United Slates
                            Environmental Protection
                                Office of Pollution
                                Prevention and Toxics
                                Washington. DC 20460
                      July-August  1993

                     EPA 742-N-93-002

    2  EPA News

    3  33/50 Case Study

    4  Greening the Nation

    5  Energy Efficiency

    6  Clean Cars

    •7  Pollution Prevention

    8  Resources

    9  Life Cycle Assessment

   10  Natural Resources

   11  Corporate Notes

   12  Calendar
                            Federal Facilities to Report Toxic Emissions
                            President Sets Goal of 50 Percent Reduction by 1999
     On August 3, 1993, President Clinton
     signed an Executive Order requiring
federal facilities that manufacture, process,
or use toxic chemicals to publicly report
their wastes and releases under the Emer-
gency Planning and Community Right to
Know Act. Emphasizing that the federal
government should become the leader in
pollution prevention, the Order also sets a
goal for all federal agencies to reduce toxic
emissions by 50 percent by 1999.
  "[F]ederal facilities will set the example for
the rest of the country in applying pollution
prevention to daily operations, purchasing
decisions, and policies. In the process [they]
will reduce toxic emissions, which helps
avoid cleanup costs and promotes clean
technologies," the President said.
   Federal facilities will report their emis-
sions to EPA and to the states as a part of
the national Toxics Release Inventory.
   In addition to establishing reporting
requirements and emission reduction goals,
the Executive Order calls for changes in the
procurement of hazardous substances and
requires federal facilities to work with
communities to develop local emergency
response plans.
Industrial Toxic Releases Continue to Decline
But waste generation trends are flat, show "disturbing trend"
    Data analysis of the 1991 industrial
    releases of toxic chemicals shows a 9
percent drop over 1990 figures and a 30
percent drop since 1988, the first year such
data were collected by EPA under the Toxics
Release Inventory. Balancing the good news,
however, are projections for flat or increas-
ing levels of waste generation. According to
EPA Administrator Carol Browner, "The
data also suggest that recycling will decline
while quantities of toxic chemicals being
treated will rise. If these projections are true,
this is a disturbing trend."
   Included in the 1991 data for the first
time are extensive waste management and
pollution prevention data required by the
Pollution Prevention Act. Of the 38 billion
pounds of TRI waste reported, 47 percent
were either burned, treated, or otherwise
released to the environment; another 52
percent were recycled (on-site or off-site).
Some 37 percent of the 23,719 facilities
reporting indicated that they practiced
source reduction. The chemical for which
source reduction was reported most
frequently was 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Most
commonly reported source reduction
activities include: good operating practices,
process modifications, spill/leak preven-
tion, raw material modifications, and
cleaning and degreasing.
  The TRI data show 2.01 billion pounds of
toxic chemicals released into the nation's
air, a decline of 13 percent from 1990,
largely due to decreased emissions of
industrial solvents, chlorine, and ammonia.
Reported releases into the nation's water
bodies totalled 244 million pounds, an
increase of 24 percent since 1990, due almost
                    (Continued on page 11 >

                 Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
July-August 1993
EPA News
Administrator Sets
Pollution Prevention Policy
E PA Administrator Carol Browner
renewed the Agency’s commitment
to making pollution prevention “the
guiding principle for all our programs”
in a policy statement issued on June
15th. The statement outlines seven
objectives for the Agency’s pollution
prevention program:
(1 )Incorporating prevention into EPA’s
mainstream regulations and compli-
ance activities, including regulatory
development, permitting, inspec-
tions, and enforcement;
(2) Working in partnership to strengthen
the national network of state and
local prevention programs;
(3) Pioneering new cooperative govern-
ment/private partnerships that
reinforce the mutual goals of eco-
nomic and environmental well-
(4) Working closely with other federal
agencies to pursue prevention
(5)Strengthening the Toxics Release
Inventory by improving the quality
of the information collected, expand-
ing the scope of reporting to add i-
tional chemicals and sources of
pollution, and making the informa-
tion more accessible to states and
local communities;
()Meeting high priority needs for new
pollution prevention technologies by
supporting R&D and demonstration
(7) Seeking changes in federal environ-
mental laws where necessary to
eliminate barriers to reducing waste
at the source.
‘rhe statement reaffirms the defini-
tion of pollution prevention as source
reduction and the protection of natural
resources through conservation and
To obtain a copy of the Administra-
tor’s statement, contact EPA’s Office of
Public Affairs, 202-260-4361.
EPA Reference Services
EPA’s Pollution Prevention Informa-
tion Clearinghouse (PPIC) has shifted
its hotline service to a reference and
referral line; PPIC staff will take
orders for certain pollution preven-
tion publications and refer callers to
other sources of information as
appropriate. To reach PPIC:
tel: 202-260-1023; fax: 202-260-0178.
Other EPA information and
hotline numbers include:
Green Lights Hotline 202-775-6650
Stratospheric Ozone Hotline 800-296-1996
Office of Water Info 202-260-2814
Stormwater Hotline 703-821-4823
RCRA Hotline 800-424-9346
EPCRA Hotline (TRI info) .... 800-535-0202
TSCA Hotline (33/50 info) ... 202-554-1404
Greener Cleaners:
EPA, GSA Join Forces
In a joint project, EPA’s Office of
Pollution Prevention and Toxics
(OPPT) and the Public Building Service
of the General Services Administration
(GSA) are developing procurement
criteria for cleaning products that
incorporate considerations of efficacy,
human health, and environmental
The first phase of the project involves
testing several cleaners at the GSA East
Philadelphia Field Office. The cleaners
will be evaluated based on effectiveness,
perceived and real safety and health
effects, and risk to the environment.
Further field testing will be conducted
at a later date on floor and carpet care
systems, snow removal products, and
sweeping compounds.
The ultimate objective is to use the
purchasing power of GSA to adv nce
the pollution prevention ethic through-
out the federal supply system, and then
among other public and private sector
For more information, contact
Conrad Flessner at 202-260-3918.
Woods Hole Conference
F rom June 16-18, pollution prevention
practitioners from around the country
exchanged ideas at the Ninth Annual
Woods Hole Pollution Prevention
Conference. Sponsored by EPA, the
conference theme this year was “Widen-
ing the Circle,” especially to advance new
prevention technologies and to address
the challenges faced by small businesses.
Presentations and panel discussions
made clear that small businesses need
help in overcoming barriers to imple-
menting prevention and identifying
innovative solutions. Additional efforts
could make reliable technical informa-
tion available, and convince small
businesses that prevention can lead
them out of the regulatory net, and
towards improved competitiveness.
Greater access to capital for financing
environmental improvements is also
Investment is the key to making
progress on new prevention technolo-
gies. Given the current interest in
exporting environmental technology,
research dollars need to be targeted
specifically at prevention if the U.S. is
to lead the world in a new direction.
Conference discussions noted
that the pollution prevention circle is
growing ever wider. At the international
level, speakers expressed concerns that
developing countries, looking to adopt
new environmental laws, may use our
single-media, command-and-control
programs as models without fully
understanding their shortcomings.
Conferees agreed that an effective
prevention education effort must
include this global audience.
To be added to our
mailing list, please write:
Pollution Prevention News
401 M Street SW (MC 7409)
Washington, DC 204(i()
Editorial Staff:
Priscilla Flattery, Editor
Gilah Langner
Morgan Gopnik

