United States             office of Partiddat and Toxic Subjtancat
                    Environmental Protection       Offieo of Pettiade Programs  (TS-766C)
                    Agency                 Washington, DC  20460
 x>EPA      Pesticide
                    Fact  Sheet
                    Name of Chemical:  COPPER SULFATE
                    Reason for Issuance:
                    Date Issued:   March 21, 1986
                    Fact Sheet Number:
1. Description of chemical:

     Generic  Name:  Copper Sulfate
     Cannon name:   Copper Sulfate
     Trade names:   Copper Sulfate, Bluestone
     EPA Shaughnessy Code: 02W01 (pentahydrate),  02W02 (monohydrate),
                          008101 (basic copper sulfate)
     Chemical Abstracts Service  (CAS) Number: 13M-73-6
     Year of  Initial Registration:
     Pesticide Type:  Herbicide, fungicide
     Chemical family: Copper sulfate
     U.S. Producers:  The Anaconda Co., Cities Service Co., Inc.,  C.P Chemicals,
        Inc., B^elhard Minerals & Chemical Corp., Liquid Chemical Corp.,
        Madison Industries, Inc., Malllnckrodt, Inc., Phelps Dodge Corp.,
        Southern California Chemical Co., Inc., Transvaal, Inc.,  Unlvar Corp.,
        Gulf Chemical & Metallurgical Co., Pesticide Service Consultants.

2. Use patterns and formulations:

     Application sites:  Primary use Is to control alga growths in Impounded waters,
                        lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and Irrigation and irrigation
                        drainage conveyance systems.  Other sites Include foliar
                        applications for control of foliar pathogens on fruit,
                        nut, vegetable, and field crops, ornamentals, and
                        agricultural and home garden uses.  Copper sulfate Is
                        also registered for use as a weed seed treatment, for
                        treatment of tree wounds, for control of fungi and
                        fungal/bacterial slimes occurring In wood, and 111
                        water systems, including sewer pumps and force mains,
                        pulp and paper mills, cooling towers and spray ponds.
     Types  of formulations: Basic copper sulfate Is formulated as crystalline
                           solids, 12.75 and 53-0 percent wettable powders,
                           30.0 percent liquid concentrate, and  2.0 and 52.0 percent
     Types  and Methods of Application: In Impounded waters, lakes,  ponds, reservoirs
                        and irrigation systems, copper sulfate can be applied
                        by spraying or dusting the water surface,  large crystals
                        can be placed In a burlap bag and towed  behind a boat,
                        or dumped In directly, or finer crystals  can be metered In
     Application Rates: Prom 0.0013 to 10.0 ppra for aquatic uses and from 0.24 to
                       21.2 Ib a.l./A for terrestrial uses.
     Usual  carriers: Water, or no carrier.

3. Science Findir s :
& nary science stat nent: Copper sulfate is exenpt fran the require ents
of a tolerance when It Is applied to growir crops. There is also a
specific ex nption fran the requir nent of a tolerance for copper in
neat, milk, poultry, s, fish, shellfish, and irrigated crops when
copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as an algicide or herbicide in
ponds, reservoirs, or other bodies of water. se ex nptiona are ll
founded. No edditional toxicology st ies are required. Copper sulfate
is in Toxicity Category I as an eye and dermal irritant. Copper sulf te
is toxic to fish and may present a hazard to aqtatic organi ns, especially
when used as an algicide or rnolluscicide.
Ch ical characteristics:
Physical state: Solid, crystalline
Color: Blue-green
Qior: None
Boiling point: N/A
Melting point: N/A
Flash point: N/A
Unust ]. hamilir€ characteristics: None
Toxicological characteristics:
Acute Etfects:
Acute Oral Toxicity - Toxicity Category fl
Acute Dermal Toxicity — Toxicity Category II
Dermal Irritation - Toxicity Category I
Dermal Sensiti tion — Copper Sulfate is a dernial sensitizer
Acute Inhalation Toxicity - N/A
Primary Eye Irritation - Toxicity Category I
Chronic Effects:
Q icogenicity - N/A (I ta not required)
Teratology - N/A
Reproductive Effects - N/A
Mutagenicity - N/A
Feeding Sttzlies - N/A
Major Ibutes of E cposure: Dermal, ocular, and inhalation
Physiological and Bioch nical Behavioral Characteristics:
Poliar absorption: N/A
Translocatiai: N/A
Mechanism of pesticidal action: Inactivation of enzyme
syst ns In fungus and 1gae
tabolism and persistence in plants and 5fllmRl a: No build-up of copper
occurs in plants. Because of the ex nption fran tolerance requirsments,
r further data will be required for plant and animal metabolism and
persisterx e.

