Office of Radiation Programs
.S. Environmental Protection Agency

I. Introduction
The transuranium elements include plutonium and the higher
atomic number elements. Many of the nuclides of these elements are
characterized by long radioactive half-lives ani high radiotoxicity.
Unlike most chemical pollutants, (except perhaps for the heavy
metals and certain non-biodegradable toxic compounds) the
transuranium elements tend to build up in the environment by virtue
of their long persistence." Therefore, any release of these
radionuclides must be considered as an irreversible commitment to
the environment and entails a cumulative potential health hazard for
many future generations.
Plutonium is a metallic, radioactive element with atomic number
94. It'was the first iran-made element to be produced in relatively
large quantities. In the Periodic Chart, a general classification
of the elements by similarity of properties, the transuranium
elements are included in the actinide series, which starts with
actinium and extends through lawrencium (Fig. I—1).
Elements 93 through 103 are synthetically produced by nuclear
reactions, usually starting with uranium. The addition of a neutron
to uranium-238 (mass number 238) forms uranium-239 which by
radioactive decay forms neptunium-239 (Np-239). It decays to
plutonium-239 (Pu-239). Subsequent neutron captures followed by
radioactive decay leads to the formation ot other elements. Figure
1-2 is a diagram of the production scheme for important transuranium
elements, startinq with uranium-235 and 238.
The nuclear properties of the important transuranium elements
produced are listed in the following table. It is notable that
where -short half-lives or beta (0) emissions occur thp daughter
product is a long lived alpha emitting radionuclide.
Essentially all transuranium alpha emittin7 radionuclides are
considered to be extremely radiotoxic if inhaled or ingested.
Plutonium has been studied more carefully than the other
transuranium elements because it is being handled in larqe
quantities in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. However, o«-her
transuranium elements such as neptunium, americium, and curium will
also be present in appreciable quantities in spent reactor fuel.
Present plutonium levels in the environment have come primarily
from two sources - worldwide fallout from atmospheric tes<-s of
nuclear weapons, and releases from various facilities and sites
where plutonium is, or has been, used. Fallout over the area of tne
United States represents a large total existing inventory ot the
order of 10-15,000 curies, and is relatively uniformly distributed
with current deposition levels ranging from 1-4 millicuries oer








Si1; i 03
' ;r
:) I'jj


. .n'JicmU'0

 I oj the achnide sent * <>l element!, u hit h as a £»<>: uc -
(a single * rj/tfi > e, ttl actinium (/lumber fi'j) m the mum Jigmc. Plutonium, ih menl "I. is in this seucs 'I hi tat c
i t.'/i (I mil han nli) sines oj elements, also shoiui in a hen uonlal ion, also oc cuptcs' a single stfiiaie (at lanthanum,
c'eii'.enl ~>7) on tlw mam chart.
Figure 1-1

Figure 1-2 Formation scheme for important transuranium elements

Table 1-1
*Radionuclide	on Decay	Half-life	Daughter
22 b hr
2.14x10° y
2.1 d
2.35 d
2.85 y
87.4 . y
2.44x10 y
b.bxlO y
14.3 y
3.87x10 y
4.9b hr
433 y
7.37x10 y
2b m
lb3 d
18.1 y
Pa-pro tacLiniui i

square kilometer. Releases from weapons-related facilities and
production sites represent a local addition to the general
background level.
Indeterminate but large quantities of these elements have been
produced for the nuclear weapons program and additional very large
quantities (of the order of many millions of curies) will be
produced by the nuclear power program. Releases from these
activities (even at the most pessimistic levels) will not equal or
exceed for several decades the quantities already in the environment
from fallout, but rather could present substantial localized
problems of levels tens or hundreds of times the existing background
In addition, space nuclear power devices may contain from ten
to over a hundred kilocuries of plutonium, and a total of more than
a half million curies has been used in space missions. Commercial
applications, such as the nuclear powered heart pacemaker, generally
utilize relatively small quantities, but are rapidly proliferating.
Because of the potential for long-term environmental contamination
from all these sources and others, it would seem appropriate to
analyze the problem from an overview perspective at this time. It
must be recognized that control measures must be instituted at a
time sufficiently far in advance of when the cumulative effect of
all potential releases of these radionuclides to the general
environment could become a significant public health problem.
The principal problem associated with standard setting
activities for plutonium would appear to be that of achieving a
proper persDective for all the material already committed to the
environment and that which is likely to follow. As noted above,
most of the current worldwide inventory of plutonium in trie
environment is due to atmospheric weapons tests. This is reasonably
uniformly distributed, predominantly in the Northern ii°Tuspnere, an i
less than 10% remains suspended in the atmospnere. Additional
current releases, resulting from weapons fabrication ooerations,
testing of various devices, and other operations contribute
primarily excess local concentrations. Future additions, if
confined to a very small fraction of the total inventory, *-oul i
essentially continue this situation.
The statutory authority of the EPA for the development of
radiation protection standards is derived from the authorities
tranferred on its inception. Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970
tranferred the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission to the
Environmental Protection Agency ". . .to the extent that such
functions of the Commission consist of establishing generally
applicable environmental standards for the protection of the general
environment from radioactive material. As used herein, standards

square kilometer. Releases from weapons-related facilities and
production sites represent a local addition to the general
background level.
Indeterminate but large quantities of these elements have been
produced for the nuclear weapons program and additional very large
quantities (of the order of many millions of curies) will be
produced by the nuclear power program. Releases from these
activities (even at the rnost pessimistic levels) will not egual or
exceed for several decades the quantities already in the environment
from fallout, but rather could present substantial localized
problems of levels tens or hundreds of times the existing background
In addition, space nuclear power devices may contain from ten
to over a hundred kilocuries of plutonium, and a total ot more than
a half million curies has been used in space missions. Commercial
applications, such as the nuclear powered heart pacemaker, generally
utilize relatively small quantities, but are rapidly proliferating.
Because of the potential for long-term environmental contamination
from all these sources and others, it would seem appropriate to
analyze the problem from an overview perspective at this time. It
must be recognized that control measures must be instituted at a
time sufficiently far in advance of when the cumulative effect of
all potential releases of these radionuclides to the general
environment could become a significant public health problem.
The principal problem associated with standard setting
activities for plutonium would appear to b^ that of achieving 3
proper perspective for all the material already committed to the
environment and that which is likely to follow. As noted aoove,
most of the current worldwide inventory of plutonium in trie
environment is due to atmospheric weapons tests. This is r=asonabl/
uniformly distributed, predominantly in the Northern ii°.nispnere, an i
less than 10% remains suspended in the atmospnore. Alditional
current releases, resulting from weapons fabrication ooerations,
testing of various devices, and other operations contribute
primarily excess local concentrations. Future additions, if
confined to a very small fraction of the total inventory, *'oul i
essentially continue this situation.
The statutory authority of the EPA for the development of
radiation protection standards is derived from the authorities
tranferred on its inception. Reorganization Plan Ho. 3 of 1970
tranferred the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission to the
Environmental Protection Agency ". . . to the extent that such
functions of the Commission consist of establishing generally
applicable environmental standards for the protection of the general
environment from radioactive material. As used herein, standards

mean limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or
quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment
outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons
possessing or using radioactive material." As a result of this
transfer. Section 161(b) of the Atomic Energy Act provides tnat the
Administrator nay, within the above framework, "establish by rul-3,
regulation, or order, such standards to govern the use of special
nuclear material, source material, and by-product material as (he)
may deem necessary or desirable to . . . protect health or to
minimize changes of life or property."
Section 274(h) provides that "The (Federal Radiation) Council
shall advise the President with respect to radiation matters,
directly or indirectly affecting health, including guidance for all
Federal agencies in the formulation of radiation standards and in
the establishment and execution of programs of cooperation with

II. Hazard Assessment
The physiological effects of alpha radiation are of short range
and essentially limited to only the immediate vicinity of tne
radioactive emitter. Therefore, radioisotopes which emit primarily
alpha radiation represent a hazard to health only if they are
brought into intimate and prolonged contact with human tissue.
Plutonium may enter the body by inhalation, ingestion, or throuqh
open wounds. Retention ajid/or transmigration tend to concentrat-e
sites of potential damage to the lung and associated lymph nodes,
the skeleton, liver, and soft tissue, as well as to the tissue at
the site of accidental entry.
Evidence to date suggests that the onset of evident radiation
induced damage directly attributable tc exposure to plutonium
apparently has a very long induction period. Animals exposed to
plutonium aerosols or injected with soluble plutonium compounds nave
developed carcinomas at times ranging from months to years and
approximately related to the total absorbed dose. No human
fatalities due to plutonium exposure have yet been reported,
although records of exposure date back to 1946. A comprehensive
survey of such occupationally exposed individuals is being
maintained by the National Transplutonium Registry, with continuing
medical surveillance and autopsy after death.
For purposes of standard setting, where a large populdtion-at-
risk is involved, the numerical estimates of adverse nealth efrects
due to exposure can be developed on a statistical basis. The heal4"!
hazard from a radiation dose has generally been asseiseri by using *
linear, non-threshold theory to relate accumulated dose to effect,
where the known values at high exposure levels are extrapolated
linearly to zero. While there is no scientific information to
definitely confirm this hypothesis, in light of current
uncertainties this should be considered as a prudent and orohably
conservative assumption. Thus, it is assumed that every dose
received, no matter how small, carries with it some ris< of an
adverse health effect.
A substantial body of information already "xists on t-he long-
term effects of exposure to various types of radiation.
Considerable additional work is in progress on the specific
bioeffects associated with continued exposure to the transuranium
elements. Because of limited number of human exposures and apparent
long induction time, definitive answers to all aspects ot plutonium
carcinogenic effects will not be available for a number or years.
In the meantime, standards and guidelines will have to be based on
the best available current information and revised as appropriate.

In order to determine the impact of releases of the
transuranium elements, numerical estimates of potential health
effects must be correlated with environmental concentrations or the
elements. This involves the conversion of these concentrations to
organ burdens, organ burdens to doses and doses to health effects.
The models given for determining organ burdens are general in nature
but specific comments refer to plutonium since it is the element for
which the most information is available. Dose conversion factors
are given for several elements. Health effects estimates are baseci
on exposure to alpha radiation and are not necessarily applicable to
all situations. Each model carries with it a set of assumptions
which introduce uncertainties in its applications. As more
information becomes available these models will undoubtedly be
refined and more closely represent the actual situation and permit
more accurate prediction.
The respiratory tract is the most common mode of entry into the
body. The particles inhaled may be either soluble or insoluble in
body fluids. Soluble compounds tend to move to other areas of the
body and can concentrate in the liver or bone. Insoluble compounds
tend to remain in the respiratory tract for long periods of time.
For modeling purposes 1000 days is used tor the clearance half-time
from the lung.
The estimates of risk for inhaled radioactive particles are
based on animal experiments and on human data from two sources. The
first is from total organ or whole body exposure to x-rays or gamma
rays, where every cell in the lung receives approximately an
identical radiation exposure. This includes data on Japanese
survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and on patients who have been
exposed to extensive diagnostic or therapeutic x-irradiation or the
chest* and lungs. The second source of data is derived from person^
exposed to the special conditions found in some -nines. These
persons inhaled not only radioactive particles hut also rock dust-,
radon and daughter radioisotopes, diesel engine exhaust and oth^r
materials. The radon daughter isotopes are thouciht to be t:ie causes
of lunq cancer in this case, ani the radiation exposure of cells in
various regions of the lung is different. Data is available tor
uranium miners, flurospar miners and others. From these data ari
estimate of the risk of lung cancer per rem ot radiation has been
In the case of plutoniuro-239, in solid tissue the dose rate at
m from the surface of a particle is about 1.5 to 2.0* ot" tne
dose rate of the source point and by	distance the dose rate is
virtually zero. In the lung, which is about SOX air, the
corresponding distances are about 320 JUm and 480 JL^m respectively.
Deoending on the number of particles inhaled, the fraction of the

lung actually irradiated rtiay differ but usually only a small portion
of the lung will be exposed to the radiation.
The use of animal data which may provide•additional suoport to
hypothesis concerning the relative efficacy of particulate vs
uniform exposure is conflicting and has many limitations. Studies
involving inhalation of radioactive materials have shown increases
in lung cancers in experimental animals. However, these increases
have not been in the type of cancer expected in humans exposed to a
potent carcinogen. Observed species differences have further
complicated interpretation. These experiments have involved
plutonium as well as other elements.
Plutonium microspheres have also been injected into ha.nsters
and single highly radioactive spheres have been implanted in other
animals. The animals have shown little response in either case.
Experiments using uniform alpha radiation of pure radon have
not been any more conclusive. From results of several studies it is
suggested that "uniform" alpha irradiation of lung tissue may not be
effective for inducing lung neoplasia.
The anatomy, respiratory physiology, histology, and pathology
is different to a greater or lesser extent in each species of animal
studied. Because of these differences and the fact that lung tumors
developing in animals exposed to radiation are not the same as those
seen in man, it is difficult to assess the consequences ot inhaled
radioactive particles in man. There is no data on numa'i exposure
from which a correlation with animal inhalation experiments <~an bp
made. Until an adequate animal model is developed ther° will be
great uncertainty and disagreement about the relationship of animal
experiments to possible human exposure and risk.
Considerable uncertainty persists in the evaluation of the
biological hazard of inhaled radioactive particles. Althoujn it is
possible to mar.e estimates for disposition of inhaled particle in
the lung, and estimates of tne risk of adverse effects following
exposure of the lung to ionizinq radiation, it has proven dirfirult
to obtain agreement on the risk associated with tne inhalation jf
radioactive particles.
The derivation of risk estimates has been discussed above. The
question of how to apply these risk estimates is the area or 'nost
disagreement. Traditionally, dose estimates for internal emitters
(radioisotopes contained within the body) have been based on trie
average organ dose, i.e., the total amount of radiation energy
deposited in an organ divided by the mass of that organ. While this
is a reasonable method for estimating the risk from x- or gamma
radiation where all parts of the organ receive the same amount of:

enerqy, it has been questioned whether it is adequate for estimating
the risk from the short range alpha or low energy beta radiation in
cases where the radioactive material is not uniformly distributed.
The basic question posed by these considerations is simply
whether exposure of a few cells in an organ to high levels of
radiation constitutes a greater, similar, or lesser risk than
exposure of many or all cells in that organ to a lower level of
radiation. This is often designated as tne "Hot Particle Problem."

