APRIL 1976
                  **        EPA AND THE FARMHRS
                 58£u.S. KNVIRONMKNTAl. PRO TKC I ION ACJ[-:NC'Y

    Farming  and  The  Environment
  The  days  are  now longer  than  the nights. The
caroling of robins  greets  the dawn. Once again we
have escaped winter's grip and it's spring in Washing-
  Across the land on farms large and  small, a new
growing season has begun. Roosters strut and crow in
the  barnyard. Nature's  pulse is speeding  up. Green
fields promise another bumper  yield of food and fiber
  As the sixth anniversary of the original Earth Week
approaches.  EPA Journal  looks at how  the Agency's
efforts to protect  the environment affect agriculture.
  We begin  with  an  interview  with Administrator
Russell E. Train, who is himself a part-time farmer on
Maryland's Eastern Shore. Mr. Train notes that  what
is good for  the  environment  is usually good for
agriculture  and  vice  versa.  After all clean air and
water are vital to the farmer.
  HPA's effort to discover ways of reducing the multi-
million dollar damage to farm crops by air  pollution is
reviewed in an article about research being conducted
by our laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon.
  Across the country farmers  are brushing up on their
knowledge of pesticides as a  new program begins to
ensure  that  users of the  more potent  chemical pest
killers apply them in a safe manner.
  At the same time, EPA is taking a fresh look at the
thousands of pesticides registered with the Agency
and classifying  them into either "general" or "re-
stricted" use. While the general-use  pesticides  would
be available to everyone, restricted pesticides could be
applied only  by  persons who  have  shown that they
know how to use the prtxlucts safely.
  These important new pesticide  programs, designed
primarily to protect  the  health of farmers,  farm
workers and their  families, are discussed  in two
companion articles.
  Also in  this  issue are excerpts from an important
speech by  the Administrator on "Testing  Chemicals,
Not  People."  Mr. Train points out that in the past
few decades and especially since the  end of World
War  II, a great many new chemical compounds for
pesticides and other  uses have been released with little
or no knowledge of their health effects.
  Efforts to control major agricultural sources  of
pollution are the subject  of two  articles,  one  from
Region VII in Kansas  City on cattle feedlots and the
other  from  Region  V  in Chicago on steps taken  to
reduce the washing of eroded soil into waterways.
  The magazine's  Inquiry department reports on
garden plans of some EPA employees. For the benefit
of city residents, a former  EPA official. William
Olkowski and  his wife. Helga. have  written a book
designed to help those with only the tiniest backyard
or balcony to grow their own food. Titled  "The City
People's Book  of Raising  Food"  and  published by
Rodale Press Inc.. the  book reflects a strong environ-
mental concern.
  Other subjects covered in this issue include:
  A  report on  the study of earth cores by our
laboratory in Ada, Okla.. to help find ways to reduce
the salt accumulating from irrigation waters.
  Articles from our  Region IV office in Atlanta, Ga.,
on how this section  of the Nation's sunbelt is making
determined efforts to protect its environment from the
impact of industrial and population growth,  o


      Russell E. Train

      Patricia L. Cahn
      Director of Public Affairs

      Charles D. Pierce

      Van Trumbull
      Ruth Hussey

      Cover: Cattle graze on pas-
      ture in bucolic setting.
        US DA Photo	
      Printed on recycled paper


PAGE 2. 4.
11. 12. 15.

PACK 16. 17

Jonas Dovydenas*
Lowell Georgia


Diamond Alkali Company

Flip Schulke*

Fred Ward*
* DOC UMF-: RICA Photo
The EPA  Journal  is published
monthly, with combined issues for
July-August and November-Decem-
ber, for employees of the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency. It does
not alter or supersede regulations.
operating procedures or manual in-
structions. Contributions and inquiries
should be addressed to the Editor. (A-
107) Room 301, West Tower, Water-
side Mall, 401 M St., S.W..  Washing-
ton. D.C. 20460. No permission nec-
essary to reproduce contents except
copyrighted photos and other mate-
An interview with Russell E. Train
The Agency studies how to reduce damage
to crops from pollution.
1 . Certification
2. Reregistration
Saving the water by protecting the land.
by Rowena Michaels
POLLUTION by Charles Pou
             AROUND THE NATION
             NEWS BRIEFS

            An Interview with Russell E.  Train, EPA Administrator and Farm Owner
What does EPA da to help farmers? Should environmental
objectives til\\'tiv\ take precedence over agricultural needs?
How much of (i threat docs use of pesticides pose tohmnan
health.' Did we lettrn anvlhing jrom the Kepone poisoning
incident?  Could enforcement of environmental regulations
i nine  a decline  in food  production?  Mr.  1 rain answers
these and other ijtu'stions.

  Q.   What docs FPA do to help farmers?
  A.   It  helps protect and  restore clean air and  water.
which are absolutely essential for  the welfare of agricul-
ture. Dollar losses to agriculture as a result of air pollution
are  difficult to quantity. However,  it is  safe  to say that.
nationwide, it  mns to tens of millions of dollars a year and
possibly in  the hundreds of millions of  dollars per year
when all  aspects of  reduced productivity arc considered.
We  are also working to protect the health of farmers and
their families through 0111  pesticide control programs, (tin-
efforts to stem the toss of good agricultural land by trying
to discourage  urban  sprawl,  our efforts to encourage good
conservation  practices to  prevent top-soil  runoff, our
cooperation with the Forest  and Soil  Conservation  Serv-
ices, our  programs to assure continuing  flows of healthy.
clean water for irrigation and for drinking—these air  just a
few of the ways in  which  our programs are  benefiting
  Q.   Sometimes  FPA and the  Department of  Agricul-
ture seem to be in opposing camps. Is this seeming conflict
inevitable because each represents a different constituency'.'
  A.   Some may see us  on conflicting paths, but. histori-
cally, we not  only have much in common, but we  share
similar  tap roots that  depend on unpolluted soil, water and
air for  continued prosperity.  We need to recogni/e  these
common  tap  roots  as we  work  together  to develop
practical programs.  Most  of  the difficulties we have had
were, in my judgment, caused by inadequate  communica-
tion. I am convinced  that  while we may view  environmen-
tal problems  from separate  perspectives, our goals are
essentially the  same.
  Q.   Should environmental objectives always take prece-
dence over agricultural needs?
  A.   Although all our policies and programs  are aimed
toward  achieving  environmental  protection, we recogni/.e
that we cannot blindly pursue them at the expense of other
vitally important national goals such as agricultural produc-
tivity. What is good for the environment is usually good for
agriculture and vice versa.

I1 A CM- 2
  Q.   Can you cite  a specific instance where agricultural
and environmental interests are in harmony?
  A.   Water  quality problems which arise from agricul-
tural runoff may be  the result, at least in  part, of poor
conservation practices. ! can think of few objectives which
make  more sense both environmentally and agriculturally
than keeping  our soil on  the land.  In an  even broader
sense,  keeping prime agricultural  land in  productive agri-
cultural use should be a high priority national goal upon
which environmentalists and farmers alike  should make
common cause.
  Q.   Is there a danger that KPA enforcement of environ-
mental regulations might cause a  decline  in food produc-
  A.   Let me assure you that  KPA intends to enforce
environmental  regulations in ways  that  will not  cause
unnecessary adverse  impacts on  food production.  When
signs of an approaching food crisis  became apparent,  we
began a thorough study of food supply and demand  and of
the  impact of  our regulations on al!  phases of agriculture.
Our soundings indicate that the world is  experiencing its
third period of serious food shortages since World War II.
Unlike the previous  two. this one may not end soon.  The
United States will continue to be by far the most important
exporter of food.
  Q.   Do pesticides play a major role in maintaining U.S.
food production?
  A.   There  is no  doubt about it. A  Department of
Agriculture survey  in  1M66 revealed  that 85  percent of all
fanners used  agricultural chemicals  for crop protection.
'['hose  farmers would suffer annual  losses  totalling $2.1
billion if no pesticides were used, the National Academy of
Sciences has estimated. I have been  told that the domestic
use of pesticides now amounts to almost one  billion pounds
of active ingredients a year, although less  than half this
amount is used on crops.
  y.   How would you evaluate the risk of  this enormous
use of pesticide?
   A.   No matter  how  carefully one applies pesticides.
there  is always the  possibility the material  will enter our
streams, rivers and  lakes.  Human health may be  endan-
gered.  There  is obviously a  special  hazard to frequent
users—people  engaged in production, distribution and sale
of pesticides,  people engaged in  the application of these
pesticides  and the workers in the fields where pesticides
have  been used. So we must balance the  risks of using
pesticides  against their benefits,  it is the  role of FPA to

assess  the facts and to act positively through promulgation
and enactment of rules and regulations,
  Q.  The  human suffering caused by manufacture of the
pesticide Kepone at  Hopewell. Va. was a shocker and is
still fresh in the  public's mind. How do you  assess this
t raped\ ?
  A.  The  events that occurred  at  Hopewell  represent  a
human tragedy of major proportions.  It serves to remind us
that  the  use of toxic substances  in our  society inevitably
carries grave risks  with  it.  The Federal Insecticide.
Fungicide,  and  Rodenticide  Act  requires  the  Agency to
register pesticide  products if it is shown that they will be
effective and will not pose a risk of unreasonable adverse
effects to man or the environment when used as directed.
  Q.   Does this  Federal pesticides law  give FPA any
regulatory  control  over the  premises  or manufacturing
processes for pesticides?
  A.  Although the Act requires that all pesticide produc-
ing  plants be registered by EPA. our authority to inspect
establishments extends only  to pesticides which are "pack-
aged, labeled, and released  for shipment."  The  law does
not regulate  the working conditions  in these plants, since
that is  the responsibility of other Federal agencies.
  Thus,  this law actually has limited applicability to  the
Hopewell situation.  The  human  and environmental con-
tamination surrounding the Life Science operation resulted
from  manufacturing and  disposal operations  rather than
from the use of the pesticide under its EPA registrations.
It could have been any industrial chemical involved: the
fact  that it  was  Kepone.  a  pesticide, is  merely incidental
since the problem was of a manufacturing and occupational
exposure nature.
  Q.  Just  what  is  Kepone—chemically?
  A.  Kepone  is  a  chlorinated  hydrocarbon pesticide
which  does  not tend  to cause immediate harm to humans
upon contact. However, as with  other chlorinated hydro-
carbon pesticides. Kepone can have serious and undesira-
ble  long-term effects.
  Q.  What arc some of the  health effects produced by
Kepone exposure?
  A.  It accumulates in human and animal tissue, and has
induced tremors,  hyperactivity, muscle spasms, and steril-
ity in laboratory animals. And according to data from  the
National Cancer Institute. Kepone can cause certain types
of cancer growths in test mice and rats.
  Q.   Did any  aspect of  the Kepone  operation come
under EPA  regulatory controls'.'
  A.   The  Life  Science operation affected  EPA's statu-
tory jurisdiction  in two other respects: the Clean Air Act
and  the  Federal  Water  Pollution  Control  Act. The  Life
Science plant  discharged  its wastes  to the  Hopewell
sewage treatment plant,  which in turn discharges into  the
James  River, thereby making it subject to the Virginia
water  pollution  control  program. The  Virginia program
issues  and  monitors discharge  permits under a delegation
of authority  from EPA. Similarly,  air pollution  detection
devices  in  operation  near  the Lite  Science  plant were
installed and operated by a  State agency  whose program
EPA approved.
  Q.   Have we  learned anything  from  the events  at
Hopewell,  Va.?
   A.  We can learn  from tragic incidents such as the one
that occurred in Hopewell.  While  a misfortune of this
magnitude is a terrible learning mechanism, we  can at least
take away  from it  insights which help  to  improve our
ability to prevent  such episodes or. at a minimum,  to
respond more effectively when problems do arise.
   Q.  What new  programs or procedures have  we  initi-
ated that  might  prevent  the  occurrence of a comparable
   A.  Because of Hopewell we have met with representa-
tives of the Occupational Safety  and  Health Administra-
tion, the  National  Institute  of Occupational Safety and
Health, the  Center for Disease Control, and the Food and
Drug Administration to discuss better interagency commu-
nication and cooperation  to deal with future  incidents like
this. We  have  started a formal  information exchange  to
predict problems before they reach serious proportions.
   We are also on the verge of signing a formal Memoran-
dum of Understanding with  the  Occupational  Safety and
Health Administration  which  provides for quick communi-
cation  of  possible violations  that  are  observed by either
Agency's  inspectors  during plant visits.  I  have  also
directed EPA Regional Administrators to have our inspec-
tors and enforcement personnel look for signs of adverse
effects in water and air during their inspections of  pesticide
   Q.  Apart from  the risk factor are  there other limita-
tions to the use of pesticides'.'
   A.  We are at the point in  agriculture production where
Administrator Train wearing a farmer's hat while making a tour
of the midwestern farm helt last
additional amounts of fertili/er and pesticides can add little
to food production but can add significantly to environmen-
tal  problems.  The  National Research  Council  of the
National  Academy  of Sciences  recently  reported  that
controlling pests  with chemicals is becoming  increasingly
difficult,  and serious  problems will  be posed for agriculture
and  public health  unless alternative  technologies  are  per-
fected. Over the years some pest species have  developed a
genetic resistance to  pesticides, and. in many cases, natural
balances have been  disrupted, or  entirely new pest prob-
lems have emerged as a result of pesticide treatments. This
is why  EPA  is  working with the  Department of Agricul-
ture on an integrated pest-management  approach designed

