United States
                            Environmental Protection
                                       Office of Pollution
                                       Prevention and Toxics
                                       Washington, DC 20460
                                                         October-November 1994

                                                              EPA 742-N-94-005
News ft Notes.
The fall season brings news of
personnel changes, a public
meeting on phase 3 ofTRI, and
new pollution prevention grants
related to environmental justice.

Stole Grants	4-5
What states have done with $30
million in PPIS grants in the last
few years.
A new initiative of U.S. AID
matches pollution prevention
volunteers with problems in
developing countries. Plus: a
quick tour of "ecotourism," and
pollution prevention in the Baltics.

Getting On Lin*	9
How to tap into the pollution
information resources of the
Technology Transfer Network.

DIE News	10
The latest on cleaning up the dry
cleaning process, plus a new
milestone for the Printing Project.

Case Study	11
Spotlight on Aladdin Industries,
a 33 ISO program success story.
Editorial Staff:
Ruth Heikkinen, Editor
Gilah Langner
Joshua Katz
Free Hand Press, Layout
                            EPA ANNOUNCES PPIS GRANT  RECIPIENTS
    EPA has announced the recipients of
    the Pollution Prevention Incentive
    for States (PPIS) grants for fiscal year
1994. The PPIS program was established
by Congress in the 1990 Pollution Preven-
tion Act to foster the development of state
pollution prevention programs. For fiscal
year 1994, 70 programs received funding
totalling almost $6 million.
   EPA designed the PPIS program to
foster the development of state pollution
prevention programs and to give states
flexibility in addressing local needs. (For a
description of some of the projects funded
in previous years, see pages 3 and 4.)
  FY 1994 grants include:
^ The Georgia Tech Research Corpo-
ration received $60,684 to develop
strategies targeted to medium-sized
companies. Most current efforts tend to
focus on small companies and to study the
impacts of state pollution prevention
programs on corporate decision making.
                      6-8    AIR QUALITY IMPROVED OVER  LAST  DECADE
    EPA announced its 21st annual urban
    air quality trends report on October 19.
    The report shows continued progress
in reducing six major air pollutants over a
ten year period.
  The trends report shows the following
improvements in atmospheric (ambient)
air quality from 1984 to 1993:
> Smog (ground-level ozone) levels
  dropped 12 percent;
^ Lead levels  decreased 89 percent;
> Sulfur dioxide levels fell 26 percent;
^ Carbon monoxide levels declined 37
^ Participate (dust, dirt, soot) levels
  decreased 20 percent from 1988-1993
  (the particulate standard was changed
  in 1987; long-term data not available);
^ Nitrogen dioxide levels fell 12 percent.
  "The Clinton Administration is commit-
ted to ensuring that every American can
breathe clean air," said Carol M. Browner,
EPA Administrator. "This year's trends
report is encouraging news that our efforts
are yielding real results."
  EPA released data showing that 48 of
the 91 areas designated as "non-attain-
ment" for smog under the Clean Air Act
now have air quality that meets the
standard. The 1993 data also show that 28
of the 38 areas designated non-attainment
for carbon monoxide now have air quality
meeting the standard. In addition, 1993
was the second consecutive year in which
no U.S. city violated the nitrogen dioxide
standard. Nitrogen dioxide is not only a
health danger by itself, but also is a prime
component in the formation of smog, the
nation's most pervasive air pollutant.
  The study, "National Air Quality and
Emissions Trends Report, 1993," deals
with six pollutants for which EPA has
issued National Ambient Air Quality
Standards. These pollutants are regulated
under the Title I non-attainment provi-
sions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of
1990, in order to protect people from
respiratory illnesses.
  For more information or a copy of the
report, contact the Technical Support
Division of the Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards at 919-541-5558.
Printed on recycled paper.

