United States
                          Environmental Protection
                             Office of Pollution
                             Prevention and Toxics
                             Washington, DC 20460
              November-December 1993

                   EPA 742-N-93-004
  Multi-media Pulp
  and Paper Rule

  Utilities Qualify
  for Bonus SO2
  Allowances	4

  New EPA Program
  Targets Buildings .... 5

  Hazel O'Leary
  on Energy Efficiency. 6

  Solar Living	7
 Erie County's
 Prevention Program 9

 Calendar..       . 12
                          President Announces Global Climate Change
                          Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Emissions
   The White House has announced a
   detailed strategy to combat global
warming. President Clinton and Vice
President Gore joined with industry and
environmental leaders on October 19 to
announce the Climate Change Action
Plan, which will return greenhouse
emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000,
and in the process, expand markets for
U.S. technologies and services, create jobs
and reduce the deficit.
  This strategy is a critical step in ad-
dressing climate change, the highest risk
environmental problem. The plan consists
of 50 new or expanded programs to
reduce all types of greenhouse gases. It
establishes groundbreaking public-private
partnerships with key industries across
all sectors of the economy. The announce-
ment fulfills the President's Earth Day
promise to return U.S. greenhouse
emissions to 1990 levels by 2000 through
American ingenuity and creativity, not
bureaucracy and regulation. The United
States emits about 20 percent of the global
total of greenhouse emissions, more than
any other country.
  The partnerships and programs result-
ing from the Climate Change Action Plan
will stimulate more than $60 billion over
the next six years in private investment in
                          on f>ii$? tit
33/50 Program  Exceeds  Interim Goal
    Data released by EPA show that the
    33/50 Program met its 1992 reduction
goal one year ahead of schedule. The 33/50
Program is a voluntary pollution prevention
initiative which derives its name from its
overall goals—a 33 percent reduction by
1992 and a 50 percent reduction by 1995 of
emissions nationwide of 17 high-priority
toxic chemicals. The latest Toxics Release
Inventory (TRI) reveals that releases and
transfers of the 33/50 Program chemicals
declined by 34 percent since the program
began, falling from 1.474 billion pounds in
1988 to 973 million pounds in  1991. This
reduction exceeds the 1992 goal by 15
million pounds, one year ahead of sched-
ule. EPA's analysis of the facilities' projec-
tions indicate that the 1995 goal of a 50
percent reduction is attainable.
  As of August 1993, 1172 companies
have chosen to participate in the pro-
gram, promising to eliminate nearly 355
million pounds of pollution by 1995. EPA
sends all participants a Certificate of
Appreciation and recogni/es the compa-
nies when they achieve their reduction
goals. More than 200 companies have
                        t im ;w\'i' I")
                          D Goal
                          • Actual
                                                            TRI Emissions 1988-1995
                                                              l 500

 ? 1 000
                                                                 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
                                                                          Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
[ AgricUltUre
,\o ’e,nbt’r—Decc’p?lher 1993
ACE Grant Recipients Cut Pesticide Use on Cranberries
G ood news for cranberry lovers
this holiday season: A three-year
study jointly funded b ’ EPA and
USDA has been successful in substan-
tially reducing the use of synthetic
pesticides and fertilizers in cranberry
bogs with no significant increases in
pest damage or soil fertility problems.
The study was awarded an ACE
(Agriculture in Concert with the
Environment) grant in 1988. Over the
three years of the studs’, synthetic
pesticide use was reduced 60 percent
and fungicide use was reduced 28
percent relative to previous practices.
Because there has been little
research done on cranberry produc-
tion compared to more widely grown
crops such as corn and soybeans, the
project is significant to the cranberry
industry. According to the study
coordinator, Prof. Anne Averiil of the
University of Massachusetts, one of
the goals of the study is to create
demonstrably successful techniques
for reducing synthetic inputs. Without
a proven alternative, growers cannot
afford to risk their crop by altering
growing methods.
Old Practices Revived
Researchers achieved the pesticide
reductions through the use of cultural
practices and an integrated pest
management strategy. A practice
called “late water” was used to
significantly reduce pesticide use. This
technique, which was used widely in
the past and abandoned with the
advent of cheap chemicals, involves
reflooding the hogs for one month in
the spring. ‘The late water causes a
tremendous decrease in the level of
fruit rot and enhances the keeping
quality of the fruit,” said Prof. Averill.
Other benefits include drops in insect
pressure and reduced weed problems.
Late water is used every third season
and may cause a decreased yield in
‘ ome bogs during that one year. The
research team hopes to dt .’mon’ t rate
that even when the yield does dip, the
hogs rebound in the following ‘ear
and that overall, the health of the
plants and quality of the fruit is
enhanced by the late water. Another
aspect of the research is the develop-
ment of strains of cranberries which
show a natural resistance to fruit rot,
rather than relying on synthetics.
Water Issues Play Key Role
Because cranberries are grown in
wetlands and rely on redirected
surface water, water issues are very
important. A primary focus of the
study is to reduce movement of
fertilizer out of the hog. The research
has shown that substances such as
composted chicken manure and fish
fertilizer can he effective alternatives
to synthetic inputs. Because these
natural fertilizers leach less read ii V.
less total nitrogen phosphorous is
used and runoff problems are
avoided. Researchers noted that the
nitrogen levels in mc hogs were
lower at the outlet than the inlet,
indicating that the hogs ma filter
incoming an1p or pond water.
Currently, cranberry production in
\1as’ achuset ts, which aitounts R
approxiniate1 42 percent of the world
crop. typically involves nine appl ica—
tions of pesticides per season. This
results in approximately I () tons of
insecticide and 17 tons of fungicide
being applied to the regions 1 ,00() acres
of bogs under cultivation. Over the
three years of the project, the five test
sites used by the researchers reduced by
66 percent the use of EDBC fungicides
and chiorothalonil, which are toxic to
aquatic organisms and implicated
elsewhere in groundwater contamina-
(ion. Instead, the researchers used more
environmentally benign copper-based
mineral fungicides. Broadcast herbicide
use was reduced 46 percent and fertil-
izer nitrogen 2 percent.
The researchers noted that the
study has provided Lritical data h
demonstrating that pesticide inpu t ’
ca ii he reduced enormousl v with no
reduction in yield. I lowever, the
study also points to the need for long-
term stud cs on key weed, ii &a &’ and
insect pests for which no non-
pest icidal control’ — exist
For further in format ion about the
cranberry research, contact . \nnc
Avcrill at 41 - 4 - 1fi 4 I or intorma-
iofl on the \( F program. contact
I larry Wells at EPA at 202-2 )-44 2.
V’Vorkt’rs liarz’est cranbt’rrie’ . ‘roivii a part of an ACE -I i i ich’d “1 itt/ i , f ) reduce flit’
syn tht’ti pt’ fzcidt’s aizd f t’rfili:e’rs.
liSt’ ‘