to use all  aspects of farm  management  rather than just
chemicals to control pests.
  Q.   In the meantime, what are we doing to make use of
pesticides safer and more effective?
  A.   We arc  extremely active in  this area.  The passage
of the  1972 amendments  to the Federal Insecticide, Fungi-
cide, and Rodenticide  Act of  1947 gave  EPA broad new
responsibilities. For example,  by October, 1977. we must
register,  re-register and classify alt pesticide products used
in this  country.  We are also engaged  in a  major new
program  to certify applicators of pesticides. Another major
thrust  of our  pesticide  strategy is  the  establishment of a
hazard-evaluation  system  to better understand the nature
and extent of adverse effects of pesticides on  man and the
  Q.   How  much of a threat  to human  health does
modern agriculture's  use  of chemicals—pesticides—pose to
human health'1
   A.  We are very concerned about the human health
aspects  of pesticides.  HPA's legislative mandate is  to
regulate  these pesticides  in a manner that will protect the
environment, and  most importantly human health. On the
other hand F'PA  rccogni/es that  pesticides are absolutely
necessary to agriculture  if we  want to maintain the high
degree of productivity  the American farmer  has achieved
in recent decades.
   Careful judgment must be exercised to  assess and weigh
the benefits  and  risks  in  order to achieve  an effective
balance.  Pesticides pose  unique problems. All are poison-
ous—although  some are  more  toxic than others—and  the
large quantities used—almost 1 billion  pounds a year—can
have  an  important impact  on the environment and  our
health.  We are just beginning to  understand the ha/.ards
posed  by certain pesticides  and evaluate  the  risks associ-
ated with their  prolonged and widespread use.
   When  we  talk  about  carefully  weighing the risks  and
benefits  of these compounds, taking  into  account eco-
nomic,  social,  and environmental  factors, we should  re-
member that the  benefits—the control  of pests—are real-
ized immediately and they can usually be calculated with
relative ease.  Hut environmental effects and  human  health
effects  are  more  difficult  to  determine.  For example.
human  health effects  may  not show  up for years. The
latency period  in human  beings of  a  cancer-causing
chemical will  usually be  somewhere between  20 and  40
years. When an entire population is exposed, as is the case
with dieldrin. with substantially everyone carrying measur-
able levels of dieldrin  in  his tissues, there  is  no practical
way of relating  specific  human cancers to  dieldrin  expo-
  While seeking to protect public health against harm from
pesticides,  we also seek  to  strengthen the ability  of the
agricultural community  to deal  with  pests, diseases, and
other threats to their crops and our food supply.
  Q.  Was  there any truth to charges  made in  some
quarters  last  year that  EPA and  its  1972  ban on  DDT
were largely responsible for a major outbreak of encephali-
  A.  Absolutely not.  First. DDT  had largely been
abandoned for mosquito  control in  the U.S.  before  the
1972 ban on  DDT, because  rnosquitos had become DDT-
resistant.  Second. FPA's ban on DDT specifically  ex-
cluded public health  uses from  the ban. Third, at  least  10
products are  registered and  available for use against adult
mosquitoes, including malathion. the product preferred  by
health agencies because of its superior knockdown power.
Fourth, not a single health agency  in the Nation requested
the  use of DDT in combating encephalitis.
  Q.  How  do you think the new regulations for classing
certain  pesticides as "restricted"  and  requiring that  only
certified applicators  can  use them  will affect  American
  A.  Certification of pesticide applicators  will  help farm-
ers.  The restricted pesticides are  dangerous.  Many  farm-
ers, farm workers  and  members of their families could get
sick—and even die—from inhalation or skin contact with
them.  Other pesticides  can cause great damage  to  the
environment if they are not applied directly to the crops or
soils  they're  designed  to  protect  and prevented from
drifting  into the air and washing into waterways.
  1 expect some  farmers will  complain about having to
take a short instruction course or pass a test to be certified

to use products  that they may already have been using for
some  years.  But the instructors  and certifiers will  be
people from their own State, extension agents usually. The
requirements are flexible and adapted  to the State's crops
and farming conditions.
   Fanners in general like to keep up with new  technology.
improve their methods, increase their  profits. Pest  control
is a field  that  is constantly changing.  The certification
program will help farmers keep abreast of developments.  It
will be both action-forcing  and technology-forcing; it will
give a push to the development of  better farming methods
and better environmental protection.
   Q.  EPA has long considered that  wastewater discharge
permits could not be used to control  pollution  from "non-
point" sources:  farm and forest drainage for example. But
the Natural Resources Defense  Council  sued in Federal
Court  and  last summer won a court  order  requiring EPA
to  more carefully  define  "point  sources"  for certain
agricultural  and  forestry operations, for feedlots, and for
city storm  sewers,  and  to  develop  new  regulations for
issuance of permits to these sources. What are  we doing to
obey the court order?
   A.   Everything  the Court ordered. In  November we
proposed permit regulations  for concentrated animal feed-
ing operations—feedlots,  poultry houses,  and so  on.  In
December  we proposed regulations for storm sewers—city
drainage systems not connected  to  sanitary  sewers.  In
-February we proposed regulations  for some operations in
forestry and agriculture.
   We  think  these  regulations  will be workable, but we
don't yet know  whether  the pollution reduction they could
achieve would  be worth  the cost.  That's  why we didn't
propose  them before. We wanted  to concentrate  on  the
industrial  and  municipal point sources  that have  the
greatest potential payoff.
   In  each  instance  we  held a series of public meetings
across the  country  to obtain views as to how sources of
pollution should be  defined and eventually  brought under
   Of course  we  will give  serious  consideration to  all
comments from  the agricultural  community.
   One  problem  in  agricultural and forestry operations  is
determining  where  the  discharge  can be  measured and
presumably controlled. Clearly, irrigated croplands could
require permits because they have definite discharge
points,  but not land watered by rain or snow and drained
by natural  streams.  In  most agricultural  and forestry
operations, the situation  is more complex since the abate-
ment measures are generally management techniques which
must  be applied throughout a watershed.  This  is unlike
abatement  of municipal and industrial discharges where
treatment can be provided at the discharge point.
   We  have taken the position that rain discharge  is  non-
point even  if it flows from a pipe. Only when man  applies
and controls water so as to cause  a surface discharge of
pollutants to navigable waters do we have  a point  source
in  agricultural  or forestry  activities.  We  also intend  to
issue "general" permits  to allow those  discharges  to
continue until locally  developed areawide  plans  are com-
pleted or until  we  know there is  to be a  solution to  a
particular discharge.  Then  individual permits would be
proposed containing  specific  limitations  and corrective
   In  general the new regulations would give  us and  the
States flexibility to  use the  permit selectively and only on
problems where  answers exist.
   For example:  owners  or operators  of feedlots would
continue to need  a permit  if they have a  very large
operation, such as over 1.000 head of beef cattle on feed or
over 700 dairy cattle and  discharge wastes to a waterway.
   Smaller  feedlots. say under  300 head  of beef, would
generally not be required to obtain a permit  unless we
visited the  site and  made a determination that the operation
should and could be regulated  under the  program.
   In any case, no  permit would be required if there is no
discharge of pollutants into waterways.
   Q.  What  type  of forestry  operations might require
discharge permits?
   A.  In  forestry operations we feel  the most logical
pollution sources that are  subject  to such  control are  not
tree-cutting  or tree-planting at  all. These activities  come to
mind when we think  of forestry.  They are  watered by
Nature,  by  rain  and  snow-melt, uncontrollably,  and  the
discharges cannot reasonably  be controlled with "end-of-
the-pipe" technology. However, forestry requires  building
a lot of access roads that require gravel and timber storage
areas. Therefore, rock crushing and gravel washing and log
sorting which use  controllable  water and have  distinct
discharge points,  are the kinds of activities we  propose to
regulate with discharge permits under the Court's order.
  Q.   Are we appealing to a  higher court  to get the non-
point permit order reversed?
   A.  Yes. We have  asked  the  Justice  Department to
appeal the  ruling, and they have agreed to do so.  General
Counsel  Robert  Zener is working on the appeal briefs now
and  will  help  argue the case  before the  Federal Court of
   Q.  Do you feel that Congress should amend the Water
Pollution Control Act  to  provide  authority for reducing
pollution from areawide sources, such  as  agriculture  and
   A.  No.  We have adequate authority,  and  there is no
technology for controlling runoff water from wide  areas as
there is  for specific wastewater  discharges from industrial
plants or sewage treatment works.
   There  is  no question but that natural runoff causes an
awful lot of water pollution, but  the best ways  of reducing
it  are  good techniques of land management.  If  farmers
plow their land on level contours rather than up and down
the hills, less topsoil and  silt gets  washed away.  If they
gauge carefully the  amount of  fertilizer they use, and apply
it  properly, they reduce the amount of  nutrients  that  get
into  streams and  lakes and cause eutrophication. Foresters
and lumber  companies likewise can  do many things to limit
the pollution runoff from their  normal operations.
   We  are  proposing amendments  to the  Water Pollution
Control  Act, but they deal with  the funding of  wastewater
treatment grants, the criteria for eligibility, and so on.
   Q.  Will  reduction of air pollution benefit agriculture?
   A.   We  know that  industrial  pollution, particularly
sulfur oxides from  power plants, can have a very adverse
impact on  agricultural  production.  Recent studies on  the
effects of photochemical  oxidants  on  agricultural growth
have shown that  the yields of alfalfa and sweet  corn were
reduced  by  15 percent each when exposed to certain levels
of these  oxidants. Similarly, and more dramatically, bean
yields were reduced 25  percent, and tomatoes  reduced 33
   Q.  Strip mining for coal, power plant construction,  and
shale oil extraction have  already  begun  in some of  our
Western  States:  Colorado.  Montana, the  Dakotas, Utah,
and Wyoming. This is a land  of ranches, tarms. and small
                                              PAGE  5

towns.  How will  this development of energy  resources
affect the quality of life there?
   A.  It's having a very serious impact  on the environ-
ment and  on people's  style  of living. We are watching it
very closely. Our  Region  VIII Office is "riding herd" on
these strip mines  and  power  plants to  see  that pollution
control  standards are maintained.  We have  many labora-
tory and field studies under way in this area.
   About a  year and a half  ago  I spent five  days and
covered almost 5,000 miles inspecting the  energy develop-
ment areas and  talking  with all  kinds of  people. 1  talked
with ranchers and farmers,  miners, public officials, com-
pany executives, reporters, environmentalists, and reclama-
tion specialists. Some were afraid the development  would
sacrifice the  West's  land and  water and clear air. Others
thought environmental protection  regulations were creating
unreasonable obstacles to  obtaining the energy the Nation
   During  that trip I saw and visited strip  mines,  power
plants, a prototype oil shale mine and extraction plant, and
an  oil  field  injected with  water to increase  production.  I
saw mined areas that had been regraded and  planted.  I saw
boom  towns and haphazard  growth.  1  saw croplands,
forests, wilderness areas, and  Indian reservations.
   1  think  this region is willing to share its  resources,  but
with certain reservations,  I agree with  a 70-year-old
rancher whose  home rested on a  rich coal  bed. He said:
"We know coal is going to  be mined and 1 think we can
face the fact. . .But we don't want to be deluged with it all
at once. .  .what we dread  most is uncontrolled growth with
no consideration. .  .for  the  people who live  and  work
   Hnergy  development  will  inevitably involve some envi-
ronmental costs.  But  we must  keep  those costs to a
minimum. We must seek to avoid environmental damage
that is irreversible  and essentially permanent. And we must
give highest priority to avoiding adverse impacts on public
   (J.  Water is a precious and scarce commodity in much
of the West. How will the larger water needs of energy
development affect western agriculture and ranching?
  A.   Water consumption  is only  one of the environmen-
tal aspects that EPA  and  the States are  watching closely.
The high cost of water for industrial uses in the West will
undoubtedly encourage  conservation  and reuse  wherever
possible. It will also spur the development of methods that
require less water for any given process.
  Simple  economics will  be working for us in this  case,
and you must remember that the arid  Western States have
long-established laws and  customs  concerning water rights
and water use—local controlling  mechanisms that  seem
quite  strange  to  an  Easterner  accustomed to  about 40
inches of rainfall a year.
  Q.   I understand  that as well as being the  Administra-
tor  of EPA, you  are a part-time farmer .on  Maryland's
Eastern Shore. What do you grow?
  A.   I cultivate a little over 130 acres, primarily planted
in feed corn and soy beans. I also raise a small amount of
hay to feed two  horses.  We rotate  the  crops and  try to
follow the best land management practices we can, such as
maintaining grass strips to  help control runoff.
  1 operate the  farm on  shares with my neighbor,  Earle
Harrison,  who provides the equipment and  the know-how.
I don't pretend to  much expertise!  I have tried to help the
quail  population  by  planting feed strips and have  also
planted hedgerows to provide cover for birds and other
  We have a vegetable garden and fruit trees, and my wife
Aileen preserves quantities of food which we use all  year.
There  is  considerable woodland on  the property and  a
resident population of deer. And. of course, being on the
Eastern Shore, we have great numbers of waterfowl in our
fields  and along the  shore in the winter months. We are
lucky  to have oysters and crabs which we also harvest for
our own use.
  Each season brings its  own rewards  and pleasures.  I
can't  pretend that  the farm is a great  financial  success but
it is fun and satisfying to try to use the land itself, n

