United States	Pollution Prevention Office	October 1989
Environmental Protection	Washington, DC 20460
&EPA Pollution
Editor's Corner
Reports jrom
EPA Offices
Special Pull-Out
Waste Minimization
in Metal Parts
Cleaning Operations
People & Places
in the News:
SERI; Resources
Events in
No v/Decem ber
Since all good deeds begin at home, we want
i to let you know of our own progress at EPA in
i recycling and pollution prevention. We looked
into the Agency's use of paper and we found
good news and bad news. The good news is that
since June of this year, EPA is no longer buying
virgin paper (except for high-speed copiers and
form bond). And, an estimated90 to95 percent
of EPA's printing procurements through the
i Government Printing Office (GPO) are now
I using recycled paper.
i In this, EPA is merely meeting its own
minimum regulatory guidelines as issued by the
I Office of Sol id Waste. OSW's guidelines spec-
I ify mini mum percentage requirements of recov-
i ered material in various types of paper. For
[ example, OSW guidelines recommend a mini-
l mum 50 percent waste paper content for offset
printing paper. Based on these standards, the
Joint Committee on Printing (JCP) specifies
acceptable paper stocks that federal agencies
may use. JCP has recently added minimum
waste paper content to its specifications. In its
latest quarterly paper buy, JCP/GPO purchased
6 million pounds of paper for GPO printing
j with a minimum of 50% waste paper content.
I Here's where the not-so-good news comes
I in. Once JCP establishes specifications for
! particular types of paper, a government agency
cannot require a contractor to exceed the stan-
l dard. Thus, in making its printing requests,
l EPA cannot stipulate that the printer use 80%
I or 100% recycled paper, even if such paper is
available in the market for the same cost. EPA
can only specify that each print job use a mini-
mum of 50% recovered material.
There's more bad news. Itisunclear whether
other federal agencies are as far along as EP A in
switching over to recycled paper. Still, al-
though progress is slow, it seems to be happen-
ing. As Randall Bacon, lead printing specialist
with EPA's Printing Office, says, "We had to
learn what [recycled paper] was all about. And
we had to teach GPO, and they in turn had to
educate the JCP. We've gone through that
learning curve now."
Next month, we'll report on EPA's in-house
recycling efforts.
Your comments and
letters aw welcome!
Please write*
Pollution. Prevention News
401 M Street SW (PM-219)
Washington, DC 20460
Editorial Staff
Priscllla Flattery, Editor
CFC Phase-Out:
A Pollution Prevention Priority
by Bill Walsh, Greenpeace USA and
Lucinda Sikes, U.S. Public Interest
Research Group
It would be too optimistic to see a silver
lining in the crisis of stratospheric ozone deple-
tion, but the imminent phase-out of ozone
depleting chemicals such as CFCs and methyl
chloroform does hold outstanding potential to
be the nation's premier pollution prevention
initiative. No later than the year 2000, virtually
all U.S. production of thesolventCFC-113 and
possibly methyl chloroform is expected to cease
in order to prevent further deterioration of the
stratospheric ozone layer.
Many environmentalists worry that the
phase-out of ozone depleting chemicals could
result in an industry backslide into highly toxic
chlorinated solvents. In an April Federal Regis-
ter notice, EPA warned users of CFC-113 and
methyl chloroform that the Agency "does not
want producers and users to replace [them] with
solvents which are also considered ozone de-
pletes or probable human carcinogens [e.g.,
continued on page 2
Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
October 1989
Reports from EPA Offices
EPA Region 10
by C. Claire Rowlctt
Waste Reduction Coordinator,
U.S. EPA, Region 10
Region 10's hazardous waste minimiza-
tion program has worked with the Office of
Solid Waste since 1987 to promote waste
minimization program development. Until
recently, regional activities have focused on
a few major areas of program development:
facilitating state program development;
developing anongoingEPA/state workgroup
effort; promoting pollution prevention as a
key component in Northwest efforts to as-
sess waste management "needs," and im-
proving the basic data with which to assess
waste minimization potential.
