United States
             Environmental Protection
             Office of Water
             Program Operations (WH-547)
             Washington DC 20460
January 1979
Environmental  Assessment
of Construction Grants

                         Disclaimer Statement
This report has been reviewed by the Environmental  Protection Agency and
approved for publication.  Approval  does  not signify  that  the contents
necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Environmental  Protection
Agency nor does mention of trade names or commercial  products constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.

technical assistance in the development and  design of  this  report was
provided by Sherman J. Rosen, consultant to the Facility  Requirements
Division, Office of Water Program Operations.

*To order this publication, "Environmental  Assessment of  Construction
Grants Projects" (FRD-b) from the Environmental  Protection Agency, write

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Please indicate the FRD number and title of publication.

Multiple copies may be purchased from:

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 '"*,.   ,0                       WASHINGTON. D.C.  20460
  •V PBQ^fe
                                                              OFFICE OF WATER AND
                                                             HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
          Due  to a contractor's error, all of the maps contained
     in  the envelope on the back of this publication were printed
     with  the  identification "BASE MAP."  The last map in the
     package is to be considered the base map.  The indication of
     the "BASE MAP" is to be ignored on the remaining maps.   The
     remaining maps are to be positioned on the base map as  explained
     on  page 7 of this publication.  We regret any inconvenience
     that  may  result from this error.



           January 1979
  Environmental  Protection Agency
Office of Water  Program Operations
      Washington, D.C.   20460


                                Table  of Contents/Checklist


 Page                                            Current        Assess        Mitigating
Number                                          Situation       Impacts        Measures

  i   Introduction
     Chapter I:  Procedures
  1        Ov erv i ew
          Gather Information on  Planning Area
  6        Field  Trips
  6        Assess Current Situation
  6        Determine Impacts  of Each  Alternative
 10        Mitigating Measures
 11        Select Plan
 11        Public Participation
     Chapter II: Natural & Man-Made  Features
 14        Introduction
 14        Topography                              	        	        	
 15        Geology                                 	        	        	
 15        Soils                                   	        	        	
 16        Climate                                	        	         	
 16        Population                             	        	        	
 lei        Housing                                	        	        	
 19        Industrial & Commercial Development     	        	        	
 20        Transportation                          	        	        	
 20        Economic & Social  Profile                	        	        	
 22        Underdeveloped & Vacant Land            		
 23        Other  Projects & Programs                	        	        	
     Chapter III: Sensitive  & Hazardous Areas
 24        Introduction
 24        Floodplains                            		
 28        Wetlands                                	        	        	
 31        Wild  & Scenic Rivers                    	        	         	
 32        Cultural Resources                     	        	        	
 34        Endangered Species                      	        	        	
 35        Coastal Zones                          	        	        	
 36        Recreation Open Space                   	        	        	
 37        Agricultural & Productive  Areas         	        	        	
     Chapter IV: Pollution & Conservation of Natural Resources
 40        Introduction
 40        Air Quality                             	        	        	
 42        Water  Quality & Quantity                	        	        	
 47        Noise           '                        		
 48        Odor                                     	        	        	
 49        Solid  Waste                             	        	        	
 52       Energy                                 		
     Appendix A:  EPA Implementation  of  the  National Environmental Policy Act of 1969

     Appendix B:  Glossary

                          TABLES AND FIGURES
          Title                                   Page Number

Table 1: Required and Suggested Maps
     and Sources of Information
     for Environmental Assessments                   3-5

Table 2: Suggested Features to be
     Evaluated by Overlay Systems                     9

Table 3: Water Consumption Rates
     in the Residential Sector                       45

Table 4: Values of Runoff Coefficients
     for Urban Land Use                              46

Table 5: Municipal Solid Waste Collection
     Rates                                           50

Table 6: Estimates of Manufacturing  Wastes            51

Figure 1:  Environmental Impacts of
     Alternative Proposals                           12

Figure 2:  Flood Hazard Boundary Map                   26



     This handbook is designed to aid grantees in the preparation  of
environmental assessments for wastewater treatment facilities.   It will
be particularly helpful to those grantees who are unfamiliar  with  the
Construction Grants Program and the preparation of National Environmental
Policy Act (NEPA)  documents.  Its intent is to identify the data that  is
required to evaluate and the procedures to be followed to analyze  the
environmental impacts associated with each alternative plan being  considered
for the treatment works.

     In gathering data for an assessment, grantees are encouraged  to
consult with appropriate local, State and Federal agencies and  organiza-
tions.  This handbook identifies some good sources of information.

     The handbook provides general guidance that is useful to all  grantees.
Some projects require a more sophisticated analysis than is described  in
this handbook.  In such cases, references to literature or organizations
that can further assist grantees are provided.


     Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972,
as amended by the Clean Water Act of 1977 (33 USC SS1251-1376), EPA will
provide 75 percent of the eligible costs for the construction or improve-
ment of conventional wastewater treatment works and 85 percent  for
systems utilizing innovative and alternative technology.

     Grants are made in the following three stages:

     Step 1 - Preparation of Facility Plan

     Step 2 - Preparation of Detailed Design and Specifications

     Step 3 - Construction of Treatment Works

     A properly prepared'facility plan ensures that the treatment  works
is constructed in an environmentally sound and cost-effective manner.
To assist grantees in the preparation of such plans, EPA has  issued
Guidance for Preparing a Facility Plan, EPA/MCD-46, May 1975.  This
handbook supplements the guidance by elaborating on the requirements for
the environmental assessment which is an integral aspect of the facility

     The environmental assessment -is the part of the facility plan that
examines and analyzes the environmental impacts of the alternative plans
being considered for the treatment works.  The assessment serves two
purposes:  it protects the environment by ensuring that all environmental
impacts are taken into account in selecting a plan for the facility, and

it serves as a basis for deciding if an Environmental  Impact Statement
(EIS) is required.

     If an EIS is required, the environmental assessment serves  as a
starting point.  For some projects a joint EIS/Assessment (piggybacking)
can be prepared.  Where this piggybacking technique is used, grantees
should also consult for additional guidance Program Requirements
Memorandum (PRM) 75-31 - "Facilitating EIS Preparation with Joint
EIS/Assessments."  (PRMs are issued to clarify administrative and policy
matters in the Construction Grants Program.)


     The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)(42 DSC SS4321-
4361) was enacted to ensure that Federal agencies consider environmental
factors in the decision-making process and utilize an interdisciplinary
approach in analyzing those issues.  Section 102(2)(C) of NEPA establishes
additional procedural requirements for those activities that are deemed
to be major Federal actions that "significantly affect the quality of
the human environment."  That section requires the preparation of an
EIS.  Appendix A describes EPA's implementation of NEPA.

     Grantees prepare an environmental assessment of all environmental
impacts for all construction grant projects even if the impacts  do not
appear to be significant.  If EPA determines during its review of the
project that impacts are minor or insignificant, then it does not prepare
an EIS.  It presents that decision in a document called a negative
declaration which is supported by an environmental appraisal that summarizes
the environmental assessment.  {On October 29, 1978, the Council on
Environmental Quality issued draft regulations on compliance with NEPA
that would change the term "negative declaration" to "statement  of no
significant impact.")

Environmental Impacts

     The environmental assessment must evaluate all impacts.  Impacts
include any change, whether beneficial or detrimental, that is caused,
either directly or indirectly, by the construction of the wastewater
treatment facility.  Impacts are classified as "beneficial" or "adverse,"
and as "primary11 or "secondary."  Primary impacts are those directly
associated with the construction and operation of the treatment  works.
For example, a temporary increase in a locality's noise level while a
plant is under construction is an anticipated primary impact of  every
project.  Secondary impacts are indirect effects of the project resulting
from the growth or change in land use induced or facilitated by  the
construction of the plant or its associated sewers.  For example, a
project that includes the placing of sewers in a previously undeveloped
area may encourage the construction of new housing which causes  air and
water pollution and places new demands on energy and water supplies.
All  of these effects are secondary impacts.

     This handbook emphasizes the need to examine environmental  impacts;
however, intensive evaluations are not always required.  For example,
some wastewater treatment projects, such as new pump stations,  have a
limited potential for causing significant environmental impacts.   If
upon initial consideration, the project appears to produce only minimal
impacts, the assessment's analysis can be greatly simplified.   Complete
documentation of the initial consideration is required.

Format of Handbook

     The central item in this handbook is the checklist which  precedes
this introduction.  This list denotes those types of environmental
factors which grantees should consider when preparing an environmental
assessment.  Each factor is discussed in this handbook.

     The handbook is divided into four chapters.  Chapter I  deals  with
the procedures to be used in identifying and analyzing environmental
impacts.  In particular, it describes the use of the overlay system as  a
method of organizing and analyzing the various environmental  considerations.
Chapter II describes in detail various natural and man-made  features of
the planning area that should be evaluated in an assessment.   It  includes
sources of information about these features and identifies some common
impacts associated with each.  Chapters III and IV deal with special
features that have unique characteristics or values that require more
attention.  Chapter III describes areas that are classified  as  hazardous
or sensitive, and Chapter IV deals with pollution problems and  the
conservation of natural resources.

     The discussion of each feature or factor included in Chapters  II-IV
is divided into five sections as follows:

     Description: Includes definitions and background information  and
summarizes pertinent Federal laws that protect or regulate the feature
or factor discussed.

     Minimum Requirements: Outlines those procedures that must be under-
taken for all projects and information that should be reviewed or
included in the assessment.

     Supplemental Requirements*:  Describes those activities  that must be
undertaken if the initial investigation indicates that an adverse  impact
is likely to occur.
*The grantee is not required to undertake the activities  described under
supplemental- requirements unless the initial  investigation  undertaken  to
comply with minimum requiranents indicates that additional  analysis  is

     Sources of Information: Includes lists of agencies or organizations
that can provide data useful in evaluating impacts.

     References: Lists Federal  laws and regulations,  EPA manuals  and
Program Requirements Memoranda  (PRMs), and other publications  that will
be of assistance in completing  the environmental assessment.

Format of Environmental Assessment

     The format of the entire facility plan is discussed in detail  in
Guidance for Preparing a Facility Plan, EPA/MCD-46, May, 1975.  When
completing the environmental assessment portion of the facility plan,
grantees should pay particular  attention to the following requirements:
data and maps collected on existing conditions in the planning area
should be included in the section on Current Situation.   In the section
on Development and Evaluation of Alternatives, environmental  impacts for
each alternative should be presented along with the cost analysis.  A
separate section of the facility plan should summarize the environmental

     Environmental  assessments  should be concise, factual  and clearly
written.  Grantees may consult  many information sources  in becoming
familiar with the environmental characteristics of the project area.
However, not all of the data must be used in preparation of the assessment
or included in the assessment document itself.  Maps  and charts can be
used effectively to convey information in a succinct  manner.  Where data
has been obtained from an outside source, the agency  or  organization
that provided it should be indicated.

                        CHAPTER I    PROCEDURES
1.0 Ov erv i ew
     The environmental  assessment is  one aspect  of  the  analysis  required
to complete a facility  plan.   Although this  handbook  provides  a  separate
set of procedures for doing  an assessment, one should also  keep  in mind
that these procedures must coordinate with the general  procedures used
in facility planning found in Guidance for Preparing  a  Facility  Plan,
EPA/MCD-46, May 1975.  The following  chart is set up  to demonstrate  the
relationship between a  facility plan  and its environmental  assessment:
Environmental Assessment
Gather information on planning area
Field trips to site
Assess current situation
Determine impacts associated with
each alternative
Consider mitigating measures
Compare alternatives and select
Corresponding Step in
Facility Plan
Step 1 - Effluent Limitations
Step 2 - Assess Current
Steps 3 & 4 - Assess
Future Situation
and Develop Alternatives
Step 5 - Select Plan
1.1 Gather Information on Planning Area

     The accuracy of the environmental  assessment depends  upon  the care
with which information is gathered on the planning area.   This  information
is available from a variety of sources.  For each impact discussed in
this handbook, agencies and organizations which  can provide  useful
information are listed.  Some general sources are discussed  below.

1.11 Library Retrieval System

     Many libraries have computerized retrieval  systems which can be
utilized to uncover articles and studies on the  planning area.   Some
systems are set up to scan not only the local collection but books and
articles in libraries throughout the State and,  in some cases,  throughout
the United States.

     As an example, consider the system used  by the Library  of  Congress
and by other libraries.   It allows searches  to be done in  four  separate
files by title, author or subject.  One file  scans books while  the
second contains an index of periodicals and  pamphlets.  The  third file
contains data on organizations qualified to  provide information on  a
particular topic, and the fourth contains legislative information.

