United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Pollution Prevention
Washington, DC 20460
Jan/Feb 1991
&EPA Pollution
2 Resources
3, 8
In the
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Editorial Staff:
Priscilla Flattery, Editor
Cilah Langner
EPA Unveils Pollution Prevention Strategy
17 Chemicals Targeted for Reduction in
Strategy's Industrial Toxics Project
EPA's Administrator William K. Reilly
has transmitted to Congress the Agency's
Pollution Prevention Strategy, developed
over the past year in consultation with all
Agency program and regional offices. The
strategy includes a plan for targeting specific
high risk chemicals that offer opportunities
for prevention (see box on page 8). EPA is
setting a goal of reducing environmental
releases of these chemicals by 33 percent by
the end of 1992 and at least 50 percent by the
end of 1995.
All of the targeted chemicals are included
on the Agency's Toxic Release Inventory
(TRI); thus, reductions in their releases can
be measured in each year's TRI reports.
Several hundred companies who have
reported releases of the target chemicals
have already been contacted by EPA. EPA is
seeking their cooperation in making volun-
tary commitments to reduce releases and in
developing pollution prevention plans to
carry out these commitments.
The industrial toxics project was designed
in line with one of the stated principles of the
strategy, which is to maximize private sector
initiative while challenging industry to
achieve ambitious prevention goals. At the
same time, the strategy emphasizes the need
for strong regulatory and enforcement
programs under existing statutory authorities.
continued on page 8
Editor's Corner
Moving Forward with Prevention
Stanley L. Laskowski, Director,
Office of Pollution Prevention
In 1991 we hope to see pollution preven-
tion gain new ground across the country.
EPA's strategy for pollution prevention,
discussed in detail above, coupled with the
clear legislative mandate embodied in the
Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, bode well
for the future. The new law and EPA's
strategy provide for a well-targeted effort to
achieve measurable progress in pollution
This month we are highlighting the role
of the EPA Regional Offices in pollution
prevention. A number of exciting initiatives
are taking place in the regions. Six of the
regions are featured this month (the other
four will be featured in our April issue); only
a sample of their many activities could be
included here.
Coming from a regional office myself, I
am well aware of the excellent contributions
of EPA's regional staff. Generally speaking,
the Regional Offices are the front-line
contacts with the larger environmental
community  the states, localities, industry,
civic groups, associations, and individual
members of the public. EPA depends on the
Regional Offices to provide leadership
throughout the country. The Regional
Offices are the source of many creative ideas
and are integrating pollution prevention into
their daily activities. We want to call your
attention to the EPA regions as another
resource  of expertise, energy, and
enthusiasm  in developing your pollution
prevention projects.
Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
Jan/Feb 1991
Health Effects
of CFC Substitutes
Two interim reports released by EPA
conclude that a number of CFC substi-
tutes can be used in a manner safe to
workers, consumers, and the environ-
ment, although more studies are needed
to evaluate the full health and environ-
mental effects of the chemicals. Substi-
tutes reviewed in one report include 8
HFCs and HCFCs; the second report
examines 8 terpenes and 20 aqueous
cleaner chemicals used in metal and
electronics cleaning. To obtain copies of
the reports, call the TSCA Hotline, 202-
National Pesticide
Survey Releases
Preliminary Results
A three-year national survey of well
water conducted by EPA's Office of Water
and Office of Pesticide Programs has
found that 10 percent of the nation's
community drinking water wells and
about 4 percent of rural domestic drinking
water wells have detectable residues of at
least one pesticide. However, less than
one percent of the wells have pesticide
residues above levels considered protec-
tive of human health.
The survey tested 1,347 well water
samples, with some samples taken in
every state. Samples were tested for 126
pesticides and breakdown products, as
well as for nitrates. The survey found
that more than half of the nation's wells
contain nitrates. About 1.2 percent of
community wells and 2.4 percent of
rural wells showed detections above the
10 parts per million maximum contami-
nant level established to protect human
health. High levels of nitrates in
ground water can often be traced to
excessive rates of fertilizer application or
improper management of animal wastes
or septic systems.