 (Excerpted from remarks made by Adminis-
 trator Russell E. Train at the National Press
 Club. Feb. 26, 1976. Copies of the full text of
 this  speech can be obtained by writing the
 Public  Information Center  (PM-215). EPA.
 Washington. D. C.. 20460.)
  "Let me highlight  some of the most
 important points  we should keep in
 mind about chemicals and their effects
 upon human health and  life:
  "1. Over the  past  few decades, and
 especially since the end of World War
 II, we have released into the environ-
 ment a vast  volume of entirely new
 chemical compounds with little or no
 knowledge of their  health effects and
^virtually no effort to determine those
 effects and to regulate  the  release of
 many chemicals that might be hazard-
  "2. We have reaped enormous bene-
 fits  from these chemicals—indeed,
 from the truly marvelous advances in
 chemical  knowledge and technology
 that  we have  achieved throughout
 modern times. We must  measure
 these benefits, not  only in  the eco-
 nomic terms  that are apparent to us
 all,  but in health terms as  well. The
 fact that we are the  first generation in
 human  history  to be virtually free of
 the  major infectious diseases is, in no
 small degree, a result of the applica-
 tion of chemical advances to modern
 medicine and modern life.
  "3. The World  Health  Organization
 estimates  that between 60 to 90 per-
 cent  of all cancers  are the  result of
 environmental factors—in the broadest
 sense of that phrase. National Cancer
 Institute studies have shown that the
 highest cancer rates in  the country
 occur in areas  with  the heaviest con-
 centrations of industrial chemical use
 and activity.  Yet of all the  chemical
 agents in the environment,  probably
 only a very small fraction is responsi-
ble for  that large  share  of cancer.
Indeed, the odds  are that  only a
relatively small portion of the chemi-
cals  in  our environment pose  any
serious health threats.
 "4. It  may take only limited expo-
sure  to  contract  cancer.  It  typically
takes anywhere from  15 to 40 years
after that exposure  for the first onset
of cancer  to occur. Because of  that
long latency period,  we have reason to
believe  that the  full impact of  the
chemical explosion we have experi-
enced over the past 30 years has only
begun  to  show  up  in our  cancer
statistics. Yet already, the  experts  tell
us, one  out of every  four Americans
now alive will  ultimately contract
some form of cancer.
 "5. A large and  growing share of the
diseases that cripple  and  kill us  are
caused  by environmental factors—
again, in the  broadest sense  of  that
phrase.  These diseases are going to
take  an  increasingly heavy toll  upon
our lives and well-being,  unless  and
until  we stop trying to deal with them
by treating them after they occur, and
start taking serious steps  to prevent
them from occurring in the first place.
Our  national health care  effort  must
increasingly stress the prevention
rather than the treatment  of disease.
and effective measures for the assess-
ment and  control of  potentially dan-
gerous chemicals and  other agents
before  they enter  the environment
must be a key element in this new
shift toward preventive medicine.
 "To expand on  these  points: There
are today more than 2 million different
known chemicals; every year, this  list
grows by  an estimated 25.000 new
compounds. There are today more
than  30,000 chemicals  in actual  com-
mercial  production; every year,  this
list grows by some  1000 new com-
pounds.  Of the  more  than 2 million
known chemicals, only a few thou-
sand have  been tested for  carcinogen-
icity  and—aside from those used in
food  additives, drugs and pesticides—
only  a few hundred have been ade-
quately tested. We know, in fact, very
little  about the health effects even of
the 30,000 chemicals already in  com-
mercial production.  We have no way
of systematically screening the chemi-
cals  that do go into  production;  we
have  no way  of  knowing precisely
which chemicals go into production
every year.  In  other words, we  not
only don't know whether what's going
out there is dangerous—we don't even
know what's going out there.
 "We have, however, learned one
thing: it's what we don't know that
can really hurt us. even kill us.
 "When  I became the first Chairman
of the  Council on Environmental
Quality in February 1970—almost  ex-
actly  six  years ago—my very first
directive to our staff was to develop a
legislative proposal for coping with  the
class of problems presented by chemi-
cal  and other contaminants.  A year
later,  in  February  1971. this legisla-
tion, known as  the Toxic Substances
Control Act. was submitted by  the
President to the  Congress.  Twice,
over the  past five years,  the Senate
and the House  have passed versions
of this legislation, but  have been una-
ble to agree on the same version. Last
week, the Senate Commerce Commit-
tee  reported out  Toxic Substances
Control  legislation for action by  the
Senate.  In the House, the  legislation
is being considered by a  subcommittee
of the Interstate and Foreign Com-
merce Committee.
 The  plain fact is that, had the Toxic
Substances  Act been  enacted five
years  ago when  it  was first proposed.
we  would be a lot farther ahead in
dealing  with some potentially  very
serious hazards." °
                                                                                                    PAGE  7

 Spring onions at  right were grown in  sulfur-polluted air. those  at left under normal
  EPA scientists are operating a small.
 intentionally air-polluted farm at Cor-
 vallis. Oregon, as a research  project
 which may help save farmers money.
  They raise their  crops under  plastic
 tents filled with controlled amounts of
 common  air pollutants, '["hen they
 measure  Ihe effects  on plant grouth.
 soil ecology, and crop yields.
  This research may lead to the  saving
 of many millions of dollars a year for
 American farmers, according  to  Dr.
 Lawrence Raniere, Chief of the Ter-
 restrial Kcology Branch at the Corval-
 lis  Environmental Research Labora-
  The work involves not only plant
 scientists but also a systems  analyst, a
 biomathematician,  five  biotechnicians,
 and a mechanical  engineer.  On their
 four-and-a-half-acre site—part of Ore-
 gem  State  University's   Hyslop
 Farm—they are learning the mecha-
 nisms by which air pollutants can limit
 the natural production  of nutrients in
 the soil,  slow down  the normal  decay
 of organic  matter,  and  stunt plant
  Such knowledge  is necessary  before
 meaningful air pollution control  meas-
ures  can  be  undertaken.  It is also
needed  for more  accurate assessment
of the economic  losses to  agriculture
from air pollution. Direct losses to
crops are estimated to  exceed $150
million  annually,  and indirect losses
are believed to be much higher.
      Outdoor laboratory
 The HPA farm provides an outdoor
laboratory more closely approximating
real farming conditions than the bench
tests of plant growth that are usually
 Plots of field  crops—corn, alfalfa.
soy  beans, and  sugar  beets—are
grown under clear plastic  sheeting,
using normal methods of planting and
cultivation, natural soils and sunlight.
and simulated rainfall.
 Lettuce, radishes, onions, and other
garden crops are  also grown on the
leased site.
 Air under the plastic canopies can be
varied as  desired,  with controlled
amounts  of such pollutants  as sulfur
dioxide,  a pollutant  discharged  by
power plants and industries; ozone.
the  main  constituent of smog;  and
participates containing metallic com-
pounds and sulfates.
 All  of these pollutants affect plant
growth  in  various  ways, and these
effects are observed throughout the
plant's growing cycle from seed germi-
nation to harvest.  Effects of the pol-
lutants on the soil  ecosystem and the
interaction with plant root systems are
also observed in the test plots.

       3 Significant Effects

 Preliminary results of these research
programs show three very significant
 1. Air pollution can severely limit the
natural conversion of nitrogen  in the
air to fixed nitrogen compounds that
are  the principal nutrients of  plants.
This  fixation of atmospheric nitrogen
is Nature's way  of making fertilizer
and  is accomplished by  bacteria that
grow on the roots  of certain  plants,
called legumes. Alfalfa and soy beans
are  legumes widely planted for their
ability to improve soil fertility as well
as for their values as crops.
 Nitrogen  conversion by alfalfa was
reduced 40 percent when the crop was
exposed to ozone, even at levels well
below the  national  air quality  stand-
ards. Sulfur dioxide also reduced ni-
trogen conversion by alfalfa when the
concentration of this pollutant gas ex-
ceeded .06 parts per million.
 2. Certain heavy metals that occur in
airborne particles also inhibit nitrogen
conversion. One of  these is cadmium,
a metallic  element of no  known nutri-
tional value and  many  toxic  effects.
Red  alder trees  exposed to cadmium
compounds in air produce  less nitro-
gen  in their roots.  Airborne cadmium
compounds are produced by automo-
bile  exhausts, tire wear,  coal-fired
power plants, and the manufacture of
phosphate fertilizers.
 3.  Cadmium and  selenium particles
slow down the rate of decay  of soil
litter, the  essential  biological  process
by which dead organic matter is made
available for plant use.
       Acid Rain Studied

 Acid rain—an indirect effect of air
pollution—is also being investigated at
the test farm.  Rain  that carries dis-
solved acids is  increasing throughout
the world  in both extent and seventy,
said  Dr. Raniere. It  is caused chiefly
by  the conversion  in air of sulfur
oxide gases to sulfate particles, which


 Plastic tenls enclose test crops on HPA's
 air on field crops anil trees are measured.
4'/2-aere farm,  where  effects of polluted
then combine with rainwater  to form
dilute sulfuric acid. Various  metallic
compounds also add to the acidity.
 Research  is  under way  at  Corvallis
to  determine the effects of acid rain
on plant growth and plant-soil ecology
over a  three-year  period. Simulated
rain containing  various  amounts  of
acid is applied to  test plots for three
or  four hours three times  a week.
while  scientists  measure  nutrient
washout, nitrogen  conversion, organic
decay, and the rate of nutrient absorp-
tion by the plants, as  well as overall
crop production.
 Results of this  work are expected to
provide a  sound  basis  for  plans  to
control airborne  sulfates on a  regional
level in the future.
 The Corvallis group is also  working
to  improve their techniques of measur-
ing air pollution damage to plants. Up
to  now such damage  has  generally
been based  on  observation:  spotted
leaves, wilting,  and  so on.  These
methods are  subjective and difficult to

