Working Guidelines and
Procedures for Preparation
ORD Scientific and
Technical Assessment Reports (STAR)

                           Office of Research ami Development
                           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                           Washington, D.C. 20460



              PREPARATION OF  ORD




                DECEMBER  1974



  2.    PROCEDURES	5

        Star List	5
        Preparation of Development Plans by Star Committee.  .  . 7
        Working Group .  .  .	9
        Report Review	  .10
        Final Editing, Issuance,  and Publication	11


  Appendix A - August 15 Memorandum from Assistant Administrator
               for Research  and Development	A-l

  Appendix B - STAR Development Plans and Their Preparation  .   B-l

  Appendix C - Procedures  for Development and Succession of
               Drafts	C-l

               General Requirements	C-l
               Draft Sequence and Designation	C-l

  Appendix D - Editorial Guidelines and Special Instructions
               for Preparation of Assessment Reports	D-l

               D.I  Purpose  and Scope	D-l
               D.2  Star Series . ."	D-l
               D.3  Use of Word/One	D-2
               D.4  File of  Reference Material	D-2
               D.5  Cover and Title Page Format	D-3
               D.6  EPA Review Notice	D-3
               D.7  Inside Front Cover Page Format	D-4
               D.8  Paper Size	D-5
               D.9  Margins	D-5
               D.10 Type Face	D-5
               D.ll Units	D-5
               D.12 Line Spacing	D-6
               D.13 Indentation	D-6
               D.14 Lists	D-6
               D.15 Headings	D-7
               D.16 References	D-9
               D.17 Footnotes	D-14

Appendix D (cont'd)
             D.18 Illustrations	D-14
             D.19 Table Style	D-15
             D.20 Page Numbering	D-19
             D.21 Conformance with ORD Report Specifications D-20

Appendix E - Procedures for Requesting Access to Time Sharing
             Services through EPA Contract with Bowne Time
             Sharing  (Word/One)	E-l

              1.	TNTPpDUCTTgN_ANp_OBJECTIVES

The assessment of known available data on  major  pollutants

of  concern  to  EPA  is  one  of the major functions of the

Office of Research and Development,  whether  the  data  are

generated  by EPA through in-hcuse efforts or through grants

or contracts, or by other research institutions, ORD  has  a

responsibility, as the Agency's technical arm, for assessing

the  information  available  to  determine  its validity and

significance.   The  purpose  of  Scientific  and  Technical

Assessment  Reports   (STAR)   is  to  assist  the  Agency  in

complying with the statutory  directives  for  which  it  is

responsible,    in    accordance    with    the    Assistant

Administrator's memorandum of August 1T>, 1974  (see  Appendix

A).   This  is  a  two-fold  requirement on the part of ORD,

which   involves   the   close   interaction   between   our

professional   staff   and:     1)  the  Program  Offices  in

developing various standards, guidelines,  regulations,  and

technical  reports,  and 2)  the office of General Counsel in

defending, as a result of possible  litigation,  those  same

standards,  guidelines,  regulations  and technical reports.

The  importance  of  the  Reports,  therefore,   cannot   be


                         2  -
Although  the  key  characteristics  desired  for  STAR  are

explained in  Appendix  A,,  it  may  be  useful  to  briefly

summarize them here:

     o   Assessment, not just summarization of knowledge on

         each pollutant.

     o   Multi-media, not single media in scope.

     o   Multi-disciplinary.

     o   Objective assessment without recommendations.

     o   Dose-response relationships, not effects thresh-


     o   Careful internal and external review.

The  objectives  of  these Working Guidelines and Procedures

are  to  establish  a  uniform  set  of  procedures  and   a

standardized  outline,  to  the  extent,  practical,  for the

preparation of ORD STAR.  These  guidelines  and  procedures

supercede all previous ones and with the exceptions noted in

the  next  paragraph  will be used in the preparation of ORD

assessment-type documents.

It is recognized that there are  likely  to  be  many  cases

where  special  circumstances  will  make  the  standardized

outline  impractical  and  where   it   will   create   more

difficulties  than it will resolve.  In those cases where it

                        - 3 -
is possible to anticipate this,  special  detailed  outlines

will  be  prepared.   This  is  likely  to  be the case when

specific legislative requirements must, be  met   (as  in  the

case  of criteria documents)  or when the documents report on

terminated research.   In  still  other  circumstances,  the

inappropriateness  of  the  outline will become evident only

during the actual preparation cf a section  of  a  document.

In  that  case  those  responsible  for  the  section should

proceed with a more useful structure of  their  section  and

notify  the  OPI  Coordinator  if the change is sufficiently

major so as to make the revised  section  incompatible  with

sections  being prepared by other laboratories.  It is hoped

that in this way the outline will prove  to  be  more  of  a

guide,  and  hopefully an aid, to thos.e preparing assessment

documents  rather  than  a  set  of  restrictions  on  their


In  writing  STAR,  it  is  important to keep the English as

simple  and  straightforward  as  possible  consistent  with

maintaining  the  precision  necessary.  Professional jargon

should be avoided whenever possible.   Where  possible,  the

English  should  be  understandable to a decision maker in a

program office who may not have technical  training  in  the

particular specialized field being discussed.

Suggestions for revision and changes in these guidelines and

procedures  will  always  be  gratefully received by OPI and

should be addressed to John Buckley (202-755-2611)   or  Alan

Carlin (202-755-0650).


                       2.  PROCEDURES
The procedures to be used in the preparation of STAR will be

briefly   summarized   in   this   section.   More  detailed

dicussions of various aspects cf the process can be found in

Appendixes B, C, and D.  Fiqure 2.1 provides  a  diagramatic

representation of the process as it will normally occur.


As  outlined  in the Assistant Administrator's memorandum of

August 15r  1974   (see  Appendix  A),  OPI  will  prepare  a

periodically updated list of pollutants for which assessment

documents are to be prepared, the dates by which they are to

be'  issued after appropriate consultation with other ORD and

Agency components, and OPI Coordinators who will  have  lead

responsibility  for  coordinating  the  preparation  of  the

document for OPI.  This list will be made up on the basis of

periodically solicited  inputs  from  and  discussions  with

interested  program  offices  and  DAAs.  In addition, there

will be an obvious need for coordination between these lists

and ORD  program  plans.   Every  effort  will  be  made  to

coordinate the list with the concerned program area managers

so  that  there  ar  no conflicts between the EROSs and the

                                        - 6 -
                                     Figure  2.1

                               STAR  PREPARATION PROCESS
                                 ADD POLLUTANT TO
                                    STAR LIST
                                 APPOINT OPI
                                 FORM STAR'
                                      CONCUR ON
                                                                       WORKING GROUP
                                                                       PREPARE ROUGH
                                                                     DRAFTS 1 AND II
                                 REVIEW CLEARANCE
                                                                     PREPARE EXTERNAL
                                                                     REVIEW DRAFT
                                                                     PREPARE EDIT 1
                                                                     AND 2 AND
                                                                     CLEARANCE DRAFT
                                 AA CLEARS STAR
                                                       FINAL DRAFT

most  recent  STAR  list.   Any  conflicts  that  cannot  he

otherwise  resolved  should  be  presented  to the Assistant

Administrator for resolution.
For each pollutant on these lists, the OPI Coordinator  will

request  each  DAA (and KERC Director, where appropriate)  to

appoint one staff member to a STAR Committee.  He  may  also

add  additional members to the Committee, as from interested

program offices.  The  Committee  will  be  responsible  for

recommending a development plan for each proposed assessment

document  and  will  be  chaired by the OPI Coordinator.  He'

will prepare or arrange  for  the  preparation  of  a  draft

development  plan  in  time  for  the STAR Committee's first

meeting usinq the format  provided  in  Appendix  B  to  the

extent  possible.   The  draft plan will detail the document

development deadlines necessary to achieve the deadline  for

document  issuance,  the detailed outline of the document if

different than the  general  guidelines  contained  in  this

document,  and  proposed  contributors to be responsible for

the  development  of  each  module  or   'sub-module.    When

agreement   is   reached  in  the  STAR  Committee  orv  this

development plan, the OPI  Coordinator  will  circulate  the

revised  draft development, plan to all relevant ORD DAAs and

NERC/WERC Directors as well as  interested  program  offices

for  detailed  comment.   Formal  concurrence  will  also be

requested from the relevant ORD DAAs and NERC/WERC Directors

who will be contributing resources to the development of the

STAR.  Copies will also be sent for comment to the Directors

of those Laboratories named.  Upon further revision and  the

resolution   of   any  remaining  issues  by  the  Assistant

Administrator, the development plan will be issued in  final

form  by  the  Deputy  Assistant  Administrator  for Program

Integration.  If as a result of  subsequent  information  it

becomes   evident   that   revisions  are  required  in  the

development plan,  these  will  also  be  made  by  the  OPI

Coordinator  with  appropriate notification of and agreement-

by those concerned.
The  development  plan  will  usually  designate   one   ORD

organizational  entity as the pricnary office responsible for

the development and  integration  of  each  module  and  one

individual  in  that  office  as  the staff member primarily

responsible.   The  plan  may  also  designate   one   field

laboratory  as  responsible for the development of each sub-

module  identified,  and  name  one   individual   in   that

laboratory as having primary responsibility.  In many cases,

the  plan  will designate additional contributors or sources

                        - 9 -
for  various  modules  and  sub-modules.    The   plan   will

establish  milestones  for receipt of various drafts by each

organization and for the production of complete and  revised

drafts,  and  for  editing  by  a designated report assembly

Those  individuals  from  each  laboratory  or  headquarters

office  named  in  the  development  plan  as having primary

responsibility for a module or sab-module will be members of

a working Group for that  document.   The  Development  Plan

will  also designate a Working Group Chairperson, often from

the report assembly organization.  The OPI Coordinator  will

usually  serve  as  an  ex-officio member who should receive

copies of STAR drafts circulated to the Working Group and be

informed of only planned Working Group meetings, but may  be

assigned  additional  duties  by  the Development Plan.  The

Chairperson may wish to call cne or  more  meetings  of  the

Group  to insure better cooperation and coordination, and to

appoint one or more additional members of the Working  Group

from the program offices most concerned.

