United States
Environmental Protection	Office of Water	EPA841-R-93-004
Agency	(WH-553)	June 1993
vvEPA Clean Lakes Demonstration
1990-91 Report To Congress

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Prepared by the Oynamac Corporation under
Contract No. 68-C8-0052 for the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. Project Officer:
Frank Lapensee, Assessment and Watersheds
Division, Office of Wetlands, Oceans &
Watersheds,. Office of Water, Washington, D.C.
20460. EPA Regional Clean Lakes coordinators
contributed to information for this Clean Lakes
Demonstration Program Annual Report.
Allison King compiled and produced the report,
which was reviewed by Headquarters Clean Lakes
Program staff, the Regional Clean Lakes
coordinators, and relevant state environmental


In 1972, Congress created the Clean Lakes
Program to restore and protect the Nation's lakes.
The 1987 amendments to the Clean Water Act
(section 314) reauthorized the nationally competitive
Clean Lakes Program and established the
Demonstration Program. The objectives of the
demonstration program are to develop pollution
control techniques for lakes, particularly for nonpoint
sources of pollution, and evaluate regional pollution
control strategies; demonstrate environmentally
preferred techniques for removing lake sediments and
other impediments; construct and evaluate devices to
prevent the deposit of sediment in lakes; and
demonstrate the costs and benefits of using dredged
material from lakes in the reclamation of spoiled
land. The Program provides financial and technical
assistance to states to conduct three types of lake
specific projects: Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility
Studies that require one-year monitoring studies to
determine baseline limnological data and an analysis
of the most technologically feasible and cost-effective
pollution control strategies; Phase II
Restoration/Protection Implementation Projects that
are actual in-lake restoration efforts based on Phase
I recommendations; and Phase III Post-Restoration
Monitoring Studies conducted three to five years after
the completion of Phase II to assess the long-term
effectiveness of the pollution control and restoration
The Act requires that the Administrator of the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency give priority
consideration to the following ten lakes for inclusion
in the demonstration program: Lake Houston, Texas;
Beaver Lake, Arkansas; Greenwood Lake, New
Jersey; Alcyon Lake, New Jersey; Deal Lake, New
Jersey; Gorton's Pond, Rhode Island; Lake
Washington, Rhode Island; Lake Bomoseen,
Vermont; Sauk Lake, Minnesota; and Lake Worth,
Texas. In FY 1989, Congress appropriated $5.0
million for the Demonstration Program. States
submitted applications and received funding under
this program for seven of the ten lakes named in the
Act. In FY 1989, $1.7 million was awarded and the
remaining $3.3 million was recertified for use in
FY 1990. Of the recertified $3.3 million,
approximately $2.3 million was awarded in FY 1990
and Congress redirected approximately $1.0 million
to other lake projects. No additional funds were
appropriated for the Demonstration Program in FY
1990. In FY 1991, Congress did appropriate
$83,000 for the Lake Alcyon Demonstration Project.
The ten lakes have water quality problems that
are common to many lakes throughout the United
States and therefore may serve as models for similar
restoration projects on other lakes. Most of the water
quality problems fall into one of two categories:
excessive siltation and sediment influx, and high
levels of nutrient loading. For example, at Deal
Lake in New Jersey, excessive siltation has gradually
reduced the number of deep water areas in the lake
and restricted recreational activities such as boating
and swimming. High nutrient levels can lead to the
rampant growth of aquatic weeds. This vegetation
can also impede recreational activities, cause hypoxia
and fishkills, and lead to a decline in the aesthetic
quality of the lake. This situation has occurred at
Lake Bomoseen in Vermont, where the nuisance
growth of the aquatic plant, Eurasian water milfoil,
has curtailed full use of the lake.
There are many sources of these water quality
problems but most can be linked to the development
of the lakes' watersheds. Urbanization can increase
runoff from lawns, highways, stormwater outfalls,
and other surfaces. Shoreline development can also
result in increased nutrient loading from the use of
fertilizers on lawns and the presence of septic systems
in areas that have not been sewered. Rural
development can lead to water quality problems as
well. Farms and animal production facilities on or
near lakes use and generate large quantities of
nitrogen and phosphorus from animal feed,
fertilizers, pesticides, and animal wastes. Runoff
from these facilities or fields can significantly
increase the nutrient load of the lake. Soil erosion
that occurs during construction or from poorly
maintained commercial, residential, or agricultural
lands can cause a significant influx of silt and
sediment to a lake.

Other lakes in the Demonstration Program are
adversely impacted by industrial discharges.
For example, Alcyon Lake in New Jersey has toxic
contaminants in its water. The source of these
contaminants is the toxic leachate the lake receives
from an abandoned chemical waste dump upstream.
This landfill is a designated Superfund site.
Community interest in restoring these lakes has
been a major factor both in designating the lakes for
the Demonstration Program, and in implementing
measures to improve water quality and protect aquatic
resources. For some of the lakes, lake associations
consisting of property owners around the lakes have
been instrumental in determining sources of pollution,
initiating prevention and control efforts, and
developing funding sources to match federal grants.
Volunteer activities, particularly monitoring water
quality in the lakes, have also been important. At
Lake Washington, the University of Rhode Island
coordinates these volunteer groups to gather useful
baseline data. States in which diagnostic/feasibility
studies are ongoing or have been completed agree
that the Demonstration Program has been a valuable
resource for initiating protection and restoration
activities. Where such activities have been
implemented, they have been successful in improving
the water quality of the lake and encouraging further
efforts. States agree that the Demonstration Program
provides useful models for identifying water quality
impairments in lakes, assessing protection and
restoration techniques, and encouraging public
involvement in maintaining and improving the
Nation's lakes.

