United States	Office of Pollution Prevention	September 1990
Environmental Protection	Washington, DC 20460
&EPA Pollution
	page 2
Special Section
on Transportation
		...page 3-6
Calendar ..page 8
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Editorial Staff;
PriscilU Flattery, Editor
Sandy Sieg-Ross
Gilah Langner
Suzanne Hams
A New Research Center
Comes on Board
Lawrence L. Ross
Staff Director, Center for Waste
Reduction Technologies, AIChE
Chemical engineering principles and ex-
pertise are at the heart of the new interest in
waste reduction and are pivotal in addressing
the challenge of preventing pollution. In ad-
dition to the redesign of existing processes
and the introduction of new processes, the
basic concepts underlying waste reduction
must be firmly integrated into corporate cul-
tures and the educational process.
The American Institute of Chemical Engi-
neers (AIChE), with a mission of promoting
excellence in the development and practice of
the discipline, decided late last year to establish
the Center for Waste Reduction Technologies.
The new center will be a focal point for
research, education, and information dis-
semination on innovative waste reduction
technologies. The aim is to build a strong
foundation for a wide range of industries as
they develop the next generation of clean,
economically competitive processing and
manufacturing facilities. The Center's key
features reflect our understanding of the
type of approach needed:
•	Active industrial involvement and
•	Targeted waste reduction research for
competitiveness and technological ad-
•	A "systems" view to integrating chemi-
cal engineering disciplines with those from
other engineering and scientific fields;
•	Education programs to better prepare
continued on page 7
Blackstone's Multi-Media Inspections
Prove Cost-Effective
Manik Roy, Ph.D. and Lee Dillard
Massachusetts DEP
In a report released in July, the Massachu-
setts Blackstone Project Team found that in-
spections of industrial facilities that took a
multi-media approach (examining air, water,
hazardous waste, and "right-to-know" to-
gether) were generally more efficient than
single-media inspections and werebetterable
to identify source reduction opportunities as
well as violations of environmental protection
A joint project of the Massachusetts De-
partment of Environmental Protection (DEP)
and the Department of Environmental Man-
agement (DEM), the Blackstone Project was
designed to examine alternative approaches
to inspections, enforcement, and technical
assistance programs as a means of promoting
source reduction. The project is being used to
implement provisions of the Massachusetts'
1989ToxicsUse Reduction Actwhich mandate
the development of a "whole facility" ap-
proach to environmental protection (see PPN,
Feb. 1990).
The project targeted 26 metal-intensive
manufacturing facilities located in the service
area of the "Upper Blackstone," the sewage
treatment plant of greater Worcester.
Blackstone Project field staff inspected each
continued on page 7
Printed on Recycled Paper

'Renew America'
Gives Credit
to Effective
School Programs
If you want to run a program in envi-
ronmental education, do you have to de-
velop itfrom scratch? Not anymore, thanks
to a non-profit educational organization
called Renew America.
The group launched a contest last year
to find and honor environmental programs
that work—and that communities every-
where can replicate. The competition was
called "Searching for Success," and the 24
award-winning programs selected from
nearly 1,000 entries were honored on Earth
Day in Washington, D.C., this past April.
From the entries, Renew America also
created the "Environmental Success In-
dex," a listing of all the programs that
were achieving some measure of success.
Renew America plans to update this list-
ing each year to serve as a clearinghouse
for information.
In the area of environmental education,
EPA has embarked on a project to
produce pollution prevention education
materials for students and teachers. The
materials will concentrate on kindergar-
ten through grade 12 and will emphasize
the need for preventing pollution at the
source. Ultimately, the project aims to
instill in the country's youth an ethic for
more integrated environmental decision-
making, pollution prevention, and pro-
tection of human health and theenviron-
ment. The project will also encourage
the private production of complementary
educational materials, including videos,
films, computer software, teaching aids,
textbooks, etc. Special consideration will
be given to the environmental education
needs of urban versus rural youths.
