United States	Office of Pollution Prevention	December 1991
Environmental Protection	Washington, DC 20460
4 Implementing
Pollution Prevention
Pollution Prevention
Chesapeake Bay
NICE3 Grants Awarded
Clean Air Act
News from Industry
EPA's Pollution Prevention Division, the
Department of Energy, and the Department
of Commerce have awarded the first three
grants for FY 1991 under the jointly adminis-
tered NICE1 grants program. The NICE3
grants program (National Industrial Com-
petitiveness through Efficiency: Energy,
Environment, and Economics) is designed to
foster new industrial processes and/or
equipment which can significantly reduce
the generation of high-volume wastes in
industry, conserve energy and energy-
intensive feedstocks, and enhance the
competitiveness of U.S. industry.
Awards totalling $600,000 went to:
• PPG Industries, Inc. of Cleveland, OH
and the Ohio Department of Develop-
ment for a source reduction/water
recycling project in a water-based paint
•	FMC Corporation of Pasadena, TX, the
Texas Water Commission, and the Texas
Governor's Office for a proposed metha-
nol recovery process for hydrogen
peroxide production; and
•	Mechnical Technology Inc., the Niagara
Mohawk Power Corp., Carrier Corp., and
four New York State offices to demonstrate
a program to minimize and recycle volatile
organic compounds emitted as a result of
using solvents in industrial processes.
Approximately $1.4 million will be
distributed under this program. For more
information on the NICE3 program, contact
Alan Schroeder at DOE (202-586-1641),
Jackie Krieger in EPA's Pollution Prevention
Division (202-260-4172), or Elizabeth
Robertson at the Department of Commerce
The Clean Air Act: One Year Later
Excerpts from Administrator William Reilly's
Testimony before the Subcommittee on Over-
sight and Investigations of the Committee on
Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Represen-
tatives, November 12,1991.
"I am happy to be here — a few days shy
of the first anniversary of President Bush
having signed the bill into law — to report
on our progress to date.
The new Act contains an estimated 55
major rulemakings and 30 other guidance
and actions to be completed within the first
two years of passage. This represents about
a five-fold increase over our air program
regulatory activity of the past several years.
I am pleased to announce that, despite
this massive new regulatory agenda, we
have already proposed or promulgated
rules that, when implemented, will remove
almost two thirds of the 56 billion pounds of
air pollutants that the Clean Air Act will
take out of the air by the year 2005. Two
weeks ago, for example, I announced EPA's
regulatory proposal to reduce acid rain by
removing 10 million tons of sulfur dioxide
from the air. By establishing a strict permit-
ting and emissions monitoring program, the
proposal is not only environmentally sig-
nificant, but it also brings into existence the
President's market-based emissions trading
system that will save as much as $1 billion
compared with previous acid rain proposals.
continued on page 2
Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
December 1991
Clean Air Act
One Year Later
from page 1
In fact, we are using a series of
market-based innovations to implement
this entire legislation so that it has
minimal impact on the economy.
Besides the market-based trading
system in the acid rain proposal, other
initiatives include (1) fuel averaging,
trading and banking in our reformu-
lated gas and oxygenated fuels pro-
grams; (2) emissions averaging in
developing our toxic standards; and (3)
voluntary programs that give industry
flexibility in determining control
I would like to briefly discuss some of
our major program achievements to date.
In September, President Bush announced
our final rulemaking to resolve the
decade-long dispute over visibility
impairment in the Grand Canyon
National Park. Forged through an
unprecedented consensus between
utilities and environmentalists, the rule
will cut sulfur dioxide emissions from the
Navajo power plant by 90% by 1999...
In May we also issued a final rule that,
beginning with the 1994 model year
passenger cars and light trucks, will cut
tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions by 31 %
and nitrogen oxide emissions by 60% per
vehicle from 1991 new car levels.
We also issued a final rule requiring
the use of advanced pollution control
equipment to cut some 90% of overall
air emissions from municipal waste
combustors. This will eliminate some
200,000 tons of pollutants per year
beginning in 1994.. .
We have also formally proposed the
complete phase-out of CFCs and other
ozone-depleting substances to meet the
goals of the amended Montreal Protocol.
This will result in the elimination of
over one billion pounds of ozone-
depleting chemicals each year when
implemented. We have formally
proposed the creation of a recycling
program to assure that CFCs are
recycled using EPA-approved refriger-
ant recycling equipment when auto air
conditioners are serviced after 1992...
