United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Pollution
Prevention and Toxics
Washington, DC 20460
March/April 1992
&EPA Pollution
EPA News
In the States: Iowa
^ Sunrayce '93
Case Studies
33/50 Program Pledges on the Rise
Some companies already reporting reductions in emissions
Company participation in EPA's 33/50
Program to reduce emissions of key chemi-
cals has increased more than three-fold since
July 1991, according to the program's Second
Progress Report. As of February 1992, 734
companies had written to EPA expressing
commitments to voluntarily reduce their
releases and transfers of chemicals covered
by the program, up from 236 companies in
July 1991. Actual reductions pledged have
risen from 201 million pounds in July 1991
to 304 million pounds in February 1992.
A number of companies have already
reported making drastic emissions reduc-
tions. From 1988 to 1990: AT&T reports that
it has reduced its releases and transfers of
the 33/50 chemicals 66 percent, and BF
Goodrich reports a 32 percent reduction.
Dow Chemical reports that it has reduced
releases of all chemicals included in the
Toxic Release Inventory 30 percent, from
23.2 million to 16.2 million pounds.
Among smaller companies, Magee Carpet
of Bloomsburg, PA, has stopped using
trichloroethane, eliminating 340,000 pounds
of releases of this chemical; and Pines Trailer
Limited Partnership has reduced its use of
xylene by 48 percent and its use of methyl
isobutyl ketone by 37 percent.
The report includes breakdowns of how
two companies plan to achieve their reduc-
(Continued on page 5)
7	corporate Notes Green Lights Reports on First Year Gains
To be added to our mailing
list, please write:
Pollution Prevention News
401 M Street SW (PM-222B)
Washington, DC 20460
Editorial Staff:
Priscilia Flattery, Editor
Gilah Langner
Teresa Opheim
Just over a year after EPA's Green Lights
Program officially was launched, many of
the participating institutions report that
they are on their way toward implementing
energy efficient lighting. According to Green
Lights Program: The First Year, 181 buildings,
covering 77 million square feet, were in the
"upgrade pipeline" as of February 23,1992.
Forty-nine buildings ha,ve been fully
upgraded, with a typical reduction in
lighting electricity use of 40 to 70 percent. Of
40 companies reporting, kilowatt-hours
avoided by the completed upgrades are 35.2
million, and pollution prevented per year
includes 52.8 million pounds of C02, 449,692
pounds of SO, and 193,833 pounds of NOx.
Officially launched Jan. 16,1991, Green
Lights aims to prevent pollution by encour-
aging major U.S. institutions to voluntarily
install energy-efficient lighting where it is
profitable and where lighting quality is
maintained or improved. According to
Lodwrick M. Cook, chairman and chief
executive officer of ARCO, "By encouraging
efficient use of lighting and reducing
demand for electricity, the Green Lights
program demonstrates how American
creativity can lead to cost-effective and
practical solutions to our complex environ-
mental problems." B. Lum Lee, manager of
energy and recycling programs at Xerox,
says that "participation in Green Lights
allows us to more clearly focus on not only
the impact that lighting has on the environ-
ment, but also the impact that lighting has
on our bottom line."
Participants in Green Lights have five
(Continued on page 7)
Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
March-April 1992
Update on PPIC: Clearinghouse
Offers 33/50 Mini-Exchange
EPA News
To access the Clearinghouse,
Call 703-821-4800
9:00 am - 5:00 pm EST
Monday through Friday.
Fax 703-821-4775
EPA's Pollution Prevention Informa-
tion Clearinghouse (PPIC) has entered
its third year of information collection
and dissemination. Over the past three
months, the Clearinghouse has mailed
4,687 documents in response to re-
quests. The number of users of the
electronic computer network PIES
(Pollution Prevention Information
Exchange System) now exceeds 3500.
Within the past year, a new mini-
exchange for the 33/50 program has
been established on PIES to allow
participants in the program and inter-
ested parties to share information and
receive updates on the progress of the
33/50 program.
Due to the wide array of users and
varying needs, EPA is establishing an
advisory panel for PPIC to assist the
Agency in devising a five-year strategic
EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention
and Toxics has announced the avail-
ability of approximately $3 million in
FY 1992 grant and cooperative agree-
ment funds in the fourth round of
Pollution Prevention Incentives for
States. The goals of the grant program
include: supporting state and locally-
based multimedia programs, building
state pollution prevention capabilities,
and initiating demonstration projects
that test innovative pollution preven-
tion approaches and methodologies.
