ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
               OFFICE OF ENFORCEMENT
                      EPA-330/2-77-015
         Waste Source  And  Water Quality Investigations
        Reno-Sparks Joint Water Pollution Control Plant
                     And  Truckee River
                    [MARCH-APRIL 1977)
NATIONAL  ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS CENTER
                 DENVER. COLORADO
                                                  y^o S7*>j
                          AND                         ^
             REGION IX - SAN FRANCISCO
                        JUNE  1977

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          Environmental  Protection Agency
               Office  of Enforcement
                  EPA-330/2-77-015
   WASTE SOURCE AND WATER QUALITY  INVESTIGATIONS

  RENO-SPARKS JOINT WATER POLLUTION  CONTROL  PLANT
                        AND

                    TRUCKEE RIVER


                  (March-April  1977)
                     June 1977
National Enforcement Investigations Center - Denver
             Region IX - San Francisco

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                       CONTENTS
  I   INTRODUCTION 	     1

 II   SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  	     5
      NPDES Compliance Monitoring  	     5
      Water Quality Investigation  	     6
      Biological  Investigations  	     8

III   NPDES COMPLIANCE-MONITORING -	-.-  11
      Plant Description and Performance  	    11
      NEIC Compliance Monitoring   	    14
        Sampling  Techniques  	    14
        Sampling  Locations 	    20
        Flow Monitoring  	    22
        NPDES Compliance	    24
        Self-Monitoring by Reno-Sparks
          Joint WPCP vs. NEIC Results	    24
        Analysis  of Plant Performance  	    27

 IV   WATER QUALITY - TRUCKEE RIVER  	    31
      Effluent Mixing Study  	    31
      Water Quality Study	    33
        Biochemical  Oxygen Demand  	    35
        Dissolved Oxygen 	    54
        Total  Dissolved Solids and Chloride   ...    54
        Nitrogen	    56
        Phosphorus	    56
        Bacteriology 	    59

  V   BIOLOGICAL  INVESTIGATIONS  	    61
      Effluent Toxicity  	    61
        Ammonia	    61
        Chlorine	    67
      Fish Survival   	    68
      Macroinvertebrate Distribution  	    71
      Algal  Growth	    80
      REFERENCES    	    85


      APPENDICES

      A    Reno-Sparks  NPDES  Permit  MV0020150
      B    NEIC  Chain of Custody  Procedures
      C    Methods,  Analytical  Procedures and Quality  Control
      D    Reno-Sparks  WPCP Self-Monitoring  Data

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                                TABLES
 1   Self-Monitoring Data	    13
 2   Composite Sampling Data  	    16
 3   Grab Sampling Data	    18
 4   NPDES Compliance Monitoring  	    25
 5   Fecal Coliform   	    26
 6   Comparison Between Reno-Sparks  Joint  WPCP   	    28
 7   Effluent Mixing in Truckee River   	    34
 8   Sampling Locations 	    37
 9   Water Quality - Truckee River  	    38
10   Pollutant Loadings - Water Quality Study,
       Truckee River  	    53
11   Bioassay Survival Data    	    63
12   Flow Duration Statistics   	    66
13   Survival of Caged Lahontan Cutthroat  Trout    	    69
14   Macroinvertebrate Sampling Locations    	    73
15   Riffle Communities 	    74
16   Pool Communities   	    76
17   Periphytic Chlorophyll  ^Concentrations	    81
18   Algal Growth Potential  Tests  -  Effluent Additions   	    82
                                FIGURES
 1   Truckee River, Plan and Profile,  Lake  Tahoe
       to Pyramid Lake	    2
 2   Reno-Sparks Joint Water Pollution Control  Plant   	   12
 3   Self-Monitoring Data   	   15
 4   NEIC Sampling Locations  	   21
 5   Effluent Mixing in the  Truckee  River  	   32
 6   Water Quality Sampling  Stations  	   36
 7   BOD Profile, Truckee River    	   52
 8   Dissolved Oxygen Profile, Truckee River   	   55
 9   Nitrogen Profile, Truckee River	  .  .  .   57
10   Total Phosphorus (P) Profile, Truckee  River   	   58
11   Survival at 24-Hour Intervals of  Caged
       Lahontan Cutthroat Trout  	   70

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                           I.   INTRODUCTION
     The Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe and flows approximately
180 km (110 mi), terminating at Pyramid Lake,  Nevada [Figure 1].   Reno
and Sparks, Nevada are the only major cities on the river, and operate
the Reno-Sparks Joint Water Pollution Control  Plant (WPCP), a 76,000
 o
m /day (20 mgd) modified activated sludge process.   The effluent from
the WPCP is provided post aeration to maintain a dissolved oxygen (DO)
content of at least 6.0 mg/1, chlorinated and  discharged to Steamboat
Creek approximately 180 m (200 yd) upstream from the confluence with the
Truckee River at about river mile (RM) 59.  The only other major
tributary (and possible waste source) in the study  area is the North
Truckee drain, which intercepts the Truckee River immediately upstream
of and opposite Steamboat Creek.

     On January 10, 1975, Environmental Protection  Agency (EPA),  Region
IX, issued National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
Permit No. NV0020150 to the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP  to be effective
February 10, 1975, and expire May 1, 1977 [Appendix A].

     On September 8, 1976, subsequent to finding violations of permit
limitations for BOD and toxicity, EPA issued an order to the City of
Sparks requiring the development of plans for the achievement of ef-
fluent limitations.

     On January 28, 1977, after the EPA order was issued, the Director,
Enforcement Division, Region IX, requested technical assistance from
National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) to:
*  NPDES - Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972
   (PL 92-500).

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                                                                                                                        I.I.I       ,             1
- TAMOE CITY
                  CONNER CREEK -
                       TRUCKSE-
                                                                                                                                                            L,
       BOCA RESERVOIR
   LPROSSER CREEK
 MARTIS CREEK
                                                                                                                         DERBY 0AM
                                               Figure  1.  Truck** River,  Plan  and  Profile lake  Taho* to  Pyramid lake

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     1)  document continuing violations of permit limits for BOD
         and toxicity,
     2)  determine the causative agent of the toxicity,
     3)  investigate the causes for BOD and toxicity violations
         and identify remedial actions,
     4)  document actual adverse environmental effects attributable
         to the present Reno-Sparks discharge and identify potential
         adverse effects that could be expected should wastewater
         flows increase in the future.

     In response to this request, NEIC personnel performed a recon-
naissance of the study area February 14-17, 1977 to gain input from the
affected parties, select sampling sites, and assess logistical require-
ments.  Informal meetings were held with personnel  from the Reno-Sparks
Joint WPCP, Nevada Environmental Protection Services, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, Desert Research Institute, and EPA, Region IX.

     During March 24 - April 9, 1977 NEIC conducted an extensive study
at the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP and on the Truckee River.  Wastewater and
water quality characterizations were performed in conjunction with a
biological  investigation of the effects the WPCP had on the receiving
waters.

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                     II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
NPDES COMPLIANCE MONITORING

     1.  Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP self-monitoring data collected over the
past four years show mean monthly total suspended solids (TSS) and
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values have averaged 14 and 9 mg/1,
respectively.  This performance record has conclusively documented the
ability of the treatment process units to achieve NPDES limits (BOD and
TSS 30-day limits of 10 and 20 mg/1, respectively).

     2.  Despite the overall commendable performance record of the WPCP,
based on self-monitoring data, apparent violations of NPDES limits have
also occurred.

     3.  Regression analyses of the past 4 years of monthly average TSS
and BOD concentrations versus flows in the range of 16 to 20 mgd yielded
no significant relationships (correlation coefficient <0.15).  This
indicates that, to date, no relationship has developed to link increased
wastewater flow in the range observed with diminished plant performance.
It is probable that alteration of nearly two-thirds of the plant to
accommodate phosphorus removal experiments since early 1976 is the cause
of reduced removal efficiencies and increased effluent BOD concentrations,
particularly since the plant was previously operating at optimum treat-
ability levels.

     4.  During the NEIC study, the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP was not in
compliance with its NPDES permit limitations.  Effluent data collected
during April  1-8, 1977 indicated the plant exceeded its NPDES 7-day
average concentration limits for BOD (18 vs. 15 mg/1) and TSS (39 vs. 30
mg/1).   The NPDES 7-day loading limits for TSS were also exceeded (2,400

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vs. 2,300 kg/day).  In addition, the plant failed to meet its >_ 85%
removal efficiency requirement for TSS (76%).  Fecal coliform bacteria
limits for 7-day average were also exceeded (3,900 vs.  400/100 ml).  The
daily maximum fecal coliform bacteria limit of 2,000/100 ml  was exceeded
in 9 of 14 samples collected with densities ranging from 2,200 to
49,000/100 ml.  Limitations prohibiting the discharge of toxic substances
also were violated.

     5.  Composite and grab samples collected by NEIC were compared to
those collected by Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP.  Results indicated comparable
TSS values.  BOD values determined by NEIC were generally lower than
WPCP results.  There was a significant difference between fecal coliform
bacteria results; in no instance was the density determined by the WPCP
as great as those determined by NEIC.  A probable explanation for this
difference is the different analytical technique used by the WPCP and
NEIC.  The WPCP uses the membrane filter technique which, when used with
chlorinated wastewater, yields variable recoveries and consistently
lower results than the MPN technique used by NEIC.
WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION

     1.   A zone-of-mixing study conducted by NEIC on March 24, 1977
indicated the WPCP effluent was completely mixed in the Truckee River
1,200 m (3,800 ft) downstream from the confluence with Steamboat Creek.
Truckee River flow during the study was 12.3 m /sec (436 cfs).  It is
estimated that the geography of the stream, including sharp bends, will
greatly influence the mixing distance and, in most instances complete
mixing will occur by the time the wastewaters reach the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS) Vista gaging station, 2,100 m (6,900 ft) downstream from
Steamboat Creek.

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     2.  The WPCP was the major source of BOD, total phosphorous (P),
and total nitrogen (N) loads in the Truckee River immediately downstream
from the plant, contributing 69%, 79%, and 77% respectively.

     3.  No significant DO sag occurred downstream from WPCP discharges.
DO concentrations upstream of the plant averaged 10.8 mg/1 with a daily
average range of 10.3 to 11.2 mg/1.  Average DO concentrations 16.6 km
(10.3 mi.) downstream from the WPCP were 9.9 mg/1 with a daily average
range of 9.5 to 10.3 mg/1.

     4.  Of the total dissolved solids (IDS) loading in the Truckee
immediately downstream from the WPCP, 19% was contributed by the WPCP,
20% by Steamboat Creek and 14% by North Truckee Drain.  The remaining
48% was already borne by the Truckee River upstream of the tributaries
and WPCP.

     5.  Of the chloride loading in the Truckee immediately downstream
from the WPCP, 25% was contributed by the WPCP, 40% by Steamboat Creek
and 6.7% by North Truckee Drain.  The remaining 28% was carried by the
Truckee upstream of the tributaries and WPCP.

     6.  Total phosphorus (P) concentrations upstream of the WPCP dis-
charge and the two tributaries averaged 0.09 mg/1.   Inputs, primarily
from the WPCP, caused total  phosphorus (P) concentrations to increase to
0.56 mg/1 at the Vista gaging station, 2.1 km (1.3  mi) downstream from
the WPCP.  Concentrations remained nearly constant, equaling 0.56 mg/1
at the Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge near Patrick, 16.6 km (10.3 mi)
downstream from the WPCP.

     7.  Nitrogen forms upstream of the tributaries and WPCP included
concentrations of organic nitrogen (N), ammonia-N,  and nitrite plus
nitrate (N)  of 0.39,  0.13, and 0.11  mg/1, respectively.  Incoming
nitrogen loads, primarily from the WPCP,  resulted in an increase in

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 8
 downstream nitrogen  forms.  Concentrations of organic nitrogen  (N),
 ammonia-N  and  nitrite  plus nitrate  (N) at the Vista gaging station were
 1.03,  1.02, and  0.66 mg/1, respectively.  Nitrogen concentrations
 downstream from  the  Vista gage  indicated a gradual increase in  nitrite
 plus nitrate to  1.3  mg/1 at the Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge (RM
 10.3),  offset  by a gradual decrease  in ammonia  (N) to 0.85 mg/1.  Or-
 ganic  nitrogen (N),  on  the other hand, remained relatively constant at
 1.11 mg/1.

     8.    Discharge  from the WPCP caused Truckee River geometric mean
 fecal  coliform (FC)  densities to increase from 13/100 ml upstream of the
 plant  to 90/100  ml at the Vista gage, 2.1 km (1.3 mi) downstream of the
 plant.  No Salmonella were detected upstream of the plant.  However,
 Salmonella enteritidis were isolated both in the WPCP effluent and at
 the Vista  station downstream from the plant, indicating the plant was
 the source of  these  pathogenic organisms.


 BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

     1.   Native Lahontan cutthroat trout exhibited 50% mortality in a
 96-hour exposure (LC5Q)  to a mixture of 73% unchlorinated Reno-Sparks
 Joint WPCP effluent and 27% Truckee River water.  This mixture contained
 12.8 mg/1 total ammonia-N or 0.17 mg/1  un-ionized ammonia-N.   In a
 second bioassay, the LC5Q (50% mortality level)  was determined to be a
mixture of 12% chlorinated effluent and 88% Truckee River water in
 violation of NPDES permit limitations.   This mixture contained 0.05 mg/1
 residual chlorine and a minor amount (0.02 mg/1) of un-ionized ammonia-N.
 From the results of these bioassays, it is concluded that residual
 chlorine was the principal  toxic component of the Reno-Sparks  Joint WPCP
effluent during the NEIC study.   To reduce chlorine residuals  to non-
 toxic levels while maintaining adequate disinfection,  alternative dis-
 infection practices or dechlorination must be implemented.
   LC^. indicates the concentration (actual or interpolated)  at which
   50% of the test organisms died or would be expected to die.

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      2.    To meet the requirements  of the  NPDES  permit and  Nevada  Water
 Quality  Standards,  total  ammonia-N  concentrations  in  the  plant  effluent
 should average 7.7  mg/1,  a  56% reduction from  ammonia-N concentrations
 measured in  bioassays (17.6 mg/1).   This limitation was calculated from
 bioassay data and represents the  value which will  provide 100%  survival
 of Lahontan  cutthroat trout in acute 96-hour exposures  in undiluted,
 unchlorinated effluent.   The concentration  limit is independent of
 wastewater flow.

      3.    Using application factors  of 1/20 (24-hour  average) and  1/10
 (maximum not to be  exceeded)  of LC5Q values, it  was calculated  that the
 following average and maximum concentrations would guarantee protecting
 Truckee  River biota on a  long-term  (chronic) basis:   0.6  and 1.3 mg/1
 total  ammonia-N;  0.01 and 0.02  mg/1  un-ionized ammonia-N; and,  0.0025
 and 0.005 mg/1 residual chlorine.  Based on wastewater  flows observed
 during the survey and Truckee  River  flows (177 cfs) projected to be ex-
 ceeded 99% of the time, chronic toxicity will be prevented if the  Reno-
 Sparks Joint WPCP effluent  total ammonia-N concentrations average  3.4
 mg/1  and  do  not exceed 6.8  mg/1.  This is an average  reduction of 81%
 from  bioassay concentrations  (17.6 mg/1).  If wastewater  flows  increase
 to 30 mgd, average effluent concentrations would be 1.8 mg/1, a reduction
 of 90%.   Without ammonia removal facilities and assuming  present flows
 from  the  plant, and bioassay NH3-N concentrations,  Truckee River flows
 of 857 and 374 cfs will be necessary to produce 1/20 and  1/10 LC5Q
 values.   It  is projected that 857 cfs will  be exceeded 23% of the time
 during the entire year and 53% during spawning; flows  will exceed 374
 cfs 75% of the time during all months and 85% during spawning.

     4.    In  violation of NPDES permit limitations, mortalities  occurred
 among caged cutthroat trout in the Truckee  River downstream  from the
 Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP discharge.   Mortalities  were most severe  in the
effluent  mixing zone,  and less severe downstream to the Southern Pacific
Railroad  Bridge near Vista,  1.2 miles downstream from  the  discharge.

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10
 Because  ammonia  concentrations  (0.03 mg/1 or 1/8 EC5Q) were lower than
 levels determined to be acutely toxic, the Truckee River toxicity is
 attributed  to residual chlorine.

     5.   Macroinvertebrate distribution was influenced by the presence
 of  the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP discharge.  Abundance, community structure,
 and variety reflected clean water conditions in areas upstream of the
 discharge.  In the effluent plume and the Truckee River downstream from
 the mixing  zone, community structure was altered and variety decreased.
 At  Patrick, 16.6 km (10.3 mi) downstream from the discharge, complete
 recovery was evident.

     6.   Periphyton growth was severely depressed by the toxicity of
 the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP discharge.  Recovery was detected within 10.3
 river miles, and profuse growths occurred.  Algal  growth potential  (AGP)
 tests showed that the effluent stimulated algal  growth.   Although both
 nitrogen and phosphorus were growth-stimulating nutrients,  phosphorus is
 the more sensitive nutrient for effecting reductions in  algal  growth.
 Each reduction of 1.0 yg/1  of phosphorus will  produce a  0.14 to 0.76
mg/1 reduction of algal  growth.

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                   III.  NPDES COMPLIANCE MONITORING
PLANT DESCRIPTION AND PERFORMANCE

     The Reno-Sparks Joint Water Pollution Control  Plant consists of a
modified activated sludge process [Figure 2] with the following design
criteria:

               Average design flow      20 mgd
               Peak design flow         32 mgd
               Influent BOD            200 mg/1
               Effluent BOD             10 mg/1
               Influent TSS            200 mg/1
               Effluent TSS             10 mg/1

     On June 9, 1976, NEIC conducted a Pilot Compliance Monitoring (PCM)
Inspection at the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP to evaluate self-monitoring
practices.  With few exceptions, these were found to be acceptable.
                                        
     Past self-monitoring data indicate the WPCP personnel  have done a
commendable job in operating the plant.  Mean monthly TSS and BOD
values, based on daily composite samples collected over the past 4 years
[Table 1], were 14 and 9 mg/1, respectively.  This performance record
has conclusively documented the ability of the treatment process units
to achieve NPDES limits (BOD and TSS 30-day limits of 10 and 20 mg/1,
respectively).  Percent removal efficiencies averaged 95.0 and 96.2%,
respectively.  It should be noted that these average removal efficien-
cies may be higher than actual since the WPCP influent sampling site is
downstream from the waste activated sludge return flow.

     Despite this commendable overall performance record, NPDES viola-
tions of monthly average TSS and BOD limitations, as documented by the

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12
      CONTROLLED OVERFLOW
      TO  STEAMOOAT CREEK
                                 EFFLUENT  SEV/AGE
                                 TO STEAMDOAT CREEK.,
  INTERCEPTOR  023

 0240 x.	
 TRUCKEE MEADOWS
 INTERCEPTOR
      HEAOWORKS (BAR  RACKS/1
      AND COMMINUTORS)-
                                                                           SLUDGE DRYING BEDS
                                                                            CHLORINE CONTACT CHAMBER
                                                                                CHLORINE  INJECTOR
                                                             !  POSxT flST"
     TANK
                     LFCEND

           	@}	  INFLUENT  SEWAGE  PUMP
                                                                      SECONDARY
                                                                     SEDIMENTATION
                                                                      TANK NO I
                                                              SECONDARY
                                                             SEDIMENTATION
                                                              TANK NO 2
     SECONDARY
   SEDIMENTATION
     TANK NO 3
                                                                      AERATION
                                                                      TANK NO. I
GRIT TANK
      7
                                                             AERATION
                                                            TANK NO. 2
                                                                                -K
                                                                       PRIMARY
                                                                     SEDIMENTATION
                                                                      TANK NO I
  AERATION
 TANK NO. 3
                                                                       -tt
                                                             PRIMARY
                                                           SEDIMENTATION
                                                            TANK NO. 2
  PRIMARY
SEDIMENTATION
 TANK NO 3
              -CO-
           PIPELINES
               
             RS-
             -RAS-
             -WftS-
SET OF TWO PROCESS PUMPS
FLOW METER
SLIDE GATE. NORMALLY  CLOSED


SEWAGE FLOW STREAM
RAW bLUOGE AND  SCUM
RETURN ACTIVATED  SLUDGE
WASTE ACTIVATED  SLUDGE
           DS DIGESTED  SLUDGE
           	0	 DRAIN TO HE.AOWORKS
           	x	 NEIC Sampling Point
                       Figure 2.  Reno-Sparks Joint Water Pollution  Control  Plant
                                               Schematic  Diagram

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                    Table  J
                            C DATA
RENO-SPARKS JOIttV HATER IVLLUTION CONTROL PLANT
                                                                  13
Year/
Month
1973
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
r
May
June
July
Aug.
 g
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1973 Avg.
1974
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May

June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1974 Avg.
1975
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1975 Avg.
1976
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1976 Avg.
1977
Jan.
Flow
mgd

18.3
18.2
17.6
17.9
17.8
19.2
20.4
19.3
17.4
16.8
16.5
16.3
18.0

16.9
16.0
16.7
16.8
17.7
Pho
18.8
19.2
19.6
18.8
17.8
17.0
16.8
17.7

17.8
17.9
17.7
17.7
17.8
18.8
19.32
19.52
19.86
18.45
17.96
17.59
18.37

17.74
17.34
18.18
18.04
18.78
19.49
20.52
20. 3^
19.28
18.27
17.71
17.11
18.57

16.99

BOD

Influent Effluent Removal
mg/1 mg/1 2

211
242
212
158
130
168
124
104
155
196
210
181
174

175
259
301
272
272
Strip System
210
207
_
283
274
293
288
258

262
187
187
232
203
191
125
176
194
214
239
253
205

179
207
260
282
288
236
253
231
307
248
285
295
256

299

5
4
6
8
4
4
12
3
6
8
9
6
6

6
8
11
7
5

97.6
98.4
97.2
94.9
96.9
97.6
90.3
97.1
96.1
95.9
95.7
96.7
96.6

96.6
96.8
96.4
97.4
98.2
Experiments, June
10
6
-
6
5
9
8
7

6
7
6
11
10
9
9
8.6
9
11
8
8
9

10
9
6
8
10
14
14
20
16
14
14
20
13

21
95.2
97.1
-
97.9
98.2
97.9
97.2
97.3

97.7
96.3
96.8
95.2
95.1
95.3
93
95
95
95
97
97
96

94
96
98
97
97
94
94
91
95
95
95
93
95

93

TSS

Influent Effluent Removal
mg/1 mg/1 %

263
284
260
272
259
248
251
260
265
252
267
266
263

270
274
303
291
268
1974 - Jan.
259
266
239
255
278
288
281
273

270
196
233
262
277
248
253
250
298
343
365
267
271

251
276
320
283
302
263
254
282
262
272
323
282
28T

285

11
10
20
15
12
11
11
12
11
1C
9
14
12

14
12
17
17
16
1977
21
15
16
12
12
11
12
15

12
17
16
16
14
13
12
11
13
13
14
15
14

12
13
11
11
11
13
12
17
15
18
21
17
14

17

95.8
96.5
92.3
94.5
95.4
95.6
95.6
95.4
95.9
96.0
96.6
94.7
95.4

94.8
95.6
94.4
94.2
94.0

91.9
94.4
93.3
95.3
95.7
96.2
95.7
94.5

95.7
91.3
93.1
93.9
94.9
94.8
95
96
96
96
96
94
95

95
95
97
96
96
95
95
94
95
93
93
94
95

94

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 14
WPCP  self-monitoring program, have occurred [Figure 3].  Apparent vio-
lations of BOD occurred in April and October 1975, and every month since
May 1976.  The only TSS violation occurred in November 1976.

      Wastewater flows have steadily increased since 1974 [Table 1],
reaching a yearly average of 18.57 mgd in 1976, or 93% of design flow.
More  importantly, monthly average flows have periodically exceeded the
20 mgd design flow.  As flows increase, a point is reached where treat-
ment  plant performance must diminish.  To determine whether or not such
a point has been reached, monthly average TSS, BOD, and flow values,
based on daily composite sampling from 1973 through 1976, were subjected
to regression analyses.  The analyses performed included least squares
determinations for linear (y = ax + b), power (y = ax ) and exponential
       h V           V
(y = ae   and y = ab ) relationships.  All correlation coefficients were
less than 0.15, indicating that to date, no relationship has developed
to link increased flows with diminished plant performance.
NEIC COMPLIANCE MONITORING

Sampling Techniques

     During March 28 to April  8, 1977, the NEIC conducted a study at the
Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP to determine NPDES compliance.   Influent and
effluent flow-proportional composite samples for a wide range of param-
eters [Table 2] were'collected.   In addition, a number of grab samples
were collected [Table 3] to note diurnal  variations.   All samples requir-
ing holding were stored at 4C and preserved by prescribed EPA tech-
niques.  NEIC chain-of-custody [Appendix  B] and analytical quality
control procedures [Appendix C]  were followed.   All  samples were either
analyzed on site in an NEIC mobile laboratory or air  freighted to the
NEIC laboratory in Denver, Colorado for analyses.