In 1972, Congress created the Clean Lakes
Program in response to public demand for the
preservation and protection of the Nation's lakes.
The Clean Lakes Program has as its primary goals
the definition of the causes and extent of pollution
problems in publicly owned lakes of each state, and
the development and implementation of effective
techniques to restore and protect lake resources.
Promulgation of the Clean Lakes Regulations in 1980
defined the program structure and outlined the
financial assistance mechanisms available to the states
for carrying out the provisions and objectives of the
The Clean Lakes Program provides financial and
technical assistance to states to conduct three types of
projects: Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Studies,
Phase II Restoration/Protection Imple-mentation
Projects, and Phase III Post-Restoration Monitoring
Phase I studies are used to determine the causes
and extent of the pollution in a specific lake, identify
potential control mechanisms, and recommend the
most feasible and cost-effective methods for restoring
and maintaining lake water quality. Phase I studies
include a one-year monitoring program to obtain
current limnological data on the trophic conditions of
the lake including physical, chemical, and biological
water quality data. The diagnostic portion of the
Phase I study further requires gathering information
on the limnological, morphological, demographic,
socioeconomic, and other relevant aspects of the lake
and its watershed. The feasibility portion of the
study is to assess the diagnostic data to determine the
causes and extent of the pollution to the lake, identify
potential pollution control mechanisms, and
recommend the most feasible and cost-effective
methods for restoring and maintaining the aquatic
resource for maximum public and environmental
Phase II funds are used to implement the lake
restoration and protection recommendations identified
in Phase I and may include actual in-lake techniques
as well as watershed management practices. Phase II
cooperative agreements require comprehensive lake
water quality monitoring during restoration as well as
for a minimum of one year after the implementation
of restoration and protection measures to determine
the initial effectiveness of the project.
Phase III monitoring studies are used as a long-
term follow-up to Phase II activities. For
restoration/protection projects that have been
completed for at least five years, Phase III funds may
be used to determine the longevity and effectivenesss
of implemented techniques. Phase III monitoring
studies must meet several criteria: 1) quantitative
data must be available on pre-treatment and post-
treatment water quality; 2) the treatment used in the
lake should be applicable to other lakes with similar
pollution problems; 3) the treatment and its
implementation must be documented in detail; and 4)
the measure of a successful treatment must be related
to improved water quality or uses.
Since the mid 1970s, the Clean Lakes Program
has provided more than $120 million in financial
assistance to states to help fund hundreds of lake
studies and implementation projects.
The 1987 amendments to the Clean Water Act
(section 314) reauthorized the nationally competitive
Clean Lakes Program and established the
Demonstration Program. The objectives of the
Demonstration Program are to develop techniques to
prevent and control pollution to lakes, particularly
nonpoint sources of pollution, and evaluate the
feasibility of implementing regional pollution control
strategies; demonstrate environmentally preferred
techniques for the removal and disposal of
contaminated lake sediments, silt, aquatic growth,
and other obstructions; construct and evaluate silt
traps and other devices to prevent the deposit of
sediment in lakes; and demonstrate the costs and
benefits of utilizing dredged material from lakes in
the reclamation of despoiled land. The Act
requires that the Administrator of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) give priority
consideration to the following ten lakes for inclusion
in the Demonstration Program: Lake Houston,

Texas; Beaver Lake, Arkansas; Greenwood Lake,
New Jersey; Deal Lake, New Jersey; Alcyon Lake,
New Jersey; Gorton's Pond, Rhode Island; Lake
Washington, Rhode Island; Lake Bomoseen,
Vermont; Sauk Lake, Minnesota; and Lake Worth,
The EPA policy is to carry out the newly
established Demonstration Program under existing
program guidance and regulations. In FY 1988, the
Clean Lakes Program did not receive an
appropriation. However, in FY 1989, Congress
appropriated $5.0 million for the Demonstration
Program and $7.5 million for the nationally
competitive program. States applied for and received
funding for seven of the ten lakes named in the Act.
In FY 1989 and 1990, approximately $1.7 million
and $2.3 million were awarded, respectively. In FY
1990, Congress reprogrammed the remaining
approximately $1.0 million to other lake projects. In
FY 1991, Congress appropriated an additional
$83,000 for the Alcyon Lake project. The
distribution of the Demonstration Program funds, as
well as competitive Clean Lakes funds, for each
project is shown below. The 1987 amendments to
the Clean Water Act further instructed the
Administrator of EPA to report to the Congress on
work undertaken by the Demonstration Program.
This report summarizes the current status of each
demonstration project and describes the work
undertaken by the EPA Clean Lakes Program as well
as by others involved in these projects.
The Agency will continue to closely monitor the
progress of these projects and intends to make
available to interested parties the results of these
demonstration projects. This information transfer
will occur through a variety of sources. For
example, much of the pertinent water quality data
collected under these projects will be entered into the
Agency's STORET water quality data base, as well
as reported in each State's Biennial Section 305(b)
National Water Quality Report to Congress. In
addition, the progress and results of each
demonstration project will be entered into the Clean
Lakes Program Management System (CLPMS). The
data in this tracking system is available to both the
States and the public for information transfer
Funding of Clean Lakes Demonstration Projects
K aire. State
Funds ($1
Clean Lakes
Funds ($1
Funds ($1
Houston, TX
Beaver, AR
Greenwood, NJ

