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               Fact Sheet
               Name of Chemical: ALDICAKB
               Reason for Issuance:
               Date Issued:  March 30,1984
               Facf Sheet Number: ,„
 1.  DESCRIPTION OP CHEMICAL                     —^—^——

    Generic Name:  2-methyl-2-(methylthio)  propionaldehyde

    O-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime

    Common Namex  Aldicarb

    Trade Name:   Temik*

    EPA Shaughnessy Codes  098301

    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number:  116-06-3

    Year of Initial Registration:  1970

    Pesticide Type:  insecticide, acaricide and nematicide

    Chemical Family:  carbamate

    U.S.  and Foreign Producers:  Onion  Carbide Corporation


    Application  Sites and Rates:

    Terrestrial  Pood Use

        Sites                      Rates (Iba. active ingredient)

        Beans, dried                          0.5 - 2.0
        Cotton                                0.3 - 6.0
        Grapefruit                            5.0 - 10.0
        Lemons                                5.0 - 10.0
        Oranges                               5.0 - 10.0
        Peanuts                               1.0 - 3.0
        Pecans                                0.7 - 10.0
        Potatoes                              1.0 - 3.0
        Sorghum                               0.5 - 1.0
        Soybeans                              0.7 - 3.0
        Sugar beets                           1.0 - 6.0
        Sugar cane                            2.0 - 3.0
       Sweet potatoes                         1.5 - 3.0

Terrestrial Non—Food Uses
Dah ii as
Lilies, bulbs
Rates (lbs. active ingredient )
5.0 — 10.0
5.0 — 8.0
5.0 — 10.0
5.0 — 7.0
7.0 — 10.0
Commercial Greenhouse Uses
Easter lilies
Rates (lbs.
active ingredient )
7.5 — 10.0
7.5 — 10.0
5.0 — 7.5
5.0 — 10.0
7.5 — 10.0
7.5 — 10.0
5.0 — 10.0
5.0 — 10.0
Types of Formulations and Method of Application :
Aldicarb is a soil incorporated pesticide commercially formu-
lated into a 15% granular formulation, two (2) 10% granular
formulations and a 5% granular formulation in a mixture with
the fungicides pentachloronitrobenzene and 5ethoxy—3—(tri-
chloromethyl) 1, 2,4—thiadiazole.
Summary Science Statement :
Aldicarb has a high acute toxicity as an acetylcholinesterase
inhibitor via the oral, inhalation and dermal routes of expo-
sure. Neither aldicarb not its metabolites have been shown
to be neurotoxic, oncogenic, teratogenic or mutagenic in
studies that have been reviewed to date.

Aldicarb has been found to leach in fine to coarse textured
soils, incifuding those soils with a high organic matter con-
tent. The wide natural variability in soil types, weather
patterns and aquifer characteristics make it impossible to
specify a precise set of circumstances under which aldicarb
will not reach ground water. In an effort to reduce fur-
ther ground water contamination, stringent label/use re-
strictions have been established by the guidance document.
An expedited Special Reviewu of the aldicarb contamination
problem is being initiated to determine whether aldicarb
products can be labeled any practical way that would both
permit the continued use of the chemical and preclude
ground contamination of unacceptable amounts. Under this
review we will also be determine what level will be accept-
able in ground water. Aldicarb is highly toxic to wildlife
organisms. From the available data, only limited exposure
is expected to large animals, estuarine/ marine organisms
and freshwater organisms as a result of the current label
uses. Data suggest that application of this pesticide may
result in some mortality to certain avian species. Addi-
tional data are being required to fully assess the impact
on avian and small mammal populations.
Chemical Characteristics :
Technical aldicarb is a white crystalline solid with a melting
point of 98_boo C (pure material). Under normal conditions,
aldicarb is a heat—sensitive, inherently unstable chemical and

