United States
environmental Protection
Agency
Water
Office of Water
Regulations and Standards
Washington, DC  204SO
                                                                                  Jisno, 1985

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                                 PREFACE
     This document is one of  a  series  of preliminary assessments dealing
with  chemicals  of potential  concern  in municipal  sewage  sludge.   The
purpose of  these  documents  is to:   (a)  summarize  the  available data for
the  constituents  of  potential  concern,  (b)  identify  the key environ-
mental  pathways  for  each  constituent  related to a  reuse and disposal
option  (based on  hazard  indices),  and  (c) evaluate  the  conditions under
which such a pollutant may  pose a  hazard.   Each document provides a sci-
entific basis  for making an  initial  determination  of whether  a pollu-
tant, at  levels currently observed in  sludges, poses  a  likely  hazard to
human health  or the  environment  when  sludge  is disposed  of  by  any of
several methods.   These  methods include landspreading on  food chain or
nonfood chain  crops,  distribution  and marketing  programs,  landfilling,
incineration and ocean disposal.

     These documents are intended  to  serve as a rapid screening tool to
narrow an initial  list of pollutants to those  of concern.   If a signifi-
cant hazard  is  indicated by  this  preliminary  analysis,  a  more detailed
assessment  will  be undertaken  to  better quantify  the   risk  from  this
chemical and to derive criteria if warranted.   If  a hazard  is shown to
be unlikely, no further  assessment will be conducted at  this  time;  how-
ever, a reassessment  will  be  conducted after  initial  regulations  are
finalized.  In no case,  however,  will  criteria be derived  solely on the
basis of information  presented in  this  document.

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                            TABLE OP CONTENTS


                                                                     Page

 PREFACE	     i

 1.  INTRODUCTION	  1-1

 2.  PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS FOR ENDRIN IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE
      SLUDGE	  2-1

    Landspreading and Distribution-and-Marketing 	  2-1

    Landfilling 	  2-1

    Incineration 	  2-1

    Ocean Disposal 	  2-1

 3.  PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDICES FOR ENDRIN IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE
      SLUDGE	  3-1

    Landspreading and Distribucion-and-Marketing 	  3-1

    Landf illing 	  3-1

    Incineration 	  3-1

    Ocean Disposal 	  3-1

         Index of seawater concentration resulting  from
           initial mixing of sludge  (Index 1) 	  3-1
         Index of seawater concentration representing
            a 24-hour dumping  cycle  (Index 2)	  3-5
         Index of hazard to aquatic  life (Index 3)  	  3-6
         Index of human toxicity resulting
           from seafood consumption  (Index 4) 	  3-8

4.  PRELIMINARY DATA PROFILE FOR ENDRIN IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE
      SLUDGE	  4-1

    Occurrence 	  4-1

         Sludge 	  4-1
         Soil  - Unpolluted 	  4-1
         Water - Unpolluted 	  4-3
         Air 	  4-5
         Food  	'	  4-5

    Human Effects  	   4-5

         Ingestion  	   4-6
         Inhalation  	   4-6
                                   11

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
                               (Continued)

                                                                     Page

    Plant Effects 	  4-6

         Phytotoxicity 	  4-6
         Uptake 	  4-6

    Domestic Animal and Wildlife Effects 	  4-6

         Toxicity 	  4-6
         Uptake 	  4-7

    Aquatic Life Effects 	  4-8

         Toxicity 	  4-8
         Uptake 	  4-8

    Soil Biota Effects 	  4-8

    Physicochemical Data for Estimating Fate and Transport 	  4-8

5.   REFERENCES	  5-1

APPENDIX.  PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDEX CALCULATIONS FOR
    ENDRIN IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE 	  A-l
                                   ill

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                                SECTION  1

                               INTRODUCTION
     This  preliminary  data  profile  is  one  of  a  series   of  profiles
dealing  with  chemical  pollutants  potentially  of  concern  in municipal
sewage  sludges.   Endrin was  initially identified  as  being  of potential
concern when  sludge  is  ocean  disposed.* This profile is a compilation of
information  that  may be  useful in  determining  whether endrin  poses an
actual hazard  to  human  health or the environment when sludge  is disposed
of by these methods.
     The  focus  of   this  document  is  the  calculation  of  "preliminary
hazard  indices"  for  selected potential exposure  pathways,  as  shown in
Section  3.    Each index illustrates  the hazard that could  result  from
movement  of a  pollutant by  a  given pathway  to  cause  a  given   effect
(e.g., sludge -* seawater *  marine  organisms  *   human  toxicity).     The
values and  assumptions  employed in  these calculations  tend  to represent
a  reasonable "worst  case";  analysis  of  error  or  uncertainty  has  been
conducted  to a Limited  degree.   The resulting  value  in most  cases is
indexed  to  unity;   i.e.,  values  >1  may  indicate  a potential  hazard,
depending upon the assumptions of the calculation.
     The data used for  index  calculation have been  selected  or estimated
based on  information presented  in  the "preliminary  data  profile",  Sec-
tion 4.   Information  in  the  profile  is  based  on  a compilation  of the
recent  literature.   An  attempt has  been  made  to  fill  out  the  profile
outline to  the greatest  extent possible.   However,  since  this is  a  pre-
liminary analysis, the literature has not been exhaustively perused.
     The  "preliminary  conclusions"  drawn  from  each  index in  Section  3
are  summarized  in Section  2.   The preliminary hazard  indices will be
used as a  screening  tool  to  determine which  pollutants  and  pathways may
pose a hazard.   Where a potential hazard is  indicated  by interpretation
of these indices, further analysis  will  include  a more detailed examina-
tion  of  potential   risks  as   well  as  an  examination  of  site-specific
factors.   These  more  rigorous  evaluations  may change the  preliminary
conclusions  presented  in  Section   2,  which   are based  on a  reasonable
"worst case" analysis.
     The  preliminary   hazard  indices  for   selected   exposure   routes
pertinent to ocean disposal practices  are included  in this profile.  The
calculation  formulae for  these indices are  shown in the  Appendix.   The
indices are rounded  to two significant figures.
* Listings  were determined  by  a  series  of  expert  workshops  convened
  during  March-May,  1984  by   the  Office   of   Water   Regulations  and
  Standards (OWRS)  to  discuss landspreading,  landfilling,  incineration,
  and ocean disposal, respectively, of municipal  sewage  sludge.
                                   1-1

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                                SECTION 2

      PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS FOR ENDRIN IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE
     The  following  preliminary  conclusions  have  been  derived  from the
calculation of  "preliminary hazard  indices",  which  represent  conserva-
tive or  "worst  case" analyses  of  hazard.   The  indices and  their basis
and  interpretation  are  explained   in  Section  3.    Their  calculation
formulae are shown in the Appendix.

  I. LANDSPREADING AND DISTRIBUTION-AND-MARKETING

     Based  on  the recommendations  of  the experts  at the  OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment of  this reuse/disposal option  is
     not  being   conducted  at  this   time.    EPA  reserves   the  right  to
     conduct such an assessment for  this  option in the future.

 II. LANDFILLING

     Based  on  the recommendations  of  the experts  at the  OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment of  this reuse/disposal option  is
     not  being   conducted  at  this   time.    EPA  reserves   the  right  to
     conduct such an assessment for  this  option in the future.

III. INCINERATION

     Based  on  the recommendations  of  the experts  at the  OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment of  this reuse/disposal option  is
     not  being   conducted  at  this   time.    EPA  reserves   the  right  to
     conduct such an assessment for  this  option in the future.

 IV. OCEAN DISPOSAL

     Slight increase in  the seawater concentration  of endrin  are evident
     in all the scenarios evaluated  (see  Index 1).

     The seawater concentration of  endrin  increases  in  all  the  scenarios
     evaluated.   The increases are  slight  in most  cases, except  when the
     disposal rate  is  1650 ink/day  at the  worst  site where the  increase
     is moderate (see Index 2).

