FORKING PAPER NO.
•,P.A.-910-8-7«-©9>7
.WATER QUALITY DATA DURING
SEPTEMBER 10-13, 1974 AT WARD COVE
AMD TONGASS NARROWS, ALASKA
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION
AGENCY
ALASKA
OPERATIONS OFFICE
AND REGION X
SURVEILLANCE AND
ANALYSIS DIVISION
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

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WATER QUALITY DATA DURING
SEPTEMBER 10-13, 1974
AT
WARD COVE AND TONGASS NARROWS, ALASKA
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
ALASKA OPERATIONS OFFICE
ANCHORAGE, ALASKA
AND
REGION X, SURVEILLANCE AND ANALYSIS DIViKCON
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
APRIL 1975

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This report has been reviewed by EPA
Region X and Is approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views
and policies of EPA, nor does mention
of trade names or commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation
for use.
A working paper presents results of investi-
gation which are, to some extent, limited
or incomplete. Therefore, conclusions —
expressed or Implied — may be tentative.

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CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION 		1
Problem		1
Purpose ..... 		2
Scope of Study		4
Authority 							4
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 		5
STUDY AREA		9
General'Description 		9
Climatic Conditions 	 .........	10
Oceanography 		11
Water Uses	12
Previous Studies 	 ..... 		12
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS		16
SAMPLING PROGRAM	18
Sampling Stations ..... 	 .........	19
Sampling Periods 		19
Methods	21
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION		23
Temperature and Salinity 		23
Sulfite Waste Liquor 	 	 .....	25
Dissolved Oxygen	32
pH	36
Color			36
Chemical Aspects of Bottom Deposits 		37
Visual and Biological Aspects of Bottom Deposits ...	40
REFERENCES CITED 		43
APPENDIX TABLES	44

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LIST OF FIGURES
Ft qure	Desert ption	Page
1	Tongass Narrows and Ward Cove	9
2	The Ward Cove - Tongass Narrows Study Area
and location of Sampling Stations (the area
to the right of the dotted ITre depicts
distribution of Sutffte Waste Liquor).	20

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LIST OF TABLES
Table Description	Page
1	Temperature, salinity, and density with depth
in meters at Stations 8 and II	24
2	Sulfite Waste Liquor concentrations (mg/l)
with depth in meters in Ward Cove 4 Tongass
Narrows Sept 10, 1974 0930 - 1300 Hrs.	26
1500 - 1900 Hrs.	27
Sept II, 1974 1600 - 1900 Hrs.	28
Sept 12, 1974 1200 - 1600	29
3	Dissolved Oxygen concentrations (mg/l) at
I meter in Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows 9/74	33
4	Ward Cove Sediment Analysis 9/13/74	38
APPENDIX TABLES
IA Salinity with depth (meters) in Ward Cove and
Tongass Narrows 9/10/74 0930 - 1300 Hrs.
IB Temperature	"	"
2A Sulfite Waste Liquor concentrations (mg/l)
with depth (meters) In Ward Cove and Tongass
Narrows, 1968 - 1969
45
46
47
3A Dissolved Oxygen
(meters) In Ward
9/10/74 0930 -
concentrations (mg/l) with depth
Cove and Tongass Narrows
1250 Hrs.
49
9/11/74
1555 - 1830 Hrs.
1600 - 1900 Hrs.
4A Dissolved Oxygen concentrations (mg/l) at selected
depths (meters) in Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows
1968 - 1969
50
51
52
5A Secchi disk (20CM) measurements in meters
for Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows 9/10/74 0900-1300 54