                        - 10 -
Provided  that  the  deadlines  are  met,  any laboratory or

Headquarters office responsible for developing a  module  or

sub-module  may  seek  outside  (of ORD)  review cf its draft

module or sub-modulo provided  that  the  draft  is  clearly

labeled  as  a  preliminary  draft that does not necessarily

represent ORD or EPA views and that a copy of  the  external

review  is forwarded to the report assembly organization and

the DPI Coordinator as scon as  possible  after  receipt  in

ORD.   Upon  receipt  and preliminary in-house review of all

modules and the addition of suitable introductory  material,

the  report  assembly  organization  will  prepare  complete

drafts in accordance with the detailed,  procedures  outlined

in  Appendix  C  and  the  editorial  guidelines and special

instructions in Appendix D.  As detailed there, after review

by the individual responsible for  the  preparation  of  the

modules and sub-modules in each office and laboratory and by

the OPT Coordinator review copies will be sent by the report

assembly organization or OPI to:

     o   A list of external reviewers designated by the

         Science Advisory Board,

     o   Program offices involved,

     o   ORD personnel not involved in the preparation of the

                         - 11 -
         draft who  have  special  knowledge of the subjects

         di scussed,

     o   Relevant headquarters personnel, and

     o   Other individuals deemed desirable..

Each)  organizational   component  involved  in module or sub-

module development  is  encouraged to send names and addresses

for these lists with their completed  draft  to  the  report

assembly   organization   or   the   DPI   coordinator,   if

Upon the completion  of  the   review  process  and  subsequent

draft  revision,  the report  assembly office will arrange for

the editinq of   the   document  and  submit  it  to  the  OPT

Coordinator.   He will promptly  send copies to all relevant

DAAs and STAR Committee members.  If he receives no  adverse

reaction  in  two weeks,  he will recommend issuance to the

Deputy Assistant  Administrator for Program Integration,  who

will  in  turn   review  it and may recommend clearance by the

Assistant Administrator for  research and Development.   Upon

such  clearance,   OPI,   with the  help of the report assembly

                          12 -
organization, will  arrange  for  whatever  publication  and

distribution may be appropriate.

                        - 13 -
              3^	STANpAR_DJ2Ep_KEPORT_OUTLTNE

As  discussed  in  the introduction, the standardized report

outline to be presented in this section is  intended  to  be

more  a  guide  and  an  aid  to  those preparing Assessment

Reports than a set of restrictions on their activities.  The

outline has been annotated in an  attempt  to  indicate  the

type  of information or questions which should be considered

in preparing each module.  Additional  sub-headings  may  be

used as appropriate.  The titles of each textual section and

subsection are listed in Table ,3.1 for easy reference.



Required  by  EPA  regulations.  200 words or less.  Will be

prepared by the report assembly organization.
The preface should state the objective of the  document  and

acknowledge  contributions  by  the  principal  authors.  It

                        - 15 -
should also explain why the report has been prepared and the

relation of the document to other  similar  documents.   The

preface  should be brief and prepared by the report assembly

                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

Will be prepared by the  report  assembly  organization  and

carry  the heading CONTENTS.  First order headings should be

listed in upper case; second order headings should be listed

using upper and lower case style with the  first  letter  of

the  first  word capitalized.  Third order headings  (also in

upper  and  lower  case  style)   may  be  included  if  done

uniformly  throughout the report and if they are numbered in

the report.  Section and subsection numbers  should  precede

the  title.   The  first  line  of  all titles should have a

uniform indentation  from  the  left  margin.   Extra  space

should be left between sections.

                         - 16 -
                      LIST OF FIGURES

Should  list all figures that appear in the report by figure

number, title, and page number.   The  title  should  be  in

upper   and   lower   case  style,  with  the  first  letter

capitalized.  The first line of all  titles  should  have  a

uniform  indentation from the left margin.  Will be prepared

by report assembly organization.
                       LIST OF TABLES

Should list all tables that appear in the  report  by  table

number,  title,  and page number.  The title should be upper

and lower case style, with  the  first,  letter  capitalized.

The   first  line  of  all  titles  should  have  a  uniform

indentation from the  left  margin.   Will  be  prepared  by

report assembly organization.

Will  be  prepared  by  report  assembly  organization.  All

abbreviations  used   in   the   text   should   be   listed

                        - 17 -
alphabetically  and  the  full  word(s)  listed to the right

using a uniform indentation.

Will be  prepared  by  report  assembly  organization.   All

chemical  formulas  mentioned  in  the text should be listed

alphabetically with their full  name  listed  to  the  right

using a uniform indentation.
                 1. SUMMARY AKE CONCLUSIONS

Each primary, module development organization will prepare a

separate  sub-section  on  summary  and  conclusions  to the

specific module of the outline for which it is  responsible.

The    report   assembly   organization   will   use   these

contributions in preparing this section.

                        - 18 -

An executive summary in which  the  most  important  points,

from  the  standpoint  of  decision-making, included in each

major section are presented in concise and simple  language.

The  summary  should  contain  no  information  which is not

supported in the rest of the document.

The  conclusions  should  concisely  assess  the  degree  of

knowledge  of  various  aspects of the problems posed by the

pollutant, what critical data gaps may exist, the extent  of

the  problem  posed  by  the  pollutant,  and  the  range of

possibilities available for doing something about it.  There

would be nothing in the  conclusions  that  is  not  clearly

based  on  data in the report.  Although significant gaps in

knowledge should be noted, no recommendations should be made

as to whether future research should be carried out to  fill

them.   There  should  also be no recommendations as to what

action, if any, the Agency should take with respect  to  the


                        -  19 -

A  discussion of the chemical and physical properties of the

pollutant  to  he  discussed  in  the  report  that  may  he

significant  with  regard  to  uses,  sampling and analysis,

transport   and   transformation,   effects,   and   control

technology.    This   section    should   discuss  why  these

properties  are  important.   Include  the  basic   chemical

formulae  in  the  case of compounds as well as a diagram of

compound structure.  Emphasize compounds  which  may  be  of

concern,   whether  or  not  they  exist  naturally  in  the

environment, their associations, stability, solubility, etc.

This sub-section should  discuss  two  questions:   can  the

pollutant  be measured and how well?  These questions should

be addressed with respect to ambient levels in  air,  water,

and    land   materials    (soil,   sediments,   etc.),   and

concentrations in food receptors such  as  plants,  animals,

and  man,  in  food  consumed  by  animals  and  man, and in

                        - 20 -
effluent emissions from pollution sources.   In  each  case,

these two questions should be answered in terms of assessing

the  techniques  available  for sampling and the preparation

and analysis of samples for the more  promising  techniques.

Shortcomings  of  each technique should be discussed.  It is

also appropriate to assess the availability  of  instruments

and   of   standard   reference   materials  for  instrument

calibration and to assess the quality  assurance  status  of

the   method   described.   Additionally,  for  the  methods

described, it is appropriate to indicate the  working  range

and  recommended  technique, and equivalent techniques if no

standard   reference   technique   has   been   established.

Particular  attention  should be paid to the relationship of

what is measured by the analytical method to  the  form  the

pollutant takes in the various media and on those techniques

used  to  obtain data presented in other modules of the same

document.    where   possible,   quantitative   values   for

precision,  accuracy,  etc., should be stated.  Interference

should be discussed specifically, as well as other  problems

related   to   obtaining   reliable   data.   Discussion  of

procedures should not be repeated; simply reference previous


                        - 21 -

Where possible it would be useful to  include  somewhere  in

this  section  a figure that conveys an idea as to the total

cycle  that  the  pollutant  goes  through  from  source  to

receptor  including  approximate ranges of concentrations in

each medium and the exchange rates  and  mechanisms  between

media and sub-media, where important.


An  assessment  of available data on observed concentrations

in air, water, land materials,  plants,  animals,  man,  and

food    for   animals   and   man   should   be   presented.

Characteristic patterns in space and time  for  both  short-

and  long-term  changes should be emphasized.  Dates of data

collection should be included, as well as confidence  limits

(quantiative   or   subjective),  measurement  methods,  and

averaqinq times.  Significant, gaps in the data  and  changes

in measurement methods during the period of record should be

noted.  If the term "trace" is used it should be defined.

                        - 22 -

This  sub-section  should  assess  the state of knowledge of

chemical, physical, and biological processes in both natural

and man-made   (such  as  those  arising  from  disposal  and

recycling)   systems  including  removal mechanisms and rates

when known, transport within and  between  media,  residence

times,  etc.,   in  air,  water  (including running, standing,

ground  marine  and  estuarine),  and   soil   environments.