Greenwood, NY
Deal, NJ
Alcyon, NJ*
Gorton's Pond, RI

Washington, Rl
Bomoseen, VT

Sauk, MN
Worth, TX


 Has received several million dollars from the EPA Superfund Program

The construction of the Lake Houston Dam on
the San Jacinto River in 1954 resulted in the
formation of Lake Houston. This impoundment,
which has a surface area of 12,350 acres, serves as
a water supply and recreational lake for the City of
Houston, Texas. Originally the lake had a storage
capacity of over 160,000 acre-feet, but during the
intervening 35 years the capacity of the lake has
decreased by more than 27,000 acre-feet (18%).
Studies conducted in 1980 by Rice University
indicated that the diminished capacity resulted from
constant sedimentation and aquatic plants. These
plants, primarily water hyacinths and alligator weed,
are found in inlets around the periphery of the lake.
In addition to decreasing the storage capacity of the
lake, the plants have restricted recreational uses
such as boating and fishing.
Aquatic resources also have been affected by
high turbidity and high nutrient levels in Lake
Houston. Although at one time fecal coliform
concentrations were a significant problem as a result
of point source permit violations, stringent
permitting and enforcement have eliminated this
particular problem. There are several hundred
NPDES and state discharge permits issued for Lake
Houston, and the compliance rate is very good.
The current water quality problems are caused
by runoff, primarily from urbanized areas around
the lake; a significant source may be fertilizers
applied to property adjacent to the lake. The City
of Houston has long been active in monitoring the
water quality of the lake and has initiated a number
of measures designed to maintain or improve lake
quality. These have included inspection and
licensing of septic systems, inspecting and approving
oil well drilling locations near the periphery of the
lake, monitoring sewage treatment plants, collecting
water samples within the watershed, and issuing
citations for code violations. Recent federal
regulations pertaining to storm water permitting for
communities of over 100,000 people
Lake Houston

may also have an eventual impact on the water
quality of the lake.
A number of restoration and pollution
prevention methods were considered for Lake
Houston. These methods include shoreline
stabilization, dredging, nutrient inactivation and
precipitation, nutrient outflow acceleration, and
fertilizer management plan. In 1987, the Texas
Water Commission received $100,000 from the
Clean Lakes Program for which matching state and
local funds of $42,857 were committed. These funds
were used in the Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility
Study for Lake Houston, which resulted in a better
understanding of the factors affecting the water
The first draft of the Diagnostic/Feasibility
Study final report has been completed and reviewed.
The results indicate that it is not economically
feasible to restore the lake. Although better land
use practices and extensive treatment of sewage
discharges to the lake's tributaries may improve lake
water quality, the extent of the controls and
treatment necessary to actually restore the lake are
prohibitively expensive.

Located near Fayetteville, Arkansas, an area
experiencing rapid growth, Beaver Lake is a 28,190-
acre reservoir which provides excellent recreation
facilities as well as drinking water for the
surrounding population of over 200,000 people.
Although Beaver Lake has escaped any significant
impairment to date, the Arkansas Department of
Pollution Control and Ecology is concerned that
rapid commercial, agricultural, and residential
development increases the potential for water
quality degradation in the lake.
The Beaver Lake watershed has been
extensively studied through the cooperative efforts
of several federal agencies, including the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers, the Tennessee Valley
Authority, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's
Soil Conservation Service. The Soil Conservation
Service, recognizing that runoff from the growing
number of chicken and swine farms in the
watershed could eventually affect the quality of the
drinking water supply, was instrumental in
designating Beaver Lake for the Clean Lakes
Demonstration Program. Between 1980 and 1986,
studies conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers and the U.S. Geological Survey focused
on erosion, animal wastes, nutrient transport,
water quality, aquatic species and habitats, and
water quality management. The studies indicated
that water clarity in the upper reservoir has been
decreasing as a result of siltation and algal blooms.
The source of the siltation and algae is believed to
be the increased number of confined animal
production facilities and the spreading of the wastes
from the facilities on nearby pastures. Federal
permits have not been required for the many
chicken and swine farms located around the lake.
However, the State of Arkansas does regulate swine
farms and some state permits have been issued.
The EPA and the State of Arkansas are
encouraging farmers to use best management
practices on a voluntary basis to reduce the
potential for nutrient loading to the lake, although
Beaver Lake
Beaver Lake