     Damage Indicator  Found

 The scientists have found  a more
sensitive method, which seems to indi-
cate incipient damage before it  be-
comes visible. In the normal course of
the research, plants are given  a kind of
"basal metabolism" test. That is.  all
the  gases  the plant "inhales" and
"exhales"  are  carefully measured.
These  are mostly carbon dioxide, oxy-
gen, and  water  vapor,  with  small
amounts of other  substances.  One of
the  minor  gaseous products  is ethyl-
ene, a hydrocarbon.  F.thylene output
has  been  found  to correlate  with ob-
  served plant  damage, and  it rises
  when  the plant  is  exposed to air
  pollution, before  visual damage is ap-
   The  Terrestrial  Ecology Branch has
  other  plant pollution  research  under
  way. involving field work in Montana.
  southern California, and Florida.
   In  Montana,  grasslands  in the vicin-
  ity of  new coal-fired power plants are
  being studied to learn how stack emis-
  sions  and  cooling systems  affect the
native  plant and  animal  life. The ob-
jective is  to develop predictive guide-
lines for the siting and management of
future  power plants. The project  is to
be completed in 1978.
  In the San Bernardino National For-
est in southern California, a three-year
study  of  smog damage to  ponderosa
pines  is  being  sponsored jointly by
HPA and  the U.S. Forest Service.
  In  Florida,  a  recently  completed
study focused  on the effects of sea-salt
drift from an evaporative cooling sys-
tem. A proposed nuclear power plant
near  Homestead, Fla..  will cool its
heat exchangers with  seawater and
then cool  the seawater in an evapora-
tive system, discharging large amounts
of sea-salt particles. The KPA scien-
tists exposed different types of vegeta-
tion  to the expected  salt  concentra-
tions  to  determine long-term growth
effects and salt tolerance levels.
  Corvallis researchers are  also using
radioactive  trace  elements to  follow
the movement  of chemical pesticides
through soil, plants,  and animals.  In
this  way  they  hope  to  learn  more
about  how  and where  pesticides are
stored  and how they change and de-
cay. Such information is  needed by
both   pesticide  manufacturers  and
users  in assessing a product's environ-
mental impact,  a
   Model ecosystem in Corvallis laboratory  tank contains a variety  of  plant and
   animal life,  and  movements of pesticides  can he traced through all  parts of the
   system.  The  observer is  Ja\  (iile. research biologist.
                                                                                                           PA (IK  9

  During  the  next year and  a half
every hug  spray and  weed  killer,
every rat  poison  anil  flea collar, sold
in the United States  will have to  be
reregistered  hy the Office of Pesticide
  About 35.(KM) different products reg-
istered under  the  1947  Federal pesti-
cides law  before  August 4 of lust year
are involved, plus approximately 7.(XM)
products made and sold  within States
and  not previously subject to  Federal
  The old  law's criteria for registration
were safety and effectiveness.  The
law's  1972  amendments and  subse-
quent  FPA regulations  provide three
new label  requirements;
  • Classification  of each pesticide  for
    "general" or "restricted" use;
  • Belter presentation  of warnings
    and directions for  use—and  for
    storage  and disposal  too—on each
    product's label; and
  • For certain  unusually  ha/ardous
    products,  the  minimum  time that
    must  elapse  before  farm  workers
    can enter a field  where the prod-
    uct was applied.
  Moreover, additional scientific infor-
mation on toxicity to humans  and to
fish  and  wildlife  will  be required  for
many products  before  they  can  he

            Massive .Job
  "We have  begun the  massive job,
and  we are confident it  will he done
before the Congressional deadline  of
Oct.  21.  1977."  said  Fdwin  I.. John-
son,  Deputy  Assistant  Administrator
for Pesticide Programs.
  "To assist the industry in complying
with the new requirements, we held a
series of  question-and-answer work-
shops around the country this past
summer  and  fall. These were  well
attended and received.
  "And we have set up  procedures to
expedite  the process  hy reregistering
products  in 'batches'  according  to
their  active  ingredients.  For  example.
all  iodine products  will be batched
together, or all products containing cop-
per in a certain range of concentration."
PACiF 10
 A prime feature of each reregistra-
tion will be its classification for "gen-
eral" or "restricted" use. General-use
pesticides are those not considered
dangerous  when  used according to
label directions. They will be  available
to  everyone.
 Restricted-use pesticides are those
considered dangerous to man  or to the
environment unless  they are used by
competent people.  After Oct.  21.
1977. only certified applicators, or
persons working under the direct su-
pervision of a  certified applicator, will
be able  to use restricted pesticides
legally. (See  certification story on
page 6.)
 Many pesticides  now being sold are
expected to be reregistered quickly on
the basis of scientific  data already in
F.PA's files.  Others, for which long-
term effects are not yet known,  may
be reregistered temporarily, pending
completion of the necessary studies.

         1,505 Ingredients
  A list of 1.505 active  ingredients of
pesticides was published in  the  Fed-
eral Register  for  Feb.  17. taking up
 158 pages of the Register. The ingredi-
ents were grouped according  to chemi-
cal similarity  and  relative knowledge
of their health and environmental haz-
ards. Broad uses for each were identi-
fied, i.e. for insect, fungus, or rodent
control,  etc..  and  "data gaps"  were
indicated  where more  information is
needed on the chemical's effects.
 The  Federal  Register notice  set  a
timetable for the  "call-in" of re regis-
tration applications  for products  con-
taining 651 of the  ingredients,  144 of
them  before  July  of this year.  More
than half of the 1,505 chemicals  have
not yet been categorized  by FPA.
 The  Office  of Pesticide Programs
will announce later a list of active
ingredients presumed  to  be  too  haz-
ardous for reregistration. Items on this
list are  expected to become the  sub-
jects of  many EPA-industry confer-
ences and public hearings.
 As hatches are called in  for reregis-
tration,  FPA  will  send  applicant in-
dustries  and  distributors "specific
guidance" packages that include: re-
quired label  changes,  references  to
supporting  data, indications of addi-
tional data needed, possible waivers of
data requirements,  and  a  proposed
general or restricted classification.
 Registrants have 60 days to respond;
otherwise their  product  registration
may be cancelled.

       Reregistration Team
 John B. Ritch,  Jr., directs the Pesti-
cide Office's  Registration  Division.
He is assisted by a  15-memher task
force drawn from  all parts  of  the
Office  and  15  product managers to
handle the details.
 FPA  is encouraging  applicants for
reregistration to  cooperate in compil-
ing data on  safety, effectiveness, tox-
icity, and environmental  effects,  ac-
cording to Deputy Assistant  Adminis-
trator Johnson. This  can  help  the
pesticide  companies by spreading re-
search costs over two  or more firms,
he said, and it can also help EPA in
processing the batches  of applications
more rapidly.
 The Pesticide  Office  depends princi-
pally, but  not entirely, on  scientific-
data submitted hy manufacturers from
their own research or  from data  ob-
tained  from universities  and  private

          Backup Testing
 The Office's Chemical and Biological
Investigations Branch,  headed by
Ronald  A.   Davis, can play  a crucial
backup role in the reregistration proc-
ess whenever F.PA officials have rea-
son to question the submitted data.
 The Branch can evaluate all kinds of
pesticides  for chemical and  biological
activity, tasks it usually undertakes for
pesticide accident  investigations and
for research to  support  enforcement
actions, rather  than product  registra-
 The Branch  has a professional  and
supporting  staff of more  than 70 per-
sons and has  laboratory  and field
operations in Beltsville, Md.; Corval-
lis.  Ore.; and  Bay  St. Louis. Miss.
The staff includes specialists  in poi-
sons,  viruses,  microbes,   insects,
plants, and animals,  n

                                                     J   Hi

  A Georgia farmer uses parathion to
kill insects that infest his cotton  and
peanuts.  An  Iowa grower  uses toxa-
phene on his corn and methyl bromide
to fumigate his storage bins.
  Each has only two more  growing
seasons before he must prove himself
competent to  use these chemical pesti-
cides, which are extremely  hazardous.
Parathion  and methyl bromide  are
poisonous to inhale or to touch; masks
and  protective clothing are  needed.
Toxaphene is poisonous  to  fish: it
should be used only  when  it will  not
wash away into a stream or lake.
  These three chemicals seem certain
to be  on  KPA's list of "restricted"
pesticides, which, after  Oct. 21. 1977.
'can he used only by  certified applica-
tors  (or persons under their direct
  The States will administer the certifi-
cation  of private applicators (farmers)
and commercial pesticide applicators.
        Plans on Schedule

 State certification plans are progress-
ing about  on schedule  in  spite  of  a
recent  one-year extension by Con-
gress of the effective deadline, accord-
ing to  F.dwin I.. Johnson.  Deputy
Assistant Administrator for Pesticide
 By the end of February,  six States'
certification programs had  received fi-
nal F.PA approval.  Four  more  had
been formally published, with notice
of EPA's intent  to approve; six Stales
and  Territories  had  plans  signed by
their respective  Governors; and three
were awaiting their Governor's signa-
 Mr, Johnson said  the extension of
the deadline from October of this year
to October 1977 has not caused  any
noticeable delay in certification efforts
by the  States. Moreover, most States
indicate that they intend  to  proceed
with applicator training  schedules de-
veloped before  the  extension voted
lust  November when   Congress
amended  the  Federal Insecticide.
Fungicide, and Rodenticide  Act.
 Under  the  Act. certification will be
required only for restricted pesticides,
those judged by EPA to be the most
dangerous either to the  environment
or to the health of persons who handle
and apply  them. Such restricted pesti-
cides would be sold only to persons
certified to be capable of using them
safely.  And they will have to be used
only by certified persons or by em-
ployees working under their direct
 EPA  has not yet announced  the
restriction  of any pesticides,  but last
year the Office of Pesticide Programs
issued  a list of 41 "presumptively
restricted"  types of chemicals. This
list is being  used in the  development
of training  materials and planning  of
certification programs.

      (k'neral-Use Products

 Most pesticides, and especially those
used in  home yards and gardens, will
be classified for general  use. and no
certification will be required to apply
them. A presumptive list of  76 gen-
eral-use  pesticides was also issued last
year. Some of the chemicals presump-
tively restricted may  be  downgraded
in  the  final list and  classified  for
general use; others may be  rated gen-
eral-use in  certain  formulations  and
below certain concentrations.
 Complete safety is not assured by a
general-use  rating,  however,  Mr.
Johnson emphasi/ed. Label directions
must be followed. KPA  does  not
register any pesticide unless it is prop-
erly  labeled  with  directions  for use
and with adequate hazard warnings.
 The certification process for applica-
tors  of restricted pesticides will vary
from State to State  according  to vary-
ing pesticide  use patterns,  types of
pests to be controlled, and local regu-
lations.  Fach State  will administer its
own certification program  after its
plans have met EPA's standards.
 The State determines  when a person
is  competent to use the restricted
pesticides,  and it can choose from a
number  of ways to  determine compe-
tence of private applicators,  including
formal  written  tests, completion of
approved training, oral examinations.
even  practical  demonstrations.  All
commercial applicators  must pass
written examinations.

       Training Courses Set

 Training will  be offered  by State
agricultural extension workers, health
department  experts,  or  industry
groups.  Some States may provide for
home-study courses by mail.
 Commercial applicators are expected
to need  from 8 to 12 hours of instruc-
tion and demonstration time, and indi-
vidual farmers from two to four hours,
to meet  the competence requirements.
 Farmer training  is being conducted
largely by extension service officials,
under  agreements  worked  out by
EPA. the  Department  of Agriculture,
and the States.
 Training  materials, pamphlets, and
visual aids  have already been devel-
oped under contracts funded jointly by
EPA and Agriculture. More than $1.2
million  has  already been spent on
developing and  distributing such  edu-
cational  materials.
 Georgia was the first  State  to have
its certification program approved last
August. It  was followed by Iowa.
South Carolina.  Wyoming.  Missis-
sippi, and Washington.
 Washington. Oregon,  and Idaho arc
planning identical  performance stand-
ards, training materials, and  commer-
cial applicator requirements  so  that
any person certified  by one State
automatically qualifies in the other
two.  New Jersey,  West  Virginia, Ore-
gon and Idaho  have  submitted their
plans  and  EPA has published its in-
tent to approve.
 Signed  by their Governors but not yet
published are the plans  for Arkansas.
Florida, Guam.  Hawaii.  Indiana.
Maine.  Maryland, Michigan. Mon-
tana.  Nevada.   New  Hampshire,
North Carolina, Pennsylvania,  Puerto
Rico.  Tennessee,  and Virginia.  Plans
for Ari/ona,  Minnesota and  New
York  await  their Governor's signa-
tures.  D

                       Block   Creek   Story
    'I lie [>roi>riini described in the Klm'k
  Creek s'lurv should help point the  HW
 for nttinv other projects needed to
  help control  pollution from ''non-
  point" sources  such  its rain runoff
 from farm fields. EPA is >i
  The banks of this small stream which runs under the bridge at left center have been sloped and planted with  grass.
  Fencing has been erected to prevent the cows from damaging the fragile banks.
  And these people  are spending; they
have already raised $60.000. The pro-
ject  guidelines  not only have  them
investing money but making sacrifices
such as not planting in certain areas to
preserve the land.  Idle  land costs a
farmer money.
  Virgil  Hirsch has a sediment  basin
that  used to be good farm  land, and
yet he  says he's glad he went  along
with the project because he feels it's
  But  he adds, "If they'd waited on
me to come to them, why, it  never
would have got done."
  Although  each of the participants has
his own  role  in  the Black Creek
Study, when the farmers think  of the
project  most of them  think of the Soil
Conservation  Service.  The  SCS
works  with the  farmers  on a day-to-
day  basis,  advising them which  con-
servation technique would work best
on their land.
 Purdue  University has been measur-
ing the effect of the land management
practices in  terms of erosion, biology,
water quality and other aspects.
 The final results of the Black Creek
Study can  be  as  far  reaching as a
change in conservation. If  that hap-
pens the  farmers of Allen County will
be very much responsible.
 Ralph Christenson's  perspective is
this:  "Ordinarily you  talk to a man
and  say.  'Look, fella,  if you don't
clean up, you're gonna get slapped
with a fine.' We're saying 'Let's  see
what  land management  practices do to
prevent pollutants  from  running  off
into  the stream, what  these practices
cost in terms  of dollars and produc-
tion,  without having a  bunch  of law-
makers doing it and making  you  pay
for it."
 "After  all. no farmer  wants to be
told  how to  farm," said  Cari Wilson.
 The Black Creek  Study has done
much to bolster  the  image of all its
participants,  especially  the  EPA.
McFadden remarked that "before this
project,  EPA was going  to close
everything down,  EPA was . .  ."
 McFadden stopped a moment  and
said,  "But  now,  well, they've  cer-
tainly won our respect."
 The   Environmental   Protection
Agency hopes this kind of project can
he applied to other areas in the Great
Lakes Basin  since the 12.000-aere
Black Creek watershed was not cho-
sen at random.  The  basin contains
almost every type  of soil found in the
Maumee  River Basin, so  practices
proved successful  locally can  be ap-
plied regionally. D

 Reprinted from the May.  1974,  issue  of
Environment Midwest.  EPA  Region  V
                                                                                                        PAGE  13

              Curbing   Feedlot   Wastes
                                   By Rowena L.  Michaels*
  * Rowcnci Michaels ix Director, Pub-
 lic Affairs, Region VII.