Directed by an Agency-wide group,
the National Pollution Prevention Envi-
ronmental Education Task Force, the
stream ecology
at Prince
Renew America's judges gave one award
and singled out five other programs for
special merit. The award went to the
Training Student Organizers Program
(TSO) of the Council on the Environment
of New York City. The program teaches
New York City high school students about
environmental issues and helps them de-
project will proceed in partnership with
state and local governments, industry,
educational institutions, textbook pub-
lishers, and others. As a first step, a
compendium of available curricula re-
lating to pollution prevention is being
compiled and reviewed. For more in-
formation, contact Priscilla Flattery at
EPA recently drafted a strategic plan
on establishing an Environmental Edu-
cation Program which includes pro-
grams for educating youth, training fu-
ture environmental management pro-
fessionals, and building public aware-
ness of environmental problems. The
program coincides with proposed leg-
islation (such as S. 1076, the National
Environmental Education Act) that
would create an Environmental Educa-
tion Office at EPA.
September 1990
velop organizing skills to involve their
peers and neighbors in such projects as
beach clean-ups, noise abatement cam-
paigns, graffiti elimination, open space
preservation and paper collection for re-
cycling. Student organizers have worked
with more than 275 community groups
and schools in the development of 251
projects serving 61 neighborhoods in New
York City.
The TSO curriculum can be adapted to
students of different ages, experience and
ability. "The program helps the partici-
pants to develop a service ethic and to feel
more skilled, confident and able to relate
to the world around them," say program
organizers. The staff of the Council on the
Environment works with classroom
teachers each week, and students are
trained for a full school term, for which
they receive academic credit. The TSO
program is funded by foundations, corpo-
rations and government.
One project the judges singled out for
special merit is called The Farm, run by the
Convent of the Sacred Heart in Green-
wich, Conn. Children from the New York
metropolitan area spend from one day to
one week at The Farm, receiving "seem-
ingly casual instruction in environmental
values," according to Sister Suzanne
Rogers, project director. "Shall we use
continued on page 7
Pollution Prevention News - 2
Environmental Education
EPA Environmental Education Initiatives

September 1990
3 - Pollution Prevention News
In Search of Cleaner Machines
he link between transportation and
air pollution hasbeen well established
for a long time. Most of our common
forms of transportation — cars, trucks,
buses — release air pollutants that cause
significant health effects, including respi-
ratory disease, circulatory problems, neu-
rological damage, and cancer. Recent
studies show that transportation is re-
sponsible for approximately 66% of carbon
monoxide, 43% of nitrogen oxides, 37% of
lead, 31% of ozone-producing hydrocar-
bons, and 20% of suspended particulates
released into the air in the United States.
Motor vehicle exhaust also contains
carbon dioxide (C02), a greenhouse gas
that contributes to global warming. In the
U.S., cars and light trucks are the largest
source of C02, contributing 33% of all
emissions. Each of the 135 million cars
and trucks in the U.S. emits an average of
five tons of CO2int0 the atmosphere every
year, for a total of about 600 million tons.
Automobile air conditioners represent the
largest single source (about 20%) of
America's release of ozone-depleting
chemicals, in this case, chlorofluorocar-
bons (CFCs).
Government and industry achieved
dramatic success reducing motor vehicle
emissions in the late 1970sand early 1980s.
Yet vehicle miles travelled are expected to
increase about 2% per year into the next
century — a compound growth rate of 22
percent by the year 2000. To offset this
growth, cars, trucks, and buses will need
to be far cleaner than
they are now.
Can we do it? If
not, urban living
could become hell on
wheels. Currently,
there are 96 metro-
politan areas that ex-
ceed EPA's National
Ambient Air Quality
Standard (NAAQS) forozone—i.e.,smog
— and 41 metropolitan areas that exceed
the NAAQS for carbon monoxide.
This special section surveys various
aspects of the transportation pollution
problem. As this issue of Pollution Pre-
vention Nem goes to press, the long term
effects of recent events in the Persian Gulf
are still highly uncertain. What is clear,
however, is that American concerns for
both energy security and environmental
quality point in the same direction — to a
need for new solutions in transportation.
IF V01
Clean Fuels:
All Run, But Which Will Fly?
The President's proposed revisions to
the Clean Air Act contain a significant
number of provisions that would result in
cleaner running vehicles, including tighter
automobile tailpipe standards, a restric-
tion on release of carbon monoxide at low
temperatures, requirements for oxygen-
ated fuels; and requirements for either a
modified gasoline pump nozzle or an on-
board device to contain fuel vapors.
Among the most prominent and con-
troversial provisions is the Clean Fuels
Program, which would replace a portion
of the motor, vehicle fleet in certain cities
with new vehicles operating on clean-
burning fuels. (Many of the provisions of
the Clean Air Act were being debated
when PPN went to press, including how
many vehicles and cities should be in-
cluded in the Clean Fuels Program.)
