iEPA 908 1-76-003
NOVEMBER 1975
COLORADO AQMA AREA
SOURCE
EMISSION INVENTORY
US. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
REGION VIII
AIR & HAZARDOUS MATERIALS DIVISION
DENVER, COLORADO 80203

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EPA-908/1-76-003
PEDCo - ENVIRONMENTAL
SUITE 13 • ATKINSON SQUARE
CINCINNATI. OHIO 45246
513 ^771-4330
COLORADO AQMA AREA SOURCE
EMISSION INVENTORY
Prepared by
PEDCo-ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIALISTS, INC.
Suite 13, Atkinson Square
Cincinnati, Ohio 45246
Contract No. 68-02-1375
Task Order No. 19
EPA Contract Officer:
Prepared for
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Region VIII
Air Planning and Operations Section
Denver, Colorado 80203
November 1975
Suit# 110, Crown Canttr
Kiniu City, Mo. 64108
BRANCH OFFICES
Suit* 104-A, Prolaulonal Villas*
Chapal Hill, N.C. 27814
€3.
ipagypQ

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This report was furnished to the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency by PEDCo-Environmental Specialists, Inc.,
Cincinnati, Ohio, in fulfillment of Contract No. 68-02-1375,
Task Order No. 19. The contents of this report are repro-
duced herein as received from the contractor. The opinions,
findings, and conclusions expressed are those of the author
and not necessarily those of the Environmental Protection
Agency.
Material included in this report was not originally
intended for publication, but to document the data sources
and assumptions made in preparing the area source emission
inventory. Therefore, the text may be sketchy and the
report more useful as a resource document than a general
procedures manual for emission inventories. It should also
be pointed out that the area source emission inventory is
subject to frequent updating so that data presented herein
may soon become obsolete.
Publication No. EPA-908/1-76-003

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CONTENTS
Page
SUMMARY	1
1.	BITUMINOUS COAL—RESIDENTIAL	1-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	1-1
Description of Procedure	1-1
Base Data	1-1
Assumptions	1-1
Emission Factors	1-3
Example Calculations	1-4
Other Information	1-4
2.	BITUMINOUS COAL—COMMERCIAL-INSTITUTIONAL-	2-1
INDUSTRIAL
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	2-1
Description of Procedure	2-1
Base Data	2-1
Assumptions	2-1
Emission Factors	2-2
Other Information	2-2
3.	DISTILLATE OIL	3-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	3-1
Description of Procedure	3-1
Base Data	3-1
Assumptions	3-2
Emission Factors	3-2
4.	RESIDUAL OIL	4-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	4-1
Description of Procedure	4-1
Base Data	4-1
Assumptions	4-2
Emission Factors	4-2
5.	NATURAL GAS	5-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	5-1
Description of Procedure	5-1
Base Data	5-1
Assumptions	5-1
Emission Factors	5-2
i

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Pa9e
6.	LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS	6-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	6-1
Description of Procedure	6-1
Base Data	6-1
Assumptions	6-2
Emission Factors	6-2
Other Information	6-2
7.	WOOD	7-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	7-1
Description of Procedure	7-1
Base Data	7-3
Assumptions	7-3
Emission Factors	7-4
8.	OPEN REFUSE BURNING	8-1
9.	AGRICULTURAL BURNING	9-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	9-1
Description of Procedure	9-1
Base Data	9-1
Assumptions	9-1
Emission Factors	9-2
Example Calculations	9-2
10.	SLASH BURNING	10-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	10-1
Description of Procedure	10-1
Base Data	10-1
Assumptions	10-1
Emission Factors	10-2
11.	FOREST FIRES	11-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	11-1
Description of Procedure	11-1
Base Data	11-1
Assumptions	11-1
Emission Factors	11-2
Other Information	11-2
12.	HIGHWAY MOBILE SOURCES	12-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	12-1
Description of Procedure	12-1
ii	Revised 02/76

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Page
Base Data	12-1
Assumptions	12-2
Emission Factors	12-2
13.	OFF-HIGHWAY FUEL USE	13-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	13-1
Description of Procedure	13-1
Base Data	13-1
Emission Factors	13-2
14.	AIRCRAFT	14-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	14-1
Description of Procedure	14-1
Base Data	14-1
Assumptions	14-2
15.	RAILROADS	15-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	15-1
Description of Procedure	15-1
Base Data	15-1
Assumptions	15-1
Emission Factors	15-1
16.	INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES —STATIONARY	16-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	16-1
Description of Procedure	16-1
Base Data	16-1
Emission Factors	16-2
17.	INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES—PORTABLE	17-1
Parameter for Estimating Emissions	17-1
Description of Procedure	17-1
Base Data	17-1
Assumptions	17-1
Emission Factors	17-2
18.	EVAPORATIVE LOSSES	18-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	18-1
Description of Procedure	18-1
Base Data	18-1
Assumptions	18-2
Emission Factors	18-2
iii

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Page
19.	INCINERATORS	19-1
Parameter for Estimating	Emissions 19-1
Description of Procedure	19-1
Base Data	19-1
Emission Factors	19-1
20.	UNPAVED ROADS	20-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	20-1
Description of Procedure	20-1
Base Data	20-1
Assumptions	20-1
Emission Factors	20-2
21.	PAVED ROADS	21-1
Parameter for Estimating	Emissions 21-1
Description of Procedure	21-1
Base Data	21-1
Assumptions	21-2
Emission Factors	21-2
22.	AGRICULTURE	22-1
Parameter for Estimating	Emissions 22-1
Description of Procedure	22-1
Base Data	22-1
Assumptions	22-2
Emission Factors	22-2
23.	LAND DEVELOPMENT	23-1
Parameter for Estimating	Emissions 23-1
Description of Procedure	23-1
Base Data	23-1
Assumptions	23-1
Emission Factors	23-2
24.	QUARRYING, MINING, AND TAILINGS	24-1
Parameters for Estimating Emissions	24-1
Description of Procedure	24-1
Base Data	24-1
Assumptions	24-1
Emission Factors	24-1
iv

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Page
25.	AGGREGATE STORAGE	25-1
Parameter for Estimating	Emissions 25-1
Description of Procedure	25-1
Base Data	25-1
Assumptions	25-1
Emission Factors	25-2
26.	CATTLE FEEDLOTS	26-1
Parameter for Estimating	Emissions 26-1
Description of Procedure	26-1
Base Data	26-1
Assumptions	26-1
Emission Factors	26-2
27.	CONSTRUCTION	27-1
Parameter for Estimating	Emissions 27-1
Description of Procedure	27-1
Base Data	27-1
Assumptions	27-2
Emission Factor	27-2
REFERENCES
V

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TABLES

No.
Page
1
1974 Particulate Area Source Emissions by County
3
2
1974 Sulfur Dioxide Area Source Emissions by County
5
3
1974 Carbon Monoxide Area Source Emissions
by County
6
4
1974 Hydrocarbon Area Source Emissions by County
8
5
1974 Nitrogen Oxide Area Source Emissions by County
10
1.1
Residential Coal Consumption
1-2
1.2
1974 Residential Coal Emissions
1-6
2.1
Bituminous Coal Consumption—Commercial-
Institutional- Industrial
2-3
2.2
1974 Bituminous Coal Emissions--Commercial-
Institutional-Industrial
2-4
3.1
Distillate Oil Consumption
3-4
3.2
1974 Residential Distillate Oil Emissions
3-5
3.3
1974 Commercial-Institutional Distillate Oil
Emissions
3-6
3.4
1974 Industrial Distillate Oil Emissions
3-7
4.1
Residual Oil Consumption
4-3
CN
•
1974 Commercial-Institutional Residual Oil
Emissions
4-4
4.3
1974 Industrial Residual Oil Emissions
4-5
5.1
Natural Gas Consumption
5-3
5.2
1974 Residential Natural Gas Emissions
5-4
5.3
1974 Commercial-Institutional-Industrial Natural
Gas Emissions
5-5
6.1
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Consumption
6-3
6.2
1974 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Emissions
vi
6-4

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No.	Page
7.1	1974 Fireplace Wood Consumption	7-2
7.2	Woodburning Emission Factors	7-5
7.3	1974 Residential Wood Consumption and Emissions	7-6
for Stoves
7.4	1974 Fireplace Emissions from Woodburning	7-7
9.1	Irrigation Ditch Data for Calculation of Tons	9-3
of Vegetation Burned
9.2	1974 Burning of Fields, Fence Rows, and Roadside 9-4
Ditches Emissions
9.3	1974 Irrigation Ditch Burning Emissions	9-5
10.1 1974 Slash Burning Emissions	10-3
11.1	Forest Fire Data for Calculation of Tons of	11-3
Vegetation Burned
11.2	1974 Forest Fire Emissions	11-4
12.1	1974 Daily Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)	12-3
12.2	1974 Highway Mobile Source Emissions	12-3
13.1	Off-Highway Fuel Consumption	13-3
13.2	Emissions from Off-Highway Fuel Use	13-4
14.1	Fleet Mix for Aircraft by Aircraft Type	14-3
14.2	1974 Landing-Takeoff Cycles	14-4
14.3	1974 Aircraft Emissions	14-5
15.1 1974 Railroad Fuel Oil Consumptions and Emissions 15-3
16.1 1974 Stationary Industrial Process Emissions	16-3
17.1 1974 Portable Industrial Process Emissions	17-3
18.1 1974 Evaporative Hydrocarbon Emissions	18-4
19.1 1974 Incinerator Emissions	19-3
20.1 1974 Particulate Emissions and Parameters for	20-3
Estimating Emissions for Unpaved Roads
vii
Revised 02/76

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No.	Page
21.1 1974 Reintrained Dust from Paved Roads	21-3
22.1 1974 Total Crop Acreage and Agricultural	22-3
Emissions
23.1 1974 Land Development Emissions	23-3
24.1 1974 Quarrying, Mining, and Tailings Emissions	24-3
25.1 1974 Aggregate Storage Emissions	25-3
26.1 1974 Cattle Feedlot Emissions	26-3
27.1	Building Construction Activity in AQMA Counties 27-4
27.2	1974 Construction Emissions	27-5
viii
Revised 02/76

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SUMMARY
This document presents a baseline air pollutant emis-
sions inventory of area sources in the five Colorado Air
Quality Maintenance Areas (AQMA's)—Larimer-Weld Counties,
the Denver Metropolitan Area, El Paso County, Pueblo County,
and the Colorado-Utah Oil Shale Area. All are designated
for particulate matter and carbon monoxide; the Oil Shale
Area also for sulfur dioxide and oxidants; Larimer-Weld for
oxidants; and Denver for nitrogen oxides and oxidants.
The area source emission estimates in this report are
for each AQMA county. These county-wide emissions are to be
allocated to sub-county areas (grids). Grids are necessary
to define spatial distribution of emissions when modeling
the transport and diffusion of air pollutants. A model will
be used to determine air quality or pollutant concentration
at various locations.
The area source categories included in the inventory
are shown in Tables 1 through 5 of this Summary. The inven-
tory considers all conventional source categories described
in APTD-1135, Guide for Compiling a Comprehensive Emission
Inventory,1 plus additional categories for fugitive dust,
portable point sources, and industrial processes with less
than five tons each of emissions. One category, vessels,
was considered to be negligible and therefore not included.
A base year of 1974 was used in the inventory to be
consistent with the point source inventory also being pre-
pared. Also, 1974 was the most recent year in which data
could be obtained.
1
Revised 02/76

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Emission estimates were made using the most recent
emission factors from AP-42, Compilation of Air Pollutant
2
Emission Factors, Second Edition. In some cases, the
emission estimates for a source category are an update of
the 1973 statewide area source inventory done for EPA by
3
TRW or the 1972 inventory of fugitive dust sources done by
4
PEDCo-Environmental. However, in those categories where
more information has become available, a different calcula-
tion procedure has been used to estimate emissions.
An abbreviated format has been used to minimize repe-
tition of material covered by the TRW report, to make the
report more easily usable as a working reference, and to
still properly document the data. Each source category is
discussed in a separate section of the report.
2
Revised 02/76

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Table 1. 1974 PARTICULATE AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
ADAMS
ARAPAHOE
BOULDER
CLEAR
CREEK
DENVER
DOUGLAS
GILPIN
JEFFERSON
Fuel combustion








Bituminous coal
475
512
769
2
3,053
18
7
1,053
Distillate oil
42
45
37
2
117
3
1
64
Residual oil
32
36
37
1
135
2
Neg
59
Natural gas
75
67
85
2
268
3
Neg
76
Other fuels
59S
884
619
32
1,751
62
14
1,066
Incinerators, on site
4
10
2
3
3
Neg
0
4
Mobile sources








Highway
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Off highway
68
60
50
7
175
3
Neg
90
Railroads
25
13
17
0
46
16
4
10
Aircraft
1
7
3
0
92
Neg
0
2
Fugitive dust








Unpaved roads
19,675
13,803
13,932
2,890
1,300
8,848
2,804
27,677
Sand on paved roads
2,231
1,910
1,333
Neg
7,664
Neg
Neg
2,681
Paved roads
1,431
1,225
887
171
4,424
387
26
1,784
Agriculture
3,478
1,209
4,819
0
0
215
0
196
Land development
312
270
57
4
Neg
519
1
226
Construction
423
290
303
10
788
113
8
350
Quarrying, mining & tailings
320
416
1,352
1,419
0
328
33
1,056
Aggregate storage
453
204
0
0
58
202
0
119
Cattle feed lots
117
0
98
Neg
Neg
Neg
Neg
Neg
Other








Area process particulates
61
18
7
0
2
6
0
7
Portable particulate sources
41
Neg
Neg
Neg
Neg
15
12
11
Forest fires & slash burning
Neg
Neg
78
1
Neg
23
1
27
Agricultural burning
120
20
181
Neg
Neg
6
Neg
52
Total
29,979
20 ,996
24,667
4,543
19,876
10,770
9,011
33,611
*Mot updated In this report.