1.12 Maps

     Maps are another helpful  source of information on the planning area
and can also be used to evaluate the impacts  of proposed alternatives
(see discussion of overlay system that follows).   In addition,  they
provide a concise and accurate way to communicate information to EPA
officials and local citizen groups interested in reviewing the  project.
This handbook recommends the use of maps in  the final  facility  plan.
(See Table 1.)   Table 1  is a description of  some special maps that  may
be available for the planning  area.

Aerial Photos - Various  types  of aerial  photos including black  and
white, color, infra-red, color infra-red and  heat sensitive  photos  are
available from the Department of Interior, Earth Resources Observation
Systems Program (EROS),  and the Department of Agriculture, Soil  Conserva-
tion Service (SCS).  In most cases, the use of black and white  photos
will be sufficient and the most economical.   All  photos should  include
overflight dates.

     Aerial photos will  disclose the physical features  of  the area
including the differentiation of urban and rural  centers.  Additional
interpretation by professional interpreters  can provide additional  data
on land use including the location of wetlands, septic  tanks and fault
lines.  For assistance in interpretation of  these maps, contact EPA,
Environmental Monitoring Support Lab, Las Vegas,  Nevada.

U.S.6.S. Quadrangle - Quadrangle maps are uniform maps  that  have been
done by the U.S. Geological Survey for all areas  of the country.  These
maps usually show such features as topography, airports, urban  areas,
houses, woodlands, schools and open areas.

     The U.S. Geological Survey presently operates the  National  Carto-
graphic Information Center (NCIC) located in  Reston, Virginia.   This
office can provide information on maps being  prepared  for  an area by
governmental agencies and some private organizations.   Grantees  should
consult NCIC prior to developing their base and other maps.

Soil Maps - These maps show the types of soil found in  the planning
area.  They can be used to help identify areas where the soil is suitable
for septic tank use, land treatment, general  construction  or farming.
Maps are available from SCS and have been completed for a  large portion
of the country.  To effectively use these maps it is necessary  to have
supporting material available from SCS explaining their soil classification
system and interpreting the maps.

                                                  TABLE 1

                           Required and Suggested Maps and Sources for Information
                                       for Environmental Assessments
1.  Vicinity Map*
2. Aerial  Photo**
3. Physical  Features
   or U.S.  Quadrangle*
4. Soil Map*
b. Map Showing Steep Slopes**
6. Hydro!ogic Map*
Relationship of planning area
to region.
Aerial view of planning area.
Topography, lakes, rivers,
housing, industry, forests,
highways, roads, drainage
patterns and other physical

Soils; Soils suitable for
septic tanks and land
treatment; Soils capable of
supporting structures; Prime
and unique farmland.

Slopes of 10 to 25 percent;
Slopes over 25 percent.

Circulation & distribution of
water on and below the ground;
Aquifers and recharge areas;
Water quality.
Local or regional  planning
agency; transportation plan
study; U.S. Geological Survey.

EROS; EPA; Local aerial
photographic companies;
         local studies.
U.S. Geological  Survey;
U.S. Army Map Service; local
planning agency.
Soil Conservation Service;
State conservationist.
U.S. Geological  Survey;  Soil
Conservation Service.

U.S. Geological  Survey (water
information group).

                                                   TABLE 1

                            Required and Suggested Maps and Sources for Information
                                        for Environmental Assessments
 7. Floodplains**
 tf. Wild & Scenic Rivers**
 9. Archeological  & Historic
10. Wetlands**
11. Endangered Species  Habitats**
12. Hazards*
13.  Existing  Land  Use*
100-year floodplains.
Wild & Scenic Rivers designated
or under study for designation.

Archeological and historic sites,
Wetlands, marshlands, bogs.
Endangered species habitats;
Wildlife breeding grounds.

Slide areas; Areas subject to
erosion; Seismic fault lines.

Existing land uses; Types of
agricultural uses; Vacant land
subject to land use controls.
Flood Insurance Administration;
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers;
Soil Conservation Service.

Heritage Conservation & Recreation
Service; Department of Agriculture.

State historic preservation officer;
Local historical societies; State
archeologist; National Park Service.

Fish & Wildlife Service; Corps  of

Fish & Wildlife Service.
U.S. Geological  Survey;  State
geological  office.

Local planning agencies.
14. Comprehensive Land  Use  Plan*
Proposed land development plan.     Local  planning  agency.

                                                   TABLE 1

                            Required and Suggested Maps and Sources for Information
                                        for Environmental Assessments
15. Census Tracts & Population
16. Transportation Facilities
Census divisions; Census tracts;   U.S.  Census  Bureau.
Enumeration districts; Population
Arterial streets, highways,
transit routes, railroads,
airports, traffic flows.
Local traffic engineer;  Local
planning agency.
     *  Required
     ** Required if applicable

1.13 ^08 Planning in the Study Area

     Many of the items investigated as part of the development of  areawide
water quality management 208 plans must also be addressed  in doing an
environmental assessment.  Early consultation with the 208 agency  respon-
sible for the area which includes the study area is a  sensible first
step and can be very helpful.

     If there is an approved 208 plan that includes the study area,  the
facility plan must conform with it.  This includes consistency in  such
elements of the plan as population and housing projections, wetlands and
floodplains identification, and the need and alternatives  for wastewater
treatment facilities in the study area.

1.14 Local and State Agencies

     There are many local and  State officials who are  familiar with the
various physical, social and economic features of the  study area,  and
who have access to studies and reports that may be of  help to the  grantee.
They can provide needed data and expert assistance in  identifying  and
analyzing impacts.  For each impact discussed in this  handbook as  one
that should be considered in the environmental assessment, a section
lists appropriate State and local sources for assistance.   If these
sources cannot help the grantee directly, they often can suggest other

1.2 Field Trips

     At least one field trip should be made for every  project since a
trip to the proposed site will reveal features not visible on graphic
materials and will verify the accuracy of data abstracted  from maps.

1.3 Assess Current Situation

     This step involves using  information gathered to  formulate an
accurate picture of present conditions in the planning area.  This will
be used to compare and evaluate alternatives.  The checklist at the
front of this handbook should  be consulted frequently  to ensure that all
relevant factors have been investigated.

1.4 Determine the Impacts of Each Alternative

     A  basic part of the facility planning process is  the complete
consideration of all alternatives.  The assessment should  evaluate all
alternatives that have been identified.  The grantee should utilize the
sections of the checklist at the front of this handbook labeled "primary"
and "secondary" impacts to ensure that all possible environmental  impacts
for each alternative are being considered.  Primary impacts are fairly
easy to evaluate and usually will be similar from one project to the

next.  Secondary impacts are much harder to isolate because they vary
according to the individual characteristics of the planning area and  in
some cases require the use of sophisticated mathematical  models to
predict.  Each alternative, including the no action alternative, should
be considered separately.

     To facilitate the evaluation of secondary impacts and to increase
awareness of existing conditions in the planning area, this handbook
encourages the use of an overlay system (Section 1.41).   To determine
secondary impacts and some primary impacts, knowledge of  the location
and extent of anticipated growth is required.  For many projects this is
difficult to do.  The overlay system described in the next section  is
intended to assist grantees in selecting the undeveloped  areas that are
most likely to be subject to development.  Guidance on estimating the
magnitude of growth is given in Section 1.42.

1.41 Overlay Systems

     There are a variety of overlay systems grantees may  find useful  to
assist in the identification and evaluation of primary and secondary
impacts.  One system is described here.  The systan may not be appropriate
for use by large urban areas or very small  rural areas.   These types  of
communities should consider using a modified version of the system  or a
system especially suited to their size and  characteristics.

     Overlay systems have the advantage of  presenting a large amount  of
data in a simplified form.  This allows grantees to consider simultaneously
all the various types of impacts that are presented in this handbook.
The systems require the preparation of a series of maps of the same
scale.  These maps are then transformed into clear overlays so that they
can be looked at individually or in combination.  Examples of those
overlays are included at the back of this report.  All of the data
needed to complete the overlays should be available from  the studies
done in completing the environmental assessment.

     The first step in the process is to prepare a base map.  This  map
should show the boundaries of the planning  area, major roads and railroads,
rivers, lakes and other significant bodies  of water.  Other major parameters
in the planning area not appropriate for the subsequent overlays might
be added.  It is worthwhile to keep the base map relatively simple  for
readability.  Before preparing the base map, grantees should contact  the
NCIC operated by the U.S. Geological Survey to see if a base map that
can be used is already available.  Along with the base map it is helpful
to prepare a map showing existing and proposed wastewater treatment works.
These two maps can be made into separate clear overlays.

     The next two maps categorize factors in the planning area on the
basis of their potential for development.  A map should be developed
showing areas not subject to further development.  The types of areas

included will depend upon the characteristics of the planning  area.
Some features that may be considered for inclusion are areas currently
developed, where little or no new development is expected,  and publicly-
owned lands or areas where development is precluded by law.  Some  privately-
owned undeveloped areas may also be included.  For example,   if a  large
amount of woodlands is currently owned by a paper company,  and it  is
unlikely the company is going to sell  any of this land, the woodlands
should be included.  This map will  be made into a clear overlay.   It
shows areas where new development is least likely to occur  because the
ownership of land effectively precludes further development.   It thereby
focuses the assessment of secondary impacts on other areas.

     Next, a map should be developed showing those characteristics
inhibiting development.  This overlay depicts constraints on development
due to physical  characteristics or  the location of land.  These character-
istics inhibit or discourage but do not preclude development.   The types
of features that should be shown on this map depend upon an evaluation
of the characteristics in the context of the community.  For example,
in some communities the presence of heavy industry will discourage
residential development of the immediate surrounding area.  In other
areas this may not be true.  Some possible candidates for inclusion are
areas with excessive slopes, areas  with soil conditions unsuitable for
construction, and areas adjoining airports.  Physical  obstacles can be
overcome with proper engineering and at extra cost.  Economic  pressures
can result in the development of areas typically deemed undesirable
because of their proximity to other uses.  This overlay, when  viewed
with the previous one, should show  areas where new development that
might be served  by the wastewater treatment plant is less likely to
occur.  It further defines the areas on which a secondary impact analysis
should concentrate.

     Another overlay should show areas with legal or institutional
protection.  These are areas which  should be protected or enhanced.  For
example, by law  a Federal action such as the funding of a wastewater
treatment works  cannot adversely affect the habitat of an endangered
species.  In some instances, special evaluation procedures  are necessary
before a Federal action can proceed.  A treatment works can only be
located in a floodplain if an assessment of alternative sites  shows none
are practicable.  Areas that must be considered include historic and
archeological sites, areas adjacent to wild and scenic rivers, prime and
unique farmlands, wetlands and others.  Federal actions, directly  or
secondarily, adversely impacting these areas are discouraged.   The
Federal action may or may not be prohibited.  Where it is not, typically
measures must be taken to mitigate  adverse impacts.  Table  2 gives
examples of areas that might be represented on the overlays.

     When these  maps are completed, the grantee should be able to  use
them in conjunction with an overlay of the existing and proposed waste-
water treatment works to evaluate the primary and secondary impacts
associated with  the project.  They  are not a substitute for comprehensive

                                TABLE 2


Areas unlikely to experience future development.

     1.   Fully developed areas
     2.   Privately-owned forests
     3.   Publicly-owned lands

Features that inhibit development.

     1.   Slopes unsuitable for development
     2.   Soil conditions unsuitable for  construction
     3.   Land adjoining certain sites  -  airports,  industrial areas,
          disposal sites, mines, quarries
     4.   Hazardous areas

Areas to be protected or enhanced by legal  or institutional protection.

     1.   Sole source aquifers
     2.   Areas of particular scenic value
     3.   Prime and unique agricultural  land
     4.   Wetlands
     5.   Endangered species and other  significant  wildlife habitats
     6.   Recreation sites
     7.   Cultural resources
     rf.   Coastal zones
     9.   Floodplains
    10.   Wild and Scenic Rivers

land use plans.   They can be used  in conjunction  with  comprehensive  land
use plans or other area planning maps to determine if  the  wastewater
treatment works  will  produce effects inconsistent with these  other
plans.  Grantees will want to look at:

     1.   Whether the siting of the plant or sewers will occur  on or  in
          close  proximity to environmentally sensitive areas.