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INTRODUCTION
Problem
A study was made in September 1974 of the estuarine waters of
Ward Cove and the adjacent marine waters of Tongass Narrows which
are influenced by the wastewater discharges from the Ketchikan Pulp
Mill Company, located a few miles north of the community of Ketchikan,
Alaska. The Ketchikan Pulp Company operates a magnesium base bisul-
fate process pulp mill at this cove. Production over the past few
years haB varied from 580 - 615 tons of dried dissolving grade pulp
per day.
Prior to 1971, some strong waste liquors were periodically dis-
charged without treatment as a routine practice, one not uncommon in
the pulping industry at this time. Since then, the mill has installed
storage facilities to retain all strong liquors for subsequent re-use.
Current wastewater processing consists of primary treatment, screening
then burning of woodroom waste solids, and chemical recovery units
that collect, concentrate, and bum strong pulping liquors. In the
latter process most (90+%) magnesium oxide and sulfur dioxide are
recovered for re-use. About 42 million gallons per day (mgd) of pulp
processing wastewater are discharged to Ward CoveE. Approximately 15
mgd are provided primary treatment for solids removal prior to dis-
charge. Sewage wastes are given secondary treatment, then discharged
to Ward Cove subsequent to chlorination. The pulping wastewaters
contain.significant quantities of sulfite waste liquors and have a
high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), even though the BOD is reduced
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as a consequence of removal of much settleable solids in the primary
wastewater treatment process.
The effectB of the Ketchikan Pulp Company's discharges on water
quality in Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows were investigated in 1968
and 1969 by the Federal Water Quality Administration in cooperation
with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Interpretation of data from
this investigation and from earlier studies by the State of Alaska
and the Federal Water Quality Administration established the signifi-
cance of degradation of water quality in Ward Cove and the adjacent
waters of Tongass Narrows that had been caused by long term discharge
of inadequately treated pulp mill wastes (1).
A primary treatment plant for removal of solids from pulp pro-
cessing wastewaters was installed and began operation in early 1973,
and a secondary treatment facility for treatment of sewage wastewaters
was constructed and put into operation in mid 1973.
Additionally, a log-bundle transfer facility, which lifts bundled
logs from the water to a "dry" deck for subsequent processing, was
installed and began operation in 1973. This facility has reduced the
amount of bark solids previously deposited in the northeast corner of
Ward Cove.
Purpose
The waters of Ward Cove and the contiguous reaches of Tongass
Narrows had not been sampled by a water quality regulatory agency
since the installation of present wastewater treatment systems at
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the pulp mill. The brief study reported herein was undertaken to
determine the present quality of the waste receiving waters and to
determine the improvements, if any, that have occurred in water
quality as a result of the installation of a primary treatment system
for the removal of settleable solids from the pulp processing waste-
waters at the mill. No attempt was made to assay the effect of
installation and operation of the ®illfs secondary sewage treatment
facility on water quality.
It should be pointed out that a seafood processing plant (can-
nery), the Ward Cove Packing Company, also discharges wastewater to
Ward Cove, and that no attempt was made to evaluate the effect of
its present discharges, which are only seasonal, on water quality.
This facility is located near the mouth of Ward Cove, on the side
opposite the pulp mill. The following questions were answered in
whole or in part as a result of this study:
1.	What is the present water quality in Ward Cove and Tongass
Narrows compared to previous studies, and to the Alaska
Water Quality Standards criteria for dissolved oxygen, pH,
residues, sludge deposits, and toxic substances?
2.	What improvements in water quality, if any, have occurred
since installation and operation of a primary treatment
system by the Ketchikan Pulp Mill Company for the removal
of settleable solids from its pulp processing wastewaters?
3.	What is the magnitude of the area of Ward Cove and TongasB
Narrows that is affected by sulfite waste liquors discharged
from the pulp mill?
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Scope of Study
Chemical, physical, and very limited biological data were col-
lected from Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows concurrently while a routine
in-plant monitoring survey was made of the Ketchikan Pulp Company mill.
No attempt is made herein to relate the findings of the in-plant study
with those of the receiving water surveys. Both were accomplished
during the week of September 9-12, 1974. In the receiving waters,
primary efforts were made to collect temperature, salinity, dissolved
oxygen, conductivity, pH, and sulfite waste liquor data.
Bottom samples in the study area were collected to determine
visual presence of settleable solids in the form of pulp fibers as
recently formed sludge mats, if any; for chemical composition to
assay stage of decomposition of sludge formations known to be present
during previous studies; and for general biological information per-
taining to macroscopic (readily visible) plants or animals that might
inhabit the bottom deposits. No sanples were obtained to evaluate
floating or suspended microscopic plant or animal populations.
Authority
Section 104 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments
of 1972 authorize the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency to conduct studies relating to the causes, control, and
prevention of water pollution.
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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
A brief water quality survey was conducted in the estuarine
waters of Ward Cove and the adjacent marine waters of Tongass Narrows
near Ketchikan, Alaska, during the week of September 9, 1974 to deter-
mine the present influences of waste discharges from the Ketchikan
Pulp Mill Company following the installation and operation of its
primary treatment system for pulping wastewaters, and to assay any
improvements in these receiving waters as a consequence of equipping
the mill with this treatment facility. Data obtained from 9 stations
in Ward Cove and 9 stations in Tongass Narrows consisted primarily of
measurements for sulfite waste liquor, dissolved oxygen, temperature,
pE, conductivity, and salinity at depths of 1, 7, 10, and 12 meters,
and chemical, visual, and biological examination of bottom deposits.
Additionally, Secchi disc measurements were made at each of the 18
stations in the survey area.
The Alaska Water Quality Standards criterion for dissolved oxygen
in marine waters is 6.0 mg/1. Data from the September 1974 water qual-
ity survey reveal that:
1.	about 24% (63) of all samples (266) had less than 6.0 mg/1
of dissolved oxygen (D.O.);
2.	69% of all surface samples (1 meter) had D.O. values that
did not exceed 6.0 mg/1;
3.	within Ward Cove the D.O. was less than 6.0 mg/1 85% of
the time in the top 1-meter layer;
4.	about 37% of all samples (surface and at depth) in Ward
Cove had less than 6.0 mg/1, with D.O. below 6,0 mg/1 in
75% of the samples at Station 1 where the D.O. was observed
to be 1.0 mg/1 on one occasion;
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5. no perceptible major improvements in the dissolved oxygen
concentrations of Ward Cove and the adjacent waters of
Tongass Narrows since the 1968-1969 study based on com-
parisons of the average dissolved oxygen values found in
Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows surface samples (1-meter)
and on comparisons of the average dissolved oxygen for
these waters at all depths through 12 meters.
The same standards criterion for toxic substances in marine waters
is that their concentrations shall be less than those levels which cause
tainting of fish, less than acute or chronic problem levels as revealed
by bioassay or other appropriate methods, and below concentrations
affecting the ecological balance. Sulfite waste liquors at concentra-
tions of 50 mg/1 are toxic to phytoplankton and fishfood organisms; at
concentrations of 10 mg/1, they are damaging to some immature forms of
j|^>
shellfish. Data from the survey reveal that:
1.	sulfite waste liquor (SWL) concentrations of 50 mg/1
occurred in 21% (54) of all samples (257) taken at the
1, 7, 10, and 12 meter depths and 32% of all samples had
SWL concentrations of 10 or more mg/1;
2.	82% of all surface samples had more than 50 mg/1 of SWL,
and 92% had more than 10 mg/1;
3.	100% of the near-surface stations in the 2.0 square mile
study area had concentrations of 50 or more mg/1 of SWL
at one time or another during the survey period, and 10
mg/1 concentrations of SWL were observed throughout the
1-meter depth during the September survey period or 97%
of the time, except in only two instances, once each at
Stations 2 and 15 which are subjected to strong flushing
action and/or extensive dilution;
4.	the average concentration of SWL in the surface waters of
Ward Cove (242 mg/1) was significantly higher than in those
of Tongass Narrows (109 mg/1);
Forty-eight hour bioassays of effects of magnesium oxide base sulfite
waste liquor show a 20% mean response at a concentration of 40 mg/1,
