United States	Pollution Prevention Office
Environmental Protection	Washington, DC 20460
January 1990
<&EPA Pollution
VNEP; Report
from EPA/OIA
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Editorial Staff:
Priscilla Flattery, Editor
Gilah Langner
Editor's Corner
Environmental issues are increasingly
global in scope. Pollutants neither recog-
nize nor respect international bounda-
ries; and it is clear that if the problems are
international in scope, the solutions must
be as well. This month we sample some of
the many activities going on internation-
ally, including the work being done by
the United Nations Environment Pro-
gramme's Industry and Environment Of-
fice, and some highlights of prevention ac-
tivities in Canada, Japan, and the Nether-
An especially encouraging feature of in-
ternational developments is the increased
level of information exchange across coun-
tries—allowing all of us to benefit from the
flow of technology, innovation, and ideas.
Technology and information transfer also
are central to the efforts of EPA's Office of
International Affairs; inside, a brief report
on their activities.
A current theme in international envi-
ronmental circles is the concept of "sustain-
able growth" or "sustainable development."
Sustainability embodies the idea that eco-
nomic progress and environmental quality
must go hand in hand; over the long term,
neither can be achieved at the expense of
the other. The more we are aware of the
finite resources and patience of this planet,
the more we need to devise new ways to
live that sustain economic development and
growth for future generations.
The need for policies of sustainability
applies to all nations, although the specific
applications will vary. Sustainability holds
significant promise for the developing na-
tions of the Third World — a familiar ex-
ample is the recent study, led by scientists
from the New York Botanical Gardens, that
found that long-term harvesting of tropical
rain forest products (such as fruits and
rubber) generated double or triple the reve-
nue otherwise obtainable from cutting the
forests for timber or clearing them for pas-
The developed world, too, must move
towards more sustainable means of pro-
duction, means which conserve resources
and minimize emissions. Over the next few
months Pollution Prevention News will be
examining some of the applications of sus-
tainability in the agriculture, energy, trans-
portation, and industrial sectorsof our econ-
omy. The common thread in policies of sus-
tainable growth, in whatever sector or
country they appear, is the integration of
economic and environmental decisions.
Another common thread linking sustain-
able growth policies is pollution preven-
tion. The concept of sustainable growth in-
evitably leads to a policy of pollution pre-
vention — both to preserve the resources
we still have and to reduce the burden on
the environment that we and future gen-
erations will have to confront.
Some of you have already noticed
that white recycled paper has replaced
our previous recycled grey stock. Un-
fortunately, we are severely limited
in the range of colored recycled pa-
pers that the Joint Committee on Print-
ing will allow. We hope that over
time the JCP's paper specifications
will be widened to include the many
beautiful and cost-effective recycled
papers available from a variety of
Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
January 1990
United Nations Environment Programme
At a March 1988 meeting, the Governing
Council of the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) set forth a firm direc-
tion for UNEP and its Industry and Environ-
ment Office (IEO) to serve as the brokers of a
global information network on clean pro-
duction technologies (also called low and
non-waste technologies).
To promote cleaner production world-
wide, UNEP/IEO will be hosting a seminar
on cleaner production to be held on Septem-
ber 18-20,1990 in Canterbury, England. Some
150 invited speakers and participants will be
on hand from both developed and develop-
ing countries, to share experiences, policy
issues, and technology transfer opportuni-
ties. In preparation for the seminar, a num-
ber of projects have been started.
First, IEO is compiling a directory of
organizations and experts, with country
profiles (including summaries of govern-
ment and corporate policies, citations to key
documents, and other information sources)
for each participating country.
Several working groups have been formed
to take a closer look at successful clean tech-
nologies in the tanning, electroplating, and
textile industries, and the reduced use of
halogenated solvents. Future groups may
be formed to examine the pulp and paper
industry and pesticides.
Another IEO pilot project involves EPA's
Pollution Prevention Information Clearing-
house (PPIC). Directory data for Norway,
the United Kingdom, Denmark, and India
will be entered into PPIC. Training of users
is expected to begin this month. EPA has
donated a sister electronic board to UNEP in
order to link up EPA's Electronic Informa-
tion Exchange System with UNEP's Interna-
tional Cleaner Production I nformation Clear-
inghouse (ICPIQ.
Finally, a four-page quarterly newsletter
called "Cleaner Production" is being
planned, with wide dissemination through
journals in different countries. News items
will include updates of UNEP and IEO ac-
tivities, publicity for upcoming events and
recent publications, corporate activities, and
news from governments.
