Exposure to Air Tonics. Volume
PB9M59624                         PC A08/MF A01
Cancer Risk from Outdoor Exposure to Air Toxics. Volume
2. Appendices.
PB91-159632                         PC A1VMF A02
Catalog of Superfund Program Publications, FY-91.
PB91-144683                         PC A05/MF A01
CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs: Guidance  Manual.
PB90-274531                         PCA11/MFA02
Characteristics of Surfactants in Toxicity Identification Eval-
uations
PB91-144998                         PC A02/MF A01
Characterization  of  Emissions from a Variable Gasoline/
Methanol Fueled Car.
PB91-146563                         PC A03/MF A01
Characterizing the Dispersive State of Convective Boundary
Layers for Applied Dispersion Modeling.
PB91-163766                         PC A03/MF A01
Chemical-Specific Parameters  for  Toxicity  Characteristic
Contaminants.
PB91-148361                         PC A03/MF A01
 Chloromethane: Health Advisory
 PB91-160564
                      PC A03/MF A01
 Chromosomal Aberration  Data Analysis and Interpretation
 System. Version 1.0. User's Guide.
 PB91-140376                         PCA08/MFA01
 Chronic Toxicity of Copper to a Partial  Life Cycle of the
 Midge,  'Chironomus decorus'.
 PB91-146332
                      PC A02/MF A01
 Citizen's Guide to Pesticides (Fourth Edition).
 PB91-145953                          PC A03/MF A01
 Climatically Induced Rapid  Acidification of a  Softwater
 Seepage Lake
 PB91-146514                          PCA01/MFA01
 Combustion Control of PCDD/PCDF Emissions from Munic-
 ipal Waste Incinerators in North America.
 PB91 -1 62552                          PC A02/MF A01
 Compad Label File - 1991 IFicne 1 - 4833).
 PB9V911699                             MFS1450.00
 Comparative Analysis of Remedies Selected in the Super-
 fund Program during FY  87. FY 88 and FY 89.
 P891-139477                          PCA09/MFA01
 Comparison of Measurements of Atmospheric Ammonia by
 Fitter Packs, Transition-Flow  Reactors, Simple and Annular
 Denuders and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.
 PB91-146621                          PCA03/MFA01
 Comparison of Modified  Carson and EPA Mixing Height Es-
 timates Using Data from Five Field Experiments.
 PB91 -1 62495                          PC A03/MF A01
 Comparison of Recording Current Meters in Shallow Waters
 of San Francisco Bay, Califomia-
 PB91 -1 56331                          PC A05/MF A01
 Comparison of the Seagrass Thalassia testudinunv and Its
 Epiphytes  in the Field and in  Laboratory Test Systems.
 PB91 -163790                         PCA03/MFA01
 Compilation of Information on Alternative Barriers lor Liner
 and Cover Systems.
 PB91-141846                         PCAOS/MFA01
 Concept of Presence Absence Testing            ......
 PB91-162818                         PCA03/MFA01
 Conducting Remedial Investigations/ Feasibility Studies for
 CERCLA Municipal Landfill Sites.
 PB91-921205                         PCA14/MFA02
 Confidence Intervals for a Crop Yield Loss Function in Non-
                                      PCA03/MFA01
  Consolidated List of Chemical Subject to Reporting under
  the  Emergency  Planning and Community  Right to Know
  Act: SARA Section 302  Extremely Hazardous Substances,
  CERCLA  Hazardous  Substances and SARA Section  313
  Toxic Chemicals (Title III.  List of Lists)  (for Microcomput-
  PB91 -506964                                 CP  D02
  Contaminant Loading from  Fox River to Lower Green Bay.
  PB91 -1 4475B                         PC A03/MF  A01
  Contamination  of  Fish  by  2.3,7.8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-
  Dioxin-  A Survey of  Fish  from  Major Watersheds  in the
                                      PCA03/MFA01
                                          Control of Motor Vehicle Emissions - The U.S. Experience.
                                          PB91-136911                         PC A03/MF A01
                                          Control of PCDD/PCDF  Emissions  from Municipal Waste
                                          Combustion Systems.
                                          PB91-146639                         PC A02/MF A01
                                          Control  Technology.  Estimating  Innovative  Technology
                                          Costs for the SITE Program.
                                          PB91-163758                         PC A02/MF A01
                                          Controlling PCDD/PCDF  Emissions from  Incinerators  by
                                          Flue Gas Cleaning.
                                          PB91-162537                         PC A02/MF A01
                                          Copper Complexation by Natural Organic  Matter in Con-
                                          taminated and Uncontaminated Ground Water.
                                          PB91-144865                         PC A03/MF A01
                                          Cost Estimates for Controlling SOCs by GAC Treatment.
                                          PB91-162420                         PCA03/MFA01
                                          Cost Modeling for Drinking Water Unit Treatment Process-
                                          PB91-162453                         PC A03/MF A01
                                          Cross-Connection Control Manual.
                                          PB91-145490
                                     PC A03/MF A01
Cyclophosphamide Teratogenesis: Evidence for Compensa-
tory Responses to Induced Cellular Toxicity.
PB91-163667                          PC A03/MF A01
Database Assessment of Phytotoxicity Data  Published  on
Terrestrial Vascular Plants.
PB91-144733                          PC A02/MF A01
Database Management Techniques to Ensure Project Integ-
rity. Annual SAS  Users  Group  International Conference
(14th).  Held  in  San Francisco, California on April 9-12,
1989
PB91-162768                          PC A02/MF A01
Dense Gas Removal from a Valley by Crosswinds-
PB91-146597                          PCA03/MFA01
Designing Fixed-Bed Adsorbers to Remove Mixtures of  Or-
PB™??! 44766                          PC A03/MF A01
Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity and  Porosity Logs
in Wells with a Disturbed Annulus.
PB91-146530                          PC A03/MF A01
Development  and Application of a Research Database for
Drinking Water Systems Evaluation.
PB91-162750                         PCA03/MFA01
Development  and Implementation of the U.S. EPA's Waste
Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation  (WRITE)  Re-
                                     PCA02/MFA01
  Contamination of U.S.  Arctic  Ecosystems by Long-Range
  Transport of Atmospheric Contaminants.
  PB9^1 37109                         PC A03/MF A01
                                           Development of Chicken  Embryos in a Pulsed Magnetic
                                           Field
                                           PB91-145011                         PCA03/MFA01
                                           Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for Munici-
                                           pal Sludge Landfilling.
                                           PB91-137265                         PC A12/MF A02
                                           Development of  Sampling  Methodology for Dilution  Air
                                           Sampling  of  Condensible  Emissions  from  Stationary
                                           PB91^29742                         PC A03/MF A01
                                           Dichlorodifluoromethane: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
                                           PB91-1605BO                         PCA03/MFA01
                                           Direct/Delayed  Response  Project Laboratory  Operations
                                           and Quality Assurance Report for Preparation of Soils from
                                           the Mid-Appalachian Region of ttie United States.
                                           PB91-141812                         PC A09/MF A02
                                           Diversity and Origin of 'Desuliovibrio' Species: Phylogenetic
                                           Definition of a Family.                  __.„..,- .„<
                                           PB91-163857                         PC A03/MF A01
                                           DNA Adducts in  Marine Mussel  'Mytjlus galloprovincialis'
                                           Living in  Polluted and Unpolluted Environments.  Chapter
                                           PB9M36B95                         PC A03WF A01
                                           Do  Behavioral  Responses to  Pesticide Exposure Affect
                                           Wildlife Population Parameters.
                                           PB9M62677                         PC A03/MF A01
                                           Documenting  the U.S. Landfill /Impoundment Permit:  A
                                           Guide to Technical Resources.
                                           PB91- 149633                         PCA02/MFA01
                                           Does Chronic Ozone Exposure Lead to Lung Disease.
                                           PB9M32993                         PC A03/MF A01
                                           Dose Paradigms for Inhaled Vapors of Primary Carcinogens
                                           and Their Impact  on Risk Assessment.
                                           PB9V149615                         PCA03/MFA01
                                           Drinking Water Criteria Document for Aldicarb.
                                           PB91-142810                         PC A09/MF A01
                                           Drinking Water Criteria Document for Atrazine.
                                           PB91 -142794                         PC A07/MF A01
Drinking Water  Criteria  Document for  Dichloroethylenes
(t.1-Dichloroethylene),   (cis-1.2-Dichloroethylene),    and
(trans- 1 ,2-Dichloroethylene).
PB91-143396                          PC A09/MF A02
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Heptachfor, Hepta-
chlor Epoxide and Chlordane.
PB91 -1 42877                          PC A14/MF A02
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Lindane.
PB91-1428S1                          PCA09/MFA02
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Methoxychlor.
PB91 -1 43461                          PC A08/MF A01
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Pentacnlorophenol.
PB91-142802                          PC A07/MF A01
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Styrene.
PB91-143370                          PCA12/MFA02
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Toluene.
PB91-143487                          PC A09/MF A01
Drinking Water Criteria Document for Toxaphene.
PB91-143404                         PCA10/MFA02
Drinking Water Criteria Document for 1,2-Dichloropropane.
PB91-143388                         PCA05/MFA01
Drinkinq Water Criteria Document on Barium.
PB91 -142869                         PC A08/MF A01
Drinking Water Criteria Document on Carbofuran.
PB91-143412                         PCA06/MFA01
Drinkinq Water Criteria Document on Chromium.
PB91 -142844              .           PC A09/MF A01
Drinking Water Criteria Document on Nitrate/Nitrite.
PB91-142836                         PC A08/MF A01
Drinking Water Criteria Document on Selenium.
PB91-142828                         PC A09/MF A01
Dynamic  Interactions of  'Pseudomonas aeruginosa' and
Bacteriophages in Lake Water.
PB91-163832                         PC A03/MF A01
Dynamics of Plasmid Transfer on Surfaces.
PB91-163816                         PCA02/MFA01
Ecological Exposure and Effects of Airborne Toxic Chemi-
                                     PCA08/MFA01
 Ecological Status and Trends Program: EPA's Approach to
 Monitoring Condition of the Nation's Ecosystems.
 PB91-136986                         PC A03/MF A01
 Economies of Scale and Scope in Water Supply.
 PB91-163519                         PCA03/MFA01
 Effect of Acute Exposure to Boric Acid on the Male Repro-
 ductive System of the Rat.
 PB91-163626                         PC A03/MF A01
 Effect of  Background Organic Matter from Surface Waters
 on the Activated Carbon  Adsorption of  Specific Organic
                                      PCA03/MFA01
                                                         Effect of Chemotherapy on the In vivo Frequency of Glyco-
                                                         phorin A 'Null1 Variant Erythrocytes (Revised).
                                                         PB91 -1 45029                         PC A03/MF A01
                                                         Effect of Fluorinated Analogues of Phenol and Hydroxyben-
                                                         zoates on the Anaerobic Transformation of Phenol to Ben-
                                                         zoate.
                                                         PB91-163873
                                      PC A03/MF A01
                                                         Effect of Growth Rate and Hydrophobicity on Bacteria Sur-
                                                         viving Protozoan Grazing.
                                                         PB91-163824                         PC A02/MF A01
                                                         Effect  of  Lindane on Intestinal Nitroreductase, Azoreduc-
                                                         tase, SS-Glucuronidase, Dechlorinase. and Dehydrochlorin-
                                                         ase Activity.
                                                         PB91-163600                         PCA03/MFA01
                                                         Effect of Metal Catalysts on the Formation of Polychlonnat-
                                                         ed Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Polychlorinated Dibenzofuran Pre-
                                                         PB9°'?46647                         PC A03/MF A01
                                                         Effect, Uptake and Disposition of Nitrobenzene in Several
                                                         Terrestrial Plants.
                                                         PB91-144808                         PCA02/MFA01
                                                         Effects of Bumrate.  Wood  Species, Altitude, and  Stove
                                                         Type on Woodstove Emissions.
                                                         PB91-146662                         PC A03/MF AOt
                                                         Effects of Chlorine Dioxide on the Developing Rat Brain.
                                                         PB91 -149757                         PC A03/MF A01
                                                         Effects of Chlorpyrifos  on the Diet and Growth of  Larval
                                                         Fathead Minnows, 'Pimephales promelas', in Littoral  Enclo-
                                                         sures
                                                         PB91 -144956                         PC A03/MF A01
TI-2
VOL. 91,  No.  2