The most frequently detected pesti-
cide was dacthal, a broadleaf weed killer
used primarily on lawns and approved
for use on a variety of fruit and veg-
etable crops. Dacthal was nearly always
found at about 0.1 percent of the level of
health concern. The next most frequently
detected pesticides, in order, were:
atrazine, DBCP, prometon, simazine,
EDB, and gamma lindane.
Commenting on the survey results,
Henry Habicht, EPA's Deputy Adminis-
trator noted: "The findings of the survey
indicate that the vast majority of
drinking water wells in this country do
not have levels of pesticides or nitrates
that would pose a risk to public health."
For more information on the survey
results, contact A1 Heier, 202-382-4355.
Taming the Threat
in the Northwest
A new report outlines how the
Northwest U.S. can become a leader in
source reduction, with the goal of
preserving the region from environmen-
tal degradation. Taming the Toxic Threat:
Strategies to Reduce Hazardous Waste
Generation in the Northwest presents
issues and steps to take, as well as a
resource guide, in a format accessible to
policymakers, businesses and citizen
groups. The report proposes variations
on the region's existing technical and
business assistance programs that could
encourage companies to reduce their
toxic waste output. Taming the Toxic
Threat was prepared by the Northwest
Policy Center of the University of
Washington's Graduate School of Public
Affairs. To order, contact the center at
(206) 543-7900.
Recycling Laws
Sweep the States
A study by the National Solid Wastes
Management Association counted 65
recycling laws enacted in 27 states
during the first five months of 1990.
Thirty states and the District of Colum-
bia have comprehensive laws which
require detailed recycling plans and/or
separation of recyclables and contain
one or more other provisions to stimu-
late recycling. Many of the states have
set recycling goals that exceed EPA's
25% target rate for recycling by 1992,
although to date only a handful of states
(New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island,
Washington) appear to be achieving
recycling rates in the 20 percent or
higher range.
The report notes a number of trends
in recycling legislation. For example,
fewer states are including materials
separation requirements in their legisla-
tion; more often they are requiring their
municipalities to produce detailed
recycling plans and imposing disposal
bans for selected wastes. At least five
states now include businesses in their
recycling laws, and more are expected to
add commercial solid waste recycling.
States also are beginning to focus on
market development. Some states are
revising their procurement laws to
include price preferences and purchase
goals for recycled products and are
requiring manufacturers to use second-
ary materials. Thirty-five states provide
some type of grant or loan, usually to
municipalities, for recycling. A growing
number of states are using tax incentives
as well. For example, in New Jersey,
businesses may take a 50 percent
investment credit for recycling vehicles
and machinery. They are also eligible for
a 6% sales tax exemption on purchases
of recycling equipment.
For more information, contact Leslie
Legg at NSWMA, 202-659-4613.
EPA Establishes
New Office
EPA has established a new Office of
Environmental Education as authorized
by the recently enacted National Environ-
mental Education Act. The office aims to
increase environmental literacy and
awareness among students and educa-
tors. Responsibilities will include
coordination of programs and informa-
tion in government, private industry and
education; supporting environmental
education projects; and carrying out
programs such as the President's Environ-
mental Youth Awards and Environmental
Youth Forums. For more information,
contact Mike Baker, 202-382-4965.

]an/Feb 1991
3 - Pollution Prevention News
EPA Regional Offices
EPA Region 3
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Delaware, Maryland,
Pennsylvania, Virginia,
West Virginia, D.C.
Pollution Prevention Contact:
James Hemby
(215) 597-8327
Region 3: Pollution Prevention
in RCRA Consent Orders
As part of the RCRA corrective action enforcement process in
Region 3, EPA is seeking to include, in each corrective action
consent order, a require-
ment that the owner/
operator develop a waste
minimization plan, based
on a guidance document
prepared by the region.
The plan must describe
procedures to reduce the
quantity and toxicity of the
hazardous waste generated
at the facility.