2 Pbllution Pre%entien News
October - November 1994
Co.tI...d fr. prn4.s p
New Mexico Economic Develop-
ment Department received $490,800 to
identify opportunities for small manufac-
turers to implement advanced pollution
prevention technologies, and to develop a
long-range plan for an integrated self-
sustaining program of manufacturing
extension and pollution prevention.
The New York State Energy Office,
Division of Energy Services received
$200,000 for its “Clean Boilers Project”
which aims to increase the efficiency of
approximately 2,000 boiler plants in the
New York City multi-family housing
sector. The Office plans to develop mini-
mum standards for “Clean Boiler” techni-
cians, as well as standards for efficiency
for new boiler installations.
The Houlton Band of Maliseet
Indians (HBMI) received $20,134 to
reduce the amount of household hazardous
waste released into wastewater and solid
waste streams.
The Rhode Island Department of
Environmental Management (DEM)
received $150,169 to research, evaluate,
and create a model shop to demonstrate
toxics use reduction strategies for the auto
finishing industry.
The Puerto Rico Environmental
Quality Board (EQB) received $499,034
to establish a comprehensive pollution
prevention program. EQB plans to develop
pollution prevention training and assess-
ment capabilities and to demonstrate to
island businesses that pollution preven-
tion saves money and boosts profits.
The Schuylkffl Center for Environ-
mental Education in Pennsylvania
received $153,970 to strengthen the
pollution prevention component of its
Regional Environmental Education
Program (REEP) high school curriculum,
which consists of units for teachers of
biology, chemistry, physics/technology,
environmental science and social studies.
The University of Missouri — Rolla
received $77,365 to develop an assessment
tool for the wood products industry and local
government personnel to determine cost
effective pollution prevention techniques.
For more information on the PPIS
program, contact Lena Hann-Ferris at
T his fall has brought changes for some
key members of EPA’s pollution
prevention team. Mark Greenwood
recently left his position as Director of
EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and
Toxics (OPPT) to join the Washington, D.C.
office of Ropes and Gray, a law firm based
in Boston. Joseph Carra, Deputy Director
of OPPT, is acting as Office Director.
Manik (Nikki) Roy was recently hired
as Director of the EPA Administrator’s
Pollution Prevention Policy Staff, a
position vacated by Eric Schaeffer, who
now serves as the Deputy Director of the
Agency’s new Office of Compliance. Nikki
comes to EPA from the Environmental
Defense Fund, where one of his primary
responsibilities was working with the
printing industry to develop new ways to
prevent pollution.
David Sarokin, Director of EPA’s 33/50
Program, has accepted a six-month detail
to sit at Nikki’s old desk at EDF through
May 1995.
Also coming on board the Pollution
Prevention Policy Staff is Marty Spitzer,
formerly with the Pollution Prevention
Division, where he directed the Manage-
ment Accounting and Capital Budgeting
for Environmental Costs project.
Jocelyn Siegel (formerly Woodman) is
leaving PPD to serve as leader of the
pollution prevention team at the Depart-
ment of Energy’s Albuquerque Operations
Office. She will be coordinating pollution
prevention program at nine DOE defense
facilities nationwide.
Congratulations to all on their new

3 Ebilution Prevention News
October - November 1994
E PA is providing grants to help bring
pollution prevention approaches to
bear on environmental problems
faced by minority and low income commu-
nities. Potential recipients include commu-
nity groups, service providers, non-profits,
and academic institutions. The grants are
expressly for pollution prevention and
environmental justice.
The following are examples of ap-
proaches that demonstrate the value of
pollution prevention approaches for
environmental justice issues.
TRI and Public Information: using
environmental information to advance
environmental justice, for example, by
providing minority and low income
communities with the information, soft-
ware or other tools to use TRI to persuade
industries to reduce emissions.
Financing: providing assistance in
obtaining financing for community busi-
nesses to implement pollution prevention
Education and Outreach: developing
and distributing educational and outreach
materials on applying pollution prevention
solutions that are expressly designed for
issues faced in particular communities.
Agriculture: providing funds to address
the impact of pesticides and agricultural
chemicals generally on farmworkers, by
supporting alternatives to pesticide and
chemical uses, and training for field
personnel who can understand and apply
integrated pest management in the field.
Resource efficiency: encouraging better
use of resources, for example, by energy
efficiency, water conservation, or waste
reduction in community housing and
EPA is also open to other approaches
that communities identify. The objectives
of the program are to:
allow experimentation with a broad
range of prevention approaches;
assure that grants are available for the
full range of constituencies involved in the
environmental justice activities (e.g.:
tribes, rural and urban communities); and
leverage existing institutions and create
partnerships to advance pollution preven-
tion and environmental justice.
The majority of grants are expected to
be under $50,000, with a total of $4
million available in FY 1995. Decisions on
grants awarded will be made by the EPA
Regional Offices. For further information
on this program, please contact Chen Wen,
tel: 202-260-4109, fax: 202-260-0178.
E PA’s Office of Pollution Prevention
and Toxics (OPPT) held a public
meeting on September 28, to discuss
adding chemical use inventory (CU!)
information to existing information
collection requirements under the Toxics
Release Inventory (TRI) program.
“There’s no question that there’s a need
for better information about the use and
exposure of chemicals in the public
domain,” said Mark Greenwood, then-
Director of OPPT. “Our hope is to find a
way of designing a system for doing that
that gets the maximum credibility among
those who both use the data [ and] those
who supply the data.”
A key issue at the meeting was the
inclusion of materials accounting (MA)
data, which consists of determining the
quantity of a chemical at key junctures in
its progression through a facility. Environ-
mental organizations want the data
included as public information, and groups
such as labor unions are interested in EPA
collecting MA data for occupational safety
and health concerns.
“We think the information does deserve
to be in public,” said Hillel Gray of the
National Environmental Law Center. Gray
stressed the “need to start moving toward...
The pollution prevention
information clearinghouse
developed for U.S. Depart-
ment of Energy facilities
and contractors is up and
running. Called P2Info, it is
operated by Pacific North-
west Laboratory and
includes pollution preven-
tion technologies and tools,
and vendor data from
within and outside the DOE
complex. Call 509-3P2-
INFO for more information
or dial in via Internet at
EPA’s Pollution Preven-
tion Directory has been
updated and greatly ex-
panded to cover EPA and
other federal programs,
state programs in pollution
prevention, a wide range of
small business technical
assistance, and selected
resources. Available through
PPIC, 202-260-1023.
The National Pollution
Prevention Roundtable’s
Pollution Prevention
Yellow Pages has recently
been updated. Its focus is on
state and local pollution
prevention programs.
Contact the Roundtable at
218 D Street SE, Washing-
ton, DC 20003, tel: 202-543-
7272 ($15 Members/$25
Csuthi..d sap. ,. 11