July-August 1993
3 — Pollution Prevention News
Garden State Tanning Surpasses 3 3/50
Goal Through Pollution Prevention
by Chris R. Ehret
Corporate Environmental Director
G arden State Tanning, Fleetwood
Division, has been producing
leather for the automotive industry for
the last 60 years. Our division finishes
the leather with high-tech coatings to
give it both aesthetic appeal and
protective qualities for use in automo-
tive seating. The leather is then cut to
pattern and shipped to sewing plants.
We used traditional solvent coatings
in our finishing systems, with high
emissions of volatile organic com-
pounds (VOCs). These coatings were
considered state-of-the-art for our
industry, and all of the technology
trends were based on these solvent
systems. Normal market pressures were
not strong enough to steer us towards
switching to water-based systems.
Since the late 1970s, all of the
emissions from our finishing dryers
were incinerated in a recuperative
incinerator. In 1990 a replacement unit
was installed under the existing odor-
based permit. Then, in November,
1991, the new incinerator broke down
120 —
100 —
60 —
40 —
20 —
33/50 Case Study
options as short-term high cost versus
long-term cost savings, DER champi-
oned the latter.
Three “crisis management” teams
were developed in order to deal with
the shutdown of our coating lines. The
first team handled the legal notifica-
tions, negotiations of permits and fines,
and development of a source reduction
program acceptable to both plant
management and regulators. A com-
pany policy was developed to convert
our solvent-based finishes to water-
based ones, thereby decreasing our
emissions. Negotiations with DER were
organized into a consent agreement.
Total VOC reductions ot 90° were
scheduled over a one year period, with
specific coating formulations to be
replaced on a monthly schedule. A
schedule ot fines was developed to
decrease with decreasing V()C usage.
Our Engineering team collected
replacement cost information and
oversaw insurance collections, which
were used to help finance the conver-
sion to water-based finishes.
The third team was made up of
people from R&D, Sales, and Production
Control. The R&D Department directive
was to develop limits to meet the DER
standards. Vendors were informed of
(Continued on page ii)
VOC Reductions at Garden State
Tanning — Fleetwood Division
(in tons of VOC sprayed)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May
I 1992 I 1993
due to a design flaw, and our produc-
tion systems shut down.
With the new Clean Air Act in force,
we were left with two choices: replace
the entire incinerator unit or work out
an agreement with the Pennsylvania
Department of Environmental Re-
sources (DER) to attain compliance
through source reduction. Framing the
33/50 Program Reaches 1992
Reduction Goal Ahead of Schedule
T he recently compiled 1991 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data reveal that
nationwide releases and transfers of the 17 chemicals targeted in the 33/50
Program declined by 34 percent between 1988 and 1991. This surpasses the
Program’s 1992 goal of a 33 percent reduction a full year ahead of schedule.
Figures reported by facilities to TRI indicate that releases and transfers of 33/
50 chemicals declined from 1.474 billion pounds in the 1988 baseline year to 973
million pounds in 1991, excluding categories that were reported in 1991 but not
in 1988. As required by the Pollution Prevention Act, 1991 TRI reports also
induded projections of future releases and transfers through 1993. An analysis of
these projections, coupled with the early achievement of the Program’s 1992
reduction goal, offers strong encouragement that the 33/50 Program’s ultimate
goal of a 50 percent reduction by 1995 will be achieved.
In addition to meeting the nationwide goal, many 33/50 companies have
already achieved some of their own reduction targets. According to 1991 TRI
reports, as many as 300 participants in the 33/50 program have reported emis-
sions reductions equal to or exceeding targets set out in their commitment letters.
To obtain additional information about the 33/50 Program, contact the 33/50
Program Staff at 202-260-6907, or the 33/50 Program Coordinator in your
Regional EPA office.