  Agriculture  is the economic base
 upon which Ihe four States in Region
 VII, Iowa. Nebraska.  Kansas, and
 Missouri, thrive and prosper. Gross
 fa mi and related  agribusiness income
 totals nearly  $45  billion per  year.
 Forty-three  percent of  the  Nation's
 beef and 44 percent of its pork comes
 from (his  Region.
  This high productivity is made  possi-
 ble  by the  centralization of animal
 feeding in very large lots. Since World
 War II the size of feedlots has stead-
 ily  increased until today it  is not
 uncommon for one operation to han-
 dle  KK).(XK) head of cattle for  about
 120 days of feetling.
  Although  economically profitable.
 this centrali/ed production  of feed
 animals contributes heavily to environ-
 mental  pollution,  both of  air and
 water, because of the huge amounts of
 wastes generated.  The size of the
 problem is suggested by  the fact that a
 10.000 head of cattle feedlot. not con-
 sidered  a "large"  operation in this
 part  of the country, produces  about
 KM).(XX)  tons of manure annually.  A
 feedlot with 50.000 head has a dis-
 posal problem comparable to that of a
 city of  about 600.000 people. The
 Department of Agriculture estimates
 that animal  production  results in two
 billion tons of waste annually.
  Until comparatively  recent times,
 disposal  of animal  wastes posed  no
 particular problems.  American agricul-
 ture was widely dispersed, most farms
 were  modest  rather than large, and
 animal wastes were  returned  to crop-
 land or pasture  as fertilizer.  Then
 around the turn of the century, when
 feedlots  began to appear in  the corn-
 belt  States  they  were  comparatively
 small  operations,  feeding between 100
 and 300 animals,  owned and operated
 by individual farmers.
  Little concern was given to  the con-
 trol  of  wastes since  the  lots were
 frequently located  on hillsides to take
 advantage of natural drainage and with
PA OF.  14
the assumption that a good rain would
flush away  the solids and the runoff
would  carry wastes into  convenient
streams. Approximately  80.000 of the
country's 170.000  beef cattle  feedlots
are located on streams, so  much  of
the muck has found its  way into our
 The increasing size  of  the feedlots.
and  the consequent  increase  in  the
amount of wastes to be  managed,
have overloaded the capacity of natu-
ral systems to safely dispose of them.
In the  mid-l%0's  water pollution
caused by rainfall runoff from concen-
trated  cattle feeding  operations  was
the cause of major fish  kills  in this
 Recognizing the magnitude and visi-
bility of pollution caused by huge
feedlots and the growing public intol-
erance of environmental  abuse. Con-
gress gave FPA responsibility for reg-
ulating wastewater  from  feedlots  late
in  1972. The  Federal Water Pollution
Control  Act Amendments of  1972
included "concentrated animal  feeding
operations" in the definition of "point
sources"  of water pollution. And
"point  sources" were required to  file
for  a permit from EPA to discharge
pollutants  to streams and  rivers.  On
December 5.  1972,  the first proposed
regulations were  issued dealing with
point   sources  under  the   Federal
wastewater permit program. That first
proposal was all inclusive.  Nearly  ev-
ery  farmer in the country would have
been included. Here in Region  VII
we  were accused of "planning to  put
a treatment plant on the tail of every
 The hue  and cry that was raised by
farmers and stockmen led to a reap-
praisal of HPA's position.  Agency
staff was  sent into  the field, advice
was solicited from other  agencies,
comments from farmers and feeders
were read and carefully studied.  On
July 5. 1973. we issued new regula-
tions for the livestock feeding  industry
that covered only large feedlots. those
confining over the "magic" 1,000 head
size or equivalent, and certain others
that were identified as significant con-
tributors to pollution.
 But as we set  about  implementing
the  new regulations, the Natural  Re-
sources Defense  Council filed a law-
suit objecting  that  P'PA had incor-
rectly  excluded certain point  sources
from regulations.  A  U.S.   District
Court  of Washington. D.C. ruled
against the Agency  in June  1975.  The
court decreed that  we could  not  ex-
clude any  point source. It seemed that
we  had come full circle. To explore
the  options left. EPA  held extensive
public hearings at which livestock or-
ganizations, agricultural  colleges, and
individual  feeders among others had
an opportunity to be  heard.
 As a  result new regulations  for con-
centrated  animal feeding  operations
have been hammered  out and were
promulgated in final  form last month.
In these regulations. EPA  is  attempt-
ing  to aim the permit program at large
feedlots that discharge wastewater and
only at the smaller ones  that may
cause particular pollution problems.

 Meanwhile, the States are also  he-
coming more active  in  the  feedlot
waste control efforts.  Kansas  knew it
had  a  problem  as  early  as 1958.  It
took 10 years to get regulations on  the
books  that  Kansas felt  would ade-
quately  protect water quality and con-
trol air pollution, odor  and other feed-
lot nuisance problems.  Iowa came up
with regulations  in  the  middle  to late
1960's  and by  1970 seven States had
developed  and  adopted such  regula-
tions. These States work closely, as
does EPA.  with land  grant universi-
ties, agricultural consulting  engineers.
and  the Extension Service  to help
solve  the  farmers' and feeders'  prob-
 Livestock waste management is diffi-
cult because of many factors: the size
of the operation, availability of land
for waste disposal, climatic conditions,
and even  changes in the agricultural
industry itself.  The trend in  the live-
stock industry today  is to view animal
wastes  not just  as  a  product  to be
disposed of.  but  as  a  resource to be
used  profitably.  Recognition of  the
nutrient value of animal wastes is
increasing as  commercial  fertilizer
prices continue to rise.
 Current  research, much of it funded
by  EPA, emphasizes recycling of
manure. Some cattle wastes are being
converted into methane gas and other
products.  A  project  is  being con-
ducted at  EP.Vs  Robert S. Kerr Lab-
oratory in Ada.  Okla.. to determine
how much  of  the  protein-rich  dried
manure can  be  included  in  the feed
given  cattle.  At least one of  the
nation's large beef cattle feeding com-
panies has already  started to include
in the  normal diet of its herd substan-
tial  portions  of feed derived from
cattle manure. D
                                          Feedlot near Omaha. Nebraska.
                                                                                                        PAGE  15

  Geographically,  the  eight States—
 North  Carolina.  South  Carolina.
 Georgia.  Florida.  Tennessee,  Missis-
 sippi.  Alabama  and Kentucky—com-
 prise  10.2  percent of the United
 States.  Their population of 31,850,(MM)
 accounts  for 15.7  percent of the  Na-
 tion's citizens.
  The  Region  is  an  area  of great
 diversity  and  richness of natural re-
 sources.  Some of these resources,
 notably woodlands and plenty of fresh
 and salt  water,  have drawn textile
 mills, pulp and  paper  mills, chemical
 plants and an ever burgeoning tourist
  The coming of new industry and  new
 people  has presented the Region with
 environmental challenges and continu-
 ing  pollution  problems,  which,  here
 and there, have tarnished skies  and
  KPA  was only  eight days  old on
 Dec.  10, 1970, when Administrator
 William  I).  Ruckelshaus came to At-
 lanta and let the Nation know that the
 fledgling  Agency  meant  business in
 its mandate  to protect the  environ-
 ment.  Foregoing the  usual  platitudes
 in  an address  to  a  meeting of the
 Nation's  mayors, he  informed chief
 executives of Atlanta, Cleveland  and
 Detroit that their cities were bounded
 by foul waters, and they had  180 days
 to get going on programs  to clean up
 these waters.
  The  result, after sputterings  and
 angry retorts abated, was launching of
 $!.2-billion  Federal  and local pro-
 grams to curb  the  pollution of Geor-
 gia's Chattahoochee River, Lake Erie,
 and the Detroit River.
  Another big  plus  for  [{PA in the
 Region occurred on Nov.  18. 1971, in
 Birmingham  when the city had  a
 frightening  air  pollution  episode.
 County and  State were powerless to
 act, and industries at the time declined
 to shut down  voluntarily.  EPA teams
 from Region IV and  Raleigh-Durham
 went into the  Alabama city and for
 the  first time put into operation emer-
 gency powers of the  Clean Air  Act.
 Working with  the Justice Department,
 EPA got injunctions to close down 23

PAGE  16
of the  city's  largest industries at a 2
a.m. hearing  at  the  home  of U.S.
 District Judge Sam  Pointer.  Air over
the city, nudged along by  a  cleansing
cold-front rain,  cleared within  18
  In the water area, Escambia Bay at
Pensacola has been  the Region's  best
known success story. Once one of the
Gulf of Mexico's finest  fishing  and
spawning  waters,  Escambia had been
turned  into the country's  number one
fish kill site in  the late I960's by  the
post-World War II influx of chemical
  The  Region responded to this prob-
lem  with a series  of State-Federal
enforcement  conferences  in  the  late
sixties  and early seventies which laid
down some lough,  effective  cleanup
Modern Atlanta's skyline.
guidelines.  Regional  Administrator
Jack E.  Ravan  followed  this up  in
1972 by stationing a team of marine
biologists and engineers at  the bay on
fulltime  assignment  as  monitors.
Thanks to continuing progress in con-
trolling harmful discharges, there were
no recorded fish  kills in  1975  and  the
monitoring  team  has been reassigned
to other cleanup duties.
  Those are some of the  highlights.  In
the  day-to-day struggle,  some  of  the
programs shape up as follows:
    Drinking Water Safety

 A  comprehensive evaluation  of  the
Tennessee  water  supply program  in
1971 was the first  such study  in  the
Nation.  Region IV  has continued  to
lead the way. having also  completed.
at  State  request,  evaluations  of  the
Kentucky.  Georgia, and Florida pro-
grams. However, a great deal of addi-
tional research is needed in  water
supply and  related health effects stud-
ies.  As  a follow-up  to the  National
Organics Reconnaissance  Study.  Re-
gion  IV  is  investigating  further  the
sources of the  relatively high levels of
trace organic  compounds found  at
Miami, Fla.. and Charleston. S.C.


 Another first  here—Georgia was  the
first State in the Nation to obtain  an
approved plan  for  the training and
certification of restricted-use pesticides
applicators. South Carolina was third.
Mississippi  fourth,  and the remaining
Region States are well  along in proc-
essing or plan preparation.  This is
good  because  the  Region  has some
major pesticide and pest problems.  In
Region IV  some 1.378  registered pes-
ticide manufacturing establishments
(23  percent of the Nation's total) pro-
duce  more  than 7.(KX) products. Fed-
eral-State cooperation, as in other pro-
grams, is necessary to  avoid duplica-
tion of effort and to uniformly regulate
the  marketing  and use of pesticides.
Resident pesticide inspectors  are  in
the  fields in  Alabama. Florida, Missis-
sippi. Tennessee and Georgia.  These
EPA representatives help  train State
pesticide inspectors, inspect manufac-
turing facilities, investigate pesticide
incidents (some  150 last year), monitor
experimental pesticides, and collect
evidence to determine compliance
with the Pesticides Act.


