United States	Office of Pollution Prevention	June 1991
Environmental Protection	Washington, DC 20460
&EPA Pollution
2 In the News
3 Corporate Habitat
4 Recycling
5 Recycling Award
^ Focus: TCA
1989 TRI Data Released
Pollution Prevention Reporting to Take Effect Next Year
Initial results of the 1989 Toxics Release
Inventory (TRI) indicate that 22,560 indus-
trial facilities released 5.7 billion pounds of
toxic chemicals into the nation's environ-
ment. From 1987 to 1989, reported releases
and transfers of all TRI chemicals decreased
by 1.3 billion pounds (18 percent). EPA
Administrator William Reilly noted that TRI
"is fast becoming one of the most powerful
tools we have to reduce toxic emissions. For
many companies the TRI data can provide
an impetus to consider changes in the mix of
materials and processes during manufactur-
ing. The opportunities are there to cut toxic
emissions sharply — they can be economical
and help ease liability and regulatory
Although some of the decreases between
1987 and 1989 may be attributable to facili-
ties' faulty estimates of 1987 and 1988
releases, evidence suggests that some real
decreases occurred as well. For one thing,
there was a 15% increase in facilities report-
ing in 1989 compared with 1987. In addition,
industrial production by the majority of
industries required to submit reports
increased between 2 and 9 percent over the
two-year period. With continuing additions
and deletions to the chemicals for which
reporting is required, and with a statutorily
mandated decrease in the reporting thresh-
old (from 75,000 pounds for 1987 to 25,000
pounds in 1989), year-to-year comparisons of
the TRI data are difficult. EPA will report on
its analyses of the data in a National Report
Continued on page 7
A1PP Officers
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Editorial Staff:
Priscilla Flattery, Editor
Gilah Langner
Suzanne Harris
Judith Rosenthal
EPA Issues MWPP Guidance
Pollution Prevention Considered Essential for POTW Viability
EPA has embarked on a cooperative
effort in partnership with the states to
promote state-based municipal water
pollution prevention (MWPP) programs.
The program focuses on maintaining
compliance at publicly owned treatment
works (POTWs) and encourages measures
such as toxicity reductions at the source,
resource conservation to reduce water and
energy use, appropriate pricing, BOD
reductions, recycling, and beneficial uses of
sludge. States will have the flexibility to
determine whether and how to implement
MWPP programs.
POTWs not only discharge wastewater,
but may contribute to the release of various
air emissions and solid wastestreams as a
result of their activities and the activities of
their indirect dischargers. In the last 20
years over $73 billion in federal, state, and
local funds has been invested in the con-
struction of municipal wastewater treatment
As the federal role in funding construc-
tion grants ends, prevention is seen as the
best means of ensuring the continued
viability of this investment and reducing the
need for substantial new capital. Under
current approaches, EPA estimates that
another $80 billion would be needed over
the next 20 years to keep pace with popula-
tion pressures and deteriorating systems.
EPA's guidance document on MWPP
programs encourages states to conduct
regular assessments of the operations and
Continued on page 7
Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
June 1991
In the News
NAS Recommends Actions to Reduce, but
Prepare for, Global Warming
In spite of uncertainties in the science
of global climate change, the U.S. should
continue aggressive phaseout of CFCs,
introduce regulations to foster energy
conservation and efficiency, do more
research on non-fossil energy sources,
and consider restructuring energy prices
to more accurately reflect environmental
costs, according to an EPA-sponsored
report from a committee panel of the
National Academy of Sciences. The
panel estimated that following its
recommendations would cut U.S.
emissions of greenhouse gases 10 to 40%
from current levels.
The panel, appointed by the
Academy's Committee on Science,
Engineering and Public Policy, also
recommended agricultural research,
water-pricing policies that encourage
Update on Green Lights
EPA's innovative Green Lights
program is spreading the word on
energy savings through new lighting
technologies, with some 150 companies
participating in various capacities. The
program now includes "Allies" as well
as "Partners." Allies are companies
affiliated with the program that manu-
facture energy-saving lighting equip-
ment or that offer lighting management
services such as surveys, audits, installa-
tion, upgrades, and maintenance. There
is also an ally category for electric
utilities. Partners are companies that
voluntarily commit to selecting lighting
options (including retrofitting) for their
U.S. facilities that will maximize energy
savings while offering comparable costs
and lighting quality.