Knowledge   of  mechanisms  that  influence  visibility  and

climate  should  be  assessed.   The  biological  discussion

should  include  food  chain  transfer as well as biological

magnification.  To the extent possible, this section  should-

be  concerned  with  the  total  environmental cycle and the

principal mechanisms that have an impact upon  environmental

loading,  as  well  as  the  extent  to  which environmental

observations   confirm   the   implications    of    process

information.    Knowledge   of   the   following  biological

processes in  fresh  surface  and  marine  waters  should  be

assessed  where  relevant:   degradation by algae, bacteria,

fungi,  and   other   hetrotrophic   populations;   microbial

transformation   (product  formation); effects on growth; and

incorporation and storage  (fcioaccumulation).  In the case of

biological  processes in groundwater, degradation as a result

of  interaction with soil microorganisms  and  transformation

                        - 23 -
should he assessed.  The following chemical processes should

be   discussed   in   surface   waters;   fast   (equilibrium

conditions)    and    slow     (kinetics)    reactions    and

transformations   for   both   chemical   and  photochemical

processes.   The  following  physical  processes  should  be

assessed in the case of fresh surface waters: mass -transport

and   dispersion,   adsorption,   sedimentation,   solution,

diffusion, and  exchange   (substrate-water-air-water).   The

same  physical  processes  should be assessed in the case of

marine environments  except  for  the  addition  of  density

(salinity)  gradients and currents.  In the case of physical

processes in groundwaters, infiltration and retention  rates

should  be  assessed.   Chemical  processes  in  air  and on

surfaces  (such as photo-degradation)   should  be  discussed.

If  relevant, assess the role that other pollutants may have

in the  transformation  of  the  subject  pollutant  in  the

various media in which they come together.

                         - 24 -

Although  this  sect ion is organized in such a way that each

species or group of species would have to be discussed under

four  different  headings,  each   STAR   Committee   should

carefully  consider  whether it rray prove more efficient and

understandable  to  subdivide  this  section  by  groups  of

species,  such  as plants, animals, and man or non-human and

human, and then to discuss consecutively each  of  the  four

subjects  of the subsections shown below for each group.  If

this is  done,  non-human  groups  should,  in  general,  be

discussed prior to man, the ultimate receptor.

This  section  is  concerned  with  assessing the mechanisms

operating at anatomical and physiological  interfaces.   The

discussion  of  animals  should  include  respiratory,  body

surface, and digestive tract routes.  Plants should  include

epidermal,  root,  and  stomatal  systems.  Materials should

include mechanisms relating to undesirable effects, such  as

corrosion.    Mechanisms   may  be  chemical,  physical,  or


                        - 25 -

In this sub-section, consider the? receptor's  normal  handling

of  the  constituent  being   reviewed.    Include    uptake,

distribution,    metabolism,    and     excretion.     Include

information on retention sites and times and  on  response  to

various  retention levels.  Background  information  necessary

to make judgments concerning potential  problems  should  be

included along with nutritional requirements  if  applicable.

Identify  and  describe undesirable  effects  of  the pollutant

involved on plants, animals,  materials,  man,   weather  and

climate,  visibility   in   air,  land  materials,  and water use

(including aesthetic uses).   Effects on  ecosystems  as  well

as effects on individuals  and populations should be included

when  appropriate.   Jh_is  discussion should  be  Structured in

     a way .til.t llfi  ^Dll^sd.ra^j.e   ejfjrectf?   can  be  scaled

      ^  the  jLYl  9^. .QvizontaI  contamj.natj.oru  In the

case of the effects on plants,  animals,  materials, and  man,

the discussion should  include the results of both laboratory

and   field   studies.   Detailed  treatment of  individual

experiments or studies is  not necessary; results  should  be

                        - 26 -
emphasized.    Information   regarding  experimental  design

should  be  included  if  appropriate.   A   discussion   of

reversibility  or  irreversibility  should  specifically  be

included.  Synerqistic effects of  the  pollutant,  if  any,

with  other  pollutants  commonly  found  with  it should be

assessed.  The discussion should include proved,  suspected,

and  possible  effects,  but clearly distinguish among them.

The major gaps and uncertainties in our ability  to  predict

or measure the effects should be assessed.

The  purpose  of  the  sub-section is to assess the possible

exposure levels  (i.e., the accessability  of  the  pollutant

and  the  combined  exposure)  of  various receptors and the

probability that the receptors will actually be subjected to

these levels.   These exposures may come through a number  of

routes,  all  of  which  should be discussed where relevant.

These routes include air, water, food  (in the  case  of  man

and  animals),  land  materials, occupational activities {in

man) and special routes  (man) such  as  smoking,  cosmetics,

and Pharmaceuticals.

                        - 27 -
The   assessment   of   receptor   risks  rniqht  be  treated

analogously to a  time  and  mction  concept,  that  is,  by

considering  the  buildup  of  body  burden  or  effect from

various  environmental   (and  other)  exposures   and   what

proportion   is   presented   i:y   each  exposure.   Include

population, density  aspect,  location  of  source,  receptor

location and activities, and chance of contact.

If  possible,  the exposure estimates presented, summarized,

or  cited  in  this  subsection   should   be   sufficiently

quantitative  so  as  to  make  it possible to calculate the

benefit estimates in  Section  6.1.   If  insufficient  data

exist  to  present  such  calculations,  then  a qualitative

estimate should be prepared.  Exposure estimates  should  be

determined for a range of potential control levels, ideally,

the  same  ones considered in Section 5.2, and including the

case of no further control.  In some cases, it may  be  more

convenient  to  put  this  discussion  at  the  beginning of

Section 6.

                        - 28 -


This sub-section should include a discussion of both current

and projected sources of the pollutant from both natural and

man-made sources.  In  the  case  of  natural  sources,  the

section   should   discuss  what  they  are,  how  they  are

distributed  geographically,   and   what   their   expected

contribution  is  to  the total emissions and to the ambient

level.  In the case of man-made sources, include in addition

production,  uses,  and  emission  factors  and  distinguish

between   stationary  and  mobile  sources.   If  available,

process material balance studies should be cited.   At  this

point  in  our  discussion,  we  should  be  concerned  with

quantitative  estimates  of  the  man-mad^  contribution  to

ambient  levels  of the pollutant in air, water, biological,

and land  materials.   The  discussion  should  include  the

processing  of  raw  materials as a source of the pollutant.

In discussing the  current  and  projected  sources  of  the

pollutant,  the  impact  of  existing and planned reductions

resulting from current environmental regulations  should  be


                        - 29 -

For each major source  listed  in  Section  5.1  assess  the

potential   for  control  by  all  methods;  if  it  can  be

controlled, assess the  availability  and  effectiveness  of

technology  and/or  administrative  measures available to do

so, the cost of achieving a range of reduced ambient levels,

such   as   those   considered   in   Section   U.a,   their

applicability,   and   whether  their  use  generates  other

pollution problems in the same media.   Distinguish  between

control  measures  already  in  use  as a result of existing

environmental regulations, those planned or expected  to  be

used, and untried and unplanned measures.


Some or all of the control measures discussed in Section 5.2

may create other pollution problems in  the  same  or  other

media.   The  existence,  extent,  and possible solutions to

such problems should be discussed for  a  range  of  control


                        - 30 -


To the extent possible, this sub-section should describe the

total  benefits  to  the nation, various regions, and income

groups from a variety of potential control levels,  in  that

order   of   importance.    This   information   should   be

quantitative  and  expressed  in  dollars  to   the   extent

warranted   by   the   reliability  of  the  data,  although

quantitative statements  expressed  in  other  units  {e^cj^,

deaths  avoided,  hospital  days not required, etc.) or even

qualitative  statements  should  be  made  if   sufficiently

reliable  data are not available.  Emphasis should be placed

on national economic benefits  over  a  range  of  potential

control levels, such as those considered in Sections U.4 and

5.2, and including the case of complete control.

The   intent   of  this  section  is  to  assess  the  major

institutional and societal constraints on the implementation

of the potential contrcl measures discussed in Section 5  in

order  to reach the control levels discussed in Section 6.1.

                        - 31 -
Since the relative difficulty cf  applying  various  control

measures  should  be  discussed  in  Section  6.3, this sub-

section should be devoted to an analysis of any difficulties

likely to be encountered in implementing each of the various

control  measures  discussed  in  Section   5.    For   each

administrative  or physical control measure described there,

the analysis  should  ascertain  whether  there  exists  any

Federal  legislative authority for carrying out the measure,

what the major  difficulties  of  so  doing  would  be,  and

whether   there   would   be   any  other   (non-legislative)

implementation  problems  of  carrying   out   the   measure

including  administrative problems given current EPA, state,

and local policies.