Noz’c’mbt’r- D&’ct’ni be’r 1 993
3 — Pollution Prt’z’t’ntion Nt’w
Rules & Regs
EPA Proposes Regulations for Pulp and Paper Industry
E PA proposed regulations on
November 1 which will reduce
significantly air and water discharges
of dioxin and other toxic pollutants
from U.S. pulp and paper mills. This
proposal is the first time EPA has
taken a multi-media approach to
protetting public health and the
environment by regulating air and
water emissions in the same regula-
tion. The rule promotes installation of
state-of-the-art pollution prevention
technology to further reduce future
The rule, which could affect nearly
350 pulp and paper mills throughout
the country, would eliminate nearly all
P resident Clinton has signed an
E\ecutive Order promoting
recycling which will reduce solid
waste, build markets for recycled
products, and encourage new tech-
nologies by requiring federal agencies
to use recycled paper and other
recycled products. All federal pur-
chases of printing and writing paper
must contain 20 percent post-con-
‘ umer material by the end of 1994 and
30 percent post-consumer material h ’
the end of 1998. In order to further
reduce the burden on landfills, paper
made from 50 percent recovered
byproducts from the production of
goods other than paper or textiles may
E PA and the General Services
Administration (GSA) will set new
guidelines for the use of environmen-
tall sound cleaning products in
federal buildings under a memoran-
dum of understanding signed by the
two agencies. EPA will develop criteria
for evaluating the effects of cleaning
products on health and environmental
safety. (,S.\ and other federal consum-
ers will use the information along with
data on product performance in
making purchasing decisions.
dioxin discharges to surface waters,
and cut toxic air emissions by about 70
percent. This proposal is the result of a
process in which EPA worked with
industry and the environmental
community to develop the rule.
“This historic and precedent-setting
rule serves as a guide for incorporating
ecosystem protection and pollution
prevention into the regulatory pro-
cess,” said EPA Administrator Carol
M. Browner. “It protects the public by
fighting both air pollution and water
pollution at once,” she added.
Bob Perciasepe, EPA Assistant
Administrator for Water said, “This is
a milestone for using pollution
be purchased, if the waste otherwise
would end up in a landfill. EPA also
will identify other tvpis of recycled
and environmentally preferable
products for the federal government
to purchase.
Paper accounts for 40 percent t all
solid waste and 77 percent of govern-
ment office waste. A number of local
and state governments already
purchase paper that contains 20
percent post-consumer material. Each
year, the federal government uses
a pproximatelv 300,000 tons of printing
and writing paper, approxiniatelv two
percent of the market.
(Continued on pact’ 1W
GSA manages buildings and buys
materials for the federal government
and is responsible for over 7700
government-owned or leased build-
ings nationwide. EPA and GSA also
will coordinate an effort to establish
networks with other federal agencies,
private organizations and industry
groups to build support and to solicit
feedback for future efforts to promote
environmentally preferable products.
For more information, contact Mar ’
Ryan at EPA at 202-260-3898.
prevention as the basis for setting
pollution discharge standards.”
In addition to virtually eliminating
the measurable discharge of dioxin,
(Coii tin net! on ;;a t’ 4
Prevention Plans
Form Part of Storm
Water Proposal
E PA announced on November 10
a proposal to require industrial
facilities to prevent pollution caused
by storm water run-off, a leading
cause of water pollution in the U.S.
EPA would require industries that
discharge storm water run-off to plan
and execute comprehensive pollution
prevention measures and ongoing
monitoring. The proposal would affect
industries in 29 industrial sectors,
such as primary metals, textile mills,
and chemical and allied products.
Run-off is a problem because it
fr&.’cuentlv is contaminated with
pollutants. The polluted water then is
released directly into rivers and other
surface waters, posing a threat to
drinking water, aquatic life, and other
uses of the waters.
“Our nation’s best hope for protect-
ing water resources is to prevent this
type of pollution from occurring in the
first place,” said EPA Administrator
Carol \1. Browner. “EPA’s aim is to
move forward quickly to reduce
industrial pollution from storm water
run-off, which is a major threat to the
nation’s surface waters.”
The most important feature of the
(.iioii tin liii! on it)
To be added to our
mailing list, please write:
Pollution Prevention News
L. . EPA
4(0 \1 Street SW (MC 740 i)
Washington, DC 204h()
Editorial Staff:
Foll Hunter, Editor
Gilah Langner
Joshua f. atz
President Signs Order Promoting Recycling
EPA and GSA Evaluate Cleaning Products