As of May 16,1991, the energy-savings
program included 59 partners, 53 manu-
facturer allies, 35 lighting management
company allies, and 3 utility allies. New
partners that have come on board since
last reported on (in March PPN) are:
Abbott Laboratories, American Express
Company, Atlantic Richfield, Automatic
Data Processing, Baxter Healthcare
Corporation, Bellcore, Chevron, Conti-
nental Insurance, Duracell U.S.A., First
efficiency, and better management of
the nation's water supply to prepare the
U.S. for a possible rise of 2 to 9 degrees
F. in average global temperature by
2050. Such measures would serve as
relatively inexpensive "insurance
protection against the great uncertain-
ties/' the report said.
The panel's energy conservation
recommendations included tax incen-
tives or regulation to achieve a 30
percent increase in auto fuel efficiency,
more efficient motors for industry, and
tougher standards for refrigerators and
other appliances.
Copies of the report, Policy Implications
of Greenhouse Warming, are available from
the National Academy Press, 2101
Constitution Ave., Washington, D.C.
20418, (202) 334-3313 or (800) 624-6242.
Data Resources, First Wachovia Corpora-
tion, Hoechst Celanese, Kerr-McGee
Corporation, Fred Meyer, Inc., Herman
Miller, Inc., National Service Industries,
Nike, Phillips Petroleum, Polaroid, Joseph
E. Seagram and Sons, Inc., SAIC, Stamats
Communications, Supermarkets General
Corporation, Texaco, Thrift Drug Com-
pany, Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric
Research, U.S. Bancorp, USF&G, W.W.
Grainger, Waste Management, Inc.,
Whirlpool, and Yellow Freight System, Inc.
Green Lights will be holding a
regional recruiting conference in Atlanta
on July 10; between 100 and 200 poten-
tial partners will be invited from the
Southeast region. Over 300 attendees
gathered in Portland, OR for the first
Green Lights regional conference on
May 15th.
In addition to active recruitment of
new partners and allies, the Green
Lights program is developing and
refining software to support costing and
decision-making for lighting options.
Fact sheets, a slide show, and an
economic forecasting report are being
readied as well. For more information
on the program, please contact EPA at
New Executive Order
Promotes Energy
President Bush has signed into effect an
Executive Order that directs all federal
agencies to reduce their energy use by
at least 20 percent by the year 2000 in
federal buildings and facilities, from
1985 levels. The order requires agencies
operating fleets of 300 or more vehicles
to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel con-
sumption by at least 10 percent by 1995
from 1991 levels. Additional require-
ments encourage federal agencies to
acquire alternative fuel vehicles and to
incorporate life-cycle costing methods
in all their procurement decisions.
Video on Energy Efficiency
A recently released video entitled
Negawatts describes how corpora-
tions can join in the energy-
efficiency revolution and increase
both profits and productivity.
Produced by EPA's Pollution
Prevention Office and the Rocky
Mountain Institute, the video
covers energy efficiencies in
lighting, motors and controls,
windows, and insulation. The 20-
minute video is available for $20
from the Rocky Mountain Insti-
tute, 1739 Snowmass Creek Road,
Snowmass, CO 81654-9199. Tel:
303-927-3851. Fax: 303-927-4178.
Environment and Industry Digest
is a monthly newsletter from the
United Kingdom that covers the
technology of environmental
protection. The newsletter is
aimed at the technical manager
level and addresses a broad range
of industries, including power
generation, manufacturing, water
and sewerage, and the chemical
and process industries. For a free
sample copy, write to John P.
O'Hara, Editor, Environment &
Industry Digest, 4 Kings Meadow,
Ferry Hinksey Road, Oxford, OX2
0DU, United Kingdom.

June 1 991
3 - Pollution Prevention News
Registry Honors
Corporate News
Companies That Nurture Wildlife
Bats are very susceptible to human disturbance, and sometimes abandon their young forever if a human
just enters their cave. Homestake erected a "bat gate" that allows bats to go in and out but keeps people
out. To get the bats to move habitats with a minimum of human interference, they sealed off the old roost
while the bats were hibernating elsewhere, prepared the new roost with the bat gate, and hoped the bats
would start using the new one when they found the old one sealed. It worked!