     2.   Whether environmentally  sensitive areas are  likely  to be

     3.   Whether the project will impact areas  protected  by  Federal,
          State  or local  law.

     4.   Whether the new system  could  induce scattered development  or

1.42 Additional  Evaluation of Areas Subject to Growth

     The evaluation of undeveloped areas using the overlay system will
be sufficient for analyzing primary and secondary impacts  for some
projects.  It will be evident what types of development are likely to
occur.  For example,  in cases where an  area is expected to maintain  the
character of a single family residential neighborhood, no  further inquiry
into whether development will be  industrial or residential is required.
Nor would it be  necessary to do a  detailed investigation of areas if
there  is a comprehensive land use  plan  which is  being  followed.

     Other projects will  require  a more detailed  investigation  than  the
overlay system can provide.  In this case, it is  recommended  the grantee
use local land use plans, if available.

     Grantees are expected to consider  the environmental  impacts of  each
alternative.  It is usually difficult to determine that portion of
future growth which would occur if the  plant is  not built.  Past experience
indicates, however, that the availability of sewers is one factor influencing
growth.  Therefore, grantees should assume that  the construction of  new
treatment works  will  influence the location of future  population growth;
especially when the proposed project includes sewers or increases the
amount of reserve capacity.  When  the distribution and amount of growth
are identified,  secondary impacts  on air quality, water quality, traffic
volume, lost land and added public services can  be inferred.

1.5 Mitigating Measures

     For each impact discussed in  Chapters II through  IV,  specific
mitigating measures are included  where appropriate. The grantee should
undertake all feasible procedures  to lessen any  impacts associated,
either directly or indirectly, with the construction or operation of  the
treatment works.

     The following is a list of possible mitigating measures:

     Primary Impacts

     1.   Follow construction practices that reduce adverse  impacts

     2.   Utilize operating procedures which restrict  noise, odor, etc.

     3.   Carefully select and design the site.

     4.   Consider alternative rights of way for sewers.

     Secondary Impacts

     1.   Reduce reserve capacity or size of service area.

     2.   Use alternative rights  of way for sewers.

     3.   Improve land use planning and controls.

     4.   Phase sewer service.

     5.   Invoke sewer use restrictions.

     6.   Coordinate efforts with other environmental  programs  - areawide
          water quality management, air quality  maintenance, State or
          local erosion controls.

1.6 Select Plan

     This is the final stage of the facility planning  process into which
the environmental assessment is factored.   Alternatives are  compared
upon the basis of cost, implementation capability  and  environmental

     Grantees may find the use of a summary matrix helpful at this
stage.   Figure 1 shows one type of matrix  that can be  used.  The impacts
for each alternative are shown in terms of type  of area affected and the
nature and severity of the impact.

1.7 Public Participation

     Both the National Environmental  Policy Act  (40 USC SS4321-4361) and
the Clean Water Act call for active public participation  in  assessing
environmental impacts and in planning wastewater treatment works.  Under
the Construction Grants Program,  EPA, the States,  and  grantees  are
responsible for providing for, encouraging, and  assisting the public to
become informed about and involved in the development  of  facility plans.
The objectives of public participation are to assure responsiveness of
governmental agencies to public concerns and priorities and  to  improve
public understanding of official  programs  and actions.

                         FIGURE 1
Environmental  Impa'cts  of Al ternati ve Proposals
Environmental Impacts
Water quality & supply
Soil-prime & unique
Endangered & Threathened
Wild & Scenic Rivers
Cultural Resources
Coastal Zones
Air Pol lution
Noise & Odor
Recreation Lands



     significant positive  impact
     minimal  positive impact
O   no impact
	  severe  negative  impact
—   minimal  negative impact

     Public hearings are required  on all  construction grants  projects
and are one form of participation  which promotes  a  dialogue between  the
grantees and the public.  Other effective methods  include advisory
committees, public meetings,  workshops, questionnaires  and distribution
of fact sheets and documents  prepared during  the  grant  process.  The
environmental  assessment as well as  the facility  plan should  be widely
distributed in draft and final  form.  To ensure informed public participation,
these documents should be easily comprehensible to  the  general public.

General References

     Guidance  for Preparing a Facility Plan,  EPA/MCD-46, May  1975

     Handbook  of Procedures,  EPA/MCD-03,  February  1976

     PRM 75-26 - Consideration of  Secondary Effects in  the Construction
          Grants Process

     Preparation of Environmental  Impact Statements, 40 CFR*  Part 6

     Mitigating Secondary Impacts  from the Wastewater Facilities
          Program:  An EPA Case Study Series,  Office of EPA Land
          Use  Coordination

     Grants for Construction  of Treatment Works,  40 CFR Part  35,
          Subpart E (1978)

     Public Participation in  Water Pollution  Control, 40 CFR
          Part 25 (1979)
*CFR - Code of Federal  Regulations

2.0  Introduction

     In evaluating  the impacts  associated  with  any  alternative,  it  is
necessary to examine a variety  of  features.   This chapter  identifies
those features to be included  in the  environmental  assessment which
normally require only a minimum of investigation.   More  complex  features
(with special  requirements)  are discussed  in  Chapters  III  and IV.  When
analysis overlaps between a  feature discussed in  this  chapter and one
found in a later chapter, the  in-depth  treatment will  appear in  the
later chapter.

     Items investigated in this chapter will  also be used  to assist in
analyzing the more  complex impacts.   For example, climate  can affect air
and water pollution problems.

2.1 Topography


     Topography is  the study of the contours  of the land and the location
of significant physical and  man-made  features within a region.   A
topographical  map can be used  to identify  those sections of the  planning
area unsuitable for development either  because  of excessive slopes  or
because of the deleterious effect  new development will have on the
area's drainage pattern.

Minimum Requirement

     Obtain a topographical  or  U.S. Geological  Survey  Quadrangle map of
the region.  Note all areas  where  the slope  is  greater than 25 percent;
these are areas where development  will  be  difficult.   Also, indicate the
location of areas with slopes  between 10 and  25 percent; although it is
not as difficult in these areas, construction will  still involve problems
and should not be undertaken unless demand is great.   Information should
also be evaluated on the major  and minor drainage basins and their
characteristics, including area, slope, elevation,  natural and artificial
drainage nets, erosion and deposition.   Development can  adversely
affect drainage patterns, contributing  to  flooding, soil erosion and
poor water quality.  If pertinent, data on drainage basins in the planning
area can be included in the assessment.
     Department of Army, Corps of Engineers

     Department of Agriculture, Soil  Conservation Service

     Department of Interior, U.S. Geological  Survey,  National  Cartographic
          Information Center

2.2 Geology


     Geology is the study of the formation and structure of  the earth.
For the purposes of an environmental assessment,  knowledge of  the geology
of the planning area will aid in identifying areas whose soil  composition
is unsuitable for construction or where construction should  be discouraged
due to the proximity of aquifers or groundwater recharge areas.  The
natural features of an area can also contribute to the aesthetic quality
of a region.

Minimum Requirement

     Obtain a map of the geology of the planning  area.  There  may be
areas where development will be limited due to the inappropriateness  of
the site for construction.  Indicate areas where  development should be
discouraged to protect groundwater supplies and to preserve  the scenic
value of unusual natural features.  The map may also be of assistance in
locating potential hazards such as earthquake zones and slide  areas.


     Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, National  Cartographic
          Information Center

     State geological offices

2.3 Soils


     Knowledge of the characteristics of the soil  found in an  area is
useful in evaluating erosion potential  and the fitness of a  particular
portion of the area for a specific use such as farming or landfill.   A
soils map will also pinpoint areas with soils unsuitable for on-site
disposal systems.  Development in these areas may depend upon  the
availability of sewers or other alternative solutions.

Minimum Requirement

     Become acquainted with soil types in the project area.  This informa-
tion can be obtained from a soil map available (with explanatory material)
from the Soil Conservation Service.  Particular attention should be
given to characteristics such as depth of water table, permeability,
erosion potential, expansion and compaction.  This data will be used  to
locate areas that are unsuitable for subsurface soil absorption systems,
other land disposal or treatment of effluents, landfills and sludge
disposal.  In some instances, it will also pinpoint areas with water
quality problems.

     Prime and unique farmland and other productive areas  that  also
appear on soils maps are discussed in more detail  in Chapter  III.


     Department of Agriculture, Soil  Conservation  Service

     Local Soil Conservation Service  officers

     State conservationists

2.4 Climate


     Prevailing weather conditions influence the ecology of the planning
area and can limit the feasibility of certain  types of  treatment systems.
For example, runoff, flooding, and surface and groundwater water pollution
are affected by the intensity of rainfall.   Temperature and wind velocity
can affect the severity of air pollution problems  while the constant
threat of hurricanes or tornados may  discourage future  development of an

Minimum Requirement

     Review information about weather conditions in the planning area.
Temperature ranges, monthly temperature averages,  total annual  precipita-
tion, the degree of humidity, wind, and atmospheric stability can be
valuable background data.  Also, note any specific adverse weather
conditions that are prevalent in the  area.


     National  Weather Service

2.b Population


     One of the most important factors in preparing an  environmental
assessment is the estimate of an area's current and future population.
This data will be used to evaluate the magnitude of secondary impacts
and to measure other impacts where information is  available only on a
per capita basis.

     Care must be taken to ensure that forecasts are reliable and conform
with other data developed for the environmental assessment.   Projections
will help in the estimation of future wasteloads and flows and  are thus
used in sizing and staging facilities.  An inflated population  projection
can result in a project with excess reserve capacity and oversized
sewers.  Both of these can contribute to population growth with attendant

secondary impacts.  They also contribute to the escalation of project
costs which can place substantial financial burdens on communities.

Minimum Requirement

     Obtain the latest population data from the Bureau of Census.  To
estimate current and to project future population for facility planning
areas in standard metropolitan statistical  areas (SMSA's), follow  the
projections of the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of Commerce,
that incorporates the "Series E" projections of the Bureau of Census.
Any departures must be justified.  Non-SMSA areas must base projections
on extensions of population growth trends since 1960 or 1965.

     EPA has established a new procedure to go into effect in the  near
future.  Grantees must comply with the requirements of the Cost-
Effectiveness Analysis Guidelines, 40 CFR Part 35, Subpart E,  Appendix A,
published in the FEDERAL REGISTER on September 27, 1978.   The guidelines
set forth a disaggregation process for population projections  that is
designed to avoid provision of excess reserve capacity and oversizing of
sewer lines.  Projections used in facility  plans must be  based on  disag-
gregations of State projection totals prepared by the Bureau  of Economic
Analysis.  In consultation with regional planning agencies, the State
divides its projection total among designated 208 areas,  SMSA's not
included in 208 areas, and counties or other appropriate  jurisdictions
not included in 208 areas or in SMSA's.   The designated 208 planning
agency subdivides its total.  The State subdivides for other  SMSA's.  The
State may subdivide the total for the remaining areas or  leave it  to
facility planning grantees in those areas to produce consistent and
justifiable forecasts.  The guidelines allow some variation from State
and 208 area totals if based on projections prepared by June  26, 1978.
The State must submit its disaggregation to EPA by October 1,  1979.   Six
months after EPA approves the State disaggregation, facility  plans must
be based on the guidelines.

     Along with population projections up to the year 2000, the Bureau
of Economic Analysis has provided totals for each State which  show total
personal income, per capita income, and average earnings  by occupation.
The tables may be useful in analyzing other impacts discussed  in this
chapter.  Grantees should consult with State or areawide  (208)  planning
agencies about the Bureau of Economic Analysis projections.   Projections
should be consistent with those used for control  of air quality, water
resources management and other environmental programs, unless  variations
can be justified.


     Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis  and
          Bureau of Census

     Water Division, EPA regional  office

     State water pollution agency

     Local and areawide planning agencies


     Population, Personal  Income,  and Earnings  by State:  Projections
          to 2000, Bureau  of Economic Analysis  (1977)

     Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Guidelines,  40 CFR Part  35,
          Subpart E, Appendix A

2.6 Housing


     This section describes the data required to evaluate the  present
and future housing situation.  As  indicated below, many of  the impacts
associated with new housing are discussed in  other chapters of this

Minimum Requirement

     Review information on the type, density  and location of housing
within the planning area.   Information on an  area's average vacancy rate
may also be useful.  A vacancy rate represents  the percentage  of  unused
housing units and thus indicates the degree of  current demand  for new or
additional housing and public services such as  sewers.

     The primary impacts upon housing are 1)  the loss  or  gain  of  land
available for building new homes,  and 2)  the  displacement of existing
residents whose homes are demolished.