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Table 1. (continued). 1974 PARTICULATE AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
EL PASO
PUEBLO
LARIMER
HELD
GARFIELD
MESA
MOFFAT
RIO BLANCO
Fuel combustion








Bituminous coal
Distillate oil
Residual oil
Natural gas
Other fuels
536
59
43
93
1,094
620
28
27
39
491
348
25
21
32
453
331
27
19
24
366
28
5
2
5
66
146
13
9
18
228
15
1
1
3
27
23
71
1
6
65
Incinerators, on site
4
2
1
1
1
Neg
0
0
Mobile sources








Highway
Off highway
Railroads
Aircraft
1,103
84
32
31
481
39
47
8
452
37
32
1
585
33
87
1
118
5
18
Neg
254
18
21
1
63
2
2
Neg
31
1
0
1
Fugitive dust








Unpaved roads
Sand on paved roads
Paved roads
Agriculture
Land development
Construction
Quarrying, mining & tailings
Aggregate storage
Cattle feed lots
53,231
3,260
2,382
13,293
3,663
685
Neg
69
0
17,521
Neg
1,015
4,115
459
207
104
104
44
24,149
527
819
14,472
214
226
2,520
0
102
62,104
403
1,118
52,229
39
294
88
33
682
20,766
Neg
277
438
132
160
160
6
Neg
24,669
474
507
2,223
27
124
80
52
Neg
33,244
Neg
103
296
Neg
32
80
0
Neg
12,109
Neg
53
92
Neg
7
0
8
Neg
Other








Area process particulates
Portable particulate sources
Forest fires & slash burning
Agricultural burning
5
8
126
30
12
0
2
295
5
15
70
108
14
2
0
916
0
Neg
28
25
9
14
26
68
0
23
6
55
0
Neg
11
5
Total
78,751
25,665
44,625
119,396
22,188
28,984
33,954
12,341

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Table 2. 1974 SULFUR DIOXIDE AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
GARFIELD
MESA
MOFFAT
RIO BLANCO
Fuel combustion




Bituminous coal
26
58
12
25
Distillate oil
23
66
7
7
Residual oil
8
43
3
3
Natural gas
Neg
1
Neg
Neg
Other fuels: LPG & wood
Neg
Neg
Neg
Neg
Incinerators, on site
Neg
Neg
0
0
Mobile sources




Highway
52
106
30
14
Off highway
5
18
2
1
Railroads
41
48
4
0
Aircraft
Neg
5
Neg
1
Other




Forest fire & slash burning
Neg
Neg
Neg
Neg
Agricultural burning
Neg
Neg
Neg
Neg
Total
155
345
59
50 1

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Table 3. 1974 CARBON MONOXIDE AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
ADAMS
ARAPAHOE
BOULDER
CLEAR
CREEK
DENVER
DOUGLAS
GILPIN
JEFFERSON
Fuel combustion








Bituminous coal
Distillate oil
Residual oil
Natural gas
Other fuels: LPG & wood
47
12
6
150
1,733
14
12
6
133
2,586
53
11
6
170
1,797
6
1
Neg
5
88
106
33
23
536
5,115
13
1
N eg
6
179
Neg
Neg
Neg
1
40
21
18
10
125
3,095
Incinerators, on site
Neg
5
3
Neg
5
Neg
0
5
Mobile sources








Highway
Off highway
Railroads
Aircraft
*
5,389
130
275
*
4,764
68
1,167
*
3,990
90
1,047
*
2,606
0
0
*
13,746
238
1,950
*
283
82
47
*
40
19
0
*
7,128
50
795
Other








Forest fire & slash burning
Agricultural burning
Neg
709
Neg
116
642
1,088
3
Meg
Neg
Neg
183
35
8
Neg
219
301
Totals
8,451
8,872
8,898
2,709
21,751
830
109
11,767
* Not updated in this report.
V
n>
<
H-
0>
(D
O.
o
ro
\
-j
(Ti

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Table 3 (continued) 1974 CARBON MONOXIDE AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
EL PASO
PUEBLO
LARIMER
WELD
GARFIELD
MESA
MOFFAT
RIO BLANCO
Fuel combustion








Bituminous coal
21
89
17
22
100
128
44
93
Distillate oil
17
8
7
9
2
4
Neg
1
Residual oil
8
5
4
3
Neg
2
Neg
Neg
Natural gas
187
79
64
49
9
36
6
12
Other fuels
3,190
1,426
1,318
1,052
189
656
78
63
Incinerators, on site
1
6
0
6
0
Neg
0
0
Mobile sources








Highway
259,310
103,331
84,706
99,678
18,943
48,883
10,096
5,035
Off highway
7,063
3,128
2,734
2,683
408
1,475
169
116
Railroads
166
244
164
455
93
109
8
0
Aircraft
6,439
512
16
374
40
174
42
162
Other








Forest fire & slash burning
1,034
15
534
Neg
204
211
53
71
Agricultural burning
176
1,748
647
5,436
148
407
324
28
Totals
277.612

90 *210
109.761
21.136
52.085
10*820
5,518

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Table 4. 1974 HYDROCARBON AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
ADAMS
ARAPAHOE
BOULDER
CLEAR
CREEK
DENVER
ssbssssss
DOUGLAS
GILPIN
JEFFERSON
Fuel combustion








Bituminous coal
12
6
15
1
39
3
Neg
10
Distillate oil
9
9
8
1
24
1
Neg
13
Residual oil
4
5
5
Neg
18
Neg
Neg
8
Natural gas
60
53
68
2
214
2
Neg
61
Other fuels
146
209
156
11
419
15
3
269
Incinerators, on site
Neg
1
1
0
2
Neg
0
2
Mobile sources








Highway
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Off highway
330
292
245
134
844
17
2
437
Railroads
94
49
65
0
172
60
14
36
Aircraft
11
167
41
0
724
2
0
31
Other








Gasoline evaporation
1,005
859
676
138
3,082
269
37
1,350
Dry cleeuiing
290
261
210
10
602
20
3
410
Solvent evaporation
185
671
0
8
3,414
0
3
0
Forest fires & slash burning
Neg
Neg
110
1
Neg
33
2
38
Agricultural burning
137
23
201
Neg
Neg
7
Neg
59
Total
2,282
2,605
1,801
306
9,554
429
! 65
2,725
•Hot updated in this report.

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Table 4. (continued. 1974 HYDROCARBON AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
LARIMER
WELD
GARFIELD
MESA
MOFFAT
RIO BLANCO


Fuel combustion








Bituminous coal
5
7
22
29
1°.
21


Distillate oil
5
7
1
3
Neg'
Neg


Residual oil
3
3
Neg
1
Neg
Neg


Natural gas
26
19
4
15
2
5


Other fuels
108
88
20
60
6
5


Incinerators, on site
0
2
2
Neg
0
0


Mobile sources








Highway
8/726
10,661
2,058
5,062
1,144
558


Off highway
168
164
25
90
11
7


Railroads
118
329
67
79
6
0


Aircraft
5
16
2
60
2
8


Other








Gasoline evaporation
658
802
167
364
" 86
42


Dry cleaning
150
140
20
80
10
10


Solvent evaporation
448
403
26
70
10
9


Forest fires & slash burning
97
Neg
38
36
9
15


Agricultural burning
122
1,050
26
76
62
5


Total
10,639
13/689
2,476
6/010
1,360
686



-------
Table 5. 1974 NITROGEN OXIDES AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS BY COUNTY
SOURCE CATEGORY
ADAMS
ARAPAHOE
BOULDER
CLEAR
CREEK
DENVER
DOUGLAS
GILPIN
JEFFERSON
Fuel combustion








Bituminous coal
68
74
111
Neg
441
2
1
151
Distillate oil
160
172
139
8
455
10
2
247
Residual oil
85
94
96
1
352
5
1
154
Natural gas
762
625
908
25
2,840
28
3
672
Other fuels
106
135
106
8
272
16
1
185
Incinerators, on site
1
7
1
1
2
Neg
0
2
Mobile sources








Highway
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Off highway
911
805
678
98
2,347
41
5
1,216
Railroads
369
194
251
0
677
234
54
143
Aircraft
4
47
11
0
1,037
1
0
9
Other








Forest fire & slash burning
Neg
Neg
18
Neg
Neg
5
Neg
6
Agricultural burning
14
2
22
Neg
Neg
1
Neg
6
Totals
2,478
2,153
2,348
141
8,422
344
68
2,791
*
Mot updated in this report.

-------
1. BITUMINOUS COAL—RESIDENTIAL
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Residential coal consumption
° Dwelling units using coal
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Residential coal consumption was estimated using two
methods: retail dealer survey, and degree-day heating
equation. A comparison of coal consumption determined by
the two methods for each county is shown in Table 1.1.
BASE DATA
Residential coal sales were obtained from telephone
conversations with retail coal dealers listed in the yellow
pages directory for each county. Additional dealer names
were obtained from the local coal dealers initially con-
tacted.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	The eight counties in the Denver AQMA were consi-
dered a single distribution area for local coal dealers.
Coal was apportioned to each county by the number of dwell-
ing units using coal in each county.
2.	Dealer sales are more accurate than consumption
calculated by the degree-day heating method.

-------
Table 1.1. RESIDENTIAL COAL CONSUMPTION
(ton/yr)
County
Retail dealer survey
Degree-day heating
Adams
845
1186
Arapahoe
93
137
Boulder
845
1030
Clear Creek
131
205
Denver
1036
1268
Douglas
282
460
Gilpin
0
0
Jefferson
20
153
El Paso
240
256
Pueblo
1704
219
Larimer
230
395
Weld
360
1718
Garfield
2220
3001
Mesa
2793
4552
Moffat
na
971
Rio Blanco
2066
407
1-2

-------
3.	If a dealer could not be contacted, an average
value was assumed for residential coal use based on other
local dealers' information. More than half the dealers were
contacted in each AQMA.
4.	To determine the 1974 dwelling units using coal,
the percent decrease from 1960 to 1970 was continued until
1972. Conversations with retail dealers indicated no
decrease or a minor increase from 1972 to 1974. Therefore,
the 1972 data were used to represent the 1974 dwelling units
using coal.
5.	The 1974 heating degree-days were used where
available. A local 30 year average was used where 1974
heating degree-day data were not available. This average
closely approximated 1974 data.
6.	Emission factors used were obtained from AP-42, pp
2
1.1-3.
7.	If no dealers existed in a county, the consumption
calculated using the degree-day heating equation was used.
EMISSION FACTORS
Residential coal use, hand-fired, lb/ton of coal
burned:
Particulate
Sulfur dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Hydrocarbons
90
20
20
38 (S)
Nitrogen oxides	3
S = percent sulfur, 0.6% average for Colorado
1-3
Revised 02/76

-------
EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS
The degree-day heating method general equation is:
RFC = (DU) x (DD) x (HRF) x (R)	(eq.l)
where RFC = residential fuel consumption, tons
DU = dwelling units
DD = degree-days
HRF = heating requirement factor, tons of coal/
dwelling unit/degree-day
R = correction factor for number of rooms/
dwelling unit, average number of rooms
= 5.0
OTHER INFORMATION
1.	Sulfur content used was 0.6 percent.
2.	HRF, heating requirement factor, was 0.0012
ton/dwelling unit/degree-day, from APTD-1135 .
3.	Retail coal dealers contacted were:
Burl Coal & Ice, Denver
Eckolt's Feed & Grain, Denver
Elk Coal Company, Denver
Rio Grande Company, Denver
Stuart, G. H. Company, Denver
Mac's Coal & Wood, Boulder
Nelson Coal Company, Boulder
Adens Coal & Wood, Colorado Springs
C & C Sand Company, Colorado Springs
Young Coal & Feed, Colorado Springs
Mountain Ice & Coal, Pueblo
Somes Bros. Coal & Service, Pueblo
Western Coal Supply & Trucking, Pueblo
1-4

-------
Fireplace Coal Company, Ft. Collins
Keyser Coal & Trucking, Greeley
Albert Kirkpatrick, Meeker
Mesa Feed & Farm Supply, Grand Junction
J & J Meney Fuel Company, Carbondale
Spangler & Sons, Silt
1-5

-------
Table 1.2. 1974 RESIDENTIAL COAL EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
SO 2
CO
HC
NO
x
Adams
8