Pre-proposals are due by April 20,
1992. Only U.S. states and territories,
state agencies (including state universi-
ties), and Native American tribes are
eligible to apply- For guidance on
submitting a pre-proposal, contact
Lena Hann at 202-260-2237.
MCE3 — Round 2
EPA's Pollution Prevention Division
has also announced the second round of
plan for the clearinghouse.
The panel will also continue
to monitor the progress of
PPIC over the coming years.
A planning meeting for the
advisory panel is expected
to take place prior to the
1992 National Roundtable
spring conference in
Raleigh, NC on April 21.
Recent publications
available from the clearing-
house include the 1992
update to the training
opportunities manual (see
box) and industry-specific
bibliographic reports that
summarize processes,
describe prevention and recycling
alternatives, and contain lists of sources
for more detailed information. Two
the NICE3 (National Industrial Competi-
tiveness through Efficiency: Energy,
Environment, Economics) grant pro-
gram. Jointly funded by EPA, the
Department of Energy and the Depart-
ment of Commerce, the program is
designed to demonstrate new technolo-
gies to prevent pollution, improve
energy efficiency, and overcome barriers
to industrial pollution prevention
State agencies from California,
Illinois, Louisiana, New York, New
Jersey, Ohio, and Texas are eligible to
apply for the $1.4 million in grant funds
available in 1992. Awards will be made
through state agencies working with
industry to develop and assess projects.
A 50 percent matching share is required,
using any combination of state and
industrial funding. Proposals must be
received by April 30 to be considered,
and awards will be announced in
September. For more information,
contact Brian Symmes at 202-260-3590.
industrial category reports are currently
available: wood furniture manufactur-
ing (SIC code 25); and metal fabrication
(SIC 34-38).
PPIC continues to add case studies
from states, regional inspection pro-
grams, enforcement cases, grants,
international and other sources. PPIC
also continues to request information
that can be added to the case study,
program summary, calendar, and other
PIES reference databases. PPIC is also
interested in networking with other
pollution prevention information
sources. To request documents or
submit information to PPIC, call 703-
Available From PPIC:
Pollution Prevention Resources and
Training Opportunities in 1992. A
popular annual EPA guide to docu-
ments, videos, state and university
programs, EPA headquarters and
regional offices, courses, work-
shops, conferences, and a multi-
year calendar of events. 115 pages.
Free. Order through PIES, or
contact: PPIC, 7600-A Leesburg
Pike, Falls Church, VA 22043. tel:
EPA Grant Programs Announced

March-April 1992
3 - Pollution Prevention News
EPA's Settlement Process:
Power Tool for Pollution Prevention
EPA's Office of Pesticides and Toxic
Substances (OPTS) is pioneering the use
of pollution prevention requirements in
its settlement agreements with statutory
violators. The settlements quickly have
become a powerful tool in encouraging
violators to put money into capital
improvements that will make possible
long-term reductions in pollution.
In a recently released report, Pollution
Prevention Through Compliance and
Enforcement, OPTS's Office of Compli-
ance Monitoring highlights 66 cases
involving settlements with environmen-
tal benefits that go beyond federal, state
and local environmental requirements.
Most of the cases involve enforcement
under the Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act and
other statutes such as the Toxic Sub-
stances Control Act.
In the past, if a member of the regu-
lated community committed a statutory
violation, such as failing to report as
required its emissions of acetone or
freon-113, EPA simply assessed a fine.
Often this proved not to be incentive
enough for violators to take steps to
modify their noncompliance before
future fines were assessed. Under the
new pollution prevention emphasis in
the settlement process, the fines may be
reduced after defendants agree to redress
the original violation, or agree to conduct
other projects that reduce environmental
Many successful settlements have
involved pollution prevention projects
such as changing industrial processes to
reduce use of pollutants or to establish
closed loop processes, the report says.
The settlements also may involve efforts
to reduce pollution, which include
projects that reduce the discharge of
pollutants through more effective end-of-
pipe or stack removal technologies or
through improved operation and
maintenance. Environmental restoration,
environmental auditing and enforce-
ment-related environmental public
awareness projects all are pollution
General Electric Co. has agreed to install a
number of pollution prevention systems at its
Burkville, AL, facility, including a system that
would recover wastewater and channel it back
into the manufacturing process for reuse.