Pollution Prevention News - 4
.\ ‘ e??ll’t’r— LJi’ct’,nbcr 1 993
Helping Utilities Profit from Energy Efficiency and Renewables
by Jennifer Selber
O n November 17, 1993, representa-
tives from utilities, public utility
commissions, and the press gathered
to hear EPA announce the first utili-
ties to qualify for bonus sulfur dioxide
(SO,) emission allowances for their use
of energy efficiency or renewable
energy. Rewarding utilities for using
efficiency and renewable energy is the
goal of an innovative provision of the
Acid Rain Program called the Conser-
vation and Renewable Energy Reserve.
The Reserve is a pool of 300,000
allowances set aside to award to
utilities that have jump-started pollu-
tion prevention efforts by reducing
emissions before Clean Air Act compli-
ance deadlines begin. EPA began
accepting applications for the Reserve
on July 1, 1993, and will award the
300,000 allowances on a first come, first
served basis.
Reserve allowances can be used for
compliance, or sold or banked for future
use. The value of these allowances will
better position efficiency and renewable
energy as cost effective compliance
strategies or energy resources.
The benefits of the Reserve allow-
ances are just the tip of the iceberg for
efficiency and renewahics. The greatest
benefit comes from the built-in incen-
tive to reduce emissions in the Acid
Rain Program. For each ton of SO,
avoided through efficiency and
renewable energy, one less allowance
is used. Tradeable SO, emission
allowances have put a dollar value on
pollution prevention. This allows
compliance planners to assess the
financial benefit of reducing pollution
through efficiency and renewables.
Before a utility can earn bonus
allowances, the company’s public
utility commission must have policies
in place that level the playing field
between conventional electrii.itv
generation and pollution prevention
strategies. B ’ making this a require-
ment for the Reserve, Congress
recognized that traditional
ratemaking and planning policies
have been a harrier to aggressive
utility energy efficiency and renew-
able energy programs. The Depart-
ment of Energy (DOE) was charged
b Congress to certify to EPA that
ratemaking policies are in place that
eliminate this barrier for energy
efficiency programs. Other require-
ments to earn these special allow-
ances include:
• Energy efficiency measures or
renewable generation must be
installed between January 1, 1992
and the date the utility is affected by
the Acid Rain Program.
• The utility must own all or part of
an electric unit affected by the Acid
Rain Program.
The awards conference was held in
New York City, at the National Asso-
ciation of Regulator Utility Comniis-
sioners (NARL C) convention. EPA and
DOE jointly presented the Reserve
allowances. Among those receiving
awards were the City of Austin Electric
Utility (18 allowances), ES! Energy Inc.
(109), Massachusetts Electric (97),
Granite State Electric (6), Portland
General Electric (57), and Puget Sound
Power and Light (24 ). All told, 532
(Co,,ti,iued fro,,i j;a ,’e .3)
the water standards would reduce
discharges of other toxic pollutants b
3,000 metric tons, and conventional
pollutants by 200,000 metric tons
annually. Dioxin levels in sludge may
he reduced, which could enable
indust rv to save money b e’limina ting
the need for EPA to list the sludge as
hazardous material.
The air standards vill cut toxic
emissions by 1 20,00() metric tons
annual lv. Emissions of chloroform, a
probable human carcinogen, wou Id he
reduced by approximately 80 percent.
Air emissions ot volatile organic
chemicals (VOCs), the prime ingred i-
ent in ground .-le ’el ozone, or smog,
SO 2 1O flC S
The 1990 Clean Air Act created a
market-based trading system in sul-
fur dioxide (SO 2 ) allowances. Each
allowance gives its holder the right
to emit one ton of SO, per year. EPA
allocates the allowances yearly to
affected sources (mainly existing
electric power plants) based on
specified emission rates and historic
fuel use. Utilities must reduce their
SO 2 emissions to the level of allow-
ancesthey hold, or obtain additional
allowances to cover their emissions.
If utilities emit less than the allow-
ance they have, they may sell or
trade the allowances, or bank them
for future use.
allowances were distnioutcu to the
qualified applicants. Approximately
twenty other utilities are in the process
of applying for Reserve allowances.
EP \ expects to award the next group
of allowances early next ‘ear.
For more information on the Re-
serve program, contact Jennifer Selber,
202-233-9177 or the Acid Rain Hotline
at 202-233- t 4b20.
would he reduced by 715,000 metric
tons annually. Also, the proposal
would red iice total reduced sulfur
(TRS) by 295,00() metric tons annual lv.
The estimated costs of compliance
for industry are $4 billion in capital
e\penditures, and S ,00 million in
annualized expenditures. EP;\ seeks
broad comment on the proposal and is
especia liv interested in comments on
new pollution control technology that
might further reduce toxic discharges.
For further technical in format ion
on the proposed water standard,
contact Debra Nicoll at I PA at 202-
t- 3 n; for information on the air
‘ tandard, contact Penny I assiter at
FP \ at 91 ” - 41-53Y6.
Regulations Proposed for Pulp and Paper