     The  hazard  to  aquatic  life  is  significantly increased  for  all
     sludges disposed  at the  worst site.   Slight  increases  also  occur
     for the other scenarios evaluated  (see Index 3).

     No  increase  in  risk to humans  from  the consumption of  seafood was
     determined in this assessment (see  Index 4).
                                   2-1

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                                SECTION 3

                  PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDICES FOR ENDRIN
                        IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE
  I. LAKDSPREADING AND DISTRIBUTION-AND-MARKETING

     Based on  the recommendations  of  che experts  at the  OWRS meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment  of  this reuse/disposal  option is
     not  being  conducted  at  this  time.    EPA  reserves  the   right  to
     conduct  such an assessment for this option in the future.

 II. LANDFILLING

     Based on  the recommendations  of  the experts  at the  OWRS meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment  of  this reuse/disposal  option is
     not  being  conducted  at  this  time.    EPA  reserves  the   right  to
     conduct  such an assessment for this option in the future.

III. INCINERATION

     Based on  the recommendations  of  the experts  at the  OURS meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment  of  this reuse/disposal  option is
     not  being  conducted  at  this  time.    EPA  reserves  the   right  to
     conduct  such an assessment for this option in the future.

 IV. OCEAN DISPOSAL

     For  the  purpose  of  evaluating   pollutant   effects   upon  and/or
     subsequent  uptake  by  marine  life  as a  result  of  sludge  disposal,
     two types  of  mixing were modeled.   The  initial mixing  or dilution
     shortly  after dumping of a single  load of  sludge represents a high,
     pulse concentration  to  which  organisms   may  be  exposed  for  short
     time periods  but  which  could be  repeated  frequently;  i.e.,  every
     time a  recently dumped  plume  is  encountered.   A  subsequent  addi-
     tional degree  of  mixing  can  be  expressed by  a further  dilution.
     This  is  defined  as  the  average   dilution  occurring  when a  day's
     worth of  sludge is dispersed  by  24 hours of  current movement  and
     represents  the  time-weighted  average  exposure  concentration  for
     organisms  in the disposal area.  This dilution accounts  for 8  to 12
     hours of  the  high  pulse  concentration encountered  by  the  organisms
     during daylight disposal operations  and  12 to 16 hours  of recovery
     (ambient  water  concentration)  during  the  night  when   disposal
     operations are suspended.

     A.    Index of Seawater Concentration  Resulting from Initial  Mixing
          of  Sludge (Index  1)

          1.    Explanation  - Calculates increased  concentrations in Ug/L
               of pollutant  in  seawater  around  an ocean disposal site
               assuming initial mixing.
                                   3-1

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2.   Assumptions/Limitations  -  Assumes  that  the  background
     seawater  concentration  of pollutant  is unknown  or zero.
     The  index also  assumes that  disposal  is  by  tanker  and
     that  the  daily  amount  of  sludge  disposed  is  uniformly
     distributed  along  a   path   transversing   the  site  and
     perpendicular  to   the   current  vector.     The  initial
     dilution  volume   is  assumed   to  be  determined  by  path
     length,  depth  to  the  pycnocline  (a  layer  separating
     surface and  deeper water  masses),  and an  initial  plume
     width  defined  as  the  width  of the  plume  4  hours  after
     dumping.  The seasonal  disappearance  of the pycnocline is
     not considered.

3.   Data Used and Rationale

     a.   Disposal conditions

                     Sludge         Sludge  Mass        Length
                     Disposal        Dumped by a      of Tanker
                     Rate (SS)    Single  Tanker  (ST)  Path (L)

          Typical     825 mt DW/day     1600  mt WW         8000 m
          Worst     1650 mt DW/day     3400  mt WW         4000 m
          The  typical  value  for  the  sludge  disposal  rate
          assumes that  7.5  x 10^ mt WW/year are  available for
          dumping from  a  metropolitan  coastal  area.   The  con-
          version to  dry weight  assumes 4  percent solids  by
          weight.  The worst-case value  is an  arbitrary doubl-
          ing  of the  typical  value  to allow  for  potential
          future increase.

          The assumed disposal  practice  to  be followed  at the
          model  site  representative  of  the  typical case  is  a
          modification of that proposed  for  sludge  disposal  at
          the formally designated 12-mile site in the  New  York
          Bight Apex (City  of  New York,  1983).   Sludge  barges
          with capacities of 3400 mt  WW would be  required  to
          discharge  a load  in  no less  than 53 minutes  travel-
          ing at a minimum  speed of  5  nautical miles  (9260  m)
          per  hour.  Under  these conditions,  the  barge would
          enter the  site, discharge the  sludge over  8180 m and
          exit  the  site.    Sludge  barges with  capacities  of
          1600 mt WW would  be  required to discharge a  load  in
          no less than 32 minutes traveling at a minimum speed
          of  8  nautical  miles  (14,816  m)   per  hour.   Under
          these  conditions,  the  barge  would  enter the site,
          discharge  the sludge  over  7902 m  and exit the site.
          The mean path length for the large and  small  tankers
          is 8041 m or  approximately 8000 m.   Path length  is
          assumed to  lie  perpendicular   to  the  direction  of
          prevailing  current  flow.   For  the  typical  disposal
          rate (SS)  of 825  mt  DW/day,  it is  assumed that  this
                         3-2

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     would  be accomplished  by  a mixture  of  four  3400  mt
     WW and  four 1600 me WW capacity barges.  The  overall
     daily  disposal  operation  would  last from  8  to  12
     hours.    For  the  worst-case  disposal  rate  (SS)  of
     1650 mt  DW/day,  eight  3400  mt WW and  eight  1600  mt
     WW capacity barges would  be  utilized.   The  overall
     daily  disposal  operation  would  last from  8  to  12
     hours.    For  both  disposal  rate   scenarios,  there
     would be  a  12  to 16 hour period at night in which  no
     sludge  would  be  dumped.    It  is assumed  that under
     the   above   described  disposal   operation,  sludge
     dumping would occur every day  of the year.

     The  assumed  disposal  practice  at   the  model   site
     representative  of the  worst  case  is as  stated  for
     the typical site,  except  that  barges would dump  half
     their  load  along  a  track,  then   turn  around  and
     dispose of  the  balance  along the same track in order
     to prevent  a barge from dumping outside  of the site.
     This   practice   would   effectively   halve  the   path
     length compared to the typical site.

b.   Sludge concentration of pollutant (SC)

     Typical    0.14 mg/kg DW
     Worst      0.17 mg/kg DW

     Typical  and worst  values  are  the  mean  and  maximum
     values, respectively, from a study  o-f sludge concen-
     trations  from  74  cities  in  Missouri (Clevenger et
     al.,   1983).   Endrin was not detected in a  U.S.  EPA
     study of 50 POTWs (U.S.  EPA, 1982a).

c.   Disposal site characteristics

                                     Average
                                     current
                  Depth to           velocity
              pycnocline (D)        at site  (V)

     Typical      20 m             9500 m/day
     Worst         5 m             4320 m/day
     Typical site  values  are  representative  of a  large,
     deep-water  site  with  an  area  of  about  1500  km^
     located beyond the continental shelf in  the New York
     Bight.   The  pycnocline value of  20 m  chosen  is  the
     average of  the  10  to  30 m  pycnocline  depth  range
     occurring  in  the summer  and  fall; the  winter  and
     spring  disappearance  of the pycnocline is  not  consi-
     dered and so  represents a  conservative  approach  in
     evaluating annual or long-term  impact.   The  current
     velocity of  11  cm/sec   (9500  m/day)  chosen is  based
                    3-3

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          on  the  average current  velocity in  this  area (COM,
          1984a).

          Worst-case values are  representative of a near-shore
          New  York  Bight site  with an  area  of about  20 km^.
          The  pycnocline value  of 5 m  chosen is  the  minimum
          value of  the  5  to  23 m  depth range of  the  surface
          mixed  layer   and  is  therefore  a worst-case  value.
          Current  velocities   in  this   area   vary  from  0  to
          30 cm/sec.    A value  of  5 cm/sec  (4320 m/day)  is
          arbitrarily  chosen  to represent a  worst-case  value
          (COM, 1984b).