This sub-section should provide an  overview  assessment  of

how  serious  the  health,  ecological, and materials damage

threats posted by the  pollutant  are  and  how  serious  the

technological, economic, and institutional/societal problems

of  control  may  be.   The  discussion  of  how serious the

problem is should include both  the  current  situation  and

projections to the year 2000 if possible.  The institutional

discussion,  unlike that in Section 6.2, should describe the

                        - 32 -
relative  difficulty  of  a  range  of  reasonable   control

measures,  including  that  of  the lowest cost measure.  In

making this overview assessment, particular attention should

be given to the quality and certainty of key information and

its relevance to regulatory decisions that  the  Agency  may


                        APPENDIX A

                           WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460
                              AUG 1 5 1974
                                                               OFFICE OF
                                                       RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
SUBJECT:  Scientific and Technical Assessment Documents

FROM:     Acting Assistant Administrator for Research and Development

TO:       See Below


      This memorandum addresses the preparation and issuance by
this Office of assessments of existing data and information to
assist other components of the Agency in regulatory or standard
setting activities.  Although provision of such information is perhaps
the most fundamental responsibility of ORD, confusion and misunderstanding
about the development and issuance of summary assessment documents (which
I will call Scientific and Technical Assessment Documents) has resulted
in delays in review and clearance by this Office.   It has also become
increasingly evident that there is a need for a series of documents
on major pollutants that will summarize for easy reference by the
program offices, the Administrator, and others both inside and outside
the Agency such available information.  1 hope by this memorandum to
clarify the appropriate objectives and content of such documents,
the means by which the need for such materials can be identified
and the roles of the various organizational components of this Office
in developing these documents.

Overall Objectives

      Broadly, the objectives of such documents should be to provide a
scientific basis for proposed/anticipated Agency actions, or an assessment
of the state of knowledge of a major area of completed study that we
do not currently plan to pursue further at this time.  The material pre-
sented should cover all aspects of organized knowledge that will be
helpful in regulatory decision-making regarding a specific pollutant or
class of pollutants.  This coverage should include an objective assessment
of existing knowledge pointing out the extent to which it is definitive,
the validity of the data on which it is based, and further identifying
uncertainties and gaps that may exist.  Most such documents should be multi
media in scope t focusing on single media only to the extent warranted

                               - 2 -

by the distribution of environmental insult.  Documents of this type
should avoid advocacy and present all sides of unresolved scientific
issues.  They should be objective in nature so as not to take positions
on issues currently facing the Agency or otherwise foreclose regulatory
options.  Recommendations as to the need for future research programs
should be avoided.  Further, they should avoid any assessment of current
Agency policies in the light of information presented.  The documents
should not, however, be purely expository in nature as would be project
reports.  They should have an element of assessment so. that, when
published, they can be said to represent the considered position of
the scientific and technical arm of the Agency regarding organized
knowledge bearing on a given subject.  Finally, they should report.
available effects information either in the form of a dose-effect
function or where this is not possible provide as much information as
exists to help the user estimate what the relationship is.


      The format of these documents should be modular in character,
containing either all or some subset of a group of generic topics
on which ORD plays the central advisory role for the Agency.
Ordinarily these documents will contain all of the modules listed
below; however, in special situations as, for example, when the document
assesses an area of research being terminated or when the document is
being prepared to meet a specific legislative requirement with a
smaller scope, such as those prepared pursuant to Sec. 108 of the Clean
Air Act, fewer modules may be needed.  I would suggest that the set of
modules should include the following:

      o  A discussion of pollutant characterization that would cover
         how the pollutant is measured in various media, capabilities
         of different measuring techniques, forms which the pollutant
         may take, etc.

      o  A discussion of environmental occurrence that should cover
         known information on the presence of the pollutant in various
         media and should address the movement and chemical transformation
         of the pollutant in all media and defining, to the extent
         possible, routes of exposure to receptors.

      o  A discussion of the ecological, materials, and health effects
         associated with the pollutant, after it leaves the media and
         enters the receptor structured in such a way that these effects
         can be scaled against the level of environmental contamination.

      o  A discussion of current and projected sources of the pollutant,
         available control technologies, their costs and applicability,
         and the general controllability of the pollutant.


      o  Finally, an overview/environmental appraisal that would consider
         societal/economic factors associated with the pollutant,
         including available information on the benefits of and known
         institutional constraints on control.

Origination, Preparation and Clearance.

      The need for these documents may be identified either from within
ORD or elsewhere in the Agency.   We have already received numerous
requests for materials of this type from several of the program offices.
Similarly, both the DAAs and the MERC/WERC Directors are in positions
to be sensitive to needs for specific background documents.

      In order to bring into being this scientific background series,
I feel it is essential to be able to look across all ORD Program Areas
in order to put the contribution of each in proper perspective.  Further,
it is crucial that ORD coordinate these outputs with the potential users,
particularly in the program offices.  For those reasons, I am assigning
overall responsibility for the appropriate development and clearance
of such documents to the Office of Program Integration.  Specifically,
it will be their responsibility in close cooperation with DAAs, NERCs,
and program offices to:

      o  Prepare and periodically update a list of major pollutants
         for which documents are to be prepared, and the dates by
         which they are to be issued,

      o  Develop detailed substantive and editorial guidelines for
         the development of such documents,

      o  Prepare and obtain the concurrence of relevant DAAs and WERC/
         NERC Directors on a detailed plan for the development of each
         document that:  specifies the modules required, identifies
         responsible contributors, and specifies the date for the
         completion of each major task,

      o  Folloxtf the preparation of each module in enough detail to
         anticipate delays or major problems so that the necessity of
         remedial action can be brought to the attention of the relevant
         DAA or NERC Director or the schedule adjusted,

      o  Arrange for appropriate internal and external review of the
         full documents, and

      o  Arrange for editing of the final document to ensure necessary
         uniformity of style and consistency of content, and prepare
         any additional overview section that may be useful.

      I should like to emphasize that it is not my intent that OPI
should prepare any major portion of the material in each document or
alter the scientific content thereof except as necessary to obtain
uniformity of style and maintain consistency with overall ORD policy
with regard to such materials, as stated earlier in this memorandum.

Implementation of New Procedures

      The Office of Program Integration should proceed as rapidly as
possible to implement the new procedures outlined in this memorandum.
In order not to delay assessments now under development, however,
existing plans, deadlines, procedures and organizational relationships
will continue in effect until changed by follow-up memoranda from the
Deputy Assistant Administrator for Program Integration except that an
information copy of all such assessment documents not yet cleared by
me, and regardless of whether fragmentary or comprehensive in nature,
will be sent to the Deputy Assistant Administrator for Program Integration
prior to any review external to ORD of the full document (or in the case
of those already under external review, immediately) by the person
coordinating such review.  The Deputy Assistant Administrator will also
approve the completed package after the review and prior to clearance
by me.  He will at that time edit the. documents now being prepared
to conform to the overall objectives section of this memorandum to the
extent possible without causing major delays.  Obviously, independent
action by those now responsible for the development of such documents
to make them better conform with this memorandum will^speed the review
Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator for Program Integration (RD-675)
Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator for Environmental Engineering (RD-676)
Deputy Assistant Administrator for Environmental Sciences (RD-682)
Deputy Assistant Administrator for Monitoring Systems (RD-685)
Director, Office of Program Management (RD-674)
Director, Washington Environmental Research Center (RD-690)

Director, National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati
Director, National Environmental Research Center, Corvallis
Director, National Environmental Research Center, RTF
Director, National Environmental Research Center, Las Vegas
Director, Control Systems Laboratory, RTF
Director, Chemistry and Physics Laboratory, RTF
Director, Meteorology Laboratory, RTF
Director, Quality Assurance and Environmental Monitoring Laboratory, RTF
Director, Pesticides and Toxic Substances Effects Laboratory, RTF
Director, Experimental Biology Laboratory, RTF
Director, Special Studies Staff, RTF
Director, Human Studies Laboratory, RTF
Director, National Marine Water Quality Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, National Water Quality Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, Arctic Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, Grosse lie Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, Southeast Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, National Ecological Research Laboratory, Corvallis
Director, Advanced Waste Treatment Research Laboratory, Cincinnati
Director, Environmental Toxicology Research Laboratory, Cincinnati
Director, Industrial Waste Treatment Research Laboratory, Cincinnati
Director, Methods Development and Quality Assurance Research Laboratory,
Director, Solid and Hazardous Waste Research Laboratory, Cincinnati
Director, Water Supply Research Laboratory, Cincinnati
Director, Monitoring Operations Laboratory, Las Vegas
Director, Monitoring Systems Research and Development Laboratory, Las Vegas
Director, Technical Support Laboratory, Las Vegas

                         APPENDIX  B

This Appendix contains a  format  for  STAR Development Plans
together with notes on most  items.   These notes follow:
              t on which. STAR is  to  be prepared.   Be
      precise yet brief.

 2.   Reasons for producing  STAR  and use that, will made
      of it.
 2-1  BSSS2DS whY ORD  regards  the STAR as high priority.

 2-2  Usfrjsj^:  Principal  expected EPA using of f ice (s)  
      detail to at  least. DAA  level.

 2.3  Usej;s]_:  Principal expected EPA using of f ice (s)  
      detail to at  least DAA  level.-
          2l-^I!SS :  Include month  and  year for all significant
      milestones, including  both  those already achieved (show
      actual date) and those not  yet  reached  (show current
      best estimate) .

 3.2  Target, date for approval  by all relevant DAAs, WERC,
      NERCs, and requesting  offices  outside ORD.

 3.3  Besides date,  specify  nature of input.

 3.4  Besides date,  specify  nature of input.

 14  Specify  precisely what document outline is
      now planned to be  used if other than that .in Section
      3 of these guidelines.   (Example:   Special  Studies
      Staff outline, sections 1 throucrh 12) .  Attach
      copy if OPI does not already have one.
                          I:J:5I} :   Sections refer to any speci-
      fied by item  U  or  in  attached outline.   If individual not
      known, specify  organization if possible.   Indicate whe-
      ther preparer believes informal approval  has been
      obtained from all  responsible ORD officials that
      individual/organization shown has agreed  to prepare
 7-   Bl52i_5S2JI!Lvi^_2^3!I!J:2^J:L1:   ORD organization respori-

      sible for assembling Rough  Draft  and  subsequent STAR
                               Check  those ORD organizations
      whose concurrence is  required  pursuant to Section 2
      of the working Guidelines  and  Procedures.