v1rorinental Q aracteristics:
Adsorption and leaching in basic soil types: I ta gap
Microbial brea1 own: N/A
Loss fran photodecanposition and/or volatilization: N/A
Bioac i.xnulat1on: N/A
Resultant average persistance: As a naturally occurring substance,
copper persists irxlefinitely.
Half-life in Water: N/A
Ecol 1cal characteristics:
Hazards to Birds: Minimal hazards
Hazards to Aquatic Invertebrates: Toxic to aquatic invertebrates.
Hazards to Fish: Toxic to fish. Field sti.dies have been required.
Pbtential Probl6ns with Ehdangered Species: Blolc€ical opinions fran
OES have stated that there may be hazards to the slackwater darter,
freshwater mussels, and Solano grass. Stat n its will be required
on all EP labels requiring the applicator to consult a specific Agency
3illetin before applying copper sulfate in certain coi.uities.
Tolerance Reasses nent:
List of crops and tolerances: Copper sulfate is ex npted fran all tolerances.
List of food contact uses: Copper sulfate is exenpted fran all tolerances.
Results of tolerance reazses nent: nption was found to be valid.
Probl ns 1o o to have occurred fran use: No specific probl ns requiring
r u].atory action.
Lj SliT rriAry of R ulatory Position and Rationale :
Use Classification: None
Use, 1 rmulat1on or Geograçhic Restrictions: In certain counties,
the user must consult a 8pecific Agency & lletin on erxiargered
species before applying copper sulfate.
Tkiiqt Label warnirg stat nents:
a. Labels for manufacturli€-use copper sulfate products must
bear stat nents reflecting the canpound’ a acute hunan
toxicity. Copper sulfate is in Toxicity Cat ory I by
eye and dennal irritation routes of exposure.
The following hunari hazard stat nent, based on data reviewed
by the Agency, must appear on all MP labels, and on the
labels of all EPa In the 99% a.i. crystalline form:
“DANGER - Causes severe eye and skin irritation. Harmful If
absorbed throi h the skin or Inhaled. May cause skin
sensitization reactions In certain individuals. Avoid
contact with the skin, eyes, or clothing. Avoid breathing

dust. Protective clothing, thclt ing gcggles, aI uld
be ah tliorough].y with soap arid water after
handling. iove contaminated clothing and wash before
reuse •“
Ckie of the following stat ne ts of practical treshnent,
based on data reviewed by the Agency, must appear on all
MP labels, arid on the labels of all EPa in the 99% a.i.
crystalline forui, zider a heading that reads eIther “Practical
Thea nent” or “First Aid”:
“IF IN EYES, flush with plenty of water. Call a physician.
IF ON SKtN, wash with plenty of soap arid water. Get
medical attention. IF $iALUYdE), call a Ftiy8ician or
Poison Control Center. Drink 1 or 2 glasses of rater arid
induce van iting by touching the back of throat with
finger. Do riot induce vaniting or give anything by mouth
to an i z conscious person.”; or
“IF IN EYES, flush with plenty of water. Call a physician.
IF ON SEN, wash with plenty of soap and water. Get
medical attention. IF SWALLC JFD, call a physician or
Poison Control Center. Drink 1 or 2 gLasses of water and
induce vaniting by touching back of throat with finger, or,
if available, by a ninisteririg syrup of ipecac. Do rot
lziduce vaniting or give arLythlrg by mouth to an w onscious
b. ¶L following revised envirorinental hazard stat nent must
appear on all MP labels:
“This pesticide Is toxic to fish and aquatic organisns.
Do rot discharge effluent containing this product Into
lakes, 8tre ns, ponds, eattarles, oceans, or public
water unless this product is specifically identified
and addressed In an ES per nit. Do rot discharge
effluent containing this product into sewer syst na
wittout reviously notifying the sewege trea1 nent plant
autkority. Por gui iance contact yoi.r State ter Boand
or Regional Office of the EPA.”
c • The following statdnents must appear on all EP labels:
1. “Yay cause sldn sensitization In certain lndlvldusls”; and
It is a violation of F deral laws to use any pesticide In
a mariner that results In the death of an endangered species
or adverse modification of their habitat.