4.   Factors Considered in Initial  Mixing

     When a  load  of sludge  is dumped from a moving tanker,  an
     immediate  mixing   occurs  in  the  turbulent  wake  of  the
     vessel, followed  by more gradual spreading of  the  plume.
     The  entire plume,  which initially  constitutes  a  narrow
     band the  length of  the tanker path, moves more-or-less  as
     a  unit with  the   prevailing  surface  current  and,  under
     calm conditions,  is  not  further dispersed by  the  current
     itself.   However,   the current  acts  to separate successive
     tanker  loads,  moving each  out  of   the  immediate  disposal
     path before the next load is dumped.

     Immediate   mixing   volume    after    barge   disposal   is
     approximately  equal  to   the  length  of  the dumping  track
     with a cross-sectional area about  four times  that  defined
     by  the   draft  and  width  of  the  discharging   vessel
     (Csanady,  1981, as cited in  NOAA,  1983).  The  resulting
     plume  is  initially 10 m deep  by 40 m wide  (O'Connor  and
     Park,  1982,   as   cited   in  NOAA,   1983).     Subsequent
     spreading  of plume band  width  occurs at  an average  rate
     of approximately  1 cm/sec (Csanady  et al., 1979, as  cited
     in NOAA,  1983).   Vertical  mixing is  limited by  the  depth
     of the pycnocline   or ocean  floor,  whichever  is shallower.
     Four hours after  disposal,  therefore,  average  plume  width
     (W) may be computed as  follows:

     W = 40 m  + 1 cm/sec x 4 hours  x  3600 sec/hour  x  0.01  m/cm
           = 184 m = approximately  200 m

     Thus  the  volume  of  initial   mixing  is  defined  by  the
     tanker  path,  a 200 m width,  and  a depth appropriate  to
     the site.  For  the typical  (deep water)  site, this  depth
     is chosen as the  pycnocline value of  20 m.  For  the  worst
     (shallow  water) site,  a  value of  10 m  was  chosen.    At
     times the  pycnocline may be as shallow as 5 m, but  since
     the barge  wake causes initial  mixing to  at  least  10  m,
     the greater value  was used.
                         3-4

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     5.   Index 1 Values
               Disposal
               Conditions and
               Site Charac-     Sludge
               teristics    Concentration
Sludge Disposal
Rate (mt DW/day)
      825
1650
Typical
Worst
Typical
Worst
Typical
Worst
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.00028
0.00034
0.0024
0.0029
0.00028
0.00034
0.0024
0.0029
     6.   Value Interpretation - Value  equals  the expected increase
          in  endrin  concentration  in  seawater  around  a  disposal
          site as a result of sludge disposal after initial mixing.

     6.   Preliminary Conclusion -  Slight  increases  in the seawacer
          concentration of endrin  are evident in  all  the  scenarios
          evaluated.

B.   Index of Seawater Concentration  Representing a  24-Hour Dumping
     Cycle (Index 2)

     1.   Explanation  *  Calculates  increased  effective  concentra-
          tions in  yg/L of  pollutant in  seawater around  an  ocean
          disposal  site  utilizing  a  time  weighted  average  (TWA)
          concentration.   The TWA concentration  is that  which  would
          be experienced by  an  organism remaining stationary  (with
          respect  to the ocean floor) or moving  randomly within the
          disposal vicinity.   The  dilution volume is  determined  by
          t,he tanker  path  length  and depth to  pycnocline or,  for
          the shallow water  site,  the 10 m  effective  mixing  depth,
          as before,  but  the effective width  is now  determined  by
          current  movement  perpendicular to  the  tanker path over  24
          hours.

     2.   Assumptions/Limitations  - Incorporates all of  the assump-
          tions  used  to calculate  Index  1.   In addition,  it  is
          assumed   that  organisms   would    experience   high-pulsed
          sludge  concentrations  for 8 to 12  hours per day and  then
          experience recovery (no exposure to  sludge)  for  12 to  16
          hours  per  day.   This  situation  can be  expressed by the
          use of a TWA concentration of  sludge  constituent.

     3.   Data Used and  Rationale

          See Section 3, pp1.  3-2  to  3-4.
                             3-5

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     4.   Factors  Considered  in  Determining  Subsequent Additional
          Degree of Mixing (Determination of TWA Concentrations)

          See Section 3, p. 3-5.

     5.   Index 2 Values (yg/L)
               Disposal                         Sludge Disposal
               Conditions and                   Race (mt DW/day)
               Site Charac-    Sludge
               teristics    Concentration      0      825     1650

               Typical        Typical        0.0   0.000076  0.00015
                              Worst          0.0   0.000092  0.00018

               Worst          Typical        0.0   0.00067   0.0013
                              Worst          0.0   0.00081   0.0016
     6.   Value   Interpretation   -   Value   equals   the   effective
          increase in  endrin  concentration  expressed as  a  TWA con-
          centration in seawater around  a disposal site experienced
          by an organism over a 24-hour period.

     7.   Preliminary  Conclusion  -  The  seawater  concentration  of
          endrin  increases  in  all   the  scenarios  evaluated.    The
          increases  are  slight  in   most  cases,  except  when  the
          disposal rate is  1650 mt/day at the worst  site where the
          increase is moderate.

C.   Index of Hazard to Aquatic Life (Index  3)

     1.   Explanation - Compares the  effective increased  concentra-
          tion  of  pollutant  in  seawater around  the disposal  site
          (Index 2)  expressed as  a  24-hour  TWA concentration  with
          the  marine   ambient  water  quality  criterion   of   the
          pollutant,   or with  another  value  judged  protective  of
          marine  aquatic  life.    For  endrin,  this  value  is  the
          criterion  that  will protect  the  marketability of  edible
          marine aquatic organisms.

     2.   Assumptions/Limitations  -  In  addition  to  the  assumptions
          stated  for Indices  1  and 2,  assumes  that  all  of  the
          released pollutant  is  available  in the  water  column  to
          move through predicted pathways (i.e., sludge  to  seawater
          to aquatic organism  to man).   The possibility  of  effects
          arising from  accumulation  in  the  sediments is  neglected
          since the  U.S.  EPA  presently lacks  a  satisfactory method
          for deriving sediment criteria.
                              3-6

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 3.    Data Used  and  Rationale

      a.   Concentration  of  pollutant  in  seawater around  a
          disposal  site  (Index  2)

          See Section 3,  p. 3-6.

      b.   Ambient water  quality criterion  (AWQC) =  0.0023  yg/L

          Water  quality  criteria  for  the  toxic  pollutants
          Listed  under  Section 307(a)(l)  of  the  Clean Water
          Act  of 1977  were  developed  by  the  U.S.  EPA under
          Section 304(a)(l)  of  the Act.    These  criteria  were
          derived   by   utilization  of   data   reflecting   the
          resultant  environmental  impacts  and  human  health
          effects of  these pollutants  if present  in  any  body
          of  water.   The  criteria values  presented  in  this
          assessment  are  excerpted  from  the  ambient  water
          quality criteria document for endrin.

          The  0.0023  Ug/L  value  chosen as  the ' criterion  to
          protect  saltwater  organisms   is  expressed  as a  24
          hour  average  concentration (U.S.  EPA,  1980).   This
          concentration,  the  saltwater   final  residue  value,
          was derived  by using  the  FDA  action level  for  mar-
          ketability for  human  consumption  of  endrin in edible
          fish  and  shellfish  products (fish oil)  (0.3 mg/kg),
          the  geometric  mean  of  normalized  bioconcentracion
          factor  (BCF)  values  (1,324)   for  aquatic  species
          tested and  the 100 percent  lipid content  of  marine
          fish  oil.   To  protect  against acute  toxic  effects,
          endrin concentration  should not exceed 0.037  pg/L at
          any time.

