United States
                          Environmental Protection
                                Office of Pollution
                                Prevention and Toxics
                                Washington, DC 20460
                                                               May - June 1995

                                                               EPA 742-95-001C
    News and Notes
William H. Sanders is the new
Director ofEPA's Office of
Pollution Prevention and
Tbxics; new grants program
Agriculture and Pollution
Prevention: from yard care to
manure tricks, and a special
look at Wisconsin's East River
 I  III the States

Awards programs in the states
spread the message that the
environment can be good for
Tube or pump? Choosing a
toothpaste is an environmental
packaging issue
1Q Technology
DOE's Innovative Technology
fair produces a crop of new
ideas. We sample a few of
DOD and Closing the Circle Awards recognize environmental accomplishments
                                        tion, Warren, MI won for an acquisition
    Federal facilities were recognized for
    environmental achievements in
    several major awards programs
recently. On April 17, the Secretary of
Defense presented the annual Environ-
mental Security Awards to selected
military installations and individual DOD
employees for outstanding accomplish-
ments in five categories: natural resources
conservation, pollution prevention, envi-
ronmental quality, recycling, and environ-
mental cleanup. Snagging the top prizes in
the pollution prevention field were the
Kelly Air Force Base, TX for the indus-
trial pollution prevention award; the
Naval Construction Battalion Center
in Port Hueneme, CA won for non-
industrial pollution prevention; and the
Abrams Environmental Management
Team, Armored Systems Moderniza-
                                        system that involved major contractors in
                                        virtually eliminating cadmium and
                                        chromium from the design of the Abrams
                                        Tank System. The Warner Robins Air
                                        Logistics Center, Robins AFB, Georgia
                                        won the overall Environmental Quality
                                        award for a broad range of programs,
                                        including continuous compliance assess-
                                        ment and sharp reductions in purchases
                                        of ozone-depleting chemicals.
                                          Another awards program, the White
                                        House's Closing the Circle Awards, was
                                        open to all federal facilities, for the best,
                                        most innovative federal programs imple-
                                        menting the objectives of Executive Order
                                        12873 ("Federal Acquisition, Recycling and
                                        Waste Prevention"). Some 230 entries
                                        were received from federal facilities, in the
                                                                Continued on pog. 6
    Enviro$ense is EPA's new electronic
    library of information on pollution
    prevention, technical assistance, and
environmental compliance. Enviro$ense
was created out of a merger and expansion
of the Pollution Prevention Information
Exchange System (PIES) and the Federal
Facilities Leadership Exchange (FFLEX)
bulletin board. With free public access to
the system, Enviro$ense is aimed at
facilitating the sharing of technologies and
experience across private and public
sectors, and encouraging pollution preven-
tion technologies suitable for export. Topics
Enviro$ense contains information on:
^-  Contacts, training opportunities, and
                                        >• Federal regulations, executive orders,
                                          and laws
                                        > Pollution prevention technical
                                          information, databases, initiatives
                                        ^ Federal agency and facility information
                                        ^ Technology information, databases, and
                                        ^ Funding, grants, and contracts
                                        >• International resources
                                        Enviro$ense permits online access to EPA
                                        databases, including TRI and a Pollution
                                        Prevention Reference database, and offers
                                        a daily summary of Federal Register
                                                                Continu.d oil