Region 3 is also concerned about potential risk associated
with releases, particularly air emissions, from facilities identified
in the Toxic Release Inventory which offer good opportunities
for pollution prevention. Prior to beginning negotiations on a
RCRA corrective action order, the TRI data for the facility are
reviewed by a regional toxicologist. Negotiations include
requirements to reduce significant releases through pollution
prevention. To date, in several cases, such negotiations have led
companies to agree to reduce significant emissions down to zero
through preventive measures.
This facility is located in York, Pennsylvania and
manufactures tracked military vehicles. During negotia-
tion of a final RCRA 3008(a) order, the TRI data for the
facility was reviewed. The data revealed a potential risk-
related problem associated with the discharge of hex
chromium into a receiving stream and the release of
chlorinated solvents from degreasing operations as stack
emissions. The company decided to install a forced
crystallization treatment process, i.e., evaporation, that
could handle all the waste streams from the plant in a
closed loop. As a result, the discharge of hex chromium
into the receiving stream would be eliminated. The
company also added a cooling unit to the degreaser to
condense the organic vapors and have them settle back
into the tank rather than going out the stack. The cooling
unit resulted in close to a 90 percent reduction in chlori-
nated solvents being released. This technology is readily
available but not commonly used.
Ahead in '91...
	A national conference on environmental consumerism, to
be hosted by Region 3 in the Fall of 1991 in Philadelphia.
	An energy conservation working group will be convened
with representatives from electric utilities and Region 3's
Pollution Prevention Program, to explore cooperative
efforts on "negawatts" and conservation programs.
Region 8: The Environmental
Scholars Program
Region 8's experiment in pollution prevention education is
paying large dividends in Colorado, and other states in the
Region are now interested
EPA Region 8
999 18th St., Suite 800
Denver, Colorado 80202
Colorado, Montana, North
Dakota, South Dakota, Utah,
Pollution Prevention Contact:
Don Patton
(303) 293-1456
in starting similar pro-
grams. Using a "teach the
teachers" concept, the
Environmental Scholars
program brought in K-12
teachers (science and
other fields) for a two
week, intensive workshop
at Metro State College
that included guest
speakers from EPA, the State of Colorado, industry and
The material challenged the teachers to look at environmen-
tal problems and solutions from a fresh perspective, and
provided inspiration as well as an opportunity to network with
fellow teachers. The program also included a support structure
for continued environmental education by providing technical
assistance (including quarterly in-service training) and informal
"mentoring" between EPA experts and teachers.
Another integral aspect of the program is the implementa-
tion of pollution prevention projects by the teachers in their
home schools, in partnership with their communities.
Project EcoSchool
Columbine Middle
School is well on the way
to becoming Montrose's
first "ecologically sound"
The effort is called
"Project EcoSchool" and
has my 27 students
eagerly combing the
school and its grounds for
virtually anything that
can be recycled.... As a reward for all these efforts we'll be
taking trips to the city landfill and Montrose Recycling
The program has been a real eye-opener for the kids.
Many have reported back that they've talked to their
parents about recycling and now are recycling numerous
items from their households.
"1 can make a difference... now I know where everything
goes and that it doesn't just go away," reports Trent Paradis.
We will be documenting just how much we recycle so
at the end of the year we'll be able to compute in graphic
terms just what kind of an impact we've had.
 Roxanne Brickell, Sixth-Grade Teacher,
Columbine Middle School, Montrose, CO

Pollution Prevention Neivs - 4
Jan/Feb 1991
EPA Regional Offices
Region 1: Drawing Cross-Media Connections in New England
Region l's Pollution
Prevention efforts have
experienced continual
growth since January,
1989. The following
examples highlight pol-
lution prevention efforts
within EPA programs,
across media programs,
and in the New England
EPA Region 1
JFK Federal Building
Boston, MA 02203
Connecticut, Massachusetts,
Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode
Island, Vermont
Pollution Prevention Contact:
Nancy Lewis
(617) 565-3394
Ozone Layer Protection Conference
More than 400 individuals from the electronics and metal
cleaning industries attended this conference for solvent users
on October 31 and November 1 in Natick, MA. Regional
Administrator Julie Belaga emphasized the opportunities for
pollution prevention in process change and chemical alterna-
tives. The technology transfer conference enabled local
industries to take advantage of international, national and
local expertise and knowledge.
