MAY 1975
                          PROTECTING CLEAN AIR
                      HEALTH EFFECTS OF POLLUTION

 Flying at dawn in a  small plane over  Nevada
one could sec for miles in the dry, elcar air over
the valley desert land, much  of it used as a
nuclear testing site.
 Ahead on the sunlit horizon was a green patch,
the farm maintained by EPA's  Las  Vegas
laboratory to test the effect of radiation on plants
and animals.
 As the plane circled to return to Las Vegas one
could  see miles away some  military aircraft,
flying  high  in formation, suddenly  plunge in a
power  dive.
 Our pilot explained that these planes were being
flown by the  Air Force's precision flying team,
the Thunderbirds. On  the flight back one could
see with remarkable clarity the  distant  planes
darting, rolling and cavorting together as they
continued their maneuvers.
 But  as our plane neared Las Vegas one's
attention was diverted  by a growing brownish
ha/.e hanging  like a pall in the windless sky over
the whole city.
 As residents  of the gaudy gambling center woke
and began driving their cars to  work, auto fumes
and other air pollutants had stained the desert air.
 This  pollution scene, witnessed a few years
ago, or similar ones, can be found in many of
our large cities  when  weather  conditions are
 In Denver,  the air pollution haze which some-
times blurs the view of the Rocky Mountains is
known  as "the brown cloud."
 In Washington, D.C., the  spectacular view of
the city from the front porch of Arlington  House,
high on the Potomac's west  bank, is sometimes
marred by a pollution blanket.
 Our gains and problems in trying to control air
pollution are  discussed in  the Journal  on Pa»e
 While  there  has been progress in several areas
in  the effort  to cleanse our  air,  there are still
regions  like Los Angeles and its suburbs where
smog has been compared to a Biblical plague.
 The benefits of clean air  are shown  in the
magazine's Photo  Essay  section (Page  13) in
photographs  of Springtime  activities in four
major American cities.
 These  photographs  illustrate what  outdoor
urban life could be like more often with the aid
of fresh  air obtained through the enforcement of
standards and emission controls and  the  devel-
opment of better air pollution control planning.
 In another Journal article  the impact  on health
of air and other types of pollution is reviewed on
Page 4.
 While  air pollution is sometimes the breath of
death, and often a destroyer of the quality of life,
it is only one of several forms of pollution which
injure and kill people.
 Although deaths in  pollution  episodes  attract
the most attention, some scientists believe that a
more  sinister problem may  be the  continued
exposure to low levels of pollutants over a period
of  many years.
 These are some of the  reasons why  Adminis-
trator Russell  E. Train in testifying recently in
support  of the Clean  Air  Act  told the Senate
Public Works Committee that  it is imperative
that "we not  only refuse to relax public  health
standards  and environmental safeguards, but
insist  even more strongly upon rigorous  stand-
ards and safeguards."

A u-s.
Russell E. Train
Patricia L. Cahn
Director of Public Affairs
Charles D. Pierce
Van Trumbuil
Ruth Hussey
tover: EPA helicopter taking air
samples in Los Angeles area
hovers over expressway.
Cover Gene Daniels *
Page 2 Blair Pittman*
Page 4 Erik Calonius *
National Geographic
Page 5 Center for Disease
Control, Atlanta, Ga.
National Geographic
Page 6 Don Moran
Page 7 Don Moran
Page 8 Malcolm F. Kallus
Page 12 Don Moran
Page 13 Wil Blanche *
Page 14 Tom Hub bard *
Paul Cequeira *
Page 15 Tom Hubbard *
Donald Emmerich *
Page 1 8 & 1 9 Don Moran
Ernest Bucci
Page 20 Ernest Bucci
Prospective amendments to the Clean Air Act will give EPA guidance in solving a
national problem: achieving optimum pollution control at minimum cost to the
economy and the energy supply. By Roger Strelow
How environmental pollution can cause sickness and death is outlined in a new
slide show lecture by the Office of Research and Development's medical science
advisor, Dr. Lawrence A. Plumlee.
Deputy Administrator John R. Quarles Jr., urges conference to push for saving
materials at mine, factory, and packaging plant.
"^^SJ— >.

np he EPA Journal is published monthly, with combined issues for July-August and November-December,
-*• for employees of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It does not alter or supersede regulations,
operating procedures or manual instructions. Contributions and inquiries should be addressed to the Editor,
(A - 107) Room 209, West Tower, Waterside Mall, 401 M St., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20460. No
permission necessary to reproduce contents except copyrighted photos and other materials.



         More than four years ago.  in
         December  1970. the Con-
         gress  enacted  comprehensive
         clean  air legislation.  Now
EPA,  the  Congress. State and  local
officials, and others are taking stock of
what has  been  accomplished and what
remains to be done in our campaign to
give Americans a clean and healthful
  The searching  review now under way
is prompted by  many things,  hut  per-
haps most  importantly by:
1. The imminence  of the mid-1975
target  established  by  the 1970  law for
meeting the primary  air quality stand-
ards designed to protect health.
2. A heightened awareness  of the com-
plexities of both the air  pollution prob-
lem and its solutions.
3. The need to reconcile potentially
(and, even more often, allegedly) com-
peting energy and  clean air goals.
4. The necessity  of securing broad-
based support from the public and their
eleeted representatives  tor  the strate-
gies needed to carry on  our campaign.

  As a  recent Lou  Harris poll confirms,
Americans continue  to rank  air and
water cleanup very high on their list of
national priorities, and  most  of  them
reject  claims that pollution control
either  should or must be compromised
in order to meet  energy needs.  This
public support is not only reassuring—
it is  essential. The major challenges we
face now  arc to  identify the  specific
measures  needed to intensify the  fight
for clean  air and to win public under-
standing  of and  support  for these
  Inevitably, some  of  the public's  sup-
port  for air pollution control rests upon
the notion that success can be achieved
simply by getting tough  with some
corporate  "villains" at little or no cost
or inconvenience  to  the average  citi-
zen. This clearly  is not so. Although
the overall economic impacts of air
pollution control are relatively modest.
.specific communities, as well as speci-
fic industries and  their customers,  will
be substantially affected.  In  certain
areas,  for  example, the cost of comply-
ing  with   fuel  or emission  control
standards  for electric  utilities  can add
significantly to the price the consumer
pays for electricity.
  In addition, clean  air will  not be
attained without some  constraints on
individual activities. In most large
urban  areas,  for example,  significant
changes  in urban transportation  are

  Assistant Administrator for Air
     and Waste Management

needed,  as a supplement to vehicle
controls,  if auto-related air  pollution
standards  are  to  be met and main-
tained. Restraints must  be imposed on
unnecessary  single-occupant vehicle
use to  stimulate carpooling and public
transportation.  These  restraints will
affect  a  large  proportion of urban
residents since  less than 15  percent of
them now  use public transportation to
travel to work.  The  small number that
participate in car pools is demonstrated
by the  fact that average ear occupancy
is only  1.2 persons per commuter trip
and only slightly higher for total trips.
  The foregoing examples  illustrate the
paradox  that air pollution control is
both strongly supported in genera! anil
highly controversial in certain respects.
One of the key challenges  EPA faces is
to resolve this dilemma, through public
education,  better integration  of clean
air objectives into related programs like
urban transportation  systems,  and con-
tinuing reassessment  using new in-
formation  to target  our efforts  most
  With  today's economic pressures and
the long-term need to correct  a  serious
imbalance  in energy supply and de-
mand,  the clean air  program  will face
even greater demands for rigorous  anal-
ysis and careful  assessment of alterna-
tives than in the past. We must  meet
these legitimate demands  even as we
reject and discredit claims that clean air
must or should  be  sacrificed to  meet
 economic and energy goals.
  Fortunately, the pending amendments
 of the Clean Air Act afford EPA the
 opportunity to obtain both Congres-
 sional reaffirmation for  the clean air
 program and the more  explicit guid-
 ance  needed in such areas as trans-
 portation controls  and  prevention  of
 significant  deterioration.  At the same
 time,  these  amendments  will give the
 Agency more flexible mandates in such
 matters as compliance deadlines, with-
 out weakening  the invaluable pressure
 for prompt  action that is  built  into the

