Part 1 - General Information
     Seccion  1 - Nature of the OR8ES Drojec:
     Section  2 - The Pennsylvania Baseline
     Section  3 - Historial Synopsis of
            Hunan Act iv it ies in
            Western Pennsylvania
            PHASE II

                               June,  1379
        Part 1  - General In format ion
  Seccion I  - Nature of the OR8ES =rojec:
  Section 2 - The 3ennsy1vania Baseline
  Section 3 -  His-.orial Synoosis of
               Human Act ivi ties  in
               Western  Pennsylvania
         Maurice A  Shapiro
      University o:  Pittsburgh
   Pittsburgh, Perrsylvania  15261
            Prepared for
Ohio River Basin Energy Scjdy (OR3ES)

    Grant Murrber R305603-3I-3
       WASHINGTON, O.C...2?t60

      The Ohio River Basin Energy  Study (ORBES)  is  an  inte-
grated technology assessment funded by the U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency.   This interdisciplinary endeavor is currently
in its third year of research (Phase I!).   The objective of  the
project is to ascertain plausible  environmental, economic, and
sociological impacts of energy development in the Ohio River
Basin under six hypothetical energy scenarios (futures).  The
ORBES study region includes part or all of the six states bor-
dering the river:  substantial corticns of Illinois,  Indiana,
and Ohio  (excluding the northerr tier counties), all of Kentucky,
southwestern Pennsylvania,  and rost of '.-lest Virginia  (Figure  1).
Academicians from  the Universitv of Illinois, University  of
Kentucky,  University of Louisvi'le, Indiana University, Ohio
State University,  Purdue  University,  West Virginia University,
and  the  University  of  Pittsburgh provide  technical expertise  in
the  fields  of ecology,  economics,  engineering,  geography, health,
lav/,  sociology,  planning,  and  political science.
      Early in  the  project, srvi-onmenta1/socio-economic "base-
lines"  of each  state were deemed  to be  requisite  -input  in order
to  establish  a  solid foundation fron  w.iich  tc conduct energy
 impact  analyses.   A baseline  co-sists of  a  series  of  in-deoth
documents which  describe  the  ex sting resources  and  er v i romor, -.a 
 status  of a state's CRBES region  and  at  the  sama  time provide
 a historical  overview  of  changes  in these resources.   The re-
 sulting characterization  provides  a aerspective -  it  presents

               I iGURE 1

                         Ohio River Drainage Basin

the data necessary to gauge  --he  magnitude and  significance  of
future impacts.   The Pennsylvania baseline is  comprised  of  six
documents (Table 1) which contain the most current and osrf.nent
information available for eight  topical  areas  generally  address-
ed in environmental impacts  statements:   geology, clinatology,
soils, terrestrial ecology,  hydrology, water quality, aauatic
ecology, and socio-economics .   Oata analysis and interpretation
by the seven contributing autncrs (Table 2) makes these docj-
ments a valuable source of  ir.formation for both  the OR3ES Pro-
ject  and agencies  concerned with the management  of Western
Pennsylvania's  resources.
      The Pennsylvania f^BES recion encompasses  13,300 sauare
miles of Western  Pennsylvania.   The  region contains all of  the
following  nineteen  counties:  Allegheny, Armstrong, Seave^,
Sutler,  Cambria,  Clearfield,  Clarion, Elk, Fayette, Forest,
Greene,  Indiana,  Jefferson, Lawrence, Mercer,  Somerset, Venango,
Washington,  and Westmoreland.   Figure 2  illustrates  the location
of these counties  in  Western  Pennsylvania.  The county  abbre-
viations employed  in  Figure 2 are  also  utilized in many of  the
 tables  within  the  baseline  documents.   A comparison  of  Figure  2
with a  map of  the Ohio  River  drainage  in Pennsylvania (Figure  1)
 reveals that several  counties with1, n the basin (Crawforc,  Erie,
 ficKean, Potter, and Warren) -/.ere excluded  fr;m the  study  'eqio-..
 Conversely,  Clearfield  County 15 included  in  i'r = s-.jdy  regi 3."
 even though  only 9.9"', o* its  land  a^-a  is  drained to  the  Ohio
 Rive*1 System.   SeTection of counties for inclusion  in ORSiS was
 the result of  deliberation  by the  Cere  Team,  taking  into  account

