JUNE 1976
                         FIGHTING FOREST POLLUTION
                            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  We begin this  issue in  America's forest lands
where the silence is sometimes broken  by  the
snarling of power saws, the crashing of falling trees,
and the roar of huge tractors and trucks removing the
new logs.
  Faulty construction and maintenance of the thou-
sands of miles  of timber removal roads which snake
through the forests has caused  serious erosion prob-
lems, especially in hilly or mountain areas. Massive
                                                  WITH   THE
quantities of mud wash down into clear mountain
streams,  polluting what usually are the  cleanest
portions of our river systems.
  The lead  article describes the problems and what
TI'A is doing to help curb this  source of pollution.
  The Journal then travels  to the  Himalaya  Moun-
tains in  Nepal, the  Austrian  Alps, the  Ruwenzori
Mountains in  Uganda,  and the Andes  in Peru to
report on scientists who  "read" glaciers for evidence
of pollution conditions over the centuries.
  We visit  the  Kennedy  Space  Center  at Cape
Canaveral, Fla.,  where  KPA  is opening a $2M),0(X)
exhibit on the role of  science and  technology in
achieving a cleaner, more healthful environment.
  We pause in  Washington  to see  a new garden
which was  developed  with  the  aid of generous
quantities of composted  sludge, the solids  left after
treatment of sewage  at the  District's Blue  Plains
  We take a good look at  the  Great Southwest in
"Region  VI  on Parade."
  We hopscotch back and forth across the country in
articles on progress in air and water pollution control.
  An article about a new film reports  on the  impact
of air pollution on health.
  Reading  about the effects of air pollution is
interesting, but listening to an air pollution victim can
be chilling.  The  Journal recently interviewed Anne
Haughton, press officer in HPA's Philadelphia office.
  Miss  Haughton was  walking on  a sidewalk in
downtown Philadelphia  one windy day last  March
when  something flew  in  her eye.  After  trying
unsuccessfully  to rub  it  out, she went to a hospital
emergency room  where  doctors used a tiny drill to
remove a particle of metal  about three times bigger
than a period  on  this page  from the cornea  of her
right eye.
  However, the doctors left a "rust ring" deposited
by the metal particle  because  they were afraid that
                                                  removal of this ring would  require the cutting away
                                                  of too much eye tissue.
                                                     When her vision continued blurred. Miss Haugh-
                                                  ton went to an eye  specialist  who managed to
                                                  remove  most of the rust ring. Now, she has been
                                                  told, with the aid  of  glasses,  her eyesight can be
                                                  returned to normal.
                                                     This  was, of course, a freak accident.  Yet it
                                                  illustrates an often-overlooked aspect of air pollution.
                                                     EPA  strategy for reduction of particulates has
                                                  focused  on  controlling emissions  from such sources
                                                  as industrial plant  chimneys. This approach has
                                                  generally reduced particulate pollution.  Now both
                                                  EPA and the States have become increasingly aware
                                                  that  "fugitive  emissions"—particles generated from
                                                  industrial operations and discharged  to  the  air
                                                  through  windows and doors, which have no pollution
                                                  controls, or  blown up from the street by car traffic or
                                                  wind—are making it difficult to attain the standard
                                                  for particulate control, particularly in the big cities.
                                                     Actually,  the smaller particulates, the  ones which
                                                  may not be  visible at all, are generally more harmful
                                                  than the larger  particles.  Fine  particulates are a
                                                  particular health hazard because they can bypass the
                                                  body's respiratory filters and penetrate deeply into
                                                  the lungs.
                                                     Dr. Douglas Hanmer, an HPA science consultant
                                                  who has been studying the health effects of air-
                                                  pollution on respiratory diseases in children, has
                                                  reported that particulates can cause higher  rates of
                                                  diseases such  as croup, bronchitis,  and  pneumonia.
                                                  In addition to causing an increase in  respiratory
                                                  diseases in  children, he warns, air pollution  poses
                                                  "an increased risk of chronic  respiratory diseases in
                                                  the same children when they grow up and  become
                                                     All of this shows once again that we run enormous
                                                  risks by abusing our environment.  D


Russell E. Train

Patricia L. Cahn
Director of Public Affairs

Charles D. Pierce

Van Trumbull
Ruth Hussey
COVER, 4 Tomas Sennett*

COVER. 3 Entheos*

PAGE 5  American Cyanamid Co.
PAGE 6.7 Wieslaw Maczek

PAGE 8  Al Wilson

PAGE 10  LeRoy Woodson*

PAGE 12  Blair Pittman*

PAGE 14  Eric Pollitzer

PAGE 18  R. E. "Bob" Tenney
        and Associates

PAGE 19  Hot Springs Chamber
        of Commerce

COVER:  Logging truck on road near
Redwood National Park, California.
    Printed on recycled paper.
                               FIGHTING FOREST POLLUTION
                               How EPA is working to reduce
                               environmental damage from lumbering.
                               FARMERS FEEL 'THE STING1 by Larry O'Neill                 5
                               Beware of high-pressure pesticide salesmen.

                               ENVIRONMENTAL DETECTIVES FIND ICY CLUES           6
                               Glaciers record pollution trends. ByTrurnan Temple.

                               SLUDGE HELPS A GARDEN  GROW                          8~
                               Washington's new beauty spot
                               is based on reclaimed materials.
                               THE JOURNAL NEEDS YOUR HELP
                               A readership survey
                       YOUR HEALTH AND AIR POLLUTION
                       Quotations from a new film.

                       THE AIR AND WATER CLEANUP
                       EPA reports to Congress on Air Quality
                       and Water Quality.
                       THE AMERICAN SCENE
                       Photo essay on an art show:
                       REGION VI ON PARADE
                       THE GREAT SOUTHWEST by John F. Bradford
                       EPA OPENS FLORIDA EXHIBIT
                                                 BACK PAGE

                       The  EPA  Journal is  published
                       monthly,  with combined issues  for
                       July-August and November-Decem-
                       ber, for employees of the U.S. Envi-
                       ronmental Protection Agency. It does
                       not alter  or supersede  regulations,
                       operating  procedures or  manual  in-
                       structions. Contributions and inquiries
                                should  be addressed  to the Editor,
                                (A - 107) Room 305, West Tower,
                                Waterside Mall, 401  M St., S.W.,
                                Washington,  D.C. 20460. No permis-
                                sion necessary to reproduce contents
                                except  copyrighted  photos  and other

                                    FIGHTING  FOREST

                                    Lightning flamed across the night sky
                                   and thunder rolled  up  and down the
                                   mountain hollows as a violent storm
                                   sent sheets of rain pelting to earth.
                                    The storm lashed a rocky  ridge,
                                   sending water cascading south into
                                   one valley and north on the other side
                                   into another watershed.
                                    Rain falling on the south side flowed
                                   through  some clumps of mountain
                                   laurel and gradually  gathered into rivu-
                                   lets which  soon  sank  into  the  thick
                               fy   leaf- and humus-carpeted  floor of a
                                   maple and oak forest below.
                                    At dawn the storm eased into a mild
                                   drizzle and then  stopped as the sun
                                   sent shafts of light through a rift in the
                                    Near the base of the south  side of
                                   the ridge a trout stream, swollen  by
                                   the heavy rain, wound through a dark
                                   forest occasionally lit by  clouds  of
                                   flowering dogwood. A tiny Carolina
                                   wren, warmed by the rising sun, burst
                                   into raucous song.
                                    On the  north side of the  ridge the
                                   rain had  splashed down a rocky  in-
                                   cline and across a hillside scarred  by
                                   poorly maintained logging roads.  Now
                                   the ascending sun  began drying the
                                   erosion fissures in these roads which
                                   had been carved deeper by  the night's
                                    Below  a once clear brook carried a
                                   muddy load of mountain earth on  its
                                   way to the sea. Among the fish and
                                   animals smothered in  the chocolate
                                   stream was a young frog which had
                                   been devouring a dragon fly in  its final
                              B   moments. Death came when a  portion
                                   of the water-soaked  logging  road
                              H   above  suddenly  slumped  down the
                             U|   ridge, sending  a torrent of soil and
                              j£|   rock crashing and  rumbling into the
                                   small waterway.
                                    In the forests, improper construction
                                   and maintenance of logging roads is
                                   often a major cause  of water pollution.
                                    The U.S.  Forest Service  is working
                                   to develop  procedures which will
                                   avoid such problems as the  construc-
                                   tion of poorly designed logging roads
                                   on the ridge's north side which strip
                                   the soil of its natural  leaf litter. This
                                   forest floor covering normally absorbs
                                   the impact of falling rain.
                                    Forests  such as those on the  south
                                   Giant trees tower above the forest floor.
side  of the  ridge are shields that
protect the soil from erosion by soak-
ing  up rain faster  than it falls. Live
tree  roots also bind forest soil and
provide passageways for water to en-
ter the earth.
 Other causes of water problems in
the  forest include soil disturbances
during tree harvesting and transporta-
tion, damage  to fish spawning areas in
stream beds  by operation  of logging
equipment and application  of  pesti-
cides and herbicides.  The removal of
shade by  cutting of trees along  stream
banks can also result in fish kills when
a glaring sun heats up the water.
 While irresponsible clear cutting of
timber over huge areas can also some-
times contribute to erosion problems,
the  mere cutting of trees is generally
not the cause of water pollution. Even
though the leafy  tops  are  removed
when trees are cut, the existing litter
cover can often help protect the soil
until a new tree canopy grows.
 The muddy water produced by ero-
sion  from logging  roads ruins streams
for  fish and humans.  The siltation
also causes economic damage because
industries cannot use muddy water.
 The extent of the problem of logging
roads is shown by the fact that in the
Pacific  Northwest alone  there are
over 250,000  miles of such roads. An
estimated 12,000 miles of these  roads
are constructed or  reconstructed each
year in this region, where erosion is a
particular problem because  the  exten-
sive  timber cutting is often conducted
in mountainous terrain in wet weather
and near streams.
 To  help control this and other forest
pollution  problems, EPA  awarded  a
$66,000 grant to the American For-
estry  Association  to hold  a series of
workshops on forest  practices and
water quality.
 The purpose of  the workshops has
been to examine all State options and
approaches to the problem of control
o'f pollution  from such non-point
sources as logging  road erosion  and to
begin development of suitable  State
 Nearly 800 people participated  in the
seven workshops held in the following
cities: Atlanta; Boston; New Orleans;
Portland, Ore.; the District of Colum-
bia; Denver; and Chicago.

 At  each of  these  workshops State
delegations  composed of key  legisla-
tors,  administrators  of forestry and
environmental programs, representa-
tives  of large and  small forest land-
owners,  environmentalists,  conserva-
tionists, and other interests were pres-
ent. Each State group presented initial
assessments of water quality problems
on forest  lands and  recommendations
for dealing with them.
 Jack  Churchill,  EPA's  Water Plan-
ning Division  interagency coordinator.
served  as the policy  and  technical
director  for EPA at the workshops.
Ruth  Brown,  public  information spe-
cialist, EPA Office of  Public Affairs,
served  as project officer responsible
for  over-all  management  of the grant
and  worked  with the Forest Service
and  the  American  Forestry Associa-
tion  in  the planning and  management
of each of the workshops.
 Now the American  Forestry Associ-
ation  will  present its recommendations
to Administrator  Russell E.  Train and
John  R.  McGuire, Chief, U.S. Forest
Service, at a meeting this month.
 In dealing  with  non-point  sources of
pollution  such as erosion,  EPA  has
been encouraging State  planning agen-
cies  to determine "best  management
practices" to  prevent pollution rather
than to devise suitable "after the fact"
treatment processes.
 Best management practices are being
developed by  a  State  or one of  its
planning agencies after examination of
alternative  means of  preventing  or
reducing  pollution.   These practices
should  reflect such  factors as differ-
ences in climate,  soil, slope, and vege-
tative cover.
 In  a speech to the American  For-
estry Association last  October, Ad-
ministrator Train  said:
 "I have repeatedly stressed my view
that EPA's success in carrying out the
Clean Air and Water Acts  and other-
laws will be determined, not so much
by  our zest  in issuing  regulations or
by our zeal  in enforcing them—though
these are important, particularly  the
latter—but by our willingness to work
together with (and 1  stress those
words) the citizens of this country, not
simply after the  fact, but in the  very
formulation  of our regulations, guide-
lines and  plans—by our willingness to
make the people  affected by our deci-
sions and regulations a  full  partner in
the  process by  which  we  arrive at
those decisions and regulations.

 A dense stand of old-growth  Douglas fir
 in the Olympic National Park. Wash.