2 1 llutio Prewntion News
May-June 1995
president Clinton and EPA have
announced their intention to start a
new grant program, Performance
Partnership Grants, to help states and
Native American tribes better coordinate
environmental programs which are frag-
mented under many different federal
statutes, regulations, and programs. The
Performance Partnership Grants will be
made up of funds which would otherwise be
awarded as categorical grants; states will
have the option of combining two or more
grants into one application and one
workplan, that may be used to implement
pollution prevention strategies, and to
address multi-media whole facility, sector,
and community objectives. The new grants
program places greater reliance on environ-
mental and programmatic self-assessments
by each state, giving states more flexibility
to meet a limited number of agreed-upon
environmental goals and performance
measures. Pending passage of authorizing
legislation, all states and tribes will be
eligible to apply for the grants in 1996.
The correct telephone number for the
National Pollution Prevention Center for
Higher Education at the University of
Michigan (reported on in the Dec 94/Jan-
Feb95 issue of PPN) is 313-764-1412. To
find out about NPPC’s activities and
publications electronically, check out
NPPC’s “home page” on the World Wide
Web: http://www.snre.umich.eduinppc/.
New and noteworthy publications include:
Green Ledgers: Case Studies in Corpo-
rate Environmental Accounting, is a
new report from the World Resources
Institute. Case studies of the internal
environmental accounting practices of
five companies are presented, showing
how even the most sophisticated
systems may obscure environmental
costs. $21.95. Call 1-800-822-0504 or
410 516-6963 to order.
Saving Money and Reducing Waste is a
new video aimed at shop owners and
operators. developed by EPA’s Design for
the Environment Screen Printing
Project. The video offers concrete
methods to prevent pollution and reduce
waste in screen printing shops. Call
Stephanie Bergman, 202-260-1821 for
ordering information.
Dr. William H. Sanders III has been named Director
of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
(OPPT). Sanders moved to Headquarters from
Region 5, where he was the Director of the Envi-
ronmental Sciences Division. For the past year,
Sanders has served as Senior Executive for Re-
sources Management Training in the Office of
Administration and Resources Management. He
holds a Ph.D. in Public Health, with a major in Environmental and
Occupational Health Sciences, from the School of Public Health at
the University of Illinois at Chicago; an M.S. in Management of
Public Service from DePaul University; and a B.S. in Civil Engineer-
ing from the University of Illinois at Chicago.
EPA lost a champion of pollution
prevention with the sudden death
of Jim Craig, a Branch Chief in
EPA’s Pollution Prevention Divi-
sion. Jim died of liver cancer on
May 26th. Jim began his career
with EPA in 1984 as a statistician
for the Office of Solid Waste. Jim
Craig was known for his calm
demeanor, superior judgment,
superb management skills, and
sense of humor. His friends at EPA
and in the pollution prevention field
will miss him very much.

3 Fbllution Preventicsi News
May-June 1995
E PA has launched its first pesticide
voluntary partnership for pollution
prevention. The Pesticide Environ-
mental Stewardship Program (PESP), is
dedicated to protecting human health and
preserving the environment by reducing
both the use of pesticides and the risks
associated with pesticide use. The partner-
ship is a key element in the PESP, which
is sponsored by EPA, USDA, and FDA.
Current partners (listed in box on this
page) include agricultural growers as well
as non-agricultural interests, such as
utility companies who use pesticides on
their right-of-ways.
Partners in PESP agree to develop and
implement an environmental stewardship
plan tailored to their own pesticide usage.
They also agree to use the safest, most
effective pest management practices
In turn, EPA provides a liaison to assist
the partner in developing comprehensive,
achievable goals. Liaisons also act as
“customer service representatives” for
EPA, providing the partner with access to
information and personnel. EPA also
promises to integrate the partners’ stew-
ardship plans into its agricultural policies
and programs. EPA has also provided
some grant dollars to some of the charter
So far, grower groups have committed
to a number of projects, including conduct-
ing more research into 1PM techniques,
developing computer prediction models for
more precise pesticide applications,
educating their members and the public
regarding pesticide use, and working with
equipment manufacturers to fine-tune
application techniques.
Examples include:
‘ The American Corn Growers will be
promoting and expanding its “bottom-
line” corn growing contest, which seeks
to maximize a grower’s profit from corn
production while reducing production
inputs such as pesticides.
‘ The California Pear Growers and
California Pear Advisory Board are
funding — through grower and proces-
sor check-offs — the Pear Pest Manage-
ment Research Fund and research into
safer pest management techniques.
The California Citrus Board has
committed $750,000 to research into
safer pest control.
A consortium of East Coast
and Midwest utilities is
training their pesticide
users in techniques to
lower risks from pesticide
PESP was announced in
December 1994 and grows out
of the commitment made by
EPA, USDA and FDA in joint
testimony before Congress in
September 1993 to develop
commodity-specific initiatives
to reduce the use and risks of
pesticides. EPA is currently
pursuing partnerships with a
number of interested organi-
zations as well as beginning
the “supporter” phase of
PESP. A supporter is an
organization that does not
use pesticides, but has a
significant influence over
pest management practices.
Food processors, for example,
may influence the use of
pesticides on produce they
buy, even though they do not
apply pesticides to the
produce themselves. If you
have interest in learning
more about PESP or receiv-
ing PEST SMART Updates,
call the PESP INFOLINE at
National Potato Council
American Corn Growers Association
Appalachian Power
Atlantic Electric
California Citrus Research Board
California Cling Peach Advisory Board
California Pear Growers
California Pear Advisory Board
California Tomato Board
Carolina Power & Light
Columbus Southern Ohio Power
Delmarva Power
Duke Power
Golf Course Superintendents’ Associa-
tion of America
Indiana Michigan Power
International Apple Institute
Kentucky Power
K.ingsport Power
Mint Industry Research Council
New York State Gas & Electric
Northwest Alfalfa & Seed Growers
Pear Pest Management Research Fund
Pennsylvania Electric
Pennsylvania Power & Light
Pennsylvania Rural Electric Association
Professional Lawn Care Association of
Virginia, Maryland & Delaware
Association of Electric Cooperatives
Wheeling Power
Wisconsin Public Service Corporation

