Working for Clean Water
An Information Program for Advisory Groups
Operation and
     Instructor Guide


This progrom 1 X28 prepared by
The Pennsylvania State University
Institute of State 6 Regional Affairs
Middletown, PA 17057
Dr. Charles A. Cole
Project Director
Dr. E. Drannon Buskirk, Jr.
Project Co—Director
Prof. Lorna Chr. Stoltzfus
ThiB guide i aa prepared by
David A. Long
Advisory Team for the Project
David Elkinton, State of West
Steve Frishman, private citizen
Michele Frome, private citizen
John Hammond, private citizen
Joan Jurancich, State of California
Richard Hetherington, EPA
Region 10
Rosemary Henderson, EPA Region 6
George Hoessel, EPA Region 3
George Neiss, EPA Region 5
Ray Pfortner, EPA Region 2
Paul Pinault, EPA Region 1
Earlene Wilson, EPA Region 7
Dan Burrows, EPA Headquarters
Ben Gryctko, EPA Headquarters
Robert Hardaker, EPA Headquarters
Charles Kauffman, EPA Headquarters
Steve Maier, EPA Headquarters
EPA Project Officer
Berry H. Jordan
Office of Water Programs
Aoknowled(3 nent8
Jan RUSS, Tess Startoni,
Ann Kirsch, Janie Fuller
Student Assistants
Fran Costanzi, Kathy DeBatt,
Michael Lapano, Mike Moulds
Terry Switzer
Graphics support was provided by
the Office of Public Awareness,
Environmental Protection Agency.
This information program was
financed with federal funds from
the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency under Cooperative Agreement
No. CT900980 01. The information
program has been reviewed by the
Environmental Protection Agency
and approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the
views and policies of the Environ-
mental Protection Agency, nor does
mention of trade names or commercial
products constitute endorsement of
recommendation for use.
This project is dedicated to the
memory of Susan A. Cole.

Operation and Management
It is essential  that  the public become more aware of the serious
need for better  operation and management (O&M) of our wastewater
treatment facilities.   Congress has authorized more than $25  billion
to help build publicly-owned wastewater treatment plants.   The
dollars are to be spent on capital improvements — none are used
to reduce the local community's share of 0 & M costs.  Each of us
has a vested interest in making sure that our tax dollars are well
spent.  This means we must be willing to spend local monies to
assure that the  treatment plant will provide us with cleaner  water.
Upon completion  of this session, the participant should be able to:

• Understand what is meant by the term "0 & M"

• Know who actually pays for O&M

• Understand the O&M requirements in the federal water
pollution control laws

 • Identify the major O&M problem areas.
Required Materials

QCopy of the film, "An Investment  to Protect," for an audiovisual

D16mm film projector and screen

QFlip chart with easel, chalkboard, and/or  transparencies
with overhead projector

 DCopy of handbook, "Operation and  Management," for each participant

 QCopy of  the 0 & M Check Sheet for each participant.  This sheet
 can be found in the Appendix.

Important Notes
1. A field trip to an existing wastewater treatment plant would
be very beneficial. Prior to the trip, tell the participants
about what to expect.
2. If a field trip is not possible the instructor should be
prepared to present data and other information from a treatment
facility in the area to illustrate O& M problems and concerns.
3. The exercise features an 0 & M check sheet. The advisory
group may be organized Into small teams, each with responsibility
for getting answers to a few of the questions concerning the local
treatment plant on the 0 & M Check Sheet.
4. A script is not provided for the audiovisual presentation.
The Instructor should preview the film to determine its contents,
and to Identify items that are pertinent to the local situation.

Suggested Activities
Introductory Comments . 5 minutes
Audiovisual Presentation 15 minutes
Guided Discussion 30 minutes
Closing Remarks 10 minutes
TOTAL TIME 60 minutes
Introductory Corm ncs (5 minutes)
1. Ask the participants what they now are paying for
sewage service.
2. Ask how that cost compares with the other utilities
they are paying.
3. Ask if their treatment plant is working right. Briefly
discuss how they may learn the answers to these questions.
Audiovisual Presentatic (15 minutes)
1. Briefly review the objectives of the film presentation:
The primary theme of the film is to emphasize the need to
protect a community’s investment in a water pollution control
a. The importance of having well—trained people to
operate the plant is emphasized. Treatment plants
don’t run by themselves.
b. Preventive maintenance is cost effective in
addition to assuring good performance.
c. Good public relations are crucial to gaining the
needed financial support to protect our water resources.
2. Ask the participants to list on a sheet of paper those
factors which are most important in determining that good
personnel will be available to operate the facility being
Guided Discussion (30 minutes)
1. With reference to the film presentation, discuss the
personnel factors that the participants compiled.