 Timber roads cross clear-cut mountain

 "In no respect is this need to get the
people  affected by  what  we do in-
volved in what we do  more urgent or
important than in our efforts to reduce
water   pollution   from   non-point
sources. By its very  nature, this effort
will require active  and effective coop-
eration  between  everybody  con-
cerned—between the newer environ-
mental  interests and the  century-old
natural  resources conservation  move-
ment,  between HPA  and  the State
regulatory  agencies and the  forest and
agricultural land management agencies
and private industry.
 "It is  to assure precisely that kind of
cooperation between  the  forest  man-
agement, conservation, and environ-
mental  communities  that  EPA  has
joined   with the  Forest Service  and
your  Association in  holding  seven
forest   practices and  water quality
workshops throughout the  country. As
 I have  suggested, we  share common
concerns and we  stand on common
ground.  Good water pollution preven-
tion  practices  are  also  good soil and
water  conservation  practices. And  1
am determined that  we take full ad-
vantage  of your expertise and experi-
ence in developing approaches to  non-
point source control in the Nation's
forests  that enable  us  to  achieve our
objectives  under the law at least  cost
and greatest benefit."
 The Council on Environmental Qual-
ity in its 1975 report on  Environmental
Quality  noted  that "one  of the major
environmental  problems involved  in
cutting timber is the effects on life  in
nearby streams.
 "Poor  logging practices  can  harm
fish in several ways," the report said.
"Logging and the building of roads for
logging  can erode stream  banks and
allow sediments to clog  the  streams.
Logging debris  can stop the stream
flow.  Loss of tree cover can change
the stream temperature winter and
summer. Pesticides and  fertilizers
from intensive forest management may
pollute the  streams.
 "Good forestry  management can
limit these  adverse effects.  For exam-
ple, buffer  strips are often left uncut
on stream borders.  But just how wide
the strip must  be  to protect the fish
adequately  is  not well  understood.
Nor is  it known  how long-lasting  is
the disruption of  fish from  nearby
logging or how  much wood  production
it  is reasonable to give  up for what
may be a temporary impact on fisher-
 EPA's Region X  has published  a
manual  titled  "Logging Roads and
Protection of Water Quality" which is
designed to serve  as a state-of-the-art
reference on the protection of water
quality  in  planning,  designing, con-
structing, using, and  maintaining log-
ging roads.
 Robert S.  Burd,  Director of the
Water Division in  Region X, said that
in  addition  to this  report, environmen-
tal studies of timber harvest methods.
management of slash and other timber
residue, and  reforestation are  now
being prepared. The  Region is  also
developing a report on proper meth-
ods for use  of chemicals in the forest
to keep to a minimum the impact on
the environment.
  "This  information coupled with other
EPA, State  and Federal  agency stud-
ies and the  information and  talent  of
responsible  forestry  organizations
should provide a good  base for decid-
ing what are best practices on specific
sites," Mr. Burd said.
  EPA  has  proposed  regulations  to
control  water  pollution resulting from
both agricultural  and  forestry activi-
ties.  The new regulations would re-
quire the use of  National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System permits
for certain  agricultural and forestry
  The proposed regulations recognize
that  most forestry  activities  result  in
non-point source pollution which  can-
not be controlled  by the  permit proc-
  The regulations  would  require dis-
charge permits only for such  auxiliary
forestry  operations as rock-crushing
and gravel washing for road construc-
tion  and log sorting and  log storage
yard  operations  where  the use of
water could  result  in the discharge of
pollutants. The final regulations are
scheduled to be issued  this month,  a
Lumber  roads  and  clear cutting  in a  northern California pine forest.

                          FARMERS   FEEL
By Larry O'NeiU
 "The Sting" has been more than an
Academy  Award  winning  movie re-
cently for  some pesticide buyers.  For
them, it's been an all too real pinch in
the pocketbook.
 For example,  last  year a Colorado
farmer purchased ten gallons  of a
weed killing  product  over the  tele-
phone from a  New  York  City sales-
person. The farmer was told that this
herbicide was in a concentrated  form
and approved for cropland  use. Read-
ing the label  only after sale and deliv-
ery,   this  unwary  farmer  discov-
ered  that the  weed killer was neither
concentrated nor permissible  for  crop
uses.  His  loss:  $160.25 and, presum-
ably, some professional pride.
 The problem  continues of farmers
and  other consumers  being  "stung"
by telephone misrepresentation of pes-
ticides,  especially weed  killers. A
March 4 edition of a  small town South
Dakota newspaper,  for  example.
warns readers,  "Many  chemicals are
being sold  by  telephone—be careful of
this one or you might find barrels of
questionable  products delivered to
your door."
 Nor is the pesticide "sting" exclu-
sively a western phenomenon. It has
occurred frequently in the Midwest
and  eastern  U.S. as well.  A North
Carolina grain and hog farmer bought
ten gallons of a herbicide  by phone
after being told it would  kill weeds
around hog pens for up to  two years.
Again, this farmer read the labeling
only  after paying $160 for the product.
No claims of two-year effectiveness
were made  and, worse,  the label
warned of toxicity to livestock.
 North  Carolina officials have calcu-
lated that some herbicides being
hawked by phone are so diluted that a
user  would have to buy $3,289 worth
to  treat one acre.
 Complaints  about  phony pesticide
telephone promotions have  come  into
EPA and State agriculture depart-
ments from consumers in Arizona,
California, Georgia,  Kansas,  Nevada,
New York, Washington,  and West
Virginia,  in addition to the States
already mentioned.
Lurry  O'Neiit is  a Hi-ailc/uurlem  Press Officer.
 A farmer measures out a soil insecticide for use on his fields.
 A concerned coalition of Federal.
State and  private organizations  is at-
tempting  to do  something about this
particular  sting. Prosecution of sus-
pected  firms  has been  difficult. It's
rough to build  a  legal case on the
basis of phone conversations. To date,
the coalition has relied primarily upon
a news and  public information cam-
paign to make pesticide  buyers aware
of the  potential hoax.  The  coalition
consists of EPA,  the  U.S.  Depart-
ment  of Agriculture,  the  Federal
Trade  Commission, other Federal
agencies, several farm  organizations
including  the National Grange and the
American Farm  Bureau, several envi-
ronmental and  consumer  organiza-
tions, and farm  chemicals trade asso-
 "In most situations,  farmers and
other pesticide users  should  buy prod-
ucts only after they have been able  to
read the  product  label,"  advises
EPA Administrator Russell E. Train.
"Telephone  purchases  are  all right
only if the buyer is dealing with a
reputable agent  personally  known  to
 "The  statements  and precautions on
pesticide  labels are backed  up by
intensive  scientific study and careful
scrutiny. The  label provides a guaran-
tee that the product  will do  an  effec-
tive job  in an  environmentally safe
way. Users should  always read and
follow label instructions when apply-
ing a pesticide."
 The  claims made by the telephone
hucksters  include: the  products  are
non-toxic  to people, livestock, and
fish; they will control all  weeds when
in  fact they will only control some;
they can be used on crops or pastures
when  actually  they may damage  or
destroy these areas; and they will curb
all weeds for up to three  years. Prizes
are sometimes offered to  the farmer if
he  will buy. The calls are normally
made  in  the  early  morning or late
 Pesticide buyers should make it un-
mistakably clear to any  telephone
huckster that they are not interested in
and will not pay  for the weed  control
products, the coalition warns. Reports
indicate that  wavering buyers have
sometimes been shipped the pesticides
 "The vast majority of pesticide pro-
ducers and dealers  in this country
condemn these unethical actions on
the part  of a  dishonest  few,"  Mr.
Train  said.
 The  coalition  urged  farmers to  help
stop the  telephone  sales  racket by
keeping  an accurate  record of such
calls and  reporting them  immediately
to  a local agricultural agency or one of
EPA's ten regional offices.  Helpful
information would include: date of the
call, caller's name, his company, his
phone number,  the product, the manu-
facturer,  and the EPA  registration
number of the  product  if one ex-
ists.  D
                           PAGE 5

Detectives  Find
Icy  Clues
         By Truman Temple
  Can glaciers serve as  a  historical
"pollution index" to show what man
has been  doing  to the  global atmos-
  Scientists  say  the answer  is yes,
based on a series of expeditions, sup-
ported  by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, to the Himalayas
in Nepal, the Austrian Alps,  Uganda,
and this month to the  Peruvian An-
des.  The $400,000 project is  financed
under the Special Foreign  Currency
Program of EPA's Office of Interna-
tional Activities,  headed by  Associate
Administrator Fitzhugh Green.
  Glaciers in these remote areas serve
as historical monitors for world-wide
air pollution. Each year  the snows fall
on the high mountain passes, carrying
minute  traces  of whatever pollution
exists in the upper global  air, and the
result is a sealed layer of deposits—
much  like the  annual  rings  in  an
ancient  tree—that can be "read"  by
specialists. A  year's deposit  is any-
where from two to five  feet  thick,
depending on its depth  in the glacier,
since it becomes compressed with
  So by cutting  down through the
glaciers, and analyzing the contents of
the ice for each year,  scientists can
find out  a great deal about  which
pollutants have been traveling far be-
yond  national borders. The oldest gla-
cial  record  found in the  Himalayas
was a large fragment of ice sitting on
the floor of a  valley, which scientists
dated  by radioisotopes back to the
 12th century. However, what interests
the investigators  most is the  pollution
deposited since the  Industrial Revolu-
tion began, especially heavy metal and
radioactive panicles.
  EPA has been  participating with Pol-
 ish scientists since 1970 to gather this
information.  Dr.  Zbigniew  Jawo-
rowski,  head  of the Polish team of

Truman  Temple  in  n Headquarters  1'nhln
Ajfain, Officer.

 Dr. Kazimierz  Growtowski, a physicist
on the Polish expeditionary  team, loading
sample  of ice from the  Gurgler Ferner
glacier in Austrian Alps.  Bucket is lifted
 by cable to the surface of glacier and ice
 is later melted for  analysis of pollution.
Scientists lift bucket of ice samples from
the  Gurgler Ferner glacier in  Austrian
Alps during 1974 expedition.

scientists,  will visit  EPA Headquar-
ters in Washington  next  month  to
discuss results of the  latest  expedition
to the Ausungate glaciers in the Peru-
vian Andes.  Dr. Raymond H. John-
son, Jr., EPA project officer from the
Office of Radiation  Programs, will
assist  the Polish team  later this year in
preparing a final report on the studies.
The aim of the  project  is to compare
local  and long-distance patterns  of
dispersion of radioactive elements
such as uranium, thorium, and radium,
as well as stable heavy elements in-
cluding cadmium, vanadium, lead, and
mercury   from  industrial sources.
Studying  the  long-term  changes will
help scientists predict future trends in
pollution of the biosphere.

 So  far the investigators  have found
both good and bad news about world-
wide air pollution.  The bad news  is
that  even the pristine heights of the
Cherku and Langtang glaciers 40 miles
north of Katmandu  in Nepal at  an
altitude of more than  18,000 feet are
not free of contamination.  Dr. Donald
T. Oakley of EPA's  Office of Interna-
tional Activities, who served as  proj-
ect officer on the expeditions to Nepal
in  1973 and Austria in 1974,  said  he
and the Polish  team  found  a marked
increase  in  deposits of atmospheric
lead over  the  past  30 years.  This
metal is a byproduct of the combus-
tion of coal  in power plants and also
may  come from the  metalworking  in-
dustry. The  glacial ice also  showed a
sharp increase in  recent years in con-
centrations of  cesium-137,  a fission
product of atomic tests.
 Radionuclides  occur naturally  in
coal, and when the fuel is burned the
radioactive  material goes up the stack
either as particulate  matter  or in the
form of gases.  Scientists  assume the
pollutants travel on global  air currents
from  industrialized  countries many
thousands of miles away,  since there
are relatively  few sources  in Nepal
that could produce such pollutants.
 The good  news in all this is that
these  radioactive  materials apparently
do not occur in  large concentrations
more than about  30 miles  from the
plant site.  The team  confirmed this by
comparing  measurements  close   to
power  stations  in Poland with those
taken  at remote  glaciers.  (The  in-
creased quantity of  radium-226 found
in  the  Himalayas is  believed to come
from  natural sources,  such as  dust
blowing from barren lands nearby,
rather  than from  power plants in Eu-
 What's it like to go on an expedition
looking for pollution  in ice three and a
half miles above sea level?
 "First of  all, you have  to be  in
excellent physical shape,"  says  Dr.
Oakley, who jogged  three  miles a day
for six months  when training for the
project. "And  when you get to the
base camp,  you  have to  work there
for a while to allow for an increase  in
the oxygen-carrying  capacity in  your
blood because of the  altitude."
 Easily the most colorful figure on the
expeditions  was  Dr. Jaworowski,  a
small,  stoop-shouldered scientist  with

Dr. Zbigniew Jaworowski,  head of the
Polish team of scientists, prepares sample
of glacier ice for melting in Alpine warm-
ing hut in Austrian  Alps rear  Obergurgl.
Dr.  Donald  T.  Oakley  of EPA  on
Cherku  Glacier  in Nepal  with four
weeks' beard  during 1973  expedition to
the Himalayas.