     Secondary impacts involve the changes in land use resulting  from
the provision of more treatment capacity and  the installation  of  new
sewers.  The placement of sewers on previously  undeveloped  land will
make these tracts more marketable for development.  This  is because
sewage treatment is a service essential for extensive  residential  development,

     The construction of new multiple and single family housing may
result in the deterioration of the quality of the air  and water,  an
increased demand for drinking water, energy and community services, and
other impacts.  AH of these are discussed in other sections of this


     U.S. Postal Service, Postal  Surveys

     Department of Commerce, Bureau of Econmic Analysis

     Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau,  Annual  Housing  Survey

     Local planning agencies


     Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real  Property Aquisition  Policies
          Act of 1970 (40 USC SS4601-4655)

     Implementation of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and  Real
          Property Aquisition Policies Act of 1970,  40 CFR  Part  4

2.1 Industrial and Commercial Development


     The establishment of new industries in an area  depends upon many
factors often including the availability of sewers.   Commercial  develop-
ment, on the other hand, tends to be directly associated with residential

Minimum Requirement

     Information should be obtained on the area's commercial  and industrial
activities including location, number of employees and the  land  and
natural resources requirements of the particular  industry.  If industrial
and commercial development is significant in the  planning area,  estimates
should be made of future economic development by  using data on company
relocations or expansions, census data on industries'  future  demand  for
employees, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) projections on earnings by industry and bu
industrial development rates.  Otherwise, basic estimates of  overall
growth can be used.

     The primary impacts upon industrial and commercial  activities
include:  displacement of existing business and a decrease  in land
suitable for such use.  In the environmental assessment, impacts associated
with the project should be described as accurately as  possible.  Secondary
impacts are discussed in later sections  of this  handbook.
     Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration,
          Overall economic development plans

     Environmental Protection Agency, regional  water division,
          BEA projections

     Local and regional planning offices

2.8 Transportation


     A new sewage treatment plant can have some impact on transportation
as It influences the location of population growth which, in  turn,
increases the demand for new or improved transportation systems.  Trans-
portation facilities are also of assistance in determining  where  growth
is expected to occur.  For example,  industry is more likely to  locate
near railroads or major highways, while houses are generally  built  near
transportation systems which can provide ready access  to job  centers.

Minimum Requirement

     Indicate all major highways, railroads and airports in the planning
area.  Also, indicate any proposed new transportation  facility  that will
be completed within the planning period.

     Primary impacts include the increased traffic to  and from  the
construction site.  The effects of this increased  traffic upon  air
quality and energy demands will be considered under these topics  in
later chapters.

     Secondary impacts include air pollution, increased demand  for  fuel,
traffic congestion and the possibility that new roads  or other  types of
transportation will be needed to serve the increasing  population.   Many
of these impacts are discussed in later chapters.   If  the area  will
experience a significant increase in population, determine  if plans have
been made to expand existing mass transportation or roads to  accommodate
this growth.  One way to reduce secondary impacts  is to ensure  that
growth will occur first in areas closest to existing population centers.


     Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
          and Urban Mass Transportation Administration

     Local and regional State highway agencies


     Secondary Impacts of Transportation and Wastewater Investments:
          Research Results, EPA 600/5-75-013, July, 1975

2.9 Economic and Social Profile


     The National Environmental Policy Act requires environmental
assessments to address all impacts,  not just those directly related to

pollution problems.  The grantee must therefore give some attention to
the possible impacts the new treatment works will  have upon the financial
and social characteristics of the planning area.  Emphasis should  be
placed on the additional fiscal  burden imposed by  the new system,  the
demand for new community services and the changes  in the composition of
the population that will result from additional sewer construction.

Minimum Requirements

     Collect data on housing, population, employment, local  cost of
construction of the new facility and user charges.   Additional  informa-
tion, such as per capita income, racial or ethnic  components,  and  age
distribution can provide insight into a neighborhood's social  character-
istics. Using this data, determine what socioeconomic impacts  the  project
is likely to have.  The following is a list of some economic and social
changes that may be associated with the construction of a wastewater
treatment facility and the placement of new sewers:

     1.   Financial strain on the local community  required to  provide
          the local share of the capital  cost of the new facility.

     2.   Additional charges or taxes on residents  needed to provide for
          the operation and maintenance of the system.

     3.   Increased taxes and public spending needed to provide additional
          community services required by new residents and industries
          (community services include police and fire protection,  hospitals,
          schools, garbage collection and public transportation).

     4.   Fluctuations in land values.  Areas in close proximity to the
          plant or disposal sites are likely to decrease in value  while
          areas where sewage collection is now available are likely to
          appreciate in value.

     5.   Increase in revenues available to the community from  new
          residents, new industries or higher per  capita incomes.

     6.   Changes in the characteristics  of the population due  to  increased
          taxes, rising property values or the elimination of  low  income

     7.   Unfair distribution of benefits and burdens in the area  where
          the project actually benefits only one segment of the population.


     Local or regional planning  agencies

     Local housing agency


     PRM 76-3 - Presentation of Local  Government Costs  of  Wastewater
          Treatment Works in Facility  Plans

     PRM 75-32 - Compliance with Title VI  in the Construction  Grants

     Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal  Assistance  from
          EPA - Effectuation of Title  VI  of the Civil  Rights Act of
          1964, 40 CFR Part 7 (1977)

2.10 Undeveloped and Vacant Land


     Undeveloped land and vacant land  include land  having  an average
density of less than 1.7 persons per acre.   The construction of  wastewater
treatment works could result in the development of  these areas to a
degree or a rate greater than would have  previously been anticipated.

Minimum Requirement

     Evaluate the undeveloped areas In terms of location,  size,  physical
characteristics, location of interceptors,  fitness  of land for construc-
tion and on-site systems, and land values.   These are all  factors that
will determine which areas are most likely to be developed to  accommodate
expected growth.

2.11 Land Use Controls


     Various items can be included under  the general  category  of land
use controls.  Land use controls can  be legal restraints on the  use of
land such as zoning, building height  limits or density regulations.  A
comprehensive plan is another example  although it is  not usually legally

Minimum Requirement

     Identify all major land use controls.   For each  one,  evaluate
whether the projected growth associated with each alternative  will
conform with the requirements of the  control.  Note ways  in which the
new facility could defeat the purpose  of  existing land use controls.


     Local and regional planning agencies

     Local zoning and building inspectors

2.12 Other projects and Programs


     Other projects and programs may affect the degree and location of
future growth.  These projects and programs, in combination with waste
treatment facility construction, may produce impacts that are more
severe than those anticipated by studying each project individually.
For these reasons, it is important to look at other projects planned  or
already being built in the planning area.

Minimum Requirement

     Consider other major ongoing or planned Federal, State, regional or
local projects or programs which will or may have social, environmental
or economic impacts on the planning area.  Determine if these projects
will have any effect on the proposed alternatives.  In particular, note
how these projects will influence growth projections and locations.  For
example, will the new housing project be built on the east side instead
of the west side because a new highway is being built to the eastern
side of town?


     Local and regional planning agencies

     Local economic development agency or organization


     Local capital improvement programs

     Local and regional plans


3.0 Introduction

     This chapter is devoted to a discussion of areas which require
special protection for various economic and environmental  reasons.   In
many cases these areas are protected by Federal and State  legislation.
This chapter is not intended to be an all-inclusive exploration of
impacts associated with hazardous and sensitive areas.  Some hazardous
areas, such as earthquake zones and areas with adverse weather conditions
are discussed in Chapter II.  Some areas fall  under more than one subsec-
tion of this chapter.  For example, a wetland could also be in a floodplain,
a coastal zone, an endangered species habitat or a park.  Areas must
satisfy all the separate requirements discussed in each relevant section
of the chapter.

3.1 Floodplains


     Floodplains are relatively flat areas or lowlands adjoining the
channel of a river, stream or water course which have been or- may be
covered by floodwater.  A flood is a "general  and temporary condition of
partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas  from the
overflow of inland and/or tidal waters and/or the unusual  and rapid
accumulation or runoff of surface water from any source."   (Executive
Order 119»8, Floodplain Management, May 25, 1977)  A reference to a
floodplain should be accompanied by a modifier indicating  the level of
flooding, e.g., 100 year floodplain (one percent chance of flooding in
any year).

     The benefits of preserving floodplains in their natural or relatively
undisturbed state include the reduction of flood hazards and losses,
maintenance of water quality standards, replenishment of groundwater,
soil conservation, the fostering of fish, wildlife and plant resources
and provision of recreational areas.  The National Flood Insurance  Act
of 1968, as amended by the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, provides
government sponsored flood insurance for structures in flood prone  areas
if the community involved undertakes floodplain management measures to
limit development in these areas.

Minimum Requirement

     All grantees must identify any 100 year floodplains found within
the planning area.  If the area is predominately privately owned, consult
the Federal Insurance Administration of the Department of  Housing and
Urban Development.  That agency prepares two types of maps that will be
useful in identifying floodplains.  One type shows the boundaries and
elevations of the 100 year and 500 year floodplains and is known as a
Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM).  A detailed report known  as a Flood

Insurance Study Report may also be available for the planning area to
supplement the information shown on the map.  The other type of map is
less detailed and known as a Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM).   (Figure 2)
This map shows the approximate area of the 100 year zone.   If neither
map is available or if more detailed information than that shown on the
maps is required, consult the agencies listed under Sources for assistance.
If these sources can not provide information, consult an engineer experienced
in identifying these areas.

     For areas predominately State or Federally owned, consult initially
with the controlling agency.  If no information is available, contact
the agencies listed below.

     Once all areas have been identified, determine if any of the alterna-
tives will have an impact upon any 100 year floodplains.  If the construc-
tion site is within a 100 year floodplain or growth is projected for
these areas, the detailed analysis described in the next section is

Supplemental Requirement

     Executive Order 11988, 42 FEDERAL REGISTER 26,951 (1977),  requires
that a "closer look" be taken at Federal  projects in order to avoid
adverse impacts associated with actual construction in or  development of
floodplains.  This order emphasizes the importance of the  evaluation and
mitigation of impacts as well as early public review of plans involving
action in a floodplain.

     If a determination is made that one or more of the alternatives
will involve floodplain construction, the project may not  proceed unless
a determination is made that no practicable* alternative exists to the
proposed plan and that all possible mitigating measures will  be imple-
mented.  Thus, it is required that:

     1.   All possible alternatives be considered, including  the no
          action alternative, alternative sites for the project and
          alternative means of accomplishing the objectives.

     2.   All impacts be evaluated, including flood hazards and the
          effects on the natural and beneficial floodplain values.

     3.   Measures to minimize impacts and restore or preserve  floodplains
          be considered.
*practi cable - "capable of being done within existing  constraints.  The
test of what is practicable depends upon the situation and  includes
consideration of the pertinent factors,  such as  environment,  cost or
technology." (Water Resources Council Guidelines for  Implementing
Executive Order 11988, 43 FEDERAL REGISTER  6030,  1978)


                  MOUNT Alh
 City of Midway
                                                                                                     C'ily of llcber
                                                                                                  (ARf A NOT INC! UHED]
                                r\  \      JL_   }

     The following are possible methods for reducing floodplain impacts
for construction grants projects.  The list is only illustrative and  is
not intended to indicate these are the only methods available.

     1.   Use minimum grading requirements.

     2.   Return site to natural contours.

     3.   Maintain floodplain vegetation to reduce sedimentation.

     4.   Regulate methods used for grading, filling,  soil  removal
          and replacement to reduce sedimentation during  construction.

     5.   Dispose of waste materials so as  not to contaminate ground
          or surface water or change land contours.

     6.   Require topsoil  protection programs during construction.

     In deciding whether to locate in a floodplain, public  comments and
opinions should be considered.  In the Construction Grants  Program, this
means that discussion of the issue should take place at any public
hearing held on the project, and that the following topics  should be
addressed in the environmental assessment,  A-95 notice* or  any  draft
material put out before the public hearing:

     1.   Why the project must be located in a floodplain;

     2.   AH significant facts considered  in making the  determination;

     3.   Whether the actions conform to applicable State or local
          floodplain protection standards;

     4.   How the project will be designed  or modified  to minimize harm
          to or within floodplains;

     5.   How the action affects natural or beneficial  floodplain values.

     The environmental assessment should also include  a summary of
actions taken to elicit public comments and to consult  with other agencies,
groups and individuals consulted on the project.

     Grantees are required to take into account secondary effects on
floodplains.  As has been mentioned, this involves considering  all
alternatives, evaluating impacts and undertaking  mitigating measures.
An example of a possible mitigating measure would be to limit sewer hook
ups in the floodplain.

*Before a facTTity plan is approved, it is  reviewed by  interested parties
at the local level pursuant to the Office of Management and Budget's
Circular A-95, "Federal and Federally Assisted Program  and  Projects," 38
FEDERAL REGISTER 32,874 (1973).