!‘Joz’t’nzber— Dect’ iibt’r 1 993
5 - Po!!ut ion Prt’z’t’iition News
EPA Program Seeks to Reduce Energy Use in
Commercial Buildings
E PA has created the Energy Star
Buildings Program to promote
profitable investments in energy
efficient equipment and operations in
commercial buildings. Increasing the
efficiency of buildings not only can
save money for the owners, hut helps
the environment by reducing direct
and indirect combustion-related
pollution associated with energy use.
The voluntary program will
complement EPA’s successful Green
Lights Program. “One of the funda-
mental aspects of the Green Lights
and Energy Star programs is getting a
top-down commitment within an
organization to energy efficiency, and
evaluating energy efficiency on a level
playing field with other capital
improvements, said Chris O’Brien,
Program \lanager for the Energy Star
Buildings Program.
Staging the Process
The program recommends that
participants upgrade their buildings
through a staged implementation
program. The stages are:
Stage 1: (preen Lights.
Stage 2: Building Tune-L p.
EPA Resources
EPA will publicize the participation
and energy savings realized h organi-
zations through the program. In
addition, EPA will provide technical
resources to facilitate the planning and
implementation of building upgrades.
These resources will include:
• Building Upgrade Manual offering
a step-by-step guide to comprehen-
sive commercial building upgrade.
• Software to calculate savings from
upgrade systems.
• Database of financing programs
pertaining to building efficiency
• Case studies documenting savings
for specific technologies.
• Generic specifications for specific
• Information and guidance on
indoor air quality issues.
• Guidance on using the CFC phase-
out as an opportunity to increase
building efficiency and reduce the
cost of transition to alternative
ref rigcrants.
EPA will work with a group of 20
to 30 buildings over the next two
‘ears to demonstrate that the Energy
Star Program can maximize energy
savings at a profit. These demonstra-
tion projects also will give EPA the
opportunity to field test and refine the
technical support materials.
To participate in the Energy Star
Buildings Program, organizations
must first join the EPA Green Lights
Program, committing to identify and
implement ‘-)0 of the profitable
lighting upgrades in their commercial
and industrial space within five
‘ears. Green Lights partners may
then join the Energy Star Buildings
Program, committing to survey all
owned U.S. commercial and indus-
trial space to identify profitable
efficiency upgrades, and to complete
90 percent of all profitable upgrades
within seven ‘ears. An improvement
is considered profitable if it offers a
rate of return greater than prime plus
six percent.
For more information on the
Energy Star Buildings Program,
contact Chris O’Brien at 202-233-914
Stage 3: Heating and Cooling Load
Stage 4: Improved Fans and i\ir
Handling Systems.
Stage : Improved Heating and
Cooling Plant.
focusing on load reduction in
Stages I through 3, the size and cost of
the equipment assot .iated with Stages
4 and ma he significantly reduced.
This staged approach offers a frame-
work lo u comprehensive efticiencv
upgrades in a variety of commercial
buildings. However, the strategy is
deliberately flexible to allow tt r cases
where it makes sense to design and
implement all stages at once.
Commercial buildings are directly
or Indirectly responsible for
of NO 2
of SO 2
of CFCs
16% of CO 2
I _____
Power Plant
Commercial buildings
consume 15 percent
of all U.S. energy.
Percentages o total annual U S er” sslons

Pollution Prevention News — 6
?‘Jo ‘epnber— Dcc ,’uz tier 1 993
Secretary O’Leary Addresses Energy Conservation Forum
E nergy Secretary Hazel 0’ Lea rv
trcssed the economic and
environmental benefits of energy
efficiency at the Fourth Annual
Energy Conservation Forum held in
Washington, D.C. on October 21,
1993. “Sophisticated users have
already seen that the bottom line is
positively impacted by energy
efficiency,” said Secretary O’Leary at
the conference sponsored by the
Johnson Controls Company and the
United States Energy Association.
Over 250 people from government,
industry, public interest groups and
academia attended the conference
which addressed domestic and
international perspectives of energy
secretary O’Leary said that the
Clinton administration is taking
energy efficiency and ens’ ironmental
issues more seriously than past
administrations. “This is an adminis-
tration focused on issues involving
the environment,” said O’Leary.
“We’ve looked to energy and the
environment in a way that no other
administration has.” In order to have
the largest impact, Administration
efforts focus on large industrial and
(..o ?z! in ned Iron, pac ’ 1
technologies and services that allow for
economic growth without harming the
environment. These investments will
not only yield energy and cost savings,
the ’ also will expand global markets
for American manufacturers of energy-
et I icit. ’nt technologies.
The plan should save the govern-
ment an estimated 52.7 billion he-
tween IYY4 and 2000. It vitI give
private developers an opportunity to
invest in efficiency upgrades at
federal hydroelectric darns and
market the additional power in
exchange for lease pavment ’ . A
reduction in transportation-related
pollution will be created by allowing
workers to take the cash value of
commercial users. Secretary O’Leary
noted that the best role of the federal
government is to set priorities and
allow business planners to respond to
market economics. “We can meet our
goals for the twenty-first century by
letting industry do what it has to do
(with government) quantifying the
changes,” said Secretary O’Leary.
American use of efficient technol-
ogy and techniques has been spurred
by tougher environmental standards
and rising energy costs. However,
Secretary O’Leary stressed that the
potential for the economic benefits of
energy efficiency technology goes
beyond the energy savings and
include jobs created by a growing
global market for such American
technology. She noted that “there are
energy markets south of the border
for energy efficiency (and) retrofit-
ting. For applications in generation,
the market is even broader,” Secre-
tars’ O’Leary stated that potential
new markets include not only
Mexico, but all of South America, as
well as the states of the former Sox’ iet
Union. “If we don’t get those mar-
kets, someone else will,” she said.
John Hoffman, Director of the
employer-paid parking as increased
income instead an incentive to take
public transportation or car-pool.
A White House-led task force will
prepare a long-term strategy to
develop additional measures that
continue the trend of reduced emis-
sions beyond the ‘ear 2000. The task
force will develop within one year a
strategy to reduce significantly
emissions from personal vehicles.
Greenhouse gases include carbon
dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and
other gases, all of which threaten to
change the global climate system,
raise sea levels and inundate coastal
areas, destabilize agricultural prod uc-
tion, and inflict irreversible damage to
cc 5 stems
Global Climate Change Division at
EPA participated in the Forum and
spoke of the importance of the new
generation of EPA efforts such as the
Green Lights. Energy Star and
Golden Carrot programs. EP 1 \ has
achieved greater results than with
past efforts by becoming more
customer oriented. “VVI spent a lot of
time trying to understand the barriers
people have (to participating in
efficiency programs),” said Hoffman.
“Our programs are all sales pro-
grams, we are not preaching.”
Hoffman also stressed the poten-
tial that energy efficiency programs
have. “The benefits of better and
more innovative technology are going
to be much greater than ever before,”
he said.
For more information about the
Fourth Annual Energy Conservation
Forum, contact John Bernaden at 414-
2 4-4546.
EPA Awards
$4.5 Million in
State Grants
EPA’s Office of Pollution Preven-
tion and Toxics, in conjunction with
the ten EPA Regional Offices, has
awarded $4.5 million to 52 state and
tribal organizations under EPA’s
Pollution Prevention Incentives for
States grant program. These grants
and cooperative agreements sup-
port state and tribal programs that
address the reduction or elimina-
lion of pollution in air, land and
water. Since 1989, over $25 million
has been awarded to support state
and tribal efforts. The projects may
last up to three years and recipients
of the grants are required to match
at least 50 percent of the federal
funds through dollars, in-kind con-
tributions, or third-party contribu-
For more information on the PPIS
grants, contact Lena I-Iann at 202-
Administration Addresses Global Warming