long  grey  hair  and rimless glasses
whose intellectual  gifts  were quickly
apparent. Says Oakley:  "He has not
only an  M.D. degree but a  Ph.D. and
a doctorate  in  science. He quoted
Shakespeare and  Byron.  He  could
sing  the whole choral section of Bee-
thoven's Ninth Symphony in German
and  taught  parts of it  to our Sherpa
guides. And he was very  skillful about
getting equipment and support for the
 There  were a  few problems. One
member of the  team, an experienced
alpinist, came down with  altitude sick-
ness and had to be sidelined. Then a
three-day blizzard hit  the  base  camp
at 16,000 feet altitude in Nepal with
not only snow but lightning and thun-
der.  One  tent  collapsed  under  the
winds and drifts.  "The  occupants
looked like a bag of cats  scrambling
around  in  there," says Oakley,  "but
we dug  them out and rigged  a new
support pole for  the tent."
  But  mostly  the expedition was very
hard physical work, cutting down fifty
feet and more  through the glacier,
loading chunks of ice into plastic cans,
hauling them up by ropes, and care-
fully  melting  the contents  in  a spe-
cially  heated tent  so the pollutants
could  be  removed  and packed  for
analysis back in  Poland.
  Dr.  Jaworowski showed his  talent
for handling  people with spectacular-
success in Uganda, where the   Polish
team  had sought to visit a glacier in
the Ruwenzori  mountains. What  no-
body  reckoned  on  was  dealing with
Major Genera!  Idi Amin, the  presi-
dent of Uganda. For days the team sat
around  in  the capital without hearing
anything about  their  request for per-
mission to climb the glacier.
  Suddenly, as they  were lunching  in a
cafe,  a  limousine drew  up  and  a
uniformed  group strode into  the cafe.
Dr. Jaworowski   recognized President
Amin  behind the dark  glasses and
knew  exactly what to do. He leapt to
his feet and began applauding, and his
fellow scientists took the  cue and
joined in.
  The  President beamed with  pleasure.
The next day they were  on (heir way
to the mountains. D
                                                                                                          PAGE 7

        Sludge    Helps    a     Garden    Grow
                         Routs of new trees in Constitution  Gardens arc planted in composted sludge.
 Washington's new tourist attraction.
Constitution  Gardens on  the  Mall
near the Lincoln Memorial is built on
soil enriched with carefully composted
sewage sludge.
 Beneath  the gardens' 42 acres of
trees, grass, and flowering shrubs are
approximately 30,000 cubic yards of
sludge from the District of Columbia's
Blue Plains treatment plant. Sludge  is
the residue left after sewage is treated.
 Using sludge and other composted
organic materials to lighten  and im-
prove the soil has saved the taxpayers
about $200,000, according to officials
of National Capital  Parks, the branch
of the National  Park Service that
operates most public parks and monu-
ments in the Washington area.
 In  May the last  of 2,400 trees and
about 3,000 shrubs  were planted;  a
six-acre lake  was filled  with water;
grass plots were sodded; and walk-
ways, steps, and benches installed.
 The area is now ready as a place of
relaxation  for Washington's bicenten-
nial visitors and for the presentation of
musical  and other entertainments  ar-
ranged by the  District of Columbia's
Summer in the Parks program.
 The composted sludge technique was
developed by  the  National  Capital
Parks Ecological Services  Laboratory
in  cooperation with the Agriculture
Department's  Research  Station at
Beltsviile.  Md.,  and EPA experts in
wastewater treatment. EPA also  pro-
vided approximately $2 million to  help
finance the sludge treatment research.
 The sludge is  not applied to the  land
directly, according to James C. Patter-
son, Research  Agronomist for the
Ecological Services  Laboratory. It
first must be composted, or allowed to
decompose. This was done at Belts-
viile,  where the sludge was mixed
with wood chips, spread in long  win-
drows,  or piles, and turned over pe-
riodically  by bulldozers.  The wood
chips were added (about one  part of
chips to three  parts of  sludge) to
aerate the mixture,  keep it from  cak-
ing, and hasten  its  decomposition by
air-breathing bacteria. After  several
months  of composting the  mixture
was friable, homogenous, and virtually
free of odor,  ready for trucking to the
 At the  Gardens the basic grading op-
erations were completed first. The lake
hole was dug and lined with concrete.
Small hills and  valleys were  con-
toured.  Then the composted sludge
and wood chips  were further mixed
with  leafmold and existing  soil. The
leafmold was obtained from leaf piles
collected the year before by the  Park
Service, the D.C.  Government, and
Arlington County, Va.
 All these spreading and mixing  oper-
ations were planned to provide  a 14-
inch  layer  of compost-soil mixture
after  compaction  by  machinery
throughout  the  Gardens,  Mr. Patter-
son said. On top  of this was spread a
four-inch layer of topsoil. Only about
one-fifth of the needed topsoil was
obtainable at  the  site; the rest was
 Total cost of soil preparation and
topsoil  was $205,000. Without the
compost layer,  the Gardens would
have needed 18 inches of topsoil at a
cost of $408,000.  said Mr.  Patterson.
 Continuous testing of the reconsti-
tuted  soil will be carried on to  make
sure the trees and grass will flourish.

he said. Some nitrogen fertilizer will
be required, but  the sludge-leafmold
mixture is rich in  phosphorus  and
potassium compounds, so these fertil-
izers will not have to be added.
 One cause of concern when sewage
sludge is used as  a soil conditioner is
the content of "heavy metals"—salts
of zinc, manganese, cadmium,  mer-
cury, lead and other elements  that
may be hazardous to  plants and hu-
man beings.
 The metallic content of the  Blue
Plains sludge is low compared to that
of most large  cities,  Mr. Patterson
explained, because there is little heavy
industry in Washington. Moreover,
the sludge is diluted with wood chips,
leafmold,  and soil.  Careful measure-
ment on a test  plot showed  that
soluble salts and  heavy  metals,  pre-
sumed to come mainly from  the
sludge content, were reduced to ac-
ceptable levels by natural weathering
and leaching in less than six  months.
Pathogenic bacteria  are destroyed by
heat during the composting process  .
 The soil underlying Constitution
Gardens has had a checkered history.
It  was once a tidal  marsh of the
Potomac  River, draining into Tiber
Creek which began about where the
Washington Monument  now stands
and ran east toward Capitol Hill and
then  south  to  the Potomac. It  was
deepened to form a canal to  the  foot
of Capitol Hill in  1802 (There are two
Canal Streets in Southwest Washing-
ton a few blocks from  EPA Head-
 In 1831 the canal was extended along
the creek's path as far as the Potomac
 The Tiber Creek Canal was intended
for commercial traffic but proved un-
suited for heavy barges and soon fell
into disrepair and became an open
sewer. In 1882 when the Army Corps
of Engineers began  to dredge deeper
channels  in the Potomac along the
Southwest waterfront and  George-
town, the dredged silt was used to fill
the Tiber Creek Canal and to make
two parks along the River, East  and
West  Potomac Parks.
 During World War I "temporary"
office buildings were erected on the
filled land along Constitution Avenue.
They  stayed in use  until 1969. After
the "tempos" were  torn  down, more
fill was added from various  excava-
tions, principally the Library of  Con-
gress  Annex, and the  level plot  was
seeded to grass. The Gardens  con-
struction began in  August, 1974.  D
 In the year and a half since the EPA
Journal began publication we  have
received many encouraging comments
from  readers about the publication,
but we would like a little specific
guidance on how the magazine could
be more useful.
 Therefore, we have prepared some
questions  to find out whether you
believe the articles are informative and
help to keep you posted on  Agency
activities. We would appreciate it if
you could take  a  few minutes  to
answer the questions.
 At present we try to distribute the
magazine to  all EPA employees  at
their  home address. We do this  so
employees will have more leisure  to
read the publication and so that other
members  of the family can read the
publication if they wish to. A space is
provided  on  the  back page of each
issue for change of address or discon-
tinuance of the publication.
 We want to use this opportunity  to
check on  whether you find it valuable
to  have the  magazine delivered  to
your home.
 Now you can help us by answering
the following questions, tearing out
this page and sending it by July  15  in
a government franked  envelope  or
interoffice mail to: Survey, EPA Jour-
nal, A-107, Waterside Mall, 401  M
St.. S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460.
 I. Do you like  receiving the EPA
   Journal at home?
   Yes D  No D
 2. Do other members of your family
   read the magazine?
   Yes D  No D
 3. Would you prefer to receive the
   EPA Journal at the Office?
   Yes D  No D
 4. There are  several regular depart-
   ments that appear in EPA Jour-
   nal. For each one listed,  indicate
   whether you read it always, some-
   times, or never.
   News Briefs
   Around the Nation
              Always Sometimes  Never
 5. What type of job do you hold?
   Professional D Clerical Q
 6. What age group do you belong to?
   Under 30 D. 30 to 40 Q.
 7. Do articles in the magazine  help
   keep you posted  about Agency
   Yes D  No D
 8. Are you experiencing  any diffi-
   culty in receiving  EPA Journal
   regularly through the mail?
   Yes G  No D
 9. How frequently do you read it?
   Every issue Q, Frequently Q.
   Occasionally Q, Seldom fj.
   Never Q.
10. Do you ever find articles in EPA
   Journal worth reproducing?
   Yes D  No D
11. How many people besides your-
   self would you estimate  see or use
   the copy of EPA Journal that you
   	number of people.
12. Would  you like to  see  more arti-
   cles about Headquarters D. the
   Regions D, the Laboratories Q.
13. What  EPA programs would you
   like to read more  about in EPA
14. Do you have an idea for a worth-
   while article EPA Journal should
15. Do you have  any suggestions for
   changing or improving  the  maga-
 You do not  have to put your name
on this questionnaire unless you want
an answer. If you are experiencing
any difficulty in receiving  the maga-
zine, list your current address on this
page so that  we can correct the
problem. °
                      PAGE 9

                            YOUR  HEALTH
                 AND   AIR   POLLUTION
 A  new film produced hy the  Ameri-
can  Lung Association in  cooperation
with EPA has been completed and is
now available through local and State
lung associations.
 Titled "Air Pollution: The  Facts."
the  film presents  the comments  of
leading authorities  about air pollution
as a health hazard.
 Hxcerpts from statements made in
the  movie about the impact of dirty air
on human beings follow:
Dr. John Knelson,  Director,  Health
Effects  Research Laboratory, Re-
search Triangle Park, N.C.:
  "In the past two or three decades.
the major causes of death and disease
that plagued humankind  over the last
several  thousand year's have been
brought  under control  for the most
part.  We realize that we are now left
with  basically three major  disease
processes  that  cause  sickness and
death, and that those are heart disease
. .  . lung disease and cancer .  . .  air'
pollution is a  real contributing  factor
to disease and death from all three  of
these causes."
Dr. Gerschen Shaefer,  President. Cali-
fornia Thoracic Society, Chairman,
Environmental  Health  Committee,
California Medical Association:
  "The type of air that we have here
(southern  California) looks like an
industrial  or factory  town.  Actually.
we have a minimal amount of industry
and practically nothing that  actually
produces  stationary pollution.  How-
ever,  our  air pollution is generated
elsewhere, particularly from  automo-
biles, and blows on the winds into this
area. The  currents of the winds can
carry  pollution  for  hundreds  of miles
and unfortunately this area  sits  in a
spot that  carries cross currents of
smog from several areas.
  "Up to five or six years ago people
were moving to this area, sent by their
physicians  in other parts of the coun-
try, because they  had chronic lung
disease, asthma, bronchitis,  emphy-
sema. This was the healthiest place,
they felt,  in the country that they
could live. You can see what it looks
like now, and this is one of our better-
days. Approximately six months out
of the year we're living in a state  of
what I  call 'chronic public  health
emergency.' As far as the air  we
breathe, on days of high pollution  1
will have up to  17  patients who will
have to be worked  into my office  as
emergencies. These are people who
are having trouble with their breathing
capacity. On bad  days, we have  to
take the children off the playgrounds.
We have to reschedule Little League
games,  and on  these occasions  we
have seen children vomiting in  swim-
ming pools because  they have been
Before his death in 1973. Robert B. Jones
of Birmingham. Ala., was totally depend-
ent on pure oxygen from the equipment
he carried wherever he  went. He was
suffering from emphysema.