     Department of Housing and  Urban Development,  Federal  Insurance
          Administration,  Flood Insurance Program

     Department of Agriculture, Soil  Conservation  Service

     Department of Army,  Corps  of  Engineers

     Department of Commerce,  National  Weather Service

     Department of Interior,  Geological  Survey

     Department of Interior,  Bureau  of Land  Management

     Department of Interior,  Fish  and Wildlife Service

     Area river basin commissions


     Flood Disaster Protection  Act of 1973;  National Flood  Insurance Act
          of 1968, 42 USC  SS4001-4128

     Floodplain Management, Executive Order  11988,  42 FEDERAL REGISTER
          26,951 (1977)

     Water Resources Council  Guidelines  for  Implementing Executive
          Order 11988, 43  FEDERAL  REGISTER 6030 (1978)

     National Flood Insurance Program, 24 CFR Part 1909 (1977)

     Statement of Procedures: Floodplains and Wetlands, United States
          Environmental  Protection Agency

     PRM 76-5, Flood Insurance  Requirements

3.2 Wetlands


     Wetlands are land areas  which-,  because  of their frequent inundation
by surface or groundwater, can  support vegetative  or aquatic life that
requires saturated soil  conditions.   Wetlands generally include  swamps,
marshes, bogs and similar  areas such as  sloughs, potholes,  wet meadows,
river overflows, mud flats and  natural ponds.  Executive Order 11990,
Protection of Wetlands,  42 FEDERAL REGISTER  26,961  (1977).  Wetlands
provide habitats for plants and animals  that are critical  parts  of food
chains in coastline ecosystems.  Commercially important marine life as
well as threatened and endangered  species depend on wetlands.  In addition
they may be a natural wastewater treatment system,  a future energy and
water supply, a means to prevent shoreline erosion, a buffer zone between
salt and fresh water, a  recreational  area and in some cases, a natural
recharge area.

Minimum Requirement

     Determine if there are any wetlands in the planning area.   Currently,
maps are available for some areas from the Fish and Wildlife Service,
Department of Interior, or from local  or State planning agencies.   Over
the next few years, maps will be prepared by the Fish and Wildlife
Service for the balance of the country.  If there are no wetlands, the
evaluation is complete.  If wetlands exist, determine if there  will  be
actual construction in these areas or if future growth is projected  in
or near these areas.  Secondary impacts are most likely to occur if
sewers are located in wetlands or within 1,000 feet of them.

     If any major part of the treatment works will  be located in wetlands
or will have a significantly adverse primary or secondary impact on
wetlands, the evaluation described in the next section must be  undertaken.

Supplemental Requirement

     The grantee must determine each alternative's  impact upon  the
wetlands.  This evaluation includes looking at alternatives,  analyzing
their comparative impacts as well as considering measures to  mitigate
harm and restore and preserve the wetlands.  Any impact that affects the
wetland's natural or beneficial value must be considered.  Factors
considered include the public health,  safety and welfare; the maintenance
of natural systems; and any use that is in the public interest.

     Primary impacts occur as a result of construction or operation
activities in, in close proximity to,  or upstream of wetlands and  which
cause the destruction or alteration of these areas.   Describe in detail
the acreage, characteristics and location of any wetlands which  are
likely to be substantially changed or  destroyed.  Identify any  temporary
impacts the construction activities are likely to cause.   Include  a
description of mitigating measures, such as restoration,  which  are to  be
used to minimize the project's impacts.  Pay special  attention  to  the
effects upon the quality of surface and groundwater  adjacent  to  the
wetland areas.  Executive Order 11990  forbids construction in a  wetland
unless no practicable alternative exists.  If construction occurs, the
Executive Order requires that all possible steps to  minimize  harm  be
taken.  Under the regulations for the Construction  Grants Program,
interceptors can be extended into environmentally sensitive areas  such
as wetlands only if necessary to eliminate existing  point discharges and
to accommodate wastewater flows from existing habitations that  violate
an enforceable requirement of the Clean Water Act.   Collection  systems
funded through construction grants should not provide capacity  for new
habitations or establishments located  in wetlands.   The environmental
assessment should address these requirements.

     Investigate State and local laws  dealing with  wetlands.  Discuss
any difficulties or special requirements these laws  may create.

     Grantees who are considering  siting  a  wastewater  treatment  plant or
sewers in a wetland should also be aware  of the  existing  Federal  laws
that regulate these activities.  Under S10  of  the  Rivers  and Harbors Act
of 1899 and §404 of the Federal Water Pollution  Control Act, dredge and
fill activities cannot be undertaken in wetlands without  a  permit issued
by the Corps of Engineers.  In addition,  the Administrator  of  EPA can
prohibit any filling of wetlands if he or she  determines  such  activities
will have an unacceptable adverse impact  on municipal  water supply,
shellfish beds, fisheries, wildlife or recreational  areas.

     Evaluate secondary impacts which will  occur if  the area is  developed
in response to increased demand for housing or industrial sites.   For
each alternative, determine how many acres  of  wetlands are  likely to be
developed in order to satisfy the future  demand for  houses  and industrial
structures.  Also, indicate how many acres  in  the  surrounding  area will
experience growth during the planning period.  This  collateral development
can also affect the natural values of the wetlands,  particularly if it
is upstream.  Possible mitigating  measures  to  consider include sewer
hook up restrictions, restoration of previously destroyed wetlands,
construction techniques that protect wetlands, and establishment of a
wetlands protection zone.


     Department of Army, Corps of  Engineers

     Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation  Service

     Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service

     EPA, Branch for review of S10 permits


     §10, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, 33 USC §§401-466n

     §404, Federal Water Pollution Control  Act,  33 USC §§1251-1376

     Protection of Wetlands, Executive Order 11990,  42 FEDERAL REGISTER
          16,961 (1977)

     Permits for Activities in Navigable  Waters  or Ocean  Waters,  33
          CFR §209.120 (1976)

     Statement of Procedures, Floodplains and  Wetlands, United States
          Environmental Protection Agency

3.3 Wild and Scenic Rivers


     The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act protects,  in their "free flowing"
condition, designated rivers or river segments with exceptional  natural,
scenic, recreational or other qualities worthy of preservation.   River
segments may be categorized as either wild,  scenic or recreational  and
each category is accorded a different level  of protection.   The  Act is
administered jointly by the Departments of Agriculture and  Interior.  A
river is added to the system by Federal legislation or by State  legisla-
tion with the approval  of the Secretary of the Interior.

Minimum Requirement

     Determine if there are any designated or  officially  recognized
wild, scenic or recreational rivers in the planning area  or if any  such
rivers are under study for inclusion in the  system.  If none,  the analysis
is complete.  If the planning area contains  either a designated  river or
one under study, determine for each alternative 1) whether  construction
is planned near the river, 2) whether growth is projected for  areas
contiguous to or upstream from the designated  segment or  3)  whether the
river is to be used for disposal of effluent.   If any of  the above
conditions are present, proceed with the evaluation discussed  in the
next section.

Supplemental Requirement

     The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act prohibits  the approval  of  any Federal
grant which would have a direct adverse effect on those characteristics
which caused the river to be classified as wild, scenic or  recreational.
Contact the agency responsible for administering the river  segment
involved for information and assistance in evaluating impacts.   Often a
development or control  plan for all or part  of the area will  have been
prepared.  Evaluate the primary impacts.  In particular,  note  the impacts
upon the scenic or recreational qualities of these rivers as  well as
possible mitigating measures (such as landscaping in order  to  camouflage
buildings).  If any alternative plan under consideration  will  result in
conditions inconsistent with the character of  the designated  segment,
eliminate it as unacceptable.  Note that the classification of the
particular river has a bearing on what is considered an acceptable
impact.  For example, any alteration of a wild river is unacceptable
although some impacts upon recreational rivers are permitted.

     Although secondary impacts are not addressed by the  Wild  and Scenic
Rivers Act, NEPA regulations require that they be discussed.   In consider-
ing such secondary impacts, determine if the construction of  the sewer
plant will encourage development of land adjacent to or upstream from
these segments and discuss how this development will affect the  river.
Actions such as hook up restrictions should  be considered to  limit

     Rivers are often legal  boundaries  and  so development may  be  subject
to intergovernmental  plans  or arrangements.   Reference  should  be  made  to
such conditions if they exist.


     Department of Interior,  Heritage Conservation  and  Recreation
          Service and National  Park Service (for  rivers not  in National

     Department of Agriculture, Forest  Service (for rivers in
          National Forests)

     State Water Quality Control  Board


     Wild and Scenic  Rivers  Act of 1968,  16 DSC SS1271-87 (1970)
          amended 1974

3.4 Cultural  Resources


     Cultural resources include districts,  sites, buildings, structures
or objects which are  significant in American history, architecture,
archeology or culture.  Because of their  cultural significance, these
structures and sites  are protected by a number of Federal laws.   In
facility planning, protective actions revolve generally around properties
on or eligible for inclusion on the National  Register of Historic Places,
which includes both archeological and historic sites.

Minimum Requirement

     Consult the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO)  to determine
if there are any properties  in the planning area which  are included or
are eligible for inclusion  in the National  Register of  Historic Places.
If there are none, the analysis is complete.   If  there  is insufficient
information available to determine if the proposed  construction site
contains cultural resources,  a field.survey may be  required.   The scope
of the required survey will  depend upon the probability that sensitive
material will be found.  For most projects, a documentary search  of
reference materials or a walkover reconnaissance  survey will suffice.
In some cases, where  numerous archeological  sites are present, more
extensive surveys, including excavation activities, will be  required.

     Contact the EPA  regional office for  authority  to conduct  this
survey.  If property  located in the planning  area is included  or  eligible
for inclusion in the  National Register  of Historic  Places, further
consultation with the SHPO  is required  as described in  the next subsection,

Supplemental Requirement

     Information on all  alternative sites being  considered  for  sewers
and plants should be furnished to the State Historic  Preservation Officer
(SHPO).  If EPA in consultation with the SHPO determines  that any alter-
native will have an impact on a protected property,  the SHPO, the grantee
and EPA will work together to develop methods for mitigating the anticipated
impact.  The SHPO's recommendations and findings on  impacts should  be
included in the environmental assessment.  Possible mitigating  measures
include: excavation of archeological material, relocation of sewer
lines, and restrictions on development near historic  sites.  If EPA
determines that the proposed project will have an adverse effect on
property on or eligible for inclusion on the National  Register, then the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP)  has  the  right  to comment
on the undertaking.  The ACHP may also comment if it  disagrees  with a
determination by EPA that no adverse effect will  occur.   All parties
will attempt to formulate a memorandum of agreement  on measures to  be
taken to mitigate or minimize impacts on protected cultural properties.
If this cannot be done,  then the full ACHP directing  body can review and
comment on the proposed  project.  As this handbook was being finalized,
the ACHP proposed revisions to its regulations.   The  revised requirements
will apply to projects begun after the regulations are promulgated,
which should be early in 1979.


     Department of Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation
          Service, Interagency Archeological  Services and National
          Register Office

     Department of Interior, National Park Service

     Advisory Council on Historic Preservation

     State Historic Preservation Officer

     State Archeologist

     Local historical society


     National Historic Preservation Act of 1966,  16 USC SS470-470+

     Historical and Archeological Data Preservation Act 16  USC

     Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act of 1935, 16  USC

     Antiquities Act of 1906,  16 USC §§431-433

     National  Register of Historic Places,  (the list is  published
          regularly in the FEDERAL REGISTER)

     PRM 75-^7, Field Survey to Identify Cultural  Resources

     Procedures for the Protection of Historic and Cultural  Property,
          36 CFR Part dOO (1977)

3.5 Endangered Species, Fish and Wildlife


     The Endangered Species Act of 1973  provides for the protection and
conservation of threatened or  endangered plants and wildlife.  The
Secretary of Interior is responsible for designating threatened  or
endangered species, except for species of marine  life which  are  under
the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Commerce. Section  7  of the Act
forbids Federal funding of activities which will result  in the modifica-
tion or destruction of critical  habitats.

Minimum Requirement

     Identify generally the plant and animal  life  found  in the planning
area.  Special attention should be given to endangered or  threatened
species.  If such data is not  available, contact the EPA regional office
to determine if a field survey is necessary.   If endangered  species are
present in the planning area,  the more detailed evaluation outlined in
the next section should be undertaken.  Project impacts  on plants and
animals not designated as threatened or  endangered should  be analyzed
generally.  If there will be a serious impact on fish and  wildlife
resources, consultation with agencies established  to protect them will
be necessary.

