Consumers  and
the Environment
                                               Pedestrians at a busy doivntoivn
                                               thoroughfare. Polls consistently shoiv n
                                               high degree of public concern about
                                               environmental problems. Part of EPA's
                                               job is to make sure the public has (he
                                               information to make responsible
                                               environmental decisions.
    Once viewed largely as
    conservation of natural
resources, environmental
protection has become a
"people" issue as well,
concerned with human
health and well being.
Reflecting the people-
orieuted dimension in
EPA's work, this issue of
EPA /otinici/ provides
information of potential use
to consumers in their
everyday lives.
  In an interview, Jennifer
Joy Wilson answers questions
about EPA and consumers.
Wilson is EPA's Assistant
Administrator for External
Affairs. A Consumers' Hill of
Rights is explained by
Virginia II. Knauer,  the
President's Special Adviser
for Consumer Affairs.
  Guidance for the consumer
is provided in a series of
articles. Leading off, the first
article explains how to
reduce lead in drinking
water, and discusses EPA
actions to deal with it in air
and gasoline. Other articles
provide consumer
information on radon testing;
managing household
hazardous wastes; incentives
for recycling; using pesticides
more safely around the home?;
warranties for
environ mentally-safe
automobiles; and  EPA
hotlines, as  well as the latest
techniques for controlling
that ubiquitous pest, the
cockroach. Another article
reviews the pros and cons of
options to restrict gasoline
fumes during vehicle
refueling, a matter affecting
almost all consumers. And a
piece on Cleveland's
Cuyahoga River illustrates
the "people" benefits of
environmental cleanup.
  On another subject, the
Journal reports on actions by
American Indians to protect
environmental quality at
reservations around the
country and explains EPA's
policy to support such steps.
  The magazine concludes
with two regular
features—Update and
Appointments. D

                                United States
                                Environmental Protection
                                Office of
                                Public Affairs (A-107)
                                Washington DC 20460
Volume 13
Number 3
April 1987
                           x>EPA  JOURNAL
                                Lee M. Thomas, Administrator
                                Jennifer Joy Wilson, Assistant Administrator for External Affairs
                                Linda Wilson Reed, Director. Office of Public Affairs

                                John  Heritage, Editor
                                Susan Tejada, Associate Editor
                                Jack Lewis, Assistant Editor
                                Margherita Pryor, Contributing Editor
EPA is charged by Congress to
protect the nation's land. air. and
water systems. Under a mandate of
national  environmental laws, the
agency strives to formulate and
implement actions which lead to a
compatible balance between
human activities and  the ability nl
natural systems to support and
nurture life.
  The EPA ftiurntil is published by
the U.S.  Environmental Protection
Agency.  The Administrator ul KI'A
has determined that the
publication of this periodical is
necessary in the  transaction of the
public business required  by law ot
this agency. Use of funds for
printing  this periodical has been
approved by the Director of the
Office of Management and Budget.
Views expressed by authors do not
necessarily reflect KI'A policy.
Contributions  and inquiries should
IK: addressed to the Editor (A-107),
Waterside Mall. 401 M St.. S.W..
Washington, DC 204GO. Xo
permission necessary to reproduce
contents except copyrighted photos
and other materials.
The EPA Role
An Interview with
Jennifer Joy Wilson 2
A Consumers'
Bill of Rights
by Virginia H. Knauer 5
Dealing with
the Dangers
of Lead
by Joel Schwartz
and Ronnie Levin (>
Buyer Beware:
Evaluating Radon
by Miles Kahn 9
Managing Household
Hazardous Wastes
by Marcia Williams
and Dana Duxbury 1 1

A Situation Report
by Anne Scheinberg
and Trisha Ferrand 14
Safer Use of
at Home
by Christine Gillis 15
Did You Know?
Warranties Available for
Good Car Maintenance
by Karl Hellman 17
Information, Please!
EPA's Hotlines
by Carol Panasewich 11)
One Way to Fight
the Cockroach
bv William E.
(Hill) Currie 22
Gasoline Vapor Controls:
Pros and Cons
by Richard D. Wilson 23
"People" Benefits
from a Cleaner
by Paul Svedersky 2ti
Indians Act
for a Cleaner
by Roy Popkin 2H
Update :t2
Appointments 32

                                Front Cover: Going shopping.
                                Photo bv Dick Luria for rojio, Inc.
                               Design Credits:
                               Donna WasyJJdwskyj
                               Ron Famih;
                               Jim Ingniin.
The annual rate for subscribers in
the U.S. for the EPA journal is
$11.00. The charge to subscribers
in foreign countries is $13.75 a
year. The price of a single copy of
the EPA journal is Si.75 in this
country and $2.19 if sent  to a
foreign country. Prices include!
mail  costs. Subscriptions  to the
EPA  Journal as well as to other
federal government maga/.ines are
handled only by the U.S.
Government Printing Office.
Anyone wishing to subscribe to the
EPA  Journal should till in (he form
at right and enclose a check or
money order payable to the
Superintendent of Documents. The
requests should be mailed to:
Superintendent of Documents,
GPO. Washington, DC 20402.
                                EPA Journal Subscriptions
 Name - First, Last
                                                PLEASE PRINT
 Company Name or Additional Address Line
 Street Address

|	I    Payment enclosed (Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents)

I  I   Charge to my Deposit Account No	

The  EPA  Role
An  Interview with
Jennifer Joy Wilson
What is h'PA's role regarding consumers
and their concerns? 1/oiv does l-'PA
provide in/ormation of use lo
consumers? What responsibilities do
consumers  have to help ensure o clean,
safe environment7 To get the answers to
questions sudi as these, the KPA
Journal interviewed Jennifer Joy Wilson,
the Agency's Assistant  Administrator
for External Affairs. Tin; intervieiv
Jennifer Joy U'ilson
v_J  Most people see liPA's primary
mission us protecting the environment.
How did the Agency become so
identified with consumers?

/ V  Although the emphasis varies
somewhat among the several  laws KI'A
is  responsible for, for the most  part the
Agency's primary mission has always
been to protect human health, tinder
the r.leun Air Act, for example, the
primary air quality standards are set  to
protect health; the secondary standards
are to protect welfare. In a very broad
sense, anybody who breathes the air and
drinks the water is  a consumer ul those
resources. So it's our job to make sure:
those resources are both saved—in the
sense of preserved for the future—and
safe. In those terms, you could say that
all the laws we implement benefit the
  When we protect wetlands, for
example, we. also protect water quality,
help control floods, and filter and break
down pollutants. That's in addition to
providing habitat for fish and wildlife.

[)  Could you cite examples of some
actions specifically directed at

/\  I guess the example that  springs to
mind first is our pesticides program.  Wo
register them for use, which means that
we evaluate  them for all sorts  of
potential adverse effects on human
health before they are permitted to he
sold or used. We also ensure that they
are labeled properly. I think this is
particularly  helpful to, say, the? average;
homeowner  going out to buy weed
killers or bug sprays. Pesticides are
among the most toxic substances people
will ever come in contact with in their
everyday lives, and it's important that
we make that contact as safe as possible.

   Other examples:  EPA's drinking water
regulations protect the quality of your
tap water, and right now we're taking
special action against the problem oi
lead in drinking water. Alerting the
public: to the dangers of radon in homes
and  reducing the amount of lead in
gasoline are other actions we've taken
that specifically affect the consumer.

2      You're the  Assistant
   ministrator for External Affairs.
What role does that office play in
serving the consumer?

/\   Well, we've got a  practical side
and a more abstract side. On the:
"how-to" side, we  provide practical
advice on problems that really hit home,
such as radon, asbestos, lead,  and
   More indirectly,  the public has a
vested interest in what we do. We raise;
public awareness about various issues,
and we are trying harder to show people
how they can participate in our
   We produce publications, slide
shows, films, videos, public service
announcements, etc. Right now, for
example, we're finishing a training
video that will be distributed to our
regional offices and be available to the
general public. Developed primarily for
contractors, inspectors, and state and
local officials, it explains how to test for
and abate radon pollution. It's a simple
way to reach thousands of people who
need to get some technical information.
  Basically, we're the communications
conduit for the Agency. Our public, by
the way,  includes not only the general
public, but also Congress and various
other constituencies. We work with
environmental groups, industry, labor,
and community organizations, as well
as with other government agencies at all
levels. So I think we have a pretty  good
handle on a very broad and
representative range of concerns.

\)  Do you think consumers are
generally aware of the ways in which
EPA can  help them? Do they take
advantage of Agency expertise?

IV  Let  me say that 1 think EPA is
among the most famous, maybe
infamous, agencies in the federal
government. That's because we deal
with so many issues right in people's
backyards. By and large, however,  I
think  the American public does
understand EPA's overall mission.
  Hut does that translate into an
awareness of our specific programs? In
some cases, yes. For example, the
publicity about radon last fall triggered
in one month alone over 11,000 citizen
inquiries to EPA's Public Information
Center. So when  we've made a
particular effort to communicate an
issue, we have gotten very good results.
  But I think there are a lot of other-
places where we need to do better. Our
actions affect people absolutely on a
direct basis. We promulgate somewhere
between  200 and 300 regulations a year,
almost all of which are published in  the
Federal Hegister. Well, the average
citizen does not read the Federal
Register.  We have a real  challenge  on
our hands to make sure that we actually
get the information out  in a way that is
understandable by someone whose life's
work is not environmental protection.
  For example, we run some 20 hotlines
that offer assistance on everything  from
hazardous wastes to asbestos to small
business  compliance. But how many
people know about them? Making those
hotlines better known to the public
would be; a tremendous step in the right
                                                                                                       EPA JOURNAL

      What else do you feel the Agency
could do to make EPA's expertise more
generally available?
i\  Of course, our funds are not
limitless, so it's always a problem  to
decide where  our priorities should be.
We're trying more public service
announcements on  radio and TV, and
we're also making sure that when  issues
come up, our  officials  and experts are
available for interviews, talk shows, that
sort of thing.
  Another thing we'd  like to  do more is
to use various organizations to help
spread our information to their members
and constituencies. Civic groups.
environmental groups, business ami
labor organizations — these can  be
immensely helpful  in passing on
information to and  through their local
American life — you don't use any
manufactured  products or treated water
or buy agricultural products, for
example — you are a user and consumer.
We all are. We all share that
     One topic that has started to
percolate into public debate is the issue
of the costs of environmental
protection, for example, in higher water
and sewer bills. In your view, how far
should consumers share in these costs?

/v.  Well, 1 certainly think that  users
and consumers of the environment have
a responsibility to  pay for protecting
and cleaning it up. And unless you're
completely out of the  mainstream of
     But as far as consumers as a
specific group — as opposed, say. to
manufacturers — do you think they're
benefiting more from EPA's efforts than
they are paying for? Not only in dollars
but in terms of adjusted lifestyles and
so on?

/V  That's a hard one. Take the issue
of the ozone standard.  We have some 70
major metropolitan areas in the country
that are not going to attain  that  standard
by the deadline at the end of this year.
Some states and cities  maybe, just
maybe, could meet the standard by
taking measures such as imposing
odd/even driving  days, taxing second
vehicles at high enough rates to
discourage their purchase, or relocating
ozone-producing industries out  of the
non-attainment area.
  Taking away industries could have
major economic repercussions.
especially in terms of jobs.  And many
driving restrictions enrage and
inconvenience a lot of  Americans. On
top of that, we anticipate that even with
the most draconian measures, more than
20 of the non-attainment areas will
.Assnfrmzue fs/diid .Vud'oiui/ Srus/inn'. ci
ivt'tliinds area (jlo)ig the .Maryland
Virginm cons! popular ivttl) amoeists
and fm-divri/rhfTS. HcjiHiN oj irrfjonds
protection  include improved recrwition
     '."tumlics us urll (is improved ;vufrr
quality und flood control.

simply not be able to meet the standard
In- the end of 1987.
  Where do you allocate the costs in
this issue? We all will benefit by getting
rid of the ozone, no question, but how
do you decide how to pay  tor it?
Congress, EPA, the states, local
governments — they're all grappling with
  A problem like lead in drinking
water, on the other hand, does belong
more appropriately to the individual
consumer. If the city  is providing safe.
clean water through  safe pipes, and the
lead is coming from  my solder, my lead
pipes, then I feel  it's  my problem.
  When we require a power plant to
install a scrubber,  or when we take lead
out of gasoline, you can argue that the
consumer is paying the bill through an
increase in his electric bill or an
increase in the price of gasoline. Hut the
costs, when measured against the
benefits, are insignificant, and according
to the  polls I've seen, the American
public: is more than willing to share
them.  Further, when  you consider that
the gasoline buyer, or consumer, is not
only benefiting himself when he pays for
unleaded gasoline, hut is helping to
prevent lead poisoning in children, the
bargain becomes irresistible.
     What about less specific benefits
that come to the public as a result of
EPA's efforts — the recreational
opportunities from protecting wetlands,
for example. What's EPA's role in
highlighting these?

l\  Well, we walk a fairly delicate line
there. Let me take  the Chesapeake Hay.
for example. One reason the Chesapeake
Bay, which includes wetlands areas,
enjoys so much attention is because the
people around it can physically
experience the benefits it brings,
recreational and  aesthetic as well as
economic and ecological. So even
though the Chesapeake Bay program
involves  about 17 different federal
agencies  and  departments, three states
and the District of Columbia, and
dozens of local communities and citizen
groups, the final objective has always
been clear and unanimous — to clean up
and save the Bay. EPA didn't have to
APRIL 1987

convince anyone that (ho Bay was a
valuable resource.
  Now that situation is very rani. Kvcn
with the Bay program, then: wore and
are serious conflicts about proper uses
and measures to be taken. Normally, tin;
potential benefits vary with the eyes of
the beholders, be they developers or
  KPA has to lie very careful not to  use
its inlormation  and education resources
in a way that enlists  support for
particular appropriations or
authorizations.  It's not our job to
persuade Americans  to support our
stance on  particular issues.
  We need to be very clear about the
benefits that  we think will result from
our decisions, but  we can't got
emotional about them. We can point to
the benefits, but we can't  persuade.