4.   Index 3 Values
          Disposal                         Sludge Disposal
          Conditions and                   Rate (mt DW/day)
          Site Charac-    Sludge
          teristics    Concentration      0      825     1650

          Typical        Typical         0.0    0.033    0.066
                         Worst           0.0    0.040    0.080

          Worst          Typical         0.0    0.29     0.58
                         Worst           0.0    0.35     0.71
     Value Interpretation  -  Value equals  the  factor by  which
     the  expected  seawater  concentration  increase  in  endrin
     exceeds  the marine, water quality  criterion.   A value >  1
     indicates   that  a  tissue  residue hazard  may  exist for
     aquatic  life.   Even  for  values approaching  1, an endrin
                         3-7

-------
          residue in  tissue  hazard may exist  thus  jeopardizing the
          marketability of edible  saltwater organism products  (fish
          oil).  The  criterion value  of 0.0023 pg/L is probably too
          high  because  on  the  average,  the  endrin  residue  in  50
          percent  of  aquatic  species  similar  to  those  used  to
          derive  the AWQC  will  exceed   the  FDA  action  level for
          endrin (U.S. EPA, 1980).

     6.   Preliminary Conclusion  - The  hazard  to  aquatic  life  is
          significantly increased  for all  sludges  disposed  at the
          worst  site.   Slight  increases  also  occur  for  the other
          scenarios  evaluated.

D.   Index  of  Human  Toxicity  Resulting   from Seafood  Consumption
     (Index 4)

     1.   Explanation -  Estimates  the  expected  increase  in  human
          pollutant  intake associated with the consumption  of sea-
          food,  a  fraction of  which  originates  from the  disposal
          sice  vicinity, and  compares the  total  expected pollutant
          intake  with the  acceptable  daily  intake   (ADI)  of  the
          pollutant.

     2.   Assumptions/Limitations  - In  addition to the  assumptions
          listed  for  Indices  1   and  2,  assumes that  the  seafood
          tissue concentration  increase  can  be estimated  from the
          increased    water   concentration   (Index    2)    by   a
          bioconcentration  factor.  It  also assumes that,  over the
          long  term,  the  seafood  catch   from  the  disposal  site
          vicinity will  be  diluted to some  extent by the  catch from
          uncontaminated areas.

     3.   Data Used  and  Rationale

          a.   Concentration   of   pollutant  in  seawater  around   a
               disposal  site  (Index 2)

               See Section  3,  p. 3-6.

               Since  bioconcentration  is  a  dynamic  and  reversible
               process,   it  is   expected    that  uptake   of   sludge
               pollutants  by  marine organisms  at  the disposal  site
               will  reflect  TWA  concentrations,  as  quantified by
               Index 2, rather than  pulse  concentrations.

          b.   Dietary consumption of  seafood  (QF)

               Typical     14.3 g  WW/day
               Worst       41.7 g  WW/day

               Typical and  worst-case values  are the  mean  and the
               95th   percentile,   respectively,   for   all  seafood
               consumption  in  the United  States (Stanford Research
               Institute (SRI) International,  1980).
                             3-8

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 Fraction of  consumed  seafood originating  from  the
 disposal site (FS)

 For a  typical harvesting  scenario,  it  was  assumed
 that  the total catch over  a  wide region is mixed  by
 harvesting,  marketing and consumption  practices,  and
 that  exposure  is  thereby diluted.    Coastal  areas
 have  been  divided  by   the  National  Marine  Fishery
 Service  (NMFS) into reporting areas for  reporting  on
 data  on  seafood  landings.   Therefore  it was  conven-
 ient  to  express  the total  area  affected  by  sludge
 disposal as  a fraction  of  an NMFS  reporting  area.
 The area used to  represent  the  disposal impact  area
 should  be an  approximation  of the  total ocean  area
 over  which   the   average concentration  defined   by
 Index  2  is  roughly applicable.   The average  rate  of
 plume  spreading   of  1  cm/sec  referred  to   earlier
 amounts  to  approximately 0.9 km/day.  Therefore,  the
 combined plume   of   all   sludge   dumped  during  one
 working  day  will  gradually spread,  both parallel  to
 and perpendicular to current  direction, as  it  pro-
 ceeds  down-current.    Since   the concentration has
 been  averaged over  the  direction of  current  flow,
 spreading in  this dimension will  not  further  reduce
 average  concentration;  only  spreading  in the  perpen-
 dicular  dimension will  reduce the average.   If sta-
 ble conditions are  assumed over  a period of days,  at
 least 9  days  would be required to reduce the  average
 concentration  by  one-half.  At that  time, the  origi-
 nal plume length  of  approximately 8 km (8000 m) will
 have   doubled   to   approximately  16  km   due    to
 spreading.

 It  is   probably  unnecessary  to  follow  the  plume
 further  since storms,  which  would result  in much
 more  rapid  dispersion  of  pollutants   to  background
 concentrations  are expected  on  at  least  a   10-day
 frequency   (NOAA,  1983).     Therefore,   the  area
 impacted  by   sludge  disposal   (AI,  in  km2) at each
 disposal  sice will be  considered to  be defined  by
 the  tanker  path  length  (L)  times  the  distance  of
 current  movement  (V)  during 10 days, and is computed
 as  follows:

     AI  = 10 x L  x V x  10~6 km2/m2          (1)

To  be consistent  with a conservative approach, plume
dilution  due  to  spreading   in   the   perpendicular
direction  to   current  flow  is  disregarded.    More
 likely,   organisms  exposed to   the  plume in the area
defined  by equation 1 would experience  a  TWA  concen-
tration  lower than  the  concentration  expressed  by
Index 2.
               3-9

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       Next,   the  value  of  AI  must  be  expressed  as  a
       fraction of an NMFS  reporting  area.   In  the New York
       Bight,  which  includes  NMFS  areas  612-616 and  621-
       623,    deep-water   area   623   has   an   area   of
       approximately 7200 km2  and constitutes  approximately
       0.02  percent of  the  total seafood  landings  for  the
       Bight  (COM, 1984a).  Near-shore area  612  has  an area
       of    approximately    4300    km2    and    constitutes
       approximately  24  percent   of   the  total   seafood
       landings   (COM,  1984b).   Therefore  the   fraction  of
       all   seafood  landings   (FSt)   from  the  Bight  which
       could  originate  from  the  area of  impact of  either
       the  typical  (deep-water)  or  worst  (near-shore)  site
       can   be   calculated   for  this   typical   harvesting
       scenario  as follows:

       For the  typical  (deep water)  site:

          _  AI  x 0.02% =                                (2)
        c ~  7200
 10  x  8000  m x 9500 m x 10 6 km2/m2  x 0.0002   _  ,       s
	=	'	 = 2.1 x  10  5
                    7200 knr'

       For  the worst  (near  shore)  site:

       FSt  " AI  X 24.% =                                  (3)
             4300 km2

   [10 x  4000 m x 4320 m x 10~6 km2/m2] x 0.24   _ ,    ,_>
  J	,	'	 = 9.6 x  10 3
                   4300 km2

       To  construct  a worst-case  harvesting  scenario,  it
       was  assumed  that the  total  seafood  consumption  for
       an   individual  could  originate  from an  area   more
       limited   than   the   entire   New  York  Bight.      For
       example,  a particular  fisherman providing  the entire
       seafood   diet   for   himself  or  others   could   fish
       habitually within a  single  NMFS reporting  area.   Or,
       an   individual  could   have   a  preference   for  a
       particular species  which is  taken  only over  a   more
       limited  area,  here   assumed  arbitrarily  to  equal an
       NMFS   reporting  area.    The  fraction  of  consumed
       seafood  (FSW)  that  could originate from the area of
       impact  under this  worst-case  scenario  is  calculated
       as follows:

       For  the typical (deep water) site:
                     3-10

-------
 For  che worst  (near  shore)  site:

 FSW  =  	^- = 0.040                       (5)
  W    4300  km2

 Bioconcentration  factor   of   pollutant   (BCF)   =
 5,500  L/kg

 The  value  chosen  is   the  weighted  average  BCF  of
 endrin  for  the  edible  portion  of  all freshwater  and
 estuarine  aquatic organisms  consumed by  U.S.  citi-
 zens  (U.S.  EPA,  1980  as revised  by  Stephan,  1981).
 The  weighted  average  BCF  is  derived as  part of  the
 water  quality  criteria developed  by  the  U.S. EPA  to
 protect  human   health   from  the  toxic  effects   of
 endrin  induced  by  ingestion  of  contaminated  water
 and  aquatic  organisms.  The weighted  average BCF  is
 calculated  by   adjusting1  the  mean  normalized   BCF
 (steady-state  BCF corrected to  1  percent  lipid con-
 tent)  to  the  3  percent lipid  content   of   consumed
 fish and  shellfish.   It should  be noted  that  lipids
 of marine species  differ in both structure and  quan-
 tity from  those  of  freshwater  species.    Although a
 BCF  value calculated entirely  from marine data would
 be  more  appropriate  for  this  assessment,   no  such
 data are presently available.