Use the 0 & M 2. Give each participant a copy of the 0 & M check sheet. Co
check sheet. over the sources of information for the items, such as local
plant officials, consulting engineers, and regulatory agencies.
3. Take time to explain what is meant (e.g., infiltration and
inflow) by each of the questions.
Use chart 1 on 4. The participants should begin answering the questions durin
Operation and the discussion. The items should be completed by the next
Management. meeting and discussed further at that time.
Closing R arks (10 minutes)
1. Address any remaining questions from the participants.
2. Summarize the main points of the presentation.

Selected Resources
Continuing Need for Improved Operation and Maintenance of Municipal
Wastewater Treatment Plants . Report to Congress by the Comptroller
General of the United States. CED—77—46. Washington, DC: U.S.
General Accounting Office. April 11, 1977. 75 pp.
This report discusses the continuing need for improved
operation and maintenance of municipal wastewater treat-
ment plants constructed under grants awarded by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. This publication is -
available from Documents Handling, Box 6015, Gaithersburg, MD
20760. Specify order number CED—77—46.
Evans, Francis L., III. Summary of National Operational and
Maintenance Cause and Effect Survey . Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency, EPA Technology Transfer. July 1979.
pp. 1—7.
The summary results of the National Operational and Main-
tenance Cause and Effect survey are reported in this
document. The major causes of poor plant performance
are identified and a program for improving plant perfor-
mance is recommended. This publication is available from
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental
Research Information Center, Cincinnati, OH 45268.
Hill, W. R., Reagan, T. M. and Zickefoose, C.S. “Operations & Main-
tenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.”
Water Pollution Control Federation Journal . Vol. 51, No. 5.
May 1979. pp. 899—906.
This article outlines the major problem areas affecting
O & M as determined by a committee of the Water Pollution
Control Federation. The paper also presents constructive
recommendations for bringing 0 & M into compliance. There
is a specific section which addresses the role that the
owners and public can play in this endeavor. Reprints o
this article are available from the Water Pollution Control
Federation, 2626 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington,
DC 20037.
Making Your Wastewater Treatment Plant Work. Good Operation and
Maintenance is the Key . Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. July 1976. 8 pp.
This brochure is designed to inform laypersons of the
importance of good 0 & M and the role they can play
in bringing about improved 0 & M. This publication is
available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Water Programs, Washington, DC 20460

A. Charts for use by the instructor in the suggested activities.
These charts may be used to make transparencies or their contents
may be copied onto flip charts.
1. Operation and Management
B. Handouts for use by the instructor in the guided discussion.
Copies will need to be made for each participant.
1. 0 & M Check Sheet.

Operation and Management
Facility design and standards
Performance record
Types of wastes
Monitoring and testing
Budget and finance

Item No.
1 Is your wastewater treatment plant meeting its design
and permit standards?
2 Are there infiltration or inflow problems?
3 Do special problems with industrial wastes exist?
4 Will the plant be staffed full time?
5 Will operators be certified by the state?
6 Will operators receive on—the—job training before the
plant start—up?
7 Will opportunities for continuing training be
8 Are there sources of employees within the local
9 Are the proposed salaries adequate?
10 Do existing local treatment plants have their
own laboratories?
11 Is the existing sampling and testing program
12 Do the existing plants meet the requirements for
self—testing and reporting under the NPDES
permit system?
13 Do the existing plants have frequent mechanical
14 Are these problems of short duration?

I t ii No.
No -
Will a planned preventative maintenance system be
required in the proposed facilities?
Do any of the plants have provisions for complete
contract management or preventative maintenance?
Is there an adequate 0 & M budget?
Will large volume users be subsidized by
residential users?
Will steps be taken to ensure that low delinquency
rates can be maintained?
S GOVE D4 T PRINT] JC OFFICE. 1980 341-082 )114

Working for Clean Water is a program help
advisory groups improve decision making in water quality planning.
It aims at helping people fOcus on essential issues and questions,
by providing trained instructors and materials suitable for persons
with non—technical backgrounds. These materials include a citizen
handbook on important principles and considerations about topics
in water quality planning, an audiovisual presentation , and in-
structor guide for elaborating points, providing additional infor—
nation, and engaging in problem—solving exercises.
This program consists of 18 informacional units on various
aspects of water quality planning:
• Role of Advisory Groups Innovative and Alternative
• Public Participation
• Industrial Pretreatment
Nonpoinc Source Pollution:
Agriculture, Forestry, and • Land Treatment
• Water Conservation and
• Urban Stortnwacer Runoff Reuse
• Groundwater Contamination • Multiple Use
• Facility Planning in the Environmental Assessment
Construction Grants Program
Cost—Effectiveness Analysis
• Municipal Wastewater
Processes: Overview • Wasceuater Facilities
Operation and Maintenance
Municipal Wastewater
Processes: Details • Financial. Management
Small Systems
The units are not designed to make technical experts out of citizens
and local officials. Each unit contains essential facts, key ques-
tions, advice on how to deal with the issues, and clearly—written
technical backgrounds. In short, each unit provides the information
that cj jzem advisors need to better fulfill their role.
This program is available through public participation coordinators
at the regional offices of the United States Environmental Protection