4 } llution Prevention News
October - November 1994
5 ince the start of the state grant
program known as PPIS (Pollution
Prevention Incentives for States),
over $30 million has been awarded to
hundreds of state and tribal organizations
to promote pollution prevention. PPIS
grants fall into four basic categories:
Technical Assistance, Technical Training,
Outreach and Education, and Demonstra-
tion Projects. Examples of what recipients
have done with their PPIS grants follows.
T.chnkal Assistance
Businesses across the country are taking
advantage of free technical information
from state pollution prevention programs
supported by PPIS grants. These pro-
grams assist businesses in reducing
wastes in all environmental media air,
solid and hazardous waste, water, and
energy consumption. The assistance
generally results in savings to businesses
by reducing waste management costs. For
example, the Florida Waste Reduction
Assistance Program saved businesses
approximately $3.7 million by reducing
hazardous waste by over 4 million pounds.
In many cases, PPIS technical assis-
tance programs offer confidential, on-site
pollution and waste assessments for large
and small businesses. These assessments
are voluntary and take place outside the
regulatory environment. Businesses learn
how to save money; increase efficiency;
reduce the need for new disposal facilities;
and help promote a positive public image.
During an assessment, engineers review
all operations to uncover potential waste
reduction opportunities and strategies.
Companies receive a detailed report that
identifies and evaluates various waste
reduction opportunities and provides
specific recommendations for action. The
company then decides whether to proceed
with the recommendations.
The pollution prevention program at the
Colorado Department of Health (CDH)
is one of the programs supported by PPIS
which offers this type of technical assis-
tance. Majestic Metals, a manufacturer
employing 115 people received a pollution
prevention assessment from the CDH. The
company adopted CDH recommendations
to install high-volume, low-pressure paint
guns and gun-cleanii .. wash system. CDH
estimates that the changes will reduce
Majestic’s VOC emissions by 7,400 pounds,
and decrease rinse water by 770,000
gallons annually. The corresponding
reduction in paint usage will save the
company $25,000 per year.
Some PPIS grant recipients are going
one step further and evaluating what
prevents businesses from adopting pollu-
tion prevention recommendations. The
Louisiana Department of Environ-
mental Quality is using a PPIS grant to
develop a survey for industrial waste
generators to identify regulatory and non-
regulatory barriers to implementing
pollution prevention practices. The state
hopes to use the survey results to tailor its
programs to local needs.
T.chnical Training
PPIS grants fund state programs that
provide technical training to industry,
government and student groups. Many
states have programs that train business
leaders on how to implement pollution
prevention measures at their work sites.
For example, Utah is conducting a series
of environmental training workshops for
the Utah Manufacturers Association. The
training series has alerted businesses to
the information and services available to
them from the state’s pollution prevention
program. The training focuses on source
reduction in hazardous waste, solid waste
and air toxics, and protection of drinking
water and wetlands.
The Tennessee Waste Reduction
Assistance Program (WRAP) has
trained over 12,000 people in waste
reduction. WRAP has combined waste
assessments and training into Solid Waste
Focus Groups. This program, in conjunc-
tion with the Tennessee Chamber of
Commerce, trains industries to conduct