50 Percent of Wisconsin
Report Waste Reduction
Wisconsin's Department of Natural
Resources has released preliminary
results of a 1991 survey of 850 large
and small quantity hazardous waste
generators in the state. Some 50% of
the firms responding reported reduc-
ing the volume of waste generated in
1990 compared with the volume
generated in 1985. Twenty percent of
the firms had totally eliminated one or
more waste stream.
Eighty percent of the firms con-
tacted completed the 34-page question-
naire. Firms reporting waste reduction
or changes in hazardous waste
management practices were motivated
by a desire to comply with state
regulations, avoid liability, and protect
worker health and safety. According to
respondents, barriers to further waste
reduction include unavailability of
substitutes, potential declines in
product quality, and insufficient
information about how to reduce
For more information, contact
Elizabeth David, 202-260-5732.
reduction strategies that have been used
successfully by OPTS.
For a copy of the report, call 202-554-
Turning Violations into
Environmental Benefits
Markham Corp. of Keene, N.H.,
is one company set to become a
pollution preventer through
participating in a settlement with
EPA's Office of Pesticides and Toxic
Substances compliance program.
EPA originally filed a complaint
against Markham alleging an
unauthorized use of a PCB trans-
former and failure to maintain
adequate records. EPA proposed a
penalty of $76,000. After settlement,
Markham paid a final penalty of
$33,000 and agreed to undertake a
series of pollution prevention and
reduction projects, including
instituting a cleaning solvent
recovery system and eliminating the
use of heavy metals in the ink the
company used to label components
it manufactures. The projects will
reduce the company's yearly use of
methyl ethyl ketone by 75 percent
and will cost an estimated $175,000.
Another participant in the OPTS
settlement process is EIMCO
Process Equipment Co. Inc. of the
Great Salt Lake Region. EPA had
proposed a penalty of $85,000
against the company for failing to
report as required under the
Emergency Planning and Commu-
nity Right-to-Know Act. The
company agreed to pay $51,000 and
to undertake a pollution prevention
project that will cost $52,000.
Through the project, EIMCO will
purchase equipment that will
reduce the need for volatile solvents
in painting operations. By removing
a wet paint spray booth and
replacing it with a dry paint spray
booth, amounts of toluene, xylene
and other paint related solvents will
be reduced significantly.

Pollution Prevention News - 4
March-April 1992
In the States: Iowa
Water Quality Concerns Lead to Reduced
Fertilizer Use in Iowa Farms
Water quality concerns are changing
the way farmers are using nitrogen
fertilizers. One Corn Belt state, Iowa,
began acting on its water quality
concerns a decade ago. With assistance
from EPA and other federal agencies, in
1989 and 1990 Iowa state programs
helped farmers cut fertilizer use by
more than 400 million pounds. In addi-
tion, Iowa farmers saved the equivalent
of about 130 million gallons of diesel
fuel over the two year period, according
to George Hallberg, agriculture-water
quality project director with the Iowa
Department of Natural Resources.
The result has been big dividends to
Iowa agriculture — reduced nitrogen
fertilizer use saved the state's farmers
$80 million in 1989 and 1990. Meanwhile
their average corn yields have remained
consistent with those in the other Corn
Belt states. Nitrogen fertilizer use in five
other Corn Belt states has remained
steady or increased since 1985.
According to Linda Monroe, an Iowa
farmer who participated in the effort,
"Fertilizer bills haven't been a problem
like they used to be. And it's mostly
because we're using a lot less nitrogen."
When too much nitrogen, which is
considered an essential nutrient for
plants, is put on the soil, it can leach into
the subsoil and into the aquifers that fill
wells, and it washes into the rivers that
larger cities tap for drinking water.
Eighteen to 20 percent of Iowa's rural,
private water supplies, and the water
supplies of cities such as Des Moines
and Iowa City have exceeded acceptable
nitrate levels in recent years. High levels
of nitrogen can cause oxygen depriva-
tion and Blue Baby Syndrome.