  In seeking to  identify  some  of the
 most  important elements of a rejuve-
 nated  clean air  program.  I have devel-
 oped the following list which is by no
 means exhaustive:
 * Nothing  is more critical to our future
 success than improved  information.
 particularly concerning the actual qual-
 ity of the air and the causes and health
 effects of various pollution conditions.
 (I  refer to  "conditions" rather  than
 "pollutants" to emphasi/e that  pol-
 lutant  combinations and interactions
 require  increased attention). We  can-
 not afford, however, to suspend control
 measures while  seeking better informa-
 tion.  We must  always  act with incom-
 plete data,  doing our best  to insure that
 we do not insist on unjustified require-
 ments. The  most unacceptable risks, of
 course, are  those taken at the potential
 expense of public health.
 * We must take  the initiative  to explain
 what  we know and  do  not  know.
 Oversimplification  and overpromising
 create risks  of losing public credibility,
 without which the clean air effort is in
 real trouble.
 ;  The  total motor  vehicle  pollution
 control  program  must be reassessed
 and strengthened. The  most immediate
 priority is to identify an adequate long-
 term  solution lo the potential sulfuric
 acid emission  problem  while  at the
 same time  maintaining maximum con
 trol of hydrocarbon and  carbon mon-
 oxide emissions. All of us involved in
 the Administrator's difficult suspension
 decision for the  1977 models hope  that
 EPA and others  can work together to
 find the most rapid  route  to  attain the
 statutory standards consistent  with
 adequate protection  from the sulfuric
 acid threat.
 But there is a  lot more to be done in
any event.   Vehicles like trucks and
motorcycles  that contribute an increas-
                  ("onlinueil  on Paste 7
                                                                                                             PAGU 3

   the wide  range  of  ways in which
   pollution can cause sickness and death
isreviewed in a slide show being devel-
oped hy Dr. Lawrence A. Plumlee, EPA
medical science advisor in the Office of
Research and Development.
 li  consists  of 43  color  slides and
accompanying text. The slides are photo-
graphs or illustrations of  pollution vic-
tims,  sources of pollution  and  trend
charts of diseases caused hy pollution.
 One  chart, for  example,  reports an
enormous increase in "emphysema, lung
cancer and  chronic bronchitis" in  the
United States.
 Dr Rene Duhos, noted environmental-
ist,  is quoted  in the show text: "Many
chronic diseases are due, in part  . . . and
probably  in  a very large part to  the
environmental and  behavioral  changes
that have  resulted from industriali/alion
and urbanization."
 Highlights from the commentary by  Dr.
Plumlee for the slide show are:
 "Temperature inversions which trap air
pollutants, bringing tears to the eyes,
and substantially increasing sickness and
death rates, accentuate the effects of air
pollution on health.
 "However,  of even greater concern to
many is the effect of chronic exposure to
air pollutants which, along with smoking
and occupational exposure, has  contrib-
uted !o the dramatic increase  in emphy-
sema and chronic bronchitis.
 "People with asthma have special prob-
lems because pollutants  in the air irritate
I lie asthmatics' air tubes,  causing them
to close off. This can cause disability or
effects of
This factory in Japan discharg
Minamata Bav.
•d  a  lethal  mercury  containing substance  into
                                                            ^    /
                                     Air hammer creates deafening din.
p,v.i t

 "In  the area of hazardous  substances,
asbestos  is known  to  cause cancer in
people who work with  it and in persons
living near where  it  is processed  and
 "Another dangerous pollutant is lead.
One of the slides is a photo of a two-
year-old child poisoned by eating flakes
of  a  lead-based paint.  Lead  poison-
ing   can  cause  permanent  mental
 "Some other sources  of excess lead in
the environment are battery reclaiming
factories and  lead smelters such as those
in  El  Paso, Texas, and  Kellogg, Idaho.
 "A  serious  problem  in drinking water
is excessive nitrates which can seep  into
underground water supplies from animal
feed lots and fields where  high-nitrate
fertilizers have been spread.
 "The high  nitrate content  of some
drinking water can cause methemoglobin-
emia,   a blood disease which  seriously
decreases  the  oxygen-carrying capacity
of the blood  in babies and gives  the
infants a bluish appearance.
 "Death  or  serious illness can also be
caused by eating fish  or  shellfish  that
have  been contaminated by  sewage.
spills of hazardous materials, or dis-
charge of toxic industrial chemicals.

deaths from mercury
 "In  the 1950s  more than 52 Japanese
died after  a factory discharged  waste -
containing mercury  into Minamata Bay.
The mercury  became  concentrated in
fish, a staple  food for  the  population in
that area.  A  number of other residents
suffered partial paralysis  or  deformities
as  a result of eating contaminated fish.
This  mercury  discharge has now been
brought under control.
 "Sewasie contamination of  drinkinil
water can cause  typhoid fever and hep-
atitis and.  more commonly,  infectious
diarrhea. Polluted water caused an epi-
demic of  typhoid in Dade  County.
Florida, in  1973.
  "Noise is another pollutant  which can
harm human  beings. People can  be
deafened by  high  levels of noise.  Al-
ready an estimated  16 million- people in
the U.S.  suffer some hearing loss caused
directly by excess sound.  Environmental
pollutants also have effects on  mental as
well as physical health. Anxiety pro-
duced by noise is one example.
  "Pesticides can  be  very dangerous,
especially  to  those who apply them.
Worker education is essential to the safe
use  of many  DDT substitutes.  Even
when workers know and follow proper
precautions,  potential  for  accidental
toxic exposure  and resulting clinical
illness still exists.
  "Recognition of the early symptoms of
pesticide poisoning, accurate diagnosis
and  prompt  treatment  can  mean  the
difference between  life and death.

radiation hazard
  "Another potentially dangerous pol-
lutant is  radiation from such sources as
uranium mines and  mining wastes,
faulty color TV sets, medical X-rays and
nuclear power wastes.
  "The principal adverse effects that
radiation  can  have  on  human health  are
genetic disturbances and cancer.  In
Japan, cases of leukemia increased great-
ly following  detonation of the atomic
  Dr.  Plumlee.  who is a graduate and
former  faculty member  of the Johns
Hopkins  University  School of  Medicine
and  is  licensed  to  practice medicine  in
Maryland, explained that "1 started
 collecting these photographs used in the
 slide show because I felt that we needed
 more than just photographs focusing
 primarily  on esthetic  damage to the
  "I believed that photographs of sick
 people were  needed  to emphasize  more
 urgent reasons  for  controlling pollu-
 tion." Dr.  Plumlee invited  anyone in
 EPA  who has photographs showing the
 health impacts of pollution to provide
 them for  possible  inclusion  in  the
  At the  same  time. Dr. Plumlee em-
 phasized that most  patients suffering
 health damage  due  to  pollution do not
 show changes that can  be captured in  a
  "Even in some serious illnesses such as
 bronchitis and cancer,  the patient may
 look normal for a long time," he said.
  Thus his collection  of color slides
 cannot cover all diseases  caused by
 pollution.  Furthermore, while all of the
 diseases shown are known to be caused
 by pollution.  Dr. Plumlee cautioned that
 one  cannot  always  be  sure that any
 single case of some disease is  due  to
environmental pollution.
  Some of the photographs of patients in
 Dr. Plumiee's collection could  not be
 shown in  EPA Journal  because of re-
 strictions placed on  use  of these photo-
 graphs by  the patient's  family. Other
 pictures  could not be used in this black
and white  magazine because  they  are
only effective if seen in color.
  A  preliminary version of Dr. Phmilee's
 slide show was exhibited  recently in the
 Visitor Center at EPA headquarters.
  EPA's  Office  of International Affairs
hopes to make the slide show available
to foreign  visitors. Plans for presenting
the  show  to  other audiences  are  still
being developed. Q
A 15-year-old girl,  one of the victims of eating mercury -
ooisoned fish  from  Minamata  Bay,  attempts to button her
sweater despite her partial  paralysis.
                     This asthmatic uses a respirator to help his breathing.

       The Nation's wastage of material
       should be reduced when products
 arc designed  and packaged and  not
 merely dealt with u! incinerators, land
 disposal  sites,  and recycling facilities.
  This view was expressed  by John R.
 Quarles,  Jr., Deputy Administrator, at
 the Conference on Waste  Reduction,
 held by EPA in Washington, D.C., last
 month, and attended by representatives
 of industry,  public interest groups and
  Noting  that  national concern over
 solid  waste  is a more recent anxiety
 than concern over air and water pollu-
 tion, Mr. Quarles said:
  "The generation of waste is the con-
 sequence of our day-to-day living.
 High levels of  waste generation accom-
 pany  societies with  advanced  tech-
 nology . . . But the United  States  is
 unique among advanced societies in the
 amounts  of  wastes we create . . . We
 have made a fetish of convenience. We
 are simply wasteful—using more  mate-
 rial, more land, and more energy than
 is justified against  perspectives of
 future need."
  Citing the profligate use of resources
 in modern convenience food packag-
 ing, Mr.  Quarles  noted that overall
 consumption  of food  in the United
 States increased  by  2.3  percent per
 capita between 1963 and 1971.  But in
 the same period,  the  tonnage of food
 packaging increased  by an estimated
 33.3 percent per capita, and  the  num-
 ber of food  packages increased by an
 estimated 38.8  percent  per capita.
  Elimination of all tomato juice cans
 smaller than 32 ounces  in 1971  would
John R. Quarles, Jr., Deputy
Administrator,  speaking at Conference
on Waste Reduction.