Ten corporations that created wildlife
habitats on company property have been
recognized for their efforts in a new
international registry created by the
Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Council
(WHEC). The ten companies — Amoco,
Browning-Ferris Industries, Delmarva
Power and Light, Dow, DuPont,
Duquesne Light, Homestake Mining,
Monsanto, Texaco, and Vulcan Materials
— have set aside 18 wildlife preservation
sites ranging from less than an acre to
7,500 acres. To be included in the new
registry as a "certified corporate wildlife
habitat," a site must have a formal
management plan and must provide
adequate food, water, cover and living
space to meet its conservation objectives.
WHEC is a non-profit organization
started by environmental and corporate
groups to promote wildlife habitats on
private lands. In its three years of exist-
ence, WHEC has helped companies
develop 106 conservation projects across
the U.S.
One of the registry's spectacular
examples of corporate wildlife manage-
ment is the Homestake Mining
Company's site in Lower Lake, California,
about 80 miles northeast of San Francisco.
There, an endangered species called the
Townsend's big-eared bat had been
driven from its cave habitats by suburban
expansion, and had taken to roosting in
abandoned mine tunnels. When
Homestake decided to reopen some
mines, the bats were in danger of being
driven from their last available habitats.
With the help of a biologist from the
University of California at Berkeley,
Homestake's people successfully guided
the colony to a tunnel that the company
had prepared for the bats, protected from
human disturbance. In the first year, the
colony almost doubled in size, and the
project is being expanded, says environ-
mental manager Ray Krauss.
The Vulcan Materials Company, for
years the world's largest producer of
commercial crushed stone, "wanted to
use idle buffer areas around the Sanders
Quarry (Warrenton, Va.) to enhance the
wildlife," explains manager Alex Glover.
The company improved the habitat for
wild turkey and eastern bluebirds, and
now "we win, our neighbors win and
wildlife wins," Glover says. As word of
their success spreads, says Glover, "we
get calls from other companies who want
to start the same thing." For more informa-
tion, contact WHEC at 301-588-4629.
Corporate Notes
More than 16 million pounds of trash a year will be converted into reusable
materials through a national recycling program launched by Red Lobster.
The company has been testing its recycling program for about eight months in
selected markets and now expects to implement the program at the nearly 500
Red Lobster restaurants around the country by the end of the year. Red
Lobster U.S.A. also recently stopped using paper napkins, napkin rings, and
paper placemats at its restaurants, in favor of linen napkins. The company
estimates that this move alone eliminates 4.7 million pounds of paper from the
wastestream each year and saves about 40,000 trees from being harvested.
McDonald's Corporation and the Environmental Defense Fund have an-
nounced a number of measures designed to reduce by up to 80 percent the
amount of solid waste generated by McDonald's. Measures include replacing
bleached paper bags with brown ones, reducing the size of napkins, offering
reusable coffee mugs, and providing condiments in bulk dispensers. Elimi-
nating throwaway products used by McDonald's customers will eliminate
about 5 percent of the waste produced; recycling will account for the remain-
ing savings. The measures are expected to reduce the trash generated at the
company's 8,500 outlets by up to 1.6 million pounds a day.

Pollution Prevention News -4		]une!99T_
Wastewater Recycling		
The Second Time Around:
Municipalities and Industry Find a Valuable Resource in Reclaimed Water
Municipalities throughout the
country are thinking about
water in a new way. For
many applications, recycled wastewater
is proving to be a safe, cost-effective
alternative to potable (drinkable) water.
Reclaimed wastewater is being used
to landscape golf courses and median
strips, to irrigate cotton fields and other
non-food croplands, and to replenish
marshes and wetlands. In industry, a
wide range of cooling and other needs
are being met by wastewater.
Municipal wastewater has been
reused on a limited basis since the
1940s, but reuse has grown more
popular over the past decade, driven by
the high cost of developing new sources
of clean water. In the Southwest and
Southeast, in particular, population
pressures — in some areas, combined
with drought — are strong incentives to
conserve potable water supplies.
Increasingly stringent regulation of
effluent discharges to water is a further
motivation. Municipalities and large
industrial waste-generators often find it
less costly to recycle water than to invest
in pollution abatement equipment.
Public Perceptions Favorable
Most municipalities find that public
perceptions of wastewater reuse are
favorable, so long as the reuse project is
required to meet water conservation
goals and can be shown to be cost-
In St. Petersburg, Florida, the
population has grown by 10 percent
since 1976 with no increase in potable
water usage. St. Petersburg has the
largest urban reuse program in the U.S.,
with a dual distribution system (sepa-
rate pipes for potable and recycled
water) that sends recycled water to over
250 commercial and industrial custom-
ers and over 5,000 residential customers.