-------
mg/1
36
34
32
30

28
26
24
22
18
r
!
F

h
r
f
t
r
fi-

I !^n iF^b |f?rjAor |f-Vw |Jiin 'i-il vlAu" Spn'JOc*" IN"1/ I PPC Jan J^ph \Mr \ br.r \ Mrivl.Ji.'p'^JiiljjJAu.nJ S^ptlPrt i'-'r>v]l"io'- f"'^n.
| 1975 1976 (ivy/
                                                     Figure 3.  Self-Momtonng  Data

                                                         Reno-Sparks  Joint  UPCP

-------
        Table 2
 COMPOSITE SAMPLING DATA
REUO-SPARKS JOINT WPCP
March 28-April 8, 1977
Sampling Station Sampling
DateT
Station 0230 3/29
Reno-Sparks 3/30
Influent 3/31
Interceptor 4/1
4/2
4/3
4/4
Average 3/29-4/4
Average 4/1-4/4
Station 0240 3/29
Truckee Meadows 3/30
Influent 3/31
Interceptor 4/1
4/2
4/3
4/4
Average 3/29-4/4
Average 4/1-4/4
Station 0260 3/29
Effluent in 3/30
Chlorine Contact 3/31
Chamber 4/1
4/2
4/3
4/4
Average 3/29-4/4
Station 0265 4/1
Effluent at Chlorine4/2
Contact Chamber 4/3
Weir 4/4
4/5
4/6
4/7
4/8
Average 4/1-4/8
Average 4/1-4/4
Removal Eff. 4/1-4/4
Flow
m3/day
x TO"5
21
20
20
20
23
19
20
20
21
40
41
41
40
38
42
39
40
40
61
61
61
61
61
61
59
61
61
61
61
59
62
61
61
62
61
61

mgd
5.5
5.3
5.3
5.3
6.1
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.5
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.7
10.0
11.1
10.4
10.7
10.6
16.2
16.1
16.2
16.0
16.1
16.2 '
15.7
16.1
16.0
16.1
16.2
15.7
16.5
16.0
16.0
16.3
16.1
16.0

BOD
mg/1 kg/day
180 3,700
130 2,600
160 3,200
120 2,400
120 2,800
160 3,100
210 4,200
150 3,100
153 3,100
80It 3,200
65" 2,700
98!7 4,000
881"r 3,600
180 6,800
110 4,600
102 4,000
103 4,100"
120 4,800
39 2,400
40.. 2,400
15TT 920
22 1,300
23 1,400
20 1,200
18 1,100
25 1,500
10 610
16 970
17 1,000
17 1,000
17 1,100
16 970
27 1 ,600
22 1,400
18 1,100
15 900


Ib/day
8,300
5,700
7,100
5,300
6,100
6,800
9,300
6,900
6,900
7,100
5,900
8,900
7,900
15,000
10,000
8,900
9,100
10,000
5,300
5,400
2,000
2,900
3,100
2,700
2,400
3,400
1,300
2,100
2,300
2,200
2,300
2,100
3,500
3,000
2,400
2,000
88
TSS
mg/1 kg/day
210 4.400
150 3,000
320 6,400
200 4,000
87 2,000
110 2,100
360 7,200
210 4,200
190 3.800
98 4.000
64 2.600
95 3,900
100 4,000
200 7,600
120 5,000
150 5,900
120 4,700
140 5,600
soolJTsi ,000
240lIIl5,000
120lll7,400
78^114.700
96ILL5.800
. 50 3,100
55 3,300
160 10,000
38 2,300
40 2,400
24 1,500
48 2,900
41 2.600
44 2.700
33 2,000
42 2,600
39 2,400
38 2.300


Ib/day
9.600
6,600
14,000
8.800
4,400
4,700
16.000
9,200
8,500
8,800
5,300
8,600
8,900
17,000
11,000
13,000
10,000
12,000
68,000
32.000
16,000
10.000
13.000
7,000
7,000
22,000
5,100
5,400
3,200
6,300
5,600
5,900
4,400
5,700
5,200
5,000
76

mg/1
440
400
380
360
390
320
340
380
350
400
380
380
370
400
370
390
380
380
380
370
380
340
370
310
300
350
330
380
320
320
400
400
410
420
370
340

IDS
kg/day
9,200
8,000
7,600
7,200
9,000
6,200
6,800
7,700
7,300
16,000
16,000
16,000
15,000
15,000
16,000
15,000
16,000
15,000
23,000
23,000
23,000
21 ,000
23,000
19,000
18,000
21 ,000
20.000
23.000
20,000
19.000
25,000
24,000
25,000
26,000
23,000
21 .000

Chloride
Ib/day
20,000
18,000
17,000
16,000
20,000
14.000
15,000
17,000
16,000
36,000
34,000
35,000
33,000
33,000
34,000
34,000
34,000
34,000
51 ,000
50,000
51 ,000
45,000
50,000
42,000
39,000
47,000
45,000
51 ,000
43,000
42,000
55,000
53,000
55,000
57,000
50,000
45.000
10
mg/1
55
42
32
30
30
28
26
35
29
16
28
28
33
33
35
25
28
32
44
40
41
35'
40
35
35
39
35
40
35
34
41
45
44
44
40
36

kg/day
1.100
840
640
600
690
540
520
700
600
650
1.100
,200
.300
,200
,500
,000
.100
.300
2,700
2,400
2.500
2.100
2,400
2,100
2.100
2,300
2.100
2.400
2.100
2.000
2.600
2,700
2,700
2,700
2,400
2.200

Ib/day
2.500
,900
,400
,300
,500
.200
.100
,600
1,300
1,400
2,500
2,500
2,900
2,800
3,200
2,200
2,500
2.800
5,900
5,400
5.500
4.700
5,400
4,700
4,600
5,200
4,700
5,400
4,700
4.500
5,600
6,000
5,900
6,000
5,400
4,800
-17

-------
                                                                     Table 2  (Continued)
                                                                   COMPnSTTF SAfl'LT.-lG DATA
                                                                   SEHO-ST.\HKS JOINT VifP
                                                                   Mar,:* 28-/,pril  8,  1377
Sampling Station Sampling
Date*
Station 0230 3/29
Reno-Sparks 3/30
Influent 3/31
Interceptor 4/1
4/2
4/3
4/4
Average 3/29-4/4
Average 4/1-4/4
Station 0240 3/29
Truckee Meadows 3/30
Influent 3/31
interceptor 4/1
4/2
4/3
4/4
Average 3/20-4-4
Average 4/1-4/4
Station C260 3/29
E'flueat in 3/30
Chlorine Contact 3/31
Chanber 4/1
4/2
4/3

Average 3/29-4/4
Station 0265 /l
Effl-er.t at 4/2
Cnlorins Contact 4/3
Cfa-.se.- Weir 4/4
4/5
4/6
4/7
4/8
Average 4/1-4/8
Average 4/1-4/4
Reroval Eff. 4/1-4/4
Flow
m'/day mgd
x 10s
21
20
20
20
23
19
20
20
21
40
41
41
40
38
42
39
40
40
61
61
61
61
61
61
59
61
61
61
61
59
62
61
61
62
61
61

5.5
5.3
5.3
5.3
6.1
5.1
5.3.
5.4
5.5
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.7
10.0
11.1
10.4
10.7
10.6
16.2
16 1
16.2
16.0
15.1
16 2
15.7
16.1
lb.0
16 1
Id. 2
15.7
16.5
16.0
16.0
16.3
16 1
16.0

Temp.
ec
















14.9
15.7
15.3
16.0
15.7
15.5
16.1
15.6
1E.C
15.7
15.5
16..1
13.6
18.5
18.9

17.0
15.8

PH
8.1
8.0
8.7
8.1
7.4
7.2
7.3
7.2-8.7
7.2-8.1
7.2
7.1
7.2
7.1
8.4
7.0
7.8
7.0-8.4
7.0-8.4
7.9
7.2
7.7
8.0
7.3
7.5
7.3
7.2-8.0
7.2
7.3
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.5
7.2
7.4
7.0-7.5
7.0-7.3

Un- unionized
Ammonia /'imioma-N
mg/T"
















'0.41
0.07
.0.23
0.45
0.09
0.12
0.10
0.21
0.07
0.08
0 04
0.05
0.08
0.16
0.09

0.08
0.06

mg/l
19.6
17.4
16 8
19.8
18.8
21.2
20.4
19.1
20.1
18.0
16.4
16.4
19.2
19.8
19.2
22.4
18.8
20.2
19.6
15.6
16.4
15.6
16.0
13.6
16.6
16.2
14.4
14.4
14.2
14.8
15.0
14.6
13.8
15.6
14.6
14.5

ko/dsy
410
350
340
400
430
410
410
390
410
730
670
680
730
750
810
880
760
810
1,200
950
1,000
940
970
830
990
980
870
880
870
880
940
30
840
960
890
880

Ib/day
900
770
740
830
960
900
900
860
910
.600
,500
,500
,700
,700
,300
,900
,700
,80U
2,600
2,100
2,200
2,100
2,100
1,800
2,200
2,200
1,900
1,900
1,900
1,900
2,100
1,900
1.800
2.100
1,900
1,900
30
Organic Hitrogen(N)
mg/l kg/day Ib/day
28.6
12.4
15.2
20.4
12.8
13.4
18.6
17.3
16.3
21.2
8 6
10.0
14.8
20.2
11 2
8.2
13.5
13.6
27.0
6.4
5.2
11 0
8 2
12.6
5.8
10.8
10.8
27.6
11.2
13.0
12.0
16.4
16. &
16.2
15.5
15.7

600
250
300
410
300
260
370
360
340
860
350
410
600
760
470
320
540
540
1.700
390
320
670
500
770
340
670
650
1.700
690
770
750
990
1.000
l.COO
940
950

1.300
550
670
900
650
570
820
780
740
1.900
780
910
1.300
1.700
1.000
710
1,200
1,200
3,700
860
700
1,500
1.100
1.700
760
1.500
1,400
3,700
1,500
1,700
1.700
2.200
2.200
2.200
2.100
2.100
-8
NO
mg/l
7.0
2.4
l.l
3.?
2.4
1.6
0.4
3.1
1.9
1.8
2.0
2.0
0.4
2.1)
0 4
0.4
1.3
0.8
14.3
9.6
6 4
2.1
3..!
2.0
2.0
5.8
3 6
3.2
2.4
2.4
1.6
2.0
2.4
3.2
2.6
2.9

2*N03
kg/day
150
48
96
64
55
31
8.0
65
40
73
82
83
16
76
17
16
52
31
910
5&0
390
150
190
120
120
350
223
190
150
MO
100
120
150
200
160
18C

W
Ib/day
320
110
210
140
120
68
18
140
90
160
180
130
36
170
37
35
110
70
2,000
1.300
870
320
-20
270
20
7&0
430
43C
320
310
220
270
320
440
353
390
-144
Total Phosohor-js(Fl
Sg71 kg/day Ib/day
5.5
7.0
5.8
7.8
6.8
8.5
9.2
7.2
8.1
5.2
4.8
5.0
6.5
8.0
8 8
7.2
6.5
7.6
3.2
5.0
4.0
6.8
6.5
6.0
6.8
5.5
6.8
6.8
7.2
7.8
8.0
7.2
6.0
6.2
7.0
7.2

110
140
120
160
160
ieo
ISO
150
170
210
200
210
260
300
370
230
260
300
200
300
250
410
400
370
430
330
410
410
440
43
SCO
440
350
330
430
430

250
310
Z63
340
353
353
410
330
360
460
430
450
510
570
823
620
50
670
430
670
543
910
670
81C
890
730
910
91P
970
l.COO
1.130
960
300
843
9-3
550
3
  t  Coyssit-'.r.g period aas  0703-0700.   Date listed is day period ended.
 tt  CO   depletions uere  less  cnan the reaomended 2 mg/l.
ttt  Accuse of a. sarpling proolen these TSS values are not considered representative.
See test for explanation.

-------
18
        Table S

  CRAB SAMPLING DATA
RENO-SPARKS JOINT WPCP
March 28-April 7, 1977
Station Description Sampling
Date & Time
Station 0260 3/29 0600
Effluent after 1145
chlorination 1445
1705
2020
2300
0150
0525
Dally Avg.
3/30 1110
1200
1410
1600
1710
1940
2245
0145
0535
Dally Avg.
3/31 0800
1103
1200
1400
1600
1637
1945
2245
0145
0510
Dally Avg.
4/1 0800
)055
1200
1405
1600
1645
1935
2250
0150
' 0505
Dally Avg.
4/2 0800
1055
1200
1415
1600
1650
1925
2240
0125
0500
Daily Avg. %
4/3 1055
1410
1645
1930
2235
0135
0!>00
Dally Avg.
4/4 10!)5
1420
1650
1930
2230
0130
0450
Daily Avg.
4/5 0800
1?00
1600
27U3
0?00
0500
Dally Avg.
DO
9.3
9.2
9.1
8.9
9.1
9.0
9.3
9.6
9.2
8.8

9.0

9.2
9.2
9.0
9.6
9.5
9.2

9.0

9.0

11.4
8.6
7.8
8.0
7.8
8.8

7.3

7.2

7.3
8.5
7.2
7.8
8.5
7.7

8.1

9.4

8.6
8.7
6.9
9.2
7.2
8.3
8.8
8.2
7.3
8.2
6.8
8.6
7.6
7.9
9.0
7.8
7.6
8.5
7.4
8.8
8.4
8 2







Temp .
C
14.0
16.0
15.5
15.5
16.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.9
16.0
16.6
16.0
15.1
16 0
15.0
16.0
15.5
15.0
15.7
16.0
16.0
15.8
15.0
15.5
15.5
15.0
15.0
14.5
15.0
15.3
15.8
16.0
19.9
16.5
16.5
16.0
16.0
15.0
15.0
13.0
16.0
15.5
16.0
18.0
15.5
16.0
16.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.7
15.5
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
15.0
14.0
15.5
16.5
17 5
17.0
17.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.1
16.7
21.3
20.1
16.5


18.6
PH
7.3
7.4
7.7
7.1
7.9
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.1-7.9
7.5
7.3
7.7
7.2
8.0
7.9
7.9
8.2
7.9
7.2-8.2
7.4
7.4
7.2
7.8
7.3
7.9
7.3
7.7
7.3
7.4
7.2-7.9
7.0
7.4
6.9
7.4
6.9
7.3
7.6
7.4
7.4
8.0
6.9-8.0
7.0
7.5
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.4
7.9
7.3
7.4
7.3
6.9-7.9
7.5
7.4
7.2
7.6
7.3
8.2
7.3
7.2-8.2
7.4
7.2
7.7
7.6
7.3
7.0
7.6
7.0-7.7
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1


7.1-7.1
Un- ionized
Aiiiiioma-H
mg/1


0.46
0.22
0.28
0.35
0.33

0.08

0.06

0.37
0.39
0.74
0.34
0.33
0.11

0.06

0.08

0.10
0.24
0.09
0.11
0.11
0.05

0.05

0.04

0.23
0.13
0.13
0.44
0.15
' ' 0.04

0.03

0.04

0.39
0.10
0.10
0.08
0.11



0.21
0.09
0.62
0.07
0.25



0.23
0.10
0.05
0.17
0.14
0.00
O.OG
0.07
0.06


0.06
Aiiiuonia-N
aig/1


20.0
17.8
17.9
17.5
18.3

13.4

15.0

17.6
17.0
17.2
16.2
16.1
15.6

13.8

13.6

17.6
17.6
16.6
15.8
15.8
17.2

14.2

17.6

20.0
18.6
19.4
19.0
18.0
14.4

12.8

14.2

18.6
19.0
14.6 '
14.8
15.5



17.8
15.6
15.0
13.4
15.5



18.4
18.4
16.8
15.6
17.3
13.8
11. Q
14.2
1ft. 0
16.2
14.8
14.7
NO, ft NO,(N)
Zmg/l 3


12.0
11.0
8.2
9.6
10.2

17.6

12.0

6.8
4.4
4.8
4.8
8.4
5.6

8.0

8.0

4.0
4.0
3.2
3.2
5.1
0.8

1.6

1.2

0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.0
2.8

4.4

1.6

0.8
0.4
1.2
1.6
1.8



1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.4



1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.2
Residual
Chlorine
mg/1
1.3
0.33
0.43
0.59



0.66
0.16

0.23


0.50
0.43


0.33



0.20

0.50
0.20
0.23


0.28

0.16

0.26


0.66
0.16


0.31

0.23

0.66


0.43
0.53


0.46
0.89
0.46

1.0
0.40


0.69
0.82
0.13

0.63
0.23


0.45








-------
                                       Table 3  (Continued)
                                       CRAB SAMPLING DATA
                                                   19
Station Description Soiiiplimp
Date & Time
Station 02GO
(Continued)










Station 0250
Effluent prior to
chlorination





















































4/6 1700
1600
2000
2400
0400
Daily Avcj.
4/7 0800
1200
1COO
2000
2400
0400
Daily Avg.
3/29 2025
2300
0150
0525
Daily Avg.
3/30 1200
1600
1940
2245
0145
0535
Daily Avg.
3/31 0800
1200
1600
1945
2245
0145
0510
Daily Avg.
4/1 0800
1200
1600
1935
2250
0150
0505
Daily Avg.
4/2 0800
1200
1600
1925
2240
0135
0501
Daily Avg.
4/3 1930
2235
0135
0500
Daily Avg.
4/4 1930
2230
0130
0450
Dally Avg.
4/5 0800
1200
1600
Daily Avg.
4/6 1?00
Daily Avg.
4/7 0(100
1?00
1600
Daily Avg.
Temp.
"C
22.2
20.2
17.3
16.9
16.1
18.5
18.8
22.8
20.4
17.9
16.8
16.4
18.9
14.5
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.1
16.6
15.1
15.0
16.0
15.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
15.8
15.5
15.0
15.0
14.5
15.0
15.3
15.8
16.0
19.9
16.0
15.0
15.0
13.0
15.8
15.5


15.0
15.0
15.0
15 0
15.1
16.0
16.0
15.0
14.0
15.3
17.0
15.0
15.0
13.0
15.0
16.7
21.3
20.1
19.4
22.2

18.8
22.8
20.4
20.7
Un-ioni/crl
pll Aiitiioiiia-N
riin/1
7.3
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.3
7.2-7.3
7.4
7.3
6.5
7.1
7.3
7.3
6.5-7.4
7.4
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.4-7.9
7.3
7.2
8.0
7.9
8.2
8.2
7.2-8.2
7.4
7.2
7.3
7.8
8.0
7.4
7.4
7.2-8.0
7.0
7.4
6.9
7.7
7.4
7.5
8.1
6.9-8.1
7.0


7.1
7.1 
7.4
7.2
7.0-7.4
7.5
8.1
7.8
7.4
7.4-8.1
8.5
7.9
7.7
7.6
7.6-8.5
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1-7.1
7.3

7.4
7.3
6.5
6.5-7.4
0.11
0.12
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.12
0.12
0.02
0.07
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.13
0.32
0.34
0.32
0.28
0.09
0.07
0.49
0.40
0.77
0.66
0.41
0.11
0.06
0.09
0.32
0.46
0.11
0.11
0.18
0.05
0.12
0.06
0.31
0.14
0.16
0.50
0.19
0.05


0.08
0.06
0.12

0.08
0.20
0.68
0.29
0.10
0.32
2.1
0.47
0.27
0.17
0.75
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.00
0.14

0.11
0.1?
0.02
0.08
Aninoniir"
nirj/1
11.6
15.2
18.4
15.6
14.2
15.0
13.2
12.2
15.6
17.6
15.4
13.8
14.6
19.4
20.0
17.4
16.6
18.4
13.4
16.8
18.6
17.6
17.8
16.0
16.7
15.6
14.2
15.8
19.2
17.4
16.0
15.6
16.3
18.2
16.0
17.4
21.4
21.2
18.4
17.2
18.5
17.2
16.0
16.4
22.2
19.0
17.6
17.6
18.0
21.2
19.0
17.2
16.2
18.4
22.8
22.0
20.0
18.8
20.9
16.8
15.6
18.0
16.8
15.0

12.4
12.?
16.6
13.7
Kcsiiluiil
NO, fi NO, (II) Chlorine
*mg/l J ni
-------
20
     NEIC also conducted bioassay studies to determine compliance with
NPDES toxicity limitations.  These will be covered later in this report
under "Biological Investigation."


Sampling Locations

     Influent samples were collected hourly with automatic samplers from
the two interceptors entering the WPCP [Figure 2 and Table 2].   The
first is the Reno-Sparks Interceptor (Station 0230) which receives flow
from the Reno, the North Reno and the Sparks Interceptors.  The second
is the Truckee Meadows Interceptor (Station 0240).  With the existing
plant configuration it was impossible to collect a representative sample
from the interceptors after they combine in the WPCP headworks  since
waste-activated sludge also enters there.

     Initially, effluent composite samples were also collected  hourly
with an automatic sampler at location 0260A [Figure 4].  When TSS data
for March 29, 30 and 31 indicated inordinately high TSS values  [Table 2],
analytical techniques were checked and verified to be acceptable.  The
sampling point was assumed to be in an eddy, thereby unrepresentative,
and moved on April 1, 1977 to location 0260B.  In addition, sampling
Station 0265 was established at the siphon adjacent to the effluent weir
where the WPCP personnel collect their NPDES samples.  Flow-proportional
composite samples of Station 0265 were manually collected at three-hour
intervals, commencing Thursday, March 31.  TSS data collected at Station
0260B approximately 0.6 m (2 ft) below the surface continued to appear
unrepresentative when compared to Station 0265 results.  A visual compari-
son between samples from 0260 (A and B) and 0265 revealed numerous tiny
grease balls in the former samples.

     On April 2, 1977, the sampling station was again relocated to 0260C
at the turbulent downstream end of the post-aeration basin.  TSS data

-------
                          CHLORINE  CONTACT
                               CHAMBER
                  0265
EFFLUENT
                  X

                O26OA~

                                                   POST AERATION BASIN

                                          0260C
                Figure 4. NEIC Sampling  Locations - Reno/Sparks Joint WPCP Study
                                     /March 28 - April 8,  1977
                                                                                                        ro

-------
 22
 collected at Station 0260C were comparable to 0265 for April  4.   Appar-
 ently the combination of the turbulent post-aeration  basin and  the
 quiescent chlorine contact chamber act like a dissolved air flotation
 unit, floating tiny grease balls to the upper layers  of the chamber
 where the automatic sampler probe was  located,  thereby yielding  erro-
 neous TSS results.   Wastewater  going over  the effluent weir,  on  the
 other hand,  is representative of the entire contents  of the chamber, not
 just  the  upper portion.

      On April  4,  1977, manual sampling  of Station 0265  was  replaced by
 hourly sampling with an automatic  sampler.   Data from Station 0265 were
 used  for  NPDES compliance determinations.   Data collected at Station
 0260  for  parameters other than TSS  showed no  appreciable difference from
 Station 0265.
Flow Monitoring

     Influent flow monitoring devices on the Reno-Sparks Interceptor
include individual metering at remote locations on each of the three
interceptors which comprise it.  Both the Reno STP and North Reno in-
terceptors include Parshall flumes and bubbler gages from which flow
measurements are telemetered to the WPCP, recorded and totaled.  The
Sparks Interceptor includes a Palmer Bowl us flume and bubbler gage from
which flow measurements are also telemetered to the WPCP, recorded and
totaled.  The second interceptor entering the WPCP, Truckee Meadows,
also has a Parshall flume and bubbler gauge from which flow measurements
are telemetered to the WPCP, recorded and totaled.

     The effluent flow monitoring device consists of a 26.3 ft broad-
crested weir at the downstream end of the chlorine contact chamber,  from
which head measurements are telemetered into the WPCP, converted to
flow, recorded and totaled.

-------
                                                                      23
     Flow monitoring accuracy checks are performed by both WPCP and
Honeywell Inc.  personnel.  Plant personnel  make manual head measure-
ments at the effluent weir every two weeks,  convert the measurements
to flow, and compare them to flow meter readings.  Honeywell personnel
check the entire influent and effluent sensing, telemetering and record-
ing system every three months.  If metering  problems are detected by
WPCP personnel, Honeywell is contacted for repair service.

     Prior to the startup of the NEIC study, the effluent weir instal-
lation was checked and found to be acceptable.   Flow measurement ac-
curacy was within +10% as ascertained by comparing manual measurements
to recorded values.  On March 28, 1977, at the request of MEIC, a Honey-
well employee checked the influent and effluent flow metering systems.
All telemetering and recording was found to  be accurate.  There were,
however, two potential problems.  The Truckee Meadows flume is periodi-
cally innundated by backwater from the WPCP  and then gives erroneously
high readings.  This results from defective  flow pacing controls at the
headworks.  At the time of the NEIC study, one variable-speed and one
constant-speed pump were being used to deliver flow from the wet well to
the treatment units.  These pumps were incapable of evenly pacing the
flow into the plant, often resulting in backwater.  A second variable-
speed pump was on site but inoperable.  However, new controls were on
order to enable use of the second variable-speed pump.  This will re-
portedly eliminate the backwater and enhance the treatment process
through even distribution of the flow to the treatment units.

     A second flow monitoring problem existed at the site of the Reno
STP Interceptor Parshall flume.  According to plant officials, high
summer flows cause choppy approach conditions in the converging section
of the flume, resulting in erroneously high  readings.  In the past,
Honeywell Inc. was instructed to calibrate the flow meter and then
manually reduce the actual reading by 23% of the previous month's
*  Manufacturer of WPCP flow monitoring equipment.

-------
24
average flow.  An inspection of the site on March 28, 1977 revealed no
unusual approach conditions.  On March 29, 1977 the Honeywell employee
was instructed by the WPCP superintendent to readjust the metering to
give actual readings.  If summer flow conditions do indeed cause un-
acceptable approach conditions, it is doubtful whether any one adjust-
ment would compensate for them.  Accurate results would only be assured
by eliminating any .unacceptable approach conditions.


NPDES Compliance

     Beginning approximately the morning of March 26 (Saturday), the
WPCP plant began to exhibit a noticeable increase in floe going over the
secondary clarifier weirs.  As noted in the WPCP monitoring reports for
March and a portion of April [Appendix D], this upset was accompanied by
a marked increase in effluent TSS concentrations.  Plant personnel tried
to correct this situation by both altering the amount of air in the
aeration basins and building new biomass.  Their efforts were unsuccess-
ful and the upset continued for the duration of the NEIC study.