 Average daily human  dietary intake of pollutant (DI)
 = 1.0 yg/day

 The  reported  daily  intake  values of  endrin  range
 from 0.033  to  1.0 ug/day  (U.S. EPA,  1980;   (Douggan
 and  Corneliussen,  1972)).     The   value   chosen
 represents  a worst-case situation  and amplifies the
 potential  human  toxicity effects of sludge disposal.

 Acceptable  daily  intake  of   pollutant   (ADI)   =
 70 ug/day

An ADI  of  70  pg/day  was  derived by the  U.S.  EPA
 (1980)   based  on  studies   showing   a   no-observed-
effect-level (NOEL)  of  0.1 mg/kg/day  in  rats  and
dogs.   Higher  doses were  associated with  increased
organ  weights.    An  uncertainty  factor  of   100  was
applied in calculation  of the human ADI.
              3-11

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4.   Index 4 Values

     Disposal                                  Sludge Disposal
     Conditions and                            Rate (mt DW/day)
     Sice Charac-      Sludge      Seafood
     teristics     Concentration3  Intake3'^    o    825   1650

     Typical       Typical       Typical   0.014  0.014  0.014
                   Worst         Worst     0.014  0.014  0.014

     Worst         Typical       Typical   0.014  0.014  0.014
                   Worst         Worst     0.014  0.014  0.014
     3 AIL  possible  combinations  of  these  values  are  not
       presented.   Additional  combinations  may  be  calculated
       using the formulae in the Appendix.

     D Refers to  both  the dietary consumption of  seafood (QF)
       and  the  fraction  of  consumed seafood  originating from
       the disposal site  (FS).   "Typical"  indicates  the use of
       the  typical-case  values  for  both  of  these  parameters;
       "worst" indicates  the  use of the worst-case  values  for
       both.

5.   Value  Interpretation - Value equals  factor by which  the
     expected intake exceeds  the ADI.  A value >1  a  possible
     human  health  threat.    Comparison  with the  null  index
     value  at 0  mt/day  indicates  the  degree  to  which  any
     hazard   is   due   to   sludge   disposal,   as  opposed   to
     preexisting dietary sources.

6.   Preliminary  Conclusion  -  No  increase in  risk  to  humans
     from  the  consumption of  seafood  was  determined   in  this
     assessment.
                        3-12

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                              SECTION 4

    PRELIMINARY  DATA PROFILE  FOR  ENDRIN  IN  MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE
I. OCCURRENCE

   Endrin  enters   the  environment  primarily  as  a  result  of  direct
   applications to  soil  and crops.   The  largest single use  of endrin
   domestically is  for  the  control  of  lepidopteron  larvae  attacking
   cotton crops in  the  southeastern and Mississippi delta  states.   In
   1978,  endrin production  was  approximately 400,000 Ibs.  Its  use is
   declining due to increased restrictions.

   A.  Sludge
       1.  Frequency of Detection

           Endrin was not mentioned in influent,
           effluent, or sludge in a U.S.  EPA study
           of the fate of priority pollutants in
           POTWs.

           Endrin was not detected in a study of
           Metro Denver sewage sludge from 1969-
           1975.

           Endrin was detected at levels
           <1 pg/L  in wastewater treatment
           plant effluents in  Ohio and Michigan

       2.  Concentration

           In sludge samples  from 74 cities  in
           Missouri, endrin was  detected  as  follows
           (Ug/g DW; 1979-80  data):

           Min.    Max.   Mean     Median
           0.11    0.17    0.14
0.14
       Soil  - Unpolluted

       1.  Frequency of  Detection

          Endrin  detected  in  1 of  99  soil
          samples from  rice-growing areas
          in 5  states,  (1972  data)

          Endrin  detected  in  1 .of  380 urban
          soil  samples  from 5 cities, (Macon,
          CA;  1971  data)
                    U.S. EPA, 1982a
                    (p. 41-2)
                    Baxter
                    et al., 1983
                    (p. 315)

                    Majeti and
                    Clark, 1980
                    (p. 6)
                    Clevenger
                    et al., 1983
                    (p. 1471)
                    Carey et al.,
                    1980 (p. 25)
                    Carey et  al.,
                    1979a (p.  19)
                                4-1

-------
    Endrin detected in 10 of 1,483 samples
    from U.S. cropland soils (37 states)
    in 1971 (0.7%)

    Endrin detected in 14 of 1,486 samples
    from U.S. cropland soils (37 states)
    in 1971 (0.9%)

    % positive samples from 6 Air Force
    Installations, 1975-6:
    Land Use
Year
% of Samples
with Endrin
    Residential  1975
                 1976
    Non-use      1975
                 1976
    Golf Course  1975
                 1976
            5.0
             0
             0
             0
             0
            5.9
    Endrin was not detected in 34 soil
    samples collected in and around
    Everglades National Park (1976)

2.  Concentration

    U.S. Soil Levels (data 1960s)

                         Max     Mean
                            (ug/g)
Orchard Soils
Cranberry Soil
Vegetable Soils
Onion Soils
12.61
1.17
0.48
2.05
6.30
0.10
0.01
0.06
    Rice-growing areas, endrin at
    level of 0.17 ug/g DW (1972)

    Endrin was detected at a level of
    0.17 Ug/g DW in 1 urban soil
    Cropland soils in 1972 (ug/g DW)


    Min    Max
 Arith.
  Mean
   Geom.
   Mean
                              Carey et al.,
                              1979b (p. 212)
                              Carey et al.,
                              1978 (p. 120)
                              Lang et al.,
                              1979 (p. 231)
                              Requejo
                              et al., 1979
                              (p. 934)
                              Edwards, 1973
                              (p.  416-17)
                              Carey et al.,
                              1980 (p. 25)

                              Carey et al.,
                              1979a (p.  19)

                              Carey et al.,
                              1979b (p.  212)
    0.01   2.13   <0.01   <0.001
                          4-2

-------
        In 14 out of  1,486 samples from U.S.
        cropland soils in 1971  (pg/g  DU):
Min
               Max
     Arith.
      Mean
Geom.
Mean
        0.02    1.00
       <0.01   <0.001
        Residues from six Air Force
        Installations, 1975-6:
    Land Use
Range (ug/g)    Avg.    Year
Residential
Residential
Non-use
Non-use
Golf Course
Golf Course
ND-0.01
0
0
0
0
ND-0.04
<0.01
0
0
0
0
<0.01
1975
1976
1975
1976
1975
1976
C.  Water - Unpolluted

    1.  Frequency of Detection

        No endrin residues observed in 1974
        upper Great Lakes water study

        Endrin was not detected in 368 samples
        from southern Florida surface waters,
        1968-72

        Endrin was detected in 156 out of 458
        finished water samples (34%)  between
        1964 and 1967 from the Mississippi and
        Missouri Rivers.   However, the number
        of samples containing concentrations
        of endrin in excess of 0.1 Mg/L
        decreased from 23 (102) to 0  between
        1964 and 1967.