Dr. Richard Geer, Pediatrician.  Dur-
ango. Color-ado:
   "About five years ago,  in 1971. it
happened to an area particularly  con-
cerned about  the  opening of  four-
major power plants in the Southwest.
Al that  time, we did a  study  of
respiratory lung  disease  in  children
and found an alarming  increase, an
almost  doubling effect over the five
years. Today we are again concerned
because there  are eight to  ten,  possi-
bly  12 more power plants in the  whole
Southwest  being contemplated  for
opening the next five or  ten years. A
lot  of people  like to come and visit
here from larger metropolitan  areas
and I think they're a bit naive. They
look at the sky and say,  'My God.
this is  so beautiful we  could  never
pollute that.'  They  think the  naive
idea that 'we'll build all  the power-
plants here  and  make the power for
Los Angeles and Phoenix.' I think a
lot  of research has  shown that they
may very well affect our  health and
the  health of our children."
Bernard Steigerwald, EPA's Deputy
Assistant Administrator for Air Qual-
ity Planning and Standards:
  "The control  of  air  pollution is  a
tough job that involves a long chain of
complicated, technical information and
regulatory  decisions. We've talked
principally about the health effects of
air pollution that form the target. This
target  comes out specifically as  an air
quality standard which is the goal for
air pollution throughout the country.
 "At the other end of the chain is the
control of air pollution.  In order  to
meet that  goal,  we have here  a re-
search  sulfur dioxide scrubber. The
one that we have here is about  1/1000
as large as it must be out in the field.
It  can  do an effective  job of taking
sulfur dioxide out of the exhaust gases
and is a key feature  in meeting the air-
quality  standard  for sulfur dioxide  in
most major metropolitan areas.
  "The problem  of air pollution  in
this country has changed a lot over
the past several decades. Air pollution
was thought of as black smoke from
industrial smoke stacks. That gener-
ally is  no  longer our major problem.
What  we have today is  much  more
subtle  and in many  ways much more
difficult  to control.  Just because  we
can't see  something coming from a
stack  does not mean  that  it's not
making  a  significant contribution  to
the air pollution problem."

Brian Ketcham,  Vice President and
Staff Engineer,  Citizens for Clean Air:
  "When we think of air pollution we
normally think  of cars, and for good
reasons.  Cars and trucks produce be-
tween 70  and  100  percent  of  the
carbon  monoxide  emitted into our
urban centers.  Cars  and  trucks pro-
duce  hydrocarbons  and oxides of ni-
trogen as well. Motor vehicles  con-
tribute as much as 50 percent to the
oxidant  problem in our urban  centers.
The internal combustion  engine, as
designed, uncontrolled, is a fairly dirty
engine.  Catalytic converters are one
possible solution  to this  problem.
They've been installed in 1975 model
automobiles and will  be  installed in
vehicles  in the  future.  It does a fairly
good job in cleaning up hydrocarbons
and carbon  monoxide, but requires  a
good  deal  of consumer maintenance
...  to  make sure  that it  does work
effectively. It does not, however, con-
trol oxides of nitrogen or the various
particulates  emitted from a passenger
 ~" Despite  the use of catalytic con-
verters on today's cars and the poten-
tial use  of alternative power plants in
the future, there's a  real question of
whether we can really clean up auto-
motive air pollution in our urban cen-
ters. There are just so many cars and
trucks operating on  our streets that
it's  virtually  impossible to  meet
healthy   air  quality levels  within the
foreseeable future  without  reducing
vehicle  use. The real solutions are to
minimize  the  amount  of wasteful
travel.  Unnecessary travel today, for
example, consumes virtually  40 per-
cent  of  the Nation's energy budget.
The Environmental Protection Agency
has promulgated a number of plans for
close to 30  urban centers in which
they  have  proposed  reducing  vehicle
use, substituting alternatives  such as
car  pooling, dial-a-bus, and  a vast
increase in  the use of public transit
services. These are essential if we are
to ever  reach healthy levels of air in
our urban centers."
Dr. Carl  Shy,  Professor  of Environ-
mental Medicine & Director, Environ-
mental Studies  Institute, University of
North Carolina:
   "Are the air quality standards that
now exist too strict? You've probably
seen  ads in a paper  making  these
claims that  we're paying an  unusual
cost,  a very extreme cost, for achiev-
ing clean air and that we don't have to
have such clean air to preserve human
  "The fact of it all is  that people
who  are  concerned  about  human
health and who have studied air pollu-
tion on  health do not feel that the air
quality standards are too strict.  Those
standards  were  set  with  a relatively
small  margin of safety below the level
at which adverse  health  effects  first
occur. They have maybe a one- or
two-fold margin of safety  below those
levels that affect human  health.  For
other  standards,  such as substances in
food or carcinogens  or radiation,  we
set  as large as 10- to 100-fold safety
standards  below the level of adverse
health effects. So 1  don't think  that
the standards are anywhere too strict,
even  though those claims have been
Dr. Stanley Rakow, Medical Director,
Los Angeles Lung Association:
  "We still get flak  about 'How do
you know  that air pollution  is really
responsible for all  these disease states
that  you talk about?'  Admittedly,
when  you are dealing with a chronic
illness  such as emphysema or chronic
bronchitis, where there  are  multiple
causes, it's hard to say air  pollution is
responsible for  18 percent of  this
man's disability.
  "The  system sort  of goes back in
public  health annals to typhoid and its
control. It took 40 years  for the proof
of the  typhoid bacillus and how it got
transmitted to people to be estab-
lished. But  some prudent  man  in
England took the handle  off the pump
that was putting out the  contaminated
water,  40 years earlier, because of the
association. People drank from  that
well and they got typhoid fever.
  "Well, that  kind  of prudent judg-
ment has to be applied in terms of air
pollution today. Those of us  in medi-
cal  science feel that  there is a  clear
association  between community air
pollution and this complex of diseases,
and that we really can't afford to  wait
for 40  years of point-by-point match-
ing of challenge  with disease  to do
something about it. Things  will be too
late by then."
Dr.  Bertram  Carnow, Professor  of
Environmental Medicine,  University
of Illinois Medical Center:
   "If one wants to  look at the cost of
controlling environment and  compare
this to the real cost  to people, one has
to see that  this  is  a very  small cost.
The cost  of  dying  is expensive. The
cost of medical  care is  the biggest
expense  in  this  society,  almost $80
billion. The loss  from work, a billion
days a year because of acute respira-
tory illness,  is a great cost. People
with emphysema  are  generally people
who don't work, so  that  their health
costs are  burdens  on all of society.
These  people enter hospitals twice  as
often as  other  people and  they stay
there twice as long. This is  a cost for
all of us.  Chronic lung disease  is the
second highest cause  of ...  disability
in people  under the age of 65. This is
more than $100 million a year. This is
a tremendous cost.  So to make com-
parisons  is ridiculous. We have  to
clean up  the  air.  We  have to create a
viable environment  for all of our peo-
ple.  We cannot tell millions of people
that they cannot live in the cities, that
they have to run away.
  "The big question  we  have to an-
swer now is what  will  it do over  70
years?  What will it do to young
children who have just been  born? We
don't know the  answer,  because we
can't devise experiments that will give
us such a  70-year answer.  So if we err
at all, it must be on the side  of caution
in order to protect  future  generations.
   "And  when I say future genera-
tions,  1 mean that literally, because
one  of the bad  pollutants,  ozone for
example,  has been  shown to fracture
chromosomes, and  this is what may
lead to not only abnormal growth like
cancer but possibly even to  abnormal
   "What  has been  happening, is that
we view  the  air and the water as free
sewers. They are  not a  free sewer.
The environment  will  not tolerate con-
tinuous exploitation. At a certain point
it  will  tolerate no more,  and at that
point we  are going to  have to come  to
grips with it and come to some accord
with the   environment ...  if we are
going to  build a  better life that  all  of
us really want."  Q
                                                                                                           PAGE 11

 The  Air  and  Water  Cleanup
  The quality of the  Nation's air con-
tinues to improve, EPA told Congress
last month, but much work remains to
be done before the goals set under the
Clean Air Act are attained.
  In  its  annual report to the national
legislature for  1975, the Agency noted;
  • Continued reductions in the year-
round  average  levels  of sulfur and
particulates  (smoke  and soot) in the
  • Approved plans in all States and
territories to implement the Act.
  • Start of  nearly  600 enforcement
actions against industrial polluters,
more legal actions than in the  three
previous years combined.
  • Inspection  of more  than  18,000
gasoline  service  stations  to see that
they were selling unleaded fuel.
  • Successful defense  of Agency ac-
tions in Federal courts.
  • Increased research in the  health
effects  of air pollution and further
development   of pollution  control


  May 31, 1975, was the  target date set
for  attaining air quality  judged neces-
sary to protect public  health.
  The deadline passed a  year ago with
many of the goals unmet.
  The best  attainment record for the
air  quality standards was with  sulfur
dioxide,  the report  said.  Of the 247
Air  Quality  Control  Regions, for
which State  monitoring stations gather
data and  report to EPA, 212,  or  86
percent, are  expected  to meet the
primary  standards for sulfur dioxide
when all the figures are in for 1975.
  The  standard  for particulates—
smoke, soot, and invisible bits of solid
and  liquid matter—is likely to be met
by  115  air quality  regions, or 47
  Each of these standards is defined as
not more than a certain  average value
over a full year, plus  a higher, 24-hour
value that can occur  only  once during
the  year.
  Attainment is lagging  for two other
pollutants: carbon monoxide and pho-
tochemical oxidants. Their principal
source is auto exhaust, and their re-
duction depends mainly  on EPA's
auto emission control efforts. As pol-
lution-controlled cars replace old ones
on the road these pollutants areexpec-
tea  to decline. Steps in  applying pol-
lution-control regulations for new cars
have been delayed three times for tech-
nical and economic reasons.
 The report  notes  improvements  in
carbon monoxide levels in urban areas
in  California, New  Jersey, and New
York, and in Washington,  D.C.  The
8-hour standard is still  exceeded, but
less frequently.
 Oxidant levels have decreased in San
Francisco  and  Los Angeles, and re-
search has shown that  oxidants—the
principal  components  of smog—are
not confined to cities, but travel  with
prevailing  winds into rural and wilder-
ness areas.
 The fifth ambient standard is  for
nitrogen oxides, another smog compo-
nent, for  which the  measurement
methods were found in 1973 to give
falsely high readings. (A better, more
reliable method was officially proposed
by  EPA in March after two years  of
 All  55 States  and Territories have
submitted plans for carrying out the
Clean Air Act in their jurisdictions. A
majority have been approved by EPA,
and in  all cases where deficiencies
were  found, the Agency has adopted
rules  to correct the deficiencies,  as it
is entitled to  do under the  Act.
 With a few exceptions (for instance,
sulfur emissions  in  Ohio)  all States
now have fully  enforceable emission
limits on stationary-source polluters.
 During the year nearly 600 enforce-
ment  actions  were  initiated by EPA
against  such  stationary   sources,
mostly  industrial  plants,  bringing the
total number of such actions to about
1,000 since 1972.
 About  20,000 "major" sources have
been  identified,  and 82 percent of
them  are  now complying with emis-
sion limits or are on schedules  that
will bring  them into compliance  at
agreed-upon dates.
 EPA  inspectors  visited  approxi-
mately  18,500 service stations during
the  year to check the  availability  of
unleaded gasoline needed by new cars
equipped with catalytic converters  to
control  exhaust  pollution.  Of about
15,000  samples taken from  "no-lead"
pumps,  only 160 were found to be
contaminated with  lead. The  Agency
collected about $31,000 in penalties.

