WATER QUALITY STANDARDS CRITERIA DIGEST

 A COMPILATION OF FEDERAL/STATE CRITERIA ON
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   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

           WASHINGTON, D.C.
                        AUGUST 1972

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                             INTRODUCTION


      This  digest was compiled  in order to provide general information to the
 public as  well as to Federal,  State,  and local officials.  It contains excerpts
 from the individual Federal-State water quality standards establishing tur-
 bidity, criteria for interstate waters.  The  water quality standards program  is
 directed by the Environmental  Protection Agency, an independent regulatory agency
 which has  responsibility for approving State-adopted standards for interstate
 waters,evaluating adherence to the standards,  and overseeing enforcement of  stan-
 dards compliance.

      Standards,  the first nationwide  strategy  for water quality management,  contain
 four major elements:   the use  (recreation, drinking water,  fish and wildlife
 propagation,  industrial,  or agricultural)  to be made of the interstate water;
 criteria to protect those uses;  implementation plans (for needed industrial-
 municipal  waste treatment improvements,  among  others)  and enforcement plans; and
 an antidegradation statement to protect  existing high quality waters.

      Minimum  water quality criteria,  or  numerical specificationsof physical,
 chemical,  temperature,  and biological levels,  are stated in the National Technical
 Advisory Committee report to the Secretary of  the Interior,  Water  Quality Criteria,
 dated April 1,  1968,  and  published by the Government Printing Office,  Washington,
 B.C.  Unavailability of the NTAC report  before June 30,  1967--the  date set by  the
 Water Quality Act of 1965 for  formal  adoption  of State standards--resulted in
 significant variations  between the state-adopted and the NTAC minimum criteria.
 Some standards  were adopted and approved before the NTAC report became available.
 also,  the  Water Quality Criteria report  is subject to updating in  light of new
 scientific and  technical  information.

     Turbidity is caused by the presence of suspended matter such as clay,  silt,
 finely divided organic matter,  bacteria,  plankton, and other microscopic organisms.
Turbidity is an expression of the optical property of a sample of water which
 causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight
 lines.through the sample.  Excessive turbidity  reduces light penetration into the
water and,  therefore, reduces photosynthesis  by phytoplankton organisms,  attached
algae, and submersed vegetation.

     For aquatic life uses, NTAC recommends that turbidity in the receiving water
due to a discharge should not exceed 50 JTU (Jackson Turbidity Units)  in warm
water streams or 10 JTU in cold water  streams.   There should be no  discharge  to
warm water lakes which will cause turbidities exceeding 25 JTU.  The turbidity
 of cold water or oligotrophic lakes should not  exceed 10 JTU.

      Since water quality  standards experience  revisions  and upgrading  from time
 to time, following procedures  set forth  in xhe Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
 individual entries in this digest may be superseded.   As these revisions are
 accomplished,  this digest will be updated and  reissued.   Because this  publication
 is not  intended for use other  than as a  general information resource,  for the
 latest  information,  and for special purposes and applications,  refer  to the  existing
 approved water quality standards which can be  obtained from the State  water  pollution
 control agencies or EPA Washington, B.C. or  regional offices.

      Individual State-adopted  criteria follow,

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                         KEY


PWS                           Public Water Supply

FSWL                          Fish and  Wildlife

Agr.                          Agricultural

Ind.                          Industrial

JTU                           Jackson Turbidity  Units
 (1)                           No specific reference to turbidity
                              in standards, however,  there are
                              general prohibitions  against "other
                              substances" or "deleterious sub-
                              stances" that could apply to
                              turbidity.


 (For further explanation of use classifications, see EPA
  publication, "General Stream use Designations".)

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                                 TURBIDITY
Alabama
CD
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas


California
Colorado
A - PWS
B - PWS plus treatment
C - Swimming
D - FWL
E - Shellfish
F - Agriculture
G - Industrial
5 JTU
5 JTU above natural limits.
25
25
25
For all uses except agriculture.

Turbidity of the water will be maintained at the
lowest practicable values possible, but in no
case shall:

    a.  Turbidity in the receiving waters due to
        the discharge of waste exceed 50 Jackson
        units in warm water streams or 10 Jackson
        units in cold water streams.

    b.  Discharge to warm water lakes cause tur-
        bidities to exceed 25 Jackson units, and
        discharge to cold water or oligotrophic
        lakes cause turbidities to exceed 10 Jackson
        units.