                              TAELi 1

                    TOPICAL AREAS F PASELI'IE
                FOR THE PENNSYLVANIA OR2:s ?.E3nri

Part II - Irrpact Assessment Tata S-'.se

  Chaoter 1  - Characteristics and  -uman ;J-il izaticn  of 'iarjral  Ecosys-.ans

    Section 1 - Gecrcgy

    Section 2 - Clifneta'ocy

   . Section 3 - Soils

    Section i - "e-'-es-ria! Ecology

    Section 5 - Surface  Hydrology

    Section 5 - V'ater  Oucli'-y

    3ec:ion  7 - Aquatic  Ecology

  Chaoter 2  - Socio-Econom-.c  Charscteri sties

    Section  1  - Demographic Character-,5".-cs

    Section  2  -  Income

    Section  3  -  Employment

     Section    -  Housing

     Section  5  -  G overmen-.a 1  ^a/aroes and E.
                                     TAPLE 2

                        OHIO RIVER BASi;i  ENERGY'STUDY'S
                             PENNSYLVANIA BASELINE
  Burgess,  Richard  A.
  Graduate  Student  Researcher
  Dept.  IEHS
                                                                Socio-Economi cs
  Flint,  Norman  K.
  Professor of Geology
  Dept. Geology
                                                                Geology,  Ilimatciogy,
                                                                and  Soils
  Kay,  Georgs P.
  Environmental  Research Asst.
  Dept. IEHS
                                                                Hydrology,  Aou?
                                                                and Terrestrial
  Shapiro, Maurice A.
  Professor Environ.  Health Enaineenng
  Deot.  IEHS
                                                                Project Director,
                                                                Hydrology and  Ecology
  Sharma, Rabinder K.
  Asst.  Professor Public Health
  Deot.  HSA
!  Sooky, Attila A.
'  Assoc. Research Professor
  Oeoc. IEHS
                          - '.-later Poll.  Cntrl
''ater Quality and
Sykora, Jan L.
Assoc. Research Professor - Acuatic
Deot. IEHS
                                                                  Aquatic and Terrestrial
                                                                  Ecology                 j

                  FIGURF  2

                                 ALLF. = Allegheny f.ounLy
                                 ARMS = Anns Irony Coiml.y
                                 WAV -- iV'dVLT County
                                 lillfl - llutli.T County
                                 CAMIi = Cdinhvia County
                                 CI.AR = demon County
                                 I.I i:A = C1 eci r field (.nun ty
                                 Tl K = Mt (ounLy
                                 I-AYT = Fori'St County
                                 I OKI" - I'orc.-bL (.ounty
                                 OR I C - f'.rccno County
                                 INI)I =  Indiaiiii County
                                 JI'FF - Jcl t'orson Tounty
                                 I Atlli = I .iwri-m i; County
                                 II'RC = Mi-rccr County
                                 M1MI  r-  SoiiKM-'U-l County
                                 VI'NA  - Von.ini|0 Cdiinty
                                 HASH  -  Udsliinf|lon Lounty
                                 UFST  =  WdstinorL'luiid County

such factors as  the sotertialit/ for power plant construction in
the area, relative hydrologic importance of the area, and im-
portance of cities outside the basin tc the county's economy.
In Pennsylvania's case norther,- counties of the basin were
eliminated from consideration cecause of cine low potentiality
for future power plants and because zf econcrr.ic influence f-crc
Erie, Pennsylvania, and upstat-: New vork.
A.    Introduction
      The  earliest  European settlers  to  enter  the  frontier region
west  of the  Allegheny  Mountains were  creepers  and  t-aders of
 English and  French extraction.  English  trade's apoeared in the
 northern sections  of  Western Pennsylvania  as  early as  1720  and
 the French,  moving east  from the  Mississippi  and s:uth frcrr
 Canada, arrived in southwestern Pennsylvania  by 173C.
      Migration  west from the cities of New York, Boston, ar.a
 Philadelphia was deflected south  because the  Allegheny .Mountains
 prevented easy transport of  the belongings pioneers carried with
 them.  Migration funneled throjgh the Cumberland Valley into
 Maryland and Virginia.   It was from the western portions of
 these  colonies that English settlers began moving  north into
 Western  Pennsylvania.  3y 1753 Englishmen from Virginia were
 present  in  the "-egicn surrou-.c-rg present day  ?; ttsburch.   .'--
 French  population was still primarily composed of  trapoers  and
      Fort  Ouquesne was CC.TS tr-j: tec  :n  175-1 at  tne  confluence