Pollution Prevention Neu’s - 4
July-August 1993
Greenirg the Nation
initiatives, now under the umbrella of Energy Star, including Energy Star Buildings, the Super-Efficient Refrigerator
Program, Energy Star Computers, Natural Gas Star, and AgStar. What these programs have in common is their
goal of reducing greenhouse gases and other air pollutants through non-regulatory, market-driven, energy-
efficiency initiatives that emphasize cooperative partnerships with the private and public sectors. These programs
are attracting praise and attention from government, industry, and public interest groups, and, more important,
are projected to reduce anticipated carbon equivalent emissions by 100 -150 million metric tons by the year 2000.
Green Lights was
launched in Jan- (
uary 1991 as a volun- \.
tary program to encour-
age the use of more energy- Lights
efficient lighting systems.
Lighting accounts for 20-25 percent of
electricity used in the United States.
Installing more efficient lighting systems
can reduce this demand by over 50
percent, thereby reducing the air emis-
sions and other environmental impacts
associated with power generation.
There are now over 1,000 participants
in Green Lights, representing over 3
billion square feet of facility space —
more than twice the total office space in
New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago
combined. Within five years, over 90
percent of this space should be up-
graded, with projected reductions of
carbon dioxide emissions in the hun-
dreds of thousands of pounds. Two
major corporations, J.C. Penney and
McDonalds, have recently pledged over
100 million square feet of administrative
and retail space to be upgraded. Cur-
rentlv, J.C. Penney spends more than
5100 million annually on electricity for
lighting. After implementing Green
Lights upgrades the company expects to
save $5 million per year.
New Product Information
Energy efficient lighting products are
still unfamiliar to many managers. In
order to help ease this technical barrier,
the National Lighting Product Informa-
tion Program has published three new
Specifier Reports on Occupancy Sensors,
Parking Lot Luminaries, and Compact
Fluorescents. Occupancy sensors
automatically turn off lights when a
workspace is unoccupied, saving
significant amounts of energy and
money, and are considered an integral
part of an effective lighting upgrade.
The reports provide detailed inforrria-
tion about the product type, as well as
specific performance data by brand
name. Previous reports have covered
electronic ballasts, power reducers, and
specular reflectors. (Specifier Reports are
sent to all Green Lights participants, and
are also available to the public for a fee
by faxing a request to 518-276-2999.)
Q n June 29th, EPA announced that
Whirlpool has been selected as the
winner of a $30 million pool aimed at
getting energy-efficient, CFC-free
refrigerators on the market at a competi-
tive price. The winner-take-all competi-
tion was sponsored by the Super
Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), a
consortium of 24 electric utilities.
Working closely with EPA, the
Electric Power Research Institute, the
Natural Resources Defense Council, the
American Council for an Energy-
Efficient Economy, and others, SERP
invited manufacturers to develop
prototypes of the next generation of
super-efficient, ozone-friendly refrigera-
tors. Although the technology exists to
produce environmentally superior
refrigerators, manufacturers have felt
that consumers would be unwilling to
pay a premium for these models, and
have declined until now to invest in
their production. By offering the S30
EPA’s Green Lights office also has a
wealth of planning and technical
information available to assist compa-
nies in achieving optimal lighting
upgrades, including the Lighting
Upgrade Man ual, hotlines, an electronic
bulletin board, and computer software
packages, including the Decision Support
System and Quikaic.
Surveyor Allies, Distributor Allies
Information is only effective if it
reaches its target audience. In addition
to working with participating compa-
nies, Green Lights has been reaching out
to other sectors that can benefit from
(Continued on pa ’e JU)
million “Golden Carrot, TM ” a rebate for
Whirlpool to collect as the new units
reach consumers, SERP was able to
overcome the initial price gap.
“The SERP partnership will save con-
sumers money and protect the environ-
ment,” said EPA Administrator Carol
Browner. “Here’s a good example of
environmental protection achieved not
by expensive and contentious regulation,
but by a voluntary, private-sector initiative
that actually helps the economy.”
The first “Golden CarrotrM” subsi-
dized, super-efficient Whirlpool refrig-
erators should be available commercially
by late 1994, at prices comparable to
existing models. The $30 million invest-
ment by SERP utilities is expected
ultimately to save consumers $240 - $480
million in annual electricity payments,
and decrease annual emissions of carbon
dioxide by at least 650,000 tons.
For more information about SERF,
contact Susan Bullard, 202-233-9065.
Green Lights Still Growing
Whirlpool Wins $30M “Golden

July-August 1993
:5 — Pollution Prevention News
Energy Efficiency
J ohnson Controls Inc. has been chosen
as the Green Lights 1993 Al1 ’ of the
ear, excelling in the four award
categories of upgrade work, promotion
of Green Lights and energy efficiency,
technical innovation, and financing
opportunities. Johnson Controls is
upgrading the lighting in over 10
million square feet of its own facilities
and is also actively helping other Green
Lights participants, including Amoco
and Nike, to realize energy and cost
savings through lighting upgrades.
Johnson Controls has demonstrated
E PA has announced a new puhlic/
priv ate partnership to help meet
the U.S. commitment, made at the Rio
Earth Summit in June 1992, to reduce
global warming emissions.
Natural Gas Star will work with
the natural gas industry to put in place
technologies and work practices that
reduce methane emissions while
E ight projects in seven states have
been named award winners under a
program designed to enhance U.S
industry’s global competitiveness
through energy efficiency. EPA and DOE
jointly awarded the $2.4 million in grants
as part of the National Industrial Corn-
peti tiveness through Energy, Ens’ iron-
ment, and Economics program (N1CE ).
DOE’s Assistant Secretary for Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Dr.
Robert San Martin, said the eight
projects combined have the potential to
save 51.7 billion in energy, waste, and
other costs by the year 2010. “The
expansion of NICE from a pilot project
to a nationwide program demonstrates
the interest of the private sector in
collaborating with the government to
develop new technology to reduce
industrial waste,” San Martin said.
extraordinary commitment to promot-
ing Green Lights both within the corn-
pan\’ and among clients and colleagues.
Four other Allies received Certificates
of Distinction: MagneTek for outstanding
achievements in upgrades; GE Lighting
for promoting Green Lights through its
sales, training, and educational materials;
lllumElex Corp. for its support of
innovative energy-efficiency practices,
and Honeywell for offering a variety of
financing programs to its customers and
making them aware of many other
available funding mechanisms.
maximizing profitability and creating
jobs. Participating companies also
agree to improve inspection and
maintenance practices to reduce
leakage, replace as venting equipment
with new low emissions technology,
and repair or replace leaky pipelines.
For more information, contact
Bruce Craig, 202-233-9044.
will receive grants ranging from
S100,000 to 53R0,000:
• Beta Control Systems, Inc./Oregon
Dept. of Energy;
• Alpine Technology/Oregon Dept. of
• Lubrizol Petroleum Chemicals Co./
Texas Water Commission;
• Michigan Biotechnology Institute/
Michigan Public Service Commis-
• Columbia Aluminum/Washington
Dept. of Ecology and Energy;
• Shaw Industries/Georgia Hazardous
Waste Mgt. Authority;
• Thompson Consumer Electronics/
Indiana Dept. of Commerce; and
• Coors Brewing Co./Colorado Office
Gov’t to Buy Energy
Star Computers
Q n June 17, Vice-President Gore
joined industry leaders to unveil
the first Energy Star computers, de-
signed to conserve energy, reduce
pollution, help
provide a jump start for these new
products, on Earth Day President
Clinton signed an executive order
directing the federal government — the
largest computer buyer in the world —
to purchase only Energy Star computers
and printers. This action is expected to
save taxpayers about 540 million a year.
Computer equipment accounts for
five percent of commercial energy
consumption, and this figure is expected
to double by the year 2000. However,
research shows that many computers
are left on for long periods when they
are not actually in use. Building on the
success of Green Lights and other
similar programs, EPA developed the
Energy Star program in partnership
with major American computer manu-
facturers to bring to market the first
computers that automatically enter a
low-power, standby state when they are
macti ye.
Manufacturers say that Energy Star
products will not cost any more than
less-efficient models and will not
sacrifice computer performance. But
they could save billions of dollars in
electricity costs, prevent carbon dioxide
emissions equivalent to taking 5 million
cars oft the road, and create a new niche
for the Us: computer industry.
For now, the Energy Star logo will be
used to identify energy saving desktop
computers, printers, and monitors. In
the future, E1’A hopes to use the logo to
certify additional energy-efficient
products and appliances. To find out
more about the companies participating
in the Energy Star computer program,
Ally of the Year: Johnson Controls
Natural Gas Star to Cut Emissions
NICE 3 Announces Grants Worth $2.4M
The following eight award winners
of Energy Conservation.
contact Brian Johnson at 202-233-9114.