A violation of the above numerical turbidity standards
resulting from construction, mining, logging, and
related land uses shall be grounds for abatement in
accordance with ARS 36-1851 inclusive.

There shall be no distinctly visible increase in
turbidity due to waste discharges in the stream.

Light penetration shall not be significantly impaired
by suspended or floating matter of other than natural
origin.  There shall be no turbidity other than of
natural origin, that will cause substantial visible
contrast with the natural appearance of the water.
     - No turbidity shall exist in concentrations
That will impair natural and developed fisheries.
 (1) No specific reference to turbidity in standards, however, there are general
    prohibitions against "other substances" or "deleterious substances" that
    could apply to turbidity.

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Connecticut
Delaware
Florida

Georgia

Hawaii
Idaho


Illinois
Indiana



Iowa

Kansas
Kentucky

Louisiana
                               Industrial - No turbidity shall exist in concentra-
                               tions that will interfere with established levels
                               of treatment.
Class A - PWS

All others
None other than of natural origin.

None in such concentrations that
would impair any uses specifically
assigned.
Shall not exceed the natural background by 10
units or a maximum of 25 units except following
periods of precipitation and the increase shall
not be attributable to industrial waste discharges.

All classes shall not exceed 50 JTU.

CD

Secchi disc or secchi disc equivalent as "extinction
coefficient" determinations shall not be altered
from natural conditions more than 5% for Class AA
waters, 10% for Class A waters or 201 for Class B
waters.

No floating or submerged matter not attributable to
natural causes.

Freedom from unnatural sludge or bottom deposits
floating debris, visible oil, odor, unnatural plant or
algal growth, unnatural color or turpidity,  or matter
in concentrations or combinations toxic or harmful
to human, animal, plant, or aquatic life of  other
than natural origin.

No turbidity of other than natural origin that will
cause substantial visible contrast with the natural
appearance of the water.

CD

There shall be no turbidity increase, of other
than natural origin, that will cause substantial
visible contrast with the natural appearance of the
river or which will be detrimental to established
beneficial use.

CD

None that will produce distinctly visible turbidity,
solids or scum, nor shall there be any formation of
slimes, bottom deposits, or sludge banks attributable
to waste discharges.

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Maine
Maryland

Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

Missouri
Montana
There shall be no disposal of any matter or
substance in these waters which imparts color,
turbidity, taste or odor which would impair the
usages ascribed to this classification nor shall
such matter or substance alter the temperature or
hydrogen-ion concentration of these waters so as
to render such waters harmful to fish or other
aquatic life.

CD
Fresh Water:

 Class A - PWS


All other uses:
                                                    None other than of natural
                                                    origin.

                                                    None in such concentrations
                                                    that would impair any usages
                                                    specifically assigned to this
                                                    class.
No objectionable unnatural turbidity, color, or
deposits in quantities sufficient to interfere with
the designated use.

Domestic Consumption:

 Class A - PWS       5 JTU

 'Class B - PWS       Same

 Class C - PWS       25 JTU

Fisheries and Recreation:

 Class A             10 JTU

 Class B             25 JTU

 Class C             25 JTU

CD

There shall be no turbidity of other than natural
origin that will cause substantial visible contrast
with the natural appearance of the stream or inter-
fere with any of its legitimate uses.
Class A-Closed - PWS
Class A-Open   - PWS
Class B        - PWS
None
None
None in sufficient
quantities to adversely
affect established levels]
of treatment.

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Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York



North Carolina

North Dakota
                               Class C - Swijnming          10 JTU
                               Class Dl- Salmonid Fisheries 5 JTU
                               Class D2- Marginal Salmonid
                                          Fisheries        10 JTU
                               Class D3- Non Salmonid
                                          Fishes           10 JTU
                               Class E - Agricultural
                               Class F - Industrial
                            None in sufficient
                            quantities to adversely
                            affect the use indicated,

                            None in sufficient
                            quantities to adversely
                            affect the established
                            levels of treatment.
. . . waters shall be free of substances attributable
to discharges of waste materials that will form
objectionable. . . turbidity. .  .