4 1kllution Prewntion News
May-June 1995
-Judith Rosenthal
urzt(’.’ frequently on
en uron nental topics.
A ppealing to homeowners pride in
their lawns has brought success to a
water quality program in Virginia.
The Cooperative Extension Service of
Prince William County wanted to teach
homeowners ways to conserve water,
fertilizer, and pesticides in caring for their
yards, but found that few citizens would
attend a pollution prevention seminar.
Nearly everybody wants to
prevent pollution, but “it’s hard to
get people to make time in their
busy schedules,” says extension
agent Marc Aveni.
But now that the extension
service delivers the same messages
in informal seminars on pruning, land-
scaping, and the like at local parks and
community centers, the turnout is much
better. Aveni says the seminars show
homeowners that preventing pollution
does not, mean sacrificing an attractive
yard. “We need to have realistic expecta-
tions,” he says.
Citizens who are willing to keep records
of their yard care to add to statistics on
pollution prevention can “volunteer” their
yards for individualized advice from the
extension service’s trained volunteers.
Media coverage of this part of the program
has attracted many more participants,
Aveni says. More than 500 people have
participated in some aspect of the program.
Similar programs are underway in
Wisconsin, Florida, Washington state, and
other places. and many others are in
development. For more information on
Virginia’s program, call (703) 792-6285.
Vegetable growers can learn how to
save on fertilizer costs and protect ground-
water with the help of two videos from the
California Department of Food and
The how-to video, “Drip Irrigation and
Fertigat ion Management of Vegetable
Crops,” shows how with careful monitor-
ing, growers can give crops just the right
amount of fertilizer and water through
drip irrigation.
Half of the U.S. vegetable supply is
grown in California’s coastal valleys, often
using intensive farming techniques to
produce two or three crops a year. While
crops like lettuce, broccoli, and cauliflower
thrive with fertilizer adding nitrogen to the
soil, overuse of fertilizer and over-i rrigation
threaten the area’s groundwater supply.
The other video, “Best Management
Practices for Nitrogen and Water Use, ’ is a
more general overview intended to build
awareness of the problem of excess
nitrogen in groundwater.
Both videos include reference booklets
and can be purchased for $20 each from
the Fertilizer Research and Education
Program, California Department of Food
and Agriculture, 1220 N Street. Sacra-
mento, CA 95814. For more information.
call (916) 653-5340.
Livestock farms are saving money while
becoming less . . . shall we say, aromatic,
thanks to a program called AgSTAR. The
voluntary program, a component of
President Clinton’s Climate Action Plan, s
based on a computer model that shows the
economic value of capturing the methane
naturally produced by manure.
By covering over the lagoons of water
where manure is stored on livestock farms
and using other techniques to maximize
anaerobic digestion of manure, methane
can be captured in storage tanks and used
for farm energy needs, such as refrigeration
or heat. In addition, odors and greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere are reduced and
surface and groundwater are protected.
AgSTAR, a joint program of EPA, USDA,
and the Department of Energy, helps
farmers determine which methane recovery
and use technologies would work best for
them, and develops financing sources to
help with start-up costs. For more informa-
tion, contact EPA at (202) 233-9041.
by Judith Rosenthal
“It’s hard to get
people to make
time in their
busy schedules.”
Marc Aveni