Perhaps most significant is the historic
negotiation we entered into with repre-
sentatives of the oil, gasoline marketers,
the producers of oxygenated fuels,
members of environmental, states, and
other groups to reach an agreement on
cleaner reformulated gasoline and
oxygenated fuels. Formal proposal of the
reformulated gasoline/oxygenated fuels
rule is scheduled for December. If
promulgated as proposed, the agreement
would reduce VOC emissions by roughly
95 million pounds per year in the nine
cities with the worst smog problems. The
agreement would also reduce carbon
monoxide (CO) emissions by 20% in the
41 cities with CO problems...
In meeting the extensive and
oftentimes tight regulatory deadlines in
the Act, we have developed an unprec-
edented process of consultation with out-
side parties prior to proposing a regulation.
... By the end of 1992 we will have put
into place a toxics program that will
achieve greater reductions by the end of
1995 than EPA has been able to accom-
plish in the past 20 years. Last summer,
we proposed a program contained in the
Clean Air Act Amendments to provide
companies with the opportunity to obtain
a six-year extension from the Maximum
Achievable Control Technology (MACT)
standards in exchange for a 90% reduc-
tion of air toxics (or a 95% reduction in
toxic particulates) prior to EPA regulation.
We plan to promulgate this rule in
December. This program dovetails with
our strategy of encouraging industry to
reduce toxic emissions as soon as possible,
rather than to wait for regulation."
CFC Phase-Out Schedule Proposed
EPA has proposed the phase-out by
U.S. companies of all production and
imports of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
and other stratospheric ozone depleters
by the year 2000, in accordance with the
1990 Amendments to the Montreal Pro-
tocol and the requirements of the Clean
Air Act Amendments. The phase-out is
expected to restore stratospheric ozone
to its normal level by the middle of the
next century. The proposal will also have
aglobal warming benefit in that CFCs are
a greenhouse gas.
The phase-out schedu le begins Janu-
ary 1, 1992, for CFCs, halons, carbon
tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.
Companies can meet the schedule by
consuming allowances apportioned to
them each year by EPA in decreasing
amounts. The allowances may be traded
between U.S. companies if the trades
result in less overall production than would
have occurred otherwise.
An EPA estimate of the economic
impact of the proposal placed total costs
of switching to alternative substances to
replace ozone depleters at $36 billion
through the year 2075. On the benefits
side, EPA estimates that over the next
85 years, the phase-out will save the
lives of at least 3.2 million, and possibly
as many as 4.5 million, Americans who
would otherwise die from skin cancer as
a direct result of ozone layer depletion.
Studies released earlier this year found
that the protective ozone layer over
densely populated areas of the United
States was thinning twice as fast as
previous projections.
Although exact figures are unavail-
able, many companies have reduced their
use of CFCs through recycling or switch-
ing to substitutes. These responses have
resulted from an anticipation of the cur-
rent proposed phase-out, as well as an
earlier phase-out begun in 1988 and the
price increase resulting from an excise
fee on ozone depleters imposed by Con-
gress in 1989.
CFCs and other ozone depleters will
still be permitted to be sold and used after
their production is prohibited, but EPA is
preparing other rules requiring maximum
recycling of ozone depleters and mini-
mizing their emissions into the atmo-
sphere from certain appliances. EPA
also expects to issue a ban on nonessen-
tial products and to require mandatory
product labeling.
For more information, contact David
Lee, Office of Air and Radiation (ANR-
445), 401 M Street SW, Washington,
D.C. 20460.

December 1991
3 - Pollution Prevention News
News from Industry
Aerospace Industry Establishes
Prevention Exchange Team
Phil Li
Manager, Environmental Management
Allied-Signal Aerospace Company
Over the last few months, Allied-
Signal Aerospace Company (Phoenix,
AZ) spearheaded an effort to establish a
pollution prevention technical informa-
tion exchange team among the major
aircraft engine manufacturing compa-
nies. After much negotiation, the first
exchange team meeting was hosted in
October by Pratt & Whitney at their East
Hartford, CT facility.
The meeting brought together
representatives from five engine
manufacturing companies (Garrett
Engine Division/Garrett Auxiliary
Power Division of Allied-Signal Aero-
space, Allison Gas Turbine of General
Motors, G.E. Aircraft Engine of General
Electric, Pratt & Whitney of United
Technologies Corp., and Lycoming of
Textron), three engine customers
(Boeing, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S.