A total of 38 equipment representatives exhibited their
products at the conference. Site visits to selected Boston area
electronics and metal working facilities illustrated alternative,
non-ozone depleting processes. A videotape of the conference
and a "How To" report will be available shortly.
Task Force Strategy Institutionalization
The primary group charged with integrating pollution
prevention into Regiortl's programs is the Region I Pollution
Prevention Task Force, made up of representatives of every
Division and Office in the Region.
The central activity of the Task Force is the development
and implementation of the Regionl Pollution Prevention
Strategy, an explicit statement of all the pollution prevention
activities that the Region will undertake in the coming year.
The strategy will gradually be built into the Regional account-
ability process. The FY 91 Strategy represents Region l's
second annual effort to outline its plans for integrating
pollution prevention into all Regionl programs.
New England Pollution Prevention
The New England Pollution Prevention Council
(NEPPC), co-chaired by Regional Administrator Julie
Belaga and John Gould, Executive Director of Associated
Industries of Massachusetts, serves as a forum for New
England's pollution prevention issues. During its first
year, the Council focused on two projects:
	Transportation Policy Proposal  The Council is
working to develop policy principles that will look at
environmental considerations in the planning phase of
transportation projects.
	Automobile Pollution Prevention Project Catalog 
The Council is developing a catalog of projects that
will prevent pollution associated with automobile use
and maintenance. The Council is planning to seek
corporate sponsorship of these projects.
Region 9: Promoting Training for Federal,
State, and Local Agency Staff
Region 9's Pollution
Prevention Program has
recently expanded with
the addition of a multime-
dia workgroup composed
of staff and managers
from each of the region's
divisions. A Senior
Management Steering
Committee and the
workgroup are respon-
sible for promoting the
development and institu-
tionalization of pollution prevention within our programs
and throughout our region.
Several successful training sessions and conferences have
taken place in the last few months under the auspices of
Region 9. Waste Minimization Assessment Training held in
EPA Region 9
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
Arizona, California, Hawaii,
Nevada, Guam, American Samoa,
Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands, Commonwealth of
Northern Mariana Islands
Pollution Prevention Contact:
Kevin Dick
(415) 744-2189
September in the Bay Area attracted staff from EPA, state,
and local agencies. As a follow-up, conference attendees will
be performing at least three on-site waste minimization
In October, a conference of California Local Government
Waste Minimization Programs was held in Sonoma in
conjunction with the California Department of Health
Services and several California Local Government Waste
Minimization Committees. (See the October 1990 issue of
Pollution Prevention News for a write-up of these activities.)
In November, a Region 9 States RCRA Hazardous Waste
Minimization Conference was held at Lake Tahoe, attended
by representatives of EPA, Arizona, California, Guam,
Hawaii, and Nevada. In addition to speakers from state and
local programs, the conference included discussion of ways of
integrating pollution prevention into program activities, and
improving coordination and communication within the states
and in the region as a whole.

Jan/Feb 1991
5 - Pollution Prevention News
EPA Regional Offices
Region 2: New Way of
Doing Business
Region 2 has made significant progress in making pollu-
tion prevention the "new way of doing business" in all facets
of operations. Traditional
EPA Region 2
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
New Jersey, New York, Puerto
Rico, Virgin Islands
Pollution Prevention Contact:
Alice Jenik
(212) 264-2525
regulatory mechanisms
are being adapted to
incorporate pollution
prevention and new non-
regulatory projects are
being initiated. Two
projects below illustrate
both methods of making
prevention work.