Commercial Nuclear Power
Immediate future uses of plutonium and other transuranium
elements in the power industry rely on the recovery ot plutonium
from uranium fueled light water reactors (LWR). As the number of
commercial light water reactors increase, the plutonium produced
will require storage or -use (recycle) in the light water reactors.
The proposed Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) requires
plutonium as fuel; substantial quantities of plutonium will be
discharged from light water reactors before the fast breeder
reactors are commercially available. The estimates of plutonium
production used here are those reported by the USAEC. Fiqure III-l
is a plot of the estimated cumulative inventory of plutonium
recovered from domestic nuclear power fuels without commercial
plutonium recycle in light water reactor fuels. Lonq tarm
projections of plutonium recovery and use including the future LMFBR
is not included in the above figure. A projection which includes
plutonium recovered from both LWRs and LMFBRs is shown in Figure
ilI-2. In addition, the quantities of plutonium available for
recycle are included in the projections. From these tigures the
projected quantitites of plutonium that have been handled would be*
200 metric tons by 1985 and 4000 metric tons by 2000. It was
announced in 1972 that the first commercial recycle of plutonium in
light water reactors was anticipated in 1974, when Big Rock Point
was expected to load plutonium fuel in one third of its core.
The major facilities involved in plutonium handling arp tha
fuel reprocessing plants, the fuel fabrication plants arid
reactors. Materials movement between these facilities involves
transportation and solid waste generation.
A. Power Reactors
1. LWRs
Operations at a typical 640 MWe boiling wator reactor
(BWR) indicate that essentially all plutonium and o^ht-r transur-jrucsi
which escape into the primary coolant collect in the solid waste
Liquid waste treatment systems are very effective at
removing the transuranics. Some of them will, of course, find their
way past waste treatment systems and get to the environment. The
amounts, however, are evidently extremely small as compared to
transuranium elements released from fuel reprocessing and ruel
fabrication. An exception is Np-239, produced by n, gamma reactions
on U-238, which has been reported in several BWR operating reports.

4.5 x 10" kg
r ?.&
2 7.0
Fissile plutonium—cumulative recovery and requirements
Figure III-l

Amounts to date have been small and generally less than 4xl0-4fl of
current AEC limits.
Averaqe plutoniuir inventories in a LMFBK will be less than
an order of magnitude greater than those of a uranium-fueled LWR of
the same size. Consequently, the quantity of transuranics, which
are produced in the core by neutron activation reactions and
ultimately discharged from the facility in the spent fuel, is also
less than an order of magnitude greater. A LMFBR has only about a
factor of two more plutonium and transuranics than a LWR fueled with
recycled plutonium.
There will normally be no transuranics reaching the
environment from an LMFBR, since the LMFBR is designed for much
lower leakage of coolant than LWRs during normal operations. Also,
sodium coolant systems have inherent and engineered removal
mechanisms which effectively remove many impurities such as the
transuranic elements, so that the amount of transuranics getting
outside the system even in event o£ coolant leakage would be greatly
B. Fuel Reprocessing
1. Industry Description
The econoraics of the nuclear fuel cycle reguirp tne
recovery of uranium and plutonium isotopes from spent- reactor £U"»1
for re-use in new fuel elements. Tnis separation of thia uranism ^rn
olutoriium from irradiated fuel is carried out at fuel reprocess inn
Table III-l presents the estimated concentrations of
transuranic isotopes present in spent fuel. Estimates are shown ror
both uranium oxide and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel.
Calculations of the annual inventory of transuranics in r^proc^ssri
fuel for time periods up to the year 20C0 are presented in Taol?
Ill-2. These data were calculated using the concentrations m Tabl"
III-l and the projections of amounts and types of fuel to be
reprocessed. It was assumed that the average concentrations of
transuranics in LMFBR fuel will be similar to the concentrations in
plutonium recycle fuel. These data do not include fuel from hign
temperature qas cooled reactors HTGRs which for the Th-ll fuel cycle
will not add significantly to the transuranic inventory.
Figure III-3 presents estimates of the annual discharqes
of transuranics from fuel reprocessing plants up to the year 2000.
Three curves are shown (1) the activity of all transuranic isotopes.

Tabic III-l
Estimated Concentrations of TransuiAnics in
Reprocessc-d Fuel	(a,b)
Radionuclide Half-Life Uranium Fuel Plutonium Recycle Fuel
(Years) Ci/MT	Ci/KT
Pu-238 06 4.0C0	6,000
Pu-239 24,400 500	750
Pu~7.40 6,580 650	1,000
Pu-241 13 150,000	300,000
Pu-242 379,000 2	5
Am-241 458 750	2,000
Am-243 7,COO 20	200
Cm-242 0.45 35,000	250,000
Cu-244 17.6 ?,GC0	kb.OC'J
(a) Burnup - 33,000 MVD/iTU
0») Cooling Tlii.e - 159 days

Table III-2

Estimated Annual Inventories of Trf.nn
in Reprocessed Fuel^3*^
Trail iU'unics

Metric Tcus
... .9
«~. n lw
^F.vrnup - 33,000 MWD/ltTU
J 'cooling tir.2 - 150 lU-ys
'c'roar. not include HGTR Fuel. Revrocr; i'ln^ - "l'h-U	Cycle
not contribute additionrl rtj.r.if Jcmt «,v.cintd I'of tru vair'.l

u/a//V<3._l/#Si Plu't'drtiV'W Product"/6 f]
.:: ¦ ..: - i:	:_ v.j_.;-J • •	¦ ¦ > ¦		 _.J	
& A/i\ole.c\r /^-S6uw.wc.& Carp*	!
-i. q Abcloj&v* £n
EST^UTcD fcjtfj&i. DiscHfiZC-eS FGoH
Figure III-3

(2) t.he activity of all alpha emitting transuranic isotopes, and (3)
the activity of all alpha emitting transuranic isotopes. Figure
III-1 presents similar curves for the cumulative environmental
inventory of transuranics from fuel reprocessing operations.
Plutonium- 241, a beta emitting isotope, makes up -shout 8C'*
of the transuranic activity in the environment resulting from
discharges from fuel reprocessing plants. The remaining 20£ of thp
activity is comprised of 'alpha emitting isotopes. Altnough
plutonium-241 is a beta emitter, it decays to americium-2t4l an alpha
emitter and the resulting Am-241 will eventually represent a
significant portion of the total transuranic alpha activity in the
environment. Since the values for alpha emitting transuranics in
Figure III-3 include the ingrowth of Am-241 from Pu-241, these
values'are probably the most significant in evaluating the
environmental impact of discharges of transuranics.
There are no commercial fuel reprocessing plants currently
operating in the United States. One plant. Nuclear Fuel Cervices,
Inc. operated for a 6 year period between 1966 and 197 2 but is now
shut down for plant expansion. Two other plants are presently in
pre-operational stages. One is General Electric*s Midwest 1 ton/day
Fuel Recovery Plant (MFRP) which has postponed operations
indefinitely and the other is Allied-Gulf's 5 ton/day Barnwell
Nuclear Fuel Plant (3NFP) which will not be operational until 1976-
1977. Future fuel reprocessing requirements indicate that ^bout lfJ
plants processing about 26,000 MT/yr (metric ton per year) ot £uel
will be necessary by the year 2000 and that by the year 20 2? anont
50 plants processing 80,000 MT/yr of fuel will be required.
Figure III-5 presents estimates of the cumulative environment d L
inventory of transuranics which will result from the discharges or
liquid waste from the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. plant it present
waste treatment practices are continued when the plant resumes
operation. These estimates are based on a release fraction of
2. affluent Control
Almost all of the plutonium and other transuranics
released to the environment from the operation of nuclear tuel
reprocessing plants will result from the discharge of particulars
which have passed through tne off-gas treatment and filter systems.
Only one of the three fuel reprocessing plants now under
construction, NFS, will discharge radioactive liquid waste. It is
not expected that any future commercial fuel reprocessinq plant will
discharge radioactive liquid waste.

Figure III-5
-0STi H/vTeip- Cu nvLtiav. c -pj vi ^ #*&/!ȣ ; vbtfto ay
t O^i "TgfiivJvS UHfiA/ICS (PsS^^Ti^Yv- FfffrM_ J-i&t)'

The principal method for the control of plutonium and
other transuranics at fuel processing plants is the installation of
high efficiency particulate filters in the off-gas discharge lines.
Usually two or more filters are used in series. It is estimated
that the release fraction for particulate transuranics at fuel
reprocessing plants will be less than 10~9r and it is expected that
future plants may attain even better particulate control than
reflected by this estimate.
Recycling of condensates from low-level waste
concentrators eliminates the discharge of radioactive liquid waste
from MFRP and BNFP. The only process water discharged from these
plants is that which is evaporated into the off gas system to
dispose of tritium.
At NFS, the condensates from the low-level waste evaporator?
are discharged to the environment after passing through a series of
holding ponds and a waste treatment facility. The release fraction
for transuranics via the liquid waste is estimated to be 5xl0-8 at
C. Fuel Fabrication
The estimated number of plutonium recycle fabrication
plants of 150 metric ton (MT) capacity needed in lfJ80 is between 4
and 6 plants. After 1980, the amount of recovered plutonium would
increase an added 3000 to 5000 kg per year. The lncr^asintj recover/
would be sufficient to refuel about five additional li-Tht water
r°actors oer year which would require one additional 15° ni«f-ric tor-
(MT) capacity fuel fabrication plant per y^ar. The growtn in trie
number of plutonium recycle fuel fabrication plants would decrease
or stop at the point in time when the plutonium discharged rro.n
light water reactors is required for the initial cores of tn° nrst
commercial Fast Breeder Reactors. With introduction ot tn*> LMF3R n
1986 or later the fuel fabrication capacity required will b^qm to
level off and decline. However, plutonium recycle fuel f abr icai- i j:i
plants could change to fabrication of LMFBR fu°ls. Assuming tne
major uses of plutonium will be by light water reactors until iyfl5,
the possible number of plants of 150 MT capacity could be 9 no 11
plants. For fabrication of LMFBR fuels the tnroughput of a mixed
oxide plant designed for LWR fuels would be reduced Dy about a
factor of 4 to 6 because of higher plutonium content. In an LMFPR
economy the number and size of the fabrication plants is likely to
increase beyond that expected for fabrication of recycle fuels of

Aerospace Applications
Plutonium-238 oxide is used as a fuel in Radioisotope
Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Interaction of the radioactive
decay particles within the fuel matrix produce heat which in
converted to electricity. Plutonium fueled RTG * s have been used hy
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and
Department of Defense (DoD) to provide electrical power aooard
satellites and on the surface of the moon. The plutonium-2J8
isotope for these devices is produced at the AEC Savannah River
Plant in South Carolina. The isotopes are shipped to other AEC
laboratories such as Mound Laboratory, Ohio or Los Alamos, New
Mexico for processing into a stable fuel form and encapsulation into
heat sources. After 1976, the processing into a stable fuel form is
expected to be carried out at the Savannah River Plant.
Plutonium fueled RTG's have been used in space exploration in
the past and present plans involve use in future space probes and
satellites. Successful space missions using RTG's do not result in
release of plutonium to the environment. However, launch aborts,
failure to attain orbit or decay of orbit with reentry are potential
events which may result in release of plutonium to tne environment.
In 196U, a transit satellite failed to attain orbit. Burn-up on
reentry released 17,000 Ci of plutonium-2 3 8 to the atmosphere.
A launch accident resulted in two 17,00 0 Ci RTGs being dropped
into the ocean off the coast of California. These were recovered.
The failure of the Apollo 13 mission resulted in the reentry ot thf
LEM and impact in tne ocean of the experimental apparatus.
Containpd in the LEN! was SNAP-27 generator containing US,00 0 Ci ot
plutonium which is still in the ocean. Some future rnnsions could
result in earth orbit of a substantially greater quantity ot
plutonium than in previous missions. A major question aoout earth
orbiting plutonium is the acceptability of the reentry ot
radioisotope powered satellites on a random basis.
Present containment design should prevent dissemination of t:.e
radionuclide under all forseeable conditions such as pre-orbitnl
abort or uncontrolled at-nosphenc reentry and earth impact. Tiio
ceramic fuel matrix has been redesigned to minimize formation ot
particles in the respirable range in tne unlikely event of burnup.
Research and development work is presently underway at Oak
Ridge National Laboratory for the application of curium-2'4t| to
radioisotope thermoelectric generators.
Medical Uses