if necessary the EPA can require permits for any
feedlot significantly polluting U.S. waters, under the
National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
The Corps of Engineers has spent more than
$400,000 to characterize the water quality of the
lake and to determine the impacts of the
surrounding watershed by monitoring critical
watershed areas where there are cooperative
farmers. To assess the potential impacts from
increased development within the watershed and
outline the best approach to protecting the water
quality of the lake, the state has undertaken a
$142,857 Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Study
($100,000 Federal Clean Lakes funds and $42,857
state funds) to characterize the limnological aspects
of the lake proper, which will not be included in the
Corps' study. Public meetings have been held to
allow all parties interested in the lake and its future
to participate in the development of the lake
protection plan.
In 1990, the first milestone of the project was
completed, which involved data assimilation and
analysis. This included a review of existing and
historical data, implementation of a quality control/
quality assurance plan, and the design of a lake and
watershed monitoring program. The monitoring
program has been coordinated with the Corps of
Engineers and the Soil Conservation Service to
maximize efficiency of data collection.
In 1991, the monitoring program was
completed, and the state is currently preparing a
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study final report to be
completed in August 1992. Lake restoration
alternatives are likely to focus on installation of Best
Management Practices (BMPs) to address the
significant animal waste contribution within the

Historic Greenwood Lake is unique among the
Clean Lakes Demonstration Program lakes because
it is located in two states, New Jersey and New
York. Its use extends back to pre-Colonial days and
it remains a popular recreational area. Numerous
marinas, restaurants, homes, and other facilities are
located along the shoreline. In addition, the lake is
part of the headwaters for the Wanaque Reservoir,
which is a major water source for northern New
Jersey. The lake, which has a surface area of 1,920
acres, is divided almost in half by the New
York/New Jersey state line with the northern New
York portion being deeper and having a steeper
Although Greenwood Lake is still a thriving
water resource, in recent years it has begun to show
signs of water quality degradation. Fishing has
changed from a game/sport fishery to pan fish.
Excessive growth of aquatic plants along the
shoreline, particularly in the shallower areas, has
seriously affected navigation, and has also resulted
in unpleasant odors and taste. The aquatic plant
growth is caused by increased nutrient loading and
the influx of sediments, which are the result of
development in the watershed, storm runoff, septic
discharges, and point source discharges into
tributaries of the lake. Of the six NPDES permits
issued for the New Jersey shoreline of the lake, all
were found to be out of compliance at some time;
of these, the three sewage treatment plants are in
the process of upgrading their facilities to comply
with their permits; of the other three permits, two
are under administrative orders to achieve
compliance and one was a single incidence of
exceeding permit discharge levels.
In 1983, a Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Study
was undertaken by the State of New Jersey with
$98,233 in federal funds. The study was to identify
sources of lake pollution and determine the best
possible restoration methods. It was determined
that the hypolimnion was anoxic during the summer;
that annual total particulate and sediment loadings
were over 5,000 kilograms (11,000 lbs) and 3 million
kilograms (6.6 million lbs), respectively; aquatic
plants had reached nuisance proportions in the
Greenwood Lake
0	1
	1	I

southern end of the lake and in some northern
areas, and floating stumps posed safety hazards.
The poor water quality, inaccessibility to the lake,
and safety hazards have resulted in a decline in
recreational activities such as fishing. A
restoration/management plan was developed to
provide for long-term improvements to the lake as
well as to address the immediate need for
maintaining recreational opportunities. The plan
had 10 parts:
1)	upgrade the sewage treatment plant and
prohibit future sewage treatment plant
discharges to the lake;
2)	develop a septic management district to
monitor existing on-site wastewater disposal
systems and improve new ones;
3)	develop a comprehensive stormwater
quality management plan to treat first
4)	stabilize the tributaries to decrease erosion
and sediment transport;
5)	establish a site plan review committee to
oversee all proposed development in the
lake's watershed;
6)	control aquatic plant growth by periodic
lake drawdown;
7)	implement an aquatic plant harvesting
8)	dredge specific locations where there are
navigation hazards;
9)	apply alum or install an aeration unit to
control phosphorus recycling; and
10)	establish a public education and
participation program.
The total costs for the plan were estimated at
$10 million. Restoration activities were to be
conducted as funds became available. Some
portions of the plan were implemented as early as
1985, specifically the lake drawdown and aquatic
plant harvesting in the northern part of the lake. In
addition, engineering drawings for a detention basin
have been prepared, sewage treatment facilities in
the area have been upgraded, stormwater control
measures have been implemented for new
developments, and runoff conveyances have been
maintained. At present the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers is developing a dredging plan for the lake
which includes an archaeological survey. It was
anticipated that this work by the Corps would allow
the Greenwood Lake Watershed Management
District (GLWMDI) to use funds from Phase II on
other aspects of the restoration project. However,
implementation was delayed because it was
determined that the GLWMDI, a nonprofit
organization, was not eligible to receive state
funding. As a result, the Borough of West Milford
has joined the project as an official agent, while
maintaining a close working relationship with the
GLWMDI. Grant agreements reflecting this
relationship have been finalized and implementation
efforts will resume.
In FY 1989, the State of New York and the
State of New Jersey received Clean Lakes Program
funds for Phase II Restoration/Protection
Implementation grants to continue with portions of
the restoration plan for which equal matching state
and local funds are available. The total federal
award is $822,000, with New York receiving
$369,600 and New Jersey receiving $452,400. These
monies are primarily for weed harvesting and
watershed management to reduce incoming
nutrients and sediment. In turn, this will ultimately
reduce or prevent the secondary effects of the
pollutants such as massive aquatic plant growth and
decreased dissolved oxygen.
Although no additional funds were requested in
FY 1990 and FY 1991, restoration efforts will
continue now that the substate agreement has been
finalized. Restoration activities will include lake
level drawdown, weed harvesting, and the
construction of a stormwater detention basin.