EPA predicts that vehicle emissions will
continue to decline for about a decade in
any case, because modern cars will keep
on replacing clunkers. But, according to
Don Zinger, Assistant
Director of the Office
of Mobile Sources,
"The Clean Air Act is
vital to keeping emis-
sion levels down after the turn of the
Following are summaries of the major
clean fuels that are being evaluated:
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) —
More than 30,000 vehicles have been con-
verted torunonCNG,and theyemitmuch
lower levels of smog-causing hydrocar-
bons than gasoline-fueled vehicles. Gen-
eral Motors is planning to manufacture
over 1000 CNG pick-up trucks in early
1991 — the first marketed commercially in
the U.S.
Even mass-produced, CNG vehicles
cost more than gasoline-fueled vehicles
and service station retrofit can cost be-
tween $225,000 and $400,000. CNG costs
depend upon the price of competing en-
ergy sources, the existence of alternative
PvilUC (KftVtU MHWM*, *WlOM*V *'.10 Of &J04QAM tAiCJO*

Tom Tales in the Buffalo News
markets for gas, and the cost of collecting
and transporting the gas.
Ethanol — Ethanol is the most com-
mercialized alternative fuel, with 840 mil-
lion gallons produced in the U.S. in 1988.
It is blended into gasoline to form a 10%
ethanol mixture known as gasohol, which
currently has about a 7.5% share of the
automotive fuels market. The price of
ethanol hasbeen dropping with improved
efficiency in the production process and it
may soon be competitive with gasoline.
Pureethanol, although not currently used,
has the potential for 30% greater fuel effi-
ciency than gasoline. Opinions vary on the
impactofethanol-fueled vehicleson urban
ozone, and overall environmental effects
of ethanol are complicated to assess.
continued on page 6

Pollution Prevention News - 4
September 1990
Solar/Electric Cars
Pick Up Speed
In Race To Market
Univ. of Michigan
student drivers Paula
Finnegan and Dave
Notes with their
winning Sunrunner

The solar-powered cars entered in
General Motor's 1,650-mile Sunrayce USA
held in July will never be seen in auto-
mobile showrooms, but some of the tech-
nology used to create these efficient, pol-
lution-free vehicles maybe found in electric
cars destined for the US automobile mar-
ket within three years.
Sunrayce USA, sponsored by GM, the
Society of Automotive Engineers, and the
Department of Energy (DOE), was de-
signed to stimulate university research
and interest in solar and electric vehicles.
The 11-day race drew exotic-looking ve-
hicles from 32 university teams.
The winning vehicle, the Sunrunner,
designed and built through the efforts of
more than 100 University of Michigan en-
gineering students, completed the race
from Lake Buena Vista, Florida to Detroit,
Michigan race in 72 hours, 50 minutes and
47 seconds, with an average speed of about
30 miles per hour. Second and third place
winners, Western Washington University
and the University of Maryland, finished
within a few hours of Michigan's team.
While all the students who participated
in the race received an educational benefit,
one of the Michigan students pointed out
that the race had wider implications. "We
believe that we are part of the prototype
testing of this technology," Neil
Chintamaneni said. "Yes, the car is ex-
pensive, but we are in the process of
learning and helping the world to learn
that solar energy is a practical form of
Designing from the
Ground Up
American and Japanese automobile
manufacturers have been researching bat-
tery-powered cars since the oil crisisof the
1970s. Ford Motor Company, General
Electric, and DOE have invested $20 mil-
lion in developing an electric car, the EXT-
II Aerostar. The eight-year joint project
has succeed in producing a vehicle capable
of sustained speeds of 65 mph. While
Ford's EXT-II remains an experimental
vehicle, GM says it plans to market a bat-
tery-powered automobile by 1994.
GM's Impact was designed as an elec-
tric vehicle from the ground up to meet the
safety and performance standards of
gasoline-powered cars. The vehicle can
accelerate from 0 to 60 in eight seconds,
and has a top speed of 75 mph. Its battery
pack is designed to last 120 miles between
2-hour recharges. Despite the significant
technological strides represented by the
Impact, however, cost and practicality
problems have not been solved. GMnoted
when it formally unveiled the Impact in
January that the car's operating costs in
GM's electric car, Impact
the Los Angeles market would be twice
that of conventional gasoline-powered
cars. Yet public concern for the environ-
ment may create a demand for these alter-
natives to piston engine cars.