but concentrations as low as 10 mg/1 have produced toxic responses in
as much as 5% of some populations sampled.
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5.	no perceptible major improvements in the magnitude of
concentrations of sulfite waste liquor concentrations in
Ward Cove and the adjacent waters of Tongass Narrows since
the 1968-1969 study, as based on the general similarities
in SWL concentrations during the two surveys;
6.	red (strong) waste liquors were periodically discharged
as a routine practice, one not uncommon in the pulping
industry during the 1968-1969 study period. This prac-
tice had been discontinued by the time of the September
1974 survey; the absence of such discharges therefore may
account for the occasionally very high sulfite waste
liquor concentrations (more than 1000 mg/1) found during
the 1968-1969 study compared to those measured in Septem-
ber 1974 (less than 1000 mg/1). Thus the lower sulfite
waste liquor concentrations found during the 1974 sampling
period, that is, always less than 1000 mg/1, probably
reflects a minor improvement in the cove as far as sulfite
waste liquor is concerned.
The quality of waters in the survey area in relation to the stan-
dards criteria for pH was not determined because of malfunctions in the
sampling equipment soon after the beginning of the survey. The five
measurements made for pH in the upper reaches of Ward Cove, however,
were within the standards criteria of 7.5 - 8.5.
Previous studies of these waters showed that the bottom deposits
in much of the study area, particularly Ward Cove, consisted of sludge,
but chemical analysis to characterize these deposits were not made.
Such analysis for the 1974 survey showed very high concentrations of
organic nitrogen (3.6 to 7.5 g/kg) and total sulfides (1.5 to 4.3 g/kg).
The chemical oxygen demand ranged from 147 to 655 g/kg, and the volatile
solids ranged from 11.1 to 46.9% at the 8 bottom stations that were
chemically analyzed. Sludge was found at all other stations in Ward
Cove and at Stations 10, 11, and 12 in Tongass Narrows, as visually
determined.
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Visual and biological observations of the bottom deposits and
surface waters showed no hydrogen sulfide bubbles in the Ward Cove
area; these undoubtedly were present during the 1968-1969 study but
not reported. Small mats of sludge and pulp fibers observed in
surface reaches of Ward Cove near mill outfalls were not observed
during the 1974 survey. Polychaete worms, not of frequent occur-
rence in the samples from the 1968-1969 study, were noted at all
but two stations, 1 and 6, in Ward Cove during the 1974 survey.
Thus, it was apparent that some improvement had occurred in the
bottom deposits, even though there were no major improvements else-
where in the study area.
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STUDY AREA
General Description
Ward Cove is an estuary located about 5 miles northwest of
Ketchikan (Figure 1), connecting with Tongass Narrows. The cove is
about 0.5 of a mile at its widest point and 1 mile long; it is 0.3
of a mile wide at its mouth where the water is about 55 meters deep,
becoming relatively shallow at the head of the cove with a general
depth of 5 to 10 meters. The cove has an area of about 0.46 square
miles. Ward Cove enters at the head of the cove and is the principal
source of fresh water.
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Much smaller streams enter the cove along the south shore. Ward
Greek is regulated by a dam, and the associated reservoir, Lake Connell,
is a water supply for the mill.
Development around Ward Cove, other than the Ketchikan Pulp Com-
pany and the Ward Cove Packing Company, consists of an abandoned fish
reduction plant and a few homes located near the head of the cove and
along its south shore.
Climatic Conditions
The Ketchikan-Ward Cove area is in the cold maritime belt of
Southeastern Alaska. Average rainfall is 150 inches annually, and
annual snowfall is less than 50 inches. Prevailing winds blow from
the southeast and occasionally from the northwest. The mean low tem-
perature for January is 28°F, and the mean high is 38°F. Ice rarely
forms on the marine waters of Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows.
The input of non-brackish water to the cove comes mainly from
the mill outfalls and Ward Creek. The flow of wastewater from the
pulp mill is about 42 million gallons per day (mgd), or 57 cubic feet
per second (cfs). Ward Creek in 1957 had a yearly mean discharge of
46 cfs, with a maximum flow of 1200 cfs and a minimum of 0.8 cfs. The
discharge of water from Ward Creek is partially dependent on pulp
mill water use since the reservoir near the head of the stream serves
as the pulp mill water source. The daily water input to Ward Cove
fluctuates between 1296 and 69.8 cfs with an average daily input of
115 cfs from both mill and natural sources. Watershed flow retention
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is moderate because of great amounts of precipitation and steep gra-
dient of the watershed.
Oceanography
In marine waters of northern latitudes, annual variations in
temperature and salinity cause seasonally characteristic density pro-
files throughout the water column. Typically, during fall and early
winter, the surface waters cool, become more dense than subsurface
waters, and sink, causing complete vertical mixing. In winter,
intense storms increase horizontal mixing. Tidal ranges at Ketchikan
vary from a maximum high tide of 18.8 feet to a minimum low tide of
minus 4.1 feet. A non-tidal current flows northwesterly through
Tongass Narrows (2) past the mouth of Ward Cove. This current plus
the tidal current produce a net current with a velocity of 1.2 knots
during flood tide stages, then decreases to near zero during tidal
ebb. Current measurements made in Ward Cove show a strong influence
from eddies formed by the flow of water in Tongass Narrows past the
cove. This suggests that dispersal of deeper waters from Ward Cove
is largely by the slow process of eddy diffusion below the surface
layer.
In the Ward Cove estuary, a surface layer of fresh water and
mill effluent, which is less dense than the subsurface layers, results
in the establishment of a stratified layer that persists throughout
the winter and following summer. This stratification is sufficiently
well developed so that vertical mixing is greatly inhibited. The
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concentration of pollutants in Ward Cove and adjacent waters generally
are less in winter than in summer because of the increased rate of
transfer from Ward Cove to Tongass Narrows as a result of the intense
winter storms and the high runoff from Ward Creek.
Water Uses
Prior to the establishment of the pulp mill, Ward Cove served as
a fish passage zone and nursery area. Some young salmon from Ward Creek
still pass through the cove and sustain a small run, but the cove has
been and appears to continue to be sufficiently polluted to preclude
its use as a nursery area. Adult salmon utilize the deep waters of
the cove where little sulfite waste liquor (SWL) occurs. It is doubtful
they do more than pass through the area. Food organisms for salmon
have been significantly reduced.
The recreational uses of Ward Cove have been reduced to limited
sport fishing for salmon. Log rafts often occupy as much as one half
of the cove, and access for fishing thus is curtailed.
Previous Studies
Water quality data for Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows collected
between October 1, 1951 and September 30, 1952 (3), prior to construc-
tion of the pulp mill, show that the dissolved oxygen in surface water
varied from a low of 7.8 milligrams per liter (mg/1) during the winter
to nearly 12 mg/1 during the spring. At the 50-foot depth, dissolved
oxygen varied from 7.8 to over 10 mg/1. The five-day biochemical
oxygen demand (BOD) was less than 2 mg/1, a value typical of clean
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waters. At the time of the 1951-1952 surveys, the only wastes dis-
charged to Ward Cove were from the seasonally operated cannery and
the fish wastes reduction plant. Water quality degradation from
these facilities was highly localized and mostly seasonal, and was
evidenced by reduced populations of aquatic life. Other portions of
the cove, however, supported a great variety of marine organisms
indicative of clean waters.
Data from unpublished reports from the State of Alaska document
the onset of water quality deterioration in Ward Cove between 1952
and 1960, after the Ketchikan Pulp Company began discharging wastes
(4). Biological data in these reports show a decline in the number
and kinds of marine organisms, and sludge accumulation with associated
putrescent odors of hydrogen sulfide.
Studies conducted during August 1965 (5) revealed extremely high
sulfite waste liquor (SWL) concentrations throughout the surface waters
of Ward Cove. The threshold toxicity (50 mg/1) of SWL to salmon fin-
gerlings, herring, candlefish, euphausids, copepods, and myaids was
exceeded. The study also showed significantly less dissolved oxygen
in Ward Cove than in Tongass Narrows. The decrease ranged from 4.7
to 1.5 mg/1 at the surface, 0.6 to 1.6 mg/1 at the 10-meter depth,
and 1.0 to 2.5 mg/1 at the 40-meter depth. Such degradation was
attributed to the combination of effluent biochemical oxygen demand,
sludge-bed BOD, and the inhibiting effect of pulp mill wastes on
phytoplankton. Throughout much of the cove the dissolved oxygen
levels were less than the recommended value (6 mg/1) at the time of
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the study. The pH ranged from 6.94 to 7.12 units in the cove, and