10*    rjrj2Id_b.y:  Name of  individual  primarily responsible
      for preparing this development plan.'  Telephone number
      would be helpful.

11.    I:l;e_.i>r;Dared:   Cate  on  which  preparer finished the
      plan .

12.    I?t.e_a2prgyed_bY_STAP_Con;mj:ttee:   To be filled in when
      this actua3 ly occurs.
13.   P3i-2^Jl^ODuJ[J3CS_oM^j.ned:   To be filled in when
      concurrences  have  been~~obtained  from the Directors/DAAs
      of all organizations  indicated in item 9.

14.   Other_cpmrnents:  List any respect not indicated else-
      where in the  plan  in  which this  STAR or the preparation
      of it will differ  from the OPI working guidelines and
      Procedures for Preparation of ORD STARs.


 3*    ^ilSfltODf-s:   See separate page.

 4.    Outline:

 5.    Se ct^on_^ev_e 1 o_pment_ pLan :  See separate page

 6.    OPI^.Co ordi riator :
 5-   Cone ur r ences_r e^uired :   CPI ___ OEE ___ OES ___  QMS

      WERC  ___ NERC-Cin __ NERC-Cor ___  NERC-RTP __


10-   P5I?3red_by:                  11.  Da t e_prea r ed :

1 2 .   Da t e_aoprove d_h_y__STA_R_Corrim_i t.hee :

1 3 .   pa t_e_a_l JL_c pjic u r r e.ncft s_ob_ta ined :

14.   O the r __commen t_s :

                       3.	KIL E STON ES

3.1   Request (if any)  first received from program office:

3.2   Development plan approved:
3.3   Major required input  (specify)  received other than
      contractor report:
3.4   Contract signed to develop inputs  (specify) for report:
3.5   Final contractor report received:
3.6   All EPA drafts received fcy report assembly organization:
3.7   Rough Draft 1 sent tc Working Group:
3.8   External Review Craft available:
3.9   Edit 2 sent to Working Group:
3.10  Clearance draft sent to Office of Program Integration:
3.11  Clearance draft approved by AA for Research and Devel-
3.12  Final draft published:

                 5.   SECTION  DEVELOPMENT PLAN
         To  be  preparej_jr
Sec-     Orqani-    Indivi-    Informal   Due

                         APPENDIX C
Since  numerous  assessment documents are being' prepared, it
is useful to  formalize  the  procedures  for  handling  the
drafts  as  they  progress to the final document.  This will
assist i-n identifying the most up-to-date draft, the purpose
of  each  draft,  and  the  availability   of   drafts   for

Each  laboratory should ensure that each author's submission
is identified as to document, date  submitted,  and  author.
These  submissions  should,  if  possible, be made using the
Word/One  System  of  Bowne  Time  Sharing,  Inc.   If   not
available,  IBM  magnetic  cards  or  hard  copy  should  be
submitted to the report assembly organization, in that order
of preference.

Special care should be  taken  by  'typists  to  ensure  that
numbers  and  symbols are accurately typed from one draft to
another.  Errors in thes.e are hardest to catch.

One copy of each draft should be filed for office  reference
purposes  and  kept  for  6  months  after  the  document is
Experience has indicated  that  a  sequence  of  drafts,  as
described   below,   is  necessary.   In  individual  cases,
additional drafts at one stage or another might be required.
Where action by an individual  is  indicated  in  the  draft
sequence below, this indicates responsibility of that person
for  the action being carried out but does* not mean that the
duty may not be delegated.
Rough_ Dr a f ts

The report assembly organization  should  assemble  a  rough
draft   document  from  the  module  submissions  using  the
standard outline.  This will be identified as ROUGH DRAFT 1.

Rough Draft. 1 will be sent to the Working Group for  review,
which  may  meet as a group to discuss the draft and propose

revisions.   New writing and/or rewriting assignments may  be
necessary.    When comments and new material are incorporated
into a new draft, this will be identified as ROUGH DRAFT  2.
This  draft  may be omitted at the discretion of the Working.
Group Chairman if there are only minor changes suggested  in
Rouqh Draft 1 provided that the pre-editing described in the
next paragraph is carried out on Rouqh Draft 1.
Rough  Draft  2  will  be submitted to the Working Group for
comment and revision.  The report assembly organization  may
address   specific   questions   to  section  authors  where
clarification or further  information  is  required.    While
Rouqh  Draft  2  is  being reviewed by the Working Group, it
should undergo a rough editing process to make certain  that
the next draft will, te reasonably comprehensible.  This pre-
editing  should ensure that at least the meaning of the text
is clear, the units are metric, the  tables  comprehensible,
and the numbers in the text and the tables are consistent.
External^ Review^Draft

Author  comments  and ether material identified as necessary
or desirable by the report assembly organization or the  OPI
Coordinator will be incorporated into a new draft along with
the   results  of  the  pre-editing.   This  draft  will  be
identified as EXTERNAL REVIEW CRAFT.  When completed, a copy
will be transmitted to the OPI Coordinator for  a  one  week
review  to  determine  consistency with the Development Plan
and  these  working  guidelines  and  procedures.    If   no
objection  has been raised by the OPI Coordinator seven days
after  he  receives   the   draft,   the   report   assembly
organization  should, proceed  with  the formal internal and
external review.

This and the Clearance Draft are  the  only  drafts  in  the
sequence intended for review purposes and are to be the only
ones  formally  distributed  as  a  draft of that respective
Workinq Group.  Other drafts should not  be  represented  as
reflecting  the  views  of  the  Workinq  Group;  they  may,
however, be circulated to a limited number of persons  other
than those engaged in drafting that document provided that a
copy  of  any  resulting  reviews  are  sent  to  the report
assembly organization and the OPI  coordinator  as  soon  as
received in ORD.

The  report  assembly  organization  will be responsible for
sending or arranging  for  sending  copies  with  manuscript
review forms to:

     o   Suitable  individuals  in   the   program   offices

     o   Non-"-Headquarters OKD personnel not on  the  Working
         Group who are believed to have special knowledge of
         the subjects discussed.

     o   Those reviewers external to ORD designated  by  the
         Science  Advisory toajd pursuant to a prior request
         by the report assembly organization through the OPI
         Coordinator  for  SAB  to  arrange  for  scientific

     o   Any other individuals they deem desirable.

     The OPI will be responsible for  sending  or  arranging
for  sending  review  copies with .manuscript review forms to
the following Headquarters personnel:

     o   Appropriate OPI staff members and consultants^

     o   Members of the STAR Committee.

     o   Relevant DAAs.

     o   Any other individuals CPI deems desirable.

Both OPI and the report assembly  organization  will  ensure
that  the  other  receives  a copy of all reviews as soon as
possible after receipt.
Two months after the initial release of the external  review
draft   by   the   OPI   Coordinator,  the  report,  assembly
organization should proceed with revising the  draft  report
in  response  to  the  comments  received whether or not all.
reviews have been received back unless requested to delay by
the OPI coordinator.
When the document is complete in respect to its  substantive
content,  a  draft  will  be prepared by the report assembly
office and identified as EDIT 1.

The report assembly organization will next arrange  to  have
Edit  1  edited.   The  edited draft will-be reviewed by the
report assembly organization to determine whether  editorial
changes  are acceptable or not.  They will also consider EPA

required style and general technical aspects of the document
and add required forms.


When the report assembly organization is satisfied with  the
edited  Edit  1,  a draft will be prepared and identified as
EDIT 2. " This draft will be distributed to  members  of  the
Working Group for comment.

C1 ea r.ance Dra ft

When  the comments on Edit 2 have been received, the revised
draft as finally agreed upcn by the working  Group  will  be
typed   and  identified  as  CLEARANCE  DRAFT.   The  report
assembly organization should ensure that all final  elements
are  included,  such as the table of contents, and proofread
by at least one ether person.
The report assembly organization will send the draft to  the
OPI  Coordinator for final Headquarters review together with
a- signed  printing  requisition  and  proposed  distribution
list.  The OPI Coordinator will send a copy of the Clearance
Draft  to all members of the STAR Committee and all relevant
DAAs with  a  maximum  of  two  weeks  for  review.   If  no
objections  that  cannot be readily resolved are received in
two weeks  after  receipt  by  these  individuals,,  the  OPI
Coordinator  will  submit  the draft to the Deputy Assistant
Administrator for  Proqram  Integration  and  the  Assistant
Administrator   for   Research  and  Development  for  final
clearance.  If objections arise, the  OPI  coordinator  will
attempt  to  resolve  them  if  they are minor in nature, or
request the  report  assembly  organization  to  revise  the
Clearance Draft if any substantial effort, is required.
Final_Draf t

When   the   Assistant   Administrator   for   Research  and
Development has cleared the document for  publication,  that
draft will be designated as FINAL DRAFT.
The  OPI  Coordinator  will  arrange  for inputing necessary
codes usinq Word/One for final  photo  composition  and  for
delivery  of the finished camera ready copy to the Office of
Program Management or  other  appropriate  organization  for
printing arid distribution.