Reclaimed water is used to irrigate all of
the city's major parks and median strip
areas, plus commercial and light
industrial sites.
The Florida Department of Environ-
mental Regulation has identified some
200 reuse projects in Florida in 1990.
These projects used about 320 million
gallons per day of reclaimed water for a
wide range of beneficial uses.
In Orange County in southern
California, the Irvine Ranch Water
District reclaims about 11,000 to 13,000
acre-feet of water per year for landscape
and agricultural irrigation. About 25
percent of all water used in Irvine is non-
potable water produced by its reclama-
tion plant. The reclamation was under-
taken to minimize imports from north-
ern California and Colorado and to re-
duce discharges to streams or the Pacific
Ocean. In a future phase, the project
will supply reclaimed water to high-rise
buildings for use in toilet flushing.
In 1975, the Orange County Water
District began operating a water
reclamation facility capable of reclaim-
ing 15 million gallons per day of
secondary effluent and injecting it into
the coastal aquifer to prevent seawater
continued on page 5
When Docs
Water Reuse Pay?
By J. Gordon Milliken
As cities grow and exhaust their
traditional water supply sources,
they must seek alternative supplies,
usually by diverting water from
ever more distant streams or by
buying agricultural water for
municipal reuse.
The costs of obtaining water by
diversion from rivers or lakes some
distance away are becoming quite
high, and the political process can
be extremely difficult. Today, the
annual cost per acre foot is growing
much more rapidly for conventional
water supply than for recycled
So if a municipality is able to
develop a recycling plant which will
result in an annual cost per acre
foot — including amortized capital
cost — not greater than about 1.25
times the cost of conventional
water, the municipality should give
the project serious consideration.
In a few years, the cost of new
water will be growing even faster
relative to the cost of recycled water.
St. Petersburg, FL: Pump stations deliver reclaimed water to the dual distribution system for urban
irrigation and deep injection wells.
J. Gordon Milliken is an economist
with Milliken Research Group, Inc.
in Littleton, Colorado.

une 1991
5 - Pollution Prevention News
Wastewater Recycling
from page 4
intrusion and recharge the existing
potable groundwater basin.
Tucson, Arizona, has undertaken a
$63 million, ten-year capital plan to
construct a system which will provide
approximately 35,000 acre feet per year
of reclaimed wastewater. Because
irrigation water demands vary as much
as 400 percent from winter to summer,
reclaimed wastewater is stored in an
aquifer for later recovery.
In Colorado, Colorado Springs,
Aurora, and the Inverness Water and
Sanitation District (south of Denver) all
use reclaimed wastewater for landscape
irrigation. Hawaii's first large-scale
wastewater reclamation facility, on
Maui, provides water for irrigating
ranch land and newly landscaped
roadways. And these are only a few of
the municipal success stories.
Potable Reuse:
the Frontier
One of several projects under way
to develop safe potable water from
treated wastewater:
"The Denver Water Department is
operating a one million gallon per
day demonstration plant that pro-
duces potable water from secondary
treatment plant effluent. The need
for the project grew out of the
recognition that additional conven-
tional sources, if available, might cost
$5,000 per acre foot to develop by the
year 2000, and industrial reuse of
wastewater would not substantially
reduce water demands. The con-
struction of the demonstration plant
is part of a $35 million, 7-year project
by the department to demonstrate
that high-quality water, equal to or
better than Denver's current drinking
water, can be produced safely and
reliably from treated wastewater
treatment plant effluent. EPA is also
participating in this demonstration
project by contributing approxi-
mately $7 million of the total cost."
—From Water Environment
and Technology.
Tucson, AZ: Water is reused to maintain a spring-
training baseball diamond.
Industrial Uses
In industry, leading recyclers include
oil refiners, power generators, steel
manufacturers, paper and pulp mills,
metal platers and other processing
facilities that require millions of gallons
of water per day for washing, quench-
ing and boiler water makeup.
For example, in Tampa, Florida, an
EPA Administrator William Reilly has
announced the first winners in EPA's
national environmental awards pro-
gram. This year's awards are dedicated
to achievements in municipal solid
waste management through recycling.
Nine national awards were made, in the
following categories:
•	Citizens: Bob Kerlinger, for founding
and coordinating the Poquoson Re-
cycling Center, Poquoson, VA, which
uses volunteer groups and is already
recycling 13 percent of the city's trash.