As the largest freshwater body in Monmouth
County, New Jersey, Deal Lake has provided
neighboring communities with water recreation
opportunities since 1890. The lake was formed by
the damming of a tidal creek and consists of a
series of shallow finger-like sloughs branching from
a main basin. Community involvement with the
lake is evidenced by the planting of ornamental
plants along the lake periphery and the active
promotion of water activities such as fishing,
swimming, and boating.
The Deal Lake watershed has been subjected to
continuous development with a subsequent
degradation in lake water quality resulting from
increased nutrient and sediment inflow. By 1950,
aquatic plant growth, algal blooms, and bacteria
concentrations had become excessive and the use of
the lake for boating and swimming was impeded or
State and local interest in restoring Deal Lake
to its former standard of water quality culminated
in 1983 in a state-sponsored comprehensive
diagnostic/feasibility study. This study determined
the status of the lake and identified the sources of
the influx of nutrients and sediment. The primary
source of sediment was determined to be an old
landfill located upstream of the lake. This, in turn,
led to a remediation plan which consisted of three
steps: 1) the development of a cooperative
agreement between the Deal Lake Commission and
neighboring local governments to develop new
ordinances and zoning requirements or upgrade
existing ones to control stormwater runoff and soil
erosion, and to maintain proper watershed/land use
management, particularly to stabilize the landfill
responsible for most of the sediment influx; 2)
identify the current or potential sources of soil
erosion, and determine sensitive habitats and
implement ordinances to correct or avoid
development of these areas; and 3) construct
sediment catch basins, detention basins and/or
vegetated retention basins (wetlands). The
restoration project was initiated by the Deal Lake
Deal Lake

Commission in 1988, using $1 million of State of
New Jersey funds. A heavily sedimented portion of
the lake, the Harvey Brook arm, was restored by
dredging, the construction of a sediment trap, the
development of a 2-acre wetland, and the
reclamation of 4 acres of surface water habitat.
Other restoration activities completed to date
include the retrofitting of the lake's flume to permit
adjustments in lake water levels for flood control
and to allow for increased drawdown for aquatic
plant control, fishery management, and sediment
removal. Of three known industrial dischargers to
the lake, one company has gone out of business,
one water treatment plant is being penalized for
noncompliance with its state discharge permit, and
the third industry is no longer discharging into the
In 1989, the Deal Lake Commission received
financial assistance ($604,881) from the Clean Lakes
Program, matched equally by the state, to complete
four other restoration and protection elements for
the lake. These elements are 1) construction of a
wet basin and biofilter to prevent property damage
from flooding, improve stormwater quality, and
provide new wetlands; 2) the conversion of a pool,
which currently has an accumulation of sediment
and unstable sideslopes, to a functional retention
basin to decrease sediment and nutrient influx to
the main body of the lake; 3) the creation of a
biofilter and wetland on the present site of stagnant
backwater pool; and 4) watershed and land use
management. This last project will require the
development of new ordinances, the identification of
areas under or proposed for development, and the
determination of site-specific impacts.
In 1990 and 1991, significant progress was made
on the watershed management portions of the
project including the completion of engineering
designs. Wetlands and coastal zone permits will
soon be acquired for the construction of a detention
basin. The Deal Lake Commission was successful
in acquiring funding to develop this site as a public
recreation area.
A public education presentation was prepared
for local groups and schools, and additional dates
were scheduled for various user groups of the lake.
The ability of the Deal Lake Commission to
function as the lead organization for restoration
activities has been a significant accomplishment.
The lake watershed consists of several municipalities
whose efforts have been coordinated by the Deal
Lake Commission. This increased visibility has
fostered better working relationships with other
regulatory agencies and has improved the likelihood
of eventual project success.