Sunlight and Electricity
While electric vehicles are pollution-
free during operation, the electricity used
to charge the car's batteries is produced by
utility plants. Even this pollution may be
eliminated by using principles tested in
solar races such as Sunrayce USA.
DOE and NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab
are currently investigating ways to in-
crease the range and reduce the operating
costs of electric vehicles by using photo-
voltaic (PV) cells to supplement power
during operation. PV solar cells are
mounted on the exterior surfaces of these
solar vehiclesand convert sunlightdirectly
into electricity.
Cars which exclusively use solar
power are not practical since current
PV solar cells cannot produce enough
electricity to power a commercial ve-
hicle. However, some assistance from
PV cells can cut operation and mainte-
nance costs and improve electric ve-
hicles' market potential.
According to Richard King of DOE's
Conservation and Renewable Energy Di-
vision, if a solar-assisted battery vehicle
were driven less than 10 miles and then
parked outside, recharging the batteries
could be accomplished by the PV cells
during a normal 8-hour work day. Under
this scenario, King said, a consumer might
recoup an investment for the PV cells in a
battery-powered car in nine months.
While government and industry pro-
grams continue research into solar and
battery powered vehicles, the top three
finishing teams of Sunrayce USA are pre-
paring to compete in Australia's 1,950-
mile World Solar Challenge scheduled to
begin November 11. In the last world race
in 1987, GM's Sunraycer won first place
with an average speed of 41.6 mph.

September 1990
5 - Pollution Prevention News
DOT: States, Cities Must
Find Their Own Solutions
For an official view of transportation-
related pollution and possible cures, PPN
interviewed Joseph Canny, Deputy Assis-
tant Secretary of Transportation for Policy
and International Affairs. His responsibili-
ties at the Department of Transportation
(DOT) include environmental programs
and general oversight of surface transpor-
tation policy.
PPN: Many people feel that even ivith
alternative fuels and improved car engines,
we face more serious pollution in the future.
What is DOT's view — and role?
JC: As I understand the EPA projections,
there should continue to be improvement
over at least the next several years as the
older, dirtier vehicles are pulled out of the
fleet and replaced with contemporary de-
signs. Beyond that, the new standards in
the Clean Air Act amendments should
resultin substantial continuingreductions
in pollution levels, both in tailpipe emis-
sions and evaporative losses. How that
will balance against the continuing growth
in traffic and increased congestion in ur-
ban areas is a matter of conjecture. We can
only hope that continued progress on ve-
hicles and in alternative fuels will help
achieve the standards. ..
The nature of transportation programs
has historically been one of local and state
decision-making with the federal govern-
ment providing funding. With a few ex-
ceptions, like the interstate highway sys-
tem, the decisions about when and where
to build the highway and how many lanes,
and what kinds of public transportation
systems, have been local decisions.
In the past, we have not provided as
much flexibility in our programs as might
have been helpful to permit more creative
packaging locally of transportation pro-
grams. But there is a fair amount of money
that's available in the current highway
and transit programs that can be used for
either. Highway funding can be used for
high occupancy vehicle lanes and con-
struction of busways, for example.
While there is flexibility under the current
programs, there isn't enough, and we hope to
deal with that in reauthorization of the sur-
face transportation programs next year.
PPN:The National Transportation Policy
issued by DOT in February does not con-
tain plans to restrict the use of cars by
private individuals as an environmental
measure. Why not?
JC: We see that as something that ought to
be developed at the state and local level...
We have a longstanding difference of
opinion with some people within EPA.
We tend to view transportation as a ser-
vice function or a following function.
Transportation serves other societal ac-
tivities and needs, and most often tends to
follow land use and development deci-
sions. Consequently, to try to restrict
transportation after those decisions have
If we as a nation were to
conclude that our reliance
on the automobile has
become excessive, we
could change that.
been made is likely to be counterproduc-
tive from an environmental perspective.
If you don't provide adequate capacity,
you have higher levels of congestion on
the roads and that generates more pollu-
tion. Another concern is that by restrict-
ing transportation, you restrict economic
vitality in a metropolitan area.
PPN: What is DOT's attitude towards
Intelligent Vehicles andHighway Systems
JC: We think there's a lot of promise in
IVHS. It's not a panacea — there are no
silver bullets. We search for incremental
progress in various areas, and IVHS is one
of them. Congested traffic generates more
emissions than free-flowing traffic, so to
the extent that we can facilitate traffic flow,
we can solve some of these problems and
reduce emissions in the process.