•	Community, Civic, and Non-Profit:
Seattle Tilth's Community
Composting Education Program in
Seattle, WA, for training more than
100 backyard composting experts and
providing community education
about composting.
•	Educational Institutions, K-12: Aurora
Public Schools, Aurora, CO for its
Municipal Solid Waste Management
Teacher's Guide.
•	Colleges and Universities: University
of Wisconsin at Stevens Point for its
comprehensive 3R (recycling, reuse,
and reduction) program involving both
students and university management.
•	Small Business: eegee's, Inc. of
incinerator uses one million gallons per
day of reclaimed wastewater for cooling
water. The R.D. Nixon Power Plant, a
coal-fired, steam/electric plant near
Colorado Springs, recovers and recycles
power plant cooling-water effluent,
attaining zero wastewater discharge. The
Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station 55
miles west of Phoenix uses effluent from a
nearby wastewater treatment plant as
well as from the city of Tolleson, Arizona.
According to the Water Pollution Con-
trol Federation, water recycling by the steam
electric and manufacturing industries is
likely to increase by approximately one-
fifth by the year 2000, with corresponding
decreases in wastewater discharges.
These articles are based on a series published
from Oct. '90 to Jan. '91 in the magazine of
the Water Pollution Control Federation,
Water Environment and Technology.
Photos courtesy ofCH2M Hill.
Tucson, AZ for its internal recycling
program, now being extended to
other Tucson businesses.
•	Large Business: Fort Howard Corpora-
tion, Green Bay WI for its National
Recycling Advocacy Program.
•	Local Government: City of Newark,
NJ, for innovative programs (includ-
ing deputizing local youth as special
assistants to the Mayor and required
recycling of ozone-depleting com-
pounds) leading to one of the highest
recycling rates in the nation.
•	State Agencies: State of Rhode Island
for a comprehensive recycling pro-
gram which has decreased commer-
cial waste at landfills 24% since 1989.
•	Federal Agencies: U.S. Naval Subma-
rine Base, Bangor, WA for a base-
wide recycling program and its
extension to local communities and
other military bases.
A special award in environmental
education went to HDR Engineering,
White Plains, NY for sponsoring an
education program aimed at
preschoolers, in cooperation with the
children's television show, "Mr. Roger's
Neighborhood." For more information,
contact Carol Singer, 202-382-4454.
EPA Recognizes Recycling Achievements

Pollution Prevention News - 6
June 1991
Focus: TCA
Case Study: Evaluating a TCA Substitute
EPA's Pollution Prevention Research
Branch in the Office of Research and
Development along with APS Materials,
Inc. (APS), a small metal finishing
company in Dayton, Ohio, participated
in a joint research project to evaluate
the substitution of a dilute, terpene-
based cleaner for 1,1,1-trichloroethane
(TCA) and methanol in the company's
degreasing operations. TCA is used as a
cold solvent degreasing agent in many
industrial degreasing processes. APS
generates TCA and methanol waste
from its plasma spray deposition
process operations. Waste TCA and
methanol were being generated at the
rate of 1 /2 barrels per month each.
Disposal of these solvents had become
increasingly difficult.
APS plasma sprays parts for aircraft
engines, orthopedic implants, and other
applications. In its biomedical parts
division, Af'S primarily coats cobalt/
molybdenum parts and titanium parts
with a titanium alloy. To achieve a
strong, adhesive coating, the cobalt/
molybdenum parts and titanium parts
were cleaned with TCA and methanol
respectively. After first passing through
a series of preparatory steps, the parts
were then placed in an ultrasonic bath
containing warm water for 15 minutes.
Contaminants from previous cleaning
steps were removed in this cleaning
process. The parts then continued on
through the finishing process.
Technical analysis
The focal point of the project was to
replace TCA and methanol with the
dilute terpene-based cleaner. To
accomplish this, some equipment
modifications were made. A heater was
added to the old ultrasound bath. A
deionized water system was purchased
along with a stainless steel bath and
immersion heater. A heat gun was
purchased to quicken the drying
process. Other than these equipment
additions, the cleaning procedure
remained unchanged.
The purpose of the sampling and
analysis project at APS was to support a
qualitative judgment of the cleaning
capabilities of the substitute cleaning
solution. The sampling and analysis
protocol was set up in three phases. The
first two phases investigated the
proficiency of the cleaning solvents.
Analyses revealed that the dilute
limonene solution adequately removed
contaminants and no residual limonene
was detected on the parts.