November-December 1993
7 — Pollution Prevention Nt ’w
National Tour of Independent Homes
Q wners of homes that use renew-
able energy opened their doors
to their neighbors on October 16, 1993,
as part of the National Tour of Inde-
pendent Homes. Real Goods Trading
Corporation of Lki ih, California
sponsored the tour, the first of its kind
on a national scale, in order to educate
the public about technologies avail-
able to harness energy from the sun,
wind and water. More than 150 homes
across the country were open to
visitors. The homes use both active
and passive energy design features;
some homes use a mix of renewable
and non-renewable energy, while
others are completely “off the grid,”
that is, not connected to power lines.
Less than a century ago, house-
holds generated and managed their
own power needs. Yet today’s energy
efficient and energy independent
homes have little in common with
their ancestors. “People visiting an
energy independent home often think
the ’ will he stepping back into the
nineteenth century. Instead, they step
tor \ard into the twenty-first,” says
Michael Potts, author of Tue Indepen-
Stephen and Paula Alexander of Centenary, VA inoe’ed into fhe’ir solar powered home in February 799.3.
dent Home: Living Well Wit/i Power
From the Sun, Wind and Water (Chelsea
Green Publishing). Potts traveled over
20,000 miles and interviewed people
living in independent homes in order
to write the book.
He estimates that
the number of
powered homes in
this country has
increased from
fewer than 1000 in
the mid-seventies to
more than 100,000
Stephen and
Paula Alexander of
Centenary, Virginia
were two of the
homeowner’,. They
allowed visitors to
tour their 2500
square foot home
and view its many
energy saving and
energy efficient
features. The house,
finished in February
1993, has 32 photovoltaic panels for
electricity and S solar thermal panels
for hot water for household use and
heating. Without the solar panels on
the roof, the Ale\anders’ home, with
its dishwasher, washer and dryer, and
central heating, would look like any
other home. In fact, when Mr.
Alexander designed the house, he
assumed that it would be connected to
the local utility. It wasn’t until the
Alexander ’ got the estimate for
hooking up their rural home that they
began to look for other options.
The Alexanders, who estimate an 8
to I t year pavhack for their investment,
have had no problems adjusting to the
new technology. In addition to the’ lack
of utility bills the Alexanders have an
added benefit—when a late winter
storm last year caused widespread
power outages. the :\lexanders didn’t
know that power lines were down in
their area until someone told them.
Real Goo 1 l . sells renewable energy
products iiiiil /ia helped to equip itiore
than 20,00() homes. For more inforniation
about the tour or rtil(’u’ahk’ energy,
COil t(lLt Real Goods at 1-800-762- 732. .
- _ - ‘i
- . ‘ ii
solar power provides all the electricity for the Scot! . .i’ille, VA home of
l . .ot Rander and Bill Sanx .

Pollution Prevcntion News - 8
November-December 1993
T he January-February issue of PPN
profiled the progress being made
under four EPA technology evaluation
and assessment programs. One of these
programs, The University-Based
Assessments Program, is unique in that
it specifically targets small and medium-
si:ed manufacturers that do not have in—
house e’xpertise in waste miii imization.
The program is implemented by three
waste minimization assessmnent centers
(WMACs) established by the Industrial
Tech ii ology and Energy Management
(ITEM) division of the Uniz’ersitt Cit i ’
Science Center (LICSC) (under agreement
wit/i tile Risk Reduction Engineering
Laboratory of tile LI. S. Environmental
Protection Agency). The goal of WMACS
pilot effort is to conduct waste minimi:a-
tion opportunitii asst’ssmiu’iitS at 100
Who Can Benefit
The WMACs provide their services
free-of-cost to qualifying facilities. To
qualify, a facility must have an SIC
Code between 20 and 39; have gross
annual sales of not more than 5 ()
million; have no more than 500
employees; and lack in-house exper-
tise in waste minimization. The’
benefits of the WMAC assessments
can include reductions in the amount
of waste generated, reductions in
waste treatment and disposal costs,
educational experience for participat-
ing students, and a cleaner environ-
ment without associated regulations
or high costs.
What is Involved
A company selected for assessment
will receive several site visits. The
W MAC sta U characteriie the ‘Sources
of hazardous waste, the treatment and
disposal methods used, and their
associated costs. The staff then
identify and analyze ways to reduce
or eliminate the waste. The staff
recommend specitic measures to
achieve the waste reduction goal and
provide supporting technical and
economic documentation. The \ MAC
prepares a confidential report tor each
client detailing anticipated cost
savings, estimated implementation
costs, and payback times. The WMAC
later conducts follow-up interviews to
determine actual costs and benefits of
the recommendations, and prepares a
research brief to transfer the technical
information to others. Full reports of
their research are available from the
University City Science Center,
Philadelphia, PA 19104.
An example of a university-based
assessment follows.
Case Study: Dairy Plant
A dairy plant produces 23.4
million gallons of milk and milk
products and fruit juice drinks, as well
as high density polyethylene jugs
(from pellets). Raw milk is received
and processed into cream, various
mixtures of milk ranging from whole
to skim, buttermilk, chocolate milk,
and ice cream. Fruit drinks are pro-
duced by mixing filtered cit water
with liquid juice concentrate, preser-
vative, and sucrose or fructose. Plastic
jugs are produced by melting HDPE
pellets and extruding them in molds
for blow-molding gallon and half-
gallon jugs.
Waste Generation and
The wastes generated by the dairy
and the methods cifld costs for manag-
ing them are a follows:
• 000 gallons of milk solids are
collected annually from the clarifier
in the raw milk processing line. The
solids are trucked oft site by a local
farmer for Iertilizt .’r use, at a cost of
• 65,000 gallons of .pills and leaks of
contaminated and uncontaminated
milk is collected annually in drip
pans and used off site to teed hogs.
at a cost to the plant of $790.
• 394,000 gallons of uncontained
spills and leaks of contaminated
and uncontaminated milk is
collected annually in the waste pit
and sewered.
• 37,299,660 gallons of wastewater
from cleaning the containers and
processing machinery, from clean-
ing the plant, and from pasteuriza-
tion and cooling processes are
sewered annually at a cost of
• 6,300 gallons of fruit juice spills are
sewered annually.
Waste Minimization
Since the dairy was already giving
reusable products for local
agricultural uses and diluting milk-
contamina ted waste streams with
other wastewaters prior to sewer ing,
the research staff focussed on waste-
water minimization opportunities.
Recommendations included:
• Conducting an employee awareness
program about wastewater reduc-
tion (e.g., proper placement of drip
• Using high-pressure and automatic
shut-off hose nozzles to minimiie
cleanup water;
• Installing an activated sludge
treatment system to treat the pit-
collected wastewater before it is
sewered to avoid disposal sur-
It was estimated that these recom-
mendations would reduce the
uncontained milk waste by 3 ” and
the wastewater by nft” , for an annual
savings of 532 ,81 0. The total imple-
mentation cost of S ô I ,20() would he
paid for in 2.1 years by the associated
Tiit’ EPA Project ()ffier f r this studii
was Emma Lou George. T/it’ project
sllPli??iary entitled: Waste Mni,mi:ition
A 5 sessuzen t for a Dainj ‘‘. was prepared b
tiit’ Liniz’ersif 1, of Ten ;iessee Waste
Mm imi:a I ion Assess men! Ccii Icr i
Marc/i, 1992.
[ Case Studies
University-Based Assessments Program:
Big Gains from Small Operations