have resulted in a reduction in steel use
of 19.6 percent  for this  product, he
 Inevitably, this  wastage of resources
and energy is  accompanied by pollu-
tion  of air and water  and  the further
environmental  degradation that results
from inadequate disposal of waste prod-
ucts. To curtail the waste and pollution
that  characterize  current  practices
throughout the  cycle of production and
consumption,  Mr. Quarles strongly
endorsed  the  necessity  of  waste
 "Waste reduction is a radical concept.
We might  as well recognize that at the
outset. It  means  basic change in our
ways of approaching day-to-day activi-
ties . . . Air and  water pollution con-
trol,  noise regulation, federal super-
vision over  food and  drugs,  and
transportation  safety  requirements—
these and many other departures from a
simpler time all were  equally radical
once, but they are  now well accepted
requirements of our society."
 Traditionally,  in our  system, the eco-
nomics of the market place  dictate
what products  should  be  made, how
they  should he made, their durability,
and their cost. But conspicuously ab-
sent  from these  considerations, Mr.
Quarles said, is  a concern for the
external  effects that products cause—
neither producers or consumers worry
about the  disposal  of  products,  their
potential for recycling, or their environ-
mental, resource,  and energy effects.
 "It  is precisely this lack of attention
that has led to the dramatic increase in
our waste  generation  and  to the con-
sequent problems of managing these
wastes in the disposal  phase.  A new
interest  in  reducing wastes  at  the
source as a way to deal  with these
problems—by  preventing  the  waste,
rather than letting it happen  and then
cleaning, up  afterward—is now  forced
upon  us  with urgency because in the
past this problem  has  been  almost
totally ignored."
 The  problems  of handling municipal
solid waste are increasing at a geomet-
rical rate and there is no end in sight.
The old city dump  is obsolete,  incin-
erators use scarce fuel  and cause air
pollution, development pressures  limit
sites for land  disposal, and as tight
controls are  imposed on  air and water
pollution, new municipal and industrial
solid wastes are being created that must
be disposed of as well.
 There is also resource recovery  and
the processes by which wastes  are
made  ready  for recycling.  If contam-
inants are eliminated at the  source, the
solid waste manager will not have to
make  costly adjustments in  the  con-
version process.  A  production  system
which dumps everything on the waste
manager,  regardless of  recyclability,
inhibits resource recovery.
 Looking beyond  the  present.  Mr,
Quarles sees this generation imposing a
heavy debt against  the  future  by its
exorbitant use of materials and energy.
To the usual  argument that the future is
uncertain, that technology will produce
the resources  as required,  and that
therefore there  is no present need to
interfere  with  free  market  forces to
obtain  uncertain future benefits, Mr.
Quaries countered:
 "The argument is sound enough as far
as it goes. What it leaves unsaid is that
the  market mechanism is imperfect at
best. Short-term dislocations may have
severe political  consequences, both
domestic  and  international  .  . . The
national government is held responsible,
and rightly so,  for  failing to foresee
and to make provisions  for unpleasant
contingencies. Just because the future
is  uncertain does not mean that we
should not manage the present,  es-
pecially if the costs are reasonable and
the benefit predictable."
 However, Mr. Quarles  continued, the
implementation of waste reduction can-
not be accomplished  overnight.
 "The key to successful waste  reduc-
tion is orderly transition  . . . This is the
foundation  of EPA's policy  on bev-
erage container legislation. A  year ago
in  May,  I testified on Capitol  Hill  in
favor of  the concept of a  mandatory
national beverage container  deposit re-


Attentive  audience at the  Conference
includes one shoeless note-taker.

quirement. One aspect of that testi-
mony has been  largely overlooked.  It
was an insistence that any such legisla-
tion  be phased in over time,  in such a
way  that the adverse consequences . . .
would be minimized or eliminated."
  Deploring the extremism of those who
want  rapid changes in production and
consumption  practices now  and those
who  want no  change ever, Mr. Quarles
  "It  is the  middle-ground  position
which all must come to in the end. We
recognize that immediate transforma-
tion of established practices cannot he
obtained.  We recognize that  existing
capital investments must be  counted.
and that people's jobs must be counted
even  more.  We  recognize  that no
change should be commanded until all
of the benefits and the costs have been
calculated.  We want to be  reasonable.
and  we will  be careful.  But we are
insistent  that  certain changes  can be
  In conclusion,  Mr.  Quarles asked the
conference  to  explore the problems of
implementation—how  to bring about
change at least cost.
  "Because we  do desire  to  proceed
with  cure it is  especially important that
progress be made through cooperation.
Public education,  industrial  coopera-
tion,   and  improved practices must go
hand  in hand.  Surely the most promis-
ing and  least  disruptive way to imple-
ment  waste  reduction would be by
cooperative  agreements among  the
various  interests  involved:  labor,
industry,  the  citi/enry,  and  govern-
ment." D
Continued from Page 3
ing  share of the  vehicle pollution
problem  must   be  brought   under
stronger controls, and  we are working
aggressively towards that end. We must
upgrade  our  efforts  to  ensure that
vehicles already on the road actually
meet the standards.
 The proposed assembly-line audit
program is a promising step. Inspection
and  maintenance  should have  a  key
role, quite possibly an  expanded one.
Both programs involve further testing
of  vehicles  to  determine  if  they
are  meeting Federal  motor vehicle
emission standards.
 All reasonable  transportation  control
measures must  move  forward, with
more specific  and  broadly-based legis-
lative  support. Since many  of the
measures EPA has required  for clean
air  reasons  (e.g.. car  pool  incentive
programs, bus lanes, parking controls)
have energy conservation benefits, or
benefits  for making public transporta-
tion  more attractive and  efficient, or
both, they should  be  given the  multi-
purpose  support they  deserve both in
the  Clean  Air  Act  and in related
legislation where added leverage could
be provided to secure their implementa-
 Preventing significant deterioration of
clean air areas is a critical priority.
Explicit Congressional  guidance is
needed  to  support EPA and  State
actions  and  to provide reasonable cer-
tainty to those  who must make develop-
ment plans.
 A more explicit and  effective role
should  he defined for local govern-
ments,  with appropriate requirements
for regional action. This should include
effective integration of land use consid-
erations and transportation controls.
 The long and bitter debate over con-
stant emission controls tor stationary
sources versus intermittent controls and
tall stacks should be resolved.
 EPA has concluded that  the law does
and  should mandate the former  when-
ever  feasible,  hut  the  legislative
language and  history arc  not free
enough  of debate to prevent continuing
challenges.  A clear policy  is needed
which  will end the debate  and force
utilities,  smelters, and others to get on
with  the cleanup job. A clear constant-
control  rule is  needed  not only  to
ensure  significant air quality improve-
ment but  also to  facilitate reasonable
growth and to permit the safe use
of our  abundant  high-sulfur  coal
 The national atmospheric  cleanup pro-
gram set in motion by the 1970 Clean
Air Amendments has come a long way.
There have been substantial  reductions
in urban sulfur oxides and particulutes
in recent  years. Emissions  of hydro-
carbons and carbon  monoxides  from
automobiles have been cut by 63 per-
cent and 56 percent respectively, com-
pared  to  1970  model year vehicles.
Some 70 percent of the nation's 20,000
major  stationary sources ot  air  pollu-
tion are either in full compliance with
State Implementation  Plans or meeting
the appropriate  interim requirements.
About 85 percent are  expected to be in
compliance by  the mid-1975 statutory

 But we also have a very long wa\ to
go. Attainment of the oxidant standard
is  literally out of sight in a  number of
urban areas. Many urban  areas will fail
to meet paniculate and  carbon mon-
oxide standards by the applicable dead-
line. There  is  widespread noncom-
pliance in the utility, smelter, steel and
other industries.
 While progress  has been  made in
reducing particulates in the air, approxi-
mately 101  of the  247 air  quality
control regions in  the Nation will
probably not attain the primary panicu-
late standards by mid-1975 date.
 However, this failure to meet  national
standards  at  one or more monitoring
sites in an  air quality region does not
necessarily mean that the air quality
throughout the region exceeds the stand-
ards. Dust and particulates from fires or
gaseous pollutants are responsible for
the non-attainment in some cases.
 In the field of automotive-related pol-
lutants, ten or more metropolitan areas
are not expected to achieve the primary
standards by  the mandated dates with-
out severe  limitations on automobile
 Proposed  amendments  to  the Clean
Air  Act are  designed to provide in-
creased legal flexibility in these areas
and  at the  same time ensure  (hat I he
maximum  feasible progress  will  he
 We have  precious few  laurels  yet—
certainly none to rest  on.  Renewed
dedication is required  at all levels  of
government  to  mount  the  sustained
effort needed not only to attain the air
quality standards but  also to maintain
them and to prevent significant deterio-
ration in clean areas.  The challenge is
enormous, but the reward for persever-
ance will he invaluable. U