Supplemental Requirement

     The grantee must collect  biological data on the threatened  or
endangered species found in the project area, including  information on
the species' food, cover and mating habits  and other requirements necessary
for its continued survival.  A helpful source for  such information is
the computer information system for environmentally sensitive wildlife
("SPECINFO"),  operated by the  U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.   The State in which the project area is
located may also have an endangered species program that can provide
information.  If a determination is made that the  project will have an
impact upon a threatened or endangered species, the grantee  must request
consultation with the regional office of the  Fish  and Wildlife Service (FWS),
Department of Interior.  The FWS will study the project, request additional
information or surveys and then issue a final opinion as to  whether the
project will jeopardize an endangered or threatened species  or a critical
habitat.  Controversial projects may be reviewed  by a Federal interagency  panel

     If there is a serious impact on other  fish and wildlife resources, the
FWS, counterpart State agencies and the National Marine  Fisheries Service
(for marine species) must be consulted.   As this manual  was  being prepared,
the FWS was drafting new regulations.  They will  apply to projects begun
after their promulgation.


     Mitigation measures,  such as the relocation  of  the  project, must be
undertaken if a threatened or endangered  species  will  be jeopardized.
The Fish and Wildlife Service's opinion and  recommendations  should be
included in the environmental assessment.


     State and local  conservation agencies and  organizations

     Department of Interior,  U.S.  Fish and Wildlife  Service

     Other Federal and State  agencies responsible for  fish and wildlife

     FEDERAL REGISTER (list of threatened or endangered  species)


     Endangered Species Act of 1973,  as amended,  16  USC  SS1531-1543
          (Supplement V, 1975)

     Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and  Plants,  50 CFR Part 17

     Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958,  16  USC  §S661-666c
          (Supplement V, 1975)

     Interagency Cooperation  - Endangered Species Act  of 1973, 50 CFR
          Part 402 (1978)

     Marine Mammal Protection Act of  1972, 16 USC SS1361-1407 (Supplement
          V, 1975)

3.6 Coastal Zones


     The Coastal Zone Management Act  of 1972 provides  funds  for States
to formulate plans to preserve, protect,  develop  and improve their
coastal resources.  These plans attempt to prevent shoreline erosion and
the loss of living marine resources and wildlife, preserve nutrient rich
areas and recreational areas, and avoid adverse changes  to ecological

Minimum Requirement

     If the project is in one of the  coastal States  covered  by the Act,
determine if a coastal zone management plan  has been approved by the
Secretary of Commerce.  If there is an approved plan,  determine if the
project will affect the coastal zone.  In evaluating impacts caused by
the project, consider whether changes in  land use, or  changes in the

quality of coastal zone resources will  occur.   Also consider  whether  the
range of uses of resources will  be limited.   The supplemental  requirements
apply if the project will  have an effect on  coastal  resources.

Supplemental Requirement

     Under the Coastal  Zone Management  Act,  projects receiving  Federal
assistance must be consistent with approved  State plans.   Review  of the
project by the State coastal  zone agency is  accomplished  through  the
existing A-95 review process.  The State agency has  45 days in  which  to
notify grantees and EPA of any objections to the proposed  project.  If
an objection is made, the  State agency  will  indicate the manner in which
the project is inconsistent with specific elements  of the  management
program and what steps  can be taken to  meet  the requirements  of the
State plan.  Grantees may  choose to accept suggestions of  the State
coastal zone management agency and revise the project. If there  is
serious disagreement, grantees may request mediation by the Secretary of
Commerce.  The Secretary of Commerce may waive the  consistency  requirement
if the project achieves other important national  objectives,  there are
no reasonable alternatives, and it is in the public  interest  to do so.


     Department of Commerce,  Office of  Coastal  Zone  Management

     State coastal zone management agency


     Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972

     Federal Consistency with Approved  Coastal  Management  Programs,
          15 CFR Part 930  (43 FEDERAL REGISTER 10510)(1978)

3.7 Recreation Open Space


     Public demand for  recreational open space rises as leisure time
increases.  The construction of wastewater treatment facilities can
directly eliminate recreation open space. Development associated with
new wastewater treatment service can also eliminate  or modify recreation
open spaces.  To the contrary, facilities can be planned  to take  advantage
of recreational open space opportunities.

     Many open space areas are sensitive areas that  should be analyzed
both from the ecological and  recreational perspectives.

Minimum Requirement

     Locate all recreational open space in the planning area.   Determine
the acreage, facilities and uses associated with each area.  Try to
avoid adverse  impacts if practicable.  Otherwise, consider mitigation
measures such  as establishing new parks and designing facilities to
protect the aesthetic value of the surrounding area.

     Facility  plans initiated after September 30, 1978, must analyze
recreation and open space opportunities associated with the wastewater
treatment works.  Study the feasibility of combining treatment works
with parks, bicycle paths, hiking trails and other recreational uses.
If applicable, consider ways to maintain recreational access to waterways,


     State recreation agency

     Local or  regional planning agencies

     Local parks or recreation agency

     National Recreation and Park Association or State chapter

     Department of Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation
          Service, regional  office


     State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan

     PRM 77-4, Cost Allocations for Multiple-Purpose Projects

     Opportunities in Water  Cleanup and the Land (EPA 1978)

3.8 Agricultural  and Productive Lands


     The continuing decrease in acreage devoted  to agricultural  uses has
had serious adverse social,  economic and environmental  impacts  in some
sections of the country.   Special  attention should be given to  those
areas- with unusual  values,  such as "prime and unique farmlands"  or  areas
with special  social or economic value to a State or local  area.   Prime
farmland is land  which has  the best physical  and chemical  characteristics
for producing food, feed,  forage,  fiber and oil  seed crops.  In  general,
these lands have an adequate and dependable moisture supply, a  favorable
temperature and growing  season,  acceptable acidity or alkalinity, accept-
able salt and sodium content and few or no rocks.   The soil  is  permeable
to air and water  and not excessively erodible or prone to  floods.

Unique farmland is used for the production of specific,  high value food
and fiber crops.  Its soil  quality,  growing season,  temperature, moisture,
air, drainage, humidity, elevation and other conditions  favor growth  of
a specific food or fiber crop.   Areas with special State or local  value
are those which are important because of the characteristics of  the
area.  For example, the last remaining dairy farm left in the area would
have special  local value.

Minimum Requirement

     Identify all  land in  the planning area used  or  suitable for use  as
farms, forests, orchards or nurseries.  In particular, consider  the
amount and location of prime and unique farmlands.

     Primary impacts may be minimal  unless the plant or  sewers will be
located in or near the identified areas.  If construction is planned  for
those areas, evaluate the  effect it will have on  normal  farm activities.

     Determine how many of  these areas will be subject to development.
If the areas surrounding prime and unique farmlands  are  likely to  be
developed, this could have  negative impacts upon  these highly productive
areas.  Evaluate the impacts accompanying the loss of these lands  to
other uses.  If prime or unique agricultural lands or areas with special
value to the local or regional  area will be affected by  negative impacts,
additional analysis should  be performed to identify  the  options which
have the least adverse impact.

Supplemental  Requirement

     In evaluating impacts  causing a loss of productive  land, remember
that the effects can be social  and economic as well  as environmental.
The presence of farmland in an area can improve the  air  and water  quality
and with good management can prevent erosion.  Farmlands may serve as
a disposal site for recycled sludge and effluent  and are compatible
adjacent uses for wetlands  and floodplains.  The  destruction of  these
areas may also result in an area being forced to  obtain  farm goods from
distant points, thus increasing costs and use of  energy  as well  as
decreasing the area's self-sufficiency.  However, farmlands are  often
the sources of nonpoint source pollution such as  feedlot runoff  or
fertilizer runoff; the effects of eliminating these  pollutants should
also be discussed.

     Prime and unique farmlands cannot be restored once  they are developed,
Grantees should consider mitigating  impacts or rejecting alternatives
which have a significant impact on those areas.  Possible mitigating
measures include the use of zoning and other land use controls to  prevent
development of these areas  and provision of financial assistance or
incentives to farmers to discourage sales to developers.

     EPA policy and regulations disallow the placement of interceptors
in prime agricultural lands unless it is necessary to eliminate  existing
point source discharges and to accommodate flows  from existing habitations

that violate an enforceable requirement of the Clean Water Act.   Collection
systems may not provide capacity for new habitations or  other  establish-
ments located in prime agricultural  lands.


     U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil  Conservation Service county agents
          or Soil Conservation Service agents  detailed to EPA  regional offices

     U.S. Department of Agriculture, State Land Use Committees


     Prime and Unique Farmlands, 43  FEDERAL REGISTER 4030 (1978)
          (to be codified as 7 CFR Part 657)

     EPA Policy to Protect and Preserve Environmentally  Significant
          Agricultural Lands, September 1978


4.0 Introduction

     This chapter discusses the ways  in which a  new wastewater  treatment
works can have an impact upon pollution or conservation problems.   In
constructing a wastewater treatment works, the correction of  a  water
pollution problem should not create or exacerbate other pollution

4.1 Air Quality


     The Clean Air Act Amendments establish a procedure by which States
are responsible for planning and enforcing air pollution  controls with
the assistance of EPA.  EPA is required to establish primary  and secondary
national ambient air quality standards for pollutants.   These standards
relate to the maximum level of pollutants allowable in  order  to protect
the public health or welfare.  At present, standards have been  set  for
six pollutants—nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur  oxides, hydro-
carbons, particulates, and photochemical oxidants.

     Each State is required to attain and maintain the  air quality
within its boundaries so that the national ambient air  quality  standards
are not violated.  A State submits an Implementation Plan, known as a
SIP, for EPA approval, outlining the  steps proposed to  be taken to
fulfill its obligations under the Clean Air Act.  Methods can include
the control of new or existing sources emitting  pollutants or a compre-
hensive transportation control plan.   The SIP will  also identify Air
Quality Maintenance Areas—areas which do not or will not meet  one  or
more of the national ambient air quality standards  within the required
time period.  In these areas, new sources of air pollutants or  future
development will be discouraged in order to prevent adverse air quality

     The Clean Air Act of 1977 gives  the Administrator  of EPA the power
to condition or withhold a grant for  the construction of  a treatment
plant if he or she determines:

     1.   the treatment works does not comply with standards  set for new
          sources or hazardous pollutants;

     2.   the SIP does not provide for the increase in  emissions of each
          air pollutant which could reasonably be anticipated to result
          directly or indirectly from the new sewage treatment  capacity;

     3.   new treatment capacity may  reasonably  cause or  contribute
          directly or indirectly to increases in emission above that
          provided for in the SIP or  will be inconsistent with  the  SIP;

     4.   increases in emissions would interfere with or be inconsistent
          with the SIP of another State; or

     b.   there is no approved SIP.

     In making this determination, both primary and secondary impacts
are evaluated.  Policy guidance on this will  soon be developed by  EPA.

Minimum Requirement

     Gather data on the existing air quality  of the planning  area.   In
particular, note if it is within an  Air Quality Maintenance Area and if
there is an approved State SIP which includes the planning  area.

     Primary impacts include increased traffic to and from  the site
during construction and operation of the plant, increased pollution from
construction activities and emissions from sludge incineration.  Construc-
tion activities will cause temporary impacts.  Efforts should be made to
reduce the severity of these effects.  EPA has established  new source
standards for certain types of equipment which emit pollutants,  including
sludge incinerators which will create a new source of air pollution.
Grantees will be required to obtain  a permit  from the State if the new
treatment works will use incineration as the   method of sludge disposal.

     Secondary impacts are the result of increased emissions  from  new
homes, industries and automobiles.  Consult the SIP to determine if the
increased population has been considered and  analyzed.   If  the SIP did
not anticipate the new growth predicted as a  result of the  treatment
works or if there is no SIP, the supplemental requirement outlined in
the next section should be undertaken.

Supplemental Requirement

     It is very difficult to predict secondary air pollution  impacts.
Various computer and manual  models have been  or are in the  process of
being developed to forecast future emissions  by pollutants  and the
effect on air quality.   Systems which predict the level  of  future emissions
look at a variety of factors including present and future demographic
and land use information,  GEMLUP II is an example of such  a  system.  It
was developed for the EPA, Office of Transportation and  Land  Use Policy.
This system uses data similar to that needed  to complete other sections
of the environmental assessment for  a series  of work sheets.   Models
exist which can utilize the output of GEMLUP  II to predict  the impact on
air quality.  These systems look at  factors such as meteorology, topography,
population distribution and existing air quality.