These projects are part of a longer-term
effort by the Paris-based IEO to formulate
At a demonstration of UNEP's ICPIC system, from
left to right,Myles Morse,EPA; AnhTuan Vu,UNEP;
Chris Messner, SAIC; Peter Winkel, Consultant to
UNEP; and Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel, UNEP.
and promote policies and strategies for sus-
tainableindustrialdevelopment. Established
in 1975, IEO's 10-person international pro-
fessional staff, led by director Jacqueline
Aloisi de Larderel, works closely with gov-
ernments, i ndustry, and international organi-
zations to carry out four major functions: (1)
publishing technical guidelines, such as re-
cent publications Environmental Manage-
continued on pg. 4
Report from EPA's Office of International Affairs
by Heather Schoen
Communications Specialist, OIA
EPA's Office of International Affairs (OI A)
has achieved a new visibility since its eleva-
tion last July to the Assistant Administrator
level within EPA and the appointment of
Timothy B. Atkeson to head the 56-person
office. OIA is involved in numerous activi-
ties relating to pollution prevention; up-
coming events include the 12th annual Joint
Committee Meeting between the U.S. and
the Soviet Union this January to review
progress on environmental goals; prepara-
tions for the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change meeting in Washington in
early February; and coordination of the de-
velopment of environmental issues and ini-
tiatives that may be taken up at the "G-7"
Economic Summit meeting of leaders of the
Western industrialized nations, to be held
this summer in Houston, Texas.
OIA also is coordinating the International
Environmental Technology Transfer Advi-
sory Board (IETTAB), established at the di-
rection of President Bush in October 1989.
This 15-member advisory group is chaired
by William D. Ruckelshaus, former EPA
Administrator and presently chairman of
Browning-Ferris Industries, Inc., with other
high-level members drawn from industry,
environmental groups, academia, consult-
ing firms, and international organizations.
The advisory board's focus is on finding
ways to improve the transfer of U.S. environ-
mental technologies to foreign — particu-
larly low-income — countries to meet the
challenge of ozone depletion and global
warming as well as other pollution issues.
IETTAB is expected to make recommenda-
tions to the Administrator on ways to re-
move the economic and legal barriers to
technology transfer, as well as ways to facili-
tate information exchange, education, train-
ing, technical assistance, and export possi-
bilities for U.S. industry. These recommen-
dations are intended to be used by the Presi-
dent in the summit meeting. All of the G-7
nations are undera treaty obligation to coop-
erate in the transfer of technology needed to
reduce ozone-depleting substances. A simi-
lar need for technology transfer is foreseen
in dealing with global warming. (For more
information on IETTAB, contact Mark Kas-
man, OIA, (202) 382-4870.)
This June, the parties to the Montreal
Protocol on Ozone-Depleting Substances will
meet to consider amendments to the 1987
agreement. An international working group
has compiled the many proposals put forth
for modifying the protocol, including a vari-
ety of options that would accelerate the time
schedule for meeting the agreed-upon 50
percent reductions in chlorofluorocarbons
and halons and mandate a full phase-out
around the year 2000. Options also have
been proposed to furtherregulateotherozone
depleters. The special situation of develop-
ing countries also is being examined in more
detail. EPA and other governments are
conducting case studies to help determine
the potential needs of developing countries
for financial assistance in implementing the
For more information on OIA activities,
contact Heather Schoen at (202) 382-4304.

January 1990
3 - Pollution Prevention News
International Highlights
For Consumers,
Environmental Choice
Canada is implementing a new program
called Environmental Choice that will help
consumers identify which products dimin-
ish the burden on the environment com-
pared with their alternatives. Environmen-
tally preferable products can bear the "Eco-
Logo" if they satisfy the requirements set
forth in guidelines. Each guideline gives
background information on the product cate-
gory, definitions of terminology, verifica-
tion and licensing information, and any
requirements as to composition.
The first three guidelines to be drawn up
cover re-refined lubricating oil, construction
materials made from recycled wood-based
Canada's EcoLogo
cellulose fiber, and products made from
recycled plastic. These guidelines specify a
minimum amount of recycled product. For
example, for used oil, it is 50% by volume; for
construction materials, it is 100% of the fiber
content; and for plastics, recycled content
must be 90% by weight for all uses except
construction. There are also limitations on
the presence of toxic materials. The first
product to bear the EcoLogo will be re-
refined oil.
Guidelines are also in the notice-and-
comment or final drafting stages for zinc-air
batteries, vegetable oils for industrial cook-
ing, water-based paints, low-pollution or-
ganic-solvent-based paints, various products
from recycled paper, home ventilators using
heat recovery, and cloth diapers.
To start the process, anyone can submit a
product or service idea for consideration to
the 14-member Environmental Choice Board
(appointed by the Canadian Minister of
Environment). Board member Janice Har-
vey believes the environmental choice pro-
gram is structured so as to maintain the
public's credibility: "People can be confi-
dent that each label has been scrutinized by
non-vested interests, that bearers of the label
will be subject to monitoring, and that as
As in so many other spheres of Japanese
economic activity, government and indus-
try cooperate closely on recycling and waste
reduction. The Ministry of International
Trade and Industry (M1TI) plays an impor-
tant role in providing subsidies, financial
assistance, and advice; while local govern-
ments are integrally involved in operating
specific projects.