The Iowa programs included exten-
sive one-on-one contact, field days,
public meetings and marketing cam-
paigns to promote effective ways to use
nitrogen, other crop nutrients, pesticides
and animal manure. Through the Big
Spring Basin Demonstration Project, for
example, educational and demonstra-
tion efforts helped more than 200 area
farmers cut nitrogen use 21 percent
from 1981 to 1989—with no loss in yield
and annual savings of $200,000.
In many cases, the projects found,
Iowa farmers simply were applying
more nitrogen than their corn crops
Kay Connelly
from IS U
trains a
group of field scouts for the Sioux County Model
Farms Demonstration Project.
needed. Nitrate soil tests conducted in
1989 and 1990 indicated that at least 32
percent of the soils sampled did not
need additional nitrogen for optimal
yields. Only half of the farmers ques-
tioned had been crediting the nutrients
from manure applied to their row crops,
yet surveys indicate that 20 percent of
Iowa farmers could supply about half of
the needed nitrogen from livestock
manure. One study showed that there is
no yield advantage by adding nitrogen
to corn the first year following a good
stand of alfalfa. Also, surveys found that
25 percent of farmers were overestimat-
ing their yield goals, causing them to
use more nitrogen than needed.
The Iowa programs have not come
cheap—the state spent about $11 million
on the programs from 1980 to 1990. Yet
every dollar spent for education saved
farmers $8 in fertilizer costs. However,
much of the funding for the programs
expires in 1992. "We need this momen-
tum to continue because there is still
more work to be done/' says Dale
Cochran, Iowa Secretary of Agriculture.
People Making a Difference: The
Big Spring Basin Demonstration
Project is a 20 minute video avail-
able on loan from Iowa's Extension
Offices. Local agency representa-
tives and farmers talk about how
they have worked together to
change farming practices to
improve groundwater quality in
Iowa's Big Spring Basin. Contact
Media Resources Center, Iowa State
University, 515-294-1540.
A pilot educational module
targeting agricultural and rural
groundwater pollution has been
developed by EPA Region V.
FARM*A*SYST consists of
activity-oriented lessons revolv-
ing around groundwater and
contamination movement; types
of underground contaminants;
soil, geologic, and hydrologic site
conductions; and contamination
prevention or reduction strategies.
Contact: Susan Boldt, 312-353-3565.
The Regional Groundwater
Center at the University of
Michigan Biological Station has
developed an educational hand-
book to inform citizens about
groundwater and explain the
usefulness of a Geographic
Information System (GIS). The
handbook is based on data from
Charlevoix County, Michigan, but
can be used as a reference for other
communities interested in GIS for
resource planning and protection.
Contact: the Regional Groundwa-
ter Center, 616-539-8789.
EPA, in conjunction with USDA's
Soil Conservation Service and
Winrock International, has pro-
duced a new video titled Sustain-
ing America's Agriculture: High Tech
and Horse Sense. The video high-
lights thriving farms that reduce
or eliminate the impact of fertiliz-
ers and pesticides on ground-
water. Narrated by Raymond Burr
and produced by David Wann of
EPA Region VIII, the video is avail-
able through: Nat'l Assn. of Conser-
vation Districts, 800-825-5547.

stored in batteries,
an also go directly
i the car is running
March-April 1992
5 - Pollution Prevention News
1. Solar energy is converted directly to electricity by the
photovoltaic array
iPA's Pollution
Prevention Division
and DOE's Office of
Conservation and
Renewable Energy
recently kicked off
Sunrayce '93 with seed money for 36
North American university teams to
participate in the biennial intercollegiate
competition for solar-powered cars. The
race will be held June 20-26,1993, on a
1,000-mile course stretching from Dallas,
TX to Minneapolis, MN. University
teams will compete with vehicles of their
own design and construction powered
only by sunlight. Most of the cars will
operate on less energy than is required to
operate a standard hair dryer.
One purpose of Sunrayce is to
Sunrayce '93
Kicks Off
2. Electric energy is
Solar electricity c
to the motor when
4. The latest in motor technology uses powerful rare-earth magnets
,-hp	- . . -.
ip motor can weigh less than 5 kg (10 lbs.)