Facility Assessments
The Air Toxics Pollution Prevention Initiative started with
the recognition that many toxic pollutants do not fall under
the regulatory ambit. Using the SARA 313 and ATERIS
databases, a list of 30 targeted chemicals, and the number of
complaints and locations of the facilities as criteria, Region 2
selected 19 facilities and invited them to participate voluntar-
ily in the initiative. Five facilities were selected for detailed
contractor assessments; preliminary results are encouraging.
For example:
	Five companies have corporate policies and goals in place to
reduce emissions by 1995; and
	Two facilities (Alcan and Amerada Hess) achieved 60%
or greater emissions reductions by implementing
pollution prevention techniques and better maintenance
and monitoring.
Successful results will be publicized; a final report on all
the facilities should be ready this summer. In late FY91, this
effort will be expanded further to include more facilities in
other regional hot spots.
EPA Region 5
230 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, IL 60604
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin
Pollution Prevention Contact:
Linda Glass
(312) 886-1019
Region 5: Creating Markets
for Recycled Products
Recognizing the growing glut of old newspaper (ONP), the
inadequate market for post-consumer waste paper, and the
resulting potential to
stifle what has been a
successful recycling
effort on the part of the
public, staff from EPA
Region 5's Solid Waste
Section began efforts in
early 1990 to interest the
Midwest pulp and paper
industry in a joint project
to create greater markets
for these products. The result of those efforts was the cre-
ation of the Great Lakes Waste Paper Work Group, a public-
private initiative directed toward consumer waste paper
Representatives from Region 5 and the Illinois Department
of Energy and Natural Resources presented the idea to a large
group of top managers from the industry at a pulp and paper
conference in May 1990. Seven companies agreed to form the
work group: Green Bay Packaging; Perry H. Koplik & Sons;
Sears, Roebuck & Company; R.R. Donnelley & Sons; Packag-
ing Corporation of America; Mead Central Research; and the
American Paper Institute.
Meeting in Chicago for the first time in August 1990, the
group agreed to focus its efforts on increasing ONP and lower
paper grade reuse; improving public education on waste
paper needs; preparing waste paper quality guidelines; and
encouraging organizations to buy products made from post-
consumer waste paper.
Plans are underway to initiate a similar project with
representatives of the plastics industry. For further informa-
tion on both projects, contact Jay Bergamini at EPA, 312-353-
Waste Reduction Statements
for New RCRA Permits
The Air and Waste Management Division in Region 2 is
requesting that all TSD facilities applying for new RCRA
permits develop a Waste Reduction Impact Statement within
six months of permit issuance. The statement must include
the following information:
	an identification of the annual amount and types of wastes;
	for each waste stream, an identification of the source of the
generation of these hazardous wastes;
	an analysis of technically and economically feasible hazard-
ous waste reduction techniques that were implemented
since 1984; and
	a program and schedule for implementing the feasible
hazardous waste reduction techniques.
Handbook on Office Recycling
The Office Recycling Handbook provides step-by-
step instructions for managers on how to establish an
office recycling program. A joint project of EPA Region
5 and the Region 5 Office of the U.S. General Services
Administration, the handbook also contains eight
appendices that cover a variety of topics, from a
description of commonly recycled products and con-
taminants in the recycling stream, to sample memos that
can be used to kick off a recycling program. With the
first run of copies widely distributed, EPA is republish-
ing the handbook. For information or to order copies,
contact Jay Bergamini, 312-353-7598 or A1 Fenedick,

Pollution Prevention News - 6
Jan/Feb 1991
In the States
Louisiana Addresses Pipe Scale Problem
The fundamental concept of pollution
prevention is broad and can be applied
to extractive industries such as oil
drilling or mining that can generate
substantial quantities of harmful
materials. This is precisely the situation
in Louisiana where radioactive oil
drilling waste currently poses a signifi-
cant problem. In response, the State of
Louisiana has taken a proactive ap-
proach by developing and implement-
ing the first regulations in the nation to
specifically address the problem of
naturally occurring low level radiation
emanating from oil drilling.