     Effluent data collected during April 1-8, 1977 [Table 4] indicated
the plant was in violation of its NPDES 7-day concentration limits for
BOD (18 vs. 15 mg/1) and TSS (39 vs. 30 mg/1).  NPDES 7-day loading
limits for TSS were also violated (2,400 vs. 2,300 kg/day).  In addi-
tion, the plant failed to meet its >85% removal efficiency requirement
for TSS (76%).  The effluent was also found to be toxic to cutthroat
trout.  Fecal coliform bacteria limits for 7-day average were also
violated (3,900 vs.  400/100 ml).  The daily maximum fecal coliform
bacteria limit of 2,000/100 ml was exceeded in 9 of 14 samples collected
with densities ranging from 2,200 to 49,000/100 ml [Table 5].
Self-Monitoring by Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP vs.  NEIC Results

     Composite and grab samples collected by NEIC were compared to those

-------
                                                                                                                           25
Dissolved
  0
-------
26
                                 Table  5
                       FECAL  COLIFORM  (MPN^/WO ML)
                  RENO-SPARKS 1-/PCP AND TRUCKEE RIVER

                        March 28-April 4y  1977
Station 0200
Truckee River
Date Upstream of Time
North Truckee
Drain
3/28
3/29
3/29
3/30
3/30
3/31
3/31
4/1
4/1
4/2
4/2
4/3
4/3
4/4
Geometric
Mean
5
33
2
79
17
33
<2
23
8
79
<2
33
4
33

13/100 ml
1215
0305
1130
0315
1135
0335
1130
0305
1120
0305
1140
0300
1135
0305


Station 0260
Effluent
after
Chlorination
7,900
2,200
3,300
790
33,000
49,000
4,900
400
1,300
800
13,000
2,300
33,000
1,300

3,900/100 ml
Time
1445
0525
1400
0535
1400
0510
1405
0505
1415
0500
1410
0500
1420
0450


Station 0270
Truckee River
at USGS Vista
Gauge
11
no
no
220
130
4,900
11
170
20
80
20
170
23
490

90/1 00ml
Time
1535
0345
1230
0350
1240
0305
1155
0330
1250
0325
1250
0325
1350
0325


t  Most Probable Number.

-------
                                                                        27
collected by Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP personnel  [Table 6].   For the com-
posite days April 1-4, both WPCP and NEIC aliquot samples were collected
every 3 hours, 8 times per day.  From April  5-8, aliquots were collected
every hour.  The data indicate comparable TSS results.   NEIC's BOD
values were generally lower than WPCP results.  NEIC and WPCP fecal
coliform bacteria samples were collected at different times and with
varying chlorine residuals.  Although this could cause  some differences
in results, in no instance was the density determined by the WPCP as
great as some of the densities determined by NEIC.  A probable expla-
nation is the difference in analytical techniques used  by the WPCP and
NEIC.  The WPCP uses the membrane filter technique which, when used with
chlorinated wastewaters, yields variable recoveries and consistently
lower results than the most probable number (MPN) technique used by NEIC.
Analysis of Plant Performance^

     In the original permit [Appendix A], the plant was required to make
necessary plans to meet 30-day and 7-day limits for total phosphorus (as
POJ of 3.0 and 4.5 mg/1, respectively.  From May 1974 to February 1977,
experiments were conducted at the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP to determine
the most effective and economical means of meeting these limits.  It was
concluded that a PhoStrip system marketed by Union Carbide Company, em-
ploying the luxury uptake of phosphorus, would be used.  Experiments
with up to two-thirds of the plant flow were conducted until February
1977, when the State of Nevada ordered the project terminated.  It was
alleged that  the alteration of the activated sludge process to accommo-
date the PhoStrip experiments was causing NPDES BOD violations.  Results
of the PhoStrip experiments indicated the proposed phosphorus  (PO^)
limits of 3.0 and 4.5 mg/1 could be achieved.

     The cause of the continuing BOD increases in the effluent since the
spring of 1976 [Figure  3] is apparently not a function of increased flow
in the range  of approximately 16 to 20 mgd, as discussed previously,

-------
28
                               Table 6
              COMPARISON BETWEEN RENO-SPARKS JOINT l/PCP
          EFFLUENT SELF-MONITORING DATA AND NEIC STUDY DATA
                           March 29> 1977
Date1"


3/29
3/30
3/31
4/1
4/2
4/3
4/4
4/5
4/6
4/7
4/8
TSS
WPCP
mg/1



42
24
30
49
37
30
33
37
NEIC




38
40
24
48
41
44
33
42
BOD
WPCP
mg/1



22
28
26
16
33
30
30
27
NEIC




10
16
17
17
17
16
27
22
WPCP
MF
130
610
860
750
180
290
210




FC+t

NEICtft
MPN
7,900 2
3,300
33,000 49
4,900
1,300
13,000 2
33,000 1





,200
790
,000
400
800
,300
,300




        t  Dates refer to day compositing period ended.
       tt  Fecal Coliform - density/100 ml.
      ttt  Tuo grab samples collected per day.

-------
                                                                        29
with respect to the statistical regression analysis.  A more probable
cause is the alteration of the treatment process to accommodate the
experiments to develop a prototype phosphorus removal system to attain
the phosphorus effluent limitations discussed above.  These experiments
began in May 1974 and required the use of one primary.clarifier, one
aeration basin, and one final clarifier.  Beginning in early 1976, the
experiments were expanded to include nearly two-thirds of the plant
capacity.  It is a reasonably probable that alteration of this much
plant capacity for the phosphorus removal experimental testing would
cause diminished plant performance, decreased removal efficiencies, and
consequent increasing BOD effluent concentrations, particularly since
the plant had been previously performing near the limits of optimal
operation for the activated sludge process.

-------
                  IV.  WATER QUALITY - TRUCKEE RIVER
      In conjunction with the WPCP evaluation, NEIC conducted studies on
the Truckee River to define the zone of mixing of WPCP discharges and
assess the effects of these discharges on the Truckee River.


EFFLUENT MIXING STUDY

     On March 24, 1977, a study was conducted to define the zone of
mixing of the WPCP effluent in the Truckee River.  A series of stakes
were set out at 150 m (500 ft) intervals on the Truckee River from
Steamboat Creek to the Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, 1,885 m (6,183
ft) downstream [Figure 5].  Beginning at 0930, fluorescent dye of known
concentration was injected into the WPCP effluent at a constant rate of
14.3 ml/min.  This rate was checked several times during the day and
ascertained to remain constant.

     A dye injection period of approximately 6 hours was allowed before
sampling to assure a steady state in the study area.  Surface samples
were then collected at each 20% increment of the stream width, beginning
at the Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge and moving upstream along the
aforementioned grid system toward Steamboat Creek.  All  samples were
returned to the WPCP where temperatures were recorded prior to injection
into a high-sensitivity f1uorometer for determination of dye concentra-
tions.  The fluorometer had previously been calibrated with dye stan-
dards to provide a direct readout of dye concentration.   Samples col-
lected on the Truckee River upstream of Steamboat Creek  indicated there
was no background fluorescence.

-------
    32
Radio Towffi.
  (KOH)I  ... !

  	LJ

                           X RENO/SPARKS  WPCP
looo      o      iooo
 E3ZEE;3 3	-^^--
      1           5
                                                    SCALE  124000
                                                          u          	^_	^.:


                                                  Moi~3y^---^.	WO FEET
                                                                                1 KILOMETRE
                                              CONTOUR  INTERVAL 20 FEET
                                         DOTTED LINES REPRESbN! lOr:>OT CONIOURS
                                                DATUM IS MFAN SEA LEVEL
             Figure 5,  Effluent Mixing  in the Truclcec  River,  Reno/Sparks Study

                                             March  24,  1977

-------
                                                                       33
     The dye concentration data indicated the effluent was completely
mixed at approximately 1,200 m (3,800 ft) downstream from Steamboat
Creek  [Table 7], which corresponds to just downstream from the third
major bend in the stream.  The effluent undergoes substantial  mixing as
it passes the second bend, as evidenced by the difference in concen-
tration uniformity between the 550 m (1,800 ft) station and the 700 m
(2,300 ft) station.

     Using the average dye concentration found at the Southern Pacific
Railroad Bridge, the flow in the Truckee River was calculated using the
following equation:
     K is a constant dependent on the concentration and specific
       gravity of the injected dye.
     q is the dye injection rate in ml/min.
     CQ is the adjusted dye concentration (mg/1) at the sample point.
     Q = 86,64  (14.3)   = 282 MGD
          4'4            = 436 cfs
     This value is considered accurate within +_ 3%.

     Relating the zone of mixing defined above to other flow conditions,
the critical factor is most likely the geography of the stream rather
than the flow.  The three sharp bends in the stream [Figure 5] prior to
the 1,200 m  (3,800 ft) mark will afford mixing by this point for most
flows.  To be conservative, a sampling point at the USGS Vista Gage at
approximately 2,100 m (6,900 ft) downstream from Steamboat Creek would
probably assure complete mixing.
WATER  QUALITY  STUDY

     During March  28  to April  4,  1977, water quality  sampling was con-
ducted at  five locations  on  the Truckee  River  from approximately 2.9  km

-------
34
                                Table ?

                   EFFLUENT MIXING IN TRUCKEE RIVER
                        PENO-SPARKS JOINT WPCP
                            March 24, 1977
        Sampling  Point1"1''
(All  Dye Concentrations  in ppb)
     1234   Avg
Station^
                                                    Ratio of Value
                                                    Farthest from
                                                  Average to Average
6183-ttf
5800
5300
4800
4300
3800
3300
2800
2300
1800
1300
800
200
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.4
4.3
4.2
5.0
4.6
4.8
5.4
6.9
13.9
9.4
4.5
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.4
4.3
5^.3
4.9
4.8
3.4
5.1
12.3
2.6
4.4
4.2
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.1
5.2
4.4
4.3
1.2
1.6
7.7
0.04
4.1
3.9
3.8
3.9
4.2
4.0
4.4
3.6
3.9
1.1
0.9
2.6
0.04
4.4
4.3
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.2
5.0
4.4
4.5
2.8
3.6
9.1
3,0
0.93
.91
.93
.93
.98
.95
.88
.82
.87
1.93
1.92
.29
3.13
     t  Station locations are numbers of feet downstream on Truckee
        River from confluence with Steamboat Creek.
    tt  Sampling points are at 20% increments moving from left to
        right while facing upstream.
   ttt  6183 = Southern foci fie Railroad Bridge.

-------
 (1.8 mi) upstream of the Reno-Sparks WPCP discharge to 16.6 km (10.3 mi)
downstream [Figure 6 and Table 8].  In addition, the two tributaries in
this stretch, North Truckee Drain and Steamboat Creek, were sampled.
The sampling schedule included:
     TDS - 1 per 24-hr period at selected locations
     Chloride - 1 per 24-hr at selected locations
     BOD - 2 per 24-hr at all stations
     Nutrient (N & P) - 4 per 24-hr at all stations
     DO - 7 per 24-hr at all stations
     Fecal coliform bacteria - 2 per 24-hr at selected locations
     Salmonella - Selected locations

     Flows in the Truckee River, North Truckee Drain, and Steamboat
Creek were determined each time a sample was collected.  Flow was
measured on the Truckee River using the existing USGS gaging station
at Vista, Nevada (NEIC Station 0270).  At North Truckee Drain and Steam-
boat Creek, stage-height gages were established then stage-flow re-
lationships were developed by measuring flows with a magnetic flow meter
at varying stage heights.  During the study, flows in North Truckee
Drain, Steamboat Creek and the Truckee River downstream from the WPCP
averaged 60,000 m3/day (24 cfs), 49,000 m3/day (20 cfs) and 808,000
 3                                                           ?
m /day (330 cfs), respectively.  WPCP flows averaged 61,000 m /day (16.1
mgd or 25 cfs).

     An interpretation of the study results follows.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand

     Upstream of WPCP discharge and the two tributaries, BOD averaged
0.6 mg/1 [Table 9 and Figure 7].  The BOD load in the Truckee River
immediately downstream from the WPCP averaged 2,200 kg (4,900 lb)/day
[Table 10], of which 69% was contributed by the WPCP, 4.5% by North
Truckee Drain and 6.9% by Steamboat Creek.   The remaining 19% was
already borne by the Truckee River upstream.  These added loads,

-------
                                                                                                                               co
                                                                                                                               cr>
NOTE: River Mile  O.O Is  confluenco  of

Truckeo River and Steamboat Creek
                                                                 -N-
North Truckee Oral
                                                                                            STATION 0300
                                                                                                RM  10.3
                                            STATION 0270
                                               RM 1 .3
                                                           STATION  0280
                                                              RM
                                -RENO/SPARKS
                                     WPCP
STATION 0290
   RM 4.8
                              STATION 0220
  STATION 0200

      RM 1.8
                                   2
                                   f
3
i
                                                                                                       SCALE IN MILES
                    Figure o. Wafer Quality  Sampling Stations, Reno/Sparks Study, March  28 - April  4,  1977

-------
                                                                     37
                        Table  8

                   SAMPLING LOCATIONS
                 RENO-SPARKS JOINT  WPCP
                 March  28-April  4,  1977
Station No.                             Station Description


                  Truckee River off Kimlick Lane,  2.9 km (1.8 mi)
                  upstream of Steamboat Oeek and  Reno/Sparks
                  WPCP

  0210            North Truckee Drair. st Kleppe Lane,  0.3
                  (0.2 mi) upstream from confluence  with Truckee
                  River.  Confluence is 0.16 km (0.1  mi) upstream
                  of Steamboat Creek.

  0220            Steamboat Creek approximately 0.16 Km (0.1  mi)
                  upstream of confluence with Truckee River and
                  immediately upstream of Reno-Sparks WPCP discharge
                  to Steamboat Creek.

  0230            Reno-Sparks influent interceptor.

  0240            Truckee Meadows influent interceptor.

  0250            Reno-Sparks WPCP effluent prior to chlorination
                  at head end of post aeration basin.

  0260            Reno-Sparks WPCP effluent in chlorine contact
                  chamber.
                                    
  0265            Reno-Sparks effluent siphoned from site of
                  chlorine contact chamber weir.

  0270            Truckee River at USGS Gage Station, 2.1 km
                  (1.3 mi) downstream from Steamboat Creek.

  0280          '  Truckee River at Lockwood Bridge,  5.5 km (3.4 mi)
                  downstream from Steamboat Creek.

  0290            Truckee River at old Mustang Bridge,  7.7 km
                  (4.8 mi) downstream from Steamboat Creek.

  0300            Truckee River at Southern Pacific Railroad
                  Bridge near Patrick, 16.6 km (10.3 mi) downstream
                  from Steamboat Creek.

-------
           Table 9

VATEP QUALITy - TRUCKEE. RIVER
   March US-April 1, 197?
Date
Station Description and.
Time1"
Station 0200
Truckee River
Upstream of
North Truckee
Drain


































3/28 0737
0940
1215
1508
1815
2105
Dally Avg.
3/29 0005
0305
0908
1130
1500
1805
2100
Daily Avg.
3/30 0000
0315
0845
1135
1455
1815
2105
Daily Avg.
3/31 0005
0305
0835
1130
1430
1800
2110
Daily Avg.
4/1 0001
0305
0845
1120
1440
1800
2105
Dally Avg.
Flow1"1" Temp.
mVday CFS .
x 103 c
4.0
5.5
8.0
9.0
7.5
6.0
582 238 6.7
5.0
3.0
4.5
7.0
8.5
7.0
5.0
619 253 5.7
5.0
3.0
3.5
5.5
6.0
6.0
5.0
646 264 4.9
5.0
4.0
3.5
6.5
8.5
8.0
6.0
639 261 5.9
5.0
6.0
5.5
8.5
9.0
9.0
7.0
670 274 7.1
 Un-iom'zed
pH Amnonia
-N
Ammonia
-N
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)
N02 & Total
N03 Phosphorus
(N) (P)
DO
BOD TDS Chloride
(mg/1)
8.5
7.9
7.9
8.7
8.6
8.6
7.9-8.7
8.9
7.0
7.7
7.9
9.2
8.0
8.6
7.0-9.2
7.9
6.5
7.5
8.1
8.2
9.1
8.9
6.5-9.1
7.2
7.0
7.4
8.0
8.5
8.8
8.3
7.0-8.8
7.8
8.4
7.2
8.0
8.6
8.8
8.4
7.2-8.8

0.00

0.01

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.01

0.01
0.01

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.01
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.01

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.01

0.00
0.00

0.12

0.15

0.02
0.10

0.17
0.11

0.07

0.21
0.14

0.15
0.14

0.18

0.16
0.16

0.13
0.09

0.16

0.12
0.12

0.14
0.09

0.14

0.11
0.12

0.17

0.45

0.17
0.26

0.44
0.41

0.48

0.50
0.46

0.14
0.14

0.16

0.19
0.16

0.22
0.42

0.53

0.57
0.44

0.44
0.44

0.43

0.49
0.45

0.20

0.22

0.08
0.17

0.12
0.08

0.10

0.16
0.12

0.10
0.06

0.12

0.08
0.09

0.08
0.10

0.12

0.10
0.10

0.12
0.08

0.12

0.10
0.10

0.03

0.06

0.02
0.04

0.06
0.02

0.01

0.05
0.04

0.05
0.07

0.02

0.33
0.12

0.08
0.05

0.05

0.43
0.15

0.06
0.04

0.06

0.26
0.10
11.2
12.4
12.3
11.8
10.5
9.4
11.2
9.9
10.1
12.1
12.6
11.9
10.8
9.6
11.0
10.1
10.4
11.9
12.1
11.7
10.9
10.3
11.0
10.3
10.7
12.1
12.4
11.9
10.5
9.6
11.0
9.5
9.7
11.1
11.8
11.6
10.3
9.1
10.4

...
0.8TTt 27




4.4.4.
1 .2tT1-

0.5TTT 100



0.9

0.6ttt

0.5*" 78



0.6

0.1tTT

o.e"1 100



0.4

0.5tTt
+ + +
0.6tTT 84



0.6


4.3







3.9







4.1







4.3







4.3




                                                                                             co
                                                                                             00

-------
                                                            Table 9   (Continued)
                                                     WATER QUALITY DATA - T1WCKEE RIVER
Date
Station Description and.
Time*
Station 0200 4/2 0005
(Cont.) 0305
0850
1140
1440
1800
2105
Dally Avg.
4/3 0001
0300
0835
1135
1500
1800
2105
Daily Avg.
4/4 0001
0305
Daily Avg.
7-Day Avg.
3/28-4/4
Avg.
Fl ow Temp .
mVday CFS C
x 103
6.5
4.0
6.5
8.5
10.5
9.0
8.0
722 295 7.5
7.0
5.0
6.0
9.0
11.0
10.0
10.0
742 303 8.3
7.5
7.5
7.5

660 270
6.6
Un-ionized
pH Ammonia Ammonia
-N -N

8.9
8.4
7.5
8.1
8.7
8.4
8.3
7.5-8.9
7.8
8.2
7.2
8.3
8.0
9.2
8.7
7.2-9.2
8.1
7.2
7.2-8.1




0.00
0.00
0.02

0.00
0.01

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.01
0.00

0.00


0.00


0.13
0.06
0.19

0.16
0.14

0.22
0.11

0.07

0.16
0.14

0.15


0.13
Organic
Nitrogen
(M)


0.45
0.45
0.39

0.59
0.47

0.50
0.38

0.43

0.61
0.48

0.52


0.39
N02 &
NO 3
(N3)
Total
Phosphorus DO BOD TDS Chloride
(P)
(mg/1)

0.10
0.08
0.12

0.10
0.10

0.10
0.08

0.08

0.12
0.10

0.08


0.11

0.06
0.07
0.28

0.05
0.12

0.11
0.07

0.04

0.05
0.07

0.07


0.09
!'S n ,ttt
9.8 0.4
11.8 ...
12.0 0.8TtT 120
11.3
10.7
9.3
10.6 0.6
9-6  ttt
9.9 0.9TTT
11.4
10.8 0.5 48
11.5
10.3
8.9
10.3 0.7
9.1
9.2 0.5


10.8 0.6 80

3.8







3.9








4.1
  t  Times are based on a calendar day
 tt  Flows at Station 0200 were calculated as follows:
       Flowgyga = Plow at Vieta Cagen2~0 - (Flow Steamboat  Creek0220 f r"" ""  irvaivim i/i-uwg^g
ttt  Because of the low BODs experienced, DO depletions were less than the reconmended 2.0 mg/l.
Flow Ho. Truckee Drain-..,. + Reno-Sparks  ^^Q^G^
                                                                                                                                               CJ
                                                                                                                                               VO

-------
       Table  9  (Continued)
WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Date
Station Description and.
Time1"
Station 0210
North Truckee
Drain at Kleppe
Lane


















'





Station 0210
North Truckee
Drain at Kleppe
Lane




3/28 0745
1010
1300
1525
- 1825
2115
Daily Avg.
3/29 0015
0325
0935
1215
1315
1815
2110
Daily Avg.
3/30 0010
0330
0930
1230
1505
1825
2115
Daily Avg.
3/31 0015
0315
0920
1140
1500
1810
2120
Daily Avg.
4/1 0020
0315
0920
1235
1510
1810
2120
Daily Avg.
Flow"
mj/day
x 103
76
73
71
39
88
71
71
73
81
81
71
73
54
71
71
71
66
61
73
61
73
64
66
73
73
71
54
51
34
34
36
34
34
29
42
34
51
29
37
CFS
31
30
29
16
36
29
29
30
33
33
29
30
22
29
29
29
27
25
30
25
30
26
27
30
30
29
22
21
14
14
23
14
14
12
17
14
21
12
15
Temp.
C
3.5
7.0
10.5
11.5
8.0
7.0
7.9
6.0
3.0
6.5
9.0
11.0
9.5
7.0
7.4
8.0
5.0
5.5
7.0
7.0
7.0
6.0
6.5
5.0
5.0
6.5
9.0
12.0
11.0
9.5
8.3
8.0
8.0
8.5
12.0
11.0
9.0
8.0
9.2
PH
8.2
8.4
7.8
7.8
7.8
8.5
7.8-8.5
7.1
7.6
7.8
8.0
8.3
8.0
8.3
7.1-8.3
7.6
7.5
7.7
7.7
8.0
7.4
8.8
7.4-8.8
7.6
7.6
7.7
7.7
7.9
7.4
8.2
7.4-8.2
8.5
7.7
7.6
8.0
7.5
7.8
7.6
7.5-8.5
Un-iom'zed
Ammonia Ammonia

0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.02
0.01

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.04
0.01

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.03
0.01

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.01
0.00

0.04
0.04
0.24
0.11

0.03
0.04

0.06

0.05
0.4

0.08
0.05

0.08

0.04
0.06

0.04
0.04

0.06

0.06
0.05

0.06
0.04

0.05

0.04
0.05
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)

0.40
0.40
1.17
0.66

0.52
0.28

0.48

0.57
0.46

0.65
0.46

0.44

0.51
0.52

0.41
0.53

0.54

0.85
0.58

0.86
0.72

0.97

1.69
1.06
N02 &
NO,
(N?
(mg
0.50
0.60
0.72
0.61

0.60
0.56

0.54

0.50
0.55

0.44
0.48

0.46

0.52
0.48

0.52
0.60

0.66

0.74
0.63

0.64
0.72

0.70

0.68
0.68
Total
Phosphorus DO
(P)
i/l)
 0.14
0.11
0.09
0.11

0.05
0.13

0.15

0.06
0.10

0.09
0.11

0.12

0.11
0.11

0.10
0.08

0.11

0.17
0.12

0.13
0.15

0.17

0.18
0.16

9.4
10.0
10.0
10.0
8.8
8.5
9.4
8.9
8.8
9.8
10.4
10.2
9.0
8.3
9.3
8.2
8.5
10.0
10.1
10.3
9.7
9.1
9.4
9.4
9.0
10.0
10.4
10.4
8.9
7.9
9.4
7.7
5.9
9.2
10.3
10.3
9.3
8.5
8.7
BOD TDS

1.8 250

1.7tn

1.5tft 210



1.6

2.7

1 .6tn 230



2.2

0.8m

1.3m 250



1.0

2.3ftt

1.5+tt 350




Chloride

19



8.3







8.8







8.6







12





-------
                                                           Table  9  (Continued)

                                                    HATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE PIVEP
Date
Station Description and.
Time i
Station 0210 4/2 0010
(Cont.) 0315
0920
1230
1455
1805
2115
Dally Avg.
4/3 0010
0315
0925
1237
1515
1815
2115
Daily Avg.
4/4 0010
0315
Daily Avg.
3/28-4/4 Avg.
Flow"
m3/day
x 103
47
37
61
66
71
51
56
56
44
61
64
71
56
71
66
62
71
81
76
60
CFS
19
15
25
27
29
21
23
23
18
25
26
29
23
29
27
25
29
33
31
24
Temp.
C
8.0
7.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
10.0
9.0
9.1
8.0
6.5
6.0
12.0
14.0
12.0
12.0
10.1
9.0
7.0
8.0
8.4
Un-ionized
pH Ammon i a
-N

8.5
7.6
7.6
7.5
8.0
7.8
8.0
7.5-8.5
7.8
7.2
7.6
8.0
7.9
8.1
6.9
6.9-8.1
8.2
7.4
7.4-8.2


0.00
0.00

0.00

0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
Ammonia
-N

0.08
0.04

0.04

0.05
0.05
0.06
0.05
0.07

0.09
0.07
0.05

0.11
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)

0.78
0.85

0.82

0.77
0.80
0.91
0.97
0.87

1.11
0.97
1.09

0.72
(NO 3 & Total
NOj Phosphorus
N^ (10
(mg/
0.72
0.66

0.68

0.74
0.70
0.46
0.68
0.72

1.00
0.72
0.92

0.62
1)
0.17
0.13

0.12

0.11
0.13
0.11
0.12
0.11

0.14
0.12
C.10

0.12
DO

8.3
6.3
9.5
10.6
10.2
9.1
8.0
8.8
8.1
8.5
10.3
10.5
10.5
8.3
7.4
9.1
7.3
7.3
7.3
9.2
BOD IDS Chloride

1.6W
2.6 270



2.1
1.3+tt
1.4tft 280



1.4
2.0tn

1.8 260


8.8





13






11
  t  Times are based on a calendar day
t+t  Because of the loa BODs experienced, DO depletions were less than the recommended 2.0 mg/l.

