PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE SAGAVANIRKTOK
RIVER AND NEARBY CONTROL STREAMS, SHAVIOVIK AND CANNING RIVERS
by
Eldor W. Schallock
Ernst W. Mueller
Draft Report
Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
CORVALLIS ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
CORVALLIS, OREGON 97330

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DISCLAIMER
This report is being placed in the National Technical Information Service
by the Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency. This "draft format" is submitted by the authors to make avail-
able a large base of data collected on the Sagavanirktok River and tributaries
in Alaska. The report has not been reviewed or cleared according to the usual
editorial and technical standards of the Laboratory.
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ABSTRACT
Biological, physical and chemical data were collected from 28 stations on
the Sagavanirktok River and five of its tributaries, the Canning River,
Shaviovik River, two tundra lakes and Galbraith Lake. These stations are
located on the North Slope of Alaska and in the area impacted by the oil
i ndustry.
Macrobenthic community samples collected from streams were dominated by
Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Diptera, although Annelida, Arcari, and other
groups were also present. Within the Diptera, Chironomidae was usually numer-
ically dominant although in some areas, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae,
Tipulidae, and Tabanidae were important. Lake habitat supported Mollusca,
Copepoda, Anostraca, Cladocera, Amphipoda, and Trichoptera. Piscifauna in-
cluded the arctic grayling, arctic char, lake trout, pike, slimy sculpin,
nine-spine stickleback, ling cod, and round whitefish. Total and fecal coli-
form bacteria values in the stream waters were low. Ranges and patterns of 23
chemical and physical parameters in the aquatic environment were discussed.
Measurements of specific cations and anions included dissolved oxygen,
phosphorus, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride and
nitrogen forms. Collective parameters such as specific conductance, alkalin-
ity, total hardness, pH, total organic carbon and fixed suspended solids were
also measured.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
SUMMARY
River Macrobenthic Community 		1
Lake Macrobenthic Community		2
Piscifauna 		3
Chemical-Physical Parameters 	 .......	4
MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS	'		. . 6
INTRODUCTION
Rationale for Study.			9
Location	10
Weather and Climate	10
Physiography	11
Pedology		 .11
Permafrost 			 		12
Glaciation		13
Previous Limnological Work			 .14
PROJECT DESIGN AND OBJECTIVES
Location of the Sagavanirktok River Study Area	16
General Objectives		 . .16
Aquatic Biology Objectives 		 . .17
Chemical and Physical Objectives		17
METHODS
Aquatic Biology Methods	\ . . .18
Chemistry Methods	21
AQUATIC BIOLOGY
Macrobenthic Community Along the Sagavanirktok
River Main Stem	23
Plecoptera	23
Ephemeroptera	26
Trichoptera			27
Diptera					28
Annelida. . . 		28
Macrobenthic Community Diversity and Quantitative Patterns. . . .28
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Page
Sagavanirktok River Tributaries Macrobenthic Community	29
Plecoptera		.29
Ephemeroptera		29
Trichoptera			32
Diptera 		32
Annelida		32
Canning River Macrobenthic Community 	 .32
Plecoptera	32
Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera	32
Diptera	33
Annelida. . 		.33
Shaviovik River Macrobenthic Community		33
Plecoptera		33
Ephemeroptera	33
Trichoptera	33
Diptera		33
Annelida			34
Galbraith and Nora Fed Lakes Macrobenthic Community. 		34
Trichoptera	34
Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera	34
Diptera		36
Annelida	36
Amphipoda and Coleoptera		36
List of Invertebrates Collected from All Lakes and Streams	36
Miscellaneous Groups	36
Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) from Rivers in the Sagavanirktok
River Study	38
Sanitary Microbiology from Rivers	38
Pi sci fauna		43
Grayling	43
Arctic Char			47
Lake Trout	48
Pike			48
Whitefish		48
Management Implications 		 .48
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Page
Interrelationships Between Aquatic Biota and Physical and
Chemical Environment 			49
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
Sagavanirktok River	52
Water Temperature	52
Dissolved Oxygen	53
Surface Discharge	53
Turbidity			54
Color		56
Nitrogen Forms		57
Phosphorus	59
Si 1 ica		 . 		59
Sodium and Potassium		 . 		59
Calcium and Magnesium	61
Iron		63
Chloride	63
Specific Conductance		 . 		65
Alkalinity		65
Total Hardness			66
pH			67
Total Organic Carbon		67
Canning and Shaviovik Rivers	69
Galbraith and Nora Fed Lakes	78
REFERENCES	83
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SECTION I
SUMMARY
RIVER MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY
Total numbers and diversity of macrobenthic organisms changed with
respect to station location on the Sagavanirktok (Sag) River. Total numbers
at the mouth increased to about five times the headwaters. Occasionally,
large numbers of Chironomidae in localized areas may cause an anomaly in the
trend shown by total numbers, but this was usually a single sample found at a
single station and, as a result is regarded as atypical.
Total numbers and total diversity found in the macrobenthic community
also changed with respect to the time of year the samples were collected.
Larger numbers of organisms were generally found at any station in June than
at the respective station in August. Generic diversity consistently increased
from the Coastal Plain Province to the Mountain Province by a factor of
approximately two. Also, the generic diversity found in August is approxi-
mately twice the generic diversity found in June.
Three families of Plecoptera, Nemouridae Perlodidae, and Chloroperlidae,
were harbored in the Sagavanirktok, and Canning Rivers and in most other
stream systems. The exceptions were the Shaviovik River and the Atigun River
where Chloroperlidae was not collected. Perlodiadae and Nemouridae were
widely distributed during June and August although members of these families
appeared less abundant in the Coastal Plain areas than in the Mountain or
Foothill provinces. Other exceptions were Perlodidae which was not collected
from the Shaviovik River during June and Chloroperlidae which was not found in
any of the rivers during the August sample period. Four families of
Ephemeroptera, Heptagenidae, Baetidae, Ephemerellidae and Siphlonuridae were
harbored in the study streams but not all families were found in all the
streams. Lupine and Ivishak Rivers harbored all four families; Sagavanirktok
and Ribdon Rivers contained Baetidae, Heptagenidae and Siphlonuridae;
Shaviovik also contained three families but Ephemerellidae replaced
Siphlonuridae; and Atigun and Canning Rivers harbored only Baetidae and
Heptagenidae. Heptagenidae was the most widely distributed and generally the
most abundant family as it was found in all rivers during June and August with
the exception of the August sample from Atigun River. Baetidae was found in
all streams during August but during June it was virtually absent from the
three longest rivers, the Sagavanirktok, Canning and Ivishak. Distribution of
Siphlonuridae decreased from June to August while the distribution of
Ephemerellidae did not appear to change during the same interval.
Ephemeroptera was generally less abundant in the coastal plain areas than in
the more southern areas.
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Trichoptera was represented by two famlies, Brachycentridae and
Limnephilidae, both of which were sporadically distributed in both time and
space. During June, Brachycentridae was not present and Limnephilidae was
found only in Atigun River and at station S-200 on the Sag River mainstem.
During August, both Brachycentridae and Limnephilidae were sporadically
distributed along the entire mainstem or the Sag River. During the same
interval, of all the Sagavanirktok tributaries, only the Ivishak River
harbored caddisflies and then only Limnephilidae. Brachycentridae was the
only family found in Canning River. No Trichoptera was collected from the
Shaviovik River.
Four families and one suborder of Diptera were widely distributed in the
study area. Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Simuliidae, and Ceratopogonidae were
collected from all streams although not at all stations during both sample
intervals. Chironomidae was widely distributed and was found at virtually all
stations in June and August. Both Tipulidae and Ceratopogonidae were
discontinuously distributed in most streams although both were more widely
distributed in the Sag mainstem and its tributaries during August. Suborder
Brachycera was sporadically found in most streams but was completely absent
from the Canning River. Most Diptera, particularly Ceratopogonidae, revealed
decreased distribution from June to August in both the Shaviovik and Canning
Rivers. However, Simuliidae remained about the same or showed wider distribu-
tion in August than in June.
LAKE MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY
The macrobenthic community of lakes share some of the same higher
taxonomic categories with stream macrobenthic communities, but the relative
importance of these groups may be drastically different. For example,
Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera are important to stream communities from both the
diversity and numerical point of view. In the lake community, both Plecoptera
and Ephemeroptera were collected but were much less important from both
aspects. Trichoptera was another example where the lake systems differed from
river systems, i.e., Trichoptera was often numerically dominant in lake
communities but was not usually important in streams and sometimes was not
collected.
Plecoptera was represented in lake macrobenthos by Nemouridae and
Perlodidae. Nemouridae was the most abundant family although relatively rare,
and was found in both Galbraith Lake and Nora Fed Lakes. Perlodidae was
occasionally found only in Galbraith Lake.
Ephemeroptera was even more sparse than Plecoptera. One family,
Baetidae, was found only in Galbraith and only during June.
Trichoptera exhibited more diversity in lakes than in streams. Three
families, Limnephilidae, Brachycentridae, and a new family, Rhyacophilidae
were found. Galbraith harbored Limnephilidae during June and Brachycentridae
during August. All three families were found in Nora Fed Lakes but not all in
the same lake. During June, Limnephilidae and Rhyacophilidae were collected
from Nora Fed No. 1, and Limnephilidae and Brachycentridae were found in Nora
Fed No. 2. Only Limnephilidae frequented both Nora Fed Lakes during August.
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Four families of Diptera consisting of Chironomidae, Tipulidae,
Simuliidae, and Ceratopogonidae were collected from lakes. Galbraith
contained all four families in June but only Chironomidae and Tipulidae in
August. Nora Fed Lakes harbored three families during June (Simuliidae were
absent) and Tipulidae was found only in Nora Fed No. 1. During August, only
Chironomidae was collected from Nora Fed Lakes.
Amphipoda were abundant in both Nora Fed Lakes but were not found in
Galbraith Lake. Coleoptera were collected from all three lakes and were
generally more abundant than in rivers. Both Amphipoda and Coleoptera were
absent in August samples.
The number of macrobenthic taxons from Galbraith Lake are compared to
those from Nora Fed Lakes to determine relative diversity. The former macro-
benthic community was more diverse than the communities of Nora Fed Lakes
although significantly less diverse than those of the streams located in the
same area.
PISCIFAUNA
Seven species of fish were collected in the Sag River basin. Four of the
species, grayling, arctic char, lake trout and pike, are considered desirable
sport fish as well as being good eating. The sculpin and stickleback are not
directly significant to man but may play an indirect role as prey fish for the
larger carnivorous fish, as a predator on eggs or young-of-the-year or they
may also compete with sport fish young for particular size and type food
items. Whitefish are not heavily utilized for food but may be important as
predators or eggs or competitors for food items.
The clear waters of the streams and the tendency for fish to congregate
in specific areas makes the grayling and arctic char vulnerable to angling
pressure. Some difficulty can be experienced in finding the fish but once
this is overcome, the probability of angler success is high. Consequently,
these populations of fish could easily by over-harvested.
Angler interviews and collections of grayling and char indicate that a
large percentage of the grayling that are caught are 30 cm (12 in.) or larger
and that mostly adult char are caught. This suggests that the population is
an accumulation of several years of reproduction and that the population has
not been recently harvested. The high percentage of large fish, while
creating a temporary angling Utopia, carries a warning that heavy exploitation
of these stocks will result in a rapid diminishing of the breeding segment of
the population thereby reducing the reproductive potential.
Few young-of-the-year of 1+ aged grayling or char were observed.
Although the number of fish that was observed was limited, ample effort was
made to observe this segment of the grayling and char populations. Pipeline
monitoring teams surveying the river system observed small numbers of young
fish when compared to other rivers. If this population characteristic is
true, small numbers of fish will be added to each population each year to
replace those fish lost by natural mortality and angler exploitation. Another
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possibility exists; that is the young-of-the-year utilize specific tributaries
or reaches of tributaries as rearing or overwintering areas. These particular
streams then are extremely valuable to the fishery and must be protected.
Adult grayling and char tend to collect in specific locations at spawning
time. This behavior makes the spawning populations of both species vulnerable
to anglers and to the effects of pollution which could be devastating even
though limited to a small area or small percentage of the total stream system
if the area affected harbors the spawning pouplation, the developing ova, or
young-of-the-year.
CHEMICAL-PHYSICAL PARAMETERS
Physical and chemical characteristics that were measured included temper-
ature, discharge, nutrient chemistry, dissolved oxygen, total metals and nine
other miscellaneous analyses.
Seasonal temperature generally decreases when proceeding north. This
phenomenon is caused by low angle of solar radiation, number of cloudy days
and influence of the Arctic Ocean.
Discharge in the Sagavanirktok River reaches the seasonal high during
spring breakup which usually occurs in June. Low seasonal discharge occurs
during the winter. Some controversy exists as to whether the discharge is
difficult to find under ice and snow cover or whether discharge actually
ceases. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are low and similar to the
concentrations found in interior streams. Silica may be limiting to diatom
production since ranges as high as 2.0-3.0 mg/1 were recorded in North Slope
rivers, while concentrations of silica ranged to about 20 mg/1 in Interior
Alaska. Dissolved oxygen concentrations approached saturation during the
summer but were severely depressed during winter (1.1 mg/1). Although
sampling during the winter was limited, the observed data suggest that the
winter D.O. pattern in arctic rivers was similar to those found in interior
Alaskan rivers.
Iron and manganse concentrations were generally below the U.S. Public
Health Service standards set on water supplies for human consumption. Concen-
trations as high as 295.0 mg/1 calcium were recorded from the Sagavanirktok
River in April, although the summer high was 39.0 mg/1, which is similar to
interior Alaska values. Magnesium concentrations ranged from 3.0 mg/1 in June
to 45.0 mg/1 in April. Due to sedimentary substrate of metamorphic origin,
concentrations of sodium and potassium were low, ranging from 0.32 mg/1 sodium
and 0.13 mg/1 potassium during summer to 90 mg/1 sodium and 4.97 mg/1
potassium during winter.
Chemical analyses illustrate differences between summer and winter. pH
is basic at all stations, ranging from 7.60 to 8.22 in summer, and 7.25 to
8.55 in April. Closely related alkalinity concentrations ranged from a summer
high of 36.2 to a winter high of 875.
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Chloride was expected to increase near the Arctic Ocean; the highest
values, 233 mg/1 were recorded from stations nearest the ocean. Other
stations dropped as low as 0.3 mg/1. Hardness is a measure of principally
calcium and magnesium. As a result, hardness increased from summer low of
40.0 mg/1 to a winter high of 952.0. Conductivity similarly increased from 85
umhos to 1700 umhos.
In general, the water of the Sagavanirktok River is of high quality
during the summer with occasional periods of high turbidity during high
runoff. Winter surface discharge measurements, although limited, along with
communications with industry personnel, reveal a potential problem that the
water resources are limited during winter.
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SECTION II
MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS
Problems in management of water resources in the Alaskan Arctic can be
related to specific features of the arctic environment and to characteristics
of the aquatic system. A summary of some pertinent factors of the arctic
environment are presented in the introduction.
Among the features of the Arctic that cause management problems is the
vastly diminished surface discharge of arctic rivers during winter. During
the dominant cold season, the volume of water discharged is a small fraction
of the total annual volume. In some reaches of some streams, the movement of
water may cease or may be restricted to the thaw bulb within the alluvium.
Record of excessive industrial use of this limited discharge in the
Sagavanirktok River has been made by Furniss (1975). He relates that some
"water holes" utilized by pump trucks have been pumped until water is no
longer available to these techniques. When this happens, holes are drilled
through the ice in other reaches of the river and the process is repeated. In
some instances, water has been transported as far as 80 km (50 mi.).
Furniss (1975) reports that juvenile fish have been pumped into the water
trucks that have been transporting water along the Sag River and in some
instances the fish survive the hazards of passing through the pump system but
in other cases, the fish have been chopped into pieces.
Additional problems were forecast in a study by Schallock and Lotspeich
(1974) who revealed that concentrations of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) may be
extremely depressed in Alaskan rivers during the winter. Furthermore, the
pattern of severely depressed D.O. continued to decline as sampling proceeded
downstream. Limited data from the Colville and Sag Rivers documented low D.O.
in these drainages and strongly suggest that the D.O. conditions are critical
for any effluent or substance that adds oxygen demand, either biological or
chemical, to the stream, thereby removing essential oxygen from an already
stressed system.
In addition to discharge and dissolved oxygen, other water quality
parameters may be abnormal during winter. High values of total alkalinity and
specific conductance reveal that certain dissolved cations and anions exceed
the concentrations observed during summer and also need treatment to meet
State of Alaska water quality requirements to be suitable as potable water.
Dissolved constituents such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and nitrates have
been known to naturally exceed the State requirements.
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Gravel mining in the Sag River drainage may also be a problem. Gravel is
only readily available in the thaw bulb of the Sag River and its tributaries.
Although gravel is also present in the permafrost areas, it is too expensive
to break free from the frozen substrate and therefore considered unattainable
at this time. These features combined with the gross underestimation of the
amounts of gravel needed to construct the network of roads, pads, and other
insulating and supporting structures for the Trans-Alaska pipeline is causing
some concern about the impact of the endeavor in the Sag River system.
Initial estimates of gravel requirements for the entire pipeline ranged as low
as 4.6 million cubic meters (6 million cu. yds.) However, the last calcula-
tions of the amount of gravel used to August 1975 totaled approxmately 161
million cubic meters (210 million cu. yds.). Most of the material that was
used on the North Slope (15.2 million cubic meters--20 million cu. yds.) came
from the thawed ground located in the flood plain of the Sag River.
At this time, it is impossible to predict the impact of these gravel
removal activities on the Sag River. However, biologists and hydrologists
share the concern that, while the majority of the material has been removed
from the flood plain and not the channel through which water is actively
flowing on the surface, the large volumes of gravel removed may cause
hydrologic instability that may require years to reassume a state of equil-
ibrium and thus cause effects that last much longer than the actual gravel
mining operations.
Aquatic communities may be affected by many of man's endeavors that
directly or secondarily alter various parameters of the aquatic ecosystem. It
is beyond the scope of this paper to present the array of causes or effects
that can alter the structure of an aquatic community. However, some of the
more apparent causes that may affect the arctic aquatic community are
presented.
Road building, pad construction, pipeline placement, sewage effluent,
wasted drilling products, and domestic and industrial water, if improperly
managed, may have serious adverse impcts on one or more elements of the
complex interrelated aquatic system. Hynes (170) states some of the many ways
this can happen. Diverson of the water from a channel results in dessication
and disruption of life patterns or in death for the organisms inhabiting the
affected reach. He further states that temperature changes may result and
that the pattern of change, rather than the absolute temperature change, can
be extremely important. Aquatic systems may also be affected by the addition
of siltaceous material in an untimely manner and/or in abnormal amounts.
These are some of the effects:
(1)	reduction of light penetration necessary for photosynthetic
processes by periphytic diatoms
(2)	filling of interstitial spaces
(3)	covering of food items
(4)	flora and fauna abrasion
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The effects of a particular substance depends upon the timing of the
addition, the characteristics of the receiving water, and the nature of the
pollutant. When added to lakes, the substance may have a prolonged and
localized effect. However, streams receiving a problem substance transport
the material downstream, thereby affecting any biota that are inhabiting the
specific reach of the stream. The distance the effect is noticeable depends
upon numerous factors including volume, type, toxicity of the substance,
sensitivity to the indigenous organisms, and the physical and chemical
processes that hasten or retard the disappearance of the problem substance.
Naturally occurring winter low water discharge, severely depressed
dissolved oxygen concentrations and high dissolved constitutents, combined
with large volumes of gravel removal, heavy utilization of available water,
and addition of substances via effluent or accidental spills, all combine to
forecast an uncertain long-range future for the mineral, water and biological
resources of the Sag River.
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SECTION III
INTRODUCTION
RATIONALE FOR STUDY
Discovery of huge oil fields in the Arctic, the national energy crisis,
and the Middle East conflict have focused national and international attention
on Alaska's Arctic North Slope. Private geophysical exploration crews andfa
small number of government-sponsored oil drilling rigs have been prospecting
on the North Slope for the past 25 years but the effort was small until the
1968 announcement of the discovery well at Prudhoe Bay by Atlantic Richfield
Company when the effort increased exponentially. The wide ranging exploration
of geophysical crews and followup development efforts stimulated concern about
the effects of the oil industry on the arctic environment.
In the past this environment has been considered relatively unaffected by
man's activities although it is extremely fragile as there are only a small
number of pathways for energy transfer to higher trophic levels in the
ecosystem. Prior to recent increased activity, man restricted himself to
travel between villages along the coastal area with only occasional limited
penetration into the North Slope interior on hunting forays. Native villages
were built along the coast because of marine food sources. Point Barrow, the
largest village on the North Slope, is a blending of about 2,100 Eskimos and
Caucasians. The only other sizeable gathering of people along the Beaufort
Sea was Barter Island (123). However, within the past 5 years, more develop-
ments have sprung up at Prudhoe Bay, Sagwon, Galbraith Lake, and Happy Valley
in the Sagavanirktok River basin alone. In addition, isolated drilling sites
and wide ranging geophysical exploration may be found anywhere, as witnessed
by abandoned gravel pads, modern day middens, and a tell take network of mans1
recent treks across the tundra.
Man has encountered the distinctive environmental features of the Arctic
while living and working on the North Slope. In dealing with these features,
it soon became clear that utilizing techniques that were workable in more
temperate climates created problems that were often more severe than effec-
tively dealing with the original arctic characteristic. These characteristics
include, but are not restricted to the following disciplines: North Slope
climate, geology, morphology, topography, pedology, hydrology and limnology,
all of which interact with each other. Some of these features may be found
elsewhere but this combination of features and the seasonal periodicity of the
arctic environment result in characteristics that are not reproducible in
other nonarctic areas. The dominance and significance of cold climate
environmental features are not widely known. As a result, a summary of some
dominant features are presented for general background information.
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LOCATION
The North Slope has been defined as the part of Alaska that drains into
the Arctic Ocean, excluding the arc south of Point Hope (Orth, 1970). The
Alaskan North Slope extends west from approximately 141W longitude at the
Canadian border to about 167W longitude near Point Hope and north from
approximatly 68N latitude in the Brooks Range to about 719N latitude near
Point Barrow.
Wahrhaftig (1965) has divided the North Slope into three physiographic
provinces: Arctic Coastal Plain covering 70,900 square km; Arctic Foothills
encompassing 95,500 square km; and the Arctic Mountain Province of which
40,500 square km (approximately 30 percent of the total 135,200 square km) are
located on the North Slope.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
The Arctic Climatic Zone of Alaska is described by Watson (1969) as
having low temperature variations, extremely light precipitation, strong and
common winds, mean annual temperatures ranging from 10 to 20F with marine
environment influencing the summer temperatures but not the winter tempera-
tures. This climate can best be described as harsh in comparson to the
climates of other areas.
Temperature is one of the dominant features of the Arctic. Nordenskjold
(1928) states that the highest mean monthly temperature at Point Barrow is
3.3C (37.4F) in July and the lowest is -28.9C (-20.2F) in February. More
severe cold temperatures during winter and warmer temperatures during summer
are found inland. Much of the North Slope experiences -409C (-40PF) and in
localized interior areas, temperatures may plunge to -54PC (-65PF). The %PC
warmest month isotherm roughly follows the arctic coast while the 10PC
isotherm runs parallel to the 5P line but is found some 240 km (150 mi.)
inland (Nordenskjold, 1928).
Wind is a common occurrence and when combined with cold ambient air
temperatures of the area, has serious implications; chill factors greater than
-739C (-100F) have been recorded, which make living and working out-of-doors
virtually impossible. Wind is also responsible for redopositing a substantial
percentage of snow that falls during winter. This is important because it
removes insulation in some areas and deposits it in others. As a result, the
freezing and thawing rates and timing are altered.
Precipitation in Arctic Alaska is much lower than is generally realized.
Northern and northwest Alaska may collect as little as 10 cm (4 in.) p6r year
while southern coastal areas of Alaska may receive as much as 500 cm (200 in.)
(Johnson, et al., 1969). Furthermore, the precipitation that is deposited
during the winter is often moved considerable distances and redeposited by the
common and sometimes high winds.
The precipitation that the North Slope receives and the timing of the
seasonal melt and discharge has led to misconceptions about the amount of
water available. Until recently, most people visited the North Slope during
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the summer period when the sizeable rivers are discharging large volumes of
generally desirable water. What is not realized is that the water that is
being discharged during the short summer period is the precipitation that
accumulated during the long winter. Also, the rivers that flow so abundantly
during the summer, commonly have very low discharges during the winter or, in
some instances, may cease flowing entirely.
Another dominant feature of the arctic climate is the available light.
This factor is dependent upon latitude and season. Point Barrow, about 709N
latitude, had continuous daylight from the middle of May to the first of
August but has no daylight from mid-November to about mid-January. Fairbanks,
about 65?N latitude, has 20 to nearly 22 hours of daylight from mid-May
through most of July, and as little as 3.5 hours in December.
In general, the most memorable features of the winter climate are the
darkness, deep cold, wind and the length of the season. By contrast, the
summer features weeks of continuous daylight, extensive and frequent fog banks
along the coast, water saturated soils along the coast, and daily temperatures
that may climb into the 60's (PF) (Sater et al., 1971).
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Three physiographic provinces on the North Slope have been described by
Payne, et al. (1951), and Wahrhaftig (1955), and investigated extensively by
U.S. Geologic Survey teams (Dutro, 1957). The southernmost of the three is
the glaciated Arctic Mountain Province which contains the Brooks Range section
which consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rock including lime-
stone, shale, chert conglomerate and sandstone originating in the Precambrian
through Cretaceous eras.
North of the Mountain Province is the glaciated Arctic Foothill Province
which contains two sections: the Nothern Foothills and the Southern
Foothills. These two sections consist of two parallel belts of hills
collectively about 120 km (75 mi.) wide with hills ranging from 150 m (540
ft.) to 667 m (2,000 ft.) in altitude. Both belts of hills consist of moraine
and non-moraine rocks, including shale, limestone, sandstone, conglomerate
bentonite and tuff. The Northern Foothills contain "Appalachain" type folds
in the Lower and Upper Cretaceous aged strata but the Southern Foothills
consist of thick deposits of sedimentry nature that have been folded, commonly
overturned toward the north and broken by reverse faults.
The third and northernmost province is the unglaciated Arctic Coastal
Plain which is underlain by gravels and sands of the Pleistocene Gubic forma-
tion which usually becomes more moraine toward the north.
PEDOLOGY
Arctic soils and vegetation types have obvious effects on the appearance
of the arctic tundra as well as more subtle but significant effects on inter-
relationships of temperature equilibrium and permafrost and hydrology.
11