use of this product may pose a hazard to certain
Federally designated dangered 8pecies laiown to occur
in specific areas within the following counties:
Solano Grass
Slack ter .rter
Fresh, ter ?tssels
(EPA/F -85—O7)
Slack ter 1 rter
Freshi ter Missels
Before using this product In the above counties you must
obtain the EPA Bulletin specific to your area. This
Bulletin identifies areas within these counties where
the use of this pesticide is prohibited, unless specified
otherwise. 1 EPA Bulletin Is available fran either your
County Agricultural ctension Agent, the angered Species
Specialist in your State Wildlife Agency Headquarters, or
the appropriate Ii ional Office of the U.S. Fish and
e. All copper sulfate products intended for direct application
to ter must bear the following stat ents:
I. “This pesticide is toxic to fish. Direct application
of copper sulfate to ter may effect a significant
reduction In populations of aquatic invertebrates,
plants and fish.”
ii. “Do rot treat more than one-half of lake or pond at one
time in onder to avoid depletion of oxygen fran decaying
vegetation. Allow 1 to 2 weeks between trea1 nent for
oxygen levels to recover.”

iii. “Trout and other species of fish may be killed at
application rates recalnekded on this label, especially
in soft or acid waters. Bowever, fish toxicity generally
decreases then the hardness of water increases.”
iv. “Do not contaniriate water by cleaning of equi ent or
dispo8al of wastes.”
v. “Consult your State Fish and Game agency before applying
this product to public waters. Permits may be required
before treating such waters •“
f. All copper sulfate products intended fbr erx use applications
to water ,there re is likeli od of efflusnt reachir€
natural waters, i.e. cooling towers, per or pulp wills,
spray ponds, sewer zipe, force mains, algicide and
molluscicide uses, must bear the following statanent:
“This pesticide is toxic to fish and aquatic
ozaniams. Do not discharge efflusnt containing
this jroduct into lakes, streams, ponds, estuaries,
oceans, or public waters ziless this product is
specifically identified and addressed in an NFI S
permit. Do not discharge efflusnt containing this
product to sewer systams without eviously
notifying the sewage treathent plant aut rity.
r guidance contact your State I ter Board or
R ional Office of the EPA.”
g. All copper sulfate products Intended for end use on
terrestrial sites must bear the following atatanent:
“This pesticide is toxic to fish arid aquatic
organians. Do not apply directly to water. Drift
and r zioff fran treated areas may be hazardous to
fish arid aquatic organiama In adjacent aquatic
sites • Do not contaminate water by cleaning of
equi in&it or disposal of wastes •“

5. Sirru r y of major data gape:
Data Requir ent: Data Th.ae Date :
Proth t Id ittty and Disclosure of Ir€r iients 6 months
Disci. sion of Formation of Iinpirities 6 months
Preliminary Analysis 12 months
Certification of Ingredient Limits 12 ths
Analytical MetI ds and Data for &iforc nent of LImits 12 months
Aerobic Soil l. tabo1i t 27 months
Anaerobic Soil Metabolisn 27 months
Anaerobic Aquatic t’ tabo1ism 27 months
Aerobic Aquatic taboli n 27 months
Leaching and Mao rption/Desorption 12 months
Soil Dissipation - Field 27 months
Aquatic Dissipation — Field 27 months
Acute Toxicity to Fresh ’ater Fish
(on typical EP for Aquatic food and non-food es) 9 months
Acute Toxicity to Fresh ter Invertebrates
(on typical EP for Aquatic food and non—food i es) 9 months
Acute Toxicity to EBtuarine and ? rine Organi
(on typical EP for Aquatic food and non—food uaes) 12 months
Fish Early Life Stage 15 months
Invertebrate Life—Cycle 15 months
Field !L sting — Aquatic Organi ns 2ZI— l8 months
6. Contact person at EPA: Richard Mountfort -767-C
l01 M Street
Washington 1 20’460
(703) 557—1700
DISClAIMER: !fle infor iation presented In this Q m1ca1 Information P ct eet
is for inforn t1onal purposes only and may not be used to fulfill data
requir nents for pesticide registration and reregistration.