The third phase of the analysis
examined the quality of the coating
bond for parts cleaned with the terpene-
based solution. The before and after
tensile strength results were compa-
rable. Overall, the bonding strengths
were actually slightly better for the
dilute limonene cleaner.
Cost Analysis
Although the new cleaning system
used the same cleaning method, some
capital expenditures were needed to
alter the process. Capital cost included
purchase of the ultrasound with heater,
5 gal. stainless steel rinse vessel, immer-
sion heater, heat gun, and installation of
a deionized water system. The capital
cost totalled $1,793. The net annual cost
savings for the project was $4,800 per
year with a payback period of 4.5
In summary, a terpene-based cleaner
can adequately clean metal parts
without adversely affecting the perfor-
mance of the plasma-arc coating
application. APS has deployed the
water-based cleaner in all operations
where specifications do not dictate the
use of TCA or methanol. APS is also
currently performing studies to deter-
mine the optimal life of the cleaner in
order to minimize cleaner use. Elimina-
tion of the disposal problems, mainte-
nance of plasma-arc coating quality,
annual cost savings and the short
payback period make the use of terpene-
based cleaners attractive to other metal
cleaning/coating operations.
The full report entitled "Chemical
Substitution for l,l>l-Trichloroethane
and Methanol in an Industrial Cleaning
Operation," by Lisa Brown and Johnny
Springer of EPA and Matthew Bower of
APS Materials, Inc. is available from:
EPA/RREL, Pollution Prevention
Research Branch, 26 W. Martin Luther
King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268.
Region 8 Partnership
Targets TCA Reductions
SoIvNet is the initial project of
the Region 8 Pollution Prevention
Partnership, a cooperative organi-
zation comprised of EPA, the
Colorado Department of Health,
Coors, Martin Marietta, Hewlett
Packard, Public Service of Colo-
rado, Colorado Public Interest
Research Group, and League of
Women Voters. The project has
targeted TCA (1,1,1-trichloro-
ethane), an ozone-depleting
chemical which is widely used as
an industrial cleaner and can also
be found in many household
products, such as typewriter
correction fluid and some automo-
tive spray cleaners.
The four corporate Partners
have agreed to cut their combined
use of TCA by at least 70 percent
by 1992, based on an approximate
1.16 million pounds usage in 1988.
The group is sponsoring environ-
mental assessments at two me-
dium-size companies and held an
executive luncheon in May to
present the benefits of pollution
prevention to other CEOs in
In addition, Public Service will
include in its billings to over 1
million residents, an information
brochure on solvent reduction in
the home and business. SolvNet is
due to run through January 1992;
the Partnership will select a new
project over the next few months.
For more information, contact
David Wann at EPA, 303-293-1621.

June 1991
7 - Pollution Prevention News
EPA News
1989 TRI Data
from page 1
to be released this summer.
The Toxics Release Inventory is
required by law under the 1986 Emer-
gency Planning and Community Right-to-
Know Act. Facilities covered by section
313 of the law are required to submit
annually a report to their state and to EPA
listing their releases of any of more than
300 chemicals and 20 chemical categories
into the air, water, or land.
The 1989 data show similar trends in
distribution of releases across air, water,
and land to previous years (see box).
Again, Texas and Louisiana reported the
highest levels of toxic releases and
transfers (793 and 474 million pounds,
respectively), although Louisiana's total
reported releases and transfers dropped
38 percent between 1988 and 1989. Five
other states (Ohio, Tennessee, Indiana,
Illinois, and Michigan) reported over 200
million pounds of releases. The top 10
chemicals reported to TRI, in order of
magnitude, were: ammonium sulfate
(solution), hydrochloric acid, methanol,
ammonia, toluene, sulfuric acid, acetone,
xylenes, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and zinc
About 1.3 billion pounds, or 23% of
all TRI releases and transfers, are from
the 17 chemicals targeted by EPA's 33/
50 Program for which the Agency will
be seeking substantial voluntary
reductions over the next few years.
What's Ahead
Next year's TRI data should be even
more valuable in measuring progress
towards pollution prevention. The
Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
requires eight new types of data to be
reported on the TRI reporting form,
beginning with the 1991 reports (due in
July 1992). The new information
includes: changes in and projections for
future waste reduction, recycling and
treatment; and information on source
reduction practices used; techniques
used to identify source reduction
opportunities; a production index; and
amounts of chemicals released in one-
time events not associated with routine
production processes.
