United States          April 1997
Environmental Protection     www.epa.gov/opptintr

Pollution Prevention and Toxics (7406)  	

OPPT's Methods

and Models

— Evaluating Risk Potential

— Making Better  Chemical Choices

            o further its goal of protecting human
            health and the environment.
            the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency's (EPA's) Office of Pollution Prevention and
Toxics (OPPT) compiled a set of chemical risk assess-
ment tools for industry, states, academia, and other

interested parties. Primarily computer-based, these

stand-alone methods and models allow customers to

quantify and interpret risk. The tools also can help
customers to make better chemical choices, use
environmentally preferable products, and employ
safer and cleaner manufacturing processes.


 » EPA program offices use these tools in support o! voluntary arid regulatory
  efforts. The Design for the Environment (DfE) Program, as well as OPPT's
  New Chemical Review Program, already use many of these tools.

 • Companies use these tools to streamline operations, reduce or prevent pollu-
  tion, and develop cost-effective solutions to chemical-related environmental

 • Consumers use these tools to make better choices with regard to the prod-
  ucts and services they use.

 • Federal, state,     local government officials use these tools to determine
  chemical issues of: greatest concern in their communities and jurisdictions.

 « Researchers, chemists,, students, environmental groups, and consultants
  learn more about chemicals that pose potential risks to human health and the

 « Communities use these tools to better understand and interpret local envi-
  ronmental risks.

• Priority-setting

* Technical data analysis interpretation
• Human and environmental risk assessment

• Economic analysis and environmental accounting

» Pollution prevention assessment
• Information and database design and management

What Types of Tools  Exist and How Can They Help?
    OPPT has classified its methods and models into eight categories, as listed below.
    Sample tools are described under each category. The "Tool Index" on page 5
offers a complete listing of tools as well as ordering information for available models.
1. Chemical Releases and Worker
Designed to evaluate chemical releases
to the environment and workers' expo-
sure at industrial sites, these OPPT
tools help customers better manage
chemical release and exposure mecha-
nisms across a wide array of industrial
sectors and uses.
Sample Tool: The Inhalation Dose Rate
Model gauges chemical air releases to
estimate worker inhalation exposures
in factories, small shops, and other
locations where volatile chemicals are

2. Ecological Hazard Potential
OPPT developed a variety of tools to
estimate the  potential environmental
risk of chemical releases to aquatic

Sample Tool: ECOSAR is a computer-
ized system that estimates the toxicity
of chemicals to the aquatic environ-
ment. Based on an analysis of chemical
structure, this tool provides
quantitative  hazard estimates for  fish,
invertebrates, and aquatic plants.

 3. Human Hazard Potential
 Several OPPT tools estimate the poten-
 tial health risks of exposure to specific
Sample Tool: OncoLogic® is an
integrated, expert system designed to
estimate the cancer hazard potential of
chemicals based on their chemical
structure. For a given chemical, this tool
provides a semiquantitative hazard
determination and information on the
scientific basis for that determination.

4. Consumer and Environmental
   Exposure and Chemical Fate
Using these OPPT predictive tools, cus-
tomers evaluate  human and environ-
mental exposure to chemical and bio-
logical substances, products, and ser-
vices. These tools help quantify the
level of exposure to certain chemicals
and measure the amount of a chemical
remaining after manufacturing, pro-
cessing, or use. They help customers
design and  select environmentally
preferable products and processes.
Sample Tool: The Release, Consumer,
and Occupational Model estimates
consumer inhalation and dermal expo-
sures to chemicals in consumer  prod-
ucts as well as occupational exposures
during product  manufacturing and
processing  activities.

 5. Environmental Accounting
These resources help companies under-
stand the full spectrum of their  envi-
ronmental  costs and how to integrate

these costs into all aspects of decision-
making. By uncovering cost-
effective opportunities for pollution
prevention, companies improve envi-
ronmental performance and sharpen
their competitive edge.
Sample Tool: Developed in coopera-
tion with the business, accounting,
and research communities, the
Environmental Accounting Project
offers resources on lifecycle accounting
for materials management and pollu-
tion prevention investments, which are
applicable to a wide range of industries
and businesses.

6. Design for the Environment
OPPT's DfE tools help businesses
incorporate environmental considera-
tions into the design and redesign of
products, processes, and  technical and
management systems. DfE tc/ols incor-
porate real-world experiences gained
from voluntary partnerships with
industry, interest groups, universities,
research institutions, and other gov-
ernment agencies.
Sample Tool: The Cleaner Tech-
nologies Substitutes Assessment evalu-
ates a targeted industry's manufactur-
ing processes and materials and sug-
gests alternative,  environmentally
preferable options for chemical uses
and industrial practices.
7. Chemical Information and
Designed to help customers under-
stand how chemical structure can
affect human health and the environ-
ment, these OPPT tools help develop
environmentally preferable chemicals
and products.
Sample Tool: The Green Chemistry
Expert System (GCES) computes the
amount of waste  generated by a chem-
ical reaction, identifies the chemicals
reacted and produced, and categorizes
them according to their potential risk
to humans and the  environment.
Added program capabilities allow
GCES to suggest alternative, less haz-
ardous chemicals or methodologies
based on available information.