3. Modem electronic motor controllers
smoothly and efficiently control power
to the motor. Speed control is by a
normal accelerator pedal
and a brushless design. A 5-1
5. The drive to wheels in advanced vehicles does not need a
gearbox. Gear changing is done electronically in the motor
showcase clean technologies for automo-
tive propulsion. Although the cars are
highly specialized, the technologies
employed will push the frontiers of
applied mathematics, physics, and
materials science. The event is designed
to involve hundreds of science, math-
ematics, and engineering students across
North America. Sunrayce '93 symbolizes
a recognition by DOE and EPA of the
importance of "hands on" education and
cooperation in promoting a cleaner
future. Support for Sunrayce '93 will be
provided by General Motors, DOE/
OCRE, DOE's National Renewable
Energy Laboratory, and the Society of
Automotive Engineers, and possibly by
Energy, Mines, and Resources Canada.
In 1990,32 North American teams
raced from Orlando, FL to Warren MI in
the GM Sunrayce USA 1990, which
attracted an estimated 60,000 spectators
over the course of the 11-day event, plus
widespread television coverage. The
winning vehicle in that race was the
University of Michigan's Sunrunner.
33/50 Marks Progress
(Continued from page 1)
tion goals. LTV Steel's 80 percent
reduction pledge includes 100 percent
reductions of the solvents methylene
chloride, tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,1-
trichloroethane. Honda of America's
plan includes replacing solvent-borne
coatings with waterborne technology, at
an estimated cost to the company of $75-
200 million.
According to the report, companies
have joined the program for a variety of
reasons. Some are pursuing reduction
efforts and welcome the opportunity for
public recognition of their efforts; others
say they believe pollution prevention
can best be promoted through a volun-
tary program such as the 33/50 Pro-
gram. Companies' reasons for not
joining the program include the diffi-
culty of making predictions about future
waste generation, and a concern about
potential conflicts between the 33/50
Program and goals under other state
and federal environmental programs.
The drug and pharmaceutical manu-
facturers have the highest industry sector
participation in the program, at 37.70
percent. Next highest
are the agricultural
chemicals sector, at
34.62 percent, and the
tobacco sector at 33.33
percent, according to
the report.
The 33/50 Program
seeks to reduce the
generation of 17 high-
priority toxic chemi-
cals 50 percent by
1995; with an interim
goal of 33 percent
reduction by 1992. In
1988, the baseline year
for the program, 1.4 billion pounds of the
33/50 chemicals were either released to
the environment or transferred off-site to
waste management facilities; the aim is
to reduce this figure to 700 million
pounds by 1995.
r —
Has your company
volunteered for 33/50?
For information on the 33/50 Program,
contact the TSCA Hotline:
Call: 202-554-1404
Fax: 202-554-5603
V. .

Pollution Prevention News - 6
March-April 1992
Case Studies from the Pollution Prevention Research Branch
Pollution Prevention Opportunity
Assessment: Fort Riley, Kansas
The Risk Reduction Engineering
Laboratory of EPA's Office of Research
and Development is supporting the
Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal
Sites program which focuses on waste
minimization research opportunities
and technical assessments at federal
facilities. One site chosen for perfor-
mance of a pollution prevention oppor-
tunity assessment under the program
was the U.S. Army Forces Command
maintenance facilities at Fort Riley,
Results of the Fort Riley assessment
identified two waste reduction opportu-
nities in a multi-purpose building
(Building 8100) used for automotive
subassembly rebuilding, and lead acid
battery repair, as well as a number of
other Army maintenance operations.
Waste Battery Acid
Battery acid (32-37 percent sulfuric
acid) containing trace concentrations of
lead and cadmium is currently drained
from both dead batteries and batteries
requiring repairs and shipped in 15-
gallon drums to the storage facility at
Development Hotline:
A new toll-free hotline service is
available from the National Envi-
ronmental Technology Applications
Corporation (NETAC) at the
University of Pittsburgh to assist in
the commercialization of environ-
mental technologies. Funded by
EPA, the hotline offers information
about: the environmental technol-
ogy commercialization process;
public and private financing
sources; and government programs
supporting technology develop-
ment and commercialization. The
hotline will be staffed Monday
through Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST.
the installation for ultimate disposal as a
hazardous waste. The assessment
proposed instead that the waste acid be
gathered in a holding tank, filtered to
remove any particulates, and adjusted
in concentration to 37 percent sulfuric
acid (using 60 Baume commercial
sulfuric acid) as needed for reuse in
reconditioned or new batteries. The
buildup of dissolved metal impurities in
this recycling system is prevented by
purging part of the acid from the
system. The acid being purged is
neutralized and treated for trace heavy
metal removal to allow on-site disposal
as nonhazardous waste.