-------
                                                                        TITLE INDEX
Effects of Dicofol on Mallard Eggshell Quality.
PB91-163543                         PCA02/MFA01

Effects of Natural Sediment Features on Survival of the
'Phoxocephalid amphipod', 'Rhepoxynius abronius'.
PB91-144741                         PCA03/MFA01

Effects of Northern Bobwhite ('Colinus  virginianus') Age
and Weight on Results of the Avian Dietary Toxicity Test.
PB91 -145449                         PC A02/MF A01

Effects of Ozone. Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorine, and Monoch-
loramine on 'Cryptosporidium parvum' Oocyst Viability.
PB91-145086                         PCA02/MFA01

Effects of Ozone. Sulfur Dioxide. Soil Water Deficit, and
Cultivar on Yields of Soybean.
PB91-144840                         PCA02/MFA01

Effects of Sediment Holding  Time on Sediment Toxicity.
Puget Sound Estuary Program.
PB91-149575                         PC A03/MF A01

Effects of Soil Moisture on Structural and Bkmass Charac-
teristics of Four Salt Marsh Plants.
PB91-146308                         PC A03/MF A01

Effects of  Temperature  and Salinity  on 'Menidia beryllina'
Embryos Exposed to Terbufos.
PB91-163881                         PCA03/MFA01

Effects of  Ultraviolet-B  Radiation  on  Loblolly Pine.  1.
Growth, Photosynthesis  and Pigment Production in Green-
house-Grown Seedlings.
PB91-146381                         PCA02/MFA01

Effects of Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Dilution in
Reducing  Lethal  Toxicity  of  Municipal  Wastewater  to
Sheepshead  Minnow  ('Cyprinodon  variegatus') and Pink
Shrimp ('Penaeus duorarum').
PB91 -149781                         PC A03/MF A01

Elliot Bay Action Program: 1986 Action Plan.
PB91-149583
                                     PC A06/MF A01
Emissions  of   Metals  and  Crganics  from  Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators.
PB91-151472                         PCE99/MFE99

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater  Sludge  Incinerators.  Volume  1.  Summary
Report.
PB91-151480                         PCA03/MFA01

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater  Sludge Incinerators. Volume 2. Site 1 Final
Emission Test Report.
PB91-151498                         PCA13/MFA02

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater  Sludge Incinerators. Volume 3. Site 2 Final
Emission Test Report.
PB91 -151506                         PC A12/MF A02

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater  Sludge Incinerators. Volume 4. Site 2 Final
Emission Test Report.  Appendices.
PB91-151514                         PCA02/MFA01

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater  Sludge Incinerators. Volume 5. Site 3 Final
Emission Test Report.
PB91 -151522                         PC AM/MF A01

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater  Sludge Incinerators. Volume 6. Site 4 Final
Emission Test Report.
PB91-151530                         PCA13/MFA02

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater  Sludge Incinerators  Volume 7. Site 4 Final
Emission Test Report.  Appendices.
PB91 -151548                         PC AM/MF A01

Emissions  of   Metals  and  Organics  from  Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Volume  8. GC/MS Tapes
Review Report.
PB91-151555                         PC AM/MF A01

Emissions Testing of  a  Precalciner Cement Kiln at Louis-
ville, Nebraska.
PB91 -130195                         PC A1S/MF A03

Emissions Testing of a Wet Cement KHn at Hannibal. Mis-
souri. Draft Report.
PB91-130203                         PCA20/MFA03

Enforcement of Financial Responsibility  Requirements for
RCRA Treatment. Storage, and Disposal Facilities That Are
Closing.
PB91-139857                         PC A02/MF A01

Environmental Challenge of the 1990's. Proceedings. Inter-
national Conference on Pollution Prevention: Clean Tech-
nologies and Clean Products. Held in Washington. DC. on
June 10-13, 1990.
PB91-148387                         PCA99/MFA04

Environmental Investments: The Cost of a  Clean Environ-
ment. A Summary.
PB91 -153775                         PC A04/MF A01

Environmental Investments: The Cost of a  Clean Environ-
ment. Report of the Administrator of me Environmental Pro-
tection Agency to the Congress of the United States.
PB91-153783                         PC A22/MF A03
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program:  Eco-
logical Indicators.
PB91-141796                         PC A19/MF A03

Environmental Monitoring and  Assessment Program:  Re-
search Plan for Monitoring Wetland Ecosystems.
PB91-149526                         PC A09/MF A01

Environmental Pollution Control Alternatives: Drinking Water
Treatment for Small Communities.
PB91-145961                         PCA05/MFA01

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Publications Bibli-
ography, Quarterly Abstract Bulletin.
PB91-904200                             Subscription

Evaluating Capacities of GAC Preloaded with a  Natural
Water.
PB91-162800                         PCA03/MFA01

Evaluation of a  Remote Sensor  for  Mobile  Source  CO
Emissions.
PB91-148320                         PCA05/MFA01

Evaluation of an Atmospheric Corrosion Rate Monitor as a
Time-of-Wetness Meter.
PB91-137034                         PC A03/MF A01

Evaluation of Exposure Markers.
PB91-144675                         PC A06/MF A01

Evaluation of Methods for Determining the Vertical Distribu-
tion of Hydraulic Conductivity.
PB91-146522                         PC A03/MF A01

Evaluation of Sucrose as an  Alternative to Sodium Chloride
in  the Microtox (Trade Name)  Assay: Comparison to Fish
and Cladoceran Tests with Freshwater Effluents.
PB91-144972                         PC A02/MF A01

Evaluation of the  EPA Complex Terrain  Dispersion Model
(CTDMPLUS) with the Lovett Power Plant Data  Base.
PB91 -162503                         PC A03/MF A01

Evaluation of the  Fathead Minnow Seven-Day Subchronic
Test for Estimating Chronic Toxicity.
PB91 -146423                         PC A03/MF A01

Evaluation of Two Cleaning Methods for the  Removal of
Asbestos Fibers from Carpet (Journal Art'cle).
PB91-145169                         PCA02/MFA01

Everett Harbor Action Program: 1989 Action  Plan. Puget
Sound Estuary Program.
PB91-149567                         PC A03/MF A01

Evidence for an Involvement of Associative Conditioning in
Reflex Modification of the Acoustic Startle Response with
Gaps in Background Noise.
PB91-163634                         PC A02/MF A01

Examination  of Immune Parameters and Host Resistance
Mechanisms in B6C3F1  Mice Following Adult  Exposure to
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-'p'-Dioxin.
PB91 -163659                         PC A03/MF A01

Experience with the  EPA  Manual for  Waste  Minimization
Opportunity Assessments.
PB91 -137133                         PC A03/MF A01

Expert  Systems to  Assist in Evaluation of Measurement
Data.
PB91 -162743                         PC A02/MF A01

Exposure  Indices  Consideration for Rural Ozone Relation-
ships in the United States.
PB91 -136598                         PC A02/MF A01

Factors Affecting  the Applicability of Plasma Systems to the
Cleanup of Supertund Sites.
PB91-162784                         PC A03/MF A01

Factors  Controlling  the Emissions of  Monoterpenes  and
Other Volatile Organic Compounds.
PB91-136622                         PC A04/MF A01

Field Comparison of Methods for the Measurement of Gas-
eous and Paniculate Contributors to Acidic Dry Deposition.
PB91 -163774                         PC A03/MF A01

Field Demonstration of  the  UV/Oxidation Technology to
Treat Ground Water Contaminated with VOCs.
PB91-163741                         PCA02/MFA01

Field Evaluation of Barriers to Walleye  Egg and Larva Sur-
vival in the Lower Fox River. Wisconsin.
PB91 -163493                         PC A03/MF A01

Field Evaluation  of In-situ  Biodegradation of  Chlorinated
Ethenes:  Part 1, Methodology and Field Site Characteriza-
tion.
PB91-144857                         PC A03/MF A01

Field Observations of the Ecology  and  Habits of Mangrove
Rivulus ('Rivulus  marmoratus') in  Belize and  Florida (Te-
leoslei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae).
PB91-163840                         PCA03/MFA01

Field Strategy for Sorting Volatile Organics into Source-Re-
lated Groups.
PB91-146357                         PC A02/MF A01

Fish Acute Toxicity Syndromes: Application to the Develop-
ment of Mechanism-Specific QSARS.
PB91 -162529                         PC A03/MF A01
Fish  Acule Toxicity Syndromes in  the Development  of
Mechanism-Specific QSARS.
PB91 -137075                          PC A03/MF A01