 EPA  is  expected to decide scion
whether to allow the U.S. Air Force to
burn more than 1 1,000  metric tons of n
toxic  plant killer.  Herbicide  Orange,
far out in the  Pacific Ocean. This
cannot  be  done  until  EPA grants  a
permit under the ocean  dumping law.
 The Air Force wants  to hum  the
herbicide in an  incinerator  ship about
1,000  miles west  of Hawaii. Public-
hearings have been held in Honolulu
and San Francisco,  and the public has
had  30 days  for  comment  on  the
 Announcing the hearings, Adminis-
trator  Russell F.  Train  said  he had
tentatively decided  to permit incinera-
tion at sea of one shipload (about 4,200
metric tons) of the herbicide as  an
experiment  under  closely  controlled
 Herbicide Orange  is  a half-and-half
mixture of two  common plant-killing
chemicals, 2, 4-D and  2,  4, 5-T. Both
are chlorinated hydrocarbons, and both
arc registered by  EPA only  for re-
stricted uses and at much lower concen-
trations than the Air Force stocks.
 Herbicide Orange  was manufactured
in great quantities for use as a defoliant
in the Vietnam  War. This use was
halted  in 1970, and the Air Force has
left  about 2.26 million gallons  in
storage. About 1.4  million gallons are
at Johnston Island in  (he   central
Pacific, and 860,000 gallons  at the
Naval  Construction Battalion  Center,
Gulfport,  Miss.  All of it is stored in
55-gallon steel drums.
 The  Air  Force proposes to burn the
herbicide in the Dutch incinerator ship,
Vulcanus, which EPA  permitted Shell
Chemical Company  to  use last  year to
burn chlorinated organic wastes far out
on the Gulf of Mexico.
 Reclamation of Herbicide Orange for
reformulation as commercial pesticide
or for salvage of chemical constituents
is  not feasible, the  Air Force said in a
two-inch-thick environmental impact
  One problem with reclamation is the
piesence of a highly toxic  impurity.
TCDD or dioxin,  in cer(ain lots of
Herbicide Orange. EPA  has banned
pesticides containing more  than  one
part ot dioxin per million.
  Other disposal options  studied by the
Air Force  included  incineration on
land,  injection into deep wells or nu-
clear  test cavities,  sludge burial,  and
degradation by microbes.
  Second best option to  incineration at
sea would be incineration  on  Johnston
Island  in facilities that would have to
be constructed there, the Air Force
statement said.
  Burning  the herbicide on  the  Vul-
canus  would be  carefully controlled.
The  furnaces would be  brought up to
operating temperature of at least 1,400
degrees C (2,552 degrees F) by conven-
tional fuel and then fed  with undiluted
Herbicide Orange and compressed air.
The herbicide, a thick, oily liquid, has
a very high heating  value of 10,000
British Thermal  Units  per pound. It
would be  preheated  before  being
sprayed into the  furnace,  and at least
30 percent  more  compressed air than
necessary would be used to assure
complete combustion.
  Based on sample incineration studies,
the Air Force estimates that  virtually
all the  herbicide would  be  burned.
Combustion  products  would be water
vapor, carbon dioxide,  and  hydrogen
chloride,  plus very small  amounts of
carbon monoxide  and carbon particles.
  With  the worst  possible  combustion
efficiency of  99.9 percent,  the  Air
Force estimated that only  3.6 pounds
per hour of unburned  Orange  products
would  escape to the atmosphere when
the incinerators are operating at their
maximum allowable  rate of 53,000
pounds per hour.
  Even though Herbicide  Orange will
not be dumped directly into the ocean.
at-sea incineration comes under the
ocean dumping law because  combus-
tion  products from the incineration
process will enter the air and the water.
according to  T.A. Wastlcr. chief.
Marine Protection Branch.  EPA is con-
cerned with  minimizing  the effects of
such combustion products in the air and
water  mixing /ones  downwind and
downcurrent  from the  incinerator ship.
he said.
  The dumping area proposed by EPA is
about  50 square miles of empty ocean
120 miles from Johnston  Island and
1.000  miles west  of  Hawaii.  The
Pacific equatorial  current there moves
 Dutch ship Vulcanus has two incinera-
 tors at the stern (left).

 westward, and during the proposed
 incineration periods prevailing winds
 are from  the east. The nearest land
 downwind  and  downcurrent from the
 site is 1,000 miles away.
  Another special concern with the pro-
 posed permit, Mr. Wastler  said,  is the
 handling and disposal of the 55-gallon
 steel drums. There are 15,700 of them
 at Gulfport and 25.000 at Johnston
 Island.  They should be opened and
 drained with great  care by workers
 wearing  protective clothing and res-
 pirator masks when necessary. Aircraft
 refuelcr  trucks  would pump the herbi-
 cide Irom the Gulfport drain sumps to
 railroad  tank cars for transfer to the
 ship.  At Johnston Island, the  aircraft
 refueler  trucks  would  drive  directly to
 the ship's dock.
  All empty drums, sump  tanks, and
 pumping equipment would  be rinsed
 with diesel  fuel and  that fuel (about
 40,000 gallons)  would be burned with
 the herbicide, the Air Force  application
  The  40.700 empty drums  would be
 crushed  and sold as scrap  steel. The
 steel furnace heat, about 2900 degrees
 F, and six-hour  duration, would safely
 destroy all  the  herbicide remaining in
 the drums, said  the Air Force's impact
  Taking  part in negotiations with the
 U.S. Air Force over  its application
 were Edwin L. Johnson, Deputy Assist-
 ant Administrator for Pesticide  Pro-
 grams; Kenneth  Biglanc, Director. Oil
 and Special Materials Control Divi-
 sion, Office of Water Program Opera-
 tions; Mr. Wastler; Dr. Henry F. Enos.
 Director, Equipment  and Techniques
 Division. Office  of Research  and Devel-
opment;  James Rogers, attorney, Water
Quality  Division, Office of General
Counsel; and Charles Sell, assistant to
the  Director,   Office  of  Federal
Activities, n
   Cii; x

boston deadline
The City of Boston has until June 30 to
close  down its South Bay Avenue
incinerator. The City had been notified as
early  as October,  1972, that it was not
meeting emission  limitations prescribed
by the State's implementation plan. The
enforcement order requiring the shutdown
was issued by EPA March 5.

air pollution meeting
The Air Pollution  Control Association
will hold its 68th Annual  Meeting in
Boston June 15-20. A number of speakers
from EPA Headquarters are  on the
program, as well as two former Region I
employees. Thomas Bracken, former
Regional Counsel, will speak on "Air
Quality Maintenance and  Land Use
Implications," and Anthony  Cortese,
presently at the Harvard School of Public
Health, will speak on "Determination of
Environmental Carbon Monoxide
Exposures Through Personal

nuclear power plant
Region I  recently announced conditions
that will have to be met if a proposed
nuclear power plant is constructed in
Seabrook, N.H., by the Public Service
Company of New  Hampshire,
EPA is concerned about the heat of the
discharged water and the structure and
location of the intake valve. Jeffrey
Miller, director of Region I's
Enforcement Division,  said the company
can use once-through cooling rather than a
cooling tower.  However,  the company
will have to modify the  water intake to
protect shellfish, fish, and wildlife.
salt water tower
Regional Administrator Gerald M.
Hansler recently presented a special
award to the Atlantic City Electric Co.,
Atlantic City, N.J., for building the first
natural-draft salt water cooling tower in
the Nation.  Mr.Hansler said the tower at
the B.L. England plant, Beesely's Point,
N.J., was designed after EPA informed
the company that once-through cooling
would not meet certain water quality
criteria recommended to New Jersey by
EPA. The tower protects Great Egg
Harbor Bay from heated water discharge
which could adversely affect existing
marine life.
$1,000 for tampering
Hory Chevrolet,  Larchmont, N.Y.,
agreed to pay a $1,000 fine for replacing
the standard, emission-controlled engines
in two Vega coupes (1972 and  1973) with
uncontrolled 1970 Corvette-type engines
in violation of the Clean Air Act. In the
consent decree filed by the Justice
Department, the  company also agreed to
an injunction against any future emissions

puerto rico smoke
The Puerto Rico  Water Resources
Authority agreed  to correct visible smoke
emissions and set  compliance schedules at
two generating plants: San Juan Steam
Plant, Puerto Nuevo; and South Coast
Steam Plant, Guayanilla. The  Authority
was ordered to burn  fuel with  a sulfur
content of no more than one percent to
comply with revisions in Puerto Rico's
Clean Air regulations.