 Some  23  Air Quality Maintenance
Areas have  been  formally designated
in   Region  IV. and  31 counties  are
being given special study because they
may  not meet air quality standards.
When the analysis is completed this
spring, appropriate strategies  will   be
determined for dealing  with these
problems.  In  some  cases, this  will
involve more thorough enforcement of
existing  implementation plans; in other
cases, additional control measures will
have  to  be  provided in  revision of  the

plans.  In addition, special studies are
being  made  of transportation-related
pollutants in five urban areas:  Atlanta.
Charlotte, the  Kentucky  suburbs of
Cincinnati. Louisville,  and  Tampa.
The spectacularly dirty air of cities
like Birmingham  and  Chattanooga.
it  is hoped,  is  a  phenomenon of the
past, but  Region IV still  has problems
with industrial air pollution. Principal
sources  are  metallurgical industries.
chemical  manufacturers,  power gener-
ators,  petroleum refineries, and  kraft
pulp  and paper  mills.  Because of
growing  concern over suspended  sul-
fates,  the emissions of TVA's  steam
electric  plants  remain  a major  con-
Palm-shaded  beach  at the SDH thorn most
point of the Florida Keys.
           Solid  Waste

  At  the  end of Fiscal  Year 1975. 75
percent of the population in Region
IV was  being served by  approved
solid waste  disposal  facilities.  All
States have  regulatory authority  for
solid  waste  management and  are at
various  stages of  implementation.
Seven of the eight States are develop-
ing general  solid  waste management.
hazardous waste management and re-
source recovery strategies.  The State
of Florida, under an EPA  grant, is
commencing  a market  survey for re-
cyclable  materials. Because  of  prob-
lems  with land disposal and  heavy
coastline development, a  study is
being made in  Gulf  Coast counties of
Mississippi for resource recovery  po-
tential.  In the  Region, solid waste
disposal  problems range from  those
caused by the  high groundwater table
in Florida and coastal areas  of  the
Atlantic and  Gulf  of  Mexico States to
those of  fractured  limestone forma-
tions  in Kentucky and Tennessee.
                                       The  real estate and  population boom in Florida has helped lead to such developments
                                      us the construction of artificial building lots at Marco Island. Fla.

  More  than  8.300  National  Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System permits
have  been issued  in the  Region and
another 3.300 are pending. Some 6,300
of these went to industrial dischargers
and another  2,000 to municipal  treat-
ment  facilities. Four States  have  re-
ceived authority  to issue NPDFS per-
mits:   Georgia,  Mississippi, North
Carolina and  South  Carolina.
  The  Region  is  richly endowed  with
coastal wetlands, and Region IV has
been  a leader in  efforts to  protect
them. EPA attorneys took the lead  in
the winning of a  landmark case involv-
ing one controversy about  wetlands.
This occurred in April.  1975. when a
Federal judge in Washington. D.C.,
ruled  that Sections 301  and 404 of the
Federal Water Pollution  Control Act
did apply  to  wetland areas above the
mean  high tide. Thus, the discharge  of
dredge or till  materials in these  areas
is subject to  the permit  requirements
of the Corps  of Engineers and  other
regulatory actions  by EPA. But  in
another  dispute   with   a   Federal
agency, controversy continues.  EPA
and the  Tennessee  Valley  Authority
have  long disagreed as  to  whether
TV A is  bound  to comply  w-ith  State
emissions-limiting  regulations  ap-
proved  by EPA as part  of the  State
implementations plans.  TV A.  whose
plants  account  for  15 percent  of the
nation's  sulfur  dioxide emissions and
58 percent of these  emissions  in Re-
gion IV. has instituted intermittent
controls  for meeting ambient  sulfur
dioxide standards in  the vicinity of its
coal-burning plants, but insists it is not
obliged to meet the  States'  emission
 In the big money item, construction
grants, there  have  been problems
here, as elsewhere. Since  Fiscal Year
1973 Region IV disbursed a total of
SI.9 billion  to the States.  In FY 76.
379 grants  actions  were  processed.
obligating  $162,398,849.  During FY
75,  Region IV led  the nation  in award
of grants  for areawide waste manage-
ment planning under section 208 of the
Water  Pollution Control Act. Twenty-
eight such awards  were made,  with a
total obligation  of  more than $25 mil-
lion.  During the  year considerable
progress  also was  made toward com-
pletion of the water pollution control
basin  plans  required under section
303(e)  of the Act.  Plans for 71  of the
92 basins  in Region  IV's eight  States
have been drafted  or completed.  The
overall water pollution control  pro-
gram  will  benefit  greatly  from these
plans in drafting permits, making  con-
st met ion  grants, and estimating  con-
struction needs. '•'

                            PAGE  17

                                                                                                     Charles Pou*
 The South—old and new,  town and
country, hill and  dale—is a land of
great and glorious contrasts.
 Take the beautiful but pushy water
 In  Florida  the  fast-spreading  plant
moves in on lakes, slow-flowing rivers
and streams, takes over and smothers
everything. Some conservationists and
fishermen put them in the same plague
category  with  two  other exotic im-
ports, piranha and walking catfish.
 They've tried  for decades to think  of
something  that  would kill water hy-
acinths  and nothing else. In ecologi-
cally related  Puerto  Rico, until  recent
years a  member of Region  IV. San
Juan authorities once seriously consid-
ered bringing in the hippopotami to
munch 'em up.
 But they decided not after  pondering
what could  be done with  hungry,
leftover hippopotami.
 Now,  across  the Gulf of Mexico  to
the coast of  Mississippi. There in the
small town of Orange  Grove, prelimi-
nary experiments in a  lagoon  reveal
the hyacinth  can be a possible friend.
Wastes of about 1.500 people are run
through the  lagoon,  where grows a
mat  of water hyacinths.  Out of the
lagoon, they say, flows water so pure
it exceeds State health standards.
 So  what  was  considered a foe  in
Florida has been turned into a friend.
 An admittedly  exaggerated example.
this contrast  of  one man's adversary
and another person's  friend illustrates
something else  often  observed  in the
region: The  knack of making  some-
thing bad into something good. Where
hard times  much of the last 100 years
or so had been  a condition of life, the
trick was a necessity.
 In  Mississippi, for instance, citizens
and  visitors were  riding  gravel roads
until  well  nigh  World War II.  But
when the State finally  got concrete and
asphalt  toppings,   with  by-then ad-
vanced design and  building skills,  no
roads were finer.
 That was  sort  of what happened also
in  the great  quest  for new  industry
after World War II, a quest which had
the  Region battling  other Regions.
States bidding against States, commu-
nities sending missionaries up  North
to entice and seduce with promises of
plentiful land and labor.
 The land.  Amazing hunks  of  it pre-
sent the same vista as  when  early
settlers took  up arms with their Yan-
kee brothers against the  tyranny of the
 While some of the land, over-farmed
for generations, was fit only to keep
hell  from showing  through,  as  a re-
gional  saying goes, the earth  has a
way of healing itself.  Tall  scraggly
pines grew  up into fine big  trees
where  the old cotton  field  terraces
once followed  the  curve of the hill-
sides. And, resting  while  tenants pur-
sued  Germans and  shipyard jobs, it
once more became some of the pretti-
est land on earth.  Clean clear-flowing
rivers flowed beside it  and  often the
quiet was broken only  by a  birdsong
and the  occasional flicker  of a squirrel
hunting pinecones.
 This land stretched seductively State
after State, and where the lure wasn't
woodland and clear, cool water, it was
sun-spanked  seawater and soft  white
 Spanish muss hangs from cypress trees in Florida's Fverglades National Park.

 PAGE  18

beach. Almost one-third of the coun-
try's tidal coastline  is along the Atlan-
tic  shorelines  of  North  Carolina.
Georgia  and  the  great  peninsula of
Florida and on around to the coast of
Alabama and Mississippi.
 From the blue-grass of Kentucky to
the  Florida  Keys  lies  a  variety of
landscapes—Appalachian,  the  Great
Smokies  and  the  Blue   Ridge  Moun-
tains, the  Piedmont plateau, and the
coastal plains and marshes.
 Industry came. And kept on coming.
So did people.
 Tourism, the people industry,  took
up in Florida  where it  left off before
the Big  Boom  crash of  the 'twenties.
 But  after a while  it got  so some of
the wealthier  Florida  communities,
like Boca Raton, were saying to peo-
ple.   "Halt!  We   don't  want  you.
We've decided we  want to get things
back like  they were, or  no worse than
they were."
 In the less affluent inland and coastal
cities and towns, where new  industry
and people brought badly needed dol-
lars, the smoke  and smells and  bustle
were  better abided. But  gradually in
them  too came realization of need for
some sort of restraint and temperance.
 This new  understanding came  poign-
antly  when oil and gook bubbled up at
the old  fishing  hole.  Some  of  the
coastal  bays,  rimmed  with chemical
plants and  refineries, began to  cloud.
First, they  became no longer  fit for
swimming,  and then they  even got too
filthy  for the crabs and fish.
 What  to do?  The  clash  of new-
money and desire for some  of the old
way  of life has caused  conflicts. And
the recession has  reminded people
how hard  it is  to  enjoy clear, cool
water unless there's something  for  it
to  wash down.
 So  what appears to be emerging  is a
new  twist on the slogan of one  of the
rural state  governors  of the late  'thir-
ties.  He  got  elected tin a  promise to
"Balance  Agriculture with  Indus-
try"—to let  'em  stay  down  on the
farm but come  into town daytimes for
a job at the factory.
 Now there  is  a quiet  but  potent
undertow of sentiment tor balancing
the new payrolls  with  breathable air
and  fishable waters. The  Region is
still after new  industry. But  citizens
are more and more insistent that the
plants  come  equipped  with pollution
 The South  wants to rise  again, and
then  be  able  to  take  long,  deep
breaths and really enjoy it.  n
   * Charles Pou is Pith/it  Affairs Di-
rector. Region IV.
                   Joseph K. Franzmalhes
                   Director, Water Division
                   Paul j. Trains
                   Enforcement Division
                   James H. Kinder
                   Surveillance and
                   Analysis Division
                                                   Region IV's
                                                 John A. Little
                                          Regional Administrator
                                              Douglas U . Shape
                                            Management Division
                                              Asa B. foster. Jr.
                                             Air and ll;i/:irdoiis
                                              Materials Division
                                                     Jack !• Ravan.
                                                  Regional Administrator
                                                                                                           PAGE  19

 \hiii I.. Aim
                       l-rands I. NUno
               Patricia Sanderson  I'ort
 Alvin I,. Aim,  Assistant Administra-
tor for Planning  and Management, has
been  selected for an Arthur S. Hem-
ming Award as one of the 10 out-
standing young persons in the Federal
service  for  1975.  The award  recog-
ni/cs achievement by those persons
between the age of 18 and 40 em-
ployed by  the Federal  Government.
The awards are  named for the  former
Secretary of Health, Education and
Welfare. Dr. Flemming  is  now chair-
man of the U.S. Commission on Civil
Rights and also is the U.S. Commis-
sioner on Aging. This awards program
is sponsored by  the  Downtown Jay-
eees  of Washington. IXC. The pro-
gram was started 28 years ago.

 Michael k.  Glenn, Special Assistant
to the Administrator, is leaving EPA
on April 9 to become  an associate
with  the law firm of  Dunnington.
Hartholow. and  Miller in  New York
 Mr. Glenn  joined the  Agency when
it was formed in  December 1970 as
Special  Assistant to John R. Quarlcs.
then  Assistant Administrator for Fn-
forcement and General  Counsel. He
later  served as Acting Deputy  Assist-
ant  Administrator for Water Fnforce-
ment and. for the last two and a half
years, as Special Assistant to  Mr.
 Train. He was a staff member of the
President's  Advisory Council  on Fx-
ecutive Reorganization—the "Ash
Council"—which recommended the
creation of HPA.