Some proposed merlical uses of plutonium are research and
development on the implantation of plutomum-238 powered heart
pacemakers and radioisotope powered artifical heart devices. The
radioisotope powered cardiac pacemaker has completed many of th°
tests necessary to qualify the unit for implantation in humans.
Early in 1973, ARCO Nuclear Company started production of units for
human implantation, ^ach unit contains about 5 Ci of plutonium.
The plutonium-238 powered artificial heart devices are under
study at two AEC laboratories. One such study device contain 900 Ci
of plutonium-238. It has been calculated that this device will
subject the internal organs of the user to about 50 inillirem/hour.
The major potential for impact on the environment is the possible
uncontrolled ultimate disposal of such pacemakers and other devices.
Military Applications
The present inventories of plutonium in the environment are
primarily from military activities. Plutonium for this purpose is
produced in reactors at the AEC Hanford and Savannah River
reservations. Fuel slugs are reprocessed to recover the pLutonium
which is shipped to a weapons parts manufacturing facility. The
Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado is the major weapons parts
manufacturer; however, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and Lawrence
Livermore Laboratory are involved in manufactur° of special nuclear
devices such as underground explosives. Assembly ot the weapons
parts take place at military contractor sit°s such as Pnntex m
Amarillo, Texas. From this point weapons are distributed r.o
military facilities.
Plutonium has been released to the environment on a local lev°]
around plutonium testing and production sites. There are kCi
quantities of plutonium dispersed at the Nevada Test Site and cun^
to tens of curies at the Trinity Test Site, Alamagordo, Mew Mexico.
Also 3 to 5 curies have been released at the Rocky Flats plutoniun
processing plant near Denver, Colorado. An estimated U caries were
leaked in 1973 from a waste storage tank at. Hantord.
A continuing aspect of military applications L3 tiie ^ossil^ility
of plutonium dispersion in the environment due to accidents
involving nuclear weapons on strategic missions. Two sucri accilents
have occurred in Spain in 1966 and Greenland 1968.
Other military activities which involve movement ot plutonium
in the environment and oceans are nuclear powered submarines ana
ships. Each nuclear propulsion plant contains some quantity of
plutonium and transuranium elements. In addition mi^sile-launching
submarines carry plutonium in the weapons. By the end ot" iy71, thp
AEC estimated there would be 95 nuclear powered submarines and 4

nuclear powered surface ships. Unknown quantities of plutonium and
transuranium elements may be released during reprocessing of thp
nuclear fuels from these ships at the National Reactor Testing
Station (NRTS) or a commercial fuel reprocessing plant. The
releases during normal operation of naval reactors are not available
from unclassified sources.
Consumer Products
Application of plutonium and transuranium elements in consumer
products at present is limited. However, future availability could
increase the number of items which could be produced for general
population purchase. Manufacture of such items would require
licensing action, but once in the hands of the consumer, control
could be lost. Provisions for waste disposal are not now generally
included with purchase of the product. Examples of sucn products
include a smoke detector containing 40 mCi ot amencium-211, static
eliminators at plastics plants, and snow gauges for use at remote

IV. Existing Guidelines
Guidance for exoosure to the transuranium elements b°gan during
World War II with the first recommendation for maxiumum permissible
occupational levels for plutomum. In 1953 the National Committee
on Radiation Protection (NCRP) recommended occupational limits for
americium and curium. In 1959 and again in 19b2 the International
Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended standards
for an expanded list of elements which currently includes isotopes
of americium, curium, bsrkelium, californium, einsteinium an3
The first guidance for plutonium contamination carne into
existence almost simultaneously with the existence of the first
reactor-produced plutoniuin. Two months after start-up of the
Clinton, Tennessee reactor, in November 1943, a reconmendation was
made that 5 •Ug of fixed plutonium should be the maximum allowable
body burden. This recommendation led to major cnanqes in tne
plutonium handling areas to increase the protection of: workers.
By the end of World War II the maximum permissible body burden
was lowered to lj\g (.06 Ci) and adopted as the standard tor tne
nuclear weapons program generally. Tolerance values for air
{3xl0-11 Ci/cm') and water (3xl0w& Ci/cm3} were also adopted. Theso
standards were set before specific effects of plutonium were known,
by relating plutonium to substance for which information was
available. Body burden limits and maximum concentrations in witer
w:rp derived by using .lJUg as a maximum permissible sodv nurcspn i- >r
radium and making allowances for assumed differences bei-v^n raaiu-
and plutonium. The critical organ was assumed to be bono.
tolerance limit for air was calculated by equating coricentrat-ions ot
plutonium with doses of gamma or x-rays to the lung.
In 19U9 the Chalk River Permissible Dose Conference was held in
Ontario, Canada, with the United Kingdcm, United States rind Canada
participating. From this conference and subsequent discussions a
maximum permissible body burden ot .OUjulci of plutonium war. d lop*-.1"'.
The change was prompted by results of animal experiment? vhicn
indicated a different plutonium toxicity, relative t-o radium, tnan
had previously been assumed. New maximum permissible concentrations
(MPC's) for plutonium m air (1.5x10-12 Ci/cm3) and water
(1.2xl0~6 Ci/cm3) were also adopted. A crude lung model was
proposed to show the movement of plutonium from the lung to tne bone
and the MPC for air was based on it.
In 1950 the ICRP gave no firm recommendations for plutonium
citing the lack of sufficient data. The commission did however
publish essentially the same values as the final results of tne
Chalk River Permissible Dose Conference. This gave a maximum

permissible body burden of .04 Ci of fixed plutonium, an MPC for
water of 1.5xl0-6 Ci/cm3 and an MPC for soluble plutonium in air of
2xl0~12 Ci/cm3. A value for insoluble plutonium in air was also
given based on the lung as critical organ, but it was recommenced
that the MPC for soluble plutonium be used in all cases due to 11«"»
possible transference of insoluble plutonium from the lungs to t.h«
In 1953 the NCRP gave new values for some of the metabolic
constants used in calculating MPC's including a more detailed lunq
model. No changes in the recommended MPC values resulted.
In 1955 the ICRP revised its recommended MPC for water by
employing the changes in metabolic constants proposed by the NCRP in
1953. -The new MPC for water was 6xl0-6 Ci/cm3. There was no change
recommended for the air MPC. Recommendations were also made at this
time for MPC's based on dose to the gastro-intestinal tract.
Current MPC values were recommended by both ICRP and NCRP m
1959. In these reports the metabolic constants given in 1953, with
some modifications, were used in calculating the MPC's ror both air
and water. The MPC for soluble plutonium in air was 6xlC-13 Ci/cin
and for water 5xl0_s Ci/cm3. An MPC of 10-11 Ci/cm3 was recommended
for insoluble plutonium in air. MPC values were also computed based
on dose to several other organs and a revision was made in the
recommended MPC's based on dose to the gastro-intestinal tract in
the light of new animal data.
The current recoinmende 1 MPC's using bone as the critical orgrtn
for soluble plutonium and the lung for insoluhle plutonium nave !~o'jn
adopted by the AEC for use as occupational limits a4- nuclear
facilities. To obtain suitable MPC's for the general copulation,
the AEC has followed the recommendation of the ICRP and reiur*ea tne
occupational limits by a factor of 30. Current MPC's for air
given in Table IV-1.
At this time there are no values recommended by oitfi°r th« l
' OP.GAN	v.Ci/caJ
Eone	7 x 10 ^
Lrag	1 x lO"11
3 one
b x 10
1 x 10
.:.jv~o:;s ™ aip.
Tni'' -
.C; h J	vCj./r:r3
7 x 10~7	2.3 x 10~14	2.3 x IC
1 x 10"5	3.3 x 1C~13	J. 3 :: 10"'
c x 10
2 10
2 x JO
1 x 10
3.3 x 10
3.3 x 10

Table IV-2
:"Ci s, o.\cm:l7.,\t..c::s
c .'C\v_'.j1 :a	• :.:	"L i:
2. A?.C '
100 dp-n/100 cd^
-3 ¦
4.5.:i0 | rc.::ovr'i.".c vi»y - suit-ibis
j for ralea- : 1.0 public
^ rvkirc 3 - ^ ^ ^ t
3. r.CRP


4. DOD
&, Amy
b.	Air Force
c.	Navy

j nc ovf-li i!

10C0 tg/x,
10 V12/21
(239 Pu)
I 1
b.l7:^.0_. [ h ~r. .ccl l^val
t>.17::10 ~ i poosibla reiu;»:.i,ion
C..<.1 tl3 — L--Cf. c -I.L Z.s L
1C00 VJ£/ra^
(239 Pu)
1 1
6.1/aIO j fo-" continuous
j occ^r„\r.«.y
P.-3C.'. ."li": .\ ~ t .'.iT
I'i-I.. 1 » c."
<2 dpm/cm
suitable for release to
general public
Cc^L.":rJ r.rsci
Procedures foe „?
Weapon -.ccic.- its
>25CO ws/n^
(239 Pu)
>2. L5::i02
^r.jcr rnrcrd
r.J. . il
deconca u.ution not
necessarily reouired
Nuclear S-£rgv.rLC3 t;
5. FHS


b. Cthai
a.	NTS
b.	0R3L
• LAjL
>3300 yg/ia^
extreme. i:a?.c.rd
3o:ic hazar i
little hj.'srd
Test Site Owe ratio-:.
30 up's/i'JO c:q^
3 up.;1' 103 ca~
l.'3--"10 "*
ii_re^c survey -- average for
trans Ear-.ble larji areas
licncont^nLi'uU'V 'i-e
l*ib jr 'i 10 l '' or1 " 1
<500 cpci
_ 1 7

Laboratory Overallj.-i

V. Plutonium in the Environment
Plutonium has been released to the environment from nuclear
weapons accidents and testinq, spacecraft accidents, and processing
and reprocessinq plants. The testing of fission and fusion nuclo:*r
weapons has resulted in worldwide plutoruum-239 deposition ot around
3n0 to 500 kCi. The Health and Safety Laboratory of the ADC has
measured deposition concentrations in the United States of around 1
to 2 mCi/km2 (Fig. V-l) which results in 10 to 2C kCi being
deposited in the United States.
In April 1964 a satellite, which contained a SNAP-9A (Systems
for Nuclear Auxiliary Pow-;r) radioisotope thermoelectric generator,
failed to orbit and re-entered the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean.
The' SNAP-9A contained about 17 kCi of plutonium-2J8 and particles
from this burnup were detected in the Northern Hemisphere in late
1965 and have been measurable since that time. Another radioisotope
thermoelectric generator (SNAP-27), wnich contained about 45 kCi of
plutonium-238, was aboard the aborted Apollo 13 mission and re-
entered the atmosphere and is believed to De intact on the bottom of
the ocean.
Plutonium has also been released to the environment on a local
level around plutonium testinq and production sites. The greatest
quantity of plutonium is dispersed at the Nevada Test Site, and
appreciable amounts remain at tne Trinity Test Site, Alam3qor:io, 'Je.v-
Mexico, wnere the first atomic oomb test occurred. Abou4- 3 *-o 5
curies have been released beyond tne site limits of tn^ Koc'-y Flats
plutonium processing plant near Denver, Colorado. An estimate:; 4
curies were leaked in 1973 from a waste storage tan* at- hanror 1, nil?
similar quantities have been released at tne Savannah i;iv?r
Laboratory site in South Carolina and at the Mound Laboratory in
Miamisburg, Ohio.
There have been two ina^or accidents involving nuclear we xpons.
Th° first occurred in January 1966, near the Spanish villvje ot
Poloinares in an aerial refueling explosion involving a i3—52 bo-nner
carrying four plutonium-bearing nuclear weapons. One of tho wo-irons
was recovered intact rrom the ocean floor and anotner r^covorei
intact from a dry river bel near Palomares. The high explosiv-3
charge on the other two exploded on impact, and the piuton urn w^s
dispersed into the air and subsequently, deposited on agricultural
areas. Extensive decontamination procedures, including the removal
of vegetation and soil, were used to lower the concentrations to
safe levels.
The other major accident occurred in January 1968, when a 3-52,
with four plutonium-bearing nuclear weapons, crashed while making an
emergency landing at Thule Air Force Base in Greenland. Th=» high

¦" "\l.^
K _
jiLiimtihilcJ i!i/hi\i; nj >v>i'u at sua v///.y' i'J?0
Figure V-l

explosive charge on all four weapons exploded and the plutonium was
dispersed into the burninq fuel. Decontamination included removal
of the top layer of ice over about 15 acres.
Surveillance proqrams are routinely carried out at plutonium
handling and processing facilities. A summary of these proqrams
along with available data on plutomum concentrations at each
facility is given in Appendix I. Data is also provided for the
Trinity and Nevada Test Sites.
EPA and its predecessors began monitoring the plutoniuin-2J3 -in.l
-239 levels in the atmosphere in 1965 following tne burnup of the
SNAP-9A. The current air concentrations in the United States as
measured by this network are 0.2 to H aCi/m3 (aCi = attocurie =
lO-ia curie) for plutoniumy238 and 2 to 40 aCi/m3 for plutonium-2J9.