Navy), and the Aerospace Industries
Association of America.
The purpose of the meeting was to
focus on pollution prevention issues
unique and common to the aerospace
engine manufacturing industries and to
discuss possible ways of meeting the
challenges presented by current and
pending environmental regulations.
Over the course of the two-day meeting,
topics were covered such as solvent
substitution, low VOC paint usage,
alternative plating technology, engine
cleaning, and pollution prevention
program management.
A highlight of the meeting was a tour
of the Pratt & Whitney manufacturing
facility so that attendees could witness
some of the pollution prevention
strategies being implemented. At the
end of the tour, we came away not only
impressed by Pratt & Whitney's opera-
tions, but as Wayne Simpson, Manager
of Environment, Health and Safety at
G.E. Aircraft Engines put it, "It is hard to
believe we are touring Pratt & Whitney's
facility — a major competitor!"
The Dow Chemical Company has
formed a Corporate Environmental
Advisory Council, made up of an
external group of global policy and
opinion leaders, several Of whom have
strong ties to pollution prevention. The
group will advise the company on
environmental, health and safety issues.
The first seven members of the
committee (three to seven more mem-
bers will be named soon) are: Lee
Thomas, former administrator of EPA
and now chairman of Law Environmen-
tal Inc.; Anthony Cortese, dean of
Environmental Programs, Tufts Univer-
sity; Pierre-Marc Johnson, former
premier of Quebec, Canada, and now a
lawyer in Montreal and a teacher and
researcher at McGill Law School;
Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel, director of
the UNEP Industry and Environment
Office; Timothy O'Riordan, professor of
Environmental Sciences at the Univer-
sity of East Anglia in Norwich, England,
and associate director of the Centre for
Social and Economic Research on the
Global Environment; Philip Shabecoff,
executive publisher of Greenwire, and
former environmental correspondent of
The New York Times; and Joanna
Underwood, president of INFORM, an
environmental research organization.
David Buzzelli, Dow's vice president
and corporate director of Environmen-
tal, Health and Safety, noted: "Through
this panel, we hope to broaden our
perspective, become more responsive to
public concerns, and most assuredly,
elevate our environmental, health and
safety performance." For more informa-
tion, contact Dan Fellner, 517-636-5765.
Dow Chemical Names Enviro Council
Ron Henson, Pratt &
Whitney V-P for Environ-
ment, Health and Safety
echoed this sentiment at
the conclusion of the
meeting, noting: "Even
though we compete with
our products, this is an area
where we must work
together to ensure a safe
environment." The success
of the first meeting led to
an agreement to continue
holding joint meetings on a
semi-annual basis.
These meetings have set
a precedent — never before
has there been a reason so
important that we could
remove the barriers of
competition to work
towards a common goal.
Good pollution prevention
technology is simply too
important to all of us not to
Pratt & Whitney's John Zavodjancik, Tim Lorette and Matt Fatco
look at a ]T8D bearing housing dewaxing operation in East
Hartford. Deivaxing efforts are helping to cut down the amount of
solvent cleaners used to manufacture P & W engines.

Pollution Prevention News - 4
December 7.992
Implementing Pollution Prevention
States Try Innovative Green Taxes
In a move away from traditional
command-and-control regulation, states
are experimenting with environmental
fees and taxes in attempts to prevent
pollution. The charges—levied specifi-
cally on pollution generators—aim to
make those generators respond with
demand-reducing strategies, such as
recycling or switching to less polluting
substitutes. Recent initiatives in the
states of Washington, Wisconsin and
Minnesota are examples.
Washington's Hazardous Substance
Tax, enacted in March 1990, taxes
petroleum products, chemicals listed by
EPA under the Comprehensive Environ-
mental Response, Compensation and
Liability Act (CERCLA) and pesticides
listed under the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. The
person who generates hazardous
substances in the state must pay the tax,
which is based on the wholesale value
of the hazardous substance.
Wisconsin has levied a pollution
discharge fee on industry since 1972,
and state legislators consider the
program so successful, that they plan to
essentially double the dollar amount to
be collected from industry under the
program and charge municipalities for
the first time as well. Under Wisconsin's
plan, industries report their discharges
on an average day of flow, and the
Department of Natural Resources then
calculates fees, which vary depending
on the amount and type of discharge.