                         APPENDIX D
These  editorial  guidelines  and  special instructions have
been prepared to ensure  material  consist'ency  within  each
document  and  to  ensure  that all documents are consistent
with each other with respect to  format.   These  guidelines
and  special  instructions  should  be carefully read by all
those tyoing any  portion  of  a  Scientific  and  Technical
Assessment   Report.    The   following   elements  will  be
STAR Series
Use of word/One
File of Reference Material
Cover and Title Page Format 
EPA Review Notice and Other Disclaimers
Inside Front Cover Page Format
Paper Size
Type Face
Line Spacing
Table Style
Page Numbering
Conformance with CRD Report Specifications

All STAR will be in a new ORD report, series number 6  called
the  STAR  Series.   All  STAR  will  accordingly  carry  an
identification number EPA- 600/G-7X-OYZ where X is  the  last
digit,  of  the  year  and YZ is the soouential number in the
STAR series issued by Cynthia Holley   (202)  426-2175.   The
number will be assigned when the  final draft is prepared.

All  drafts   should   he   typed   and  photo-composed  using  the
Word/One system  of Bowne  Time Sharing,  Inc.  Where  possible,
drafts  should   he   transmitted   to  other   EPA  offices   by
messaging  the   draft report  over  the  Bowne System  to  the
recipient.    A   supplementary  telephone  call  will   insure
prompt receipt.

If  it  is   not   possible to prepare all  drafts on  Word/One,
every effort should  be made to prepare  at least the External
Review and later Drafts en it.    Information  on   obtaining
access to Word/One can be found  in Appendix  E.  In  order  for
clerical  personnel   to   become  proficient in the use  of  the
Word/One system,  it  is strongly  advisable that they take a
one  week  course provided by Cowne  Time  Sharing, Inc.  If a
sufficient number of  these requests  have accumulated,   ORD
can  arranqp> a   special   course  oriented   towards the STAR
documents.   Requests  for  the course  in  connection with STAR
should  accordingly   bfi   sent  to Dr.  Alan Carlin, RD-675,
Headquarters on  form   DI-5ICA,   Request,  Authorization   and
Record  of   Employee   Training,  for  forwarding to Mr.  Harvey
Weiner in  Personnel   after  negotiations for  any special
course are completed.

Questions  by ORD field  personnel as to  the use of Word/One
can be answered  by the following KEFC employees:

     NERC-Cincinnati  -- Ed Nime  (513) 684-4442
     NKRC-Corvallis   Ken Eyram ('JO 3)  752-4385
     NERC-RTP -- Mel  Myers (919)  549-2613

If they are  unable to help,  the  following Washington   based
people may be able to do  so:

     Ms. Denise  Swink   ORD ACP Consultant    (202) 426-
     Mr. Ronald  A. Webb  fiowne Account  Representative,
                       1C25 Connecticut Avenue
                       Washington, D.C. 20036
                        (202) 785-8800
     Ms. Mary Janet  casserly --  Bov:ne customer Service
                                 Representative --
                                 (202) 705-8800

Copies of all  references or sources  cited  in  any  STAR  should
be obtained  by the report assembly organization and  retained
in an easily referenced form in the  files  until such time  as

the report may  be  revised  and updated.   Each  report assembly
organization  may,  with  OPI approval,  arrange   for   not   more
than   one    other   EPA   organization   to  carry   out   this
responsibility  provided that that  organization  can  quickly
respond to inquiries  concerning the reference or source.
P.. 5 __ C 0 V F, RAN DT J T L E_P Afi E F ORK AT
The  oriqinal   for   the printed cover  (camera  ready)  will  be
prepared by  the publications staff  at  OKD Headquarters,  The
title which  should  be centered in   capital  letters   in  the
upper  half  of  the  cover  and title   page  should  read  as
f ollows;


The orginating  organization should  te  shown  as follows in   a
single centered block near  the bottom  of  the title page:

                         Assembled by
     (name and location of  report assembly organization)
                Office of Program Integration
             Office of Research and Development
             U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
                    Washington, D.c.  20460

On  the  'cover  page, this  should he abbreviated by including
only the last three lines  in the lower ric'.it-hand corner.

The cover should be printed on 100  pound   buff stock using
dark blue GP-240-B  ink and  reverse  printing.


All  drafts  except  the Final Draft should  also  include the
following wording on the title page:


     This draft report has  not been reviewed by  the  office
     of  Research  and  Development, EPA, and  has not as yet
     been  aipproved  for  publication.    Accordingly,   the
     contents   do  not  necessarily  reflect  the views and
     policies   of  the  Environmental    Protection    Aqency.
     Mention of trade names cr commercial products does not
     constitute endorsement or recommendation  for use.

In addition, all hard copy drafts  except  the  final  draft
should  carry  the following statement in capital letters on
each page:

                    DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE

The Final Draft should carry the following  wording  on  the
second page  (to. be included on' the inside front cover of the
printed report) :

                     EPA REVIEW NOTICE

     This  report has been reviwed by the Office cf Research
     and Development, EPA,  and  approved  for  publication.
     Mention  of trade names cr commercial products does not
     constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

The inside front cover page of
read as follows:
the  printed  report  should

     Research   reports   of  the  Office  .of  Research  and
     Development,  U.S.   Environmental  Protection  Agnecy,
     have  been grouped into series.  These broad categories
     were established to facilitate further development  and
     appl'ication  of  environmental technology-  Elimination
     of traditional  grouping  was  consciously  planned  to
     foster  technology  transfer and a maximum interface in
     related fields.  These series are:

         1.  Environmental Health Effects Research
         2.  Environmental Protection Technology
         3.  Ecological Research
         H.  Environmental Monitoring
         5.  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies
         6.  Scientific arid Technical Assessment Reports

     This report har, been assigned  to  the  SCIENTIFIC  AND
     TECHNICAL   ASSESSMENT  REPORTS   (STAR)   series.   This
     seriftn assesses the available scientific  and  technical
     knowledge  on major pollutants that would he helpful in
     possible EPA regulatory decision-making   regarding  the
     pollutant or assesses the state of knowledge of a mjaor
     area  of  completed  study.   The  series  endeavors to

present an objective assessment of existing  knowledge,
pointing  out the extent to which it is definitive, the
          of  the  data  on  which  it  is  based,  and
               and  gaps  that,  may exist.  Most of the
              >^.  multi-media  in  scope,  focusing
reports will
single  media
                    only  to  the  extent  warranted  by the
     distribution of environmental insult.

                     EPA KEVIFK NOTICE

     This report has been reviewed by the Office of Research
     and Development, EPA,  and  approved  for  publication.
     Mention  of trade names or commercial products does not
     constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.


     This  report  is   available   to   the   public   from
     Superintendent  of  Documents, U.S. Government Printing
     Office, Washington, D.C. 20^02.


The paper size should be 8 x 10-1/2 inch paper;  where  this
is  not  available  use  8-1/2  x  11  inch paper and adjust
margins as noted below.


Margins should be as follows en all drafts as  well  as  the
printed report:
         For 8 x 10-1/2 inch faper, use left margin of 1-
         inches, type text six inches wide  with  upper  and
         lower  margins  of one inch; on Word/One, determine
         margins by entering as w60;50.

         For 8-1/2 x 11 inch paper, use left margin of 1-1/2
         inches, type text six inches wide  with  upper  and
         lower margins of 1-1/H inches.
The  printed  Report  should  be  set  in Times Roman, or if
Word/One is not used for photo composition for some  reason,
a type face as similar to it as possible.

D. 1 1  UNITS

All   measurements  shall
modernized metric system.
parentheses  followinq the
references may be helpful:
                  l:e  expressed  in  terms  of   the
                  Equivalent, units may he given   in
                  metric expression.  The following
         Page,   Chester,   and    Paul    Vigoureux,     The
         iJDtfrn^ionaj.   of   Units,    NBS   Special
         Publication 330, US GPO, Washington,   D.C. ,   20U02,
         price 30 cents.
                       Standard  E   3J3.0-7 i!   (Metric
     i5 Guide]_, American Society for  Testing  and
Materials,    916    Race   Street,   Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania 19103.
Spacing should be as follows:

     o   For  review  drafts,  spacing  betweeen   lines   and
         .between   paragraphs  should  be   two   (2)   spaces,
         including subsection headings;
         Section titles shall  te  centered  three   (3)
         above the the text, but  within  the margins.
Indentation should be as follows:

     o   All text except lists  should begin  at  left   margin,
         i.e., no indentation;

     o   Lists:  See below.

  14  LISTS
Lists of items in a paragraph  should be   preceded   by   small
circles   (o)  except  where  there  is a reason  for  them  to  he
preceded by Arabic numerals  in  parentheses.    The circles
should  be  indented  five   (5)  spaces from  the  left margin.
All text should be indented  three   (3)  more   spaces,   or   a
total of eight  (8) spaces where  small circles  are  used.  The
text  of each item should be followed by  a period  at the end
of the item...