Automotive Parts Washer
Dirty aqueous alkaline detergent
solution from automotive parts clean-
ing, which contains trace concentrations
of lead, chromium and cadmium at a
pH >12 as well as the oil, grease and dirt
removed from the automotive parts, is
currently drained to an on-site nonhaz-
ardous waste evaporation pond. This
waste, heretofore regarded as nonhaz-
ardous, is currently being reclassified as
a RCRA hazardous waste due to its
characteristics (D007, D008) and will
have to be disposed of as a hazardous
The proposed waste reduction option
for this waste stream would involve the
use of equipment external to the
automotive parts washer. The proposed
process would include emulsion
breaking to cause emulsified oils to
float, removal of demulsified oils and
other tramp oils and grease by skim-
ming, filtration to remove particulates in
an in-line cartridge filter, and addition
of fresh alkaline detergent as necessary,
followed by recirculation of the cleaned
washwater to the automotive parts
cleaner. Buildup of impurities in the
recycled washwater is prevented by
purging 25 percent of the used alkaline
detergent and recycling 75 percent. The
material being purged is neutralized
with an appropriate amount of waste
battery acid and precipitated trace
heavy metal impurities are removed to
allow disposal of the purge stream as a
nonhazardous waste.
Results of Assessment
The battery repair shop generates
7,200 gal/yr of RCRA hazardous waste
(classifications-D002, D006, D008) at a
disposal cost of $27,900/yr. Current raw
material cost is $11,530. Recycling of the
reformulated battery acid would require
a capital investment of $15,200 but
would save $36,000/yr in operating
costs. This would yield a payback of
0.42 years.
Automotive parts washing generates
29,000 gal/yr of RCRA hazardous waste
(classifications-D007, D008). This waste
is currently drained to an on-site
evaporation pond. Current raw material
cost is less than $100/yr. Recycling of
purified alkaline detergent solution
would require a capital investment of
$19,800. If it were disposed of as a
RCRA hazardous waste at the same cost
per gallon as the waste battery acid, the
disposal cost would be $112,000/yr.
This option would save $107,100/yr in
operating costs, leading to a payback
period of 0.18 years.
In light of the short payback periods
of the two waste reduction options
identified, successful implementation of
these options at Fort Riley would create
the potential for application of similar
options in at least 10 other U.S. Army
Forces Command installations.
The EPA Project Officer for this study
is James S. Bridges. The project sum-
mary entitled: "Waste Minimization
Opportunity Assessment: Fort Riley,
Kansas" (EPA/600/S2-90/031) is
available from U.S. EPA/RREL, Pollu-
tion Prevention Research Branch (MS-
466), 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive,
Cincinnati, OH 45268.
The summary can also be obtained
from the Pollution Prevention Informa-
tion Clearinghouse (PPIC) by calling

March-April 1992
7 - Pollution Prevention News
Corporate Notes
Less Toxic Batteries Available in 1992
Batteries without toxic heavy metals
such as mercury and cadmium will be
available this year, according to a
number of manufacturers and suppliers.
Public concern has been rising about the
environmental impacts of disposing of
household batteries in the post-con-
sumer waste stream. Among the
companies announcing new products:
• Harding Energy Systems has
introduced Green Battery, a nickel
hydride rechargeable battery that
does not contain cadmium and has
twice the capacity and cycle life of a
conventional nickel cadmium
(NiCad) battery, according to the
company. The battery includes a
technology developed by the Ovonic
Battery Co. that uses metal-alloy
hydride instead of cadmium.
•	Battery Technologies Inc. has
developed a reusable alkaline battery
that will contain no mercury. The
company has signed licenses with six
companies in five countries, includ-
ing Rayovac in the United States, for
the use of its reusable alkaline
manganese technology, which uses
metallic and organic inhibitors to
perform the function formerly
performed by mercury. The first
generation of the RAM technology,
which will be available in 1992, will
compete with disposable batteries
and NiCad rechargeables.
•	Matsushita Battery Industrial Co.
and licensee Rayovac have signed a
technology aggreement that will
enable Rayovac to produce a no-
mercury added alkaline battery.