In 1992, Wisconsin will be reassessing
the dollar amounts assigned to the types
of discharge, which will provide "a
tremendous pollution prevention
opportunity," says Lloyd Lueschow of
the Wisconsin Department of Natural
Resources. "If we put a high value on
something that can be reduced, indus-
tries will work to reduce it."
Pollution prevention fees in Minne-
sota were first collected in 1991 under
an innovative approach that returns the
fees back to industry in the form of
programs to help them reduce their
releases. Under the Minnesota program,
companies releasing chemicals under
continued oh page 5
PVC Bans on the Rise in Europe
Europe continues to lead the way in
efforts to reduce the use of plastics
made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
PVC is widely used in floor tile, win-
dow frames, pipes, and many common
office and home products. Concerns
about PVC stem from its production,
which results in toxic waste products,
and its disposal, because PVC incinera-
tion produces toxic chlorinated hydro-
carbons and hydrochloric acid, while
land disposal can result in leaching of
organochlorine substances into soil and
ground water. Good substitutes exist for
most PVC applications.
Anti-PVC sentiment is strongest in
Germany, where public consciousness
was raised by a 1983 fire in the city of
Bielefeld. Dioxin releases in that fire
were attributed to burning PVC, and
since then more than 60 local govern-
ments in Germany, including Berlin,
Munich and Stuttgart, have decided to
phase out PVC in public construction
and government offices. For example, a
German hospital was constructed free of
PVC except for a few applications, such
as operating room floors, where its
electrical conductivity properties were
required. At the national level, the
German government seems unlikely to
ban PVC anytime soon, according to
Manfred Krautter, a chemical engineer
with Greenpeace International in
Hamburg. But when towns refuse to use
PVC in public works, it stimulates the
non-PVC market and encourages
citizens to demand PVC-free products
in the private sphere.
In Scandinavia, "the PVC debate is
very high. There is a high awareness of
plasticizers [additives to PVC] leaching
into food, especially fatty food such as
meat and cheese," says Beverley Thorpe
of the toxics division of Greenpeace. The
governments of Denmark, Sweden, and
Switzerland have banned PVC use in
packaging, which accounts for 10
percent of PVC production. Consumer
groups in the Netherlands, Austria,
Luxembourg, and Germany have
successfully lobbied industry to follow
suit. In Switzerland and Italy, attention
has also focused on the danger of
transporting the PVC precursor vinyl
chloride, which is highly explosive and
IKEA, a major Swedish furniture
company, recently announced that it
will phase out PVC in its products,
except for essential uses such as
electrical cords in some lamps, where no
good substitute is available. Grenaa
Hospital in Denmark cut PVC use by 75
percent and is continuing to look for
alternatives to keep PVC out of the
hospital incinerator.
PVC producers are promoting
recycling as an alternative to source
reduction, but environmental activists
point out that the plastic loses quality in
the process, making recycled PVC
unsuitable for most PVC applications.
The PVC debate is nowhere near as
lively in the U.S., Canada, and the
United Kingdom as it is in Scandinavia
and the German-speaking countries. "I
expect a snowballing of public concern
against PVC in the English-speaking
world as the information from Europe
becomes available in English," says
Greenpeace's Thorpe.
In other locally based environmental
efforts, 200 cities in Germany and 60 in
the Netherlands have stopped buying
tropical timber, according to an article
in the May/June 1991 issue of Sierra.
Closer to home, local legislation is
reportedly on the rise as well. Follow-
ing the lead of Irvine, CA which passed
a law in 1989 banning the manufacture
and use of CFCs and other ozone-
depleters within city limits, similar
ordinances have been passed in Denver
Ft. Collins, Littleton, and Greenwood
Village in Colorado; Newark, NJ;
Independence, OR; New Britain, CT,
and Toronto, Ontario.
—Judith K. Rosenthal

December 1991
5 - Pollution Prevention News
Pollution Prevention 1991
EPA Issues Report on
Industrial Toxics
Encouraging signs of progress can be
seen in the industrial pollution preven-
tion arena, but available data do not
permit a quantitative estimate of
national source reduction, according to
a report just issued by EPA's Office of
Pollution Prevention. The report,
Pollution Prevention 1991: Progress on
Reducing Industrial Pollutants discusses
nationwide trends in industrial pollu-
tion prevention. This is the first compre-
hensive examination EPA has done of
programs and policies in industry,
federal, state and local governments,
academia, and public organizations.