No turbidity or color, from other than natural origin,
which will adversely affect the natural appearance
of the water.

Class C waters shall be of the third highest quality
and shall be free from slick, odors, turbidity, and
surface floating solids of unreasonable kind or
quantity. . .

None noticeable in the water or deposited along
the shore or on the aquatic substrata in quantities
detrimental to the natural biota.   None which would
render the waters unsuitable for the designated uses.

Turbidity of receiving waters shall not reduce light
transmission to the point that existing aquatic life
in that section of the stream is inhibited or that
will cause substantial visible contrast with natural
appearance of water.  Naturally occurring turbidity
caused by silt and suspended sediment or by the
reasonable operation of irrigation or flood control
facilities are not subject to tiese regulations.

Turbidity not specifically mentioned - Standards
include a general prohibition againsf'deleterious
substances."

CD

For unspecified substances, none in concentrations
or combinations that interfere with, or prove
hazardous to, intended water usage.

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Ohio

Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina

South Dakota
CD

Turbidity of other than natural origin shall
not cause a substantial visible contrast with
the natural appearance of the water or be detrimental
to beneficial uses.

No waste shall be discharged and no activities shall
be conducted which either alone or in combination
with other wastes or activities will cause in any
waters of the state obiectionable discoloration,
turbidity, scum, oily  slick or floating solids, or
coat the aquatic life with oil films.

Special standards for the main stem of the Klamath
River, the main stem of the Willamette River and
for the main stem of the Columbia River and for the
main stem of the Parand Ronde River, for the Walla
Walla River, for the Snake River, and for the Marine
and Estuarine Waters of Oregon.

Turbidities to exceed 5 JTU above natural background
values except for certain short-term activities which
may be specifically authorized by the sanitary
authority under such conditions as it may prescribe
and which are necessary to accommodate essential
dredging or construction where turbidities in excess
of this standard are unavoidable.

Not to exceed 30 units during the period 5/30 - 9/15,
nor to exceed a monthly mean of 40 units or a maximum
of 150 units during the remainder of the year.  Or a
maximum monthly mean 40 units, maximum value not to
exceed 150 units.
Class A - PWS
                               All other classes
 CD
None other than of natural
origin.

None in such concentrations that
would impair any usages
specifically assigned to this class.
Fish life propagation:

 Class A - Cold Water Permanent       25 JTU
 Class B - Cold Water Marginal        50 JTU
 Class C - Warm Water Permanent       50 JTU
 Class D - Warm Water Semi-Perm      100 JTU

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Tennessee
Texas

Utah
Vermont



Virginia

Washington
West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming
District of Columbia
Guam


Puerto Rico

Virgin Islands
There shall be no turbidity or color added in
amounts or characteristics that cannot be reduced
to acceptable concentrations by conventional water
treatment processes.

CD

It shall be unlawful to discharge or place any
waste or other substances in such a way as to
result in substances producing objectionable color,
odor, taste or turbidity.

No waste shall contain a color in excess of 100
standards units or turbidity in excess of 100
Jackson Turbidity Units.

(1)

Class AA-Extraordinary    Turbidity shall not exceed
                          5 JTU.
                                                         Turbidity shall not exceed
                                                         5 JTU over natural con-
                                                         ditions .

                                                         Turbidity shall not exceed
                                                         10 JTU over natural con-
                                                         ditions .

                                                         Turbidity shall not exceed
                                                         10 JTU over natural con-
                                                         ditions .
Class A -Excellent



Class B -



Class C -



CD

CD
Turbidity of other than natural origin shall not
impart more than a 15 turbidity unit increase  to  the
water when  the turbidity of the receiving  water  is
150 units or less, or more than a 101 increase when
the water turbidity is over 150 turbidity units.

Rock Creek - D.C. - Montgomery County line to the
Potomac River (including tributaries).  - Creek bottom
to be visible in wading areas during wading season.
This is not applicable during or immediately following
the periods of rain fall.

Waters shall be free from materials attributable to
sewage, industrial waste, or other waste that will
produce visible turbidity or settle to form deposits

(1)

CD

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