Pollution Prevention News - 6
July-August 1993
1 1ean ars
Electhc Cars Set New Records; Solar Cars Also Make Sthdes
T wo recent road races, the American
Tour de Sol and Sunrayce 93,
showcased the latest generation of
battery and solar powered vehicles. The
top-placing electric car in the Tour de
Sol, manufactured by Solectria Corp.,
demonstrated a range of 180 miles on a
single battery charge. This is a signifi-
cant accomplishment, since limited
range has been a barrier to marketing
electric cars commercially. In fact, this
year’s race included a separate category
for Production Vehicles. The three
entries in this category are all currently
available for sale to the public.
Last year’s Tour de Sol efficiency
records were also broken by several cars.
For example, a car built jointly by Texas
A&M and UCa1 Davis used only 11.5
kilowatts of electricity (at a cost of
around $1.26) to travel 100 miles. “Even
when you account for the additional cost
of batteries,” said Tour de Sol technical
director Dr. Robert Wills, “you’re looking
at about a 30 percent savings compared
to the cost of driving a gasoline powered
car.” The Texas/Davis team won the
DOE prize for best student-built electric
commuter car. The Tour de Sol was
sponsored by DOE, Chrysler, Argonne
National Labs, and Boston Edison, and
included 37 cars racing from Boston to
Burlington, Vermont.
Meanwhile, halfway across the
country, 34 student-built cars powered
only by sunlight drove 1,100 miles, from
Arlington, Texas to Minneapolis,
Minnesota, to compete in Sunrayce 93, a
biennial race sponsored by DOE and
General Motors. The University of
Michigan’s entry finished first for the
second time in a row. Michigan clocked
a total driving time of 40.5 hours, an
hour and a half ahead of the nearest
competitor, collecting over $55,000 in
cash and prizes. Despite a fair amount
of cloud cover and rain along the route,
the student teams travelled at speeds of
around 30 mph, and demonstrated
emerging solar technologies.
Clean Fuels Lead to Cleaner Air
B y now everyone knows that cars
are a major contributor to air
pollution — both the choking, “ground-
level” pollution found in many cities, as
well as carbon dioxide, a contributor to
global warming. Many solutions
suggest themselves: driving less;
making more efficient cars; or inventing
and installing new kinds of emissions
controls. One important change that has
been gaining visibility is the switch to
burning “clean fuels” and driving “low-
emission vehicles” (LEVs).
Cleaner Fuels Reduce Emissions
Possible cleaner fuels include refor-
mulated gasoline, ethanol, methanol,
natural gas, propane, and electricity. All
of these fuels are currently in use and
have demonstrated their effectiveness in
reducing automobile emissions. The
1990 Clean Air Act mandated acceler-
ated introduction of clean fuels, espe-
cially in cities with excessive carbon
monoxide levels.
Last winter EPA required the use of
oxygenated fuels in several areas,
resulting in impressive declines in
carbon monoxide emissions. In 20
locations operating the program for the
first time, the carbon monoxide health
standard was exceeded only twice over
a three month period, compared to 43
unheaithfui days over the same time
period the previous year. On Novem-
ber 1, 1993, the oxygenated fuels
program will be renewed in 39 cities.
Low-Emission Vehicles Get Boost
The Clean Air Act also contains
several provisions to promote the
widespread use of LEVs. By 1998,
owners of 10 or more centra liv fueled
vehicles, located in states with excessive
smog or carbon monoxide levels, must
begin purchasing clean-fuel vehicles. As
an incentive to make the switch even
sooner, new EPA rules exempt LEVs
from certain traffic control measures
(such as time-of-day driving restric-
tions). Zero-emission vehicles, ‘rnuch as
electric cars, and “inherently low-
emission vehicles” that meet stringent
evaporative emissions standards vill
also be exempt from carpool lane
Tour de So! winner: the Force by Solectria Corp.
(Continued on page 7)