-------
       Table  g (Continued)
WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Date
Station Description and.
T1meT
Station 0220
Steamboat Creek
Upstream of
WPCP Effluent




















"













3/28 0915
1135
1435
1650
2010
2250
Daily Avg.
3/29 0140
0510
1100
1355
1655
1930
2235
Daily Avg.
3/30 0130
0520
1100
1350
1630
1940
2235
Daily Avg.
3/31 0140
0455
1045
1350
1630
1925
2240
Daily Avg.
4/1 0140
0505
1040
1400
1640
1920
2230
Daily Avg.
Flow
x 103
44
32
34
32
49
49'
40
47
47
69
61
56
59
59
57
49
44
66
59
54
47
51
53
47
49
61
56
29
34
34
44
34
42
64
59
46
54
46
49
tt
CHS
18
13
14
13
20
20
16
19
19
28
25
23
24
24
23
20
18
27
24
22
19
21
22
19
20
25
23
12
14
14
18
14
17
26
24
19
22
19
20
Temp.
C
2.5
7.0
10.0
10.5
9.5
6.0
7.6
4.0
1.0
5.0
9.0
9.5
8.0
8.0
6.4
6.0
3.0
5.0
7.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
6.0
5.0
3.0
5.5
10.5
11.5
11.0
9.5
8.0
8.0
5.0
7.5
9.0
10.0
8.0
7.0
7.8
pH
7.9
7.4
7.7
7.7
8.2
8.1
7.4-8.2
8.1
8.2
7.2
8.1
8.0
8.4
8.7
7.2-8.7
8.5
8.2
'8.0
8.2
8.5
8.2
9.1
8.0-9.1
7.9
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.5
8.6
7.9-8.6
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.1
8.2
8.1
8.4
8.1-8.4
Un-j'nnized
Ammonia Ammonia
-N -N

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.01
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.01

0.04
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.00

0.01
0.01

0.00
0.01

0.00

0.00
0.00

0.26
0.22

0.16
0.21

0.14
0.25

0.23

0.20
0.21

0.12
0.23

0.23

0.32
0.22
0.17
0.27

0.12

0.10
0.16

0.10
0.26

0.14

0.10
0.15
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)

1.29
1.31

1.12
1.24

0.80
1.04

1.04

1.03
0.98

0.56
1.20

0.74

1.47
0.99
0.82
1.04

1.23

0.96
1.01

1.23
1.41

1.08

1.02
1.18
N03 & Total
NO 3 Phosphorus
(N3) (P)
DO
BOD TDS Chloride
(mg/1 )
0.62
0.56

0.46
0.55

0.48
0.48

0.52

0.52
0.50

0.44
0.52

0.44

0.50
0.48
0.44
0.58

0.62

0.56
0.55

0.64
0.82

0.70

0.56
0.68
0.29
0.33

0.31
0.31

0.22
0.28

0.37

0.38
0.31

0.25
0.34

0.33

0.50
0.36
0.21
0.31

0.31

0.83
0.42

0.40
0.48

0.33

0.51
0.43
10.2
11.1
11.3
10.6
9.0
9.0
10.2
9.4
9.8
11.0
11.0
10.9
9.5
8.8
10.0
8.4
9.1
10.7
12.0
8.9
10.6
9.5
9.9
9.7
9.7
11.0
12.9
12.0
10.3
9.0
10.6
8.6
8.2
10.5
11.3
11.1
9.7
9.4
9.8
5.4 450



...
1.9TTT

3.7 500




* ,ttt
1.7

3.2 410



2.5
1 .8tft

2.7 490



2.3

4.0

3.9 440



4.0.
88






75







79






91







84





-------
                                                            Table 9   (Continued)

                                                     WATER QUALITY DATA  -  TRUCKEE RIVER
Date
Station Description and
Time1"
Station 0220 4/2 0125
(Cont.) 0445
1045
1405
1637
1920
2230
Dally Avg.
4/3 0125
0455
1050
1412
1640
1925
2225
Daily Avg.
4/4 0120
0445
Daily Avg.
3/28-4/4
Avg.
Flowtt
mVday CFS
x 103
51
49
64
68
dl
42
51
56
44
42
46
56
44
51
51
49
44
39
42

49
21
20
26
28
25
17
21
23
18
17
19
23
18
21
21
20
18
16
17

20
Temp.
C
6.0
5.0
6.0
9.5
11.0
10.0
9.0
8.1
8.5
5.0
8.5
12.5
12.5
13.0
11.0
10.1
10.0
8.0
9.0

7.7
PH
8.2
8.0
7.8
8.2
8.5
8.6
8.5
7.8-8.6
8.1
8.4
7.8
7.9
8.2
8.5
8.3
7.8-8.5
8.2
7.8
7.8-8.2


Un- ionized
Ammonia Ammonia
-fi -N


0.00
0.00

0.01

0.01
0.01

0.01
0.00

0.01

0.01
0.01

0.00


0.01


0.12
0.19

0.13

0.16
0.15

0.27
0.22

0.26

0.27
0.26

0.32


0.19
Organic
Ni trogen
(N)


1.13
1.19

0.76

1.35
1.11

1.21
0.99

1.04

1.69
1.23

2.00


1.10
N03 & Total
NO 3 Phosphorus DO
(N ) (P)
BOD TDS Chloride
(mg/1)

0.60
0.72

0.60

0.60
0.63

1.00
0.56

0.56

1.08
0.80

0.74


0.60

0.35
0.33

0.28

0.34
0.32

0.40
0.30

0.35

0.57
0.40

0.63


0.36
9.6
9.4
10.9
11.6
11.6
10.6
10.0
10.5
8.8
8.7
9.8
10.8
10.9
9.6
7.9
9.5
7.4
6.7
7.0

10.1

2.6

2.6 440



2.6

2.0

3.4 390



2.7

4.8


3.9 450



67







68








79
  t  Times are based on a calendar day
ttt  Because of the low BODs experienced,  DO depletions were less than the recommended 2.0 mg/1.
                                                                                                                                                CJ

-------
                   Table  9  (Continued)
            WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Date
Station Description and.
Time
Station 0270
Truckee River
at USGS
Vista Gage



































3/28 0800
1025
1315
1535
1645
2135
Daily Avg.

3/29 0030
0345
0950
1230
1525
1825
2125
Daily Avg.

3/30 0030
0350
0945
1240
1520
1830
2130
Dally Avg.
3/31 0030
0335
0920
11E5
1320
1820
2135
Daily Avg.
4/1 0030
0330
0935
1250
1525
1820
2125
Daily Avg.
Flow"
mVday CFS
x 103
707
734
769
759
752
769
749

700
707
786
845
854
810
845
793

803
776
786
889
862
786
793
813
737
717
776
845
810
734
717
762
759
717
803
879
815
793
827
798
289
300
314
310
307
314
306
(315;
286
289
321
345
349
331
345
M * *t
(335 r
328
317
321
363
352
321
324

301
293
317
345
331
300
293
311
(Sfo
293
328
359
333
324
338

Temp.
C
5.0
6.0
8.5
10.0
9.0
7.5
ttt?-7

7.0
3.0
5.0
7.5
9.5
7.0
5.0
TTT

6.5
3.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
6.0
6.0

4.0
2.0
5.0
6.5
9.0
9.0
8.0
6.2
^6.0
7!o
7.0
9.0
9.5
8.0
8.0
. . . / . O
Un-ionized
pH Ammonia
-N

7.9
7.7
8.1
7.8
7.4
8.4
7.4-8.4

7.9
7.5
7.8
7.9
8.6
8.8
8.7
7.5-8.8

8.4
7.8
7.6
7.8
8.4
8.4
8.8
7.6-8.8
7.6
7.6
7.5
7.6
8.0
8.1
8.3
7.5-8.3
7.9
8.6
7.3
7.7
8.1
8.2
8.5
7.3-8.6

0.00
0.02

0.05
0.02


0.00
0.00

0.07

0.06
0.03

0.01
0.00

0.04

0.09
0.04
0.01
0.00

0.02

0.03
0.02

0.06
0.00

0.03

0.09
0.05
Ammonia

0.65
1.53

1.38
1.19


1.19
0.49

1.12

1.07
0.97

1.18
0.60

1.24

1.13
1.04
1.26
0.58

1.05

0.95
0.96

1.13
0.60

1.23

1.85
1.20
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)

0.50
1.23

1.16
0.96


2.69
0.50

0.75

0.75
1.17

0.49
0.45

0.34

0.46
0.44
0.47
1.01

1.20

1.73
1.10

1.29
1.16

1.10

1.56
1.28
N0a &
NO 3
(N3)
Total
Phosphorus
(P)
DO
BOD
(mg/1)
0.8'j
2.63

1.20
1.58


1.00
0.62

2.00

0.82
1.11

0.54
0.42

1.08

0.58
0.66
0.48
0.20

0.50

0.34
0.38

0.30
0.26

0.52

0.34
0.36
0.16
0.69

0.54
0.46


0.59
0.25

0.63

0.54
0.50

0.57
0.32

0.48

0.86
0.56
0.61
0.39

0.62

0.92
0.64

0.71
0.40

0.63

1.02
0.69
9.8
10.6
11 .4
11.3
1 A O
10.8
9.7
10.6

9.1
9.4
10.5
11.2
11.5
11.2
10.0
10.4

9.0
9.3
10.5
11.2
10.9
11 .2
10.4
10.3
9.5
9.7
11.2
11.4
11.7
10.9
10.1
10.6
8.9
9.3
10.1
10.7
11.2
10.5
9. '3
10.0
Zd
.4





4.2

2.7



3.5

2.6

3.6



3.1
4.4

1.8



3.1

2.3

3.0



2.7
(341)

-------
                                                            Table 9  (Continued)

                                                     WATER QUtLITy DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Station Description
Station 0270 4/2
(Continued)




Daily

4/3






Daily

4/4

Daily
Date
and
Time*
0020
0325
0935
1250
1520
1815
212(1
Avg.

0020
0325
0940
1350
1525
1820
2120
Avg.

0020
0325
Avg.
Flow* Te_mp.
m^/dd'
x 103'
820
854
862
901
940
879
862
874

999
810
793
854
896
862
862
867

845
845
845
3/28-4/4
Avg.

808
y CFS l-
335 7.0
349 7.0
352 7.5
368 9.0
384 10.5
359 10.0
352 9.0
,3" ttt?-5
(371)TTtT
408 8.0
331 5.0
324 7.0
349 11.0
366 12.5
352 12.0
352 10.0
354 9.4
f365)ttft
345 8.5
345 7.0
(36364)5^7'8
\ * w /
330tm7.4
Un-ionized
pH Ammonia Ammonia

8.0
8.2
7.3
7.2
8.2
8.5
8.5
7.2-8.5

8.0
8.5
7.0
7.5
7.5
8.2
8.5
7.0-8.5

7.9
7.6
7.6-7.9




0.02
0.00

0.03

0.04
0.02


0.04
0.00

0.01

0.06
0.03


0.01


0.03


0.93
0.57

1.04

0.81
'0.84


0.98
0.56

1.20

1.08
0.96


1.10


1.02
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)


0.51
1.04

1.53

1.73
1.20


1.79
0.93

1.08

0.36
1.04


0.40


1.03
NO 3
(N)
Total
Phosphorus DO
(P)
BOD
tmg/1)

0.22
0.18

0.38

0.22
0.25


0.20
0.18

0.36

0.28
0.26


0.24


0.66

0.64
0.46

0.55

0.51
0.54


0.60
0.39

0.65

0.61
0.56


0.72


0.56
8.9
9.2
9.9
11.2
11.3
10.9
9.1
10.1

8.9
9.0
10.0
11.4
11.0
10.2
9.3
9.9

8.3
8.4


10.3

2.4
ttt
1.5



2.0


3.7
, ..ttt
1.9



2.8


4.0


3.0
   t  Times are based on a calendar day
 ttt  Because of the low BODs experienced, DO depletions were less than the recommended 2.0 mg/l
tttt  Flows in parentheses are 24-hour integrated values recorded by USGS.
                                                                                                                                          en

-------
       Table  9 (Continued)
WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Station Description
Station 0280
Truckee River
at Lockwood
Bridge
































3/28


Dally
3/29






Daily
3/30






Dally
3/31






Daily
 4/1






Daily
Date
and
TimeT
0815
1025
1330
1550
1900
2145
Avg.
0045
0400
1000
1300
1540
1835
2140
Avg.
0040
0400
0955
1250
1530
1840
2140
Avg.
0040
0345
0945
1215
1530
1825
2145
Avg.
0045
0345
0945
1305
1535
1825
2135
Avg.
Flow Temp.
m3/day CFS c
x 103
5.0
6.0
8.0
9 0
(Daily average 8'0
flows would be 8'0
approximately ,',
the same as
those for 7.0
station 0270 4.0
at Vista Gage) 5.5
7.0
8.5
7.0
8.0
6.7
7.0
4.0
5.5
6.0
7.0
7.0
6.0
6.1
5.5
5.0
5.0
6.5
8.5
7.5
8.0
6.6
8.0
7.5
7.5
8.5
8.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
Un-iomzed
pH Ammonia Ammonia
Organic N03 &
Nitrogen NO,
(N) (N)
Total
Phosphorus DO
(P)
BOD
lmg/1)
7.7
8.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
8.4
7.5-8.5
8.5
7.2
7.8
7.2
8.1
8.2
8.5
7.2-8.5
8.3
7.6
7.8
7.7
8.7
7.9
8.9
7.6-8.9
7.8
7.7
7.8
7.7
7.7
9.0
8.3
7.7-9.0
8.5
7.7
7.5
7.4
7.6
7.8
8.4
7.4-8.5

0.03

0.01
0.07
0.04

0.00
0.01

0.02

0.05
0.02

0.01
0.01

0.08

0.10
0.05

0.01
0.01

0.01

0.03
0.02

0.01
0.00

0.01

0.04
0.02

0.62

1.21
1.73
' 1.19

1.53
0.69
'
1.13

0.95
1.08

1.32
0.68

1.15

1.0
1.04

1.84
0.79

1.12

1.0
1.19

1.57
0.67

1.06

0.95
1.06

0.79

1.15
1.35
1.10

1.41
0.55

0.68

0.58
0.81

0.50
0.50

0.53

0.44
0.49

0.40
0.68

1.77

1.14
1.00

0.45
1.01

1.61

1.92
1.25

1.04

2.64
'2.00
1.89

1.74
0.84

2.26

1.38
1.56

1.00
0.58

1.04

0.86
0.87

0.84
0.24

0.50

0.50
0.52

0.52
0.32

0.56

0.56
0.49

0.37

0.8
0.74
0.64

0.52
0.32

0.63

0.34
0.45

0.59
0.35

0.60

0.55
0.52

0.59
0.54

0.71

1.19
0.76

0.90
0.44

0.68

0.58
0.65
10.2
12.0
11.1
10.5
9.7
9.6
10.5
9.3
9.1
10.8
11.3
11.0
9.9
9.8
10.2
9.3
8.9
10.9
11.0
10.6
10.4
10.2
10.2
9.8
9.4
11.2
11.4
11.1
10.3
9.6
10.4
9.2
8.8
10.4
10.6
10.6
10.1
9.5
9.9


1.3tft


3.8

1.4ttf



2.6

3.2

1.9tt+



2.6

5.0

l.lm



3.1

4.3

2 2ttt



3.3
                                                                                        cn

-------
                                                            Table  9 (Continued)

                                                     WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Station Description
Date
and. FlowtT Te
Time1 mj/day CFS "'
x 103
Station 0280 4/2
(Cont.)





Daily
4/3






Daily
4/4

Daily
0030
0335
0945
1308
1535
1825
2130
Avg.
0030
0340
0950
1315
1535
1830
2130
Avg.
0025
0335
Avg.
8
7
7
8
10
10
9
8
7
8
8
10
11
12
11
9
8
8
8
r
Un- ionized
pH Ammonia
-N
Ammonia
.-
Organic N03 &
Nitrogen N03
(N) (N)
Total
Phosphorus DO
(P)
BOD
(mg/l )
.5
.0
.5
.5
.5
.0
.0
.7
.0
.0
.0
.0
.5
.0"
.0
.6
.0
.0
.0
8.4
6.3
7.5
7.4
7.7
7.5
8.2
6.3-8.4
7.4
8.2
7.7
8.0
7.9
7.6
7.0
7.0-8.2
8.3
7.5
7.5-8.3

0.00
0.00

0.01

0.02
0.01

0.04
0.00

0.01

0.00
0.01

0.01


1.07
0.67

0.88

0.90
0.88.

1.44
0.59

0.79

1.18
1.0

1.28


0.04
1.24

1.46

1.44
1.05

2.29
1.49

1.10

1.21
1.52

1.02


0.42
0.28

0/44

0.44
0.40

0.42
0.30

0.38

0.54
0.41

0.48


0.73
0.47

0.63

0.51
0.59

0.87
0.63

0.62

0.56
0.67

0.72

9.0
8.8
10.4
11.2
10.8
9.7
9.2
9.9
8.9
8.8
10.4
10.7
10.8
9.4
8.9
9.7
8.5
8.1


4.6

6.2



5.4

4.1

2.0m



3.1

4.4

3/28-4/4
Avg.

7
.6

0.02
1.06
1.03
0.88
0.61
10.1
3.2
  t  Times are based on a calendar day
ttt  Because of the low BODo experienced,  DO depletions aere lees than the recommended 2.0 mg/l

-------
       Table  9  (Continued)
WATER QUALITX DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Station
Station
Truckee
at Old
Bridge
































Description
0290 3/28
River
Mustang
Daily
3/29






Daily
3/30






Daily
3/31






Daily
4/1






Dally
Date
and
Time1"
0830
1050
1340
1600
1915
2200
Avg.
0055
0410
1015
1310
1555
1845
2150
Avg.
0050
0415
1005
1300
1545
1850
2150
Avg.
0050
0400
1000
1300
1540
1835
2155
Avg.
0055
0355
0955
1320
1545
1835
2145
Avg.
Flow Temp.
m-Vday CFS c
x 103
Daily average **
flows would be ''
approximately 8'c
the same as ,',.
those at '
Station 0270 '"
at Vista Gaoe />J
6.0
4.0
6.5
7.5
8.0
8.0
6.0
6.6
7.0
5.0
5.5
6.5
7.0
6.5
6.0
6.2
5.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.5
8.5
8.5
6.9
7.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
8.0
7.0
8.1
PH
7.6
8.3
7.6
7.5
7.9
8.5
7.5-8.5
8.2
7.4
7.9
7.8
8.2
8.2
8.4
7.4-8.4
8.4
8.0
7.2
7.8
8.0
8.0
7.7
7.2-8.4
7.8
7.7
7.6
7.9
7.5
7.6
7.9
7.5-7.9
7.9
7.9
7.5
7.7
7.6
7.5
7.7
7.5-7.9
Un- ionized
Ammonia

0.02
0.00
0.07
0.03

0.01
0.01

0.02

0.03
0.02

0.02
0.00

0.02

0.01
0.01

0.01
0.01

0.00

0.01
0.01

0.02
0.00

0.01

0.01
0.01
Ammonia

0.69
0.90
1.51
1.03

1.83
0.80

0.77

1.01
1.10

1.30
0.89

1.11

1.13
1.11

1.72
0.96

0.94

0.97
1.15

1.51
0.74

0.82

0.99
1.02
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)

0.92
1.04
2.57
1.51

1.52
0.43

0.52

0.20
0.67

0.26
0.54

0.49

0.57
0.46

0.53
0.26

1.26

1.07
0.78

1.91
1.16

1.32

1.38
1.44
N03 & 	 TbTiTl 	
NO 3 Phosphorus
(N) (P)
(mg/1
1.20
2.04
2.82
2.02

2.28
1.08

1.50

1.88
1.69

1.50
0.60

0.96

1.28
1.08

1.16
0.44

0.48

0.70
0.70

0.68
0.48

0.56

0.74
0.62
1)
0.18
0.60
0.69
0.49

0.85
0.46

0.51

0.57
0.60

0.72
0.44

0.55

0.52
0.56

0.61
0.57

0.66

0.97
0.70

0.98
0.46

0.57

0.72
0.68
DO

10.7
11.4
11.1
10.6
9.3
8.8
10.3
9.2
9.2
11.1
11.2
11.0
9.8
9.3
10.1
9.2
9.1
10.9
11.2
10.8
10.0
9.9
10.2
10.0
9.6
11.1
11.6
10.9
9.7
9.2
10.3
9.2
8.8
10.5
11.1
10.3
9.5
9.0
9.8
BOD

1.2W

5.0
i rttt
1.5



3.3

4.6
, ottt
1.8



3.2

4.2
_ _+tt
2.0



3.1

4.3
+++
2.2



3.3
                                                                                      00

-------
       Table  8 (Continued}
WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Station Description
Date ...
and^ Flow Temp.
Time1 mj/day CFS c

Station 0290
(Cont.)


















4/2






Daily
4/3






Daily
4/4

Daily
x 103
0035
0350
0955
1320
1545
1835
2140
Avg.
0040
0350
1000
1325
1545
1840
2140
Avg.
0035
0345
Avg.

7.0
7.0
8.0
8.5
10.0
9.0
8.0
8.2 6
8.0
6.0
8.5
11.0
11.0
10.0
10.0
9.2 7
9.0
9.0
9.0 7
Un-ionized Organic N03 &
pH Ammonia Ammonia Nitrogen N03
~.N -" (N) (N)

7.9
6.5
7.1
7.7
7.6
8.0
6.5
.5-8.0
8.2
7.8
7.2
7.7
7.1
7.9
8.0
.1-8.2
8.0
7.6
.6-8.0


0.00
0.00

0.00

0.00
0.00

0.01
0.00

0.00

0.02
0.01

0.00



1.18
0.68

0.61

0.95
0.86.

1.48
0.62

0.59

1.20
0.97

0.53



1.53
1.12

1.77

1.33
1.44

1.87
1.27

1.11

1.53
1.45

2.88

^M|(J

0.62
0.42

0.62

0.70
0.59

0.64
0.42

0.44

0.88
0.60

0.78

Total
Phosphorus DO
(P)
/I)

0.82
0.49

0.45

0.53
0.57

0.80
0.55

0.47

0.58
0.60

0.84


8.9
8.6
10.7
11.2
10.7
9.1
8.9
9.7
8.9
8.7
10.6
10.5
10.6
9.3
8.5
9.6
8.9
8.1

BOD


4.4

2.1ftt



3.3

5.6

2.1ftt



3.9

5.5

3/28-4/4

Avg.
t Time 8 are based on
ttt Because
of the low

a calendar day
BODs experienced,
7.5

DO depletions


were lees
0.01

than
1.03

the recommended
1.11

2.0
1.04

mg/l.
0.60


10.0


3.4


                                                                                        vo

-------
       Table 9  (Continued)

WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Station Description
Station 0300
Truckee River
at S.P.
Railroad Bridge
Near Patrick


































3/28





Dally
3/29






Dally
3/30






Daily
3/31






Daily
4/1






Daily
Date
and. Flow
Temp.
Time m^/day CFS <>c
x 103
0840
1100
1350
1615
1935
2215
Avg.
0110
0430
1030
1325
1610
1900
2205
Avg.
0105
0435
1025
1315
1555
1905
2205
Avg.
0105
0415
1015
1315
1555
1855
2210
Avg.
0110
0415
1010
1330
1600
1850
2200
Avg.
7.0
8.0
9.5
9.0
7.5
6.0
7.8
6.5
4.0
7.0
9.0
8.5
7.0
5.0
6.7
7.0
6.0
6.5
7.5
7.5
6.5
7.0
6.9
5.0
5.0
6.5
8.5
9.0
8.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
10.0
10.0
8.5
7.0
8.2
Un-ionized
pH Ammonia
-N

7.6
8.1
7.8
7.6
8.1
8.3
7.6-8.3
8.0
7.6
7.8
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.6-8.0
8.0
7.8
7.7
* 8.0
8.1
7.9
7.8
7.7-8.1
7.5
7.5
7.9
8.0
7.7
8.0
7.5
7.5-8.0
7.8
8.1
7.5
7.9
7.8
8.1
7.8
7.5-8.1


0.02

0.00

0.03
0.02

0.01
0.01

0.01

0.01
0.01

0.01
0.01

0.01

0.01
0.01

0.00
0.01

0.01

0.00
0.01

0.02
0.01

0.01

0.01
0.01
Ammonia
-H


1.19

0.55

1.00
0.91

1.25
1.28

0.56

0.94
1.01

0.83
0.98

0.56

0.95
0.83

0.81
1.28

0.62

0.86
0.89

0.84
1.14

0.48

0.82
0.82
Organic
Nitrogen
(N)


1.78

0.80

1.01
1.20

1.00
0.72

0.47

0.53
0.68

0.49
0.53

0.50

0.59
0.53

0.64
2.05

1.01

1.33
1.26

1.37
1.87

1.00

1.61
1.46
NO 3 & Total
NO 3 Phosphorus
(N3) (P)
(mgt

2.08

1.44

2.82
2.11

2.56
2.10

1.18

2.44
2.07

1.76
1.44

0.98

1.48
1.42

1.30
0.84

0.68

0.92
0.94

0.98
1.00

0.68

0.98
0.91
M)

0.64

0.44

0.70
0.59

0.38
0.72

0.39

0.66
0.54

0.41
0.62

0.37

0.56
0.49

0.46
0.70

0.48

1.19
0.71

0.47
0.77

0.45

0.75
0.61
DO

10.0
10.8
11.2
10.4
10.3
9.2
10.3
9.1
9.1
10.5
11.1
10.8
10.1
9.1
10.0
8.9
9.0
10.4
11.0
10.8
10.0
9.6
10.0
9.6
9.8
10.8
11.4
10.7
10.1
9.3
10.2
8.7
8.6
10.1
10.6
10.5
9.7
8.8
9.6
BOD



2.3





4.3
...
2.0TTt



3.2

4.0

2.3



3.2

2.7

1.8



2.3

3.8

3.2



3.5
                                                                                          CJl
                                                                                          o

-------
       Table  9 (Continued)
WATER QUALITY DATA - TRUCKEE RIVER
Date
Station Description and Flow
Time mj/day
x TO3
Station 0300 4/2 0050
(Cont.) . 0405
1010
1350
1600
1850
2155
Dally Avg.
4/3 0100
0405
1020
1345
1600
1850
2150
Daily Avg.
4/4 0050
0400
Dally Avg.
3/28-4/4
Avg.
t Times are baaed on a calendar day
ttt Because of the low BODs experienced,
Temp.
CFS C
Un- ionized
pH Ammonia
Ammonia
-N
Organic N03 &
Nitrogen N03 '
(N) (N3)
Total
Phosphorus DO
(P)
BOD
Img/D
7.5
7.0
8.0
10.0
10.5
9.0
8.0
8.1
6.7
7.6
8.0
7.6
7.9
7.5
8.6 6.7-8.1
8.0
7.0
9.0
11.5
12.0
11.0'
9.0
9.6 7.
 8.0
8.0
8.0 7

7.8

DO depletions
7.8
7.6
7.1
7.2
7.6
7.9
7.6
1-7.9
7.8
7.4
.4-7.8



aere lees

0.00
0.01

0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00


0.01

than the

0.76
0.80

0.46

0.73
0.79.