Fish  Hepatocyte Model  for Investigation of the Effects of
Trihalomethanes. (Chapter 27).
PB91-132845                          PC A02/MF A01
Flexibility in Bacteriological Monitoring.
PB91-137166
                                     PC A03/MF A01
Flow Cytometric Analysis of the Mechanism of Methylmer-
cury Cytotoxicity.
PB91-163675                          PC A03/MF A01

Flow Cytometric Detection and Sizing of Fluorescent Parti-
cles Deposited at a Sewage Outfall Site.
PB91 -145177                          PC A02/MF A01

Fluid Modeling Applied to Atmospheric Diffusion in Complex
Terrain.
PB91-144717                          PCA03/MFA01

Functional Bioassays utilizing Zooplankton: A Comparison.
PB91-146407                          PC A02/MF A01

Future Directions in Research on the Genetic Toxicology of
Complex Mixtures.
PB91-162602                          PC A03/MF A01

Future of Expert Systems in the Environmental Protection
Agency.
PB91-162727                          PC A02/MF A01

Gas Chromatography/Matrix Isolation-Infrared Spectrometry
for Air Sample Analysis.
PB91 -136317                          PC A07/MF A01

General Microbiology of RecA: Environmental and Evolu-
tionary Significance.
PB91-163964                          PC A03/MF A01

Genes  Encoding Mercuric  Reductases  from  Selected
Gram-Negative Aquatic Bacteria Have a Low Degree of Ho-
mology with merA of Transposon TN50.
PB91 -163782                          PC A02/MF A01

Genetic Variation in Clonal Vertebrates Detected by Simple-
Sequence DNA Fingerprinting.
PB91-163972                          PC A02/MF A01

Geosynthetic  Leachate Collection Systems.
PB91 -162834                          PC A03/MF A01

Global Inventory of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions
from Anthropogenic Sources.
PB91-161687                          PC AM/MF A01

Global Warming Mitigation Potential of Three Tree Planta-
tion Scenarios.
PB91-159608                          PC A04/MF A01

Great Lakes Demonstration Program, Section 108a.
PB91-148437                          PCA03/MFA01

Guidance document  for prepermit bioassay testing of low-
level radioactive waste.
DE91002995                          PC A04/MF A01

Guidance for Data Useabiliry in Risk Assessment.
PB91-921312                          PC A02/MF A01

Guidance for  Data Useability in Risk Assessment.  Interim
Report.
PB91-921208                          PC A12/MF A02

Guidance for  Public Involvement in RCRA Section 3008(h)
Actions.
PB91-139B65                          PC A02/MF A01

Guidance for  Writing Case-by-Case Permit  Requirements
for Municipal Sewage Sludge.
PB91-145508                          PC A12/MF A02

Guidance of the Use of Stipulated Penalties in Hazardous
Waste Consent Decrees.
PB91 -139360                          PC A03/MF A01

Guidance  on  Drafting  Consent  Decrees in  Hazardous
Waste Cases.
PB91-139345                          PC A03/MF A01

Guidance on  Remedial Actions for Superfund Sites with
PCB Contamination.
PB91-145466                          PC A08/MF A01
PB91-921206                          PC A07/MF A01

Guidance Regarding CERCLA  Enforcement against  Bank-
rupt Parties.
PB91-139014                          PCA03/MFA01

Guide to Ground-Water Supply Contingency Planning for
Local and State Governments. Technical Assistance Docu-
ment.
PB91-145755                          PC A07/MF A01

Guide to the Office of Water Accountability System and Re-
gional Evaluations: Fiscal Year  1991.
PB91 -145516                          PC A09/MF A02
                                                                                                                                                June
                                                                                                       TI-3

-------
                                                                           TITLE INDEX
   Hazardous  Substances in  Our Environment:  A Citizen's
   Guide to Understanding Health Risks and Reducing Expo-
   sure.
   PB91-131987                          PCA07/MFA01

   Hazardous Waste Data Management System Extract Tape
   PB91-592000                     SubscriptionS5,320.00

   Hazardous Waste Data Management System Extract Tape.
   Data Tape Documentation.
   PB91-156737                          PC A20/MF A03

   Health Advisory (or Hexachloroethane.
   PB91-159657
   Health Advisory tor 1,3-Dinitrobenzene.
   PB91-159640
                                        PC A04/MF A01
                                        PC A05/MF A01
   Hepatic Neoplasms in the Mummicbog 'Fundulus heterocli-
   tus' from a Creosote-Contaminated Site.
   PB91-163980                          PCA02/MFA01

   Hexachlorobutadiene: Drinking Water Hearth Advisory.
   PB91-160663                          PCA03/MFA01

   High-Temperature, Short-Time Sulfation of  Calcium-Based
   Sorbents. 1. Theoretical Sulfation Model.
   PB91-146688                          PC A03/MF A01

   High-Temperature, Short-rime Sulfation of  Calcium-Based
   Sorbents. 2. Experimental Data and Theoretical Model Pre-
   dictions.
   PB91-146670                          PCA03/MFA01

   Histotogical and Histopathotogical Evaluation of the TesSs.
   PB91-164293                          PC A13/MF A02

   Human Qinical Inhalation Exposures Experimental Design,
   Methodology, and Physiological Responses.
   PB91-132944                          PC A03/MF A01

   Hybrid Fast Hankel Transform Algorithm for Electromagnet-
   ic Modeling.
   PB9M 46340                          PCA02/MFA01

   Hydrocarbon Spill Exposure Assessment Modeling.
   PB91-162669                          PC A03/MF A01

   Hydrologic-Hydrochemical Characterization  of Texas  Frio
   Formation  Used  for  Deep-Well  Injection  of  Chemical
   Wastes.
   PB91-144899                          PCA03/MFA01

   IBI:  A Quantitative, Easily Communicated Assessment of
   the Health and Complexity of Entire Fish Communities.
   PB9M36614                          PC A01/MF A01

   Identification and Quantitation of Alkytated Nucleobases by
   High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with  UV Photo-
   diode Array Detection.
   PB91-144931                          PC A02/MF A01

   Identifying Ecological Indicators: An Environmental Monitor-
   ing and Assessment Program.
   PB91-146605                          PCA01/MFA01

   Immune Alterations  in Rats Following Subacute Exposure
   to Tributyttin Oxide.
   PB91-149773                          PC A03/MF A01

   Immunohistochemical Detection of Tumour-Associated Al-
   dehyde Dehydrogenase in Formalin-Fixed Rat and Mouse
   Normal Liver and Hepatomas.
   PB91-163691                           PC A02/MF A01

   Immunotoxicology of Captive and Wild Birds.
  PB91-I37117
                                       PC A03/MF A01
  Impact of Drinking Water Treatment on Assimilable Organic
  Carbon.
  PB91 137141                         PCA03/MFA01

  Impact of  Paniculate Emissions Control on the Control of
  Other MWC Air Emissions.
  P891-146696                         PC A02/MF A01

  Importance of Alignment between Local DC Magnetic Reid
  and  an Oscillating Magnetic  Field in Responses of  Brain
  Tissue In vilro and In vivo.
  PB91-145052                         PCA03/MFA01

  Importance of Glycolysable Substrates for In vitro Capaata-
  tion of Human Spermatozoa.
  PB91-163725                         PC A02/MF A01

  In-situ  Biotransformation  of  Carbon Tetrachloride  under
  Anoxic Conditions.
  PB91-148346                         PCA06/MFA01

  In vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity.
  PB91-162610                         PCA03/MFA01

  IncinerabHity  Index: A Measure of Incinerator Performance.
  (Journal Article).
  PB91-145144                         PCA03/MFA01

  Incineration Research Facility.
  PB91-145128                         PCA03/MFA01

  Increasing  Sensitivity of the Ortho  Analytical Cytofluoro-
  graph by Modifying the Fluid System.
  PB91-163663                         PC A02/MF A01

  Indoor Air  - Assessment Methods of Analysis for Environ-
  mental Carcinogens.
  PB91 -137273                         PC A03/MF A01
                                             Information  Collection Request National  Primary Drinking
                                             Water Regulations: Phase 2 Synthetic Organic and Inorgan-
                                             ic Chemicals Rules.
                                             PB91-143446                          PC A09/MF A01

                                             Initial Growth and Ontogeny of Bigleaf Maple 'Acer macro-
                                             phyllum' in an Enriched Carbon Dioxide Environment.
                                             PB91 -162685                          PC A03/MF A01

                                             Injection Well Mechanical Integrity.
                                             PB91-145631                          PCA06/MFA01

                                             Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), Executable
                                             Model and Source Model (Version 4.0) (for  Microcomput-
                                             ers).
                                             PB91-506477                                 CP D03

                                             Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), Executable
                                             Model (Version 4.0) (for Microcomputers).
                                             PB91-506469                                 CP 002

                                             Integrated  Air  Pollution  Control  System,  Version  4.0.
                                             Volume 1. User's Guide.
                                             PB91-133512                          PCA04/MFA01

                                             Integrated  Air  Pollution  Control  System,  Version  4.0.
                                             Volume 2. Technical Documentation Manual.
                                             PB91-133520                          PCA107MFA02

                                             Integrated  Air  Pollution  Control  System,  Version  4.0.
                                             Volume 3. Programmer's Maintenance Manual.
                                             PB91 -133538                          PC A07/MF A01

                                             Interactions between 'Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. 'israelen-
                                             sis' and Fathead Minnows, 'Pimephales promelas' Ratines-
                                             que, under Laboratory Conditions.
                                             PB91-144923                          PC A02/MF A01

                                             Interdisciplinary Approach  to Assessing the Health Risk of
                                             Air Toxic Chemicals: An Overview.
                                             PB9M63618                          PC A03/MF A01

                                             Interim CERCLA Settlement Policy.
                                             PB91 -139329                          PC A03/MF A01

                                             Interim Guidance on Potentially Responsible Party Partici-
                                             pation  in Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies.
                                             PB91 -139337                          PC A03/MF A01

                                             ISIM3D: An  ANSI-C Three-Dimensional  Multiple  Indicator
                                             Conditional Simulation Program.
                                             PB91-163733                          PC A03/MF A01

                                             Laboratory Evaluation of the Low Temperature Characteris-
                                             tics of  Four Protective Clothing Materials.
                                             PB91-148452                          PC A03/MF A01