38
8
1
Arapahoe
1

4
1
neg
Boulder
8

38
8
1
Clear Creek
1

6
1
neg
Denver
10

47
10
2
Douglas
3

13
3
neg
Gilpin
0

0
0
0
Jefferson
neg

1
neg
neg
El Paso
2

11


Pueblo
17

77


Larimer
2

10
2

Weld
4

16
4

Garfield
22
25
100
22

Mesa
28
32
126
28

Moffat
10
11
44
10

Rio Blanco
21
24
93
21

1-6

-------
2. BITUMINOUS COAL
COMMERCIAL-INSTITUTIONAL-INDUSTRIAL
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Commercial-institutional-industrial coal
consumption
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Commercial-institutional-industrial coal consumption
was estimated using two methods: retail dealer survey of
coal use in Denver AQMA counties apportioned by county
population; apportionment of Bureau of Mines statewide data,
retail sales minus residential sales.
BASE DATA
Retail dealer commercial-institutional-industrial sales
were obtained by the same method as the residential coal
sales. Apportionment of Mineral Industry Survey data as
described in AP-11351 resulted in negligible commercial-
institutional coal usage.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	Dealer sales by county are more accurate than
apportioning Mineral Industry Survey data.
2.	No coal consumption in the following counties:
Clear Creek, Gilpin, Moffat, and Rio Blanco. This assumption
2-1

-------
is based on retail dealers1 information and is supported by
the Bureau of Mines information.
3. Since Denver area dealers did not have detailed
sales information by county, the area total was apportioned
to each county by population.
EMISSION FACTORS
Emission factors for small spreader stokers were
2
obtained from AP-42, pp 1.1-3, lb/ton of coal burned:
Particulate
2(A)
38 (S)
Sulfur dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Hydrocarbons
10
3
6
Nitrogen oxides
A = percent ash content
S = percent sulfur content
OTHER INFORMATION
1.	Percent ash content = 8.0 percent
2.	Percent sulfur content = 0.6 percent
2-2

-------
Table 2.1. BITUMINOUS COAL CONSUMPTION
COMMERCIAL-INSTITUTIONAL-INDUSTRIAL
(ton/yr)
County
Coal consumption
Adams
8,975
Arapahoe
9,836
Boulder
14,629
Clear Creek
16
Denver
58,515
Douglas
282
Gilpin
141
Jefferson
20,251
El Paso
10,275
Pueblo
11,590
Larimer
6,657
Weld
6,281
Garfield
110
Mesa
2,271
Moffat
94
Rio Blanco
47
2-3

-------
Table 2.2. 1974 BITUMINOUS COAL EMISSIONS
COMMERCIAL-INSTITUTIONAL-INDUSTRIAL
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
so2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
466.7

8.9
4.4
67.3
Arapahoe
511.4

9.8
4.9
73.7
Boulder
760.7

14.6
7.3
109.7
Clear Creek
.8

neg
neg
neg
Denver
3042.7

58.5
29.2
438.9
Douglas
14.7

0.3
0.1
2.1
Gilpin
7.3

0.1
0.1
1.1
Jefferson
1053.1

20.3
10.1
151.1
El Paso
534.3

10.3


Pueblo
602.7

11.6


Larimer
346.1

6.7
3.3

Weld
326.6

6.3
3.1

Garfield
5.7
1.3
0.1
0.1

Mesa
118.1
25.9
2.3
1.1

Moffat
4.9
1.1
0.1
neg

Rio Blanco
2.4
0.5
neg
neg

2-4

-------
3. DISTILLATE OIL
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Residential, commercial-institutional, and
industrial distillate oil consumption
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The 197 3 data on residential distillate oil, as shown
3
in the TRW 197 3 Colorado Area Source Emission Inventory,
were used. Mineral Industry Survey data for 1973 for
commercial-institutional distillate oil were apportioned to
the sixteen AQMA counties by population. Current estimates
for point source commercial-institutional distillate oil
consumption for the sixteen counties was then subtracted to
obtain area source fuel usage. This remaining oil was
apportioned to each county by population.
Mineral Industry Survey data for 1973 for industrial
distillate oil were apportioned to the sixteen AQMA counties
by the total number of manufacturing employees in the six-
teen counties. Current estimates for industrial point
source distillate oil consumption for the sixteen AQMA
counties were then subtracted to obtain area source usage.
This remaining oil was apportioned to each county by the
number of manufacturing employees in each county.
BASE DATA
Residential oil consumption was obtained from the TRW^
report. Commercial-institutional distillate oil consumption
3-1

-------
was obtained from the sum of "distillate-type heating oils,"
"kerosene used for heating," and "distillate used by the
military," from the Mineral Industry Surveys, "1973 Sales of
Fuel Oil and Kerosene.""* The point source fuel oil totals
were obtained from Colorado Air Pollution Control Division,
air contaminant emission notice files.^ Population estimates
were obtained from the U.S. Department of Commerce, 1973
7
Population Estimates and projected to 1974.
The state industrial area source distillate oil use was
obtained from the sum of "industrial" and "oil companies"
categories from the Mineral Industry Survey, "1973 Sales of
Fuel Oil and Kerosene." Point source fuel oil use totals
were obtained from the Colorado Air Pollution Control Divi-
sion, air contaminant emission notice files. Manufacturing
employee statistics were obtained from Colorado 1973 County
O
Business Patterns.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	The 1973 data are representative of 1974.
2.	The 1974 point source distillate oil summary for
sixteen AQMA counties better represents the point source
fuel usage in the state than the 1972 NEDS point source
distillate oil summary.
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors were obtained from AP-42, p 1.3-2, lb/1000 gal
of distillate oil burned:
3-2

-------
Pollutant
Residential
Commercial-
institutional
Industrial
Particulate
10
15
15
Sulfur dioxide
142(S)
142(S)
142(S)
Carbon monoxide
5
4
4
Hydrocarbons
3
3
3
Nitrogen oxides
12
60
60
S = percent sulfur
3-3

-------
Table 3.1. DISTILLATE OIL CONSUMPTION
	(103 gal/yr)	
County	Residential Commercial-institutional Industrial
Adams
440
4,706
531
Arapahoe
440
4,997
633
Boulder
690
3,546
941
Clear Creek
160
112
1
Denver
1,060
11,170
3,766
Douglas
70
314
18
Gilpin
30
50
9
Jefferson
760
6,778
1,303
El Paso
1,060
6,509
661
Pueblo
350
2,790
746
Larimer
590
2,498
428
Weld
1,310
2,280
404
Garfield
350
381
7
Mesa
500
1,272
146
Moffat
30
151
6
Rio Blanco
100
123
3
3-4

-------
Table 3.2. 1974 RESIDENTIAL DISTILLATE OIL EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
S°2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
2.2

1.1
0.7
2.6
Arapahoe
2.2

1.1
0.7
2.6
Boulder
3.5

1.7
1.0
4.1
Clear Creek
0 . 8

0.4
0.2
1.0
Denver
5.3

2.7
1.6
6.4
Douglas
0.4

0.2
0.1
0.4
Gilpin
0.2

0.1
neg
0.2
Jefferson
3.8

1.9
1.1
4.6
El Paso
5.3

2.7


Pueblo
1.8

0.9


Larimer
3.0

1.5
1.1

Weld
6.6

3.3
2.5

Garfield
1.8
6.2
0.9
0.7

Mesa
2.5
8.9
1.3
1.0

Moffat
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.1

Rio Blanco
0.5
1.8
0.3
0.2

3-5

-------
Table 3.3. 1974 COMMERCIAL-INSTITUTIONAL
DISTILLATE OIL EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
so2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
35.3

9.4
7.1
141.2
Arapahoe
37.5

10.0
7.5
150.0
Boulder
26.6

7.1
5.3
106.4
Clear Creek
0.8

0.2
0.2
3.4
Denver
83.8

22.3
16.8
335.1
Douglas
2.4

0.6
0.5
9.4
Gilpin
0.4

0.1
0.1
1.5
Jefferson
50.8

13.6
10.2
203.3
El Paso
48.8

13.0


Pueblo
20.9

5.6


Larimer
18.7

5.0
3.7

Weld
17.1

4.6
3.4

Garfield
2.9
16.2
0.8
0.6

Mesa
9.5
54.2
2.5
1.9

Moffat
1.1
6.4
0.3
0.2

Rio Blanco
0.9
5.2
0.2
0.2

3-6

-------
Table 3.4. 1974 INDUSTRIAL DISTILLATE OIL EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
S02
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
4.0

1.1
0.8
15.9
Arapahoe
4.8

1.3
1.0
19.0
Boulder
7.1

1.9
1.4
28.2
Clear Creek
neg

neg
neg
neg
Denver
28.2

7.5
5.7
113.0
Douglas
0.1

neg
neg
0.5
Gilpin
neg

neg
neg
0.3
Jefferson
9.8

2.6
2.0
39.1
El Paso
5.0

1.3


Pueblo
5.6

1.5


Larimer
3.2

0.9
0.6

Weld
3.0

0.8
0.6

Garfield
0.1
0.1
neg
neg

Mesa
1.1
2.6
0.2
0.2

Moffat
neg
0.1
neg
neg

Rio Blanco
neg
neg
neg
neg

3-7

-------
4. RESIDUAL OIL
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Commercial-institutional-industrial residual
oil consumption
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
State total commercial-institutional residual fuel oil
was apportioned to the sixteen AQMA counties by the popula-
tion in those counties. The 1974 commercial-institutional
residual oil point source summary was subtracted out and the
remaining fuel oil was apportioned to each county using the
1974 county population to state population ratio.
State total industrial residual fuel oil was apportioned
to the sixteen AQMA counties by the total number of manufac-
turing employees in those counties. The 1974 industrial
residual oil point source summary was subtracted out and the
remaining fuel was apportioned to each county using the 1973
county to state manufacturing employee ratio.
BASE DATA
State fuel use totals were obtained from Mineral
5
Industry Surveys/ "1973 Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene.
Census information is the same as that used for distillate
7
oil calculations. Point source fuel oil totals were
obtained from Colorado Air Pollution Control Division, air
contaminant emission notice files.®
4-1

-------
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	Residential residual oil consumption is negligible.
2.	The 1973 data are representative of 1974.
3.	The 1974 point source fuel summary for sixteen
AQMA counties better represents the point source fuel usage
in the state than the 19 72 NEDS point source fuel summary.
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors were obtained from AP-42, p 1.3-2, lb/1000 gal
burned:
Particulate
Sulfur dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Hydrocarbons
23
15V(S)
3
2
Nitrogen oxides 60
S = percent sulfur, 0.9% average for Colorado
4-2

-------
Table 4.1. RESIDUAL OIL CONSUMPTION
(103 gal/yr)
County
Commercial-institutional
Industrial
Adams
1,753
1,066
Arapahoe
1,862
1,271
Boulder
1,321
1,890
Clear Creek
42
2
Denver
4,162
7,561
Douglas
117
36
Gilpin
19
18
Jefferson
2,525
2,617
El Paso
2,425
1,328
Pueblo
1,039
1,498
Larimer
931
860
Weld
849
812
Garfield
142
14
Mesa
474
293
Moffat
56
12
Rio Blanco
46
6
4-3

-------
Table 4.2. 1974 COMMERCIAL-INSTITUTIONAL
RESIDUAL OIL EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
S°2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
20.2

3.5
2.6
52.6
Arapahoe
21.4

3.7
2.8
55.9
Boulder
15.2

2.6
2.0
39.6
Clear Creek
0.5

0.1
0.1
1.3
Denver
47.9

8.3
6.2
124.9
Douglas
1.3

0.2
0.2
3.5
Gilpin
0.2

neg
neg
0.6
Jefferson
29.0

5.1
3.8
75.8
El Paso
27.9

4.9


Pueblo
11.9

2.1


Larimer
10.7

1.9
1.4

Weld
9.8

1.7
1.3

Garfield
1.6
6.7
0.3
0.2

Mesa
5.5
22.3
0.9
0.7

Moffat
0.6
2.6
0.1
0.1

Rio Blanco
0.5
2.2
0.1
0.1

4-4

-------
Table 4.3. 1974 INDUSTRIAL RESIDUAL OIL EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
S02
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
12.2

2.1
1.6
32.0
Arapahoe
14.6

2.5
1.9
38.1
Boulder
21.7

3.8
2.8
56.7
Clear Creek
neg

neg
neg
neg
Denver
87.0

15.1
11.3
227.0
Douglas
0.4

0.1
0.1
1.1
Gilpin
0.2

neg
neg
0.5
Jefferson
30.1

5.2
3.9
78.5
El Paso
15.3

2.7


Pueblo
17.2

3.0


Larimer
9.9

1.7
1.3

Weld
9.3

1.6
1.2

Garfield
0.2
1.0
neg
neg

Mesa
3.4
20.7
0.6
0.4

Moffat
0.1
0.8
neg
neg

Rio Blanco
neg
0.4
neg
neg

4-5

-------
5. NATURAL GAS
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Natural gas sales for residential, commercial-
institutional, and industrial use
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The point source consumption totals were subtracted
from the non-residential consumption, and residential
consumption was used as given.
BASE DATA
Natural gas distributors and pipeline companies were
contacted for data on residential, commercial-institutional,
and industrial consumption by county. Point source con-
sumption was obtained from the Colorado Air Pollution Control
Division, air contaminant emission notice files.^
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	All point sources reported usage.
2.	Natural gas losses during transmission were not
included in the point source inventory.
5-1

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
2	6
Factors were obtained from AP-42, lb/10 cubic feet of
natural gas burned:
Pollutant
Residential
Commercial-institutional
and industrial
Particulate
10.0
10.0
Sulfur dioxide
0.6
0.6
Carbon monoxide
20.0
17.0
Hydrocarbons
8.0
3.0
Nitrogen oxides
80.0
120.0
5-2