VI. Environmental Transport
Plutonium released to the environment is transported to man via
major ecosystem components (air, soil, water, microorganisms,
plants, and animals) by a variety of environmental {physical) and
ecological (food chain) processes. Analysis of the environmental
pathways provides estimates of plutonium inhalation and ingestion
rates by a real or hypothetical person living m the contaminat-ed
ecosystem. These estimates of plutonium input rate? to man provide
a basis for calculating potential radiation doses and dose
commitments to critical organs. The resulting dose estimates than
serve as a basis for evaluating the hazard to man due to releases of
plutonium to the environment.
Details of the environmental pathways analysis will vary witn
respect to the characteristics of: (a) plutonium releases, (b) the
environment contaminated by the releases, and (c) the dietary habits
of the population living in the contaminated environment. The major
environmental transport pathways for a typical terrestrial ecosystem
include (1) exchange between air and water or vegetation by
deposition and resuspension, (2) exchange between soil and water hy
erosion, leaching, adsorption and precipitation, (3) uptake from
soil by plants, animals and man, (4) inhalation by animals and man,
(5) ingestion of food and water by animals and man, and (6)
redistribution within plants, animals, and man.
Cnouqh is presently known about the pathways <-o conceive
preliminary mathematical models for the onvirorrnpnt-al transport of
plutonium. These usually ta*e tne form ot systems of ordin-irv
differential equations which describe the transport	iM]or
ecosystem compartments. Values and functional forms of tha
coefficients and parameters in tnese equations depend on the details
of the pathways. In order to compensate for the current lack ot
knowledge for certain processes, the mathematics of the rioi^ls is
greatly simolified and conservative coefficient- valuer, .vnich -.viLl
tend to overestimate the potential plutonium hazard are use".
The environmental pathways of tne transuranium elements ire
outlined in Figures VI-1 and VI-2. Air and water are the ^rr.iarv
transport pathways in the environment, while tne soil and tne oceans
are considered primarily as storage reservoirs from which small
amounts of tnese elements become incorporated into food. The
primary pathway of human exposure has generally been assumed to bo
by way of inhalation of air containing the transuranium elements.
The air concentration results from air releases from the source or
from resuspension of these elements from the soil back into the air.
In areas with much plant cover or as the elements migrate downward
in soil, the inhalation pathway may become less important than the
food pathway.