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The classification of arctic soils has been worked out by Tedrow and
Cantlon (1958), and by Tedrow et al. (1958). Based on their work, several
general patterns of soil are found. Tundra soil is the most common and is
found in all three physiographic provinces. It is characterized by thawing to
a depth of about .30 cm (Drew et al., 1958), and has silty, wet and predom-
inantly acid conditions. Tedrow (1973) recognizes four major horizons in the
tundra soil: organic surface horizon, mineral soil, buried organic horizon,
and frozen substrate.
Bog soil is found extensively in the Coastal Plain and along rive courses
in the foothills. This soil is characterized by thick deposits of organic
material (up to 9 m), usually acid in reaction, which may contain high
percentages of water and by permafrost within 30 cm of the surface.
A third classification is arctic brown silt which, as the name states, is
generally brown. The soil is characterized by these features: dark brown
loani in the upper horizon grading to dark grey in the third horizon, thick
active zone with relatively high temperatures, well drained horizons with low
order of leaching, and surface horizon reacting acidic but alkaline conditions
existing in lower horizons.
Other more restricted and less common soil types include well-drained,
podzol, Randzina, Shumgite, Grumsol and Ranker.
PERMAFROST
Permafrost is one arctic phenomenon that is presently receivng extensive
investigation because of its instability when disturbed during the course of
construction. The ramifications and importance of this subject are too
numerous to mention here; however, an excellent gathering of investigators'
results has been produced in the Proceedings of the Permafrost International
Conference (1963). Ferrians (1969) places up to 85 percent of Alaska in the
permafrost zone with all of the arctic being in the continuous permafrost
zone. Permafrost thickness varies from more than 433 m (1300 ft.) at Barrow
to discontinuous lenses less than 30 cm (1 ft.) thick at the southern perma-
frost border in interior Alaska.
Surface mat disturbance and subsequent melting of permafrost has led to
investigation of the relationships between permafrost, soils and vegetation.
Benninghoff (1952) states that vegetation has an effect on the permafrost in
that the energy flux boundary between the atmosphere and the terrestrial
surface is equal to the height of the vegetation plus the thickness of the
humus and the root system beneath. Effectiveness of this insulating layer is
reduced, however, when the surface mean annual temperature is depressed below
freezing. Brown (1936a) relates that the mean annual ground temperature is
several degrees warmer than the mean annual air temperature with net radia-
tion, vegetation, snow cover and ground thermal characteristics varying with
time. This factor indicates that thermal equilibrium has not yet been reached
between the permafrost and the atmosphere.
12

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Walker and Arnborg (1969) examined permafrost temperatures in ice-wedge
polygons near Point Barrow. Ground temperatures at the 3.5 m depth ranged
annually from -59 to -15C, a'nd at the 7.5 depth from -8 to -11C, a smaller
annual variation. Lachenbruch et al. (1962), describe the relationship
between temperature and permafrost in more detail.
A complex community of plants interrelate with each other and the
physical and chemical environment to affect permafrost. About 300 species of
plants have been identified by Johnson et al. (1964), from the Ogoturok Creek
Valley, located 68905'N, well within the continuous permafrost zone as defined
by Sumgin (1927). Johnson (1963) discusses several interrelationships between
permafrost and vegetation and suggests that permafrost: (1) impedes drainage
of water into the underground aquifer; (2) maintains low temperatures in the
root zone during the growing season and restricts the root systems to the
active frost zone; and (3) provides an impervious substrate similar to
bedrock. He also states that permafrost related soil ice can lead to develop-
ment of thermokarst topography as ice melts. This condition is dependent upon
the relationships that the vegetation: (1) dampens the soil temperature
extremes; (2) maintains the permafrost levels; (3) retards the penetration of
heat into soil in the spring, and loss of heat in the fall; and (4) retards
the rate of soil and frost erosion due to melting. Brown (1936b) concludes
that heat and moisture reactions involving the vegetation-permafrost relation-
ship are physically reversible.
Whereas Brown (1936b) discusses the variability of heat and moisture
relationships on the surface, other investigators have indicated that
geothermal characteristics may vary from area to area. Brewer (1958a, 1958b)
recorded thermal gradient ranges from lF/72 ft. to l9F/324 ft. depending upon
the rock type. Shpolyanskaya (1962) investigated the gradient in sedimentary
rock in the Transbaikal region in the USSR and recorded lF/37 ft., similar to
Brewer's (1958a) results at Barrow.
GLACIATION
Glaciers from the Brooks Range were initially described by Schrader
(1902). Glaciology and physiography of the Canning River region were
described in detail by Leffingwell (1919). Betterman (1953) was the first to
propose the names Anaktuvik, Sagavanirktok, Itkillik and Echooka glaciations
for the Quaternary glaciations that advanced in the Sagavanirktok-Anaktuvik
region.
Three glacial depoists are found in the Sagavanirktok River basin, fhe
Sagavanirktok deposit is found further down the drainage the Itkillik and
Echooka deposits. Namesake deposits are found from the Brooks Range to the
mouth of the Lupine River and in the Ivishak River subdrainage northward to
the confluence with the Echooka River about 40 km (25 mi.) north of the Brooks
Range. The Itkillik deposits have smaller southern distribution and the
Echooka deposits are even more restricted to higher altitudes. Detterman
(158) dates the Sagavanirktok deposits in the Pre-Wisconsin geologic period
and the Echooka and Itkillik in the Early Wisconsin period.
13

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Dynamic ice formations and associated effects have influenced the forma-
tion of different types of Takes. Glacial moraines deposited by advancing
glaciers and abandoned by retreating ice fields have played an important role
in the formation of high altitude lakes, such as Galbraith and Peters Lakes,
in the Brooks Range and Foothills Province. These lakes are typified as being
oligotrohic, with short open water periods during the summer, low in total
dissolved solids (Sater, 1971), and usually less than 20 m (60 ft.) deep
(Holmquist, 1967). Buried glacial ice that is melting causes formation of
kettle lakes as described by Detterman et al. (1958), and Livingstone et al.
(1958). These bodies of water are also found in the Foothills Province and
are frequently oligotrophic. Thermokarst lakes cover an estimated 50 to 75
percent of the surface area in the Coastal Plains (Black and Barksdale, 1949).
These shallow oriented lakes are formed by the melting of permafrost
(Livingstone, 1954), are usually less than 3 m deep and have water that is
distinctively brown in color.
Dissolved oxygen is probably the most important parameter in all these
waters. Sater (1971) states that the oxygen content of fresh waters in the
Arctic is usually high due to the constant mixing that ensures oxygen satura-
tion during the summer, while the small amount of organic material that has
been deposited and the low temperatures may prevent oxygen deficiency during
the winter. Recent studies (Schallock and Lotspeich, 1974) indicate, however,
that winter low dissolved oxygen concentrations do occur in rivers. Observa-
tions of dead fish on lake beaches in early spring leads to the conclusion
that winter kill occurs in lakes.
PREVIOUS LIMN0L0GICAL WORK
The first limnological work in Alaska was carried out by Firge and Rich
(1927) on Karluk Lake in response to concern about a declining salmon fishery
on Kodiak Island. Early limnology in Canada was conducted by Johansen (1922)
on the crustaceans of arctic lakes and ponds. A need to investigate arctic
waters before development drastically changes the fragile environment was
stated by Reed (1953). Few studies had been conducted up to this time.
Impending industrial development of the Arctic focused attention on the area
and led to the realization that little information was available.
Much of the information that was subsequently collected centered around
the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of tundra ponds and
lakes. The origin and development of Alaskan ponds and lakes has been
discussed by Black et al. (1949), Carson, et al. (1962), Hutchinson (1957),
and Livingstone (1954 et al., 1958, 1963). General chemical characteristics
of lakes and occasional rivers have been reported by Boyd (1959), Hobbie
(1960), Livingstone et al. (1958), Moore (1949), and by Wells and Love (1957,
1958a, 1958b). Nutrient chemistry relationships have been presented by
Barsdate (1967), Dugdale (1965), Kalff (1968), Lomar (1966), and Livingstone
et al. (1958).
The fauna and flora of some aquatic systems have already been documented.
Aquatic vascular plants have been described in a compendium by Hulten (1940-
1950). Algae from several Alaskan and Canadian areas were discussed by
Hilliard (1959 et al., 1966), Prescott (1953, 1965a, 1965b), Taylor (1954),
14

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and Whelden (1947). Several detailed studies have described zooplankton found
in Alaskan ponds and lakes. Wilson (1953, 1965, 1966 et al., 1966) described
copepod populations and distributions. Sommerman (1953, 1958, 1961) described
and discussed the taxonomy of Simuliidae. Bousfield (1958) presented
Amphipoda of North America which contained some Canadian data. More detailed
life history studies were made on planktonic copepoda and cladocera by Comita
(1956) and Edmonson (1955) respectively. A limited number of life history
studies and distribution patterns of fishes in northern areas have been
published. Age, growth rate, mortality rate and metabolic rates of arctic
whitefish have been described by Cohen (1953) and Wohlschlag (1953, 1954,
1957). Growth, maturity and mortality of lake trout from Great Slave Lake
have been presented by Kennedy (1957). Taxonomy and general distribution of
fishes in northern areas have been discussed by McPhail et al. (1970),
Wilimovsky (1954, 1958), and Wynne-Edwards (1952). Recently, additional
information on North Slope fishes have been gathered but much of these data is
in tabular form. McCart et al. (1972) concluded a study on arctic char.
Several areas of the 1imnological ecosystem have virtually been totally
neglected. Only scattered physical and chemical data have been collected from
arctic rivers. Furthermore, little is known about the invertebrate biota of
these northern rivers. Algae and macrobenthic studies have not been
conducted. This study is intended to partially fill the gap in the limnology
of running waters.
15

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SECTION IV
PROJECT DESIGN AND OBJECTIVES
LOCATION OF THE SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER STUDY AREA
The Sagavanirktok (Sag) River basin is located in the eastern third of
the Alaska North Slope. Waters of the Sag River basin originate in the Philip
Smith and Endicott Mountains which range from an eastern longitudinal at
approximately 146151W to the western boundary at approximately lSO^OO'W. The
water travels at a distance of 400 km (250 mi.) over a latitudinal range from
6805'N to 7020'N and passes through all three physiographic provinces.
The Sagavanirktok River is fed by Galbraith Lake via the Atigun River and
by the Ribdon, Ivishak, and Lupine Rivers, and Accomplishment Creek, that
drain toward the west from the small glaciers in mountains rising to 7,500 ft.
Annual high surface discharge and high turbidity of the year usually appear
during the spring breakup in June, and with some variation due to rain, both
gradually decrease throughout the summer. However, Brewer (1958a) reports
that even after the snow has melted, light widespread rain can result in near
flood conditions because most water runs off rapidly to the river systems.
Minimal discharges of the year are recorded during winter (U.S. Geological
Survey, 1970). Ice cover usually forms in September and remains until May or
June, for a total of 240-260 days covered with ice (Anonymous, 1946).
The Canning River is approximately 125 km east of the Sagavanirktok River
main stem. The waters of the Canning River originate in the Shublik
Mountains, Franklin Mountains and Philip Smith Mountains some 175 km to the
south and flow virtually parallel to those of the Sag River. The Shaviok
River is located about midway between the Canning and Sagavanirktok Rivers.
The drainage basin of this river is narrow and considerably smaller than
either the Canning or the Sag because of the Accomplishment and Ivishak
tributaries of the Sag on the west, the Kavik River on the east, and the
headwaters of both the Canning and Sag Rivers which meet in the Phillip Smith
Mountains to the south of the Shaviovik. The majority of the Shaviovik is
located about equally in the Southern and Northern Foothills of the Arctic
Foothill Province.
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
This study was designed to establish baseline levels of biological,
chemical and physical parameters in the Sagavanirktok River and adjacent
streams, before more intensive industrial activities further alter the aquatic
environment. Ultimately this information may provide a basis for future
management decisions and for comparison with subsequent future studies.
16

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Data from the Sagavanirktok River are compared to those of the Canning
River which was chosen as the control of the investigation because the
pristine state of its drainage and waters permits a comparison to the somewhat
more inhabited Sagavanirktok River system. Also, the eastern drainages of the
Canning River are within the Arctic Wildlife Range which has prescribed
limitations on some of mans' modes of travel and endeavors; as a result of the
status of the encompasses lands should remain unchanged.
In addition to the Sagavanirktok River and Canning River, several other
streams and bodies of water were included in the study. The Shaviovik River
and four tributaries of the Sag River (Atigun, Ribdon, Lupine and Ivishak)
were sampled to examine differences that may be found between the larger
drainages, such as the Sag River, and smaller subdrainages. Three lakes--
Galbraith, Nora Fed No. 1 and Nora Fed No. 2, were selected to be studied
because of their location with the Sag River drainage and because these lakes
are of two different morphological types. Galbraith Lake is classified as
oligotrophic, as characterized by Sater (1963). Nora Fed Lakes No. 1 and No.
2 are thermokarst lakes, as described by Black and Barksdale (1949) and
Livingstone (1954).
AQUATIC BIOLOGY OBJECTIVES
The aquatic biology segment of the project focused on stream macrobenthos
and smaller efforts were directed to coliform bacteria, phytoplankton, lake
macrobenthos and piscifauna. Major taxons of the macrobenthic community were
enumerated and identified. Total coliform bacteria were sampled and enumer-
ated to identify any pathogen problems in the water. Phytoplankton were
collected and identified. Piscifauna were to be sampled and identified
whenever possible. Limited correlations are made between biological phenom-
enon and physical-chemical characteristics.
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL OBJECTIVES
The specific objectives of the chemical and physical segment of the study
were to examine those parameters essential to define the water quality in
these pristine waters and to relate them to primary production and nutrient
l'imitations affecting biological community dynamics. Of particular interest
in the arctic are the effects of the rigorous climate on the aquatic environ-
ment. More specifically these parameters were investigated: the relation-
ships between ground and surface water sources in summer and winter; the
effect of ice cover and temperature on dissolved oxygen and the relationship
between chemical water quality and biological populations. The latter is
extremely complex and little understood.
17