Matsushita's Panasonic brand also
has announced a line of alkaline,
heavy-duty and general purpose cells
that are 99.999 percent mercury free.
(The company says that because
traces of mercury exist naturally in
other elements in the battery, no
battery is entirely free of mercury.)
Mercury has been added to batteries
to chemically counter reactions that
could ultimately destroy the cell.
For example, alkaline manganese
batteries use zinc powder as the
negative electrode. Ordinarily,
without a small amount of mercury
added, the powder would react
with other battery components,
causing internal corrosion and
The amount of mercury used in
household batteries has been
declining steadily in the United
States, decreasing 92 percent
between 1984 and 1989, according
to U.S. Bureau of Mines data. Recently,
states have begun setting standards for
mercury levels. The first state to set
mercury levels, Minnesota, required
household batteries to have no more
Officials of Battery Technologies Inc. in front of
automatic RAM battery cycling stations.
than 250 parts per million by January
1992. Industry experts expect legislation
on mercury standards will become more
stringent once this newest round of
products is on the market.
Green Lights Makes Gains
(Continued from page 1)
years to complete their lighting up-
grades. The typical plan for most
companies has been to use the first year
or two to survey buildings, develop
expertise, train staff and acquire budgets.
The first two years also include, in most
cases, some lighting upgrades to help
with the training process and to allow
staff to develop procedures for budget-
ing, procurement, installation, contract-
ing and reporting. Years three and four
will be used for major upgrades.
According to the report, Green Lights
goals for 1992 include recruiting an
additional 3 to 5 percent of the nation's
square footage and to have every Green
Lights participant complete one major
lighting upgrade. The program also
plans to begin outreach toward the
residential sector.
Green Lights is EPA's first voluntary
energy-efficiency program; by the end
of 1992, the Agency hopes to offer a
Green Building program and/or a
Green Energy Corporation program to
further the nation's goal of preventing
New /ersey became the first
state to have all its electric
utilities join the Green Lights
program. Constantine
Sidamon-Eristoff, EPA
Region 2 Administrator (far
r.) hosted a signing ceremony
in lanuary with vice
presidents (I to r) fames /.
Lees, Atlantic Electric Co.,
Eugene /. McCarthy, Jersey
Central Power & Light Co.,
Thomas M. Crimmins, Public
Service Electric & Gas Co.,
and Victor A. Roque, Orange
& Rockland Utilities, Inc.

Pollution Prevention News - 8

March-April 1992
Clean AinMa*ketplace:
New Business Opportunities
U.S. EPA, Air & Waste
Management Assn.
April 22-23
Tysons Corner, VA
Groundwater Education Summit
Groundwater Education in Mich.,
Great Lakes Commission
May 11-12
Chicago, IL
Carol Misseldine
Solid Waste Management:
Turning Trash into Dollars
Univ. of Missouri/Columbia
College of Engineering
May 21
Kansas City, MO
Eng. Extension
Northwest Citizens' Conf.
on Right-to-Know
Northwest Policy Center, Sierra
Club, Wash. Toxics Coalition, etc.
May 30-31
Mt. Ranier, WA
Freddie Merrell
8th Annual Woods Hole Meeting
June 1-3
Woods Hole, MA
Dana Duxbury
Managing Now for a Sustainable
Future: Env. Mngmnt. Inst.
Tufts University Center for
Environmental Management
June 1-26
Medford, MA
Colleen Singer
Environmental Leadership
Renew America, Smithsonian,
EPA, Council on Env. Quality
June 3-5
Washington, DC
Renew America
Environmental Resource
June 11
Dallas, TX
Tel: 800-537-2372
Fax: 919-822-0449
National IPM Forum
June 17-19
Arlington, VA
85th Annual Meeting &
Air & Waste Management
June 22-26
Kansas City, MO
Debbie Reichert
Urban and Agricultural
Water Reuse
Water Environment Federation
June 28-July 1
Orlando, FL
Nancy Blatt
1992 National Solid Waste
July 20-22
Portland, OR
Tel: 202-624-5828
Fax: 202-624-7875
30th Annual Solid Waste
Solid Waste Association of
North America
August 3-6
Tampa, FL
United States Environmental
Protection Agency (PM-222B)
Washington, DC 20460
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300