Alcyon Lake is a small manmade lake
occupying approximately 18.5 acres. Located in
Pitman, New Jersey, in the county of Gloucester,
the lake has been a center of community activity
since the 1890s when Alcyon Park was built on the
lakeshore. At the turn of the century, a beach and
an amusement center were established at the Park.
In 1951, Alcyon Park was sold and essentially
abandoned, although the beach was maintained
during the 1950s.
By 1980, three sources of pollution had been
identified for Alcyon Lake: 1) the LiPari Landfill,
an abandoned chemical waste dump, 2) urban
stormwater runoff, and 3) agricultural runoff. This
pollution had been ongoing for over 20 years. In
1980, it was determined that the major problem at
the lake was the discharge of 130 to 150 thousand
gallons of chemical wastes from the LiPari Landfill.
A Alcyon
Forty-four of the 126 priority toxic pollutants (listed
as such by the EPA pursuant to section 307(a) of
the Clean Water Act), were found in the leachate
In 1980, the State of New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection applied for financial
assistance under the Clean Lakes Program to begin
the study and restoration of Alcyon Lake for
recreational purposes. However, because of the
ongoing contamination of the lake from the LiPari
Landfill -- the number one Superfund site in the
country  Alcyon Lake was declared ineligible for
Clean Lakes funds until the landfill cleanup was
In the same year, the LiPari Landfill project
applied for and received several million dollars in
Superfund monies to begin site remediation
Alcyon L*lw

efforts. Since then, the first stage of Superfund
activities - on-site construction of a slurry wall and
membrane cap  has been completed. The second
stage of the remediation plan consists of on-site and
off-site remedial investigation/feasibility studies to
address cleanup of the contained landfill area as
well as contaminant migration from the site. In
July 1988, EPA committed $21 million from the
Superfund Program for the third and final stage of
the remediation plan. This stage includes 1) dredge
and removal of contaminated sediments from
Alcyon Lake and its associated streams and
wetlands, 2) treatment of these sediments to remove
contaminants, 3) placement of the treated sediments
over a nearby abandoned racetrack, and 4) flushing
of contaminants from the landfill. The cleanup of
Alcyon Lake has been delayed due to difficulties in
design of the sediment decontamination process.
The State of New Jersey did not submit an
application for financial assistance under the Clean
Lakes Program in FT 1989. However, throughout
1990, the State worked with Gloucester County to
implement watershed work to prevent and control
other sources of pollution to the lake. A feasibility
study addressing watershed management activities
was prepared by the county in conjunction with the
Soil Conservation Service.
In FY 1991, Congress appropriated $83,000 for
the New Jersey Lake Alcyon Demonstration
Program. In addition, the state received $17,123 in
competitive Clean Lakes funds. These combined
funds will be matched equally by the State
($100,123) and used to implement watershed
erosion control measures and construct erosion
control devices in the lake watershed. The Soil
Conservation Service and a local community college
are providing assistance to the county for controlling
soil erosion.

Located near Warwick, Rhode Island, Gorton's
Pond has been a commercial water resource for
settlers for over 250 years, when a Tilling mill was
first established on its shore. Since that time,
Gorton's Pond has been the site of a cotton mill
(now a warehouse), extensive residential
development, and a major source of freshwater
fishing, swimming, boating, and hiking. The pond,
essentially a lake, covers 57 acres and has a small
dam at its outlet which is used to control its depth.
Gorton's Pond is in a heavily urbanized area of
Rhode Island, and as such has many of the pollution
problems associated with residential and commercial
development. These include surface runoff that
contains oil, grease, bacteria, and fertilizers, as well
as other wastes that enter the water from storm
drains or surface runoff. This influx of nutrients has
resulted in green and blue-green algal blooms.
Watershed development has also caused severe soil
erosion with a subsequent increase in sediment
inputs to the lake. This deposit of sediment has
resulted in shallow areas along the periphery of the
lake and encouraged the growth of aquatic
macrophytes. Nutrient loading in the lake has also
increased because of septic system discharges,
although these discharges are the result of hydraulic
continuity with subsurface waters rather than
outdated or inefficient systems. These
manifestations of declining water quality have
reduced the population of sport fisheries.
In 1980, the State of Rhode Island received
$74,200 in Clean Lakes Program funds matched by
$31,800 in state/local funds to conduct a Phase I
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study of Gorton's Pond. A
year-long monitoring study indicated that the
eutrophication of the lake was caused primarily by
land use practices in the watershed. The feasibility
study stressed that any restoration plan must deal
with the causes of the water pollution, not just
the artificial aeration and nutrient inactivation
Gorton's Pond
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	1	I

effects; that is, in addition to actual lake restoration
activities, the plan must include land use
management practices to control further nutrient
and sediment loading. Land use management
recommendations included erosion and sediment
control, particularly during construction and at
stormwater outfalls; stormwater treatment and/or
diversion; and elimination of point and nonpoint
source discharges such as on-site sewage disposal
systems. Although some areas around the lake have
been sewered, some septic systems are still used.
Methods proposed for lake restoration included
dredging, drawdown, aquatic plant harvesting,
dilution/flushing, and bottom sealing. It was
emphasized that more than one method would be
necessary for preventing and controlling runoff and
In 1986, Rhode Island received $143,353
in Clean Lakes Program funds, matched equally by
state/local funds, to implement the stormwater
treatment component of the restoration project.
Due to a significant increase in the initial estimated
cost of implementing the proposed plan (over $1
million) and a loss of $100,000 in state-matching
funds due to state budgetary problems, only the
design phase for a stormwater infiltration basin
could be completed. However, the Rhode Island
Department of Transportation has initiated a
resurfacing project on the roads from the pond.
The department has agreed to move the road
draining pipe from an area discharging directly to
the public beach and to construct a riprap and
grassy swale adjacent to the pond to provide
stormwater treatment. Design costs for the
stormwater treatment basin have been paid, but the
remainder of the federal funds ($117,226) will be
returned because of the state's budgetary problems
noted above.