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SECTION V
METHODS
AQUATIC BIOLOGY METHODS
Field trips and collecting procedures were designed to sample inverte-
brate populations at different times of the year and thereby establish popula-
tion abundance and diversity within the year. As a result, two sampling trips
were taken: one in June immediately after the crest of the spring runoff,
hopefully before insect emergence; and the second trip in late August to
sample when emergence had virtually ceased. A total of 13 stations along the
Sagavanirktok River, 4 stations on the tributaries, 4 stations on the
Shaviovik River and 3 stations along the Canning River were sampled to examine
changes along reaches of the rivers and to compare the biota of several rivers
(Table 1).
The macrobenthic community was given the highest priority because members
of this group are relatively immobile, although not sessile, which makes this
community the most probable recipients of effects of pollution. Special
emphasis was placed on enumerating and identifying five groupsPlecoptera,
Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (primarily Chironomidae), and Annelida.
With the exception of Annelida, these were usually identified to genus. Other
organisms found in the macrobenthos samples were generally identified to the
family taxon. Most macrobenthic taxonomic determinations were made on
immature forms which leads to problems since the most definitive keys are
based on adult organisms. As a result of this/factor and additional work that
will be done, it is anticipated that changes will be made in this list of
organisms.
Microbiology, phytoplankton and fisheries received less effort because of
a combination of personnel and funding limitations. Sanitary microbiology
consisted of testing for fecal and total coliform bacteria; algology entailed
collecting phytoplanktori, principally Bacillariophyceae; and wherever
possible, fishery biology involved collecting, enumerating and identifying the
endemic fishes.
When examining the macrobenthos, three quantitative Surber samples were
collected from representative substrate at each station. It is recognized
that the number of Surber samples needed to obtain high confidence levels, as
discussed by Needham and Usinger (1956), is significantly greater than three.
However, time and cost limited the sample number to three which Cutter and
Noble (1966) concluded is adequate to describe numbers and composition.
Composite qualitative samples were collected by sampling the different ecolog-
ical niches with a triangular shaped dipnet. All samples were f-ixed at the
field station using approximately 1G percent formaldehyde.
18

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TABLE 1. L06A?I0N$ 0E SAMPLING SAf?0N IN THE SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER STUBY
(1969-1970)
Station
Sagavanirktok River
Channel Below BP 31-11-16	East	S-100
West	S-200
Channel Above Toolik Fed #1	East	S-300
West	S-400
Franklin Bluffs	S-500
Below Nora Fed #1	S-600
Below Ivishak Confluence	S-700
Below Sagwon	S-800
Above Sagwon '	S-900
Below Ribdon Confluence	S-1000
Above Ribdon Confluence	S-1100
Below Atigun Confluence	S-1200
Above Atigun Confluence	S-1300
Atigun River
Below Galbraith Lake	A-100
Above Galbraith Lake	A-200
Ribdon River
Above Confluence with Sagavanirktok River	R-100
Ivishak River
Above Confluence with Sagavanirktok River	I-100
Shaviovik River
Approximately 10-20 Miles Below Well	SH-100
Approximately 2 Miles Below Well	SH-200
continued...
19

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TABLE 1 (continued)
Directly Above Well Airstrip
Upper Station Above Well, West Side of
Shaviovik River
Canning River
Near Mouth
Above Delta
Red Hill Area; Oil Field on West Side,
Wildlife Range on East Side
Galbraith Lake
Approximately 100 Yards into Lake from
Western Inlet
Approximately 100 Yards Upstream from
Confluence with Atigun River
Nora Fed #1
Lake Area, Northeast Side Near End of Airstrip
Nora Fed #2
SH-300
SH-400
CA-100
CA-200
CA-300
Depth
0 Meters
Outlet
0 Meters
Lake Area, Off South Bank
0 Meters
20

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Once the samples were returned to the base field camp at Sagwon, the
organisms were separated from the associated debris by utilization of the
flotation method developed by Anderson (1959). Simultaneously, organisms were
sorted into classes, placed in vials and preserved in Hood's solution for
future taxonomic work to be performed at EPA's Arctic Environmental Research
Laboratory (AERL). At AERL, this taxonomic endeavor consisted of identifying
specimens to genus although some groups or Diptera were identified to family,
while annelids and miscellaneous groups were identified to class.
Free-floating plankton were quantitatively collected by sampling for
exactly 5 minutes with a Wisconsin plankton tow in similar water velocities.
These samples were immediately flushed out of the bucket into widemouth
babyfood jars and fixed with 10 percent formaldehyde solution. Once fixed,
the samples were retained until subsequent cleaning and mounting on slides at
the laboratory. Representative samples were identified.
Microbiological samplings and subsequent analyses were conducted while in
the field and according the Standard Methods (A.P.H.A., 1971). All micro-
biological sampling utilized grab techniqes and sterilized 200 mm containers.
While in the field, these containers were immediately placed in insulated
boxes and refrigerated with ice until handling and analysis at the base camp
field station. At camp, samples were filtered utilizing standard membrane
filtering techniques. The filters containing the filterable organisms were
then places on agar growth media and allowed to incubate for 24 hours at 35C.
The plates were then counted and the results recorded.
Piscifauna populations were examined using both qualitative and quanti-
tative techniques. The quantitative measures included personal and angler
observations of the relative number, size, type of fish and location.
Occasionally rod and line sampling was used to demonstrate that fish were
present. Quantitative sampling consisted of 125-feet variable mesh experi-
mental monofilament gill net. For each gill net set, these data were
recorded: the length of time that the net was fishing; the number, type and
size of captured fish. All specimens were frozen at the base camp for later
examination at the AERL facilities.
CHEMISTRY METHODS
Samples collected for chemical analysis were all surface grab samples
from well-mixed areas. In those areas of stream confluence where complete
mixing was questioned, the stream was traversed with a field conductivity
meter and continuously monitored to note any anomalies.
Samples collected for dissolved oxygen determinations were fixed with
alkaline-iodine-azide solution and manganous sulfate in 300 ml standard BOD
bottles immediately after being taken. They were returned to the field
laboratory at Sagwon where the determination was completed using the azide
modification of the Winkler Method (A.P.H.A., 1971).
Conductivity was measured in the field with a bridge-type meter and pipet
cell; values were internally corrected to 259C.
21

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The pH was measured using a null balancing field meter with standard
glass measuring and fiber junction electrodes. Temperature was measured with
a mercury-in-glass thermometer previously calibrated against a National Bureau
of Standards thermometer.
Samples for later analysis at the Arctic Environmental Research Labora-
tory were collected in acid washed polyethylene containers. Samples for
nutrient analysis were frozen to -20C soon after collection, and were stored
at this temperature until analyses were performed. Samples for metal analyses
were preserved by addition of 10 ml/1 hydrochloric acid. Those analyzed for
nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and orthophosphate were filtered through a membrane
filter prior to freezing. Methods of analysis were FWPCA Interim Official
Methods (1969).
22

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SECTION VI
AQUATIC BIOLOGY
MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY ALONG SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER MAIN STEM
The macrobenthic community of the Sag River was usually numerically
dominated by one of the following groups: Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera,
Trichoptera, Diptera (Chironomidae) and Annelida. At any particular station,
the importance of each of these groups may change but these five taxons of
unequal rank usually accounted for the majority of the total numbers and
occasionally the observed biomass at any particular station. Biomass gener-
ally follow the total number pattern although occasionally a small number of
comparatively large organisms such as Tipulidae or Cottidae, may account for
the biomass dominance while another group may be numerically important.
The members of these taxa are important because they contribute substan-
tially to the diet of grayling (Schallock, 1965a; Wojcik, 1953) and other
fishes. Although data on Alaskan char and whitefish are not available, it is
probable that these fishes feed on these organisms since Nilsson (1960)
reports the char and whitefish found in northern Sweden utilize them as food.
Plecoptera
The class Plecoptera, stoneflies, is represented by three families:
Nemouridae, Perlodidae, and Chloroperlidae (Table 2 and Table 3). Perlodidae
contains three genera, Arcynopteryx s, Isoperla sp, and Isogenus sp;
Chloroperlidae has two genera, A1loperla sg and Hastaperla sg. Nemouridae is
represented by Nemoura sp, Capnia sp, Isocapnia s, Brachytera sp, and
Eucapnopsis s.
During early summer, June and July, these families or genera were not
uniformily distributed along the entire reach of the river. The family
Nemouridae was widely distributed and generally most abundant at any partic-
ular station. Of the five genera in Nemouridae, Capnia s and Nemoura s were
the most abundant and were distributed over the entire reach of the river.
Occasional specimens were collected at S-100, so some tolerance to increased
salinities, although perhaps temporary, is possible. Invertebrate drift may
also explain this distribution. The remaining three genera, Brachyptera,
Isocapnia and Eucapnopsis were less abundant and more narrowly distributed in
a belt from Franklin Bluff south to above Sagwon.
Perlodiadae were widely distributed although not necessarily the most
numerous; this taxa has been found from S-100 near the mouth of the river, to
S-1300 in the Brooks Range. From this family, Arcynopteryx and Isogenus have
been collected at S-100 and apparently tolerate the salt water that probably
23

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TABLE 2. QUALITATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA FROM 13 STATIONS ON THE SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER, JUNE 1969
ORGANISM	Station Numbers
I add
Family
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
PLECOPTERA













Perlodidae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
-
X
Chloroperlidae
-
-
-
X
-
- 
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
Nemouridae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
-
X
EPHEMEROPTERA













Baetidae
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Heptagenidae
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
-
X
Siphlonuridae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
Ephemerel1idae

-
-
-

-


- 
-
-
-
-
TRICHOPTERA













Brachycnetridae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Limnephi 1 idae









-
-
X
-
DIPTERA













Chironomidae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Tipulidae
-
-
X
-
X
-
-
-
X
X
X
-
X
Simuliidae
-
-
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Ceratopogonidae
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
Brachycera













(suborder)
X
X
X
X
X
X


-
X

-
X
ANNELIDA
-
X
X
X
-
-
-
X
-
X
X
-
X

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TABLE 3. QUALITATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA FROM 13 STATIONS ON THE SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER, AUGUST 1969
ORGANISM Station Numbers
Class			r
Family	1300	1200	1100	1000	900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100
PLECOPTERA
Perlodidae	X	X	X	X	XXXX-.XX-X
Chloroperl idae	-	-	-	-	_________
Nemouridae	X	X	X	X	XXXXX-X - X
EPHEMEROPTERA
Baetidae	X	X	X	X	XXXXXXXXX
Heptagenidae	X	-	X	X	XXXX XXX -X
Siphlonuridae	X	X	-	X	XXXXX-XXX
Ephemerel 1 idae	-	X	X	X	XXXXX----
TRICHOPTERA
Brachycnetridae	X	X	X	-	- -- -- X- -X
Limnephi 1 idae	X	X	X	X	X--X----X
DIPTERA
Chironomidae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Tipulidae
-
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
-
X
-
-
X
Simuli idae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
-
-
Ceratopogonidae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Brachycera













(suborder)


X
X




X

X
X
X
ANNELIDA
X
X
-
X
X
X
-
X
-
X
-
-
X

-------
intrudes under some conditions from the Beaufort Sea. Isogenus was contin-
uously distributed from the coast to the Brooks Range but Arcynopteryx was
found only to the Foothill Province south of Sagwon. Isoperla was the least
abundant and was found from Sagwon to the Brooks Range, thereby overlapping
the distribution of Arcynopteryx and Isogenus.
The family Chloroperlidae was the least abundant of the three families.
Its two genera, Alloperla S and Hastaperla S, were found only in a belt from
Franklin Bluffs, S-500, south to Ribdon River area, S-1000.
The distribution and diversity of the stonefly community changes during
the summer. At the family level of taxonomy, the June and August distribution
of Perlodidae appears similar but the August distribution was primarily due to
Isogenus because both Arcynopteryx and Isoperla were not found at that time.
Chloroperlidae also was not collected during August but Nemouridae and the
four contained genera maintained a similar distribution pattern throughout the
sampling periods although slightly more abundant in the habitat of the
Foothill Province and Brooks Range Province.
Plecoptera Summary
Plecoptera fauna was represented by three families and nine genera.
Nemouridae was, with four genera, the most important family and was usually
numerically dominant although Perlodidae occasionally dominated the observed
biomass.
Three genera, Capnia, Nemoura (Nemouridae) and Isogenus (Perlodidae) were
found in increasing numbers from the Beaufort Sea to the Brooks Range. These
and Arcynopteryx (Perlodidae) may possess some tolerance to the summer salt
water intrusion near the coast. The remaining six genera were found in
smaller numbers and had more restricted distributions with four genera found
only in a Foothill Province belt from Franklin Bluffs to south of Sagwon.
Ephemeroptera
The class Ephemeroptera, mayflies, is represented by four families,
Baetidae, Heptagenidae, Siphlonuridae, and Ephemerellidae (Tables 2 and 3).
Baetidae consisted of four genera, Baetis sp, Centroptilum s, Pseudocleon sg,
and Apobaetis s. - Heptagenidae also contained four genera, Cinygmula s,
Rithrogena s, Epeorus s, and Cinygma s. Siphlonuridae contained Ameletus
s, and Siphlonurus sp and Ephemerellidae was represented by Ephemerella sj>.
During June and July, three families (Baetidae, Heptagenidae,
Siphlonuridae) were widely distributed but represented by small numbers of
individuals and not all of the genera. Within Baetidae, the numerically
dominant genus, Baetic, was found from S-100 to S-1000, Centroptilum was
generally distributed continuously south of the Ivishak River (S-700); and
Pseudocleon and Apobaetis were sporadically located along the entire Sag
River. Heptagenidae was widely distributed and represented continously by
Cinygmula, represented rarely by Cinylma, while Rithrogena and Epeorus were
not found. Of the two genera of Siphlonuridae, Ameletus was widely distrib-
26

-------
uted south of Franklin Bluffs and Siphlonurus was rarely encountered.
Ephemerellidae was entirely absent from the macrobenthic community at that
time.
The distribution and diversity of the Ephemroptera fauna changed during
the summer. By late August and early September, the diversity and distribu-
tion of Ephemeroptera had increased to three families, Baetidae, Heptagenidae,
and Siphlonuridae which were distributed from the Beaufort Sea to the Brooks
Range and in addition Ephemerellidae was found south from Franklin Bluffs.
Baetidae was represented at each station by Baetis; Centroptilum was less
abundant; and Pseudocleon and Apobaetis were rarely encountered. Cinygmula
was the principal mmber of Heptagenidae with Epeorus and Rithrogena less
abundant and sporadically distributed. The distribution of Siphlonuridae,
mainly Ameletus expanded to north of Franklin Bluffs. Ephemerellidae,
Ephemerella, was found south from Franklin Bluffs to the Brooks Range.
Ephemeroptera Summary
Ephemeroptera was represented by four families and eleven genera. Early
summer Ephemeroptera fauna was dominated by Baetis (Baetidae), Cinygmula
(Heptagenidae), and Ameletus (Siphlonuridae). By late summer, the diversity
and distribution generally had increased although some genera that were found
earlier were not encountered. Baetis, Cinygmula, and Ameletus were still the
dominant genera. A genera and family that had been absent earlier,
Ephemerella (Ephemerellidae) was also present.
Trichoptera
The Trichoptera, caddisfly, fauna of the Sag River was relatively sparse
both in numbers and diversity. Two families, Brachycentridae and
Limnephillidae, contained three genera that were generally sporadically
distributed (Tables 2 and 3).
During June and July, only Drusinus S of the family Limnephilidae was
found and then only at S-200. However, both the diversity and distribution of
caddisflies increased somewhat by late summer. Although sporadically
distributed, Drusinus s populations were found along the entire river by
August. The second genus within Limnephilidae, Raema s was found contin-
uously from Sagwon south to the mountains. The only genus within
Brachycentridae, Brachycentrus s was discontinuously distributed from the
Coastal Plains Province to the Brooks Range Province.
Trichoptera Summary
Trichoptera, represented by two families and three genera, were sparse in
both diversity and numbers. In early summer, only Drusinus (Limnephilidae)
was sporadically found, but in late summer, another Limnephilid, Radema, and
one Brachycentrid, Brachycentrus, were found but each was also sporadically
distributed.
27

-------
Diptera
Within the order Diptera, a total of 11 taxons, 10 families and 1
suborder have been collected from the Sag River. Five of these taxons
dominated the Diptera fauna and sometimes dominated the total collection of
all aquatic invertebrate forms. These five, the suborder Brachycera, and the
families Tipulidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, and Chironomidae have been
tabulated in Tables 2 and 3.
Some member of the order was found at all stations throughout the summer
but the distribution of individual groups generally changed somewhat during
the summer. Chironomidae was ubiquitously distributed along the entire river
during both June and August and at times was the numerically dominant
organism. On rare occasions Chironomidae also dominated the observed biomass.
A total of 14 species or subspecies have been identified at this time and are
listed in a subsequent section. Additional taxonomic efforts will cause
changes in this list. The suborder Brachycera was found at most stations in
both early and Tate summer. Ceratopogonidae was collected only occasionally
during June but was found continuously in August. The distribution of
Tipulidae did not change during the summer season but the frequency of
occurrence was greater during August. The most dramatic increase was found in
Simuliidae. In June, Simuliidae was collected only near Sagwon, but in August
the family was found along the entire river with the exception of the two
stations at the mouth.
Diptera Summary
Diptera fauna is represented by ten families and one suborder. The most
important family is the Chironomidae which at times niay numerically dominate
the sample. All groups could generally be collected at any station but
Tipulidae, Ceratpogonidae, and Brachycera were collected sporadically.
Simuliidae was collected at two stations in June but in August was found all
along the river except near the mouth.
Annelida
The order Annelida was ubiquitous in the Sag River drainage. This group
includes the freshwater and nonparasitic forms. At times hard to find, at
other times readily collected, annelids may represent a significant percentage
of the observed biomass of a particular sample and are included for this
reason. These organisms were sporadically collected along the entire reach of
the Sag River but were generally not abundant.
Macrobenthic Community Diversity and Quantitative Patterns
The benthic macroinvertebrate data collected prompts several generaliza-
tions about the diversity and quantitative patterns exhibited by the aquatic
biota of the Sagavanirktok River.
Both the number of organisms per square foot and the number of genera per
sample station appeared to increase from the mouth (Stations S-100 and S-200)
to the headwaters (Station S-1300). The smallest number of organisms was
28

-------
found at Station S-200, near the mouth of the river on the western edge of the
braided area. The largest number of organisms (somewhat of an anomaly and due
to an atypical number of Chironomidae appeared at Station S-100 which is also
near the mouth of the river but on the eastern limit of the braiding and in an
area that was relatively undisturbed. Upstream from these two stations near
the mouth, the biota generally increase both in number of organisms per square
foot and number of genera present. At Station S-1300 on the Sagavanirktok
River upstream from the confluence with Atigun River, the total number of
organisms and total genera present are approximately five times that of
Station S-200. The upper reaches of the Sagavanirktok River, therefore,
appears to be significantly more productive.
Numbers of organisms found in June and August were compared. June
quantitative sampling consistently and sometimes drastically had more organ-
isms than the August set. Occasionally stations such as S-100, S-400 and
S-1100 showed significant divergences from that trend. While the divergences
may be large, they may not be indicative of the true situation because of
their relatively wide divergence from the trend demonstrated by adjacent
stations. Each of these instances are due to numbers of Chironomidae.
Numbers of genera at each station were also compared for June and August.
Although the June set had more organisms in the quantitative samples, the
August set derived from qualitative samples consistently contained more
genera. The differences ranged from only slight increases to a factor of
several times. This comparison is significant because, in examining a benthic
community, it indicates that bias could easily be introduced into the sample.
It is important to pick the proper sampling station as well as the appropriate
time of year if the quantitative and qualitative sampling procedures are to be
representative and qualitative sampling procedures are to be representative of
the benthic biota. In those instances where the organisms was identified to
taxons other than genera (i.e., family, order), the assumption was made that
only one genus was present. Obviously, additional determinations will result
in higher diversity and conceivably an even higher ratio when comparing the
upper reaches of the river to those hear the mouth.
SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER TRIBUTARIES MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY
Plecoptera
Three families of Plecoptera, Nemouridae, Perlodidae, and Chloroperlidae
were found in the Ribdon, Lupine and Lvishak Rivers during June but at that
time only Nemouridae was found in the Atigun River (Table 4). The distribu-
tion in August was somewhat different; Chloroperlidae were absent, Perlodidae
and Nemouridae were generally found in the tributaries although the latter
family was not found in the Ribdon River (Table 5).
Ephemeroptera
Four families of Ephemeroptera were found in some tributaries although
only three were collected in the Sagavanirktok River mainstem. The additional
family, Ephemerel1idae was found in the Lupine and lvishak Rivers (Tables 4
and 5). The most widely distributed abundant families were Baetidae and
29