5 Lkllution Prevention News
October - November 1994
snapshot assessments of their solid waste.
This program has allowed WRAP staff to
assist more companies, more quickly than
other methods.
PPIS grants have also been used to
train state and local officials to focus on
pollution prevention opportunities during
the course of their work. For example,
Cornell University used PPIS funding to
develop a comprehensive package of
training and informational materials to
serve as a guide for local officials respon-
sible for pollution prevention. Local
officials from 36 New York counties
attended the first training session.
Rhode Island also has a PPIS-sup-
ported program to train state officials.
Rhode Island is training employees at its
largest water treatment facility to focus on
pollution prevention in all forms during
compliance audits and assessments. Other
states are training employees in state
environmental agencies to identify source
reduction opportunities during the course
of their work.
Several of the established state pollu-
tion prevention programs have trained
new PPIS grant recipients in technical
skills and management strategies. The
Alabama program, for example, has
trained staff in Vermont, New Hampshire,
Iowa, Mississippi and South Carolina.
Outreach and Education
PPIS has supported the development of a
range of materials and activities designed
to educate people about pollution prevention.
PPIS funded the University of
Maine’s Department of Chemical Engi-
neering in an educational program for
groups dealing with the public or students.
Activities undertaken included an inten-
sive short course called “Understanding
and Managing the Chemicals in Our
Lives,” a conference on pollution preven-
tion and risk reduction held annually, a
clearinghouse for information on pollution
prevention, working with the news media
to disseminate pollution prevention
material, and developing a “Guide to
Chemicals in Consumer Products.”
PPIS also supports education and
outreach projects which target consumers
and businesses. Grant recipients have
developed newsletters, fact-sheets, videos
and television programs to increase aware-
ness of source reduction opportunities.
Many of the programs sponsor workshops
and conferences, and make
presentations to business and
civic organizations.
Several states have used
PPIS grants to increase
coordination of different
regulatory agencies. For
example, the Washington
Department of Ecology has
established a mechanism to increase
communication among state agencies, and
within the Department itself. The Depart-
ment formed an intergovernmental
committee to meet periodically on pollu-
tion prevention. The state also has devel-
oped an interagency workgroup of employ-
ees in each of the media programs.
Demonstration Projects
Demonstration projects test and support
innovative pollution prevention ap-
proaches and methodologies. Funding
these projects allows EPA and the states to
learn how new ideas will work, before
business or government invests significant
time and money. PPIS has supported
demonstration projects in areas such as
alternative pollution prevention technolo-
gies, community waste reduction and
recycling programs, and management
approaches to pollution reduction in
specific industries.
For example, Nevada is studying
alternatives for the mining practice of
analyzing the gold and silver content of
ore. The current process, fire assay, wastes
lead and contaminates the final refuse.
Researchers conducted a literature review
of techniques which do not use lead and
are examining several promising alterna-
tives in the laboratory.
For more information on the state
programs, contact Lena Hann-Ferris at
Funding these projects
allows EPA and the
states to learn how new
ideas will work, before
business or government
invests significant time
and money.

Pkjllution Prewntion News
October - November 1994
T he U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID) has estab-
lished an Environmental Pollution
Prevention Project (EP3) to support
sustainable pollution prevention pro-
grams in developing
countries. Paid and
volunteer U.S.
industry and pollu-
tion prevention
experts work with
EP3 engineers to
conduct pollution
prevention assess-
ments at industrial
facilities in host
countries. These
experts also are
available to help the
companies imple-
ment the pollution
preveilLioll options identified through the
EP3 currently has offices in Chile,
Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, and Tunisia. In
addition, EP3 has ongoing or completed
projects in the Czech Republic, India,
Poland, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Zambia.
An example of EP3’s work is found in
Chile, where an EP3 team conducted
pollution prevention assessments at three
leather tanneries and four textile dyeing
plants. Chilean consultants worked along-
side the U.S. experts as a way of training
local engineers and building in-country
pollution prevention expertise.
Preliminary results from the first
assessments are promising. EP3 teams are
identifying many changes that will save
plants thousands of dollars in operating
costs, in addition to reducing pollution.
For example, in one tannery, a process
modification costing less than $5,000 is
expected to save approximately $60,000
annually, as well as significantly reduce
chrome effluents. At one of the textile
plants, modifications costing less than
$1,500 will greatly reduce water use and
are expected to result in annual savings of
about $100,000 per year.
USAID is using three methods to get
EP3 off the ground. First, USAID has a
cooperative agreement through which EPA
staff and resources support EP3. Second,
USAID has a contract with a primary
contractor and sixteen subcontractors that
provide core support to design and manage
EP3 and the capacity for USAID Bureaus
and Missions to buy-in to the project.
Third, USAID has a cooperative agree-
ment with the Water Environment Federa-
tion (WEF) that provides WEF staff and
resources to supplement core EP3 activi-
ties. WEF also supplies volunteers to work
on EP3 projects.
So far, EP3 has completed 16 assess-
ment audits in Chile and nine audits in
Tunisia. Other EP3 activities include:
Clearinghouse. The EP3 Clearing-
house responds to requests for information
from developing countries and USAID
Missions throughout the world. The
Clearinghouse catalogue includes over
1,000 pollution prevention references
focusing on industry-specific applications of
pollution prevention techniques.
Training Programs. EP3 has devel-
oped a train-the-trainer workshop aimed
at individuals responsible for delivering or
managing pollution prevention training in
developing countries.
Volunteer Program. The Coalition for
International Environmental Research and
Assistance (CIERA) coordinates the EP3
volunteer program. The program provides a
mechanism for people with expertise in
many areas to participate in an EP3
project. The individuals volunteer their
time for a specific project and EP3 covers
the costs. Volunteers have participated in
activities such as pollution prevention
assessments in Chile, Ecuador, Egypt,
Indonesia, Tunisia and Zambia.
For more information, contact Audrey
Pendergast at 703-351-4004.
W.st. hi.? r.c.v.ry w.s ii. o
— — I,—
Id i .tIfI.d it. tutu dy. g p ?..t I.
cws. ..dit.d by 1P3.