                                             Lack of Myoglobin Function in the Isolated Perfused Buffalo
                                             Sculpin('Enophrys bison') Heart.
                                             PB91-144964                          PC A02/MF A01

                                             Learning and Memory  Deficits in Rats Following Exposure
                                             to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile.
                                             PB91-145078                         PCA03/MFA01

                                             Little Rock Lake (Wisconsin):  Perspectives on an Experi-
                                             mental Ecosystem Approach to Seepage Lake Acidification.
                                             PB91-163527                         PC A03/MF A01

                                             Managing Asbestos in  Place:  A Building Owner's Guide to
                                             Operations and Maintenance  Programs for Asbestos-Con-
                                             taining  Materials.
                                             PB91-145920                         PC A03/MF A01

                                             Manual for  the  Evaluation  of  Laboratories Performing
                                             Aquatic Toxicity Tests.
                                             PB91-148353                         PC A06/MF A01

                                             Mass Spectral Confirmation of Chlorinated and Brominated
                                             Diphenylethers in Human Adipose Tissues.
                                             PB91-159699                         PC A04/MF A01

                                             Material Selection.
                                             PB91 -136978                         PC A02/MF A01

                                             Mela-Analytic Reappraisal of Statistical Results in the  Envi-
                                             ronmental Sciences: The Case of a Hydrologeal Effect of
                                             Cloud Seeding.
                                             PB9M46613                         PC A02/MF A01

                                             Metabolism of Chlorinated Methanes. Ethanes, and Ethy-
                                             tenes by a Mixed Bacterial Culture Growing on Methane
                                             PB91-144774                         PC A02/MF A01

                                             Methodology Used for a Laboratory Determination of Rela-
                                            tive Contributions of Water,  Sediment and  Food Chain
                                             Routes  of Uptake  for 2,3,7,8-TCDD  Bioaccumulation by
                                             Lake Trout in Lake Ontario.
                                            PB91-144782                         PC A02/MF A01

                                            Methods for  the  Determination of Organic Compounds in
                                            Drinking Water. Supplement 1.
                                            PB91-146027                         PCA11/MFA02

                                            Methods for  the  Investigation and Prevention of Water-
                                            borne Disease Outbreaks.
                                            PB91 -137307                         PC A15/MF A02

                                            Methods of Removing  Drinking Water Contaminants and
                                            Their Limitations: Inorganics and Radionuclides.
                                            PB91-162792                         PC A03/MF A01

                                            Microbial Carbon Dioxide Generation and Oxygen Utilization
                                            in the Unsaturated Subsurface at a Gasoline Spill Site.
                                            PB91-162644                         PCA03/MFA01
 Modal Aerosol Dynamics Modeling.
 PB91-161729
                                      PC A13/MF A02
 Model Statement of Work for a Remedial Investigation and
 Feasibility Study Conducted by Potentially Responsible Par-
 ties.
 PB91-139436                         PC A03/MF A01

 Modelling Working and Reference Memory  in Rats: Effects
 of Scopolamine on Delayed Matching-to-Position.
 PB91-163642                         PC A03/MF A01

 Modulation of Eicosanoid  Production  by Human Alveolar
 Macrophages Exposed to Silica 'In vitro'.
 PB91 -136630                         PC A03/MF A01

 Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Regulation of a
 'Pseudomanas pickettii' PKO1 Gene Encoding Phenol Hy-
 droxylase and Expression  of the Gene  in 'Pseudomonas
 aeruginosa' PAO1C.
 PB91-163923                         PC A02/MF A01

 Most Dilute Lake in the World.
 PB91-144816                         PCA02/MFA01

 Movement of Bacteria through Soil and Aquifer Sand.
 PB91-164277                         PC A03/MF A01

 Multiple Effects of Ethane  Dimethanesulfonate on the Epi-
 didymis of Adult Rats.
 PB91 -144691                         PC A03/MF A01

 Multispectral Identification of Potentially Hazardous Byprod-
 ucts of Ozonation and Chlorination. Part 1. Studies of Chro-
 matographic and Spectroscope  Properties of MX.
 PB91 -161703                         PC A04/MF A01

 Municipal Settlements.
 PB91-139311                         PCA03/MFA01

 Musts  for USTs: A Summary of the Regulations for Under-
 ground Storage Tank Systems.
 PB91-136531                         PCA03/MFA01

 Mutagenic Activity of Paniculate Matter from Wood Smoke.
 PB91 -129155                         PC A02/MF A01

 NAPAP  Annual  Emissions Inventory (Version 2):   U.S.
 Annual Area Sources, 1985.
 PB91-505875                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Enventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadi-
 an TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Spring Satur-
 day, 1985.
 PB91-505982                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions  Inventory (Version 2):  Canadian Annual
 Area Sources, 1985.
 PB91-505883                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions  Inventory (Version 2):  Canadian Annual
 Natural Paniculate Sources. 1985.
 PB91-505909                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  Canadian Model-
 ers' Point Source Data, 1985.
 PB91-505594                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
 Natural Paniculate Sources  Modelers' Tape - Fall Saturday,
 1985.
 PB91-506246                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
 Natural Paniculate Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall Sunday,
 1985.
 PB91-506253                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
 Natural Paniculate Sources  Modelers' Tape - Fall Weekday,
 1985.
 PB91-506238                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
 Natural Paniculate Sources  Modelers' Tape  - Spring Satur-
 day, 1985.
 PB91-50618B                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
 Natural Paniculate  Sources  Modelers'  Tape   -  Spring
 Sunday, 1985.
 PB91-506196                                 CPT02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  US. and Canada
 Natural Paniculate Sources  Modelers' Tape - Spring Week-
day, 1985.
 PB91-505842                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
Natural Paniculate Sources  Modelers' Tape - Summer Sat-
urday, 1985.
PB91-506212                                 CPT02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
Natural  Paniculate Sources  Modelers'  Tape - Summer
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-506220                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
Natural  Paniculate Sources  Modelers'  Tape - Summer
Weekday. 1985.
PB91-506204                                  CP 102
TI-4
VOL 91.  No. 2

-------
                                                                      TITLE INDEX
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
Natural Paniculate Sources Modelers' Tape • Winter Satur-
day. 1985
PB91-505826                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
Natural  Paniculate  Sources  Modelers'  Tape  -  Winter
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505834                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
Natural Particulate Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter Week-
day. 1985.
PB91-505818                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources  Modelers'  Tape  - Winter Weekday,
1985.
PB91-505602                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape, 1985.
PB91-505685                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers'  Tapes - Fall  Saturday.
1985.
PB91-505735                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Fall Sunday. 1985.
PB91-505776                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): US. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers;  Tapes - Fall Weekday,
1985.
PB91-506154                                 CPT03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes - Spring Saturday.
1985.
PB91-505958                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes -  Spring Sunday,
1985.
PB91-505990                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes - Spring Weekday,
1985.
PB91-505917                                 CPT03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes  - Summer Saturday,
1985
PB91-506071                                 CPT03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes - Summer Sunday,
1985.
PB91-506113                                CPT03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes  - Summer Weekday,
1985.
PB91-506030                                CPT03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes -  Winter Saturday,

PB91-505644                                CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Nonmobile Modelers' Tape - Winter Saturday, 1985.
PB91-505651                                CPT03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Nonmobile Sources  Modelers' Tape - Fall Saturday,
 1985.
PB91-505743                                CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S.  and Canada
THC  Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall Sunday.

 PB91-505784                                 CP T03

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC  Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Spring  Week-
 day, 1985.
 PB91-505925                                 CP T03

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version  2):  U.S. and Canada
 THC  Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter Week-
 day, 1985.
 PB91-505610                                 CPT03

 NAPAP Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S. and Canada
 THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes • Fall Weekday,

 PB91-506162                                 CP T03

 NAPAP Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S. and Canada
 THC  Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Spring Satur-
 day. 1985.
 PB91-505966                                 CP T03

 NAPAP Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S. and Canada
 THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Spring Sunday,
 1985
 PB91-506006                                 CP T03

 NAPAP Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S. and Canada
 THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Summer Satur-
 day. 1985.                                   _„,»-
 PB91-506089                                 CP T03
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers'  Tapes  •  Summer
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-506121                                 CPT03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Summer Week-
day, 1985.
PB91-506048                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes  - Winter Sunday.
1985.
PB91-505693                                 CP T03

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile Source Modelers' Tape - Summer Weekday,
1985.
PB91-506055                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall  Saturday, 1985.
PB91-505750                       .         CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall  Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505792                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall  Weekday, 1985.
PB91-506170                                 CPT02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape -  Spring  Saturday,
1985.
PB91-505974                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tape -  Spring Sunday.
1985.
PB91-506014                                 CPT02

NAPAP Emissions  Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape - Spring  Weekday,
1985.
PB91-505933                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Summer Saturday,
1985.
PB91-506097                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and  Canada
TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape - Summer Sunday.
1985.
PB91-506139                                 CPT02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape  -  Winter Saturday.
1985.
PB91-505669                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile Sources  Modelers'  Tape - Winter Sunday.

