United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Water
EPA 840-N-00-001
Summer 2000
&EPA Watershed Events
A Bulletin on Sustaining Water Resources and Ecosystems
In This Issue...
This issue of Watershed Events
focuses on the relationship
between ecological protection
activities and public health and
safety. Recent events have
shown that protecting drinking
water sources, preserving wet-
lands and floodplains, and limiting
activities in environmentally
sensitive areas will protect not only
ecological integrity, but human
health and safety as well.
On The Inside...
Droughts, Floods, and Sprawl:
They're All Connected	1
Protecting Our Water Supplies
In Philadelphia	3
In South Carolina	4
In Virginia	4
In New York/New Jersey	5
In Washington	7
In Missouri	8
Using the Watershed Approach
to Reduce Flooding
In Maryland	10
In North Dakota	10
Updates	12
Final TMDL Rule	12
Watershed Roundtables	12
New Resources	13
Events	-	« 15
Droughts, Floods, and Sprawl—
They're All Connected
Almost a year ago, it seemed ironic to
be writing about solutions to a drought
while sitting at a battery-powered
laptop computer in the middle of a flood.
But the fact is that floods happen even
during droughts. Unfortunately, most
of this much-needed water runs off
roofs, parking lots and roads and is
collected and discharged to the nearest
creek or river by storm sewer systems.
Most municipalities treat storm water as
a nuisance instead of as a resource and
usher it as quickly as possible down-
stream. Granted, engineered solutions
are necessary to control unusually high
flows that are a threat to public safety,
but the value of storm water as a
resource and as a partial solution to
droughts is traditionally ignored. A
drought is defined as a natural phenom-
enon caused by changes in weather
patterns that result in less-than normal
rainfall. Although we cannot manufacture
more rain, we can better manage the water
that does fall in our region.
Last year, the simultaneous occurrence
of a severe drought and flooding from
Hurricane Floyd hit hard in eastern
Pennsylvania. The region's groundwa-
ter had substantially declined over the
past two years. Flows had dropped to
record low levels on many streams.
When Floyd struck, small waterways
such as Valley Creek at Valley Forge
National Park—a small watershed with
two major highways and expanding
development—rose rapidly within
hours from low drought flows to
damaging flood flows.
What causes such sudden and extreme
flows? Slope, soils, geology and
climate contribute to the rate of
watershed runoff. But the rapid
expansion of impervious cover,
Stream Hydrograph
especially in the watershed's urban and
suburban areas, increases velocity and
makes it especially difficult for
rainwater to recharge the ground water.
What can we do differently so more
water recharges this critical ground
water supply? How can we better plan
and design new developments so that
adequate water supply is ensured and
storm damage is lessened?
The underlying problem is that current
laws treat water management in a
disconnected and piecemeal fashion;
groundwater and surface water are
See Droughts, page 2

Page 2
Watershed Events
Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Patty Scott and Betsy Henry,
U.S. Environmental Protection
This Issue's Contributors
Bob Ball, USDA-Natural Resources
Conservation Service (NRCS)
Jan Bowers, Chester County (PA)
Carol R. Collier, Delaware River
Basin Commission
Chris Crockett, Phildelphia Water
George DuVal, Chesterfield County,
Ella F. Filippone, Passaic River
Stephen Gould, EPA Region II
Laura Greiner, USDA-NRCS
John Long, Maryland NRCS
Wendy Skony, City of Bellevue, WA
L. B. Stovall, Greenville Water
John Shepard, Hamline University
John Rozum, Project NEMO
Robin Ulmer, Boquet River Associa-
Watershed Events provides updated
and timely information to profession-
als and others interested in the
development and implementation of
the watershed approach and in
achieving watershed goals. The
watershed approach focuses on
mitigating the primary threats to
ecosystem and human health and
involving stakeholders to take action
in an integrated, holistic manner.
Please direct any questions or
comments to:
Patty Scott
Ariel Rios Building (4501F)
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460
(202) 260-1956
To be added to the Watershed
Events mailing list, send your name
and address to:
Melissa Bowen
Tetra Tech, Inc.
10306 Eaton Place, Suite 340
Fairfax, VA 22030
bowenme @ tetratech-ffx.com
Droughts, from page 1
treated as separate, independent
resources. In addi-tion, primarily
because of the 	
encourage the restoration and natural-
ization of these riparian corridors are
critical. Project and subdivision
reviews that include analysis of
way the federal
water laws are
written, most
states' environ-
mental protection
departments have
separate bureaus
or sections for each
water issue—water supply, wastewater,
storm water, wetlands, floodplains,
erosion and sediment control, and flood
prevention design.
Land and water management is like a
giant jigsaw puzzle. Staring at an
individual piece can be frustrating and
unfruitful, but when the pieces are
successfully connected, a clear picture
emerges. At all levels, we must manage
land and water as interdependent
resources. Critical needs include the
elimination of "roadblocks" and the
creation of incentives or regulations to:
•	Increase rainwater infiltration on a
"lot-by-lot" basis.
•	Design new detention/retention
basins to retain and filter flows
from small storms to increase
ground water levels and protect
surface water quality.
•	Retrofit existing detention basins to
infiltrate flows from small storms.
•	Increase water reuse and gray water
•	Increase land application of treated
•	Protect ground water from over
Development of water conservation
initiatives and programs that discour-
age development in floodplains and
Experts tell us that water management is best done on a water-
shed or basinwide basis. This requires all who have a stake,
whether in or outside government, to join in developing ap-
proaches tailored to regional needs."
-Madeline Albright
Earth Day speech on Global Water Security in the 21st Century
potential watershed impacts are also
needed. If we treat the flows from small
storms and treated wastewater as
resources instead of wastes, we can
reduce damage from storm water
runoff and drought impacts and, most
importantly, store this critical water for
stream base flow and water supply.
Some question whether strong eco-
nomic progress can be realized if
stricter environmental standards are in
place. In reality, economic progress is
dependent on a healthy environment.
By improving the integrity of our water
resources while reducing the potential
damages from storms and droughts, the
economy will be strengthened. Agri-
culture, tourism, and industry will
continue to thrive, and communities
can attract the high tech, clean industries
they desire. If we respect the natural value
of our ground water, streams, and riparian
corridors and realize the development
potential of working with the natural
system, our communities will be more
livable and desirable.
For more information, contact Carol R.
Collier, Executive Director, Delaware
River Basin Commission, and Jan
Bowers, Executive Director, Chester
County, Pennsylvania, Water Re-
sources Authority, (609) 883-9500.
Model Oral
better pf<
erosfen 1
^stream buffSE
Dstconstruction runoff, a!
imunities in search of
jlations and ordinances to
[jces dealing with
I mainte-
Vi3iyii8BS|jffi^MMP^/NPS/ordinance/ or the Centoi'TW1 Willi JRed Protection's
web^lSHp||||PP%rg. Also, be sure to visit the Smart Growth Network web site at

Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Page 3
Protecting Our Water Supplies
For water suppliers responsible for
providing consumers with safe drinking
water, treatment processes that remove
potentially harmful substances are most
often viewed as the most manageable
solution. Yet, as pressures grow that
limit the quality and quantity of drinking
water supplies and increase the burdens
of water suppliers to comply with
drinking water quality standards, water
suppliers and regulators tire increas-
ingly recognizing the importance of
combining treatment with watershed
partnerships to prevent contamination
of water supplies in the first place.
Below are some examples of how some
water suppliers are broadening public
water system management to include
the principles of watershed manage-
ment to ensure the protection and
conservation of source water quality.
City of Brotherly Love Makes
Clean Water a Priority
Philadelphia has a long-standing interest
in watershed protection, although that
interest has sometimes been compelled
by circumstance. Even in Colonial
times, city residents noted the poor
quality of their water and with good
reason. The soiled water from privies
and wastes from industry seeped into
the ground water, fouling the wells that
all Philadelphians used during those
times. Not surprisingly, in 1799 civic
"I write to you using Schuykill River water as ink. I am
thinking of bottling it for sale."
Local Entrepreneur, Philadelphia
Early 1800s
Watershed Assistance Grants Application for
Year 2000 Now Available
Watershed Assistance Grants support the growth and
sustainability of local watershed partnerships in the United
States. This year grant awards will range from $1,500 to
$30,000. Grants may be made directly to incorporated
watershed partnerships, nonprofits, tribes, local governments, or an agency that
is an active participant in a watershed partnership. Applications must be
postmarked no later than August 15, 2000. Watershed Assistance Grants are a
direct result of the Clean Water Action Plan (February 1998).
For additional information, visit www.rivernetwork.org/wag.htm or call Abby
Feinstein at River Network, (503) 241-3506, or send an e-mail to
wag @ rivernetwork.org.
shield its waters from industrial and
residential development.
These strategies worked, up to a point.
By the end of the 19lh Century, though,
population and industrial growth and its
associated wastes, which went untreated
into the river, overwhelmed the
Schuykill. Despite the use of filters and
other treatment techniques, the city's
water supply continued to deteriorate
into the 1960s.
leaders devised a plan to use the pristine
waters of the Schuylkill for the public
water supply (having rejected water
from the Delaware as too polluted by
the city's wastewater).
To keep the Schuylkill clean, city
officials pursued two courses of action.
They used the law to close upstream
industries contaminating the river. In
1885 Philadelphia began to purchase
parcels of land adjacent to the river,
above the Fairmount Waterworks, to
This sad history did, however, have a
bright side by establishing three central
principles that shape current watershed
management. First, unchecked contami-
nation can defeat any engineering
solution. Second, it's better not to put
waste into a river than to try to remove
the waste later. Third, limiting develop-
ment in the watershed is a powerful
— means of controlling
Today, Philadelphia
enjoys the benefits of
federal laws and
regulations to control
pollution including the Clean Water Act.
Since 1975 the city has invested $874
million to expand and improve its three
wastewater plants; those plants continue
to be upgraded as new technologies
become available. However, the Phila-
delphia Water Department's watershed
efforts reach beyond the city limits and
beyond point sources. Current efforts
leader of a Watershed- Wide Source
Water Assessment for the 200-square-
mile Schuykill River Watershed. This
watershed assessment will include 42
drinking water intakes representing 18
different community water systems and
will be composed of an overall report
for the whole watershed and individual
reports for each drinking water intake.
The Department's Watershed Division is
doing a similar assessment on the tidal
Delaware River.
Support of TMDL Development in the
Seven City Watershed. T he Watershed
Division actively supports efforts to
complete Total Maximum Daily Loads
(TMDLs), in the watershed by supply-
ing sampling data and analyses, funding
gauging stations, and providing techni-
cal assistance to the agencies completing
the TMDLs.
Involvement in Community-Based
Watershed Restoration. As part of the
Belmont River intake protection project,
the Watershed Division is working with
citizens to do streambank restoration,
public education, and revegetation to
protect the Belmont River drinking water
intake, which has been threatened by an
increasing Canada goose population.
Investment in upstream water quality
studies. Among several studies, the
Watershed Division is doing water
quality studies and investigations of the
Delaware and Lehigh River watersheds
to track the source of a particular
contaminant, MIB (2-methyl iso
borneol), that causes taste and odor
problems and increases treatment costs.
For more information, contact Chris
Crockett, Philadelphia Water Depart-
ment, (215) 685-6234.

Page 4
Watershed Events
Summer 2000
Watershed Protection, a
Concept from the Past,
Promises High-Quality
Water for Greenville in the
Nestled in the foothills of the Blue
Ridge Mountains of northwestern
South Carolina, the city of Greenville
draws source water from three beautiful
mountain lakes.
Decades before it was fashionable to be
concerned with "source water protection,"
the Commissioners of the Greenville
Water System purchased all land inside
the boundaries of the Table Rock and
Poinsett Watersheds. The Water
System has 100 per cent ownership of
nearly 30,000 acres.
They knew then what we all preach
today: Prevention is the first and
best method of treatment. Land for
the Table Rock watershed was
purchased in the 1920s. After a dam
and transmission pipeline were
installed, the reservoir began
supplying high-quality source water in
1930. As the need for greater supply
grew, the Commissioners similarly
purchased all land within the Poinsett
Watershed in the 1950s. This source
has been in service since 1961.
Over the years, the Greenville area has
grown dramatically from a textile
manufacturing community into a
diverse technical, manufacturing, and
professional center. Recognizing the
potential for development pressure
reaching toward the watershed areas,
the Commissioners and the City of
Greenville jointly appointed a panel of
citizens to study the geology, biology,
and zoology of the areas and report on
the most appropriate method to
preserve and protect these valuable
resources. Largely as a result of this
report, all land in and around each
watershed was placed in a Conserva-
tion Easement with The Nature
Conservancy in 1993.
No agricultural activities, development,
timber harvesting, or public recreation is
permitted within the boundaries of
either watershed. Water System
personnel regularly patrol the proper-
ties, and trespassers are prosecuted.
Consequently, the old growth forests
provide nature's own filtration and
raw water turbidity seldom exceeds 1
nephelometric turbiditiy unit (NTU).
Greenville's third water supply source
is Lake Keowee, some 30 miles to the
west. The lake, built by Duke Power
Company in the 1960s as part of its
electric power generation system, will
ultimately provide 150 million gallons
per day. Only limited development
currently exists along the shoreline.
Water drawn from Lake Keowee is
very similar in quality characteristics
to the water in the Table Rock and
Poinsett Watersheds. A joint commit-
tee was formed to preserve and protect
the Keowee Watershed. The Keowee
Watershed Alliance is composed of
homebuilders, residents, county and
state government officials, environ-
mentalists, Duke Power Company
representatives, and personnel from
the Greenville Water System. The
Alliance is developing position
statements on issues such as wastewa-
ter management, growth management,
riparian area preservation, and
community education.
Old ideas that stand the test of time
inevitably yield benefits. Greenville is
no exception. Dedication to protecting
its watersheds continues to benefit the
Greenville area with low rates,
outstanding source water, and ecologi-
cal masterpieces saved for future
For more information, contact L. B.
Stovall, General Manager, Greenville
Water System, (864)-241-6155.
Guarding Ecological Integ-
rity Produces Benefits for
a Virginia Public Water
What began as a monitoring program to
protect the ecological integrity of the
Swift Creek Reservoir resulted in
benefits to the public water supply. The
4.6-billion-gallon drinking water
reservoir, impounded in Chesterfield
County, Virginia, in 1965, has experi-
enced significant suburban development
in its direct drainage area over the last
30 years. Taste and odor problems at
the reservoir's Swift Creek Water Plant
and concerns over pending watershed
development led to the creation of a
reservoir and watershed monitoring
program in 1991. The goal of the
program was to determine the current
ecological state of the reservoir and
provide data to determine sustainable
levels of watershed development.
The monitoring program grew into a
comprehensive effort over a period of
about 5 years. During that time, expert
consultant and analytical assistance, as
well as collaboration with Hands Across
the Lake, a citizen organization, were
needed. With continued citizen input
and some expert consulting, the assimila-
tion of most of the work in-house greatly
reduced costs and allowed the monitoring
program to become a more stable and
sustainable effort. *
Monitoring in the reservoir centers on
biological activity, as well as physico-
chemical parameters, the potential for
disinfectant by-product formation, odor,
and nutrients. Nutrient inputs, as well
as chemical and biological indicators, are
monitored in the tributaries. The observed

Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Page 5
algal activity and trophic states have
established the conditions to be
The program provides raw water
quality data for gauging treatment
needs and determining best manage-
ment practices to be used with future
development. This approach will allow
the maintenance of the existing
ecological state and the detection of
inadequacies from future development.
The public water supply will directly
benefit. The program will prevent
increased water plant disinfection
requirements, as well as general
treatment challenges, thereby minimiz-
ing disinfectant use, disinfectant by-
product formation, and undesirable
taste and odor in the treated water.
For more information, contact Weedon
Cloe, Stephanie Feaser, Carmen Hein-
Harmon, David Sirois, Roy Covington,
or George DuVal, Chesterfield County
Utilities Department, Chesterfield
County, Virginia.
Wattles and Workshops:
Agencies Strive to Protect
the Skaneateles Lake
States have begun to implement the
ambitious Source Water Assessment
Program mandated under the Safe
Drinking Water Act of 1996. For every
public water system (ground water-
based as well as surface water-based),
states must (1) delineate the area
contributing water to the well (or
intake), (2) develop an inventory of
potential pollution sources within that
area, and (3) evaluate the susceptibility
of the water supply to the identified
threats. These assessments will provide
a rational basis for future source water
protection efforts.
For a surface water-based public water
supply that has been granted a filtration
avoidance waiver, the area contributing
water to the intake—the watershed—
has usually already been delineated
and, in many cases, fully characterized.
For such watersheds,
not only are the assess
ments essentially
complete, but
protection efforts
are well under
The 59-square-mile Skaneateles Lake
Watershed is a good example of a
source water protection program that is
successfully maintaining good water
quality. The lake, which is one of
Central New York's glacially carved
Finger Lakes, supplies water to the city
of Syracuse and several villages in
Onondaga County. An average of 42
million gallons per day is drawn
through two 54-inch-diameter steel
intakes at the northern end of the 16-
mile-long lake. Water taken from the
lake is not filtered except by coarse
screens, and chlorination (plus fluorida-
tion) is the only treatment.
Point source discharges into the lake
are prohibited, so major threats are
pathogens, pesticides, nutrients, and
sediments arising from nonpoint
sources. The Cornell Cooperative
Extension (CCE) and the Onondaga
County Soil & Water Conservation
District (SWCD), with funding from
the City of Syracuse Department of
Water, have developed numerous
programs, outreach materials, and
workshops to raise awareness about
source water protection and other
watershed issues.
Working together, they successfully
adapted Farm*A*Syst and Home*A*
Syst materials to reduce nonpoint
source pollution from farms, homes,
and lawns. The SWCD promoted the
total exclusion of livestock from
streams by using fencing and providing
alternative water sources. They also
assisted in the construction of vegeta-
tive buffers between farms and road
ditches that might otherwise convey
runoff to the lake and experimented
with using high-surface-area timber
waste (bark, chips, and mulch) to
pretreat waste and wastewater from
dairy farm operations.
Cooperating farms in the watershed
have worked with the SWCD on a
'Tiered Approach to Whole Farm
Planning." This approach involves the
development and implementation of a
plan that promotes both the environ-
mental objectives of the watershed and
the business objectives of the farming
The CCE has held workshops on septic
system maintenance, offering vouchers
for septic tank pumping to homeowners
who attend. Erosion control demonstra-
tion projects, such as the planting of
willow "wattles" (bundles of cuttings
from species that readily sprout a
continuous network of soil-stabilizing
roots), have been conducted on the
property of lakeside homeowners.
CEE also has hosted workshops for
owners of large tracts of forested land
to acquaint them with forest steward-
ship and best management practices for
timber harvesting.
For a more comprehensive description
of this model watershed program, visit
watersheds/skaneatel.htm or contact
Stephen Gould, EPA Region II,
(212) 637-3822.
Drought of 1999 Spurs
Water Supply Planning for
the New Millenium
The drought of 1999 reminded the
people in the Passaic River watershed
of the need to be concerned about the
future of their water supplies. Data
collected over the years show that
problems have existed with both the
quality and quantity of water supplies
in this watershed, which drains north-
ern New Jersey and southern New
York. The Passaic River Coalition
maintains that 10 measurable objec-
tives are necessary to maintain ad-
equate water supplies for future users.
To sustain reliable quantities of
water for water supplies ...
See Spurs, page 6

Page 6	Watershed Events	Summer 2000
Spurs, from page 5
Increase, or at a minimum, maintain
recharge to ground water and ground
water levels. Recharge is the seepage
or infiltration of storm water into the
ground. Ground water is water that
may be pumped out of the ground
through wells and used for water
supplies. Most of the water supplies in
the Highlands and Central Passaic
River Basin come from the ground.- In
the past, however, more water has been
used than has been replenished through
recharge. To reduce the "mining" of
ground water (withdrawal without
replenishment), water is now being
imported from other watersheds. Unless
ground water supplies are replenished
through recharge, the amount of water
available for use in the future will "
Maintain stream base flow. Stream
base flow, the water that flows in the
river long after the rain has stopped,
comes from the ground. If more water
is pumped out of the ground than is
replenished through recharge, stream
base flows are diminished. Much of
the surface water from the headwaters
of the Passaic River Basin is withdrawn
downstream for water supplies. Base
flows in the tributary rivers must be
maintained to sustain adequate surface
water supplies.
Reduce consumptive uses of water.
Consumptive uses of water are uses
that evaporate water back into the air,
so that it can't be reused. Watering
Three Aspects to Be Considered in
Water Supply Planning:
1.	Sustaining reliable quantities of
water for water supplies
2.	Protecting the quality of water
3.	Improving both the quality and
quantity of water available for
water supplies
Cornell Cooperative Extension ami Onondaga County SWCD have
adapted Farm*A*Syst materials to help educate fanners about
keeping livestock out of streams.
lawns, which transpire the water into
the air, is a consumptive use. There are
many ways that people can save water
by using less. Water conservation
should be encouraged.
Increase reuse of water within the
Passaic River Basin. As the watershed
has become more developed, more and
more water has been pumped out of the
ground, but much of this water has not
been returned to the ground. Instead it
is piped off to a sewage treatment plant
and discharged to a river downstream
from where the water was taken out of
the ground. This is a depletive use of
water. If treated wastewater was
reused in the watershed, more water
would be available for use in the future.
Sustain water supplies by reducing
reliance on sources of water from
outside the Passaic River Basin. Rain
that falls on other watersheds is being
imported into the watersheds of the
Highlands and Central Passaic River
Basin for use as water supplies. The
lower Passaic, which is one of the most
densely populated portions of the
United States, has depended on its
water supplies coming
from the upper watershed
for more than 100 years.
Consequently, with the
increased growth and
water needs in the upper
area, a dilemma has been
created. If water is
imported into an upstream
area and consumed, it is
no longer available for
urban users. If the
imported water is used,
treated, and then dis-
charged into the Passaic
River, the water can be reused but its
quality has been diminished. Thus, the
importation of water supplies reduces
the quantity of water and degrades the
quality of the water available for
downstream users. These problems
become particularly critical under
drought conditions.
To protect the quality of water
Reduce contamination of ground
water. When well water becomes
contaminated, less water is available
for use. And remediation of the
contamination is costly and usually
takes a long time. The Well Head
Protection Program is intended to
prevent contamination of well water.
Such programs should be implemented
throughout the watershed. In addition,
a number of wells in the watershed are
already contaminated. A commitment
to clean up the ground water from
which these wells are drawing should
be established.
Reduce or, at a minimum, maintain
nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to
ground water and surface water. If
nitrogen and/or phosphorus loadings
were to increase, existing water quality
would become more degraded and it
would become more difficult and costly
to treat water supplies. The levels of

Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Page 7
these two nutrients have a critical,
controlling effect on the aquatic biota
living in a stream and are probably the
best chemical indicators of changes in
stream health. By reducing nitrogen
and phosphorus loadings, desirable
aquatic organisms will be sustained and
the proliferation of undesirable organ-
isms hindered. Nonpoint source
management techniques, efficient
management of point source dis-
charges, and stream corridor protection
and restoration can reduce nitrogen and
phosphorus loadings.
To improve both the quality and
quantity of water available for
water supplies ...
Improve ecological functioning of
wetlands and stream corridors. Wetlands
and vegetated stream corridors improve
water quality by removing nitrogen and
phosphorus and other pollutants from
water. They also store water so it can
be released slowly to maintain base
flow. There are areas in the watershed
that were once functional wetlands and
stream corridors but are no longer.
These areas should be restored to their
natural functions.
Maintain or improve aquatic commu-
nities and their habitats, including
New Guidebook on
the Clean Water Act
River Network has a new primer to
help guide individuals, river groups,
and watershed partnerships
through the complexities of the
Clean Water Act. The Clean
Water Act: An Owner's Manual
explains the hyw in easy-to-under-
stand English and describes how it
can be applied to protect and
restore local watersheds,
Visit www.riveniet.org or call
(503) 241-3506 lor ordering information,
(e-mail: jluuiiilla@rivenulwork.org)
Hit' publication is $25 (or non-
wetland communities. This objective
emphasizes the need to consider the
many benefits that aquatic biota can
provide in cleaning up water supplies
as well as providing recreational and
aesthetic benefits.
Reduce damages from flooding by
restoring natural functions. Flooding
in areas that do not normally flood is an
indicator that storm water is not being
appropriately stored in the ground, in
ponds and reservoirs, or in wetlands.
The restoration of floodway areas to
their natural functions will not only
reduce flood damages but also allow
floodwaters to be stored and released
downstream at a later date so that the
water can be captured and used.
The development of management
strategies to achieve these objectives is
what watershed planning is all about.
If water supplies are to be maintained
throughout the Passaic River, citizens
and agencies must understand why
these objectives are critical and they
must work together to meet them.
For more information, contact Ella F.
Filippone, Ph.D., Executive Adminis-
trator, and Anne L. Kruger, Ph.D.,
Senior Scientist, Passaic River Coali-
tion, 246 Madisonville Road, Basking
Ridge, NJ 07920, (908) 766-7550.
The Water We Share: A
Park and Reservoir With a
Of the 26 drinking water reservoirs in
the city of Bellevue, Washington, the
new Cherry Crest Reservoir is the first
one combined with a park. The 3-
million-gallon concrete reservoir, built
mostly underground, is cleverly hidden
beneath sports courts and a plaza and
surrounded by play equipment, picnic
tables, and walking paths. Knowing
that this multiuse site would attract
visitors daily, the city's Utilities
Department saw an exciting opportu-
nity to promote water stewardship in
the community.
Water conservation has long been a
high priority in the city. With the 1999
listing of chinook salmon as threatened
under the Endangered Species Act,
conservation messages are even more
critical because the less water people
use, the more water there is
for salmon. Utilities
Department staff worked
with Partners in Design of
Seattle to come up with an
interpretive plan that
engages and educates
visitors, yet blends aestheti-
cally with the Cherry Crest
Now, when visitors come to
play tennis or have a picnic,
they are greeted by a bronze
plaque that welcomes them
to the site, orients them to the water
reservoir, and reminds them that water
is a precious resource to be shared and
protected by everyone. Further along
the walk they encounter a bronze
ribbon that reads, "Water tells us we
are one. It weaves together all living
things and unites us with the earth."
Other educational messages and
thought-provoking water stories can be
found throughout the park.
The park's main attractions are 10
colorful metal sculptures of watershed
inhabitants—humans, animals, and
plants—each with a different message.
One informs visitors that Bellevue's
drinking water comes from the pro-
tected Tolt and Cedar river watersheds.
Others remind visitors that the earth
today contains the same amount of
See Message, page 8

Page 8
Watershed Events
Summer 2000
; _
• ,1
When visitors come to play tennis or have a picnic, they are greeted by a bronze
plaque that welcomes them to Cherry Crest Reservoir in Bellevue, Washington.
From Message, page 7
water as when dinosaurs roamed the
planet, that water renews itself in the
never-ending process called the water
cycle, and that all inhabitants of the
watershed need water to live.
Because water messages are displayed
at different points in the park rather
than on one large display, visitors can
take in a little information at a time and
discover something new each time they
come. The goal is to help visitors make
the connection between drinking water,
surface water, and the need to be
stewards of our watersheds.
For more information, contact Wendy
Skony, Utilities Department Public
Information Officer, City of Bellevue,
phone (425) 452-5215 or e-mail
Skony @ ci.bellevue. wa.us.
Missouri Rises to the
Challenge: A Duo of
Success Stories
Two lakes in Missouri—Mark Twain
Lake and Table Rock Lake—have
water quality success stories to tell. An
important drinking water source in
northeast Missouri, Mark Twain Lake
is threatened by agri-chemicals,
nutrients, and sediment. Runoff is a
major problem in the 18,000-acre lake
and is exacerbated by the lake's large
drainage area. Sedimentation, the
result of soil erosion from many
sources, means higher costs for water
treatment, premature filling of water
impoundments, and loss of aquatic
habitat. And pesticides moving into
water supplies can result in contami-
nant levels above federal and state
drinking water standards.
More than two years ago it was
determined that the water quality of
Mark Twain Lake was declining due to
increased levels of atrazine, a pesticide
used on nearby crops. In 1998 the
Department of Natural Resources
(DNR) placed the lake on the state's
list of impaired waters under section
303(d) of the Clean Water Act and
worked to come up with a solution.
They recognized that correcting a
problem of this magnitude would take
more than just one agency and would
require cooperation and support of the
local citizens and officials in Ralls and
Monroe counties, as well as other
government entities.
The University of Missouri Extension
Center and Natural Resources Conser-
vation Service (NRCS) joined together
to improve awareness of water quality
issues. The Mark Twain Water Quality
Initiative, an alliance of farmers, soil
and water conservation districts,
government, agri-business, community
officials, private industries, and special-
interest groups, was thus born. The
Initiative is dedicated to preserving the
water quality of Mark Twain Lake and
six other public water supply reser-
voirs. DNR and EPA have provided
funds for the project under section 319
of the Clean Water Act, and NRCS has
also provided assistance. In addition,
the Farm Services Agency, landowners,
and agri-chemical industries partici-
pate. A parks and soil sales tax admin-
istered by the DNR's Soil and Water
Conservation Program has helped
support conservation practices to
prevent soil erosion.
The benefits resulting from DNR and
its many partners working as a team are
reduced sediment and atrazine going
into the lake. This has led to clearer
water that is more aesthetically pleasing
and water that is safer for swimming,
fishing, and drinking. "One reason for
the decreased levels of atrazine in the
water is that the Mark Twain area has
been clearly targeted for prevention of
nonpoint source pollution by
proactively involving landowners and
the public," said Wanda Eubanks of the
Mark Twain Water Quality Initiative.
'The wide range of partners has made

Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Page 9
the task of repairing Mark Twain Lake
a truly cooperative undertaking."
Thanks to these cooperative efforts,
DNR was able to remove Mark Twain
Lake from Missouri's 2000 list of
impaired waters.
Table Rock Lake is a success of a
different sort because it has generated
interest and concern for one of southern
Missouri's greatest attractions. Table
Rock Lake has historically had some of
the clearest water in Missouri. Today,
the residents in that area express
general concern over water quality in
the basin. "In fact, 80 percent of
respondents to a phone survey done by
the James River Basin Partnership
(JRBP) in 1997 said the lake and river
were more polluted than they were 10
years ago," said Pamela Anderson,
director of the JRBP.
This reduction in water clarity could be
one reason there has been so much
support and interest in improving the
quality of Table Rock Lake. One of
DNR's partners is the James River
Basin Partnership (JRBP), an influential
not-for-profit organization dedicated to
educating citizens in and near the James
River Watershed on the wise use and
preservation of water resources. The
JRBP is composed of a diverse group
of concerned citizens representing
interests from the watershed as a whole,
including agriculture, governments,
businesses, and private individuals.
They coordinate with NRCS on the
James River Watershed Assessment and
offer educational programs to children.
Table Rock Lake has been added to the
year 2000 303(d) list due to both point
and nonpoint source pollutants. One
notable pollutant found in Table Rock
Lake is phosphorus. The Missouri
Clean Water Commission has recently
enacted a new rule limiting the amount
of phosphorus allowed in wastewater
discharges effective November 30,
1999. It will take some time to see the
benefits of this rule, but it is one step in
the right direction.
DNR director Steve Mahfood noted,
"People immediately see the need to
protect the water quality of Table Rock
Lake for health and environmental
reasons. But it's also important to protect
this natural resource for its beauty and
what it adds to the quality of life." The
lake also has a tremendous economic
impact on the area. In 1998, 5.8 million
people visited the Branson area, adding
an estimated $1.2 billion to the area
University of Missouri-Columbia
Professor Jack Jones has been studying
the water quality of Table Rock Lake
since 1978. He believes that increases
in nutrient loadings from recent agricul-
tural and human development within
the basin have resulted in increased
algae and reduced water clarity.
"Changes of this type are readily apparent
to the genera] public because lake trans-
parency is universally interpreted as a
direct measure of water quality," accord-
ing to Jones. "Lake water with reduced
water clarity has less aesthetic appeal and
diminished utility for most human uses."
For more information, contact Bob
Ball, Water Quality Coordinator,
USDA-Natural Resources Conserva-
tion Service, Parkade Center, Suite
250; 601 Business Loop 70 West;
Columbia, MO 65203-2546; phone
(573) 876-0900, e-mail
National Drinking Water Source Contamination Prevention Meeting
EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water will hold a meeting on
September 11, 2000 from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm at the Embassy Suites Hotel in
Alexandria, VA, to discuss the development of a national drinking water source
contamination prevention strategy. The strategy will help prevent the contami-
nation of lakes, rivers, springs, and aquifers that serve as drinking water
sources. For more information, contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at
(804) 426-4791 or email hotline-sdwa@epa.gov.
Consumer Confidence
By July 1, most Americans
will have received a second
"Consumer Confidence
Report" on the quality of their
local drinking water. Ap-
proximately 253 million
Americans received their first
annual drinking water report
by Oct. 19, 1999, the first
federal deadline for the
annual reports. Consumer
Confidence Reports are the
centerpiece of the
Administration's public right-
to-know requirements under
the 1996 Safe Drinking Act.
Water systems are now
providing consumers with
snapshots of their local
drinking water quality,
including the source of their
drinking water, contaminants
detected and actions taken
when necessary. Ninety-two
percent of the 54,000 com-
munity water systems
across the country have now
reported to their customers.
EPA is taking administrative
actions to assure that the
eight percent noncomplying
systems provide the reports
to the public.
EPA, in collaboration with
states, associations and
local water boards, also has
distributed public service
announcements and ad
campaigns to alert Ameri-
cans that they should
receive reports about their
drinking water quality every
year. More information on the
Consumer Confidence Report
Rule can be found at:
www.epa.gov/ogwdw/ccr1 .html.

Page 10
Watershed Events
Summer 2000
Protecting Against Flood Damage
Floodplain Acquisition
Offers Most Cost-Effective
Solution to Flash Flooding
in Cumberland, Maryland
Maryland's Natural Resource Conser-
vation Service, in partnership with the
Board of Commissioners of Allegany
County, Maryland, and the Allegany
County Soil Conservation District,
recently completed plans for the Dry
Run Watershed. The watershed plan
calls for floodplain acquisition and
stream restoration measures to alleviate
flash flooding in die community of
Bowman's Addition, just north of
Cumberland, Maryland. After detailed
planning and economic analysis, other
flood control alternatives, such as
dams, channelization, floodwalls, dikes,
flood warning systems, floodproofing,
and building relocation, were ruled out.
The project was planned and funded
under the authority of the Small
Watershed Program, PL 83-566.
Floodplain acquisition involves the
purchase and demolition of buildings in
the floodplain. Property owners who
are interested in participating have their
land and buildings appraised for fair
market value, and an offer of purchase
is made. Owners who agree to
participate vacate their property, and
the buildings are demolished. The
foundations of the demolished houses
are then backfilled and seeded. After
the buyout phase is complete, stream
restoration measures are implemented
where feasible.
Residents in the floodplain were surveyed
by mail regarding their willingness to
participate in the Dry Run Watershed
project. The response was overwhelm-
ingly positive, with 45 out of 60 residents
expressing interest.
The benefits and costs of several flood
control measures for the watershed were
analyzed, and floodplain acquisition
emerged as the most effective solution
with the highest benefit-cost ratio. While
other flood control alternatives analyzed
were significantly less expensive than
floodplain acquisition, they could not
provide an acceptable level of flood
control given the unique topographical
features in the watershed.
For more information, contact John
Long at (410) 757-0861 or e-mail at
john.long@md.usda.gov. The
Maryland NRCS web site is at
Several Broad Categories of Eco-
nomic Benefits Were Estimated for
the Dry Run Watershed Project:
Residential Flood Damage Reduction.
Benefits include flood damages avoided
to the buildings' structure and contents,
as well as yards, driveways, garages, and
Increased Property Values. Stream
restoration measures and vegetative
buffers can beautify residential areas,
increasing the potential market value of
nearby properties.
Reduction in Emergency Expenditures.
Emergency measures necessitated by
large storms, such as removal of deposits
from streambeds and repair of access
roads and bridges undercut by high
floodwater, can be reduced.
Reduction in Lost Income. Benefits
include the time homeowners would have
to spend away from their jobs to repair
flood damages and recover from large
Reduced Flood Insurance Costs.
Reductions in flood insurance administra-
tive costs are direct benefits. In cases
involving floodplain acquisition, flood
insurance policies may be terminated,
reducing costs to the government.
Floodplain Easements
Reduce Flood Impacts in
North Dakota
An innovative program is helping to
reduce the economic and environmen-
tal risks of farming floodplains in
North Dakota. Since the first sign-up in
July of 1997, nearly 300 landowners in
the Red River Basin have applied for
assistance under a new floodplain
easement program. A total of 12,315
acres of floodplain easements have
been or are currently being secured. In
fact, many landowners have even
expressed an interest in restoring their
lands to pre-settlement or
preagronomic conditions.
The Emergency Watershed Protection
(EWP) Floodplain Easement Program
became available through the Federal
Agricultural Improvement Reform Act
(FAIRA), popularly known as the 1996
Farm Bill. The Farm Bill added
Watershed Protection and Flood
Prevention Program
The PL 83-566 program, authorized in 1954, provides
structural, nonstructural, and land treatment solutions
to natural resource problems facing communities.
The purposes of the program include flood preven-
tion, reduction of erosion and sedimentation, water
quality improvement, fish and wildlife habitat improve-
ment, recreational opportunities, and water supply.
Visit the Natural Resource Conservation Service's web
site at www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov programs.html to find
out more about the Watershed Protection and Flood
Prevention program.

Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Page 11
Key Findings and Policy Options in
the Erosion Hazards Report Re-
leased by the Federal Emergency
Management Agency
•	Development in several high-risk
coastal areas studied has increased by
more than 60 percent over the last 20
•	Only about half of homeowners in high-
erosion areas on the Atlantic and Gulf
coasts currently hold flood insurance
•	Assuming that enrollment in the federal
flood insurance program holds steady,
payout for erosion-related losses over
the next few decades is likely to be
about $80 million per year.
•	338,000 structures are located within
500 feet of the shoreline.
•	Fifty percent of these structures are
located on the Atlantic coast, 13
percent on the Gulf, 20 percent on the
Pacific coast, and 17 percent on the
Great Lakes.
Policy Options:
•	Prepare and disseminate maps
showing areas subject to erosion.
•	Create Coastal High Hazard Zones that
include both flood and erosion risks.
•	Impose a mandatory surcharge for
erosion on flood insurance in Coastal
High Hazard Zones.
•	Combine erosion surcharges with
regulatory measures such as setbacks
to reduce damages.
•	Require communities to impose
building standards appropriate for
future flood conditions expected
because of erosion.
•	Provide relocation assistance and/or
authority for the Natural Resources
Conservation Service to purchase
floodplain easements. The purpose of
the easements is to provide a nontradi-
tional, nonstructural alternative to
floodplain management. Easements are
considered an effective alternative in
reducing risks to life and property on
land that frequently Hoods. The
program's primary goal in North Dakota
is to restore the hydrology of the
floodplain and its native plant commu-
nity while offering the landowner
economic and social incentives.
EWP could not have been more timely.
The 1990s brought repeated flooding to
the North Basin of the Red River Basin.
Some landowners along the river and its
tributaries experienced out-of-bank flows
6 out of 10 years. The Devils Lake
Basin, a subbasin of the Red River Basin,
also experienced more than a 20-foot rise
in the lake level since 1993. After the
devastating spring flooding of 1997, a
new conservation
"We also know that more and more Americans are moving
and building in at-risk areas. This [Erosion Hazards] report
highlights the need for all of us to begin to make decisions
about what we are going to do to protect our natural re-
- James Lee Witt, Director
mental impacts caused by	Federal Emergency Management Agency
repeated flooding have been
successfully alleviated, particularly in
Walsh and Pembina counties. Requests
for assistance continue to exceed
supplemental funding made available
through the EWP program. With this
new flood control alternative, program
participants will now be able to enjoy
the natural floodplain.
program was desper-
ately needed to assist
landowners in reducing
flooding impacts.
Through the EWP
program, the economic
hardships and environ-
Bio-Reactor Wetland System Cleans Water, Air and Attracts Wildlife
It's a wetland, a wildlife refuge, and a
working waste treatment plant. It cleans
water, reduces odor, and saves operat-
ing costs. What "it" is is a series of
seven wetlands, specially designed to
efficiently treat waste though the use of
proprietary bacteria. The first of their kind
in the Midwest, the bio-reactor wetlands
were built by Steve Kerns of Clearfield,
Iowa, in 1996. The entire treatment
system, which uses 5 acres of former
pasture ground, holds about 3.5 acres of
surface water and is designed to contain
two 500-year storms. Each wetland,
which was prestocked with special
manure-consuming bacteria, is main-
tained at a depth of 24 to 30 inches. The
bacteria are self-sustaining and can
survive Iowa winters.
After completing the 120-day cycle
through the system, wastewater from the
hog operation is cleaner than what most
Iowa cities are allowed to discharge.
According to the most recent five-day
test results, the biochemical oxygen
demand dropped 99.9 percent from the
top cell to the bottom cell. BOD is a
measure of biological activity. The lower
the number, the less pollution potential.
Kern's wetland BOD levels are 8.7 parts
per million. His goal was 30. Nitrate
levels are next to nothing and are lower
than Iowa's drinking water standards.
"This is a win, win, win situation," said
Kerns, who owns a 300-sow seed-stock
operation. It's produced clean water and
air, fewer costs, and more wildlife."
The USDA Natural Resources Conser-
vation Service and Designed Organics,
Inc., of Des Moines helped design and
implement Kern's manure management
system. Construction cost about
$10,000. The bacteria were donated.
Kerns first investigated building the
system of terraces as an alternative to
hauling and applying 2 million gallons o
manure each year. He had applied
manure twice a year at an approximate
cost of $10,000 to $20,000 annually.
"Our biggest challenge was finding
windows of opportunity to apply
manure," Kerns said. "We had
concerns about compaction and
planting schedules. Wear and tear on
local roads was also becoming more of
a concern." Based on the application
cost savings, Kerns estimates the
wetlands paid for themselves within the
first 18 months. But the wetlands are
cutting more than costs.
'There has been about a 50 percent
reduction in odor," Kerns said. "We
didn't plan for that—it was just an added
bonus." Another supplemental benefit is
the wildlife that now reside at the Kems
farm. "The wetlands have pulled in
about 150 ducks and three sets of
Canada geese. And I've seen lots of
foxes lately," he said.
For more information, contact Laura
Greiner, Communications Specialist,
USDA-Natural Resources Conservation
Sen/ice, Des Moines, Iowa.

Page 12
Watershed Events
Summer 2000

High Political Drama Sur-
rounds Final TMDL Rule
EPA Administrator Carol Browner signed
a final rule to strengthen the Total
Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program
on July 11. This important national
program, established under section 303(d)
of the Clean Water Act, provides the
framework for identifying and cleaning
up polluted waterbodies. The rulemaking
had been under development for
several years.
A TMDL is a "pollution budget"
designed to restore the health of a
waterbody not meeting state water
quality standards. Over 20,000
waterbodies across America have
been identified as polluted by states,
territories, and authorized tribes.
The rule is subject to a rider, which was
attached to the Fiscal Year 2001
Military Construction/Supplemental
Appropriations bill, expressly prohibits
EPA from using any funds to imple-
ment new rules to the TMDL program.
Because the bill was still awaiting the
President's signature when the Admin-
istrator signed the rule, the rider did not
prevent promulgation of the rule.
However, as a consequence, the final
rule will not become effective until
October 1, 2001. While implementation
of the new rule is interrupted by the
enactment of the rider, the program will
operate under the "old" rules.
In August 1999, EPA proposed
changes to its existing regulations to
clarify and strengthen the authorities of
EPA, states, territories, and authorized
tribes to implement the TMDL program.
EPA considered more than 34,000
comments on the proposed rulemaking
and talked with hundreds of people in
public outreach and information-sharing
sessions. EPA made many final changes
to the regulations as a result of public
comment, including dropping the
requirement to list "threatenfed" waters,
eliminating the requirement that states
give higher priority to certain impaired
waters, and removing forestry provi-
sions that would have allowed for new
permitting authority to address point
source discharges of stormwater that
cause significant pollution problems.
The final rule will:
•	Strengthen states' abilities to clean
up polluted waters by identifying
pollution reductions needed to meet
clean water standards;
•	Provide for a comprehensive listing
of all the Nation's polluted waters
(i.e., those that fail to meet state
water quality standards);
•	Encourage cost-effective clean-up
by ensuring all sources of pollution
are considered in the development
of cleanup plans;
•	Assure that TMDLs include
implementation plans that define
specific actions and schedules for
meeting clean water goals.
Furthermore, cleanup plans must
provide "reasonable assurances" that
measures to address the pollution,
including polluted runoff will be
implemented, and controls for polluted
runoff are to be implemented within
five years, when practicable. The public
will also have increased input into the
TMDL process through the opportunity
to comment on the methodology, lists,
prioritized schedules and TMDLs prior
to submission to EPA.
For additional information, visit the
TMDL web site www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl.
Regional Watershed
The federal agencies involved in the Clean
Water Action Plan (CWAP) are providing
assistance to nonprofit organizations to
convene regional watershed round-tables
across the country. Below are snapshots of
roundtables convened in May.
Great Lakes Roundtable, May 9-11
The Conservation Technology Infor-
mation Center hosted a roundtable in
Chicago that focused on urban sprawl
and smart growth. Participants were
educated on the potential impacts of
urbanization on local watersheds. In
addition, the roundtable provided training
on financing and techniques for water-
shed protection and restoration projects.
Rocky Mountain Roundtable, May 15-17
The Montana Watercourse convened a
roundtable in Chico Hot Springs,
Montana, that brought together local,
state, and federal watershed stakehold-
ers from the Dakotas, Colorado, Utah,
Montana, and Wyoming. Local watershed
prdctitrioners identified the need for sustain-
able funding sources for the operation and
maintenance of local watershed organiza-
tions, including the hiring of local
watershed coordinators, as a top priority.
California Roundtable, May 17
The Watershed Management Council
hosted the last of four roundtables in
Davis, California. These roundtables
assembled local watershed groups and
state and federal agencies to identify
commonalities among diverse water-
shed approaches and to suggest how a
robust, collaborative framework for
watershed management in California
could be shaped.
For more information about upcom-
ing watershed roundtables, visit the
Clean Water Action web site at
www.cleanwater.gov. The regional
watershed roundtables will culmi-
nate with the National Watershed
Forum in 2001 (Clean Water Plan/
Action Item 108).

Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Page 13
Tlmi IR.e&omcet
The National Water Quality
Inventory: 1998 Report
to Congress.
(June 2000) EPA-841-F-00-006
Biennial report prepared under section
305(b) of the Clean Water Act summa-
rizes state-reported water quality
conditions in streams, lakes, estuaries,
wetlands, coastal waters, and ground
water. Additional information, includ-
ing a fact sheet and the full report, is
available on the internet at
www.epa.gov/ow, under "What's
New," or by calling EPA's National
Service Center for Environmental
Publications at 1-800-490-9198.
Atlas of America's Polluted Waters.
(May 2000) EPA-840-B-00-002.
Provides a map of each state depicting
surface waters that do not meet state
water quality standards, as reported
under Section 303(d) of the Clean
Water Act. It is available on the internet
at www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/atlas or by
calling 1-800-490-9198.
Liquid Assets2000: America's Water
Resources at a Turning Point. (May
2000) EPA-840-B-0Q-001.
Provides a snapshot of the economic
value of clean
water, the
problems we face
in the new
millennium, and
the actions we
must take to
protect and restore
the nation's water
resources. It is
available on the
internet at www.epa.gov/ow/
liquidassets or by calling 1-800-490-
Videos/CD Roms
Control of Rural Road Runoff. A
Video Asks for Partnerships
The Boquet River and AuSable River,
with headwaters in the high peaks of
the New York Adirondack Park and
mouths at Lake Champlain, were until
recently prime trout and salmon rivers.
Both rivers now face near-critical levels
of sand embeddedness (sand from
winter deicing agents, shoulder
ditching, and culverts and storm drains
without settling basins that packs
between substrate cobbles and can
smother fish eggs and aquatic insects).
Armed with a small implementation
grant from the Lake Champlain Basin
Program, the Boquet River Association
(BRASS), in Elizabethtown, New
York, went out to help rural road
superintendents control runoff. When
touring proposed sites with road
department personnel, the organization
quickly realized that hardware and
changes in road maintenance would not
solve the problem.
BRASS found its most useful role
was to assist highway superintendents
by negotiating with landowners and
other jurisdictions, applying for
permits, seeking technical help,
looking for volunteer assistance, and
building partnerships. The Associa-
tion made a 24-minute video in which
local highway superintendents,
environmental groups, elected
officials, sportsmen, engineers, and
agency personnel talk frankly about
the problems and impact of sediment
runoff. To obtain a copy of Looking
for Answers: Developing Partner-
ships/or the Control of Sediment
Runofffrom Rural Roads, send $15
(check, PO, VISA, MC, or AmEx) to
Videosyncracies, Inc.,
73 Main Street, Suite 39, Montpelier,
VT 05602.
Waters to the Sea CD ROM Links
History, Ecology, and Water
Hamline University's Center for Global
Environmental Education in St. Paul,
Minnesota, has released a new educa-
tional CD-ROM, "Waters to the Sea:
Rivers of the Upper Mississippi." This
project teaches students in grades 4 to 9
about diverse science and social studies
concepts. Virtual journeys down three
Upper Mississippi watersheds take
users from prehistoric times up to the
present through prairie, deciduous
forest, and coniferous forest ecoregions.
Each journey investigates the impacts
of human land-use activities within
each watershed. Users also conduct
water-quality tests on simulated water
samples. Twenty-four short videos,
landscape panoramas, hundreds of
historic photos, and numerous engaging
multimedia activities provide for a rich
learning experience.
The program costs $39.95 plus ship-
ping and handling. Contact the Center
for Global Environmental Education.
Phone: 651-523-2480; e-mail:
cgee@hamline.edu; web
New Video Explains Riparian
Whether the riparian area is along a
coastal or a desert stream, it plays a
pivotal role in the health of our water-
sheds. "Life on the Edge: Improving
Riparian Function," a new 12-minute
video from the Oregon State University
Extension Service, shows viewers:
• How this transition zone between
water's edge and the uplands
provides food and cover for fish
and wildlife, controls erosion,
filters runoff, and produces the
ingredients for fish habitat and
stream channel stability.
See Videos, page 14