7 Fbllution Prewntion News
October - November 1994
A Nebraska heritage trail and a
resort on Costa Rica’s Osa Penin-
sula are two examples of a trend
toward sustainable development in
tourism. These developments seek to
promote local development through
tourism that has a minimal impact on
the environment.
At a recent conference on sustainable
tourism, participants from around the
world discussed new approaches to the
tourism and hospitality industries.
BuiIding a Sustainable World Through
Tourism,” organized by the International
Institute for Peace through Tourism, was
held September 12 - 16, 1994, in
Montreal, Quebec.
The conference featured the presenta-
tion and discussion of over 200 case studies
of successful, sustainable development.
Participants from more than 80 countries
from the travel and tourism industry, and
related sectors including parks, culture,
heritage and environment, attended the
conference which was sponsored by the
government of Canada, the government of
Quebec, and the Hotel and Restaurant
Employees International Union.
The Lapa Rios Ecotourism Resort near
Puerto Jimenez, Costa Rica, which was
built in 1991, is one example of the
sustainable development approach to
tourism. The 1100 acre site included a
stand of virgin lowland rainforest that
was one of the last untouched areas of its
kind in Central America. The owners and
developers, John and Karen Lewis, felt
that ecotourism was a logical alternative
to the logging and agricultural develop-
ment prevalent in the area.
Lapa Rios was designed to have a
minimal impact on the environment. The
buildings are based on designs traditional
to the area and use exposed timber
construction. Wherever possible labor-
intensive rather than material-intensive
methods of construction were used, such
as thatched roofs, in order to benefit the
local economy. Local workers also built the
furniture at the site using local materials.
Says architect David Andersen, “It’s not so
much what we did but what we didn’t do.
Nature is the real show here.” The build-
ings feature solar panels to supply hot
water and have roof vents that use natural
breezes for cooling. There is currently a
main building and 14 villas, with a total of
20 villas planned. The resort employs 33
local staff.
Another type of sustainable develop-
ment is demonstrated by the Heritage
Trails of Nebraska. Nebraska has several
historical trails including the Oregon
Trail, the Lewis and Clark Trail, the
Mormon Trail, and the Pony Express
Trail. According to Prof. Brian Hill of the
University of Nebraska at Kearney, these
historical trails are suited to sustainable
development for several reasons. First,
the linear nature of trails allows for
tourism developers to space out tourists,
minimizing impacts. Further the trails
contain different attractions suited to
different tourists; a military history buff
may visit an old fort, while a family with
children may visit a historic town. Thus
while promotional materials can promote
certain trails, the impact of those tour-
ists is dispersed.
Because the development of heritage
trails for tourism is not
dependent on large scale
development or large
numbers of tourists, it
encourages small busi-
nesses and small tour
companies. These smaller
businesses provide jobs in
the communities and are
less disruptive to the environment than
large scale development might be.
For information on the International
Institute for Peace Through Tourism, call
514-281-1822. For information on the
Lapa Rios Resort, contact John and
Karen Lewis at 506-735-5130. For infor-
mation on the Nebraska Heritage Trails,
contact Brian Hill at 308-234-8727.
“It’s not so much
what we did but
what we didn’t do.
Nature is the real
show here.”
Lopu Rios ouhitect
David Andersen