0.75
0.96

0.48

0.67
0.72

0.82


0.85


1.70
1.30

1.08

1.50
1.40

1.19
1.39

1.19

1.12
1.22

1.37


1.11

recommended 2.0

0.92
0.80

0.66

0.90
0.81

0.92
0.92

0.70

0.88
0.86

1.04


1.30

mg/l.

0.48
0.53

0.40

0.54
0.49

0.38
0.70

0.42

0.43
0.48

0.41


0.56


8q
. 7
8.9
10.4
10.9
10.4
9.6
8.7
9.7
8.8
8.5
10.4
10.6
10.4
9.2
8.6
9.5
8.0
8.1


9.9



4.6

2.7



3.7

4.6

3.1



3.9

4.8


3.4



-------
0


UI
                        a:
                        O.

                        O
                        2=
                              LJ CL
      _> I/)
        i^
      > ce

      
      g on

      
-------
                                                                   Table  JO
                                            POLLUTANT LOADINGS - WATER QUALITY STUDY, TRUCKEE RIVER
                                                           March 28-April 4, 1977
Station
Station 0200 - Truckee River
Upstream of North Truckee
Drain
Station 0210 - North Truckee
Drain at Kleppe Lane
Station 0220 - Steamboat Creek
Upstream of WPCP Effluent
WPCP Effluent
Total
Station 0300 - Truckee River
at S.P. Railroad Bridge
near Patrick
Recovery Ratio = Station 0300
Total

kg/day


420

100

150
1,500
2,200


2,500


BOD
Ib/day X T-
-------
54
primarily from the WPCP, caused stream BOD concentrations to increase to
3.0 mg/1 at the USGS Vista gaging station, 2.1 km (1.3 mi) downstream of
the plant.  Values downstream from this point stayed relatively constant,
averaging 3.4 mg/1 16.6 km (10.3 mi) downstream from the WPCP.


Dissolved Oxygen

     Despite the increase in BOD downstream from the WPCP, stream DO
concentrations showed no significant sag [Table 10 and Figure 8].
Upstream concentrations averaged 10.8 mg/1 with a daily average range of
10.3 to 11.2 mg/1.  Average DO concentrations 16.6 km (10.3 mi) down-
stream from the WPCP and the two tributaries were 9.9 mg/1 with a range
in daily average concentrations of 9.5 to 10.3 mg/1.


Total Dissolved Solids and Chloride

     A limited number of total dissolved solids (IDS) and chloride
samples were collected to characterize the receiving waters into which
the UPCP effluent mixes [Table 9].  Total  dissolved solids loading in
the Truckee immediately downstream from the WPCP was 110,000 kg (250,000
lb)/day [Table 10] of which 19% was contributed by the WPCP (340 mg/1),
20% by Steamboat Creek (450 mg/1), and 14% by North Truckee Drain (260
mg/1).   The remaining 48% was already borne by the Truckee (80 mg/1)
upstream of the tributaries and WPCP.

     Chloride loading was 9,500 kg (21,000 lb)/day, of which the WPCP
(36 mg/1) contributed 25%, Steamboat Creek (79 mg/1) 40%, and North
Truckee Drain (11  mg/1) 6.7%.  The remaining 28% was carried in the
Truckee (4.1 mg/1) upstream of the tributaries and WPCP.

-------
o




















12-
11 .
j
5 "'
er. _
.= 9 -
0
 8 
1*-
t-i
ID -1
a 5 -
X
0
4
o 4 
LJ
o3 
^^ i
Q 2 -H


1 !






y.
, ,

a

UI
UI
o
Q
1
X
Cf.
O


O
1 -






L









_
'






















-




-













UI  ." t
< ec o:
(9 a I  i
o to  uj
in o ui =5 ui So

IA 52 Q ~~ a  
3 _>  o -. a. a:
o os _i os co =a
o_ _i ca o sa
s^ u
UI Q.
UI 2
C
o to
< 
RIVER MILES
Figure  8.    Dissolved Oxygen Profile, Truckee River, March 28-April 4, 1977

-------
 56
 Nitrogen

     The  nitrogen  forms upstream of the tributaries and WPCP  included
 concentrations of  organic nitrogen (N), ammonia-N, and nitrite plus
 nitrate (N) of 0.39, 0.13, and 0.11 mg/1, respectively [Table 9 and
 Figure 9].  This constituted a total nitrogen loading of 420  kg (920
 lb)/day [uable 10].  The total nitrogen loadings in the Truckee River
 immediately Downstream from the WPCP abruptly increased to 2,600 kg
 (5,700 lb)/day, of which 77% was contributed by the WPCP, 3.3% by North
 Truckee Drain and  3.7% by Steamboat Creek.  This resulted in an increase
 in dov/nstream nitrogen concentrations.  Concentrations of organic nitrogen
 (N), ammonia-N and nitrite plus nitrate (N) at the Vista Gaging Station
 were 1.03, 1.02 and 0.66 mg/1, respectively.

     Nitrogen concentrations downstream from the Vista gage indicated a
 gradual increase in nitrite plus nitrate (N) to 1.3 mg/1  at the Southern
 Pacific Railroad Bridge near Patrick (RM 10.3), offset by a gradual
 decrease  in ammonia-N to 0.85 mg/1.  Organic nitrogen (N), on the other
 hand, remained relatively constant at 1.11 mg/1.

     Mass balance determinations were also performed to determine what
 percentage of the nitrogen calculated as being in the Truckee River
 immediately downstream from the WPCP was also detected at the Southern
 Pacific Railroad Bridge near Patrick, 16.6 km (10.3 mi) downstream
 [Table 10].  The calculated recovery ratio for total  nitrogen was 1.02
which is excellent, particularly since the determination  is based on the
 summation of three nitrogen forms.
Phosphorus

     Total phosphorus (P) concentrations upstream of the WPCP discharge
and the two tributaries averaged 0.09 mg/1  [Table 9 and Figure 10].

-------
                                       o
                                       o
                                       o
                                       <_J

                                       o
                                                                         DATA POINTS ARE AVERAGES

                                                                         FOR DURATION Of STUDY
                                                                                                     10
                                               RIVER  MILES
Figure 9.   Nitrogen Profile,  Truckee  Piver,  March  28-April 4,  1977

-------
 o
 +J
 o
    1.0  -


    0.9



    0.8  A



    0.7
 g*

 .  -6

oT
  0.5
 i/>
 u
 o

"a.
 i/)
 o

SI
0.4  -J



0.3


0.2



0.1  J
                                         O
                                                                           o
                                                                           z:

                                                                           o 2
                                                                           _J t-X
                                                                           o ICQ
                                                                                                                                              01
                                                                                                                                              00
                                                                                      NOTE:  DATA POINTS ARE AVERAGES

                                                                                             FOR  DURATION OF STUDY
<:


Q.
                                                                                                                                 U)
                                                                                                                                 O
                                i^ O
                                LU CL

                                UJ 2
                                ae
                                I C

                                O D-



                                5 o
                                LU ;r
                                t- UJ
                                (S> CH
                                                                      I
                                                                            I
                                                                      4         5


                                                                     RIVER MILES
                                                                                                                             10
                     Figure 10.  Total Phosphorus  (P) Profile, Trjckee  River, March 28-April  4, 1977

-------
                                                                        59
The total phosphorus (P) load in the Truckee River immediately down-
stream from the WPCP averaged 430 kg (940 lb)/day, of which 79% was
contributed by the WPCP, 1.7% by North Truckee Drain and 4.3% by Steam-
boat Creek [Table 10].  These added loads, primarily from the WPCP,
caused total phosphorus (P) concentrations to increase to 0.56 mg/1 at
the Vista gaging station.   Downstream from this station, concentrations
remained nearly constant,  equaling 0.56 mg/1 at the Southern Pacific
Railroad Bridge near Patrick, .RM 10.3.

     The recovery ratio calculated for total phosphorus was 1.08 which
is excellent.
Bacteriology

     Grab surface samples for fecal  coliform bacteria were collected
twice daily from the chlorinated WPCP effluent, as well  as from the
Truckee River, both upstream of (Station 0200) and downstream from
(Station 0270) the plant [Table 5].

     The chlorinated effluent samples contained fecal coliform bacteria
densities ranging from an MPN of 400 to 49,000 FC/100 ml, with a geo-
metric mean of 3,900 FC/100 ml [Table 5],  In addition,  pathogenic
Salmonella enteritidis ser Typhimurium were isolated in  the WPCP dis-
charge.

     Upstream of the WPCP discharge at Station 0200, Truckee River water
was of good bacteriological quality.  Fecal coliform densities ranged
from <2 to 79 FC/100 ml, with a geometric mean of 13 FC/100 ml.  Salmon-
ella were not detected from swabs collected at this station.

     Water quality 2.1 km (1.3 mi) downstream from the WPCP discharge at

-------
60
the Vista Gage (Station 0270) was degraded as a result of bacterial
pollution from the WPCP discharge.  Fecal coliform densities ranged  from
a minimum of 11 FC/100 ml to a maximum of 4,900 FC/100 ml, with a geo-
metric mean of 90 FC/100 ml.  Salmonella enteritidis ser Typhimurium
were isolated from swabs exposed in the stream at the same time as those
in the WPCP effluent.  Isolation of identical Salmonella serotypes
indicates that the discharge was the source of the pathogen.  The
presence of Salmonella constitutes a potential hazard to tho health  of
individuals in contact with Truckee River water downstream from the
Reno-Sparks Joint Water Pollution Control Plant.

-------
                     V.  BIOLOGICAL  INVESTIGATIONS
 EFFLUENT TOXICITY

     The NPDES  Permit for the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP prohibits the dis-
 charge of toxic substances that cause violation of provisions of Water
 Quality Standards for the State of Nevada.  A series of 96-hour, con-
 tinuous-flow bioassays, was conducted beginning at 0900 on March 28,
 1977 to determine the potential toxicity of the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP
 discharge on the aquatic biota of the Truckee River.  Native Lahontan
 cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki henshaui Gill and Jordan) were selected as
 the test organisms.

     The major toxic components normally present in treated, domestic
 wastewater are residual  chlorine and un-ionized ammonia.  To identify
 the principal contributing toxicant, bioassays were conducted using
 chlorinated (Station 260) and unchlorinated (Station 250) treated waste-
 water diluted with Truckee River water from upstream of Steamboat Creek
 (Station 200).
Ammonia
     Ammonia is normally present in two states:  ionized ammonia (NH,+)
and un-ionized ammonia (NH3).  The un-ionized fraction is the toxic
agent; ionized ammonia has little or no toxic effect.   The percentage of
total ammonia (NH^ + NH3) that exists as un-ionized ammonia is a function
of pH and temperature, i.e., more un-ionized ammonia exists under higher
pH and temperature conditions.  The generally accepted maximum concentra-
tion of un-ionized ammonia-N not to be exceeded in natural  waters classi-
fied for fisheries is 0.02 mg/1.1

-------
62
     The bioassay using unchlorinated effluent showed that the waste-
water was toxic.  Ninety percent of the test fish survived the first 24-
hour exposure in undiluted effluent and 55% survived 48 hours [Table
11].  By the end of 72-hours1 exposure, 100% mortality had occurred in
                                         *
the undiluted effluent.  The 96-hour LC5Q  for Lahontan cutthroat trout
was calculated to be a mixture of 73% unchlorinated effluent and 27%
Truckee River water, the mixture containing 12.8 ing/1 total ammonia-N or
0.17 mg/1 un-ionized ammonia-M.  This concentration of un-ionized ammo-
nia is in the range of values reported to be acutely toxic to trout;2*3
therefore, it appears that ammonia was the principal toxicant in the
unchlorinated effluent, and the bioassay results were not influenced
significantly by other toxicants that may have been present.

     From the bioassay data [Table 11], it is calculated that the maxi-
mum concentration of total ammonia-N that would be expected to provide
complete (100%) survival of cutthroat trout in a 96-hour exposure is 7.7
mg/1.  This concentration is the maximum which would satisfy specific
provisions of the NPDES permit and Nevada Water Quality Standards prohi-
biting the discharge of toxic materials as measured in a 96-hour (acute)
bioassay, and is independent of flow.  To achieve this limitation and
prevent toxicity in the effluent, ammonia removal facilities v/ould have
to be installed which would consistently attain a removal efficiency of
56%, based on the average ammonia concentration in grab samples measured
during the bioassay.  To protect aquatic life in the receiving water on
a long-term (chronic) basis, factors of 1/10 (maximum not to be exceeded
at any time) and 1/20 (24-hour average) are generally applied to LCr
values derived from effluent bioassay data for degradeable or nonpersis-
tent toxicants such as chlorine and ammonia.1  Thus, to prevent chronic
toxicity, Truckee River total ammonia-M and un-ionized ammonia-N maximum
and average concentrations would have to be 1.3 and 0.6, and 0.02 and
0.01 mg/1, respectively.  The daily low flow at the Truckee River
   LCSf) indicates the concentration (actual or interpolated) at which
   50% of the test organisms diedt or would be expected to die.

-------
                                                                       63
  Parameter
                            Table  12

                     BIOASSAY SURVIVAL DATA
                        RENO-SPARKS
                     March 28-April 1, 197?
    Effluent Concentration     Control
100%  75%  56%  32%  18%  10%  (Truckee
                                River
                                Water)
Chlorinated
% Survival
24
48
72
96
hours
hours
hours
hours
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
65
0
0
0
100
100
85
25
100
100
100
60
100
100
100
95
Unchlorinated
  % Survival

    24 hours
    48 hours
    72 hours
    96 hours
90
55
0
0
95
95
70
45
100
100
95
95
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

-------
64
Vista gage that is projected to be exceeded 99% of the time, based on
the period of record 1939-1976, is 177 cfs.  During spawning periods,
selected as April 1 to June 30, 177 cfs will be exceeded 99.9% of the
time.  During the NEIC study, the average concentration of ammonia
upstream of the Reno-Sparks discharge was 0.14 mg/1 (Stations 0200,
0210, and 0220) for a background mass loading of approximately 115
Ib/day.  To maintain an average concentration of 0.6 mg/1  (1/20 LC^Q)
downstream from the plant at a flow of 177 cfs, the mass loading should
average 570 Ib/day.  Therefore, the Reno-Sparks effluent could contain
455 Ib/day of ammonia-N (570 - 115 = 455 Ib/day).  Based on the flow of
16.1 mgd observed during the NEIC survey, the ammonia-N concentration
should average 3.4 mg/1, or a removal efficiency of 81% from bioassay
levels.  If the effluent flow is increased to 30 mgd, the total ammonia-
N concentration in the effluent should average 1.8 mg/1.  Assuming a
concentration of 17.6 mg/1 (from bioassay grab samples) that remains
constant with increased flow, the necessary removal efficiency would be
approximately 90%.

     Calculations were performed to determine the Truckee River flows
necessary to achieve concentrations of NH--N corresponsing to 1/20 and
1/10 LCrg without ammonia removal at the plant.  These calculated
stream flows are 24.3 and 10.6 m /sec (857 and 374 cfs), respectively.
In other words, with present WPCP flows and effluent NH--N character-
istics measured during the bioassay (17.6 mg/1), a downstream flow of
24.3 m /sec (857 cfs) would be necessary to attain an NH^-N concentration
of 1/20 LC5Q or 0.64 mg/1.

     Knowing the flows that would assure sufficient dilution for
long-term protection, it was determined how often they occur.  A USGS
computer program was used to retrieve flow data from the downstream gage
at Vista.  Although data were available from 1899 to present, records
were retrieved since 1939 corresponding to the first major reservoir,
Boca, becoming operational in December 1938.  Major reservoirs which

-------
                                                                         65
 followed  included Prosser  in January 1963 and Stampede in August 1969.
 By  retrieving  flow duration data  it was possible to determine the per-
 centage of  time  the calculated critical flows could be expected to be
 exceeded  (i.e.,  the percentage of time conditions in the stream would
 be  noncritical).

     Duration  periods were selected to correspond to the addition of
 each major  reservoir, a process which would be expected to augment
 previous  low flows.  As noted in Table 12, the percentage of time a
 given flow  was exceeded has increased with the addition of each re-
 servoir.  However, since the periods of record associated with the
 addition  of Prosser and Stampede reservoirs are shorter and therefore
 potentially less statistically sound, this discussion will  only relate
 to  statistics  for the overall period of record 1939-1976.  This assures
 conservative results.

     If an  application factor of 1/20 LC5Q is considered, the data
 indicate  inadequate protection for long-term survival  in the completely
 mixed zone  beginning approximately 1,200 m (3,800 ft)  downstream from
 the plant in the absence of ammonia removal.  Flows will  be in excess of
 24.3 m3/sec (857 cfs) only 23% of the time.   However,  if only the most
 critical  period  is considered, approximately April  1  - June 30 during
 spawning, it can be expected that flows will exceed the 1/20 LC5Q flow
 53% of the  time.  Flows can be expected to exceed the  critical  1/10 LC
 flow of 10.6 m3/sec (374 cfs) 75% of the time.   During the  spawning
 period, flows will  exceed 10.6 m3/sec (374 cfs)  85% of the  time.
50
     A note of caution is in order concerning absolute reliance upon
flow projections statistically derived from past records.   It is recog-
nized that 1977 drought conditions may produce unpredictably low Truckee
River flows of less than the projected 100-year, 7-day low flow of 76
cfs.  Under these conditions, an adequate margin of safety to protect

-------
                                                                                    a\
                  Table 22
           FLOW DURATION STATISTICS
TRUCKEE RIVER AT USCS CAGE NEAR VISTA,  NEVADA
Period
of
Record
in Period
1939-62
1963-69
1970-76
1939-76
Ma.ior
Reservoirs 1/20 EC5Q Flow
on System A11 values
in Period
of Record
BOCA (12/38) 18
BOCA (12/38), PROSSER (1/63)
26
BOCA (12/38), PROSSER (1/63),
STAMPEDE (8/69) 31
23
% of Time 1
= 857 cfs
4/1-6/30
Values
45
58
68
53
-low Exceeded

1/10 EC5Q Flow = 374 cfs
All values
in Period
of Record
68
75
95
75
4/1-6/30
Values
78
83
98
85


Flow = 177 cfs
All values
in Period
of Record
97
99.9
100
99
4/1-5/30
Values
99.8
100
100
99.9

-------
                                                                         67
aquatic life may not exist.   However, the computer program used to
formulate flow projections is considered to be reasonably conservative
because it evaluated a period (1961-1962) in which 7-day flows as low as
63 cfs were recorded.
Chlorine

     Chlorine, when used as a disinfectant, may be present in water as
free available chlorine in the form of hypochlorous acid or hypochlorite
ion, or both.  In municipal wastewater where an abundance of ammonia is
available, chlorine will also be present as combined available chlorine
in the form of chloramines (mono-, di-, and tri-).  The toxicity of free
available chlorine is similar to that of chloramines;  therefore, for
bioassay purposes a measure of residual chlorine (free available +
combined chlorine) is adequate to define chlorine toxicity.*  Studies
conducted on other species of trout (rainbow and brook trout) established
7-day LC5Q values of 0.08 mg/1 residual chlorine.5  An intensive fish-
diversity study of the receiving water downstream from 156 sewage treat-
ment plants showed brook trout and brown trout to be totally absent in
waters having residual chlorine levels greater than approximately 0.02
mg/1.6

     NEIC conducted a second bioassay using chlorinated Reno-Sparks
Joint WPCP effluent.  The undiluted effluent proved extremely toxic and
resulted in 100% mortality to test fish within three hours of exposure,
a violation of NPDES permit limitations.  During the first 24 hours of
this test, residual chlorine concentrations averaged 0.66 mg/1  and total
ammonia-N averaged 18.3 mg/1 or 0.33 mg/1  un-ionized ammonia [Table 3].
The 96-hr LC5Q was calculated to be a mixture of 12% chlorinated ef-
fluent diluted with 88% Truckee River water.  This mixture contained
averages of 0.05 mg/1 chlorine and 0.02 mg/1 un-ionized ammonia-N.

-------
68
      The  bioassay  performed  on  the chlorinated wastewater determined
 that chlorine was  the major  toxic component of the Reno-Sparks Joint
 WPCP discharge.  Applying  the factors 1/20 and 1/10 to the LC5Q value
 of 0.05 mg/1 for chlorine  indicates  in-stream concentrations would have
 to be extremely low, averaging  0.0025 and not exceeding 0.005 mg/1.
 The WPCP  cannot merely lower chlorine residuals and allow stream mixing
 to dissipate this  toxicity since lowering the residual also drastically
 reduces the disinfecting properties  for which the chlorination is in-
 tended.   As noted  in the "NPDES Compliance" section, maintaining an
 average chlorine residual  of only 0.45 mg/1 during the study resulted in
 violation of NPDES fecal coliform bacteria limits.  It is essential that
 both adequate disinfection be accomplished and stream biota be pro-
 tected.   The only  viable alternatives to accomplish both are to either
 change to a less persistent  disinfectant (e.g., ultraviolet light,
 ozone, bromine chloride), or dechlorinate the effluent prior to dis-
 charge (e.g., sulfur dioxide or sodium bisulfite).
FISH SURVIVAL

     Juvenile Lahontan cutthroat trout,.approximately 10 to 13 cm total
length, were exposed in cages in the Truckee River and Steamboat Creek
for various periods [Table 13].  In violation of NPDES Permit limita-
tions, patterns of survival were influenced by the discharge of toxic
substances from the Reno-Sparks WPCP into Steamboat Creek.
                   
     All caged trout in Truckee River reaches and Steamboat Creek up-
stream of the discharge survived the entire exposure [Figure 11].  Trout
held at Station 261 in the Truckee River 30 m (100 ft) downstream from
Steamboat Creek (but on the north bank upstream of the area in which
Reno-Sparks effluent mixed) also survived the exposure.   Total mortality
occurred within 3 hours among fish placed near the south bank of the
river 30 m (100 ft) downstream from Steamboat Creek.  Downstream 700 m

-------
                                                             Ta!ila 13

                                              SURVIVAL OP CAGED LAHOSTAti CVTTBKOAT TROUT
                                                   THOCKEE RIVER AUD STEAMBOAT CREEK
                                                        MARCH AND APRIL  1977
STATION
NUMBER
0200

0200

0211


0220

0261

0261

0262

0262

0263
DESCRIPTION
Truckee R. 1.8 ml. upstream of
Steamboat Cr. . south bank
Truckee R.,1.8 ml. upstream of
Steamboat Cr. , north bank
Truckee R. downstream from North
Truckee Drain, 0.1 mi. upstream
from Steamboat Cr. , north bank
Steamboat Cr. 0.1 mi. upstream
from WPCI' discharge
Truckee R. 30 m (90 ft) downstream
from Steamboat Cr. . north bank
Truckee R. 30 m (90 ft) downstream
from Steamboat Cr. . south bank
Truckee R. 700 m (2300 ft) downstream
fron Steamboat Cr. , south bank
Truckee R. 700 m (2300 ft) downstream
from Steamboat Cr.. north bank
Truckee R. 975 m (3200 ft) downstream
DATE IN
3/26

3/26

3/26


3/26

3/26

3/26

3/26

3/26

3/28
DATE OUT
4/1

4/7

3/31


4/7

3/31
"
3/26

3/27

3/28

3/31
REMARKS
All fish survived 6 days.
then cage lost.
All fish sur^.ved 12 days.

All fish survived 5 days.


All fish survived 12 days.

All fish survived 5 days.

Total mortality within 3 hours.

Total mortality within 24 hours.

602 mortality within 24 hours.
100! mortality within 48 hours.
10% mortality at 24 hours. 601
0264




0270



0280


0290
                    fron Steamboat Cr., mid-channel
Truckee R. 1 mi. (1600 m) downstream
from Steamboat Cr.. mid-channel
Truckee R. 1.2 mi. (1930m) downstream
from Steamboat Cr. at SPRR bridge, mid-
channel

Truckee R. 3.4 mi. downstream from
Steamboat Cr.  at Lockwood, mid-channel

Truckee R. 4.8 mi. downstream from
Steamboat Cr.  at Mustang, mid-channel
3/28




3/28



3/31


3/31
4/1




4/1



4/7


4/7
mortality at 48 hours. 1002
mortality within 72 hours.

Total survival 24 hours. 802
mortality 48 hours, 90*
mortality 72 hours, 1002
mortality within 96 hours.

lOOt! survival 24 hours, 305
mortality 48 hours, 60" mortality
at 72 hours.

All fish survived 7 days.
All fish survived 7 days.
                                                                                                                                                             cn
                                                                                                                                                             10

-------
KEY
      01
HOURLY EXPOSURE


        200= STATION NUMBER
                                                                                          SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, NOT  TO SCAlt
                            Figure 11. Survival  at 24 Hour Intervals of Caged  Lahontan Cutthroat Trout
                                                   Mau -5 tr  "'1 7  """*

-------
                                                                         71
(2,300 ft) from Steamboat Creek at Station 262 all  fish exposed near the
south bank were dead within 24 hours.  Fish exposed near the north bank
at this location died within 48 hours.  Midchannel  at Station 263 (975 m
cr 3.POO ft. downstream), 10% mortality occurred the first day and all
fish were dead within 72 hours.  All fish survived  the first 24 hours  at
Station 264, 1,600 m (1.0 mi) downstream from the discharge; conversely,
all of these fish were dead within 96 hours.  At the Southern Pacific
Railroad Bridge (1.9 km or 1.2 mi from Steamboat Creek), no mortality
occurred the first day, but 60% mortality occurred  within 72 hours.
Downstream at Lockwood (RM 3.4) and Mustang (RM 4.8), all fish survived
7-day exposures in the Truckee River.