The Region has helped promote state
program development in several ways, in-
cluding working with the states and EPA
from page 1
methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, and
trichloroethylene]." (543 Fed. Reg. 15229)
Now experts for industry and the govern-
ment working under the auspices of the
United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) have concluded that safe alterna-
tives will be available for virtually all cur-
rent uses of these solvents.
Bad Precedent
Our past experience in regulating CFC
usage illustrates why it is necessary to treat
the impending phase-out as a prevention
initiative. In 1978 the United States Con-
gress prohibited the use of CFCs as an aero-
sol propellant. The legislation contained no
regulation of prospective alternative propell-
ants, and much of the aerosol industry sub-
stituted hydrocarbons such as pentane, pro-
pane and butane. These gases are now known
to contribute to the formation of ozone smog
and the greenhouse effect. In the Los Ange-
les area, household aerosol usage is esti-
mated to be the 12th largest source of hydro-
carbon emissions TheSouthCoast AirQual-
ity Management District has now proposed
banning hydrocarbons as aerosol propel-
lants as part of the regional anti-smog plan.
The failure to foresee the consequences
of the 1978 regulation led to increased heal th
risks, environmental damage, and strain on
local governments and on the aerosol indus-
headquarters to develop a technical assis-
tance funding base. As part of the first round
of state technical assistance grants, the states
of Idaho and Alaska were able to secure
funding from EPA Headquarters. Region 10
helped the states develop and present a
successful regional RCRA IntegratedTrain-
ing and Technical Assistance (RITTA)
proposal which included a pilot project to
provide technical assistance to targeted
industries in the Pacific Northwest.
Region 10's efforts have closely linked
waste minimization and SARA 104(k)
capacity assurance. Specific accomplish-
ments of this linkage include: sponsorship of
two major symposia highlighting the link-
age of waste minimization to the need for
additional capacity as well as the overall
priority of prevention among Northwest
decision-makers; establishment of a four-
state gubernatorially-appointed regional
try, which may now be forced to undertake
a second unanticipated production change
in 10 years. Treating the phase-out of ozone
depleters as a priority in the pollution pre-
vention program will help ensure that the
phase-out reduces overall risks to human
health and the environment, and avoids
shifting risks among environmental media
and human populations  the unintended
consequences of many pollution control pro-
grams. It will alsoallow chemical users forced
by the phase-out to change production pro-
cesses, to find safe alternatives for the long
term. This will help firms avoid the uncer-
tainty of future occupational health or
environmental regulations.
Encouraging News
Large industrial users of CFC-113 and
methyl chloroform are reporting excellent
results with economical alternatives that
sharply reduce  and in some cases elimi-
nate  the use of heavily regulated chemi-
cals. UNEP reports that more than 75% of
current CFC-113 and a similarly high ratio
of methyl chloroform use could be replaced
with "no clean" production technologies,
aqueous cleaning, and terpene solutions.
These alternatives are proving more cost
effective than switching to chlorinated sol-
vents and installing appropriate control
systems. For example, AT&T has an-
nounced that it will replace virtually all of
i ts CFC-113 cleaning processes wi th closed-
loop terpene systems by the mid-1990s.
policy group known as the Pacific North-
west Hazardous Waste Advisory Council;
and development of an approach to future
waste minimization potential as part of the
states' capacity assurance efforts. The pol-
icy level efforts and activities have rein-
forced the central role of hazardous waste
minimization in the waste management
hierarchy. TheRegion 10 Hazardous Waste
Division is committed to incorporating the
Pollution Prevention Policy Statement into
its Superfund and RCRA programs.
These activities have created a baseline
of success and a base regional hazardous
waste minimization program within Region
10. New directions and activities are rec-
ommended to build upon this base, increase
EPA/state collaboration, and institutional-
ize pollution prevention within the hazard-
ous waste program. Forfurther information,
contact Claire Rowlett at (206) 442-1099.