     State air pollution control  agency

     EPA, regional air quality division


     Guidelines for Air Quality Maintenance Planning and  Analysis,
          Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,  EPA

     Procedures for Tracking Emissions Growth in Air Quality Maintenance,
          Office of Transportation and Land Use Policy,  EPA 400/1-77-001

     Clean Air Act, 42 USC SS7401-7642

4.2 Water Quality and Quantity


     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments  of 1972 and  the
Clean Water Act of 1977 were enacted to restore and protect the "chemical,
physical and biological integrity of the Nation's waters," to attain a
level of water quality that is suitable for recreational  uses and  that
is safe for fish and wildlife by 1983.  All projects under the Construction
Grants Program should be evaluated in terms of their contribution  to
achieving the water quality objective of the Clean Water  Act.

     This section focuses on both the quality and quantity of water
sources.  Water quality, is measured by certain parameters that indicate
the physical, chemical and biological condition such as  turbidity,
dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform.  Possible primary impacts on water
quality include: impacts from construction activities,  improvement  in
quality due to additional treatment and effects of disposing effluent in
receiving waters.  The effluent of the plant will be covered by a
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)  permit and will
not be discussed in detail in this handbook.

     In analyzing the effects of the project on the quality of water,
the grantee should consider the requirements of the Safe  Drinking Water
Act.  Under this Act, Federal funds cannot be committed  to any project
which could contaminate a sole source aquifer.  A sole  source aquifer is
an aquifer which has been designated as the sole drinking water source
for an area, and if it were to become contaminated, a significant  hazard
to public health would be created.

Minimum Requirement

     Locate all surface and ground water in the planning  area.  Determine
the physical nature, flow characteristics, usage and quality of each

body of water.  Also, identify aquifers and their recharge areas  to  the
extent possible.  Describe aquifers in terms of formation, material
thickness and depth.

     Applicants must also determine if the construction activities for
any alternative will result in erosion or sediment runoff.  In  analyzing
impacts, consider what effect changes in water quality will  have  on  fish
and plant life and the availability of water for uses such as recreation.
Include a description of all steps to mitigate the impact on surface and
ground water that will be taken for each alternative.  Possible mitigating
measures include (1) planning development to fit drainage patterns,
topography and soil conditions of the site; (2) avoiding the removal  of
trees and surface vegetation; and (3) constructing impoundments and
water control structures to reduce erosion and trap sediment.   For a
complete discussion of mitigating methods, see Direct Environmental
Factors at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Works.

     Secondary impacts on water quality can be attributed mainly  to
increased surface runoff, which includes excessive stormwater flow and
sediment runoff.  A second source of secondary impacts, pollution from
new point sources, will be controlled by NPDES permits and is therefore,
not discussed in detail here.  Excessive stormwater flow results  from
water which runs across impervious surfaces during intense rains. In
addition to causing floods, these waters contain significant amounts of
pollutants that will flow or seep into surface and ground water.  Construct-
ing new homes, roads and industrial complexes increases the amount of
impervious surface area and thereby increases excess stormwater flow.
Sediment deposition is a measure of the erosion of soil that occurs
throughout a community.  It affects the quality and regime of  local
streams.  The degree of development and the rate at which it occurs  is
influenced by the production of sediment.  Sedimentation can slow the
flow of a stream and raise the streambed, in turn increasing chances of

     If population is projected to increase substantially during  the
planning period or if a significant amount of the area is vacant  or  in
low density development and is likely to be developed during the  planning
period, the supplemental requirement detailed in the next section should
be undertaken.  If not, steps should be taken to mitigate any expected
impact on water quality.  For example, the community can adopt  erosion
and sediment control ordinances.

     Grantees must also determine if the planning area contains a designated
sole source aquifer.  If it does, the more detailed analysis required in
the next section will aid in determining the impacts of the project  on
the aquifer.

     The new treatment works can affect water quality by changing supply
or demand for water.  The supply of useable water is influenced by
surface runoff  among other factors because changes in runoff patterns

can alter the quantity of water available to recharge existing  sources.
On the other hand, new developments can create additional  demand  on
water supply.  Grantees should examine the present water  supply for  the
area.  To determine future demand and  supply for the area,  consult local
officials.  If no local information is available,  an estimate of  demand
can be made using average consumption  figures not  to exceed  those shown
in Table 3, and estimates of future population.  Estimates  should take
into consideration planned water conservation efforts.

Supplemental Requirement

     There are various models that have been developed  for  estimating
stormwater runoff and the effects of new point and nonpoint  sources  on
stream quality.  One common method used for stormwater  runoff is  the
rational formula which is discussed in this section.  Grantees  can use
any available method that is appropriate for the planning  area.

     The rational formula can be used  with data  on present and  future
land uses and rainfall to predict the  expected change in  runoff that
will be associated with the project.   The formula's  reliability decreases
for areas greater than 10 acres and is less accurate if input data does
not reflect the characteristics of the area being  considered.   The
rational formula is as follows:

     Q = CIA where:

          Q = peak discharge or flow rate in cubic feet per  second

          C = runoff coefficient

          I = average rainfall intensity in inches per  hour

          A = drainage basin area in acres

     This formula should be used to determine present and  future  runoff.
Runoff coefficients depend upon the soil  conditions  and land use  of  the
area being considered.  They should be based on  actual  experience in the
planning area on amounts of pollutants per acre  contributed  by  various
types of developed conditions.  If coefficients  are  not available for
the area, those shown in Table 4 can be used.

     Grantees should consider using the information  on  runoff developed
by the rational formula or some other  model to predict  the effects of
the project on the quality of particular bodies  of water  in  the planning
     Department of Interior,  U.S.  Geological  Survey

                           TABLE 3

Non-SMSA cities and towns with projected               60-70 gallons/
total 10-year populations of 5,000 or less             capita/day (gpcd)

Other cities and towns                                 65-80 gpcd

                                TABLE 4


          Type of Drainage Area              Runoff Coefficients - C

     Sandy soil, flat, 2%                         0.05-0.10
     Sandy soil, average, 2-7%                    0.10-0.15
     Sandy soil, steep, 7%                        0.15-0.20
     Heavy soil, flat, 2%                         0.18-0.17
     Heavy soil, average, 2-7%                    0.18-0.22
     Heavy soil, steep, 7%                        0.25-0.35

     Downtown areas                               0.70-0.95
     Neighborhood areas                           0.50-0.70

     Single-family areas                          0.30-0.50
     Multi units, detached                        0.40-0.60
     Multi units, attached                        0.60-0.75
     Suburban                                     0.25-0.40
     Apartment dwelling areas                     0.50-0.70

     Light areas                                  0.50-0.80
     Heavy areas                                  0.60-0.90

Park, cemeteries                                  0.10-0.25
Playgrounds                                       0.20-0.35
Railroad yard areas                               0.20-0.40
Unimproved areas                                  0.10-0.30
     Asphalt                                      0.70-0.95
     Concrete                                     0.80-0.95
     Brick                                        0.70-0.85

Drives and walks                                  0.75-0.85
Roofs                                             0.75-0.95

     State water control agency

     EPA regional water division

     Local water committees

     Designated areawide waste management 208 agency


     Direct Environmental Factors at Municipal  Wastewater  Treatment
          Works, EPA 430/9-78-03 (January,  1976)

     PRM 78-1, Erosion and Sedimentation Control  in  the  Construction
          Grants Program

     Guidelines for Erosion and Sediment Control  Planning  and
          Implementation, EPA-R2-72-015 (August,  1972)

     Development and Application of a Simplified  Stormwater  Management
          Model, EPA 600/2-7~6-218 (August,  1976)

     The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, 42 USCA SS300f-300j9  (1974)

     Water Programs, Sole or Primary Source Aquifer  Areas, 42 FEDERAL
          REGISTER 51,620 (1977) (to be codified  as  40 CFR Part 148)

     Water pollution and Quality Data Information, Storage and
          Retrieval System (STORET) (EPA)

4.3 Noise


     Usually, noise pollution impacts are temporary  and  principally
associated with the actual construction and operation of the facility.
Noise pollution has various psychological,  sociological  and  physiological
effects on people including loss of hearing, interference with  communica-
tions, disruption of activities, loss of sleep, annoyance, mental stress
and anxiety.

Minimum Requirement

     All efforts should be made to minimize noise levels.  The  EPA
publication, Direct Environmental Factors at Municipal Wastewater
Treatment Worlds, outlines possible steps that can be used  to reduce
noise levels.

     If the facility is to be located in close  proximity to  schools,
libraries or other noise sensitive areas or in  rural communities, the
more detailed evaluation of effects should  be undertaken.

Supplemental  Requirement

     Data on existing noise levels  should be collected.   Various  Federal
agencies such as the Federal  Highway Administration study the  noise
impacts of their projects.   Determine if such a study has been done  for
the planning area.  If not, new measurements should be taken.   Estimate
the impact the new facility will have on noise levels.   Consider  mitiga-
tion measures such as relocating the plant or creating a vegetative
buffer zone.


     Agencies that do noise studies:

     Department of Transportation,  Federal Highway Administration

     Department of Transportation,  Federal Aviation Administration

     Department of Housing  and Urban Development


     Direct Environmental  Factors at Municipal  Wastewater Treatment
          Works. EPA-430/9-76-003,  MCD-20 (January, 1976)

     Noise Control Act of 1972, 42 USC SS4901-4918 (1973),  49  USC §§1431  (1976)

     Public Health and VJelfare Criteria for Noise, EPA 550/9-75-002
          (July, 1973)

     Information on Levels  of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect
          Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety,
          EPA 550/9-74-004  (March,  1974)

4.4 Odor


     Odor pollution causes  unique problems in that it is hard  to  predict
what concentrations and intensities will be offensive to individuals.
There have, however, been sufficient complaints received about wastewater
treatment plants to warrant some evaluation of these impacts.

Minimum Requirement

     Grantees should be concerned with the odors associated with  the
operation of the treatment facility.  Efforts should be made to ensure
that steps have been taken to mitigate these impacts.  For example,  the
plant should be located as  far as possible from residential  areas.   In
addition, methods to reduce or control odors as discussed in Direct
Environmental Factors at Municipal  Wastewater Treatment Works  should be
considered whenever the facility must be located in close proximity  to
sensitive areas.


     Direct Environmental  Factors at Municipal  Wastewater Treatment
          Works. EPA-430/9-76-003, MCD-20 (January,  1976)

4.5 Solid Waste


     Recent Federal  Taws establish a comprehensive national  program to
control the production and disposal  of solid waste and  to encourage
resource conservation and  recovery practices.  Sludge is  a solid  waste
that is subject to these acts.   Other forms of  solid waste generated by
residents should also be considered  in the environmental  assessment.

Minimum Requirement

     Evaluate the current system for dealing with solid wastes.   In
particular, determine the method and amount of  land  used  as  disposal

     For primary impacts consider the method for waste  disposal  selected
for the treatment plant.  Estimate the amount of sludge the  treatment
process will produce and evaluate the impacts.   For  land  fill  or  applica-
tion, estimate the acreage required  and the availability  of  land  to meet
the future need.  For incineration make sure that air pollution  impacts
have been considered.

     If the population increase will be substantial  or  if a  significant
amount of undeveloped land is likely to be developed during  the  planning
period, supplemental analysis should be undertaken.

Supplemental Requirement

     Using the estimates developed for population, housing and industrial
growth, develop the future solid waste load.  If adequate figures are
available for your area, use them.  If not, use the  average  figures
shown on the accompanying  tables.  (Tables 5 and 6.) Also,  take  into
account any conservation measures proposed for  the area.   Once an estimate
is developed, the grantee should evaluate the area's capacity  to  handle
the increased load.


     Solid Waste Disposal  Act,  42 USCA SS3251 et.  seq.  (1973)

     Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act of  1976, P.L.  94-580
          (October,  1976)  42 USC SS6901-6987

                                TABLE 5

                            Waste Collection by
                         Population Density Ranges
    0 - 4,999







                                  4,000-6,999/sq.mi.    7,000-+/sq.mi
                             Single family  Multifamily  House
Pounds/cubic yard
SOURCE:  Land Use, Urban Form and Environmental  Quality

                                TABLE  6

Food processing

     Seasonal  foods

     Other foods

Paper, Printing and Publishing


     Textiles  and Apparel

     Rubber and Plastics


Stone, Clay, Glass and Concrete

Primary and Fabricated Metals

Electrical and Nonelectrical  Machinery

     Lumber and Wood Products

     Furniture and Fixtures

     Transportation Equipment















     Application of Sewage Sludge to Cropland:  Appraisal  of  Potential
          Hazards of the Heavy Metals to Plants and  Animals,  EPA
          430/9-76-013, MCD-33 (November, 1976)

     Municipal  Sludge Management:  Environmental Factors,  EPA  430/9-77-
          004,  MCD-28 (October, 1977)

     Municipal  Sludge Management:  EPA Construction Grants Program,
          An Overview of the Sludge Management  Situation, EPA 430/9-76-
          009,  MCD-30 (April, 1976)

     EPA Policy on Land Treatment of Wastewater,  October  1977

     PRM 79-3,  Revision of Agency Guidance for  Evaluation of  Land
          Treatment Alternatives Employing Surface Application

4.6 Energy


     Because of the recently increased concern  about the  limited resources
available to meet our energy needs,  the environmental  assessment should
include an analysis of energy impacts.  Impacts include the  energy
requirements needed to operate the treatment plant,  to manufacture
chemicals used  in wastewater treatment, and to  meet  the demand of future
population and  industrial growth complexes.