V£  The  polls consistently show that
the public is highly concerned about
environmental  problems,  but has this
translated into individual

/\  No. 1 don't think we're there yet.
We're much more  sensitive to
environmental  issues than we wore
when HI 'A was established, and that's
good, but  I believe most of us still think
of the polluters as  "them." Well, to
quote Pogo's famous  phrase, "We have
met the enemy  and he is us." To a
distressing degree, some people tamper
with their catalytic converters, use
loaded fuel improperly,  pour used
motor oil  clown slorm sewers  and
don't  think they are harming the
  Where the concept of  individual
responsibility runs into trouble is when
tin; economic cost  of voluntarily doing
the responsible thing seems too high.
Take a situation whore someone has to
drive  li() miles and wait in line  for two
hours to dispose conscientiously of
household hazardous waste. It's going to
be hard to gel people to go through  that
time and trouble,
  So part  of our responsibility is to
make  sure thai  people have the
information to make  proper decisions;
the oilier part is to make sun; that we
put in  place or  encourage
"user-friendly"  systems so that people
can carry out those decisions.
/\  That's absolutely a major issue. We
have not yet developed a system that
balances the benefits to society of
disposing of ha/.ardous wastes properly
with the perceived risks to individuals
of being near disposal sites. Chris
Daggett, our Region 2 Administrator.
coined an interesting phrase for this. He
calls it environmental gridlock.
Generally, we want to dispose of
hazardous wastes properly, we realize
that as consumers we all  contributed to
the creation of those wastes, and yet we
can't bring ourselves to allow a disposal
site anywhere near us. We come  up
with hundreds of perfectly plausible
reasons, but the bottom line is always
the same — anywhere but  here.
  This is very understandable. We've
always had a throwaway  mentality in
this country,  so the idea that we're
running out of "aways" is hard for a lot
of us to grasp. But we have to  accept
that a highly  regulated incinerator is a
better risk than an old landfill or
improper disposal facility.
     What about collective
responsibility as opposed to individual
responsibility — the problems in siting
hazardous waste disposal facilities, lor
     But is the public at a point where
it can balance risk, prioritize it?

/\  I think that low risks are very
difficult for the public to make sense of.
It's relatively easy for us to
communicate high risks or immediate
hazards. If you're talking about an
immediate health ha/.ard from
contaminated well water, you're going
to get an immediate response.  Someone
who knows he's going to get hepatitis
from the water is going to stop drinking
  What  about some contaminant  found
in parts per quadrillion  in a drinking
water source, though? That may be
below a drinking water standard, but
some people will be upset that you're
not taking action. There are a lot of
people who believe that involuntary risk
is simply not to be borne. Voluntary
risks — getting in our cars and driving
where and as we want — we can accept.
But justifying an involuntary exposure
to a substance (hat could possibly have
a negative impact over a  lifetime is
much more difficult.
  But everything about environmental
protection is much more difficult today.
The easy problems have already been
tackled, Prevention  and  cleanup are
much more expensive; the decisions are
much more difficult; explaining the
benefits of our decisions is much
tougher. That's another. impetus for us
to involve the public more extensively
in our decision-making process: So they
can see  that we're not locked  in an ivory
 tower; so we can say. "Look. Here's
 what our science tells us the benefits
 are going to be. here's what our analysts
 tell us the costs are, these are the
 potential risks, this is what we propose
 to do. What's your input?"

 v^/   You mentioned earlier the need
 for EPA to get its message across. Do
 you think the public, the consumer,
 understands and supports what EPA is
 trying to do?

 /\   Consumers certainly do when they
 want EPA to take some sort of action for
 them. Communities who find
 themselves with an abandoned
 hazardous waste site  in their midst
 certainly support EPA as a useful
  EPA's regulations are pervasive; they
 are truly pervasive. I can't think of any
 area of the country, or any individuals
 in the country, who aren't affected
 directly or indirectly by this Agency. I'd
 say we have a very large recognition
 factor, but you know, that can work
 both ways. We can be villains as well as
 heroes.  Polls show the majority of
 people see EPA in a positive light, but
 it's not a huge majority. Maybe (50
 percent.  We're a little better in the
 public perception than the IRS, but not
 a lot.
  My feeling is that we've got
 credibility as a regulatory agency. But
 that doesti't mean we're liked.
 Especially when we swoop into a
 community and say, "No. you can't
 build on this wetland, no matter what
 you want to build and no matter that it
 could provide 600 jobs." That's one
 group of consumers that won't look on
 us positively.
     So what would you like to
accomplish with those consumers as
head of the Office of External Affairs?
What are your goals?

/\  As I stated during my Senate
confirmation hearing,  my primary goal
is to increase public: involvement  in
EPA's decision-making.
  I'm tremendously pleased to be  part
of a management team that practices the
"fishbowl" policy.  That means that
we're opening our  doors and our minds
to those who may not agree with us, but
who may have insights and  perceptions
that will  help us make better decisions.
  We spend a great deal of time
debating — often through the court
system- the tightness or wrongness of
                                                                                                         EPA JOURNAL

 our decisions. We probably won't ever
 escape that, because our actions have
 such a tremendous impact on people's
 lives, on the environment, on the
 economy, on industry. E3ut I think that
 we will spend less time defending our
 decisions if we've really had
 representative input.
   In fact, at a recent management
 retreat, the senior managers themselves
 identified communication and
 consultation as among the most
 important elements in achieving our
 environmental mission.
   I'd like to see us get beyond
 notification only, and let people know
 what's going on before a decision
 becomes a I'd it accompli. I think that's a
 realistic goal. We've already seen some
 progress. The underground storage tank
 program, for instance, has an exemplary
 communications strategy that considers
 whom the regulations will affect and
 how to draw them into the regulation
 development process. That gives us a
 great foundation even as the regulations
 are being proposed. The formal public
 comment periods give us even broader
    When the regulation is finally
  promulgated, that preconsultation will
  make it possible for us to notify all the
  interested parties and target relevant
  information to them. The more
  consultation we have up front, the less
  litigation and challenge we'll have after.
    We've got tremendously complex
  programs, driven by  a lot of deadlines.
  But we need to do more, ami we can  do
  more, to develop broader and better
  public participation in our  major
  decisions. D
  A  Consumers'

  Bill  of  Rights

  by Virginia H. Knauer

      The American marketplace wears a
      vastly different face today than the
  one it wore 200 years ago. When the
  U.S. Constitution was created, the
  Founding Fathers could never have
  imagined the many forces at work  in
  today's world market. Consumers and
  businesses now face an incredible
  assortment of products  and services,
  rights and responsibilities. And it is an
  increasingly complex and global
  assortment. Yet it is the Constitution.
  for all its contrasting simplicity, which
  forms the framework of our modern
    Today's marketplace  is complex and
  varied, at least in part,  because
  consumer demands are complex and
  varied. Few consumers settle for just a
  cleaning solvent anymore. Some want
  an effective cleaning solvent at a
  reasonable price, in a child-proof
  container, that won't damage their home
  surfaces, and that is made by a company
  that donates to charity, and uses safe
  waste disposal methods. And they want
  a refund if it doesn't work the way  it's
  supposed to.
    These criteria can often represent the
  design and objectives of a corporate
  development and marketing plan, too.
  How did we get from the Constitutional
  framework to the modern marketplace?
  First let'.s look at the marketplace
  guidelines set forth in  the Constitution.

   (Mrs. Kmiuer is Spe.cidl Adviser to l/ie
   J'n.'sidi.'nl fur Consumer Aljuirs.
   Director, ['.S. Office of Consumer
  The United States Constitution
established our free enterprise system.
gave us a common  currency, standard
weights and measures, reliable legal
procedures, and a framework for
interstate and international trade. It
provided incentives for invention
through trademarks and patents. And it
paved the way for a national postal
system. Every one of these provisions is
still working 200 years later.
  This year, consumers focused on
these important provisions during
National Consumers Week, proclaimed
by President Reagan and celebrated
from April 19 through April 25. The
theme this year was "Consumers
Celebrate the Constitution," and many
businesses, educators, and media and
government officials marked the week
with events and activities noting the
important role of consumers in our
economic system.
  Now let's look at how the consumer's
role has changed since the creation of
the Constitution. Most importantly,
consumers today arc lar more aware ot
the rights and responsibilities they have
in their purchasing decisions, rights that
were not  so clearly defined in  the
1950s, let alone the 1700s. In fact.
consumers have what has become
known as a "Consumers' Bill of Rights."
  Included in the Consumers'  Hill of
Rights are the right to CHOICE among
products  and services, the right to
INFORMATION so we can make
intelligent choices, the right to expect
SAFETY  in the things we purchase, the
right TO  BE HEARD when we have a
question  or complaint, and the right to
process. President Reagan and each of
his five predecessors have endorsed
these rights.
  The consumers' responsibility, on the
other hand, is to exercise these rights in
order to  mold the marketplace to meet
their needs. Thus, when consumers
demand a safer, cleaner environment.
cheaper airfare, or a more powerful
computer, businesses will respond In-
competing to meet  that demand. Let's
take an example.
  In the mid-1970s, when the National
Academy of Sciences found a link
between chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
used in some aerosols and damage to
Earth's protective o/ono layer, many
consumers became concerned, S.C.
Johnson and Son. Inc..  then stopped
using CFCs in its aerosols. Johnson
challenged other companies to follow its
lead, but gained an edge over
competitors in being first to meet a
growing consumer environmental
concern. Two years  later, when the  EPA
banned them in most aerosols. CFC
propellents hail already dropped from
nearly half of the total aerosol market to
less than five percent.
  Consumers exercised several ui their
rights in this example. They exercised
their right to choice by  deciding not  to
purchase an aerosol that used CFC
propellants. The right to information
was satisfied by the National Academy
of Sciences report as well as by media
coverage of its findings. And tiie right to
safety was represented by consumers
who used  their marketplace dollars  to
reward companies whose products wore
safe to the o/.one layer.
  This market  model has been so
successful in other consumer areas lh.it
it may well be the appropriate one for
implementing any marketplace changes
on which a majority consensus can he
  In today's vast marketplace,
consumers and businesses are learning
they do not have to be adversaries.
Rather, they are learning from each
other, and continuously working
together toward a better, more
responsive marketplace. o
APRIL 1987

Dealing  with
the  Dangers  of  Lead
by Joel Schwartz
and Ronnie Levin
it  A II right, lead is bad for me, and
  ilJ've hoard that many people have
high load levels in their homes. What
should I do about it?" This is a question
that more and more people are
asking  along with, "What is EPA going
to do  about it?"
  To determine  what you, the
consumer, should do about the potential
risk from high lead exposure in your
drinking water,  you need to know what
those  risks might be.  Lead gets into
drinking water from two major sources:
lead pipes, usually connecting the main
water pipe to homes, and the lead
solder used to connect copper pipes
inside homes. Lead contamination can
result from (he corrosive action of \vater
upon  the materials in the plumbing
  If your plumbing system has any lead
in it (pipes or solder or anything else)
the water can have lead in  it. All water
is corrosive to some  degree, but some
water is more corrosive. Typically, soft
water, acidic water, and water with low
calcium levels are the most corrosive
(these categories overlap, but are not
identical). The longer the water stays in
contact with the plumbing, the higher
its lead concentrations will become. So
first you need to find out which if any
of these risk factors you face.
  Almost everyone today has copper
pipes with lead  solder, so that risk
factor is common, and it is the newest
solder that contributes the highest lead
levels. After about five years, however, a
protective layer  of calcium carbonate
usually builds up on  the inside of
copper pipes, reducing the problem of
lead corrosion. Very new housing (built
within the past  five years and especially
(Srluvorf/ is a Ijcnrfil ivniiomisl in
KJ'.A's Oflirr of I'o/icy Anulvsis. inid
J.rvin is 
     Lead and  Your  Health
     How bad is lead for you? Recent
     research has shown Innnful effects
     of lead at  much lower levels
     of exposure than previously
     thought. Indeed, some sulitlr
     biochemical and enxymatic
     changes, and  possibly some other
     health consequences, have been
     shown at levels as hnv as we can
     measure them.
       Blood lead  levels as low as 15
     ug/dl (micrograms  of lead per
     deciliter—or  100 cubic
     centimeters—of blood), which was
     the average blood lead level for
     pre-school children in the late
     1970s, have been shown to result
     in reduced IQ, and poorer mental
development has been detected at
even lower lead levels in
prenatally exposed infants.
  Lead has also been linked to
slower growth in children, to
lower birth weights of infants, to
minor hearing impairment, and to
reduced levels of vitamin I), all at
exposure levels that are about half
of the current definition of lead
toxicity. In adults,  high levels of
lead can cause kidney disease, and
even minor lead exposure appears
to increase blood pressure.
  EPA  has set a maximum
acceptable blood lead level of 15
ug/dl as a  goal for all of its
environmental protection efforts.
                                                                                If your plumbing contains lend, your
                                                                                u'ufrr muv conlm'n Irad also
• It is also a good idea to let the water
run a bit before drinking from fountains
and taps at work and in school.  This
water sits unused overnight for even
more hours than household water, and
can have much higher lead  levels.