gas station  checkup
Visits to more than 1,600 service stations
in Region II indicate that 98 percent are
offering unleaded gas needed for the
proper functioning of catalytic converters
on many  1975 cars. Inspectors,
sometimes using  a specially  equipped
mobile van, visited stations at random to
make certain the  gas was available and
that the station had proper nozzles and
signs. Minor violations occurred  in a
small number of cases. Where unleaded
gas was not available, it was usually due to
late deliveries.
                                                                                                           PAGE 9

federal installations
Region III has pioneered a new approach
to insure that Federal installations comply
with provisions of the Clean Air Act.
Many Federal installations that have
difficulty attaining emission standards
have been reluctant to sign  compliance
agreements with State agencies because of
Federal  sovereignty questions.  In these
cases, the-Region's Federal Activities
staff meets with the staff of the Federal
agency to negotiate a compliance schedule
satisfactory to both sides. EPA maintains
close liaison with the State to ensure that
all requirements of the Slate
Implementation Plan are met. After
agreement has been reached, the Regional
Administrator and a senior official of the
other Federal agency sign a consent
agreement and compliance schedule.
The first such agreement was reached with
the Naval Surface Weapons Center, Silver
Spring,  Md. Agreements  have also been
signed with the National Naval Medical
Center,  Bethesda, Md.; the Naval
Training Center, Bainbridge, Md.; and
the Bureau of Printing and Engraving,
Washington,  D.C.
The Region is negotiating agreements
with six other Federal installations.
steel  company dispute
EPA and U.S. Steel are in a confrontation
on open hearth furnaces in the company's
Birmingham, Ala.-, operation similar to
the one last fall in Gary, Ind., which
resulted in shutdown by  the company of
some furnaces—and a side argument
about how many jobs were affected.
Involved in Alabama are five open hearths
at U.S. Steel's Ensley Works. Ensiey is a
suburb of Birmingham. In its other
operations in this southern steel-and-coal
producing city, the big steel company has
switched to the basic-oxygen process and
has announced plans for installing such
facilities in Ensley. But at the same time,
U.S. Steel has in effect sought a delay
until late  1977.
The Jefferson County Health Department
first  indicated  dissatisfaction with the
request. Now Region IV has by letter
informed  U.S. Steel that the five open
hearths are in violation of the Clean Air
Act.  A series of conferences have
followed, and the Region hopes the issue
can be resolved by late May.
Meanwhile two Birmingham newspapers,
the News and the Post-Herald,  have
expressed some scepticism about the
company's assertions on the effect a
shutdown would have on jobs. The News
"U.S. Steel  claims that 2,000 jobs would
be affected by  closing down the furnace,
500 at first,  1,500 later, as steel
production is cut back.
"In Gary, Ind., last fall, U.S. Steel said
4,000 people would lose their jobs if the
open hearths there were closed. The
furnaces were closed and  EPA records
show that 400  steelworkers were
temporarily out of jobs but later returned
to work or retired."
Helping Region V cities with their
transportation control plans has been a
prime goal of the regional Public Affairs
Office in recent months. Catchy television
and radio spots, posters, bumper stickers,
and public service ads are designed to
promote car pooling, public transit, and
other ways  of saving fuel and reducing
One campaign called "Bunch-Up"  was
put together with the help of Dick Orkin
Creative Services, who created the
"Chicken Man" radio comedy ads. The
"Bunch-Up" television campaign has
 been nominated for a pub! ic service award
 at the Hollywood  Internationa! Film
 Festival, ft has been widely used in the
 Chicago area and  has been picked to be
 shown at Sears shopping centers
 throughout the country.
 A follow-up campaign is under way to get
 people to have their cars inspected
 voluntarily. The Office has been working
 with Cincinnati air pollution control
 officials on a similar campaign titled "I'm
 Clean." This also is a multimedia effort,
 and cars that pass the test get "I'm Clean''
 bumper stickers.

 A national  symposium on food processing
 wastes was held in Madison, Wise., April
 9-11. Sponsors were  EPA's Pacific
 Northwest Environmental Research
 Laboratory and two canning industry
 The Second National Conference on
 Water Reuse was slated to be held May 4-8
 in Chicago, sponsored by the American
 Institute of Chemical Engineers and
 EPA's Technology Transfer Staff.
 leaky can roundup
 Region VI pesticide officials are helping
 to locate and recall an estimated million
 leaking cans of a toxic pesticide, methyl
 bromide. Most of the defective cans were
 packed in El Dorado, Ark., at a plant of
 the Great Lakes Chemical Corp.
 The recall order was issued by Region V,
 since the company's headquarters is in
 West Lafayette, Ind., but Region VI  is
 also involved in supervising execution of
 the recall order.
' Methyl bromide is used as a soil  fumigant
 and is packed under a number of different
 brand names. It is a colorless, sometimes
 odorless,  liquid and is extremely
 poisonous, according to Alex Gimble,
 regional pesticide enforcement  officer.
 Skin contact with the liquid or inhaling its
 fumes can be fatal.

 funds and jobs
 A recent EPA grant of $48 million to the
 City of Fort Worth for the construction of
 new wastewater treatment facilities will
 create about 3,000 jobs,  according to
 Deputy Regional Administrator George
 J. Putnicki.

scrubber film
An educational motion picture on
scrubber systems for removing sulfur
oxides from coal burning plant emissions
is being produced by the Regional Public
Affairs Office.
The largest scrubber system in the world is
located at LaCygne, Kan., and regional
officials feel the film will help to answer
questions  about this much debated
pollution control technique.
The film will follow the general format of
the Office's film, "Trash to Kilowatts,"
on reclaiming energy from municipal
solid wastes. The scrubber film,  not yet
titled, is expected to be finished in four to
six weeks.

water workshop
A workshop to acquaint municipal and
industry officials with the provisions of
the new Federal Safe Drinking Water Act
was held April 1 at Lake Ozark, Mo., by
EPA Region VII, the Missouri
Department of Natural Resources,  and the
American Waterworks Association.
Regional Administrator Jerome Svore,
Deputy Regional Administrator Charles
V.  Wright, and Otmar Olson, water
supply officer, took part in the program.
Missouri  Governor Christopher S. Bond
and AWWA President Robert B.  Hilbert
addressed the meeting.
getting to  work
Practicing what they preach, some 74
percent of Region  VIII employees
stationed at the downtown Denver offices
get to and from work by means other than
single-occupant auto commuting.
Of the employees responding, 104 are in
car pools, 99 ride buses, six walk, and
three ride bicycles.
In a city where mobile sources contribute
an estimated 90 percent of total emissions
in the air, alternatives to private auto
commuting are being pushed by EPA, the
city administration, the State health
department, local businesses and citizen
Region VIII hopes to keep the "Driving
Alone Is Exhausting" idea before
Denver-area motorists through posters,
bus cards, commuting-time radio spots
and other suitable devices.
EPA staff commuting habits were
surveyed in cooperation with the State's
transportation control plan designed to
meet national standards in the  Mile-High
City by mid-1977.
airport suit
A conservation group, Friends of the
Earth, 'is suing the San Francisco Airport
and the  Federal Aviation Administration,
trying to block an airport expansion
project until an environmental impact
study has been made.
At first  the conservationists failed to get
an injunction, because the Federal judge
required them to post a $4.5-million bond
as a condition of establishing their
standing to sue. Six  weeks later the U.S.
Court of Appeals reduced the  bond to
51,000, it was promptly posted, and the
injunction was granted.
One issue in the case is whether a Federal
impact statement is  required when no
Federal  funds are used to begin the
project.  Airport officials say the initial
work — now halted — involves no
Federal  money. Other aspects  of the
airport's expansion plans will  involve
Federal  funds, about $50 million out of a
total cost of $385 million. The FAA is
preparing an impact statement.
Spokane grant
A grant of S33.7 million — largest ever
made by EPA in the Pacific Northwest —
has been awarded to the City of Spokane
for construction of new sewerage facilities
to replace the present 21-million
gallons-per-day primary treatment plant
with secondary treatment capacity of 40
million gallons a day.
Regional Administrator Clifford V. Smith
said the new plant, to be built at  the
northwest edge of the city,  will require
60,000 cubic yards of concrete, clarifiers
160 feet in diameter,  and aeration basins
the size of a football field.
"EPA expects the project to create a
fulltime work force of 500 persons during
the peak construction phase, and  —
beyond that, once the job is complete — to
provide environmental protection for
years to come,"  Mr. Smith said.
The chief feature of the plant  will be its
capability for removing phosphorus from
Spokane's sewage.  Phosphorus is the key
nutrient which stimulates algae growth in
Long Lake, on the Spokane River about 20
miles from the city. The plant is expected
to be completed in  late  1977.

gas pump survey
Almost 100 gasoline station operators in
the Region have been warned  they are in
violation of Federal regulations on
no-lead gasoline.
The warnings were sent by  Regional
Administrator Smith as  follow-up to the
Agency's continuing inspections of all gas
stations in Washington, Oregon,  Idaho
and Alaska that are required by law to
offer unleaded gasoline. Since late last
year when the inspection program began,
more than 900 station visits have been
"The cooperation of gasoline distributors
and retail operators has been
outstanding," Mr. Smith said. "In only a
few  instances was  it  discovered that a
station required to sell unleaded gasoline
had failed to do so."
                                                                                                            PAGE I I