Detailed analyses of state legislation and
programs as well as industrial case
studies are included. The report also
contains a brief review of progress in
pollution prevention in non-industrial
The report reviews data collected
under EPA's Toxics Release Inventory,
Hazardous Waste Generator Survey,
Green Taxes
from page 4
the federal Toxic Release Inventory
(TRI) and other selected large quantity
generators are assessed the fees.
Minnesota reports that toxic chemical
releases decreased to 66 million pounds in
1990 from more than 80 million pounds in
1989, a drop that "in part is related to the
special emphasis Minnesota is putting on
preventing pollution at its source," says
Kevin McDonald of Minnesota's Office of
Waste Management. "There's been an
amazing amount of cooperation and
compliance. Minnesota industry is
interested in working with state govern-
ment to reduce pollution."
Also in Minnesota, a pending bill
would implement weight- or volume-
based waste fees as a means of encour-
aging packagers and packaging materi-
als suppliers to recycle more waste and
to encourage them to shift away from
nonrecyclable materials. The bill, which
and Hazardous Waste Biennial Report,
as well as data from the Chemical
Manufacturers Association's annual
survey and three surveys conducted by
the American Petroleum Institute. The
data bases cover widely differing
universes of facilities and pollutants,
were started at different times, and do
not have many years of data available.
The report attempts to link the informa-
tion in the various databases in order to
make inferences about the facilities
In assessing waste reduction progress
with currently available data, the
authors note, adjusting for production
levels is a complex task and not always
appropriate. Factors other than produc-
tion quantity can also influence waste
quantity, and meaningful production
ratios can be difficult to calculate in a
complex, multi-product facility. The
report notes that future data collection
mandated by the Pollution Prevention
has been laid over for interim study
before the next legislative session,
would impose fees on the first importer
into the state of a selected list of toxic
materials that are used in products and
packaging. The bill also would impose a
fee on packaging with low levels of
recycled material, to be paid by the
person who ships to or bills to a person
in Minnesota. Proponents are looking to
the bill to help the state achieve a 25
percent reduce in the amount of dis-
carded packaging by July 1994.
States may be taking a lesson from
federal practices. Taxes levied by
Congress on ozone depleting chemicals
during the phase-out period as part of
the 1989 Budget Reconciliation Act are
credited with producing immediate
reductions in U.S. CFC production.
— Teresa Opheim
Act, coupled with current TRI informa-
tion and the RCRA biennial reports,
should allow a more complete assess-
ment of pollution prevention efforts.
The report also contains the first
listing ever compiled of university
programs related to pollution preven-
tion. Some 50 programs are included,
with information on external funding
sources, emphasis, and activities.
Universities have become increasingly
active in research activities in pollution
prevention, technical assistance to local
business, and collaborative efforts to
integrate pollution prevention into
academic curricula.
To order a copy of the report, please
fill out and mail in the coupon below or
call the Pollution Prevention Informa-
tion Clearinghouse at 703-821-4800.
I	1
I Name:	 I
| Address:	 |
State	Zip	
Please send a copy of Pollution
Prevention 1991: Progress on Reduc-
ing Industrial Pollutants.
Mail to:
The National Report
Pollution Prevention Division
U.S. EPA (PM-222B)
401 M Street SW
Washington, D.C. 20460
Pollution Prevention 1991
Progress on Reducing
Industrial Pollutants

Pollution Prevention News - 6
December 1 991
Scoping Out Prevention
Needs, Opportunities
A new report, Industrial Pollution
Prevention Opportunities for the 1990s
(EPA/600/8-91 /052), prepared by the
Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
of EPA's Office of Research and Devel-
opment, identifies 17 industries or major
industry segments that are considered
most likely to make a significant
contribution to pollution prevention.
The opinions of a panel of 25 experts
were used to identify these industries,
which range from plastics to printing to
automobile refinishing and repair.
Presented in the report is a synopsis
of information produced from studies
of each of the 17 areas. The information
includes specific environmental prob-
lems present, pollution prevention
efforts underway, and opportunities
for applying new technologies and
procedures. The investigation also
yielded the following list of generic,
cross industry pollution prevention
•	VOC control (recovery technology)
•	CFC substitutes
•	Oil-water separation
•	Improved seals for pumps and valves
•	Equipment modifications
•	Improved operational testing
(process baths, etc.)