  If you do have your water tested, and
it is above the detection limit, but below
the proposed EPA goal of 20 parts per
billion (ppb) it is still a good idea  to use
the above procedures, Your test  results
may be in micrograms per liter (ug 1) or
thousandths of a milligram  per liter
(.001  mg I), both measures equal to parts
per billion.
  If your test results were above 20 ppb,
20 ug/1, or .02 mg/l, talk to the water
utility about instituting corrosion
control treatment. Meanwhile you need
to act immediately to reduce your  own
  Boston, which had very high load
levels because of corrosive water and
lots of old lead pipes (as well as new
and old solder], substantially reduced
the lead levels in everyone's drinking
water by adopting corrosion control
measures that cost only about 50 cents
per person per year. Other cities have
had similar experiences. Such measures
cost you  even less than using bottled
water, and save water companies money
by slowing down the rate of leaks and
breaks in their pipes caused by
corrosion. Also, loss corrosive water
results in longer life for your hot water
heater and water pipes  in your  house.
This benefit usually far exceeds  the cost
of corrosion controls.
  It it was only your first  draw [or first
flush) sample that was high, and the test
on water run for perhaps for two to
three  minutes was acceptable, then
running your water for that amount of
time before using it will lower your
exposure until your  water is made less
                                                                               (Continued on next
APRIL 1987

EPA's Approach
EPA has proposed lowering the
health-based, nonenforceable goal for
lead in drinking water to 20 parts per
billion. The current enforceable
standard is 50 parts per billion, which
was sot by the U.S. Public  Health
Service in 1962 and accepted by EPA in
1974. By mid-1988, EPA expects to have
in final form  revised versions of both
the lead goal  and the lead standard.
  Consumers should be aware that the
technical name for a drinking water goal
is "Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
(MCLG)." A  standard is called a
"Maximum Contaminant Level (MCI.]."
The major risk factors arc old,
or vary new housing, corrosive
water, and the length of time
the water sits in the pipes be-
fore you drink  it.
  Under the Safe Drinking Water Ar.t,
water utilities are responsible for
ensuring that the lead levels at
consumers' taps—-not just at the water
treatment plant  -meet the current
enforceable standard of 50 ppb. That is
why they are responsible for corrosion
control measures to help prevent
contamination  of the water after it
leaves the plant.
  EPA is working with  the water
utilities to educate them about  the
problem, and to encourage them to
begin corrosion control  efforts even
before the Agency's final revised
standard  for lead becomes enforceable.
EPA is working with  the states to
implement the Safe Drinking Water
Act's ban on the use of materials
containing lead in public water supplies
and  in residences connected to them. As
these measures take effect, everyone's
risk  will  be reduced. -
Other  Lead  Problems
While high levels of lead have
long been known to cause mental
retardation and death (articles
were published about these effects
in the middle 1800s), recent
research has shown that significant
adverse effects also occur at low
blood lead levels.
  EPA has taken steps to reduce
the pollution of our environment
by lead from many sources. EPA's
phaseout of  lead in gasoline has
almost eliminated what was the
major source of lead in  the
environment (over 170,000 tons
per year were emitted in the
1970s). This has reduced average
blood lead levels by about half
since the mid-1970s. EPA also
controls emissions from  lead
smelter and  battery plants.
  Now that air levels of lead have
been reduced, the next largest
controllable  source of lead
exposure is drinking water. EPA
has proposed reducing the
nonenforceable goal for lead in
drinking water to 20 parts per
billion (ppb). The current
enforceable standard is 50 ppb. By
mid-1988, EPA expects to have in
final form both a revised lead goal
and a revised lead standard.
  The major remaining sources of
high lead exposure are lead paint
and high levels of lead in soils that
were contaminated by exterior lead
paint or by gasoline fallout. EPA is
investigating what to do about
lead-contaminated soils, but it has
no authority over the use of lead
paint,  (The Consumer Products
Safety Commission banned use of
lead-based  paints in housing in the
1970s.) Most housing built before
1960 contains some lead paint,
and residents should be careful
about their children's exposure to
lead in household dust. If you live;
in an older house, you should
certainly have your child's blood
lead level tested.
Editor's Note: Consumers worried about
(lie problem of Jead-contomJnated
drinking wafer will be interested in
rending a pamphlet KPA expects to
publish a( (he tnid of Muv: "Lend in
Drinking Water: Should Von Be
Concerned?" For your free copy, write
to h'PA's Public Informafion (-'enter,
Mail Code PM 21 IB. 401 M Street SW,
Washington, /J.C. 204HO.
                                                                                                       EPA JOURNAL

                                .  ~c,-

Buyer Beware:
Radon  Tests
by Miles Kahn
    As pe;ople have bee:ome inure; aware
    of radon and its possible long-term
health effects, opportunists have sought
to cash in on public: anxieties. EPA
regional offices and state radiation
program officers around the country have
received numerous reports of radon
measurement scams. Consequently,
EPA's Radon Action  Program, working
primarily through status,  has begun a
major education campaign not only to
explain and put into perspective the
potential hazards of indoor radon, an
odorless, colorless, tasteless natural
phenomenon, but also to educate the
public regarding radon measurement
and mitigation.
(Kahn is a public affairs specialist in
(he KPA Office <>! Hmfmtion Programs.]
  Because indoor radon occurs naturally
and its concentration depends on
unique conditions existing at Individual
residences, federal regulation does not
appear to be the most effective solution.
It's therefore up to individual
homeowners to select a company to
perform radon measurements and to
decide whether and how to act on the;
results. Fortunately, many  indoor raelon
problems can be corrected  relatively
inexpensively. "But the; key element,"
according to Richard Guimotid. Director
of the; KPA Radon Action Program, "is
an informed  homeowner. There's a real
potential for rip-offs."
  Homeowners should be; particularly
careful in selecting a firm to conduct
the initial radem measurements. The;
types of frauds reported  in this area
have ranged  from pseudo-scientific to
downright mystical. Some  firms, after
drumming up business  by  placing
alarmist ads  in local papers, have
responded to prospective; customers by
showing up prepared to  conduct radon
measurements using a geiger counter.
While this instrument does measure
radiation, it cannot measure; the
radiation of concern in  indoor radon.
The harmful effects of radon are
produced by alpha radiation, whereas a
geiger counter'measures only gamma
and beta radiation. In this case, the
Householders should beu'ure of I'jnits
promising (o measure indoor nu/nn ivilli
a Geiger counter, like,  thai show,-] hi
Although the mstnmient run mcusurc
gemumi and helu rudiutmii. it is of no
use in nircisuriiig the tilplni rudidtion
produced by rudon.
person making the; measurement would
probably report thai there; was no
problem, collect  his fee. say "thank
you."  and disappear.
  The; "Radon Pen" is another
interesting devie:e reportedly used by
bogus radon measure;nu;nt firms. This
amazing instrument consists eil an
ordinary fountain pen case filled with
activated charcoal. N'ot emly is the;
Radon Pen supposed to detect the
presence of radon, but its charcoal
innards purportedly will abseirh any
excess, thereby protecting you from the
harmful effects! \Yha1  more  could a
homeowner ask for, except possibly tin;
  One of the; earliest reported
measurement scams involved the use of
mayonnaise jars. The; "technician"
would show up with his trusty jar.
collect an air sample, making sure; to
close the jar's  lid  tightly to pmtoct the
sample's integrity, ami then take the
sample back to his van for "analysis."
             [Continued on next puge)

The analysis would invariably show
that no problem existed. The con artist
would then collect his foe ami vanish.
  Some; of the frauds  don't even pretend
to be  scientific. One enterprising
charlatan  out West was reportedly using
a divining stick to detect the presence of
indoor radon. "The important thing to
note." einphasix.es (iuiin	1. "is lh.it
reports of these types  of frauds  are
becoming increasingly infrequent.
which means our informational program
is having  an effect."
  Another pitch to watch out for is the
offer of a free radon assessment. EPA's
Region 2 received reports of an  upstate
New York radon reduction firm
advertising free measurements.  While it
is possible thai  the measurements could
follow established procedures and may
not  he a come-on for some expensive
home repair work, as  Larainne Koehler
of the Region 2 Radiation Staff says. "I'd
get a  little nervous under those
Circumstances." Some (inns will offer
free radon detectors and charge Si 5 to
$50 for the analysis; the catch is that
most  measurement firms include the
detector in their fees,  which normally
range from $15 to $50 anyway.
  Since KPA has no regulatory  role in
this area,  the Agency  is working with
State  radiation  programs to help them
deal with their particular radon
problems. The KPA radon education
effort is structured to  provide states
with  the information  needed to help
citi/.ens wisely  choose radon
measurement and reduction firms.
  To  assure the availability of
competent firms to measure indoor
radon and radon decay products, the
Agency is implementing the
Radon Radon Progeny Measurement
Proiiciencv (KMP) Program.
  This voluntary program offers
companies the  opportunity to test their
measurement proficiency semiannual I v.
  To  participate in the program, a
company  submits specific numbers and
types of radon detectors to KPA for
exposure  to known radon or radon
progeny levels. This exposure
 takes place at KPA's  Eastern
Environmental  Radiation Facility in
Montgomery, Alabama. KPA then
returns the detectors xvitlmnt disclosing
the exposure levels. The companies
have;  two  weeks to "read" the detectors
and report their results to the Agency
for  comparison with the actual  exposure
  Companies meeting the program
 requirements are listed both nationally
and by state in a'semiannual proficiency
report. The national listing of all
companies is sent to participants and
state officials: the state-specific  listings
are distributed to interested citi/ens
through the state programs. The first
cumulative report, published in May
19H6, listed 35 companies, universities.
and government  laboratories; the latest
report, issued on February 2, 1987. lists
143.  Even though the RMP Program is
strictly voluntary and is not a federal
certification program, it is having a
profound effect on assuring the  quality
and comparability of the data used  by
homeowners  to make decisions
concerning any potential indoor radon
Another pitch  to  watch  out for
is the offer of  a free radon
  New Jersey has taken this program
one step further. In the near future.
anyone seeking to conduct  radon
measurements in New jersey will  not
only be required to participate in  the
RMP but will also have to pass a
state-administered exam and obtain
state certification.  Pennsylvania is
considering legislating a similar
requirement. As RMP Project Officer
Mike Mardis says, "We've got the radon
measurement phase pretty well under
control from the viewpoint of protecting
the public. And we're making a lot of
progress in solving the problems
indicated by those measurements."
  When it comes to solving radon
problems in individual homes, things
get a little more complicated.
Experienced do-it-yourselfers can
probably do many of the jobs, hut most
of us will have to  rely on the services of
professional contractors. Also,  what
works  in our neighbor's house may  not
work in ours.
  The pitfalls of selecting competent,
reputable contractors for radon
mitigation work are no different from
those in any other home construction
project. You have to do your homework.
In one  instance, a Pennsylvania
homeowner was charged around $3,000
for the installation of sub-slab
ventilation to reduce basement radon
levels.  A New  Jersey homeowner was
charged $400 for a similar job. To help
prevent such widely varying charge's for
similar work and to find out what really
works  in controlling radon  levels. FPA
is conducting a two-phased effort.
  The first phase, the Development and
Demonstration Program, conducted by
the Office of Research and
Development, is designed to come up
with cost-effective construction and
repair techniques.  So far 45 houses have
been modified in this phase. The next
phase, conducted by the House
Evaluation Program"(HEP) of EPA's
Office of Radiation Programs (ORP). will
test and evaluate those techniques. To
date, 80 houses have been included in
the HEP. Through  these two programs.
the Agency is developing a data base of
effective reduction methods for specific
conditions and  the range of costs to
implement them. In addition, several
states are considering requiring licenses
for radon reduction companies.
  Consistent with  the Agency goal of
working through the  states to solve
radon problems, this information is
disseminated through ORP-conducted
training courses for state officials,
followed, when possible, by field
demonstrations. Thus, more is  becoming
known and is being communicated to
the public about repairing existing
houses. To prevent radon problems in
new construction,  the Agency is
working with the National Association
of Home Builders to  make members
aware of what can be done during
construction. The Agency is also
seeking to "institutionalize" ration
prevention by working  with the Council
of American Building Officials to
develop building codes that prevent
radon problems.
  Overall, the Agency's  Radon Action
Program  is achieving its goals.
Nationally, most of the scare tactics of
opportunistic charlatans have been
pre-empted, and people can be
reasonably assured of the reputability of
firms making radon measurements. As
the Agency's home repair and
construction data base continues to
grow, the Radon Action Program will
continue to make progress.