in Tongass Narrows from 7.68 to 8.02. The Ward Cove pH values were
below those for unpolluted sea-waters, and were caused by the com-
bined effects of a low pH. effluent diluted into the surface waters,
excessive carbon dioxide production from biochemical waste decomposi-
tion, and reduced photosynthesis, a process that produces oxygen
during daylight periods as a result of green plant activity (phyto-
plankton and other marine plants) in the water.
The 1968-1969 study by the Federal Water Quality Administration
(1) showed that the level of treatment (chemical recovery process)
provided by the Ketchikan Pulp Company was insufficient to assure
compliance with the existing Alaska Water Quality Standards (6). At
that time, wastewater treatment was essentially not existent except
for chemical recovery systems for partial recapture and ultimate recy-
cling of magnesium oxide and sulfur dioxide. Sanitary wastes were
discharged untreated and non-chlorinated to Ward Cove.
Of 276 samples taken in the top 20 meter layer of the area studied
from May 1968 through May 1969, 50% had sulfite waste liquor concentra-
tions greater than 44 mg/1, 35% had greater than 100 mg/1, and 11%
greater than 500 mg/1 (SWL at a concentration of 10 mg/1 iB damaging
to the immature forms of several kinds of indigenous fishes and
shellfish important in the food chain involving salmon and mankind).
The typically high concentrations of SWL were found primarily in the
upper 5 meters of water and were persistent in all of Ward Cove and
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involved significant reaches of Tongass Narrows. The study area
affected by high SWL concentrations (50 or more mg/1) amounted to
1.4 square miles.
The 1968-1969 study also showed that dissolved oxygen concen-
trations were reduced throughout the entire surface waters of Ward
Cove to a depth of 15 meters and in the surface waters adjacent to
the mouth of the cove in Tongass Narrows to a depth of one meter
during the October 1968 sampling period. Of 413 dissolved oxygen
measurements taken at depths up to 40 meters from May 1968 through
May 1969,.37% were below the minimum acceptable criterion of 6.0 mg/1.
Additionally, of 336 measurements made in the upper 29 meters of water,
35% were less than the 6.0 mg/l criterion. These substantially-reduced
dissolved oxygen findings were attributed to inadequately treated
wastewater discharges from the pulp mill. Such discharges had high
concentrations of sulfite waste liquor and substantial quantities of
settleable solids (primarily lost wood fibers from the pulp refining
process) that resulted in sludge deposits. The decomposition of these
wastes exerted a tremendous demand on the oxygen resources of Ward Cove
and Tongass Narrows and reduced the oxygen in the water.
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WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
The present Alaska Water Quality Standards (7) designate the
marine waters of the state, Including Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows,
as Class C, D, E, and G. Beneficial uses of marine waters include
water contact recreation, industrial water supply, growth and
propagation of aquatic life and waterfowl, fur-bearers, and other
water-associated life. The standards criteria associated with
marine waters that are of particular interest in this report are
those for dissolved oxygen, residues in the form of floating solids
and sludge deposits, and toxic substances. Of the various classi-
fications, Class D and E have the most stringent criteria:
Dissolved Oxygen
Class D - greater than 6 mg/1 in salt water.
Class E - greater than 6 mg/1 in the larvae stage. Greater
than 5 mg/1 In the adult stage.
Residues
Class D - residues may not make the receiving water unfit or
unsafe for the uses of this classification; nor cause a film
or sheen upon, or discoloration of, the surface of the water
or adjoining shoreline; nor cause a sludge or emulsion to be
deposited beneath or upon the surface of the water, within the
water column, on the bottom or upon adjoining shorelines. Resi-
dues shall be less than those levels which cause tainting of
fish or other organisms and less than acute or chronic problems
as determined by bioassay.
Class E - same as Class D.
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Toxic Substances
Class D - concentrations shall be less than those levels which
cause tainting of fish, less than acute or chronic problem levels
as revealed by bioassay or other appropriate methods and below
concentrations affecting the ecological balance.
Class E - same as Class D.
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SAMPLING PROGRAM
As stated earlier, the sampling of the waters of Ward Cove and
Tongass Narrows was done while routine in-plant surveys of the pulp
mill were being conducted. The receiving water sampling was conducted
to determine the improvements, if any, in water quality since the mill's
installation and operation of its primary treatment plant for pulp
processing wastewaters. Sufficient data were available from previous
studies to compare with the 1974 findings reported herein to assay the
magnitude of any significant improvements in water quality as related
to the Alaska Water Quality Standards.
Previous studies revealed that degradation of water quality
occurred primarily in the top 10 meters of water. For this reason,
and because it was believed that any gross improvements in water qual-
ity would first be apparent in these upper water reaches, the 1974
sampling program for dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, conductivity,
and sulfite waste liquor was restricted to the top 12 meters of water
in Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows. Additionally, the bottom deposits
were also sampled for the same reasons. Chemical tests for sulfides,
percent volatile solids, and total organic nitrogen and visual inspec-
tions for macroscopic animal components were also conducted on the
samples from the bottom deposits. Their general composition was also
noted.
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Sampling Stations
Fifteen stations were previously established as the study area
in the 1968-1969 sampling program. During the 1974 sampling period,
the sampling area was extended (Figure 2), and three sampling stations
were added to the fifteen studied previously.
Although the seasonal variation in water quality of the study
area had been evaluated in previous reports (1 and 5) such determi-
nations were beyond the scope of the 1974 sampling period. Addition-
ally, it was believed that any major improvements in water quality
would be apparent during any sampling period. Thus, only one was
chosen, but the intensity and coverage of the 1974 sampling program
in the top 12 meters of water were increased to offset anomalous
situations that might occur because of tidal variations. Therefore,
sampling for the selected chemical and physical parameters in the
water column were confined to periods of two flooding tides and two
ebbing tides. The tidal data, and the beginning and end of the sam-
pling periods are as follows:
Sampling Periods
September 10. 1974
Time of High Tide: 0905
Time of Low Tide: 1432
Time of Beginning of Sampling: 0930
Tine of Ending of Sampling: 1250
Time of Low Tide: 1432
Time of Next High Tide: 2054
Time of Beginning of Sailing: 1555
Time of Ending of Sampling: 1830
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bution of Sulfite Waste Liquor).
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September 11, 1974
Time of Low Tide: 1605	Tiine of Beginning of Sampling*. 1600
Time of Next High Tide: 2219	Time of Ending of Sampling: 1900
September 12t 1974
Time of High Tide: 1134	Time of Beginning of Sampling: 1345
Time of"Next Low Tide: 1719	Time of Ending of San?)ling: 1600
The sampling route was always along the numerical sequence of
station numbers (i.e. from Station 1 through Station 18) during each
tidal segment.
Methods
Dissolved oacygen, temperature, conductivity, and pH were deter-
mined with a Hydrolab Model 6D Surveyor Portable Water Monitor instru-
ment that frequently was calibrated each sampling period, for example,
the beginning and end of each sampling cycle. Additionally, the
dissolved oxygen probes of this instrument were calibrated to the
standard Winkler method each time a suspected erratic value for this
parameter was obtained.
Salinity determinations were calculated from the conductivity and
temperature data obtained with the Hydrolab instrument. Sulfite waste
liquor samples were collected in cubitainers, and shipped via air
freight in ice-packed containers to the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency laboratory in Seattle, Washington where SWL concentrations were
measured using the Pearl-Benson Index method of analysis (8).
Use of product and company names is for identification only and does
not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
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The pH probe of the Hydrolab instrument did not function properly
throughout the course of the 1974 survey, so only a very limited amount
of pH determinations were made.
Chemical analysis of the bottom deposit samples were made at the
same laboratory facility. As with the SWL samples, the bottom deposit
samples were packed in ice for preservation prior to air shipment.
Bottom deposit samples were obtained by use of a small Petersen dredge.
A small portion of each of these samples was collected for chemical
analyses and the remainder was inspected for animal life subsequent
to screening through a 30 mesh U.S. Standard Sieve. Visual inspections
of these samples were made to determine the presence or absence of pulp
fiber mats, and odors of the deposits were noted.
22