Minimum Requirement

     Under the  Clean Water Act of 1977, the Administrator of  EPA is
required to encourage waste treatment management  methods, processes  and
techniques which will reduce total  energy requirements.   Regulations
issued as a result of the Act require facility  plans begun after October  1.
1978, to include an analysis of primary energy  requirements  for each
alternative studied.  The selected plan must include cost-effective
measures to reduce energy consumption or increase energy  recovery (40
CFR S35.917-l(d)(9)).  EPA has issued a publication  entitled  Energy
Conservation in Municipal Wastewater Treatment  which should  be of
assistance in measuring energy demands and suggesting  conservation

     Waste treatment alternatives which will  substantially conserve
energy are considered to be "innovative" and  accorded  special  treatment
under the Clean Water Act of 1977.   A 15 percent  preference  is given to
innovative alternatives in the cost-effectiveness analysis.   If the  plan
selected is innovative, it may receive a grant  for 85  percent of eligible

     If substantial population increases within the  project  area are
anticipated in  the planning period or if new sewers  are to be sited  on

substantial  amounts of low density land,  a more detailed  analysis of
secondary impacts should be undertaken.

Supplemental Requirement

     Estimate present energy consumption  by  type of  facility—single
family home, commercial, industrial,  etc.  Using this data and estimates
of future housing and industrial  development,  determine the appropriate
future danand.  It may be necessary to break demand  down  into the types
of energy required (i.e., coal,  oil).   Compare this  estimate with the
projected future energy resources for the area.   Note in  particular any
shortages that may affect or limit future development.


     County government or multi-county planning  bodies

     Private trade association involved with oil  or  gas industry

     State department of business, industrial  or economic development

     Energy user trade association


     Energy Conservation in Municipal  Wastewater Treatment, EPA
          430/9-77-011 (March, 1977)

     Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  Guidelines, 40 CFR  Part 35, Subpart E,
          Appendix A

     Guidelines for Alternative and Innovative Technology, 40 CFR
          Part b, Subpart E, Appendix  E

Appendix A:   EPA Implementation of  the National  Environmental  Policy
             Act of 1969
     Section 102(2)(c)  of NEPA (40 USC  S4332(2)(c))  requires a  Federal
agency to prepare an EIS  for every major  Federal  action  significantly
affecting the quality of  the human environment.

     EPA has issued regulations to implement  NEPA in 40  CFR Part  6.
These regulations were originally promulgated on  January 17, 1973  (38
FEDERAL REGISTER 1696 (January 17, 1973))  and were revised on April  14,
1975 (40 FEDERAL REGISTER 16815 (April  14, 1975)).   These regulations
provide general  requirements at Subpart A with additional requirements
for section 201  wastewater treatment works construction  grants  contained
in Subpart E and 40 CFR §35.900 et seq.

     Under the current EPA regulations  implementing  NEPA, an applicant
for a construction grant  is required to submit an environmental assessment
with the facilities plan  developed under  a Step 1  grant.  However, an
environmental assessment  is required as an integral  part of facilities
planning only for such planning which was initiated  after April 30,
1974.  For facilities planning which was  determined  to have been  initiated
prior to May 1,  1974, only the requirements in 40 CFR §§35.925-7  and
35.925-a were applicable.  Section 35.9^5-8 provides:

     "That the NEPA requirements (Part  6  of this  chapter), applicable
     to the project step, have been met.   Such compliance is a  basic
     prerequisite for Step 2, Step 3, and combination Step 2 and  3
     projects.  An adequate assessment  of expected  environmental  impacts,
     consistent with the  requirements of  the  National Environmental
     Policy Act of 1969 (42 USC 4321 et seq.), is required as an
     integral part of facilities planning initiated  after April 30,
     1974, in accordance  with §35.917-1." (Emphasis  added.)

     An environmental assessment is to  include a  description of the
environmental impacts of  the proposed action, description of steps to
minimize any adverse environmental effects, evaluation of alternatives,
description of the existing and future  environment without the  proposed
project, and documentation.  The purpose  of the environmental assessment
is to ensure that the Step 1 grantee considers the environmental  impacts
of a proposed action at the earliest possible point  in the Step 1  grantee's
planning process.

     During the development of the facilities plan,  the  Step 1  grantee
is required to hold at least one public hearing before a facilities  plan
is adopted.  However, this requirement  is made applicable only  to  facilities
planning initiated after  April 30, 1974.   New public participation
activities during facilities planning will be required by a new 40
CFR Part 25 and by revisions to 40 CFR  Part 35 to be promulgated
early in 1979.

     EPA will make a determination as to the applicability of NEPA
requirements before either approval of the facilities plan or award of
Step 2 and Step 3 grants if an approved facilities plan is not required.
EPA will study the proposed action, including a review of any environmental
assessment received, to identify and evaluate the environmental  impacts
of the proposed action and feasible alternatives.  From this review, EPA
will determine whether significant impacts are anticipated from  the
proposed action, whether any feasible alternatives can be adopted  or
change can be made in project design to eliminate significant adverse
impacts, and whether an EIS or a negative declaration is required.

     In determining whether an EIS or a negative declaration is  required
for a proposed wastewater treatment works construction grant project,
EPA employs the criteria detailed in 40 CFR SS6.200,  6.510.   The
criteria listed in 40 CFR S6.510 are applicable only  to Step 2 and
Step 3 grants awarded after June 30, 1975.  If EPA determines based upon
these criteria that the proposed project will have a  significant impact
upon the environment, EPA will prepare an EIS pursuant to Subpart  C of
40 CFR Part 6.

     If EPA determines, based upon these criteria, that the proposed
project will not have a significant impact upon the environment, EPA
will issue a negative declaration together with an environmental impact
appraisal.  The negative declaration is a written announcement prepared
after EPA's environmental review stating that EPA has determined that an
EIS is not required for a proposed project, and it summarizes the  supporting
environmental impact appraisal.  The environmental impact appraisal is
prepared concurrently with the negative declaration and briefly  describes
the proposed action and feasible alternatives, environmental impacts of
the proposed action, unavoidable adverse impacts of the proposed action,
the relationship between short term uses of man's environment and  the
maintenance and enhancement of long term productivity, steps to  minimize
harm to the environment, irreversible and irretrievable commitments of
resources to implement the action, comments and consultations on the
project, and reasons for concluding that the proposed action will  not
have a significant environmental impact.

     The public is given fifteen working days to comment on the  negative
declaration and appraisal.  No administrative action  on the project is
taken by EPA during this public comment period.  If no significant
environmental issues are raised during this public comment period,  then
a grant award can be made.  If significant environmental issues  are
raised during the review period, the decision on the  administrative
action may be changed or delayed until a new environmental  appraisal  or
an EIS is prepared.

     Once a negative declaration and environmental impact appraisal have
been prepared for the facilities plan for a certain area, Step 2 and
Step 3 grant awards may be made to implement the facilities  plan without
preparation of any additional negative declarations,  unless  the  project
has changed significantly from that described in the  facilities  plan.

                         Appendix B:  GLOSSARY
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation - an independent executive
     agency empowered to comment upon all undertakings  licensed,  assisted
     or carried out by the Federal  government that have an effect upon
     properties in the National  Register.

Aquifer - an underground layer of permeable material  that will yield
     sufficient water to be considered as a source of water supplies.

Comprehensive Land Use Plan - a  long  range comprehensive plan  looking
     to the future growth and development of the area involved and
     seeking to project into time a concept under which the community
     may be developed in an orderly and desirable fashion and  through
     which the needs of its population will be better served.  (Beuscher,
     Wright, Gittleman, Land Use. 1969, p. 240)

Critical Habitat - any land, air or water area including any elements
     thereof which the Secretary of Interior under the  provisions of the
     Endangered Species Act has  determined is essential  to the survival
     of wild populations of a species listed as  endangered or  threatened
     or to its recovery to a point at which it need no  longer  be  protected.

Endangered Species - any species which the Secretary of Interior  has
     designated as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a
     significant portion of its  range other than a species of  the class
     insecta determined by the Secretary of Interior to constitute a
     pest whose protection would present overwhelming and overriding risk
     to man.

Environmental Appraisal - document based on an environmental review
     that supports a negative declaration.  It describes a proposed EPA
     action, its expected environmental impact,  and the basis  for the
     conclusion that no significant impact is anticipated.

Environmental Assessment - a written analysis submitted to EPA by
     grantees describing the environmental impacts of proposed actions
     under the Construction Grants Program or other programs.  It is an
     integral, though identifiable, part of the  facility plan.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)  - a report  prepared by EPA,  which
     identifies and analyzes in  detail the environmental impacts  of a
     proposed EPA action and feasible alternatives.  Under the National
     Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the report is required for  all
     major Federal projects that will have a significant effect on the
     quality of the human environment.

Facility Plan - preliminary plan prepared by the grantee as the
     basis for construction of publicly owned treatment works.  Specific
     requirements for these plans appear in 40 CFR S35.917 (1977).

Flood - general and temporary condition of partial  or complete
     inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow of inland
     and/or tidal  waters and/or the unusual  and rapid accumulation or
     runoff of surface water.

Floodplain - relatively flat areas or lowlands adjoining the channel
     of a river, stream or water course which has been or may be covered
     by flood water.   The base floodplain (100 year floodplain)  is the
     area with one percent chance of flooding in any year.

Grantee - as used  in  this handbook - municipality which has been
     awarded a grant  for the preparation of a facility plan for the
     construction  of  a treatment works.

Impact - any change,  beneficial or detrimental, that is caused,
     directly or indirectly, by the construction of a wastewater treatment

     Primary impact - impact directly associated with the construction
     and operation of the treatment plant.

     Secondary impact - (1) indirect or induced change in population  and
     economic growth  and land use, and (2) other environmental  effects
     resulting from these changes in land use, population and economic

National Register  of  Historic Places - a register of districts,  sites,
     buildings, structures and objects significant in American history,
     architecture, archeology and culture maintained by the Secretary of
     Interior.  The National Register is published  in its entirety in
     the FEDERAL REGISTER each year in February.  Addenda are published
     on the first  Tuesday of each month.

National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) -  Federal law enacted
     to ensure that all Federal agencies include in the decision-making
     process appropriate and careful consideration  of all  environmental
     effects of proposed actions, explain potential environmental
     effects of proposed actions and their alternatives for public
     understanding, avoid or minimize adverse effects of proposed  actions,
     and restore or enhance environmental quality as much as possible.

Prime Farmland - land that has the best combination of physical  and
     chemical characteristics for producing  food, feed, forage,  fiber
     and oil seed  crops, and is also available for  these uses.   It has
     soil quality, growing season and moisture supply needed to  economically
     produce sustained high yields of crops  when treated and managed.

Recharge Areas - an area in which water is absorbed and eventually
     reaches one or more aquifers.

Threatened Species - any species which is likely to become an endangered
     species within the foreseeable future throughout all  or a significant
     portion of its range.

Unique Farmland - land other than prime farmland that is  used for  the
     production of specific high value food and fiber crops.  It has  the
     special combination of soil quality, location, growing season,  and
     moisture supply needed to economically produce sustained high
     quality and/or high yields of a specific crop when treated and
     managed according to acceptable farming methods.

Wetland - area that is inundated by surface or ground water with a
     frequency sufficient to support vegetative or aquatic life that
     requires saturated soil conditions.

                             BASE MAP
                                         ARCHEOLOG1CAL AND HISTORIC SITES

                                 BASE MAP
 I:'-..'-.'"I 15 TO 25% SLOPE
 ••• OVER 25% SLOPE

                             BASE MAP
                                         FULLY DEVELOPED LAND
                                   	 PUBLICLY OWNED LAND
                                   f ..'-''•"-^ PRIVATELY OWNED AND
                                         (E.G. PRIVATE COMMERCIAL

                                   BASE  MAP

         MAJOR ROADS

                         BASE MAP

United States
Envirnomental Protection
Agency               UH-547
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use
Special Fourth-Class Rate
Postage and Fees Paid
Permit No. G-35
Washington DC 20460