     These results demonstrate that toxic materials discharged from the
Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP were harmful to native cutthroat trout in the
Truckee River, especially in the zone where complete mixing had not
occurred.  As previously discussed, the flow conditions at the time of
the survey caused complete mixing to occur within 1,200 m (3,800 ft) of
Steamboat Creek.  Heavy mortalities occurred within the mixing zone, and
lesser degrees of toxicity were detected in the next 770 m (2,500 ft)
downstream to Station 270.   Bioassays conducted during this study
showed that the toxicity of the Reno-Sparks Joint WPCP discharge was
caused primarily by chlorine or chlorinated compounds, and stream sam-
pling revealed ammonia concentrations which would not be acutely toxic
to cutthroat trout.  Un-ionized ammonia-N concentrations at Station 270
averaged 0.03 mg/1, or about 1/8 of the 96-hr LC5Q.  Therefore, it was
concluded that the high degree of toxicity in the mixing area was caused
by residual chlorine, and that this residual chlorine was dissipated or
assimilated in the reach between the Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge
(RM 1.2) and Lockwood (RM 3.4).


MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION

     Macroinvertebrate communities were sampled at  ten locations along
a 12-mile stretch of the Truckee River extending from 2.9 km (1.8 mi)

-------
 72
upstream of the confluence with Steamboat Creek to 16.6 km (10.3  mi
downstream from the confluence, and at two locations in Steamboat Creek
upstream from the Reno-Sparks WPCP discharge [Table 14].  Moderate to
fast currents flowing over gravel-cobble bottoms (riffles) were predomi-
nant at the most upstream Truckee River locations, at the five farthest
downstream locations, and at the two locations in Steamboat Creek.  Slow
moving, relatively deep water overlying softer sediments (pool) was
encountered in the Truckee River near the Steamboat Creek confluence.

     Ri'ffle communities were most abundant at the farthest upstream
                                                                      2
location on the Truckee River ranging from 7,638 to 13,275 organisms/m
[Table 15].  Abundance was also large at the most upstream riffle lo-
cation on Steamboat Creek (10,769/m ).  A pronounced depletion of or-
ganisms was observed at the first riffle location downstream from the
discharge, ranging from 2,884 to 4,592 organisms/m  .  Abundance then
returned to near upstream levels at the Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge,
1.9 km (1.2 mi) downstream from the discharge, with numbers ranging from
11,265 to 15,575 organisms/m  .  At subsequent downstream stations abun-
dance fluctuated between 3,317 and 12,247/m2, generally larger than the
riffle community samples just downstream from the discharge but somewhat
smaller than the upstream reference community.

     With the exception of one location just upstream of Steamboat Creek
along the south bank, macroinvertebrates in pool areas  numbered 61 to
1,919/m2 [Table 16].  At the  noted locality, abundance  was the highest
                                                  O
of any station sampled during  the  survey, 15,791/m  .  Unlike other pool
areas, this  station  contained  coarse  sand and cobbles that may have
provided an  enhanced habitat  for benthos.  A notable drop in abundance
occurred a few meters downstream in the mouth of Steamboat Creek  (1,205/m ),
followed by  a  further decrease at  the next  station  50 m downstream on
the  south bank (123/m2), and  a subsequent increase  300  m  farther  down-
stream  (711/m2).   Community abundance at midchannel and along  the north
bank downstream  from the discharge also  reflected  the  impoverished
conditions found  along  the  south bank.

-------
                                                                                    73
                                   Table 14

                     WCROINVERTEBRATE SAMPLING LOCATIONS
                                 TRUCKEE RIVER
                                  March  1977
Station Location
        Description
      Samples
   -1.80 TR
   -0.11 TR
   -0.01 TR
    0.00 TR
   -0.50 SC
   -0.10 SC
    0.01  TR
    0.20 TR
    0.25 TR
    1.20 TR
    3.40 TR
   10.30 TR
Streamwide riffle 1.8 miles
upstream from Steamboat Creek
confluence

Pool area 100 m upstream from
N. Truckee Drain confluence
Pool area just upstream from
Steamboat Creek confluence
Mouth of Steamboat Creek
Streamwide riffle on Steamboat
Creek upstream from WPCP
discharge

Streamwide riffle on Steamboat
Creek upstream from WPCP
discharge

Pool area just downstream from
Steamboat Creek confluence
Pool area downstream from
Steamboat Creek confluence
Steamwide riffle
Riffle areas along north and
south banks at Southern Pacific
RR bridge upstream of USGS gage

Riffle areas along north and
south banks at bridge at Mustang
1 ea., south, north
banks, midstream (burber
sampler).

1 ea., south, north
banks, midstream
(Petersen dredge).

1 ea., south, north banks,
midstream (Petersen
dredge).

1 @ midstream
(Petersen dredge).

1 @ midstream
(Surber sampler).
1 @ midstream
(Surber sampler).
1 ea., south, north
banks, midstream
(Petersen dredge).

1 ea., south, north
banks, midstream
(Petersen dredge).

1 ea., south, north banks,
midstream (Surber sampler).

1 ea., south, north banks
(Surber sampler).
1 ea., south, north banks
(Surber sampler).
Riffle area along north and south
banks at railroad bridge at Patrick.  (Surber sampler).
*  Negative numbers indicate  distances  (river miles) upstream of Steamboat
   Creek - Truckee  River confluence.

-------
                              Table -IS

                         RIFFLE COHHOUITIES
                     BENTHIC HACROIHVERTEBRATES
                        TRUCKEK RIVER, NEVADA
                             Harch 197?
Number of Macroinvertebrates/m*
Classification
Annelida
QHgochaeta
Enchytraeldae
Earthworms
Naididae
Tubiftcidae
Li-mydfilua cloporedianua
L. hoffneisteri
Pzccnorycitidea californionua
Tubifex tubifex
inrjiture uithout copilliform chaatoe
imatura uith copilliform chzetoe
Nematcda
-1.80TR+
SBt+ .M


54
SOB
71
22



11
-0.50SC -0.10SC 0.25 TR
NB M M SB M NB


108 22 11


270
540 11 454

"0 32 896 11 54
22 32
11
1.30TR
SB NB


11
,

32

22 11
 
11
3.40TR
SB NB





1210 22

1296 11
11

4.80TR 10.
SB NB SB




1]
11 11 151
32
22 248
108 11

30TR
NB




54
194

432

Platyhelminthes

Crustacea
  Amphipoda
      Hjulella aateea
      Gamarus
  Decopoda
      Astacue (?)

Acarl
    HydracaHna

Insecta
  Epheroeroptera
    Baetidae
      Ea-ctis
    Heptageniidae

    Epheierellidae
11
11
             184
                11
                                                                                                         11   11

                                                                                                         11
                                                                                 43
                                                                                                  108

                                                                                                  11
  Trlcorythldae
    Triaofjftliadea
    Coenis

Trichoptera
  Hydropsychidae
    fjdfops'johe
    C'r.c c-zrops-jche
  Hydroptilldae
    Agraylea
    Ockfotrichia
      11




2290  1102   205



205   43     464

119   475    3413
 7614  4050   464
 259   508    76
 11
97
                                                         1944
                       3175
                       22
                       821
                       518

                       184
                           32      22   443 421     324
                                          22   140
                                                                      22
                                        637 227     194   97   11    529
                                                    11
292

11

292  162
529   713



      32

      292
                                                                             22

                                                                             11
                                         227 886
                                         130 248
                                                           43
                                                                                                                 907   76
                                                                                                                 443
                                               11
335  1156  1901  378
216  378   2462  1706

                 11
                                                   11

-------
                                                                            rable l&  i    f  '
                                                                           Riri'LK COMHtli. '   -
                                                                       BE11TI1IC MACROIOVrJlTs: '''.'<..';?
                                                                          7RUCKEE. RTVER, NEVADA
                                                                               March 1977

Levcotrichia
Glossosorratidae
Agape tus
Glossoso-ia
Protoptila
Rhyacophilidae
P'r-jacopkila
Plecoptera
Chloroperlidae
Isogeiua
Isossrla
Coleoptera
Elmidae
Zaiszavia
h;:s\j't-lQ6puB
Lepidoptera
Pyralidae
Parzsyraciia
Diptera
trcpididae
He-.irsdroma
Tipulidae
!',"" 3 a
Simul i idae
Chlronoaidae
Tanypodmae
Chironominae
C/i^/*cpiCJrus
C?*r*'^r'o3fit7W(ViUff
P-'^^-rans^B
PsracZitJose Zroi
PoZ tycailicn
Tanytarsini
Oiameslnae
Poticijlia
Orthocladinae
 77'
Crirotosus
Sukifffarit I la
Orinoclcdiue
Tric'f.octadi-js
Triasoc ladius
PoectrocladiuB
Cafdioclcdiua
Total Number of Kinds
Total Nur.be r/r.2

-1.80TR1
SBt+ M
11
.
..

11

n 11


108 K
518 205


32 11


86 173 1
54


227 130


11










1598 454
54
162




20 19
13717 7638

N3
54



11




65
130


11


,901
292

22
270
n

n


302







1944

302




24
13275

-0.50SC
M






11






54

119



54

983
11
IV



32
22

11


4687





43
17
10769
	 Number of Nacrolnvertebrates/m 	 . 	
-0 10SC 0.25 TR 1.30TR 3.10TR 4.80TR 10.30TR
M SB M NB S3 N3 S3 N3 SB KS SB N3
410 119 54 400 11 3402 54 11 5194

43 11 140






108 108 >1
22 108 43


11


43 2614 1231 22 1588 756 853 11 583 86
464

22 22
32 454 572 65 1080 259 43 626 108 173 184
22
11 43 43
508 97 205 896
11 11 11
22
11
11

11
11 11 11 248 11



11
2365 367 259 205 8640 12960 2333 2398 5389 5152 227 324

11 11
184

11

12 9 16 15 13 11 13 8 12 10 12 18
2668 4592 4127 2884 11265 15575 7886 3317 12247 7593 5886 9924
                                                                                                                                                                             tn
-1.80 7V?t  -R'.-jcr miles front Stcorl-oat Creak Confluence  (0.00)
SStt       tt5S=SouSft Bank, M*Midotrean, HB=ftorth Bank

-------
                                                                    Table 16

                                                                 POOL COMMUNITIES
                                                            BENTHIC HACHOJNVERTEBRATES
                                                               THUCKEB RIVER, NEVADA
                                                                   tomh J077
                                                                                                                     CTl
                                                                              Humber of Hacrolnvertebrates/m
      Classification
-0.11TR
  SB
         SB
     -0.01TR '
       M     NB
                              O.OOTR
                                 M
                  SB
                                                                                                         0.03TR
                                                                                                           M
                         NB
          SB
                                                    0.20TR
                                                      H
                                                    NB
Annelida
  Qllgochaeta
    cnchytraeldae
    Earthworms
    Naididae
    Tublficidae
      Li-mcdrilus claparadiamu
     I. koffneiateri
      Psa-norysitidcs californionue
      Tubifes tubifes
      umsture uitlmut eopilliform choetoe
      imatura oith copilliform chaetoe
  Neiratcda

Platyhelminthes

Crustacsa
  Amphipoda
      Kjalella aetaca
      Ccrroruo
  Decopoda
      Aatacua (?)

Acarl
    Hydracarlna

Insecta
  Ephemaroptera
    Baetidae
      Bastis
    Heptagenlidae

    Epheirarellidae
      Esr-.air.erella
    Tricorythidae
      Tricoryt'aodae
      Caer.ie

  Trichoptera
    Hydropsychidae
      Kydropaycke
                                         46
                                         232
                                         46
          15
                 31
868
93
                                                                 46
         77
496
15
                                         31
                                                                                31
279
62
15
31
15

46
                  31
                                                                                                  15
93
356

93
356
93
15
                                                                                                                             46
                                                                                                                             77
2

31
                                                                                                       124
                                                                 15
                                          15
                                          15
Rydroptilidae
  Agraylea
  Ockrotrichia
                          542

                          8571    15
                          186
                          15

                          483
                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                   93
                                                           T5
                                                                                                       15
                                                                             31
                                                                      108

-------
      POOL   ::u:t!riKS
BEIITH1C ;.f/C'.. "VlV/.Ti BRATES
   TRUCKUE MVE-i, NEVADA


Classification
Le'ucotT'lc'nia
GlossosoTtatidae
fgspetus
Glossosom
Protoptila
Rhyacophilidae
p.'rfjccopriita
Plecoptera
Chloroperlidae
/sojer.us
Isoperla
Coleoptera
Emidae
Zcitzevic
Paxzcylloepua
Lepldoptera
Pyralidae
Pcrejyrectis
Dipt era
Enpldae
Re-.ervdrorna
Tipulidae
Antoc'rjL
Slmuliidae
CMroncmdae
Tanypodinae
Chi fonoim nae
Cufjp tss'f.'.forjona
Dicrotsrdipea
Erjioe'" ireroTM
Eirfsldic
Parse Icdcpe laa
Polypidil.ai
Tany'tarsinl
Dia.T.esinae
Orthocladinae
or-.ll'.s
Su'-icffcnella
Tric'roclcdiua
Trissoclcdiua
Psscirsclcdi.ua
Total Nu-.ier of Kinds
Total Nur.ber/ni2

Number of Macroinvertebrates/nr
-O.^ITR -0.01TR O.OOTR 0.03tR . b.^iU NB
SB H NB - SB M MB H SB fl NB E 

108
31
15 15
31 15 806
15 62 ,5
 15 31 15
15
365
93 31 15
15
31 " 62 1S 31  15
15 is 201 31  15
15
15
31 77 170 4185 46 496 852 108 15 651 186 124 93
62 248 46
15
31
10 35 18 28 8 4 3 12 6 (6 6
538 216 1573 15791 61 959 1205 216 123 1919 711 ' 309 339

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78
     Community structure in the study reach of the Truckee River re-
 flected a more extensive impact of the WPCP discharge than did abun-
 dance.  At the upstream riffle station, total types of organisms ranged
 from 19 to 24, the largest variety encountered in the entire reach.
 These were comprised of typically clean water invertebrates including
 Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera, and Trichoptera which made up
 from 52 to 86% of the total abundance.

     At the first riffle 400 m (1,300 ft) downstream from the discharge,
 a marked change was observed in the community along the south bank which
 was not reflected in the midstream or north bank populations.  Trichop-
 tera, Plecoptera, and Coleoptera were absent from this sample and Epheme-
                                                       2
 roptera were reduced to a relatively small number (44/m  or 1%).  The
 remaining groups included the tolerant Diptera and Oligochaeta, and one
 species of Lepidoptera (Paragyractis sp.).  Only 9 types of macroinver-
 tebrates were collected from this area.  At the midstream and north bank
 sampling sites, community structures resembled those found in reference
 riffle areas, although variety was reduced somewhat to 16 and 15 types,
 respectively.  Trichoptera, Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera accounted for
 52 and 68% of the respective abundances, similar to reference communities,
                                       
     Community structures at the next three downstream sampling sites
 differed from reference communities primarily by the predominance of
 tolerant Diptera, which comprised 57 to 90% of the invertebrates at all
 except the south bank station at the Lockwood bridge (34%).  At this
 latter station, another tolerant group, Oligochaeta, was equally as
 abundant as Diptera (32%).  Plecoptera were absent at all stations and
 Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Coleoptera were reduced considerably
 from reference levels (1  to 37% combined percentages).  Variety at these
 stations varied from 8 to 13 types, below reference levels.

     A return of community structure to near reference levels occurred
 at the last sampling site, 16.6 km (10.3 mi) downstream from the dis-
 charge at Patrick.  Here, variety was 12 and 18 on the south and north

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                                                                          79
 banks,  respectively.  Again, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera
 made  up the majority of organisms collected (85% on both banks).  Diptera
 were  reduced  to 5 and 7% on the south and north banks respectively,
 comparable to reference levels.

      Community structures on Steamboat Creek, upstream from the dis-
 charge,  reflected changing conditions as the point of discharge was
 approached.  At the farthest upstream sampling point (800 m upstream of
 the discharge), the riffle community contained Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera,
 and Coleoptera (45% of organisms) and a majority of Diptera (54%).  At
 the riffle station 200 m upstream of the discharge, Diptera comprised
 94% of  the community abundance while Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera
 contributed only 2%.  Plecoptera and Coleoptera were not found.  The
 community structure here is similar to riffle stations encountered at
 the second, third and fourth sampling locations on the Truckee River
 downstream from the discharge.  Due to its proximity to the discharge,
 the community structure at this station may be attributed to a backing
 up of the effluent during periods of high water.

      In  the pool  reach encompassing the Steamboat Creek discharge, com-
 munity  variety was generally lower than riffle station samples along the
 Truckee  River and in Steamboat Creek.   Total  types of organisms ranged
 from 2  to 12 at all  except the station immediately upstream of and
 adjacent to Steamboat Creek confluence.   This latter station,  previously
 sited for its abundance of macroinvertebrates, supported 18 types.  The
 atypical bottom type (i.e.  coarse sand and cobbles) may have accounted
 for this large variety, which included clean  water forms (Trichoptera,
 Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera)  noted at the reference riffle site.   These
made up 62% of the total  abundance.   Elsewhere in  the pool, 74 to  100%
of the macroinvertebrates  were tolerant Diptera and Oligochaeta.

     In terms of  variety,  a depletion  of total  types occurred  along the
south bank (discharge side)  of the Truckee River.   At the farthest

-------
GO
 upstream station,  across  and  upstream  of  North Truckee Drain,  10  types
 were  collected;  18 types  were found  at the  station  immediately upstream
 from  the discharge;  8  types were  found in the confluence; 4 types were
 found 50 m downstream;  and a  slight  recovery to 6 types was found 250 m
 farther  downstream.  Variety  along the north bank and mid-channel did
 not indicate  a response to plume  influence  as it did along the south
 bank  ("Effluent  Mixing  Study"  sub-section).  Total  types actually
 increased for some distance along the  north bank, from 5 types at the
 station  immediately  upstream  from north Truckee Drain, to 8 types just
 across and  upstream  from  the  discharge and  then to  12 types 50 m
 downstream  ^nd across from the discharge.  Types were reduced  to six
 250 m downstream,  indicating  the  influence of the effluent plume.


 ALGAL GROWTH

      The  Truckee River  at reference Station 200 contained low concentra-
 tions of  nitrogen  and phosphorus [Table 9].   Periphyton populations
 consisted of  diverse assemblies of diatoms as well as a few filamentous
 green algae.  Periphytic chlorophyll  ^concentrations averaged 20.8
 ug/cm  [Table 17].  The algal  growth potential  (AGP) test using this
 water stimulated 11.2 mg/1 dry weight of algae [Table 18].

     Downstream from the Reno-Sparks discharge,  nutrient concentrations
 in the Truckee River increased dramatically [Table 9].   Periphyton
 populations and peri-phytic chlorophyll  ^concentrations were  greatly
 reduced,  probably  by the toxicity of the effluent.   An  in-situ AGP test
 produced no growth.  This  AGP  test appeared  to  be  limited by  light and
 temperature, because similar laboratory tests produced  profuse algal
 growths.

     From Steamboat Creek  2.1  km (1.3 mi.) downstream to  the  gaging
station, the nutrient load was not being assimilated by algae.   This was

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                                                                          81
                              Table 17

               PERIPHYTIC CHLOROPHYLL a_ CONCENTRATIONS
                    TRUCKEE RIVER - RENO,  NEVADA
                      March 25 - April 7t  197?
Station
0200
0211
0220
0261
0270
0300
Location
Truckee River off Kimlick Lane
Truckee River Downstream from
North Truckee Drain 0.1 km
Steamboat Creek Upstream of
Reno-Sparks WPCP Discharge
Truckee River Downstream from
Steamboat Creek 0.1 km
Truckee River at USGS Gage
Station
Truckee River at SPRR Bridge
Near Patrick
Chlorophyll a_
(uq/cm2)
20.8
3.8'1'
3.5
0.3
2.3
34.5
t  Short Exposure (March 25 - April 1,  1977)

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      82
                                    Table 18
                ALGAL  GROWTH POTENTIAL TESTS - EFFLUENT ADDITIONS
                          TRUCKEE RIVER - RENO, NEVADA
                               March  - April, 1977


Addition
(*)
Reference
(100% Truckee
River Water)
5
10
25
50
Inorganic


Reno-Sparks
. WPCP

N (mg/1)

j.
Treated1
R/S WPCP

Total P


(mg/1 )


Selenastrum
Maximum Yield


Reno-Sparks Treated
WPCP

0.09

1.0
1.9
4.7
9.2

0.7
1.2
2.9
5.7

0.25
0.5
1.2
2.3
R/S

0.03

0.
0.
0.
0.
WPCP



05
08
15
26
(mg/1 dry weight)
Reno-Sparks
WPCP

11

38.9
69.8
333.2
431.1
Treated
R/S WPCF

.2

27.1
38.2
129.9
145.9
-t  Treated with 400 mg/l Ca(OH)

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                                                                         83
evidenced by low periphyton densities, low periphytic chlorophyll a_
concentrations, absence of in-situ AGP results, and high nutrient
concentrations.

     Algal growth recovered at the station farthest downstream at
Patrick (Station 300).  The periphytic chlorophyll a concentration was
          2                                        ~
34.5 yg/cm .  The diatom population was diverse and no evidence of
toxicity remained.  The nutrient concentrations remained high, 0.56 mg/1
total phosphorus and 2.15 mg/1 inorganic nitrogen.

     Laboratory AGP tests showed that the addition of Reno-Sparks ef-
fluent to the receiving water stimulated algal blooms.  Additions of
effluent (5 to 50%) stimulated 3 to 39 times more growth than occurred
without effluent additions [Table 18].

     The treatment of Reno-Sparks effluent with hydrated lime reduced
the phosphorus concentrations from 5.0 to 0.5 mg/1 (as P).   The AGP
tests using treated effluent produced up to 66% reduction of Selenastrum
growth compared to tests using untreated effluent [Table 18].

     Additions of nitrogen stimulated algal growth in the laboratory
using Selenastrum.  Laboratory tests conducted by the NEIC in the summer
of 1976 using Cladophora (indigenous to the Truckee River)  showed both
nitrogen and phosphorus stimulated growth.  Because.phosphorus is more
easily removed from wastewaters than nitrogen, it is the nutrient
usually chosen for control.  The AGP tests indicate that each reduction
of 1.0 yg/1 of phosphorus will produce a 0.14 mg/1 reduction in
Selenastrum or a 0.76 mg/1 reduction in Cladophova growths.

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                                                                       85
                              REFERENCES
1.   National  Academy of Sciences,  National  Academy of Engineering,
     1973.  "Water Quality Criteria 1972,"  EPA -  R3.73.033,  p.  187.

2.   R.  Lloyd, and L.D.  Orz,  1969.   The diuretic  response  of rainbow
     trout to sub-lethal concentrations of ammonia.   Water Res.,
     3:335-34/1.

3.   H.  Liebmann, 1960.   Handbuch der frischwasser and abwasserbiologie.
     II.  Munchen.

4.   P.  Doudoroff, and M. Katz, 1950.  Critical Review of Literature
     on the Toxicity of Industrial Wastes and Their Components  to
     Fish.  Sewage and Industrial Hastes. 22:1432.

5.   J.  C. Merkens, 1958.  Studies on the Toxicity of Chlorine  and
     Chloramines to the Rainbow Trout.   Water & Waste Trt. Jour.,
     (G.B.), 7:150.

6.   C.  Tasi, 1971.  Water Quality and Fish Life  Below Sewage Outfalls.
     Progress Report, Nation  Resources Institute, University of Maryland,
     College Park.

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            APPENDIX A



RENO-SPARKS NPDES PERMIT NV0020150

-------
  V V7
   t*no"*
                                                                  89
            UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               REGION IX
                           1OO CALIFORNIA STREET
                       SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA 94111
                                           Certified Mail No.  704718
:alvin J. Dodson                              January 10,  1975
)irector of Public v/orks
431 Prater Way
Sparks  NV  89431

Jear Mr, Dodson:

     In  accordance with the  provisions  of the Federal .VJater
Pollution Control Act  (33  USC  1251  et.ceq.),  the Environ.-ner.tal
Protection Agency has  reviewed the  following  application for a
ii.itional Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)  permit
to discharge was^ewaters:
     Discharger

Reno-Sparks Joint W?C Plant
                                   Application Mo./ NPDES Mo.

                                                    NV0020150
      This  Agency has published a public notice of tentative
 determinations regarding the above application..  After con-
 sideration of the expressed views of all interested persons  and
 agencies,  pertinent Federal statutes and regulations, and State
 action regarding cements or certification of che discharge,  the
 Regional Administrator has made his final determinations.

      Pursuant to 40 CF-R 125.35, the Regional Administrator
 is issuing a permit on this application, including certain  terrr.s
 ;.r::l conditions which he has determined are necessary  to  carry ouc
 th guidelines and requirements of the Act.  The final determinations
 have been significantly changed from the tentative determinations.
 The Regional Administrator is giving public notice of such  deter-
 minations.
                                        JAN 201975

                                   Bureau of Environmental Heall'n
                                     II TV II

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     90
     Enclos-d you'will find a copy of the notice and the



uitl'ss thlrets a kitten' request for an adjudicatory hearing
pursuant to 40 CFR 125.36(b).
 [40 CFR 125.36(b)].
                               Sincerely,
                                .x^ector,  Enforcement Division
                                           

 Enclosures
 cc-  t^evada Bureau of Environmental Health
      U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland
      COE, Sacramento District
      12th Coast Guard District
      Mr. Warren Meacham, Public Works Director, Reno

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                                                        Permit N.i. NV0020150
                                                        Application No.
91
                AUTHORIZATION TO DISCHARGE UNDER THE
          NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM
  Tn compliance with the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended,
  U.S.C. 1251 et. scq; the "Act"),
                      The City of Sparks
                      Public Works Department
                      431 Prater Way
                      Sparks  NV  89431
  ithorized to disehar^o   from Discharge Serial Mo.  001, the Reno-Sparks Joint
 Her Pollution Control Plant, located at 6500 Kimlick Lane  near Sparks, Nevada.
   eccivins waters named  Steamboat Creek (Latitude 39O31'3.7"M;  Longitude 11942I10.0"W)
   iccordancc with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements and other conditions set forth
   'arts I, II, and III hereof.