-------
TABLE 4. QUALITATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA FROM 12 SAMPLE STATIONS ON 6 RIVERS AND CREEKS IN THE SAGAVANIRKTOK
RIVER STUDY, JUNE 1969
Drainage and Station Number








Atigun
Ribdon
Lupine
p
Ivishak
ORGANISM
Canning River

Shaviovik
River

River
River
River
River
f* I a c c












1/ Idsb












Family
300
200
100
400
300
200
100
200
100
100
100
100
PLECOPTERA












Perlodidae
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
X
X
Chloroperlidae
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
X
X
Nemouridae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
EPHEMEROPTERA












Baetidae
-
-
-
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
-
Heptagenidae
X
X
X
X
X

X
-
X
X
X
X
Siphlonuridae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
X
X
Ephemerel1idae
-
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
-
-
X

TRICHOPTERA












Limoephilidae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
DIPTERA












Chi ronomidae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
Tipulidae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
Simuli idae
-
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
-
Ceratopogoni dae
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
Brachytera












(suborder)

-


X
X
X



X
X
ANNELIDA
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-------
TABLE 5. QUALITATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA FROM 13 SAMPLE STATIONS ON 6 RIVERS AND CREEKS IN THE SAGAVANIRKTOK
RIVER STUDY, AUGUST 1969
Drainage and Station Number
Atigun	Ribdon	Lupine	Ivishak
ORGANISM Canning River Shaviovik River River	River	River	River
Class			 	 					 	
Family 40Q 300 200 100 400 300 200 100 200 100	100 100	100
PLECOPTERA
Perlodidae	X
Chloroperlidae
Nemouridae	X
EPHEMEROPTERA
Baetidae	X
Heptagenidae	X
Siphlonuridae
Ephemerel1idae
TRICHOPTERA
Limnephi1idae
DIPTERA
Chironomidae	X
Tipulidae
Simuliidae	X
Ceratopogonidae X
Brachytera
(suborder)
ANNELIDA	X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-------
Heptagenidae, although Heptagenidae was not found in Atigun River during
August. Siphlonuridae was collected from all but Atigun during June but was
absent from all but Ivishak in August.
Trichoptera
The Trichoptera populations of the tributaries were small, restricted in
distribution and limited to the family Limnephi1idae (Tables 4 and 5). This
family was found only in the Atigun River during June and in the Ivishak River
during August.
Diptera
The total number of Diptera groups generally increased in all tributaries
except the Lupine River during the June to August interval (Tables 4 and 5).
This pattern was similar to that of the Sag River. On an individual family
basis, some patterns were observed. Chironomidae and Tipulidae were consis-
tently found in all tributaries except Tipulidae which was absent from the
Ribdon River in June. Simuliidae was collected from all tributaries except
the Ribdon in June and all but the Lupine in August. Geratopogonidae was
present in all streams but Ivishak in June and only in Atigun and Ivishak in
August; Brachycera was located in Lupine and Ivishak in June and in Atigun and
Lupine in August. Over both sample periods, all tributaries appeared to
support substantial numbers and diversity of Diptera.
Annelida
Annelidae was ubiquitously distributed in all tributaries in both sample
intervals just as in the Sag River (Tables 4 and 5). The only exception was
the Atigun River where annelida was found during June but not during August.
CANNING RIVER MACROBENTHIG COMMUNITY
The distribution patterns of specific groups within the macrobenthic
community of the Canning River were similar to those patterns already
described in the Sagavanirktok River Section (Tables 4 and 5). Because these
patterns have already been discussed, only the differences between the
Sagavanirktok River patterns and those in the Canning River will be presented.
Plecoptera
Within the class Plecoptera, only Chioroperlidae show relatively
different distribution patterns. This family was more abundant and more
widely distributed than in the Sagavanirktok River. In the Sagavanirktok
River, the family was confined to the Foothills Province but in the Canning
River it was. found in the Coastal Plain Province and the Foothill Province.
Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera
The fauna of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera were less diverse in the
Canning River than the Sag River. Two families of Ephemeroptera, Baetidae and
Heltagenidae, were found in Canning while four families were found in the Sag
32

-------
River. Trichoptera was limited to one family, Brachycentridae, and one genus,
Brachycentrus, that was found only from the station with the highest elevation
at the southernmost location (400).
Diptera
Diptera were represented by four families, the ubiquitous Chironomidae,
the seasonally important Tigulidae and Ceratopogonidae and the sporadically
distributed Simuliidae. Chironomidae generally dominated the Diptera group
from a numerical point of view and occasionally dominated the observed biomass
as well.
Annelida
Annelida was usually not abundant but generally found in all samples.
SHAVIQVIK RIVER MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY
The macrobenthos of the Chaviovik River (Tables 4 and 5) was slightly
different from the Sagavanirktok River macrobenthos.
Plecoptera
Within Plecoptera, Nemouridae was widely distributed and the most
abundant. Chloroperlidae, although found in Sag and Canning Rivers during
June, was absent from the collections in both June and August. Perlodidae was
absent from the June collection but was found in the August set.
Ephemeroptera
Ephemeroptera was well represented in the Shaviovik River with both
Baetidae and Heptagenidae widely distributed in both collection intervals.
Ephemerellidae, previously collected from only the Lupine and Ivishak Rivers,
was found at the lower two stations in June and August, but was absent from
the upper two stations. Siphlonuridae was not found in this water course.
Trichoptera
Trichoptera was not found in the Shaviovik River.
Diptera
The five groups of Diptera were well represented in the Shaviovik River
(Tables 4 and 5). During June, all stations except S-400 contained all five
groups and only Brachycera was missing from the community at S-400. During
August, the lower three stations generally harbored Chironomidae, Tipulidae,
and Simuliidae. In addition to the above three families, station S-400 also
harbored Ceratopogonidae and Brachycera, and was the only station on this
river to do so in August.
33

-------
Annelida
Annelida was found at all four stations during June but was collected
from only the middle stations during August.
GALBRAITH AND NORA FED LAKES MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY
Galbraith Lake and the two tundra lakes, Nora Fed 1 and Nora Fed 2, have
significantly different morphology. Galbraith Lake is at an elevation of 802
m in the Brooks Range, is nearly 8 km long, about 1.5 km wide, a maximum of
approximately 12 m deep, and is generally a good example of an oligotrophic
lake. It has two clear water tributaries, an outlet, and generally has
slightly turbid bluish water.
By contrast, the Nora Fed Lakes are located at an elevation of slightly
more than 120 m in the Foothill Province, and are somewhat eliptical in shape,
about 1.5 km across and no more than 3 m deep. They have no distinct inlet,
an outlet that flows only at high water stage, and contain brownish tainted
water with relatively high color and some turbidity.
Qualitative samples were collected from all three lakes during both June
and August (Table 6). The biota found in these lakes were substantially
different from those found in lotic habitats. Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, and
Diptera were found in the lakes and rivers but it can be generalized that
these groups were less abundant and also showed less diversity in lake
systems.
Trichoptera
Trichoptera was found in larger numbers, greater diversity than in
streams, and in some habitats, dominated the community. Of the three
families, Rhyacophilidae, Brachycentridae and Limnephilidae, only the latter
was commonly found in all the lakes, although the August sample from Galbraith
did not contain Limnephilidae. At times, large numbers of this family were
observed crawling on the bottoms of small tundra pools and larger lakes. The
next most abundant family was Brachycentridae, which was found in Nora Fed No.
2 during June and Galbraith during August. Rhyacophilidae was collected from
only Nora Fed No. 1 during June.
Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera
Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera populations were substantially less abundant
and showed less diversity in lakes than in river systems. Nemouridae was
found in all lakes during both sampling periods and was the most important
stonefly. Small numbers of Perlodidae were found only in Galbraith during
both sampling periods. Only Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) was collected from lakes
and then only in small numbers from Galbraith in June.
34

-------
TABLE 6. QUALITATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA FROM 3 LAKE SYSTEMS IN THE SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER STUDY, JUNE AND
AUGUST 1969
ORGANISM
Class
Family
Galbraith
Lake
June
Nora Fed #1
Nora Fed #2
Galbraith
Lake
August
Nora Fed #1
Nora Fed #2
PLECOPTERA
Perlodidae
Nemouridae
EPHEMEROPTERA
Baetidae
DIPTERA
Chi ronomidae
Tipulidae
Simuli idae
Ceratopogonidae
TRICHOPTERA
Limnephi1idae
Brachycentri dae
Rhyacophilidae
ANNELIDA
AMPHIPODA
COLEOPTERA
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-------
Diptera
Diptera were generally the most abundant organisms and were represented
by four families. Chironomidae were ubiquitous regardless of season.
Certatopogonidae were found in all the lakes but were absent from the August
sample. Simuliidae was found in Galbraith and Nora Fed No. 1 Lakes only
during June.
Anne!ida
Small numbers of annelida were consistently found in all lakes during
June but the group was not found in August.
Amphipoda and Coleoptera
Amphipoda and Coleoptera were two groups that were found only in lakes.
Amphipoda was abundant in the two tundra lakes during June but was not
collected during August. The class Coleoptera was consistently found in all
three lakes during June but had disappeared by the August sample interval.
Miscellaneous other groups occasionally collected only in the lakes included
Mollusca, Cladocera, and Copepoda.
LIST OF INVERTEBRATES COLLECTED FROM ALL LAKES AND STREAMS
The summary of invertebrates collected from all stations (Table 7)
includes a wide variety of organisms. The list is dominated by four orders of
insects: Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Diptera, which have been
discussed earlier.
Miscellaneous Groups
Other numerically less important groups include: Nematoda, Turbellaria,
Arachnida, Mollusca, Cladocera, Collembolla, Copepoda, Anostraca and
Nematomorpha. Complete taxonomy of these later groups was impossible because
of manpower and funding limitations. While the list is far from complete, it
is a significant advancement of knowledge of aquatic biology of the lakes and
rivers in Alaskan arctic regions. It is anticipated that subsequent investi-
gations may discover a group which is relatively neglected at this time may
become singularly important and that changes in this list will be made.
The miscellaneous groups listed in Table 7 generally are not important
numerically or significant from a biomass point of view. However, since the
objective of this study was to determine baseline conditions, some effort has
been expended in this category.
Groups were encountered with varying frequency; i.e., Collembola were
widely distributed while others such as Copepoda were rarely found. Some of
the organisms were terrestrial forms that entered the aquatic sample by acci-
dent. For example, Arachnida and semi-aquatic Collemboda were incidentally
collected. These may be important because organisms that accidently enter the
water may comprise a large percentage of the total sample and may become
36

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TABLE 7. INVERTEBRATES COLLECTED FROM THE SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER STUDY, 1969
Plecoptera
Perlodidae
Arcynopteryx s.
Isogenus sp.
Isoperla S.
Chloroperlidae
Alloperla S.
Hastaperta sp.
Nemouridae
Nemoura s.
Capnia s.
Isocapnia s.
Brachyptera sg.
Eucapnopsis sp.
Trichoptera
Limnephilidae
Drusinus S.
Limnephlius sp.
Radema s.
Brachycentridae
Brachycentrus sjj.
Rhyacophilidae
Ephemeroptera
Siphlonuridae
Ameletus sj).
Siphlonurus sp.
Heptageniidae
Cinyqmula sjg.
Epeorus sp.
Iron, Ironopsis
Cinygma sj3. (1)
Rithrogena sp.
Baetidae
Baeti s sg.
Centroptilum sp.
Apobaeti s s.
Pseudoeleon s.
Ephemerel1idae
Ephemerel!a' s.
Metretopus sj3.
Diptera
Chironomidae
Chironominae
Chironomus sp.
Stictochironomus s.
Tanytarus sg.
Orthocladi inae
BriIlia sp.
Corynoneura s.
Cricotopus sp.
Spaniotoma S.
Nanocladius sg.
OrthocladTus s.
Psectrocladius sp.
Smittia s.
Trichochladius S.
Diamesinae
Diamesa S.
Prodiamesa s.
T anypodinae
Procladius s.
Pentaneura sp.
Annelida
Miscellaneous Diptera
Simuliidae
Tipulidae
Tabanidae
Empididae
Ceratopogonidae
Psychodidae
Dixidae
Culicidae
Sciaridae
Brachycera
Coleoptera
Dyti scidae
Hydraenidae
Carabidae
Staphylinidae
Acari
Nematoda
Turbellaria
Arachnida
Mollusca
Cladocera
Copepods
Anostraca
Nematomorpha
37

-------
important food items to fish. Schallock (1965a) recorded Alaskan grayling
feeding extensively on terrestrial insects (Pentatomidae) that had fallen into
the water.
Several members of this list were widely distributed with a few organisms
present at most stations but not at others. Acari, several families of
Diptera, and free living Nematoda, are the notables in this instance. Members
of several families of Coleoptera (Dytiscidae, Hydraenidae, Haliplidae,
Carabidae, and Staphylinidae) were collected from both streams and lakes with
the latter environemnt having more diversified Coleoptera fauna.
Two other groups, Amphipoda and Trichoptera, were found primarily in
lakes although occasional Trichoptera were collected in the upper
Sagavanirktok River. Cladocera and Copepoda were closely associated with
Galbraith Lake and the outlet stream that transports some of these lake-
frequenting organisms into the Atigun River.
BACILLARIOPHYCEAE (DIATOMS) FROM RIVERS IN THE SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER STUDY
Diatoms that have been collected and identified from aquatic environments
from the Sag River and Alaskan North Slope in the vicinity of the Canning
River are presented in Table 8. These determinations were made by Dr. Ruth
Patrick and affiliated taxonomists of the Academy of Natural Sciences.
SANITARY MICROBIOLOGY FROM RIVERS
Sanitary microbiology consisted of identifying the baseline levels of
total coliform bacteria that existed in the Sag River, its tributaries and the
Canning and Shaviovik Rivers. These bacteria were to be used as indicators to
predict the suitability of water for particular uses; i.e., presence of
significant numbers of these organisms would indicate a strong possibility
that pathogenic organisms would also be present and would then preclude use of
this water without treatment for certain purposes such as drinking.
A total of 81 samples were collected from 27 stations on the Sag River,
its tributaries, and the Canning and Shaviovik Rivers. Analyses of these
samples revealed that low numbers (less than 5/100 ml) of total coliform
bacteria were found in virtually all of the rivers. Only samples from the
station on the Ivishak River and the stations immediately above and below the
Sagavanirktok River confluence with the Ivishak contained substantial numbers
of total coliform bacteria (as many as 227). During the entire study, these
were the only samples having counts of this magnitude. Samples were subse-
quently taken from the same vicinity but these results were then similar to
results from other areas. Further elaboration on impact of resource develop-
ment on water quality in the Sag River may be obtained from Schallock, 1976.
Identification of some total coliform bacteria has been done by Kaska, 1976.
Based on these results, it has been concluded that the waters of the
Sagavanirktok River, its tributaries, and the Canning and Shaviovik Rivers
were generally acceptable from sanitary bacteriology aspects. Therefore, at
38

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TABLE 8. DIATOMS IDENTIFIED FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE. ALASKA SPECIES LIST
Anchnanthes clevei v. rostrata Hust.
Cyclotella antigua W. Sm.
elliptica v. pungens Cl.-Eul.
comensis Grun.
exiqua v. heterovalvata Krass.
compta (Ehr.) Kutz.
flexella (Kutz.) Brun.
kuetzingiana Thw.
fragilaroides Boye Peterson
meneghiniana Kutz.
lacunicola Patr. and Freese
ocellata Pant.
laceolata (Breb.) Grun.
pseudostel1igera Hust.
lanceolata v. dubia Grun.

lemmermanni Hust.
Cymatopleura solea (Breb. and
linearis (W. Sm.) Grun.
Godeey) W. Sm.
minutissima Kutz.

pinnata Hust.
Cymbella affinis Kutz.
subhudsonis v. Kraeusellii Choln.
amphicephala Naeg.
thienemanni Hust.
broenlundensis Foged
sp. 1. (AL)
cuspidata Kutz.

lapponica Grun.
Actinoptychus undulata (Bail.) Ralfs.
latens Krasske

microcephala Grun.
Amphipleura pellucida (Kutz.) Kutz.
naviculiformis Auersw.

ex. Heib.
Amphora alaskana Patr. and Freese
obtusa Greg.
cymbelloides Grun
parva (W. Sm.) CI.
oval is (Kutz.) Kutz.
perpusilla A. CI.
ovalis v. pediculus (Kutz.) V.H.
semigibbosa Patr. & Freese
submontana Hust.
similis Krasske

sinuata Greg.
Anomoeonesis serians (Breb. ex Kutz.) CI.
stauroneiformis Lagerst.
serians v. thermal is Grun.
tumida (Breb.) V. H.
vitrea (Grun.) Ross
tumidula Grun.
zelensis (Grun.) CI.
turgida Greg.

turgida v. barrwiana Patr. and
Astrionella formosa Hassal.
Freese

turgidula Grun.
Caloneiss bacillum (Grun.) CI.
ventricosa Ag.
fasciata (Larerst.) CI.
ventricosa v.
schumanniana (Grun.) CT.
groenlandica Foged
silicula v. truncatula (Grun.) CI.
sp. 1 (AL)

sp. 2 (AL)
Ceratoneiss arcus v. linearis Holmboe

arcus v. recta CI.
Denticula tenuis Kutz.
Cocconeiss disculus (Schum.) CI.
Diatoma hiemale (Roth) Heib.
placentula v. euglypta (Ehr.) CI.
hiemale v. mesodon (Ehr.) Grun.

tenue v. elongatum Lyngb.
Coscinodiscus lineatus Ehr.


Diatomella balfourina Grev.
continued ...
39

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TABLE 8 (continued)
Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye)
M. Schmidt
Diploneis elliptica (Kutz.) CI.
oblongella (Naeg. ex Kutz.) Ross
oculata (Breb.) CI.
puella (Schum.) CI.
Epithemia sorex Kutz.
turgida (Ehr.) Kutz.
zebra (Ehr.) Kutz.
Eunotia curvata (Kutz.) Lagerst.
major (W. Sm.) Rabh.
paludosa Grun.
pectinalis (0. F. Muell.) Rabh.
pectinalis v. minor (Kutz.) Grun.
praerupta Ehr.
praerupta v. inflata Grun.
speudopectinail's Hust.
septentrional is 0str.
tenella (Grun.) Hust.
triodon Ehr.
Fragilaria bicapitata A. Mayer
construens v. venter (Ehr.) Hust.
crotonensis Kitton
leptostauron (Eph.) Hust.
pinnata Ehr.
pinnata var. 1 (AL)
undata v. quadrata Hust.
vaucheriae (Kutz.) Peters.
Frustulia vulgaris (Thw.) DeT.
Gomphonema acuminatum Ehr.
angustatum v. producta Grun.
constrictum v. capitatum (Ehr.) V. H.
gracile (Ehr.) V. H.
intricatum v. minor Skv.
lagerheimii A. CI.
longiceps v. subclavatua Grun.
longiceps v. montana fo. minuta Skv.
olivaceoides v. lanceolata Manguin
parvulum Kutz.
Gyrosigma attenuatum (Kutz) Rabenh.
spencerii (W. Sm.) CI.
Hannaea arcus (Ehr.) Patr.
arcus v. amphioxys (Rabh.) Patr.
Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehr.) Grun.
Melosira distans (Ehr.) Kutz.
italica (Ehr.) Kutz.
italica v. tenuissima (Grun.)
0. Mull,
granulata (Ehr.) Ralfs.
sulcata fo. radiata Grun.
Meridion circulare (Grev.) Ag.
Navicula anglica Ralfs.
bacilliformis Grun.
bacillum Ehr.
capitata Ehr.
capitata v. hungarica (Grun.)
Ross
cincta (Ehr.) Ralfs.
citrus Krasske
dementis Grun.
cocconeiformis Greg, ex Greg,
comoides (Ag?) Perag.
contenta Grun.
contenta fo. biceps (Arn.) V. H.
cryptocephala Kutz.
cryptocephala v. veneta (Kutz.)
Hust.
crucicula v. alaskana Patr. and
Freese
cuspidata (Kutz.) Kutz.
decussis 0 str.
disjuncta Hust.
elginensis (Greg.) Ralfs.
explanata Hust.
fritschii Lund,
gibulla CI.
gottlandica Grun.
gregaria Donk.
hungarica v. artica Patr. and
Freese
importuna Hust.
jarenfeltii Hust.
lacuna Patr. and Freese
lagerstedtii CI.
lanceolata (Ag.) Kutz.
40
continued.