Noz’embt’r— December 1993
9 — Poilti iio r Prc’t’c’ if io n .\
In the States
Small Dischargers Catch Erie County’s Attention
E rie County, New York has demon-
strated that a pollution preven-
tion program directed at smaller
businesses can yield large results.
Although small businesses discharge
pollutants, their small volume of
waste means that they are not often
the target of source reduction efforts.
In order to reduce the amount of
waste generated at Erie Count ‘s
more than 4001) small and medium
sized dischargers, the county in 1990
established the Erie County Office of
Pollution Prevention (ECOPI ’), to
assist industry, public institutions
and local governments in finding
ways of doing business that are less
hazardous and produce less waste.
ECOPP, which is managed by the
Erie County Department of Environ-
ment and Planning through a
)0 ,000 grant from EPA, brings
pollution prevention and regulator ’
information to waste generators
overlooked by state and federal
efforts. Although many of these small
generators do not require permits,
taken together they contribute
significantly to the overall pollution
pr oh 1cm.
E(0l’P is attractive to small
businesses because it is not an
enforcement agency. Its confidential
and free services include: on-site
reviews of operating processes and
equipment; site specific recommenda-
tions for implementing pollution
prevention concepts; industry and
trade group workshops and presenta-
tions; and publication of qua rterlv
newsletters for specific industries.
ECOPP has an advantage over
state and federal programs because it
is part of local government which is
closer to the community and has
established relationships with local
industry. By educating businesses
about their regulatory responsibilities
arid the benefits and techniques of
pollution prevention, ECOP1 facili-
tates compliance with state and
federal requirements, improving
worker and community safety and
helping local businesses succeed
economical lv.
ECOPP has demonstrated that a
good outreach program and positive
incentives can yield strong results
and that small companies are as
receptive to pollution prevention as
large corporations. “We found that
once we provide small businesses
with pollution prevention informa-
tion, there isn’t a riced for any new
requirements or regulations,” said
Thomas Hersev, Jr., ECOPP Coordi-
nator. Approximately 80 percent of
the 150 companies which ECOPP has
assisted have implemented at least
one of the pol lii hon prevention
techniques recommended by the
inspectors. Nearly 70 percent ot these
companies perceived a reduction in
the amount of waste generated, and
43 percent realized a reduction in
waste management costs. ECOE P has
demonstrated to many husine’ e - in
Erie Counts’ that pollution prevention
is not unIv a waste management
technique, hut may eliminate waste
In order to increase the eftective-
ness of its pollution prevention efforts
in a time of shrinking budgets, ECOPP
now p1 a n to “look at other local
government agencies that deal with
local industries and train them to
provide pollution prevention informa-
tion,” said Hersev. Under this ap-
proach, local government employees
such as economic development
per ’ onnel and P01W inspectors will
he able to offer pollution prevention
assistance and make pollution preven-
tion part of daily business practices.
‘We have found, as we thought when
started, that pollution prevention
iiici kes good financial ‘ ense,” said
llersey. “Now we need to get more
people to recogn ic the value of
pollution prevention programs.
For more information regarding
the Erie County Pollution Prevention
Program, oiitact I urn Hersev at I t--
R -7h74.
Rick Ru tko i’sk: (left) of ECOPP reeit’io tile operation of a ‘ol ‘i’ii t recyclt’r at an Erie Couutt, auto
th’alership wit/i einplo t’t’ Al Killuin.