$ f llution Prei entict News
October - November 1994
by Perry Frank
N othing signals recent environmental
progress in Central Europe as
dramatically as the opening of
several recreational beaches along Gdansk
Bay, Poland, for the first time in 20 years.
Pollution of the bay as a result of indus-
trial and household wastes, as well as
stormwater and agricultural runoff, had
reached the level of a national scandal by
the 1990s, as drinking the water was
prohibited and beaches were closed to
swimmers. Even walking on the magnifi-
cent beaches of Gdansk and
Sopot, once famous summer
resorts, had become difficult
and unpleasant due to refuse
and debris washed or tossed
onto the shore.
Three years ago the munici-
palities in the region began
working toward cleaning the
water supply and opening the beaches.
Support from the ECOBALTIC Foundation
led to the enormously successful Earth
Day Tn-Cities Beach Clean-Up event, as
well as to the establishment of a Stream
Watch program that coordinates the
efforts of students and scouts. ECOBALTIC
has also mounted intensive public educa-
tion campaigns to reduce the use of
phosphorus-based detergents, implicated
in the contamination of the Baltic Sea.
Other environmental groups have built
coalitions to help promote new approaches
to environment and natural resource
protection. The Coalition Clean Baltic
(CCB) consists of 25 nongovernmental
environmental organizations representing
the nine countries bordering the Baltic
Sea. Its guiding principles include ecologi-
cal sustainabilitv, use of user fees and
green taxation” as incentives toward
conservation, free access to information,
and comprehensive planning. Another
coalition, the Union of the Baltic Cities,
was established in 1991 with 32 founding
cities to achieve a better standard of life
for the 80 million people living in the
drainage area of the Baltic; environmental
protection is one of the Union’s five key
On a diplomatic level, the Helsinki
Convention on the Protection of the
Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea
Area (HELCOM), originally formed in
1974, was renewed in 1992 and charged
with the mission of protecting the internal
waters draining into the Baltic Sea. The
Convention established fundamental
principles as a basis for environmental
action, including pollution prevention and
“polluter pays.” In 1992 HELCOM ratified
a Joint Comprehensive Program (JCP) to
clean up the region and put sustainable
programs in place. Of the roughly $22
billion proposed for the program’s cost over
a 20-year period, about $16.8 billion was
allocated to combat point source pollution
through wastewater treatment and
industrial pollution control. A smaller, but
still significant amount, about $4.2 billion,
was allocated to nonpoint source pollution
to work on problems stemming from
agricultural runoff, livestock operation,
rural settlements, etc.
A key issue for implementation is
financing for specific projects. Of 119 “hot
spots” identified in the region, nearly two-
thirds are located in countries that have
recently undergone profound political
changes and are still struggling with the
difficult process of privatization. The
ability of these countries to allocate funds
or borrow in international markets is
limited, while Western European countries
are also strapped for cash in the wake of a
deep recession. Ultimately, much of the
financing for environmental protection
may need to be borne by localities in the
form of taxes or user fees. But there is
growing recognition that the greatest long-
term opportunity for reducing environ-
mental pollution in the future may be tied
to policies that require pollution preven-
tion practices and technologies to be built
into new facilities and processes as these
nations modernize their infrastructures.
“There is growing
recognition that the
greatest long-term
opportunity for reducing
environmental pollution
may be tied to policies
that require pollution
prevention practices.”
Perry Frank is a
Washington-based writer
who recently returned from
a year as a Senior Fuibright
Lecturer at the ( niL’ersitv
of Gdcznsk, Poland.

9 Lkllution Prewntion News
October - November 1994
O n-line information about air
pollution control and prevention is
as near as a personal computer with
a modem, thanks to the Technology Trans-
fer Network (‘VI T N). TTN is a network of 18
electronic bulletin boards developed and
operated by EPA’s Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards (OAQPS).
T’FN’s information and technology
exchange cover air pollution control, from
EMTIC—Emission Mea-
surement Technical Infor-
mation Center provides ac-
cess to emission test methods
and testing information for the
development and enforcement
of national, state and local
emission prevention and con-
trol programs.
AMTIC—Ambient Monitor-
ing Technology Informa-
tion Center provides infor-
mation and all federal
regulations pertaining to am-
bient monitoring, including
information on monitoring
methodology, and field and
laboratory studies.
AIRS—Aerometric Infor-
mation Retrieval System
provides information and
documentation on the use and
acquisition of air quality and
emissions data from the AIRS
mainframe computer.
Information Systems is a
compilation of air permits
from local, state and regional
air pollution control agencies.
NATICH—National Air
Toxics Information Clear-
inghouse contains informa-
tion submitted by EPA and
state and local agencies re-
garding their air toxics pro-
grams to facilitate the ex-
change of information among
government agencies.
Source Compliance pro-
vides pollution prevention,
stationary source, and asbes-
tos compliance information.
NSR—New Source Review
offers guidance and technical
information within the NSR
permitting community.
SCRAM—Support Center
for Regulatory Air Models
provides regulatory air qual-
ity model computer code, me-
teorological data, documenta-
tion and modeling guidance.
CHIEF—Clearinghouse for
Inventories/Emission Fac-
tors contains the latest infor-
mation on air emission inven-
tories and emission factors. It
provides access to tools for es-
timating emissions of air pol-
lutants and performing air
emission inventories for both
criteria and toxic pollutants.
CAAA—Clean Air Act
Amendments has informa-
tion on the Clean Air Act
emission test methods to regulatory air
pollution models. The service is free to
the public (although users have to pay
any long-distance telephone charges) and
is on-line seven days a week, 24 hours a
day, except Monday morning, 8-12
Eastern time, when the system is down
for maintenance.
To access the system via modem, call
919-541-5742. TTN can be accessed
through the Internet at “TELNET
ttnbbs.rtpnc.epa.gov”. For information or
assistance, call the help desk at 919-541-
5384 weekdays, 11-5 Eastern time.
amendments of 1990, regula-
tory requirements, imple-
mentation programs, criteria
pollutants, and technical
APTI—Air Pollution Train-
ing Institute describes cur-
rent course offerings on air
pollution, including curricula,
schedules, locations and costs.
CTC—Control Technology
Center offers free engineer-
ing assistance, a hotline, and
technical guidance to state
and local air pollution control
USC—User Support Cen-
ter provides support for us-
ers by offering information on
modems, downloading, com-
munication software and
other communications issues.
It also provides a public mes-
sage area for users to share
information related to the use
of the TTN.
ORIA—Office of Radiation
and Indoor Air disseminates
information to state and local
governments, industry, profes-
sional groups and citizens to
promote actions to reduce ex-
posure to harmful levels of
radiation and indoor air pol-
USCAN—US/Canada Air
Quality Agreement provides
for the exchange of permitting
information between the U.S.
and Canada.
OMS—Office of Mobile
Sources provides information
pertaining to mobile source
emissions, including regula-
tions, test results, models and
AIRISC—Air RISC provides
technical assistance and infor-
mation primarily to state and
local air pollution control agen-
cies in areas of health, risk, and
exposure assessment for toxic
and criteria pollutants.
SBAP—Small Business As-
sistance Program provides
support to state and local
small business assistance pro-
grams by serving as a commu-
nications network to share
materials as well as new fed-
eral rules that have been de-
veloped related to small busi-
ness issues.