Other examples include:
	General Dynamics reports great suc-
cess in meeting a zero discharge goal through
the use of closed-loop, aqueous cleaning
systems for virtually all metal cleaning in-
volved in aircraft production. Company
experts predict that the systems will prove
more cost effective and energy efficient than
continued use of chlorinated solvents, and
that they are equally applicable to other
transportation industries. (For information,
contact Steve Evanoff at (817) 777-3772.)
	Northern Telecom has determi ned that
perhaps up to 85% of its products can be
manufactured using low sol ids fluxes thatdo
not require cleaning. The balance of the
products can probably be manufactured using
new technologies such as inner gas solder-
ing. Northern Telecom is engaged in tech-
nology transfer activities with small and
medium size companies in the electronics
industry and in international technology
transfer through a new industry cooperative
on CFC solvents. (For more information,
contact Art Fitzgerald at (416) 566-3048.)
In their effort to meet a crisis that has its
roots in the failure to plan effectively, many
users of ozone-depleting chemicals are cor-
rectly concluding that reduced chemical
use, not emissions control, is the future of
industrial manufacturing. EPA should inte-
grate this tremendous effort into the pollu-
tion prevention program. It is a model of ef-
fective long term planning.

Special Pull-Out Section
Waste Minimization in
Metal Parts Cleaning Operations
EPA's Pollution Prevention Office is pleased to present a special pull-out section summarizing key
information contained in a new 40-page technical publication, "Waste Minimization in Metal Parts
Cleaning Operations," developed by EPA's Office of Solid Waste. (For ordering information, see the last
page of this section.)
Parts cleaning is an important process for a large variety of organizations that manufacture,
repair, and maintain parts and equipment. From large metal fabrication plants to in-house
maintenance shops of industrial facilities, parts cleaning operations are essential to doing
Solvents and other chemicals used in parts cleaning often result in significant air emissions,
wastewater discharges, and the generation of hazardous wastes. Waste minimization offers the
opportunity to reduce emissions and discharges of toxic pollutants into the environment. Waste
minimization also offers real potential for reducing manufacturing costs and thus can success-
fully compete with other investments in plant improvement.
While the science of parts cleaning is very complex, the aim of cleaning is relatively simple
 to remove contamination (i.e., soil) from the surface of the parts being cleaned in order to
avoid the generation of rejects during subsequent use or processing steps. Removal of soils can
be achieved by means of detergency, solvency, chemical reaction, or mechanical action. Table
1 below lists some of the many cleaning methods or applications available.
Table 1. Summary of Cleaning Methods
Wire brushing
Grinding or machining
Sandblasting or abrasive blasting
Shot blasting
Liquid blasting (hydroblast)
Hydroblast with abrasives
Cryogenic paint stripping
Blasting with softer material, e.g.,
plastic bead blasting
Physical distortion
Molten salt bath
Wipe on, wipe off
Circulation of cleaner
Air sparging
(aqueous cleaners only)
Spray cleaning
Tumbling in barrels
Ultrasonic cleaning
Steam cleaning or stripping
Vapor degreasing (solvents only)
(aqueous cleaners only)
Flame or hot air impingement
Centrifugal wheel
Printed on Recycled Paper

Waste Minimization in Metal Parts Cleaning Operations
A Strategy for Minimizing Wastes in Parts Cleaning
The recommended strategy for minimizing wastes in parts cleaning operations is to systematically follow this sequence of
1. Avoid the need to clean parts  By controlling
the factors that contribute to surface con-
tamination of the parts, you may be able to
reduce or eliminate the need for cleaning
altogether. For example, protective
coatings of grease or paint (which require
solvents for removal) can be replaced with
peel coatings or shrink-wrapping of items
with polymeric sheeting. Moisture leading
to rust can be reduced by more thorough
drying or indoor storage.
2.	Select the least hazardous medium for
cleaning  Proceed down this list from
least hazardous to most hazardous:
	water or air
	abrasive media with water or air as carrier
	aqueous detergent solutions
	alkaline solutions
3.	Maximize cleaning efficiency  Use the least amount of cleaning medium possible to
achieve an acceptable level of cleanliness.