          Court Decisions

 The Supreme Court  upheld  EPA's
policy on granting "variances" with a
minimum of red  tape. These are usu-
ally extensions of time for  a  polluter
to attain compliance with State regula-
tions.  The  Court  agreed  with the
Agency that when individual variances
do not directly affect air quality stand-
ards they may be treated as revisions
of a State's implementation  plan,  a
relatively simple procedure.
 Federal Circuit Court decisions  in
1975 upheld EPA on three  important
  (1)  Tall smokestacks and  "intermit-
tent  controls" for power plants and
industries. These may not be  used  to
meet emission limits, the Court ruled,
unless continuous controls,  like stack-
gas scrubbers, are  shown  to be un-
  (2)  Performance  standards for new
plants. In the first decision of its kind,
the Court supported EPA  regulations
on cement kilns and the technical and
economic analysis on which the rules
were based.
  (3)  The right for  Federal and State
enforcement actions to  be brought
against a polluter at the same time.
 The 171-page report, "Progress  in
the Prevention and Control  of Air
Pollution in 1975," is available, while the
limited supply lasts,  from the Informa-
tion Center, PM-215, EPA, Washing-
ton,  D.C. 20460.  D

    fftiter  ™
  The  Air  and   Water  Cleanup
 While many severe  pollution prob-
lems  remain, EPA has  reported  to
Congress that significant improve-
ments have  been made in the condi-
tion of the Nation's waterways.
 These conclusions are contained  in
EPA's  1975  National Water  Quality
Inventory Report. The report is based
on  information  from  the Agency's
own  studies and  from  information
supplied by the 50 States and six other
 Most of the States which described
water quality trends reported that con-
ditions have improved  in  many water-
ways  such as Lake Erie, the   Detroit
River, and San Diego  Bay as  a result
of improved  sewage  treatment  facili-
ties and of controls on  industrial waste
 The  report  includes  the first  water
quality assessments   made  by the
States to comply with a  requirement
in  the Federal  Water Pollution Con-
trol Act.  The  assessments describe
current water quality  conditions, the
effects of existing water pollution con-
trol programs, and  the expected costs
and benefits of current and proposed
future programs.
 Twenty-three of the 32  States which
provided an over-all  evaluation  re-
ported that  while  difficult pollution
problems persist,  "most of their
waters were of good quality or already
met the 1983 goals.
 "The (EPA) 1974 report concluded
that oxygen  demanding loads and coli-
form  bacteria levels were improving,
even  though significant problems did
remain.  The report also concluded
that nutrient levels were increasing
across the  country. The  1975 report
shows that  the States in general agree
with those  conclusions, although sev-
eral report improvements in  nutrient
levels. In addition, some  States noted
improvements in the levels of certain
harmful chemicals from industrial
 A review of the State reports leads
to the following genera!  conclusions
for the major pollutants:
    •  Levels of harmful substances
 such as heavy metals  and  various
 chemical compounds have improved
 in some areas as  a result of munici-
 pal  and industrial waste treatment.
 However,  significant  problems from
 heavy metals  and harmful chemicals
 still exist,  primarily in the industrial
 States in the  Northeast  and around
 the Great  Lakes.  Also, several cen-
 tral and southern States report prob-
 lems from pesticides.
   •  Some  western  and southern
 States  have reported increases in
 temperature  and  turbidity  from
 stream modifications for flood control
 and irrigation.
   •  Most  States  report high  levels
 of phosphorus and  nitrogen  which
 speed aging of lakes. In addition, the
 nutrient  measurements were  the only
 ones for which a  significant number
 of States  report worsening trends,
 although a larger number  do cite
   •  Mining areas across the country
 reported problems with  acid mine
 drainage.  High  salinity  levels from
 various  sources were  also  reported
 for'many areas.
   •  Many States noted improve-
 ments  in  dissolved oxygen  levels
 over the last five years, although
 almost all States did report that their
 water quality  standards for dissolved
 oxygen were violated in  some areas.
   •  Almost  all  States  also  listed
 health hazards as indicated  by high
 coliform bacteria counts  as a  signifi-
 cant problem. Excess coliform bacte-
 ria  levels  caused  by municipal  dis-
 charges  have  been reduced  in many
 States following  installation of ade-
 quate treatment facilities.
 All of the States report  at least one
type of water pollution within their
borders, and most of them have prob-
lems with several  different pollutants.
 The  most widely discussed problems
were low dissolved oxygen levels (46
of 52 reports), health  hazards from
excessive coliform bacteria counts (45
of 52 reports), and high nutrient con-
centrations  (43 of 52 reports).  Other
widespread  pollution  conditions may
exist, but would  not  be noted  by as
many States because they were  not as
widely monitored.
   •  The northeastern  and  Great
 Lakes States  report  that their prob-
 lems with low dissolved oxygen, high
 nutrient  concentrations,  and excess
 coliform bacteria are primarily  due to
 municipal  and industrial sources, in-
 cluding urban runoff. The central and
 southwestern States generally identi-
 fied sources such as agricultural run-
 off as the  major causes of these
   • The central  and  southwestern
 States identified turbidity and salinity
 as particular problems, while indus-
 trial States around the Great Lakes
 reported problems from chemical
   • Waters in  several areas of the
 country  were of poor  quality due to
 natural conditions.  Many  central and
 southwestern  States  report  high
 background levels of salinity  and
 turbidity,  while  several southern
 States describe low dissolved oxygen
 levels due to swamp conditions.
 The  States  generally  agreed on the
need for increased emphasis to control
both urban  and rural runoff, the pri-
mary concerns for most States which
expected  some of their waters would
not attain the 1983  goals of the 1972
 Most  States provide estimates for the
costs of  municipal  wastewater treat-
ment, and  13 of them also estimate
industrial control costs.  Ten of the 13
States  estimating industrial costs  re-
ported  those  costs to be less  than 25
percent of  their municipal treatment
 Mining  areas across the  country re-
port pollution problems arising from
acid mine drainage. Several western
States,  among them Arizona, Colorado
and Montana, report heavy metal con-
centrations  in their waterways due to
mining operations.
 The results from EPA's National
Water  Quality Surveillance System, a
nationwide network of 188 water mon-
itoring  stations, indicate that high lev-
els of bacteria  and  nutrients  are
strongly related to municipal  and  in-
dustrial activity. Farming,  with  its
extensive use of fertilizers, has con-
tributed  to  high nutrient levels in
many waterways.
 Copies  of the Water  Quality Inven-
tory are available from:  Environmental
Protection  Agency, Office of Water
Programs,  Water Quality Analysis
Branch (WH-553), Washington, D.C.,
20460.   o
                           PAGE  13

             THE  AMERICAN  SCENE
                          These photos are of paintings in
                         "America 1976," an art show de-
                         picting the activities of the Depart-
                         ment of the Interior in conservation
                         of natural resources. The exhibi-
                         tion which includes the work of
                         forty-five American  artists of re-
                         gional and national prominence
opened at the Corcoran Gallery of
Art in Washington and is now be-
ginning a tour of major city mu-
seums around the United States.
The stunning show was initiated by
John DeWitt, director of visual arts
programs for the Department of
the Interior.
The Coke Works at Clairton, Pa., by Rackstraw Dowries. This scene on the Monongahela River near Pittsburgh shows the largest "slot-
oven" plant in the world. Here coal is converted to coke for tne production of steel and chemicals.

Agua Caliente Nova by Robert Bechtle. In the distance is Palm Canyon in the Reservation of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians
near Palm  Springs, Calif. In the  foreground are evidences  of civilization through which  much of nature must now  be  viewed.
The Ellis River in  Pinkham Notch by Robert Jordan. A view of the river as seen from
the Appalachian National Scenic Trail in New Hampshire.

Continental Divide by Ben  Schonzeit.  Sweeping views of high  mountain  slopes  in
The  Final  Redwoods by  John  Button.
These  are the coast redwoods, Sequoia
sempervirens, the tallest of  all trees which
now  grow as a  natural  forest  only in a
narrow strip along the northern California
coast and in southernmost  Oregon.
                             PAGE 1>

                 \ndrew J. McKrlean
 Andrew J. McErtean, Director of the
Ecological Processes and  Effects  Di-
vision, Office of Research and Devel-
opment, has  been appointed Associate
Deputy Assistant  Administrator  for
Health and Ecological Effects, report-
ing to Dr. Roy Albert.
 Dr.  McKrlean, 44, joined EPA in
1972 as Senior Staff Biologist in  the
Office of Enforcement and General
Counsel and has been with the Office
of  Research and Development since
 He is a native  of Rockaway Beach,
N.Y..  and served  four years in  the
Marine Corps before attending Adel-
phi University,  Garden  City, N.Y.,
where  he earned bachelor's and mas-
ter's  decrees in biology. He then
worked four years as a  research  as-
sistant at the University of Maryland's
Department of Environmental Re-
search and won a Public  Health Serv-
ice fellowship for continued  study
there. The University awarded  him a
Ph.D. in /oology  in 1969. He was
project coordinator for  the Univer-
sity's  Chesapeake  Research Consor-
tium  for two years  before joining
 Dr.  McKrlean  is a member of  the
American Institute of Fishery Re-
search Biologists,  member and past
president of the Atlantic Estuarine
Research  Society,  and member and
former vice president of the Estuarine
Research Foundation.
 He is married  to the former Toby
Schneidman  of New York City. They
have four children.
                 William Gillespie

William GUlespie has been appointed
Director of the Management Division,
Region VI, Dallas, and will start his
duties there some time this month. He
has  been  Deputy Director  of the
Management and Organization Divi-
sion. Office of Planning and Manage-
ment, in Washington.
 Mr. Gillespie, 35, grew up in Potts-
ville. Pa., and is a graduate of Penn-
sylvania State  University. He  began
his  Federal  service  13  years ago
with the Defense Supply Agency, and
he has worked for the Department of
the  Navy and  the Federal  Water
Quality Administration, one of EPA's
predecessor agencies.
 He has taken postgraduate studies in
public administration at Drexel Insti-
tute, Philadelphia, and George Wash-
ington University, Washington.

 Robert McDonald, Special Assistant
to the Administrator, left the Agency
on May 21 to go to the International
Paper Co., New York City, as Assist-
ant Vice President for  Personnel.
 Mr. McDonald came 10 EPA in
September 1971 as Special Assistant
in the Office of Planning and Manage-
ment, and he served in that post until
January  1973, when  he joined Mr.
Train's staff.

 Charles A. Lincoln was recently ap-
pointed Chief of the Pesticides  Branch
for Region I,  Boston. He formerly-
held the same position  in Region V.
 Dr. Lincoln is a native of Massachu-
setts and  a graduate of the  State
university  at Amherst. He earned his
master's and doctor's degrees from
the N.Y.  State  College of Forestry,
Syracuse,  N.Y.
                 Clifford V. Smith, Jr.

 Clifford V. Smith, Jr., EPA's Region
X Administrator, has resigned to take
an executive post with the Bechtel
Corporation, an engineering construc-
tion company, in San Francisco.
 Dr.  Smith had been  appointed  Re-
gional Administrator in August, 1974,
after  more than 20 years  of profes-
sional experience in the environmental
engineering and management field. He
had formerly served as Deputy  Re-
gional Administrator in  EPA's Region
I office in Boston. In 1973,  EPA gave
him its highest award,  the Gold
Medal for Exceptional Service.

 Diana Dutton has been named  Re-
gional Counsel for Region VI, Dallas.
She is the third woman  to hold such a
post in EPA.
 Ms.  Dutton, 31, is a native of Sher-
man,  Texas,  and earned  a B.S. in
international  affairs at Georgetown
University's School of  Foreign Serv-
ice in Washington before studying  law
at the University of Texas, Austin.
She was associate editor of the Texas
Law Review and won her doctorate in
jurisprudence in 1971.
 She joined EPA that  year and  has
served as staff attorney in the Region
VI Enforcement Division and, since
1973,  as Assistant Regional Counsel.
She was coordinator of the Federal
Women's Program for  Region VI for
two years and has  headed   the
Women's Committee of the  Dallas-
Fort Worth Federal Executive Board
since  1974. She was awarded EPA's
Bronze Medal for Meritorious Service
in 1973.
 She is married to Tony Grindl.

                 James M. Conlon

 Robert V.  Zener, EPA's General
Counsel, is  leaving the Agency to
become  a partner with the law firm
of Pepper, Hamilton,  and Scheetz of
Philadelphia and Washington, D.C.
 Mr. Zener has been EPA's principal
legal advisor and head  of the Office of
General  Counsel since January, 1975.
He had served  as Deputy General
Counsel since April 1973,  and he
joined the Agency in  March 1971 as
Associate General Counsel for Water.
Earlier he spent eight years  at the
Department  of Justice where he was
Assistant Chief of the Appellate Sec-
tion of the Civil Division.
 Administrator Train  has announced
his intention to appoint G.  William
Frick, now Deputy General Counsel,
to the office of General Counsel.

 George J. Putnicki, Deputy Adminis-
trator for Region VI, Dallas,  was
honored recently by  the Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare for
his work in the resettling of Indochina
war refugees  at Fort Chaffee, Ark.
 Working with  EPA  staff members
and a team of U.S. Army personnel,
Mr.  Putnicki analyzed the environ-
mental  impact of the sudden addition
of 28,000 persons at the Chaffee facil-
ity and developed plans to assure safe
drinking water, sewage treatment,
solid waste  disposal,  and control of
disease. EPA provided monitoring
equipment and training to Army per-
sonnel, and averted potentially disas-
trous environmental effects.
 HEW Regional Administrator Stuart
H. Clarke presented a citation  to Mr.
Putnicki at  a special ceremony in
Dallas April 20.
                Douglas M. MacMillan

 James M. Conlon has assumed a new
post as Associate to Edwin L. John-
son. Deputy Assistant  Administrator
for Pesticide Programs, in Washing-
 A Public Health Service  Officer for
13  years,  Mr. Conlon had been with
EPA's Region  V Office in Chicago
since the Agency was founded, his
last post there  being Director of the
Air and Hazardous Materials  Divi-
 Born in  Davenport, Iowa. 37 years
ago, Mr.  Conlon was brought up in
Springfield. 111., and earned a B.S. in
chemistry at  Illinois College, Jackson-
ville, in  1961. He worked for the
Illinois Department of Public  Health
for three  years before receiving his
PHS  comm'ission. After  an assign-
ment with the Oklahoma State Health
Department,  Oklahoma City, he was
sent to graduate school at the Univer-
sity of Oklahoma, where he won an
M.S.  of Engineering (Civil), and be-
came a radiation specialist with the
Bureau of Radiological  Health  in
 In 1969 he was sent to the Regional
Office in  Chicago as Deputy Radiol-
ogical Health Representative.
 Mr. Conlon is married to the former
Donna Ebe!  of Springfield, 111. They
have four daughters.
              •''-^ Hekn B«gj>un
 Douglas M. MacMillan has been ap-
pointed Director, Division of Manage-
ment and Organization, by Alvin  L.
Aim,  Assistant Administrator for
Planning and Management.
 Mr. MacMillan will assume his new
duties this month following a long-
term training assignment at Harvard
University. He has been Director of
Region  I's Management  Division
since 1973.
 A graduate of the  University  of
Washington and holder of a law de-
gree from Georgetown University,
Mr. MacMillan is  scheduled to re-
ceive a master's degree in  public
administration from  Harvard this
 He began Federal  service in 1963 as
a foreign service officer with the U.S.
Information Agency,  and he  served
with the Department of Health. Edu-
cation, and Welfare  and  with the
Office of Economic Opportunity be-
fore joining EPA's Region I Office in
Boston in 1972.