5 Pollution Prevention News
May-June 1995
Wisconsin’s Green Bay is the focal point
of a high-tech, participatory effort to
reduce pollution from nearby agriculture.
Some 70 percent of the bay’s suspended
solids and phosphorus and much of its
nitrogen come from non-point sources.
These sources include fertilizers, pesti-
cides, and erosion from feed crop fields on
the 400 dairy farms of the East River
watershed north of Milwaukee. The East
River ultimately feeds into Green Bay.
In 1991. the U.S. Department of
Agriculture and the University of Wiscon-
sin Extension began funding a three-year
integrated crop management 1CM)
demonstration project for the 2 19-square-
mile area. Farms that volunteered for the
project were required to follow an erosion
management plan and had their soil
testt cl using newly developed techniques
to determine exactly how much fertilizer
they needed.
Participating farmers were encouraged
t plant legumes, which enrich the soil
with nitrogen they take from the air, thus
reducing the need for chemical fertilizer.
They were also advised on how to spread
manure more efficiently, and with better
timing, on the fields that would benefit
most from it, again to reduce the use of
chemical fertilizer.
Crop consultants visited the demonstra-
tion farms every week to monitor pest
populations. Pesticides were used only if
they judged the cost of crop losses to be
greater than the cost of using the pesticide.
As a result of these efforts, the program
has prevented the application of 10.5 tons of
rootworm insecticide and 3,000 tons of
fertilizer over three years. Farmers saved
four to five dollars for each dollar invested,
with the average participating farm saving
$15,000 over three years.
Not surprisingly, 80 percent of the
demonstration farms are continuing to
practice 1CM even after the end of their
three-year commitment, and each year
more farms ask for training in 1CM
techniques. “1 sit down with farmers one-
on-one at their kitchen table and show
them how to do this,” says Kevin Erb, a
nutrient management specialist with the
Brown County Extension office. “Farmers
are learning they can t afford to farm
without 1CM.’
For more information, contact Erb at
414i 391-4610.
Oufarm dsmousstrutloa
In th. East RIv.r ProI.d
Massur. is p..p.d by hos. fr. th. sto, . stradar..
I.I.dloss mIuimiz.s odor and .Itro .a Iosss.

6 Fbllutioti Pre%ention News
May—June 1995
Industrial organic materials such as
polymers, paints, fuels, and lubricants may
be manufactured in the future from agricul-
tural crops, which could lessen U.S. depen-
dence on petroleum, according to discussions
at a recent meeting of the American Insti-
tute of Chemical Engineers. Also, some
paper products could be made from plants
that are harvested annually rather than
from trees that take decades to regrow.
U.S. farm productivity has increased to
the point that 23 percent of available crop-
land is not being used, according to Harry W
Parker, chemical engineering professor at
Texas Tech University in Lubbock. Parker
C. .tI...d I,.. p .1
contents. Other features include e-mail
with thousands of environmental profes-
si onals world-wide, electronic registration
for EPA training
courses, and key word
searching of full text or
Enviro$ense is
supported through
funding under the
Department of
Defense’s Strategic
Environmental Re-
search and Develop-
ment Program
(SERDP). Enviro$ense
incorporates the
“Solvents Alternatives
Umbrella” which allows
users to access informa-
tion about substitutes
for toxic solvents from
as many as 16 federal,
state and private
cautions, however, that “agricultural
products are renewable resources only when
grown in a truly sustainable manner...
Highly productive present-day agriculture
still relies heavily on petroleum and natural
gas for fuel, [ and on] nitrogen fertilizer,
herbicides, and insecticides.”
Potential applications of agricultural raw
materials include making films, foams, and
molded products from proteins, starch
blends, and other polymers, and using linear
alcohols as surfactants for detergents.
Non-wood puips such as flax, cotton,
hemp, and abaca (a member of the banana
family) are already used to make cigarette
paper, tea bags, currency, and specialty
stationery. The use of such puips could be
expanded if it proves economically feasible,
according to a presentation at the meeting.
C.atlrnd fv. p.,. 1
categories of recycling, model facility
demonstration projects, waste prevention,
affirmative procurement, and environmen-
tal innovation.
Among the winners was the U.S.
Postal Service, with several winning
facilities. The Hartford Vehicle Mainte-
nance Facility in Hartford, CT won in the
category of model facility demonstration
program for its demonstrations and
procurement practices for new products
and technologies, and fleet conversions to
compressed natural gas, leading to a 70%
reduction in hazardous waste generation
between 1992 and 1994. Five other Postal
Service vehicle maintenance facilities
received waste prevention awards for
outstanding results in reducing their
hazardous waste streams.
For more information on award
winners, contact Fran McPoland, Fed-
eral Environmental Executive, 202-260-
1297 (Closing the Circle awards) or
Edward Dyckman, 703-697-9107 (DOD
Via modem (28 lines): Enviro$ense is
accessible via vodem (28 lines). Use a
personal computer with a modem (2400 to
14,400) and communications software set to
the following: 8, N, 1; Emulation: ANSI or
VT-100. Telephone Number: 703-908-2092.
Via the Internet: You need to have access
to the Internet and World Wide Web naviga-
tion software such as Mosaic. Use the
following address: httpJ/wastenot.inel.
gov/enviro-sense. (Access via WWW
allows hypertext connection to any other
WWW server.)
For more information, contact the
hotlines: BBS: 703-908-2007; WWW: 208-
526-9908. Or speak to the system manag-
ers: Louis Paley, 202-260-4640 (BBS); or
Myles Morse, 202-260-3161 (WWWL