(To heip cili/.ens get a  better
understanding  of radon. EPA and the
U.S. Centers /or Disease Control
published A Citizen's Guide to Radon:
What It Is and What  to Ho About it.
   EPA has also published Radon
Reduction Methods:  A  Homeowner's
Guide, which provides information on
methods which might be used to reduce
the level of radon  in homes.
   These publications should be
available through  your state radiation
protection offices.}
                                                                                                          EPA JOURNAL

by Marcia Williams
and Dana Duxbury
     With the proliferation of new
     chemicals, particularly since
World War II. the types and number of
consumer products available in our
society have risen sharply. Today, every
American household uses products that
households didn't  have 40 years ago.
These products, such as medicines,
insecticides, cleaners, paints, and
plastics, contain a  variety of chemicals.
Once the useful life of these products  is
over, they become  wastes, some of
which are hazardous.
  These chemicals must be used
properly as everyday household
products and  managed effectively one:;;
disposed of as waste. Household
hazardous wastes,  if stored in large
quantities in a garage or basement, can
pose serious fire, explosion, and
corrosion threats for the homeowner. In
addition, potential chemical reactions
between wastes can adversely affect the
environment if not properly disposed of.
  Homeowners need to become familiar
with the types of hazardous wastes that
may exist in the home, how they can
minimize waste generation, and how to
safely manage these wastes. Grass roots
efforts increasingly have focused
attention on the household hazardous
waste issue, with most activities
occurring at the local and state levels.
Congress also addressed household
hazardous wastes with the passage of
legislation in  late 1984. EPA also has
become involved by providing  technical
assistance, through articles, reports and
conferences, to state and local agencies.
 l\\'iHiums is the. Dirt'ctur tit EPA's Office
 ni Solid U'usfc. Hcimi Diixlnuv is u
 Senior Environmental lieseareh  Amilvs!
 with the Tiifls ('mVersjtv C'enler for
 Environmental M< inurement.,1
What Is Household
Hazardous Waste?

Several states, communities, and private
organizations have attempted to define
household hazardous waste (HHW) by
listing household products with
hazardous components. But these lists
vary widely, often reflecting different
state definitions of hazardous \v,isles
and licensing restrictions tor
transporters involved in  HHW collection
  EPA has developed a working
definition of household hazardous waste
based upon EPA classifications of
hazardous waste under the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
A waste is generally considered
hazardous if it is corrosive, ignitable,
reactive, or toxic. From this definition,
EPA has developed a list of generic
types of household wastes that contain
hazardous components.
 Los! ()< iof>er. residents oi Lexington,
 MA. bronchi thfir household huztmloiis
 ivusfe to a central rolierlion point. Here
 Kdren (.'luile of N'orlhcusf Solvent
 Services, Inc. /
In the workshop:
• Paint thinners
• Paint strippers and removers
• Adhesives

For the lawn and garden:
• Herbicides
• Pesticides
• Fungicides and wood preservatives

  Although this list is not
comprehensive, and not all products
within these broad categories exhibit
hazardous waste characteristics,
homeowners can use it as a starting
point for identifying hazardous wastes
that may exist in the home.
Why Is Household Hazardous
Waste a Problem?

Almost every one of the 82 million
households in this nation produces at
least some household lia/.ardous wastes.
The average individual alone produces
approximately one ton of waste a year
in the home,  some of which is
hazardous.  The residential waste stream
includes everything that is put out in
the trash can, wastes that are
accumulated  and stored in garages or
basements,  and wastes that are poured
down the drain or  dumped on the
  Because waste generation data are
scarce, no one really knows how much
of this waste  is hazardous. Studies imve
not focused on  the total amount of
waste stored in the home, disposed of
illegally or  put  out for collection. Since
these hazardous wastes from homes and
small commercial operations contribute
to hazardous  wastes entering sanitary
landfills, KPA is concerned about these
wastes making their way into soil.
water, or air once they are disposed of.
Currently, household hazardous wastes
are exempt from KPA's ha/.ardous
waste regulations under RCRA, These
wastes are not exempt, however, from
the provisions of EPA's Superfund
program under the Comprehensive
Environmental Response. Compensation
and Liability Act (CKRCLA).
  The overall impact of household
hazardous waste disposal is not fully
known, but potential concerns  include:

• Health problems for homeowners,
children, and pets from improper
storage and disposal by the homeowner.

• Injuries to refuse collection personnel
while waste  is being emptied,
compacted, or transported.
• Spills and fire ha/.ards  at collection
and disposal  sites.
•  Pollution  oi air. ground water, and
surface water resulting trom  improper
• Contamination of septic tanks and
wastewater treatment systems from
disposal of hazardous wastes down

How Can Homeowners Manage
Their Household Hazardous
All household hazardous  wastes should
be handled so as to prevent them from
adversely affecting the environment or
our health. Homeowners have a variety
of options available to them tor
effectively and safely managing the
waste they produce.
  Like garbage, sewage, or any  other
type of waste, the less household
hazardous waste there is,  the easier it is
to manage. I lomeowners first should
strive to reduce the amount of
hazardous waste they produce. One way
to reduce it is to avoid buying products
that have hazardous characteristics or
ingredients. Consumers should examine
product labels in the store and  choose
products accordingly. Another waste
reduction technique is to buy only as
much as is needed at a particular time.
Over-buying means storing or disposing
of unwanted surpluses.
  Recycling is an excellent way of
handling hazardous  waste from the
home. Many homeowners already
recycle their newspapers and aluminum
cans, and some household hazardous
wastes can be recycled just as
effectively. For example, used motor oil
can be turned in at a collection center to
be burned as fuel or re-refined for  use as
a lubricant. Another form of recycling is
the sharing of products with friends and
neighbors. A homeowner with leftover
paint can give it to someone who can
use it. A  word of caution: such products
should change hands only in the
original containers with  proper labels.
  Products that cannot be used up by
the consumer or recycled must be
managed and disposed of properly. The
following rules should be followed by
all homeowners in handling their HHW:

• Read and follow label  directions for
use and disposal. Label warnings such
as "Do not refill this container," "Do not
incinerate," or "Do not mix with
bleach" should be followed to ensure
protection of health  and  the
                                                                                                        EPA JOURNAL

 Judy MtirshiiJI of the I.ro.mir ot Women
 Voters in I.exniyloji. MA. surveys people
 ivmfiri" in line to drop ol'l 1/ieiY
 household hu/
A  Situation  Report
by Anne Scheinberg
and Trisha  Ferrand
{(Tpecyclo: To make; constructive use1
  _L\ of  materials ordinarily tlirown
  The definition of recycling has not
changed in many years, but the way it is
practiced has. U.S. industry is taking an
increasing interest in recycling as a
COSt-effective way of handling part of
the huge  volume of waste it generates
every year. In addition, waste-disposal
experts in government and industry are
trying to  make better use of consumer
recvclablos: recoverable items that
consumers are now simply throwing
  Today's older Americans had an
intensive; introduction to consumer
recycling during World War II. when
citizens avidly saved metals and  paper
to ease wartime scarcity. Younger
people first  heard about recycling in the
1970s when the energy crisis and Earth
Day  created a new sense of the limits on
our resources. Volunteer drives were;
organized to gather materials that could
be sold, for  a profit, by service
  !n  10H7, recycling is no longer a
matter of isolated volunteer drives.
Across the United States, towns,  cities.
and  counties are developing consumer
recycling programs that are far from
spur-of-the-moment. Today's recycling
efforts are permanent  parts  of carefully
planned and integrated waste
management systems. It is the kind of
recycling that will affect all but  a few
Americans within the next  five years.
  Consumer cooperation is vital  to the;
success of recycling programs.
Experience  has shown one feature
which is key in  securing that
cooperation: make it as easy to recycle
as it is to put out the trash. As a result.
 I f-Vrnmd is (lie Kxeculivc     .
 o| flic Association ol .Yetv /rrsey
 /{riTc'/fTs.  Sclicinlicrg is  u ivnslr
 management cnid re<\ cling consuJtanl
 based in (.'uncord. MA. Tlieir firm.
 /•'errand and Seliemberg  Associates,
 provido cunsull/ng services.]
                                        Shredded paper in (his collection
                                        cenfer ivill be separatee] by grade and
                                        shipped to a paper mill for  recycling.
most current recycling systems are
similar in design, operation, and
management to those for trash
  Consumer recycling programs are
usually designed by professional
recycling coordinators. These experts
are hired by a community's public:
works department or. in  some; cases, by
private companies. Recycling
coordinators have to make arrangements
for materials collected from consumers
to be prepared for reuse, and then sold
to an appropriate industry or other
market.  These markets must be
identified in advance in  order to avoid
problems with storage of collected
  But their greatest challenge comes
before, not after collection. Recycling
coordinators have to teach consumers
many different things. First, the average
consumer has to be able to identify
recyclable materials. These vary from
community to community, hut  certain
rules apply.  For example, it is good to
save single substances, such as paper,
but not combinations, such as envelopes
with plastic windows. In addition.
consumers have to learn how materials
for recycling should be separated and
stored prior to collection, and when
they should be put out for collection.
  It takes more than an ordinance to
make recycling second nature;. Canada
decided to foster this socially desirable
behavior by giving every household
specially marked pails or boxes  in
which to store their recyclables.
Canadians were encouraged to use these
as set-out  containers to put at the curb
for collection.
  In some places, materials are collected
by a recycling truck that stops at every
house, just like a garbage truck.  Some
companies use trucks that have  been
specially designed not just to collect
glass, newspaper, cans, and other
recyclables but to keep them clean  and
separate from each other. If you live in  a
community that has recycling, you  may
have seen these specialized trucks
coming down your street.
  Collected materials  are then sold  to
industry. Some industries  will take
them just  as they are,  for a low price or
for free. Other industries will buy the
recyclables for a good price, but only if
they have been processed—that  is,
cleaned, then crushed or baled.
  Many community leaders hesitate to
get  involved in recycling. They believe
it would save money in the long run,
but only if citizens were to participate
at levels they fear are unattainable.
These fears are unfounded. Experience
with actual programs  indicates that
between 65 percent and 85 percent of a
residential population will follow
recycling rules, provided the program is
well designed and explained, has the
visible and explicit support of public:
officials, and includes either a recycling
ordinance or the distribution of a set-out
container to every household.
  If  your community does not have a
recycling program, you can help get one
started. Talk to your neighbors,  family.
and  friends. Express your support for
recycling to elected officials in your city
or county government. In doing so, you
could help your community solve waste
disposal problems that might otherwise
prove crippling in the years ahead.   D
                                                                                                         EPA JOURNAL

Safer  Use  of
Pesticides  at  Home
by Christine Gillis
    Although pesticides are very
    beneficial to our society, they can
be dangerous if used indiscriminately or
carelessly. EPA has important regulatory
powers over pesticides, but  it is still
crucial for individual consumers to take
precautions to protect  themselves.
  All pesticide  products sold  in the
United States must have prior approval
by EPA. The Agency has, to date.
registered approximately 15,000
pesticide products for  household use; of
these, about 8.000 are  designated for use
inside the home,
  Before  registering a pesticide lor use
in the United States. HPA reviews  its
label to ensure  that it has proper
directions for tin; consumer. These
directions must include health and
safety precautions for the individual
user, as well as information about any
restrictions designed to protect other
citizens, the environment, ami
non-target species from unnecessary
  Unfortunately, many pesticide users
have a tendency to ignore label
directions.  Some people seem to feel
that the mere fact that a  product is sold
in a store is proof positive of its salety.
They reason, "This must he absolutely
safe, or else it would he  taken off the
shelf." Of course, nothing could be
further from the truth. These products
are safe to humans only  if used
  When the label says. "Use only this
much," it means no more tlicin (his
much. But  all too many consumers,
eager for a  quick and final solution to a
pest problem, apply far more of the
pesticide than the label specifies. Or
they ignore clearcut label instructions in
other ways.
  This is not only foolish, but illegal.
Foolish, because the same chemicals
you are using to kill insects can, in large
enough quantities, harm your own
health. Illegal, because the
EPA-approved label for a pesticide
product has the force of  law  in the
United States. Any pesticide use not in
 Kiillis is a ivrilrr ecfifur lor KPA's Office
 n| I'i'sficide .Progrnms.j
accordance with label directions and
precautions can subject you to civil
and/or criminal penalties.
  If you believe someone is misusing a
pesticide product, you should contact
the agency in your state that is
responsible for enforcing pesticide laws.
hi most  states, this agency  is part of the
state's Department of Agriculture. In
others, it can be found in the state's
Department of Natural Resources or
Environmental Protection.  EPA retains
primary responsibility for pesticide
enforcement in Nebraska. Colorado, and
on certain Indian reservations.
  If you are thinking of applying a
pesticide product either inside or
outside  your home, be sure to take the
following precautions, regardless of
which pesticide you are using.