   This permit shall become effective on

   This permit and thr authorization to discharge shall expire at midnight,  May ^ 1977
   ned thU     day of  J/\N  1 U  13
                                              For  the Regional  Administrator
                                                                                //'
                                              Direct/or,  Enforcement Division
                                                                             '\J
.  -n3J.'?..4 (10-73)

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           LIMITATIONS ^ND MONITORING REQUIREMENTS (baccd upon a design treatment capacity

                                                of  Q.88m /sec, or  20
   r rj? JESS r sss^i sisss. <:>nc -M-JS&S-


   Such discharges shall be limited and monitored by the permittee as specified'below:

    Kr.,,,nNT        '                DISCHARGE LIMITATION'S.        '                 MONITORING REQUIREMENTS
 CMnA'^EliisTic:           kg/day(lbs/day)             .-Other. Units(Specify)         Measurement      Sar.ple
 -^-^:	        Average   -  Daily Max       Average"     Dally Max        Frequency       .Type
                  30-Day   7-Day    '            30-Day   7-Day                   Continuous      1   -
                   (1700)  1200 (2500)
spendodsolids*    1500(3400)2300(5000)  4600^10.000) 20HJ/1   30rn_g/l     -^         ay

ttlcablc Solids          ~        ~    :             ;_^.      __  m     .__           Daily          .Discrete

tel Residual chlotrine    -        "    !   j\       200/100ml 400/lOOml 2000/lOOml       Daily          Discrete
cal Coiiform Bacteria                 i                                             Daily          Discrete
tal Dissolved Solids'    --       ~    j    ""         __       __       __            vteckly        Composite

tal Phosphates
-oth-he influent and effluent shall be sampled.


">. shall be no discharge of toxic substances that cause violation of the provisions of water Cfcality standards for

- State of Nevada.
& r-^ t,,nl dissolved solids data shall be rcportfia

'   '"c: toi the voter supply and th3 efrlusn..
   ^ \^ ^ **>^ *^


c. The discharge shall not cause objectionable odors at the surface of the receiving waters.           .  ^ ^


d. mere nhall bo no discharge oC floa'iing colido or visible Coan in other than trace amounts,           15


o. Scr-plcs taken in cor-.plianc'e with.the- monitoring requirements specified  above shall be taken at the


   :Clir"in|cntfiar,JlMSohall be taken downstream from anv additions to the trunk sewer and prior to


   tre.-\tv..cnt.  .        -,--,.-    1   -*~r Prr- -nv -''ti~ from the  trcatncnt vork's and prior   ^
       r*ei         !<    .IT     r\    t\i    err   tti   >j       ~~                                g-^
 o o
  ">
*z
< ~

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                                                    PARTI
                                                                            93
                                                    FJCe  3   of  ig
                                                    PcimilNo.  NV 0020150
Rr.HEDULE OF COMPLIANCE
   The permittee shall  achieve compliance  with thn  efflueat limitations specified  for
   discharges in accordance with the following schedule:
    a. January  1,  1976 complete a facilities plan;  and by

    b. January  1,  1977 complete engineerir.c plans and specifications for
        facilities necessary to assure compliance with the effluent limitations
        specified in conditions I.E.4 and I.A.2.

    c.  Reports of progrsss with respect to achievement Df the above scheduled
        events shal'l be submitted to the Regional Administrator no later than
       July!, 1975 and July 1, 1976.
    No later than 14 calendar d?y<5 follcr.viTfq  a date identified in the'above schedule of
    compliance,  the permittee shall submit cither a report of prop-ess or, in the case of
    specific actions borne required by identified dates, a written notice of compliance or
    noncompliance. In the latter case, the notice sb.oll include the rause of nop.compliance.
    any remedial actions  taken, and  the probability  of meeting  the  next scheduled
    requirement.

    A  "schedule  of compliance" r.ear.s  a procran conposed of tv;o
    integral parts:    (o)  plan -  description  of new  or modified
    facilities  to treat  and dispose of the  effluent; and  (b)
    schedule -  a tirctablo scttinz? forth  the date by which all
    waste-waters  will be  in compliance with  the effluent limi-
    tations of  this pnmit.  The schedule  shall  include  (if
    appropriate)  dates  by which  the poraittec '..'ill  accomplish:

        a.   Completion of a preliminary engineering  plan report;

        b.   Completion of construction plar.p and  specifications;

        c.   Initiation of construction;

        cl.   Completion  of construction;

        c.   Demons I-rot 5 on of  co?.'.p3 i anre with cCfluont  limitations

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 B. 4.                                           (based upon a design treatment capacity
                                                  of 1.8 mVscc, r 40 mgd)
       Such discharges shall be limited by the permittee as specified below:
   EFFLUENT
CHARACTERISTIC
 Flownr/Day (MGD)

 Biochemical Oxygen
 Demand (5-day,  20C)

 Suspended Solids


 Total Phosphate


 Fecal Coliform
 Bacteria

 Scttleable Solids

 Dissolved Oxygen

 pH
                DISCHARGE LIMITATIONS
          kg/day (Ibs/day)         oTher Units (Specify)
     Average          Daily Max Average         Daily Max
 30-Day   7-Day
 1500
(3300)
 2300
(5000)
 3000     45*00
(6700)  (10,000)
                                                       30-Day  7-Dey
 4500     10 mg/1 15 mg/1
(10,000)

 9100     20 mg/1 30 mg/1
.(20,000)
  450
(1000)
  680
 (1500)
 1400
(3000)
 3.0mg/l 4.5mg/l   	

200/lOOml 400/lOOml 2000/lOOml
  ---      ---                0.1 ml/1 ---      0.2 ml/1

Shall be greater than 6.0 mg/1 at all times

Shall not be less than 6.5 nor greater than 8.5 at any time
                                                                                          VO.
 The discharge.shall not cause objectionable odors at the surface of the receiving waters.   r

 There shall be no discharge of floating solids or visible foam in other than trace amounts.c

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                                                             5   of 19            95
                                                         Pcrn.il No.  NV0020150
MONITORING AND REPORTING

1.  Representative Sampling

  Samples and measurements taken as required herein shall be representative of the volume
   and nature of the monitored discharge.

2.  Reporting
          
   Monitoring  results obtained during the previous  3   months shall be
   summarized  for each month  and submitted OP. fcms to be supplied by
   the Fxegional   Administrator,  to  the extent that  the information
   reported  may  be entered  on the forms.  The results  of  all monitor-
   ing required  by this permit shall be submitted in s.uch a format as  to
   allow  direct  comparison  with  the limitations  and requirements of
   this permit.   Unless otherwise specific:!, Jischargs: flows shall be
   reported  in terms of the avernga flow ovr  each 30-day period and
   the maximum daily flow over  that 30-day period.  Monitoring reports
   'shall  be  postmarked no later  than the 2fith day of  the  nonth following
   the completed reporting  period.   The first report  is due on  March 28,  19/o
             .   Duplicate signed  copies of these, and  .ill  other reports
   required  heroin, shnll be  submitted to the Regional Administrator
   and the  State at the following addresses:


   Regional  Administrator                 State of  Nevada
   Environmental Protection Agency     Department of Human Resources

   SSS'SlSir^trS?111"    -        B^auof Ene.al HeaUn
   Son Francisco  CA  94111             1209 Johnson Street
                                                Carson City NV 89701
 3. Definitions

   See Part  III.


 4.  Test Procedures

    Test procedures for t'nc ?.n;u:h |>r<;icc!urc3 may li ri-ij'.nrocJ.

 5.  Recording of /?cs/rs

    for each iiH-ajiirc-rnrnt or vur.plr Liken pursuant lo the ri-c-uiiVMOnts of Urn pi'rmi1.. tho
    pcrinillre sli:'.il rrnml tlu% fuJU'win;: iuff.im.
    a.  Thr ox act pl.uv, d.ilo. ;'.ntl l:nv of v;:r,-,pl:i;:;

    1). Tho cl.id-s t!ir .iiuily.-.-s wi-n- |-i-i i\.r!is- c!;

    C. Tlic porson(s) xv'no p'-rffirivn ! l!u- :;i.'!y^>.

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                                                             PAR*
        $6
                                                             IMP  6   Of    19
                                                             Permit No.   NV0020150
 d. The analytical technique* or methods used; and
 c. The result? of all required analyses.
' Additional Monitoring by Permittee
  above, the results wi aw-"""		     .          r^._
  the values required in the D.scharee MomtormR Report Form.
  increased frequency shall also he indicated.

,  Records Retention
  All  records and information resulting
  permit including all records of analyses Pp^^                           shall
^ instmentatinn*'^^                      or  lonsrr if requested  by the  Regional
  Adm^nfstrator^rthiTl^c water pollution control a-i-ncy.

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                                                                       of   19
                                                               pmiNo.  NV0020150        97
 ANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS
                          
 .  Change in Discharge

   All discharges authorized herein shall be consistent with the terms and conditions of this
   permit. The discharge of any pollutant identified in this permit more frequently than or
   at a  level  in excess of that authorized shall constitute a violation of the permit. Any
   anticipated facility expansions,  or  treatment             modifications which will
   result in  new,  different,  or increased  discharges  of pollutants must  be reported  by
   submission of a new NPDES application or, if such changes will not violate the effluent
   limitations specified in  this  permit, by notice to the permit issuing authority of such
   changes.  Following sucii notice, the permit may be modified to specify and limit any
   pollutants not previously limited.

2. Noncomplicice Nottficntion

   If, for any reason, the permittee does not comply  wi'h or will oo unable to comply with
   any  daily  maximum effluent l.rtmalion  specified  in this permit,  the permittee shall
   provide the Rcponal  Administrator  and the State with the following information, m
   writing, within fi\.e (o) days of becoming aware of such conditiov.

   a.  A description of the discharge and cause of noncompliancc; and

   b.  The period of noncompliancc. including exact dates and  ti n?s: or, if r.ot corrected,
       the anlicip.ited time  ilie  noiicomphance is expected to continue, and stops being
       taken to reduce, eliminate and prevent recurrence of the nor complying discharge.

 3. Facilities Operation

    The permittee shall at all  times mninta:n iZ-SOod working order and operate as efficiently
    as possible :ill treatment or control facilities or systems installed or used by the permittee
    to achieve compliance \\ith the terms and conditions of this permit.

 4.  Aducrse Impact

    The permittee  shall take nil reasonable steps to minimize any adverse impact to receiving
    waters result!:^  from noncompliance with any  effluent limitations specified in  this
    permit, including suth  atcckratrd or additional monitoring as necessary lo determine the
    nature and impart of the noneompK ing disch.irge.

 5.  Iiypc~sing

    Any diversion from  or bypass  of  facilities necessary to maintain compliance with the
    lorim ami comlilinii-. uf Ihr- pi-rinil is proliibit-d, i-xivpt (0 wlu-io unaxnul.ihle to prevent
    Ins; of life or syvvn* propi rly d.nn.-^o,  or (11)  v.here OXCCSMVO  storm  ilrain.i^i1 or runoff
    \vould dama-e any r.icilili'-s nercs<:r>- for eompli.inci1 with  Hie effluent limitations and
    prohil)ili'..ns"of  ihii  |ii-rniit.  Tl-.i-   pi-mullir  -lull prnnv.uly  notify thu  Hc-.oi-al
     Aclmini^tr.ilor and tl:- Siatr in \\iitii-s'of e.wh such d:u-r
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                                                          PART II
       98
                                                          pa.c  8  of   19
                                                          PcrmitNo.  NV0020150
 Removed Substances

 Solids sludges filter backwash, or other pollutants removed in the course of treatment or
 conuol of wasUwaters shall be disposed of in a manner such as to prevent any pollutant
 from such matenals from entering navigable waters.

.Safeguards  to  Electric Power  Failure

 See  Part III.
RESPONSIBILITIES

1.  Right of Entry
   credentials:

          enter upon the permittee's premises where an effluent source is located o,-in
         ich Iny  records are requ.red to be kept under the terms and cond.tion, of t.us

       permit; and
       monng method required in this permit; and to sample an

 2  Transfer of Ownership or Control





    Admtnhlralor and the Stale u.Ucr pollution control a-oncy.
 3.  Availability of K

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                                                                PART 11
                                                                                               99
                                                                Page  9   of  jg
                                                                Permit No.   NV0020150
   inspection  at the offices of  the  State water  pollution control agency and the Regional
   Administrator.  As required by the Act, effluent data shall not be considered confidential.
   Knowingly making any false statement on any such report may result in the imposition of
   criminal penalties as provided for in Section 309 of the Act.

.  Permit Modification

   After notice and opportunity for a hearing, this permit may be modified, suspended, or
   revoked in  whole cr in part during its term for cause including, but not limited to, the
   following:

   a.  Violation of any terms or conditions of this permit;

   b.  Obtaining this  permit  by misrepresentation or failure to disclose fully  aJl relevant
       facts; or

   c.  A change in any condition that requires cither a temporary or permanent reduction or
       elimination of the authonzed discharge.

r,  Toxic Pollutants

   *'ol\vithstanding Part II, R-4 above, if a toxic effluent standard or prohibition (includinj;
    .iiy schedule  of compliance specified  in such  effluent  standard or  prohibition)  is
   established under Scj.t-.on 307(a) of the Act  for a toxic pollutant uhich is present in the
   discharge and such standard or prohibition is more stringent than a- v limitation for such
   pollutant in this permit, trr.s permit shall  be  revised  or modified in accordance with the
   toxic effluent standard or prohibition and  tlije permittee so notified.

6. Cii'il end Criminal Liability

   Except as  provided  in  permit  conditions on  "Bypassing"  (Part  II,  A-5) and "Power
   Failures" (Part II,  A-7), nothing in  this permit  shall be construed 10 relieve the permittee
   from civil or criminal penalties for noncompliance.

7. Oil and Hazardous Substance Liability

   Nothing in this permit shall be construed  to preclude the institution of any le^al action or
   relieve the permittee  from  any responsibilities, liabilities, or penalties to which the
   permittee is or may bt- subject under Section 311 of the Act.

. Stf.tc Laius

    Nothin" in this permit shall bo construed to procli'.df the institution of .my lc;%il  action or
    relieve Jho pi-rmiitiv from  any n-spoi'.sihililirs. liabilities, or prr.-illu-i CitP.bh.Ou-d pi:rsunnt
    to r-.ny applicable St:iU' l.iw  or ri'^ul.ttinn umiiv authority pri's.'/vi'i' l;y Section 51U of the
    Acf.

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          100                                       Pa  10 pf  19  
                                                   p,,mitNo.NV0020150
Property Rights
           of this Pomit

                                               -          or local laws or
regulations.
Seuercbi/ity
                                     -
             ot .
       S off sS ^ron to oe^sta.    and h. ^.n^ of this pe^.t,
 shall not be affected thereby.
                             PART III
,R REQUIREMENTS


art  I.A.l.f
with the  results of  influent  and effluent nomtorxng.

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                                                 Page  11  of 19   101
                                                 Permit No. NV0020150

                            TART  III


OTHER REQUIRi:i:L::VS

    Part I. A. 2,   -X Tor cor, l:  r.eaiov.il

        Af tor the effective date of this permit            the  arith-
        metic nciir. of  the uioche:r.ical Oxy.jen Demand  (5-day)
        and Suspended  Solids  values,  by weight, for effluent
        samples  collected in a period of 30 consecutive  cal-
        endar days shall not exceed 15 percent of  the arith-
        metic mean of  the values, by weight, for influent
        samples  collected at approximately the same  times '   .
        during  the 3ara:  period*   If fewer than four  measure-
        ments are made during the 30 consecutive calendar day
        period,  then  compliance or non-conpliance  with this
        condition shall noc be determined.
        .          
    Part  I.B. 5,

        The r.ec/ional  Administrator nay,  upon request of the
        permittee,  and after public -notice, revise or modify
        a schedule  of compliance in  an  issuied  permit if he
        determines  good  and valid  cause (j;uch  as  an act of
        God, stride,  flood, macerials  shortage,  or other
        event over which the por.v.ittee  has  little  or no con-
         trol)  exists for such revision.

     Part  I.C.3.  Definiio.'..s

         a.  The  "30-day, or  7-day,  average"  discharge means
             the  total discharge  by weight during a 30, or 7,
             consecutive  calcr.dar day period,  respectively,
             divided by  the  nunxber  of cays in the period  that
             the  facility was  discharging.  Where less than
             daily sampling  is  required by this permit,  the
             30-ciay, or  7-day,  average discharge shall be
             determined  by  t'ne summation of all the measured
             discharges  by weiyhc divided by the number  of
             days during LiiC-  30,  or 7, consecutive calendar
             day  period  when the  measurements were made.

             If  fewer  tluin  four i.-.ortuuremonti; are made during  a
             30,  or V,  co:u-.c:c:-JLivc cujU-.iJiM d^-y :erioci,  then
             compJ iciiitv  or  r.L.-n-coMpli.i;ic^ wj Lli tl.e  30,  or 7,
             clay avora-jo discharge limitation j.hall  not  be

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                                                  t  III

   102                                         Page  12  of 19
                                              Permit Mo. NV0020150


    b. .The  "daily maximum"  discharge means the total
        discharge by weight  during any calendar day.
                            i
    c.  The  "30-day, or 7-day,  average" concentration,
        other  Liian for fecal or total coliform  bacteria,
        means  the arithmetic mean of measurements made
        during a 30, or 7, consecutive calendar day pe-
        riod,  r--.jsjj-2ct.ivi.ly.   Tho "30-day, or  7-day,  aver-
        age" concvjntr.-ition for  fecal or total coliform
        bacteria ii:o
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                                             Page  13  of 19   103
                                             Permit No. NV0020150
    listed in the monitoring  requirements shall apply for
    the duration of each such intermittent discharge.  In
    no event shall the permittee  be required to monitor
    and record data moro ofcen than twice the frequencies
    listed in the monitoring  requirements.

Part I.C.9.  Monitoring ''edification

    .Monitoring, analytical, and reporting requirements may
    be modified by the Regional Administrator upon due
    notice.

Part II. A. 2.  Non-comr?liance  Notification

    Non-compliance with tlus conditions of this permit due
    to causes outside  the  reasonable control of the permit-
    tee shall nnc be cc-encei oy the Regional Administrator
   - to be violations of the terms anci conditions of this
    permit.

Part II.A.6.  Removed  Substances

    The return of scuecniiK.-s, sludqes, and other solids
    into  the waste  treatment  facility is permitted if the
    effluent limitations  prescribed by this permit arc not
    violated thereoy.

Part II.A.7.  Safeguards  to Klcctric Power Failure

    a.  The permittee  shall,  within ninety  (90) days of
        the effective*  date of this permit, submit to the
        Regional Aor-inistrator a description of the exist-
        ing safeguards  vrovidcjd to assure: that, should
        there be reduction,  lo=s, or faijure of electric
        'power, the  porir.ittee  she. 11 comply with the terms
        and cor.dil. tcv.s  of this permit.  Such C Cecjuarcs
        may include  alternate power sources, standby cien-
        erators, r-.-LoMLion capacity, operating procedures
        or other ir.cans.   A do^cnplion of the safeguards
        provided siKill  ir.ciucc an analysis of the fre-
        quency, 'UiruLiop.,  ant; iMpacl oL' pov/er failures,
        cxpericMicc-cJ  ovor  the  p^ut five years, on offlutiiit
        quality amj  a\ Liu: capability of  the t-'Orm-Li-tc
        to coi.'.ply '.i'.:i {*.'. t...-i:-.L.- ;i:id condiLions of tho
        pernit.  Tuo ai.iui:uac- of t!ie s-afocj-jnuci:; is subject
         to the approvii]  o.1. tin- Keirional Adninistrator.

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                                            PART  III

  104
                                            Page  14  of  19
                                            Permit  No.  NV0020150


    b.  Should tlie treatment works not  include  safeguards
        against reduction, -loss, or  failure of  electric
        power, or, should the Regional  Administrator not
        approve the existing safeguards,  the  permittee
        shall, within ninety  (90) days  of the effective
        date of this permit, or within  ninety (90)  days
        of having been advised by the Regional  Administra-
        tor that the existing safe-guards  are  inadequate,
        provide to the Regional Administrator a schedule
        of compliance for providing, not  later  than July 1,
        1977, safeguards such that in the event of  reduc-
        tion, loss, or failure of electric power, the
        pernit Lee shall corr.ply with  the terms and condi-
        tions of this permit.  The schedule of  compliance
        shall, upon approval of  the  Regional  Administrator,
        become a ^condition of this permit.

Part II.A.8.  Flow Hate Notification

    The permittee shall notify the Regional Administrator
    and State Agency by letter not later  than 90 days
    after the 30-day average daily dry-weather  discharge
    flow rate first equals or exceeds  85C: of  the design
    treatnant capacity of  the permit tee15; facility  given
    in Part I./i. above.  The  letter  shall include:
                                                     .
    a.  The 30-day average daily discharge flow rate;  the
        elate on which the  instantaneous pefik  discharge
        flow occurred; the rate  of that peak  flow;  and
        the total flow for that  day;

    b.  The permittee's estimate of  when  "he  30-day aver-
        age dry-weather discharge  flow  ra^e will equal or
        exceed the design  treatment  capacity  of the per-
        mittee's facility;

    c.  The porroittctt's schedule of  cor.ipli.nnco  to provide
        additional Lreatnv.inu  capacity before  the 30-day
        average daily clry-v:cathrjr discharge  flow rate
        equals the present dcuign  treatment  capacity of
        the permittee':; i'ucility.

    The pcrnil.tcie shall ir.plor.ent  and  r;omp".y  with the  pro-
    visions of t'lC: schedule  of compliance: at'tor approval
    by  the Kcqioruil Acis-.ini utrator, jncluuinc;  in .saic7 iir.ple-
    iftontation or.d conp! i^nrc  any acUIi;.ion:i or modifications
    v;hic!i LiiO Kuqioiuil yVi:
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                                             Page   15  of 19     105
                                             Permit No.  NV0020150
Part II.A.9.   Prctreatment of Industrial Kastcwatcrs

    a.  Submittal of Information

        The"permittee shall submit  to  the  Regional
        Administrator:

        1.  Not later than one year from  the effective
            date of this permit,  the information described
            in Section IV of EPA  Form  7550-22 for each
            major contributing industry;

        '2.  At least thirty days  prior to its initiation,
            notification of any new introduction of pol-
             lutants from sources  which,  ..1: they v;ere to
            discharge to the waters of the* United States,
             including the territorial  seai;, would be  (a)  a
             new source as defined in Section 306 of the
            Act, or  (b) a major contributing industry
             subject to Section  301 of  th-B Act.  The noti-
             fication in  (a) &  (b)  above 3-hall include  the
             infomacior. described in Section IV of EPA
             Form 7550-22;

         3.   Notification of any, substantial change  in
             volume or character  of pollutants discharged
             by an existing source.  Such notice shall
             include-th-e  isrformation described in Sec-
             tion IV of LPA Form 7550-22 and the antici-
             pated impact, if  any, on the quality or
             quantity  of  effluent  discharged from the
             permittee's  facilities.

         After receipt and review  of such  information,  the
         Regional Administrator may rovisa  or modify  the
         conditions  of  this pernit, including any necessary
         effluent  limitations  for  any pollutants not iden-
         tified  and  limited herein.

     b.  Control  of  Industrial Pollutants

         1.  The  pormi tl-oo shall  r<."juii:<.> all  incliir;LriK-f  ;uul  307 of  tlv> Act.  All
             exirl. Ir.ci  major  ironl ribul.i IKJ  i MI!;IJ I r n*a
             pl).j 1 1  l)i.%  i'-.' ii i n-fi to ffMiijily \-:itli pri'-t coa t-
             r.u.-iit.  r;l .ii-i'.-,:\:.;  fuj- :ri;hibi ' i:J  Wtist iv,  and
             inco:;vtitiL IP li  i.ol 1 in ;pil:. viithit^ the-  s.l-.ort-
             OKt  ro.i!;o'Vi:>J'.-  Lir.;o b-.il- not  1,-itof  than three

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                                         I' alT J I f
106
                                         Page  16   "f   19
                                         Permit Mo. NV002C150.


       years fron the date  of their promulgate on.
       New industrial sources shall be required to
       compiv v:f.n yre treatment standards pronul-
       gatod* pursvant to  Section 307 (c)  of  the Act
       uucn initiation  of 'heir discharge to the
       permittee's facilities.

    2.  The permittee shall within 12 months of the
       effective d.:\t:e of  this permit,  submit  to the
       Regional Administrator for eac.i major  contrib-
       uting indus r.ry either  (a) evidence of  compli-
       ance "with pretrcit.-n9:it standards  pronmi.qat'.ad
       pursuant to Sec-i-"i 307 (b) of  the Act,  or
        0>:  a report, OP a forr,  to be  Eurnisheci by
        tho  /idninistr-i'-or  which  shall  set forth. the
        effiuen1-  ".iriitb  -.o be  achieved and a sch
        of co-r-rjl'.cjrc-i  for trie  achievement oi the
        3ir.u*.s" ':;y  L:in  required date.   ouch comvl
        schedules  snail  in every case orovide for the
        initiation,  of  any needed construction ol
        pretrea:^>ent  facilities  within -'i.8 months of
        the  dace  of promulgation of  applicable
        pre treatment  standards.

c.  Compliance l-'.oni toring

    1.  The pcrr.it tee shall  monitor the  compliance  of
        all affected-sources  with the provisions of
        this condition  ana  shall submiz  quarterly
        reports  on the  status of such compliance tc
        the Reuional Administrator.   Thes^  quarter'.'/
        corapliancc reporra  shall cover t.hc  sar.v. pf.ciods
        and shall be subr.it ted on the  .same  schn'lalc is
        the monitoring  reports require-:  by  vop-'iiti.
        I.C. 2 of' t.his -.icrnit. be.ginnincj  one yar at
        the effective date of this perni*..