PPN: The Netherlands Environmental
Plan sets specific goals for transporta-
tion, such as 75% reduced emissions of
NOxand hydrocarbons from private cars
by the year 2000. Do you see the U.S. ever
setting such specific goals?
JC: I don't. The U.S. and the Netherlands are
really very different. I expect that the popula-
tion density of the Netherlands is equivalent
only to our most densely popula ted areas, say
New Jersey or New York. To try to take poli-
cies that are progressive and effective under
those circumstances and apply them to the
U.S., where there are more dispersed land use
patterns and long distances to be traveled, is
not a sound approach.
PPN: Higher gasoline taxes have also been
proposed as a way of making the individual
driver bear more of the actual costs of trans-
portation, including environmental costs.
What is DOT's position?
JC: As a pollution control device, we are
very skeptical. In the short term, gasoline
consumption and travel may be reduced.
We certainly did find that driver behavior
changed somewhat during the energy
price shocks during the 1970s but what
principally happened was that people
bought smaller, more fuel-efficient cars
and kept driving. Gasoline tax increases
that are large enough to substantially
dampen consumer demand could have
serious macroeconomic effects.
PPN: Is there any chance the baby boom
generation will cut back on their driving
out of environmental concern?
JC: We haven't seen any evidence of a
major shift away from automobiles.. . If
you look at any recent period, the total
number of vehicles on the road continues
to grow, and my sense is that it's growing
faster on a percentage basis than thedriver-
age population is growing.
Ifweasanation—from thegrassroots—
were to conclude that our reliance on the
automobile has become excessive, we could
change that. It would take a long time to
reduce the patterns of suburban spread
development that occurred since 1946, yet
we could begin to build at densities that
would be more amenable to transit, and to
locate business and residential services in
ways that would support the operating re-
quirements of transit services. But in gen-
eral, the current population patterns don't
provide for this, especially with the growth
in two-earner families.

Pollution Prevention News - 6
September 1990
Fuel Efficiency:
Silver Lining Behind Current Clouds
In the years following the first oil crisis of 1973, average new
car fuel economy doubled from 14 miles per gallon to 28 mpg. But
when oil prices collapsed in 1986, so did concern over oil con-
sumption; between 1985 and 1989, oil use in the U.S. increased
about 10 percent, and improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency
leveled off.
Meanwhile, prototypes for high-efficiency automobiles have
been available for several years. Volvo, Renault, Volkswagen,
General Motors, Ford, Peugeot, and Toyota have working proto-
types that get about 60 or more miles to the gallon in city driving
and 70 plus on the highway. Renault's VESTA2, which uses new
lightweight construction materials, boasts 78 mpg city and 107
mpg highway mileage. Volvo says its LCP 2000 can deliver 62
mpg city and 81 mpg highway; it seats 4 people, accelerates to 60
miles per hour in 11 seconds, and more than meets U.S. safety
standards. Engineers estimate the LCP 2000, completed in 1985,
could be manufactered at a cost comparable to today's sub-
compact. But Volvo still has no plans to market the car in the U.S.
Whether any of these cars will ultimately reach the market will
depend on a host of factors — oil prices and availability, fuel
economy standards, and environmental concerns.
"Car manufacturers are probably going to give much more
80 -i
Drive alone Share Drive Mass Transit Walk Work at Home Taxi, other
We Want to be Alone
More American commuters drive to work alone in their
own cars than use any other form of transportation. The
proportion of workers using public transportation declined
by over one-half from 1960 to 1980, and the decline continued
to 1985. There was also a significant shift between 1980 and
1985 from ride sharing to driving alone.
It has been estimated that 33 million gallons of gasoline
could be saved each day — and car air pollution signifi-
cantly reduced — if the average commuter passenger load
were increased by one person.
		Source: U.S. DOT
Cutting Aerodynamic Drag
Pollution prevention opportunities abound, even in invis-
ible places. Consider aerodynamic drag; Every automobile
pushes an average of 4.5 tons of air out of i ts way each mi te
that it travels. Likewise, every large tractor-trailer truck
pushes about 20 tonsof air travelling each mile. The collective
national energy penalty for pushingallofthisainsenormous,
amounting to an estimated 8 billion gallons of diesel fuel per
year for heavy trucks alone. At typical highway speeds
nearly half of the power developed by an engine is used to
overcome the resistance of the atmosphere. The drag coef-
ficient of American cars has improved since the late 1970s,
from an average of 0.44 down to 0.3 for the Ford Sable;
European car manufacturers have undertaken innovative
improvements in this area as well.
credence to introducing fuel efficient technologies now than
three years ago when we were not worried about oil security and
global warming," says Deborah Bleviss, executive director of the
International Institute for Energy Conservation in Washington.