 Dr. \\illiam .1. I,nr\.  Senior Fngi-
neering  Advisor. Office of Research
and Development, has been named a
 Diptomate  in the American Acudenn
of Environmental F.ngineers. The
PAGH  20
academy is composed of engineers
certified as  Diplomates b\ the [Envi-
ronmental [Engineering Intersocieu
Board. A  Diplomate is a registered
professional engineer who has demon-
strated, by examination before a spe-
cially qualified group of his peers, that
he possesses both the knowledge and
judgment to participate in solving chal-
lenging environmental engineering
 Francis T. Mayo, former Region  V
Administrator. Chicago, has been
named Director of the  Municipal Fn-
vironmental Research  Laboratory  in
Cincinnati. Ohio,  succeeding Dr. An-
drew W.  Breidenbach.  now  Assistant
Administrator for Water and  Ha/aixi-
ous Materials.
 Announcing the  appointment. Ad-
ministrator Russell F. Train said.
"Francis  Mayo's  new job in Cincin-
nati allows us to apply his outstanding
experience in regional management  to
the objectives of  our  research pro-
gram." He cited Mr. Mayo's "distin-
guished record as the Administrator of
one of our most  active and difficult
 Mr. Mayo. 50. held a number  of
senior positions in an FPA predeces-
sor agency, the Federal Water Quality
Administration, starting in 1966, and
was named Regional Director in 1970.
He had  previously worked in the
Utah State Engineer's Office for  14
years, including eight years as Chief
of the Water Research  Division.  He
was graduated from the University  of
Utah with a B.S. degree  with honors
in  civil engineering and is a registered
professional Engineer.  He is married
to the former Margaret Belts. They
are the parents of six children.
  Patricia Sanderson I'ort has been
named Environmental  Impact  State-
ment Review,  Coordinator. Region
 Ms. Port administers and coordinates
the review  and comment procedures
on all [Environmental  Impact  State-
ments in the Region.
 Born in Fort Lauderdale. Florida.
she  is a graduate of  New College,
Sarasota, Florida,  with an MA in
Public Administration  from George-
Washington University.

 Mary Leyland, Chief  of the Grants
Administration Branch,  Region  II.
New  York, has been appointed  Exec-
utive  Officer in the Administrator's
 She succeeds Jack D.  Tarran. who is
now Director',  Facilities and Support
Services Division, Office of Adminis-
 Mrs.  Leyland. who has  been with
EPA since January. 1972. served for a
year  in Region 1 and has been in
Region II for about three  years. Be-
fore her service with FPA, Mrs.
Leyland was a consultant for the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts on
information  systems. Previously she-
had served  as an  information systems
consultant  for IBM.  Mrs. Leyland
had  earlier  served as technical  super-
visor of data reduction for Harvard
College and the  Smithsonian  Astro-
physical Observatories.
 A graduate of Newton College of the
Sacred Heart.  Newton, Mass., Mrs.
Leyland also has a master's of educa-
tion degree from Boston  State Col-

                         Ms. Nellie M. Durant
 George  R. Alexander Jr.  has been
appointed Regional  Administrator of
Region  V, succeeding  Francis T.
 Mr. Alexander, 44. had been  Deputy
Director, Office of  Regional and In-
tergovernmental Relations,  in Wash-
ington, since 1974 in a post which was
the first mobility assignment under the
Agency's new executive development
 Administrator  Russell E.  Train  said:
"I expect that  his new assignment in
Chicago will  provide our Regional
operations with  fresh and aggressive
 From  1972  to  1974 Mr. Alexander
was Deputy Regional Administrator in
Region  VI. Dallas.  He received  the
EPA Bronze  Medal for exceptional
service in 1974.
 Before joining EPA, Mr.  Alexander
was Executive  Vice President of the
Continental Insurance Co., Vice Pres-
ident and General Counsel of the  Rio
Grande  National  Life Insurance Co,
and conducted  a private law practice
in  Dallas. He earned a  bachelor's
degree in business  administration and
a doctorate  in law  from  Southern
Methodist University, and is a mem-
ber of the Texas and Kentucky Bar
Associations.  He  is married to  the
former Barbara Nan Dick.
 Ms. Nellie M. Durant was the first
EPA employee to  receive a  Special
Fifth Anniversary  Certificate  of Ap-
preciation from  Administrator Russell
K.  Train at a  recent ceremony at
Headquarters  recognizing  the  charter
members of EPA.
  Approximately 3,5(X) of the Agency's
nearly  10,0(X) employees  will be re-
ceiving the certificates, signed by both
                                 Mr. Train and William  D.  Ruckel-
                                 shaus, EPA's first Administrator.
                                  The certificates recognize that the
                                 recipient is "one of the stalwarts who
                                 helped launch EPA and has taken part
                                 in the monumental task of shaping the
                                 new agency toward its mission of
                                 protecting our Nation's environmental
                                  Allen Cywin has been appointed Sen-
                                 ior Science  Advisor to  Dr.  Andrew
                                 W. Breidenbach,  Assistant  Adminis-
                                 trator for Water and  Hazardous Mate-
                                 rials.  In his new post Mr. Cywin will
                                 represent Dr.  Breidenbach in dealing
                                 with EPA  research  projects in water
                                 and hazardous materials,  with the ex-
                                 ception  of health and  ecological re-
                                  Mr.  Cywin had been  Director. Ef-
                                 fluent Guidelines  Division.  Office of
                                 Water Planning and Standards,  and
                                 before that Acting  Chief of Water
                                 Quality  Research in EPA.  He  has
                                 held management positions in the Fed-
                                 eral Water Quality Administration and
                                 the Office of Saline Water, Depart-
                                 ment  of the Interior; the Navy facili-
                                 ties Engineering Command;  and the
                                 Agency for  International  Develop-
                                  A graduate of Rensselaer  Polytech-
                                 nic Institute. Troy, N.Y., and a regis-
                                 tered  Professional Engineer, Mr.  Cy-
                                 win received the first annual award
                                 given by the American Society of
                                 Mechanical Engineers for achievement
                                 in water quality control. He also won
                                 the Department of the Interior Award
                                 for Outstanding Service  and the EPA
                                 Medal for Superior Service. He is
                                 listed in the Engineers'  Joint Council
                                 publication,  "Engineers of Distinc-
                                 tion."  He holds four patents and is
        Robert Knox

the author of many technical  articles
on water treatment engineering.
 EPA and the Colorado State  Depart-
ment of Health may  become more
closely associated since Kvan  I). Oil-
dine,  permits administration and com-
pliance  branch chief in the Enforce-
ment Division, retired from EPA Re-
gion VI11 recenth to accept a position
as technical secretary for the Colorado
Water Quality Commission in Den-
 Dildine is a civil engineering graduate
of Kansas State University at Manhat-
tan and a registered  professional engi-
neer in Kansas and  Colorado.  Dildine
started work at the Commission Janu-
ary  -V  He  had been  with  EPA's
Denver office nearly four years, mov-
ing from Kansas Ciu's  EPA office.
 Robert Kno\, Chief  of  Manpower
Development and  Training for  Region
II. New  York  City, has taken  a
year's leave to study  environmental
engineering  at the New Jersey Insti-
tute of Technology. Newark, N.J.,
under an EPA training grant.
 Mr. Knox,  a graduate of Temple
University in  Philadelphia, worked in
that city's Water  Department for 15
years and was director and lead  in-
structor in  the first Federally-spon-
sored education program for water
pollution control  plant  operators. Be-
fore coming  to Region II  he was
Regional Manpower Development Of-
ficer  in EPA's Region  IV, Atlanta.
He lives in  Matawan. N.J.
                                                                                       PAGE  21

high school parley

Student leaders and newspaper editors
from 18 high schools in the Greater
Boston area took pail in a recent
conference on  environmental issues
sponsored by the Region I Public
Affairs Office.
The students quizzed EPA officials on
pollution problems  and discussed what
young people can do to improve the
environment in their communities.
Regional Administrator John A.S.
McGlennon spoke  on career
opportunities in environmental
conservation and protection.
The conference was the  first  in a series
designed to enhance communication
between  EPA  and  the Region's youth.
training mechanics
Training auto mechanics to tune
emission control systems as well as
engines is  the object of three new
programs in New  York State.
sponsored by EPA and the  U.S. Office
of Education. Grants were awarded to
the Bronx Community College.
$20,000; the Nassau County Board of
Cooperative Education Services.
$8,000; and the  State Department of
Environmental Conservation. $7,000. to
develop leaching materials and train
mechanics. Funds for the programs
were made available by the  Office of
                                       master's  degrees

                                       EPA fellowships will permit 35 air
                                       pollution control technicians in New
                                       York City to enroll at Cooper Union
                                       for environmental studies that can win
                                       them master of engineering degrees in
                                       three years. The fellowships pay for
                                       instruction,  books, and an annual
                                       stipend. Regional Administrator  Gerald
                                       M. Hansler said the training would
                                       help local and State environmental
                                       agencies develop the expertise needed
                                       to make New York City a more
                                       healthful place.
pesticide penalties

Nearly $13,000 in civil penalties for
pesticide violations were assessed
recently against three companies: Bixon
Chemical  Co., Corona. N.Y.. $3,350
for its Pine disinfectant and $4,045 for
its K Germ Disinfectant and Pyrenon-
 Diazinon  residual insecticide; Utility
Chemical  Co., Paterson.  N.J., $4.800
for Germicide; and Richard E. Rover
Co.,  Belleville. N.J., $750 for a  dog
shampoo. The products were
misbranded or adulterated or both.
                                       the spill 12 days later through a citizen
 oil spill fines

 Civil  penalties totaling $16,950 have
 been  levied on 35 different companies
 in Region 111 for failing to prepare or
 implement plans to prevent and contain
 oil spills. Regional Administrator
 Daniel J. Snyder II! announced.
 The largest fines collected were $2,250
 from  the Budd Company, Philadelphia.
 and $2,000 from the Lee Hy Paving
 Corp., Richmond, Va. All are now in
 compliance with the law.
 Mr.  Snyder has cited  another 40 firms
 for spill plan violations,  and these
 companies are working with the
 Regional Office to correct them.
 Suburban Village Inc., Whitpain
 Township, Pa., has paid a criminal fine
 of $100 for failure to notify EPA of an
 oil spill.  The maximum  penalty is
 $10,000, and Regional officials had
 requested a $2,500 fine.  The incident
 occurred Dec. 8,  1974, when
 approximately 4.000 gallons of fuel oil
 was spilled into a creek  from a
construction site. EPA first learned of
grants set record
Region IV awarded $164.5 million in
sewage construction grants in the last
quarter of 1975, Regional Administrator
Jack E. Ravan announced. The record
amount included $127 million during
December, which he said was more
than one-fourth of grant funds obligated
nationally that month by EPA.
"We are expediting the flew of funds
to cities because we see a double
benefit: cleaner water and the creation
of new jobs in the construction
industry,"  Mr.  Ravan said.
Funds obligated to the States were as
follows: Alabama $9.4 million, Florida
$52.7 million, Georgia $11.2  million,
Kentucky $24.2 million, Mississippi
$4.4 million. North Carolina $32.6
million. South Carolina $25.1 million,
and Tennessee $4.9 million.
photos on tour

An exhibit of DOCUMERICA photos
titled "Inner-City Connections" will be
shown this spring in major cities of
Region V. Arranged by the Public
Affairs Office, the tour will include
Detroit, Mich.; Gary, Ind.;
Milwaukee.  Wise.; Cleveland, Ohio;
.and Minneapolis, Minn. The exhibit
has already been shown in Chicago.

ready for cruise

Region V's "Navy" will  be cruising
the Great Lakes again this summer.
The Roger R. Simons,  a former Coast
Guard buoy tender, will analyze Lake
Michigan's water quality to check up
on cleanup efforts in the Great Lakes.
The ship is named after an employee of
the Federal Water Quality
Administration, an EPA predecessor
agency, who was accidentally drowned
in 1970 while taking samples from the
Mississippi River.

lake superior conference

EPA officials took pan in an
international conference on  the
environmental, economic, and
transportation aspects of Lake Superior
March 9-11 in Duluth. Minn. The
conference was sponsored by the
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.
town meetings

Town meetings to encourage citizen
participation in environmental matters
were scheduled in New Orleans, La..
March 24 and Albuquerque,  N.M.,
March 25. Deputy Administrator John
R. Quarles Jr. and Regional
Administrator John C. White were
slated to be the hosts.
The New Orleans meeting was to be
televised by WYES-TV to permit
telephoned questions and comments
from citizens  throughout the  viewing
Mr. White said  the town meetings have
been gratifying and beneficial in
arousing citizen concern and informing
the public on EPA programs.
pesticide workshop

A regional workshop on training in the
safe and effective use of pesticides will
be held for vocational agriculture
teachers and officials in Kansas City
April  12-13.
State and district vocational agriculture
supervisors and other representatives
from States in Regions  VI and VI1 are
expected to attend. The workshop is
one of a number of such meetings
sponsored by EPA.
milling sites may threaten public health
if the piles of sand-like wastes are not
managed in an environmentally sound
manner.  Region VIII  Administrator
John  A.  Green said recently.
The wastes contain radium that has a
radioactive half-life of more than  1,000
years, Mr. Green said, commenting on
a newly published survey of 20 inactive
uranium  mill sites in the  West. Thirteen
of the sites are in  Region VIII.
The study "clearly indicates that
radioactive material has already
migrated from the original piles and
spread over hundreds of acres of land."
he said, and the risk at each site will
have  to be determined individually.