Allegheny a.-.d 'Ic-cngahe'a  Ri-.e-s.   T-e  r:a;or  means :- :.-a^soor 3-1 ;n
from Western Pennsylvania  do\n  the  Ohio Valley was sy //ater.  "he
location of Fort Duq'jesne  provded  a  means  for the Frsrcn to con-
trol movement down  the  Ohio  River  and uo the  AVeghery and
Monongahela Rivers.
     General Braddoc'<'s  ill-fa-.ad  atte-r.pt tc  capt-jra CMS F'-anc'n
fort did produce the  fi<-st roadway  from Cumberland Maryland  tc
'./estern  Pennsylvania  in  1755.   Gereral  Forbes constructed vinat
was called  Forbes  Road  durir.c  5 s.-ccessful  e a r. j - a : t Jri rg oeca-. to

8.    Lumber
     The first significant industry  -n '.-/escern  Pennsylvania  was
lumbering.  As early as 1777 shipbuilding *as occurring  near t*e
mouth of the Ohio.  During the  late  '730's  Scotch- Iri sh  lumcer^en
began clearing the extensive hardwood  forests of  the  northern
counties.  Soft woods  from the  central and  southern  sections of
Western Pennsylvania also cotr 1 b-jte i  to  :r.e  rac'-iiy  exoanding
timber  industry.
     New  Englanders came  to  -he  area  and  commercialized  lumbering.
French-Canadian lumberjacks  ca,7e so-j-.h to  fall  '-he timber.   Small
numbers of saw mills sprang  -JD  in the  areas east  of  Pittsburgh.
The  vast  water network of  the  Allegheny,  voncrcare1 a and ''ougrrc-
gheny Easirs  creviced  transport for  iocs  and  lu.nbar  to t'-ie
Pittsburgh area sawmlls.   The  fores-.s of Venan-go, Forest,  Elk,
Clarion,  Jefferson  and Clear-'ield CojitUs  s'/sllea wit'-. Znglisi,
and  German  i-nmigrants  ceding ^est cvsr -he  Allag'nenys 3nd Scats
coming  from  the sout*  throjgn  'itisbjrgn.   3./  fc^e end of the  13th
century Scotch- Iri sh  irmngracTDn occjrrsd  in uriDroken ,-/aves  fo^
several  years.
      The  land west  of  and including  /enango County was cleared o~
oak  for farming.   The  burning  }f 02'< produced  charcoal and  ashes
which  were sold  provided  the f', "sc co-.-nercia.  encerorises  i :  r^e
 northwestern section  of the region.   Cha*-coa:  fed the 'iavel jo i -g
 iro-i smelting indus-'-y.  Oak ashes,  "ich in rjotis*,  '; = -e jseo
 t'ne  production of soap and g'ass, bleac'nirg and  cry>c  clotr.  3".d
 the  scouring of  wool.   The nor chess tern =re2 of  the  region,  tne
 Allegheny plateau --/ith poor soil, ./inding  narrow  valleys and

 cool weather  was  unsuited  to  farming.   "he northwestern area w:tn
 rolling  hills  and  sandy  soils  did provide productive agricultural
     By  1330  the  northeastern  area had expensive 1-jmoering :pe-
 rations.   Wood  for  nones,  ships,  barrels, tools ana the growing
 network  of  rails  (ties and  railroad cars) was increasing as fas:
 as  the  timber  could  be felled.   Sawmills and lumoer camos dotted
 the  area.   Water  oowered mills  and transcorted timber oroducts.
 Within  twenty  to  thirty  years  zhe timcer was gone.   T^e "suaoort
 enterprizes"  thai:  grew around  the limbering  industry lost fieir
 economic  base.  As  the 1 unberii-i-n  -roved west  ecooo.m ca 1 ly depressed
 towns were  left behind.
     The  east  central area  of  -ha racion had a sin-Mar  fate.   The
 first permanent settlers,  Ger-n^ns anc  Scotch-Irish  arrived in 1791
 and  the  first  permanent  settlements were established after 1796.
 The  uncertainty of  land  titles  ar-d Indian attacks  "Vnibited Is'-g-i
 .novement  into  the  area.  Logs  ,.ere shipped to  i ttsourgh un^il
 188- at  which  time  the lumberi-.g  ar.d tanning industries oni'ted  i -s
 harvesting  hemlock  stands  for  local  use.
 C .    Transport:.r. Ion
     Early  transportation with:n  the region  "/as orimarily based
 upon r.,-ie  area's extensive  natj-al  v.aterways.   TTI s  -,/ji:2r syite-r,
 afforded  Pittsburgh  tne opoortjnicy ~o ceve'-jp  25  t'ie rep i or. 3
major trading ana incjstna1. c i r. t e ^ .
     The  key to the  Pittsburgh-Wheeling  co,~p = t i tion for regicnsl
 and western markets  was trar:sp:rtc ti on.   Goods  .-/ere s,h:pped fr:n
Pittsburgh  to New Orleans and  in  IcCl,  450 f1atooats  carried