-------
Table 5.1. NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION
(10^ cu ft)
County
Residential
Commercial-institutional-industrial
Adams
6,959.6
8,057.1
Arapahoe
8,774.8
4,555.0
Boulder
5,727.6
11,321.8
Clear Creek
216.3
269.4
Denver
18,663.7
34,898.9
Douglas
406.0
198.4
Gilpin
37.8
28.4
Jefferson
12,195.6
3,070.0
El Paso
9,659.2
9,007.6
Pueblo
4,343.1
3,513.0
Larimer
3,890.9
2,486.8
Weld
3,236.4
1,618.5
Garfield
545.9
389.2
Mesa
2,136.3
1,468.4
Moffat
249.0
304.5
Rio Blanco
56.3
1,116.1
5-3

-------
Table
5.2. 1974
RESIDENTIAL
NATURAL GAS
EMISSIONS


(ton/yr)



County
Partic
S02
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
34.8

69.6
27.8
278.4
Arapahoe
43.9

87.8
35.1
351.2
Boulder
28.6

57. 2
22.9
228.8
Clear Creek
1.1

2.2
0.9
8.8
Denver
93.3

186.6
74.6
746.4
Douglas
2.0

4.0
1.6
16.0
Gilpin
0.2

0.4
0.2
1.6
Jefferson
61.0

122.0
48.8
488.0
El Paso
48.3

96.6


Pueblo
21.7

43.4


Larimer
19. 5

39.0
15.6

Weld
16.2

32. 4
12.9

Garfield
2.7
0.2
5.5
2.2

Mesa
10.7
0.6
21.4
8.5

Moffat
1.2
0.1
2.5
1.0

Rio Blanco.
0.3
neg
0.6
0.2

5-4

-------
Table 5.3. 1974 COMMERCIAL-INSTITUTIONAL-INDUSTRIAL
NATURAL GAS EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
so2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
40.3

80.6
32.2
483.4
Arapahoe
22.8

45.6
18.2
273.3
Boulder
56.6

113.2
45.3
679.3
Clear Creek
1.3

2.7
1.1
16.2
Denver
174. 5

349.0
139.6
2093.9
Douglas
1.0

2.0
0.8
11.9
Gilpin
0.1

0.3
0.1
1.7
Jefferson
15.4

3.1
12.3
184.2
El Paso
45.0

90.1


Pueblo
17.6

35.1


Larimer
12.4

24.9
9.9

Weld
8.1

16.2
6.5

Garfield
1.9
0.1
3.9
1.6

Mesa
7.3
0.4
14.7
6.0

Moffat
1.5
0.1
3.0
1.2

Rio Blanco
5.6
0.3
11.2
4.5

5-5

-------
6. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Total LPG consumption was divided into residential and
commercial-institutional consumption by the ratio of the
state residential natural gas consumption to state commercial-
institutional natural gas consumption. The residential LPG
usage was apportioned to each county by the number of dwelling
units that use LPG for heating. The commercial-institutional
consumption was apportioned to each county by county popu-
lation. The industrial LPG consumption (available as a
separate fuel use summary) for the sixteen AQMA counties was
apportioned to those counties by the total number of manu-
facturing employees in the sixteen counties. The point
source LPG consumption was subtracted out and the remainder
was apportioned to each county using the number of manufac-
turing employees.
BASE DATA
1.	Mineral Industry Surveys, "1973 Sales of LPG and
Ethane."^
0
2.	The 1973 County Business Patterns.
6-1

-------
3. Colorado Air Pollution Control Division, air
contaminant emission notice files.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	The LPG usage follows patterns similar to natural
gas.
2.	The 1973 information is representative of 1974.
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors were obtained from AP-42, p 1.5-2, lb/1000 gal
burned:
Pollutant
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Particulate
1.850
1.850
1.750
Sulfur dioxide
0.014
0.014
0.014
Carbon monoxide
1.950
1.950
1.550
Hydrocarbons
0.750
0.750
0.300
Nitrogen oxides
7.500
11.500
11.600
OTHER INFORMATION
1.	Industrial consumption is the sum of industrial
and miscellaneous categories from the Mineral Industry
Surveys.^
2.	Sulfur content is 0.16 grains per 100 cf vapor.
3.	No commercial-institutional LPG point sources.
6-2

-------
Table 6.1. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS CONSUMPTION
(103 gal/yr)
County
LPG consumption
Adams
9,536
Arapahoe
8,496
Boulder
8,626
Clear Creek
847
Denver
17,955
Douglas
2,526
Gilpin
308
Jefferson
15,105
El Paso
14,331
Pueblo
7,767
Larimer
8,256
Weld
14,392
Garfield
2,345
Mesa
3,987
Moffat
559
Rio Blanco
485
6-3

-------
Table 6.2. 1974 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
S02
CO
HC
NO
x
Adams
9

9
4
36
Arapahoe
8

8
3
32
Boulder
8

8
3
32
Clear Creek
1

1
neg
3
Denver
17

18
7
67
Douglas
2

2
1
9
Gilpin
neg

neg
neg
1
Jefferson
14

15
6
57
El Paso
13

14


Pueblo
7

8


Larimer
8

8
3

Weld
13

14
5

Garfield
2
neg
2
1

Mesa
4
neg
4
1

Moffat
1
neg
1
neg

Rio Blanco
neg
neg
neg
neg

6-4

-------
7. WOOD
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Tons of wood burned in stoves
° Tons of wood burned in fireplaces
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The residential wood consumption for stoves was multi-
plied by appropriate emission factors.
Single family and multifamily dwelling units (DU) were
used to determine the number of fireplaces in each county.
Factors of 1.6 cords of wood burned per year^ (obtained in
41
a Reno, Nevada survey) and 3000 pounds per cord of wood
(average of hardwood and pine) were used to estimate an
average fireplace wood consumption of 4800 pounds per year.
This consumption rate was compared to a similar consumption
rate developed in a trial air quality maintenance plan for
42
Eagle County. The Eagle County study showed 4368 pounds
per year (60 lb/day x 182 day/yr x 40 percent of the time).
The 4800 pounds per year factor was used.
Number of fireplaces was multiplied by the wood consump-
tion rate and by 0.80 (correction for fireplaces not in use)
to obtain total annual wood consumption by county. These
data are shown in Table 7.1. Fireplace wood consumption was
multiplied by the appropriate emission factor.
7-1
Revised 02/76

-------
Table 7.1. 1974 FIREPLACE WOOD CONSUMPTION
County
Single family DU
No. % Fireplaces
Multifamily DU
No. % Fireplaces
Total no.
fireplaces
Annual wood
consumption,
ton/vr
Adams
47,182
64
19,542
29
35,864
68,859
Arapahoe
55,913
68
27,037
58
53,702
103,108
Boulder
38,210
53a
19,853
69
37,086
71,205
Clear Creek
1,994
65
949
49a
1,761
3,381
Denver
118,951
64
103,323
29
106,092
203,697
Douglas
4,542
68
1,052
58
3,699
7,102
Gilpin
904
65a
493
49a
829
1,592
Jefferson
77,192
66
29,273
44
63,827
122,548
El Paso
64,450
69b
40,058
54h
66,102
126,916
Pueblo
33,828
69
11,180
54
29,378
56,406
Larimer
28,484
53C
17,678
69°
27,294
52,404
Weld
24,701
53C
12,355
69C
21,616
41,502
Garfield
4,264
65a
2,149
49a
3,825
7,344
Mesa
16,976
65a
4,956
49a
13,465
25,852
Moffat
1,959
65a
684
49a
1,609
3,090
Rio Blanco
1,549
65
607
49a
1,304
2,504
a Assumed average percent fireplaces.
Assumed El Paso percent fireplaces.
Assumed Boulder percent fireplaces.

-------
BASE DATA
The residential wood consumption for stoves by county
was obtained from the TRW Colorado 197 3 Area Source Emission
Inventory.
The number of single and multifamily dwelling units
were obtained from the Colorado Division of Planning, Demo-
43
graphic Section. The percent fireplaces for the Denver
area, Boulder, and Colorado Springs (averages were used for
other counties where data were unavailable) were obtained
44
from a residential sales survey.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	No significant change in residential wood consump-
tion for stoves has occurred from 1972 to 1974.
2.	All commercial, institutional, and industrial wood
burning is included in the Colorado point source emission
inventory.
3.	The Residential Sales Survey (a small sample of
houses and condominiums built from 1965 to 1975) was repre-
sentative of the distribution of fireplaces in all houses
and condominiums.
4.	Lodge, motel, and restaurant fireplaces were
assumed negligible.
5.	Percent fireplaces in Boulder were used to repre-
sent Larimer and Weld Counties.
6.	Percent fireplaces in Colorado Springs (El Paso)
were used to represent Pueblo County.
7.	Clear Creek, Gilpin, and Western Slope Counties
were assumed to have an average percent fireplaces of the
Front Range Counties.
7-3
Revised 02/76

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
Open burning of wood refuse emission factors were used
for fireplaces, and wood waste in boiler emission factors
2
were used for stoves. Factors were obtained from AP-42,
and are shown in Table 7.2.
7-4
Revised 02/76

-------
Table 7.2. WOODBURNING EMISSION FACTORS
(lb/ton burned)
Partic	S02	CO	HC NOx
Open burning of 17	neg	50	4 2
wood refuse
Wood waste in 5-15	1.5	2-60	2-70 10
boilers	(avg 31)	(avg 36)
Forest wildfires 17	neg	140	24 4
7-5
Revised 02/76

-------
Table 7.3. 1974 RESIDENTIAL WOOD CONSUMPTION
AND EMISSIONS FOR STOVES
(ton/yr)
County
Consumption,
tons
Partic
S°2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
200
1

3.1
3.6
1.0
Arapahoe
0
0

0
0
0
Boulder
600
6

9.3
10.8
3.0
Clear Creek
200
2

3.1
3.6
2.0
Denver
300
3

4.7
5.4
1.5
Douglas
0
0

0
0
0
Gilpin
0
0

0
0
0
Jefferson
1000
10

15.5
18.0
5.0
El Paso
200
2

3.1


Pueblo
500
5

7.8


Larimer
0
0

0
0

Weld
0
0

0
0

Garfield
200
2
0.2
3.1
3.6

Mesa
400
4
0.3
6.2
7.2

Moffat
0
0
0
0
0

Rio Blanco
0
0
0
0
0

7-6
Revised 02/76

-------
Table 7.4. 1974 FIREPLACE EMISSIONS FROM WOODBURNING
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
so2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
585

1721
138
69
Arapahoe
876

2578
206
103
Boulder
605

1780
142
71
Clear Creek
29

84
7
3
Denver
1731

5092
407
203
Douglas
60

177
14
7
Gilpin
14

40
3
1
Jefferson
1042

3064
245
123
El Paso
1079

3173


Pueblo
479

1410


Larimer
445

1310


Weld
353

1038


Garfield
62
neg
184
15

Mesa
220
neg
646
52

Moffat
26
neg
77
6

Rio Blanco
21
neg
63
5

7-7
Revised 02/76

-------
8. OPEN REFUSE BURNING
Due to regulations enforced by the State of Colorado
Air Pollution Control Division, it is estimated that emis-
sions from municipal open burning are negligible. The only
potential source of refuse burning is residential refuse
burned by people living more than two miles from an incor-
porated municipality (with population greater than 500) or
living in remote parts of the state designated in the state
regulations. Conversations with APCD staff indicated that
unincorporated towns and villages also normally observe this
regulation. Therefore, rural population is the only poten-
tial source of refuse burning. The emissions resulting from
this would be negligible in the AQMA counties.
8-1

-------
9. AGRICULTURAL BURNING
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Field acres burned
° Miles of irrigation ditches burned
° Miles of fence rows and roadside ditches
burned
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Field acres were converted to tons of vegetation.
Miles of ditches and fence rows were converted to acres and
then to tons of vegetation. Emission factors were applied
to the total tons of vegetation.
BASE DATA
Field acres and ditch and row miles burned were ob-
tained from the 1972-73 agricultural open burning file at
the Colorado Air Pollution Control Division.^"® Average
values for acres per mile and tons per acre of irrigation
ditch were obtained from unpublished test results by Dr.
Ellis Darley of the University of California, Riverside.^
ASSUMPTIONS
1. Main and lateral irrigation ditches are 8 feet
wide.
9-1

-------
2.	A fence row is 1 foot wide.
3.	A roadside ditch is 2 feet wide.
4.	Three tons per acre is the average amount of
vegetation in agricultural field burning.
5.	Piles of branches, trees, hay, twines, and river-
bed burning were neglected.
6.	Sulfur dioxide emissions are negligible.
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors are from AP-42, lb/ton of vegetation burned:

Field acres, fence rows,
Irrigation
Pollutant
and roadside ditches
ditches
Particulate 17 15.5
Carbon monoxide 100 103.5
Hydrocarbons 20 12.0
Nitrogen oxides	2	2. 0
EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS
(Miles of ditch x (Acres/mile x (3 ton/acre) = tons of
or fence)	factor)	vegetation
burned/yr
9-2

-------
Table 9.1. IRRIGATION DITCH DATA FOR CALCULATION
OF TONS OF VEGETATION BURNED
Irrigation ditches