Located in upper northwestern Rhode Island,
near the Connecticut border, Lake Washington is a
shallow basin covering 41 acres that was formed by
the excavation of a cranberry bog and construction
of an earthen dam over 80 years ago. The shoreline
is densely populated by homeowners who enjoy the
lake for warm water fishing and boating.
In recent years, there has been excessive growth
of aquatic vegetation, algal blooms, and increased
sedimentation. The degradation of the aquatic
plants and algae has resulted in an increased
dissolved oxygen demand that threatens survival of
the fish population. Part of the water quality
problems stem from the fact that the lake has a
naturally low inflow of water, primarily
groundwater, compared to the size of the lake basin
and, consequently, has poor flushing. In addition,
lakeshore residents are not on sewer lines and their
septic systems were installed prior to state
standards. Many of these sewage systems are at, or
have exceeded, their useful life. The septic systems
are problematic because of the high water table in
the watershed. A further source of pollutants is
highway runoff from Route 44, which abuts the
lakeshore; this runoff has resulted in the nuisance
growth of some salt-tolerant aquatic plants.
To study these problems and eventually restore
the lake to its full range of recreational uses, the
Rhode Island Department of Environmental
Management (D.E.M.) applied to EPA's Clean
Lakes Program for FY 1989 financial assistance to
conduct a Diagnostic/Feasibility Study of Lake
Washington. Although the restoration of Lake
Washington is the ultimate goal of the project, the
D.E.M. also hopes to use the lake as a prototype
for restoration programs at other lakes in the state.
A further consideration is the existence downstream
of a large public park lake system, the George
Washington Management Area, that includes
Bowdish Reservoir. Rhode Island is anticipating
that the restoration of Lake Washington will have a
positive effect on the water quality of the reservoir
and promote the funding of other water quality
projects in the Management Area. A public
education program will also be initiated to assist
other lake associations in developing their own lake
management programs. At present, there is a
volunteer water quality monitoring program on the
lake, coordinated by the University of Rhode Island.
The diagnostic/feasibility study will determine the
current status of the lake, identify causes of water
quality degradation, omit sources of pollution, and
evaluate control alternatives and implementation
Lake Washington
0	1400
	1	I
Lake Washington

plans, including pressurized dosing septic systems.
The D.E.M. received federal financial assistance in
the amount of $98,413 from the Clean Lakes
Program to be matched by $42,176 in state and
local funds for the Phase I study. Although
temporarily delayed due to problems in obtaining
state funds, the diagnostic/feasibility study has been
completed and a final report was submitted in FY
The final report identifies failing septic systems
as the primary source of nutrients to the lake and
recommends the construction of a centralized
wastewater treatment system. The report also
recommends in-lake work such as drawdown,
harvesting, and algicides as needed; and watershed
management activities such as revision of local land
ordinances, rip rap and vegetative swells, land
acquisition, and better maintenance of storm water
drainage systems.

Lake Bomoseen is the largest lake located
entirely within Vermont. It covers 2,364 acres and
has an average depth of 27 feet. As a result, the
lake is a major recreational resource and
contributes to the economy of the region. The
lakeshore is densely developed with approximately
1,000 seasonal and year-round residences. One
shore of the lake is sewered, and there are no
known violations of NPDES permits. There are two
public boat access areas, a state park, and a town
beach area, as well as marinas and other businesses
that directly or indirectly depend on the lake for
Prior to 1982, the lake had a nuisance
population of the aquatic plant Potamogeton crispus,
which was controlled by mechanical harvesting.
Since then, however, another aquatic plant, the
Eurasian milfoil, has spread rapidly in some areas
of the lake. It is estimated that the plant now
occupies over 600 acres of the lake out to a depth
of 20 feet. The Eurasian milfoil coverage is very
dense and has severely restricted recreational
activities in and on the lake. Swimming has
declined because plant congestion along the
shoreline has made access to clearwater difficult;
boat use and fishing have been impaired because
the aquatic plants become entangled in propellers
and fishing lines; other water activities such as water
skiing, canoeing, and SCUBA diving in shallow
areas have been curtailed; decaying plants cause an
odor problem; and dead fish, algae, and debris are
caught in the plant mats. The culmination of these
effects has been less tourism and fewer recreational
and economic opportunities.
A Lake Bomoseen

