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c/EPA      Pesticide
                  Fact Sheet
                  Name of Chemical:   CARBARYL
                  Reason for Issuance:  Registration  Standard
                  Date ISSUed:         03/30/84 - Revised 09/05/85
                  Fact Sheet Number:  21

         Generic  Name:  1-Napthyl  N-methylcarbamate

         Con-no i • Maine:  Canary!

         Ti'an? N~>m^.  Sevin

             .".n n .n   _  Cono .   OS("><(;' •

         '               Ls bervice  ; C^11  Number:   63-25-2

                        -' .- _ 1 s r [  n I  J ) r   1 Q • t

                             '  n- i.
                   ti-  j   :'roducers.  Union  Carbide
                                    Hakteshim  Cnemical <\iorks, ln~.

    1.  L'^L PATTER'.'- AND  KORMU1.ATIO1-.'-

        A.-ol icni. ic   SiLit:  'Jitrij,, u >iv_ , stone and oerry fruits,
        I'.-aoe,  r i •:• i r anc v..' ;otat-i'. -.to,is,  nuts, lawns, forests,
        otnament--.  ..i-.ms, ran-j- .on ,  sn^o-  t.ree-3/ poultry and pets,
        i. 11: ) ) r  u •" ^

        Types oc  ronnulat ions:   Bait->,  dusts, granules, wettable
        powders,  flowables and  aqueou?  dispersions

        Types of  rK'-thoos of  Application:  Ground and aerial

        Application Rates:  Ranye  from  0.53 Ibs. a.i./A to 6.4  Ibs. a.i./A

        Usual Carriers:   Synthetic  clays, talc,  various solvents


        Summary Science  Statement

        'arbaryl has moderate to low mammalian toxicity.   It is not con-
         -lered to be an oncogen.   It is a weak  mutagen.   Available data

indicates tr a carharyl has o;ily low teratogenic potentiai..
Lon.j terir. dietary studies in rats and dogs and a short tern
study in humans (highest dose only) demonstrate an apparent
effect on renal function.
No reentry interval is necessary for carbaryl. The Agency is
requesting data to determine if carbaryl will contaminate
groundwater. Data are insufficient to assess the environmental
fate of carbaryl.
Carbaryl is extremely toxic to aquatic invertebrates and certain
estuarine organisms. It is extremely toxic to honey bees. It is
moderately toxic to both warrnwater and coidwater fishes and has
only low toxicity to birds.
A full tolerance reassessment cannot he completed. A one year
doj feedmn. study is requirec as well as residue data on nurnerou
processe commodities.
Chemi cal Character 1st 1 CS
Physical Stat : CrystaLline solid
Odor: Esseltially odrles
Melting po int
Vapor Pressure: < 0.005 mm Hg at 26°C
Flash Point: 380°F
Toxicology Characteristics
Acute Oral LD 5 O: 255 mg/kg, loxicity Categor’ ii
Acute Dermal LD 50 : > 2 g/k;, Toxicity Category Iii
Primary Dermal Irritation: No irritation, Toxicity Category I V
Primary Eye Irritation: Conjunctival irritation at 24 hours.
Cleared at 48 hours. Toxicity Category III
Acute Inhalation LC 50 : Data gap
Oncogenicity: Ten studies. Each study classified as
Nsupplemental.r Collectively these studies provide sufficient
evidence that carbaryl is not oncogenic in experimental

animals. Eighteen month mouse study was negative at 400 ppm.
A 2 year rat feeding and oncogenicity study was negative at
200 ppm.
Teratogenicity: Twenty-four studies have been evaluated to
determine the teratogenic potential of carbaryl. In evaluatiri’.
these studies some were found to be flawed. Other studies
demonstrated no teratogenicity or maternal toxicity. There
are studies which demonstrate teratogenic effects although
the doses also caused maternal toxicity. Two studies produced
teratogenic effects in the beagle dog. These two studies are
the primary reason carbaryl was made a candidate for RPAP in
The Agency has concluded (45 FR 81869) that carbaryl does not
constitute •a potential human teratogen or reproductive hazar —
under groper environmental usage’. The Agency has determinec
that the dog is a poor model to use for teratogenicity test1r ..
The Agency has determined that a label precaution statin:
n3t to use carbaryl on pregnant dogs is warranter
Tner’ have been proposals that there are differences in tn
m tarr l1sri of carbaryl between the dog and man. Tnes’?
difrerences, however, have never been dernonstrate . . Trierefor
a met .ar)o11sn study in the beagle dog versus trie r t c ein
re uirec. Tnis metabolism study should allow us to deter iin;
if tner are meaningful differences between the Coc anc otri r
mammalian species. —
Reproduction: A rat three generation study was ne ative a
200 :ng/k .
riutagenicity: Carharyl is characterized as a weak mutaOen.
Tne Agency has determined that carbaryl does not pose a
:rluta.4enlc risL. No additional data are being requested.
—vear Dog Ieeding Study:
:‘—year Rat Feedng Study: Demonstrated an apparent effect on
rt na1 function. A kidney effect was also noted in a short—
term human study. A one year dog feeding study using carbaryl
is being requested in order to determine the effects of
carbaryl on kidney dysfunction. The results of these ma’ ’
necessitate a re—evaluation of the ADI for carbaryl.
Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics
Mechanism of Pesticidal Action: A contact insecticide which
causes reversible carbamylation of the acetyicholinesterase
enzyme of tissues, allowing accumulation of acetylchloline at