Fuel economy improvements could mean environmental
benefits in addition to keeping down fuel costs and lines at the
gas station. One estimate is that each increase in average fuel
efficiency of 1 mile per gallon reduces C02 emissions by about 40
billion pounds per year, roughly the equivalent of closing 6 coal-
fired power plants.
Clean Fuels from page 3
Hydrogen—Although hydrogen is being tested as a motor vehicle
fuel in other countries, ithas not yetattracted much attention in theU.S.
because of its currently very high costs.
Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) — A number of fleets in California
are testing LPG, which is cleaner burning than gasoline.
Methanol — Substituting methanol for gasoline could reduce
ozone as well as visible smoke, oxides of nitrogen, and particulates;
however, the full environmental verdict on methanol is not yet in.
The California Energy Commission has sponsored extensive
tests of methanol-fueled vehicles in cooperation with automobile
manufacturers and oil companies. "Fuel-flexible vehicles" (FFVs)
have been developed that can run on any mix of methanol, ethanol,
and gasoline. The first methanol heavy-duty truck engine demon-
stration project in the U.S. began in Los Angeles this year.
Although produced only in small quantities to date, methanol is
believed to be potentially competitive with gasoline. EPA's analyses
suggest that both dedicated methanol vehicles and vehicles optimized
for ethanol could compete in cost with future gasoline vehicles.
Reformulated gasoline — Reformulated gasoline is gasoline
whose physical or chemical properties have been changed in some
way to achieve a particular objective.
Oil companies and automobile manufacturers are engaged in a
joint research project to test the use of 25 different gasolines in
various vehicles to determine their potential for meeting stricter
emissions standards with minimal impact on engine performance.
Several major oil companies are now marketing newly reformu-
lated gasolines or intend to market them soon.

September 1990
7 - Pollution Prevention News
from page 1
facility in teams of one to three inspectors
(depending on the complexity of the fa-
cility), with each team inspecting the
facility's compliance with air, water, haz-
ardous waste, and SARA 313 requirements,
and identifying source reduction oppor-
tunities. The facilities were also provided
technical assistance, when requested, as
part of DEM's "Central Massachusetts
Pollution Prevention Project."
According to the project report, single-
inspector and two-inspector teams are the
best candidates for future DEP use. Single
Blackstone inspectors completed multi-
media inspections of facilities that were
regulated by two DEP programs in less time
than two single-media inspectors; similarly,
paired inspection teams were more cost
effective than the status quo for inspecting
facilities regulated by three DEP programs.
Among other things, the Blackstone
inspectors found 16 violations and five
other problems that probably would not
have been found during standard inspec-
tions, including unpermitted waste
streams and an unintended loophole be-
tween the air and pretreatment programs.
The project also provided valuable in-
formation for pretreatmentand identified
specific source reduction opportunities at
16 of the 26 facilities. According to the
report, the coordination of DEP's regula-
tory and DEM's technical assistance ac-
tivities enhanced DEP's regulatory ac-
tivities, and encouraged industry utiliza-
tion of DEM's expertise, without com-
promising the mission or reputation of
either agency. Also,21 of the facilities said
they would support DEP changing all in-
spections to multi-media inspections.
Because of the success of the project,
DEP will be testing the approach in other
settings in FY91: using different subject
industry groups and more DEP inspectors
in all four DEP regional offices. The ef-
fectiveness of source reduction-biased
enforcement will also be evaluated in FY91.
For a copy of the executive summary of
"The FY90 Report on the Blackstone
Project," write to Walter Hope, Mass
DEP, One Winter St., 5th Floor, Boston,
MA 02108. For the complete 140-page
report, send a check for $8.60 written to
"Commonwealth of Massachusetts" to
State Bookstore, Room 116, State House,
Boston, MA 02133.
Renew America
from page 2
chemicals to control the beetle or shall we
use slower, organic methods of control
and risk losing the crop? Such a decision
would be made with thestudents....Every
event is an opportunity to foster the de-
velopment of healthy attitudes about the
plant, animal and human community.