Since the identification of the Eurasian milfoil,
the Town of Castleton has been using mechanical
harvesters to remove the plants from the lake's
surface. However, this method has proven to be
both ineffective and uneconomical in controlling the
plant growth. The Vermont Department of
Environmental Conservation (DEC) applied for
funds from the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency Clean Lakes Program to implement a Lake
Bomoseen Demonstration Program to evaluate a
variety of milfoil control methods. The state hopes
to apply the most effective method to the other 25
lakes in Vermont which also have a milfoil growth
problem. Several control technologies have been
proposed along with mechanical harvesting:
drawdown, shallow dredging, sediment manipulation
(fill), rotavating, hydro-raking, and diver-operated
dredging. In 1977, Vermont received $74,640 under
the Clean Lakes Program for the harvesting of
aquatic plants and the permanent removal of
nutrients. Vermont also requested $500,000 in
federal funds for FY 1989; however, the state was
unable to accept the grant offer because of the
unavailability of required matching funds.
In 1989, staff of the Vermont DEC discovered
a dramatic decline in milfoil growth in Brownington
Pond, a 136-acre lake in northeastern Vermont.
The decline appeared to be associated with the
presence of three types of herbivorous (plant-eating)
aquatic insects. As a result, in 1990, the DEC
applied for, and was awarded, $588,000 in Clean
Lakes Demonstration funds to conduct a 5-year
research project on the use of herbivorous insects as
a biological control for milfoil. The project involves
determining the extent to which aquatic insects may
have contributed to the milfoil reduction in
Brownington Pond and whether Lake Bomoseen
would be suitable for herbivore introductions.

The Sauk River Headwaters Project includes
Sauk Lake and its tributaries. The lake covers 2,111
acres in central Minnesota, with the watershed
being a predominantly agricultural area
encompassing 5 counties, 49 townships, and 28
In (he recent past, Sauk Lake has been a major
recreation area for water activities including water
skiing, swimming, fishing, sailing, and log rolling
contests. At present, such uses have been severely
curtailed or entirely discontinued because of the
excessive growth of aquatic plants.
The eutrophication and attendant growth of the
aquatic plants, both algae and macrophytcs, in Sauk
Lake has resulted from heavy pollution, primarily
phosphorus and sediments. The suspected sources
of these pollutants are fields and fecdlot runoff,
effluents from wastewater treatment plants, septic
systems, and food processing facilities. Although
Minnesota has state programs that pertain to
feedlots, the ongoing Diagnostic/Feasibility Study
will examine how these programs apply to Sauk
In order to study the water quality problems
in Sauk Lake and to develop restoration and
protection options, the State of Minnesota received
$100,000 from the Clean Lakes Program, to be
matched with $42,857 in state and local funds, to
conduct a Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Study.
This study will determine the sources of pollution
and select the best restoration and protection
alternatives for Sauk Lake.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is
providing hydrologicat data, surveying lake
vegetation, determining sediment chemistry,
conducting water quality monitoring, assessing the
need for and preparing a community education
brochure, and conducting a nonpoint source
pollution analysis through their Water Resources
Study authorized under section 602 of the 1986
Water Resources Development Act. The Corps
study was conducted during a period of relative
drought and may not be representative of normal
lake conditions. The Clean Lakes Project will
complement the COE study through completion of
an indepth assessment of land use activities and
water quality monitoring in tributaries to assess
nonpoint sources of pollution. The Sauk River
Watershed District is in the final stages of the
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study, which is expected to be
completed by mid-1992.
A Sauk Lake

Lake Worth is the primary source of drinking
water for the City of Fort Worth, Texas. It is also
a major recreational resource and is surrounded by
almost 4,000 acres of public parks. Recreational
uses of the lake include swimming, boating, water
skiing, and fishing. Constructed in 1914, the lake
has a surface area of approximately 3,550 acres.
In recent years, however, these activities have
been impaired by siltation and the unchecked
growth of aquatic plants in the shallow areas of the
lake. Studies conducted over the last 30 years had
recommended several methods for improving the
lake. These include dredging; better wastewater
management, particularly with regard to septic
systems; improving nonpoint source controls in the
parklands on the perimeter of the lake; and using
effective watershed management practices. Three
NPDES permits, including one for cooling-water
blowdown, have been issued for facilities around the
lake, and there has been good compliance for
discharge levels.
In FY 1987, the Texas Water Commission
applied to the Clean Lakes Program for financial
assistance in the amount of $100,000 (state/local
match of $42,857) to conduct a Phase I
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study to determine the
present condition of the lake and watershed, and to
evaluate restoration and protection alternatives.
The Diagnostic/Feasibility Study includes an one-
year water quality monitoring program and a public
participation program. The study has been
completed with the cooperation of the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers.
Following completion of the Phase I study, the
City of Fort Worth and the Texas Water
Commission was awarded $1.7 million in Clean
Lakes Program Phase II funds to help finance the
implementation of the restoration alternatives
selected. This will be equally matched by city funds,
indicating the high level of community commitment
to restoring the lake. The Corps of Engineers will
Lake Worth

also assist the City of Fort Worth with Phase II of
the project.
A draft workplan for the restoration project has
been submitted, engineering designs are being
prepared, and necessary permits are being obtained.
The project is expected to include stump removal,
wetland enhancement for nutrient uptake, and dam
adjustment to raise the lake level and expand
existing wetlands. The restoration efforts are being
coordinated through an interagency planning
committee composed of federal, state, and local