7 Pbllution Prevention News
May-June 1995
5 tates are using award programs to
recognize pollution prevention
success stories in their states, and to
highlight that pollution prevention isn’t
just good for the environment, it’s good
for business as well.
In Minnesota. for example, the 1994
Governor’s Awards for Excellence in
Pollution Prevention were given to seven
companies that are succeeding in prevent-
ing pollution. One winner was Roger’s
Auto Body Shop. Roger’s began distilling
solvents for reuse in 1984. Despite in-
creased business since then, Roger’s has
reduced the amount of solvents used from
400 barrels to three barrels per year.
Improved painting equipment has helped
reduced the amount of paint used by
almost 50 percent, and has reduced the
amount of volatile organic compounds
released into the air by about 50 percent.
“Not only have the expenditures caused
very significant waste reduction, they have
repaid themselves in savings and continue
to save us dollars,” said Roger Lindemann
of Roger’s Body Shop.
In Ohio, the Eighth Annual Governor’s
Awards for Outstanding Achievement in
Pollution Prevention recognized five
organizations for efforts ranging from
reducing yard waste to comprehensive
pollution prevention in truck manufactur-
ing. The Hamilton County, Ohio Depart-
ment of Environmental Services—Solid
Waste Management District (SWMD was
recognized for its efforts toward total
recycling of yard waste. SWMD’s “Just
Mow It” program uses education to encour-
age mulching and composting. The County
also has a voluntary agreement with waste
haulers and with landfill operators not to
accept yard waste. Yard waste is collected
separately through private haulers or is
taken to collection sites. The material then
“We hope that
because of the
publicity we have
received other
programs will
view composting
yard waste as a
resource as much
as a pollution
prevention activity,”
said Christine
Hitchcock, SWMD’s
Public Affairs
Coordinator. The
1995 effort already
has begun, utilizing television, newspaper,
radio and billboards to disseminate infor-
mation about the program.
Another Ohio winner, truck manufac-
turer Navistar International Transporta-
tion Corp., instituted several successful
pollution prevention efforts including
changing the types of paints used, thereby
reducing volatile emissions from paints
and solvents by 50 percent and saving
approximately $3.5 million per year.
The Texas Governor’s Awards for
Environmental Excellence are awarded in
eleven categories, including agriculture,
government, media, and large and small
Connecticut encourages businesses
not only to be good environmental citizens,
but also to operate with a positive environ-
mental impact. The 1994 Governor’s
Awards for Environmental and Economic
Progress were awarded in the categories of
Pollution Prevention, Recycled and Earth-
Friendly Products, Environmental Service,
Manufacturing and Environmental
In Iowa, the state awarded the
Governor’s Waste Reduction Awards in the
categories of large manufacturer, small
manufacturer, and non-manufacturer. The
three winners eliminated 6,000 tons of
solid waste and 13 tons of volatile air
emissions and saved more than $300,000.
lo ir’s Aut. Sody Shop sstlaat.s that
I. 1903 It sav.d $22,000 through
wasti rsdudoui sad r.qidIug .fforts.
is composted and used by the county.