Field
Main
Lateral
Fence
Roadside
County
acres
miles
miles
miles
miles
Adams
1814.8
121.1
246.9
272.8
87.4
Arapahoe
278.0
18.5
18.0
44.3
24.6
Boulder
2932.5
550.7
639.2
308.9
153.7
Clear Creek
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
Denver
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
Douglas
102.0
6.3
8.5
11.8
6.5
Gilpin
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
Jefferson
1673.0
20.3
93.8
21.0
11.3
El Paso
306.0
16.8
34.5
93.0
17.0
Pueblo
6235.4
449.6
438.4
422.6
245.9
Larimer
1597.5
261. 6
335.1
202.5
119.0
Weld
17596.2
1160.1
1710.1
1494.9
931.0
Garfield
307.5
113.9
132.2
37.9
30.6
Mesa
982.5
167.1
224.7
127.7
75.8
Moffat
1701.0
68.5
106.8
27.5
14.7
Rio Blanco
149.0
11.1
9.3
1.5
0.5
9-3

-------
Table 9.2 1974 BURNING OF FIELDS, FENCE ROWS, AND
ROADSIDE DITCHES EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
111
652
130
13
Arapahoe
19
110
22
2
Boulder
153
903
180
18
Clear Creek
0
0
0
0
Denver
0
0
0
0
Douglas
6
33
7
1
Gilpin
0
0
0
0
Jefferson
48
283
57
6
El Paso
29
168


Pueblo
274
1610


Larimer
94
554
111

Weld
849
4990
998

Garfield
19
110
22

Mesa
59
346
69

Moffat
51
297
59

Rio Blanco
4
24
5

9-4

-------
Table 9.3 1974 IRRIGATION DITCH BURNING EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
8.6
57.1
6.6
1.1
Arapahoe
0.9
5.7
0.7
0.1
Boulder
27.7
184.7
21.4
3.6
Clear Creek




Denver




Douglas
0.4
2.3
0.3
0.1
Gilpin




Jefferson
2.7
17.7
2.1
0.3
El Paso
1.2
8.0


Pueblo
20.6
137.9


Larimer
13.9
92.7
10.7

Weld
66.7
445.6
51.7

Garfield
5.7
38.2
4.4

Mesa
9.1
60. 8
7.1

Moffat
4.1
27.2
3.2

Rio Blanco
0.5
3.2
0.4

9-5

-------
10. SLASH BURNING
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Acreage on which slash burning occurs
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Data on acres of slash burning were collected by county
for 1974. In addition, the U.S. Forest Service estimated
tons of slash burned and slash acreage for 1975. The calcu-
lated values for tons per acre of slash for 1975 were
applied to the 1974 slash acreage data to convert it to
tonnage data. Tons burned for each county were summed and
the appropriate emission factor was applied.
BASE DATA
Information on acres and tons burned was obtained from:
1.	Colorado Air Pollution Control Division, applica-
tion for open burning permit files.
12
2.	U. S. Forest Service, open burning records.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	Average tons per acre of slash did not change from
1974 to 1975.
2.	Sulfur dioxide emissions are negligible.
10-1

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors for slash burning were obtained from AP-42,
lb/ton burned:
Particulate	17
Carbon monoxide	60
Hydrocarbons	20
Nitrogen oxides	2
10-2

-------
Table 10.1. 1974 SLASH BURNING EMISSIONS

Consumption,




County
tons
Partic
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams





Arapahoe





Boulder





Clear Creek
60.0
0.5
1.8
0.6
0.1
Denver





Douglas
240.0
2.0
7.2
2.4
0.2
Gilpin
20.0
0.2
0.6
0.2
neg
Jefferson
175.0
1.5
5.3
1.7
0.2
El Paso





Pueblo





Larimer
1087.7
9.2
32.6
10.9

Weld





Garfield
603.7
5.1
i—1
•
00
rH
6.0

Mesa





Moffat





Rio Blanco
504.0
4.3
15.1
5.0

10-3

-------
11. FOREST FIRES
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Acres of forest burned
° Average timber density per acre
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Acres of each type of vegetation burned were converted
to tons burned by the appropriate timber density factors.
Emission factors were then applied.
BASE DATA
1.	Tons per acre conversion factors were obtained
from the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Regional
13
Office and from Development of Emission Factors for
14
Estimating Emissions from Forest Fires.
2.	Acres burned on state land were obtained from the
15
Colorado State Forest Service.
3.	Acres burned on federal land were obtained from
the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office.16
ASSUMPTIONS
1. All types of vegetation have the same emission
factors.
11-1

-------
2.	Assume 100 ton/acre for "timber" acres. Messrs.
Dick Stillman and Jerry Wadlow, National Forest Service,
Regional Office, Denver suggested 100 to 200 ton/acre.
3.	Sulfur dioxide emissions are negligible.
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors for forest fires were obtained from AP-42,
lb/ton burned:
OTHER INFORMATION
Factors for converting from acres to tons of vegetation:
Particulate
Carbon monoxide
Hydrocarbons
Nitrogen oxides
17
140
24
4
Vegetation type
Ton/acre
Grass
Pinyon juniper
Sage brush
Oak brush
3
5
6
25
Timber
Other
100
20
11-2

-------
Table 11.1. FOREST FIRE DATA FOR CALCULATION
OF TONS OF VEGETATION BURNED


Total

Acres of vegetation
vegetation

Pinyon Sage Oak
burned
County
Grass juniper brush brush Timber
Other (ton/yr)
Adams
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
Arapahoe
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
Boulder
71.2
neg
neg
neg
33.1
282
.2
9168.0
Clear Creek
3.5




0
.4
18.5
Denver
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
Douglas
50.5
neg
neg
neg
21.3
11
.8
2514.0
Gilpin
0.5
neg
neg
neg
1.0
0
.6
115.0
Jefferson
98.8
neg
neg
neg
5.2
111
.5
3045.0
El Paso
1724.5
2.0
neg
neg
12.1
418
.5
14765.0
Pueblo
30.0
neg
0.5
neg
neg
6
.1
215.0
Larimer
73.6
neg
2.9
neg
59.3
50
.1
7167.0
Weld
95.3
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
neg
Garfield
94.5
16.0
24.5

3.1
92
.0
2662.0
Mesa
neg
neg
neg
neg
21.1
31
.5
3028.0
Moffat
neg
neg
neg
neg
7.5
neg
750.0
Rio Blanco
13.0
23.5
neg
13.3
3.0
neg
792.0
11-3

-------
Table 11.2. 1974 FOREST FIRE EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
neg
neg
neg
neg
Arapahoe
neg
neg
neg
neg
Boulder
77.9
641.8
110.0
18.3
Clear Creek
0.2
1.3
0.2
neg
Denver
neg
neg
neg
neg
Douglas
21.4
176.0
30.2
5.0
Gilpin
1.0
8.1
1.4
0.2
Jefferson
25.9
213.2
36.5
6.1
El Paso
125.5
1033.6


Pueblo
1.8
15.1


Larimer
60.9
501.7
86.0

Weld
neg
neg
neg

Garfield
22.6
186.3
31.9

Mesa
25.7
211.0
36.3

Moffat
6.4
52.5
9.0

Rio Blanco
6.7
55.4
9.5

11-4

-------
12. HIGHWAY MOBILE SOURCES
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
°	Vehicle miles traveled
°	Vehicle age distribution
°	Ambient temperature
°	Percent of vehicles operating with a cold engine
°	Altitude
°	Average vehicle speed
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Traffic counts for each road type for 1972 were pro-
jected to 1975 for all AQMA's except the Denver AQMA.
Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) were projected for light duty
passenger cars, light duty gasoline trucks, heavy duty
gasoline trucks, and heavy duty diesel trucks. Emission
factors were calculated according to the procedure described
17
in AP-42, Supplement 5. Appropriate emission factors were
multiplied by VMT for each vehicle type to obtain highway
emissions.
The EPA Region VIII staff are planning to calculate
motor vehicle emissions for the Denver AQMA.
BASE DATA
1. The VMT and average vehicle speeds were obtained
from the Colorado Division of Highways, Department of Plan-
ning and Research. The following documents were used:
12-1

-------
18
Colorado 1972 Traffic Volume Study; Colorado 1974 Traffic
19
Volume Study; Colorado 1974 State Highway System Route
20
Description and Mileage Statistics; and unpublished 1968
21
and 1990 Functional Classification.
22
2• Trial Air Quality Maintenance Plan for Denver,
prepared by GCA for EPA, was used to obtain vehicle age
distribution and weighted annual travel.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	The 1975 projected VMT are representative of 1974.
2.	The heavy duty gasoline/diesel split is as follows:
state and urban roads—60 percent gasoline and 40 percent
diesel; county roads—75 percent gasoline and 25 percent
diesel.
3.	Mean annual temperature = 48° F; 20 percent cold
start and 80 percent hot start; high altitude emission
factors.
EMISSION FACTORS
The 1975 composite emission factors for each vehicle
type and for the projection years 1980 and 1985 are summar-
ized in a report from Alan M. Voorhees, dated August 29,
23
1975. Readers are referred to that report for the emis-
sion factor values.
12-2

-------
Table 12.1. 1974 DAILY VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED (VMT)
County
State
highway
County
roads
El Paso
889,600
189,100
Pueblo
803,800
54,400
Larimer
1,059,400
236,200
Weld
1,628,100
230,400
Garfield
445,100
38,900
Mesa
408,200
94,500
Moffat
195,000
54,500
Rio Blanco
91,900
31,200
Urban
roads	Total
3,805,100	4,883,800
1,216,500	2,074,700
615,300	1,910,900
470,800	2,329,300
484,000
553,700	1,056,400
249,500
123,100
Table 12.2. 1974 HIGHWAY MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
S°2
CO
HC
El Paso
1102.7

259310.0

Pueblo
481.2

103330.7

Larimer
451.8

84705.6
8726.4
Weld
584.5

99677.9
10660.9
Garfield
118.1
51.6
18943.4
2057.8
Mesa
254.2
106.3
48882.7
5062.2
Moffat
63.0
30.1
10096.2
1143.5
Rio Blanco
30.6
13.8
5035.0
558.3
12-3
Revised 02/76

-------
13. OFF-HIGHWAY FUEL USE
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Gallons of gasoline consumed by off-highway
equipment (farm tractors, lawnmowers, snow-
mobiles, self-powered farm equipment, elec-
tric generator units, etc.
0 Gallons of diesel fuel consumed by off-highway
equipment
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Data on off-highway gasoline and diesel fuel consump-
tion by county were multiplied by emission factors that were
2
obtained by averaging the published factors in AP-42 for
all equipment considered to be in the off-highway category.
This method of determining an appropriate emission factor is
reasonably accurate because the range in emission rates for
different types of equipment is relatively small.
BASE DATA
Fuel consumption estimates for 1973 were taken from the
3
TRW report.
13-1

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
The emission factor for gasoline-powered off-highway
equipment was based on the following types of vehicles:
farm tractors, other farm equipment, lawn and garden equip-
ment, wheeled tractors, motor graders, loaders, rollers,
industrial engines, and miscellaneous. Diesel-powered
equipment included farm tractors, other farm equipment,
other tractors, dozers, scrapers, graders, loaders, off-
highway trucks, rollers, and miscellaneous. The range of
emission factors for these different vehicles and the
averages are summarized below:
Emission factor, lb/1000 gal
Equipment	Partic SO, CO HC NO
Gasoline-powered:





Range
6.1-
5.2-
3260-
133-
45-

8.3
5.4
4100
328
151
Average
6.9
5.3
3730
189
103
Diesel-powered:





Range
14.8-
31.1-
66-
17-
240-

51.3
31.2
161
61
524
Average
30.2
31.2
101
34
399
13-2

-------
Table
13.1.
OFF-HIGHWAY FUEL
(103 gal/yr)
CONSUMPTION
County
Off-
highway gasoline
Off-highway diesel
Adams

2786
385
Arapahoe

2463
340
Boulder

2062
287
Clear Creek

1394
13
Denver

7103
994
Douglas

147
17
Gilpin

21
2
Jefferson

3683
515
El Paso

3660
470
Pueblo

1617
224
Larimer

1413
197
Weld

1388
188
Garfield

211
29
Mesa

763
103
Moffat

87
13
Rio Blanco

60
8
13-3

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Table 13.2. EMISSIONS FROM OFF-HIGHWAY FUEL USE
(ton/yr)
County
Partic
so2
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
68

5389
330
911
Arapahoe
60

4764
292
804
Boulder
50

3990
245
678
Clear Creek
7

2606
134
98
Denver
174

13746
843
2347
Douglas
3

283
17
41
Gilpin
neg

40
2
5
Jefferson
90

7127
437
1216
El Paso
84

7062


Pueblo
39

3128


Larimer
35

2734
168

Weld
33

2683
164

Garfield
5
5
408
25

Mesa
18
18
1475
90

Moffat
2
2
169
10

Rio Blanco
1
1
116
7

13-4

-------
14. AIRCRAFT
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Landing-takeoff cycles by aircraft type
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Airport operation totals were obtained from FAA records.
Aircraft types (e.g., air carrier, general aviation) were
broken down into more specific types using fleet mix informa-
tion for each airport. Emission factors per engine for each
type of airplane were applied and multiplied by the number
of engines.
BASE DATA
Aircraft operations by airport were obtained from:
24
1.	The 1974 FAA Air Traffic Activity.
25
2.	FAA Master Record, FAA Regional Office, Denver.
2 6
3.	The 1973 Military Air Traffic Activity Report.
Fleet mix information was obtained from:
27
1.	Official Airline Guide, November, 1974 (airport
schedules were broken down into frequency factors).
2.	Airport Master Plans for Peterson Field, Colorado
28	29
Springs, and Stapleton International; unpublished Airport
Master Plans for Walker Field, Grand Junction,^ Fort Collins-
31	32
Loveland, and Garfield County.
3.	Three telephone conversations with military
33
airport facilities.
14-1