4.	Maximize recycling and reuse  Segregate cleaning wastes for recycling and reuse
whenever such wastes cannot be eliminated from the process; consider on-site or
off-site recycling.
Ion exchange metal recovery units are used to
remove heavy metals from aqueous residues
generated by electroplating, metal-finishing,
electronic manufacturing, and metal-refining
A high-efficiency vapor degreaser removes lubricants and oil
substances in this metal parts cleaning operatbn. This totally
enclosed system, which collects solvent vapors and recycles them
back to the cleaning operation, also reduces potential solvent air

Waste Minimization in Metal Parts Cleaning Operations
Using Solvents
Although organic solvents have excellent cleaning properties, many of them are toxic, flammable, able to diffuse rapidly
into the environment, and highly persistent. Solvents should be used only when no other cleaner is suitable for the job. If
you can't eliminate the need for the cleaning, here are some alternatives to consider:
Solvent Losses:
Segregation and
O Less toxic solvents include aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., naphthas), terpenes
(made from citrus plants and pine trees), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dibasic acid esters.
O Aqueous cleaners which displace soils (rather than dissolving them). The simplest is water,
used in conjunction with mechanical or ultrasonic agitation. Alkaline and acidic cleaners are
applied using soak cleaning, spraying, ultrasonic cleaning, electrocleaning, and steam clean-
O Mechanical or thermal methods include air blast systems or abrasive blast cleaning, which can
save time and generate less hazardous waste.
O General housekeeping options include:
	standardizing solvent use to use the least number of different solvents
	consolidating cleaning operations into one centralized degreasing operation
	maintaining solvent quality to minimize replacement and disposal
	controlling evaporative losses through tank lids or roll-type covers
O Cold cleaning soak tank operations can minimize wastes by:
	reducing drag-out through proper racking, increased drainage, and installation of drain
	using a counter-current cleaning arrangement
O Vapor degreasing  waste minimization options include:
	limiting entrance and exit speeds to less than 11 feet per minute to limit excessive dragout
	keeping the size of the baskets at less than 50% of the degreaser opening
	avoiding work shock which results in expulsion of solvent-saturated air
	spraying only below the vapor zone (solid stream, not fine mist)
	maintaining proper solvent level in sump, and adequate solvent temperature
O Segregating solvents is usually essential to recycling. Always segregate:
	Chlorinated from non-chlorinated solvents
	Freon from methylene chloride
	Aliphatic from aromatic solvents
	Water waste from flammable waste
O On-site recycling is usually economical when 8 or more gallons of solvent waste are generated
per day. Separation technologies for contaminated solvents include gravity separation,
filtration, bath distillation, fractional distillation, evaporation, and fuel use.
Standardizing Solvent Use
A Massachusetts electronics firm switched from using 3 different solvents  mineral spirits for degreasing machine parts, perchb-
roethylene for computer housings, and afluorocarbon-methanol blend for printed circuit boards  to a single solvent mixture of
1,1,1 -trichloroethane and alcohol in a staged system.

Waste Minimization in Metal Parts Cleaning Operations
Using Aqueous Cleaners
Aqueous cleaners are a viable substitute for many parts cleaning operations currently using solvents. The
principal disadvantage is that the parts are wet after cleaning and ferrous parts can easily rust. Warm air for
drying may be a useful countermeasure. Aqueous cleaning may not be suitable for electronic components
because it may leave conductive residue.
Although aqueous cleaning is an improvement over solvents, there are plenty of waste reduction oppor-
tunities in most aqueous cleaning systems. First, abrasives, water, or steam may be good substitutes for acid
or alkaline cleaners. If aqueous cleaners are to be used, maintaining the quality of the solution is important.