8. Economic Information and
   Policy Options
Companies use these  OPPT informa-
tional tools to learn how regulatory
and nonregulatory actions affect their
bottom line. These  tools assist compa-
nies in redirecting resources toward
areas of greater concern and making
economically sound pollution preven-
tion decisions.

Sample Tool: The Cost of Illness
Handbook identifies business costs
associated with human illness, such as
loss of productivity, allowing
customers to evaluate the economic
benefits of minimizing the risk of
chemical exposure.

Tool  Index
Select the best tool for your chemical analysis needs:
Tools Under Development                             Application Category
Ecological Benefits Assessment Model (EBAM)	8
Inhalation Dose Rate Model (IDRM)*  	1
                                  Risk-Based Environmental Indicators ... .4
Tools Available Free of Charge                        Application Category
Clean Products Web Site1"	4, 7
Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA)	6
Cost of Illness Handbook*	8
Ecological Structure Activity Relationships Model (ECOSAR, version 0.99)1 ... .2, 4, 7
Environmental Accounting Project (EAP)*	5
Facility Searching Database (FacSearch)*	1
Generic Scenario for Textile Dye Weighing	1
Green Chemistry Expert System (GCES)	. . ,7
Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model (MCCEM, version 2.4) ... ,4
Probabilistic Dilution Model (PDM3)* ......		1,4
Release, Consumer, and Occupational Model (RCOM)	 ,4
ReachScan*	4
Screening Exposure Assessment Software (SEAS)*	4
Sewage Treatment Plant Model (STP)	7
Source Ranking Database (SRD)*	4
Use Clusters Scoring System .	4
Tools Available for Purchase                          Application Category
Aqueous Hydrolysis Rate Program (HYDROWIN®, version 1.6) SRC  . ,	4, 7
Atmospheric Oxidation Program (AOPWIN©, version 1.83) SRC	 .4, 7
Bioconcentration Factor Program (BCFWIN®, version 2.0) SRC	2, 4, 7
Biodegradation Probability Program (BIOW1N®, version 3.62) SRC  . .	2, 4, 7
Ecological Structure Activity Relationships Model (ECOSAR, version 0.99)1 SRC .2, 4, 7
Henry's Law Constant Program (HENRYWIN®, version 3.0) SRC	2, 4, 7
Log OctanolAVater Partition Coefficient Estimation Program
  (LOGKOW© version 1.54) SRC		2, 4, 7
Melting Point, Boiling Point, Vapor Pressure Estimation Program
  (MPBPVP®, version 1.20)  SRC	2, 4, 7
Cancer Expert System (OncoLogic®)  L	3,7
Soil Adsorption Coefficient (Koc) Program (PCKOCWIN®, version 1.60) SRC . .2, 4, 7
Water Solubility via OctanolAVater Partition Coefficient (WS-KOW®) SRC	4
 'ECOSAR is available at no charge from EPA, or as part of the proprietary software offered by Syracuse
 Research Corporation.
 Except as marked below, all models have undergone peer review according to the 1998 EPA Peer Review Guidance.
 *Peer review has not been conducted according to the 1998 EPA Peer Review Guidance.
 tpeer review is not applicable.
 ^Peer review has been conducted and comments are being incorporated into the draft version of the model.

 Technical Assistance

 All customers can obtain additional information about these methods and mod-
 els from designated OPPT contact persons. The appropriate contact's name and
 phone number can be obtained by ordering a fact sheet on a particular tool. To
 request a fact sheet, or for information on the models available free of charge or
 under development, contact Dan Fort by phone: 202 260-1694; fax: 202 260-
 0816; or e-mail: .
For pricing information, or to order one of the models listed for purchase,

SRC                                   L
Philip H. Howard                        LogiChem, Inc.
Syracuse Research Corporation             P.O. Box 357
6225 Running Ridge Road                 Boyertown, PA 19512
North Syracuse, NY 13212
Phone: 315 452-8417                     Fax: 610 367-1893
E-mail: howardp@syrres.com               E-mail: marnott@)ogichem.com
What Is OPPT's Mission?

The mission of OPPT is to protect and improve public health and the environ-
ment through its promotion of:

 • Pollution prevention as a principle of first choice.

 • The design, development, and application of safer chemicals, processes, and

 • Risk reduction and responsible risk management practices.

 • Public understanding of the risk of chemicals and public involvement in
   environmental decision-making.