$ F bllution Prewntion News
May-June 1995
I f you’ve ever moved, you’ve probably
picked up corrugated boxes from a
supermarket or liquor store for pack-
ing. The reason so many boxes are avail-
able is that most boxes are used only once
and then disposed. Over 90 percent of all
U.S. consumer, wholesale and industrial
products are transported in corrugated
boxes. Corrugated boxes accounted for 24
million tons of garbage in 1990.
EPA’s has issued the 1994 update of The Characteristics of Municipal
Solid Waste in the United States. Highlights include:
The United States generated 207 million tons of MSW—4.4 pounds
per person, per day. After recovery, recycling and composting,
discards were 3.4 pounds per day.
The 1993 recovery rate of materials for recycling and composting
was 22 percent, up from 17 percent in 1990. Of the remaining waste,
16 percent went to combustion facilities and 62 percent went to
landfills or was otherwise disposed.
Between 1990 and 1993, recovery and composting increased from 38
million to 45 million tons. Recovery of paper and paperboard ac-
counted for over half of the increase, followed by yard trimmings.
‘ EPA anticipates that, for the first time, per capita generation of
MSW will decrease to 4.3 pounds per person per day by the year
2000. EPA bases this projection in part on source reduction efforts,
especially removing yard trimmings from the waste stream by
composting or leaving cuttings on lawns.
Even with the source reduction efforts, total MSW is expected to
increase to 218 million tons in 2000. If a 30 percent recovery for
recycling and composting is reached, discards to landfills and
combustion will decline from 162 million tons in 1993 to 152 million
tons in 2000.
The percentage of MSW landfilled has declined from 83 percent in
1985 to 62 percent in 1993. Even with continued reductions in
waste, landfihling will be the dominant method of disposal in 2000.
The 162-page report (EPA 530-R-94-0421 is available for $27 from the
National Technical Information Service at 703-487-4650. The Executive
Summary (EPA 530-S-94-042) is available free from the RCRA Hotline
at 1-800-424-9346.
That’s a lot of boxes and a lot of waste—
and a lot of potential for waste reduction.
A recent report published by INFORM,
Inc.. addresses the need to reduce this
waste source. DeliLvring the Goods:
Benefits of Reusable Shipping Containers,
written by David Saphire, examines the
real costs of disposable shipping materials
and provides examples of companies that
have lowered their costs and reduced their
waste stream using reusable containers.
Whether made out of plastic and used
250 times or made of reusable cardboard
and used five times, large and small
companies in a variety of industries can
dramatically reduce waste by eliminating
single-use containers. Over the course of
its lifetime, a two cubic foot plastic,
reusable shipping container making 250
trips will replace 250 single-use cardboard
boxes, reducing waste by 98.5 percent and
costs by up to 92 percent. Other benefits of
reusable containers include reduced
shipping damage due to sturdier contain-
ers and reduced labor costs associated
with assembling and breaking down single
use boxes. Obstacles to reusables include
higher initial cost, the need to return
containers, and storage of containers.
Reusable containers are being used
successfully in a variety of industries,
including produce, soft drinks, high tech,
and auto manufacturing.
For more information, or a copy of
the report. contact INFORM, Inc. at
Facility Manager’s Guide to Pollution
Prevention and Waste Minimization is a
hands-on guide to achieving cost
benefits through pollution prevention,
with examples of cost-cutting solutions
to typical waste problems. Order (‘ode
0868. $75 plus S&H. Published b
Bureau of National Affairs, P.O. Box
7814, Edison, NJ 08818-7814. Tel: 800-