PB91-505701                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
TSP Mobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape -  Winter Weekday,
 1985.
PB91-505628                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape  - Spring  Sunday,

PB91-506022                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Summer Satur-
 day, 1985.
 PB91-506105                                 CPT02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  U.S. and Canada
 TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape  - Summer Week-

 PB91-506063                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
 TSP Nonmobile Sources  Modelers' Tape - Fall Saturday.
 1985.
 PB91-505768                                 CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
                    :es Modelers'  Tape  - Fall  Sunday,
 TSP Nonmobile Sources
 1985.
 PB91-505800
                                             CPT02
 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
 TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall Weekday,
 1985.
 PB91-505727                                CP T02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
 TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Spring Weekday,
 1985.
 PB91-505941                                CPT02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
 TSP  Nonmobile Sources  Modelers'  Tape  -  Summer
 Sunday, 1985.
 PB91-506147                                CPT02

 NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
 TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter Saturday.
 1985
 PB91-505677                                CP T02
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter  Sunday,
1985.
PB91-505719                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Canadian
TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Winter Week-
day, 1985.
PB91-505636                                 CP T02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. Annual Natu-
ral Particulate Sources, 1985.
PB91-505891                                 CPT02

NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. Point Source
Modelers' Inventory, 1985.
PB91-505586                                 CP T03

Naphthalene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
PB91-160689
                                    PC A03/MF A01
National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1989.
PB91-172247                        PC A07/MF A01

National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: Bibliography
of Selected Reports and Federal Register Notices Related
to Air Toxics. Index. 1990.
PB91-168443                        PCA21/MFA03

National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: Bibliography
of Selected Reports and Federal Register Notices Related
to Air Toxics. Volume 4. Citations. 1990.
PB91-168435                        PC A09/MF A01

National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program.  Proficiency
Report.
PB91-131300                        PCA10/MFA02

National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program.  Proficiency
Report: Supplement.
PB91 -157222                        PC A07/MF A01

National Stream Survey Database Guide.
 PB91-141804
                                     PC A06/MF A01
 National Water Quality Inventory. 1988 Report to Congress.
 PB91-145730                         PCA12/MFA02

 Natural Transformation of a Marine 'Vibrio' Species by Plas-
 mid DMA.
 PB91-163907                         PCA03/MFA01

 Neanthes Long-Term Exposure Experiment: The Relation-
 ship between Juvenile Growth and Reproductive Success.
 Puget Sound Estuary Program.
 PB91-149591                         PCA03/MFA01

 Neurotoxic Effects of Colchicine.
 PB91-149658                         PCA03/MFA01

 New Source Reduction Project: The Potential for Safe Sub-
 stitutes.
 PB91-137158                         PCA02/MFA01

 Nitrate for Biorestoration of an Aquifer Contaminated with
 Jet Fuel.
 PB91-164285                         PC A04/MF A01

 Non-Polar Volatile Organic Compounds in Whole Air Sam-
 ples from the AutoEx Studies.
 PB91-137042                         PCA03/MFA01

 Noncarcinogenic Effects of Chromium:  Update to Health
 Assessment Document.
 PB91-136523                         PC A06/MF A01

 Novel Delivering of  Nutrients and Oxygen to Aid In situ
 Bioreclamation.
 PB91-162487                         PC A03/MF A01

 NPDES Compliance  Monitoring Inspector Training  Module:
 Biomonitoring.
 PB91-145854                         PC A05/MF A01

 NPDES Compliance  Monitoring Inspector Training  Module:
 Laboratory Analysis.
 PB91-145870                         PCA07/MFA01

 NPDES Compliance  Monitoring Inspector Training  Module:
 Legal Issues.
 PB91-145680                         PCA06/MFA01

 NPDES  Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training: Over-

                                     PC AOS/MF A01
view.
PB91-145672
 o-Chlorotoluene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
 PB91-160598                         PCA03/MFA01

 Ongoing Research and Regulatory Development Projects.
 PB91-161752                         PC A10/MF A02

 Optical Heterogeneity in Green Bay.
 PB91-163501                         PCA02/MFA01

 Optimal Characterization of Structure for Prediction of Prop-
 erties.
 PB91-163584                         PCA03/MFA01

 ORD Ground Water Research Plan: Strategy for 1991 and
 Beyond.
 PB91-145482                         PC A03/MF A01
                                                                                                                                              June
                                                                                                      TI-5

-------
                                                                         TITLE INDEX
  Organic Chemical Transport to Groundwater
  PB91-137059
                                      PC A03/MF A01
  Overview of Case Studies on Recovery of Aquatic Systems
  from Disturbance.
  PB91-163S76                          PCA03/MFA01

  Overview of Risk Assessment for Toxic and Pathogenic

  P§91-l'36945                          PC A03/MF A01

  Oxygenated Organic Compound  Concentrations Near  a
  Roadway in Lithuania, SSR.
  PB91 -131672                          PC A03/MF A01

  Ozonation and Biological Stability of Water in an  Operating
  Water Treatment Plant.
  PB91-162438                          PC A03/MF A01

  p-Chlorotoluene: Drinking Water Health Advisory.
  PB91-160705                          PC A03/MF A01

  Paleoecological Investigation of Recent  Lake Acidification
  in the  Adirondack Mountains, N. Y.
  PB91-144709                          PCA03/MFA01

  Palladium und  dessen Legierungen  als  Wasserstoff-Per-
  meatJonsmembranen.  Literaturstudie.  (Palladium and  its
  alloys  as  hydrogen permeation  membranes.  Literature
  study).
  DE91724862                          PC A05/MF A01

  Partitioning Studies of Dioxin between Sediment and Water
  The Measurement of Koc for Lake Ontario Sediment.
  PB9M46415                          PCA02/MFA01

  Pericyte of a Teteost Fish: Ultrastructure, Position, and Role
  in Neoplasia as Revealed by a  Fish Model.
  PB91-163808                          PC A02/MF A01

  Pesticide Assessment Guidelines. Subdivision F, Hazard
  Evaluation. Human and Domestic Animals. Series 81, 82,
  and 83 Neurotoxicity. Addendum 10.
  PB91-154617                          PCA04/MFA01

  Pesticide Assessment Guidelines, Subdivision F. Hazard
  Evaluation: Human and Domestic Animals. Series 64, Muta-
                                       PC A03/MF A01
  genkaty. Addendum 9.
  PB91-15I
       158394
  Pesticide Compact Label File - 1990 Updates.
  PB9 1 -91 1 600                             Subscription

  Pesticide Fact Sheet No. 217: •Gliocladkim wrens' GL-21.
  PB91 -1 1 0528                         PC A02/MF A01

  Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 93.1: 'Bacillus thuringiensis'
  (Revised).
  PB91-159673                         PC A02/MF A01

  Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 218: 'Trichoderma harzianum'
  RHai Strain KRL-AG2.
  PB91 -1 1 0536                         PC A02/MF A01

  Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 219: Tribenuron Methyl.
  PB91 -1 596S1                         PC A03/MF A01

  Physical/Chemical Treatment of  Hazardous Waste Sites:
  Speaker Slide Copies and Supporting Information.
  PB9 1-1 45433                         PCA11/MFA02

  Pilot Study on Indoor Air Quality. Managing Indoor Air Qual-
  ity Risks. Report on a Meeting Held in St Michaels. Mary-
  land on October 25-27, 1989.
  PB91 -145896                         PCA10/MFA02

  PIRLA  Project  (Paleoecological  Investigation  of  Recant
  Lake Acidification): An Introduction to the Synthesis of  the
  Protect
  PB4T146472                         PC A02/MF A01

  PM10 Emission  Factor  Listing  Developed by Technology
  Transfer and Airs Source Classification Code*  with Docu-
  PB91-148411                          PCA04/MFA01

  Policy for Managing Leachate at PCS Landfills.
  PB91-139907                          PC A03/MF A01

  Polymer Manufacturing Industry - Background Information
  for Promulgated Standards.
  PB91-148304                          PC A10/MF A02

  Polymer Manufacturing Industry - Enabling Document.
  PB91-161745                          PCAM/MFA01

  Post Remedial Action Report, Lansdowne Radioactive Res-
  idence Complex, Dismantlement/Removal Project Volume
  1 , Government Operations.
  AD-A230 429/3                        PC A13/MF A02

  Preliminary Analysis of the Public Costs  of Environmental
  Protection: 1981-2000.
  PB91-145847                          PC A04/MF A01

  Preliminary Testing, Evaluation and  Sensitivity Analysis for
  the Terrestrial  Ecosystem  Exposure  Assessment Model
  (TEEAM).
  P891-161711                          PCA06/MFA01

  Preparation Aids for the Development of Category 1: Qual-
  ity Assurance Project Plans.
  PB91-148312                          PC A04/MF A01
                                           Principal Components Analysis and Partial Least Squares
                                           Regression.
                                           PB91-146373                          PC A03/MF A01

                                           Proceedings  Hazardous  Materials  Management  Confer-
                                           ence/Central (3rd). O'Hare Exposition Center Held at Rose-
                                           mont, Illinois, on March 13-15. 1990.
                                           PB91-162701                          PCA03/MFA01

                                           Proceedings  of the  International Symposium on Oil and
                                           Gas  Exploration and Production Waste Management Prac-
                                           tices (1st). Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on September
                                           10-13,1990.
                                           PB91-160549                        PCS95.00/MF £09

                                           Program Recommendations for State Section 313 Program
                                           Coordinators.
                                           PB9M45698                          PC AOS/MF A01

                                           Progress  Toward  Implementing Superiund.  Fiscal  Year
                                           1989.
                                           PB91-921204                          PC A16/MF A02

                                           Projection  of Response of Trees and Forests to Acidic
                                           Deposition and Associated Pollutants,
                                           PB91-136572                          PC A10/MF A02

                                           Protocol  for  Testing  Bioremediation Products  against
                                           Weathered Alaskan Crude Oil.
                                           PB91-137018                          PCA03/MFA01

                                           Public-Private Partnership  Case Studies:  Profiles of Suc-
                                           cess in Providing Environmental Services.
                                           PB9M45904                          PCA06/MFA01

                                           Public Private Partnerships for Environmental Facilities: A
                                           Self-Help Guide for Local Governments.
                                           PB91-145714                          PC A03/MF A01

                                           Purity and Heat of Fusion Data for Environmental Stand-
                                           ards as Determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
                                           PB91 -146555                          PC A03/MF A01

                                           Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Procedures for
                                           Hazardous Waste Incineration. Handbook.
                                           PB91-145979                          PC AOS/MF A01

                                           Quality of Our Nation's Water A Summary of the 1988 Na-
                                           tional Water Quality Inventory.
                                           PB91-145912                          PC AOS/MF A01

                                           Quantification of Toxicological Effects for Alachlor.
                                           PB91 -143420                         PC A04/MF A01

                                           Quantification of Toxicological Effects of Tetrachkxoetrry-
                                           tene.
                                           PB91-143479                         PCA03/MFA01

                                           Quantitative Method for Evaluating Avian Food Avoidance
                                           Behavior.
                                           PB91-149807                         PC A03/MF A01

                                           Radiation  monitoring around United  States  nuclear test
                                           areas, calendar year 1989. Offsrte environmental monitoring
                                           report.
                                           DE91005910                          PC AOS/MF A01

                                           Randomized Intervention Analysis and the Interpretation of
                                           Whole-Ecosystem Experiments.
                                           PB91-163535                         PC A03/MF A01

                                           RCRA Orientation Manual 1990 Edition.
                                           PB91-145888                         PC A10/MF A02

                                           RCRA Section 3008(h) Interim Status Corrective Action Au-
                                           thority.
                                           PB91-139840                         PCA03/MFA01

                                           Recognition  and   Management of Pesticide  Poisonings.
                                           Fourth Edition.
                                           PB91-145656                         PCA10/MFA02