-------
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	Fleet mix for general aviation operations were
obtained from national averages for all airports except
Denver AQMA airports.
2.	Air taxis were all assumed to be twin turbine
engine aircraft.
14-2

-------
Table 14.1. FLEET MIX FOR AIRCRAFT BY AIRCRAFT TYPE
(percent)
FLEET MIX FOR AIR CARRIER
Jumbo
Airport	jets
Stapleton International 4.1
Peterson Field
Walker Field
Pueblo
Long Medium Turbo-
range	range	props
1.8	50.9	43.2
76.3	23.7
8.7	39.1	52.8
10.0	90.0
FLEET MIX FOR GENERAL AVIATION

Single
Multi-



engine
engine


Area
piston
piston
Turbine
Other
Denver AQMA
76.0
20.0
4.0

El Paso & Pueblo AQMA
82.0
12.5
2.2
3.2
Larimer-Weld AQMA
82.0
12.5
2.2
3.2
Oil Shale AQMA
82.0
12.5
2.2
3.2
Military Airport-
90.0
10.0


Civil Operations
FLEET MIX FOR MILITARY AVIATION
Jet	Prop	Helicopter
Airport	Single Multi Single Twin Single Twin
Peterson Field
90
10
Pueblo Municipal
90
10
Stapleton Internat'l
90
10
Walker Field
90
10
Butts AAF


Buckley AFB
85
10
Air Force Academy	All single engine military piston
14-3

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Table 14.2. 1974 LANDING-TAKEOFF CYCLES

Air
Air

General
Airport
carrier
taxi
Military
aviation
Sky Ranch
_
300
12
37,500
Arapahoe City Airport
-
150
40
105,000
Buckley Air National
-
—
19,762
21,106
Guard




Columbine Airport
-
-
25
10,000
Boulder Municipal
-
100
50
99,800
Longmont Municipal
-
100
500
45,500
Stapleton International
99,027
8,779
749
92,146
Littleton
-
-
-
6,500
Jefferson City Municipal
-
55
332
110,339
Peterson Field
9,213
318
25,144
9,213
Butts AAF
-
-
58,187
28,577
Air Force Academy
-
-
51,221
7,784
Pueblo Memorial
2,552
382
23,844
41,532
Fort Collins-Loveland
-
500
50
17,500
Weld City Municipal
-
1,250
100
53,988
Flying D Ranch
-
-
-
1,500
Garfield City Airport
-
250
5
4,050
Glenwood Springs
-
125
-
2,000
Municipal




Walker Field
4,163
2,311
221
24,639
Craig-Moffat
-
400
5
6,000
Rangely
—
50
-
16,500
Meeker
—
500
—
7,000
14-4

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Table 14.3. 1974 AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Airport
Partic
S02
CO
HC
NOx
Adams
Sky Ranch
0.9

275.4
11.1
3.6
Arapahoe
Arapahoe City
Buckley ANG
Columbine Airport
Total
2.2
4.1
0.1
6.4

755.7
338.4
73.2
1167.3
29.7
135.0
2.4
167.1
8.9
38.2
0.1
47.2
Boulder
Boulder Municipal
Longmont Municipal
Total
2.0
0.9
2.9

722.7
324.7
1047.4
28.0
12.6
40.6
7.9
3.5
11.4
Denver
Stapleton Internt'l
91.5

1949.9
724.4
1037.1
Douglas
Littleton
0.1

46.8
1.8
0.5
Jefferson
Jefferson City
2.2

795.2
30.7
8.6
El Paso
Peterson Field
Butts AAF
Air Force Academy
Total
12.1
10.5
8.3
30.9

740.5
1213.1
4485.5
6439.1


Pueblo
Pueblo Memorial
7.9

511.9


Larimer
Fort Collins-
Loveland
0.5

15.5
5.3

Weld
Weld City Municipal
Flying D Ranch
Total
1.3
neg
1.3

362.9
10.9
373.8
15.6
0.4
16.0

Garfield
Garfield City
Glenwood Springs
Total
0.1
neg
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
27.5
13.6
41.1
1.3
0.6
1.9

Mesa
Walker Field
1.4
4.8
173.6
59.9

Moffat
Craig-Moffat
0.3
0.2
42.0
2.3

Rio Blanco
Rangely
Meeker
Total
0.3
0.5
0.8
0.2
0.4
0.6
108.8
52.7
161.5
4.0
3.9
7.9

14-5

-------
15. RAILROADS
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Gallons of diesel fuel used by locomotives
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Statewide diesel fuel used by locomotives was apportioned
to each county by the number of miles of track in the county.
BASE DATA
3
The TRW survey of railroads and the Rand McNally Handy
34
Railroad Atlas of the United States were used to determine
miles of track. Diesel fuel data were obtained from Mineral
Industry Surveys, "1973 Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene."^
ASSUMPTIONS
Residual and distillate fuel oils used by railroads
were totaled and used as diesel fuel consumption.
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors were obtained from AP-42, lb/1000 gal:
15-1

-------
Pollutant Average
locomotive emissions
Particulate
25
Sulfur dioxide
57
Carbon monoxide
130
Hydrocarbons
94
Nitrogen oxides
370
15-2

-------
Table 15.1. 1974 RAILROAD FUEL OIL CONSUMPTION
AND EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Consumption,
1000 gal
Partic
so2
CO
HC
N°x
Adams
1993.6
24.9

129.6
93.7
368.8
Arapahoe
1047.6
13.1

68.1
49.2
193.8
Boulder
1389.5
17.4

90.3
65.3
257.1
Clear Creek
0
0

0
0
0
Denver
3658.9
45.7

237.8
172.0
676.9
Douglas
1276.1
15.8

82.4
59.6
234.4
Gilpin
291.1
3.6

18.9
13.7
53.9
Jefferson
771.4
9.6

50.1
36.3
142.7
El Paso
2545.4
31. 8

165.5


Pueblo
3748.8
46.8

243.7


Larimer
2517.1
31.5

163.6
118.3

Weld
6991.9
87.4

454.5
328.6

Garfield
1425.3
17.8
40.6
92.6
67.0

Mesa
1683.3
21.1
48.0
109.4
79.1

Moffat
126.9
1.6
3.6
8.2
6.0

Rio Blanco
0
0
0
0
0

15-3

-------
16. INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES—STATIONARY
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Individual source emission estimates from
ACEN forms
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Point sources with emissions at less than five tons per
year were not included in the point source inventory. These
sources contribute only a small percentage of the total
point source emissions and have, therefore, been treated as
area sources. The sources considered in this section are
only those with process emissions; fuel combustion emissions
from small point sources are assumed to have been included
in the sections for sources of fuel combustion (e.g. Dis-
tillate Oil—Industrial). The identified process emissions
included only particulates. Emissions of other pollutants
were all either from fuel combustion or evaporative losses.
BASE DATA
All data used to estimate emissions from these sources
were obtained from the Colorado Air Pollution Control
Division, air contaminant emission notice files.®
16-1

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors were obtained from AP-42 or from other data
provided by the sources on their ACEN forms.
16-2

-------
Table 16.1. 1974 STATIONARY INDUSTRIAL PROCESS EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Particulate
Adams
61
Arapahoe
18
Boulder
7
Clear Creek
0
Denver
2
Douglas
6
Gilpin
0
Jefferson
6
El Paso
5
Pueblo
12
Larimer
5
Weld
14
Garfield
0
Mesa
9
Moffat
0
Rio Blanco
0
16-3

-------
17. INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES—PORTABLE
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Process data for each concrete or asphalt
batch plant or rock crusher
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The appropriate emission factors were applied to process
data for all identified batch plants and rock crushers.
Each batch plant or crusher was assigned to a county according
to its location of operation indicated on the ACEN. Emis-
sions were totaled for all plants or crushers in a county.
BASE DATA
Colorado Air Pollution Control Division air contaminant
emission notice files^ were reviewed and process weight
rates, control efficiencies, and locations for all portable
plants were extracted.
ASSUMPTIONS
For batch plants without 1974 ACEN's, the plant was
assumed to be operating in the county indicated on the
latest ACEN.
17-1
Revised 02/76

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Uncontrolled emission factors were obtained from AP-42
and are as follows:
Asphalt batch plant = 15.0 lb/ton of	asphalt
3
Concrete batch plant = 0.2 lb/yd	of	concrete
Rock crusher = 0.1 lb/ton	of	product
The 15.0 lb/ton factor for asphalt batch plants assumes
that all plants have a precleaner.
17-2
Revised 02/76

-------
Table 17.1. 1974 PORTABLE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Particulate
Adams
41
Arapahoe
neg
Boulder
neg
Clear Creek
neg
Denver
neg
Douglas
15
Gilpin
12
Jefferson
11
El Paso
8
Pueblo
neg
Larimer
15
Weld
2
Garfield
neg
Mesa
14
Moffat
23
Rio Blanco
neg
17-3

-------
18. EVAPORATIVE LOSSES
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Hydrocarbon evaporative emissions from dry
cleaning and other sources, based on county
populations
° Gasoline transfer hydrocarbon losses, based
on vehicle miles traveled (VMT)
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Dry cleaning and other hydrocarbon losses were esti-
mated by using national per capita consumption factors.
Point source hydrocarbon losses were subtracted to obtain
area source emissions.
Gasoline transfer losses were estimated by applying
emission factors to apportioned county gasoline sales.
Gasoline sales were apportioned by dividing vehicle miles
traveled for each county by an average miles per gallon
factor of 12.2 mpg.1
BASE DATA
Population estimates for 1974 were obtained from
7
Colorado Current Population Reports. Vehicle miles traveled
were obtained from the Colorado Department of Highways, as
23	3
summarized in the AMV and TRW reports.
18-1
Revised 02/76

-------
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	All gasoline purchased in a county is used in that
county.
2.	Colorado is a cold climate relative to the average
climate in the United States (used to determine dry cleaning
and other hydrocarbon loss emission factors).
3.	The source category "other hydrocarbon losses"
includes all point source emissions and all area source
emissions except dry cleaning and transfer losses.^" In
counties where reported point source emissions exceed the
estimate for "other hydrocarbon losses" based on population,
the other hydrocarbon losses are considered to be negli-
gible. In these counties, area source hydrocarbon emission
estimates consist of only dry cleaning and gasoline transfer
losses.
4.	Gasoline transfer to tank cars/trucks and to
gasoline service stations is entirely by submerged loading
operations.
EMISSION FACTORS
The following emission factors were obtained from APTD-
1135
1
O
o
Dry Cleaning Losses
emission factor = 2.7 lb/capita/yr
Other Hydrocarbon Losses
County population
Less than 100,000
100,000- 500,000
500,000-1,000,000
Emission factor
lb/capita/yr
More than 1,000,000
3
8
18
28
18-2
Revised 02/76

-------
The following emission factors were obtained from AP-
Gasoline Transfer Losses

Emission factor
Operation
lb/1000 gal
Tank cars/trucks
4.10
Underground gasoline
7.30
storage

Filling motor vehicle
11.67
tanks

Total emission factor
23.07
18-3

-------
Table 18.1. 1974 EVAPORATIVE HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS
(ton/yr)
County
Dry cleaning
losses
Other HC
losses
Gasoline transfer
losses
Adams
290
185
1005
Arapahoe
261
671
859
Boulder
210
0
676
Clear Creek
10
7
138
Denver
602
3414
3082
Douglas
20
0
269
Gilpin
3
3
37
Jefferson
410
0
1350
Larimer
150
448
658
Weld
140
403
802
Garfield
20
26
167
Mesa
80
70
364
Moffat
10
10
86
Rio Blanco
10
9
42
18-4

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19. INCINERATORS
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Individual source emission estimates from
ACEN forms
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Incinerators with emissions of less than five tons per
year were not included in the point source inventory. These
incinerators contribute only a small percentage of the total
point source emissions and have, therefore, been treated as
area sources.
BASE DATA
All data used to estimate emissions from the incinera-
tors were obtained from the Colorado Air Pollution Control
Division air contaminant emission notice files.®
EMISSION FACTORS
2
Factors were obtained from AP-42, p 2.1-3, lb/ton of
refuse incinerated:
19-1

-------
Pollutant	Multiple chamber Pathological
Particulate
7.0
8
Sulfur dioxide
2.5
neg
Carbon monoxide
10.0
neg
Hydrocarbons
3.0
neg
Nitrogen oxides
3.0
3
19-2

-------
Table 19.1. 1974 INCINERATORS EMISSIONS
County
Partic
S02
CO
HC
NO
X
Adams
4

1
0
1
Arapahoe
7

5
1
7
Boulder
2

3
1
1
Clear Creek
3

0
0
1
Denver
3

5
2
2
Douglas
0

0
0
0
Gilpin
0

0
0
0
Jefferson
4

5
2
2
El Paso
4

1
0
0
Pueblo
2

6
0
0
Larimer
1

0
0
0
Weld
1

6
2
0
Garfield
1
1
0
0
0
Mesa
0
0
0
0
0
Moffat
0
0
0
0
0
Rio Blanco
0
0
0
0
0
19-3
Revised 02/76