    2.  Concentration

        a.  Freshwater

            0.0002 mg/L interim drinking  water
            standard

            0.001 mg/L  present ambient  water
            standard
                                  Carey et al.,
                                  1978 (p. 120)
                                  Lang et al.,
                                  (p. 231)
                                  Glooshenko,
                                  1976  (p.  63)

                                  Mattraw,  1975
                                  (p.  108)
                                  U.S.  EPA,  1980
                                  (p. C-4)
                                 U.S. EPA,  1984
                                 (p. 1-5)

                                 U.S. EPA,  1984
                                 (p. 1-5)
                             4-3

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    In  1968,  it was reported that endrin
    levels entering Tule Lake National
    Wildlife  Refuge were highest (50-70
    Ug/L)  in  summer and declined to  non-
    detectable levels in winter.

    Occasionally, ground water may
    contain >0.1  Ug/L of endrin, but
    levels as high as 3 Ug/L have been
    correlated with precipitation and
    runoff following endrin applications.
 Grant,  1976
 (p.  288)

97 major river basins
(1965)
Miss. River Delta (1966)
99 major river basins
(1967)
11 major western rivers
(1967)
109 major rivers (1967)
20 streams (western)
(1969)
110 surface waters
(1967)
Endrin
Max
0.094
4.23
0.116
0.040
0.069
0.070

0.133

(Ug/L)
Mean
0.005
0.541
0.002
0.001
0.004
0.0003

0.002

 U.S.  EPA,  1980
 (p.  C-4)
                                           Edwards, 1973
                                           (p. 440-441)
b. . Seawater

    Data not immediately available.

c.  Drinking water

    In an area of high endrin usage in
    Louisiana, drinking water was found
    to contain a maximum of 0.023 Ug/L

    Endrin was detected in a water plant
    in New Orleans.  The highest level
    measured was 0.004 Ug/L.

    Endrin was detected in 156 out of
    458 finished water samples between
    1964 and 1967 from the Mississippi
    and Missouri Rivers.  The number of
    samples containing endrin in excess of
    0.1 Ug/L. decreased from 23 (10%) to
    0 between 1964 and 1967.
U.S. EPA, 1980
(5. 04)
U.S. EPA, 1980
(p. C-5)
U.S. EPA, 1980
(p. C-4)
                      4-4

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    Air
    1.  Frequency of detection

        Endrin occurred in 25 out of 875
        samples from 9 U.S. cities.  All
        25 samples were from Stoneville,
        Miss, (data 1960s)

    2.  Concentration

        Boston, MA: ave =  0.20 ng/m3
        data 1978

        25 out of 98 air samples  from
        Stoneville, Miss,  in 1969 contained
        endrin.  The maximum level was
        58.5 ng/m3

E.  Food

    1.  Total average intake

        Daily Dietary Intake,  mg
                                       Stanley et al.,
                                       1971 (p. 435)
                                       Bidleman, 1981
                                       (p. 623)

                                       Stanley et al.,
                                       1971 (p. 435)
                                       NAS,  1977
                                       (p.  558)
    1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
6 yr. ave.
    Trace   Trace   Trace   0.001    Trace    Trace

        1973 average daily intake  =
        0.033 ug/d or 0.0005 ug/kg/day
        for a 69.1 kg man

    2.   Food concentrations

        Observed  in 1 garden fruit sample at
        0.002 Mg/g       (Attachment E)

        Levels  of endrin  found  by  food class -
        summary of 5 regions in U.S., June
        1971 -  July 1972  (p. 96-102)
                                           0.001

                                       U.S.  EPA,  1980
                                       (p.  C-2)
                                       FDA,  no  date
                                      Manske and
                                      Johnson,  1975

Food
Potatoes
Garden Fruits
Fraction
of Positive
Composites
3/35
1/35

Ave.
(ug/g)
Trace
Trace

Range

-------
             Levels of  endrin  found  by  food  class
             Summary of  5  regions  in U.S., Aug.
             1972 - July 1973
             Food
 Fraction
of Positive
Composites
                     Johnson and
                     Manske, 1976
                     (p. 162-166)
 Ave.
(Mg/g)
Range
(Mg/g)
             Potatoes1/35Trace

II.  HUMAN EFFECTS

     A.  Ingestion

         1.  Carcinogenity

             "No malignancies attributed to
             endrin have been reported."

         2.  Chronic Toxicity

             a.  ADI

                 70  pg/day


             b.  Effects

                 Data not immediately available.

     B.  Inhalation

         Data not immediately available.

III. PLANT EFFECTS

     A.  Phytotoxicity

         Data not immediately available

     B.  Uptake

         See Table 4-1.

IV.  DOMESTIC ANIMAL AND WILDLIFE EFFECTS

     A.  Tozicity

         A 50 percent  reduction  in a brown  pelican
         population in Louisiana in 1975 has  been
         attributed in a large part to  endrin because
         endrin residues were detected  in the brains
         of  several pelicans  and because the  reduc-
         tion coincided  with  the peak in endrin
                            0.005
                     U.S.  EPA,  1980
                     (p.  C-33)
                     U.S.  EPA,  1980
                     (p.  C-39)
                    U.S. EPA, 1984
                    (V-42)
                                   4-6

-------
    residues in pelican eggs.  It is believed
    that endrin contributed to reduced eggshell
    thickness.

    See Table 4-2.

B.  Uptake
    Endrin residues in carcasses of 168
    Bald Eagles from 29 states, 1975-77
Kaiser  et  al.,
1980  (p.  147)
Year
1975
1976
1977
// Specimens
with
residues
5
6
5
Median
Ug/g (WW)
0.16
0.48
0.07
Range
Ug/g (W/W)
0.09-1.0
0.18-3.0
0.06-2.5
    Endrin residues in brains of 168 Bald
    Eagles from 29 states,  1975-77
Kaiser et al.,
1980 (p. 147)
Year
1975
1976
1977
# Specimens
with
residues
3
6
5
Median
Ug/g (WW)
0.44
0.32
0.14
Range
Ug/g (W/W)
0.12-0.50
0.15-0.71
0.05-1.2
    See Table 4-3.

        Endrin administered  in the  diet  of  12
        rats  was  quickly metabolized  and
        eliminated
U.S. EPA, 1984
(p. 111-20)
                             4-7

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V.   AQUATIC LIFE EFFECTS

     A.  Toxicity

         1 .  Freshwater
             0.0023 Ug/L as a  24 hour  average           U.S. EPA, 1980
             concentration; not to exceed 0.18
             Ug/L at any time.

         2.  Saltwater
             0.0023 ug/L as a 24 hour average           U.S. EPA, 1980
             concentration; not to exceed               (p. B-12)
             0.037 Ug/L at any time.

     B.  Uptake

         1.  Bioconcentration factor (BCF)              Stephan, 1981

             BCF = 5500 L/kg for edible portion of
             all freshwater and estuarine aquatic
             organisms consumed by U.S.  citizens.

         2.  Hater concentrations causing
             unacceptable tissue concentrations

             Data not immediately available.

VI.  SOIL BIOTA EFFECTS

     In a study of the influence of 5 annual applica-   Martin et al.
     tions of 8 organic insecticides to  2 field soils   1958
     on soil biological and physical properties, endrin (p. 337-8)
     exerted no measurable effect on numbers of soil
     bacteria and fungi,  on kinds of soil fungi devel-
     oping on dilution plates,  on the ability of the
     soil population to perform the normal functions of
     organic matter decomposition and ammonia oxidation,
     on water infiltration, or  on soil aggregation.