July-August 1993
7 — Pollution Prevention News
Pollution Prevention Payback Pyramid
by Steve Hillenbrand
W hen a company first decides to
embrace pollution prevention
(P2) as a means of doing business, it
usually develops a P2 plan to give form
to its program. A major element in most
P2 plans is the establishment of goals.
Goals are set by a variety of means.
Sometimes, a team will try to assess
potential P2 activities to determine how
much of the company’s generated
wastes could be reduced. In other cases,
the plant manager or company presi-
dent will mandate a percentage reduc-
tion, often without basing it on realistic
capabilities. Both of these practices set a
fixed quantity or percentage reduction
which may v astlv under- or overstate
the company’s practical capability.
These possibly unrealistic goals are
frequently set before the plan is devel-
oped, and the plan is then based on
obtaining the goals.
A more useful approach might be a
project-based program that builds on
early successes. Based on the realization
that many P2 investments offer a quick
pavhack, the Pollution Prevention
Rivhack Pyramid (P4) method allows
the company to meet realistic goals
without a dedicated budget, while
maximizing pollution prevention
potential. A company puts the P4
method into practice by:
(1)Identifying all projects that will
reduce the waste generated h the
company and performing a payback
analysis on these potential projects;
(2) Ranking the projects by length of
payback period; and
(3)Committing to fund all projects with
a payback period of 3 months or less
in the first year, projects with a
payback of 6 months or less the
second year, 1 year paybacks the
third year, and 2 year pavbacks the
fourth year.
The savings from the earlier, shorter
payback projects will finance later,
longer payback projects. A three month
payback project costing $1000 will save
the company $4000 a year, every year!
By reinvesting these savings in additional
longer payback waste reduction projects,
even greater profits can be realized.
But more important to management,
any projects with paybacks of 12 months
or less do not have to be budgeted, since
savings will more than equal costs
before the end of the annual budgetary
Problems to be expected in trying to
implement this plan include:
(1) Managerial resistance to the loss of
line item approval, since all projects
that meet the payback requirements
are already considered approved; and
(2)The nece sitv to have as realistic and
as accurate project plans and payback
estimates as possible.
With accurate analysis of potential
projects, the P4 method provides a
painless way to implement pollution
prevention, and save money.
te ’t’ Hi!lt’p:brand has been working as a
was Ic reduction engineer for three years.
He coordinates ret irt’d professionals to assist
in waste reduction projects i,i the Southeast,
and serves as a consultant to the Teniiesst’e
Valh’i, Authority. He holds a Masters degree
in Environmental Engineering and in
Engineering Administration from the
University of Tennessee.
Clean Fuels Spur
Federal Fleets of Low
Emission Vehicles
(Con tin tied front page 6)
In his Earth Day speech, President
Clinton went a step farther, requiring
federal fleets to purchase alternative
fuel vehicles at a much faster pace, and
establishing a Federal Fleet Conversion
Task Force. The Task Force, chaired by
Texas Land Commissioner Carry
Mauro, is charged with developing a
coordinated public and private sector
plan for achieving the commercializa-
tion and market acceptance of alterna-
tive fueled vehicles nationwide.
New Repo s
A new research report from the non-profit eitvironmental organization,
INFORM, should help smooth the transition to cleaner automotive fuels.
Paving the Way to Natural Gas Vehicles identifies the major obstacles slowing the
adoption of natural gas as a motor fuel, and proposes 25 specific actions to
overcome these barriers. Each proposed actic,n is illustrated with a real life
story of an organization or government agency that has implemented it. The
report is available from INFORM, 212-689-4040.
The International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) examines the
economic, social, and environmental implications of urban transport in Moving
Toward Integrated Transport Planning: Energy, Environment, and Mobility in Four
Asian Cities. After conducting in-depth studies of the transportation systems in
four Asian cities, IJEC concludes that Integrated Transport Planning is the best
way to ensure long-term economic sustainability and a higher standard of
living in any urban area. With passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act and the 1991
Inter-Modal Surface Transport Efficiency Act, ILEC states that the statutory
framework is now in place for implementation of ITP in the U.S. For more
information, contact IIEC, 202-842-3388.