. _> cr
.. i

i 0;r
Ficili'-y p
W^ter ].
Reloads i
I ,
'S" 'p
^ Ler
f l- JO 1 v
. i
i :c^r
Ani ncls
— a " I" -
Soil L
•V.i. -als
a .--11 <.nd
~~~/ i'OCnJ C -"Op
Pafii jaye

II- IL- 1 j

: rr,r.s r.
.rr i o , t i3r-
sIt VVuIiti'
Fdc.i Ij t^ |
(F) r
C M 1 ¦
i 1 7
~! (P.)
.! 5oil i
c '
OU r M<_t*
i .ix^!
! !
Wc;U r
Figure VI-
i If
' I 'L i J !
' r j V C " i
i	.	"'!
Ur.:U I

— f

M n .1
j S :.ll
¦Y" T ^
! <\k

Air Teansport
When transuranium elements enter the environment via the air
mode, they are rapidly and widely transported by air currents to a
more-or-less permanent distribution in the soils and oc°dns.
Deposition occurs by both wet and dry metnods. Many computer
programs are available to describe the spreading out within the
first 50 to 100 km of radioactive material released from a point
source. These take into account wind speed, direction, and other
meteorological parameters, and some account for cloud depletion b/
surface deposition.
Surface deposition occurs both by washout from the air by ram,
and by dry deposition as the contaminated air touches the arourii.
The deposition rates for each of these methods are not vorv well
known. For dry deposition the concept of deposition velocity is
used. The deposition velocity is the ratio of the surface
deposition over a qiven period of time and an averaqe air
concentration during that time. Values tnat have been measured for
various radionuclides generally fall between 0.1 and 2.0 cm/sec.
For wet deposition the ratio of the concentration in rainwater
to that in ground level air is used to determine total deposition.
Most observed values of this ratio fall in the range of 100 to 1C00.
A considerable fraction of the released radioactive nit°rx.-il
still remains in the air at distances of 5C to 10^ k^i Lrom
source. Very little has been done to study th» fate or tnis
material. However, several matneinatical models hav^ Jj«»'_*n develop0-;
to follow this material. The most simplistic moiel assumes t-na*- 5'"
of all air releases of transuranium elements in the U.S. arc suroi 1
uniformly over the Eastern half of the U.S. The r«st is deposited
over the Atlantic Ocean. A more detailed model utilizes wo-^t-'nr
patterns and the wet and dry deposition techniques hientioned
previously to calculate, with the air of a computer, deposit lor.
patterns around a specific source. Using a deposition velocity of
0.1 cm/sec and a ram-to-air ratio of 500, it wis found that hr d
source in Morris, Illinois, the amount deposited on ~-he eastern U.S.
and Canada amounted to between 50 and 70 percent or that released
with the remainder being deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. Thus>
predicted patterns of deposition for the two independent models ar-.
Ground Pathways
Transuranium elements deposited on the surface of the ground
may expose the population through several pathways: resuspension of
the deposited material back into the air, plant uptake throuqn
leaves and roots, animal uptake and subsequent incorporation into

the animal products, or incorporation into drinking water. The
principal uncertainties associated with a determination ot pathways
to man are those of long-term transfer mechanisms. The extremely
long persistence of these nuclides makes it necessary to predict
ecological processes for decades and centuries. Very little is yot
known to permit accurate predictions of such parameters and more
research will be required to refine current estimates.
Resuspension is generally considered to be the ma^or pathway ot
exposure. The resuspension tactor, the ratio of air concentration
due to resuspension to surface contamination levels, for freshly
deposited material is estimated to range from 10~3 m_1 to aoout 10-8
mrt, and decrease to 10~7 m-1 to 10-11 m_l or less some time after
deposition. Estimates fo this ratio are extremely variable with
respect to time and numerous environmental factors (such as wind
speed and direction, rainfall, disturbances affecting aerodynamic
properties of soil surfaces) as well as the aerodynamic properties
of plutonium-bearing particulates and their susceptibility to
saltation and resuspension.
Plant and animal uptakes are very small, with tne concentration
in plants being generally less than 10~* of that in soils and the
concentrations in animals being about LO-5 of that in the plants
they eat. There is some evidence, however, that the longer
plutonium remains in soil the greater the plant uptake becomes.
Eventually much of the transuranium elements "iay dirfuse far
enough into soil so that resuspension and plant uutakp will no*-
occur. The soil would then be considered a "sink", or ,t.vironinpnt-, 1
removal mechanism, for these elements. Mathematical molPls ^o
describe this diffusion mechanism are under develoomcnt-.
Water Pathways
One possible water pathway model tor the movement of
transuranics throuqh the environment to man is given in Figura VI-2.
While the model is not meant to be definitive, it does nuiinat-"1
major pathways currently recoqnized and the complex int°rdCtions
which can occur. The figure also shows the interrelationship ot -j
water pathway model with an air pathway model.
Contamination of the drinking water supply represents the
critical pathway for population exposure immediately after a liquid
release, and movement of the transuranics throujn the complex ocaan
ecological systems may well represent the critical pathway for loner
term exposures. A study of the California coast indicated that
fish, invertebrates, and plants will concentrate plutonium. Som«
very preliminary, unpublished data of plutonium concentration
profiles in marine animals, plants and waters surrounding the

British Isles indicate that plutonium may remain in hiqh
concentrations near the shore. It is not rapidly lost or dispersed
to the open oceans as was once thought. Additional preliminary dat
would seem to indicate that plutonium deposited in bottom sediments
may become resuspended rather than remain fixed with the sediments.
These early reports and the reconcentration effect of marine
organisms reported above would suqgest that the ocean may not be an
infinite sink for liquid releases of transuranium, but it may mdee
be a critical pathway for long-term population exposures.

VII. Health Effects
Plutonium and many of the transuranium elements °mit alpha
radiation, which has very low penetrating powers and is etfectively
damaqmg to tissue at only very shbrt range. Theretore, these
elements must be in immediate contact with a receptor to hp harmtul.
Transport of these elements into the human body is generally via
inhalation, ingestion, or contamination of an open wound. Once in
the body, the elements may be retained by the lung or deposited at
various sites including the liver, skeleton and soft tissues. The
long half-lives of the elements involved makes them especially
dangerous because of the possibility of cumulative damage over a
long period of time.
To determine the effects of exposure to the transuranium
elements, models have been developed to estimate the retention of
-these elements by various organs and to convert the resultant tissue
exposures to doses. A. more detailed discussion of these models is
given in Appendix II. Most of the modeling and risk estimates
developed have been based on experience with plutoiuum and this
information extrapolated to the other transuranium elements.
The respiratory tract is the most common mode of entry into the
body. The particles inhaled may be either soluble or msolimle in
body fluids. Soluble compounds tend to move to othor areas or t.h^
body and can concentrate in vhe liver or bone. Insoluble conpoiinls
tend to remain in the respiratory tract tor Ion j pa nods of tin'".
For modeling purposes 1000 days is used for the clearance n 11 f-t mr-
from the lung.
Considerable uncertainty persists in evaluation ot the
biological hazard of inhaled radioactive particles. although it is
possible to make estimates for desposition of inhale.1 particles in
the lung, and estimates of the risk of adverse effects following
exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation, it has proven litncult
to obtain agreement on tne risk associated with *-he innaiition ot.
The estimates of risk for inhaled plutomum are based on an ml
data and on human data from two sources. The tirst is from total
organ or whole body exposure to x-rays or gamma rays, where every
cell in the lung receives approximately an identical radiation
exposure. This includes data on Japanese survivors from Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, and on patients who have Deen exposed to extensive
diagnostic or therapeutic x-irradiation of the cnest and lungs. The
second source of data is derived from persons exposed to the special
conditions found in some mines. These persons inhaled not- only

radioactive particles hut also rock dust, radon and daughter
radioisotopes, diesel engine exhaust and other .natonals. The radon
daughter isotopes are thought to be the causes ot lunq cancer in
this case, and the radiation exposure of cells in various regions of:
the lung is different. Frotn these data an estimate of the rink of
lunq cancer per rem of radiation has been derived.
Rot Particle Problem
The question of whether the dose, and the associated cancer
risk estimate, resulting from inhalation of a particular quantity of
an alpha emitter, such as plutonium, should be derived trom th<=
average exposure of all cells in the organ or tor only those cells
within the small volume intensely irradiated was first raised in
1949 and has been the subject of debate ever since. Traditionally,
dose estimates for internal emitters (radioisotopes contained within
the body) have been based on the average orqan dose, i.e. the total
amount of radiation energy deposited in an orqan divided by the mas-
of that organ, while this is a reasonable method for estimating the
risk from x- or gamma radiation where all parts of the organ receive
the same amount of enerqy, it has been questioned whether it is
adequate for estimating the risk from the short range alpna or low
energy beta radiation in cases where the radioactive material is mi-
uniformly distributed. This is often designated as tne "Hot
Particle" problem.
In the case of plutDnium-239, in solid t-issu<=> the don-? ra-p -it
40from the surface of a particle is aoout 1.5 to 2."*, or t'~ie
dose rat*3 of tne source point and by 45u4iii distance th^	rit;? is
virtually zero. In the lung, which is about 8^2 air, the
corresponding distances are about 320and U8C.An resi-^ct ivalv.
Depending on the number of particles inhaled, the traction of *"he
lung actually irradiated may he juite large or small but usually
only a small portion of the lung will be ex»os°j to tne radiation.
Animal data which may provide additional supnort to th«
hypothesis concerning the relative efficacy of particulate vs
uniform exposure is conflicting and has many limitations.
The anatomy, respiratory physiology, histology, and pathology
is different to a greater or lesser extent in each species of .lnmal
studied. Because of these differences and the tact that lung tutors
developing in animals exposed to radiation are not the same as those
seen in man, it is difficult to assess the consequences or inhale 1
radioactive particles in man. There is no data on human exposure
from which a correlation with animal inhalation experiments can be
made. Until an adequate animal model is developed there wiLl b-e

great uncertainty and disagreement about the relationship £>f animal
experiments to possible human exposure and risk.
Although inhalation is considered to be the most important
route of entry into the body, recent experiments with cattle
indicate that the fraction going trom the GI tract to blood may h<->
as high as IP-*. Although absorption from the intestinal tract into
the bloodstream is poor, it should not be ruled out as a skeletal
hazard, especially when those exposed are extremely young.