VII. PHYSICOCHEMICAL DATA FOR ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT

     Specific gravity:  1.7 at  20"C                     U.S. EPA,  1984
     Vapor pressure:   2.7  x 10'7  at 25C                (II-l,  V-7)
     Formula:  Ci2H8cl6
     Molecular wt . :  380.93
     Solubility:   0.024 mg/1  in  water
     Organic soil adsorption  constant:   3.4 x
     Soluble in nonpolar  solvents
     OctanoL /water  partition  coefficient:   2.18
                                   4-8

-------
                                                          TABI-fc  4-1.   UITAKF OF HNDKIN  IIY  I'l AMI'S
Ti ssue
Plant/Tissue
Alfalla
Corn
Potatoes
Carrots
Oats
Corn
Sugar beets/tops
Potatoes
Carrots
Sugar beets/tops
Soil Type
sandy lojm
sandy loam
sandy loam
sandy loam
muck
muck
muck
muck
muck
muck
Chemical Form
cndrin
endrin
endrin
endrin
endrin
cndrin
end r i n
cndrin
endrin
endr in
Soil Cone untr.it ion
(PK/t>)
0.11-0.14
0.11-0.14
0.11-0.14
0.11-0.14
5.80-5.94
5.80-5.94
5.80-5.94
5.80-5.94
5.80-5.94
5.80-5.94
CuiiLunLral ion
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.01
T
.01
.01
0
0
.01
.02
.1)1
Bioconcentrat ion
Factor0
0
0.077
0.077
.0017
0
0
0.017
0.034
0.017
Harris
Harris
Harris
Harris
Ham s
Harris
Harris
Harris
Harris
Harris
References
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
and Sans,
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
1969 (p.
184)
184)
184)
184)
184)
184)
184)
184)
184)
184)

 BF - tissue  cone./soil cone.
b NR = not  reported

-------
                                           TABLE 4-2.  TOXIC1TY OP ENDH1N TO DOMhSTIC AN1MAIS AND WILDLIFE
Species (Nn)a
Rats (male)
Rats (female)
Rats
Rats
Rats


Mice


Dogs (female - 7)
(male - 7)
Dogs

Rats & Mice
(pregnant )
Chemical Form
Fed
endrin
endrin
endrin
endrin
endrin


endrin


endrin

endrin

endrin

Feed
Concent ration
(MB/g)
-
-
1
5
25


0.1-4.0


2 and 4

0.5

:> 2

Water Daily
Concentration Intake Duration
(mjj/L) (rag/kg) of Study
17.8 NHb
7.5 NK
l.ile
l.ile
l.ile


Life


2 years

- 2 years

NK

Effects References
Ll)50 NAS, 1977
1.1)50 (p. 564-567)
No obvious effects
Livur enlargement
Increased mortality.
degeneration in brain,
liver, kidneys & adrenals
Increased liver weights at
2 & it ug/g and vascular
damage ol liver cells
Convulsions and pathologic
changes in the brain
Highest no-adverse-ef tect
level
Increased maternal U.S. EPA, 1984 (V-60)
mortality, increased
Rats (pregnant)
Rats
Nice
endrin
endrin
endrin
                       resportions, decrease in
                       survival of offspring
                       at 21 days after birth

0.0/5      NU        Highest no-adverse-
                       cllect level in
                       relation to maternal
                       weight gain and
                       alterations in behavior

>0.150     NK        Reduced maternal weight
 0.5                 Maternal liver enlarge-
                       ment
 1.0                 Reduced maternal weight
                       gain
 1.5                 Increased maternal  mortality
                                                                                                                              U.S. EPA, 19B4 (V-61)
Kavlock, et al., 1981
(p. 141)
a N = number of experimental animals when reported
b NR = not  reported

-------
                                                TABLE 4-3.  UPTAKE OP ENDRIN BY DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND WILDLIFE

Species
Hen
Hen
Hen
Hen
Mallard
Chemical
Form Fed
Endrin
Endrin
Endrin
Endrin
Endrin
Range of
Feed Concent rat. ion
(Pg/g)
0
0
0
0
10
.13
.13
.13
.13
.0
Tibsue
Analyzed
Meal
Liver
Kidney
Fa i
Carcass
Range
Tissue
Concent rai ion
(M8/U)
<0.0()J2-0.095
0.01 j-0.20
0.035-0.11
0.32-1.21
1.41-1.9
BioconcentraL ion
Factor8
<00.02-0.73
0.10-1.54
0.27-1.0
2.46-9.31
0.14-1.9





References
U.S.
U.S.
U.S.
U.S.
U.S.
EPA,
EPA,
EPA,
EPA,
EPA,
1984
1984
1984
1984
1984
(p.
(p.
(p.
(p.

-------
                                SECTION 5

                                REFERENCES
Baxter,  J.C.,  M.  Aquilar,  and  K.  Brown.    1983.    Heavy  Metals  and
     Persistent  Organics  at  a Sewage Sludge  Disposal  Site.  J.  Environ.
     Qual.  12(3):311-315.

Bidleman, T.F.   1981.   Interlaboratory  Analyses of High Molecular Weight
     Organochlorines in Ambient Air.  Atmospheric  Environ.   15:619-624.

Camp Dresser  and McKee, Inc.   1984a.   technical  Review of the  106-Mile
     Ocean  Disposal Site.    Prepared  for  U.S. EPA  under  Contract  No.
     68-01-6403.

Camp Dresser  and McKee,  Inc.   1984b.   Technical  Review  of the 12-Mile
     Sewage Sludge  Disposal  Site.   Prepared  for U.S.  EPA under  Contract
     No. 68-01-6403.  Annandale, VA.  May.

Carey, A.,  J.A.  Gowen,  H.  Tai,  et al.  .1978.   Pesticide Residual Levels
     in Soils and Crops,  1971 -  National  Soils Monitoring Program (III).
     Pest. Monit. J. 12(3):117-136.

Carey,  A.,   P.   Douglas,  H.  Tai,   et  al.    1979a.     Pesticide  Residue
     Concentration  in  Soils  of  Five United States Cities,  1971  -  Urban
     Soils Monitoring Program.  Pest. Monit. J. 13(1):1722.

Carey, A.,  J.A.  Gowen,  H.  Tai,  et al.  1979b.   Pesticide Residue Levels
     in  Soils  and  Crops  from  37  States,   1972.    Pest.  Monit.  J.
     12(4):209-229.

Carey,  A.,   H.S.   Yang,   G.B.   Wiersma,   et  al.     1980.      Residual
     Concentrations  of Propanil,  TCAB  and  Other Pesticides  in   Rice-
     Growing  Soils  in  the  United  States,   1972.    Pest.  Monit.  J.
     13(l):23-25.

City  of  New  York  Department  of  Environmental Protection.    1983.   A
     Special  Permit  Application  for the  Disposal  of  Sewage  Sludge  from
     Twelve New  York City  Water  Pollution Control Plants  at  the 12-Mile
     Site.  New York, NY.   December.

Clevenger,  T.E.,  D.D.  Hemphill,  K.R. William,  and W.A. Mullins.   1983.
     Chemical   Composition   and   Possible   Mutagenicity   of   Municipal
     Sludges.  Journal  WPCF 55(12):1470-1475.

Edwards,   C.A.   1973.    Pesticide Residues  in  Soil   and Water.    In!
     Edwards, C.A.  (ed.),  Environmental  Pollution by  Pesticides.    New
     York:  Plenum Press.

Glooshenko,  W.,  W.M. Strachan, and R.C. Sampson.   1976.  Distribution of
     Pesticides   and  Pol/chlorinated Biphenyls  in  Water,  Sediments, and
     Seston of the Upper Great Lakes - 1974.   Pest. Monit.  J.   10(2):61-
     67.
                                   5-1

-------
Grant,  B.    1976.   Endrin  Toxicity and  Distribution in  Freshwater:   A
     review.  Bui. Env. Contam. and Tox.  15(3):283-290.

Harris,  C.R.  and  W.W.  Sans.    1969.    Absorption of  Organochlorine
     Insecticide  Residues  from Agricultural  Soils  by  Crops  Used  for
     Animal Feed.  Pest. Monit. J. 3(3):283-290.

Johnson,  R.  and  D.  Manske.   1975.   Pesticide  Residues  in  Total  Diet
     Samples (IX).  Pest. Monit. J. 9(4):157-169.

Kaiser,  T.,  W.L.  Reichel,  L.N.  Locke,   et  al.   1980.   Organochlorine
     Pesticide, PCB,  and  PBB  Residues and Necropsy  Data  for Bald Eagles
     from 29 States - 1975-77.  Pest. Monit. J. 13(4):145-149.