9 1k 1Iution Prevention News
May-June 1995
A basic way to reduce waste is to
reduce packaging. Logically, if a
product has less packaging, the
cost of production is less and the waste
generated when the product is used is
less, benefiting both the consumer and
the environment. Yet, according to a
recent article in Warmer Bulletin, pub-
lished by the World Resource Foundation,
the issue of waste and packaging is not as
simple as it may appear.
Take toothpaste, for example. Tradi-
tional toothpaste packaging—an alumi-
num tube inside a cardboard box—is
often considered wasteful. The aluminum
tube is used because it protects the
contents and is flexible enough for the
tube to be squeezed. However, the flat
ends and sharp corners of metal tubes can
damage or even puncture other tubes in
shipping and handling. In addition, tubes
are hard to stack on store shelves. The
cardboard box solves both these problems.
This double packaging is rendered
unnecessary by the use of plastics.
Plastics are flexible and strong and can
be used in place of metal here. Because
the plastic tubes do not punc-
ture each other, and the tube
has a wide cap
that allows the _______________
toothpaste to sit _____________________
on the shelf by —
itself, the card-
board box is unnecessary. The use of
aluminum and cardboard is completely
Reducing the use of aluminum has
environmental benefits, since mining and
smelting aluminum are environmentally
damaging and energy intensive. However,
the manufacture of plastic from finite oil
reserves also has environmental impacts.
Further, neither the plastic
tubes nor the aluminum
tubes are recyclable. Al-
though aluminum itself is
recyclable, a discarded
toothpaste tube has residual
toothpaste inside, a coating of
paint or lacquer on the
outside, and may have plastic
screw threads, making it
inappropriate to be mixed
with aluminum cans or foil.
Similarly, the plastic tubes
also contain residual tooth-
paste and are made of a
composite of plastics, making
even a clean tube difficult to
Another consideration is
the size of the tube. Larger
containers generally provide
more product in proportion to
packaging, assuming that all
the product in each package
is used up. Studies of tooth-
paste packaging done by the
Cornell Waste Management
Institute at Cornell Univer-
sity in 1994 and reported in
Warmer Bulletin, found that with larger
containers, more product re-
mained in the package and was
1980 AND 1990
The Netherlands
United Kingdom
3 18
(3 1988
1 Situation before 3/10/1990 (2) 1989
4)1987 5 1982 6 1979
SOURCE: Warmer Bulletin, Feb. 1995.
wasted. Because proportion-
ately more product was used
from the smaller containers,
the advantage of larger contain-
ers is lessened. This contradicts
most assumptions about package size.
Which way to go? When all is said and
done, Warmer Bulletin predicts that the
trend toward shorter, fatter stand-up
tubes without boxes will help improve the
proportion of toothpaste used and reduce
the amount of wasted product and

10 I 1Iution Prevention News
May-June 1995
T he latest in new technologies for
industrial applications were unveiled
at the Department of Energy’s
Innovative Concepts Fair held in Denver
in April. This was the seventh Innovative
Concepts fair, which showcases, and in
some cases awards seed funding to,
innovators that have developed, but not
yet fully commercialized their technolo-
gies. Below are several examples, selected
at random, from among the 50 or so
technologies displayed.
Boats and ships have an ever-present
accompaniment: marine growth that can
accumulate on the bottom of vessels in
layers more than 6 inches, causing a drag
on their speed and increasing the amount
of fuel they must use. Also, marine-based
oil platforms, power plants, and other
industries must spend considerable effort
protecting inlet surfaces from contamina-
tion and clogging caused by marine
growth. For centuries, people used copper
as an “anti-fouling” protector for wooden
hulls. But with the introduction of steel
and fiberglass hulls, the use of copper
became impractical and other methods
were used, including toxic paints. These
paints, however, contain VOCs and toxins
that are hazardous to humans and sea life,
and are being sharply restricted by EPA.
Copperlok TM Systems located in Culver
City, CA has come up with an updated use
of copper for anti-fouling purposes. The
innovation is a copper alloy coating process
that allows the bonding of thick metal
coatings to many different metallic and
non-metallic materials. A base coat is
applied which uses resin that contains tiny
hollow spheres. After being abraded, the
base coating exhibits a rough outer surface
with millions of nooks and crannies. Then a
final metal coat is applied using a metalliz-
ing spray gun. Copper, copper alloy, or
copper-nickel wire is released and becomes
embedded in the nooks and crannies, thus
developing strong mechanical links be-
tween the base coat and final coat. The
application should last for up to 10 years,
and eliminates the usual need for hauling,
paint removal, and repainting every 2 to 3
years. Contact: Timothy Champ, tel: 310-
915-0028; fax: 310-915-7242.)
Rinse water from industrial cleaning
processes is one of the largest waste
streams that companies have to deal with.
Some companies have tried reverse
osmosis membrane water separation and
purification systems, but the membrane
surfaces typically get fouled with oil,
organic films that slows down the
membrane’s flow rate. Even water-based
cleaning processes — an improvement
over solvent-based processes — increase
the waste water volume and end up
producing sludges that must be landfilled.
Custom Process Systems in Pasadena,
TX has developed a process that allows
rinse water and cleaning solutions to be
recycled indefinitely. The first stage uses a
combination of ozone and electrolysis to
oxidize oils and greases that have been left
in cleaning solutions. The oxidation
process converts them into polar water-
soluble surfactants that can be reused in
the same cleaning process. This conversion
Cross Section Prepared Metallizing
of CopperIok Process Substrate Gun