must be stabilized to obtain a practical shelf—life.
Toxicology Characteristics :
A]djcarb is a carbamate insecticide which causes cholines—
terase inhibition (ChE) at very low exposure levels. It is
highly toxic by the oral, derma]. and inhalation routes of ex-
posure (Toxicity Category I). The oral LD 50 value f or techni-
cal aldicarb is 0.9 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg for male and female
rats, respectively.
The acute dermal LD 50 for aldicarb in rats is 3.0 mg for males
and 2.5 mg for females. High mortality was evident in rats,
mice and guinea pigs (6.7 mg/M 3 ), a 15 minute exposure period
was not lethal; however, 5 of the 6 test animals died during a
30—minute exposure. Exposure of rats for eight hours to air
that had passed over technical aldicarb or granular aldicarb
produced no mortality. Aldicarb applied to the eye of rabbits
at 100 mg of dry powder caused ChE effects and lethality.
The toxicity data base for aldicarb is nearly complete; however,
additional mutagenicity tests are being required by the aldicarb
guidance document. The toxicity data base includes a 2—year rat
feeding/oncogenicity study with a no—observed effect level (NOEL)
of 0.3 mg/kg bw/day for effects other than cholinesterase inhibi-
tion and was negative for oncogenic effects at the level tested
(0.3 mg/kg bw/day); a 2—year rat oncogenicity Study which was
negative for oncogenic effects at the levels tested (0.1 and 0.3
mg/kg bw/day); a 100—day dog feeding study and a 2—year dog

feeding study with NOELs of 0.7 and 0.1 mg/kg by/day, respec—
tively, for effects other than cholinesterase inhibition (high-
est levels tested CULT)); an 18—month mouse feeding/oncogeni—
city study with a NOEL of 0.7 mg/kg bw/day and was negative for
oncogenic effects at the levels tested (0.1, 0.3 and 0.7 mg/kg
bw/day); a 2—year mouse oncogenicity study which was negative
for oncogenic effects at the levels tested (0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg
bw/day); a 6—month rat feeding study using aldicarb sulfoxide
with a NOEL of 0.125 mg/kg bw/day for cholinesterase inhibition;
a 3—generation rat reproduction study with a 0.7 mg/kg bw/day
NOEL; a rat teratology study which was negative for teratogenic
effects at 1.0 mg/kg bw/day CULT); a rabbit teratology study
which was negative for teratogenic effects at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day
(HLT); and a hen neurotoxicity study which was negative at up to
4.5 mg/kg bw/day.
Physiological and Biochemical Behavior Characteristics :
Aldicarb and its metàbolites are absorbed by plants frcun the
soil and translocated into the roots, stems, leaves and fruit.
The available data indicate that the metabolism of aldicarb in
plants and small animals are similar.
Aldicarb is metabolized rapidly by oxidation to the sulfoxide
metabolite and followed by slower oxidation to the sulfone
metabolite. Both the sulfoxide and sulfone are subsequently
hydrolyzed and degraded further to yield less toxic entities.
Sufficient information is not available to adequately define
the metabolism of aldicarb in ruminant animals. However, at

present the major residues of concern in plants and animals
appear to be the parent compound aldicarb and its sulfoxide
and gulf one metabolites.
Enviror ental Characteristics :
Sufficient data are not available to fully assess the environ-
mental fate of aldicarb. Additional data are being required on
soil metabolism, soil and aquatic dissipation, leaching and vo-
latility. However, from the available data, aldicarb has been
determined to be mobile in fine to coarse textured soils, even
including those soils with high organic matter content and may
reach ground water. Aldicarb is not expected to move horizon-
tally from a bare, sloping field. Therefore, accumulation of
aldicarb in aquatic nontarget organisms is expected to be mini-
mal. This is further supported by an octanol/water partition
coefficient of 5 and an ecological magnification value of 42.
Ecological Characteristics :
Aldicarb is highly toxic to mammals, birds, estuarine/marine
organisms and freshwater organisms. LC 50 values for the blue-
gill sunfish and rainbow trout have been reported as 50 ug, ’
liter and 560 ug/liter, respectively. A L.C 50 of 4lO. ug/
liter was reported for the Daphnia magna . Studies on the tox-
icity of aldicarb to the mallard duck and bobwhite quail indi-
cate LD 50 values of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively.
Limited exposure to mammals is expected from a dietary stand-
point. However, data from field studies and the use history