 Helen Beggun, formerly with the Pro-
gram Analysis Division. Office of Re-
sources Management,  in Washington.
has been  appointed  Chief of the
Grants  Administration  Branch  in Re-
gion H, New York City.
 Ms.  Beggun  has  had 10 years  of
Federal  service, including six  years
with the Navy  Department as a Pro-
gram Analyst.
 A native of Brooklyn, N.Y., she
grew up in New  Jersey and was
graduated summa cum laude in 1964
from Fairleigh  Dickinson  University
in Rutherford. N.J. She was a teacher
in  the  Dade County, Fla.,  public
schools for two years.
                     PAGE 17

                                    REGION VI
  Region  VI  is a 560,550-square-mile
piece of real estate  comprising the
states of Arkansas,  Louisiana,  New
Mexico. Oklahoma,  and  Texas. It
stretches east-west  from the  Missis-
sippi River  to  Arizona and north-
south from Kansas,  Colorado,  and
Missouri to the  Gulf of Mexico and
the Mexican border.
  Thousands of coves and  inlets  pro-
vide a meandering shoreline of 11,080
miles that  includes some of the na-
tion's most delightful ecological phe-
nomena—and  some of the  most chal-
lenging environmental  problems.
  While the sheer magnitude of the
Region implies big skies  and room to
roam, this  spaciousness  has  been di-
minished recently by  intensive indus-
trial  development  and population
growth. Pollution now touches remote
areas as well as great cities  like Hous-
ton, New Orleans, Little Rock, Okla-
homa City, Albuquerque, and Dallas.
It has pointed up anew  the environ-
mental dangers of offshore drilling and
the necessity for  preserving  the quality
of  coastal  waters as well  as  lakes,
streams,  and  underground  reservoirs.
It  pinpointed  trouble spots like  the
Houston Ship  Channel and the  lower
Mississippi.  It brought into focus  the
air pollution  in Houston, San Antonio,
Dallas-Fort  Worth, and  the possible
need for oxidant controls for growing
metropolitan regions.
 Discussing  his  environmental  goals,
John C. White,  Region VI  Adminis-
trator, states: "It isn't enough to bring
pollution to a stalemate.  Pollution
must be reduced to an acceptable
level, then kept  there. This  shrinking
process in Region VI is well  under
way. We regard  the  past year as  a
turning  point  in the  critical environ-
mental  areas  of ocean  pollution, oil
spill response, the permit program,
construction  grants, and increased par-
ticipation by  the  public as well  as
State and local governments."
 Region VI  is particularly proud of its
success  in  reducing  the volume  of
toxic materials dumped into  the Gulf
of Mexico from 1,400,000 tons in 1973
to 140,000 tons in  1975-^a 90 percent
reduction. Shell  Chemical Company,
under a permit this year, is committed
to finding an alternative  to  ocean
Downtown Dallas skyline with convention center in foreground.

disposal by August 1, 1977.
 Under a research permit from EPA,
Shell  burned tons of chlorinated  hy-
drocarbons aboard the Dutch incinera-
tor ship Vulcanus off the Texas coast
with  minimum impact on the environ-
ment. The company's application for
a permit to  conduct more incineration
tests in the Gulf is pending.
 Region  VI includes four of the  five
largest oil producing States and  the
largest offshore  production area. It
has the largest network of refineries,
petrochemical plants, and pipelines,
plus  12 ports  for ocean-going  vessels
and the prospect of four new super-
tanker ports.  All of these facilities
create a high potential for spills of oil
and hazardous substances. While spills
on coastal waters are the responsibil-
ity of  the U.S.  Coast  Guard. EPA
serves  as  on-scene coordinator for all
major inland oil  spill cleanup opera-
tions. EPA monitors the cleanup oper-
ations and assumes full  control if the
spiller fails to  take  proper action.
Since full implementation last year of
the Region's Spill Prevention Control
and Countermeasure Plans, major re-
ported oil  spills  in the   Region have
declined by  approximately 28 percent.
Further improvement is expected  as
State  agencies take more active roles
in spilt investigations.
 A consortium of  six oil  companies
plans to construct a $350-million deep-
water  port for oil  tankers  off  the
Louisiana coast, about 20 miles south
of Grand  Isle.  The  port  would be
capable of  unloading more than  1.4
million barrels of crude oil a day from
tankers too big to use existing ports.
 A prime  goal  in Region   VI  air
pollution control is to assist State  and
local agencies in attaining  and main-
taining the national air  quality stand-
ards.  Our assistance has been both
financial  and technical.  Funds in  ex-
cess  of $4,500,000 were  made availa-
ble  to  the  Region's five  States either
as direct grants or in consultant assist-
ance.  For both fiscal years 1975  and
1976,  Region  VI has worked  closely
with  the States in program planning in
setting goals and meeting objectives of
the Clean Air Act. Progress  is re-
viewed periodically,  and  problem
areas  are  reviewed so that mid-course
corrections  can  be  made.  Significant
results  of the program  have been
greater  coordination among Federal,
State and local program activities  and
the reduction  or elimination  of con-
flicting activities.
 The  State  Implementation Plans re-

Canoeing  down  the  beautiful Illinois
River in Oklahoma.

quired  by  the  Clean  Air  Act continue
to be  the primary tool for achieving
clean air.  The plans  originally submit-
ted in  1972  are  refined from  time to
time as new  problems  or solutions
arise. Changes accomplished  or  pro-
posed  include (1) revisions to the
Arkansas  plan to  control  particulate
emissions; (2)  revisions to the Louisi-
ana plan to control primary aluminum
smelter particulate  emissions; (3) revi-
sions of the  Oklahoma plan to control
hydrocarbon  emissions  and sulfur
dioxide emissions;  (4) revisions to the
New Mexico  plan to control sulfur
dioxide from smelters  and  carbon
monoxide  from mobile sources in the
Albuquerque area;  (5) and revisions to
the Texas  plan to control hydrocarbon
emissions  from  both stationary  and
mobile  sources of  sulfur  dioxide from
 Plans being developed to control hy-
drocarbon emissions  include many
measures  which would conserve pe-
trochemical products (mostly gasoline)
in  addition to improving air  quality.
These  measures  include  vapor recov-
ery from gasoline and other petroleum
compound storage  tanks  and  transfer
operations; voluntary inspection  and
maintenance of  motor vehicles;  also
carpooling and incentives  to use public
transportation. As proposed for  cer-
tain  areas in  Texas, these  measures
would save each year about 4] million
gallons  of gasoline,  valued at about
$20  million,  plus an  additional 13
million gallons  of other  petroleum
products worth about $2 million.
  For years the industry-lined Houston
Ship  Channel held the distinction  of
being one of the worst-polluted water-
ways in the world. Today this  tidal
channel,  which  brings  ocean-going
vessels  into Houston, is  undergoing a
cleanup. The quality of the stream is
so improved that  Houston newspapers
recently carried photographs of tarpon
caught by fishermen near the junction
of the  Ship  Channel  and  Vince's
Bayou—an area where tarpon had not
been seen in more than a quarter of a
century. The Channel cleanup task is a
joint  effort.  Dischargers accounting
for about  85 percent of the Channel's
pollution  load are  under permit and
obligated to complete abatement facil-
ites by July of next year.
  Another trouble spot is the lower
Mississippi,  source  of drinking water
for New Orleans. Extensive  research
is being conducted to determine the
full extent of chemical pollution and
its possible  impact on public health.
  The Edwards underground reservoir,
which sprawls for  175 miles across
several counties in  south central
Texas,  is a  geological phenomenon
which supplies  drinking water for the
City of San  Antonio, five large  mili-
tary  installations,  16 small towns and
cities,  and  hundreds of farms  and
ranches.  Under  the Safe  Drinking
Water Act, EPA Administrator Russell
E. Train  recently designated the aqui-
fer as the sole or  principal  drinking
water source for  the area, thus bring-
ing it under  limited  protection by
denying Federal financial assistance  to
any  project that could  pollute the
 reservoir.  Although  the  issue is  a
 controversial one, with developers and
 environmentalists on opposing  sides,
 the decision is the first of its kind and
 may  become  a  precedent for  other
 decisions involving underground  water
  All  around the  Region the tempo of
 pollution control is  increasing—and
 with  some notable results. In the fiscal
 year  ending June 30,  the  Region ex-
 pects to have awarded $245 million in
 grants to more than 600 towns,  cities,
 and water districts for the construction
 of new  and  improved  wastewater
 treatment facilities.
  Section  208 of the  Water Pollution
 Control  Act Amendments calls upon
 local  governments  to find and imple-
 ment solutions to common water qual-
 ity management  problems. It calls for
 EPA grants to help local governments
 cover their planning  costs.  Areas
 which have received  grants and  have
 begun planning efforts include  Tulsa
 and Oklahoma City in Oklahoma and
 Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San  An-
 tonio, Beaumont-Port  Arthur, Corpus
 Christi,  McAllen-Brownsville,  and
 Texarkana in Texas.
  Town meetings, public  hearings, and
 widespread  publicity  have been  used
 to  develop maximum public  support
 and participation for the 208 program
 and all other Region VI activities.
  The issuance of discharge  permits
 continues, although more attention is
 being given to  compliance  monitoring.
 State assistance in  the  drafting of
 permits  has accelerated  the program
 and strengthened  enforcement efforts.n
Majestic mountain view is  from  Emory
Pass in southwestern New  Mexico, near
the  mining town of Santa  Rita.
A forested national  park at Hot Springs,
famous vacation resort and  convention
                                                                                                         PAGE 19