Pollution Prevention News - 10
I . ii!’c 1993
(Continued from pas. .’e 1)
already achieved all or some of their
33/50 Program reduction goals. EPA
also is planning a national 33/50
Program Conference in 1994 to
showcase the accomplishments of the
Program’s company, state and
community partners.
Twenty-six states had established
toxics use reduction and pollution
prevention programs prior to the 33/
50 Program, and these contributed to
its design. Others have used the 33/
50 Program as a model. Some indus-
try associations and many private
companies include a 33/50 Program
within their own reduction programs
EPA views the 33/50 Program as an
umbrella under which the federal
government, states, industry and
(Contin zied from pac e .3)
multi—sector permit is a pollution
prevention plan, which would require
operators of facilities to develop and
implement a site-specific plan to
control storm water discharges. The
pollution prevention plans will
identify pollutant sources, then select
and implement site-specific, best
management practices to prevent or
minimize storm water pollution.
The plans will provide for regular
inspections and site compliance
evaluations and must include, among
other measures: proper upkeep of
areas exposed to storm water; preven-
tive maintenance of storm water
controls; spill prevention and re-
sponse procedures; and pollution
(Co ttiniit’d from pase .3.1
The Executive Order will create a
strong market for the paper being
collected by more than 5,500 commu-
nit recycling programs and will spur
investment in recycling technology and
create jobs in the recycling industry. 1 o
stimulate the market immediately,
federal agencies will begin seeking
bids for recycled paper now, in ad-
vance of the actual purchasing require-
communities work in partnership to
achieve common goals. The success of
the 33/50 Program reflects the efforts
of all these partners.
The 33/50 Program is being evalu-
ated by Hampshire Research Institute
under a grant from EPA. Preliminary
results will be available in the Spring
of 1994.
Tell Us How You Did It!
If your organization met its 33/50
goal, drop us a line and tell us
how you did it. Send your success
stories to:
U.S. EPA/Pollution Prevention “Jews
401 M Street, SW (MC 7409)
Washington, DC 2046()
prevention training for employees.
Facility operators also would have to
stabilize areas vulnerable to erosion
and use traditional storm water
management controls (e.g. oil/water
separators. retention ponds) where
The general permit, when final,
would become a National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) permit under the Clean
Water Act. EPA has proposed this
permit for the states and territories that
do not have authorized state NPDES
programs. EPA also has issued the
permit to NPDES authorized states to
use as a model for their permitting.
For information, contact the
Stormwater Hotline at 703-821 -4 23.
ments. The General Services Adminis-
tration will revise paper specifications
that currently prevent the purchase of
paper made through the most environ-
mentaII sound processes.
The Order also requires federal
agencies to replace motor oil with re-
refined oil and to replace virgin tires
with re-tread tires. All federal agencies
must revise their specifications and
standards so that recovered materials
Two New Reports On
Labeling from EPA
The Use of Ltfe Cycle
Assessment in Environmen-
tal Labeling (EPA/742-R-
93-003, Sept. 93) addresses the
extent to which life cycle assess-
ment (LCA) methodologies are
being used in environmental
labeling programs worldwide.
The report also describes the
alternative methodologies that are
being used or considered for
environmental labeling. The key
methodologies outlined in the
report are: LCA, streamlined
LCA, single use certification,
product environmental informa-
tion labeling (or report cards),
and expert system evaluations.
Status Report on the Use of
Environmental Labels
Worldwide (EPA/742-R-9-
93-001, Sept. 93) examines public
policy issues relating to environ-
mental labeling and the status of
environmental certification
programs (ECPs) around the
world. The report gives an over-
view of the status of environmen-
tal marketing in the U.S., summa-
rizes the existing ECPs in the U.S.
and abroad, and discusses the
existing research relevant to
projecting the effectiveness of U.S.-
based environmental labeling
initiatives. In addition, the report
provides details for each of the
labeling programs included in the
report and includes a selected
bibliography covering a number of
labeling initiatives and life cycle
analysis issues.
Copies of both reports are
available from the Pollution
Prevention Information Clearing-
house, 202-260-1023.
.an he used to produce the products
they purchase. The Order also stream-
lines the process by which EPA issues
standards for recycled products and
designates criteria for the purchase of
environmentally preferable products.
TRI Reductions Ahead of Schedule
EPA Plan Reduces Pollution from Run-Off
Government to Purchase Recycled Products