     2.  The permittee nhall report quarterly  to the-
        Rccjionol Ada-: nis- r-itoi' each  ir.sl-aj.c--'  of cnn
        pJianco ;jr no-i-con-.r-ii-ince by  a:-.  .iLi"<:cr.c-d
         source v-ith the provisions of  c-otp:lia:u;t:
         schedules  i-u:-.v.Lt.:.?f: -:u  rctiuiroc:  by  &uh-
         paragrctph  b. of :!iis  condition.
     3.  Tin: VMStoyal.-.'i  f'o-: of each  aficcfi'Tl
         that  i  :^.cl  covcrff! ;jy -i  c-irront coiri;.- '. \ ai:c'-
         Kcheciul-  :ih.::L  h.: ,.i::ii tore-:  l--y t-'ifc jifi sr.-. t1 o
         or uL i.'.ic- liirc-cLi.;.*. of  the noir.ii LLuc , l-y

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                                             III
                                                              107
                                        Pacje   17 of  19
                                        Permit Mo. NV0020150
       the  source,  or by both,  in such a manner
       and  frequency so as to produce information
       that will  demonstrate to the satisfaction of
       the  Regional Adninistrator compliance or non-
       compliance with the pretreatment standards
       applicable to such source.  Such monitoring
       shall  comply with Parts 1, 3, 4r 5, 6,  7, and
        8 of Condition I.e.  The results of such moni-
        torinc shall be reported by the permittee on
        the Discharge Mor.itonnc Report Form  and. shall
        be included in the quarterly  compliance report
        described in  1. above.

d.  Definitions

    1.  An "industry" means  any facility  identified in
        the Suar-.da::d  Industrial Classification  Manual,
        1972,  Office  of  Man ac or.cn t and Budget,  as
        amended and  supplemented,  under the following
        divisions:

         (a)   Division A - Agriculture, Forestry,
              and  Fishing;

         (b)   Division B - Mining;

         (c)   Division D - Manufacturing;

         (d)   Division E -"Transportation, Communica-
              tions, Electric, GdS, and Sanitary
              Services;

         (e)   Division I - Services.
                           i
                  
         A facility in the Divisions  listed may be
         excluded if  it is determined by  the  Regional
         Administrator  that  it introduces  primarily
         domestic wastes  or  wastes  from sanitary con-
         veniences .

     2   A "mu-jor contributing industry"  moans  one
         that:"  (1)  has  a flov; oC  50,000  cjalions or
         roo-'-c per avcra^fr work dciy;  (2)  has a flow
         greater  ihiin five  percent of tho f lev  curried
         by the nu:iicipi system  reccivi:'.'] the  waste;
          (3)  has  in  i'.is v;ar,t-j n  toxic pollutant in
          toxic ;i!i.:r:-it-s  --s c]'.:.firjod in sUindaros  issued
          uncler So ~L j f.:\ id": (n)  o r  tho Act; or ('.) 1 s
          found by  I ho Ho.jioiuil  Adr.-.i r.isLrotor to have
               icunt in^acl, cither singly or  in

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                                       V, KT III
108
                                        Page  18  of  ig
                                        Permit Mo. NV0020150
                                             

        combination v;ith other contributing industries,
        on the treatment works or the quality of its
        effluent.

    3.  A "treatment works" means any facility, method
        or system for the storage, treatment, recy-
        cling, or reclamation of municipal sewage or
        industrial wastes of a liquid nature, includ-
        ing waste in cosnbined storm water and sanitary
        sewer systems.

    4   "Prohibited wastes" means any of the  following
        wastes, which shall not be introduced into the
        treatment works:

         (a)  y:astes which  create  a fi::c or  explosion
             hasard in  the treatment works;
                                             
         (b)  V.Tastcs which  will cause  Corrosive  struc-
              tural damage  to  treatment  works, but in
              no case wastes with" a pH 'lower than 5.0
              unless the works is designed to accon-jr.o-
              date  such  wastes;

         (c)   Solid or  viscous wastes  in amounts which
              would cause obstruction  to the flow in
              sewers,  or other interference with the
              proper- operation of the treatment works;
              or

         (d)   Wastes at a flow rate and/or pollutant
              discharge rate which is excessive over
              relatively short time periods so that
              there is a treatment process upset  and
              subsequent loss of treatment efficiency.

     5.  An "incompatible pollutant" msans  any pollu-
         tant which is not  a compatible pollutant.

     6.  A "compatible pollutant" means biochemical
         oxyor.n der,us:i:i,  suspended solids, pll  and  feca-
         co]ifoL-m bacteria, plus  additional pollutants
         identified as  compatible in  this permit if
         the  trcatmonL i;oukr-  wjs  designed  to treat
         such  uonutantu,  and  in fact doer,  remove such
         pollutants to  a substcmLial  dcjroo.

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                                            PART III
                                                             109
                                            Page  19  of  19
                                            Permit l!o. NV0020150
Part III.A.  Reapplication

    If the permittee desires to continue to discharge, he
    shall reapply not later than 180 days before this per-
    mit expires, on the application forns then in use.

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           APPENDIX B



NEIC CHAIN OF CUSTODY PROCEDURES

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                                                                                       113
                            ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                      NATIONAL  ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS CENTER

                             CHAIN OF  CUSTODY  PROCEDURES
                                     June 1, 1975
GENERAL
The evidence gathering portion of a  survey should  be  characterized  by  the  minimum
number of samples required to give a fair representation  of  the  effluent or  water body
from which taken.  To the extent possible, the  quantity of saniples  and sample  loca-
tions will be determined prior to tne survey.

Chain of Custody procedures must be  follov/ed to maintain  the documentation necessary
to trace sample possession from the  time taken  until  the  evidence  is  introduced  into
court.  A sample is in your "custody" if:

     1.   It is in your actual physical  possession,  or

     2.   It is in your view, after  being in your  physical possession, or

     3.   It was in your physical possession and then you locked it up in  a  manner so
          that no one could tamper with  it.

All survey participants will receive a copy of  the survey study plan and will  be
knowledgeable of its contents prior  to the survey.  A pre-survey briefing  will be hslc
to re-appraise all participants of the survey objectives, sample locations and Chain
of Custody procedures.  After all Chain of Custody sanoles are collected,  a  de-briefing
will be held in the field to determine adherence to Chain of Custody procedures  and
whether additional evidence type samples are required.


SAMPLE COLLECTION

     1.   To the maximum extent achievable, as  few people as possible should handle
          the sample.

     2.   Stream and effluent samples shall be obtained,  using standard field sampling
          techniques.

     3.   Sample-tags  (Exhibit  I) shall be  securely attached to the sample container
          at the time  the complete  sample  is collected and shall contain,  at a minimum,
          the following  infornation:  station number, station location, data taken,
          time  taken,  type  of sample, sequence nun,ber  (first sample of the day -
          sequence No.  1, second  sample  -  sequence No. 2, etc.), analyses required ar.d
          samplers.  The  tags must  be legibly filled out in ballpoint  (waterproof ink).

     4.   Blank samples  shall also  be taken with  preservatives which will  be analyzed
          by the  laboratory to  exclude  the  possibility of container or preservative
          contamination.

      5.   A pre-printed,  bound  Field Data  Record  logbook shall be maintained  to  re-
          cord  field  measurements and other pertinent  information necessary to refresh
          the  sampler's  memory  in the event he  later  takes  the stand  to testify  re-
          garding  his  actions during  the  evidence gathering activity.  A  separate
          set  of field notebooks  shall  be maintained  for each survey  and  stored  in a
          safe  place  where  they could be  protected and accounted for  at all times.
          Standard formats  (Exhibits  II  and III)  have  been  established to minimize
          field entries  and include the  date,  time,  survey, type of samples taken,
          volume of  each sample,  type of analysis, sample numbers, preservatives,
          sample location and field measurements  such  as temperature,  conductivity,

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  114
          DO,  pH,  flow  and any other pertinent information or observations.  The
          entries  shall  be signed by the field sampler.  The preparation and conser-
          vation of  the field logbooks during the survey will be the responsibility
          of the survey coordinator.  Once the survey is complete, field logs will be
          retained by the survey coordinator, or his designated representative, as a
          part of  the permanent record.

     6.   The field  sampler  is responsible for the care and custody of the samples
          collected  until properly dispatched to the receiving laboratory or turned
          over to  an assigned custodian.  He must assure that each container is in his
          physical possession or in his view at all times, or locked in such a place
          and manner that no one can tamper with it.

     7.   Colored  slides or  photographs should be taken which would visually show the
          outfall  sample location and any water pollution to substantiate any con-
          clusions of the investigation.  Written documentation on the back of the
          photo should  include the signature of the photographer, time, date and site
          location.   Photographs of this nature, which may be used as evidence, shall
          be handled recognizing Chain of Custody procedures to prevent alteration.


TRANSFER OF CUSTODY  AHD SHIPMENT

     1.   Samples  will  be accompanied by a Chain of Custody Record which includes the
          name of  the survey, samplers' signatures, station number, station location,
          date, time, type  of sample, sequence number, number of containers and analy-
          ses required  (Fig. IV).  When turning over the possession of samples, the
          transferor and transferee will sign, date and time the sheet.  This record
          sheet allows  transfer of custody of a group of samples in the field, to the
          mobile laboratory or when samples are dispatched to the HEIC - Denver labora-
          tory. When transferring a portion of the samples identified on  the sheet  to
          the field mobile  laboratory,  the individual samples must be noted in the
          column with the signature of  the person relinquishing the samples.  The field
          laboratory person receiving  the samples will acknowledge receipt by signing
          In the appropriate column.

     2.   The field custodian or  field  sampler, if a custodian has not been assigned,
          will have the responsibility  of properly packaging and dispatching samples
          to the proper laboratory  for  analysis.  The  "Dispatch" portion of the  "Chain
          of Custody Record shall be  properly filled out, dated, and  signed.

     3.   Samples  will  be  properly  packed in shipment  containers such as ice chests,  to
          avoid breakage.   The  shipping containers will be padlocked  for shipment to
          the receiving laboratory.

     4.   All packages will  be  accompanied by the Chain of Custody Record  showing iden-
          tification of the contents.   The original will accompany the shipment,  and a
          copy will be retained  by  the  survey coordinator.

     5.   If sent by mail,  register the package with  return  receipt requested.   If  sent
          by common carrier, a  Government Bill of  Lading should be obtained.   Receipts
          from  post offices, and  bills of  lading will  be retained as  part  of the  perma-
          nent Chain of Custody documentation.

     6.   If samples are delivered  to the  laboratory  when appropriate personnel  are not
          there to  receive  them,  the samples  must  be  locked  in  a  designated area  within
          the  laboratory in a manner so that  no  one  can  tamper  with them.   The  same per-
          son must  then return to the laboratory and  unlock  the samples  and deliver
          custody to the appropriate custodian.

-------
                                                                                        115
LABORATORY CUSTODY  PROCEDURES
                  storage  security area."  This should be a clean, dry, elated room   -
          which can be securely  locked from the outside.

     2.   All samples should be  handled by the minimum possible number of persons.

     3    All incoming samples shall  be received only by  the custodian, who will in-
          dicatc receipt by signing  the Cham of Custody  Sheet accompanying the samoles
          and retaining the sheet as  permanent records.   Couners  picking up  samples at
          tte a?rnlrl"gpost office,  etc.  shall sign  jointly with  the  laboratory custodian,

     4    Immediately upon receipt,  the custodian  will  place the  sample  in  the sample
          room  which will be locked at all  times  except  when  samples are removed  or
          Seed by the custodian.   To  the maximum extent possible, only  the custo-
          dian should be permitted in the sample  room.

     5    The custodian shall ensure that heat-sensitive  or light-sensitive samples,
          or other sample materials having unusual physncal characteristics,  or  re-
          quiring special handling, are properly stored and maintained.

     6.   Only the custodian will distribute samples to personnel who are to  perform
           tests.

      7    The  analyst will record in his laboratory notebook or analytical worksheet,
           identifying information describing the sample, the procedures oerforMd
           and  the  results of tne testing.  The notes shall be dated and indicate wno
           performed  the  tests.  The notes shall be retained as a permanent record in
           the  laboratory and should note any abnormal ties which occurred during the
           testing  procedure.   In the event that the person who performed the tests is
           not  available  as a witness at time of trial, the government may be able to
           introduce  the  notes  in evidence under the Federal Business Records Act.

      8    Standard methods of  laboratory analyses shall be used as described in the
           "Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for Analysis of Pollutants,
           38 F.R.  28758, October 16, 1973.   If laboratory  personnel deviate from
           standard procedures, they should be prepared to  justify their decision dur-
           ing  cross-examination.

      9    Laboratory personnel are  responsible for the care and custody of  the sample
           once it is handed  over to  them and should be prepared to testify  that the
           sample was in their  possession and view or  secured  in the laboratory at all
           times from the moment it was received  from  the  custodian until  the tests
           were run.

     10.   Once the sample testing  is  completed,  the  unused portion of  the sample  to-
           gether with all  identifying  tags  and  laboratory records, should be returned
           to the custodian.   The  returned  tagged  sample will  be retained  in the  sample
           room until it is required  for trial.   Strip charts  and  other documentation
           of work will  also be turned  over  to the custodian.

     11.   Samples, tags and laboratory records  of tests may be destroyed  only  upon  the
           order of the  laboratory director, who  will  first confer with the Chief,
           Enforcement Specialist Office, to make certain  that the information  is  no
           longer  required or  the samples have deteriorated.

-------
116
                           EXHIBIT I
EPA, NATIONAL
Sj Station No.
ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS CENTER
i Dale | Timo Sequence No.
g Station Location
"^ BOD
YI
)' SsSi
con
Mulrienlc


Molalf
Oil cr.H Grcaso
DO
, Barf.
,^ OiKor,

Samplers:
Sv
firnk
romp

Romarb/Prosorvalivo:
                              Front
               ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                       OFFICE OF ENFORCEA/iENT
             NATIONAL ENFORCEMENT  INVESTIGATIONS CENTER
            BUILDING 53, BOX  25227,  DENVER FEDERAL CENTER
                      DENVER, COLORADO  80225
                              Back

-------
                                                                                 EXHIBTT'II
                                                           SURVEY, PHASE.
            DATE
: OF SAMPLE.
'ANALYSES   REQUIRED
MION
IW3ER











STATION DESCRIPTION











TOTAL VOLUME ' |











TYPE CONTAINER











PRESERVATIVE '
%










NUTRIENTS











Q
O
CO











Q
0
U











U
O
>











1 TOTAL SOLIDS |











| SUSPENDED SOLIDS











>-
~*
<
u.
<











O
a











z
a











!
>
-}.
o
u












UJ
IX
3
"<
L^J
O
^
UJ
r











| TOTAL COll FORM











FLG'.L COLIFORM











>-
Q
u:
ra
*











UJ
en
<
iu
ce.
O
O
<
6











S1V1JVY











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<
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1


IJV.Cr. OKGANICS I











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-------
                                         EXHIBIT III
                        Sampler*: __J_
                                                               09
FIELD DATA RECORD
STAT10M















NUMBER











'



DATE















TIME















TEMPERATURE
c















CONDUCTIVITY
fj. mhos/cm















pH
S.U..















D.O.
mg/J















Gcgc Ht.
or Flow
Ff. or CFS
"










-------
                ' .  JUl I  1 *

  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
           Office Of Enforcement
 NATIONAL ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS CENTER
   Building 53. Box 2522X, Dorwer Federal Center
           Denver, Colorado  60225

     CHAIN OF CUSTODY  RECORD
119
SURVEY
STATION
NUMBER













STATION LOCATION

.










DATE






* *





lelmquished by: (s.3natuie)
lelinquished by: {Signature;
Iclinquishcd by: (S,gnoiurt)
Relinquished by: is^noiuie)
>ispaklicd by: (S.gno/urej
Dole/
TIME


-









SAMPLERS: (s>gnoiu,}
SAMPIE IYPE
Woler
Comp












Grab












Air












SEO
NO












NO OF
CONIAINERS












ANALYSIS
REQUIRED





"






Received by: fs.gnoiure;
Received by: (s,gnon,ic)
Received by: (S.gnaiutr)
Received by Mobile Laboratory for field
analysis: (s.gnoiu/t;
Time
RcccivcrJ for Laboratory by:
/iclhod of Shipment:
Dale/Time
Dale/Time
Dale/Time
Date/Time

Dale/Time

Distribution:  Orig. Accompany Sliipmcnl

-------
                    APPENDIX  C



METHODS, ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES AND QUALITY CONTROL

-------
                                                                         123
BACTERIOLOGICAL

     Bacteriological analyses of fecal coliform bacteria were performed
according to standard procedures using the Most Probable Number tech-
      *
nique.   Using acsptic techniques, all samples were collected in sterile
bottles prepared by the accepted procedure.

     Salmonella sampling involved placement of sterile gauze pads at the
sampling sites for 3-day periods.  The pads were retrieved aseptically,
placed in sterile plastic bags, chilled, and transported to the labora-
tory within one hour for analyses.  There is no standard procedure for
detection of Salmonella in surface waters.  The method employed by NEIC
                                               **
is the elevated temperature technique of Spino,   with modifications.
Selective enrichment media consisted of dulcitol-selenite broth.  Incu-
bation temperature was 41.5C (107F).  On each of four successive days,
growth in each of the enrichment media containing the pads was streaked
onto selective plating media that consisted of xylose-lysine-deoxychlolate
agar.  After 24 hours incubation at 35C, colonies with characteristics
typical of Salmonella were picked from the plates and subjected to
biochemical and serological identification.
BIOASSAY

     All 96-hour bioassays were performed according to standardized
methods.  A continuous-flow proportional diluter provided a series
of six effluent concentrations plus a 100% dilution water control.
 * Rand,  M.  et al.3 1975.   Standard Methods for- Examination of Water
   and Vasteuater,  14th Ed. 3 Amer.  Public Health Assn.3 New York, N. Y.
** Spino, D.  F.  July, 1966.   Elevated Temperature Technique for the
   Isolation of Salmonella from Streams.   Applied Microbiology, 14, 4;
   American Society for Microbiology.

-------
124
     Dilution water was obtained from the Truckee River 2.9 km (1.8
mi.) upstream from the Reno-Sparks WPCP.  Effluent water was siphoned
directly from the plant source, flowed continuously through 120 liter
stainless steel reservoirs and then pumped directly into the diluter
system.  A continuous flow was maintained to reduce the possibility of
toxicant loss between the effluent discharge and the diluter system.

     Test chambers were immersed in a constant temperature water bath
to minimize temperature variation throughout the 96-hour test.  Water
flow through the system provided a minimum of nine volumetric turn-
overs for each test chamber for a 24-hour period.

     Each test chamber was monitored daily for pH, temperature, and
dissolved oxygen.  Temperature variation of the test water was main-
tained at +_ 1C for the 96-hour duration of the bioassays.  Dissolved
oxygen levels ranged from 5.0 to 10.5 mg/1 and were never below 60% of
saturation.  In addition, chlorinated effluent was monitored for tem-
perature, dissolved oxygen, and pH at 30-minute intervals using a re-
cording instrument.

     Bioassays were conducted for 96 hours and mortalities were recorded
at 24-hour intervals.  EC5Q values were estimated by using a straight
line graphical  interpolation method.
BENTHOS

     Benthic macroinvertebrates were quantitatively sampled, using a
Peterson dredge or Surber sampler at one to three sites (cross-stream
transects) per station.  In addition, qualitative samples were taken
at each location by sampling available habitats, including the screening
of sediments and manual removal of organisms from beneath submerged
rocks, logs and debris.  In the laboratory, the 70% alcohol-preserved

-------
                                                                          125
 samples  were  separated  from the  debris,  identified  and  counted.   Results
 of quantitative  sampling were  expressed  as  numbers  of organisms  per
 square meter  of  stream  bed.
 ALGAL  GROWTH  POTENTIAL

     Algal  growth  potential  (AGP) tests were  performed as outlined  in
 Algal  Assay Procedure-Bottle Test, August, 1971.   Water samples from
 the Reno-Sparks WPCP effluent and the Truckee River were used for AGP
 tests  and related  nutrient analyses.  Samples for AGP tests were auto-
 claved to kill indigenous algae.  An inoculum of the green alga
 Selenastrwn capricornutum (standard test organisms) was added to  each
 test container.  Receiving water was collected from the Truckee River
 near Kimlick  Lane  (Station 0200).  Effluent from the Reno-Sparks WPCP
 was treated to remove phosphorus and duplicate serial additions of
 treated and untreated effluent were made to receiving water.  Nitrogen
 and phosphorus additions were also made to receiving water.  Standard
 test conditions (volume, light, temperature, shaking, incubation period)
 remained constant  in each test.  Algal  growth was measured by -in vivo
 fluorescence, and  gravimetrically.  Tests were performed in situ and in
 the laboratory.  In situ tests were conducted using one-liter plastic
 containers  in the  river under ambient light and temperature conditions.
 Laboratory tests were done using 250 ml  Erlenmeyer flasks under 24-hour
 light  and constant temperature conditions.

     Phosphorus removal  was attempted on Reno-Sparks WPCP effluent
 samples.   Phosphorus was precipitated by adding hydrated lime (400 mg/1
*  Environmental Protection Agency,  Algal Assay Procedure-Bottle Test*
   Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory^  Corvallis,  Ore.,  1971,  82 p.

-------
 126
 Ca(OH)2)  to the sample and shaking it vigorously for two minutes.   The
 effluent  was allowed to settle and the supernatant was drawn  off.
 Nutrient  analyses  were performed at NEIC.


 PERIPHYTON

      Attached algal  growths  were sampled using  artificial  substrates,
 1  x  3-in.  glass microscope slides.   The substrate  assemblies  consisted
 of floating wooden racks  that  exposed  the  slides horizontally under 2  to
 4  centimeters of water.   After a 13-day exposure in  the  stream,  two
 slides  from each substrate were placed  in  acetone,  refrigerated, and
 held in the dark for subsequent chlorophyll analyses.  The other two
 slides were placed in  formalin to  determine periphyton density and  to
 identify  prevalent algal  types.

      In the laboratory, the  slides  preserved in acetone  were  scraped
 and  rinsed  into  the  acetone  solution.  Periphytic chlorophyll  a_ was
 determined  fluorometrically, as  outlined in Standard Methods  - 14th
 Edition, 1975.*
                                        
     Slides preserved  in  formalin were scraped and rinsed into the
 formalin solution.   Aliquots of  the formalin solution were examined
microscopically  to determine density and types of periphyton.


 CHEMICAL

     Samples collected during this survey were analyzed according to
*  Rand, M.  C.3 et at, Standard Methods for- the Examination of Water
   and Wastewater, 14th ed., American Public Health Association, New
         1975,  1193 p.

-------
procedures approved by EPA for the monitoring of industrial  effluents.
The procedures used are listed in the following table.
                                                                         127
 Parameter
          Method
     Reference
BOD



IDS

TSS


DO
Serial Dilution, DO Probe, &
 Winkler-Azide
Glass Fiber Filtration, 180C

Glass Fiber Filtration, 103C
 to 105C

Modified Winkler, with full
 bottle
Chloride    Mercuric Nitrate, low level

Total Residual
 Chlorine   lodometric Filtration
Total P


Ortho P
NH3-N
TKN

N02-N03
Automated ascorbic acid
 reduction

Automated ascorbic acid
 reduction

Automated Colorimetric
 phenate

Automated phenate

Automated Cadmium reduction
EPA Methods for chemical
 Analysis of Water and
 Wastewater, 1974, page 11

IBID, page 266

IBID, page 268


IBID, page 51


IBID, page 29


IBID, page 35

IBID, page 256


IBID, page 256


IBID, page 168


IBID, page 182

IBID, page 207
     Reliability of the analytical results was documented through an
active Analytical Quality Control Program.  As part of this program,
replicate analyses were normally performed with every tenth sample to
ascertain the reproducibility of the results.  In addition, where
appropriate, every tenth sample was spiked with an known amount of
*  Federal Register, vol.  41, No.  232,  Dec.  1,  1976.

-------
128
the constituents to  be measured and reanalyzed to determine the per-
cent recovery.  These results were evaluated in regard to past AQC
data on the precision, accuracy and detection limits of each test.  On
the basis of these findings, all analytical  results reported for the
survey were found to be acceptable with respect to the precision and
accuracy control of this laboratory.

-------
             APPENDIX D

RENO-SPARKS WPCP SELF-MONITORING DATA
          March-April, 1977

-------
                                                      RENO-SPARKS JOINT WATER  POLLUTION CONTROL PLANT
                                                                PLANT MONITORING  REPORT
                                                                                                                                                      Sheet 1 of 2
                                                                                                                                            Monlh of
                                                                                                                                                                 .19.
                          DAILY FLOW  -  MGO
   SPARKS
    STP.
            TELEMETERED  FLO'.1/
            RENO
             STP
 S. REVO
 IS'CPTfl
                          N RENO
                          I.'JCPTR
                TOTAL
PLANT
 INF.
WASTE
SLUDGE
  INF
 LESS
V/ASTE
SLUDGF.
PLANT
 E:FF.
                                                                        SUSPENDCO  SOLIDS
                                                                                mg/L
                                                      INF.
                                                           EFF.
                                                               KG/DAY
                                                                                       REM
                                                                                BOO 9
                                                                                 mg/L
                                                                          INF.
                                                                               EFF.
KG/DAY
                                                                                                           REM
                                                                                                                SETTLEA8LE
                                                                                                                  SOLIDS
                                                                                                                   ITQ/L
                                                                                              INF.
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                                                                                                                       REM
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                                                                                                          L'JF.
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                                                                                                                                      PH
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                                                                                                  COLIFORJ.
                                                                                                    FECAL
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 ml
                                                                                                                              LCC
                                                                                                   TEMPERATURE
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-------