Sections and major subsections are to be numbered using  the
decimal  system  as  in  the  standardized document outline.
Headings are to  follow  the  style  presented  below.   The
instructions are written using the appropriate numbering and
heading format.
Each  section heading should start a new page, be  in capital
letters, and be underlined.
Each subsection title should be in capital  letters  and  be
underlined,  but need not start a new page.  Start paragraph
two spaces below heading with  no identation.
Capital and lower-case  letters  are  set   flush  with   left
margin  and  two  spaces  above  paragraph.  third
order headings.  Third order  subsections may be numbered at
the  discretion  of  the  report  assembly  organization,  but
should be done consistently throughout  the  report if  at all.
Such subsections should be numbered by  adding  a period  and  a
number to the second order number.  In  this case the  number
would be 1.1.1.
J2urth_Order ~~ Capital  and  lower  case  letters  are  set  flush
with left underlined, and  followed with  two  dashes.   Text  in
this fourth order follows  on  same  line.
FiJLh_Q.<3. ~~  Initial capital  letter on  first  word  only  and
on  .proper  nouns, underlined,  and  followed  with  two dashes.
Text follows on same line.   (Note:   Fifth  order   should   be
avoided whenever-  possible) .
Sulfur  oxides  and   suspended  particulates,  here  considered
together,  often have  common  origins   in   that  both   may  be

produced  by the burning of fossil fuels.  Sulfur dioxide is
produced by the combustion of sulfur  compounds  present  as
impurities in many coals and heavy oils.
The  results  of animal studies suggest that the addition of
various particles  to  sulfur  dioxide  may  potentitate  or
enhance  its  effect.   There is no convincing evidence from
experimental work on healthy  human  beings  that  particles
added  to  inhaled  sulfur dioxide potentiate its effects in
short-term exposures.
There have been some reports of studies that can be used  to
establish  dose- response  relationships  or associations for
sulfur dioxide and suspend particulates .  These studies  are
limited  in  number, however, and at present there is little
information available concerning the effect of  varying  one
of these pollutants while the ether is kept constant.
Epidemioloqical  techniques  have  been  used in attempts to
evaluate the separate or combined effects of sulfur  dioxide
and  parti culaten.   In  London, implementation of the Clean
Air Act has greatly reduced pollution by particulate matter,
 and this reduction has been a'ccompanieu by  a  much  smaller
drop  in  sulfur  dioxide  concentrations.   Lawther evt. al.
studied the association of daily levels of smoke and  sulfur
dioxide  with  the reported state of health of patients with
respiratory disease.
     ic Bf fleets
In any discussion of the effects of air pollution on  people
a  distinction  must  be  made  between acute, subacute, and
chronic effects,  Kith very high concentrations such as have
occurred in London, England,  the  Meuse  Valley   (Belgium) ,
Donora,  Pa. ,  New York, the Ruhr, Osaka, and Rotterdam, the
immediate  f facts were clearly manifest in terms of nortality
or increased morbidity, especially among those already  ill,
old, or otherwise enfeebled.
       _      .   .D di:lt;.   Holland and co-workers studied
outdoor postal and telephone workers' in the  United  Kingdom

and  the  USA  and found a graduation of respiratory disease
symptoms across polluted levels, particularly in  the  50-59
year old cateqory.
                   -- Colds and related infections provide a
measurable effect.  Much data has been collected.

Colds  Study of this -condition has been confusing.   Large
sums have been spent,
      d_ in.ctj.ons_    Those who ventured into collecting
this data are to be praised.  Their work has left a mark  on
the scientific community.
         J2i^^T-PY ~~ These effects are difficult to separate
from other causes.  Many studies have been of poor design.
                     END OF EXAMPLE -

Scientific  and  Technical  Assessment Reports should use as
references, only those that have been verified by the  writer
at   the   time   these   documents  are  prepared.   Proper
preparation of reference  listings  in  the  initial  drafts
results  in a considerable saving of time and error in final

Where  unpublished  data  or  personal  communications   are
referenced,   permission   to  cite  the  data  or  personal
communication must be obtained from the source by  the person
citing that reference.

Bibliographic  style  and  format  should   be   consistent.
References to published material in the text should .be cited
in  the author's last name  (or, in the cases where there are
no individual authors, the name or recognized acronym of  an
institutional  author  without  any preceding .article) , year
(in parenthesis), and  page  number  if  relevant   (also  in
parenthesis),  e.g.,  Jonen   (1946,  p.  136), and should be
listed in full alphabetically at the end of the report.   Tf
an  author  has  more  than  one referenced publication in a
year, thwn these should be identified consecutively   in  the
list  of  references  using lower case letters following the
year and should also appear following the year in  the  text.
If  there  is  morp than one author, normally reference only
the first in the text, followed by a comma, et a_l. ,   another
comma,  and  then  the  year.   If the same first  author has

different co-authors of referenced publications in the  same
year,  include  enough  co-authors  in the text reference to
make clear which is which.'   If  reference  is  made  to  an
individual's  work  as  discussed in a secondary source, the
reference should be to the secondary source, e_._cj_._,  see  the
work of A. .J. Smith as discussed in NAS  {1974b, p. 322) .
     tables  that  have been extracted or are based on other
materials should be  acknowledged  by  reference,  with  tho
source  shown  by author and date under Source at the end of
the table and listed in full at the end of the section.  The
sources for figures must also be shown, but may  be  in  the
text or on the figure.
Journal  article   (and  reprint)  entries  should  be in the
following order  (unless an element is missing, in which case
it should be omitted):

     o   Author's  last name, comma, initials,  comma,  names
         of  additional authors, comma, year of publication,
         lower case letter  (if more than one publication  is
         listed  for  the  same  author  in  the same year),
         period.   If there is  more  than  one  author,  use
         regular   initials and surname order for these other
         than the  first author, and use comma before the and
         preceding the last author.

     o   Title should be in quotes and in upper- and lower-
         case style.  Follow with comma.  If title is in a
         foreign language, follow with English title in

     o   Name of journal -- City where journal is published
         should be listed in parentheses after journal name
         if the journal is foreign.  Abbreviations of the
         names of  periodicals should follow in the style
         as listed in the ACj_Haudbooj<__for_Auj-hgrs.
         Follow with comma.

     o   Volume number of journal should be cited and under-
         scored.   The issue number should be listed in
         parentheses after the volume number.  Follow
         with a colon.

     o   Page numbers -- Immediatly after colon, inclusive
         page numbers are given.  Separate them with hyphen.

         Follow with a period.
Smith, E. A., R. A. Jones, and A. T. Brown,  1969.  "Effects of
Air Pollution on Painted Surfaces," Aust. Chem.
(Sidney)., 22:17-21.

     o   Author (s) and date  Same treatment  as  for journal
     o   Title  Same treatment as for  journal article
         titler, except, that title  should be  underlined  instead
         of in quotation marks.  List edition,  if relevant,
         and follow with

     o   Name of  publisher -- Follow with comma.

     o   P-lace of publication  Use city name. Follow  with

     o   Pages cited -- Whole hook:  500 pp.
                        Chapter:   pp. 321-347
                        Pa g e :  p .  336.
                        End with period.

Example --

Smith, A. R. , 1971. Aj.r^oj.j.ut_ion_J.n_yrhan_ America,  2nd  Ed.,
U. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 316  pp.

               o r P roc e e d i. ri s
     o   Author and  date --  Same  treatment  as  for journal
         article.  Follow with  period.

     o   Title of article or chapter    Put in quotation
         marks and  follow with  comma.

     o   In:  Book title --  Follow  with  comma.

     o   Follow with editor's last  name,  initials,  and
          {ed. ) -- Follow with coirma.

     o   Name ct" publisher -- Follow  with comma.

     o   Place of publication ---Use  city name.   Follow
         with comma.

     o   Pages -- pp. 321-327 or p.  333.  End  with period,
Example --

Doe, J. C., 1962.  "Air Pollution form  Stockyards,:  in:
Air_Pollutj.on_i.n_Unj.ted_5taj:es,  Kiercynski,  Y.A.
(ed.)f Livestock Publishers, Kansas City,  pp.  312-316.

     o   Author and date --  Same treatment  as  for  journal
         articles.  Follow with period.

     o   Title -- Same as for  took.   If  no  author,  start
         citation with title.  Follow with  comma.

     o   Source -- Name of company,  institution, or
         government agency.  If a  contractor-sponsor rela-
         tion exists, identify the performing  organization.
         Follow with comma.

     o   Location of publisher --  Follow with  comma.

     o   Report number -- Follow with comma.

     o   Issuing agency or  (co)sponsoring organization
         which issued report -- Follow with a  comma.

     o   Pages cived or total  pages  Follow  with period.

ExampJ.e --

James, L. P., J. T. Frederick  and  P.  J.  Williams,  1971.
U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency,  Raleigh,  N.  C. ,
Publication Number AP-485, 185 pp.

     o   Author and  title --  same  treatment  as  for journal
         articles.   Follow with  comma.

     o   Source or author's affiliation   Follow with comma.

     o   Name of meeting -- Precede  with  parenthesis.

         Preface name of meeting with statement of relation
         such as "prepared for" or "Presented at".  Follow
         meeting name with comna .

     o   Place of meeting -- City only.  Follow with comma.

     o   Date of meeting -- Exact month and day.  Close
         parenthesis, then follow with comma.

     o   Number of pages -- Follow with period.

Example --

Smith, R. F. , 1972.  "Air Pollution in River Basins,"
Riverview University,  (presented at Annual River Basin
Preservation Society Meeting, Riverview Heights, June 5-9),
14 pp.
     o   Governmental legal code or series of regulations --
         Follow with comma.

     o   Title of act or law, if there is a name  Follow
         with comma .

     o   Associated title, act number, section number, or
         paragraph identification -- Follow with comma.

     o   Publisher  (if relevant) -- Follow with comma.

     o   Place of publication  (if relevant) .

     o   Date -- Place in parenthesis.  Follow with
         coin ma .

     o   Pages  Follow with period.