                                           Recovery of Lottc Communities and Ecosystems Following
                                           Disturbance: Theory and Application.
                                           PB91-146704                         PCA03/MFA01

                                           Redetogation of Civil Judicial Settlement  Authorities  under
                                           Delegation 14-13-B and 14-14-E.
                                           PB91-136834                         PC AOS/MF A01

                                           Reductive  DehatogenatJon: A Subsurface Bioremediation
                                           Process.
                                           PBB1-144873                         PC A03/MF A01

                                           Region 10 Environmental Indicators, FY 89 Summary.
                                           PB91-136560                         PC AM/MF A01

                                           Regional Framework for Establishing Recovery Criteria.
                                           PB91-146480                         PC A03/MF A01

                                           Regional Variation In Growth Response of Coastal Douglas-
                                           Fir to Nitrogen Fertilizer in the Pacific Northwest.
                                           PB91-146498                         PC A03/MF A01

                                           Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of  Hazardous
                                           Waste. Proceedings of the Annual Research Symposium
                                           (15th). Held in Cincinnati, Ohio on April 10-12.1989.
                                           PB91-145524                         PCA99/MFA04

                                           Remedial Action, Treatment and Disposal of  Hazardous
                                           Waste. Proceedings of the Annual RREL Hazardous Watte
                                           Research  Symposium  (16th). Held in Cincinnati. Ohio on
                                           April 3-5,1990.
                                           PB91-148379                         PC AM/MF AIM
Research to Support the SDWA: Pushing Back the Enve-
lope.
PB91-145094                        PC A01/MF A01

Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System
Extract Tape. Data Tape Documentation
PB91-1S6745                        PC A20/MF A03

Respiratory Tract Dosimetry Model for Air Toxics  (October
1990).
PB91-163709                        PC A03/MF A01

Results from the Stabilization Technologies Evaluated by
the Site Program. New England Environmental Expo 90.
PB91-162479                        PC A03/MF A01

Retrofit Costs for Lime/Limestone  FGD and Lime Spray
Drying at Coal-Fred Utility Boilers.
PB91-136952                        PC A03/MF A01

Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control Options at Coal-
Fired Plants (for Microcomputers).
PB91-5Q6295                                CP D02

Retrofit Costs for SOS and NOX Control  Options at 200
Coal-Fired Plants.
PB9M33314                         PC E99/MF E99

Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control  Options at 200
Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 1. Introduction and Methodology.
PB91-133322                        PC AOS/MF A01

Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control  Options at 200
Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 2. Site Specific  Studies for Ala-
bama, Delaware. Florida, Georgia. Illinois.
PB9M33330                        PCA19/MFA03

Retrofit Costs for S02 and NOX Control  Options at 200
Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 3. Site Specific Studies for Indi-
ana. Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan. Minne-
sota.
PB91-133348                        PC A1B/MF A03

Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control  Options at 200
Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 4. Site Specific  Studies for Mis-
souri, Mississippi, North  Carolina.  New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, Ohio.
PB91-133355                        PC A23/MF A03

Retrofit Costs for S02 and NOX Control  Options at 200
Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 5. Site Specific Studies tor Penn-
sylvania.  South  Carolina,  Tennessee, Virginia, Wisconsin,
West Virginia.
PB91-133363                         PC A24/MF A03

Review of Sources of Ground-Water Contamination from
Light Industry.
PB91-145938                         PC A04/MF A01
Revision of CERCLA Civil Judicial Settlement Authorities
under Delegations 14-13-B and 14-14-E.
P891-138818                         PC A02/MF A01
Revisions to the Interim Guidance on PRP Participation in
Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies.
PB91-139352                         PC A03/MF A01

Risk Management Recommendations for Dioxin Contamina-
tion at Midland, Michigan.
PB91-148429
                                     PC AOS/MF A01
Santa Clara Valley Integrated Envt
Project: Revised Stew One Report.
PB9M80739
Role of Short-Term Teats in Evaluating Health Effects As-
sociated with Drinking Water.
PB9M49724                          PC A03/MF A01

                           Environmental Management

                                     PC A17/MF A03

Send Clara Valley Integrated Environmental Management
Project: Stage Two Report.
PB9V160747                          PC A11/MF A02

Saving Bays and Estuaries: A Primer for Establishing and
Managing Estuary Projects.
PB91-145474                          PC AOS/MF A01

Seaming of Geosynthetica.
PB91-U51S1                          PC A02/MF A01

Seasonal Impact of  Blending Oxygenated Organics with
Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and Evaporative Emis-

                                     PC A03/MF A01
PB91-148571

Self-Consistent Deutschian ESP Model.
PB91-149518
                                     PC AOS/MF A01
Seminar  Publication: Risk Assessment, Management and
Communication of Drinking Water Contamination.
PB91-145722                         PC AOS/MF A01

Service Ufa of Qeosynthetics in Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment Facilities.
PB91-162826                         PC A03/MF A01

Settling and Coagulation Characteristics of Fluorescent Par-
ticles Determined by Flow Cytometry and Fluorometry.
PB91-144790                         PC A02/MF A01

Seven-Day Tests and Chronic Tests.
PB91-163592                         PC A01/MF A01
TI-6
VOL 91, No. 2

-------
                                                                       TITLE  INDEX
Simple Flow-Limited Model for Exchange of Organic Chemi-
cals at Fish Gills.
PB91-146720                          PC A02/MF A01

Simplified Soil Gas Sensing Techniques for Plume Mapping
and Remediation Monitoring.
PB91-162651                          PC A03/MF A01

SITE Demonstration of the CF Systems Organics Extraction
System.
PB91-145110                          PCA02/MFA01

Small Cost Recovery Referrals.
PB91-139006                          PCA02/MFA01

Soil Bioventing Demonstration Project.
PB91-162628                          PC A03/MF A01

Soliditech, Inc. Solidification/Stabilization Process: Applica-
tions Analysis  Report.
PB91-129817                          PCA04/MFA01

Solubility  and Toxicity of  Eight Phthalate Esters to  Four
Aquatic Organisms.
PB91-144907                          PCA03/MFA01

Sorption of Organic Acid Compounds to Sediments: Initial
Model Development.
PB91-144980                          PCA03/MFA01

Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis of Nucleic Acids to Trace
Sources of Dissolved Substrates Used by Estuarine Bacte-
ria.
PB91-164012                          PCA03/MFA01

Stand History: An Alternative Explanation of Red  Spruce
Radial Growth Reduction.
PB91-146456                          PC A02/MF A01

Standardized Costs for Water Supply Distribution Systems.
PB91-162461                          PCA03/MFA01

State Authorization Manual. Volume 1.
PB91-130211
                                     PC A03/MF A01
State Authorization Manual. Volume 2. Appendices.
PB91-130229                          PCA99/MFA99

State-of-the-Art Procedures and Equipment for Internal  In-
spection of Underground Storage Tanks.
PB91 -149609                          PC A07/MF A01

Statistical Properties of Designs for Sampling Continuous
Functions in Two Dimensions Using a Triangular Grid.
PB91-132118                          PCA03/MFA01

Stress Proteins: Potential as Multitiered Biomarkers (Chap-
ter 9).
PB91 -136994                          PC A03/MF A01

Subchronic Effects of Sodium Selenite and Selenomethion-
ine on Several Immune-Functions in Mallards.
PB91-163550                          PC A03/MF A01

Succeeding at Waste Minimisation.
PB91-162446                          PCA03/MFA01

Swirl Device for Regulating and Treating Combined Sewer
Overflows.
PB91-133264                          PC A03/MF A01

Synaptonemal  Complex Analysis  of  Mutagen Effects  on
Meiotic Chromosome Structure and Behavior.
PB91-132969                          PC A03/MF A01

Technologies and  Costs for the Removal of Synthetic Or-
ganic Chemicals from Potable Water Supplies.
PB91-143438                          PC A13/MF A02

Temporal Variability in Lakewater Chemistry in the North-
eastern  United States: Results of Phase 2  of the Eastern
Lake Survey.
PB91-159590                          PCA11/MFA02

Testing  of Insect  Microsporidians (Microspora: Nosemati-
dae) in Nontarget Aquatic Species.
PB91-163899                          PC A02/MF A01

Thermoregulation at a High Ambient Temperature Following
the Oral Administration of Ethanol in the Rat.
PB91-145037                          PC A02/MF A01

Three Case Studies of Waste Minimization through Use of
Metal Recovery Processes.
PB91-162719                         PC A03/MF A01

Total Human Exposure and Indoor Air Quality: An Automat-
ed Bibliography (BLIS) with Summary Abstracts. Volume  2.
PB91-1372B1                          PCA07/MFA01

Total Organic Carbon  Determinations in Natural and Con-
taminated Aquifer Materials. Relevance and Measurement.
PB91-129205                         PC A03/MF A01
Total Particle, Sulfate, and Acidic Aerosol Emissions from
Kerosene Space Heaters.
PB91-146654                         PC A02/MF A01

Toxic Effects of Xenobiotics on the Pituitary Gland.
PB91-136903                         PC A04/MF A01

Toxic  Release Inventory (TRI),  1988:  Reporting Facilities
Names and Addresses.
PB91-506816                                 CPT02

Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Substance Invento-
ry: 1990 Supplement to the  1985 Edition of the TSCA In-
ventory. User Guides and Indices.
PB91-159665                         PC A13/MF A02

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Substance
Inventory:  1990 Supplement to the  1985  Edition of the
TSCA Inventory. User Guides and Indices.
PB91-145458                         PC A13/MF A02

Toxicity and Fate of Total Residual Chlorine in Outdoor Ex-
perimental Streams (Book Chapter).
PB91-162511                         PCA03/MFA01

Toxicity of Sediments from  Western  Lake Erie  and the
Maumee River at Toledo, Ohio,  1987: Implications for Cur-
rent Dredged Material Disposal Practices.
PB91-163568                         PC A03/MF A01

Toxicological Mechanisms of Implantation Failure.
PB91-149765                         PC A03/MF A01

Transfection of Cytochrome  P450 cDNAs into Mammalian
Cells Used in Mutation and Transformation Assays.
PB91-132951                         PCA03/MFA01

Transfer of Toxic Concentrations of Selenium  from  Parent
to Progeny in the Fathead Minnow ('Pimephales promelas').
PB91-145003                         PCA02/MFA01