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TABLE 8 (continued)
lapidosa Krasske
Nitzschia amphibia Grun.
menisculus Schumann
bacata Hust.
minima Grun.
capitellata Hust
minima v. atomoides (Grun.) CI.
clausii Hantz.
minuscla Grun.
confinis Hust.
mural is Grun.
diserta Hust.
mutica Kutz.
dissipata (Kutz.) Grun.
mutica v. cohnii (Hilse) Grun.
filiformis (W. Sm.) Hust.
obsidialis Hust.
fonticola Grun.
palaearctica Hust.
frustulum (Kutz.) Grun.
paucivisitata Patr.
frustulum v. perminuta Grun.
pelliculosa (Breb. ex Kutz.)
gracilis Hantz.
protracta (Grun.)
grandersheimiensis Krasske ex
pseudoscutiformis Hust.
Hust.
pseudosiliculoides Foged
hungarica Grun.
pup!a Kutz.
kuetzingiana v. exilis Grun.
pupla v. mutata (Krasske) Hust.
lacuna Patr. and Freese
pupula v. rectangularis (Greg.) Grun.
linearis (Ag.) W. Sm.
pupula v. rostarata Hust.
palea (Kutz.) W. Sm.
pygmaea Kutz.
sigma (Kutz.) W. Sm.
radiosa Kutz.
sp. 1 (AL)
rhyncocephala Kutz.
subtil is Kutz.
rotaeana (Rabh.) Grun.

salinarum Grun.
Oestrupia zachariasi (Reich.)
salinarum v. intermedia (Grun.) CI.
Hust.
salsa Patr. and Freese

seminulum Grun.
Opephora martyii Herib.
soehrensis v. septentrional is Hust.

stromii Hust.
Pinnularia abauiensis v.
subhamulata Grun.
subundulata (A. Mayer ex Hust.)
tripunctata v. schizonemoides (V. H.)
Patr.
Patr.
anceps v. americana Reim.
ventral is Krasske
balfouriana Grun.
viridula (Kutz.) Kutz.
biceps Greg.
viridula v. linearis Hust.
boreal is Ehr.
wigginsiana Patr. and Freese
divergentissma (Grun.) CI.
sp. 1 (AL)
gibba (Ehr.) W. Sm.
sp. 3 (AL)
gracilliama Greg.

intermedia (Lagerst.) CI.
Neidium affine (Ehr.) Pfitz.
interrupta W. Sm.
alpinum Hust.
interrupta fo. minutissma Hust.
apiculatum Reim.
major (Kutz.) CI.
binode (Ehr.) Hust.
mesolepta (Ehr.) W. Sm.
bisulcatum (Lagerst.) CI.
microstauron (Ehr.) CI.
bisulcatum v. nipponicum skv.
molaris (Grun.) CI.
iridis (Ehr.) CI.
obscura Krasske
sp. 1 (AL)
parva var. mi nut 0str.
conti nued ...
41

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TABLE 8 (continued)
sublinearis (Grun.) Gl.
tenuiraphe Patr. and Freese
Pseudo-nitzschia sicula v.
migrans Gl.
Rhopalodia gibba (Ehr.) 0. Mull.
Rhaphoeis amphiceros Ehr.
Rhoicosphenia curvata (Kutz.)
Grun.
Stauroneis anceps Ehr.
anceps fo. gracilis Rabh.
attenuirostris Patr. and Freese
barrowiana Patr. and Freese
barrowiana Patr. and Freese
ignorata Hust.
lapponica Hust.
parvula Janisch
smithii Grun.
Stephanodiscus astraea (Ehr.) Grun.
Surirella angusta Kutz.
margaretiana Patr. and Freese
ovata Kutz.
ovata v. pinnata (W. Sm.)
tenera v. nervosa A. Mayer
terryi v. arctica Patr.
and Freese
This list contains 44 genera and numerous species and variations.
Diatoms were ubiquitously distributed, at times luxuriantly abundant in some
area, while scarcely detectable in others. With this wide distribution and
long species list, diatoms are well represented in arctic aquatic environ-
ments.
42

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the time of the study, the waters of these drainages were suitable for the
highest human uses, which are classified "A" according to the State of Alaska
Water Quality Standards.
PISCIFAUNA
Sagavanirktok River drainages and adjacent watersheds such as Canning and
Shaviovik Rivers, contain populations of grayling, arctic char, lake trout and
pike. All are desirable sport fish and each has a unique and pleasing flavor.
Whitefish are also found in these watersheds and are good eating although not
readily obtained by anglers. Nine-spine sticklback, slimy sculpin, and ling
cod are of little direct importance to either the commercial or sport fishing
industry. They may, however, be important in the intra-specific relationships
such as predators or prey species and thereby affect the more important sport
or commercial fishes.
The piscifauna data presented in Tables 9 and 10 were collected at
stations where physical, chemical and other biological data were collected.
The sampling schedule was based primarily on sampling macrobenthic organisms,
thereby preventing the collection of additional data at these and other
stations.
The common names and scientific nams of fishes that were collected or
observed in the Saganirktok River and adjacent drainages are listed in Table
11.
Gray!i ng
Grayling, Thymllus arcticus, was observed in large lakes, streams and
rivers from the Canning River system west to the Sagavanirktok River
drainages. These fish did not appear to be uniformly distributed along
flowing water systems but rather appeared to concentrate in specific reaches
of a river and even furthermore congregated in deep holes. The number of
adult and subadult grayling found in deep holes and specific reaches of rivers
appeared low when compared to interior Alaskan rivers such as the Chatanika.
Except for short periods of increased turbidity due to spates, grayling
were generally available to anglers throughout the open water period from
spring breakup to fall freezeup. Creek census and angler interviews revealed
that fishermen catches averaged near 30 cm (Tables 9 and 1Q). Interior
Alaskan fish this size are generally mature and part of the spawning segment
of the population (Schallock, 1965a). However, the virtual absence of young-
of-the-year and 1+ and 2+ age groups suggests that the adults may spawn only
in specific reaches of in other streams. Spawning in one stream and rearing
of young-of-the-year in that stream before migration to another stream has
been recorded from interior streams by Schallock (1965b).
Suggested low population levels, average large size of fish appearing in
angler creels, and limited numbers of immature fish are often characteristic
of populations that have not been heavily harvested and have accumulated
numbers of large fish. These large fish are easy to harvest because of
tendencies to congregate in limited areas where anglers readily catch them.
43

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TABLE 9. PISCIFAUNA DATA. SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER BASIN
Location
Date
# Hours in Set
C1251 Experimental
Monofilament Gill Net)

Fish
Size
(cm-Fork
Length)
Sex
Galbraith Lake






North Inles Area
27 June 1969
13 hours

Round Whitefish
15.3
u*




Round Whitefish
15.7
U




Round Whitefish
16.0
U




Round Whitefish
23.7
M*




Lake Trout
31.7
U




Lake Trout
37.8
U




Lake Trout
42.3
U
Galbraith Lake






South Inlet Area
27 June 1969
5 hours

Srayling
34-?
M
Galbriath Lake
22 Aug. 1969
14 houcs
!
Round Whitefish
34.6
F*



2

33.0
F



3

28.0
M



4

27.2
M



5

23.4
M



6

22.4
M



7

15.7
U



8

15.0
U




Grayling
9.9
-



1
Lake Trout
59.0
M



2

77.5
M



3

47.1
U




Arctic Char
41.1
F
* These symbols are: U - Sex unknown
M - Male
F - Female

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TABLE 10. PISCIFAUNA ANGLING AND OBSERVATIONS
Location
Date
# Hours
In Sample
Fish
Size
Sex
Remarks
Atigun Creek (near
Galbraith Lake
Lupine River
Kaderoshilik River
21 Aug. 69
21 Aug. 69
Ivishak River
Franklin Bluff
Area
Sagavanirktok Mouth
Canning River
14 Aug. 1969
Numerous
Occasions
June and
July
June and
August
August
Angler obs.
Rod & line
(1 hr + 20 min)
(1 hr + 20 min)
Rod & line
l*s hr
Angling
Rod & line
Rod & line
Observed
Grayling
Arctic Char
2 Arctic Char
(released)
Grayli ng
(released)
Arctic Char
Arctic Char
& Grayling
Arctic Char
Grayling
Stickleback
and Sculpin
35-40 cm	--
59.2	F
30-40 cm	U
25-30 cm
40-50 cm	2M
35-40 cm
30-40 observed in one
pool
Gravid
Taken in one pool by
two anglers
Numerous sightings of
aircraft landing in
this area for angling
Angler reports of good
catches of char in the
period
Several grayling
captured and released.
Anglers reported char
but none were posi-
tively identified or
collected.
Both these fish were
collected in this
drai nage.
continued

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TABLE 10 (continued)
# Hours
Location	Date	In Sample	Fish	Size Sex	Remarks
Kuparuk River
June, July
August
""
~~ -
Anglers report good
catches of large gray-
ling in clear water.
Nora Fed Lakes (15
mi. north Sagwon
June
Dip Net
Stickleback
Found in small numbers
Shaviovik River
Juniper Creek Area
June
Observed
30-38 cm
Many fish in the 30-38
cm range were seen
from the air but none
were collected or
closely observed.
Unnamed Tundra
Lakes
August
Observed
30-60 cm
Several fish from the
30-cm range were
observed swimming in
the lake.

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TABLE 11. PISCIFAUNA. SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER AND ADJACENT DRAINAGES
Common Name
Grayling
Lake Trout
Arctic Char
Pike
Round Whitefish
Ling Cod
Slimy Sculpin
Nine Spine Stickleback
Scientific Name
Thymal1 us arcticus
Salvelinus namaycush
Salvelinus alpinus
Esox lucius
Prosopium cyli ndraceum
Lota lota
Cottus cognatus
Pungitus pungitis
Extensive harvesting of this segment of the population may drastically reduce
the spawning population and reproductive potential. The tendency of adults to
congregate in specific reaches of rivers, spawning in specific areas and the
utilization of segments of systems for rearing of young-of-the-year causes
concern that some streams or specific reaches of a stream are critical to fish
populations and therefore may need protection by regulation.
Arctic Char
Arctic char, Salvel inus alpinus, are widely distributed in Alaska's North
Slope and are usually found in larger drainages such as the Colvilie,
Sagavanirktok and Canning Rivers. Adult arctic char exhibit strong upstream
migratory movements during the summer and early autumn. Char are available to
anglers at the mouth of the Sagavanirktok River in June but angler success in
that area diminishes in July when the fish reach the Foothill Province area
and become available to anglers in deep holes found in the Sagavanirktok River
and some of its tributaries in this general area. Ivishak and Lupine Rivers
harbored char caught by anglers and investigators. Char exhibiting definite
upstream migration behavior were observed at Sagwon in mid-Ausut. The fish
apparently are distributed throughout the Sagavanirktok River drainage in the
Foothill Province and some are still moving upstream in mid-August.
Char were also collected by test net in Galbraith Lake. It is not known
whether the fish that were collected had migrated up the Sagavanirktok River
and negotiated the Atigun canyon by mid-August or whether the fish were a
member of a resident population of char that frequent the waters of Galbraith
Lake throughout the year. McCart and Craig (1971) feel that char in Galbraith
and other nearby lakes are separate non-migratory populations while those fish
that were found in the Sagavanirktok River, Ivishak, Ribdon, Accomplishment
and Section Creeks are anadromous.
47

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Arctic char too are vulnerable to anglers. The most difficult element in
catching char is finding the fish but once this obstacle is overcome, angler
success is high. At times angling success may be limited by turbid water but
in general the water is clear during the summer.
Although data are limited, the char of the Canning River apparently
adhere to similar time tables in their migration up the Canning River. It is
conceivable that the populations of different streams mix while in the marine
or estuarine environment. Apparently, the char utilize specific areas of
streams for spawning and for rearing. If this is true, it would be exception-
ally dangerous to over-exploit or harvest the fish that frequent a spawning
area or nursery stream. Young char, approximately 10 cm long, have been
collected from the Sagavanirktok River indicating reproduction in this system.
Lake Trout
Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are generally found in the deeper lakes
such as Galbraith, Itkillik and Elusive but not in shallow tundra lakes on the
Coastal Plain. Limited gill net sampling in Galbraith Lake revealed a popula-
tion with a distribution skewed toward older individuals, also suggesting that
this lake harbored a relatively unharvested population.
Pike
Northern pike, Esox lucius, are usually found in the deepest of the
brownish water tundra lakes located in the Coastal Plain Province. These
lakes are of thermokarst origin and usually are less than 3 m deep which, when
combined with environmental features may cause, along with other problems,
dissolved oxygen depression during winter. Some pike populations in the
Coastal Plain Province are subjected to lethal conditions, since pike
sikeletons were observed on an unnamed lake beach while the ice was melting
from the lakes.
Whitefish
Whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum, were found in both lakes and streams.
These fish are not directly important as a sport fish but are utilized in a
commercial fishery on the Colvilie River. However, it is doubtful that this
fish is abundant enough in the Sagavanirktok River drainages to support a
commercial fishery. This species, however, may be an important food fish for
other predatory fish. They may also compete for food organisms.
Management Implications
Specific aspects of fish behavior and life history when combined with
certain features of the arctic environment are causing some concern in fishery
management agencies. Each behavior trait or environmental factor may be
insignificant when considered individually but when all the different facets
are collectively evaluated, the total picture may be considerably different
and more significant than anticipated.
48

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One of these features of the arctic aquatic environment is limited
discharge during winter. This characteristic has a direct impact on lentic
and lotic systems. Lakes and stream courses may have small amounts of water
circulating through the system. As a result, many lakes and some reaches of
rivers may be considered closed systems, at least during winter.
Thus, fish such as grayling, char, lake trout, pike and whitefish that
inhabit lakes or certain reaches of rivers may be vulnerable to any pollutant
until it is degraded or dissipated. This situation is different from and more
prolonged than the summer scence when pollutants are more readily diluted,
more rapidly degraded or in some instances transported away from a specific
area by a stream system. As a result, lower concentrations or small disturb-
ances may have deleterious effects. In instances where an effluent, such as
sewage waste, is continually added to a lake, any effect may be accumulative
and much more insidious and less obvious than death.
Another feature of the arctic aquatic environment is the severely
depressed dissolved oxygen concentrations that have been found in some water
systems. This factor and the low discharge characteristic have been discussed
as the areas in which problems will most likely develop in streams. Small
amounts of water with low dissolved oxygen concentrations suggest that small
amounts of effluent with oxygen demand or with any toxic component may be
harmful to the indigenous biota. Although these organisms frequent streams,
the biota often are confined to specific reaches of the system because of
reduced discharge and the ice and snow cover that prevails over virtually all
stream surfaces and often extends from bank to bank and to, or nearly to, the
stream bottom. In addition to confinement, the organisms may be stressed in
the natural situation by low dissolved oxygen (as low as 1.1 mg/1) as well as
by other water quality parameters that change substantially during winter.
The dissolved oxygen and the surface discharge factors, when combined
with the tendencies of fish to inhabit specific reaches of rivers for certain
segments of their life cycle, cause an environmental and biological setting to
which small changes or additions have high potential for significant harm to
fishery populations.
INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AQUATIC BIOTA AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT
The interaction between the physical and chemical environment and the
biological communities is an extremely complex relationship. The number of
factors that contribute to the total environmental scene is large and the
number of combinations in which the different factors can interrelate is
virtually infinite.
The primary objective of this study was to establish baseline conditions
and, secondly, to discuss some of the factors that may affect the numbers and
distribution of the indigenous aquatic organisms. This cause-effect
discussion can only be superficial because of the complexity of the topic and
because of the primary scope of the project. The approach that will be used
is how the production of an aquatic biological community, group of organisms,
or in some instances a specific organism, may be affected by a single of
collection of physical and/or chemical parameter(s).
49

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Those biological groups included in this discussion are Bacilliario-
phyceae (diatoms), Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera and the
fishes. The physical and chemical parameters to b addressed are water temper-
ature, surface discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, nitrogen
forms, phosphate forms and silica.
Primary productivity in these arctic stream systems is achieved by
Bacillariophyceae and by filamentous algae in restricted reaches of some
systems. Several factors affect the annual production of this group.
Certainly the long winter season with accompanying low water temperatures, low
discharge, low light incidence, and ice and snow cover restrict the areas and
the time in which production can occur. During the summer, primary produc-
tion, while not limited by the same factors that are present during the
winter, is limited by some factor(s). Among these factors are turbidity,
color and fixed suspended solids which combine to reduce light penetration
during spring breakup and summer spates. During the intervals of summer when
the water is clear, other factors such as water temperature and light
intensity may be less- than optimal and while photosynthesis is occurring it
may not be proceeding at the maximum rate. Other factors such as the availa-
bility of the nitrogen forms, phosphate, silica, and micronutrients may limit
production.
The second group of organisms to be discussed is the benthic community.
This assemblage is comprised almost entirely of aquatic insects although other
non-insects are commonly and rightfully placed in this category. This diverse
group includes organisms with different life histories and different require-
ments. For these reasons, it is difficult to make generalizations that cover
all situations. However, some general statements will be made which future
studies will substantiate or in some instances disprove.
. In the previous section, it is noted that primary productivity is gener-
ally restricted to diatoms that are generally widely distributed but not
abundant. This paucity of primary productivity and the small amount of
allochthonos material that is added to the water is probably the principal
reason for the recorded numbers and the observed biomass of the macrobenthic
community. Those organisms that derive energy from either allochthonous
sources or from grazing on the primary producers may be found in low numbers.
Consequently, the carnivorous invertebrates would also be present in low
numbers.
Water temperature and temperature patterns may affect the kinds, numbers,
and distribution of macroinvertebrates. The long winter period with water
temperatures near 0C may in itself be limiting. The relatively short summer
with higher, but still considerably cooler water temperatures than those found
in Interior Alaska and in more temperate climates may also be limiting.
Furthermore, in the Sag River, the warmest water temperatures were usually
found in the Foothill Province. Thus, the rate of development probably would
proceed at the fastest rate in this reach of the river.
Several other factors that occur during winter may affect the diversity,
numbers and distribution of macroinvertebrates. Winter surface discharge is
only a small fraction of the discharge may cease. Cessation of flow combined
50

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with other environmental features has several ramifications. Reaches of the
river may be dewatered; dissolved oxygen concentrations may be severely
depressed; pH may become more acidic; and concentrations of many cations and
anions generally increase to concentrations much higher than those recorded
during summer. Any one or combination of these factors may adversely affect
an organism or group of organisms and thereby alter the entire community.
Several fish populations have been identified in the Sag and other river
systems on the North Slope. The generalization made here will apply to the
anadromous or migratory fish such as arctic char, arctic grayling and the
round whitefish.
Several factors already discussed in the primary productivity and macro-
benthic sections also may affect the diversity, numbers and distribution of
life stages of fishes. Surface discharge is probably one of the most signif-
icant factors affecting the winter distribution, and conceivably the summer
distribution, of the young-of-the-year, immature, and adult stages of popula-
tions of fish. Tendencies to congregate near spring areas in rivers have been
observed. Thus, specific reaches of systems can be extremely important to the
survival of that population. However, both grayling and char are known to
overwinter in pool areas of the Sag River in the Coastal Province although no
spring areas have been identified in these reaches of the river.
Other conditions during winter may limit fish populations. Dissolved
oxygen has been shown to be severely depressed in some reaches of the Sag
'River. Concentrations as low as 1.1 mg/1 have been documented and have high
potential for 1imiting populations. High concentrations of cations and anions
may also contribute to the critical winter season that is felt by many fishery
and aquatic biologists to be the critical period for aquatic populations.
The distribution of different developmental stages of fish may be influ-
enced by the abundance and diversity of the macrobenthic community which
generally increases when proceeding south from the Coastal Province through
the Foothill Province and then into the Mountain Province. Availability of
food and the preference for certain food items can be extremely important
factors during the summer when the majority of growth is found in fishes,
especially in the young-of-the-year and immature stages.
51