                   The   Great   Southwest
                                              By John F Bradford
 The five States of Region  VI, tradi-
tionally  known as "the Great South-
west," are home to nearly 25 million
people whose outdoor pursuits range
from muskrat trapping  in Louisiana to
elk hunting -in  New  Mexico, from
water skiing in  Arkansas  to bronc
riding in  Oklahoma  and deep  sea
fishing off the Texas  coast.  Perhaps
no geographical  region of comparable
size  is  more diversified  in  culture,
history,  resources, and  economy.
 Even their brief official  slogans tell
something of the  heritage of these  five
States: Arkansas, "Land of Opportu-
nity"; Louisiana,  "Pelican State";
Oklahoma, "Sooner State"; New
Mexico, "Land of Enchantment"; and
Texas, "Lone Star State."
 Some of the assets of Region VI are
great  oil-  and gas-producing  areas,  a
764-mile coastline fringing the Gulf of
Mexico, the Misssissippi River and its
vast  estuary ecosystem, huge agricul-
tural resources, major forest areas, the
new  Arkansas  River  waterway that
brings ocean navigation  into Tulsa,
Okla., the Gulf Intracoastal  Water-
way;  national and  state forests,  min-
erals, a  major livestock industry, wild-
life, sports and recreation.
 Arkansas, population 2 million,  has
18,500,000 acres of oak, hickory, gum
cypress, and  pine. Forest  industries,
including some of the  nation's largest
pulp  and paper mills, have an annual
payroll exceeding $500  million. Cotton
accounts for  48  percent of farm in-
come. Arkansas  mines  lead the Nation
in  bauxite (aluminum ore) production.
The State is second in rice and third in
chicken  production. Oil is  the main
mineral  product,  but natural  gas  and
stone are highly  important. The $1.2-
billion Arkansas  River  program'in-
volving  navigation, flood control,  and
power developments, completed in
1971, provided  a big boost to  the
State's economy.
 Freshwater fishing, duck hunting in
southeastern lowlands, and recreation
areas in  21  state parks and  three
national forests  attract many visitors
to Arkansas. Reservoir recreation
areas at Norfolk,  Bull Shoals, Nim-
rod,  and  Dardanelle are the forerun-
ners of additional facilities that  will
further popularize the  State as a  tour-
ist attraction.  There are 47 hot springs
in  Hot Springs  National Park,  which
is  surrounded  by the City of Hot
Springs. A multimillion-dollar modern
wastewater treatment plant partially
funded by EPA  will  soon  serve Hot
Springs and  the nearby  Ouachita
Basin  lakes,  removing a pollution
threat of serious dimension  to the lake
 Louisiana, pushing a population of 4
million, blends  a wealth of historic
charm,  rich natural  resources, and
giant  modern  industries. Fertile soil,
huge mineral deposits, and  over 7,000
miles  of navigable waterways  linking
the State with the heart of theNationare
factors basic to  the State's prosperity.
 The  immediate  prospect of offshore
deep-water ports, plus acceleration of
offshore drilling for oil  and gas, give
promise of a whole new dimension in
Louisiana's economy.  Its strategic
coastal position  links the State with
world-wide commerce.
 Mardi  Gras  and other festivals, the
beat  of Dixieland jazz in the land of
its origin,  and nostalgic relics  of the
days of French  and Spanish rule and
the prosperous pre-Civil War era are
among the attractions which bring  an
estimated $710 million a  year in tourist
revenues. In total value of  its mineral
output,  Louisiana is  second only  to
Texas. Recent reports show it  first in
the value of its natural gas,  sulfur, and
salt production,  and  second in  petro-
leum,  much  of which comes from
offshore   production.   Louisiana
marshes supply  most  of the Nation's
muskrat fur.  The annual catch  of
saltwater fish, shrimp, and oysters is
valued at around $80 million.
 Louisiana Creoles are descendants of
early  French and Spanish settlers.
About 4,000 Acadians, French settlers
in  Nova Scotia,  Canada, were forcibly
transported by the British to Louisiana
in  1755 (an event commemorated  by
Longfellow's Evangellne)  and  settled
near Bayou Teche. Their descendants,
who became known as Cajuns,  remain
a strong influence in the culture of the
Louisiana bayou country.
 New Mexico,  population  nearly  one
million, is  a land of contrasts, present-
ing remnants of old Indian and Span-
ish cultures along with nuclear and
  John F. Bradford is it Region  VI public
        information specialist.
space research centers, plus moun-
tains over 13,000 feet high,  ski slopes,
and the  great Carlsbad Caverns. Vast
areas are made fertile by irrigation via
dams and reservoirs on  the Rio
Grande, San  Juan,  Pecos,  Canadian,
Cimarron,  Gila, and  San  Francisco
rivers.  National  forests cover  13,231
square  miles. Douglas fir,  ponderosa
pine, and  spruce are cut for timber.
Almost  34 percent of the land area is
federally owned. While  minerals are
New  Mexico's  richest natural re-
source,  manufacturing  industries have
grown and diversified. Principal lines
are food products,  chemicals, trans-
portation  and ordnance equipment,
lumber,  and electrical  machinery. Its
minerals include gold,  silver, zinc,
lead, and molybdenum.
 Mining and increased  industrializa-
tion today add both wealth and people
along with pollution problems little
known  to  New Mexico a decade ago.
The  nuclear  power industry has fo-
cused new attention on New Mexico
as the nation's leading source of ura-
nium, bringing  expansion  of milling
and mining operations, with attendant
pollution  hazards.  Coal gasification
gives promise of air pollution relief in
regions  beset by  emission control
problems. The  demand  for  uranium
rights has brought on extensive leasing
by groups  and  agencies that  include
the Tennessee Valley Authority.
 Spaniards  seeking gold  explored
New Mexico in the early   16th. cen-
tury, and  the area  was labeled New
Mexico on a 1583 map. The land remained
under Spain  until  1821, then  under
Mexico  until  U.S.  troops occupied it
in  1846.  It became a State in  1912. Its
capital, Santa Fe, is one  of the oldest
cities in  the U.S.
 New  Mexico has four large  Indian
reservations and  19 inhabited pueblos,
including Acoma, the "sky  city" built
atop a  357-foot mesa. There  are
pueblo ruins from 1000 A.D. in Chaco
Canyon. The Indian, Mexican, and
Anglo cultures blend harmoniously in
a  progressive relationship evident
throughout the State.
 Oklahoma, population now reaching
toward 3 million, birthplace and home
of the  great  humorist, Will Rogers,
also is a leader in oil and gas produc-
tion. Other minerals include helium,

gypsum, zinc,  cement,  coal, copper.
and  silver. Its  fertile plains  annually
produce  one  of the Nation's largest
wheat crops,  also large crops of
sorghum,  peanuts, and soybeans. To-
tal tourist revenues are  estimated at
more than $500 million  annually. At-
tractions, include  28 State parks, large
lakes and reservoirs  such as Eufala
and  Texoma, the Ouachita  National
Forest,  Indian pow-wows,  the  Na-
tional Cowboy  Hall of Fame, the
Western  Heritage Center in Oklahoma
City,  the Will Rogers  Memorial at
Claremore,  and  the  Woolaroc Mu-
seum near Bartlesvilie. Oklahoma, like
Arkansas, is  a  beneficiary of the Ar-
kansas River waterway, which  gives
Tulsa a "seaport."
 Part  of the Louisiana Purchase in
1803, Oklahoma  was known as "Jn-
dian   Territory" after it became the
home of five civilized tribes—Chero-
kee,  Choctaw, Chickasaw,  Creek,
and  Seminole from  1828  to 1846. The
land  also was occupied by Comanche,
Osage and other Plains Indians.  As
white settlers pressed west, land was
opened for homesteading by  "runs"
and  lotteries.  A  run  was a  race  for
land  claims  at a specific  time.  The
first  run took  place  April 22,  1889.
The  most famous was the run  to the
Cherokee Outlet in  1893. The territo-
ries  were joined  by Congress  in the
State of Oklahoma and admitted to
the Union in  1907. Oklahoma's  Indian
population in  1970 was 98,468—the
largest of any State.
 EPA's Robert S. Kerr Laboratory at
Ada, stands as a monument to the late
Oklahoma Senator.
 Texas, population about  14  million.
leads  all other States  in  many  cate-
gories, among them oil. cattle, sheep.
and cotton. While these are  basic  to
the Texas  economy, manufacturing,  as
measured   in terms of value  added,
makes a  greater contribution  than
either mineral  output or farm income.
Second in  size only to Alaska. Texas
normally produces a third of the Na-
tion's  petroleum and  is the  leading
producer of asphalt, graphite, natural
gas  liquids, and  magnesium chloride.
Louisiana  and Texas  are the  leading
producers   of natural gas, and  Texas
ranks  second  in output  of  sulfur.
salt,  helium,  and  bromine.  Recent
figures give Texas a big lead in annual
cattle  production—15,350,000  head-
exceeding   the State's  human  popula-
tion.  Its well diversified agricultural
industry  makes  the   State a  major
producer of rice,  timber, peanuts, pe-
cans,  sorghum, sweet  potatoes, grape-
fruit, turkeys, peaches,  and roses.
 Tourists  spend  an estimated $2 bil-
lion  dollars annually  in Texas.  Sev-
enty State  parks, recreation areas and
historic sites include the Big Bend and
Guadalupe Mountain   National  Parks
and the Fort Davis National Historic-
Site. There is also  a  national  historic
site,  a national park and a state park
marking the birthplace  of former Pres-
ident  Lyndon B. Johnson.
  A phenomenon of Texas industrial
growth  has  been the  rise and expan-
sion of a giant  petrochemical industry
along the Houston Ship Channel, a
tidal  gateway  linking Houston with
the  Gulf of Mexico.  Here a vast
complex of  industrial  giants produces
products used  throughout the world
and provides  a payroll  that is the
backbone of the Houston economy.
Cooperative efforts by  Federal.  State
and local authorities and the industries
themselves are  being made to curb the
extremely complex air and water pol-
lution  problems in the  Channel  area.
 Thus,  we  see  that Region  VI  is a
geographical, economical,  and cultural
conglomerate which requires  continu-
ing strong pollution controls.  In  most
parts of the  Region, the air and water
are getting  cleaner, noise pollution  is
being diminished, and  better systems
for handling solid  and hazardous
wastes are  being  devised.  Ocean
dumping has been reduced; pollution
from pesticides  is growing less.  Not-
withstanding this progress, the Region
faces some monumental  environmental
problems, not  the least of which  is
hydrocarbon and sulfur  dioxide pollu-
tion from automobiles in some of the
larger cities.
  Region VI is  big and beautiful.  It
took  muscle to develop  its  strength
and productivity. It will take muscle
to regain and preserve its environmen-
tal integrity.   D
                                       Region VTs Leadership Team
                            Klroy "Ray" Lozano. •                    * J.  Paul Comola,  Assistant
                       Director, Air and Hazardous       John C. White.     Regional Administrator for
                              Materials Division    Regional  Administrator   Congressional and Intergovernmental Relations
 Myron Knudson, Director,   Dr. Richard L. Hill.       Diana  Dutton.
 Surveillance and Analysis   Director, Water Division    Regional Counsel
                             George J, Putnicki. Deputy  Thomas Harrison, Director.
                             Regional Administrator    Enforcement Division

                                                                  PAGE 21

solar energy

Wilton, Maine,  will build the first
sewage treatment plant in New England
using solar energy to heat the building
and the sludge digesters. Methane gas
from the digesters will also be used  for
additional  heating and possibly to run
an auxiliary electric generator. EPA has
awarded Wilton a SB-million grant for
construction of  the plant, pumping
station, interceptor, sewer, and force

annual report due

Region I is putting the finishing touches
on its second annual report.
Environmental Quality in New
England. The report, which will discuss
air and water quality, drinking water
supplies, and solid waste management
in the six-State  region, will be released
next month.

earth day  stamp

Region I's fourth Earth Day
environmental stamp was recently
issued in an edition of 250,000.
Designed by  Gene Parker of the
Regional Office's graphics staff, the
red, white, and  blue stamp combines
environmental and bicentennial themes.
camden sued
On behalf of Region II, the Justice
Department has filed a civil suit against
Camden, N.J., to force the city to

operate its two sewage treatment plants
properly. The plants were designed to
process 40 million gallons of wastewater
per day. EPA inspectors found the
plants discharging effluent into the
Delaware River after inadequate
treatment or, in some cases, no
treatment at all. The U.S. Attorney is
seeking the maximum penalty of
$10,000 per day of violation, which
amounts to 58,140,000.

high-sulfur fuels

Region II officials have opposed recent
moves to approve the burning of high-
sulfur fuels in New York City and
southern New Jersey.  At a  hearing on
the application of New York's
Consolidated Edison Company for a
variance to bum such fuel.  Deputy
Regional Administrator Eric Outwater
said the claimed  savings would be  only
40 cents per month to the average
household consumer and the utility
would discharge  an additional 50.000
tons of air pollutants annually.
EPA also denounced as premature and
illegal New Jersey's announced
decision to allow 10 plants in the
southern part of the State to burn  high-
sulfur fuel.  The State's decision was
made. Regional officials said, without
EPA approval, which can be given only
after technical studies, discussions and
public hearings.  The State has now
agreed to comply with these
highway planning

The Federal Highway Administration's
transportation plans for the
Philadelphia-Trenton, Baltimore, and
Washington, D.C., areas are
inconsistent with air quality plans for
these cities, according to Regional
Administrator  Daniel J.  Snyder III. He
has recommended that the FHA
withdraw its certification of these plans
and withhold funding of all highway
projects associated with them.
However,  Mr. Snyder urged continued
funding of mass transit  projects in the
three areas.
                                                                             first application

                                                                             Region III recently received its first
                                                                             "significant deterioration" application
                                                                             from an industrial plant. The  Delmarva
                                                                             Power and Light Co. seeks a permit to
                                                                             build a  new 400-megawatt coal-fired
                                                                             generating station at Indian River,  Del.
                                                                             Regional officials are reviewing the
                                                                             application to assure that air quality in
                                                                             the area, already cleaner than average,
                                                                             will not suffer significant deterioration if
                                                                             the plant is built.
phosphate mine study

EPA will be the leading Federal agency
in a comprehensive study of the
environmental effects of phosphate strip
mining and processing. The study was
ordered recently by  President  Ford
after an EPA report indicated  that
people living on land reclaimed after
phosphate mining  were six times more
likely to contract lung cancer than
people living elsewhere.
The new study, in which the
Department of Interior's Bureau of
Mines will also take part, is
independent of the earlier EPA
investigation in Polk County in central
Florida. There has been a moratorium
on residential building on mined-over
areas there since last October, when
EPA  Administrator  Russell E. Train
informed Florida  Governor Reuben
Askew of EPA's  findings.
cuyahoga pollution