5 USC, Freedom of Information Act, Sec 552 (b)  (1967).
     o   Investigator cr other individual who provided
         data and date collected, summarized or otherwise
         identified  Follow wit-h period.

     o   Title of report,  file,  or project where  data  can  be
         found -- Follow with comma.

     o   Source -- Name cf  ccmrany,  institution,  or  agency.
         Follow with comma.

     o   Location -- City  and state  or  foreign  country,
         Follow with ccmma.

     o   Unpublished.  End  with  period.


Smith, R. R. , 1971.  Car Count Project, State Department
of Transportation, Baltimore, Maryland, unpublished.
     o   Name of  individual  and  date    Follow  with  period.

     o   Affiliation --  Follow with comma.

     o   Location -- Follow  with comma.

     o   Personal communication  with    Give  name  of EPA
         employee or other individual who  received the
         communication.  Follow  with  comma.

     o   Exact date  Specify month  and day  if known.  End
         with noriod.
Jones, F.  R.,  1973.   North  Carolina  Board  of  Lumber
Control, Raleiqh, North  Carolina,  personal communication
with  I. M.  Epa of EPA, July 8,
Footnotes   are   indicated   in   text   by   superscript   arabic
.numerals.    The   footnotes   for  each   section   should   be
collected  at the end  of  the section.


To  assure  good  reproduction,  illustrations  should  be   black
ink   line   drawings without large  gray-shaded  or  solid-black

areas.  Areas to be defined may  be  designated  with  cross
hatching   or   dot   patterns,  which  do  reproduce  well.
Illustrations should be proportioned to correspond with  the
6-  by.8-1/2 inch page frame.  Since illustrations cannot be
stored in Word/One, xerox copies of illustrations should  be
sent  to j_ recipients of draft copies and adequate space left
for them in the text.


All callouts on graphs should he in capital  letters  except
for  chemical  and  mathematical  terms  and  symbols, which
cannot be changed as a matter cf style.   The  ordinate  and
abscissa  should be labeled with capital letters followed by
a comma and units in lower case letters.   Units  should  be
broken  out  of  the description:  "CONCENTRATION (ug/m)" is
(See Figure B.I)
The style for figure titles is upper case.  Example:  Figure

Figure titles should be as concise as possible.  They should
describe   the   figure  without  adding  other  explanatory
material.  Commentary on illustrations should be included in
the text of the report; it should not be  placed  under  the

Arabic  numerals are to be used for figure numbers.  Figures
are to be numbered first with the section number followed by
a decimal then with the number of the table in  sequence  of
appearance in the section.


The  sources  for  the  information in all figures  should be
indicated either in the text or in the figure.  If  it is not
evident to a nonexpert how the data  has  been  manipulated,
this should be carefully explained in the text.


See Table B.I for example.

Size and Prouortion






X  <0

        .' t
*/,<' \

     %..<:;>'.::.. v.
                    1 -

OUST AT 5 TO 10  Hlg/m


AT i  mg/m-5
         REVERSE JCT OPERATION', percent


                ON  FILTER  RESISTANCE    IN

                REVERSE-JET     BAGHOUSE

                              Electric  Furnace   Main  stack2
                      Coke    furnace    room     (irop 'ingement
    Pollutant        drier1     hood     vents    scrubbers)

 Acetylene                     100      1.8

 Sulfur trioxide       0.2.       20                0.8

 All other gases       0.2        17                1.9


1 Equipped with cyclone and sr.ray drier.

2Equipped w.ith impingement scrubbers.

Based on Smith  {1973, pp.  35-36).  Numbers  shown  are  average  of
his ranae.

Page  frame proportion is roughly 6 by 8 1/2 inches.  Tables
appearing upriqht. should be nc more than 6 inches wide,  and
tables  appearing on turn -pages should be no more than 8 1/2
inches wide.  if a table is larger than these dimensions, it
should be kept in the 6- by 8 1/2-inch  proportion  so  that
when it is reduced, it will fit the page frame.


The title is centered above the table.  The word "Table" has
an  initial  capital  letter  only.   The  table  number  is
followed by two spaces.  The table title  is  typed  in  all
capital  letters,  except  when  alteration would change the
meaning, e.g., chemical and mathematical terms.

Arabic numerals are to be used for  table  numbers.   Tables
are to be numbered first with the chapter number followed by
a  decimal, then with the number  (within the section)  of the
Table.   Table  numbers  are  repeated  in   each   section.
Example:   Tables  1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and l.U.  Tables 2.1, 2.2,
2.3, and 2.<4.

If data in a table are all in  the  same  units,  the  units
should  be  designated  in lower case letters in parentheses
centered below the title for example:

            Table 1.1 - COAL CONSUMPTION IN OHIO
                     (metric tens/year)

If an explanatory subtitle is needed, it should be typed  in
lower-case style under the main title.
Example -
     Table 3.5 -
      (based on 1
kg dry ash-free
combustible material)

Double  space  between  title and table.  Separate title and
table with a heavy  line.   Scan  information  in  table  to
determine  space  needed  for  longest item, and plan column
width accordingly.

Build headinos from the baseline of
the most vertical scace.
                    the  heading  requiring

Headings  are  to  he  initial  capital letter on first word
only.  Units should be in parentheses centered under  column

Treatment of Data
Separate headings and data with a heavy line.

If  the  information  in  the  table  consists
phrases, use initial capital  letter  on  first
Type  flush  left.  The second line of a phrase
hand column should be indented two snaces.
of  words or
 word  only.
in the left-
When the item description in the left-hand column is on
or more lines, type tabular data opposite first line.
Do not. use vertical column rules unless absolutely necessary
to make separations clear.

If the table contains columns cf numbers, type whole numbers
flush right with respect to each other, usinq longest number
of   center  column.   If  numbers  are  whole  numbers  and
decimals, line up the decimal points.  Put zeros in front of
decimal point for all numbers smaller than 1.

Separate data from footnotes or sources with a  heavy  .line.
If there are no footnotes or sources, still follow data with
the heavy line.
Designate footnotes in tables with arabic numerals after and
superior  to data:  Footnotes should be typed flush left and
may extend the full width  of  the  table  under  a  heading
Notejs]_.   Double  space between footnotes if space permits;
otherwise single space.  Single space within each footnote.

All tables should indicate thr source(s) of the  information
in them, even if the same information is in the text.  If it
is  not  evident  to  a  non-expert  how  the  data has been
manipulated, .this should be  carefully  explained.   Sources
should  be  listed  under  a heading Sotnrcejf-l following any

All preforatory material  should  be numbered except  for  the
inside  title  page  (which  would be page i)  using lower case
Roman numerals.   Regular  text   (beginning  with  Section  1)
should numbered consecutively  using arabic numerals.

In  addition   to  the  specificafions listed in this Appendix,
all STAKs should  conform  with  the intre.rj.rn Specifica_fcions f_or
ORSM Grant.^ Contract  and  In-jnous_e Report^,  March  1973,  or
later -revised  versions   thereof  as  issued, including the
requirement that  the  last page must be a completed EPA 2220-
1 Technical Report  Data  form.

                         APPENDIX E


In order to use Uord/one, it is necessary for each  user   to
obtain  .a user ID and account number.  After filling  out  the
necessary information oh  the  .attached  form,   it  is  very
important,   if   you  are  part  of  one  of  the  National
Environmental Research Centers, to obtain approval  for  funds
{under Concurrence - Funding) from the following  people:

     Robert Snelling, NERC-Las Vegas,  (702) 736-2969
     John Knight, NERC-RTP, '(919) 549-2141
     Kenneth Byrani, NERC-Corvallis,  (503) 752-4385
     Robert Bridges, NERC-Cincinnati,  (513) 871-6320

After approval for funding has been obtained through  one   of
the  above four persons, the form is then sent to Ms. Denise
Rwink, ADP Coordinator, Room 3817,  RD-674,  401  M  Street,
S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460.

SERVICE (Check one)
j | OTHER (Spocily):
SUPPLI ER (Chock one)
(~j OTHER (Spocily):

PROJECT TITLE (Limit: 60 characters, including spaces.)



MAIL CODE (or room)

NAME (Last, lirst, middle initial)
PHONE (Include area code)
ADDRESS (Street or P.O. Box)
USER (NAME (Last, llrst, middle Initial)
MAIL CODE (or room)
PHONE (Include area code)
ADDRESS (Street or P.O. Box)
USER JNAME (Last, tlrat, middle initial)
MAIL CODE for room)
PHONE (Include area code)
ADDRESS (Street or P.O. Box)
USER JNAME (Last, first, middle initial)
MAIL CODE for roonO
PHONE (Include urea coda)
ADDRESS fSfrocf or P.O. Box)
USER (NAME (Last, [irst, middle initial)
MAIL CODE for room)
PHONE (Include nrcn code)
ADDRESS (Street or P.O. Box)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Director, Management Information and
Data Systems Division (PM 218)
Washington, D.C. 20460


c D u n
^D a
Ma S a
CD u a
PQ a
cQ u D
rD D
MO s a
p D T D
c a u a
c a u D
FD a
EPA Form 2800-3 (5-74)