United States
Environmental Protection
Air and Radiation
Energy Star Buildings
EPA 430-F-94-026
November 1994
The Energy Star Buildings Program
. I — — — — — — — -
The energy to run
buildings in the United
States costs about $70
billion a year Besides
being costly, producing
the electricity to run
these buildings
contributes to a host of
problems: acid rain,
smog, and global
warming. EPA Energy
Star programs promote
the use of pro fitable,
technologies as a way
to increase profits and
competitiveness, while
at the same time
preventing pollution.
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Pnn i wdh SoyC ola Ink ec paper that
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about the proper sizing of
upgraded cooling equipment
(chillers and direct-expansion
units) are reduced, leading to
potential equipment downsiz-
ing and cost savings.
Partners are expected to
follow this staged implemen-
tation strategy in upgrades
of buildings they own. The
Energy Star Buildings pro-
gram will also seek to
expand markets for emerging
energy-efficient technologies
with the goal of reducing
prices to make investments
even more profitable.
EPAs new Energy Star
Buildings program is a volun-
tary energy-efficiency pro-
gram for U.S. commercial
buildings. Expanding on the
successful Green Lights pro-
gram, this initiative focuses
on profitable investment
opportunities available in
most buildings, using proven
technologies. A central com-
ponent of the program is a
step-by-step implementation
strategy that takes advan-
tage of system interactions,
enabling building owners to
achieve additional energy
What Is the Energy Star Buildings
savings while lowering capi-
tal expenditures.
The five-stage Energy Star
Buildings upgrade strategy is
shown below. One key advan-
tage of this approach is that it
reduces equipment costs. By
implementing Green Lights
(Stage 1), tuning up building
systems (Stage 2), and invest-
ing in upgrades that reduce
heating and cooling loads
(Stage 3), building owners
can significantly reduce the
size and cost of equipment
associated with Stages 4 and
5. Moreover, uncertainties
Stage I
This staged approach provides a broad strategic framework for making comprehen-
sive efficiency upgrades in a range of commercial building types.
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
Improved Fans
and Air-Han-
dling Systems
Heating and
Cooling Plant

Energy Star Buildings:
Maximizing Energy
Efficiency (and
EPA asks Energy Star Buildings
participants to perform upgrades
only where profitable. The five
stages of the Energy Star Buildings
program are sequenced to maximize
savings, pre vent oversi ’iing, and
minimize equipment costs.
Stage 1: Green Lights
• Install energy-efficient lighting
Stage 2: Building Tune-Up
• Check and adjust building systems
• Develop and implement an ongoing
preventative maintenance plan
Stage 3: HVAC Load Reductions
• Install window films, reflective roof cov-
erings, and more effective roof insulation
• Buy energy-efficient computers, monitors,
and printers that have the EPA Energy
Star logo
Stage 4: Fan System Upgrades
• Upgrade variable-air-volume (VAV) sys-
tems with variable-speed drives (VSDs)
• Upgrade constant-air-volume systems
with VAV systems
• Reduce fan system oversizing
• Replace existing motors with smaller,
high-efficiency motors
Stage 5: HVAC Plant Improvements
• Replace or upgrade chillers
• Plan for 1995 CFC phaseout
• Retrofit water pumps and compressors
with VSDs
• Replace electric resistance heat
where possible
How Does EPA Help?
In addition to publicly recognizing an
organization for its participation in the
program and the energy savings it
achieves, EPA will provide a number of
technical resources to help plan and
implement building upgrades. These
resources include:
• The Energy Star Buildings Manual, a
step-by-step guide to a comprehen-
sive building upgrade.
• Software to calculate savings from
upgraded fan systems.
• A data base of financing programs
for building-efficiency upgrades.
When Can I Join?
EPA plans to fully launch the Energy
Star Buildings Program in the fall of 1995,
upon completion of a demonstration
phase currently in progress. During this
demonstration phase, the Energy Star
Building upgrade strategy is being imple-
mented in 24 “showcase” buildings across
the country. The owners of these 24 build-
For more information about the Energy Star
Buildings program and the Green Lights
program, please contact:
Energy Star/Green Lights
U.S. EPA (6202J)
Washington, DC 20460
fax: 202 775-6680
• Case studies documenting monitored
savings for specific technologies
such as VSDs, fan motors, and
Showcase Building upgrades.
• Generic specifications for specific
energy-efficient technologies.
• Information and guidance on indoor
air quality issues.
• Guidance on how to use the CFC
phaseout as an opportunity to
increase building efficiency and
reduce the cost of transitioning to
alternative refrigerants.
ings are working to complete the
upgrades within a compressed schedule
to demonstrate and verify that the strat-
egy works to maximize energy savings at
a profit. The Showcase Building projects
are also providing the opportunity to field-
test and refine EPA’s technical support
materials before expanding the program.
your buildings and implement lighting
upgrades where profitable. Existing
Green Lights participants, now number-
ing more than 1,600, have realized aver-
age returns of 30-40 percent on their
investments in energy-efficient lighting
and are contributing to reductions in
emissions of pollutants associated with
global warming, acid rain, and smog.
Suppose I Want to Start Now?
Since Stage 1 of the Energy Star Build-
ings upgrade strategy is EPA’s Green
Lights program, interested organizations
can get a head start on becoming an
Energy Star Buildings Partner by joining
Green Lights now and accelerating imple-
mentation of lighting-efficiency upgrades.
As a Green Lights Partner, you will, with
EPA support, conduct lighting surveys of
Or call: 202 775-6650
For more information by fax
(available 24 hours a day), call:
202 233-9659.