Colorado  salinity

The Denver Research Institute of the
University of Denver  has been
awarded  a one-year, $88,000 contract
by EPA  to help reduce the salinity of
the Colorado River.
The Institute will analyze and evaluate
the maze of present regulations and
practices in the seven  Colorado Basin
States to seek improvements that can
be made  with the least difficulty and
Dr. J. Gordon Milliken,  project
director,  believes that  changes in
policies and regulations within existing
States, commissions, and local water
districts can produce more effective
control of salinity. The saltiness of the
Colorado reduces  crop yields, fouls
drinking water, corrodes piping, and
increases treatment costs.
radiation  survey
Radiation from waste piles at uranium
three-way cooperation

Three Federal agencies in Region IX
are cooperating in their work on energy
and environmental activities and in
telling the public  about them.
The agencies are EPA, the Energy
Research and Development
Administration, and the Federal Energy
Administration. Regional
Administrators of the three agencies
agreed last fall to work together and
keep each other fully informed on
research and demonstrations  in the
conversion of solar and geothermal
energy. A joint work plan was agreed
to and quarterly reports will be issued.
Additional fields  of joint work are
expected to include the use of solid
wastes as fuel and  regulation of storage
facilities for Alaskan and offshore oil.
An Energy Information Center is
planned in the EPA regional library,
to be staffed in pan by FEA and ERDA
employees and containing all technical
documents  of the three agencies.
Briefings and  information material will
be supplied to the San Francisco
Federal Information Center.
water condemned

Buses, ships, and interstate aircraft
were recently barred from using
drinking water from Port  Angeles,
Wash., because the city water failed to
meet Public Health Service standards.
Regional Administrator Clifford V.
Smith Jr. said that the ban was
necessary because for two of the
previous  12 months, the city's water
contained too many bacteria, and for
five of those months the city failed to
submit the required number of
bacteriological samples.
State inspectors checked the water and
recommended corrective actions, Mr.
Smith said. The city must meet  PHS
standards for at least three consecutive
months before the ban will be lifted.
green  monster

A 35-ton mobile water decontamination
plant dubbed the "green monster"
returned to Seattle last month to help
the Army Corps of Engineers clean up
the Duwamish River.
The Corps is dredging an estimated
30.000 to 40,000 cubic yards of sludge
from the waterway. The sludge
contains polychlorinated biphenyls,
toxic chemicals spilled 18 months ago.
The "monster" treats the water that is
drained  from the sludge, a final
precaution that EPA is requiring.
Drained water from the sludge contains
some  solids and PCB's,  said Regional
Administrator Clifford V. Smith Jr.
"EPA wants to be absolutely certain
the water is treated before it is pumped
back into the Duwamish." o
                                                                                                        PAGE  23

 Gladys Harris,  National Program Co-
ordinator.  Education and  Manpower
Planning. Headquarters:
 "I certainly am. Five years without a
garden was just more than I  could
stand.  So  I'll he  hack in horse  and
mountain country in Clarke County.
Va.. on spring weekends to the farm
garden staked out and plowed last fall.
Naturally on a Virginia farm, the first
rows  will  he flowers—zinnias,  mari-
golds,  hacked up  with  gladiola and a
mixture of cutting flowers.
 "In  April the  onions, radishes, let-
tuce and peas will already be through
the ground. The potatoes were planted
on  St. Patrick's  Day and as soon as
the oak leaves show green, everything
else will go in the garden. The toma-
toes must  he heefsteak and com the
white  shoe  peg variety,  planted at
least four rows  deep for pollination.  I
was glad when  they developed string-
less bunch beans as they thrive beauti-
fully in this area.
 "After the  mounds planted with four
or  five cucumber seeds and the rows
of corn, yellow  squash and limas we'll
tuck in a  few bell peppers. The last
row will be  planted  with  sunflower
seed, just for the cardinals—Virginia's
and our favorite bird.  I may even try
some  pumpkins and  cantaloupes by
the creek this year.
 "It's a real feeling  of  accomplish-
ment and rejuvenation  to stniighten up
an  aching back and survey rows of
manicured soil protecting and nurtur-
ing those pretty  green plants. One can
picture jars and  cartons of garden
produce on the shelves and in the
deep  freeze. Somehow,  food never
tastes  better than  when you help Na-
ture grow it."

 Albert  Soper,  Physical  Sciences
Technician,  Environmental Research
             Laboratory. Narragansett,  R.I.
              "My garden plans for this  year are
             to  fill my 30-foot-square  plot with  a
             little bit of a  lot of things. They  will
             include tomatoes,  onions,  carrots,
             beets, lettuce, swiss chard,  radishes
             and beans.  The  yield will  provide my
             family  and some friends with fresh
             vegetables from  late spring until early
             fall.  When I  have  a  surplus I  take
             them to the Laboratory and put them
             out near the  coffee pot for  whoever
             wants them.  Some  of the vegetables
             like tomatoes  and beets will be canned
             for the winter.
              "Growing your own  vegetables does
             save some  on food bills,  but for the
             most part 1 do it because I  enjoy the
             fresh produce  and I like  to watch
             things germinate and grow. I've had a
             garden here in North Kingston, (about
             ten miles north  of Narragansett) since
             1962. Gardening is a carry-over from
             my boyhood in Canada, where we
             always had a garden.  I use  no pesti-
             cides and  have no significant pest
             problems. I plant enough for the in-
             sects and rabbits  to  have  their fair-

              Gloria  Griffith,  Administrative Tech-
             nician. Environmental  Research Labo-
             ratory, Athens, Ga.

              "Yes. but we  grow mostly weeds.
             We'll probably  plant butter beans.
             string beans, okra. cucumbers, onions.
             potatoes, crowder peas, and  tomatoes
             in  our small  backyard garden. If we
             need corn we get it from my father.
              "Fresh vegetables  taste  so much
             better than the ones you can buy  in a
             can  or  frozen.  There's  nothing  like
             going into your own backyard  and
             picking a nice, fresh, ripe  tomato right
             off of the vine  and eating it. We eat
             garden-grown vegetables in the winter.
too. so we save money.
 "My two kids, ages 5 and 6, help my
husband and me. We always get more
out of it than we put in it."

 Ida Lawson, Secretary and Staff As-
sistant to the Regional Administrator.
Region IX,  San Francisco. Calif.:
 "Garden? The  only  garden  I  have
time for is  the  plant in my  office.
because that's  where 1 seem to spend
most of my time. Actually, I'd like to
see the whole world become a garden
which is not too  practical a thought—
but we're trying."

 Peter Dunsavage,  Aquatic  Biologist.
Enforcement  Division. Region  VI.
Dallas, Texas:
 "I'll do my  initial planting in mid-
March,  when  the  last  freeze  in  this
part  of  Texas is over. We  can  have
radishes on  the table  three weeks
later, and good, general production by
 "I plant  tomatoes, peppers,  squash,
onions, radishes and cucumbers in my
small  downtown  Dallas garden. Since
I  never use pesticides.  I don't  plant
cabbage, broccoli, and  other leaf-vege-
tables because their survival depends
upon the constant application of pesti-
cides.  My  wife  plants  marigolds al!
around the  vegetable garden  to  ward
off insects,  and she has garlic in her
rose garden for  the  same reason.  I
have found  that 5-10-5 fertilizer, which
is  a  mixture of nitrogen, phosphorus
and potassium, is great for my kind of
garden,  because  it  provides for  well-
balanced plant and fruit production.
 "In  addition  to the  $50-100 a year-
savings  on  our grocery bill, we  have
garden-fresh  vegetables with  every
meal.  Also there  is  the  rewarding
enjoyment  of watching the garden
grow. It's a great hobby."
EPA and the Department of Agriculture have jointly published a
book, "Control of Water Pollution from Cropland,"  outlining  ways
to prevent common farming pollutants from reaching the Nation's
waterways.  These pollutants include sediment,  nitrogen and
phosphorus compounds, and pesticides.  A limited number of copies
are available at EPA from the Agriculture and Nonpoint Source
Management Division, RD-682, EPA, Washington, D.C. 20460.


Random checks at some 19,000 gas stations last year show that
unleaded fuel is generally available, as EPA rules require,
Norman D. Shutler, Director of Mobile Source Enforcement, has
reported.  Major violations were found at only  between one and
two percent of the stations visited, Dr. Shutler said, and fines
totaling $23,675 were levied against eight refiners and 45
distributors and retailers.


Three automobile dealers recently paid court-ordered fines
amounting to $2,450  for removing or tampering with emission
control devices in violation of the Clean Air Act.  The firms and
their fines were:  Scuncio Chevrolet, Greenville,  R.I., $1,200;
European Motors, Olympia, Wash., $750; and Motion Performance
Products, Inc., Baldwin, N.Y., $500.  In each case, the dealer
was  also ordered to  commit no further violations.


"In  the long run there is no inherent conflict between our energy,
economic, and environmental needs," said Administrator Russell
E. Train in a recent commencement address at Michigan State
University in East Lansing.  "They all require that we make  the
most of our basic natural capital.  In the short run, each must
serve in some respect as a constraint upon the others."

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Watching   the   Salt
                      B\  Fddie Lee'
  Sprinkler irrigation system giving lifcsaving water to summer crops in western Idaho.
 Nine king-sized earth cores are being
used to find better ways to manage
and reduce  the heavy salt  content of
irrigation  wastewater  in a research
project at the Robert S. Kerr Environ-
mental  Research  Laboratory  in Ada,
  The cores are contained in fiberglass
columns  which look like oulsi/.e  hot
water heaters. The  columns are eight
feet deep. 30  inches in  diameter  and
filled with undisturbed soil.
 They were  obtained from the Perkins
Agronomy  Farm operated  by  Okla-
homa State  University  at  Perkins,
Oklahoma,  by carefully excavating
around the  circumference  so that a
steel cutting  rim  could  lead  a  fiber-
glass container around the earth to the
desired  depth. Small samples  were
taken around each column at six-inch
intervals on the way down to establish
the physical  and chemical characteris-
tics of the soil.
 The nine columns, believed to he the
largest containing  undisturbed earth in
existence at  this time, are being used
to  develop  management  systems
which will minimi/e the salt content in
water after it is used for irrigation.
 There are about 44 million acres of
cropland  irrigated  in  the  United
States, about 90 percent of them in 17
Western  States.  This represents onl\
about 10  percent of the  Nation's crop-
land but  the  irrigated land generates
about  25  percent  of the  total crop
value of the Nation.
 For centuries, irrigated  agriculture
has been  practiced in arid  and semi-
arid  areas of the  world. Today,  sup-
plemental irrigation  is becoming in-
creasingly commonplace in even  hu-
mid  regions during the growing  sea-
son. In Florida, for example, there are
2.4 million irrigated acres.
 After use for irrigation,  the water
returns to streams or  seeps through
the soil into the groundwater. In addi-
tion to salt, it carries  with it sediment,
pesticides  and  fertilizers,  and organic
debris—all damaging  to water quality.
 Dr.  James  P.  Law. chief  of  the
Irrigated  Agriculture Research Section
at  Ada. says the earth-filled columns
will be used first for salinity control.
  Alfalfa will  be                PS of
the columns, wh               ;i'i an
environmental cl               lount
and quality of w               -ation
and intensity of                -r the
crop can be com
  Dr.  Arthur H«               man-
ager,  says that                j  the
environment, gn               •>?ler-
ated so that thre                 can
be raised.
  "We  can com               scale
three  to five th               three
months  we can  i               onths
of data compan               cperi-
ments in the fielu.  m. >u>^.
  The  lower portions  of the columns
are in  an instrumentation  chamber
where  sensors are being installed  ev-
ery six inches  of depth of the col-
umns.  The sensors will  be  connected
to a computer for 24  hour-per-day
  The sensors will  measure  the amount
of water moving  through  (tie  soil in
relation  to the amount applied and  the
amount  and  location  of the  salt.  Dr.
Hornsbv says.
  "Our objective  is  to determine  the
optimum amounts of water under var-
ious quality  conditions to achieve
maximum  crop  production  and mini-
mum  environmental  damage."
            /,v »  public information  officer ai ilic Kcrr Labomtory.
                                       The columns contain earth cores.  The
                                       flasks on floor  sample water which has
                                       trickled through  the earth.