Indoor or Outdoor:

•  Read  the label first, from start to
finish, and follow the  directions to the
letter, including all  precautions  and
restrictions. Use only the amount
specified, at the time and under the;
conditions specified, and for the
purpose listed.
 • Look for one of the following signal
 words on the front label:

 DANGER-highly poisonous
 WARNING-moderately poisonous
 CAUTION-least harmful

   These indicate  how poisonous tin-
 pesticide would be if swallowed,
 inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.

 • Also watch for the words
 RESTRICTED USE on the front label.  Do
 not use any pesticides marked
 RESTRICTED USE. In general, these
 products may be sold only to people
 who have been trained and certified by
 the state.

 • Take note  ot what to do in case ot
 accidental  poisoning before you even
 open the pesticide. The label's
 statement of  practical treatment will tell
 you what to do in the immediate
 aftermath of exposure. Remember, that
 in all such cases, a doctor should be
 consulted immediately.

 • If the pesticide must be mixed or
 diluted, do this outdoors or in a
 well-ventilated area.

 • Avoid prolonged inhalation of fumes
 during mixing and application,

 • Keep children and pets away  from
 areas where you are mixing or applying

 • Think of pesticides as you would
 drugs or any  other substance that can be
 harmful. Store them properly. Avoid
 spilling them. And always, uliv
pesticides: symptoms of pesticide
poisoning; emergency medical
treatment;  pesticide product
information; information about disposal
and cleanup; pesticide regulatory laws;
referrals for applicator training and lab
analyses; and reports of illegal  usage.

• Never .smoke while applying
pesli(.id(!,s. Some pesticides are
flammable.  In addition, a cigarette could
carry  pesticide traces from your hand to
your mouth.
• Dispose  ol product and container as
directed by the label.

• Wash  thoroughly with soap and water
after you use a pesticide product. Don't
wear your clothing again until  it's been
washed. And don't wash it with the rest
ol your clothes.

• Do  not re-enter  or allow others to
enter   an area where pesticides have
been applied until the amount  ol time
specified on the label has elapsed.

Outdoors Only:
• Take the initiative to inform your
neighbors before you sprav your yard.
This way  you, your family, and your
friends can avoid unintentional
exposure to pesticides. Kveryone,
including children and  pets, should be
kept off the area until dry or as
recommended by the label.
  It would also be a good idea to inlorm
your neighbors if you observe pesticide
spraying in any nearby area. You might
Spring is 
Did  You  Know?
Warranties  Available  for  Good
Car  Maintenance
 by Karl Hellman
   For decades. Americans have had a
   passionate love affair with the
private automobile. There are so many
cars  in the United States that all 240
million ol us could climb in. and we'd
Still  have enough room to give everyone
in Europe a ride. too. Our total mileage
in one year equals two million round
trips to the moon!
  One of EPA's major tasks is to see that
our obsession with cars does not inllict
too much damage on our environment.
How does EPA accomplish this? The
Agency monitors the ways U.S. cars are
designed, produced, used, and scrapped,
as well as the fuel we pump into them.
  The future is likely to broaden KPA's
role  even further. Recently, the .Agency
has proposed  phasing out the use of
asbestos in brake and clutch friction
elements. And KPA is currently
considering controls on the handling ot
used motor oil and on gasoline vapors
that escape during refueling.
  KPA relies heavily on individual  car
owners to make America's automobiles
environmentally acceptable. The car
owner's main job is to ensure that his or
her car is properly maintained.
Misfueling or faulty maintenance can
impair or incapacitate a car's emission
control parts.
  This problem is of particular concern
in major metropolitan areas where air
quality still falls short of federal
standards. In such communities. KPA
requires inspection and maintenance'
(I/M) programs for private automobiles.
Their purpose is to (insure that
emissions from cars meet stringent KPA
requirements. Some states license

(i Jell man is ChieJ ol  the (,'onlro!
Technologj'and Applications Branch at
KPA's Motor Vehicle /•.'missions
Laboratory in  Ann .Arbor, MI.
Substantial assistance in the
preparation of Ihis article ivns provided
by the technical support  stuM in Ann
Arbor and the Field Operations and
Support Division al KPA in Washing!
                                       private garages to conduct inspections:
                                       some hire contractors to build and staff
                                       centralized inspection lanes.
                                         Full participation by car owners is
                                       vital to the success of 1 M programs. To
                                       this end, the average cost to consumers
                                       has been kept  low: an average of $10
                                       (with one free  re-test). Hut some
                                       consumers still balk at inspections for
                                       fear of expensive repair bills. To allay
                                       such fears, Congress has devised two
                                       special warranties to protect car owners
                                       who have maintained their cars
                                         The  first of these is the Kmissiuns
                                       Performance Warranty, which covers
                                       repairs that are required because a
                                       vehicle has failed  an emissions test. It is
                                       available to residents of an area with an
                                       I/M program that meets federal
                                        The  Emissions Performance Warranty
                                       •  If a car or light truck fails an
                                       approved emissions test: and

                                       •  State or local government requires the
                                       vehicle's owner to repair |or attempt to
                                       repair) the car: and
                                       •  The  test failure  did not result from
                                       any misuse of  the  vehicle or failure to
                                       follow  the manufacturer's written
                                       maintenance instructions:  and
                                       •  The  owner presents the vehicle to a
                                       warranty-authorized manufacturer
                                       representative, along with evidence of
                                       the emission test  failure during the
                                       relevant period.
                                         If all four of  these conditions are met.
                                       •  For the first  two years or 24.01)0
                                       miles,  whichever comes first, the
                                       manufacturer must pay tor all repairs
                                       necessary to make a qualified car pass
                                       an EPA-approved, locally required
                                       emissions test.

                                      • For the first  five years or 50.000
                                      miles, whichever conies first,  the
                                      manufacturer must  pay tor any repair or
 At a District of Columbia vehicle
 emissions station, an inspector operates
 equipment to unuly/e a cur's emissions.
 FPA requires vehicle inspection and
 maintenance in areas ivj'tii substandard
 air quality.

adjustment to a primary emission
control part that is necessarv to make
the vehicle pass an emissions test (see
box). Such repairs must be complete
and effective even if they also entail the
repair or adjustment of non-primary
  The Performance Warranty covers cars
and light-duty trucks beginning with the
1081 model year. For  vehicles that are
specially equipped lor operation at high
altitudes  (over 4,000 feel), coverage
begins with the  1!)H2 model year.
  It does not matter it yon bought the
car new or used. Irom a dealer  or
anyone else. As long as \our vehicle has
not exceeded the warranty time or
mileage limitations, and has been
properly  maintained, the Performance
Warranty still  applies.
  If you meet the basic criteria,
protection under the Performance
Warranty can only be  denied you if the
manufacturer has evidence indicating
your I/M  test failure was the result of
any one of the following factors: vehicle
abuse, such as off-road driving  or
overloading: tampering with emission
control parts: improper maintenance; or
APRIL 1987
                                                                                                              1 /

misfueling. If you've abused your car in
one or more of these ways, don't go to
your dealer expecting Performance
Warranty coverage.
  Even if you don't qualify for the
Emissions Performance Warranty, you
may qualify for a second type known as
the "Design and Defect Warranty." The
Design and Defect Warranty, unlike the
Performance Warranty, is not tied to
failing an  1/M test or residing in an I/M
inspection area.
  The Design and Defect Warranty is
available to owners of properly
maintained cars and trucks, regardless
of where the owner lived. It covers the
repair of emission control-related parts
that are found to be defective during the
first five years or first 50,000  miles of
vehicle use, whichever comes first.
Federal law requires auto manufacturers
to provide at least  this much  "Design
and Defect Warranty" coverage for
emission control-related parts.
   Although regular maintenance may be
performed at any repair facility, or by
the vehicle owner, warranty repair
should  be performed at a
warranty-authorized shop.
   For both maintenance and repair
work, whoever does the work should
consult the owner's manual and use
only acceptable parts and procedures.
You should keep receipts for parts
 purchased and work performed, as part
of a maintenance log you may need  to
verify your car's condition.
   EPA  has two free booklets to help you
 if you run into problems: What You
 Should Know About your Auto
 Emissions Warranty and If Your Car
Just Failed an Emission Test . . . You
 May Be Entitled To Free Repairs. You
 can obtain a copy  of either by writing to
 the Office of Mobile Sources, U.S.
 Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, D.C. 20460.
   You will  probably also want another
 valuable EPA publication: The Gas
 Mileage Guide. You can get a copy from
 any of your local car dealers. The
 Guide,  produced in conjunction with
 the Department of Energy, comes out
 once a  year. It  lists miles-per-gallon
 information on  all new cars and light
 trucks that are on  sale in the United
   You will  find the same kind of
 information on fuel economy labels.
 These appear on all the cars in your
 dealer's showroom. A quick glance at
 the label  will give you the
 specific miles-per-gallon figure for each
 individual type of car. With this data at
 your fingertips, you can do intelligent
 comparison shopping.
  EPA hopes 3'our choice will be a
fuel-efficient car, but whatever car you
choose, it is imperative that you drive,
fuel, and maintain it properly.
Otherwise,  its emission control
equipment can be incapacitated, and
you can wind up polluting the air you
breathe for reasons that are both
unnecessary and illegal, a
        Primary Emission
        Control Parts

        This list will help you identify al!
        the parts of your car, van, or light
        truck whose main purpose is to
        control emissions.

        Exhaust Gas Conversion Systems:

        •  Oxygen sensor

        •  Catalytic converter

        •  Thermal reactor

        •  Dual-walled exhaust pipe

        Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

        •  EGR valve

        •  EGR solenoid
        •  EGR backpressure transducer
        •  Thermal vacuum switch

        •  EGR spacer plate
        •  Sensors  and switches used to
        control EGR flow

        Evaporative Emission  Control

        •  Purge valve

        •  Purge solenoid
        •  Fuel filler cap

        •  Vapor storage canister and filter

        Positive Crankcase Ventilation
        (PCV) System:

        •  PCV valve
        •  PCV solenoid

        Air Injection System:

        •  Diverter, bypass, or gulp valve

        •  Reed valve

        •  Air pump
        •  Anti-backfire or deceleration
Early Fuel Evaporative (EFE)
• EFE valve

• Thermal vacuum switch

Fuel Metering System:

• Electronic control module or
computer command module
• Deceleration controls

• Fuel injectors, fuel injection
units, and fuel injection bars
developed for feedback electronic
fuel  injection (EFI) and throttle
body injection (TBI) systems

• EFI air flow meter, module, or
mixture control unit

• Mixture settings on sealed

« Mixture control solenoid,
diaphragm or other fuel metering
components that achieve
closedloop operation

• Electronic  choke
• Altitude compensator sensor

• Other feedback control  sensors,
switches, and valves

• Thermostatic air cleaner

Ignition Systems:
• Electronic  spark advance
• High-energy electronic  ignition

• Timing advance/retard  systems

Miscellaneous Parts:

• Hoses, gaskets, clamps, and
other accessories used in  the above
                                                                                                         EPA JOURNAL

Information,  Please!
EPA's   Hotlines
by Carol Panasewich
    Hotlines, toll-free numbers, or
    information lines—call them what
you will. By any title or description.
they offer the consumer a vital link \vitli
EPA's programs, technical capabilities.
and services.
  The availability of toll-fret!.
long-distance telephone numbers.
accessed by dialing 800 plus a
seven-digit number, has mushroomed
during the past 20 years, according to
the Neiv York Times. Today, the 400.000
existing 800 numbers elicit billions of
dollars worth of sales, and provide the
public:  a multitude of services and lines
of support.
  EPA  is among the many government
and nonprofit agencies currently using
HOO numbers  to offer a broad range of
information and services to consumers,
free of  charge. EPA's 800 numbers.
operating up to 24 hours a (.lay, seven
days a  week, are ready to  respond to
questions on topics ranging from
pesticide use to asbestos in homes; from
hazardous waste disposal  to chemical
emergency preparedness; from waste,
fraud, and abuse to job vacancies.
  Information on an even  broader range
of environmental topics may be
obtained by calling EPA's commercially
accessible information numbers.  For the
price of a telephone call, the interested
consumer can get a wealth of
information on toxic substances control,
air toxics, the status of regional
hazardous waste cleanup efforts, and
other concerns.
  As a  need  for information  on new
environmental laws and issues arises,
EPA tries to  meet that  demand with
up-to-date information sources. Often a
hotline is tin; most effective  way to give
out information, as well as receive
public:  viewpoints and hear citizens'
concerns. With this in mind, we  present
{Panasewich, a public information
specialist fur h'PA's Oilier of Pesticide
Programs,  Ims been on (eniporarv
ussigimienl u ifli flit; Agency's Office of
Pub/ic Af lairs.)
  At (he of/ices of

    specialist Kirn
Cohan's (insurrs 
(SARA) IKIS increased the CFPP
Hotline's responsibilities, which now
also include Kmergency 1'hinning and
Community Kight-to-Know, SARA Title
111. questions and requests. Tlie CKPP
Hotline, which complements tin;
RCRA Superfund Hotline, is maintained
as an informational resource rattier than
an  emergency number, Calls are
answered Monday through Friday from
8:30 a.in.-4:30 p.m. KST.