One of the largest waste reduction/recy-
cling efforts is the Clean Japan Center (CJC),
a research and development corporation
formed in 1975 through joint government/
private funding. Since its inception, CJC has
been building one new demonstration plant
each year. Local governments typically
participate in the building and running of a
plant, and then buy it after the demonstra-
tion period. Recent projects for which the
plants are still in operation are as follows:
1983	- recycling foamed polystyrene, e.g.,
from food packaging
1984	- recovering and recycling mercury,
e.g., from household batteries
1985	- processing of sludge from paper
1986	- recycling catalysts used in petro-
leum refining
1987	- producing compost from organic
1988	- recovering silver from film process-
ing and incinerator ash
CJC also has a large public relations pro-
gram that works with local governments
and citizens. Activities include publishing a
bi-monthly journal, holding waste recycling
seminars, an award system for recycling
achievements, and short TV messages dur-
ing Energy-Saving Month (February) to
promote effective use of resources. CJC col-
lects and disseminates information about
new information becomes available, the cri-
teria will be upgraded."
Once a guideline is developed, subject to
public review, and adopted, manufacturers
may apply for the EcoLogo through the
Canadian Standards Association. For more
information, contact Jack Poon at the CSA,
(416) 747-4000.
waste disposal and recycling, provides tech-
nical consultation services, and exchanges
information with similar associations in other
countries. For further information, contact
Hidenobu Ogasawara, No. 2 Akiyama Bldg.,
6-2, Toranomon 3-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo
105, Japan. Fax 81-03-432-6319.
The Netherlands
A National Environmental
Policy Plan
The National Environmental Policy Plan
adopted by the Netherlands last year is a
strategic approach to gaining control of Dutch
environmental problems within the next 20
to 25 years. Ideally, in line with the principle
of sustainabledevelopment, the intent would
be to pass on, by the year 2010, a clean envi-
ronment to the next generation.
Key tools identified by the plan include
integrated management of production
chains, energy conservation and improved
efficiency, abatement at the source, implem-
entation of the polluter-pays principle; re-
quiring users to account for and justify their
use of the environment; motivating people
to good environmental behavior; and the
identification of "target groups" that will be
called on to achieve specific environmental
accomplishments. Highlights of the goals
set for target group are as follows:
Agriculture - by the year 2000, reduce
ammonia emissionsby 70% and discontinue
use of non-biodegradable pesticides;
Transport - goals include use of 3-way
catalytic converters in cars, "clean" public
transport in cities within 5 years;
Industry - goals include ending the pro-
duction of CFCs, creation of environmental
protection systems by companies, and pos-
sible returnable deposit systems on appli-
ances and electronic equipment;
continued on pg. 4

Pollution Prevention News - 4
January 1990
I	PiTAti'fc
pcoiiiinci ]z«v6riL9
1990 Conference on Solid Waste
N.Y. State Legislative Comm.
Jan. 31-Feb. 2,1990
Tara Roberts
Management & Materials Policy
on Solid Waste Management
New York, NY
(518) 455-3711
New Approaches to Building
Institute for International
Feb. 1-2,1990
David Fable
Markets for Recyclables
Atlanta, GA
(212) 826-3340
Copper/Precious Metals
Institute of Scrap Recycling
Feb 8,1990
Bob Garino
New York, NY
(202) 466-4050
International Recycling
Government Refuse Collection
Feb. 13-15,1990
Brad Roberge
and Disposal Assn.
Seattle, WA
(800) 456-4723
7th Annual Solid Waste
Minnesota Pollution
Feb. 21-22,1990
Roberta Wirth
Control Agency
Bloomington, MN
(612) 296-7384
Recycling Business &
Executive Enterprises
Feb. 22-23,1990
Kim Kapler
Technology Conference

Washington, DC
(212) 645-7880
from page 3
Energy - electric power plants are to re-
duce SOj and NOx emissions by over 50% by
2000 (compared to 1985 levels); plans also
are underway for ambitious energy conser-
vation measures;
Construction - goals include doubling
the recycling of construction and demolition
waste and 25% energy conservation in space
Environmental companies - waste pro-
cessing firms, drinking water companies,
and others will be called on for monitoring,
public education, and preventive actions.
Consumers and Retailers - by 2000, goals
include source separation of used batteries,
household chemical waste, cans, cloth, and
waste paper; composting of 50% of organic
household waste; and a 15% reduction in
passenger kilometres from 1985 levels.
For more information, contact the Project
from -page 2
ment of Petroleum Refineries and Environ-
mental Aspects of Nickel Production; (2)
facilitating international technical coopera-
tion, for example, allowing Indian managers
to receive training in Japan or arranging a
study tour of Finland, Denmark, and France
for Chinese experts in water management;
(3) providing international training oppor-
Group for the NEPP, PG-NMP, Ministry of
Housing, Physical Planning, and Environ-
ment, P.O. Box 20951, 2500 EZ The Hague,
The Netherlands. Tel. (31) (70) 320 9367, FAX
(31) (70) 317 5056.
tunities — an example is a workshop on
clean technologies conducted in Egypt with
assistance from France; and (4) dissemina-
ting information — through its quarterly
publication 'Industry and Environment," a
query-response service, and a database of
environmental legislation.
For addition information, contact UNEP/
1EO; 39-43 Quai Andre Citroen; 75739 Paris
Cedex 15; FRANCE. Tel. 33 (1) 48 58 88 50.
Fax: 33 (1)40 58 88 88.
United States Environmental
Protection Agency
Washington, DC 20460
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