Kavlock,  R.,  N.   Chernoff,  R.C.  Hanisch,  et  al.     1981.    Perinatal
     Toxicity of  Endrin in  Rodents.  II.   Fetotoxic Effects of Prenatal
     Exposure in Rats and Mice.  Toxicology 21:141-150.

Lang,  J.,  L.C.  Rodringuex,  and J.M.  Livingston.   1979.   Organochlorine
     Pesticide Residues in Soils from Six U.S. Air Force Bases, 1975-76.
     Pest. Monit. J. 12(4):230-233.

Majeti, V.  and  C. Clark.   1980.   Potential Health  Effects  from Persis-
     tent Organics  in  Wastewater  and Sludges  Used for  Land  Application.
     EPA 600/1-80-025.

Manske,  D.  and  R.  Johnson.   1975.   Pesticide  Residues  in  Total  Diet
     Samples - VIII.  Pest.  Monit.  J., 9(2):94-105.

Martin,  J.P.    1972.    Side  Effects   of  Organic   Chemicals  on  Soil
     Properties and Plant Growth.   In;  Goring, C. A. and  Hamaker,  J.  W.
     (eds.), Organic  Chemicals in  the Environment.   New  York:   Marcell
     Dekker Inc.

Mattraw, H.   1975.   Occurrence of  Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides,
     Southern Florida - 1968-72.  Pest.  Monit.  J.  9(2):106-114.

National  Academy  of   Sciences.     1977.    Drinking  Water  and  Health.
     Washington, D.C.:  NAS; National Review Council Safe  Drinking  Water
     Committee.

NOAA Technical  Memorandum NMFS-F  NEC-26.   Northeast Monitoring  Program
     106-Mile Site Characterization Update.  U.S.  Department of Commerce
     National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.  August.

Requejo, A.  G.,  R.H. West, P.G.  Hatcher, and P.A.  McGillivary.   1979.
     Polychlorinated  Biphenyls and  Chlorinated  Pesticides  in Soils  of
     the Everglades National Park  and Adjacent Agricultural  Areas.   Env.
     Sci. & Tech. 13(8):931-935.

Standford Research Institute  International.    1980.   Seafood Consumption
     Data Analysis.   Final  Report,  Task  11.    Prepared  for   USEPA  under
     Contract No. 68-01-3887.   Menlo Park, California.
                                   5-2

-------
Stanley,  C.W.,  J.E.   Barney,   M.R.   Helton,   and  A.R.  Yobs.    1971.
     Measurement of Atmospheric  Levels  of  Pesticides.   Env. Sci. & Tech.
     5(5):430-435.

Stephan, C.E.   Memorandum dated May  26,  1981, to  J.F.  Stara,  U.S. EPA,
     ECAO-Cincinnati.

Stickel,  L.    1973.    Pesticide Residues  in   Birds  and  Mammals.    In;
     Edwards,  C.A.  (ed.),  Environmental  Pollution  by  Pesticides.   New
     York:  Plenum Press.

 United  States  Environmental Protection  Agency.    1980.    Ambient  Water
     Quality  Criteria  for  Endrin.    EPA 440/5-80-047.     U.S.  EPA,
     Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental  Protection  Agency.   1982a.   Fate of Priority
     Pollutant's  in   Publicly-Owned  Treatment  Works.    Volume   1.    EPA
     400/1-82/303.  U.S. EPA, Washington,  D.C.

United States Environmental  Protection  Agency.   1982b.   Test Methods  for
     Evaluating Solid Waste.  SW-846.   U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C.

United  States   Environmental Protection  Agency.    1984.    Air  Quality
     Criteria  for  Lead.    External   Review  Draft.   EPA  600/8-83-028B.
     Environmental  Criteria  and Assessment  Office.   Research  Triangle
     Park, NC.   September.

United States  Food  and Drug Administration.   No  date.   FY78 Total Diet
     Studies-Adult (7205.003).
                                   5-3

-------
                                 APPENDIX

             PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDEX CALCULATIONS FOR ENDRIN
                        IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE
  I. LANDSPREADING AND DISTRIBUTION-AND-MARKETING

     Based  on  Che recommendations  of the  experts  at  the  OWRS meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment  of this  reuse/disposal  option is
     not  being  conducted  at  this  time.   EPA  reserves  the  right  to
     conduct such an assessment for this option in the  future.

 II. LANDFILLING

     Based  on  the recommendations  of the  experts  at  the  OWRS meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment  of this  reuse/disposal  option is
     not  being  conducted  at  this  time.   EPA  reserves  the  right  to
     conduct such an assessment for this option in the  future.

III. INCINERATION

     Based  on  the recommendations  of the  experts  at  the  OWRS meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an assessment  of this reuse/disposal  option is
     not  being  conducted  at  this  time.    EPA  reserves  the  right  to
     conduct such an assessment for this option in the  future.

 IV. OCEAN DISPOSAL
     A.  Index  of  Seawater Concentration  Resulting from  Initial  Mixing
         of Sludge (Index 1)

         1.  Formula

                        SC x-ST x PS
             Index 1 =
                         W x D x L

             where:

                 SC =   Sludge concentration of pollutant (mg/kg DW)
                 ST =   Sludge mass dumped by a single tanker (kg WW)
                 PS =   Percent solids in sludge (kg DW/kg WW)
                 W  =   Width of initial plume dilution (m)
                 D  =   Depth to pycnocline or effective depth of mixing
                        for shallow water site (m)
                 L  =   Length of tanker path (m)

          2.   Sample Calculation

0 00028 Ug/L = '14 mg/kgDW  x  1600000 kgWW  x  0.04 kgDW/kg  WW x  1Q3
                      200 m x 20 m x 8000 m x 10^
                                   A-l

-------
B.   Index of  Seavater  Concentration Representing a 24-Hour Dumping
     Cycle (Index 2)

     1.   Formula

                     SS x SC
          Index 2 =
                    V x D x L

          where:

               SS = Daily sludge disposal rate (kg DW/day)
               SC = Sludge concentration of pollutant (mg/kg DW)
               V  = Average current velocity at site (m/day)
               D  = Depth  to   pycnocline   or   effective  depth  of
                    mixing for shallow water site (m)
               L  = Length of tanker path (m)

     2.   Sample Calculation

     0 000076 y /L = 82500 kS DW/day x 0.14 mg/kg DW x  IP3 Ug/mg
                        9500  m/day  x 20  m x 8000 m x 103 L/m3

C.   Index of Hazard to Aquatic Life (Index 3)

     1.   Formula
          where:

            \2 = Index   2   =   Index   of   seawater   concentration
                 representing a 24-hour dumping cycle (jag/L)
          AWQC = Criterion expressed as an  average  concentration to
                 protect   the   marketability   of   edible   marine
                 organisms (ug/L)

     2.   Sample Calculation

                  0.000076 ug/L
                   0.0023 ug/L

D.   Index  of Human  Toxicity  Resulting  from  Seafood  Consumption
     (Index 4)

     1.   Formula

                     (I 2 x BCF x  10~3  kg/g  x  FS x QF) + DI
          Index 4 =
                                    ADI
                              A-2

-------
                     where:

                      l = Index 2 = Index of  seawater  concentration
                           representing a 24-hour  dumping  cycle (yg/L)
                      QF = Dietary consumption of  seafood  (g WW/day)
                      FS = Fraction of  consumed seafood originating  from  the
                           disposal site (unitless)
                     BCF = Bioconcentration factor of pollutant (L/kg)
                      DI = Average daily human dietary  intake of pollutant
                           (ug/day)
                     ADI = Acceptable daily intake of pollutant (yg/day)
                2.   Sample  Calculation

      0.014  =
(0.000076  ug/L x 5500 L/kg x 10"3 kg/g x 0.000021 x 14.3 g WW/dav)  * 1.0 Ug/dav
                                70  yg/day
                                        A-3

-------