11 Ubilution Prevention News
May-June 1995
Rc.rn , nIrjt H
Solut en
(kjn %SjI r Run’.n
Re’. er ’ .c O’.rnost.
( ,ntin.ited Rn ’ .e
() ‘ . ‘ .gcn ()itne
(jencuator (encrator
Current Po er
() *
Ad’. anced
K eattlon
________________ Clcantn
Proce ’ . ’ .
lcan,n 1 Solutton
(,,niuniinaued (iean ,n Solution
hag (hut
process uses a combination of reverse
osmosis membranes with a regenerative
cleaning solution process. The membranes
do not foul because they are reconcentrat-
ing a regenerated cleaning solution that is
essentially free of oil and grease. As the
cleaner is reconcentrated in the reverse
osmosis membrane, it actually cleans the
membrane. All of the rinse water and
cleaner can be continuously reused. The
only waste produced by the process is a
very small amount of precipitated inor-
ganic solids, which can be rendered
nonhazardous or even recycled if they
contain heavy metals such as lead.
Custom Process Systems believes the
new process will reduce the amount of
water and chemicals needed to maintain
the cleaning process. significantly reduce
energy consumption, and eliminate waste
disposal costs. The concept could have
wide potential in commercial and defense
sectors. (Contact: Michael P. McGinness,
tel: 713-941-0907; fax: 713-868-2332.)
Traditional methods of decorating the
100 billion aluminum cans that are
produced annually used solvent-based
coatings that released significant amounts
of VOCs and hazardous air pollutants into
the environment. A widely-used current
method is the water-based “high solids
coating” which contains less solvent but
still results in VOC emissions.
The Coors Brewing Company has
developed a can printing technology in
partnership with several other compa-
nies, which boasts significant environ-
mental, energy, and cost benefits over
currently avail-
able technologies.
The technology
uses ultraviolet Mandrel
(UV) light to cure Wheel
the decorative
image on the Can
exterior of Transfer
aluminum Unit
beverage cans,
rather than
curing the cans
in a gas-fired
oven. Separate
UV “fountains”
supply the ink to
rollers, which
coat individual
plates. The
plates, one for
each color used,
are raised positive images of the graphic
design to be printed on the cans. Clean
cans are fed into the printer and placed
on a rotating steel mandrel; in rotating
the can body against the rotating blanket,
the graphic image is transferred to the
can. The cans are transported to the UV
oven for curing with UV light.
The entire process is very fast: printing
speeds are about 1600 to 1800 cans per
minute, and the oven cure time is about
0.7 seconds. Overall energy costs are
significantly lower for the IJV curing than
for conventional thermal technology if air
emission controls are factored in, and
fewer VO(’s are emitted. (Contact: Erik
Donhowe, tel: 303-277-2196, fax: 303-277-
Overcoat Application Roller
Editorial Sla//:
Ruth Heikkinen. Flitor
Gilah Langner
Joshua Katz
Free Hand Press. Layout
To be added to our mailing
list, please write:
Polution Prevention Ntw
U S. EPA M(’7 1 19
401 M Street N\V
Washington. DC 20460
or fax to:
Ruth Heikkinen.
202 260-2219
Printed on recycled paper.

12 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                                May-June 1995

Environmental Cost Accounting & Capital
Budgeting (National Teleconference)
Sponsored by EPA and NIST

WEF Industrial Pretreatment Conference
Design of Stormwater, Sediment,
and Erosion Control Systems
Solid Waste Workshops for Rural,
County, and Local Governments
Conference on Environmetrics and
ChemometricsCosponsored by EPA,
American Statistical Association
and American Chemical Society

Accounting for Pollution Prevention

Southern States
Environmental Conference

33rd Annual Int'l. Solid Waste Expo:
Public & Private: A Partnership for the Future

Research & Practice: Learning to Build
Sustainable Industries for Sustainable
Societies, 4th Int'l. Conference of the
Greening of Industry Network
Wastewater Pollution Prevention Symposium    Nov. 13-14
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