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RESI3LTS AND DISCUSSION
Temperature and Salinity
Data from a previous study (1) show that the Ward Cove estuary
was stratified with a lens of less-dense and poorly mixed brackish
water that overlays subsurface and more saline waters throughout the
year. These conditions inhibit vertical mixing because of differences
in density in the various water layers and have an important bearing
in the distribution of soluble pollutants discharged to the cove,
that is, they are located primarily in the surface waters above the
10 meter depth even though the cove generally is much deeper.
As in the previous studies, similar density patterns were found
during the present sampling period (Table 1). The more saline, cooler,
and therefore denser water is located beneath less saline, warmer, and
lighter upper layers. This pattern is so predominant throughout the
study area that it can be readily observed in just the temperature
and salinity data collected throughout the course of this survey
(Table 1A and IB, Appendix), and is the result of the discharges of
non-brackish waters from Ward Creek and from the Ketchikan Pulp Com-
pany which are less dense and less saline and generally warmer than
the highly saline marine waters deeper in the cove and Tongass Narrows.
This pattern also is typical of many other estuaries throughout South-
eastern Alaska.
23

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TABLE I
TEMPERATURE, SALINITY AND DENSITY WITH DEPTH (METERS) AT STATIONS 8 AND 11
STATION 8
DEPTH SEPT. 10, 1974 (1130 HRS) SEPT. 10, 1974 (1630 HRS) SEPT. 11, 1974 (1730 HRS) SEPT. 12, 1974 (1400 HRS)