•  National Pesticides
Telecommunications Network (NPTN)
National Toll-Free 800-858-7378
Texas HOfi-743-309 1

Operating  24 hours a day. seven days a
week, every (lay of the year, the N'PTN
provides information about  pesticides to
the medical, veterinary, and
professional communities as well as  to
the general public,. Originally a service
for physicians wanting information on
pesticide toxicology and oa recognition
and management of  pesticide
poisonings, the XI'TN has expanded  to
serve the public by providing impartial
information on pesticide products, basic
safety practices, health and
environmental effects, and cleanup and
disposal procedures. Stalled by
pesticide specialists al Texas Tech
University's Health Sciences (Center
School of Medicine. I his hotline handles
about  IB.000 calls each  year, Call any
ti me, day or night.

•  Asbestos Hotline
National Toll-Free 800-334-8571,
extension fi74 1

Formerly the Asbestos Technical
Information Service, the Asbestos
Hotline at  Research Triangle Institute,
NC. has evolved from an information
number lor laboratories doing asbestos
analyses lo a broader service, providing
technical information concerning
asbestos abatement problems. The
Asbestos Hotline now is available  to
meet the asbestos information needs  of
private individuals, government
agencies, and the regulated  industry.
The hotline handles about  10,000 calls
each year,  and operates  Monday through
Friday from 8:15 a.m. -5:00  p.m. KST.
• Small Business Hotline
National Toll-Free 800-368-5888
Washington, D.C.. Metro 703-557-1938

Sponsored by the KPA Small Business
Ombudsman's Program, this hotline
assists small businesses in complying
with environments] laws and KPA
regulations. The Small Business Hotline
gives companies easy access to the
Agency, and investigates and resolves
problems and disputes with KPA.
Acting as a liaison with Agency
program offices, the hotline ensures that
KPA considers small business issues
during its normal regulatory activities.
The Small Business Hotline operates
Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m.
-5:00 p.m. KST. handling over 7,000
inquiries each year.

• EPA National Recruitment Program
National Toll-Free 800-338-1350
Washington, D.C.. Metro 202-382-3305

An  integral part of KPA's National
Recruitment Program, this toll-free
service; enables potential hirees to
contact the Agency  for employment
information, and assists KPA managers
in locating and hiring qualified
employees to fill vacant  positions.
Recruitment for many Superfund
positions currently  is a priority of this
service. Operating Monday through
Friday from  8:30 a.m. -4:30 p.m. KST,
the Recruitment Program Number
handles about 6,000 calls each year.

• Inspector General's Whistle Blower
National Toll-Free 800-424-4000
Washington. D.C., Metro 202-382-4977

The KPA Inspector General's Office
maintains the Whistle-Blower Hotline to
receive reports  of Agency-related waste,
fraud, abuse, or mismanagement from
the public and  from KPA and other
government  employees. KPA employees
may make complaints or give
information  to the Inspector General's
office confidentially and without fear of
reprisal. The Whistle-Blower Hotline is
staffed to answer calls in person from
10:00 a.m. -3:00 p.m. KST, Monday
through Friday; at other times, callers
may leave a message to be answered
during the next work day. This hotline
handles about 1.500 calls each vear.
Commercial Numbers Offered by
EPA Headquarters
• TSCA Assistance Information Service

The TSGA Assistance Information
Service provides information
on TSCA regulations to the
chemical industry, labor and trade
organizations, environmental groups,
and the general public. Technical as
well as general  information is available.
To help businesses comply with TSCA,
a variety of services are offered.
including  regulatory advice and aid.
publications, and audiovisual materials.
The TSCA Assistance Information
Service now handles about 2,500 calls a
month, and can be reached from
8:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m. KST, Monday
through Friday.

• Control Technology Center Hotline

A component of KPA's Air Toxics
Strategy, the newly established Control
Technology Gonter Hotline provides
information to state and local pollution
control agencies on sources of emissions
of air  toxics. Sponsored by KPA's Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards
in Research Triangle Park. NC,  this
hotline takes about 100 calls a  month,
and can be reached from  8:00 a.m. - 4:30
p.m. KST.  Monday through Friday.

• Public Information Center (PIC)

EPA's Public Information Center (PIC])
answers inquiries from the public about
KPA.  its programs, and activities, and
offers a variety of general, nontechnical
information materials. The public is
encouraged to reach the PIC through its
commercial telephone line or by writing
to PIG (PM-211B). U.S KPA. 401 M
Street, SW, Washington, D.C. 20460.
                                                                                                          EPA JOURNAL

Toil-Free Numbers Offered by
EPA's Regional Offices
General Information Numbers

Four of EPA's 10 Regional Offices offer
toll-free numbers providing the public;
general information on Agency
programs, and making referrals as
needed; a fifth EPA region \vill lie
adding this service very soon. These
general information numbers are:

•  EPA Region 3. Philadelphia. PA
800-438-2474 for all Region 3 states (DC
DE, MD,  PA,  VA, WV)

•  EPA Region 4, Atlanta. GA
800-282-0239 in GA
800-241-1754 in other Region 4  states
(AL. FL, KY.  MS, N'C, SC, T\|

•  EPA Region 5, Chicago,  II,
800-572-2515 in li,
800-621-8431 in other Region 5  states
(IN, MI. MN,  OH. \V1)

•  EPA Region 7, Kansas City. KS
(Will offer an 800 number by early  June
1987, serving  the states of I A.  KS, MO,
and NE)

•  EPA Region 8, Denver, CO
800-332-3321 in CO
800-525-3022 in other Region 8 states
(MT, ND,  SD, UT, VVY)
Specialized Information Numbers

Several EPA Regional Offices sponsor
specialized, issue-specific toll-free
numbers, to meet the demands of
frequent regional inquiries.
Region 1
Fuel Hotline
Region 2

Region 3
Region 7
Region 7
                 Toll-Fret; it Commercial #s    Description
800-631-2700 (MA]
800-82 1-1237 (other
Region 1 states —

(ME. VT, NH, MA. Kl.
\V\r. OH, MD, MI.
Washington, D.C.)
31 5-422-6572 ( other states)
Enforcement-related line takes
calls about tampering with
vehicles, pumps, ami other
problems  related to unleaded fuels.

Information on waste exchange
in the Northeast but with access
to other areas. Joins those who
generate waste with those who
desire waste.
800-346-500!) (\J|
800-722-1223 (NY)

BOO-334-2467 (PA)
800-820-5320 (other
Region 3 states)

(Iowa only)
                                                         (Missouri only]
Answers local lia/.ardous waste

Technical assistance and
education on waste
Information on implementation
ot KCRA  in Iowa
                         Information on dioxin and
                         related concerns for
                         contaminated areas in Missouri
                                       Commercial Numbers Offered by
                                       EPA's Regional Offices
                                       Region  1
                                       McKin Site
                 Commercial *'•'
                        Information on cleanup efforts
                        at Superfund site in Grey, Ml'".
                                       Region 0
                                       RCRA On-Scene
                                       Region 9
                                       RCRA Hotline
                  (AK. LA,  N'M,
                  OR, TX)
                  (AZ, CA, HI. NV.
                  Guam. American
                  Samoa, Pacific Trust
                         Responds 24 hrs. a day to
                         questions and to reports ot
                         chemical spills, other
                            innation to Region 0 slates
                            •JCKA issues.
APRIL 1987

One  Way to  Fight
the  Cockroach
 by William E. (Bill) Currie
    COCKROACHES!  Perhaps the
      ultimate survivors! For UTiO million
 years, cockroaches as a group have
 diversified, reproduced, ami adapted to
 many ecological  niches throughout the
 world. As many  as ,'i.">()() .species may ho
 identified worldwide, about 75 of them
 in \orth America. Of these, only five or
 six are considered to present sufficient
 problems to be posts in the I'nited
 States. Those are the (Ionium,  Brown
 Handful, American,  Oriental. Smokey
 Brown, and most recently, the Asian
 cockroaches. (More  research to
 determine how important a pest the
 Asian cockroach will become is
   The cockroach is  considered  a public
 health  concern because of  its role as a
 carrier and potential transmitter of
 several  diseases.  Largo populations have
 a distinctive odor which is somewhat
 offensive, and they  make their presence
 known  by droppings and stained
 surfaces. Some people have phobic:
 reactions to any  insect, but cockroaches
 seem to inspire universal  loathing. No
 doubt they have  lived in close
 proximity to  humans lor thousands of
 years, hut people just  can't get used to
 them crawling out of the drain,  across
 the counter, and  onto the cream pie.
 They have indeed earned  their pest
   And a formidable .status  that is.
 Attempts to control  the cockroach
 consume fully a  third of the post-control
 budget  for  urban sites, and are; the
 largest expenditure  for a single post in
 homos and other establishments in the
 U.S. The nood to control this pest is the
 foundation of a very largo  industry;
 even so. the cockroach has not been, nor
 is it  likelv  to bo, eliminated from homes
 or food preparation  environments.
 largely  because of its growing resistance
 to many pesticides.
  ((.'(iirie is (i JY.sl Mnndgemoiil Spociulisl
  m (lie Integrated Fes! .Mdimgt'mrnt I'nil
  in h'P.A's Office ol I'esd'cidc Prognims.l
  In the past, the pest control industry
responded to this resistance by using
more powerful, yet  more specific
pesticides applied more often or in
higher doses. Public pressure, however,
has led to the development of better,
more environmentally sound pest
management methods to cope with the
cockroach. The professional post
manager, as well as the  layperson, can
win the war on cockroaches by  using
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
principles and practices.
Attempts to control the
cockroach are the largest
expenditure for a single pest
in homes and other
establishments in the U.S.
  IPM is a blend of old-fashioned
practices and new information and
technology. It fosters consideration of
all available control  options to achieve
the greatest level of  pest control  by the
most economical means and with the
least possible ha/ard to people.
property, and the environment based on
the biology of the specific pest and its
interaction with the site environment.
The goal of IPM is to manage  not
  Controlling cockroaches with IPM
involves establishing the extent of the
cockroach population, and
then—because xoro cockroach
population is not normally
obtainable—using a  range of techniques
to achieve tolerable  levels.
  The sticky cockroach trap has made
monitoring cockroach infestations much
easier. Capturing more than five
cockroaches per  trap in a 24-hour
period probably means a heavy
infestation; finding one or fewer
probably means the population isn't
expanding. Control techniques will
depend on the extent of the problem.
  The most basic control measure is to
modify cockioach habitats by lowering
the temperature, removing food from
cockroach reach,  eliminating water or
moisture sources, getting rid of clutter
and other harborage, and filling hiding
spaces such as cracks and crevices. If
these actions do not provide enough
control,  then appropriate EPA-registered
pesticides may be used. It is a good
practice to use the lowest toxicity
product  that will achieve long tasting
results, applying  it in areas where
cockroaches are in contact with it most
of the time. Although some sites may
require stronger pesticide products.
recent studies have shown that the most
effective, least  toxic, least expensive,
longest lasting, most easily applied
method  for controlling cockroaches in
structures is a thorough crack and
crevice treatment of boric acid dust at
99 percent concentration. The
cockroaches ingest the powder while
grooming themselves, and death occurs
throe to  ten days later. While it does not
produce instant results, this system has
been shown to be effective for six
months  to two years, depending upon
the site.
  This cockroach management system
has been successfully implemented for
homes, apartments, food handling
establishments, offices, and schools.
After a successful IPM demonstration  at
several sites on the U.S. Army's
Aberdeen Proving Grounds, EPA has
begun using it  at  its Waterside Mall
offices in Washington. D.C. The
Waterside Mall pest management plan is
a successful cooperative effort involving
concerned employees, an employee
union, EPA's Facilities Operations
Branch, building management, a private
pest control firm, and the IPM Unit of
the Office of Pesticide Programs. Other
sites using the IPM approach are the
National Capitol  Region Headquarters of
the National Park Service; Alexandria,
VA, Public Schools; and the U.S.
Capitol  Building. Many pest control
firms  are adopting the system  as well, o
                                                                                                        EPA JOURNAL