10 I Hution Prevention News
October - November 1994
The DIE Printing Project
has released its draft Screen
Printing Cleaner Technolo-
gies Substitutes Assessment
(CTSA). This is the first
draft CTSA that EPA has
completed, and it will be
used as a model for future
assessments of risk reduc-
tion and pollution preven-
tion opportunities in other
The CTSA evaluates 11
screen reclamation product
systems which were first
tested in a laboratory
setting. Twenty-three
volunteer printing facilities
then tested the product
systems in 30-day produc-
tion runs. The information
collected in those trials went
into the CTSA.
The Printing Project also
is planning to complete draft
CTSAs for the lithographic
and flexographic segments of
the printing industry,
scheduled to be released in
E PA, through the Design for the Envi-
ronment (DIE) Program, has formed a
partnership with the dry cleaning
industry, solvent producers, suppliers,
universities, and environmental, labor and
consumer groups to evaluate current and
alternative clothes cleaning technologies
in an effort to reduce exposure to dry
cleaning solvents.
As part of this Dry Cleaning Project,
EPA is developing a Cleaner Technology
Substitutes Assessment (CTSA). The CTSA
is an analytical tool that methodically
assesses the comparative performance,
cost, and human health and environmental
risks associated with traditional and
alternative chemicals, processes and
technologies in a specific area. For each
CTSA, a specific “use cluster” is chosen. A
use cluster is a set of technologies that can
be substituted for one another to perform a
certam task. The Dry Cleaning CTSA
identifies and evaluates the currently
available, newly developed and emerging
technologies in the industry and shows the
advantages and disadvantages of each. The
goal of the CTSA is to provide accurate
information to dry cleaners so that they are
able to make informed judgments on the
products and technologies they choose to
use in their facilities.
The CTSA began by examining the
basic function of dry cleaning. Customers
want their garments to be professionally
cleaned, and dry cleaning is the most
established method to accomplish this.
The dry cleaning process developed
because some garments are damaged if
washed with water. Dry cleaning is similar
to washing clothes at home, with a chemi-
cal solvent used in place of water. Perchlo-
roethylene (PCE) is the solvent used by
over 85 percent of all dry cleaning estab-
lishments. Other solvents being used
include Stoddard solvent and CFCs.
Through the CTSA several alternative
clothes cleaning techniques are being
evaluated. These include: (1) multiprocess
wet cleaning, which relies on the controlled
application heat, steam, pressing, and
soaps to clean clothes that are traditionally
dry cleaned; (2) machine wet cleaning,
which is a mechanized method that varies
the washing technique based on the type of
fabric; (3 liquid CO 2 technology, which
utilizes the solvent properties of CO 2 gas at
high pressures to clean clothes; and (4)
microwave drying, which is not a cleaning
technique but which may make aqueous
based technologies more viable.
The CTSA will complete risk assess-
ments and present performance informa-
tion for each alternative. The risk assess-
ments outline the potential for adverse
effects to dry cleaning workers, the general
population, specific subpopulations and the
environment. The performance data are
necessary for the dry cleaner to choose
among the various processes.
As part of the project, EPA is establish-
ing demonstration shops in Chicago,
Indianapolis and Los Angeles, in late 1994.
The Chicago shop will feature alternative
cleaning services only, while the other
shops will offer both dry and wet cleaning
services. The shops will resemble commer-
cial dry cleaning operations in size, number
of employees, and daily volume of cleaning.
The demonstration shops will allow the dry
cleaning industry to observe the alternative
cleaning processes under field conditions.
In addition, financial records will be
available for inspection so that the financial
viability of the processes can be examined.
Other parts of the Dry Cleaning Project
focus on developing strategies to shift the
behavior of dry cleaners and consumers,
and getting the information to the industry
and consumers.
For more information on Design for the
Environment, contact the Pollution
Prevention Information Clearinghouse at