 "Dedicated people,  decentralization
and strong leadership."  These are the
three characteristics of HPA which have
made the deepest impression on  him.
Peter  L.  Cashman said in an  interview
with EPA Journal.
 Mr.  Cashman, who was appointed Di-
rector of the new Office of Regional and
Intergovernmental Operations  in Jan-
uary,  has completed  visits to all of the
Agency's ten regions.
 "These visits."  Cashman said,  "bore
out my faith in the concept of decentral-
i/ution.  Without question LPA has the
strongest regional operation in the Fed-
eral Government  and I doubt that the
significant  progress  this Agency  has
made could  have been  achieved  had
il   been   operating  strictly   from
 A former Lieutenant Governor of Con-
necticut.  Mr. Cashman said that he  was
impressed  by the  enthusiasm of  LPA
 "From  my experience in both Govern-
ment and industry," Cashman said.  "I
have never seen employees who care so
deeply about what they  are doing. If
there  is  any one thing that makes LPA
different,  il  is  the  attitude of  its
 Asked about the  role of his new office,
Cashman  said "1  regard  the Office of
Regional and Intergovernmental Opera-
lions  as  fundamentally a communica-
tions office.
 "The former  LPA  Regional  Liaison
Office did an extremely effective  job in
this area, hut the addition of the  inter-
governmental relations  function will
broaden  its scope and activities.
 "Hopefully, we can  increase our com-
mitment  to include  Stale and local points
of view  in our decision-making process.
1  consider  that  one of  the  primary
missions of this office."
  Mr.  Cashman said "we have a  tre-
mendous job to do in  the  intergovern-
mental relations area. It is the goal of the
Congress, of the President and  of  this
Agency  to  have a shared  responsibility
with State and local government in all of
our programs."
 Acknowledging that shared responsibil-
ity complicates the  carrying out of pro-
grams,  Mr. Cashman said "in the  long
run,  in  our very  responsive democratic
society,  it is the only wa\ we can meet
 the difficult challenges before all levels
 of Government."
  He noted that "we undoubtedly  will
 have to focus  more attention   on work-
 ing with  the  State  and  local Govern-
 ments. "
  Mr.  Cashman said that in his new  post
 he  is  looking  forward to  working with
 seven major public interest groups:
  The  Council  of State Governments, the
 National Governors' Conference, the Na-
 tional Conference of State Legislatures,
 U.S. Conference of Mayors, the  Nation-
 al League of  Cities, the  National  As-
 sociation ot  Counties and  the Inter-
 national City Management Association.
  Mr. Cashman, 38. served as Connecti-
 cut's  Lieutenant  Governor from June
 1973 to January 1975. During that time
 he presided over the State Senate  and
 chaired the State Council on  Human
 Services which coordinates the  work of
 nine human service  agencies.  He also
 worked  closely with all State commis-
 sioners and agency heads.
  Before succeeding to the post of Lieu-
 tenant Governor, Mr. Cashman was
 elected twice to the State Senate; he  was
 elected  President Pro  Tempore of t he-
 State Senate in 1972.
  As  a  State legislator he was  instru-
 mental  in the enactment of  State environ-
 mental  legislation,  including  the  so-
 called  Cashman Bill providing  for  the
 preservation of the  lower Connecticut
 River  Valley.
  His previous  experience  includes three
years as Vice  President of an industrial
marketing  research company, preceded
by administrative and teaching positions
at a Connecticut preparatory  school.
Mr.  Cashman  makes his  home  in
Washington. D.C.
l> AC; I- 12

                SPRINGTIME  IN THE  CITY
Boy meets girl by Trinity Church fence at Broadway and Wall Street, New York.
As these photographs illustrate,
spring in the cities can be a pleasant
time to enjoy some of the good things
of urban life such as fountains, flower
gardens, parks and nature. All of
these activities depend on a healthy
environment. These photographs
from EPA's Documerica collection
help illustrate how fresh air can help
bring enjoyment to urban life. Scenes
from fourcities, New York, Cincinnati,
Minneapolis and Chicago, are
depicted here.

 Sidewalk diners can watch and be watched at Fountain Square, Cincinnati
 Bench at Foster Avenue Beach Park, Chicago, offers chance to rest and read beside Lake Michigan

Minneapolis postal workers take an afternoon break on Nicollet Mall.
Cincinnati's Tyler Davidson fountain prompts a make-believe dunking.
                                                                                                            PACIH is

 EPA has launched a project that could result in a new look for the Agency's
visual materials. The project has a single purpose—to improve communication
with (he puhlic.
 The project is part of a Federal design program started three years ago by the
National Endowment for the Arts to  upgrade Federal architecture and other
government design, including  graphics.  A number of  Federal  departments
including the Department  of  Labor,  the Department  of  Agriculture,  the
Department  of Interior, and NASA are participating. EPA was invited to join
in  this effort about IK months ago,  and Administrator Russell E. Train
 Mrs. Patricia Calm. Director of Puhlic Affairs, said:  "Federal Agencies that
have undergone  such a design review  have found that in addition to giving a
cleaner, more professional appearance lo their information materials, it reduces
overall design costs about  15 percent.  The program  appears to be well worth
its initial cost."
 In a first  step. I-.PA  submitted a representative sampling of published
mateiial  lor evaluation by a panel of leading graphic designers.
 Ihe panel's key recommendation  was that  EPA attach  high priority to
improving the appearance and efficiency of publications, periodicals,  posters.
stationery, exhibits, etc. "All  major  categories,"  panelists urged,  "need
attention because they do not possess a ivcogni/ahle visual unity; they do  not
appropriately support,  nor adequately represent,  HPA aims and programs; they
have no  discernahle st\le.  For the most part, professional decisions  concern-
ing layout, style, format, typography, anil reproduction are inadequate."
 The panel's suggestion: retain  an outstanding graphics designer.
 After receiving  competitive bids, EPA awarded a $67,000 contract to  the
New York design firm of riiermaycff & (ieismar. Inc. The Office of Public
Allan's is the contract project office. The national bicentennial symbol and  the
signs of the  National  Park Service are among the  firm's nationally visible
 As steps in  designing a unified visual communication system for EPA,
C'hermaycff & (ieismar will:
•  Review  all Agency printed  materials—booklets, pamphlets, technical
reports, reports to Congress, labels, posters, stationery, signs,  press  releases,
directories, decals, newsletters and exhibits.
•  Talk with key  headquarters,  regional and laboratory people to develop an
understanding of the Agency's mission, functions and objectives.
•  Consider and explore all EPA graphics and printing capabilities.
 Ihe firm then will develop a  unified graphics design program to help EPA
communicate its message lo the public.
 During  the one-year  contract Chermuyeff & Geismar will  produce an EPA
graphics manual and  wink with the Office of Public Affairs on  its
implementation and maintenance of design quality throughout the Agency. G
Manuela Alvarez, Clerk-Typist, Region
VI, Dallas: "I would  like to  continue
working where 1 am now. All my family
and friends are here.  I  have  lived in
Dallas  since I  was five  years old and
I've never lived outside the city. I  don't
know what it  would be like outside of
Dallas.  1 would like  to travel though, and
J would like to visit Washington because
of its  history. 1 enjoy  coming to  work
every day and 1 find the work rewarding.
I work  in the legal branch and  there arc-
career possibilities here."
Ann Occhino, Staff Assistant. Region
VIII, Denver: "Working at headquarters
and then transferring  to a region has
given  me a broader knowledge of EPA
activities. Here 1 have the opportunity to
observe  the  reality of  the implementa-
tions and their repercussions. Of course,
the rapport with your  boss  and co-
workers  is  an important  factor  in selt-
happiness no matter where you are and 1
can truly say I  am happier  here. This
region is well managed and works on a
highly constructive level. Being the fe-
male that 1  am. I find Denver inconven-
ient as far as shopping is concerned. The
selections are not as varied as in Wash-
ington, and 1 find myself doing a  lot of
mail ordering or driving the sales per-
sonnel  batty asking for  articles that I
find in  magazines. I also miss that
wonderful Chesapeake  Bay  where 1 en-
joyed  loafing on  a boat and listening to
Nature's tranquility."