T.°C
So/oo

T.°C
So/oo

T.°C
So/oo

T.°C
So/oo

1
11.5
23.85
18.08
13.0
20.43
15.19
13.0
20.43
15.19
12.5
12.20
8.94
7
11.0
18.36
13.91
11.0
23.17
18.21
10.5
23.17
17.70
11.0
16.29
12.31
10
11.0
20.43
15.50
10.6
23.85
17.96
10.2
23.85
18.28
10.6
16.43
12.47
12
10.5
20.43
15.57
10.5
23.51
17.96
10.2
23.85
18.28
10.6
16.63
12.62
STATION 11


(1200 HRS)


(1700 HRS)


(1800 HRS)


(1500 HRS)

1
11.0
22.49
17.10
13.5
20.43
15.10
12.5
21.80
16.33
11.5
11.54
8.56
7
11.0
21.11
16.03
11.0
21.80
16.56
10.6
24.54
18.74
11.0
15.60
11.78
10
11.0
20.43
15.50
11.0
23.17
18.15
10.5
24.54
18. 75
10.5
16.63
12.63
12
10.2
21.80
16.68
10.5
23.17
17.69
10.2
24.54
18.81
10.4
16.63
12.65

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Sulfite Waste Liquor
The importance of the above pattern of density and stratification
in the waters of Ward Cove find the adjacent reaches of Tongass Narrows
is that the majority of the soluble pollutants (mostly sulfite waste
liquors discharged from the primary treatment plant) entering the cove
are distributed in the uppermost water layers above a depth of 10 meters,
as was found in the 1968-1969 study, or above a depth of 7 meters during
the September 1974 survey (Table 2).
Of 257 samples taken at 18 stations at 4 depths during the 1974
sailing period, 21 percent (54) had SWL concentrations greater than
50 mg/1 and 33 percent (85) had more than 10 mg/1. Sulfite waste liquor
at 50 mg/1 has been shown to be toxic to phytoplankton and salmon fish-
food organisms, and magnesium oxide base waste liquors at 10 ppm have
been shown to be damaging to some forms of immature (larval) shellfish
(9 and 9a).
Sulfite waste liquor at values of 50 or more mg/1 is particularly
noticeable in the layer of water at the 1-meter depth. At this depth
during the 1968-1969 study (Appendix Table 2A), SWL concentrations,
with one exception, were within the same magnitude of concentrations
found during the September 1974 survey (the exception being Station 6
in the 1968—1969 study where the SWL concentration was substantially
higher )• THub, the great similarity in SWL concentrations during
*It is highly probable that the actual location of Station 6 in the
1968-1969 study was significantly closer to the main sewer outfall
than the actual location sampled in the 1974 survey, despite the
implication that Figure 1 indicates identical locations.
25

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TABLE 2
SULFITE WASTE LIQUOR CONCENTRATIONS (MG/L)
WITH DEPTH IN METERS IN WARD COVE & TONGASS NARROWS
SEPTEMBER 10, 1974 0930 - 1300 HOURS
STATION NUMBERS

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
DEPTH
1
56
144
152
128
156
128
260
200
204
76
242
260
—
—
129
—
—
—
7
21
8
9
6
5
9
8
8
5
11
6
15
-
-
6
-
-
-
10
5
5
6
1
6
5
11
5
7
3
3
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
12
5
2
5
2
3
3
4
6
8
5
3
3


2




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TABLE 2 (CONTINUED)
SEPTEMBER 10, 1974 1500 - 1900 HOURS
STATION NUMBERS
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
DEPTH
1	45 8 16	370 290 336 340 308	316	30 268 240 75 192 33 39 43
7	476	14 30 17 10 8	34	11 7949 744
10	344	54446	14	- 3 10 33453
12	3 85	656 57	10	64323233

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TABLE 2 (CONTINUED)
SEPTEMBER 11, 1974 1600 - 1900 HOURS








STATION
NUMBERS








1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17 18
DEPTH
1
69
75
100
222
872
690
384
212
236
60
86
272
38
107
8
112
39
7
5
5
7
7
27
7
9
12
5
2
2
4
5
47
4
6
7
10
1
1
27
2
5
3
4
5
2
lk
5
3
3
7
2
2
lk -
12
5
4
3
3
lk
6
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
4
2
4
1
* k - Denotes value less than detectable limits.

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TABLE 2 (CONTINUED)
SEPTEMBER 12, 1974 1200 - 1600 HOURS








STATION
NUMBERS









1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
DEPTH
1
224
194
250
260
356
264
340
272
228
124
166
146
71
75
32
46
83
82
7
11
5
9
110
4
11
7
7
12
2
8
5
4
5
5
2
2
2
10
7
10
7
3
5
7
4
2
7
3
2
7
2
2
5
1
2

12	655349 14 535745 lk 511
* k - Denotes value less than detectable limits.

-------
the two surveys indicates no major reduction in SWL concentrations
has been achieved in Ward Cove or Tongass Narrows since the instal-
lation of the mill's primary treatment system in 1973. This is to
be expected however, because the primary treatment system is designed
for removal of settleable solid pollutants rather than dissolved
pollutants such as sulfite waste liquor.
It is to be noted, however, that prior to 1971, i.e. during the
1968-1969 study period, strong ("red") waste liquors were periodically
discharged without treatment because of lack of adequate red liquor
storage facilities. This practice, one not uncommon in the pulping
industry at the time, had been discontinued by the time of the Septem-
ber 1974 sampling period. Review of the sulfite waste liquor data for
the one-meter depths in Ward Cove for the 1968-1969 study and for the
September 1974 sampling period reveals that on three occasions during
the 1968-1969 study, sulfite waste liquor was found in concentrations
significantly exceeding 1000 mg/1 whereas during the September 1974
sampling period sulfite waste liquor concentrations at no time exceeded
1000 mg/1 (Appendix Table 2A and Table 2, respectively). Thus the dis-
continuation of periodically discharging red liquors prior to the
September 1974 survey may account for the occasionally very high con-
centrations (more than 1000 mg/1) of sulfite waste liquor found in
1968—1969 and the lack of such concentrations during the 1974 survey.
Therefore, the lower sulfite waste liquor concentration found during
the September 1974 sampling period, that is, always less than 1000 mg/1,
probably is an indication of minor improvement in Ward Cove as far as
30

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sulfite waste liquor is concerned. The observation that the sulfite
waste liquor concentrations found during the 1968-1969 study, other
than the three that significantly exceeded 1000 mg/1, are of the sane
magnitude as those measured during the September 197A period is evidence
that this improvement is only minor.
Because of inadvertent manpower, time, and equipment constraints,
only the waters of Tongass Narrows immediately adjacent to the mouth
of Ward Cove (Stations 13, 14, and 15) were sampled during the 1968-
1969 study. This sampling area was extended northwesterly during the
1974 survey because of the observed highly discolored water northward
of Station 14. Ihus, sulfite waste liquors were found to occur in the
surface waters in significant concentrations about 2.4 miles farther
from Ward Cove than indicated in the 1968-1969 study, i.e. Stations 16,
17, and 18 where SWL was found in concentrations greater than 50 mg/i.
The total sampling area affected by concentrations of 50 mg/1 of SWL
in the surface and near-surface waters, then, is at least 2.0 Bquare
miles (Figure 2). No attempt was made to track the distribution of
SWL southeasterly of the mouth of Ward Cove because of: 1) time,
personnel, and equipment constraints, and 2) the observations from
previous studies that revealed the net flow of tidal and other currents
in Tongass Narrows is in a northwest rather than southeast direction.
As might be suspected, the average concentration of SWL at the
1-meter depth in Ward Cove (Stations 1-9, 242 mg/1) was found to be
much higher than in those of Tongass Narrow (Stations 10-18, 109 mg/1).
Except on two occasions (once each at Stations 2 and 15), 10 mg/1 of
31