                                      Gasoline Vapor Controls:
                                      Pros  and  Cons
                                      by  Richard D. Wilson
 The final decision may
 ultimately affect most of the
 nation's vehicle  owners, so it
 is certain to be controversial.
   The next time you pull into a service
   station to fill your car's gas tank.
consider this: even though your car's
engine is off, gasoline vapors are
escaping into the surrounding air as you
pump the liquid gasoline into the gas
  These vapors, when mixed with other
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in
the ambient air. form smog. At elevated
concentrations, smog causes health
problems, particularly with the human
respiratory system. In addition, there is
evidence that direct exposure!  to
gasoline vapors may also bo a health
  EPA is now trying to decide both
whether and how to control refueling
vapors. The final decision may
ultimately affect most of the nation's
vehicle owners, so it is certain to be
  The quantity of vapors released
during all vehicle refuelings is a
relatively small but nonetheless
significant portion of the total VOCs
emitted from all sources nationwide.
Other sources of VOCs are tailpipe
emissions from motor vehicles.
petroleum refining, and a large number
of widely used consumer products, such
as household paints and deodorants.
Once the VOCs are in the atmosphere.
they mix with other pollutants,
primarily oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In
the presence of sunlight, these
contaminants undergo a complex
chemical reaction that forms ozone,
commonly known as smog.
  As with other air pollutants, KPA has
established a  National Ambient Air
Quality Standard (N'AAQS) for ozone.
To measure ambient o/.one levels, the
Agency has.  in cooperation with state
and local governments, se! up a
                                       (Wilson is Director of EPA's Office of
                                       Mobile Sources.j
monitoring system across the United
States. The results of that monitoring
are not encouraging.
  At the present time, over 70 urban
areas are not in attainment with KPA's
o/.one standard. These include almost
all major U.S. cities: I.us Angeles.
Houston, New York City, and Chicago
are among the worst violators. Since
sunlight and warm temperatures play a
role in the formation of  ozone, it is not
surprising  that most violations of the
ozone standard occur during the
summer months.
  Although ozone is our most pervasive
air pollution problem, we have made
substantial  progress in controlling its
precursor emissions, VOCs and \"()\.
Requirements for controls on main-
categories of stationary pollution
sources, such as factories, as well as
stringent controls on vehicle emissions.
have been  successful in  preventing the
release of millions of tons of these
pollutants  each year. Hut we still  have a
long way to go.
  The difficulty in controlling future
emissions of VOCs can be attributed to
two factors. One is the continued
growth in the total number of sources.
This, of course, is a result of population
growth, which leads to more cars and
trucks on the  road, more industrial
facilities, and  more consumer products.
  The second factor is that we've been
very successful, for the most part,  in
controlling major sources of YOC
emissions.  As a result, future reductions
will come in much smaller increments
and at higher  costs.  And that brings us
back to tiie subject of this article.
Whereas, for the past 17 years, the
Federal Motor Vehicle Control Program
has focused on controlling VOCs thai
are emitted or evaporated from the
vehicle, we now are studying the
effectiveness of controlling lesser
sources, such  as vehicle refueling.
  To put matters into perspective, it is
interesting to  note that YOC emissions
from all refuelings in the country
APRIL 1987

account lor about two percent ol total
VOC; emissions from all sources. Yet
   Sonic ot the advantages of Stage II
over onboard control art) that Stage II
can be selectively installed  in
geographical areas that cannot attain the
ambient  oy.one .standard. Also, under the
most favorable circumstances, Stage II
can be implemented more quickly than
onboard  control, which would only lie
required on future ne\v cars and,
therefore, could not  achieve  full
effectiveness until tin; national fleet  is
primarily comprised of cars with
onboard  control. Supporters  of Stage 11
also point out that it is a proven
technology, particularly given the
effectiveness of  the California
   On the other hand, Stage II has tin;
disadvantage of requiring a
comprehensive and costly enforcement
program  to maintain its effectiveness.
Since parts of the Stage M hardware
must periodically be replaced.
particularly the flexible boot.
government officials would be required
to conduct frequent inspections and
tests of the hardware  to assure- its
proper installation and operation.
Another disadvantage of Stage II control
is that its effectiveness depends to some
extent on the actions  of the person
pumping the fuel. If sufficient pressure
is not exerted  on the  no/./h: boot to seal
it against the fill pipe, vapors will
escape, thus negating the purpose of the
  The major advantage of onboard
control is that it is more  effective than
Stage II in controlling refueling vapors
over the long run, While the benefits
from Stage II may exceed those from
onboard during the first  few years, after
the majority of pre-onboard vehicles
have been scrapped and  replaced by
those with onboard controls, the
percentage of refueling vapors
controlled would be significantly greater
                                                                                  U'dcn (i cur is refueled, \ cipurs
                                                                                  continuing volatile organic compounds
                                                                                  (VOCsJ are released into the air where
                                                                                  they mix with other pollutants to
than with Stage I!. Also, onboard is a
passive system in that a vehicle owner
would be unaware of its presence in the
car. It would require very little
maintenance over the life of the car.
  Further advantages of onboard control
are that in addition to reducing YOC
emissions in ozone nonattainment areas,
it would provide VOC reductions in
attainment areas, and thus help to
maintain the standard. Finally, it would
provide nationwide benefits from
reduced exposure to known and
probable carcinogens in  refueling
  On the negative side, space
requirements for onboard systems.
specifically  a charcoal canister up to
one gallon in volume,  might  pose
difficulties for designers of small cars.
The issue of vehicle safety is also an
important consideration whenever
modifications are made in fuel systems.
In fact. Congress wrote a provision into
the Clean Air Act instructing LIP A to
consult with the Department of
Transportation  on vehicle safety matters
before making a final determination to
require onboard systems on new  cars  or
  As the above discussion illustrates,
the controversial issues surrounding
control ot refueling omissions are many.
That, in large part, explains why the
matter has been studied, analy/.ed. and
debated within Hl'A. industry, and
environmental groups  for more than a
decade. Now. however, it appears that a
decision is near. Lee M.  Thomas, the
Administrator til KPA. slated in
February of  this year in Congressional
testimony that tie will publicly propose
within several months whether refueling
emissions should be controlled by Stage
II systems on gas pumps or by systems
placed onboard  new cars and trucks.  -
APRIL 1987

"People"  Benefits
from  a  Cleaner  Cuyahoga
 by Paul Svedersky
It f~~**leveland: The Comeback City."
  V_jThis slogan is being used by some
national media to describe the; upswing
in civic pride and accomplishment in
the Cleveland area, especially around its
waterfront. Clone art; the days when
knowledgeable people described the  city
as the "mistake on the lake," where one
might be cautioned about the river that
didn't flow, but "oo/,ed."
  News about Cleveland's comeback
might mention the downtown building
boom, the All-America City designation,
the theater restoration project at
Playhouse Square (largest of its kind  in
the. United States), the resurgence of  the
warehouse district, or perhaps the
rebirth  of Cleveland's  waterfront. Yes,
indeed, about the only thing that oo/es
along Cleveland's waterfront these days
are the crowds of people and their
enthusiasm for what's ahead.
  The recovery of Cleveland's
waterfront is due in no small part to
years of environmental protection and
pollution control efforts directed at the
Cuyahoga River and near-shore Lake
  The saga of Cleveland's troubled
waters  began in 1765 with Benjamin
Franklin's desire to build a  fort where
the Cuyahoga River meets Lake Krie.
Cleveland's lake and riverfronts have
always been working waterways.
Overtaxed from the; very start, the
Cuyahoga River never seemed destined
to become a  nature preserve or a San
Antonio River Walk.
  From the early days of Moses
Cleveland and the settlers who followed
him  to  Connecticut's "Western Reserve."
the waterfront was hardly given a
moment's rest. By 1803, 20  oil refineries
were producing in Cleveland, making
the city the oil refining center of the
world at that time. John 1). Rockefeller
 (Svedersky is I'Aemlive Dnrrlur o| (in
 ( .'leveldlid U (ilerlmnl (.'oulil inn. |
                                                                            "fv'rci/v crafts" /nil touelli<.T mit <>l milk
                                                                            cartons n;<:r on the (,'uy
  The notoriety of Cleveland's water
pollution problems was instrumental in
sparking environmental reform in the
late 1960s and early 1970s. The U.S.
Congress passed major clean water
legislation in 1972. Soon after,
American engineers developed 
Indians  Act
for a  Cleaner  Environment
by Roy Popkin
    This spring sawmill operators on the
    Colville Tribes Inciiiin Reservation
\vilhin Washington Stale will he
visited by an environmental inspector
checking the impact of their operations
on  water quality in nearby rivers. And
within North Dakota, another inspector
will he checking to see it  pesticide
applicators are complying with
regulations on  the Fort lierdiold
  lioth inspectors arc agents of tribal
governments, carrying out
environmental regulations drawn up by
tile tribes. The \vord.s of the
Environmental I'rotection Agency's
Indian policy aie thus being translated
into real-world environmental protection.
  These and other pilot projects have
moved out ol I he planning stage as
KI'A's regional and headquarters offices
begin to liring  the I!t84 policy statement
to life on  the nation's 278 Indian
reservations. Tile territory covered by
this policy is huge: equal to all of  New
England, \ew  York, New Jersey, and
Maryland. The amended Glean Water
Act ami Safe Drinking Water Act. as
well as the Snpeiinnd Amendments and
Reauthorixation  Act. all direct EPA to
deal with  the tribes as sovereign
  EPA's headquarters offices, many of
them under Congressional deadlines, are
establishing a variety of work groups
and advisory committees  to determine
what pollution-control activities are
feasible and what funding is available.
The Office of Federal Activities  is
coordinating KIJA"s Indian program, hut
tiie KI'A regions actually carry it out in
the field  in cooperation with the tribes.
 (Popkin is (i writer/editor lor h'PA's
 Office of PitMic Affairs.|

  Policy implementation can he tricky
when it has to accommodate 278 trihal
entities, not to speak of 50 states.
Federal treaties establishing the
reservations vary—some deeded the
land to Native Americans outright:
others hold the land in trust. Moreover.
delegation of regulatory and
compliance authority to tribal
governments has also generated some
concern among non-Indians who live or
operate farms, sawmills, mines, and
other industries on the reservations.
Many people didn't believe
the  tribal governments had the
capacity for environmental
EPA regional attorneys have to make
certain that all interests are considered,
lest a backlash produce lawsuits and
long delays.
  For example, difficulties emerged in
North Dakota, where considerable
public alarm was generated upon
publication of EPA's intent to delegate;
pesticide certification authority to the
Three Affiliated Tribes-  Mandan.
Hidatsa, and Ankara—on  the Fort
Herthold Reservation.
  Recalls Region 8 pesticides chief Don
Rushton, "We went through  every step
meticulously. The Attorney General and
the Governor objected to our plan:
century-old boundary questions we,e
argued all over again." Some 115 letters
of protest poured in from  non-Indian
farmers  working reservation  land, but
none of the protesters ever sat down
with the tribal government to ask about
its intentions.
  The I']PA position was that trihal
jurisdiction was a prerequisite for
approval—the Agency was merely
rocogni/ing that the tribe's program
fulfilled EPA requirements. In fact. EPA
would have had to set up a federal
certification program if the tribe  hadn't
done so.
  To respond to the concerns of
non-Indians, the tribes established an
administrative panel to hear appeals by
applicators. According to a recent
Region 8 report, the tribes have certified
95 pesticide applicators but have not
taken enforcement action, preferring to
give voluntary compliance a try. The
protest of the non-Indians has subsided.
but the tribal inspector has referred two
cases  to EPA for review.
  Meanwhile, the tribes have cleaned
up two illegal pesticide dump sites,
performed a ground-water survey for
pesticide contamination, drilled wells to
monitor subsurface waters where
pesticide containers have been dumped.
and monitored surface water in
agricultural areas.
  The Fort Berthold pilot project is
becoming a classic example of how
Indian expertise in  environmental
matters can be developed, just as it
evolved in each of the 50 state
governments. The Three Tribes are part
of a three-year EPA-funded national
demonstration project in which the
Agency is helping the tribes' joint
Natural Resources Department to
address current air, water, and waste
problems and keep the environment
from deteriorating further.
  In addition, the tribes have been
working with the region on
development of a reservation-wide
environmental public awareness
campaign through their own
newspapers, radio station, and schools.
  Region 8 has jurisdiction over a large;
number of tribes on 2<> reservations in
six states, covering almost a fourth ol
the nation's reservation population and
38 percent of the totai  land area. In
fiscal  year 1986, the Region provided
grants for air monitoring and program
                                                                EPA JOURNAL