  Would you  rather work
    in  a regional office  or
 headquarters and why?
Robert Hurd, Director of the Water
Division. Region X. Seattle: "Unequiv-
ocally, 1  prefer working in the regional
office. While headquarters offers  con-
siderable ego satisfaction because you
arc  working at the seat  of power and
dealing with national policy issues and
the  Congress.  1 think regional office
assignments offer even greater satisfac-
tion. Basically this is because the re-
gions arc closer to the real world.  You
can see  waste treatment plants built
through your efforts and water cleaned
up before your eyes. Day by  day  you
deal with programs and people that are
on (lie  front lines.  I find this very
rewarding. Also regional  office work is
very challenging  because there are so
many practical  but often  difficult prob-
lems to solve. I think 1 am  well qualified
to give an opinion on  the question,
having worked  at headquarters tor  five
years followed by four years  in a re-
gional office. Furthermore, since Seattle
is the regional office most distant Irom
Washington,  I am obviously an expert."
Mary Lcyland, Chief of Grants Admin-
istration Branch. Region II, New  York:
"Given a choice. I would opt for work at
the regional office le\el. Having worked
in  Region I  and II  as well as in short
term  assignments at headquarters. I can
find a number of advantages to regional
office work.  At headquarters,  people
plan  and write regulations and think  in
broad terms and  time  frames.  At  the
regional level, personnel deal with the
immediacy ot day to day operations. It is
in the regional office that the implemen-
tation of  broad policies  occurs, that
issues are resolved and the  future takes a
more realistic form.  In  the region, we
talk to people from other program  areas,
from  State and local agencies, acquaint-
ing  ourselves with  their operations.
Higher  grades at headquarters should
lure regional  personnel there--a good
idea in that regional personnel know best
what  is happening in the field, what can
happen  and.  in a  sense, what  must
happen so that the Agency can function
properly and effectively."
                                  Robert  Davis, Biologist. Region 111.
                                  Philadelphia: "Like W.C. Fields. I
                                  would rather be in Philadelphia. 1  feel I
                                  can live  more in the style in which  I like
                                  to live in this region. Philadelphia has
                                  cultural  opportunities within easy access
                                  from where  1 live. Although 1 ha\e little
                                  to do with  policy setting. I feel  1 am
                                  close to  the problems and the people. 1
                                  enjoy  working on matters such  as acid
                                  mine drainage, rural  waste management
                                  and ocean monitoring. It's a little  more
                                  satisfying if you get to deal directly with
                                  these problems."
Hill Keller, Chief. Water .Section, Tech
nical  Service Branch. Region  VII.
Kansas City: "I prefer being in Kansas
City. I spent a year  in Washington back
in about 19ft]  when I was starting out on
my career. It was  good experience, but I
was glad to leave. Once in Washington
was enough. I  have been  in the region
here m Kansas City  about  eight years
My interests happen to be technical and I
want to assure that FPA's technical work
is satisfactory. 1 do field sampling for the
water programs.  I tind  it easier to do
well when I like something 1 am doing.
Kansas City is a  nice place. The  pace
here is not  as last or as pushy as n is
further Fast, but it's  about as big a place
as I would like to  live in."

                          I'ACil- I '


 A model South Pacific outrigger  was
recently presented to Administrator Rus-
sell I:. Train as a  gift from islanders
displaced 2S  years ago so the United
States could  use their  atoll for nuclear
weapons tests.
 h is one of several  made by residents of
Ujelang, in  the Marshall Islands, for
heads of Federal agencies making plans
to  return  the people to their old home.
Enewetak Island (formerly spelled Eni-
 For several  years teams of radiation
experts have been surveying Enewetak to
determine what work is needed to clean
up and dispose of radioactive debris and
make  the island sale to permanent  set-
tlement. The  experts represented  both
EPA and the Energy Research and  De-
velopment  Administration  (ERDA),
formerly  the Atomic  Energy  Commis-
 An environmental impact statement be-
ing prepared  by the  Defense Nuclear
Agency estimates the  cost at about  $40
million, which Congress will be asked to
approve and appropriate.
 After 117 Enewetak islanders were
moved in  1947 to  Ujelang,  a smaller
island 200 miles to the southwest, the
population increased. It now totals about
435, most of whom want to move to Ene-
 The Interior Department, which admin-
isters the Pacific Island Trust  Territory,
is  also  involved  in  the resettlement
  Administrator Russell E. Train, left, re-
  ceives model  Micronesian outrigger ves-
  sel from Dr.  William D. Rowe, Radia-
  tion Programs. Gift was made by South
  Sea islanders who hope to  have their
  radioactive atoll cleaned up and made

 Peter I,. Cook  has  been appointed
Assistant Director, Policy  and Proce-
dures Staff, Office  of Federal Activities.
Mr. Cook joined the Agency in 1971 as
a federal activities  coordinator.
 Prior to his employment with EPA, Mr.
Cook was with the  National  Oceanic and
Atmospheric  Administration where he
acted as a project engineer in  the
weather  satellite program.  He holds  a
degree  in  electrical  engineering  from
Clarkson College of Technology in New
York, and a masters"  degree in  business
administration from  American Univer-
sity, Washington, D.C.
 Dr. Aaron A. Rosen recently received
the Professional Accomplishment in Gov-
ernment Award  for engineers or scien-
tists, given annually  by  the Cincinnati
Technical  and  Scientific Societies
 Dr. Rosen,  who has been with EPA
since 1970. is Scientific Advisor of the
National  Field Investigation Center in
Cincinnati. He  is a  member of the
American Chemical Society, American
Water Works  Association, Water Pollu-
tion Control Federation, and other pro-
fessional societies. He  is  the author and
co-author of  many publications  in his

 William J. Dircks,  Executive Assist-
ant to  the Administrator, has been ap-
pointed to a post with  the new Nuclear
Regulatory Commission,  He  will be
Assistant  Executive Director for Opera-
tions with special responsibility for pol-
icy coordination.
 Mr. Dircks  was  appointed Executive
Assistant to the Administrator in Febru-
ary, 1974.  From  197,1  to  1974  he had
been a  senior staff member at the Coun-
cil on Environmental Quality. His Fed-
eral service also  included  work  with the
Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S.
Office of Economic Opportunity, and the
Economic  Development Administration
of the Department of Commerce.
   il-. IS

 Linda Buono, coordinator of Region
II's unleaded  gas  program, analy/es a
sample from  an area service station.
Mrs.  Buono  and  her team of  field
samplers  from the Surveillance and
Analysis  Division, have  the respon-
sibility  for  verifying thai  the  approxi-
mately  20,000  service stations in  the
Region  have gasoline  that  meets  lead-
free regulations. Mrs.  Buono is making
the analysis in  ihe HPA Mobile  Fuels

 Alvin  I,. Aim, Assistant Administrator
for Planning and Management, recent!}
presented  the  President's Safety Award
for 1973 to the HPA Safety  Management
Systems staff.  This award is made  annu-
ally hy the President to Federal agencies.
HPA received Honorable Mention in Cat-
egory 2 for agencies with between 6,000
and  112,000  employees. Only  two
awards are presented in each category. In
order to he eligible tor award considera-
tion, agencies  must show at least  a one-
percent improvement  in accident fre-
quency  rate for the contest  sear  when
compared  to the average frequency rate
lor the previous three years.
 HPA  received  the award  not  only  be-
cause oi'its reduction in injury experience
for the year  1973 but as a recognition of
its effective safety program during that
year. The Safety staff, headed in 1973 by
former Safety Officer Trenton Crow and
directed since  May,  1974,  by  Lawrence
F.  Gaffney,  is  based in Washington but
travels  to all Regions and  National Hn-
vironmental  Research  Centers  to review
and strengthen safety programs.
  Michael L.  Springer,  director of the
Management Information and Data  Sys-
tems Division,  starts  this month on  a
year-long executive training  program
sponsored hy the Civil  Service Commis-
sion and the Office of Management and
Budget.  Alter a seven-week course  ai
the  Federal  Executive  Institute. Char-
lottesville.  Va.. Mr. Springer  will be
assigned to  successive posts with HPA
and  other Federal, State, or local agen-
cies  in a program designed  to strengthen
his leadership qualities and broaden his
experience.  Only 26 other  Federal offi-
cials  were  chosen  for  this  sear's
  Mr. Springer.  37. was  financial  and
budget officer for ihe  National  Library
of Medicine before  coming to HPA  in
March, 1971.  Fie attended Millsaps Col-
lege, Jackson, Miss., and was graduated
from George Washington University. He
was  born in  Florida but has  lived most of
his life in the Washington,  D.C.. area.