Although dramatic reductions have
been made in some kinds of pollution in
the Cuyahoga River at Cleveland,
Ohio, many problems remain. A recent
study by Region V officials noted
reductions in floating oil, phenolic
compounds, ammonia, and cyanide.
Municipal and industrial wastewater
treatment programs are expected to
bring some improvement in dissolved

oxygen conditions in the river.
However, the study pointed out, storm
water runoff and oxygen demand from
bottom-dwelling organisms will continue
to deplete the river's oxygen, especially
during summer low-flow periods.

impact statement

Region V officials will prepare an
environmental impact statement for the
sewage treatment plans of Columbus,
Ohio. Such statements are usually  ruled
unnecessary by  EPA in most
construction grant applications, but
when there are alternative facilities
being considered and local requests for
an environmental study, EPA makes it.
The plans for metropolitan Columbus
include many options: various methods
of sludge treatment and disposal; size
and location of interceptor sewer lines,
especially in sparsely settled areas;
degree of wastewater treatment needed
to protect the quality of the Scioto
River; ways of handling storm  sewer
overflows; and similar questions.
ocean dumping

Region VI Administrator John C.
White has announced that EPA will
probably deny permission  for Houston,
Texas, to dump sewage sludge into the
"Based on the  facts available to me,"
 Mr. White said, "1 see alternatives,
such as land disposal," that the city can
use. The law and the regulations
require a pressing need for ocean
dumping before a permit can be
granted, he said. A public hearing may
be held before  the final decision is

engineers' agreement

EPA has signed an agreement with the
Army Corps of Engineers under which
the Southwestern  Division of the Corps
will serve as engineering and technical
advisors in  Region VI's Construction
 Grants program. The Army engineers
will inspect wastewater treatment
 projects at Step 3, the construction
 stage, to augment EPA's inspection
hot line service

"My lagoon is turning septic; what do I
"The arms on my trickling filter won't
turn; how do 1 get them unstuck?"
Charles Bardonner, Coordinator of the
Wastewater Training  Center at
Kirkwood Community College,
Kirkwood, Iowa, is ready for questions
like these. He and his staff man a new
toll-free telephone service for sewage
treatment plant operators throughout
the State.
Supported by an EPA grant, the hot
line service started in April. Kirkwood
College is a pioneer in wastewater
treatment instruction  and is the only
center in the country that has  its own
treatment facility for on-the-job training.

waste exchange

The first two industrial waste
exchanges in the United States were
established recently at St. Louis, Mo.,
and Ames, Iowa. The exchanges
publish and circulate lists of "wastes
wanted" and "wastes available" among
industries throughout their areas,
bringing disposer and user together for
mutual benefit.
The idea is based on  the concept that
one man's waste is another man's
resource, and is'copied from several
waste "bourses" in Europe.
high altitude tests

Testing of 1977 cars for emission
control performance at high altitudes
has begun at Aurora, Colorado, near
Denver. EPA  regulations require that
new cars meet emission standards when
they are driven at 4,000-foot altitude as
well as at their place of manufacture
(Detroit  is about 600feet above sea level).
Air is less dense at higher altitude,  so
an auto engine receives a richer fuel-air
mixture, combustion is less complete,
and emissions tend to be  higher.
Regional Administrator John A.  Green
said manufacturers may use design
features, tuning specifications, or
special devices to correct for high
altitude effects and attain improved
performance and mileage.
Under contract from EPA,  Automotive
Testing Laboratories, Inc., is doing the
certification work, using about 100
prototype cars supplied by the
manufacturers. Colorado is the highest
State  in the Union, with an average
altitude of 6,800 feet.
san diego violation

Region IX has issued a Notice of
Violation to the City of San Diego for
failure to establish and complete, a
compliance schedule under the
provisions of the wastewater discharge
permit program.  A permit was issued
for San Diego's Point Loma
Wastewater Treatment Plant on Nov.
4, 1974, by the California Regional
Water Quality Board. The permit
contained provisions calling for a
conceptual plan, a final construction
plan, feasibility study, and a compliance
plan.  No plans or reports have been
received, according to Richard
O'Connell, Regional Enforcemeent
Director.  "The City of San Diego has
been cooperative on many issues," he
said,"but we couldn't let this  drag on!"
spray plan criticized

EPA has criticized Forest Service plans
to spray insecticides on 300,000 acres of
forest in Washington and Oregon to
control the western spruce budworm.
The Agency said the chemicals
proposed might kill many organisms
that are natural enemies of the
budworm, thus diminishing the pest's
natural controls and requiring increased
chemical spraying in the future. EPA
made the comments on a draft
environmental impact statement
prepared by the Forest Service and
asked the Service to supply more
information in its final statement.  D
                            PAGE 23

                        APE  r€U  PARTICIPATING
                           IN  THE  11<  I  S11  SSI VI
                        CBSEPWNCES THIS TEAP
Mary  Sarno, Program  Analyst,  Plan-
ning  and Management Division, Re-
gion III, Philadelphia, Pa.
 "I am  actively engaged, as a volun-
teer,  in the Bicentennial  Women's
Center here in  Philadelphia. The Cen-
ter, in part funded by the  State and
also  with  a $50,000  grant from the
Bicentennial Committee of Pennsylva-
nia, has a dual purpose. One  is to
present, as dramatically  as  possible,
the role that women have  played in
American  history—a  role  sadly ne-
glected in  conventional history books.
The  other is to educate the public
about the  current issues that confront
 "Except  for its executive director,
Carol Tracy, and her staff of five, the
Center depends upon  volunteer help
to keep going.  My enthusiasm is
shared by  some 20 other women from
EPA's Region  III office, who will be
serving as information and  reception
aides  and  doing whatever else is nec-
essary. "
 "This Center  has widespread support
from  Philadelphians.  There  are over
50 women's organizations participating
and  we are  a mixed and  diverse
group—whites  and  people  of  color,
housewives, blue  and white  collar
workers. We are located  in the  Penn-
walt Building,  3rd and Parkway, near
other Bicentennial buildings and about
ten minutes by public transportation
from  Independence Square.  I urge all
EPA staff who may be coming to
Philadelphia this year to visit us."
           Charles Hajinian, Director of Manage-
           ment, Region VII,  Kansas  City,  Mo.
            "My  wife and I have been very
           active in the Johnson County (Kansas)
           Bicentennial Festival Committee.  The
           Committee  staged a patriotic musical
           revue, 'Long  May  It Wave' that  was
           professionally  directed but locally
           cast. It was a success—it ran for three
           nights and made money."
            "The Committee also published a
           commemorative book  that highlighted
           the history of Johnson County through
           paintings  and  photographs. It sold welf
           all over the County; soft-covered  cop-
           ies sold for $1, hard-backed  for  $10,
           and  one  copy, autographed by Presi-
           dent  Ford  was  sold at auction for
           Vi Masco, Administrative Clerk,  Sys-
           tems Analysis  Staff, Environmental
           Monitoring  and Support Laboratory,
           Las  Vegas,  Nev.
            "I  am co-chairman of Lutheran Arts,
           Etc., an  organization that  staged a
           musical extravaganza, 'I Love Amer-
           ica,' in celebration of the Bicentennial.
           Basically, Arts, Etc.  is  six  Lutheran
           churches, but the  group has broad-
           ened out into being a truly interden-
           omination activity. Whole families par-
           ticipated—perhaps  proving  that there
           isn't a generation gap after all.
            " 'I Love  America' played at the Las
           Vegas Convention Center on  April 20
           and  21 and  was a sell-out. It  was
           repeated  May 1  for a National Con-
           vention of  Lutheran Women, and on
           that occasion it was given an award
           by the Las Vegas  Bicentennial Com-
           mittee. "
                       Robert Hagen, Chief, Energy Program
                       Branch,  Region  VIII,  Denver, Colo.
                        "Early this spring,  my family and  I
                       toured some of the major historic
                       places being celebrated this Bicenten-
                       nial Year. We flew into the  District of
                       Columbia, immediately rented  a  car,
                       and drove to Williamsburg,  Va. After
                       viewing the  colonial restorations there,
                       we  leisurely visited  Monticello,  Mt.
                       Vernon, and Washington. Then it was
                       on to Gettysburg,  Philadelphia, Plym-
                       outh,  Mass., and  Boston—where  we
                       turned in the car and flew home.
                        "It was a  good and worthwhile tour
                       and it exposed my young children to
                       the shape of American  history."

                       Dr. David Otto, Research  Psycholo-
                       gist, Clinical Studies  Division, Health
                       Effects  Research Laboratory,  Re-
                       search Triangle Park, N.C.
                        "I am  the  chairman of the  Orange
                       County  Bicentennial Bikeway Task
                       Force  which is set up under  the
                       Horizons Committee of the  Chapel
                       Hill Bicentennial Commission.  We  are
                       designing a  bikeway  system that  will
                       connect  the historic  towns  of Chapel
                       Hill,  Carrboro,  and Hillsborough,
                       once  the colonial capital  of  North
                        "The Bikeway will  serve a variety of
                       purposes. There will be commuter
                       routes for  cyclists  to schools,  the
                       university,  parks, shopping centers
                       and residential areas. Some  routes will
                       be along existing roads, others will be
                       new  greenway  trails along  the small
                       streams  and creeks  that literally  lace
                       this part of the State."
     Mary Sarno

Charles Hajinian
Vi Masco
Robert Hagen
Dr. David Otto

                           news "briefs

         Drilling for oil  and  gas on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts
         should be done much more carefully than in the Gulf of  Mexico,
         Associate Administrator Fitzhugh Green told an environmental
         group at Newport, R.  I., recently.  Methods developed for
         the Gulf 20 years ago are inadequate for the "environmentally
         fragile" areas of the East Coast, Alaska, and southern
         California, he said.


         Interim cancer assessment procedures have been adopted  by  EPA
         for guidance in researching regulatory decisions where  cancer
         risk is a key factor. The procedures implement a decision of
         October 10, 1975, that rigorous assessments of health risk
         and economic impact will be undertaken as part of the regulatory

         The Interior Department's new regulations for coal leasing  on
         Federal lands have been endorsed by Administrator Russell
         Train.  The new rules, he said, "will require restoration of
         strip-mined land to pre-mining conditions, or to conditions
         suitable for improved uses."  He said the performance  standards
         and the provisions for public participation throughout the
         leasing process constitute  "a significant environmental


         The public will soon be asked for ideas and comments on ways
         to deal with the problem caused by contamination of drinking
         water supplies by organic chemicals.  A document to be widely
         distributed by EPA will describe the problem, present  a series
         of alternative regulatory approaches, and solicit additional
         data and public comment.
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                                   This is an artist's concept of the Bicentennial Exposition of Science and Technology at
                                   the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where a major F,PA exhibit  has just opened.
  A $250,000 EPA exhibit on the role
of science and technology in achieving
a cleaner, more healthful environment
opened last month  as part of the
Bicentennial Exposition on Science
and  Technology at  the  Kennedy
Space Center, Cape Canaveral,  Fla.
  The EPA display is housed in one of
15 geodesic domes  erected at the
center near  one of the world's  largest
structures,  the Vehicle  Assembly
Building, where the  Saturn rockets
were prepared to send men to the
  The other  domes contain exhibits
sponsored by Federal  agencies and
private industry.  An  estimated two
million people are expected to  attend
the exposition which will remain open
through Labor Day.
  Speaking of the purpose of the expo-
sition. President Ford  said, "We will
show America what we've done and
what we are going to do with our
funds, the ingenuity of our scientists.
and the drive and foresight of our
private sector."
 The introductory area of the EPA
pavilion emphasizes the Nation's rich
legacy of natural resources and tech-
nological accomplishment. It also rec-
ognizes that careless use of technology
and wasteful use of resources have
contributed  to  the deterioration of
those  elements most  basic to our
existence—the air, land, and water.
 The second exhibit area deals with
the capabilities of science and technol-
ogy to identify  environmental  prob-
lems. Included in this portion of the
pavilion are  a demonstration of some
of the newest techniques  for measur-
ing  air pollution and its  effects on
human health,  research techniques
used in identifying toxic  and cancer-
causing chemicals in the environment.
and a report on EPA's National Eu-
trophication  Survey, a study of the
effect  of pollutants on the Nation's
fresh-water lakes.
 The third section of the exhibit  ex-
amines  the degree to which science
and technology may contribute to  the
solution of various environmental
problems. Several displays illustrate
resource recovery.
  The summary  area  of the pavilion
will contain a slide show which em-
phasizes the need for continued public
concern for maintaining environmental
quality to assure  that the science and
technology of the next  100 years will
contribute to a cleaner, more healthful
 All of the exhibits will be relocated
later at various EPA facilities.
 Visitors wilt also be able to tour the
space  center as  part of their  visit.
Huge rockets will be on display in  the
Vehicle  Assembly Building.  Visitors
will also  be able to visit the firing
rooms  where  the countdowns  for
rockets  being sent into space will be
reenacted. D