-------
sulfite waste liquor were observed throughout the 1-meter depth of
the entire study area at all stations sampled. Station 2 is located
where periodically strong flushing action occurs as a result of
freshwater discharged from Ward Creek, and Station 15 is situated
in an area of extensive and frequent dilution and/or mixing resulting
from strong tidal and other currents of Tongass Narrows. Sulfite
waste liquor concentrations of 10 or more mg/1, a level damaging to
many larval forms of several indigenous fishes, were found 22 times
at water depths between 7 and 12 meters. This is a frequency of 22
per 194 samples or about 11 percent of the time* and occurred in both
Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows.
Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolved oxygen in the near-surface waters of Ward Cove fre-
quently was reduced to less than 6.0 mg/1, the minimum allowed by
the water quality standards criterion for this parameter. The near-
surface waters (1-meter depth) at Stations 1-6, 9, and 12 always had
less than 6.0 mg/1 of dissolved oxygen during the 1974 sampling period,
except for Stations 4 and 12 which had a value of 6.0 or more mg/1
only 25 percent of th.e time (Table 3). Of all samples (266) collected
during the 1974 survey froa the 1, 7, 10, and 12 meter depths, about
24 percent had less than 6.0 mg/1 of dissolved oxygen (Appendix Table
3A), Of those near the surface, 69 percent had dissolved oxygen con-
centrations that did not exceed 6.0 mg/1.
There was a notable difference in the quality of the near-surface
waters in Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows. Specifically, the frequency
32

-------
of occurrence of very low dissolved oxygen (6.0 mg/1) values was
greater in Ward Cove (Stations 1-9) than in Tongass Narrows (Sta-
tions 10-18). The averages of the 1-meter values for dissolved
oxygen for Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows were 4.0 and 6.2 mg/1,
respectively, while the corresponding averages for all depths
sampled at these stations was 5.82 and 6.97 mg/1. About 37 percent
(54) of all samples (144) in the 1974 survey from Ward Cove (Stations
1-9) had less than 6.0 mg/1 of dissolved oxygen, with dissolved
oxygen below 6.0 mg/1 in 75 percent of the samples at Station 1
where the lowest dissolved oxygen value of 1.0 mg/1 was observed.
It is to be noted that the near surface waters of Stations 1,
2, 3, 5, 6 and Station 9 always had less than the 6.0 mg/1 required
by the Alaska Water Quality Standards, and that the near-surface
waters at Stations 4, 6, 7, 11, and 12 had less than 6.0 mg/1 of
dissolved oxygen 75 percent of the time. Correspondingly, the near-
surface waters of Stations 10, 13, and 14 had 6.0 or more mg/1 of
dissolved oxygen 75 percent of the time while those of Station 8 had
less than 6.0 mg/1 50 percent of the time. The remaining sampling
stations always were above 6.0 mg/1. At Stations 7-18 there were no
violations of the 6.0 mg/1 criterion for dissolved oxygen in the
water layer from 7-12 meters deep, whereas in the comparable layer
at Stations 1-6 there were frequent violations of this criterion.
It is apparent that sulfite waste liquor is most abundant and
widely distributed in the surface layers of the waters of Ward Cove
and adjacent Tongass Harrows, and that much of the oxygen demand has

-------
not been accommodated (in terms of the 6.0 mg/l criterion) by the time
the sulfite waste liquors and other oxygen-demanding pollutants dis-
charged from the mill have reached Tongass Narrows, where sulfite waste
liquor still is to be found in concentrations toxic or otherwise dam-
aging to aquatic animals, i.e., 10 or more mg/l. Correspondingly,
sulfite waste liquor is less abundant at the water layer between 1
and 12 meters deep, and much of the oxygen demand from the sulfite
waste liquor and other oxygen-demanding pollutants from the mill has
been accommodated (again, in terms of the criterion of 6.0 mg/l) by
the time these pollutants reach Tongass Narrows where this layer only
occasionally contains sulfite waste liquor at concentrations of 10 or
more mg/l.
A comparison of the dissolved oxygen data obtained during the
1974 survey with that from similar depths from the 1968-1969 survey
CAppendix Table 4A) shows a general similarity in that the dissolved
oxygen values in the near-surface waters of Ward Cove (Stations 1-9)
were higher than those in Tongass Narrows. This similarity is apparent
at other depths, too. Another comparison of the two sets of data,
i.e., the values for dissolved oxygen in the surface waters of Ward
Cove from the 1968-1969 survey with that from the 1974 survey, reveals
that the average concentration was near 5.4 and 4.1 mg/l, respectively.
Corresponding calcuations for the waters of Tongass Narrows shows an
average of 6,7 and 6.2 mg/l. This general characteristic of the two
sets of data is also evident upon comparison of the dissolved oxygen
data for all comparable water layers sampled to depths of 12 meters

-------
TABLE 3
DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS (MG/L) AT 1 METER IN WARD COVE AND TONGASS NARROWS
SEPTEMBER - 1974
STATION NUMBERS
DATE
(TIME)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
9/10/74
(0930-1250)
4.5
5.4
4.7
6.3
5.2
5.7
6.1
6.2
5.9
6.6
7.0
6.0
6.8
7.2
7.8
	
	
	
9/10/74
(1555-1830)
4.4
3.5
3.4
3.6
4.4
4.7
3.6
4.7
4.6
6.9
4.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.9
7.2
6.8
	
9/11/74
(1600-1900)
3.4
3.7
3.3
2.6
3.8
2.9
2.9
4.8
3.2
6.0
5.8
5.3
6.7
4.7
7.9
6.7
7.3
	
9/12/74
(1345-1600)
1.0
2.5
2.4
3.9
3.0
3.9
2,0.
6.8
5.4
4.8
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.6
7.3
7.0
6.0
6.6