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SECTION VI
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER
Occasional efforts have been made to describe the physical and chemical
properties of flowing waters in arctic Alaska. Arnborg, et al. (1966, 1967)
discuss the discharge and suspended sediment load in the Colville River.
Brown, et al. (1962) describe mineral content of small seeps and streams and
relate these characteristics to geological features of the area. Other
information has been limited to casual reference made to individual properties
of arctic stream systems by investigators primarily interested in other
disciplines. No concentrated effort has been made to study the physical and
chemical properties of an arctic river. It is the intent of this segment of
the study to provide information to partially fill this need.
Water Temperature
Water temperature at any given time is the net effect of many factors
operating simultaneously to warm and cool the water mass. Initially, the
temperature is established by the primary water source such as snow-melt,
rain, and subterranean springs. Once in the stream system, the usually cool
headwaters are warmed by air, sun or conduction from the ground (Haynes,
1970). However, it is doubtful that conduction has an appreciable warming
effect on arctic rivers; it is more probable that ground temperatures have a
cooling effect, particularly during the summer. Downstream warming has been
described by Schmitz and Volkert (1959) and Eckel (1953) as roughly propor-
tional to the logarithm of the distance from the source. Warming may be
retarded by increased discharge (Dorris et al., 1963), by snow melt-water
(Sheridan, 1961), and evaporation. At times, auf eis is an important
contributor to melt-water and to cooling.
Love (1965) states that air temperatures directly influence both seasonal
and daily water temperatures. Ricker (1935) reports that solar radiation is
more important than air temperatures to warming water during the summer but a
minimal influence during the winter when solar radiation is virtually absent
for extended periods of time and when ice and snow act as insulation slowing
the penetration of cold from ambient air patterns.
These and other interrelated factors cause two characteristic seasonal
extremes in the annual temperature regime of arctic rivers. The winter
regime, which is the longest, most dominant and the least studied, begins in
September, ends in April or May, and is characterized by relatively stable
water temperatures hovering near or at 0C (32F). Concurrent conditions with
these temperatures are virtual total ice and snow cover with large accumulated
52

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masses of auf eis in some areas and substantially smaller discharges that
sometimes flow through and between strata of ice or in the alluvium. Other
features are low incident or absent solar radiation for extended periods of
time, substantial increases of some and decreases in other dissolved
substances. The other extreme is found during the warm season and includes
comparatively warm air temperatures and long periods of low incident solar
radiation, rapidly fluctuating discharge, and somewhat lower concentrations of
most dissolved substances.
The water temperatures in the Sagavanirktok River basin ranged from 3.9C
(39.0F) to 12C (53.6F) in the June sample period and from 1.3C (34.3F) to
6.7C (44.8F) in the August sampling interval. These data reveal a general
increase in water temperatures from the Mountain Province (S-1300) to the
Foothills Province near Sagwon (S-700) about 112 km (70 mi.) inland, but a
decrease from this area toward the coast. This is probably due to the dense
fog banks commonly found along the arctic coast. Sater et al. (1971) report
that coastal areas experience fog more than 100 days per year, most frequently
in summer. It should be noted that the above temperature data were collected
on clear days when flying was not impeded by these fog banks. Therefore, the
reach of the river traversing the Coastal Plain Province is probably even
cooler when the area is covered by fog.
Air temperature data collected during June show drastically higher
temperatures than those collected in August. The water temperatures reflect
the higher June air temperatures although air temperatures are rapidly
responsive to short-term localized and transitory conditions such as cloud
cover.
Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolved oxygen (D.0.) concentrations ranged from 1.1 mg/1 during April
to 13.3 mg/1 during August. The drastically depleted D.0. concentrations (8
percent saturation) found during April (1.1 mg/1) are characteristic of a
winter phenomenon recently described in several Alaskan rivers (Schallock and
Lotspeich, 1974). This severe depression of dissolved oxygen is usually most
critical in the lower reaches of rivers and was documented in small and medium
sized rivers such is the Chatanika or Chena and also in large rivers such as
the Yukon where winter dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 10.5 mg/1
at the Canadian Border to 1.1 mg/1 near the mouth. Dissolved oxygen was
reasonably higher in August (12.0 to 13.3 mg/1) than in June (9.9 to 12.6
mg/1) when water temperatures were higher. Dissolved oxygen concentrations
during summer were consistently high.
Surface Discharge
Patterns of surface discharge and suspended sediment load of the Colville
River have been published by Arnborg et al. (1966, 1967). As much as 43
percent of the annual runoff and most of the accumulated ice and snow may be
discharged in a three-week interval at "breakup". He further states that
discharge ceases during winter and generally reaches a maximum during breakup.
In the Sagavanirktok River, it is accepted that breakup is usually the maximum
discharge but some controversy exists about whether discharge ceases entirely
53

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during the winter because open water has been observed flowing in specific
reaches of the river such as the confluence of the Lupine River and
Sagavanirktok River. U.S. Geological Survey personnel took discharge measure-
ments in April at station $-700 located about 32 km (20 mi.) downstream from
the mouth of the Lupine River but were not able to detect a measurable
discharge. One explanation is that the river flow may be contained in the
alluvium in certain reaches of the river.
Discharge measurements from 8 stations, collected by U.S. Geological
Survey in a 6-day interval in August and presented in Table 12, permit general
comparison of some tributaries to the Sagavanirktok River. It should be noted
that seasonal rainstorms cause temporary, rapid and sometimes large variation
in discharge. This characteristic is caused by localized rain storms, under-
lying continuous permafrost, limited thaw zones beneath water collection
areas, low air temperatures and limited transpirationall combining to cause
a large percentage of summer precipitation to be transported as runoff rather
than recharged into the groundwater system.
TABLE 12. DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS FOR STATIONS. SAGAVANIRKTOK RIVER BASIN
Station
Date
Discharge, cfs
A-200
08/21/69
111
Gal. Out.
08/21/69
39
F-100
08/19/69
182
S-1300
08/19/69
203
R-100
08/19/69
788
L-100
08/21/69
226
S-800
08/21/69
1990
1-100
08/17/69
2520
Tributaries contribute a wide range of volumes of water to the
Sagavanirktok River mainstem. The largest tributary, from a volume point of
view, is the Ivishak. Although this is a single measurement, it is probably
the most important single tributary. The next largest volume is contributed
by the Ribdon River. Galbraith Lake is a relatively small source but is
important to the flow in Atigun Canyon. Since all measurements were made
during August; it may be expected that substantially larger volumes would be
found in June and July but smaller volumes in winter.
Turbidity
Turbidity is caused by a variety of suspended inorganic and organic
materials such as clay, silt, plankton, or other microscopic organisms. In
most instances, turbidity is caused by a combination of these materials with
the importance of any one changing from time to time and place to place.
Generally, turbidity can be related to siltaceous material mixed with some
organic material.
54

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Data from stations in the Sagavanirktok River basin is presented in Table
13. Turbidity ranged from 64 Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU) in June 1969 to
the low of 4.3 JTU in August. The post-breakup data collected in June 1969
ranged from 21 to 64 and were generally significantly higher than the August
data. Arnborg (1966) reports that 60 percent of the total annual suspended
material was transported during the first 20 days of June, during breakup in
the Colvilie River. The samples collected from S-700 and S-800 during the
April ice-covered period showed unexpected high turbidity. It was expected
that turbidity of these stations would be similar to those recorded from S-200
during the same interval because discharges and water velocities during winter
are much lower than those of June and August and direct correlations have been
made between suspended materials and both water velocity and discharge. Also,
no runoff is occuring at this time. In general, turbidity data collected
during summer can be expected to be higher than data collected during winter.
It is possible that industry activities affected this and other parameters
since contractors operating out of Sagwon were utilizing the Sagavanirktok
River as a water source at this time.
TABLE 13. TURBIDITY DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Turbidity

Turbidity

Turbidity
Station
Date
JTU
Date
JTU
Date
JTU
S-1300
06/11/69
35
08/19/69
4.3
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
43
08/19/69
9.7
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
43
08/19/69
6.7
	
	
s-iooo
06/12/69
49
08/20/69
12.0
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
49
08/21/69
11.5
04/22/70
75
S-800
06/12/69
58
08/14/69
16.5
04/22/70
120
S-700
06/24/69
37
08/14/69
13.2
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
47
08/14/69
12.2
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
57
,08/14/69
14.5
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
61
08/14/69
8.2
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
62
08/14/69
10.2
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
51
08/14/69
21.5
05/25/70
4
S-100
06/13/69
42
08/14/69
1?. 5
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
50
08/21/69
18.0
04/21/70
12
A-100
06/11/69
47
08/19/69
9.5
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
64
08/19/69
7.8
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
14.0
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
22
08/18/69
10.0
04/21/70
34
Some tributaries contribute substantially to the turbidity of the
Sagavanirktok mainstem. For example, Atigun River consistently has higher
turbidity than the Sagavanirktok River station (S-1300) located immediately
upstream from the confluence of the two rivers and causes higher turbidity at
the next Sagavanirktok River station downstream. The Ribdon River exerts a
similar effect on the turbidity found at the station (S-1000) located down-
55

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stream from the confluence. The Ivishak River has an opposite and substantial
effect on turbidity at station S-700 by contributing a large volume of water
with consistently lower turbidity than that of the mainstem Sagavanirktok
River at station S-800.
Color
Color is defined as the "true" color of the water from which the
turbidity has been removed (Standard Methods, American Public Health Associa-
tion, 1965). The sources of color are often complex organic compounds with
components derived from iron, manganese, humus and peat substances, plankton,
aquatic macrophytes and plant material of terrestrial origin. No attempts
were made to identify the source of the substances adding color in this study.
Color data from 19 stations along the Sagavanirktok River, including 5
tributaries, are presented in Table 14. Color units ranged from 0 to 105 with
the lowest being found during August and April-May while significantly higher
numbers were recorded during June, shortly after the peak of breakup when much
of the river discharge originates from snow-melt, which travels some distance
through and over the tundra, and dissolves various substances before entering
the stream.
TABLE 14. COLOR DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Color

Color

Color
Station
Date
Units
Date
Units
Date
Units
S-1300
06/11/69
35
08/19/69
2
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
37
08/19/69
2
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
70
08/19/69
3
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
70
08/20/69
1
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
70
08/21/69
3
04/22/70
2
S-800
06/12/69
47
08/14/69
4
04/22/70
7
S-700
06/24/69
50
08/14/69
3
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
27
08/14/69
4
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
55
08/14/69
3
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
44
08/14/69
3
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
49
08/14/69
5
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
50
08/14/69
3
05/25/70
0
S-100
06/13/69
105
08/14/69
4
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
46
08/21/69
1
04/21/70
4
A-100
06/11/69
44
08/19/69
2
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
45
08/18/69
1
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
4
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
37
08/17/69
8
04/21/70
4
56

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Fixed Suspended Solids
Fixed suspended solids is defined as filterable inorganic material that
has been suspended in the water column. The turbulence and mixing action of
current, responsible for this suspension, changes with time and meteorological
conditions. Highest concentrations were found during the spring post breakup
conditions in June and considerably lower concentrations were found during the
lower water stage in August (Table 15). Fixed suspended solids in the
Sagavanirktok River ranged from 0 to 325 mg/1 and for any sample period were
consistently highest at stations located near the mouth.
TABLE 15. FIXED SUSPENDED SOLIDS IN SAG RIVER BASIN
Station
Date
Fixed
Suspended
Solids
mg/1
Date
F i xed
Suspended
Solids
mg/1
S1300
06/11/69
63
08/14/69
0
S-1200
06/12/69
93
08/19/69
8
S-1100
06/12/69
85
08/19/69
2
S-1000
06/12/69
113
08/20/69
8
S-900
06/12/69
103
08/21/69
8
S-800
06/12/69
183
08/14/69
30
S-700
06/24/69
45
08/14/69
10
S-600
06/24/69
54
08/14/69
10
S-500
06/13/69
119
08/14/69
23
S-400
06/13/69
325
08/14/69
12
S-300
06/13/69
295
08/14/69
12
S-200
06/13/69
115
08/14/69
44
S-100
06/13/69
108
08/14/69
14
A-200
06/11/69
219
08/21/69
4
A-100
06/11/69
76
08/19/69
16
R-100
06/11/69
131
08/19/69
8
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
8
1-100
06/24/69
18
08/17/69
5
Nitrogen Forms
Nitrogen is usually found as ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in aquatic
systems. All three are not equally abundant and are dependent upon a partic-
ular set of conditions and organisms before transformation from one form to
another is possible (Hutchinson, 1957). Ammonia and nitrate data are
presented in Table 16 and 17, respectively. Trace amounts (less than 0.01
mg/1) of nitrite were consistently found in all samples and therefore are not
presented.
57

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TABLE 16. AMMONIA DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Ammonia

Ammonia

Ammonia
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
0.04
08/19/69
0.05
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
0.04
08/19/69
0.03
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
0.04
08/19/69
0.03
	

S-1000
06/12/69
0.02
08/20/69
0.02
	

S-900
06/12/69
0.02
08/21/69
0.03
04/22/70
0.01
S-800
06/12/69
0.04
08/14/69
0.03
04/22/70
0.18
S-700
06/24/69
0.02
08/14/69
0.04
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
0.02
08/14/69
0.03
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
0.04
08/14/69
0.04
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
0.04
08/14/69
0.04
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
0.04
08/14/69
0.07
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
0.09
08/14/69
0.04
05/25/70
0.4
S-100
06/13/69
0.02
08/14/69
0.03
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
0.04
08/21/69
0.02
04/21/70
0.01
A-100
06/11/69
0.04
08/19/69
0.04
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
0.02
08/19/69
0.02
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
0.02
08/17/69
0.03
04/21/70
0.01
TABLE 17. NITRATE DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Nitrate

Nitrate

Nitrate
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
0.10
08/19/69
0.15
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
0.10
08/19/69
0.10
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
0.09
08/19/69
0.10
	
	
S-IOOO
06/12/69
0.08
08/20/69
0.07
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
0.07
08/21/69
0.09
04/22/70
0.09
S-800
06/12/69
0.08
08/14/69
0.10
04/22/70
0.76
S-700
06/24/69
0.11
08/14/69
0.09
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
0.11
08.14/69
0.09
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
0.09
08/14/69
0.09
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
0.08
08/14/69
0.10
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
0.08
08/14/69
0.12

	
S-200
06/13/69
0.07
08/14/69
0.10
05/25/70
0.48
S-100
06/13/69
0.05
08/14/69
0.09
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
0.11
08/21/69
0.10
04/21/70
0.06
A-100
06/11/69
0.09
08/19/69
0.09
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
0.07
08/19/69
0.07
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
0.09
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
0.10
08/17/69
0.06
04/21/70
0.13
58

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Concentrations of nitrate ranged from 0.05 to 0.76 mg/1. The highest
values (0.48 and 0.76 mg/1) were recorded during the April sample period
although other samples collected during April were within the 0.06 to 0.13
mg/1 range. Of those samples collected during June and August, the lowest
concentrations came from Galbraith Outlet (0.02 and 0.03 mg/1); most samples
ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 mg/1 with no obvious pattern. Occasionally higher
concentrations were found along the entire drainage.
Concentrations of ammonia ranged from 0.01 to 0.18 mg/1 with both
extremes found during the April sampling trip. Samples collected during both
the June and August trips revealed intermediate concentrations with the low
(0.01 mg/1) for each trip generally found in the Foothill Province and the
highs (0.07 and 0.09 mg/1) found near the mouth. Reaches of the Sagavanirktok
River below the confluence of the Ribdon and Ivishak Rivers generally
contained lower concentrations of ammonia than reaches above the respective
confluence.
Phosphorus
In nature phosphorus is generally found as orthophosphate and particulate
phosphate. The samples were analyzed as orthophosphate and total phosphate.
The ability of the phosphate ion to form complexes with many of the dissolved
compounds that are found in natural water and the affinity for phosphate by
aquatic organisms causes the concentrations of phosphate compounds in solution
to be relatively and consistently found in amounts less than 0.01 mg/1 and for
this reason have not been presented. Total phosphate (orthophosphate plus
particulate phosphate) ranged from 0.01 to 0.52 (Table 18). Concentrations of
total phosphate were slightly above 0.01 mg/1 in the headwaters but increased
to 0.035 and 0.05 mg/1 (June and August, respectively) near the mouth.
Samples collected during August and April from stations along the river were
low in concentrations of total phosphate (0.01 - 0.02 mg/1) although samples
from Galbraith Lake and near the mouth of the Sagavanirktok were often higher.
Si 1ica
Concentrations of silica ranged from 0.7 to 12.5 mg/1 (Table 19). The
highest concentrations were recorded from samples collected during April 1970
(3.6 mg/1 to 12.5 mg/1). Samples collected during the June and August
intervals along the entire river generally fluctuated slightly near 1.6 mg/1,
although wide departures were found. Tributaries, Atigun, Ribdon and Ivishak
may have had small localized effects in areas downstream from their respective
confluences with the Sagavanirktok River. Ivishak is above, Ribdon is near,
and Atigun is below, all compared to mainstem concentration.
Sodium and Potassium
Concentrations of sodium ranged from 0.32 to 90.0 mg/1 (Table 20). An
extremely high concentration of 90.0 mg/1 was analyzed from a sample collected
during April at station S-800 near Sagwon although other samples collected
during April were also high. Sodium concentrations from samples collected
during June ranged from 0.32 to 1.12 mg/1 while those collected during August
59

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TABLE 18. PHOSPHATE DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Total

Total

Total


Phosphate

Phosphate

Phosphate
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
0.01
08/19/69
0.01
-	
		
S-1200
06/12/69
0.01
08/19/69
0.02
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
0.01
08/19/69
0.01
	
	
S-IOOQ
06/12/69
0.02
08/20/69
0.00
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
0.02
08/21/69
0.01
04/22/70
0.01
S-800
06/12/69
0.02
08/14/69
0.02
04/22/70
0.01
S-700
06/24/69
0.01
08/14/69
0.01
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
0.01
06/14/69
0.02
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
0.03
08/14/69
0.02
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
0.02
08/14/69
0.02
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
0.03
08/14/69
0.07
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
0.04
08/14/69
0.03
05/25/70
	
S-100
06/13/69
0.04
08/14/69
0.03
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
0.01
08/21/69
0.01
04/21/70
0.01
A-100
06/11/69
0.01
08/19/69
0.02
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
0.01
08/19/69
0.00
	 .
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
0.00
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
0.02
08/17/69
0.01
	
	


TABLE 19. SILICA DATA FOR
SAG RIVER
BASIN




Silica

Si 1ica

Si 1ica
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
0.7
08/19/69
1.6
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
1.0
08/19/69
1.4
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
1.2
08/19/69
1.5
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
1.6
08/20/69
2.0

	
S-900
06/12/69
1.3
08/21/69
2.1
04/22/70
5.3
S-800
06/12/69
1.6
08/14/69
1.4
04/22/70
12.5
S-700
06/24/69
2.7
08/14/69
1.4
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
2.0
06/14/69
1.6
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
1.9
08/14/69
1.6
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
1.5
08/14/69
1.9
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
1.5
08/14/69
1.2
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
1.6
08/14/69
2.5
05/25/70
3.6
S-100
06/13/69
1.4
08/14/69
1.6
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
0.9
08/21/69
1.4
04/21/70
1.1
A-100
06/11/69
0.7
08/19/69
1.2
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
1.8
08/19/69
2.0
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
3.0
08/17/69
1.8
04/21/70
7.2
60

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TABLE 20. SODIUM DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Sodi urn

Sodium

Sodi um
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
0.66
08/19/69
0.41
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
0.67
08/19/69
1.41
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
0.53
08/19/69
1.15
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
0.41
08/20/69
0.51
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
0.46
08/21/69
0.77
04/22/70
2.82
S-800
06/12/69
0.45
08/14/69
0.62
04/22/70
90.0
S-700
06/24/69
0.40
08/14/69
0.64
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
0.40
08/14/69
0.66
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
0.45
08/14/69
0.56
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
0.45
08/14/69
0.37
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
0.51
08/14/69
0.64