-------
20. UNPAVED ROADS
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on unpaved roads
0 Average vehicle speeds
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Emission factors were calculated and adjusted to each
county for days without rain, average silt content of the
roads, and average vehicle speed. Emission factors were
multiplied by VMT on unpaved roads by county to estimate
emissions from this category.
BASE DATA
o
The VMT for unpaved roads were obtained from the TRW
report. Days without rain were estimated using the map of
precipitation frequency in AP-42, Supplement 5, p 95.17
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	The 1973 VMT data are representative of 1974.
2.	Vehicle speed is thirty miles per hour.
3.	Average silt content on gravel surfaces or graded
and drained roads is 12 percent.
4.	Sixty percent (60%) of initial emissions are less
than 30 y in diameter and, therefore, remain suspended.
20-1

-------
5. The VMT on unimproved roads and trails are insig-
nificant.
EMISSION FACTORS
17
Reference: AP-42, Supplement 5.
E = (0.6) x (0.81) x (s) x (S/30) x	(eq.2)
{(365-W/365)}
where E = emission factor, lb/annual VMT
s = silt content of road surface
S = average vehicle speed, mi/hr
W = number of days with 0.01 inches or more of
rain
0.6 = fraction of emissions remaining suspended
20-2

-------
Table 20.1. 1974 PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS FOR UNPAVED ROADS



Emission
Particulate

Annual,VMT,
Days of
factor,
emissions,
County
103
rainfall
lb/ton
ton/yr
Adams
8,943
90
4.4
19,675
Arapahoe
6,274
90
4.4
13,803
Boulder
6,796
110
4.1
13,932
Clear Creek
1,482
120
3.9
2,890
Denver
591
90
4.4
1,300
Douglas
4,316
110
4.1
8,848
Gilpin
1,438
120
3.9
2,804
Jefferson
13,501
110
4.1
27,677
El Paso
24,196
90
4.4
53,231
Pueblo
7,964
90
4.4
17,521
Larimer
12,384
120
3.9
24,149
Weld
28,229
90
4.4
62,104
Garfield
9,439
90
4.4
20,766
Mesa
11,213
90
4.4
24,669
Moffat
55,111
90
4.4
33,244
Rio Blanco
5,504
90
4.4
12,109
20-3
Revised 02/76

-------
Table 20.1. 1974 PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
County
Annual VMT,
10J
Days of
rainfall
Emission
factor,
lb/ton
Particulate
emissions,
ton/yr
Adams
8,943
90
4.4
19,675
Arapahoe
6,274
90
4.4
13,803
Boulder
6,796
110
4.1
13,932
Clear Creek
1,482
120
3.9
2,890
Denver
591
90
4.4
1,300
Douglas
4,316
110
4.1
8,848
Gilpin
1,438
120
3.9
2,804
Jefferson
13,501
110
4.1
27,677
El Paso
24,196
90
4.4
53,231
Pueblo
7,964
90
4.4
17,521
Larimer
12,384
120
3.9
24,149
Weld
28,229
90
4.4
62,104
Garfield
9,439
90
4.4
20,766
Mesa
11,213
90
4.4
24,669
Moffat
55,111
90
4.4
33,244
Rio Blanco
5,504
90
4.4
12,109
20-3

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21. PAVED ROADS
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on paved roads
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Dust from paved roads was broken down into two cate-
gories :
1.	Dust from sand used for snow control was calcu-
lated using total paved urban VMT on days following sand
applications (estimated 18 days in 1974). In the Denver
AQMA, the total paved VMT were multiplied by the fraction of
the county population that is urban to obtain urban VMT. In
23
other areas, urban VMT as calculated by AMV were used.
2.	Dust emissions from paved roads during all other
periods of the year were estimated from the total paved VMT.
The eighteen days with higher emission rates following
sanding were subtracted out to prevent duplication.
BASE DATA
The VMT information was obtained from AMV 1975 projec-
23
tions, except in the Denver AQMA where data were taken
3
from the TRW report. Estimates of heavy snowfall (12 days
per year) were obtained from the Denver Highway Maintenance
3 5
Department. This yielded approximately 18 days of dry
4
sanded roads (1.5 days per heavy snowfall). Days with 0.01
inches or more of precipitation were obtained from AP-42,
21-1
Revised 02/76

-------
17
Supplement 5, p 95. The emission factors of 0.17 lb/VMT
and 0.00385 lb/VMT were derived previously from The Measure-
ment, Cost, and Control of Traffic Dust in Seattle's
2 g	"	~	¦ 1
Dumwamish Valley and have been used in other AQMA studies.
3
Unpaved road VMT were taken from the TRW report. Other
4
input data were taken from the 1972 PEDCo study.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	Sanding occurs only on urban roads.
2.	Eighty percent (80%) of the average daily traffic
(ADT) volume occurs during periods after the snow has
melted.
3.	Seventy percent (70%) of the total urban vehicle
miles were traveled on roads which were sanded for snow
control.
EMISSION FACTORS
Factors were calculated as follows:
° Dust from sand used for snow control
E = (0.17 lb/annual VMT) x (18/365)	(eq.3)
° Dust from paved roads
E = (0.00385 lb/annual VMT) x (365-W-18)/365 (eq.4)
where W = days of 0.01 inches or more of rain
21-2
Revised 02/76

-------
Table 21.1. 1974 REINTRAINED DUST FROM PAVED ROADS
(ton/yr)
Dust from snow Dust from	Total dust
County
controlled roads
paved roads
from paved
Adams
2231
1431
3662
Arapahoe
1910
1225
3135
Boulder
1333
887
2220
Clear Creek
neg
171
171
Denver
7664
4424
12088
Douglas
neg
387
387
Gilpin
neg
26
26
Jefferson
2681
1784
4465
El Paso
3260
2382
5642
Pueblo
neg
1015
1015
Larimer
527
819
1346
Weld
403
1118
1837
Garfield
neg
227
227
Mesa
474
507
981
Moffat
neg
103
103
Rio Blanco
neg
53
53
21-3
Revised 02/76

-------
22. AGRICULTURE
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Acres of crops planted in each county
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The wind erosion equation was used to calculate wind-
4
blown dust. Emission factors in the PEDCo study were used
to update emissions for the Front Range AQMA's. Emission
factors were calculated for the Oil Shale AQMA counties and
used to estimate windblown dust.
Dust from agricultural tillage operations was calcu-
lated using the formula and methods described in AP-42,
17
Supplement 5. Dust from tillage was shown to be insigni-
ficant in comparison with windblown dust on an annual basis
4
and is, therefore, not shown in this analysis. The PEDCo
study indicated similar findings.
BASE DATA
Acreages of various crop types were obtained from
37
Colorado 1974 Agricultural Statistics. Emission factors
for windblown dust were calculated according to the proce-
dures outlined in Development of Emission Factors for
20	—	'
Fugitive Dust Sources. Parameters used in the calcula-
tions were determined from graphs, maps, and charts in that
reference. For the Front Range AQMA's, emission factors
4
calculated in the PEDCo study were used.
22-1

-------
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	Acres planted have not changed significantly since
1973.
2.	Emission factors have not changed since the 1972
4
PEDCo study.
EMISSION FACTORS
Factors for windblown dust were calculated according to
the following equation:
E = (a) x (I) x (K) x (C) x (L1) x (V1) (eg.5)
where E = emission factor, ton/acre/yr
a = portion of total wind erosion losses
that would be measured as particulates,
estimated at 0.025
I = soil erodibility, ton/acre/yr
K = surface roughness factor
C = climatic factor
L' = unsheltered field width factor
V' = vegetative cover factor
Emission factors were calculated separately for each
crop type, e.g., corn, wheat, beans, etc. The emission
factors were then multiplied by the acres of that crop. Crop
acres in each county are shown in Table 22.1.
22-2

-------
Table 22.1. 1974 TOTAL CROP ACREAGE AND
AGRICULTURAL EMISSIONS
County
Total acres
Particulate emissions,
ton/yr
Adams
16,000
3,478
Arapahoe
3,900
1,209
Boulder
19,300
4,819
Clear Creek
0
0
Denver
0
0
Douglas
1,000
215
Gilpin
0
0
Jefferson
700
196
El Paso
50,260
13,293
Pueblo
20,980
4,118
Larimer
67,600
14,472
Weld
337,500
52,229
Garfield
2,030
438
Mesa
16,180
2,223
Moffat
31,900
296
Rio Blanco
700
92
22-3

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23. LAND DEVELOPMENT
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Acres of land disturbed from grading and
road building to provide access to plats
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The number of acres developed (providing road access)
was estimated, and from this the number of acres exposed to
the wind. A wind erosion factor was applied to estimate
emissions. The total number of acres developed by 1974 was
4
assumed to be one half the acres reported in the 1972 PEDCo
study, plus new acreage platted in 1974, since some of the
previously disturbed land (prior 1972) had returned to its
natural state.
BASE DATA
The number of acres platted prior to 1972 was obtained
4
from the PEDCo study. The number of new acres platted in
1974 was obtained from the county planning agencies.
ASSUMPTIONS
1. Activity on pre-1972 subdivided land decreased in
1974 because of bankruptcies declared by land development
companies.
23-1

-------
2. Land exposed for more than one year returns to its
natural state, or road maintenance is acquired by the county
highway department.
EMISSION FACTORS
The emission factor is based on a climatic factor and
the number of acres of graded roadway exposed to wind
erosion:
E = 0.13 (C)	(eq.6)
where E = emission factor, ton/acre of land
exposed
C = climatic factor from wind erosion
equation
23-2

-------
Table 2 3.1. 1974 LAND DEVELOPMENT EMISSIONS
County
Acres
exposed
Emission factor,
ton/acre/yr
Particulate emissions,
ton/yr
Adams
4002
0.078
312
Arapahoe
3466
0.078
270
Boulder
730
0.078
57
Clear Creek
150
0.026
3
Denver
0
0.078
0
Douglas
6652
0.078
519
Gilpin
25
0.026
0
Jefferson
2891
0.078
225
El Paso
46963
0.078
3663
Pueblo
5886
0.078
459
Larimer
2742
0.078
214
Weld
501
0.078
39
Garfield
2263
0.059
132
Mesa
410
0.065
26
Moffat
0
0.052
0
Rio Blanco
0
0.052
0
23-3

-------
24. QUARRYING, MINING, AND TAILINGS
PARAMETERS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Acres of tailings from mine operations
° Acres of sand and gravel stockpiles at
quarries
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
Acreages used in the 197 2 PEDCo^ study were checked and
considered representative for 1974. The Oil Shale AQMA
counties were estimated at ten acres per mine.
BASE DATA
4
The PEDCo study was used for all mines and quarries in
39
the Front Range. The Colorado Bureau of Mines was con-
tacted to check the 1972 data and obtain information on the
Oil Shale AQMA.
ASSUMPTIONS
An average of ten acres per mine or quarry was assumed
when data were not available.
EMISSION FACTORS
The emission factor of 9.2 tons per acre per year was
4
obtained from the 1972 PEDCo study and corrected using the
24-1

-------
climatic factor (C). The corrected emission factor for each
county is shown in Table 24.1.
24-2

-------
Table 24.1. 1974 QUARRYING, MINING, AND
TAILINGS EMISSIONS
County
Total
acreage
Emission factor,
ton/acre/yr
Particulate emissions,
ton/yr
Adams
40
8.0
320
Arapahoe
52
8.0
416
Boulder
169
8.0
1352
Clear Creek
645
2.2
1419
Denver
0
8.0
0
Douglas
41
8.0
328
Gilpin
15
2.2
33
Jefferson
132
8.0
1056
El Paso
0
8.0
0
Pueblo
13
9.0
104
Larimer
315
8.0
2520
Weld
11
8.0
88
Garfield
20
8.0
160
Mesa
10
8.0
80
Moffat
10
8.0
80
Rio Blanco
0
8.0
0
24-3

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25. AGGREGATE STORAGE
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Tons of aggregate stored
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
A four month supply of aggregate was estimated for all
stationary asphalt or concrete batch plants. The amount
processed during the four months was calculated for each
batch plant and totaled to obtain tons of aggregate stored
for each county.
BASE DATA
Colorado Air Pollution Control Division air contaminant
C
emission notice files were reviewed and the process weight
rates of all stationary asphalt and concrete batch plants
were obtained.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	Aggregate storage at quarries is not included in
this section.
2.	Aggregate is stored at the quarry when a portable
batch plant is operating.
25-1

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
Factors were calculated using the following equation:
E = 0.33 4- (PE2/1002)	(eq.7)
where E = emission factor, lb/ton of aggregate
stored
PE = Thornthwaite's precipitation-evaporation
index
25-2

-------
Table 25.1. 1974 AGGREGATE STORAGE EMISSIONS

Aggregate


Particulate

stored,

Emission factor,
emissions,
County
tons
PE
lb/ton
ton/yr
Adams
507,810
43
1.78
453
Arapahoe
229,017
43
1.78
204
Boulder
0
43
1.78
0
Clear Creek
0
43
1.78
0
Denver
65,333
43
1.78
58
Douglas
226,667
43
1.78
202
Gilpin
0
43
1.78
0
Jefferson
133,333
43
1.78
119
El Paso
60,000
38
2.28
68
Pueblo
91,333
38
2.28
104
Larimer
0
43
1.78
0
Weld
37,433
43
1.78
33
Garfield
9,333
51
1.26
5
Mesa
81,230
51
1.26
51
Moffat
0
51
1.26
0
Rio Blanco
11,966
51
1.26
7
25-3