A checklist of key housekeeping elements includes:
	precleaning inspections	
	continuous cleaning	
	remove sludge and soils promptly	
	equipment maintenance system	
	increase rinsing efficiency while	
reducing water use	
Using Abrasives
Abrasives can be used in tumbling barrels or applied
to a buffing wheel or machine. Other methods include air
or water-assisted blasting, brushing, vibratory processes,
centrifugal barrel finishing, centrifugal disc finishing,
spindle finishing, and use of natural mass finishing
abrasives. To reduce wastes associated with abrasives:
	Use greaseless or water-based binders for buffing
or polishing instead of oil-based binders
	Use liquid spray compositions to reduce wheel
wear and compound waste
	Control water level in mass finishing equipment
to achieve maximum efficiency
To Order...
To obtain copies of the full document, Waste Minimization in Metal Parts Cleaning Operations, please call the
RCRA/Superfund Hotline, 1-800-424-9346. (In Washington, D.C., call 382-3000.)
Comments on this pull-out section and the full document are requested. Please send comments to:
James Lounsbury
Director, Waste Minimization Staff
Office of Solid Waste
U.S. EPA (WH-565)
401 M Street SW
Washington, D.C. 20460
avoid unnecessary loading
proper solution make-up
monitor cleaning solution strength
reduce drag-out
employ closed loop systems
proper parts drying
The Department of Defense's Plastic Media Blasting
uses air blasting of small plastic beads to remove
aircraft paint by abrasion.

October 1989
3 - Pollution Prevention News
People and Places in the News: SERI
by Gary Cook, Senior Writer, SERI
The Solar Energy Research Institute
(SERI) was born of the concerns surround-
ing the energy crises of the 1970s. Although
the crises themselves have passed, they have
left as a legacy a deeper understanding of the
truths about energy. One truth is that
energy production and consumption are
chronic issues that will confront the world
for decades to come. Another emerging
truth is that the growing demands of hu-
manity are upsetting the complex, intri-
cately balanced ecosystems that nurture us.
Hence, energy R&.D must involve well
thought out strategies and long-term re-
This is a guiding principle around which
SERI has crafted its mission. With an
annual budget of almost $60 million, a staff
of 425 researchers and other professionals,
and many subcontractors from the private
sector, SERI has become the world's largest
center for solar energy research.
Two major solar electric technologies
studied at SERI are photovoltaics and wind
energy. Photovoltaic cells are solid-state
devices that directly turn sunlight into elec-
tricity. Wind turbines mechanically con-
vert wi nd energy i n to electrical energy. The
use of these technologies does not result in
exhaust fumes or wastes, so they do not
pollute the air, amplify the greenhouse ef-
fect, deplete the ozone, or toxify our soil and
water. Yet each of these technologies has
great potential for producing energy. They
can meet virtually any electrical require-
ment, and few places on this earth lack
sunshine or wind.
The same may be said of solar thermal
systems, which use concentrated sunlight to
produce process heat or electricity. Several
large-scale solar thermal systems are already
on line and are beginning to provide signifi-
cant amounts of energy, especially in Cali-
fornia. Interestingly, SERI's solar thermal
research has implications beyond energy
systems. Because of photoenhanced chemi-
cal reactions and extremely high tempera-
tures, it appears that concentrated solar flux
can destroy toxic substances more effectively
than conventional methods.
In biotechnology, SERI scientists are
developing processes that convert waste to
clean-burning fuels. SERI scientists also are
developing systems that use yeast or bacteria
to turn wood or municipal solid waste into
high quality fuels for transportation, heat, or
electricity. One such system is SERI's inven-
tion of a unique device, called a high-solids
reactor (patent pending). Using specially
adapted microorganisms and a little stirring,
the device converts low-moisture waste to
harmless or even valuable products. The
reactor has already proven its ability to
convert municipal solid waste to methane, a
SERI's prototype reactors can turn
low-moisture waste into valuable end products
such as methane and ethanol.
clean-burning gas. SERI is now seeking ad-
ditional funding from the U.S. Department
of Energy, otherfederal agencies, and indus-
try to expand and refine the reactor's uses.