goods to the port of Mew Or! ears.  Return by kaalboat was
necessary.  The downstream  trip  took 4 to 6 weeks.   However,  us
to a months was required to travel the 1,950 nile  return  trip.
Within one decade trve steamshi:  changed  the nature  o* water  trans-
portation forever.  With rapid  upstream  oassage  gqssi.ble,  eastern
cities shipped goods by sea to  New Orleans and  from -here  as  far
north as Cincinnati.  This  indirect  route was  less  expensive  than
transporting goods  over the mountains  to Pittsburgh for  subseq'-ien:
water transoort.  The 4arrisburg-Pittsburgh T-jrmi.o,  ooened  ' r
1314, notably  stimulates commerce.   ~he  impetus  giver.  Pittsburgh
was  undermined howeve'-  by  the  comoletion of tr.e  National  Turnpike
from  Baltimore tc '.-/heeling  in  1313.  Wheeling  gained a  command: ng
commercial  lead  over = i ttsourgr-.   Pittsburgh  v/as -'urthe'-  rec-jcei
in  stature  as  a  commerce center by  the completion  of the  Erie Car.ai
in  1825.  Goods  could now  cone from  and  go  to  Mew  ^ork  City-Buffalo,
New  York  and Erie,  Pennsylvania by water.   The northern  mos: Penn-
sylvaman counties  began to sucoly  gccds  to  tn.e Erie region rathe-
than  to  Pittsburgh.
      Competition  in t.ne East  VMS ?rii?arily  resocn 5 : bl e  for -.he
resurrection of  Oittsbu'gh cornrerce.   Mev/  York City anc  Salt iTior-:
threatened  the commercial  interests  - r,  3hi 1 ace1. ;n-2.  ^s  * result
of  competition,  tne Mair, Line o- Stata  '.-/crKs  was de:elopei ind
the much  needed  link  between  ?lv lada" uni 2  ar.c Pittsb-i^ch  was
established.   The  Pennsylvania -. a i 1 " c a d  was  c i a r t e r * d  n 1 3 :5 : :v:
linked  the  tdo Pennsylvania cities  in  '352,  the sare year f. =
Baltimore and  Ohio  Railroad reached  -heeling.
      The  coming  cf  the  'ail^oacs gave  a  boost tc -'ttshu-gh

commerce and the entire Western Pennsylvania 1-jroarir.g industry.
The expansion of rails west of Pittsburgh, howeve-, spelled di-
saster for river transport.  Rail was a faster means of trarsoo'-t
and the expanding markets of tne west called for increasing:;/
rapid and more sophisticated transoort.  Traffic down  the Orio
River increased until  1869 and then  slowly began to recede.  The
need for  industries  to be  located on waterways  -n  scutrv/este'-n
Pennsylvania decreased.
D.   Oil
     The  sandy  soils  of  the  northern sections  or  the  re-ion  ne'd
more  than agricultural promise  (an  irdustry  tnat  never was  to
develoo  significantly in  relation  to national  p'odoction>.
      As  early  as  1763 Indians  made  use  of  oil.   The commercial
value  of  the  resource did not  develop  until  the mid 19th  cantu'-y.
Whale  oil and  tallow were the  v/orlcs i 11 iimi nents.   5y 1330 the
world's  whale  harvests began tc  dwindle.   it was  during  tni i
oericd  that distillation of  crude  cetroleu^ tc yield  kerosene
revolutionized home ligitir.g.   In  1359 E.  L. 0-ake had ?enn:./l-.-.-
nia's first oil  well in  Titusvlle.  3y t.ne close of  136C
producing oil  wells were located uo and a own 1-1  Creek Valley.
 The Western Pennsylvania "oil  ooom" was on.
      Associated with the expanding  oil production were two
 significant difficulties, oil  storage and t r? ",s:o"ta 11 on .   5ar
 could not be imoorted fast erojg'n  anc bar-e1 oroduc::ci becaira
 an important satalita industry.  Transportation also  increase:
 significantly.  At  its oeax, a 2000 vessel  fleet of vs'ious
 craft with  carrying  capacities ranging from 50 co  1500 bai'rs  5