of aldicarb provide sufficient information to suggest •that ap-
plication of this pesticide may result in some mortality, if
not local population reductions of certain avian species.
Whether these effects are excessive, long lasting, or likely
to diminish wildlife resources cannot be stated with any
degree of certainty. Therefore, additional field studies are
being required to further quantify the impact on avian and
small. mammal populations.
Aldicarb has also been found to pose a threat to the endangered
species, Attwater’s Greater Prairie Chicken, residing in or
near aldicarb treated fields. Accordingly, all. aldicarb pro-
ducts are required to bear labeling restrictions prohibiting the
use of the product in the Texas counties of Aransas, Austin,
Brazoria, Colorado, Galveston, Goliad, Harris, Refugio and
Victoria if the Attwater’s Greater Prairie Chicken is located
in or immediately adjacent to the treatment area.
Tolerance Assessments :
The Agency is unable to complete a full tolerance assessment of
aldicarb tolerances at this time because of the lack of 1) a
large animal metabolism study which adequately identifies and
quantifies residues in tissue; 2) analyses of treated cotton
foliage and; 3) processing studies for instant coffee, potato
granules and dried potatoes and soybean processing fractions.
Additionally, there are some concerns over the appropriate
Acceptable Daily Intake (AD!) for aldicarb.

In 1983, the Assistant Administrator for the EPA formed an
Aldicarb Review Committee to evaluate the available toxicity
data for aldicarb and determine the appropriate ADI. A
formal report is not available at this time; however, one of
the Buggestions of the committee was the use of an interme--
diate uncertainty factor of 32. The resulting ADI, if
adopted, would be 0.0038 mg/kg/day. An independent evalua-
tion of the toxicity data base by the World Health Organization
(1982) and the Institute for Comparative and Environmental
Toxicology (Cornell University) further supports the ADI used
by the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP). Although there has
been and continues to be much discussion on the subject, the
OPP considers it prudent, at this time, not to alter its estab-
lished ADI of 0.003 mg/kg/day.
Based on the below listed tolerances for aldicarb and its sul-
foxide and suif one metabolites, the current theoretical max1mun
residue contribution (TMRC) is 0.1120 mg/day for a 1.5 kg diet
which utilizes 62.14 percent of the ADI.
Tolerances for Residues
Raw Agricultural Commodities Parts Per Millior .
Bananas 0.3
Beans (dry) 0.].
Beets, sugar 0.05
Beets, sugar, tops 1.0
Cattle, fat 0.01
Cattle, mbyp 0.01
Cattle, meat 0.01
Coffee beans 0.1
Cottonseed 0.1

Tolerances for Residues (cont.)
Raw Agricultural Canmodities Parts Per Million
Goats, fat 0.0].
Goats, mbyp 0.01
Goats, meat 0.01
Grapefruits 0.3
Hogs, fat 0.01
Hogs, mbyp 0.01
Hogs, meat 0.01
Horses, fat 0.01
Horses, mbyp 0.01
Horses, meat 0.01
Lemons 0.3
Limes 0.3
Milk 0.002
Oranges 0.3
Peanuts 0.05
Peanut, hulls 0.5
Pecans 0.5
Potatoes 1.0
Sheep, fat 0.01
Sheep, mbyp 0.01
Sheep, meat 0.01
Sorghum, fodder 0.5
Sorghum, grain 0.2
Soybeans 0.02
Sugarcane 0.02
Sugarcane, fodder 0.1
Sugarcane, forage 0.1
Sweet potatoes 0.1
Problems Which are Known to Have Occurred With Use of Aldicarb :
In 1979, aldicarb residues were found in drinking water wells
located near aldicarb treated potato fields in Suffolk County,
Long Island, New York at levels (200 parts per billion (ppb).
A]dicarb residues have since been found in drinking water wells
at levels above 10 ppb in other states including Wisconsin,
Florida, Maine, Virginia, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, New
Jersey and Rhode Island. The Agency’s Office of Drinking Water
has established a Health Advisory Level (HAL) of 10 parts per