November- December 1993
11 — Pollution Prez ’entioii \i’a’’.
From Our Readers
Using Incentives to
Meet WR Goals
Steve Hillenbrand
Tennessee Valley Authority
An important tool to aid in reach-
ing waste reduction (WR) goals is
1?lCt’flt1i’C . Some innovative incentives
that are in use include:
Reco ,zi:e WR ideas. Company hats,
W R logo items (hats, coffee cups,
etc.), gift certificates, money (always
popular), recognition at company or
departmental functions are proven
ways to inspire employees (and
managers) to contribute WR ideas.
To he successful, each idea must he
taken seriously and feedback given
to the contributor.
• Share WR saz’ings a’ztii empiotiees.
Award of 30 ’ of the verifiable first
year’s savings for a WR idea that
saves the company S 1,000,000 may
seem high. But it is $700,00() that the
company would not have had the
first \‘ear; future year’s savings will
still accrue, and other employees
will he highly motivated to partici-
pate. A variant of this incentive is to
promise to share with all of the
employees a percent of the first
‘ear’s savings in form of a bonus
from all submitted WR ideas.
• Celebrate wit/i a tree much for uu:eetins
WR c ’oals. Provide a free lunch for
employees when a monthly goal is
met. This may be done on a facility
or departmental level. It is usually
beneficial to post the current WR
results in a conspicuous place for
employees to keep track of their
progress. A simple, easily measured
goal works best, such as a gradual
reduction of the waste generated in
relation to total incoming raw
ma te r i a Is.
• Chzallen ’ e Mauia,’ ’en:e,i t a ‘it/i WR.
Challenge managers to find three
times their salary each year in W N
savings. This causes managers to
take W N seriously. In most depart-
ments, this is a read iv attainable
goal. Managers might trade WR
savings (allowances) from their
department to managers in other
departments that find it more
difficult to meet their goal. This can
also e’nhance cooperation between
d epa r t men t s.
(Tiit’ a a thor ft/i is art ltlt’ a ‘vu Id like to
express thanks for the iih’ti in f/us a,’t:cle to
flit’ participants v/tilt’ First Annual South—
eastern I \ Is te Reductzoui Ret lrt’t’ (_ ( ii fi’ri’iu’e)
Grassroots Efforts
Beverly Mosely, 33/50 Coordinator
EPA Region IV, Atlanta, Georgia
Administrator (..arol Browner has
announced a pol ic ’ to facilitate a
cultural change making pollution
prevention the first environmental
choice throughout EPA.
I believe that within EPA, the
Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) program
is a key vehicle to begin accomplishing
this cultural change. The program
operates with true grass-roots and
volunteer efforts. The most important
aspect of EPCRA is that it requires
community involvement in the deci-
sion-making process. Lee Thomas,
former EPA Administrator, described
the intent of EPCRA back in l98 : “The
law establishes an ongoing forum 1t
the local level for discussion and a
focus for actioii — the Local Eriier—
gencv Planning Committee (LEPC).”
The role of the 1.FPC is even more
important today. With the number of
ha,ardous materials accidents and
releases growing, the LEPC structure
needs funds, equipment, training and
resources more than ever.
I pr pose’ that pollution prevention
(P2) can he effectively implemented
through environmental cii uca tion (12)
at the LEPC grass-roots level. I
eflVIsIOfl locals teaching locals.
1 echnologv exchange can be accom-
p1 ished at this level with the coopera-
tion of cititens, iuid ust rv, government,
and academia. EP..\, through the
Intergovernmental Personnel .\gree ’-
ments program and detailing staff can
help (1 55 1st the LEPCs on environmen-
tal education.
For e’\ample, the \\ ater ourcebook
prolect, developed by the :\lahama
Department of Environmental \lan-
agement, EPA. and the Tennessee
Valley .\uthoritv will soon he avail-
able from Region l\’. The Water
Sourcehook is designed to hegin in
kindergarten and educate student’
through the twelfth grade about key
wa fir management concepts i iid
issues. .\ similar Air ‘-‘ourcehook is
under development.
I envision top F P.\ ma nagement
becoming actively involved in the
Governors’ .\ssociation \ le’etings
encouraging support for the Sti te
Emergency Response Commissions
(SERCs) and the Local Emergency
Response Committees. The National
Association of SARA [ itle Ill Program
officers, an association of individuals
who have state and tribal level program
responsibilities in emergency planning
and community right-to—know issues,
would serve as another I P \ partner for
the’ promotion of P2 and E2.
fhe newly established Richmond
County, (. e’urgia I.EPC is ‘ ‘ orking with
the Region IV EE CRA taft to initiate
Administrator Browner’s policies Our
goal is to work with the SF l (. s and
L FPCs to provide theni with in toriiia -
tion and support. and at the same time,
allow the SERCs and I.EPCs to take’ the
lead on promoting e’nvironiiiental
eel ucation, poll iition prevention, and the
3 () program tt their communities.
The’ F PCR 1 \ program cit tlii’ stcite
level is working because of dedicated
people’ willing to take this mission on
a voluntary basis. Empowering the
ERCs and LEI’Cs will bring the
commun i tv into 1 valuable position to
work with Fft\. industry, cind
cicc ’ide’tyijci. (Oiiii11l .iI1iC it tOils ind
outreach shoei Id he at the tOp of the
FP.-\ agenda in all programs. I believe’
that keeping communities well
informed of EPA programs is the best
source reduction’’ tool F P. \ has.

Pollution Prevention News - 12 - - November-December 1993
Calendar ________ __________________
Title Sponsor Date/Location Contact
Water: Our Next Crisis Academy of Natural Sciences Jan. 12-13, 1994 Rob Goldberg
Philadelphia, PA 21 -29Y-1 108
Waste Tech 94 National Solid Waste Jan. 13-14, 1994 202-659-4613
Management Association Charleston, SC
Pollution Prevention Conference American Electroplaters and Jan. 24-27, 1994 Anne Gaither
for the Surface Finishing Industry Surface Finishers Society, EPA Kissimmee, FL 407-281-6441
Green Building Conference Nat’l Inst. of Standards and Tech. Feb. 16-17, 1994 Lori Philips
and U.S. Green Building Council Gaithersburg, MD 301-948-2067
Environmental Management and Hazmat World Magazine Feb. 16-18: Orlando, FL 708-469-3373
Technology Conf. & Exhibition April 26-28: Long Beach, CA
Fifth Annual International Solid Waste Association Feb. 22-24 301-585-2898
Recycling Symposium of North \merica Baltimore, MD
17th Annual Landfill Solid Waste Association March 22-24 301-585-2898
Gas Symposium of North America Long Beach, CA
Global Climate Change: Science, Air & Waste Management April 5-8 412-232-3444
Policy and Mitigation Strategies Association Phoenix, AZ
5th Annual March for Parks National Parks and April 22-24 1-800-NAT-PARK
Conservation Association Organized locally (ext. 222)
IEEE International Symposium on IEEE May 2-4 908-562-3878
Electronics and the Environment San Francisco, CA
First International Congress National Oil Recyclers Ma ’ 23-27 216-791-7316
on Liquid Waste Recycling Association San Francisco, CA
SUR/FIN Surface Finishing American Electroplaters and June 20-23 407-281-6441
Industry Conference Surface Finishers Society Indianapolis, IN
M ‘inç? Please enclose nailii:g label!
United States Environmental
Protection Agency (MC7409)
Washington, DC 20460
Official Bu ine
t’enaltv for Private L’,.c 3Ot)
Forwarding & Return Postage Guaranteed
Address Correction Requested