"The Farm program has had a positive
impact on the lives of many children and
those whose lives they touch," Sister
Rogers added. "Some students have re-
turned to their schools and initiated pro-
grams to conserveenergy, or recycle waste,
or ban styrofoam products. We hope and
expect that the 'ripple effect' will occur,
and that those who are influenced by
these children will make a noticeable
impact on the health of our planet."
As thi s school year begins, every school
district in Wisconsin has incorporated en-
vironmental education into every subject
area at every grade level, as part of
"Wisconsin Environmental Education
Initiatives," another program mentioned
for special merit. The Wisconsin program
involves extensive teacher training and
certification's well as special educational
materials and public television program-
ming. The Prince George's County Pub-
lic Schools system in Maryland was also
recognized for its success in integrating
environmental education into its social
studies, science, history, math, and other
Other special merit designations went to:
from page 1
students for engineering practice in waste
•	Commitment to technology transfer
and industry/university collaboration;
•	Leadership and outreach beyond the
Center itself.
The Center's research efforts will be
carried out by university-based consortia
and single investigators. Companies may
fund research targeted to their specific
needs or the needsof their industry sector.
We will encourage companies to volunteer
to "test prove" new and emerging waste
reduction technologies.
Beach Channel High School students campaign for
protection of wetlands around Jamaica Bay.
•	the Textbook Review Program, a Texas
program in which representatives of the
Sierra Club and Audubon Society
evaluated textbooks for environmental
content and made recommendations to
the state board of education that led to
changes in the board's requirements, and
•	the Small Farm Educational Program of
the Heifer Project International Learn-
ing and Livestock Center in Perryville,
Ariz., a 2-acre farm run by students using
only renewable energy and biological
To enter next year's Searching for Suc-
cess competition or to learn more about
the Environmental Success Index, write to
Cathy Nemsick, Renew America, 140016th
St.,NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036,
or call (202) 232-2252.
The Center is also committed to bring-
ing advances into the education process to
ensure that environmentally compatible
design becomes a permanent feature of
industrial practice. Vehicles to achieve
this goal include new course materials for
undergraduate and graduate curricula,
continuing education courses for practic-
ing engineers, and stud ent internship pro-
For further information, please contact
me at the Center, 345 E. 47th St., New
York, NY 10017 (Tel: 212-705-7407; Fax:
212-752-3294). We look forward to a new
and productive era in waste reduction
technology research.

Pollution Prevention News - 8
September 1990
Calendar of Events
WPCF Annual Conference
- •. *, ' f .
Water Pollution Control
Oct. 7-11
Washington, DC
Conf. Dept.
Annual Meeting
National Association of
Solvent Recyclers
Oct. 8-10
Corpus Christi, TX
Kimberly Levy
Solid and Hazardous
Waste Management (course)
Florida Chamber of
Oct. 17-19
St. Petersburg, FL
Carol McRae
Solid Waste Recycling
Conference & Exhibition
Oct. 30-31
Detroit, MI
Ben Deutsch
Hazardous and Solid
Waste Minimization (Course)
Government Institutes, Inc.
Nov. 1-2/Las Vegas, NV
Nov. 8-9/Parsippany, NJ
Terri Green
5th National Household
Hazardous Waste Management
U.S. EPA, CA Dept. of Health
Services, CA Integrated
Waste Management Board
Nov. 5-7
San Francisco, CA
Michele Sevigny
Haz. Waste Management &
Pollution Prevention Course
Applied Environmental
Technologies Corp.
Nov. 7-8/Boxborough, MA
Nov. 28-29/Pittsburgh, PA
Dec. 12-13/Meriden, CT
Kimberly Moore
11th Annual Meeting
Society of Environmental Toxi-
cology and Chemistry (SETAC)
Nov. 11-15
Arlington, VA
Randall S. Wentsel
Crossroads: Architects &
The Environment
American Institute
of Architects
Nov. 13
Washington, DC
Doug Greenwood
Used Oil Management
And Compliance Conference
National Oil Recyclers
Assn., Gov't. Institutes, Inc.
Nov. 27-28
Washington, DC
Terri Green
Pollution Prevention
American Ecology Services
Inc./Geraghty & Miller
Nov. 29-30
Arlington, VA
Richard Miller
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300
United States Environmental
Protection Agency (PM-219)
Washington, DC 20460
Send in your 1990
pollution prevention
success stories by
Oct. 15 for inclusion in the
November/ December
Pollution Prevention News