In addition, EPA has added nine
chemicals to the list because of cancer
and chronic toxicity concerns; they will
be subject to reporting for the 1990
reporting year. Another seven ozone-
depleting compounds (CFCs and
halons) will be subject to reporting for
the 1991 reporting year.
TRI data for 1989 will be available to
the public in June through a national
computer database and this summer
through a variety of electronic and hard
copy formats. Contact the EPCRA
hotline, 1-800-535-0202, for more details.
Environmental Labeling
An Environmental Shopping and
Environmental Labeling Conference
will be sponsored by the Pennsylva-
nia Resources Council (Sept. 30) and
U.S. EPA Region 3 (Oct. 1-2) in
Baltimore, MD. The conference will
examine labeling definitions, initia-
tives, and barriers to a national
labeling policy. For information,
contact EPA at 215-597-2200 or PRC
at 215-565-9131.
MWPP Guidance
from page J
physical capabilities of POTWs; monitor
a series of early warning indicators
which can identify emerging problems
before they occur (e.g., effluent flow
versus design flow); hold municipalities
accountable for the implementation of
necessary preventive measures; and
design both technical assistance and
enforcement mechanisms to help get
preventive programs established.
The guidance document also dis-
cusses federal funding sources for state
development of MWPP programs. In
addition to existing grant programs,
EPA's Office of Water and Office of
Pollution Prevention plan to enter into
cooperative agreements with selected
states to provide funding for MWPP
pilot programs. For more information
on grants programs or to obtain a copy
of the guidance, call Valerie Martin,
AIPP Officers
The American Institute for Pollution
Prevention (AIPP) elected new officers
at its recent meeting in Washington, DC.
Dr. Robert B. Pojasek will become
Institute Chair on July 1, replacing Dr.
Joseph T. Ling who has served as AIPP
chair since the Institute's inception in
June 1989. Dr. R. Lee Byers is the new
Vice Chair.
Dr. Pojasek represents the American
Chemical Society on the Institute and is
Vice President of the Pollution Preven-
tion Consulting Practice at Geraghty &
Miller, Inc., Andover, Massachusetts.
Dr. Byers represents The Aluminum
Association and serves as Manager,
Corporate Environmental Programs, for
the Aluminum Company of America,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Members of the AIPP are specialists
in source reduction and recycling and
were selected by some 22 trade associa-
tions and major technical societies to
represent them on the Institute. The
Institute's mission is to generate broad
private and public support for pollution
prevention concepts and to assist EPA
in achieving widespread and expedi-
tious adoption of these concepts across
the United States.
1989 TRI Releases
to the Environment
(percent distribution)
Water ^Air 42%
Works 10%

Pollution Prevention News - 8
/"> 1 f

Coastal and Ocean
Management: 7th Symposium
Coastal Zone Fdn.,
NOAA, others
July 8-12
Long Beach, CA
Orville Magoon
How to Design a Plastics
Recycling Program;
Marketing Recyclables &
Purchasing Recycled Products
U.S. Conference of Mayors,
National Resource
Recovery Association
July 10,11-12
Washington, DC
Ron Musselwhite
Forum on Integrated
Municipal Waste Mngmnt.
July 15-17
Las Vegas, NV
Kerry Callahan
Pollution Prevention:
Toward 2000
City of Los Angeles, Local
Government Commission
July 31 - Aug. 1
Los Angeles, CA
Debbi Dodson
29th Annual Intl.
Solid Waste Expo
Aug. 12-15
Cincinnati, OH
Tel: 301-585-2898
Fax: 301-589-7068
2nd Topical Conference
on Pollution Prevention
AIChE Center for
Waste Reduction
Aug. 20-21
Pittsburgh, PA
Steve Smith
Environmental Shopping
and Labeling
EPA Region 3,
Penn. Resources Council
Sept. 30-Oct. 2
Baltimore, MD
Ruth Becker
10th National Recycling
National Recycling Coalition
Oct. 21-25
Milwaukee, WI
Margo Kuisis
Globescope Americas:
Charting a Sustainable Future
Global Tomorrow Coalition
Oct. 29-Nov. 2
Miami, FL
John McKain
Annual Conference
International Solid Waste
Management Federation
Oct. 29-Nov. 1
Toronto, Ont.
Kathy O'Neill
National Environmental
Education Conference
Nov. 21-22
Washington, DC
Kathy MacKinnon
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