Plutonium entering the bloodstream will distribute itselt between
bone and the liver in varying proportions depending upon tno
chemical state of the contaminent and whether the individual expose 1
is an adult or child. The potential ingestion hazard to man,
especially over the long periods of time these elements may remain
in the*environment, is indeterminate. Short term exposures are
reduced by the fact that the amount of plutonium deposited on
external parts of plants is usually much greater than trie amount of
uptake, and this external contamination is removed by washing.
However, over longer periods of time, reconcentration may occur in
certain plants and the availability to man through the £oo<3 cnam
may increase. Similarly, reconcentration in animals may occur ov»r
a number of years of exposure.
Wound Contamination
Plutonium deposited in a wound will react witn consMtu°nt t
of the tissue and the body fluids and he aosorbed into the blooi
stream where experiments have shown it to eventually deposit i'i t


Models for VIutoniun Uosji.icLry
Inhalat j on
The model nr.od by l:.P\. oarinitlv foi	J >T' 'k t~>1 '! ,rn
and rct-fMil Lei of 3111. r< !c*l pluLo'i-.i" ¦>;. n.-.r< j >. li1.,: ]C	C-Olu
en Lunf,	M'iU.O) Hoc 0 J '»2 a*., pvk. ifiod - :j< i*
fluorides (rrmcl translocation 01 cui ik ov.ido fn.ii tpc «lc \ Lav
suf>f>Chtb L'1'.1 i rs'.ibjail" o," «-• ci'p'-i:.-". to Laj clr Y rJ 1'iUou for
sei'12 ar tjiuci:1 ct^joi u'r.). C-lc-oft \1 di'- louro:.	i--> L
cail-o-i.'iLPS n'i'J Irr'ha n ties :,.io -¦'¦ntC's. flasb [' ¦" ,
incliii'1"1 t >.c ¦- 0 r.f)C 3 J t 1_od ntum.'. 'i iiUn.'hn is nor r\ >il- l.- no ¦,
pli'l"*J':r.i Cv_-r h-'mc-; bat. raa rcacN I'Vaio"1-' j , c,: nai ori|. je u ?c ' , j-u
suj'jf'j.slf. tnc'L no aci_J,_.3d«.'j snould .>¦> cunt 1 fcr; a a chj^s u Urv-or-' !,
The parage-tiri•? used '*oi psLinr LV7. f"r.c!.icj~-1 dc-'O'c-: 1. 'on vihin
rC'ion- of	"or r ukI.j ar d; rf ¦ ' r ¦¦ .•'¦uv'tv \- ..1
£icro.'.yp .-j¦: c .	ii.- < -o or a 1 - r !¦•	: v
rait, i lio 1 z 1	'i'-iii" Liiifj'n t a.- ¦ o~: at a	o>" 13
P. v T ' P11 * *5 * . J	i (.I 1* 111' 11 "¦ L i1 j ' 1' ' j * 1 ^ ' 1 .'•->! 1; /
p v 1 '¦ .'l.-.ii • ¦	v." - ~: 1 "'on- w J . . 1 1 ' J .1l ' ¦	'
*i| "CO C.I L	l-VOl'.' C~ I L-1' i a:. 01 ¦' <. . '¦
j.djii'i 1 n'on 1. r> f'T	co'il j »ioi'j< jjio'..e Oi ^ /O"!!."1	ore 1.1 'G > ' l1 j •
T:ic org: ^ b'.rcen 3°. c«nl c ulj'. o;' o-	. of:
t	• "
'Oif,;:n J'jurocn - I /q U (t) ' '( :
wlioio 1 -- daily int r.ko l»v ¦iph'h,,jon
II^(T) •- rctcnLioi' Tunction io> pp j cin tL», ¦»ii"	1
T - period of cxporuic
t- ~ poiiod ovoi w'ijlcIi the i'c.%e 1'. co-.niLcd
X - physical balf-lifc oi ihc j-oLopo
Tn pi-incipiii, the or pan burden'. c;m then be used with jnnro.'r 1 iW:
dosi:-convoi siOii Tactors to calculm.* t lie o'.rrsuro i'ios'i- lo tl.L or-
J11 rem per year. 'Jlie or^an dose m ti"n ca'i bo used to i"tj-inio
possible ho.'iltl> cf feels, c. p,. iiuiligapncv in C3tin.r L«.riiis o,L niiin uin il
risk or population risk.

tabm: i
TGJ.M J'odel
r.'ir.op1.)? l jn:r !if\f ici ( I'J
Ti ochro-b) ouch: a] Vejvo; (T-i3).
Pu]'Joii;.r\ I'.pj.iCj.. (?)
I	( ') Lyr;)ii Nodes (L)
Clt-smnce font i ;ii>i r< for VIT1;
Rcr-' on
i: P
Pat-'"', vy
'/D . CI
<: >
is: /v: c:
Ii07!J i\;.
Anr/ f,o c'.'ys
5%/!>G da>s
(i)	90%/10G0 djy-s	100J./50 days


]n aclnn] pr.icLLci1 L'ap rricci ipjr. try jn vich c',i i" .¦>! u-s ivny
I' l'^'; '.O',0

calcul.'j Uo i=> niL'jn .11;I osr,,
.is outlined uMoi*.

Inp.o<-.tin;i n,' VI utoni..-i

Some of Llic jiil:;1 led V
1 'itcmium will bo iTPm-Dorrfijl i
o tho CI

trad and part vj.1I be abs.
oi bca tlivj.f. ju'^l nt if it \:cvt>
"1 niT,.r, fid.

For flic- uon no I J.O n A' LVD
aoro o] ,k,L'J by f'v, the m1..
: . vc jT' i iii

distribution by rr< if.;, is
li'jtGii in V-ible . Vie crIivJ
' rf 1 ((,ia 1

transport to t!->o G7 'd„cL
indicates that ^bout 3j% of t!
• j 11 y

ir.ho3.2d plufopju;n uiJ 1 be
Lian.s,Jortfd Lo tl'O CJ" 'Jir.ct.

liU'PM jC"1 o? 111 vctri; v •

{ Absorption o' pi-it on j
10 for Lpsoluble
u"i f t!i": t. i j* CI Irr.c'.. i1. t slrvu1
icr) tn V

SuCh Hb _«.¦>. ¦ 'j ' fur i 'C
¦ £¦ col'!1- ! ..

for~s (due to L»ydro1 vr; lc.)
'o ¦ever t'I'f f i- -,o ;' i"'i -:r\ -
- .-pr li

{¦.rc-oLci jO*- si."c/".'
'.o'v' vn (i:u ro 1 .). c
" t i '; -

of pJut' i'u Cup l»j
. >u it» \c i¦ r . .1 1" Is
'i i " r> - <.'( '

of 100 xii -. .'>? iri . j;c>'-p"
1>b Lo 1

Fci c :"ir
A^O.' r 'j . : , -,ur i ^c! !
o 1 1 J '¦' »: u
D; "3 .itjon (J.O
CI; f'r, \< '
30 Z

v- is
There is no current OP? iiiodr'l for ingestion, however n mocL-I
f>lini]or Lo used for ion is spp J i c.iiij <¦:
Or^.'m l>urdcn - T R. (t)c dL
c J
II	T - int.ike ! v jiir-'^tiou
R_.(r) - rt'Lenl to:i fuiM_'_jcn c'iriiif, L ~ne - foj oi;--,; j
T - period of exposure
t — period over \.'hic.h tly. cose i'> confuted
X pliysicrl hall-life c£ tne iboionc
As before, the orfMu bin den cor be u~ed with nppionrictc dooij-
conve i c. i ori factors ro cnlculnic. tK: nri on t o:.'j : ¦ ¦ c ¦> i-ei viut .
From Lhis value Ll't n nr. nor of	: l',.Nai l'i ¦-¦.'.ctrs be csIv.vl.h
with various duplet's of cc-vt.iincy, outlined hole-/.
ski?; co;rr.v;T'.:','ri'r.;
liie case of s!;iri cnn.Lr-unvit Lon ? route, ci c-":i-ui ^ for
pluLOniu'ii Ccji. t-e >-,ocI2clgc1 inUoS iK- v in jt ; c. m^c!.,	• '.1
fA.M' jr dT-:.". o, t.'ora if ' oi - 'niu	Lo . , . r
ff.f i.T.'.u or tK race w t. -'u c r.rK cf i ne	r \ ' i-i ¦"	!_i ill.!
rc i i b <. :-i II i "l'. r WJ" • ¦> 1;	o -	c.-n ¦ < C
C'0 lC.lncilM ini C'j.SO V Cl.	I ' J \ '.J i .	Jl ' .Vu ¦. i
a 50 <*. 7 he 1 ¦ -1 •; i .
I.'1 .'j1! '.'ci' \*»a i'«	'>{ Li i C'.;~s V >¦ I	i	'
the ]•..»¦ i.s i'. ¦: 1 L .i1 if Lh : is	^ — \
ci 1 1 x ¦¦! i-* r i ! 1 * "'J'J v.*. >. ' ii (.j .	, L1 C1	' .. u . l
cc>rpo'JLiap. is id".L"on ril.i .1 h i f --11e of _>'J d. . ,
^'¦^IL0'1	°f 1'1C pli'loi'ii. i in Lv: cxiv .Iji-or;	~.i is
CxpucrrJ to	,it j-i L\r '-K l.'lor «¦ hi i : ¦i-1. :¦ i-j ¦ >1 > ; ¦.
of r.boui 100 \o.vs. Only .L0"! of * cv\ r.Lnh!c hi' l^}'ic 1 y i>i 'cn\i'
corploxi'S of pluLoruun	pluconji>n--l)'ir\) s'tild in Lhc

• 4
Liver 4!>7 of i'ic pliiioniun in !' < ¦ • ci rcul .< i tn-v ^y!. m i" i\
deporil in the liver. It woiilci lie t t. ;. i"d v.ilh .i l.ilf-J ;"i
40 >narb. /¦ l. jn ll'."1 case ol (.lie j,kr. ii in.i on I v 10/ of suihle
h joj Oil eall y jiict llvc niri'plf-X.'s m.iv c'i\)Ocit. in t h<* Ian.
Sufi	About 2" of the 1 'loniiM jn I In• ci rc v ' .k o.
systfij i,uv to ucnnwied in «ofi tiqj.ur r.i Lie '•.olcO'i, o". l ) z,
utei'ir, ti_stis>, acirrnaL pliiLoi1 J inn ( , -
tended periods MLh/'iOO days or lon^ur l>nl f tiic-i. iloi vv , l
are no IC^P es'iii.-atoF o<" percent dapoo 1t ¦ ^n ?n	t irs«.io«-.
Tlir-rc is e-'jc'1. iice that buffer j,i)ccif".. "cldvii*- i-?U - i'n. 'J'i'o
difiercnce nubt'fcl * reflect.- <.i.e i-co-, .o.-nL o. '.>.0. ':ti- ic
ceer. wj.Hi big; tocc i£ic acu ,jiy	fj :ur-o.
Dos p. Convti s\on Veto^
Do.-o tO'ivi-rn n f'l'-clio'- s r.~c	'in. cl.? (";k
rr'te foj. urit i-.1 J. .
1,1' J.1 -?C " < '--'l
[I "
\;here IV - dor.i.- -'u j i\ il p:1 i fo' orj;,. i ( • 'A'^n
50,2 " j;rcn-.; J', iv-/
£ effective Ci'-::;*' e'e > ^sjie-i _,,f o"]",.m
(MeV/d,' .iit:J;;i U].'.0 c.o nii \	.¦ ci..: i : t "
facLoi foi l'k"1 l-vpc of	t. *i* i
II - na&ij of nT.',"i Ci.*—)
R (i) = retention Li' irrions dmj'r- t 3re i la or^.m j
t = period o\ or winel: t he do:' i<-. .-onpuLed
T = period ol c::pcsurc
X - physical ha] f -life of Liie isolope

Risk I>>t i.rnLc. foi 'J ml < n t_i tJ_ r»"; 'T> oi ^! i>l_^n ' _ '""'ii'
Al. tlv: prc.crM Li' ¦ OS'." .. i ¦ i r. ilr-k c ,t i.i.slo*i L.i'. ' r.i <>
jn "Il;C 'jTv."!'. pi' l'of.-ii'l i tj ¦ ¦ «, f : :(v "o Jo ;,'j L' \,v' ¦_ Jr.n
Kc-*tialien" (¦ 7,1 >;
Risk c".L:"nLcei ^ro ' --¦f'c Imih r.,j oo.cji r.cinn®	--jir 1
exposure to fucu'tion ^i.-OvC bjrUT'uvd levuis -"'J Cor pcu ' it.u
expose! conLiir.JJ-/ to ; cl u;l: '-n , . o .¦ j '...'el "voitm ]r.vojc, {<. h ! <_
None o) ti'C- ~i c,'- c v. Jt,. cs ^r-_ , c on fc.Tccl s oIjspiv*. >l'i
p1uconiu.i> nor ;.rc t "f j • ::c t1.- n'l '.iahlo i_o llv t'c-c !!. i .""rci
Ky &oi if of L.'e i>: ->'>,irr.> : isi.'tJp.i ¦> t;o~ vr ' iro • ,,
Only for rjo,. ¦:»io to o'-uo1 oire oif oc.p.' Lr. i-.r-r-1	".L:- ' ,
<¦1: positr:d fil.i; o.iai.'i c. - Liu; ri^k r',.n.> i. ps L3P.
IVih?.; /,
The Do^e-Kv k Covers: on lectors Jr carrc.ii <.•<-- ^iie:
(...) R: rk
10 0	h • .1
200 . M- l c
-	, r,,-. jf|,	.	c-	ot. ,
¦- / ¦"/ ji ' " - \	- ¦ '
. ' ' i . / \ I f i I i	t > ^,|
(10 Ui^k for v cj-Tjc. , i- >t> ml' '
Lciik.". ¦ L.j - 5'1 fs:i • ' £. r ..'.Li1 /v/10 '	rv'.i
50 cN'M'-v. c'c^l-i. :/v ./"J ' r "i- . ?v
miiu! r. '¦ j:-.:1 p
liouc - j2 c.'t.ts/v;7;0	ip,
cxpo-,uiP, bO'J (•' lV c.'-. 're C. .jit j.-.
G1 Jijf.toi.i - 60 cjfct'/vj-/U> ¦ .:n-rc"i . p>u' J
exposure:, 50.". of trp js ml- f..; ,>ii: j."'t.
Other - 2?^i cji.cs/> car/10 0 U' r.i-rc:11 anivj.i I cxcj.
about 25% of the. chs.s.-.s arc f j lies

(c) Thyroid cauceri, arc ( on", h1lVC-<1 t.or.n aLcl y r. i'.cf Lhry ..i"1
extremely .1,°/-*. dopeouan L,
Thyroid cpuf-irc. Ln v.iriou'. a}'.^ groiuv, .'"•o"
0-1	yr oL o<-,c - 93 eacoi^/yr/iU*- ' .i'.!-rni, .i.n:-., L	are
1-9	yrf. of age - 50 caoc^/yi/I 0 ' nan-row .Min-aa] u. '..'mm t:
10 - 39 yrt> of aj.,e - 66 cascr/yr/10'"' ma-i-rc.i c^o'-iji'o
20 years of age mid oldci - CO caf.cs/yr/U/' 'v.n- rcii. annual c"i>o 1
About 20% of t_h3 lh\roid cr icor < t-.rc-' ii'i'j'c' 1 •? f aL 1 11 jc.i.
The risk :n ca^ccr^/vr/10' i.ia i-jc-i j'-na-.-.j io« xi\<
nuirericpll" t oal to I o'rn] m: . of^rs/ni-rc
froii1 a siayli: c:.-jc
Prnlilc" . -".i	' 1 J' ¦ i1 v1 •1 j ¦. , ' "';ci j..1 ' ' ¦; i
j;.." r , ro p	' ¦' (¦; V'f ¦ ¦
piui o.1 ii' * i " o:'.. i_. ~ - i . "
pllj ? M"l I C'fc <. 1 ill'* i1	£~' ^ LCt'J ct.»
To r.o c::'	the uM '!'<•< <"i. <¦.•¦. im ¦ "" - 1 i» ¦i
co^.sc r\\ :-i v: j'r	.p, Luiii. jo: 1 .! > i.'.ion <
"Jli" in'i".'] u ji-c n	vo' c. / ~j0 ci C't J-'iji - c .
valve. .'.I.1 <. ¦L-t'iv.te ic«" . n . i* ~ - i	¦ '«¦ t. Is r
be c >' c- bjj cl, ;• *i Ic\..	,>r .-> ' i. i - t ;	t
&1ccj-i" i'i l.-Ci"".- !'¦ i!u» m '. 'I.1 i j"; 1 .'i''V"i..o> C i	« >
expo1-" l"i 'ii.fh arc luj.^ci th 'ii 'i'cu f i' oo c'T'VU"! > i -^a^a]
popuJ a L ion.
The IULD Mode] has othci asranp fjuno vhich :'ro not. coiv« J'vnti vo.
(1) The i'oriel us.-os a rcapi'Tater'- rcte of J5 icsrirat xo i-- per uu
For a hotcro?,i'noiu. aerosol the norcc-tare oi depo»j:ion vai
with breathi ap, rato. 'iho rur-vi Jowl oi d.-po..! t ic i nn-ir
35 to 20 rfhpxrrt ions ror vji'.iito "hi >iu'rtv*iL,t. or. o-Jl!"v ¦>11'i.* o1 la
value.'1 Dopes Lt i Oil rate, in 'i.iro ioi«m in si i'i-pji"% nr :-v.a. i
individuaJWiH'ld i>o lufjlior iIk.ii tho loiifiL predict1..

No provision K iu.vIc in Lbi- i'oVI fcir il'e ¦! U'dr.i: I ribu- ion of m!i:l."l ivsi". '¦ •!i in l1u: If'. J' ¦ i c , I' 11
and l'.rv.i.i have sl'o.'.i lIm( hi t :¦ ¦ i ¦ j - — 15, i. 1	'.d.'l. I
d i s t r ¦ b aloi! iTcl y.i'".'".	1 \£ • ,',!i-oi.L o! , ,
di by '!')y'JL 'if'/ brJ-'ccn Lbe i>, v 1 <1 j ¦ Ui:>. <. 11"
the liiiif,."' T'i is 1 is ^roTc'-'ici iiljt u*. ,f/i; 5 11 r! ji ..'''tc. -
both 1 lie J l L r ill" L"> of	ee' ,'icios-o] . *.0'" g«. iJ 1 n .'i
diffusion \.itlm alv'"'>1ar.
The model ii> baser' on lanin.-'r flow jn tubes at a ecus'c"t ''r>':c
per 11st: calculation-. cL fir.deiroi nd i.ardjbi', A «¦ 1. •. " r •*
the assumptions in tic i'iede.1 that rn.eci ref
][a) The natterM of ui/ r-'o' i'li-i" 'c- ''LatLc\i i'
not cons I.m r 1 nut	1 '"O" " ro to	v 1
and tb -n tci:i.i:v, .e ;	ur" 1 i"' . .-.V ¦"
on the* <"• l i • ^ 1. ol tiw-. unta-i. 01. *. ,-or j" "m.
(b) Pulsat in,°, «".j r flv is '.ni"''" \-ii r, ¦ 1' ¦ - 3 ¦ r b,
the fiJl-1"d • , 1 ¦>', or t. > 1iV
eff cct of irn l£j ac'io: vr Loral e • ¦ L.,-n Is
not Lr,o\"i.
Ai'r fJ./i: .'i ,T -
rii'l 1 ' Li I i • t
pli'jKL' ' "1 n\	1
hi inve' .•!'"<~'C.
— •. <•
(d) T:ie- bull, cl wi . j'"
vi Lb In c., r. ..-n ' <>
vi]1	r' ' -1 t .. 1 --
v!ii If i ';>m ¦ ' r.'-: • • '*
pencil .¦! c 1 1 >Jt. •>r
1.i'"'"i J pi" to u'1 1
in pi io'V.	. ,j\ ¦ L -
pai ticyl j: >n j i 1*1 1 . ¦
¦c 1 1.,
_¦ 1
" I 'C 1
(c) The ve^niiLoi v fi fi* is 10I. in-nr i-'1 of r J - "
tubes b«.it lriLjuL.r ru^i. si\LiOi li.i-.r^'i
corrccatfd or foltiec1 chi-i". Tiu* . •'.¦cif o1 t!,i.