Pollution Prevention News - 8
July-August 1993
T he Waste Prevention Tool Kit for
Local Governments, published by
the Cornell Waste Management Insti-
tute, is a 172-page compendium burst-
ing with facts, suggestions, model laws
and programs, sample fact sheets,
successful ads, and other materials to
help local governments implement
effective waste prevention programs
without reinventing the wheel. To
obtain a copy, send $14.95 (includes
shipping and handling; prepaid orders
only) to Cornell University Resource
Center (TK), 7 Business and Technology
Park, Ithaca, NY 14850.
.:. .:.
P reventing industrial Toxic Hazards:
A Guide for Communities, is a
primer and workbook for ordinary
citizens concerned about hazardous
waste. Published by INFORM, a non-
profit environmental research organiza-
tion, this guide introduces the concepts
behind pollution prevention in lay terms,
summarizes the applicable environmen-
tal laws, and explains how communities
can find out about emissions from local
industrial facilities, initiate a dialogue
with company representatives and
workers, negotiate for pollution preven-
tion, and then track their progress.
Appendices provide helpful lists of
additional resources and contacts. Copies
are available for $25 plus shipping.
Contact INFORM, 212-6894040.
.:. .:.
R esearchers always need money
and now pollution prevention
researchers can get help in finding it.
The 1993 Guide to Pollution Prevention
Funding Orgaiii:ations, published by the
Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention
Research Center (PPRC), contains
detailed information on public and
private organizations that fund pollu-
tion prevention research. Available for
S50 ($35 for nonprofits), plus $1.50
postage and handling, from PPRC, 1218
Third Ave. #1205, Seattle, WA 98101.
Tel: 206-223-1151.
T aking a lighter look at pollution
prevention, employees in EPA
Regions IV and V will be on a Quest to
Sort’ the Earth with a newly developed
employee education tool. Developed by
OPPE’s Climate Change Division and
the Southface Energy Institute, the Quest
is a colorful, whimsically illustrated, 10-
inch square panel, with small fold-out
flaps. On one side the “hero” searches
for ways to save energy and reduce
pollution at home, and on the reverse,
the “heroine” discovers similar energy
savers in the office. Each flap suggests a
useful action (for example, turning off
lights and computers), and when
opened reveals estimated energy
savings and greenhouse emissions
reductions associated with that action.
Designed for display and ongoing
referral, the Quest is being evaluated to
see if it is effective in changing behavior
and saving energy.
To learn more about it, call Rosalie
Day, EPA Region V. 312-353-6324.
.:. .:.
T he Journal of Cleaner Production is
a new, quarterly journal devoted to
the exchange of information on re-
search, development, and implementa-
tion of cleaner technologies around the
world. The journal will feature original,
peer-reviewed research, short papers,
editorials and opinion pieces, reviews,
conference reports, new product
information, and more. The premier
issue included articles on Life Cycle
Assessment, research at EPA’s Risk
Reduction Engineering Laboratory,
green consumption, case studies, and
shorter reviews and activity updates.
Subscription rates are £110.00 (Europe),
£120.00 (outside Europe). North Ameri-
can subscribers may pay in US dollars at
current exchange rates. For a free
sample issue, or to subscribe, contact
Journals Fulfillment Dept., Butterworth-
l-leinemann, 80 Montvale Ave.,
Stoneham, MA 02180. Tel: 617-438-8464;
Fax: 617-438-1479.
.:. .:.
Pollution Prevention Authority Already in Law
ants. Setting stricter standards for
discharge or disposal can force the
development and adoption of
pollution prevention practices.
Incentives for prevention, in the form
A new report issued by the
Environmental Law Institute
(ELI) concludes that many opportuni-
ties already exist for EPA to imple-
ment pollution prevention under
existing laws. The Tools of Prevention:
Opportunities for Promoting Pollution
Prevention Under Federal Legislation
examines the Clean Water Act (CWA)
and the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA), two statutes
that have long been interpreted as
pollution control measures.
The report outlines four preven-
tion strategies available under RCRA
and the CWA: regulatory action,
standard setting, incentives, and
information management and
outreach. Examples of possible
regulatory actions include linking
pollution prevention planning to
permit approvals, and banning
discharges of the most toxic pollut-
of adequate pollution fees, govern-
ment procurement preferences, and
other market mechanisms, have
shown promise and could be ex-
panded. All of these strategies must
be backed up by better data collec-
tion and management, so that goals
can be set and progress measured.
Based on their analysis of just two
environmental laws, the report’s
authors conclude that “existing
statutes provide more than adequate
authority to promote industrial
pollution prevention boldly, vigor-
ously, and without delay.” For more
information, or to obtain a copy of
the report, contact Lisa Peistring,
ELI, 202-939-3816.

July-August 1993
9 — Pollution Prevention News
Life-Cycle Assessment: Tracking Impacts from Cradle-to-Grave
I n order to assist producers and
regulators in choosing products or
processes with the least environmental
impact, EPA is working to refine the
field of “Life-Cycle Assessment” (LCA).
This methodology is an attempt to
evaluate the environmental impacts of a
product or process through its entire
life, from raw material and energy
inputs through production, use, and
ultimate disposal.
An LCA typically goes through three
main stages: Inventory Analysis, Impact
Analysis, and Improvement Analysis.
All of these phases rely on an initial
process of goal definition and scoping,
and on accurate, available data. EPA’s
LCA Methodology Development
Program, working closely with the
Society for Environmental Toxicology
and Chemistry (SETAC), is bringing
together experts from many fields with
the goal of developing standardized
methods for each phase of the LCA.
Inventory Guidelines Available
EPA’s first LCA guidance document,
Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guide-
lines and Principles, released in late
1992, introduces the concepts behind
LCA, and describes the three main
components. It then offers broad
guidelines and principles for conduct-
ing the first stage of the process, the
Life Cycle Inventory, which sets the
parameters of the analysis, including
scoping activities, defining goals,
gathering data, clarifying assumptions,
and interpreting and communicating
the inventory results. The report also
contains a brief discussion of data type
and data quality issues.
In order to test the new inventory
guidelines, EPA’s Office of Research
and Development (ORD) is applying
them to a case study on residential
carpeting. This detailed case study will
help demonstrate the strengths and
limitations of the guidelines. For
example, ORD’s carpeting study will
look not only at material inputs, energy
use, and environmental releases during
carpet manufacturing, but also at the
fate of end pieces and scraps, and the
upkeep of the carpeting, including
vacuuming and cleaning. The scope of
and the complexity of LCA.
Work is underway on the next stages
of the project. EPA is compiling a
survey of available databases to see if
they can be readily adapted for LCA
purposes, and will publish guidelines
on data quality issues. However, the
most difficult aspect of LCA is undoubt-
edly the impact assessment.
Comparing Apples and Oranges?
In order to make meaningful com-
parisons between products, LCA
practitioners must develop a consistent,
more or less objective way to quantify a
whole range of possible impacts on
ecosystems, human health, natural
resources, and social welfare. At SETAC
workshops and workgroup meetings
over the last two years, experts from
different fields met and hammered out a
conceptual framework and broad
principles for proceeding with impact
assessments. Although there is still
much work to be done, EPA hopes to
publish LCA Impact Assessment
guidelines in the not-too-distant future
to accompany the exkting Inventory
- Atrnosphenc
____________ Emissions
using LLA to Improve Regulations
Finally, EPA has initiated a project
to demonstrate how LCA concepts and
practices can fit into, and improve,
EPA’s traditional rulemaking process.
This project will use the development
of the Maximum Available Control
Technology (MACT) standard for air
emissions of halogenated solvents and
cleaners as a case study. The study will
employ LCA techniques to extend the
typical regulatory impact analysis
upstream and downstream, across all
media, and to include both direct and
indirect impacts. The study will also
evaluate the impacts of alternatives to
halogenated solvents. The degreasing
case study could help in developing a
protocol for choosing among alterna-
tive regulatory standards.
To obtain a cop of the Inz’entory
Guidelines, call EPA’s Center for
Environmental Research Information
(CERI) at 513-569-7562. For more
information about the LCA project,
contact Mary Ann Curan, Pollution
Prevention Research Branch, RREL,
Cincinnati, OH 45268.
Life-Cycle Stages
‘a., ’
.; ,‘,.
Raw Mateñals A uisition
— L Manufacturing
0 - Waterbome
0 Solid
0 - Coproducts
— J_Recycle/Waste_Management
System Boundary
this endeavor illustrates both the power