During oil drilling operations in
Louisiana, radium rich water deposits a
scale on the inside of drilling pipe and
equipment. Eventually scale builds up
to the point where it must be removed,
or the equipment discarded. By this
time, the concentration of radium in the
scale is extremely high and the scale
poses a significant health risk.
Removal of the scale can result in
high occupational exposures as well as
localized radium contamination to soil
and water. Simply discarding the pipe
and equipment results in risks to the
general public. The exposure from either
removal or disposal can be orders of
magnitude above what EPA considers
Last year, local press in both Louisi-
ana and Mississippi focused upon the
risks posed by contaminated play-
ground equipment built from discarded
contaminated pipe. Readings as high as
200 times background level were
recorded in railings, baseball field
fixtures, and playground equipment.
This is equivalent to levels present in a
nuclear power reactor, an exposure the
same as that received by 'radiation
Regulation of naturally occurring
radioactive material (NORM), such as
pipe scale, has long been a problem
throughout the United States. Presently,
there are no federal regulations, and
model state regulations have been under
review for several years. Given the
importance and pervasiveness of the
problem, Louisiana moved forward on its
own to propose an interim policy which
regulates the handling, storage and
disposal of scale or soil contaminated
with scale. Included in the policy are
worker protection guidelines, waste
storage controls, and a prohibition of
transfer of contaminated equipment.
Under the final regulations adopted in
September 1989, firms handling used and
potentially contaminated drilling pipe are
required to complete a radiological survey
to determine if they fall under the
regulations. The regulations also prohibit
release of contaminated sites and equip-
ment for unrestricted use and require that
decontamination and maintenance of
equipment be performed only by autho-
rized personnel. A fee system established
% -

t IP:
by the regulations helps support state
compliance oversight.
As a result of the regulations, a new
and environmentally sensitive pipe
cleaning industry is developing within
Louisiana. Firms are now licensed by the
state ensuring that proper environmen-
tal compliance measures are employed.
Since this is a widespread problem
which includes oil drilling operations in
adjacent states, the long range solution is
development of a state/EPA/industry
partnership. The industry also has a
stake in the effort. Developing a process
which actually inhibits the formation of
the scale is the ultimate answer. Until
that ultimate remedy is in place, the
Louisiana regulations remain an excel-
lent model for other states.
For more information, contact Hall
Bohlinger, Louisiana Department of
Environmental Quality, 504-925-4518 or
Dennis O'Connor at 202-475-9600.
 Dennis O'Connor
U.S. EPA Office of
Radiation Programs
Solvents: The Good, the
Bad, and the Banned
A 6-hour national teleconference on
alternative technologies will be held
March 13,1991, sponsored by the
University of Tennessee Center for
Industrial Services and the Tennessee
Dept. of Health and Environment.
For information, call Pamela Peters,
Alabama Gives
Free Advice on
Waste Reduction
Companies in Alabama now can get
free on-site assessments of waste reduc-
tion opportunities under a new public/
private partnership called WRATT, the
Waste Reduction And Technology
Transfer program. The assessments are
conducted by a corps of specially trained
retired engineers and scientists who re-
viewed the practices of 25 companies last
year and are expected to work with 60
more in 1991.
Businesses warm to the program be-
cause it is independent of the regulators
and its recommendations are not bind-
ing. But companies apparently are im-
pressed by evidence tha t WRATT can cut
their disposal costs, reduce their poten-
tial liability and improve their image.
The program is a non-profit partnership
of the Alabama Department of Environ-
mental Management, a non-profit group
called Shoals, Inc. that promotes
Alabama's economy, and the Tennessee
Valley Authority, using an EPA grant.
As a non-profit, WRATT is eligible for
charitable contributions from industry,
which so far make up nearly half of its
Part of WRATT's mission is to assist
other states developing similar programs,
and it has already done so for Iowa,
South Carolina and Mississippi. The
WRATT program is modeled on a pub-
licly funded Tennessee program run by
the University of Tennessee's Center for
Industrial Services. For more informa-
tion, contact WRATT at 205-764-5179 or

jan I Feb 1991
7 - Pollution Prevention News
Test Your Pollution Prevention IQ!