11 I llution Prevention News
October - November 1994
A laddin Industries Incorporated has
slashed the amount of toxic waste it
generates through its participation in
EPA’s 33/50 Program.
Aladdin manufactures metal and
plastic hardware for consumer and
industrial use. The company has its
headquarters and manufacturing facility
in Nashville, Tennessee. Aladdin produces
a variety of products such as lunch kits,
thermos bottles, hospital trays, coffee
cups, lamps and coolers.
As a result of its reduction activities
which included substituting more benign
chemicals and altering processes, Aladdin
has reduced its total releases and trans-
fers of 33/50 Program chemicals by 38
percent from 1988 to 1992. In addition,
Aladdin achieved a 99.8 percent reduction
in releases and transfers of non-33/50 TRI
chemicals from 1988 to 1992.
Aladdin completely eliminated the use
of trichioroethylene, which had been used
to remove petroleum oils from metal part
during metal forming processes. The metal
now is treated with synthetic lubricants,
which is removed from the metal by an
aqueous alkaline cleaner. The water from
the alkaline process is treated on-site.
Methylene chloride was eliminated from
the facility by replacing the polystyrene
used in trays with polypropylene. Previ-
ously the polystyrene trays were cut from a
sheet and blemishes around the edges were
removed with the methylene chloride. The
new polypropylene trays are injection
molded so there are no blemishes to remove.
Aladdin also eliminated all releases of
chromium, along with phosphoric acid and
sulfuric acid, which are not 33/50 TRI
chemicals. By utilizing a newly installed
on-site waste treatment facility, toxic
materials are removed from a water
mixture containing chromium, phosphoric
acid and sulfuric acid. Half of the water is
recycled and half is of a quality to be
discharged to the sewer. The sludge which
remains from the treatment is considered
non-hazardous and disposed of in a
landfill. Prior to the installation of the on-
site treatment facility, all of these wastes
were transferred off-site for treatment or
The use of a different thinner elimi-
nated the use of toluene and methyl
isobutyl ketone. In addition, by changing a
painting process, Aladdin eliminated small
quantities of lead, xylenes and ketones.
C..tlmd Its. p.,. 3
a precautionary and preventive approach”
toward exposure to toxic substances.
Industry groups were concerned about
the burden of providing additional data
and uncertain about the value of the MA
information. “Our cost estimates indicate
that any value which this data may
provide will be outweighed tremendously
by the cost of collecting and reporting,”
said Sharon Eisel, representing the
Chemical Manufacturers Association. “The
goal of any additional data collection
should be risk reduction, not chemical use
reduction,” she added.
OPPT is interested in the use of informa-
tion to promote pollution prevention
activities and wants examples of how the
data would be used in order to better gauge
the benefits and costs of collecting the data.
The 33/50 Program is a
voluntary program which
denies its name from its
goals—a 33 percent reduc-
tion by 1992 and a 50 percent
reduction by 1995 of emis-
sions nationwide of 17 high
priority toxic chemicals.
This case study is one of
a series of pollution prel’en-
Lion efforts recognized by
the program.
For more information on
the 33/50 Program, contact
the TSCA Hotline at 202-

12 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                       October - November 1994

Building TRI and Pollution
Prevention Partnerships

Environmental Technology
Expo & Conference

Second Annual National
Tribal Environmental Conference

Fertilizer Research and
Education Program Conference

Texas Municipal Solid Waste
Conference: Options for Texas '95

The 1995 Excellence in
Housing Conference

Low- and No-VOC Coating
Technologies International Conf.

1995 SO, Control Symposium
Gulf of Mexico Symposium 1995:
Steering a Course for the Future
EPA, Assoc. of Energy
Engineers, others

National Tribal
Environmental Council

California Department
of Food and Agriculture

Texas Natural Resources
Conservation Commissions, others

Energy Efficient
Building Association, Inc

EPA Air and Energy Research
Lab, Research Triangle Inst.

Gulf of Mexico Program
1995 IEEE International Symposium on IEEE
Electronics and the Environment: A Life
Cycle Approach for Electronics Products
December 5-8
Boston, MA
December 7-9
Atlanta, GA

December 12-14
Reno, NV

December 14
Parlier, CA

January, 25-27, 1995
Austin, TX

March 8-11, 1995
Minneapolis, MN

March 13-15, 1995
Durham, NC

March 28-31, 1995
Miami Beach, FL

March 29-April 1, 1995
Corpus Christi, TX

May 1-3, 1995
Orlando, FL


Jacques Franco

Gary Trim

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