Pollution Prevention News - 10
July-August 1993
fl TIT1I
Natural Resources
Q n the anniversary of the 1Y92
Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro,
President Clinton announced the
creation of the President’s Council on
Sustainable Development. Sustainable
development has been defined as
development that meets the needs of
the present without compromising the
future. The new 25-member Council is
charged with helping the President, and
the nation, meet that challenge.
President Clinton has asked the
Council to explore and develop policies
that encourage economic growth, job
creation, and effective use of our
natural and cultural resources. The
Council’s goals include:
• developing policy recom mendations
that integrate economic and environ-
mental concerns, and can be imple-
mented by public and private
• sponsoring projects that demonstrate
sustainable, comprehensive approaches;
(Continued from page 4)
energy efficiency savings themselves
and help spread the word to others.
Two new programs have been created
to bring additional members of the
lighting industry under the Green
Lights umbrella. The Surveyor Ally
program will result in a directory of
EPA-recognized individuals capable of
surveying existing lighting systems for
Green Lights participants and helping to
implement optimal upgrades. To
become a Surveyor Ally individuals
must complete a two-day training
workshop covering such topics as Green
Lights goals, lighting evaluations, use of
EPA support software, product informa-
tion, financing options for completing
upgrades, and maintenance and dis-
posal of lighting systems. They must
then pass an examination and sign a
Memorandum of Understanding to be
• contributing to the work of the
United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development;
• recognizing achievements through an
annual Presidential award;
• establishing links with non-govern-
mental organizations; and
• educating the public about sustain-
able development.
The 25 Council members appointed
by the President include representa-
tives from industry, environmental,
labor, and civil rights organizations,
and government, including the Secre-
taries of Commerce, Energy, and the
Interior. The co-chairs of the Council
will be Jonathan Lash, President of the
World Resources Institute, and David
Buzzelli, V.P. and Corporate Director
of Environment, Health and Safety, and
Public Affairs at the Dow Chemical
allowed to use the official Green Lights
Surveyor Ally title and logo.
Distributor Allies are lighting
distributors who agree not only to
upgrade their own facilities, but also to
include information about energy-
efficient lighting in their marketing and
promotional materials. Surveyor Allies
and Distributor Allies will join existing
Green Lights Allies including manufac-
turers, management companies, and
electric utilities. EPA hopes eventually
to involve everyone in the lighting
industry, as well as commercial and
residential electricity consumers, in the
push for more efficient, more profitable,
environmentally sound lighting sys-
tems. To learn more, call the Green
Lights Hotline at 202-775-6650, or the
Green Lights Ally Hotline at 202-2Y3-
“Know Your
I n an effort to promote watershed
protection activities by the agricul-
tural community, the National Associa-
tion of Conservation Districts’ (NACD)
Conservation Technology Information
Center (CTIC) has launched a “Know
Your Watershed” campaign. “We
anticipate this initiative will help local
agricultural leaders join with rural and
urban partners to take the lead in
preventing pollution in their water-
sheds,” stated Gerald Digerness,
president of NACD.
The “Know your Watershed”
campaign will focus on preventing
problems caused by agricultural runoff
or nonpoint source pollution. Approxi-
mately 65 percent of nonpoint source
water pollution comes from agriculture.
The primary pollutants are sediment,
animal waste, and purchased fertilizers
and pesticides. The campaign will work
to raise the consciousness of the agricul-
tural community about the effect their
actions have on water quality, and the
productivity and health of their water-
sheds. Further, the campaign will
encourage the agricultural community
to take voluntary action to reduce or
prevent agricultural runoff.
CTIC also intends to motivate
landowners, operators, and residents
within a watershed to identify specific
problems and solutions. Commodity
groups, farm organizations, farm
managers, agricultural retailers, indus-
try, and government are among those
that CTIC wi1l encourage to join in
partnerships to address nonpoint source
EPA is one of the initial participants
in this campaign. Other participants
include the U.S. Department of Agricul-
ture, Soil Conservation Service,
Monsanto, American Farmland Trust,
Tennessee Valley Authority, Dupont,
and the Agricultural Retailers’ Associa-
tion. For more information, contact Jerry
Hytry at CTIC, 317-4Y4-9 55.
President Creates Council on
Sustainable Development
Green Lights Still Growing