How much pollution prevention info do you have at your fingertips?
Test your knowledge base by taking this quiz.
1.	The furnace/air conditioner uses more energy
than anything else in the home. What is the
second greatest source of home energy use?
(a)	Home appliances
(b)	Indoor and outdoor lighting
(c)	Hot water heater
2.	What accounts for more than half of the
hazardous waste disposed of by individuals?
(a)	Paint products
(b)	Cosmetic products
(c)	Household cleaners
3.	The proportion of Americans who get to work
using public transportation has changed how
much since 1960?
(a)	Increased more than 50%
(b)	Increased, but less than 50%
(c)	Dropped more than 50%
(d)	Dropped, but less than 50%
4.	Some 220 million acres of land in the U.S.
have been deforested for livestock production.
What proportion of U.S. croplands are used just
to grow feed for livestock?
(a)	15%	(c) 50%
(b)	25%	(d) 75%
5.	In the average U.S. household, what proportion
of the water is used in the bathroom?
(a)	20%	(c) 50%
(b)	35%	(d) 75%
6.	Aerosol cans that say "No CFCs" are
environmentally safe. True or False?
7.	The best time to water your lawn is
(a)	Morning
(b)	Afternoon
(c)	Early evening
(d)	Night
8.	The bleaching of paper for paper towels,
coffee filters, etc. has been linked with what
toxic substance?
(a)	Dioxin
(b)	Chlorofluorocarbons
(c)	Lead
(d)	Sulfuric acid
9.	How many trees are used in making disposable
diapers every year?
(a)	10 million
(b)	100 million
(c)	1 billion
(d)	3 billion
10.	What is the primary source of significant
exposure to lead in the environment?
(a)	deteriorating lead-based paint in housing
(b)	urban soil and dust contaminated by lead from paint
and gasoline
(c)	drinking water contaminated by lead solder joining
water pipes, past use of lead service lines, and
continued use of lead in brass plumbing fixtures
(d)	emissions from lead smelters and municipal waste
11.	The largest single source of CFC emissions
(a)	Disposable foam products
(b)	Leaking auto air conditioners
(c)	Refrigerators
12.	How many pounds of carbon does the
average car release each year?
(a)	100	(c) 5,000
(b)	1,000	(d) 10,000

13.	Overall, you use less energy if you keep your
home at a constant temperature; so don't turn
down the heat when you leave for a few hours.
True or False?
14.	Before they had pesticides, farmers lost
about one-third (33%) of their crops to pests.
Today, with pesticides, what percentage of U.S.
crops do pests ruin?
(a)	5%	(c) 20%
(b)	12%	(d) 33%
15.	Waste paper, food scraps, yard waste, and
paper plates together make up what proportion
of the material in U.S. landfills?
(a)	71%	(c) 23%
(b)	46%	(d) 10%
16.	You save gas when you let your car idle for
a couple of minutes rather than turning the
ignition off and on again. True or False?
17.	Compact fluorescent bulbs cost a lot, but
they can save you money because they last
much longer than incandescents and use only
	as much energy.
(a)	10%	(c) 50%
(b)	25%	(d) 75%
18.	About 70% of plants identified by the
National Cancer Institute as being useful in
cancer treatment are found only in rainforests.
Nevertheless, destruction of the world'stropical
rain forest is proceeding at the rate of
(a)	1 acre per minute
(b)	10 acres per minute
(c)	20-30 acres per minute
(d)	50-100 acres per minute
19.	Which of the following gases is (are)
responsible for the greenhouse effect and global
(a)	carbon dioxide
(b)	chlorofluorocarbons
(c)	methane
(d)	nitrous oxide
(e)	sulfur dioxide
(f)	ozone
20.	According to EPA'sToxic Release Inventory,
which state showed the largest reported releases
of toxic chemicals into the environment in 1988?