cnolineraic neuroeffector junctions (muscarinic effects), and
at skeletal muscle myoneural junctions and autonomic ganglia.
Poisoning also inpairs the central nervous system function.
Metabolism and Persistence in Plants and Animals: Carbaryl is
rapidly excreted in animals, mainly in the urine. Residues in
animals are carbaryl, l—naphthol and hydroxycarbaryl. The hy-
droxy rnetabolites are found mainly as glucuronide and sulfate
conjugates. Carbaryl is slowly taken up into plants, after
which it is metabolized. The disappearance of carbaryl residue
from plant surfaces is attributed to mechanical attribution, vol—
atization and uptake into plant. Photochemical degradation does
not appear to be a factor. l—Naphthol is the major metabolite.
Envi ronmental Characteri stics
Availar)le data are insufficient to fully assess the environmen—
tal fate of carbaryl.
Adso pt)Cri and Leaching in Basic Soil Types: The Agency is
rejuestin i oato to determine if carbaryl will contaminate
r3uraw t r
iC:(L1al Breakaown: Carrarl is degraded by fungi. The
s’ fun attacL carbaryl b hvdroxvlation of the side chain
an rjr structure.
Los Lrc fr Photodecomposition: Dat&.gaps. Data are required
BioaccurnulatiOfl: Preliminary data indicate that there may be
a potential for carharyl and its residue(s) to accumulate ir
catfish, crayfish, snail, duckweed and algae. Additional
data are requested.
ResUltant Averaae Persistanc’ : Carhari s metabolized by
pure ann rnixefl cultures of bacteria, funci, and to some ex—
L v otne- so i and water organisms. Tne naif—life appears to
rari :- fro’r to 28 days in a :rohic ann anaerobic soils, re—
s ec tivei,
Ecoloa ical Characteristics
Avian oral LD 50 -
Mallard duck: > 2179 mg/kg
Ring necked pheasant: > 2000 mg/kg
Avian dietary LC 50 —
Mallard duck: > 5000 ppm

Pang—necKed pheasant: “ 5000 pprr
BoDwhite quail: > 5000 ppr
Freshwater Fish LC 50 —
Coidwater fish: rainbow trout. — 1.95 pprr
Warmwater fish: bluegill sunfish — 6.76 ppm
Acute LC 50 Freshwater Invertebrates -
Daphnia pulex — 6.4 ppb
Acute LC 50 Estuarine and Marine Organisms: Data gap. Data
being requested.
Freshwater Fish Early Life—Stage —
Fathead minnow - Maximum Acceptable Theoretical Concentra-
tion (MATC) — >0.21<0.68 ppb
No precautionary languaae is required for birds or fish.
However, carbaryl is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates.
There is insufficient information to characterize the chronic
toxicity of carharyl to aauati invertebrates.
Tolerance Assessments
The Agency is unable to complets- a fu1 :Dlerance reassessrnen
because of certain residue cher’ustr an toxicology data
gaps, namely a one year do feeainc stua’ and the need fo:-
residue data on various processed rood commodities.
Commodity Parts Per Million
Alfalfa 100
Alfalfa 100
Almonds, hulls 40
Apricots 10
Asparagus 10
Bananas 10
Barley, grain o
Barley, green fodder 100
Barley, straw 100
Beans 10
Beans, forage 100
Beans, hay 100
Beets, garden (roots) 5
Beets, garden (tops) 12

To. t -anc
Commodity Parts Per Million
Birdsfoot trefoil, forage 100
Birdsfoot trefoil, hay 100
Blackberries 12
Boysenberries 12
Broccoli 10
Brussels sprouts 10
Cabbacje 10
carrots 10
Cauliflower 10
Celery 10
Cnerries 10
Crie tnu:s
Chines cahbaae 10
Citrus tru)ts 10
Ciover 100
Ciove , 100
o r .:eEr (lncludlnç sweet) Kerne1(K 5
or lth husk removed(CWHR)
• aae . 100
- ‘ I aac 100
Cow . ra e 100
Cowoe? ., 11a 100
Crannerrier 10
Cucumbers JO
DandeliOfl 12
DewDerrieF 12
E i- 1an 10
-‘i azelnuts I
S ‘ - S
Fi , str 10(
Grapes 10
Grass 100
Grass, ‘ 100
Horseradis! S
Kale 12
iKohirabi 10
Lentils 10
Lettuce 10
oganberries 12