July-August 1993
11 — Pollution Prevention News
Corporate Notes
A T&T reports that as of the end of
1991, the company had reached or
exceeded major environmental goals at
its worldwide manufacturing locations:
it reduced CFC emissions by 75 percent
(goal: 50%); reduced reportable toxic
air emissions by 73 percent (goal: 50’o);
and decreased manufacturing process
waste by 39 percent (goal: 25% by end
of 1994). AT&T has raised its corporate-
wide paper recycling goal from 35
percent to 60 percent by year-end l Y4.
As of the end of 1991, it had reached
the 45 percent mark.
AT&T scientists also report develop-
ing a procedure for using a new solvent
found in foods, n-butyl butyrate, in
place of ozone-depleting 1,1,1-
trichloroethane, for various manufac-
turing processes. Contact: Jim
McMahon, 908-204-8260.
Industrial Toxic
Releases Decline
(Cant in iic’d fran, ()W (’ 1)
entirely to increased runoff from four
fertilizer facilities in Louisiana. Releases
to land decreased nine percent, while
underground injection of waste declined
nearly five percent.
In announcing the T results,
Administrator Browner also announced
plans to expand the list of TRI chemicals
by about 200 later this year, with an
expansion to cover additional industries
planned for next year. Browner noted,
“The Inventory is really a road map of
toxic chemicals, right down to the local
level, and it puts that information
directly at the fingertips of citizens.” For
information on obtaining the TRI data,
contact the toll-free Right-to-Know
hotline at 1-800-535-0202.
W inner of a “Together We Can
Clean Up” award from the
Maryland Department of the Environ-
ment, the Cambridge Wire Cloth Co.
invested more than S150,00() in a new
system that relies on water-based
cleaners instead of potentially harmful
solvents to wash belts and other
products. The change reduced the
company’s liquid hazardous waste h ’
percent, cut energy consumption,
eliminated air emissions, and improved
working conditions. Contact: Michael
Sullivan, 410-631-3003.
T he paperless office is here!
According to a report in the Indiana
Recycling Coalition newsletter, USAA,
an insurance/banking organization
headquartered in San Antonio, has
converted to a paperless business.
Beginning in the mailroom, incoming
mail is scanned into an imaging system
and forwarded by electronic mail to the
appropriate employee or otficc. Interof-
lice communication is also handled m
the computer system, with more than
1,500 work ‘stations used by over 2,500
employees. Contact: Frank Rocha, 210-
Garden State
cmtinuedfronz pace’ .3
the new limits, and non-compliant VOC
finishes were no longer accepted from
suppliers. The time schedule for devel-
oping the new finishes was very clear,
and was monitored by DER.
The Sales Department was charged
with working with our customers to
develop new specifications that reflect
the qualities of the new finishes. After 60
years of selling solvent finished leather,
the aesthetic and physical properties of
the new coatings had to be promoted to
customers. Needless to say, the environ-
mentally correct aspect of the leather was
also advertised. The policy stated clearly
that traditional finish systems could not
he offered to customers as an alternative.
This firm rule ensured that the transition
would happen.
Last but not least, the Production part
of the team developed the procedures and
equipment required by the folks in R&D.
Because of the phased in time schedule
negotiated with DER, we were able to
deplete existing chemical inventory, and
avoid disposal of obsolete chemicals.
The cost incentive that drove the
company policy is showing up in many
areas. Capital costs for replacement of
incinerator equipment, and operating
and maintenance costs have been
avoided. Instead, this money was spent
on the product itself where it will make
a bigger difference for the future. Now
every time we turn around we find a
new cost savings. For example, our
hazardous waste costs have been
“Now every time we turn around
we find a new cost savings.
eliminated, and fire insurance rates have
gone down. Aesthetic payoffs were also
realized, including improvements of the
plant environment for employees.
Over the course of our transition,
usage of VOCs decreased from an
average of 100 tons per month all the
way down to 8 tons per month (see
graph, p. 3). The solvent mix previously
composed of toluene, methyl ethyl
ketone, and methyl isobutvl ketone was
completely replaced with low VOC
coatings. These reductions meet the 33/
50 Program goals, and qualify us for the
Early Reduction Program. Our success
has also greatly motivated our other
source reduction efforts.
C/iris Eliret is f/ic Corporate Environmental
Director at Gardeii State Tanninc Co. where he
has worked for 12 years. Mr. Ehret wa
prez’:ous!y employed as an Environmental
Scicnfi..t at EPA, and as an environmental and
indu ’trial chemist.
A new EPA report, Assessment of
Changes in Reported TRI Releases and
Transfers Between 7989 and 1990,
examines the reasons behind the
changes in TRI reports from 1989 to
1990. The study condudes that
changes in production had the
greatest impact, though source
reduction also was a significant
factor. The study also stresses the
importance of looking separately at
increases and decreases, rather than
considering only net changes.
To obtain a copy of the report, call
PPIC at 202-260-1023.

Pollution Prevention News - 12
July-August 1993
L 1e 11dax —
The Clean Air Marketplace
Control of Ozone-Depleting
Int’l. Conference on
Environmental Pollution
Annual Conference & Expo
EnviroSciences Expo ‘93
Florida Environmental Expo
Small Business Innovation
Research Conference
America’s Energy Future
The Emission Inventory —
Perception and Reality
Sustainable Transportation and
Solar/Electric Vehicle Symposium
Laboratory Waste
Minimization Workshop
Environmental Technology Expo
Pollution Prevention
Training Sessions
Annual Meeting; Pollution
Prevention Technology (course)
EPA, others
Air & Waste Mgt. Assn.
ICTR Secretariat
Water Environment Federation
EPA, DOE, Small Business
Admin., Bureau of Mines
FL Assn. of Counties
New York Solar Coalition
Air & Waste \lgt. Assn.,
N.E. Sustainable Energy Assn.
American Chemical Society
EPA, Env. Engineers & Managers
Inst., Assn. of Energy Engineers
American Inst. of Chemical
Engineers (AIChE)
September 8-10
Washington, DC
Sept. 23-24
Whistler, BC Canada
Sept. 28-Oct. 1
Barcelona, Spain
Oct. 3-7
Anaheim, CA
Oct. 7-8
Denver, CO
Oct. 12-14
Tampa, FL
Oct. 13-15: Wash., DC
Nov. 15-17: Seattle, WA
Oct. 15-16
New York, NY
Oct. 18-20
Pasadena, CA
Oct. 22-23
Boston, MA
Oct. 21
Pasadena, CA
Oct. 26-28
Atlanta, GA
Nov. 4-5, Nov. 8-10
Minneapolis, MN
Nov. 7-12
St. Louis, MO
Marci Mazzei
Nanc Blatt
Judy Foster
Tel: 813-725-8202
Foresight Sci. & Tech.
Jim Hurt
Bill Gray
Wesley Lambert
Tel: 212-705-7325
Fax: 212-752-3294
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