•	Small-scale recovery for recycling
•	Inventory control techniques for
pollution prevention
•	Metal degreasing
•	Acid recovery
•	Boiler waste reduction
•	Adsorption systems for regeneration
and recovery
•	Industrial process scrap metal waste
Because of the wide applicability of
these technologies and the large poten-
tial for pollution prevention, the report
recommends that these research areas
receive significant priority for EPA-
supported research efforts.
Copies of the report are available from
CERI, U.S. EPA, 26 W. Martin Luther
King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268.
Also Available
From the Office of Pollution
EPA's Pollution Prevention Benefits
Manual, Phase II, assists managers
in calculating the true costs of
current materials and waste man-
agement practices and then evaluat-
ing the financial paybacks of
pollution prevention alternatives.
For copies, contact the Pollution
Prevention Information Clearing-
house, 703-821-4800.
From the Pollution
Prevention Research Branch:
Six more Guides to Pollution Preven-
tion cover photoprocessing (EPA/
625/7-91 /012); automotive repair
(EPA/625/7-91/013); fiberglass-
reinforced and composite plastics
(EPA/625/7-91/014); marine
maintenance and repair (EPA/625/
7-91 /015); automotive refinishing |
(EPA/625/7-91/016); and pharma-
ceuticals (EPA/625/7-91/017). For
copies, contact: CERI Publications
Unit, U.S. EPA, 26 W. Martin Luther
King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268
Army Issues Materiel Developers Guide for Pollution Prevention
The United States Army Acquisition
Pollution Prevention Support Office
(AAPPSO) has produced a draft Mate-
riel Developers Guide for Pollution
Prevention. The guide is intended to
provide members of the Army acquisi-
tion community with an introduction to
pollution prevention. The ultimate
program goal is to infuse pollution
prevention technologies and methodolo-
gies early in the design phase and
thereafter into every phase of the
Army's weapons/materiel acquisition
The new guide provides the materiel
acquisition developer with a detailed,
step-by-step approach leading to the
development and execution of an
Acquisition Pollution Prevention
Program that will address environmen-
tal considerations throughout the
system's life-cycle, from concept
exploration through demilitarization.
Guidelines for developing and
managing an Environmental Manage-
ment Team (EMT) are provided. The
EMT concept is central to the successful
development and execution of the
Acquisition Pollution Prevention
Program. Selection criteria for EMT
staff, a suggested team management
approach, and a discussion of available
training resources (including points-of-
contact) are also provided.
The Army's pollution prevention
approach to acquisition emphasizes that
prevention is a continuous improve-
ment and decision-making process.
However, design modifications to
minimize environmental impact on
already-fielded systems are far more
difficult and costly than design modifi-
cations to reduce pollution from a
conceptual or on-paper design. The
Army's acquisition pollution prevention
program goes beyond compliance and
attempts to reduce hazardous materials
usage to the lowest technologically
achievable levels.
For more information regarding
AAPPSO and the Guide, please contact
Luis Garcia-Baco at the Headquarters
Army Materiel Command, 703-274-0815.

December 1991
7 - Pollution Prevention News
Chesapeake Bay Accord Stresses Prevention
A renewed effort to save the Chesa-
peake Bay — the nation's largest estuary
— was the purpose of a new agreement
by a partnership of federal and state
senior officials. The accord was signed on
August 6 by the Chesapeake Executive
Council. The Council is comprised of the
Administrator of U.S. EPA, the governors
of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia,
the Mayor of Washington, D.C., and the
Chairman of the Chesapeake Bay Com-
mission (a legislative Representative).
The Four Point Strategic Directions
Agreement identifies the future thrust
and direction of the Chesapeake Bay
Program. The following goals, which
were accompanied by an action agenda
for implementation, summarize Bay
Program direction.
(1) Accelerate the rate of nutrient reduc-
tion in the Chesapeake Bay water-
shed, with a reevaluation of the
current 40% reduction goal and new
emphasis on nitrogen reductions.
2) Adopt pollution prevention as the
preferred approach for reducing
ecological and human health risks.
Action items include developing
state-specific Growth Management
Plans to promote sustainable
development, promoting EPA's
Green Lights and 33/50 programs,
D.C. Mayor Sharon Pratt Dixon signs agreement; from left, Governor William Schaefer (Met.), EPA
Administrator William Reilly, Governor Robert Casey (Pa.), Governor Douglas Wilder (Va.), and
Delegate Tayloe Murphy, Jr.
expanded urban IPM (integrated
pest management) programs, and
increasing the availability of infor-
mation on the Bay to local decision-
(3)	Restoring and enhancing the Bay's
fish, shellfish, and waterfowl, as well
as their habitats, including setting
measurable goals for living re-
sources and habitat restoration.