Transmittal of the RCRA Ground-Water Enforcement Strat-
                                                            91-139915
                                                                                              PC A03/MF A01
Treatment Technology Background Document.
PB91-160556                          PCA12/MFA02

Tributyltin and Invertebrates of a Seagrass Ecosystem: Ex-
posure and Response of Different Species.
PB91-163915                          PCA03/MFA01

Trichloroftuoromethane:  Drinking Water Health Advisory.
PB91-160648                          PCA03/MFA01

Two Indoor Air Exposure Modeling Studies: CONTAM Mod-
eling Results, and Serial Correlation Effects.
PB91-159707                          PCA03/MFA01

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's  Inhalation RFD
Methodology: Risk Assessment for Air Toxics.
PB91-163717                          PCA03/MFA01

Ultrasonic Flowmeters That Are Insensitive to  Suspended
Solids.
PB91-162404                          PCA03/MFA01

Ultrox International Ultraviolet Radiation/Oxidation Technol-
ogy: Applications Analysis Report.
PB91-129759                          PC A05/MF A01

UNIPALS: Software for  Principal Components Analysis and
Partial Least Squares Regression.
PB91-146365                          PCA03/MFA01

Up and Running:  New EPA Case History  Database and Li-
brary System.
PB91-149617                          PCA01/MFA01

Update of the Regulation and Policy Matrices  Dated Sep-
tember 1988.
PB91-143081                          PCA03/MFA01

Update on Building and  Structure Decontamination.
PB91-145102                          PC A02/MF A01

Urban Air Toxics Monitoring  Program Aldehyde Results,
 1989.
PB91-148288                          PCA07/MFA01

Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program, 1989.
 PB91-148262
 Urban Airshed Model.
 PB91-505578
                                      PC A13/MF A02
                                              CPT18
 Use of Thalassia' and Its Epiphytes for Toxicity Assess-
 ment: Effects of a Drilling Fluid and Tributyltin.
 PB91-163931                          PCA03/MFA01

 Use of the Blue Mussel,  'Mytilus edulis', in Water Quality
 Toxicity Testing and In situ Marine Biological Monitoring.
 PB91 -149799                          PC A03/MF A01
User's  Guide for  the  Urban Airshed Model. Volume  1.
User's Manual for UAM (CB-IV).
PB91-131227                         PCA12/MFA02

User's  Guide for  the  Urban Airshed Model. Volume  2
User's Manual for the UAM (CB-IV) Modeling System.
PB91-131235                         PCA22/MFA03

User's  Guide for  the  Urban Airshed Model. Volume  3.
User's Manual for the Diagnostic Wind Model.
PB91-131243                         PC A04/MF A01

User's  Guide for  the  Urban Airshed Model. Volume  4
User's Manual for the Emissions Preprocessor System.
PB91-131250                         PC A13/MF A02

User's Guide for the Urban Airshed Model. Volume 5. De-
scription and Operation of the ROM - UAM  Interface Pro-
gram System.
PB91-131268                         PCA11/MFA02

User's Guide to  the Complex Terrain Dispersion Model Plus
Algorithms for Unstable Situations (CTDMPLUS): Volume 2.
The Screening Mode (CTSCREEN).
PB91-136564                         PC A04/MF A01

User's Guide to the Personal Computer Version of the Bio-
genie Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS).
PB91-136549                         PC A04/MF A01

User's  Guide to TSCREEN: A Model  for Screening Toxic
Air Pollutant Concentrations.
PB91-141820                         PC A03/MF A01
UV-B Effects on Terrestrial Plants.
PB91-146399
                                     PC A03/MF A01
Variation in Adirondack, New York, Lakewater Chemistry as
Function of Surface Area.
PB91-144824                         PC A03/MF A01

Ventitatory Patterns of Btuegill ('Lepomis macrochirus') Ex-
posed to Organic Chemicals with Different Mechanisms of
Toxic Action (Revised).
PB91-144915                         PCA03/MFA01

Vertebral Abnormalities in Juvenile Inland Silversides 'Meni-
dia beryllina' Exposed to Terbufos during Embryogenesis.
PB91-163956                         PC A02/MF A01

Waiver of Concurrence on  De Minimis Generator  Settle-
ments.
PB91-138826                         PC A01/MF A01

Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment: U.S. Coast
Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York.
PB91-136556                         PC A07/MF A01

Water Quality Modeling in Distribution Systems.
PB91-130153                         PC A04/MF A01

Waterborne Disease Outbreaks: Selected Reprints of Arti-
cles on Epidemiology, Surveillance,  Investigation,  and Labo-
ratory Analysis.
PB91-137315                          PCA06/MFA01

Watershed Manipulation Project: Field Implementation Plan
for 1986-1989.
PB91-148403                          PC A05/MF A01

Watershed Manipulation Project: Quality Assurance Imple-
mentation Plan for 1986-1989.
PB91-148395                          PC A10/MF A02

Watershed Manipulation Project: Rationale  for Hypothesis
Formulation and Testing.
PB91-159616                          PC A04/MF A01

White Phosphorus Health Advisory.
PB91-161026                          PC A05/MF A01

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of PM10 Samplers.
PB91-146589                          PC A03/MF A01

Workshop on Innovative Technologies for  Treatment  of
Contaminated Sediments. Held in Cincinnati, Ohio on June
 13-14, 1990. Summary Report.
 PB91-148296                          PCA04/MFA01

X-ray, Microscope, and Wet Chemical Techniques: A Com-
plementary Team for Deposit Analysis.
 PB91-137125                          PCA03/MFA01
                                                                                                                                                 June
                                                                                                        TI-7

-------
KEYWORD  INDEX
 Index entries in this section are selected to indicate important ideas and concepts presented in a
 report. When using the keyword index, be sure to look under terms narrower, broader, or related to a
 particular topic. Although some of the keywords are not selected from a controlled vocabulary of
 terms, most of them have been selected from the DoD, DoE, NASA, or NTIS controlled vocabularies.
 The entries are arranged by keyword and then by the NTIS order number.
THE THREE LETTERS AT THE END OF THE NTIS ORDER NUMBERS HAVE BEEN PLACED THERE TO HELP
NTIS DETERMINE THE MOST EFFECTIVE MEDIA IN BRINGING VARIOUS TYPES OF INFORMATION TO
READERS' ATTENTION.

PLEASE DO USE THE MEDIA CODES AT THE ENDS OF THE ORDER NUMBERS WHEN ORDERING. THE
INFORMATION THEY PROVIDE IS VERY HELPFUL TO NTIS.
SAMPLE ENTRY
                     Keyword Term

                            Title


  NTIS Order Number/Media Code Price Code
PLANTS (Botany)

PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Uptake by Plants:
Methodology and Initial Investigations

PB85-169597/REB  PC A02/MF A01

-------
                                                                KEYWORD  INDEX
 2-AMINOFLUORENE
    DNA Adducts in Marine Mussel 'Mytilus galloprovincialis'
    Living in Polluted and Unpolluted Environments. Chapter