irroguJavLties on Luibu 1 a.n.e :nici I'l-p.'-s 11 1011 .it.-
not known.

(O Inc cfl- I ' of rc-ni r.'itovv « : « m *	(ecu • )
o;i	vli'v; c I f.i i. ,-i.c . w lie' lon'.M'fio.'.
Evon jf Mi" Ji'"1, i'i 1 i 1 ,'im i1 r o.i , i..Ji i .'¦cl ! c lie fit c11., _¦ i ..Hi.'
fni" p'\'u i J : .i j r: '	;¦ i lj--.-, |\t . I , 'o t 1
en;-.! i' j 'list i' .i .1,0 jvl i l'»" ,iii' 111 j i '.i-Lt'i". I :u vr i v , i'
11 the li ¦ ¦ ' i	: i l r'l ivil : • < c I '",t ¦. i"' •" :ii., i ( 1.,
? ' / " "
Pu) nr>: 1¦> lot .. Ln fron the.1 li.n-1 i.'orr> iv "> U* t'i n. - .-i .i
liiWf a dj. l fc c ".ii i r! i ;v!L ion |)aLtc~"i; jn the i-^dy	..7 riiii,1 c~
In f'Tu^ra] the
t?.n£.lczr lio."1 iron l! - "
n>f j c • - i?u*
pattc-in oJ i ¦c !:*¦¦; i'ii i l ¦>,, 'i
poJy-iiprjc '	V.'?'-. '
bi: 11." t' "iv.'ruii"'
ihi' - .'n "¦ - r.jn„ cr 1 1 i
a d j <.t i ifculjon "j'lM! ar!r>
'hich rt.:-.cnb] cs ii'¦ iv.cicrn or "ij>.c
li j.1 trrr'ai't.i:
!) ui ;.!"! !•: v . c -
I 0 . LliC 11
' i > riij c o.
'/".•bL i.l' ^f.	' "V.- i'j ¦'".o i'-1 ¦ ¦¦¦-
: 1 i yj 1	r t» » _ * ^ 1	^ « I »"> 1 >	t - i
>. J i LUl1 I
(?, i.\iibjii,	Ccn^.i 19/i).
238-. ,
Tt. h:Jt? >ocr. sv? "-Lud 1.1' if I a-'
r.'1. L " Lo -' ¦ ;rr*' - .¦ . '<¦
'rr>	Mr
*'*}•€* I < L " J"	j !," 4
¦ 1	I
C~ 1 4 * i l'l" j" _ I
10-, \ L"	-u.
r'jVwIf-".'d fo* I'j in rlv
; _
i r»
1 i'i
i - ji, LO
¦ i; (
>¦ i '¦> i 11
'i.i i'
Ti.j ;i\.. •'1)1 c-	f" i .	. :i pi
OV l'"1 l'.4 . i	¦. 1 .	11 *	' i t'
f.i\|'CL t r' CC'	'nV	v". ) .	Ti".,'
p.Ti I iC 'J ->/l\
J i
» I N
1 f l.'it: Pi"	1 lC > r- I
f fir - l j i •' l i .
I	1 !l p	, » »
1	• u\> n'M-: \ i
•i	' c r.. • . i .
I. tumji c
hi	n . IulO'*. .»¦	io1 p£ !.• i jIcci.'l vj t'
p]i'u.mi'..i cc ,.pi'iid, :io .. i.'r.;c ih . ¦" c> f _¦«" i i ¦ .* J i* ^ ,/,) s. i cc".
b/ PoJn'i'Oiic Lilut.oin.1.' . i rpvi1	ti m.'il,!.' of ioic-c"1. ¦ o!"iiir" co .lound ^ jr,,i t o tof.PLln ¦¦ ns n co'ilojd.
c/ Tr.insfcr'n il Lho £..¦ ;:ro[ciii \-'iich binds iron as. ¦ i on-
trr.nsfcriu corplex Up t immlpoil tue iron Lhroi-jMior-L Ll'e boi:_-.

Bops at JL" frrc!, cxoosci] t.o ^'r,pii()j li. d rcfainol 11 ¦ 11; i ¦. > r i. f o.'
1.5 to ''GO iifi/;- of ion;, (lwu I n :/,()(>') ¦ j • f . i1 if ¦	,n iin ; i
Juuj, burc'.:ii for	O". of Un i ,i ; i tr, ci, r ¦ i m ,i". i r, Li,,-
lovel	vino ' •> loc.1 c. • ¦ "11 <: <» i !i I o' 1 ¦ 'J i>\ : ¦	, ¦'
sc.irjjnp, jn ! i..	'j;.^	-1	-n t,.,
at t'lK: iu,',h Icv^ i-- ol c* :n .i., l- vscr.. c •. \c l in u'uim..i i. I !>.•
lir.r.iii>a and	fcrp W'.i ror ¦•] . ro i ¦ sn. :-f;	¦ n , :
rr'tciUion^ vo.i l'l Li'v:,L	jp vr r:i ,, n-i'.' ro.i'jr
support uhLlJ ct.iif i.rin.iLoi y  i l:.i° the >jii .,ii.
proporl\ of lo'ii", r.i LiiC for! rn vci \ ",p;.31 ru.-j i i'-' or iv. 1 'lI'.".
w^My ntu. re i c lprj.r.* c.'st	'> .
i.:jc)cL ^ i1 o i_ aodtcs i'v	oi ".Lrtrvl ' > 11 r< u-¦ •
boiiii.! to 1.0	.Mr, r:s,. -,1 i.-iu > 1 .
cjoi'; cat-fid bint.. v . 1' r\r ¦ ^ .U", »r t cc<' ¦ !< i t.'j' . o
fu; plulonji i :i::L escrj^-, tiTCo-r. Kl. fi Lier--,
Prt.bVi'f. ti !)¦•' t err j.c ' nolj-.c fc, J/c.'n1 ]'j u/_
)'m:)]or' r ']oc> fr. ¦ '-"".tj';	i . -. ¦
ol pUn^"j ¦ "r i ¦ -Lj-'1 t	¦- >-¦' 1 ¦ ' f.
i 111 vl'! J i . u 1.1 _ . [ l \ i « L'1	^ 1 I 1
of in" *„¦> 	-
I ' ill jvjl.i ' ... ''' ¦ 1 - - I	% • ' ^ ' •'! :
l'l'lii.! l 11 ' "¦ r.• Ol"
i? 1	l ¦ l ." •_ * ' ¦:
;.b.i r j'iu.i \.Ll -'oj : ¦ i ¦:>. .:	iri '
1'. L iO" - : T.V.'|	C.J .
Pr.iV^i'.-. j" !"* Cr;	'• r'-i'rN ¦ v''ls
U7 !. i 1 ibuf !<¦ 11 C'l jr''c''irc' >' . it -V . LtV >'	i^.'\
AlUioi'j_l- fM i • c «" l(i if. ''.i.1 'i r""" 1 '¦ J ! ¦ "i!' i. i km 1.'i .. -I.
of iiijocL.'-ii pi m or j un Civtm i,,m> , i-.r.<	i.n i> rv." i •. l^J i. t
\'haL	i fiii* aniui l^.u lO.i or 3.';^. I .on.
Current evidence ?r; l the in ..steel n 11: '"cm j "vi criL^'P t!
civculntorv svrti.ii in u^jf forn is uistrini'l >•:! ihrcu' !i Ibv
body r.j. a pluLoiiiu'"-Lrru0forr m rornK\ l.aicli ri. M'no.'i'i jc inj C.-il
pluroun'R. In ihiU c.'i.L' tlv. i.I^c ifi ; ]:vcr; tJ - »mtl t
distribuLion voi:]ii be about i>0«.; iOT; '10,j.

Jyi'ip'i rue!ps, li TC'V, '.It 1 rl iri, ! idrr-y ,us i.'oi ^ t l .mil L..
Tl.r ral lu]." 1.11 i-f do r> Crci.i i1 • Uil p 11.; r >. • ¦ > i>"i lc!
coiipl i c by Liu; \;\ci lii, i. lb'.	m --bic'i )m : - i -,
rc«]l} is cIldos j i r fi : q nni ! "m. i. H.'i'u i>j 'Un ¦ \ nr , !:-i
jiarl. cli-i" o'" i" J' fi'.rius' P'	-J'- -i"'.	>¦ ¦¦P!
3 .iiTf; parent Swum, the do .c. jf. suu-vi n I" f'lsi 'Is. rcl . -i ti.o in
A] 5,0 even Lbouf.h the rmj'.p of p]uLonii. a I -¦ r» p "--n. . r.p'
o.ily :'0}i, Lue \T'. of Lb.'.: i aolu iuii^ i< i:~_d j m c .! c..,l.. L i nr:
close.	inc iialiLies rrc coriul.i o ' to > ri'jv v.r.'L"i
of close, lo the iir.'iucs ijhtj*. m adiaic yor j o I" 10 .. '\tv
usclrv	nf doso lo critical ti' ,-"o. .!or' datn ¦ <">
for bf ci.pi" dose cajculaLion.
P1 oh] £•¦"!«? i'i	l'-:* ^Ith	I'rtT1 1 - ti, >;ii i
^ 1 'i. ri o •" C. l r j 1
V.	X. Li { 1	^ ¦"	i S »
!l ' '	I ' «'» <
' - !-¦ rci*:,
-I -	J " 5 ' / J
1 C I ' f' I -
-1. " '
Kv«m if t'he ¦i.n"'Pri_,nt i,nc.'iri.,,inty
calcv.1t.ccd 1m' ' h'"1 j '"in Cr.. i*, d:',-r
fake.i in	' .¦jse : *?i ..t^ i-j * .
rir.K cs-t1 ~.i"-S etc r ;:l": rti: oi ^r1 : ;i; ¦
".	Jt'-ub, ...ill..,! ii ¦ ¦
f.i.r • r	o. 13' .*> rr c > 'i'
*"» u^1 i crjL' u' jlv i.mP ":i ¦ ! . ¦ '¦
..r'11 c" " p.	"li
t f ¦ n.if; c.'i ri\>"i '" . . u1 ¦ Lv - t
t. r'. rl~\ Ol i^'a. ir> j.. r. ¦ o i i.
i,1 I'"'" i.i' d.'.i" i • ¦ c! d.1	j ' 1 . j w	¦ -. ii
Ml • l". '( 1 iT I"- .	(	wi	•"" 'l' ' ¦ .	- . i' -
: -I ^ •- "i . 'i I j i 7 ' - ¦ r - ¦ ¦ '	i p ' ¦ .i i ' 1 - '. v '"
1 :i; ,v V	Uji?' C.-lj"- On . v	¦¦ i. ","
doc !. c.,: "'v..:'", 11. ¦ ¦' > ; j ¦	. »• ..In . •, '¦¦¦ .
I!;.'i i . ii _'i> ; . .l.npi C'.'1,	1 !.i_ 5 i'i. f • «. i"1 f	-i
Lu r J "l t-'.Lj "I Oil C \	(¦. C 01	• i'i I... ' 1 1 L"i:
thyio u fir-. pJ luc'-n i- Lie	onl n'l I, I'm 1i -.. . e.
foi 1 byi---jc'"rol !t'-'d IkmIuIi	pfiCLtb	c..ii ji_ i lo dot i'i ,.jPv;
oxpact ed hcaJtii pffects.

There arc» also unrc oJvpcI <)U'_ .h'eno in i ¦> t crnrc L mv I lsr> (.r.-hc,1
effcc.l:> of lJuLcnju.i >n m ij lie. ""J 111 .-vl corrc-1 ai i tlui'i villi
man for uho"! wc* hnVi- no ohsi-OMl ¦ »""i ¦.
(a)	Liver and buc d.ici tii.'nr lu»v	oli-^ i
tinjliiu 1 s, tl'crc. I*", ikj c "rr-.'i c:"l iiip, cl ¦ l fur
(b)	Lung tii"'oi £< have* b<"c-n ol><3niveJ jri .iniiv.iJ'nut tlu-y
are generally al^'Pol^r m ori;^:'.. Hie Lu or for
which hi:i .'i lis!; Jala i.s yj cn in r.iar. i.r i
broncbc^i":ic turoi", 'J!i,jre Jr no tnnc.'v .. ytu <¦"
hov or if Uie luiruin and .'nrn'J tutors relate ic
one another.
(c)	OsteoscJj co'-?s h \r plvlt boon ... c-^rvct1 i'<
exposed tc '' 'i''\-i i jrusol i, I" .> .""j;" c°.-i ¦> -iii'f
have Jt'Vi'j f.pec' in .'.'vaii. c- . i\< to - - '\C-> ¦ r^eo' .
(D CimLj. Li'.?'1 ivo- l;'/"). ' notner ic r
that iio-Hh cf Z,ctr.ji'ds "¦> r a.1 so b'.> r ¦- .i- • ±<' •' 1 '
plufo:i]un i'jOtO'jfs or nor i; ii;v. Lc-*r.
(ci) liiL" (¦rf'-L r. ..h"
oi ? • "t w ¦ ¦ ' Pi'-i.j c
tTC.ij" in " "1" • -j'
c::>" m ' .

Attach ncnt A
Dos.e convjr : uin value. currr_m:ly L.'.n^ u - ri in tlic
Envdro:i.nent\iL Fru:. action A[,c ii>~y, Off i tt of. R^'i u.L-lc: r. 3 iroj^:
"i'elide	I_un_2	(' ~*i"/vr vcr vCJ/n .•.•*
l3u-23C	12
]jd ~?r/j	3 2
I'H-.ViO	22
rii-2^',1	.012
Arn-241	3
1- = r tu'-.s <'.» 't'r'.i..* " 1i.-y."	i.r o ¦'
CHI	v Sf. CM	>j£»;	, n_(i	" i.	I" ¦ (	¦ , .

T.isk Crouu on ! ;i c 'i
Reposition rnri '.¦"•ic.Uon IVl. I', for Tptrrml r-o-j ¦ 1 try or li
lii'i.'.in Ii'_L.p Lrr. i r»i y Trac t.
HeaJili "ir'sic. 12:173-207 (1 96'i)
ICUi' iu.i ./L9
• iC'jjiijolJ r.': or Co .'i' o1_ T1 ucr , .i.j_0_( ,>n>• ,'.r i. In-- crc
Porr.r.noii Pro^s Y. J 972
W"i. S. Specter	o_T__3i1 or- Crl. , U. Slider J Co
Ph t) 'id .i 1 ph ia V) j 6
T, r'Lch c. '' P. ^ross !'¦ 5. £_"2rl	S'"
oI _tn 1	" -'.rnJ s,
Accellojc ?re&s, I.ii* Yo'k I'.ii'
D. V. Cji.cs, '•, C. I;r> 1 ] L'"iu '¦ I'r \n U^c of
Xfeiion.-i3j in	f'"2 \ v' -j "¦ fit i.<.7<. c.rcl T,cLor.
of Use L:f;.	i'. S\ nror u . .vl	'> L'_ r.. 1 c ' 1	L.-i_-_LiLV;..r_
i.T.	n :r-'t"c	1 • • \	J' (¦''
;	1. • - ¦ T-	: . \
;i. v. tc
1 'i •» - f * * i - i
t l ( *
-j i f 1
» v/

C. i.
1 1 \ » k* « t1 » "
t ,
r >
X • 1
If. f. 1! .V. .
1. . i (' ¦
\ ° \
* i ' ii ' 1

lnhc'1 l'C j'l
I I.:¦* r. i !
t'* 1 ' 1
¦¦L.'l \»
i.'IC '¦

pp 3J5-4iu

k. P,. StMi'ov cul I". V. I't i t iJijucr. or.iLion, Rj -1: ii»ut ¦ c
and l,.\rrvtJC"> ol ^luior.ii' l\: U.'iry C.'.t lo-\
Prel imin.u'} iloport Uct. 1973
Plutonium in Autopsy Tisaui., 1^-4375. 19/3


Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported
Monthly filter samples:
-9 on-site
6 off-site
At one location filter was
changed daily, all others
were changed at weekly
Error is between 5 and 20%
for most results but
approaches 100% at the
detection limit.
Average on-site concentration
Pu-238: 0.85 aCi/nT3
Pu-239: 12.5 aCi/m3
Average off-site concentration
Pu-238: 0.46 aCi/m3
Pu-239: 9.9 aCi/m3
Similarities between
samples collected by
other labs indicate
that tne plutonium
in Argonne samples
}§. prlfcsrily fr&n
Argonne waste water
discharged into
Sawmill Creek which
flows into the Des
Plaines River.
Samples collected
below outfall on
continuous basis
arid individual samples
collected five times
Plutonium & neptunium
analyses were performed
on 10-liter samples by a
Pu separation method,
followed by alpha spectro-
Principal radionuclide was
Average Pu concentration:
Sawmill Creek: 5.1 fCi/liter
Des Plaines River: 1.0 fCi/
Plutonium is
attributed to
Soi 1:
Samples "collected
downwind of Bldg. 205.
Samples collected near
buildings in which
p.lutonium had been
5 on-site samples
9 off-site samples
Each soil sample consisted
of two cores totaling 173
cm2 in area by 30 cm deep.
Average on-site concentration
Pu-238: .17 nCi/m2
Pu-239: 2.68 nCi/m2
Average off-site concentration
Pu-238: .22 nCi/m2
Pu-239: 2.64 nCi/m^
Results for Pu
within fallout
concentrations as
measured by other

Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported
On and off-site locations;
number not specified.
Automatic continuous sequential
samplers, filters analyzed daily
for gross a and b. Sample ~
20 nw per day.
Average gross alpha at
Headquarters and NDFL
was 7.5 and 7.2 fCi/m3,

Various reservoirs and
One liter sample collected.
500 ml evaporated and counted
for gross a and 0.
Values averaged
<.26 + .26 pCi/liter

144 on-site samples
48 off-site samples.
Top 1/2" of undisturbed soil
collected (no area specified).
Two-gram aliquot placed in
planchet'and counted directly
for gross a and 3.
Gross Alpha
(pCi/qm of soil)
On-site 0.57
Off-site 0.51
Also provide summary of
soil radioactivity data
from 1964 thru 1973,
broken down to on-site
vs off-site.

Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques & Analysis
Results Reported
Effluent stream monitored at release
point after filter bed.
One-liter samples collected v/eekly.
Analyzed for alpha and beta by
Eberline Institute Corp.
None included in report.
r, i c "Pi ^ _
v•i0 i a t 0. c Z c
ectivi:j release"
fror. :.'cst
.Tnfpr ;on sifp.
Ai r:
Exhaust stacks sampled with contin-
uous air monitors. Samples changed
ueekly. (No ambient air monitoring
Samples counted cr "appropriate
radionuclides" and gross alpha
and beta.
None included in report.

Samples collected at 14 locations,
spring and fall.
Samples composited and ashed.
Analyzed for gross alpha and beta,
Pu, and S0Sr - ^Y, and reported
as pCi/gm of ash. (No surface area
relationship given.)
Plutonium (pCi/gm of ash):
232 f'ax. Min. Avo.
Pu 0.005 0.005 0. COS
239Pu 0.018 0.005 0.007
(Results of 14 composites)

HANFO^O, 1573 (Br.'.JL-1811)
Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported !
Sanples drawn quarterly from
two ColL.*fr.bia River locations.
£) Vernita
B) Richland
Extraction with diethyl ether.
Count dried residue with gas
flow alpha proportional
Less than 0.001% of jAlpha coiicer,-
radiation concentration ;Vot""-r, is 1.5"
guide. :"r "ci:az:zr,
Irixture of
9"1'' .
21 off-site stations--loca-
tions not defined.
Analyses rrare c^arterly on
composited filters counted
for gross alpha and beta
Average concentration i
of alpha plutoniuTi was j
1.5 pCi/m^. i
Sci 1