 John  Moran recentls  left his  post as
director of catalytic  converter and  fuel
additive  programs at the  National  En-
vironmental  Research Center,  Research
Triangle Park, N.C. His new assignment
is  to direct  the  vehicle efficiency pro-
gram. Office of  the Associate Adminis-
trator for Transportation, Federal Energy
Administration. Mr. Moran  came to HPA
in May of  1971. Previously  he was
associated with the  Dow Chemical  Co.
in Midland.  Mich.
  Kd\vin L.  Johnson,  39. has  been
named Deputy Assistant  Administrator
for Pesticide  Programs.  He began  his
professional  career  in  1958 as an  en-
gineer and  project director for  (he U.S.
Public Health Service. He later became
the chief economist for  comprehensive
planning and  programs  for the Public
Health Service, responsible for  econom-
ic analyses and  mathematical  modeling
for nationwide water  quality  manage-
ment plans.   Mr. Johnson joined  the
Department  of  Interior  in  1966  and
became chief of the sv stems analysis and
economic branch of the  Federal  Water
Qua lily Administration.
  In  1970. he  became a member  of  the
newly  organi/ed  Environmental Protec-
tion Agency.  In  1972  Mr. Johnson  he-
came the Director of Operations  and
Strategic Studies  for Pesticide Programs
where he remained until his  present
appointment.  A native of New  Britain,
Conn.,  he  lias a bachelor's degree in
civil  engineering.  Yale  University.
1957; a master's in public administration,
Harvard University.  1962: and a  master's
in economics,  Harvard University, 1963.
He  succeeds Henry .1. Korp. currently a
senior  science advisor to the Assistant
Administrator  for Water and Ha/ardous

Julin Nelson climbs radiation analysis van tn put microwave antenna on the traveling
lab's .nast.  A  pneumatic mechanism can  lift the mast  10 meters, the better to detect
ami record electromagnetic I'ields.
   Can  high-voltage electric power  lines
   at'l'ect the health of people living near
them and the environment through which
they pass?
 The Office of Radiation Programs has
been seeking answers  to these questions
a\ part of its regular  study  of  non-
ioni/ing radiation—-the  kind  produced
by infrared  and microwave devices;
radar, television, and FM radio trans-
mitters: and certain  kinds of electric
 Under the direction of  David  F. Janes
Jr., (he six-member Electromagnetic Ra-
diation Analysis Branch  is investigating
transmission  line etfects because of the
increasing  use  of extremely  high  volt-
age, defined as more  than 700 kilovolts.
Several such  lines are already operating
in  the  I'mted States, others are being
built, and proposals have been made for
lines at 1,000 kV (one million volts).
 Not enoimh is known about the electro-
magnetic tields that  surround  such  a
line, Mr. Janes said, or what effects they
may have on human health, plants.
animals, and  other  forms of life.
 Mr. Janes explained that electric  and
magnetic  fields created by power lines
are most  intense  near  the  line  and
decrease with distance from it. As trans-
mission voltages are raised, field inten-
sities at ground level  may become high
enough to affect living cells in ways  still
 Other environmental  effects  could
come from corona, the discharge that
occurs with the breakdown of the insulat-
ing properties of air surrounding a power
line. Corona  can produce visible light.
sometimes seen  as a  glow around  the
line: audible noise: radiation that  can
interfere with radio and television recep-
tion; and o/one. an  oxidant air pollutant.
 Mr. Janes and his colleagues are gather-
ing data to help determine if a standard
is needed to protect public health and the
environment from non-ioni/ing radia-
tion. Their studies cover a  broad range
from the extremely  low  frequencies at
which power lines operate to ultra-high
frequencies employed in radar'and micro-
wave devices.
 Two trailers at the Forest Glen Annex,
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research,
Silver Spring, Md.. serve as their office
and laboratory.
 A  specially equipped van  allows them
to  take their instruments and recording
equipment into the field.  The van has a
spectrum analyzer—essentially a very
fine radio receiver—connected to a small
computer that controls and analyzes the
data collected.  Several antenna systems
are  used in the measurement of electro-
magnetic  fields. These antennas are in-
dividually  mounted on a  10-meter tele-
scoping mast, as needed.
 The  van also has  several types  of
portable instruments to  measure high-
level fields near specific sources. These
portable instruments  have been used by
the  Branch in  studies of military  and
civilian radar,  powerful  satellite com-
munication systems, and some broadcast-
ing stations.
 A study of electrostatic  fields at a 500-
kV  overhead  transmission line  near
Frederick, Md., has been completed and
will soon be published.  Another study
during the next two months  will make a
similar evaluation of  a 765-kV  line at a
site  still to be chosen  in Indiana or Ohio.
This study will be supported in part by
the  Nuclear Regulatory Commission
under an interagency  agreement.
 Working with  Mr. Janes on these proj-
ects are Richard A. Tell, T. Whit Athey,
Norbert N. Hankin, John C. Nelson, and
Vicki Gocal.
 A  formal notice by EPA seeking data
from industries and  the  scientific com-
munity was printed in the Federal  Reg-
ister March 18.
 Signed by  Roger Strelow, Assistant
Administrator for Air  and Waste Manage-
ment,  the notice said "there appears to
he  no  central focus in the Federal Gov-
ernment" for collecting and analyzing
data  on the  health and  environmental
effects of high voltage power lines.
 Mr. Strelow asked interested persons to
submit  data by June  30  on  electric and
magnetic  fields,  induced voltages  and
currents, discharge phenomena, and
health effects.  He said this  information
would  help  HPA's  investigations  and
"assist in the determination of the need
to  provide  guidance . . . or formulate
plans for such future  regulatory action as
may be necessary to protect the public
health and  welfare." D

 Industrial and manufacturing facilities in violation of  the
 clean air and water laws will not be eligible to receive
 any Federal contract, grant, or loan, according to final
 regulations recently adopted by EPA.  Starting July 1 the
 Agency, with assistance from the States, will place such
 violating facilities on a list, based on administrative  and
 civil court decisions and criminal convictions in Federal,
 State, and local courts.  Listed facilities will be barred
 from receiving any payment over $100,000, or for any amount
 if the facility is involved in a Federal criminal conviction
 for water or air pollution.  One exception will be grants to
 help facilities to comply with pollution control standards .

 Small quantities of organic chemicals have been found in the
 water supplies of 79 cities throughout the country,
 Administrator Russell E. Train announced.  The findings  are
 the first results of a national survey begun last November
 after the chemicals had been identified in the drinking  water
 of New Orleans and Cincinnati.  The six chemicals are all
 "volatile" organic compounds.  The use of chlorine to disinfect
 drinking water is believed to contribute to the formation of
 four of them.  "Even at the low levels we found (parts per
 billion}," Mr. Train said, "the chemicals are a matter of
 concern...EPA is working to determine their health effects,
 their sources, and what can be done most practically to  solve
 the problem."

 Weaknesses in the local administration of some EPA grants
 for sewage plant construction may have resulted in
 overpayments, according to a preliminary report released
 recently by Alvin L. Aim,  Assistant Administrator for
 Planning and Management.  Audits of 41 projects in 12
 States are under way and are expected to show deficiencies
 in administration, accounting, and costing, plus some examples
 of excessive profits, Mr.  Aim said.  Actual audit reports will
 be released as soon as completed, he said, "and we are stepping
 up all of our audit and inspection activities" to correct any

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                                                                             Jay Gile, research biologist,
                                                                             makes regular observations
                                                                             of plant and animal activity
                                                                             in one of the National Eco-
                                                                             logical Research Labora-
                                                                             tory's model pesticide
                                                                             research ecosystems.
     Scientists at  the  National Ecological Research
    Laboratory at Corvallis, Ore., have put a simula-
    tion of the natural world in a box. The purpose of
    the experiment is to provide chemical manufactur-
    ers with  a research tool to evaluate  the environ-
    mental impact of new pesticides.
     The plexiglass box (about 39 x 29 x 23 inches) is a
    miniature  ecosystem, designed to be a practical.
    intermediate investigative step  between the test
    tube and field studies. The research is  a spin-off of
    EPA's Substitute Chemical  Program,  started  in
    1973  to find  safe,  effective chemicals  to replace
    pesticides  that  harm the environment. The project
    is  directed by  Dr.  James  Gillett,  laboratory
     Researchers use the chamber to  develop methods
    and procedures that can be used to  evaluate  the
    pathways, biological effects  and fate  of selected
    substitute pesticides. A  conceptual model has been
    developed to  trace pesticide movements in soil,
    air, and water.
     Controlled amounts of light, temperature, humid-
ity. air. water and defined living and non-living
elements are combined in the  box to duplicate
specific field conditions. Seeds are planted, and
soil invertebrates, insects, and larger life forms like
the praying  mantis, chameleon, field  mouse and
Japanese quail are put in this laboratory world. When
the system  is balanced and functioning, selected
pesticides "tagged" with radioactive carbon-14 arc
added so that their movements can be traced.
 At the end of each experiment (30 to 60 days) the
living  and  non-living portions are segregated,
weighed and counted and analyzed.
 It is anticipated that within two  \ears this process
of microcosmic testing should be developed to the
point  that  it can be made available to chemical
manufacturers for commercial uses.
 The Corvallis program  is  being coordinated  with
those of three other EPA associate  laboratories—
the Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Labora-
tory, Gulf Breeze,  Fla.; the National Water Quality
Laboratory, Duluth,  Minn.;  and the Southeast
Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens. Ga.D