	
S-200
06/13/69
0.53
08/14/69
0.57
05/25/70
	
S-100
06/13/69
1.12
08/14/69
0.41
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
0.53
08/21/69
0.83
04/21/70
0.83
A-100
06/11/69
0.53
08/19/69
0.83
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
0.32
08/19/69
0.32
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
0.67
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
0.48
08/17/69
0.53
04/21/70
1.18
ranged from 0.28 to 1.41 mg/1. The lowest concentrations for each interval
were found in Ribdon River and Galbraith outlet. August values at any station
were usually lower than those found in June at the same station.
Concentrations of potassium ranged from 0.13 to 1.97 mg/1 (Table 21). As
in sodium, the higher concentration of potassium was found during April at
staion S-800. In general, highest concentrations were found during April and
the lowest during August.
Calcium and Magnesium
Concentrations of calcium ranged from 11.7 to 295.0 mg/1 (Table 22). At
most stations, the highest concentrations were found during April. Samples
collected during August were higher than those collected during June. Also,
concentrations generally increased from the headwaters to the mouth.
Concentrations of magnesium ranged from a low 2.9 mg/1 in June 1969, to a
high of 48.0 mg/1 in April 1970 (Table 23). Data collected during June
revealed a range of concentration from 4.3 to 5.5 mg/1 with no apparent trend
from the headwaters toward the mouth. Concentrations from samples collected
during August were consistently higher than those collected from the same
stations in June, but concentrations gradually increased from the headwaters
to the mouth. Samples collected in April were consistently and substantially
more concentrated than those collected in either June or August.
61

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TABLE 21. POTASSIUM DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Potassium

Potassium

Potassi um
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
0.34
08/19/69
0.35
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
0.43
08/19/69
0.43
	

S-1100
06/12/69
0.45
08/19/69
0.35
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
0.31
08/20/69
0.20
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
0.36
08/21/69
0.27
04/22/70
0.70
S-800
06/12/69
0.49
08/14/69
0.29
04/22/70
1.97
S-700
06/24/69
0.18
08/14/69
0.20

	
S-600
06/24/69
0.24
08/14/69
0.19
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
0.35
08/14/69
0.20
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
0.44
08/14/69
0.20
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
0.50
08/14/69
0.20
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
0.55
08/14/69
0.28
05/25/70
	
S-100
06/13/69
0.73
08/14/69
0.24
		
	
A-200
06/11/69
0.45
08/21/69
0.43
04/21/70
0.51
A-100
06/11/69
0.49
08/19/69
0.41
	
	
L-100

	
08/21/69
0.13
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
0.29
08/19/69
0.16
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
0.17
08/17/69
0.14
04/21/70
0.32
TABLE 22. CALCIUM DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Calcium

Calcium

Calcium
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
11.6
08/19/69
16.1
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
14.8
08/19/69
20.2
	
	
s-noo
06/12/69
19.2
08/19/69
24.1
	
	
s-iooo
06/12/69
30.0
08/20/69
38.1
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
25.6
08/21/69
35.1
04/22/70
89.0
S-800
06/12/69
27.8
08/14/69
32.7
04/22/70
295.0
S-700
06/24/69
14.7
08/14/69
39.0
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
15.7
08/14/69
36.4
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
30.0
08/14/69
38.8
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
30.0
08/14/69
36.1
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
29.6
08/14/69
38.1
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
28.6
08.14/69
41.5
05/25/70
	
S-100
06/13/69
32.4
08/14/69
38.5
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
11.4
08/21/69
22.8
04/21/70
16.7
A-100
06/11/69
17.3
08/19/69
23.6
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
45.8
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
35.4
08/19/69
31.0
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
20.2
08/17/69
38.5
04/21/70
93.0
62

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TABLE 23. MAGNESIUM DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Magnesium

Magnesium

Magnesi um
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S1300
06/11/69
3.0
08/19/69
4.7
-
	
S-1200
06/12/69
3.2
08/19/69
5.0
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
2.9
08/19/69
4.5
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
3.7
08/20/69
5.5
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
3.3
08/21/69
4.2
04/22/70
17.5
S-800
06/12/69
3.6
08/14/69
4.3
04/22/70
48.0
S-700
06/24/69
3.8
08/14/69
5.3
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
3.3
08/14/69
5.0
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
4.0
08/14/69
5.4
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
4.0
08/14/69
5.0
	

S-300
06/13/69
4.0
08/14/69
4.6
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
3.5
08/14/69
5.0
05/25/70
	
S-100
06/13/69
3.6
08/14/69
5.5
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
3.4
08/21/69
5.9
04/21/70
4.1
A-100
06/11/69
3.5
08/19/69
5.7
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
4.3
08/19/69
5.1
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
2.4
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
5.7
08/17/69
5.2
04/21/70
16.2
Iron
In nature, iron is generally not found in high enough concentrations to
appreciably affect water quality (Love, 1965). However, water flowing through
iron bearing substrate (Sawyer and McCarty, 1967) may contain significant
concentrations as high as 50 mg/1 (Hem, 1970). In the Sagavanirktok River, a
0.1 to 1.1 mg/1 range was found (Table 24), although <0.3 mg/1 was most
common. No samples were collected in June so no comparison can be made
between June and August samples. It is probable that June samples would have
contained less iron that the August samples. Surprisingly, an August sample
contained the most iron (1.1 mg/1), although similar concentrations were found
in April.
Chloride
Concentrations of chloride were generally within the 0.30 to 1.66 mg/1
range (Table 25). The highest concentration (2.33 mg/1) was found at S-100
during June and probably be correlated to intrusion of salt water from the
Beaufort Sea. (High concentrations of sodium were also detected at the same
station and during the same interval.) During June, samples collected at most
stations contained 0.30 mg/1 chloride. During August concentrations were
generally higher.
63

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TABLE 24. IRON DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN
Station
Date
Iron
mg/1
Date
Iron
mg/1
Date
S1300
06/11/69
	
08/19/69
0.2
	
S-1200
06/12/69
	
08/19/69
0.3
	
S-1100
06/12/69
	
08/19/69
0.2
	
S-1000
06/12/69
	
08/20/69
0.1
	
S-900
06/12/69
	
08/21/69
0.1
04/22/70
S-800
06/12/69
	
08/14/69
1.1
04/22/70
S-700
06/24/69
	
08/14/69
0.2
	
S-600
06/24/69
	
08/14/69
0.2
	
S-500
06/13/69
	
08/14/69
0.3
	
S-400
06/13/69
	
08/14/69
0.3
	
S-300
06/13/69
	
08/14/69
0.3
	
S-200
06/13/69
	
08/14/69
0.7
05/25/70
S-100
06/13/69
	
08/14/69
0.4
	
A-200
06/11/69
	
08/21/69
0.3
04/21/70
A-TOO
06/11/69

08/19/69
0.6
	
R-100
06/12/69
	
08/19/69
0.1
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
0.1
	
I-100
06/24/69
		
08/17/69
0.1
04/21/70
Iron
mg/1
0.94
0.5
0.52
0.5

TABLE
25. CHLORIDE DATA FOR
SAG RIVER BASIN




Chloride

Chloride

Chloride
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S1300
06/11/69
0.91
08/19/69
0.91
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
0.50
08/19/69
0.91
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
0.30
08/19/69
0.91
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
0.30
08/20/69
1.11
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
0.30
08/21/69
1.11
04/22/70
0.48
S-800
06/12/69
0.30
08/14/69
1.11
04/22/70
1.66
S-700
06/24/69
0.30
08/14/69
1.51
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
0.30
08/14/69
1.31
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
0.30
08/14/69
0.50
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
0.30
08/14/69
1.01
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
0.30
08/14/69
1.31
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
0.30
08/14/69
0.3
05/25/70
	
S-100
06/13/69
2.33
08/14/69
0.5
	
	
S-200
06/11/69
0.30
08/21/69
0.91
04/21/70
0.48
A-100
06/11/69
0.50
08/19/69
0.91
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
0.50
08/19/69
0.91
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
1.11
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
0.50
08/17/69
1.11
04/21/70
0.39
64

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Specific Conductance
Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct
electric current. This parameter is affected by all ionized substances found
in water, although some compounds such as sodium carbonate and sodium chloride
are better conductors than others.
The concentrations ranged from 85 umhos at S-1300 in June, to 1700 umhos
at station S-800 in April (Table 26). In general, the lowest conductivity was
found in June, the highest in April, and the intermediate in August. Also,
the lowest conductivity for any sampling interval was generally found at the
stations located at highest elevation on the river, i.e., S-1300.
TABLE 26. SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Specific

Specific

Specific


Conductance

Conductance

Conductance
Station
Date
pmhos/m
Date
|jmhos/cm
Date
pmhos/cm
S-1300
06/11/69
85
08/19/69
128
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
99
08/19/69
150
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
112
08/19/69
190
	 
	
S-1000
06/12/69
128
08/20/69
242
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
132
08/21/69
215
04/22/70
660
S-800
06/12/69
130
08/14/69
195
04/22/70
1700
S-700
06/24/69
179
08/14/69
170
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
162
08/14/69
220
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
148
08/14/69
179
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
140
08/14/69
215
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
133
08/14/69
185
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
145
08/14/69
218
05/25/70
782
S-100
06/13/69
113
08/14/69
143
	
782
A-200
06/11/69
86
08/21/69
158
04/21/70
125
A-100
06/11/69
115
08/19/69
161
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
170
08/19/69
215
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
270
	
	
T-100
06/24/69
210
08/17/69
222
04/21/70
480
Alkalinity
In this discussion, alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to
neutralize acids. The primary forms of alkalinity are hydroxide, carbonate
and bicarbonate, each of which is found over a different pH range. Since the
pH of the Sagavanirktok River varied from 7.6 to 8.2 during the summer, the
primary source of alkalinity at this range is probably bicarbonate because the
pH range of this anion is 4.3-8.3. Although the above ions are probably the
most important, other ions that may contribute to alkalinity include
phosphates, silicates and organic ions.
65

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Alkalinity ranged from 24 to 112 during the June and August intervals and
from 273 to 875 during April (Table 27). For the June and August intervals,
alkalinity was generally lowest in the headwaters although wide departures
from the trend can be found. Also, alkalinity at each station during August
was generally higher than at the respective stations during June. Samples
collected during April contained concentrations of alkalinity that were
consistently and drastically higher than those found at any other time of the
year.
TABLE 27. ALKALINITY DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


Total

Total



Alkalinity

Alkalinity

Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
S-1300
06/11/69
36.2
08/19/69
50.5
	
S-1200
06/12/69
44.1
08/19/69
63.4

s-noo
06/12/69
52.5
08/19/69
78.4
	
S-1000
06/12/69
70.4
08/20/69
24
	
S-900
06/12/69
64.5
08/21/69
104
04/22/70
S-800
06/12/69
66.7
08/14/69
96.0
04/22/70
5-700
06/24/69
88.1
08/14/69
107
	
S-600
06/24/69
75.1
08/14/69
106
	
S-500
06/13/69
76.1
08/14/69
107
	
S-400
06/13/69
69.6
08/14/69
104
	
S-300
06/13/69
68.2
08/14/69
101
	
S-200
06/13/69
70.5
08/14/69
106
05/25/70
S-100
06/13/69
50.9
08/14/69
112
	
A-200
06/11/69
36.4
08/21/69
71.8
04/21/70
A-100
06/11/69
52.4
08/19/69
72.5
	
R-100
06/12/69
84.1
08/19/69
123
	
1-100
06/24/69
93.8
08/17/69
107
04/21/70
Total
Alkalinity
mg/1
314
875
273
54.0
204
Total Hardness
Total hardness is a measure of the total calcium, magnesium, iron,
maganese, aluminum, strontium and zinc ions present in water; although when
present in appreciable concentrations, other cations may strongly affect total
hardness.
In the Sagavanirktok River mainstem, total hardness ranged from 40.0 mg/1
at S-1300 during June to 952.0 mg/1 at S-800 during April (Table 28). At
individual stations, concentrations were consistently lower during June than
in August which in turn were lower than those found during April. Concentra-
tions for any sampling interval were usually lowest at the stations in the
mountains (i.e., S-1200, S-1300) and generally increased when proceeding
downstream until the confluence with Ribdon River (S-1000). This pattern
closely parallels the trend shown by concentrations of total calcium.
66

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TABLE 28. TOTAL HARDNESS DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN
Total	Total	Total
Hardness	Hardness	Hardness
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
40.0
08/19/69
53.5
	
--
S-1200
06/12/69
52.0
08/19/69
66.7
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
61.0
08/19/69
74.7

	
S-1000
06/12/69
85.0
08/20/69
118
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
78.0
08/21/69
113
04/22/70
349
S-800
06/12/69
79.0
08/14/69
106
04/22/70
952
S-700
06/24/69
80.0
08/14/69
117
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
77.0
08/14/69
117
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
87.0
08/14/69
119
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
86.0
08/14/69
114
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
84.0
08/14/69
112
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
86.0
08/14/69
107
05/25/69
	
S-100
06/13/69
85.0
08/14/69
109
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
42.0
08/21/69
82.8
04/21/70
54.9
A-100
06/11/69
44.0
08/19/69
74.7
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
93.0
08/19/69
105
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
128
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
100.0
08/17/69
114
04/21/70
232
H
All of the water samples from the Sagavanirktok River basin were slightly
alkaline with a pH range from 7.25 to 8.55 (Table 29). This range is well
within the 6.5 to 8.5 normal range for freshwater described by Hem (1970).
Samples collected in June ranged from 7.6 to near 8.2. In August, some
tendency was shown toward increasing pH when proceeding downstream from the
mountain area to above Sagwon, but from this area to Prudhoe Bay, pH generally
remained within the 8.0-8.2 range. In general, the most alkaline conditions
were found during the August sample interval and the least alkaline condi-
tions, approaching neutral, were observed during April.
Total Organic Carbon
Concentrations of total organic carbon ranged from 3 to 22 mg/1 (Table
30). Both of these extremes were recorded during the winter sampling period
with the highest concentrations at station S-200 in late May and the lowest at
station S-900 about one month earlier. Most of the samples collected during
the June and August sampling periods were within the 5 to 10 mg/1 range. The
highest concentrations for each sample period were found at stations located
near the mouth.
67

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TABLE 29. pH DATA FOR SAG RIVER BASIN
Station
Date
PH
Date
PH
Date
PH
S-1300
06/11/69
7.80
08/19/69
7.75
	
	
S-1200
06/12/69
7.80
06/19/69
7.96
	
	
S-1100
06/12/69
7.90
08/19/69
8.06
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
7.75
08/20.69
8.15
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
8.01
08/21/69
8.09
04/22/70
7.72
S-800
06/12/69
7.80
08/14/69
8.06
04/22/70
7.73
S-700
06/24/69
8.02
08/14/69
8.06
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
7.95
08/14/69
8.12
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
7.92
08/14/69
8.02
	

S-400
06/13/69
7.60
08/14/69
8.12
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
7.80
08/14/69
8.08
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
7.73
08/14/69
8.11
05/25/70
7.25
S-100
06/13/69
7.78
08/14/69
7.71
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
7.68
08/21/69
7.91
04/21/70
8.10
A-TOO
06/11/69
8.22
08/19/69
7.95
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
7.95
08/19/69
8.17
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
8.14
	
	
I-100
06/24/69
7.97
08/17/69
7.81
04/21/70
8.55
TABLE 30. TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON FOR SAG RIVER BASIN


TOC

TOC

TOC
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/l
Date
mg/1
S-1300
06/11/69
6
08/19/69
7

	
S-1200
06/12/69
10
06/19/69
5
	
	
s-noo .
06/12/69
8
08/19/69
. 7
	
	
S-1000
06/12/69
8
08/20/69
9
	
	
S-900
06/12/69
8
08/21/69
7
04/22/70
3
S-800
06/12/69
8
08/14/69
10
04/22/70
6
S-700
06/24/69
7
08/14/69
8
	
	
S-600
06/24/69
7
08/14/69
4
	
	
S-500
06/13/69
9
08/14/69
6
	
	
S-400
06/13/69
9
08/14/69
7
	
	
S-300
06/13/69
12
08/14/69
8
	
	
S-200
06/13/69
11
08/14/69
10
05/25/70
22
S-100
06/13/69
14
08/14/69
10
	
	
A-200
06/11/69
9
08/21/69
6
04/21/70
3
A-100
06/11/69
9
08/19/69
8
	
	
R-100
06/12/69
9
08/19/69
5
	
	
L-100
	
	
08/21/69
8
	
	
1-100
06/24/69
8
08/17/69
10
04/21/70
6
68

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CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Physical and chemical data of the Canning River are presented for two
reasons. First, the Canning River was chosen as the control stream of the
study. Therefore, data from this river are presented and often compared to
those of the Sagavanirktok River. Secondly, the data collected from the
Canning River will expand the information available on rivers of the Arctic.
In addition, data from the Shaviovik River are presented as representative of
a smaller stream system that traverses part of the foothill and all of the
coastal province, further expanding the available information.
Most water quality parameters of the Canning and the Shaviovik Rivers
fall within the ranges established by the respective parameters of the
Sagavanirktok River. Also the general patterns observed in the Canning and
Shaviovik Rivers were usually similar to those documented in the Sagavanirktok
River, although some differences exist.
Water temperature data from the Canning River reveal seasonal ranges
similar to the Sagavanirktok River ranges for comparable intervals and a
decreasing water temperature pattern when proceeding downstream (Table 31).
The temperatures ranged from 2.7C (40.5F) to 9.2C (48.6F) during the June
interval and 3.7C (38.7F) to 6.2C (43.2F) during the August samples with
the highest temperatures recorded at the upper stations (SH-300 and CA-400)
during both intervals. These data are similar to Sagavanirktok River data
collected during similar periods from stations at comparable latitudes.
TABLE 31. WATER AND AIR TEMPERATURES IN CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVER BASINS
Station Date Air C(F) Water C(F) Date Air C(F) Water C(F)
CA-400 	 			
CA-300	06/24/69	13.9 (57)	9.2	(40.6)
CA-200	06/24/69 6.7 (44)	8.8	(46.8)
CA-100	06/24/69 2.2 (36)	4.7	(40.5)
SH-400	06/25/69	12.2 (54)	11.0	(51.8)
SH-300	06/25/69	14.4 (58)	10.9	(51.6)
SH-200	06/25/69 (59)	11.8	(53.2)
SH-100	06/25/69	14.4 (58)	12.8	(55. )
08/15/69	8.3 (46.9)
08/15/69	5.6 (42.0)
08/15/69	2.8 (37.0)
08/20/69 	
08/20/69	2.2 (35.6)
08/20/69	2.2 (35.6)
08/20/69	3.3 (37.9)
08/20/69	4.4 (39.9)
6.2 (43.2)
5.8 (46.6)
3.7 (38.7)
1.8 (35.2)
2.8	(37.0)
2.9	(37.2)
3.4 (38.1)
Data from four stations on the Shaviovik River reveal significantly
higher water temperatures and a small but reverse trend along the length of
the river (Table 31). The Shaviovik tends to warm up when proceeding down-
stream. These stations are located at latitudes similar to the S-600 and
S-700 on the Sagavanirktok River and the data were collected on the same dates
when the highest temperatures were recorded from other streams. As expected,
the air temperatures in both stream systems ranged widely depending upon the
climatic conditions at the time of sampling. Air temperatures ranged from

-------
2.2C (35.6F) to 15.0C (59F) in June and from 2.2C (35.6F) to 8.3C
(46.9F) in August. Water temperatures ranged from 10.9C (51.6F) to 12.8C
(55.0F) on June 25 and from 1.8C (35.2F) to 3.4C (38.1F) on August 20.
On both dates, the coolest water was found at the highest stations and the
warmest water at the mouth.
Discharge measurements from both rivers are presented in Table 32.
Comparison of the discharge data shows that the Canning discharge is smaller
than the Sagavanirktok River discharge and approximately an order of magnitude
larger than the Shaviovik discharge. It could be expected that the smaller
system would be more rapidly responsive to changes in air temperature than
larger stream systems.
TABLE 32. STREAMFLOW IN CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS

Station
Date
Cu. Ft./Sec.
CA-200
SH-400
SH-100
SH-400
08/15/69
08/20/69
08/20/69
08/20/69
1500
1060
137
71

Turbidity in the Canning and Shaviovik Rivers ranged from 2.8 to 43 JTU
and 2.8 to 11.5 JTU respectively (Table 33) and were generally near the lower
limit of the range of the Sagavanirktok River.
TABLE 33. TURBIDITY IN CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Turbidity

Turbidity
Station
Date
JTU
Date
JTU
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
10.0
CA-300
06/24/69
43
08/15/69
9.8
CA-200
06/24/69
41
08/15/69
2.8
CA-100
06/24/69
7.8
08/20/69
	
SH-400
06/25/69
9.6
08/20/69
11.5
SH-300
06/25/69
10
08/20/69
10.0
SH-200
06/25/69
9.4
08/20/69
7.1
SH-100
06/25/69
10
08/20/69
2.8
Samples collected from CA-200 (41 JTU) and CA-300 (43 JTU) in June were
outside of the established range, but not outstandingly high. Color units in
both rivers were consistently higher in June than in August; in some cases,
70