Tin "teen stations for
toutine sampling around
the perimeter of the
Hanford Reservation.
Annual determination. es of rhe top inch of
soil and native vegetation
(perennial) were taken at
each station.
Average concentration in
Pu-233: < 3 fCi/qm
Pii-239: 10 fCi/gm
Average concentration in
Pu-238: 1 fCi/gm
Pu-239: 2 fCi/gm
.1, V.,.', -
. . _ rl . J _ - tJ
S1"': tj'D:C5l C"
rei"icnal levels
for the c^id
ar.d western

Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported
10 stations on site
4 stations perimeter
4 cfm through 4" x 9" HV-70,
continuous sampling, changed
Gross alpha average
on site- 0.4 fCi/n^
perimEter: 0.6 fCi/nr
Based on stack sa~.o! i.r;g,
0.5 yCi of alpha activ.ty
released during report" r.c
9 stations on site
4 stations perimeter
15" diameter cylinder.
Rinsed with water if dn.
Average alpha ?
on site: 0.04 nCi/m ^
perimeter: 0.08 nCi/m
Ti.o outfalls to muni-
cipal systen.
Sampled by continuous
proportional samplers.
Assayed weekly.
Average concentration of
alpha: 0.20 pCi/liter.
-Total of <63 uCi of alo_i=
activity 'ced to
sewers (isotopes not
a".d Tap
T'r-~ce C'*-S". ts arc! two
erf-sits streams
icr.oled weekly.
One quart grab sample
Average alpha
on sue: 0.34 pCi/liter
off site: 0.52 pCi/liter

One tap water location
sanpled weakly -
location not given.
One quart grab sample
tap water: 0.08 pCi/liter

LW?E\'CE L!VrV-'J-?E !.fl30RA7CR>, 1073 (UCRL-515'i7)
Sarplir.g Program
Sampling Techniques
ReG'jlts Reported J Rc-a'ks
6 perimeter samplers: 25 cfm
11 off-site samplers: 4 cfn
Weekly sanples analyzed for
gross alpha, f-'ontnly
cr.'.pcsite analysed for
Pu-233 and Pu-239 Jt peri-
meter sites. Selected
composites analy7ed for
Am-211 Jan-Way.
Perm,ecor average
Pu-238: 4.3 aCi/m3
Pu-239: 1.2 fCi/m3
A^-241: 63. aCi/.D3
Co-pare^ to ?.CG of
1 pCi/m4 for insoluble Pi,.
23 sites in Livermore Valley.
18 sites in San Joaquin
14 s".tes in surface drainage
ditches and cracks wnich
Gr.ini Lai.renca Livenrore
Samples collected to a depth
of 0-1 cm.
Samples collected to a depth
of 0-25 cm for total depo-
Sone samples collected to
1 cm and others to 25 cm.
Pu-238 average:
0.13 fCi/gs
Pu-239 r.vcrage:
5.9 fCi/gn
Pv-233 averag?:
0.026 nCi/n^
Pu-239 average:
.65 nCi/n^
Pu-233 range*
0.035-4.1 fCi/gai
Pu-239 range.
0.62-68. fCi/gn

'..'o-j'ly St 'pies of 4 sites
= t the se\'ag3 trostTent
Gross alpha, Pl-238, Pu-239,
and £m-2
LOS ALAMOS. 1973 (LA-5586)
Sampling Piogram
Sampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported
Rrinai ts
16 off-site, 10 perimeter,
and 10 on-site locations
Samples operated continuously,
changed weekly Conposi ted
monthly for Pu-?30 and f'u-239
12 sites composited quartet 1/
for An-241
Off-site oveiaqe
Pu-238 15 aCi/nr
Pu-239 ?1 aC i/ni3
Ani-241 8 aCi/in3
Perimeter aveia'ie
Pu-230 18 aCi/nr?
Pu-239 26 aCi/ni3
Am-241 5 aCi/m3
On-site average ,
Pu-238 10 aCi/iii;
Pu-239 15 aCi/nr
Am-241 5 aCi/m3
8 7 mCi of Pu-«'3I1, Pi|-?jf|,
and released to Dip
atmosphete in 19/3
13 regional water
sources within 75 tan
40 perimeter surface
and ground water sites
within 5 km
Los Alamos water supply -
16 wells and 1 gallery.
30 on-site surface and
ground waters

Pu-238 average
40 fCi/1iter
Pu-239 average
140 fCi/1iter
Pu-238 average
20 fCi/1iter
Pu-239 average
10 fCi/1iter
Pu-238 average
20 fCi/1iter
Pu-239 average
20 fCi/1iter
Pu-238 range
0 01-8 2 pC1/1 iter
Pu-239 ranqe
0-10 1 pCi/liter
An-241 range
0 03-65 6 pCi/1iter
Pu analyses performed on
water samples are highly
suspect because qf cross-
contanunation and/or
eff1uent-contarn na tion

Inou«trM wastes frort
2 plants.
Composite of each week's snalyzed
Site TA-50-1 average.
Pu-238 160 pCi/1 Her
Pu-239 11 pCi/liter
4m-?dl 25 oCi/1iter
Site TA-21-257 average
Pu-238 40 pCi/1iter
Pu-239 30 pCi/lnei
Am-241: 20 pCi/liter
3.4 mCi released
3.6 mCi released
T.4 mCi released
0 2 mCi released
0.2 mCi released
3 1 mCi released

Domestic wastes
Semiannually analysis of
effluents from technical
area and municipal sewage
Technical area average
Pu-238 08 + 08
Pu-239 09+26
Municipal savage
Pu-238 146 ~ 008
Pu-239 03 + 10

Soil and
Soil and sediment
sarcples collected
at saire sites as
regional water
Samples collected
around the Laboratory
and Los Alamos County
Soil samples collected by
takinq S plugs. 75 ran diameter
and 50 mm deep at the center
and corners of a 10 motor
^square area and combined for
t,a composite sample Sediment
samples collected behind
boulders of flowing stirams
or 20 inn deep across the main
channel of interim ttpnt
Soil average (7
Pu-238 8 + 6 fCi/g
Pu-?39 10 +. 4 fCi/g
Scdinent avorane (9
¦ locations)
' Pu-238 15+2 fCi/g
Pu-239 17+4 fCi/g
On-site soil & sediment
Pu-218 6-l?0 fCi/<|i
Pu-?39 13-13H0fCi/
TRINITY SITE, Alanagordo, HH (UCLA-406)
Report of Periodic Surveys, 1947 - 1956
Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported
Numerous samples collected
in fallout area, up to 95
miles dowr.wind (NE) of GZ.
Samples collected at
different times during the
10-year reporting period.
Nitric acid leach with
chemical separation of
Plutonium from other
alpha emitters.
Extract counted with
alpha scintillation
Concentration of Pu in soil -
dpm per gram and jigm per sq.
ft. Up to several hundred
nCi/m^ in off-site areas. At
85-90 miles from GZ, values
as high as 45 nCi/m2 were
found in 1950.
Serial samples at
same locations did
not always decrease
with time - nay be
due to sanpling

Some profile samples
collected, mostly
surface samples--l/2
or 1 inch depths.
Highest values were found on
Chupadera Mesa,— 30 miles
NE of site.

Samples of grass, juniper,
and pine at various

dpm/gram: Results incon-
clusive — probably surface

:-o_::d las:.-vcv. 1973 ("J1-2142V
Kedia mg Program
Sarpling Ttc'nmquas
and Analysis
Results Reported
21 off-site sampling
Cotcinii9i!S vtckly Ir.ah volur-.e
air saiiiples of 40 ft^/rnn
thru Kicrosorban disk. Po-210
weekly analysis at 2 sites;
monthly composite for Pu-238
at 21 sites.
Po-210 avartge: 1.2 fCi/m?
Pu-238 average: 18.1 aCi/tnJ
P.CG for D;-Z10:
2 f.Z-./r*
PCG for Pu-233:
20 fCi/pr

5 cn-r.ite sampling
Continuous weekly hi^h volu?.e
air samples of 'JO ftj/mn thru
Microsorban disk. Po-f'10 and
Pu-238 analysis weekly
Po-210 average: 1.1 fCi/ry^
Pu-238 average: 534 aCi/in-'
PCC fcr "3-210.
7 pci/..-:
PXS for Pj-233:
SB ,-Ci of Pc-210 ans
34 ¦ Ci of '..arc
disc'ifced co the
5 sites on tho Great
Hi a,ni fiver.
Samples collected 5 days per
week and cor.posiLed for
rontMy Pu-233.
Pu-238 average: 1.3 pCi/
RCG for Pu-233:
2 nCi/liter

S 3-"t-:s of ponds
and strec .s.
Quarterly sampling and
analysis for Pu-238.
Pu-238 dverase: 0.355 pCi/
11 ter

Locclly gro .n food-
s,tuff; a-:! -.ege-
ta;-,o i sj "ioli-,g
ll.Cl'J3l!'3 1 lis,
f'Mits and vcr^g-
tsblc-s, grass and
a:;iiitic life.
Evaporate samples to dryness
and analyze for Pu-238.
Pu-233 nvera-je-
Nil*- 0.9 fCi/gm
Frjits at d v-.-getebles:
1-6 fCi/gr
Gross- 7 fCi/jm
Aquatic life: 4 fCi/gm

Cms location m each
1 quadrant plus back-
ground location.
10 core SMiples {3.5" diameter
t>y 12" dsep) at each location
and composited. Pu leached
from samples.
Pu-238 average 2
<4 nnlcs: 1.17 nCi/m 2
>20 miles: 1.27 nCi/m
8 sit^s in ponds and
i streams (sarr.e a^
; surrace water).
Pu leached from samples.
Pu-238 averaqe: 38 fCi/Q..i 1 - . ,

Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported
59 sampling sites from
community water supplies,
wells, springs, streams,
lakes, and ponds.
Pu-238 and Pu-239 analyses
annually on selected surface
water samples.
Pu-238 range: <0.016-<.61 pCi/liter
Pu-239 range: <0.012-<.74 pCi/liter

Long-term hydrological
monitoring program at
all active and inactive
test areas.
NTS samples analyzed
quarterly for Pu-238 and
Range of averages
Pu-238: <0.014-<.083 pCi/liter
Pu-239: <0.010-<.048 pCi/liter

8 selected sites from
the Air Surveillance
Pu-239 analyzed on composite
of 5 days sampling each month.
No results reported yet for 1973.
reported for
1QR5-1972 -
Part of continuing
program started in 1970.
Ten 10 x 10 cm cores 5 cm deep
were composited. Samples
taken at theiintersections
of a 5 x 5 mtye grid.
Analyzed portion that passed
thru a 10 mesk screen.
Results plotted as contours along
with previous results.

Sampling Program
f.ampling Techniques
and Analysis
Results Reported
Nine locations near Perimeter Air
Monitoring Stations.
Four samples, approx. 3" diameter and
one centimeter thick, collected from
a one-square-mater area and composited.
Analyzed for plutcnium (Note: Not
clec11" whether includes 238 £ 229 or
just 239).
Plutonium (fCi/gm)
Maximum 67
Minimum 12
Average 29

Sampling Program
Sampling Techniques
anc Analysis
Results Reported
Samples collected monthly from
one off-site lake and wells
Samples analyzed for gross
alpha and beta, total
uranium, plutonium and
tri ti um.
Total plutonium (pCi/1)
WS - 0.72
ground water - 0.38
Co-ioared to
RCG for unconT
trolled area
of 2 nCi/
Soi1 and
Samples collected monthly at
25 cff-site locations
surrounding plant.
Soil - tcp 5 centimeters..
Vegetaticn - native grasses.
So?1 analyzed for total
plutonium by radiometric
Total plutonium concen-
pCi/qm dry soil
Minimum 0
Maximum 1.39
Average 0.50
No results for vege-
tation .

Ai r:
Air samolmg network
consisting of rine cff-site
cot: "uous sa::oiers surrounding
plant. Sa^oles changed weekly.
Samples analyzed for'gross
alpha and beta, total
plutoniuiTi, and uranium
Plutonium (fCi/m^)
Minimum 0
Maximum 3.53
Average 1.25
Co~oared to-,
RCG 20 fCi/p"

ROUV HATS riASI, 1973 (Ri r-P.V-73)
Sanpl inn 1'ioqiam
1 i «lir i-it'iM* 01. site
operate conLir.uf.uj\j
Sampling Techniques
.Hid .".'l.ilycis
Results Deported
2 i.fM thrtmi'i ! i 1-ian Tytv C
IlldSS tlll'.'l flll'TS. Al!.ll/."lJ
tor nlthj j .n-jj-ie arc. i-Q" in I >
conpositr analyzed ror Pu
July- [icc
Alpha avrraiir fvjr Jan-June
G 0 ¦> i/" fCi/n3
I'u avei iU'.' for July-Dec.
1 214 i 99, fCi/m3
Total alpha iiibojt 70 miles.
U + Pu average-
1 82 + 51'. pCi/liter
Pu average..
< 31 i 76',. pCi/liter
(inLinu.ition of [tragi am
60 SM.iiil
SAVANNAH RIVER PL4HT, 1973 (DPSPI1 74-30-11	
Sampling Program
Sanplinn Technu|jrs
ariU /MialyS 1 5
Resul Ls Ri^portcu
Weekly analysis of air
filters collected at
8 monitoring stations
near plant perimeter
and ten stations
around a 2b-imle
radius from plant.
Four additional
stations at Savannah,
and J",aeon, Georgia
and Columbia and
Greenville, S.C. serve
as background levels.
Beta activity, gamma
measurements and gross
alpha (uranium and
Plutonium} activity
determinations for all
Alpha activity
Plant perimeter:
0.7 fCi/m1
25-mile radius:
.8 fCi/m^
Distant sites-
.9 fCi/m3
Maximum reported ~
value was 3.8 fCi/m
at plant perimeter.
Concentration Guide for
alpha emitters is
20 fCi/m3.
Grass samples collected
at seven' locations
along plant perimeter
and at seven other
locations along a 25-
mile radius route.
Samples composited for
monthly analysis.
Gamma emitting radio-
nuclides were from
fallout. Alpha
emitters averaged
0.16 pCi/gm (dry wt)
at plant perimeter and
.12 pCi/gm (dry wt) at
25-mile radius.
Farm produce repre-
senting four food
categories collected
at 14 localities.
Sixty samples analyzed
by gamma spectrometry.
Radiochemical analysis
for 'C-jr and alpha
Alpha emitters in food
stuffs averaged between
2-10 fCi/gm (wet wt).
Maximum concentration
of 240 fCi/gm (wet wt)
in plums.
Four sampling points
on Savannah River.
Fourteen samples of
public water supplies.
River samples collected
continuously and
analyzed weekly. Public
supplies sampled In
April ar.d October.
Drinking water alpha
emitter concentration
varied between nonde-
tectable to 3 7 pCi/
liter with an average,
of 0.8 pCi/liter.
The higher specific ;
activity at Oackson
3.7 pCi/Hter 1s attrlb- |
uted to thorfum-228. '
Four samnling locations
naar plant perimeter,
and 3 locations up to
100 miles.
Depth profiles at each
site for 238pu and
Total nlutonium
average in top 5 cm
of soil is 15.2
fCi/gm at plant peri-
meter and 17 8 fCi/gm
at distant locations.

Deposit!on-10 sampling
locations at plant
Core samples taken to
15 cm.
239pu plant peri-,
meter was 1.78 ,nCi/m
and 1.69 nCi/m at
distant locations.