    PB91-136895
 54IETHYLHEXANOIC ACID
    5-Methylhexanoic Acid Developmental Toxicity Testing.
    PB91-141838
 ABATEMENT
    Airborne Asbestos  Levels Measured Before,  during  and
    After Abatement.
    PB91-145136
 ACARICIOES
    Effects of Dicofol on Mallard Eggshell Quality.
    PB91-163543
 ACCOUNTABILITY
    Guide to the Office of  Water Accountability System  and
    Regional Evaluations: Fiscal Year 1991.
    PB91-145516
 ACENAPHTHENE
    Ambient Water Quality  Criteria Document: Addendum for
    Acenaphthene.
    PB91-161513
 ACER MACROPHYLLUM
    Initial Growth and Ontogeny of Bigleaf Maple 'Acer  ma-
    crophyllum' in an Enriched Carbon Dioxide Environment.
    PB91-162685
 ACETALDEHYDE
    Oxygenated Organic Compound Concentrations Near  a
    Roadway in Lithuania. 5SR.
    PB91-131672
 ACETONE
    Oxygenated Organic Compound Concentrations Near  a
    Roadway in Lithuania. SSR.
    PB91-131672
 ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY
    Variation in Adirondack, New York.  Lakewater Chemistry
    as Function of Surface Area.
    PB91-144824
 ACID PRECIPITATION
    National Stream Survey Database Guide.
    P891-141804
 ACID RAIN
    Paleoecologica! Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification
    in the Adirondack Mountains, N. Y.
    PB91-144709
    Acid Rain Control Options.
    PB91-162545
 ACIDIFICATION
    Projection of Response of Trees and  Forests to Acidic
    Deposition and Associated Pollutants.
    PB91-136572
    National Stream Survey Database Guide.
    P891-141804
    Direct/Delayed  Response Project: Laboratory  Operations
    and  Quality Assurance Report  for  Preparation  of Soils
    from the Mid-Appalachian Region of the United States.
    P891-141812
    Variation in Adirondack, New York,  Lakewater Chemistry
    as Function of Surface Area.
    PB91-144824
    PIRLA Project  (Paleoecological Investigation  of Recent
    Lake Acidification):  An  Introduction to the Synthesis of
    the Project.
    PB91-146472
    Climatically  Induced Rapid Acidification  of a Softwater
    Seepage Lake.
    PB91-146514
    Watershed  Manipulation Project: Quality  Assurance  Im-
    plementation Plan for 1986-1989.
    PB91-148395
    Watershed  Manipulation  Project:  Field  Implementation
    Plan for 1986-1989.
    PB91-148403
    Temporal Variability in Lakewater Chemistry in the North-
    eastern United States: Results of Phase 2 of the Eastern
    Lake Survey.
    PB91-159590
    Watershed Manipulation Project: Rationale for Hypothesis
    Formulation and Testing.
    PB91-159616
    Little Rock Lake (Wisconsin): Perspectives on an Experi-
    mental Ecosystem Approach to Seepage Lake Acidifica-
    tion.
    PB91-163527
ACOUSTIC REFLEX
    Evidence for an Involvement of Associative Conditioning
    in  Reflex Modification of the Acoustic Startle Response
    with Gaps in Background Noise.
    PB91-163634
ACROLEIN
    Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
    Acroletn.
    PB91-161612
ACRYLONITRILES
    Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Addendum for
    Acrylonitrile.
    PB91-161398
ACTIVATED CARBON
    Effect  of Background  Organic Matter  from  Surface
    Waters on the  Activated  Carbon Adsorption of  Specific
    Organic Compounds.
    PB91-137091
ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT
    Designing Fixed-Bed Adsorbers to Remove Mixtures of
    Organics.
    PB91-144766
ADIPOSE TISSUE
    Mass Spectral Confirmation of Chlorinated and Brominat-
    ed Diphenylethers in Human Adipose Tissues.
    PB91-159699
ADIRONDACK LAKE
    Variation in Adirondack, New York, Lakewater Chemistry
    as Function of Surface Area.
    PB91-144824
ADSORPTION
    Adsorption of Organic Cations to Natural Materials.
    PB91-144881
AEROSOLS
    Modal Aerosol Dynamics Modeling.
    PB91-161729
AGING (PHYSIOLOGY)
    Effects of Northern  Bobwhite  ('Colinus virginianus') Age
    and Weight on Results of the Avian Dietary Toxicity Test
    PB91-146449
AIR POLLTION ECONOMICS
    Retrofit Costs for SO2 and NOX Control Options at 200
    Coal-Fired Plants. Volume 2. Site Specific Studies for
    Alabama, Delaware,  Florida, Georgia, Illinois.
    PB91-133330
AIR POLLUTANTS
    Assessment of the  Mutagenicity of Volatile Organic Air
    Pollutants Before and After Atmospheric Transformation.
    PB91-162594
AIR POLLUTION
    Mutagenic  Activity  of  Paniculate Matter  from  Wood
    Smoke.
    PB91-129155
    Human  Clinical  Inhalation   Exposures  Experimental
    Design, Methodology, and Physiological Responses.
    PB91-132944
    User's Guide to the Complex Terrain Dispersion Model
    Plus Algorithms for Unstable Situations (CTDMPLUS):
    Volume 2. The Screening Mode (CTSCREEN).
    PB91-136564
    Contamination of U.S. Arctic Ecosystems by Long-Range
    Transport of Atmospheric Contaminant;..
    PB91-137109
    Air Quality Criteria for Lead: Supplement to the 1986 Ad-
    dendum.
    PB91-138420
    User's Guide to TSCREEN: A Model for Screening Toxic
    Air Pollutant Concentrations.
    PB91-141820
    PM10  Emission Factor Listing Developed by Technology
    Transfer  and Airs Source Classification Codes with Docu-
    mentation.
    PB91-148411
    Approach for Estimating Global  Landfill  Methane  Emis-
    sions.
    PB91-149534
    Air Emissions from the Incineration of Hazardous Waste.
    PB91-149641
    Global Inventory  of Volatile  Organic  Compound  Emis-
    sions from Anthropogenic Sources.
    PB91-161687
    Ongoing   Research  and   Regulatory   Development
    Projects.
    PB91-161752
    Evaluation of the EPA Complex Terrain Dispersion Model
    (CTDMPLUS) with the Lovett Power Plant Data Base.
    PB9M62503
    Advanced Screening Model tor Complex Terrain Applica-
    tions.
    PB91-162693
    National  Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: Bibliogra-
    phy of Selected Reports and Federal Register  Notices
    Related to Air Toxics. Index, 1990.
    PB91-168443
    National  Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1989.
    PB91-172247
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S.  Point
    Source Modelers' Inventory, 1985.
    PB91-505586
    NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2):  Canadian Mod-
    elers' Point Source Data. 1985.
    PB91-505594
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2): U.S.  and
    Canada  THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter
    Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-505602
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2): U.S.  and
    Canada  THC  Nonmobile  Sources Modelers' Tape -
    Winter Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-505610
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2): U.S.  and
    Canada  TSP  Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape  - Winter
    Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-505628
    NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Cana-
    dian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers'  Tapes - Winter
    Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-505636
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2): U.S.  and
    Canada THC  Mobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes • Winter
    Saturday, 1985.
    PB91-505644
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Nonmobile Modelers' Tape - Winter Satur-
day, 1985.
PB91-505651
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada TSP  Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter
Saturday, 1985
PB91-505669
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S.  and Cana-
dian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter
Saturday, 1985.
PB91-505677
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape,  1985.
PB91-505685
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers' Tapes  -
Winter Sunday  1985
PB91-505693
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505701
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S.  and Cana-
dian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Winter
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505719
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S.  and Cana-
dian TSP  Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers'  Tape -  Fall
Weekday, 1985
PB91-505727
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Fall Sat-
urday,  1985.
PB91-505735
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall
Saturday, 1985.
PB91-505743
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall Satur-
day, 1985.
PB91-505750
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S.  and Cana-
dian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall Sat-
urday,  1985.
PB91-505768
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes -  Fall
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505776
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape - Fall
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505784
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada TSP Mobile Sources  Modelers'  Tape -  Fall
Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505792
NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S.  and Cana-
dian TSP  Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers'  Tape -  Fall
Sunday, 1985
PB91-505800
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada Natural  Particulate Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
Winter Weekday,  1985.
PB91-505818
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada Natural  Particulate Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
Winter Saturday, 1985.
PB91-505826
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada Natural  Particulate Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
Winter Sunday, 1985.
PB91-505834
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada Natural  Particulate Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
Spring Weekday,  1985.
PB91-505842
Annual  NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):  U.S.
Annual Point Sources, 1985.
PB91-505859
Annual NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): Canadi-
an Annual Point Sources, 1985.
PB91-505867
NAPAP Annual  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):  U.S.
Annual Area Sources, 1965.
PB91-505875
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  Canadian
Annual Area Sources, 1985
PB91-505883
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):  U.S. Annual
Natural Particulate Sources, 1985.
PB91-505891
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  Canadian
Annual Natural Particulate Sources, 1985.
PB91-505909
NAPAP Emissions Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Mobile Sources  Modelers' Tapes - Spring
Weekday, 1985.
PB91-505917
NAPAP Emissions  Inventory  (Version  2):  U.S.  and
Canada THC Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers'  Tape  -
Spring  Weekday, 1985.
PB91-505925
                                                                                                                                                              KW-1

-------
                                                                     KEYWORD  INDEX
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2)-.   US.  and
    Canada TSP Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tape -  Spnng
    Weekday. 1985.
    PB91-505933
    NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): US. and Cana-
    dian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -  Spring
    Weekday. 1985.
    PB91-505941
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   US.  and
    Canada THC Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tapes -  Spring
    Saturday,  1985.
    PB91-505958
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S  and
    Canada  THC  Nonmobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes  -
    Spring Saturday. 1985.
    PB91-505966
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada TSP Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tape -  Spring
    Saturday,  1985.
    PB91-505974
    NAPAP Emissions Enventory (Version 2): US. and Cana-
    dian TSP Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tape -  Spring
    Saturday.  1985.
    PB91-505982
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada THC Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tapes -  Spring
    Sunday, 1985.
    PB91-505990
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  THC  Nonmobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes  -
    Spring Sunday, 1985.
    PB91-506006
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   US.  and
    Canada TSP Mobile  Sources Modelers' Tape -  Spring
    Sunday, 1985.
    PB91-506014
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   US.  and
    Canada  TSP  Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
    Spring Sunday. 1985.
    PB91-506022
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Summer
    Weekday. 1985.
    PB91-506030
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  THC  Nonmobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes  •
    Summer Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-506048
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada TSP Mobile  Source  Modelers' Tape - Summer
    Weekday. 1985.
    PB91-506055
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  TSP  Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
    Summer Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-506063
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Summer
    Saturday,  1985
    PB91-506071
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  THC  Nonmobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes  -
    Summer Saturday, 1985.
    PB91-506089
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape  - Summer
    Saturday. 1985.
    PB91-506097
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  TSP  Nonmobile  Sources  Modelers' Tape  •
    Summer Saturday, 1985.
    PB91-506105
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada THC Mobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Summer
    Sunday, 1985.
    PB91-506113
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  THC  Nonmobile Sources  Modelers'  Tapes  -
    Summer Sunday, 1985.
    PB91-506121
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada TSP Mobile Sources Modelers' Tape  - Summer
    Sunday. 1985.
    PB91-506139
    NAPAP Emissions Inventory (Version 2): U.S. and Cana-
    dian TSP Nonmobile  Sources Modelers' Tape - Summer
    Sunday. 1985.
    PB91-506147
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  THC  Mobile Sources  Modelers;  Tapes - Fall
    Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-5O6154
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2).   U.S.  and
    Canada THC Nonmobile Sources Modelers' Tapes - Fall
    Weekday. 1985.
    PB91-506162
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2):   U.S.  and
    Canada  TSP  Mobile  Sources  Modelers'  Tape  - Fall
    Weekday, 1985.
    PB91-506170
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2|:   U.S.  and
    Canada  Natural  Paniculate Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
    Spring Saturday. 1985.
    PB91-506188
    NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory  (Version 2).   U.S.  and
    Canada  Natural  Particulate Sources  Modelers' Tape  -
    Spring Sunday. 1985.
    PB91-506196
                                             NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S.   and
                                             Canada  Natural Particulate  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
                                             Summer Weekday, 1985.
                                             PB91-506204
                                             NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S.   and
                                             Canada  Natural Particulate  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
                                             Summer Saturday. 1985.
                                             PB91-506212
                                             NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  US   and
                                             Canada  Natural Particulate  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
                                             Summer Sunday, 1985.
                                             PB91-506220
                                             NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S.   and
                                             Canada  Natural Particulate  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
                                             Fall Weekday, 1985.
                                             PB91-506238
                                             NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S.   and
                                             Canada  Natural Particulate  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
                                             Fall Saturday, 1985.
                                             PB91-506246
                                             NAPAP  Emissions  Inventory (Version  2):  U.S.   and
                                             Canada  Natural Particulate  Sources  Modelers' Tape -
                                             Fall Sunday. 1985.
                                             PB91-506253
                                             EPA (Environmental  Protection Agency) Publications Bib-
                                             liography, Quarterly Abstract Bulletin.
                                             PB91-904200
                                          AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT
                                             Characterization of Emissions from a  Variable Gasoline/
                                             Methanol Fueled Car.
                                             PB91-146563
                                             Seasonal Impact of  Blending Oxygenated Organics with
                                             Gasoline on  Motor  Vehicle  Tailpipe and  Evaporative
                                             Emissions.
                                             PB91-146571
                                             Impact of Particulate Emissions Control on the Control of
                                             Other MWC Air Emissions.
                                             PB91-146696
                                             Benzene Enabling Document for Standards on Benzene
                                             Transfer and Waste Operations.
                                             PB91-161737
                                             Acid Rain Control Options.