1 ie .anCe :
Commodity Parts Per Mil1 ior
Maple sap 0.5
Melons 10
Millet, proso, grain 3
Millet, proso, straw ioo
Mustara greens 12
Nectarines 10
Oats, fodder, green ioo
Oats, grain 0
Oats, straw 100
Okra 10
Olives 10
Oysters 0.25
Parsle 12
rsnip S
Peanuts 5
t’eanuts, r av 10(1
( it.r pOCS 10
-, I
1 0
-- nutE 1
: s: r ne 10
:tr’y, La: 5
Du1try, meat S
utatoes 0.2(N)
Prickly pear cactus, fruit 12.0
?ri Kly pear cactus, pads 12.0
Pumpkins 10
R3dshe S
-, 12
• zra 100
( — , areL b c ,
- , • Ld11 ( I
Rye, stra 100
Salsify (roDts) 5
1 i’ (top ’ 10
: iahu , fora e 100
Sorohum, grair 1 10
Soybeans, forage ioo
Soybeans, hay 100
Spinach 12
Squash, summer 10
Squash, winter 10

Tolerar .E
Commodity Parts Per Millior
Strawberries 10
Sugar beets, tops ioo
Sunflower seeds 1
Sweet potatoes 0.2
Swiss chard 12
Tomatoes 10
Turnips, roots 5
Turnips, tops 12
Walnuts 1
Wheat, fodder, green 100
Wheat (grain) 3
Wheat, straw ioo
Cattle, fat 0.1
Cattle, kidney
Catt1 , liver
Cattle, meat 0.1
Cattle (mbyp) 0.1
Goats, fat
Goats, kiane
Goats, liver
Goats, meat
Goats (mt yp
Horses, fa
Horses, ‘idn- ’ -
Horses, 1ive
Horses, meat
Horses (mbyp
Sheep, fat
Sheep, kianey
Sheep, liver
Sheep, meat o. i
Sheep (mbyp 0.:
Swine, fat o.:
Swine, kiane)
Swine, 1ve
Swine, m a
Based on established tolerances the theoretical maxirnwr
residue contribution (TMRC) for carhar ’l reslduec 1fl th
human diet is calculated to be 5.48 n /da . The acceptable
daily intake (ADI) of carbaryl is 0.1 mg/kg/day. Tne max-
imum permissible intake (MPI) is 6 mg/day. To provide for
conformity between U.S. tolerances for carbaryl and tolerances
established by the Codex Alirnentarius , Canada and Mexico, the
expression of the U.S. tolerances for carbaryl will be changed
to omit reference to l—naphthol.

A fl€ year oo feecin study is bein ..j reouestec in oroer tc
deterrrine the effects of carbaryl on kidney aysfunctior..
The results of thesc cata may’ require that the A P i for caroary
be recalculated.
U.S. tolerances for most raw agricultural commodities are
supported by current residue chemistry data. Ir some cases,
however, more data are required.
The Agency has determined that it should continue to allow
the registration of carbaryl. Adequate studies are available
to assess the acute toxicological effects of carbaryl to
humans. None of the criteria listed in section 162.11(a) of
Title 40 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations have been
met or exceeded. However, because of gaps in the data base a
full risk assessment of carbaryl cannot be completed.
full tolerance reassessment cannot be comp1et : Decause of
certain residue chemistry and toxicology data ga . namely a
one year dog feeding study and the need for resicuE- data or
various processed commodities.
No feaeral or state reentry intervals have oeen es:az’ l shec
for caroarv or will e established.
Ava:laDi. a t - are insufficient to fully assess tne env ro--
ment tate o: carbaryl. The Agency is requestinc data to
determine i carbaryl will contaminate groundwater.
Residue data on various processed commodities
One year doç feeding study
Hycirolysi’ Etua
Priotuuegra .a io studies
Soil netaD’ Isq studies
Mohillt\ S UCACE
D1S 5i. t1 stud i
Accumulatic’r studiec
Metabolisr study in dog versus rat

€. COF\1 T PERSC*. A’1 EP
Ja S. Ellenberger
Product Manager (12)
Insecticide—Rodenticide Branch Registration Division (Ts—767c)
Office of Pesticide Programs
Environn er tal Protection Agency 401 M Street, S. W.
Washington, D. C. 20460
Office location and telephone number:
Room 202, Crystal Mall *2
1921 Jefferson Davis Highway
Arlington, VA 22202
(703) 557—2386
DISCLP IMEI : The information presented in this Chemical Information
Fact Sheet is for informational purposes only and ma no be usec
to fulfill cata requirements for pesticide rejlstratior anc
rereg is t rat br..