Says SERI Director H.M. Hubbard, 'The
relationship between energy and environ-
ment is increasingly recognized by policy
makers both in this country and abroad.
These issues will shape future plans and
priorities for energy research and develop-
ment. At SERI, we are developing tech-
nologies that can mitigate environmental
For more information, contact SERI at
(303) 231-1000.
DOE Issues Notice of
Program Interest
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),
Office of Industrial Programs, has issued a
notice of program interest in research and
development projects that will conserve
energy in the industrial sector while utili-
zing, reducing, oreliminating industrial gase-
ous wastes. DOE is interested in innovative
concepts in this area, that are projected to
have an annual net energy savings greater
than one trillion BTU/year by the year 2010
if implemented on a national scale.
Examples of R&D that might serve as a
basis for a cooperative agreement applica-
tion include applications of biotechnology
(development of improved catalysts, recov-
ery of bio-modified hydrocarbons, or im-
proved waste gas cleanup with bioreactors);
reduction or el imination of VOC emissions;
new product development; improved proc-
ess controls; and new or unusual processes
for improving performance to reduce gase-
ous waste.
DOE anticipates making several awards,
totaling approximately $500,000 in FY 1990.
Applications may be received until January
31, 1990. For further information, contact
Peter Waldman, U.S. DOE, Chicago Op-
erations Office, 9800 South Cass Ave.,
Argonne, IL 60439, (312) 972-2189.
Proceedings of 7th National
Recycling Congress
The National Recycling Coalition has a
limited number of proceedings from the 7th
National Recycling Congress held last Sep-
tember in St. Paul, MN. The congress
focused on sustaining recycling and the
complementary roles of the public and pri-
vate sectors, with sessions on local, state,
and federal recycling policy, composting,
plastics recycling, and options for recycling
Proceedings may be ordered for $35 from
David Loveland, Executive Director, Na-
tional Recycling Coalition, 1718 M Street
NW, Washington, D.C. 20036, (202) 659-

Pollution Prevention News - 4
October 1989
Upcoming Events In November & December
Conference on House Bill 592:
Planning for Ohio's Solid
Waste Management Districts
Ohio Alliance for
the Environment
Nov. 1, 1989
Columbus, OH
Irene Probasco
Short Courses:
Process Design for Waste
Min & Energy Conservation
San Francisco, CA
Nov. 3-4, 1989
(212) 705-7526
Prevention, Mgt., &
Compliance for Haz. Wastes

Nov. 8-9, 1989

4th Household Hazardous
Waste Management Conference
Nov. 6-8,1989
Orlando, FL
Kay Hickman
2nd Topical Conference on
Emerging Technologies
in Materials
American Institute of
Chemical Engineers
Nov. 6-9, 1989
San Francisco, CA
John Kardos
HazMat West '89
Conference & Exposition
HazMat World Magazine
Nov. 7-9, 1989
Long Beach, CA
Brenda O'Neal
Used Oil: Coming
Full Circle
Assn. of Petroleum
Re-refiners, Project ROSE
Nov. 30-Dec. 1,1989
Baltimore, MD
Mary Kay Olson
(716) 855-2757 or
Janet Graham
Pollution Prevention for
the 1990's: A Chemical
Engineering Challenge
American Institute of
Chemical Engineers
Dec. 4-5,1989
Washington, D.C.
Dr. Martin Siegel
(202) 223-0650
Waste Equipment &
Recycling Expo '89
Tower Conference
Management, Inc.
Dec. 5-7,1989
Long Beach, CA
Bill Harrington
5th Intl. Conference on
Solid Waste Management
& Secondary Materials
Journal of Resource Management
&. Technology, EPA Regions
2 & 3, others
Dec. 5-8,1989
Philadelphia, PA
Ron Mersky
Keep America Beautiful
36th Annual Meeting
Keep America Beautiful, Inc.
Dec. 6-9,1989
Washington, D.C.
Lis Biles
United States Environmental
Protection Agency
Washington, DC 20460
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300