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26. CATTLE FEEDLOTS
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
° Number of cattle on feed
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The number of cattle on feed was multiplied by the
estimated emission factor for that county. Assumptions and
techniques used to estimate emission factors were taken from
the 1972 PEDCo^ study.
BASE DATA
The 1974 data on the number of cattle on feed were
37
obtained from the Colorado 1974 Agricultural Statistics,
as shown in Table 26.1.
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	The control efficiency of the feedlot varied
inversely with the size.
2.	The size of the feedlot was estimated to increase
as the number of cattle on feed in a county increased.
3.	Counties with less than 1000 head were neglected.
26-1

-------
EMISSION FACTORS
A weighted average emission factor was calculated	as
follows:
„ .% cattle . .controlled. ,	,
EF = 'controlled' x ( EF > +	(e9-8>
. % cattle . .uncontrolled.
^controlled	EF
where EF = emission factor, ton/1000 head/yr
The calculated emission factor for each county is shown
in Table 26.1. An emission factor of 8 tons per year per
1000 head of cattle was used for uncontrolled dust (no
watering) and an emission factor of 1.2 tons per year per
1000 head of cattle was used for controlled dust (watering
at 85 percent efficiency).
26-2

-------
Table 26.1. 1974 CATTLE FEEDLOT EMISSIONS

1974
Assumed

1974

Cattle
percent

Particulate

on
of cattle
Emission factor
emissions,
County
feed
controlled
ton/1000 head/yr
ton/yr
Adams
33,500
65
3.5
117
Arapahoe
neg



Boulder
28,000
65
3.5
98
Clear Creek
neg



Denver
neg



Douglas
neg



Gilpin
neg



Jefferson
neg



El Paso
neg



Pueblo
12,500
65
3.5
43
Larimer
29,000
65
3.5
101
Weld
359,000
90
1.9
682
Garfield
neg



Mesa
neg



Moffat
neg



Rio Blanco
neg



26-3

-------
27. CONSTRUCTION
PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS
0 Acres of active construction per year
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE
The number of building permits issued for residential
construction and estimated average construction areas per
new housing unit were used to calculate residential con-
struction acreage. Commercial and industrial construction
estimates were based on either the dollar value of construc-
tion projects or the number of permits issued.
Highway construction projects were identified from
monthly reports of the State Highway Department. For those
projects involving grading (new construction or regrading),
the acreage was estimated from the reported length of the
project times an approximate width which was a fraction of
the number of highway lanes. The duration of each project
was determined from the reported starting date and scheduled
completion date.
BASE DATA
County building departments provided data pn number of
permits issued and dollar value of construction. The
monthly highway construction reports for 1974 were obtained
from the State Highway Department.
27-1

-------
Factors to convert construction cost into equivalent
acreaqe were obtained from the EPA report, Development of
3 8
Emission Factors for Fugitive Dust Sources:
Commercial - 2.5 acres/million $
Industrial - 3.0 acres/million $
The values were updated from 1973 to 1974 by using the
Engineering Construction Cost Index rates of 1.15:
Commercial - 2.17 acres/million $
Industrial - 2.60 acres/million $
ASSUMPTIONS
1.	All permits issued in 1974 resulted in construction
during 1974.
2.	Construction of single-family housing disturbs an
average of 1/6 acre for three months; multiple-family
dwellings occupy an average of 1/2 acre and construction
lasts about four months.
3.	Commercial and industrial construction has an
average duration of eight months.
4.	A two lane highway requires a 20 foot width of
regrading. A multilane highway has an average 100 foot width
of regrading.
5.	A 50 percent reduction in emissions occurs as a
result of enforcement of fugitive dust control regulations.
EMISSION FACTOR
An unadjusted emission factor of 1.2 tons per acre of
construction per month of activity (AP-42, p 11.2-4)2 was
applied for both building and highway construction. This
27-2

-------
value was corrected to reflect climatic conditions by using
Thornthwaite's precipitation-evaporation index, as shown
below:
2
t-. • ^ x. /i (PE test area) ,
Emission factor = (1.2) —		*		(eq.9)
(PE for AQMA)
where PE
test area
=
31
PE
Denver
=
43
PE
Larimer-Weld
=
43
PE
El Paso
=
38
PE
Pueblo
=
38
PE
Oil Shale Area
—
51
27-3

-------
Table 27.1. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY
IN AQMA COUNTIES

Residential




bldg.
permits
Value of
construction,
million $
County
Single
Multiple
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Adams
119
43
4.7
3.8
11.8
Arapahoe
585
77
7.2
-
7.2
Boulder
156
340
0.8
1.9
1.2
Clear Creek
46
0
-
0.4
-
Denver
451
165
63.0
20.0
5.0
Douglas
485
5
-
-
-
Gilpin
42
0
-
-
-
Jefferson
1379
28
1.0
6.0
1.6
El Paso
737
127
11.1
11.5
28.0
Pueblo
289
0
0.3
0.4
4.3
Larimer
519
26
2.5
0.1
2.5
Weld
178
3
3.0
2.5
3.5
Garfield
88
4
1.0
0.1

Mesa
581
56
1.9
2.3
2.0
Moffat
44
1

0.4
0.2
Rio Blanco
16
0
0.3
—
0.8
27-4

-------
Table 27.2. 1974 CONSTRUCTION EMISSIONS
County
Total acre-months
of construction
Particulate emissions,
ton/yr
Adams
1363
423
Arkpahoe
935
290
Boulder
978
303
Clear Creek
32
10
Denver
2542
788
Douglas
364
113
Gilpin
25
8
Jefferson
1131
350
El Paso
1712
685
Pueblo
518
207
Larimer
730
226
Weld
948
294
Garfield
725
160
Mesa
561
124
Moffat
147
32
Rio Blanco
30
7
27-5
Revised 02/76

-------
REFERENCES
1.	Guide for Compiling a Comprehensive Emission Inventory,
Second Edition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Publication
Number APTD-1135. December 1974.
2.	Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Second
Edition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Publication
Number AP-42. March 197 5.
3.	Colorado Area Source Inventory and Evaluation of Trans-
portation Control Measures for the Denver Metropolitan
Air Quality Control Region. Prepared by TRW for U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle
Park, North Carolina. October 1974.
4.	Investigation of Fugitive Dust Sources, Emissions, and
Control for Attainment of Secondary Ambient Air Quality
Standards—Colorado. Prepared by PEDCo-Environmental
Specialists, Inc. for U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
November 1973.
5.	Mineral Industry Surveys, Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene
in 1974. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of
Mines. Washington, D.C. 1975.
6.	Air Contaminant Emission Notice (ACEN) Files. Colorado
Department of Health, Air Pollution Control Division.
1970-1974.
7.	Current Population Reports—Federal-State Cooperative
Program for Population Estimates. Series P-26.
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Washington, D.C. 1973.
8.	Colorado County Business Patterns. U.S. Department of
Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.
1973.
9.	Mineral Industry Surveys, 1973 Sales of Liquefied
Petroleum Gases and Ethane in 1974. U.S. Department of
the Interior, Bureau of Mines. Washington, D.C. 1975.
10.	Open Burning Permit Files. Colorado Department of
Health, Air Pollution Control Division. 1970-1974.
1

-------
11.	Unpublished test results by Dr. Ellis Darley. Univer-
sity of California, Riverside. Riverside, California.
August 5, 1975.
12.	U.S. Forest Service Open Burning Files for Slash Burning—
1974.	Colorado Department of Health, Air Pollution Control
Division. May 1975.
13.	Individual Fire Report Data--1974 Computer Summary.
U.S. Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Regional Office.
Denver, Colorado. May 1975.
14.	Development of Emission Factors for Estimating Emissions
from Forest Fires. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
Publication Number EPA 450/3-73-009. October 1973.
15.	Personal communication with R. Zeleny. Colorado State
Forest Service. Fort Collins, Colorado. July 1975.
16.	U.S. Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Regional Office.
Denver, Colorado. 1974.
17.	Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Supple-
ment 5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research
Triangle Park, North Carolina. Publication Number AP-
42. April 1975.
18.	Colorado 1972 Traffic Volume Study. Colorado Division
of Highways, Department of Planning and Research.
Denver, Colorado. 197 3.
19.	Colorado 1974 Traffic Volume Study. Colorado Division
of Highways, Department of Planning and Research.
Denver, Colorado. 1975.
20.	Colorado 1974 State Highway System Route Description
and Mileage Statistics. Colorado Division of Highways,
Department of Planning and Research. Denver, Colorado.
1975.
21.	Unpublished 1968 and 1990 Functional Classification.
Colorado Division of Highways, Department of Planning
and Research. Denver, Colorado.
22.	Development of an Example 10-Year Air Quality Mainte-
nance Plan for the Denver AQMSA. Prepared by GCA for
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle
Park, North Carolina. Publication Number EPA 450/3-74-
053. September 1974.
2

-------
23.	Mobile Source Emission Calculations for Colorado and
Montana. Prepared by Alan M. Voorhees & Associates,
Inc. McLean, Virginia. August 29, 1975.
24.	Personal communication with J. Lewis. FAA Air Traffic
Activity for 1974. July 1975.
25.	FAA Master Record. U.S. Department of Transportation,
Federal Aviation Administration. Denver, Colorado.
July 1975.
26.	1973 Military Air Traffic Activity Report. U.S.
Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Adminis-
tration. Washington, D.C. 1974.
27.	Official Airline Guide. Reuben H. Donnelley Corpora-
tion. Oak Brook, Illinois. November 1974.
28.	Airport Master Plan—Colorado Springs Municipal Airport,
Peterson Field, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Isbill
Associates, Inc. Denver, Colorado. 1973.
29.	Aviation Demand Forecast for the Denver Metropolitan
Region. Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Company and the
Denver Regional Council of Governments. Denver,
Colorado. March 1974.
30.	Unpublished final draft. Airport Master Plan for
Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado. Isbill Asso-
ciates, Inc. Denver, Colorado. July 9, 1974.
31.	Unpublished final draft. Airport Master Plan for Fort
Collins-Loveland Municipal Airport, Larimer County,
Colorado. Denver, Colorado. September 3, 1974.
32.	Forecasts of Aviation Demand, Master Plan, Garfield
County Airport, Rifle, Colorado. Peak One Company, R.
H. Sundell. November 1974.
33.	Telephone conversation with Military Airport Facilities.
Denver, Colorado. 1975.
34.	Rand McNally Handy Railroad Atlas of the United States.
Rand McNally & Company. Chicago, Illinois. 1974.
35.	City and County of Denver, Highway Maintenance Depart-
ment. See reference No. 4.
36.	Roberts, J. W., et al. The Measurement, Cost and
Control of Traffic Dust in Seattle's Duwamish Valley.
3

-------
(Presented at the APCA Pacific Northwest Section Annual
Meeting. Eugene, Oregon. Paper Number AP-72-5.
November 1972.)
37.	Colorado 1974 Agricultural Statistics—1973 Preliminary
and 1972 Final. Colorado Department of Agriculture.
Denver, Colorado. July 1974.
38.	Development of Emission Factors for Fugitive Dust
Sources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Publication
Number EPA 450/3-74-037. June 1974.
39.	Personal communication with Robert C. Campbell. Active
Tailings Pond Locations. Colorado Bureau of Mines.
1975.
40.	Unpublished Survey of Fuel Use in Reno, Nevada. Sierra
Environmental Monitoring. South Lake Tahoe, California.
1975.
41.	Mechanical Engineers Handbook. L. S. Marks (ed.).
New York, McGraw Hill, fifth edition, 1971. p. 771.
42.	Gelinas, C. G. Trial Development of an Air Quality
Maintenance Plan for Eagle County, Colorado. Colorado
State University. Fort Collins, Colorado. 1975.
43.	Personal communication with A. Thomson. Colorado
Division of Planning, Demographic Section. The 1971 to
1974 Number of Single and Multifamily Dwelling Units
and the 1970 Total Dwelling Units by County. Denver,
Colorado. January 1976.
44.	Residential Sales Survey: Southeast Denver; Northwest,
Northeast, and Southwest Denver; Colorado Springs; and
Boulder. First American Title Company of Colorado.
Denver, Colorado. July 1975; October 1975; August
1975; October 1974.
4
Revised 02/76

-------
TThI ftlRT NO.	~~
• EPA-908/1-76-003
4" r 1 r 1.1. anij SD13T n Lt
TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
(Ph ase read Instructions on the reverse before completingj
Colorado AOMA Area Source Emission Inventory
3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESS ION*NO.
5. REPORTDATE,
November 197 5
6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
7 AUTHOHIS)
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO
y yn RPORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
PEDCo - Environmental Specialists, Inc.
Suite 13, Atkinson Souare
Cincinnati, Ohio 45246
10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
68-02-1375
Task Order No. 19
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
U. S. Environmental Protection Aqency
Reqion VIII
1860 Lincoln Street
Denver. Colorado 80203	
13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
Final
14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
167 ABSTRACT
This report contains emission estimates for non point sources of air
pollution in A0MA counties of the State of Colorado. Estimates for
particulate, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons and oxides
of nitroqen emissions are made for the base year (present), 1980, and
1985. Methodoloqies and data sources are presented.
DESCRIPTORS
b. 1DENTIF1ERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
c. Iosati Field/Group
Fuel Combustion
Emi ssions
Mobile Sources
Stationary Sources
Air Oualitv Maintenance
Analysis
	fr L '
1*8. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
Unlimited
19. SECURITY CLASS (ThisReport)
Unclassified

20. SECURITY CLASS (This pttgt)
Unclassified
22.
gPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)

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