(a)	Louisiana (d) Florida
(b)	Ohio	(e) Tennessee
(c)	Texas
1:a. 2:c. 3:c. 4:c. 5:d. 6: False. Most such aerosols
use propane or butane which contribute to smog. Use
products with non-aerosol vacuum pumps instead. 7: a.
In the heat of the day, water evaporates 4 to 8 times more
quickly than early morning; watering at night can cause
fungus. 8: a. 9:c. 10: a. The next largest sources are b
andc. 11: b. 12: d. 13: False. 14: d. 15: b. 16: False. If
your car is standing still for one minute or longer, idling
is less efficient than restarting the car. 17: b. The bulbs
are usually worth the investment if they are on at least 2
hours a day. 18: d. At this rate, tropical rain forests will
be completely destroyed in 100 years. 19: all except e.
20: a.
 Judith K. Rosenthal. Sources include: 50 Simple
Things You Can Do to Save the Earth, Save Our Planet,
and publications by EPA and the World Resources

Pollution Prevention News - 8
Jan/Feb 1991
EPA Strategy Challenges the Private Sector
from page 1
In incorporating pollution prevention
into the Agency's existing programs, the
strategy favors flexible, cost-effective
regulatory approaches that involve
market-based incentives where practical.
For example, the strategy calls for a
flexible use of the Toxic Substance
Control Act (TSCA) to provide a cost-
effective means to create direct or
indirect incentives for multi-media
prevention strategies. Another mecha-
nism is the use of "regulatory clusters,"
through which EPA will categorize the
rules it intends to propose over the next
several years for certain chemicals and
their sources. The clusters are intended
to foster improved cross-media evalua-
tion of the cumulative impact of stan-
dards, more certainty for industry, and
early investment in prevention activities.
The strategy outlines the various
institutional barriers within the
Agency's own organization that limit its
ability to develop effective prevention
strategies, and spells out several short
term measures to address these barriers,
including designating special assistants
for pollution prevention in each Assis-
tant Administrator's office, developing
incentives and awards to encourage
Agency staff to engage in pollution
prevention efforts, incorporating
prevention into the comprehensive 4-
year strategic plans by each program
office, and providing pollution preven-
tion training to Agency staff.
The 17 pollutants identified as targets
of the industrial toxics project present
both significant risks to human health
and the environment and opportunities
to reduce such risks through prevention.
The list was drawn from recommenda-
tions submitted by program offices,
taking into account such criteria as
health and ecological risk, potential for
multiple exposures or cross-media
contamination, technical or economic
opportunities for prevention, and
limitations of treatment.
In light of the substantial public
commitments already undertaken by
many companies to reduce the release of
TRI chemicals, EPA expects a positive
response to its call for voluntary reduc-
The strategy notes that opportunities
for prevention can be practically applied
in virtually all sectors, including manu-
facturing, farming, energy consumption
and transportation, and the disposal of
municipal solid waste. The industrial
toxics project for the manufacturing
sector represents the first focus of a
comprehensive Agency strategy. EPA
will be seeking to work with the Depart-
ments of Agriculture, Energy, and
Transportation to develop strategies for
preventing pollution from agricultural
practices and energy and transportation
use. In a separate effort, EPA has begun
Target Chemicals
(million pounds released in 1988)
Benzene	33.1
Cadmium	2.0
Carbon Tetrachloride	5.0
Chloroform	26.9
Chromium	56.9
Cyanide	 13.8
Dichloromethane	153.4
Lead	58.7
Mercury	0.3
Methyl Ethyl Ketone	159.1
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone	43.7
Nickel	19.4
Tetrachloroethylene	37.5
Toluene	344.6
1,1,1-Trichloroethane	190.5
Trichloroethylene	55.4
Xylene	201.6
to address prevention opportunities for
the municipal sector. EPA hopes to
conclude the strategy process with a
series of public hearings in the fall of
1991. Copies of the strategy document
are available from Julie Shannon in the
Office of Pollution Prevention, 202-382-
United States Environmental	POSTAGE & FEES PAID
Protection Agency (PM-219)	EpA
Washington, DC 20460	PERMIT NO. G-35
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300