Page 14
Watershed Events
Summer 2000
From Videos, page 13
•	What land-use practices can impact
riparian areas.
•	The techniques landowners, volun-
teers, and professional resource
managers are using to improve and
protect riparian function.
The video costs $19.95 (including
shipping). Order by e-mailing
puborders@orst.edu or send a check or
money order payable to Oregon State
University to: Publication Orders,
Extension & Station Communications,
Oregon State University, 422 Ken-
Administration Building, Corvallis, OR
Improving Water Quality Through
Land Use Education: An Emerging
National NEMO Network
Nonpoint Education for Municipal
Officials (NEMO) is a University of
Connecticut educational program for
local land use decision makers that
addresses the links between land use
and natural resources, particularly
water resources. The NEMO project
believes that natural resource health
is a reflection of land use practices
and that land use is a local issue that
is best improved through professional,
research-based outreach education.
NEMO is in its ninth year of operation
and has helped scores of Connecticut
towns achieve changes to local land
use plans, regulations, and practices.
These changes in land use practice
include anything from parking lot and site
design to road layout and design to open
space planning to regional watershed
plans and interjurisdictional agreements.
News of NEMO's success has spread
nationwide. Fifteen states have adapted
the program, with another 13 states in
some stage of program planning. This
informal confederation of NEMO
projects has led to the creation of a
National NEMO Network to share
experiences, tools, and techniques.
Member projects in the Network are
not necessarily clones of the Connecti-
cut program. Each project has a slightly
different natural resource emphasis
(urbanization, ground water protection,
coastal wetlands) and geographic
focus. The diversity of interests and
focus is due, in part, to the flexibility of
the NEMO educational approach.
The National NEMO Network is
advised by an Interagency Work Group
made up of EPA, USDA, NOAA, and
NASA staff, as well as representatives
of professional and client organizations
like the American Planning Associa-
tion and the National Association of
Counties. Currently, the Interagency
Work Group is working on a Charter to
further the goals and support the mission
of the National NEMO Network.
For more information about NEMO
and the National NEMO Network, visit
http://nemo.uconn.edu or contact Chet
Arnold (Project Director) or John
Rozum (National Coordinator) at
(860) 345-4511.
Web Sites
Web Site Encourages Raising Fish
in Classrooms
In 1993 the U.S. Fish & Wildlife
Service in New Hampshire created an
interdiciplinary middle school curricu-
lum titled Adopt-A-Salmon Family.
The curriculum allows teachers and
students an adventure in studying
watershed issues, as well as the
excitement of rearing and releasing
Atlantic salmon. Although strong in
science concepts, the materials also
provide opportunities for lessons in
language arts, fine arts, mathematics,
social studies, technical education,
ethics, and recreation. The curriculum
is being used in more than 100 schools
in the Northeast.
The Boquet River Association received
an EPA Environmental Education
grant to expand the curriculum to
include landlocked Atlantic salmon,
brook trout, land use history, and
geomorphology of the Adirondack and
Lake Champlain region, with a greater
emphasis on habitat as the limiting
factor for healthy
fisheries in many of the
nation's streams and
rivers. The new
materials are being
tested in seven public
middle schools. These
studies fit into new state
educational standards
that promote critical
thinking, problem-
solving, and the realism
and immediacy of
backyard environmental
issues. The materials
are available on the web
at www.boquetriver.org.
Photo by Dave Davis
Restoration Web Site
Check out this new web site dedicated to river corridor and wetland restora-
tion. The site provides definitions, tools, funding sources, and project ideas,
as well as links to other valuable restoration sites, www.epa.gov/owow/
Watershed Academy Pilots On-Line Certificate
OWOW is now offering a Watershed Training Certificate for successful
completion of a series of 15 specific on-line watershed training modules
(10 required, 5 elective). Many new modules are under construction and
will be completed during the summer of 2000. General areas covered
include Introductory Modules, Watershed Ecology, Watershed Change,
Analysis and Planning, Management Practices, and Community/
Institutional/Social Context, www.epa.gov/owow/watershed/wacademy/
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Summer 2000
Watershed Events
Page 15
7-11 Water Quality Standards
Academy, Arlington, VA.
Sponsored by EPA. Contact
Greg Smith at (614) 487-
1040; web site:
27-30 Riparian Ecology and
Management in Multi-Land
Use Watersheds. Ameri-
can Water Resources
Assoc. Summer Specialty
International Conference,
Portland, OR. Contact
AWRA at (703) 904-1225;
awrahq@aol.com; web
site: www.awra.org.
29-Sep. 1 National Community
Involvement Conference,
San Francisco, CA. Spon-
sored by EPA. Contact Jori
Copeland at (202) 260-1905;
copeland.jori@epa.gov; web
site: www.epa.gov/
6-8 Field Workshop on Ground
Water-Surface Water
Interactions, Poison, MT.
Visit www.umt.edu/
biologu/flbs or e-mail
8-9 Mississippi River Basin
Alliance Annual Confer-
ence and Membership
Meeting, Memphis, TN.
Contact MRBA at
mrbaoffice @ mrba.org,
web site: www.mrba.org.
11-15 Working^
Con t
at (606) 2'
mcalister@csg.org; web
site: www.statesnews.org/
24-27 AML Reclamation 2000:
Reflecting on the Past-
Assessing the Future,
Steamboat Springs, CO.
Hosted by the State of
Colorado Department of
Natural Resources'
Division of Minerals and
Geology. Phone: (303)
866-4097; web site:
11-14 8th National Nonpoint
Source Monitoring
Workshop, Hartford,CT.
Contact John Clausen at
(860) 486-2840;
web site: ww.ce.uconn.edu/
17-21 Spanning Cultural and
Ecological Diversity
Throught Environmental
Education, South Padre
Island, TX. Sponsored by
the North American
Association for Environ-
mental Education. Contact
Brenda Weiser at (281)
weiser@cl.uh.edu; web
site: www.naaee.org.
29-Nov.	2 Wetlands Regulatory
Workshop, Atlantic City,
NJ. Sponsored by EPA.
Contact Ralph Spagnolo at
(215) 814-2718;
spagnolo. ralph @epa.gov.
30-Nov.	10 Healthy Watersheds:
Community-based Partner-
ships for Environmental
Decision-Making Seminar,
Aurora CO. Sponsored by
the United States Office of
Personnel Management.
Phyllis O'Meara at
8-10 NALMS 2000: Celebrating
20 Years of People Linking
Lake and Watershed
Management, Miami, FL.
Sponsored by the North
American Lake Management
Society. Contact Pamela
Leasure at (727) 464-4425;
or nalms@nalms.org; web
site: www.nalms.org.
13-15 Asking the Right Questions:
Evaluating the Impact of
Groundwater Education,
Nebraska City, NE.
Sponsored by The Ground-
water Foundation. Contact
Cindy Kreifels at (800)
27-30 Managing Watersheds in
the New Century,
Monterey, CA. Sponsored
by the Watershed Manage-
ment Council. Phone:
(510) 273-9066;
wmc@watershed.org; web
site: watershed.org/wmc.
Call for Poster Abstracts
The Nature Conservancy is soliciting
abstracts for "Managing River Flows tor
Biodiversity—A Conference on Science,
Policy and Conservation Action." This
conference will be held July 30-August 2,
2001, at Colorado State University in Fort
Collins, CO. Attendees will have an
opportunity to examine the real and
perceived conflicts between meeting
ecosystem needs and human demands
for water; discuss the state of science with
respect to flow requirements for
biodiversity conservation; and hear case
studies where practitioners are working to
meet human demands for water while also
providing for ecosystem health.
Abstracts must be submitted by Decem-
ber 31, 2000. Posters may cover themes
related to managing river flows for
biodiversity, includinggpase studies oi
particular flow restoration efforts. All
abstracts should be submitted to Nicole
Silk by e-mail (nsilk@tnc.org).
More information about the conference will
soon be available at www.freshwaters.org.

Page 16
Watershed Events
Summer 2000
Runoff Is Leading Cause of Impairment According to 1998 National Water Quality Inventory
In the newly released 1998 National Water Quality Inventory, states, tribes, territories, and interstate commissions report
that in 1998 about 40% of U.S. streams, lakes, and estuaries assessed were not clean enough to support uses such as
fishing and swimming. About 32% of U.S. waters were assessed for this national inventory of water quality. Leading
pollutants in impaired waters include siltation, bacteria, nutrients, and metals. Runoff from agricultural lands and urban
areas are the primary sources of these pollutants. Although the United States has made significant progress in cleaning up
polluted waters over the past 30 years, much remains to be done to restore and protect the Nation's waters. The full report
is available at www.epa.gov/ow, under "What's New," or by calling EPA's National Service Center for Environmental
Publications at 1-800-490-9198. Ask for EPA-841-F-00-006.
President Announces New Oceans Executive Order
On May 25, President Clinton issued a new Executive Order that directs EPA to better protect beaches, coasts, and ocean
waters from pollution. In developing new Clean Water Act regulations that strengthen water quality protection for coastal
and ocean waters, EPA may set higher levels of protection in especially valued or vulnerable areas. In addition, the
Executive Order strengthens and expands the system of Marine Protected Areas.
President Clinton also directed the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the Interior to develop a plan to perma-
nently protect the coral reefs of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, which represent nearly 70 percent of the coral reefs in U.S.
The new Executive Order was announced on Assateague Island, in the watershed of the Maryland Coastal Bays National
Estuary Program (NEP). The President complimented the work of the NEP and other coastal protection programs and
described how the New Executive Order would enhance the important coastal environmental work already begun. For more
information, visit www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/protecting_oceans,
Views expressed in Watershed Events do not necessarily reflect those of EPA. In addition, mention of commerical prod-
ucts or publications does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by EPA.
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