billion (ppb) f or residues of aldicarb in drinking water. How-
ever, since the HAL is derived from the ADI and the ADI may
undergo changes in the future, the HAL may be revised. Such
a change would likely be an increase in the HAL.
The Pesticide Incident Monitoring System (PIMS) reports on
aldicarb from 1966 through 1982, contained 165 incidents asso-
ciated with human injury, and 6 incidents each involving
animals, environmental contamination and non—target plants and
crops. Most of the human incidents alleged that aldicarb was
the cause of the problem, but there was insufficient evidence
to support such a conclusion. Those incidents involving con-
firmed aldicarb poisonings appeared to be the result of failure
to use label recommended safety equipment while applying
aldicarb. Other incidents resulted from accidental spillage,
ingestion of aldicarb, or consumption of food commodities
improperly treated with aldicarb.
voluntarily classified all
in an effort to minimize
However, since aldicarb
and inhalation routes of
Agency is requiring that
Restricted Use.
As the result of the aldicarb contamination of drinking water
wells, Union Carbide Corporation excluded the use of aldicarb
In 1982, Union Carbide Corporation
aldicarb products Restricted Use
further ground water contamination.
is highly toxic by the oral, derma].
exposure (Toxicity Category I), the
all aldicarb products be classified

products in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. The corn-
pany also limited the use of aldicarb products on potatoes to
once every two years and only after plant emergence in the
state of Maine and Wisconsin and the counties of Hartford in
Connecticut, Kent and New Castle in Delaware, Franklin and
Hampshire in Massachusetts, Worchester in Maryland, Atlantic,
Burlington, Cumberland, Monmouth and Salem in New Jersey,
Newport and Washington in Rhode Island and Accomack and
Northampton in Virginia. Aldicarb may be applied at planting
at the 1 lb. active ingredient/acre rate for for aphid con-
trol in the state of Maine.
Based on concerns for ground water contamination, product la-
beling must be further revised to include the following
UThis product is usually decomposed into harmless resi-
dues. However, a combination of sandy and acidic soil
conditions, moderate to heavy irrigation and/or rain-
fall, use of 3 or more pounds active ingredient per
acre, and soil temperature below 50°F at the time of
application, tend to reduce degradation and promote
movement of residues to ground water. If this describes
your local use conditions and ground water in your
area is used for drinking, do not use this product
without first contacting (company name).
Do not apply this product in Del Norte County,
Calif ornia.

‘Do not apply more than 5 lbs. active ingredient per
acre in the state of Florida.
‘Application to citrus fruits in the state of Florida
may be made between January 1 and April 30 only.’
In the absence of adequate soil dissipation data and dermal
exposure data, the Agency is imposing an interm 24—hour
re—entery interval.
The data requirements represent major data gaps for aldicarb.
These data are required to be submitted to the Agency within
4 years from the data of the issuance of the registration
— Ruminant metabolism study
— Anaerobic soil metabolism study
— Aerobic and anaerobic aquatic metabolism studies
— Photodegradation in water study
— Soil (field) dissipation study -
— Leaching and Adsorptiori/Desorption Studies
— Volatility study
— Field monitoring data
Jay Ellenberger,
Product Manager (PM) 12,
Registration Division (TS—767C),
Office of Pesticide Programs,
Environmental Protection Agency,
401 M St., SW.,
Washington, D.C. 20460.

Office location and telephone number:
km. 202’, CM 02,
Jefferson Davis Highway,
Arlington, VA 22202,
DISCLAIMER: The information presented in this Chemical Informa-
tion Fact Sheet is for informational purposes only and may not be
used to fulfill data requirements for pesticide registration
and reregistration.