was moving oil to Pittsburgh.  *s with lumber, '.he -source as
rapidly depleted.  3y 1900 the najoricy of Q'l '.-'25 gone.  Ghost
towns remained where boon towns once  stood and poor  small
communities contained the population  remaining.   As  an  example
of the rapid  change Pitholes  stands out.   Pitholes grew  to  a
community of  15,000 in a matter of  a  -'ew  months,   '-itnin  one  year
the  oil was gone  and the town  v
for coking changed Pittsburgh f'-om a leading commerce cents- into
the nations primary metals center.
     The opening of the Great Western Iron Works in 1339 began a
40 year iron boom in the north central section of the region.  At
the height of activity *Q blast furnaces were operating in the
wilderness of Clarion County.
     Exploitation of anthracite and  soft coals were the nost
important  factors in area i nd astral i zati on .  As  the availability
of charcoal declined and coke f:red  blast  furnaces slowly began  to
appear throughout the area.
     Changes in  iron and coking technologies centered  the iron  and
steel making industry in  the Pittsburgh area.  Originally, "lost
coke was made in  "beehive over-s"  near coal  mines.  Volatile  by-
products were converted  for  use in  production.   "-  orocess brought
into the United  States  around 192,  coking  became  centralized  and
integrated with  iron and  steel production.   The  expense of  in-
stallation  and  ooeration  of  by-:rcduct  ovens orohibited the;r
construction in  the  rural  areas of  tie  region.   The  devel oprr.ent
of  Lawrence  and  Mercer  Counties  in  the  19th century  v/as s-gni-
ficantly  influenced  by  the  abuncancs of  iron ore,  limestone  and
volatile  coal  (prior  to  coking).   (Tne  completion  of  tre  Erie
extention  of the Pennsylvania  C.-nal  : n  1344 ccn^ecte:  the  rajon:/
of  area  population  c e n t e r s  with  Pittsbjrgh a>~d  Z"i = .)
     Oijring  the deva 1 oprc---.:  of  cokinc  operations a.-.J  Cccnr.o"::;
the coal  and coke of  Cornell svi ! 1 e , "idea1 neta' 1-jrg i c = ^  co'
The last quarts'- of the 19th certury saw Pittsburgh take a
commanding lead.  In 1875 Carnecie's Edgar Thompson Works, 'the
first integrated steel  works in the region was built, followed
by the Homestead Works  in 1881.
     The area population began e
precipitated the decline in Pittsburgh's  share  of  the  stee"  and
iron markets.
     The cost associated with tie commodities coming  into  demand
resulted in the basic metal prize becoming a smaller  portion of
total costs.  Thus cost considerations shifted  from the primary
metals to other costs and permitted less  centralized  steel  and
iron markets to form.
     Although mill capacity increased the market share held by
Pittsburgh declined.   The ingot capacity  on a national level
decreased from 1/3 or total ingot capacity suoplied in 1398 to
1/4  in 1920, 1/5  in  1945 and less than 1/5 in 1960.
     Coupled with the changes ir the steel and iron markets was
a concurrent decline in coal mining.  After World War 1 two
factors contributed  to  the economic depression of the region.
     First, a  switch from coal  "o oil and gas home Beating cut
deeply into the demand  for coal.  Secondly,  tie increasing
mechanization  of  the mining  industry caused  increasing unemaloy-
      In  1941,  90  million tons of coal were minea by approximately
83,000 miners.  2y 136^ production  dropped  to -3 million tons and
employment  to  16,000 miners.  A'thouch 1956  estimates  indicated
36  billion  tons of coal 'reserves existed  only 17,300  miners we^e
at  work  and  this  level  of  emplo^iient  "eoresented an increase  ever
the  few .preceeding years.