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the interval differences were a magnitude apart (Table 34). This pattern is
similar to that established in the Sagavanirktok River. It is probable that
the differences are related to effects of spring breakup. In the Canning
River, fixed suspended solids concentrations were similar to concentrations
found in the upper reaches of the Sagavanirktok River (Table 35). Statements
can be made about the August data collected from the Shaviovik River but
during June, fixed suspended solids concentrations were significantly lower.
TABLE 34. COLOR IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Color	Color
Station
Date
Units
Date
Units
GA-400
	
	
08/15/69
2
CA-300
06/24/69
28
08/15/69
1
CA-200
06/24/69
10
08/15/69
2
CA-100
06/24/69
31
08/20/69
	
SH-400
06/25/69
32
08/20/69
3
SH-300
06/25/69
55
08/20/69
4
SH-200
06/25/69
37
08/20/69
5
SH-100
06/25/69
39
08/20/69
7
TABLE 35. FIXED SUSPENDED SOLIDS IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Fixed	Fixed
Suspended	Suspended
Solids	Solids
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400

	
08/15/69
7
CA-300
06/24/69
70
08/15/69
13
CA-200
06/24/69
62
08/15/69
4
CA-100
06/24/69
16
08/20/69
----
SH-400
06/25/69
14
08/20/69
18
SH-300
06/25/69
14
08/20/69
10
SH-200
06/25/69
17
08/20/69
10
SH-100
06/25/69
17
08/20/69
4
Concentrations of most nutrients were quite low in both rivers. Nitrogen
was found in relatively low concentrations in both rivers. As in the
Sagavanirktok River, the dominant form is nitrate with consistently lower
concentrations of ammonia (0.02 - 0.04 mg/1) also present (Table 36). Concen-
trations of nitrate (Table 37) were usually slightly higher during June
71

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TABLE 36. AMMONIA IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Ammonia

Ammonia
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-300
06/24/69
0.01
08/15/69
0.03
CA-200
06/24/69
0.01
08/15/69
0.04
CA-100
06/24/69
0.02
	
- - - -
SH-400
06/25/69
0.02
08/20/69
0.02
SH-300
06/25/69
0.02
08/20/69
0.04
SH-200
06/25/69
0.02
08/20/69
0.04
SH-100
06/25/69
0.02
08/20/69
0.02
TABLE 37. NITRATE IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Nitrate	Nitrate
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
0.06
CA-300
06/24/69
0.01
08/15/69
0.07
CA-200
06/24/69
0.01
08/15/69
0.06
CA-100
06/24/69
0.17
08/20/69
		
SH-400
06/25/69
0.07
08/20/69
0.07
SH-300
06/25/69
0.11
08/20/69
0.08
SH-200
06/25/69
0.09
08/20/69
0.07
(0.09 - 0.17 mg/1) than August (0.06 - 0.08 mg/1). Total phosphate was found
in low concentrations or not at all in both rivers (Table 38). Somewhat
higher concentrations were found in the Canning River during June.
Silica was reasonably consistent at all stations, ranging from 1.2 to 2.5
mg/1 and from 1.8 to 2.0 mg/1 in August (Table 39). At each station, slightly
higher concentrations were found during June than during August. These
concentrations are slightly higher but compare favorably with those of the
Sagavanirktok River.
Concentrations of sodium ranged from 0.48 to 1.43 mg/1 from samples
collected from the Canning River (Table 40). Datum collected from Station
CA-100 was significantly higher than all other data and is believed to be
caused by salt water intrusion. This range of concentrations is consistent
with those generated in the Sagavanirktok River system. Concentrations of
sodium were consistently higher in the Shaviovik River (Table 40) than in both
72

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TABLE 38. TOTAL PHOSPHATE IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Total	Total
Phosphate	Phosphate
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
.....
....
CA-300
06/24/69
0.10
08/15/69
0.01
CA-200
06/24/69
0.09
08/15/69
0.00
CA-100
06/24/69
0.01
	
	
SH-400
06/25/69
0.00
08/20/69
0.00
SH-300
06/25/69
	
08/20/69
0.01
SH-200
06/25/69
	
08/20/69
0.00
SH-100
06/25/69
	
08/20/69
0.00
TABLE 39. SILICA IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Silica

Silica
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
2.0
CA-300
06/24/69
2.2
08/15/69
2.2
CA-200
06/24/69
2.0
08/15/69
1.9
CA-100
06/24/69
1.2
08/15/69
	
SH-400
06/25/69
2.2
08/20/69
1.8
SH-300
06/25/69
2.2
08/20/69
1.9
SH-200
06/25/69
2.5
08/20/69
1.9
SH-100
06/25/69
2.3
08/20/69
1.9
the Canning and Sagavanirktok Rivers. The values ranged from 0.59 to 1.73
mg/1 and were approached or exceeded only by rare samples where salt water
intrusion was a possibility or by samples collected during winter.
Potassium concentrations in Canning River ranged from 0.13 to 0.33 mg/1
(Table 41) and was similar to the low end of the range of data from the
Sagavanirktok River. Concentrations of potassium from Shaviovik River ranged
from 0.22 to 0.44 mg/1 and most samples were higher than those in Canning
River.
Calcium concentrations were the highest of all cation concentrations.
Calcium ranged from 13.9 to 37.7 mg/1 in Canning River and 20.6 to 41.4 mg/1
in Shaviovik River (Table 42). These values compare favorably with those from
Sagavanirktok River although generally near the high end of the range.
Samples collected during August were usually higher in both rivers. This is
73

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TABLE 40. SODIUM IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Sodi um

Sodium
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	

08/15/69
0.54
CA-300
06/24/69
0.48
08/15/69
0.74
CA-200
06/24/69
0.47
08/15/69
0.64
CA-100
06/24/69
1.43
08/20/69
----
SH-400
06/25/69
1.73
08/20/69
1.37
SH-300
06/25/69
1.15
08/20/69
1.18
SH-200
06/25/69
1.15
08/20/69
1.18
SH-100
06/25/69
1.12
08/20/69
1.04
TABLE 41. POTASSIUM IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Potassium

Potassium
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
0.24
CA-300
06/24/69
0.13
08/15/69
0.25
CA-200
06/24/69
0.16
08/15/69
0.27
CA-100
06/24/69
0.33
08/20/69
			
SH-400
06/25/69
0.44
08/20/69
0.38
SH-300
06/25/69
0.37
08/20/69
0.41
SH-200
06/25/69
0.22
08/20/69
0.40
SH-100
06/25/69
0.41
08/20/69
0.41
TABLE 42. CALCIUM IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Calcium

Calcium
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
08/15/66
34.0
CA-300
06/24/69
22.0
08/15/69
37.7
CA-200
06/24/69
20.5
08/15/69
36.9
CA-100
06/24/69
13.9
08/20/69

SH-400
06/25/69
39.0
08/20/69
36.1
SH-300
66/25/69
33.8
08$0/M
41.4
SH-200
06/25/69
20.6
08/20/69
31.4
SH-100
06/25/69
28.2
08/20/69
40.8
74

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attributed to dilution by runoff during June. Samples from Shaviovik River
were usually higher than the Canning River samples from the same time
interval.
Concentrations of magnesium were not as high as calcium and did follow
the same pattern from time interval to time interval but not from river to
river. Magnesium ranged from 3.2 to 6.1 mg/1 in Canning River and 2.1 to 6.2
mg/1 in Shaviovik River (Table 43). Samples were predictably less concen-
trated in June that August. Data from both of these systems were similar to
data from Sagavanirktok River.
TABLE 43. MAGNESIUM IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Magnesium	Magnesium
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
3.2
CA-300
06/24/69
5.1
08/15/69
6.1
CA-200
06/24/69
4.8
08/15/69
5.6
CA-100
06/24/69
4.2
08/20/69
----
SH-400
06/25/69
4.5
08/20/69
4.7
SH-300
06/25/69
4.5
08/20/69
3.9
SH-200
06/25/69
2.1
08/20/69
3.2
SH-100
06/25/69
4.0
06/20/69
6.2
Concentrations of iron were consistently at 0.1 mg/1 during August in
both rivers (Table 44) which is somewhat lower than iron concentrations in the
Sagavanirktok River.
TABLE 44. IRON IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Iron

Iron
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	

08/15/69
0.1
CA-300
06/24/69
	
08/15/69
0.1
CA-200
06/24/69
	
08/15/69
0.1
CA-100
06/24/69
	
08/26/69
-  - -
SH-400
06/25/69
	
08/20/69
0.1
SH-300
06/25/69
	
08/20/69
0.1
SH-200
06/25/69
	
08/20/69
0.1
SH-100
06/25/69
	
08/20/69
0.1
75

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Concentrations of chloride from both rivers (Table 45) were similar to
the values in Sagavanirktok River. High concentrations were often from
stations located near the mouth of the respective river and thus susceptible
to salt water intrusion.
TABLE 45. CHLORIDE IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Chloride

Chloride
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-300
06/24/69
1.11
08/15/69
1.11
CA-200
06/24/69
0.30
08/15/69
1.11
CA-100
06/24/69
2.33
08/20/69
- - - -
SH-400
06/25/69
0.30
08/20/69
0.91
SH-300
06/25/69
0.30
08/20/69
0.91
SH-200
06/25/69
0.30
08/20/69
0.91
SH-100
06/25/69
0.30
08/20/69
1.11.
In the Canning River, specific conductance values ranged from 171 to 265
umhos/cm in June and from 240-250 umhos/cm in August (Table 46). In the
Shaviovik system, conductivity ranged from 175 to 255 umhos/cm in June and
240-268 umhos/cm in August. At any station, specific values were often higher
in August than in June but ranges were similar. For any specific time, both
of these stream systems usually have higher specific conductance than the
Sagavanirktok River.
TABLE 46. SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE OF THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Specific

Specific


Conductance

Conductance
Station
Date
pmhos/cm
Date
pmhos/cm
CA-400
	

08/15/69
240
CA-300
06/24/69
195
08/15/69
250
CA-200
06/24/69
171
08/15/69
242
CA-100
06/24/69
265
08/20/69

SH-400
06/25/69
175
08/20/69
268
SH-300
06/25/69
255
08/20/69
259
SH-200
06/25/69
229
08/20/69
240
SH-100
06/25/69
221
08/20/69
240
76

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In the Canning River, total alkalinity was significantly less in June
(60.9 - 85.2 mg/1), than in August (97.6-107 mg/1), and both were less than
the respective ranges from the Shaviovik River, 108-133 mg/1, and 119-130 mg/1
(Table 47). The Canning River data are similar to the Sagavanirktok River
data, although the latter has a greater range. The total alkalinity from the
Shaviovik River is the highest observed.
TABLE 47. TOTAL ALKALINITY OF THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS


Total

Total


Alkalinity

A1kalinity
Station
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
104
CA-300
06/24/69
85.2
08/15/69
97.6
CA-200
06/24/69
81.3
08/15/69
107
CA-100
06/24/69
60.9
08/20/69
	
SH-400
06/25/69
133
08/20/69
129
SH-300
06/25/69
122
08/20/69
130
SH-200
06/25/69
108
08/20/69
122
SH-100
06/25/69
113
08/20/69
119
Total hardness in the Canning River ranged from 66.0-80.0 mg/1 in late
June and 124-127 mg/1 in mid-August. In the Shaviovik River concentrations
ranged from 80.0-110 mg/1 in June and 116-123 mg/1 in August. Shaviovik River
values were generally higher than Canning River which in turn were higher than
Sagavanirktok River concentrations in both June and August (Table 48).
TABLE 48. TOTAL HARDNESS OF THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Station
Date
Total
Hardness
mg/1
Date
Total
Hardness
mg/1
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
124
CA-300
06/24/69
80.0
08/15/69
127
CA-200
06/24/69
66.0
08/15/69
126
CA-100
06/24/69
74.0
08/20/69
- 		
SH-400
06/25/69
92.0
08/20/69
123
SH-300
06/25/69
110.0
08/20/69
121
SH-200
06/25/69
92.0
08/20/69
118
SH-100
06/25/69
80.0
08/20/69
116
77

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Ranges of pH in Canning River and the Shaviovik River conform well to the
standard established in the Sagavanirktok River. The Canning River was near
the low end of the range and the Shaviovik was only slightly higher (Table
49).
TABLE 49. pH OF THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
Station
Date
PH
Date
pH
CA-400
	
	
08/15/69
7.97
CA-300
06/24/69
7.86
08/15/69
7.79
CA-200
06/24/69
7.88
08/15/69
7.72
CA-100
06/24/69
7.55
08/20/69
		
SH-400
06/25/69
7.77
08/20/69
7.96
SH-300
06/25/69
7.70
08/20/69
8.01
SH-200
06/25/69
7.83
08/20/69
7.91
SH-100
06/25/69
7.77
08/20/69
8.02
Values of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) are listed in Table 50. In the
Canning River, the TOC range is 5-10 mg/1. In the Shaviovik River the TOC
range is 7-11 mg/1. These concentrations correlate well to Sagavanirktok
River data from ice free intervals while data collected during April range
much more widely (Table 50).
TABLE 50. TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON IN THE CANNING AND SHAVIOVIK RIVERS
TOC	TOC
Stati on
Date
mg/1
Date
mg/1
CA-400
	

08/15/69
9
CA-300
06/24/69
8
08/15/69
4
CA-200
06/24/69
9
08/15/69
8
CA-100
06/24/69
10
08/20/69
			
SH-400
06/25/69
7
08/20/69
8
SH-300
06/25/69
8
08/20/69
11
SH-200
06/25/69
9
08/20/69
10
SH-100
06/25/69
8
08/20/69
9
GALBRAITH AND NORA FED LAKES
General descriptions Galbraith and Nora Fed Lakes and the surrounding
area have been presented in an earlier section. Chemical data for Galbraith
and the Nora Fed Lakes are presented in Table 51.
78

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TABLE 51. CHEMICAL DATA FOR GALBRAITH AND NORA FED LAKES

Galbraith
Lake

Nora Fed Lakes

Parameter (units)
Date
#1 n
Date
Turbidity JTU
21
17
15
06/11/69
06/26/69
04/21/69
15 12
9.8 5.2
06/26/69
08/22/69
Color (units)
29
3
06/11/69


Fixed Suspended
Solids (mg/1)
20
20
14
14
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/21/69
18 31
11 8
06/26/69
08/22/69
Ammonia (mg/1)
0.04
0.04
06/11/69
08/21/69


Nitrate (mg/1)
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.02
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69


Phosphate (mg/1)
0.52
0.03
0.04
0.02
0.20
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69
04/21/70
0.016 0.06
0.04 0.01
06/26/69
08/22/69
Silica (mg/1)
1.1
1.1
06/11/69
08/21/69


Sodium (mg/1)
0.35
0.28
06/11/69
08/21/69


Potassium (mg/1)
0.50
0.31
06/11/69
08/21/69


Calcium (mg/1)
31.3
26.9
06/11/69
08/21/69


Magnesium (mg/1)
3.7
2.0
3.3
2.9
5.0
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69
04/20/70
2.0 1.2
2.6 1.5
06/26/69
08/22/69
continued ...

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TABLE 51 (continued)

Galbraith
Lake

Nora Fed
Lakes

Parameter (units)
Date
#1
#2
Date
Iron (mg/1)
0.6
0.3
08/21/69
08/22/69
0.3
0.2
08/20/69
08/22/69
Chloride (mg/1)
1.31
0.91
1.01
1.21
0.30
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69
04/21/70
1.92
3.93
0.70
1.81
06/26/69
08/22/69
Specific
Conductance
(phmos/cm)
130
172
158
152
295
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69
04/21/70
131
222
95
158
06/26/69
08/22/69
Alkalinity (mg/1)
90.0
72.8
80.1
118.7
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
04/21/70
72.1
54.5
06/26/69
Total Hardness
(mg/1)
88.0
76.0
80.0
81.8
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69
50.0
99.0
41.0
69.7
06/26/69
08/22/69
pH
8.22
7.81
8.04
7.82
7.88
06/01/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69
04/21/70
7.65
7.86
7.88
06/26/69
08/20/69
08/22/69
Total Organic
Carbon (mg/1)
8
8
8
8
7
06/11/69
06/26/69
08/21/69
08/22/69
04/21/70
9
6
10
11
06/26/69
08/22/69
80

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Concentrations of turbidity in Galbraith Lake exhibited a range of 15-21
JTU which is somewhat higher than the range of 5.2-15 JTU from Nora Fed Lakes.
The higher concentration in Galbraith Lake is probably due to wave action on
an exposed deposit of clay-type (probably bentonite) material on the northern
shore.
Color ranged from 3 to 29 units in Galbraith Lake. While color is not
particularly high, the higher concentration in June is probably due to runoff
transporting dissolved material into the lake system.
Fixed suspended solids ranged from 14 to 20 mg/1 in Galbraith Lake and
from 8 to 31 mg/1 in Nora Fed Lakes. In all lakes, the fixed suspended solids
decreased from June to mid August.
Concentrations of nutrients are generally low. As expected, ammonia and
nitrate concentrations were low. In Galbraith, ammonia was consistently 0.04
mg/1 and nitrate varied slightly, 0.02-0.03 mg/1. Total phosphate concentra-
tions ranged from 0.02-0.52 mg/1 in Galbraith Lake and from 0.01-0.06 mg/1 in
Nora Fed Lakes. Silica concentrations were 1.1 mg/1.
Cation concentrations in Galbraith Lake were about as expected.
Sodium and potassium ranged from 0.28-0.35 mg/1 and 0.31-0.50 mg/1
respectively with the lowest concentrations occurring in August. Calcium
concentrations were higher in June (31.3 mg/1) than in August (26.9 mg/1) and
were the most concentrated component of the cations. Magnesium ranged from
2.0 to 5.0 mg/1. During ice-free intervals, concentrations remained about the
same but a ranged from 2.0 to 5.0 mg/1. During ice-free intervals, concentra-
tions remained about the same but a significant increase was observed in April
when 5.0 mg/1 was recorded. Concentrations in Nora Fed Lakes were less or at
the lower limit of Galbraith Lake samples. Iron was found in relatively low
concentrations; 0.3-0.6 mg/1 in Galbraith Lake and 0.2-0.3 mg/1 in Nora Fed
Lakes. These iron data were collected in August.
Concentrations of chloride in these lakes were surprisingly high in some
cases. In rivers, many high concentrations could be related to the influence
of the Beaufort Sea. However, these lakes are too far inland to be affected
by the Beaufort Sea in all but unusual storm conditions. Concentrations of
chloride were consistently higher in Nora Fed #1 than in Nora Fed #2. Both
were highest in August: Nora Fed #1 contained 1.92 mg/1 in June and 3.93 mg/1
in August while Nora Fed #2 contained 0.70 mg/1 in June and 1.81 mg/1 in
August. In Galbraith Lake chloride concentrations ranged from 0.30 mg/1
during April to 1.21 mg/1 in August and 1.31 mg/1 in early June.
Specific conductance, alkalinity, total hardness and pH are measurements
of specific characteristics of dissolved and suspended components of water.
These parameters are close to the. ranges established in the river drainages.
Specific conductance ranged from 130 to 295 umhos/cm in Galbraith Lake, from
131 to 222 umhos/cm in Nora Fed #1, and 95-158 umhos/cm in Nora Fed #2. In
all three lakes, measurements taken in August were usually higher than those
in June. The highest value was generated from a sample collected in April.
Concentrations of alkalinity ranged from 72.8 to 118.7 mg/1 in Galbraith and
81

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from 54.5 to 72.1 mg/1 in Nora Fed Lakes (Table 51). Again, the highest
concentration was found in April. Total hardness ranged from 76.0-88.0 mg/1
in Galbraith Lake and 41.0-99.0 mg/1 in Nora Fed Lakes. Concentrations were
generally higher in August with the highest concentration found in Nora Fed
No. 1. Still higher values would probably have been found if samples had been
collected in April. pH was consistently on the alkaline side of neutral.
Galbraith pH ranged from 7.81 to 8.22 while in Nora Fed Lakes. pH ranged from
7.65-7.88. These latter lakes are probably less alkaline because of the pres-
ence of more organic material and subsequent products of decomposition.
Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 6 to 11 mg/1 in Nora Fed
Lakes and from 7 to 8 in Galbraith.
82

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