development to nine tribes to complete
emission inventories and climatology
studies as a basis for regulations and
ordinances on their reservations. Funds
for pesticide enforcement and  training
were supplied to five tribes. The
Region also provided tribes with
technical assistance in locating new
landfill sites, controlling underground
storage tanks and fluid injection, and
upgrading drinking water.
  We can see the same process at work
in Region 10. where  a water quality
management plan is  being implemented
by the 13 Confederated Colville Tribes
in mountainous, heavily-forested,
north-central Washington. Working with
EVA, the tribes are the first to  move  into
water quality management under
Section  2QH of the Clean Water Act.
  According to Region 10  attorney
Deborah  Gates, a significant early step
was tribal passage of the Colvilie
Administrative Procedures Act. which
spells out appeal and review procedures
 The words of EPA's Indian
 policy are  being translated
 into real-world environmental
to be invoked if tribal water quality
management decisions are challenged.
As in North Dakota, this met tin-
concerns of non-Indians about whether
environmental enforcement would be
fair to them. Ultimately, the tribal
clean-water ordinances will  regulate all
mining, silviculture, and farming on the
reservation: logging will have priority.
Compliance targets will range from
Crown-Zellerbach to the mom-and-pop
  Gary Passmore, the tribal hydrologist.
says Clean Water Act enforcement on
the  reservation  is three years behind
enforcement by the state of Washington
on non-Indian lands. He anticipates few
negative reactions.
  Burgeoning Indian program activity  is
also evident in  Region  5. where the
focus is a  pilot  project  on solid  and
hazardous waste disposal lor the
Menominee Reservation in northern
Wisconsin. The reservation has a
Menominee population of  (i,5()(). Its
rivers, streams,  and  lakes are heavily
exploited  for recreation in all seasons.
and truckers daily negotiate  north-south
routes through the reservation.
  The Menominee project  started with
an EPA  grant and a  Memorandum ol
Understanding between the tribe, the
Wisconsin Department of Natural
Resources, and  EPA back in  I
implementation schedule including a
user-fee system for hazardous materials
transporters, notification of shippers,
assisting generators to comply with
hazardous waste rules, and conducting
surface-water and ground-water
  The issue of tribal versus state control
over navigable waters and lakes within
the reservation—but bordered by
non-tribal lands—remains to be resolved
but is not believed to be a serious
  Last December, Region 5 and  the
National Congress of American Indians
co-sponsored a two-day meeting at
which top Indian, state, and federal
officials reviewed every aspect of Indian
environmental policy. In January,
Region 5 and the Great Lakes Indian Fish
and Wildlife Commission conducted a
day-long "orientation to Indian country"
to acquaint EPA staff with the history,
culture, and capability of area tribes for
natural resource management in the
upper Midwest. In Region 5, "circuit
riders" visit all the reservations at least
annually to provide technical assistance,
 mainly with drinking water. As a result
 of such efforts, reservations in the
 region have achieved 90 percent
 compliance with EPA safe drinking
 water standards.
   Region 5's enthusiastic Indian
 programs coordinator, Kestutis K.
 (Casey) Ambutis, says many people
 didn't believe the tribal governments
 had the capacity for environmental
 self-regulation. "Those people forget
 there was a time when state and local
 governments had little, if any,
 capability," he recalls. "Now, more and
      From the Heart...

      On May 29,1985, Lawrence Wetsit,
      director of the Assiniboine-Sioux
      Tribes' Fort Peck Indian
      Reservation Minerals Office,
      testified at an EPA underground
      injection permit hearing in Poplar,
        "I am very concerned with the
      protection of our environment.
      What I have been taught in my 32
      years is that the most important
      thing for the Indian people is their
      land....We were pushed further
      and further west until we finally
      ended up here on the Fort Peck
      Reservation. We have nowhere else
      to go. If we find it unlivable here,
      then we are finished.
        "This is where my grandparents
      and great  grandparents are buried,
      and where I will be buried. If my
      generation does not do what has to
      be done to protect what we have
      left, then there will be  nothing for
      my children....Because  of this
      feeling our tribal council decided
      that they needed to establish some
      system where we could protect our
      environment and save our land.
    "The Fort Peck Tribes
  established a minerals resource
  office to monitor oil and gas
  activities...At one point we had
  coal speculators coming in and
  asking for leases here on the
  reservation. At that time the tribes
  had no technical office to advise
  them....We held those people off
  until we could get an office
  established that could allow these
  coal and oil companies to  come in
  and develop...on terms the Fort
  Peck Tribes can live with.  We
  must remember, if we make a bad
  decision today, our children will
  have to live with it over the next
  30 or 40 years.
    "Under the mineral resource
  office, our role is to protect the
  land surface and all of the trust
  land here on the Fort Peck
  Reservation. We also oversee...all
  oil  and gas leases....Even though
  we do like the benefits of
  development, we also  have to look
  at the other side of the coin....The
  Fort Peck Tribes decided that the
  future of Indian people is more
  important than money.
    "We have had our own gas and
oil development here since
1951....With each new well there is
more water to be disposed of....We
can go anywhere and look at the
agricultural land where there are
oil wells and there is nothing
  "Along with protection of our
lands, the Fort Peck Tribes have
entered into a water compact with
the State of Montana. We let the
state know of our concern with the
ground water here. Without water,
the land has no value....If we inject
this salt water improperly, we will
destroy these fresh aquifers.
  "It is my responsibility as the
director of the tribal mineral
resource program....to ensure that
industry and other federal agencies
are aware of the concerns of the
Fort Peck Tribes. We want to leave
something that our children can
live with and be proud of. We
hope our technical staff can
show—with scientific data—that
underground  injection is causing
us problems, and that we need  to
keep a good watch on it to protect
our future."
                                                                 EPA JOURNAL

more tribes are employing sanitarians,
attorneys, biologists, accountants,
resource managers, and hydrologists.
The infrastructure is being developed at
a pretty rapid rate."
  At EPA headquarters, too, the pace of
Indian program activities is accelerating.
Agency experts are preparing
implementation strategies that will
include what Administrator Lee Thomas
calls "short- and long-term actions to
ensure that the environmental statutes
are actually implemented on Indian
reservation lands." That means more
grant funds, in-house personnel,
technical assistance, training, and
set-aside moneys. At the same time,
program offices have been reviewing
and funding requests for assistance.
  The  Indians' own priorities were
reflected in a "Survey of American
Indian Environmental Protection Needs
on Reservation Lands: 1986," conducted
by Americans for Indian Opportunity.
The survey analyzed reservations
ranging from 33 acres with a population
of 10 to the Navajo Nation of 149,000
living on 16 million acres, and
embracing 58 percent of the current
nationwide reservation population. Said
the survey, "...92 percent of reservations
reporting were participating in at least
one environmental activity...Most  tribal
governments have recognized the  need
to address one or more areas of
importance on their reservations and
have done so...but many environmental
problems still need to be addressed."
Certainly there is a manifest new
commitment  and momentum; Native
Americans can expect a better
environment in the years ahead, an
outcome that will be shaped largely by
their own hands.  Q
The  EPA-lndian  Partnership
Expansion of EPA's partnership
with Indian  tribal governments can
be traced to  two Indian Policy
statements, the first issued by
President Ronald Reagan in
January 1983,the second by
then-EPA Administrator William
Ruckelshaus in November  1984.
  The President's policy extended
earlier actions—the Indian
Reorganization Act of 1934 and an
initiative by President Richard
Nixon in 1970—by explicitly
re-emphasizing the juridical
sovereignty  of tribal governments.
The new federal approach  called
for strengthening tribal
governments and helping them
achieve economic growth,  social
stability, and managerial expertise.
  EPA was the  first federal agency
to follow up. La Donna Harris,  in
her introduction to the ''Survey of
American Indian Environmental
Protection Needs on Reservation
Lands: 1986," undertaken by
Americans for Indian Opportunity
(AIO), said that EPA's Indian
policy statement of 1984
"represents a most positive
step...toward more cooperative,
productive relationships between
federal and tribal
governments...recognizing that  the
partnership  must steadily move
toward greater parity." The
response from tribal leaders was
overwhelmingly favorable.
  EPA policy says the Agency

• Work directly with tribes on a
government-to-government basis,
not as tributaries of other
• Recognize tribal authority to set
standards, make decisions, and
manage reservation programs,
consistent with EPA standards and
• Assist tribes in  assuming
regulatory and program
• Remove legal and procedural
impediments to working directly
with the tribes.
• Consider tribal  interests fully in
decisions impacting reservations.
• Encourage cooperation between
tribal and  state governments.
• Enlist the support of other
federal agencies on Indian lands.
  EPA and the tribes recognize
that what the AIO has termed the
"limited and sporadic"
relationship of the past will not
improve spontaneously.
Implementation will take careful,
conscientious work by EPA, the
tribes, and many other
parties—public and private—in
coining months and years.
APRIL 1987

A review of recent niiijur KPA activities and developments in
                            he pollution control program
Mazda Recall
Mazda North America, Inc.,
has begun recalling nearly
140.000 of its GLC and KX-7
models because they exceed
the federal hydrocarbon and
carbon-monoxide exhaust
emission standards.
   Nearly 47.WW 1982 CILC
cars equipped with 1.5-liter
piston engines  will have
air-bleed assemblies installed
to increase the  amount of air
mixed with  fuel.
   Mazda is also recalling
1)1.1 12 HW2 and 1983 KX-7
cars with 1.1 liter rotary
engines to replace the
ceramic pellets in the
catalytic converter and
modily the air-injection
system. In some cases, the
KX-7 cars may  need choke
 Toxicology Data
 KPA is mailing notices to
 approximately 2,075
 pesticide registrants
 requesting toxicology data on
 304 active ingredient
 chemicals used in
 antimicrobial pesticide
  The Agency has
 determined that more data
 are needed to assess the
 potential hazards associated
 with the use of antimicrobial
 pesticides. In the past. KPA
 assumed that human
 exposure to most
 antimicrobial pesticides
 involved oniy short-term
 exposure to low
 concentrations of active
 ingrediants. Therefore, only
 acute loxicity data were
 required to register most
 antimicrobial pesticide
  Antimicrobial  pesticides
 include products  used as
 disinfectants, saniti/ers.
 sterilants, and commodity
 preservatives in hospitals.
 health-care facilities,
 establishments, swimming
 pools, and metal-working
Asbestos Grants
EPA announced the
availability of funds for
1987 loans and grants under
the Asbestos School Hazard
Abatement Act of 1984
(ASHAA), and announced its
first round of awards.
  The awards, which totaled
$34.2 million, will go to the
nation's most financially
needy schools to help abate
asbestos hazards. Awards
were offered to 366 schools
that applied for federal
funds. EPA based selection
upon the severity of the
schools' asbestos-related
problem and their financial
  This cycle of awards was
being offered, to schools
which submitted their
applications during 1!)8(>.
EPA was not able to fund all
the qualified projects
submitted in 1<)80 and
reconsidered the HJHfi
holdover applications for
1987 funding.
PCF? Cleanup Policy
KPA has announced a new
policy for nationwide
cleanup standards of
polychlorinated biphenyl
(PCB) spills.
  The requirements and
standards  in this policy are
based upon the Agency's
evaluation of the potential
routes of exposure and
potential risks associated
with the more common types
of PC'.H spills, as well as the
costs associated with cleanup
following such spills.
  EPA Assistant
Administrator for Pesticides
and Toxic Substances. Dr.
John A.  Moore, stated: "This
nationwide policy will
reduce the risks from PCB
spills to public health and
the environment by
encouraging rapid and
effective cleanup and
restoration of the site."
  In the past, policies for the
cleanup of PCB spills have
been established separately by
each KPA regional office on a
case-hy-case basis, which
subsequently allowed for
varying  standards from
region to region.
Drinking Water Awareness
Under a new EPA proposal
required by the Safe Drinking
Water Act, all drinking-water
supply operators in the
United States must notify
their customers ot potential
sources and  adverse health
effects of lead. Operators are
responsible for doing this
even if they  are not violating
lead standards.
  The first public notice for
lead must by sent from
operators to  customers by
June 1988, even if the water
system is not violating the
current federal standard of 50
parts per billion.
  If a  state fails to enforce
these special notification
requirements for lead. HP A is
authorized by the Safe
Drinking Water Act to
withhold up to five percent
of that state's federal  grants
for operating public water
systems.   LJ
          Martin D. Topper has been appointed to
          the position of Indian Program
          Coordinator within the Office of Federal
          Activities, lie will be responsible for
                    coordinating the development and
                    implementation of the EPA policy for
                    Indian reservation lands in the United
                      Dr. Topper has  had experience in a
                    wide variety of fields. He has served as
                    Cultural Anthropologist Consultant and
                    as Assistant Director of the Mental
                    Health Branch of  the Navajo Area of the
                    Indian Health Service (HIS). This
                    included serving  in clinical positions
                    near the Navajo Reservation treating
                    mental health patients at  various IMS
                    facilities. He was  also an  Assistant
                    Professor of Anthropology at Southern
                    Methodist University.
                      He received his Bachelor's Degree in
                    Anthropology from the University of
                    Illinois, and his Master's  and Ph.D. from
                    Northwestern University, also in
                    Anthropology. He has also done
                    post-doctoral study at the University of
                    Chicago and  the University of California
                    at San Diego, n
                                                                                                        EPA JOURNAL

Two deer pause for a moment cil sunset
on the f','