(4)	Broadening public participation in
the Bay program.
A summary of the Bay Program's
restoration efforts to date released in the
Bay Program's latest Progress Report
noted a 20% reduction in phosphorus
levels since 1985; a return of underwater
grasses to Bay shorelines; a significant
increase in the striped bass (or "rockfish")
population; and a 94% compliance rate for
federal facilities located in the Bay basin.
For more information, contact
Thomas McCully in the Chesapeake Bay
Program Office, 301-267-0061.
Presidential Award Winners Announced
On October 31, President Bush an-
nounced the winners of the President's
Environment and Conservation Chal-
lenge Awards, calling them "the new
generation of environmental entrepre-
neurs." In the category of Partnerships,
awarded for fostering cooperative ap-
proaches to environmental concerns, the
Virginia Coast Reserve was named for
working with dozens of government
agencies, citizen groups, and local resi-
dents to protect 40,000 acres of undevel-
oped barrier islands on the Atlantic
McDonald's Corporation and the En-
vironmental Defense Fund shared an
award for their task force aimed at dra-
matically reducing solid waste at Mc-
Donald's 8,500 restaurants. Also named
was the Marine Resources Council for
working with governments, businesses,
and civic groups to manage both the eco-
nomic and environmental values of the
Indian River Lagoon in Eastern Florida.
Winners in the category of Environ-
mental Quality Management included
Pacific Gas and Electric Company for
its programs to increase energy effi-
ciency, develop environmentally pre-
ferred technologies, and promote the
use of clean fuels; and The Los Angeles
Times for its recycling and conserva-
tion efforts as one of the nation's largest
consumers of recycled newsprint.
Other winners included: the Ameri-
can Farmland Trust for its several hun-
dred sustainable agriculture programs
in the Midwest; the Tufts Environmen-
tal Literacy Institute for integrating en-
vironmental values into university cur-
ricula; the Environmental Media Asso-
ciation for encouraging the entertain-
ment industry to incorporate environ-
mental messages into TV programs and
films; and Project Wild for its conserva-
tion programs that have reached more
than 20 million young people nation-

Pollution Prevention News - 8
December 1991
Pollution Prevention Through
Waste Minimization
National Environmental
Health Association
Feb. 9-12,1992
Denver, CO
Tel: 303-756-9090
Fax: 303-691-9490
Pollution Prevention
Dade County, Fla. Assn.
of Env. Professionals
Feb. 19,1992
Miami, FL
Jose Lopez
Pollution Prevention Regulatory
Update, Technical Strategies
Government Institutes, Inc.
Mar. 4-6,1992
Orlando, FL
Terri Green
Globe '92
Gov't, of Canada
Mar. 16-20,1992
Vancouver, BC
Tel: 604-666-8020
Fax: 604-666-8123
Southwestern Regional Solid
Waste Symposium
Mar. 31-Apr. 2,1992
Oklahoma City, OK
Brad Roberges
Environ. Virginia Symposium:
Pollution Prevention &
Economic Implications
VMI Research
Labs, Inc.
April 7-8,1992
Lexington, VA
14th Annual Conference
and Workshop
National Environmental
Training Association
Apr. 26-29,1992
Boston, MA
C.L. Richardson
33/50 Program
"the Pollution Prevention Research
Branch is holding a series of one-day symposiums to explore
reducing 33/50 chemicals in selected industries. Still to come
in 1992:
Feb. 6, Atlanta GA — Furniture finishing; food processing;
wood processing; textile dyeing.
April 9, Edison, NJ — Metal finishing and fabrication;
printing; industrial organic coatings.
Contact: Andrew Weisman, 513-252-1222.
U.S. EPA/Netherlands
On May 10-15,1992, EPA and the Netherlands Ministry of
Housing, Physical Planning, and Environment will jointly
sponsor an International Symposium on Pollution Prevention:
Comparative Risk Analysis and Priority Setting, to be held in
Denver, CO. Major topics include: health and ecological risk
assessment, global and regional risk ranking, pollution
prevention technology and priorities. Contact: Mary Bourassa,
SAIC, 703-734-3198.
Symposiums	\
Please send mailing label and new address to:
United States Environmental
Protection Agency (PM-222B)
Washington, DC 20460
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300