-------
(the average for Ward Cove in 1968-1969 was 6.5 mg/1 while in 1974
it was 5.8 mg/1; in Tongass Narrows the respective values are 7.5
and 7.0 mg/1. Other comparisons are not practicable because of the
comparatively small number of values obtained at these depths during
any specific period in the 1968-1969 study. For example, the best
comparison would be one for the October 8, 1968 period with the
September 10-12, 1974 period, but the number of samples in the former
is quite small.
On the basis of the above conparisons, however, it is concluded
that no major improvements have occurred in the dissolved oxygen con-
centrations of Ward Cove and the adjacent waters of Tongass Narrows
since the 1968-1969 study.
jB
The pH probe on the Hydrolab instrument developed an electrical
malfunction immediately after beginning the 1974 survey, so pH data
are wanting. Only five pH measurements were obtained: Station 1 at
the 1-meter depth was 7.7, at 7 meters 7.8, at 10 meters and 12 meters
7.7, and at 1 meter at Station 2 it was 7.7.
Color
The color of the waters of Ward Cove and Tongass Narrows is
light brown because of the natural soluble components draining from
the land via the streams in the area, and because of the soluble
components discharged from the pulp mill. A Secchi disc, 20 centi-
meters in diameter, was used to measure the intensity of coloration
36

-------
in the sampling area because it is one of the criterion listed in
the Alaska Water Quality Standards. This criterion is: Secchi disc
visible at a minimum depth of 1-meter for Class D and E waters. One
set of Secchi disc readings was made during the 1974 survey, on
September 10 (Appendix Table 5A).
Only one of the Secchi disc measurements, at Station 6, was
below the standards criterion of 1-meter (39 inches), and one, Station
9, just met this criterion. It is to be noted that the lower Secchi
disc measurements were found in the cove waters near the main sewer
outfall adjacent to Station 6. The wastewaters from this outfall are
highly discolored with brown dissolved substances such as sulfite
waste liquor, tannins and lignins, and other chemicals from the pulp-
ing and bleaching processes in the mill.
Chemical Aspects of Bottom Deposits
Chemical analyses of the bottom deposits were not conducted in
previous studies, so no such data are available to compare with the
findings of the 1974 survey. Nevertheless, samples were taken for
chemical analyses in order to establish a baseline set of parameters
for comparison with any subsequent surveys that may be made of these
deposits. The analyses conducted on the bottom samples collected
during this survey consisted of organic nitrogen, chemical oxygen
demand, total solids, total volatile solids, and total sulfides
(Table 4).
Marine deposits that are not influenced by wastewater discharges
containing organic settleable solids commonly are characterized as
37

-------
TABLE 4
WARD GOVE SEDIMENT ANALYSES
SEPTEMBER 13, 1974
TOTAL ORGANIC
STATION
NUMBER
NITROGEN (G/KG,
DRY WEIGHT)
TOTAL SOLIDS
(% OF WET WEIGHT)
TOTAL VOLATILE SOLIDS
(Z OF TOTAL SOLIDS)
TOTAL SULFIDES
(G/KG, DRY WEIGHT)
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
(G/KG, DRY WEIGHT)
2
4.2
18.7
32.7
4.3
460
5
3.6
41.7
11.1
2.0
147
7
6.8
10.1
46.3
1.8
655
00
38
7.3
21.9
27.7
1.5
408
9
5.7
30.3
19.4
3.2
159
10
5.9
21.8
22.7
2.1
321
11
6.9
19.9
24.0
1.7
312
12
7.5
17.9
46.9
3.0
601

-------
having less than 0.1 gram of organic nitrogen per kilogram of sample,
less than 5 percent volatile solids, near or less than 0.1 gram of
sulfides per kilogram of samples, and chemical oxygen demand (COD)
of less than 5.0 grams per kilogram of sample (10). It is readily
apparent than, that the sediments in Ward Cove are grossly contam-
inated with organic matter.
The mixture of gross quantities of organic matter with liquids
and inert materials found in the samples from these stations has been
called sludge in the previous reports of studies and was observed to
be widespread throughout Ward Cove. Samples collected in the 1974
survey at Cove stations other than Stations 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
and 12 also consisted primarily of sludge as visually determined. No
attempt was made to collect samples of the bottom deposits at Station
15 because of its great depth (33 fathoms - too deep for the sampling
gear) but samples were collected at Stations 13, 14, and 16. These
consisted primarily of sand, pebbles, and/or small rocks, and shell
fragments of bottom dwelling types of organisms. Bottom deposits at
Stations 17 and 18 were not sampled because they were judged on the
basis of findings at Stations 14 and 16 to be out of the aone of
settleable solids deposition caused by mill effluents.
Further inspection of the data in Table 4 in conjunction with
previous study observations and mill activities provide an interpre-
tation of these data. Specifically, Station 2 is located in an area
where theTe is much log handling activity which results in deposition
of lost wood solids; hence, the very high values for COD and volatile
39

-------
solids. Station 5 is in an area fairly well distant from intensive
log handling activity and somewhat distant from the mill's main
sewer outfall; it thus is less laden with organic matter than Sta-
tions 2 and 7. Except for Station 10 which is located where there
may be some moderately strong eddy currents, Stations 7-12, even
though farther from the mill's main sewer than Station 5, have
significantly higher values for COD, volatile solids, and organic
nitrogen than Station 5 and are suspected to define the primary
zone where settleable organic matter from the main sewer accumulates.
The extremely high values for COD (greater than 500 g/kg) and volatile
solids (greater than 40 percent) shown for Stations 7 and 12 may be
the combined result of settleable organic matter accumulating there
from the mill's outfall plus lost wood solids from the intensive log
handling activities nearby, i.e. by Station 7.
Visual and Biological Aspects of Bottom Deposits
Visual and biological inspection of samples from the bottom
deposits in Ward Cove and the adjacent waters of Tongass Narrows
were considered to be equally important as the sampling of the
upper 12 meterB of water because, as in the upper 12 meters of
water, changes in the visual and biological characteristics of
the deposits, if any, would be expected to occur more or less
concurrently with, and possibly Independent of, any changes in the
upper 12 meters of water (oxygen-demanding solid pollutants such
as wood fibers and other settleable solids contained in the mill
40

-------
effluent prior to the Installation and operation of the primary
treatment facility would be widely distributed in the surface
waters, then slowly settle to the bottom in the study area where
some were subsequently re-suspended by bulking processes to again
precipitate to the bottom).
During the 1968-1969 study, bottom samples were obtained for
visual and biological Inspection only at Stations 2, 5, 6, 9-11, and
Stations 13 and 14. Only a few small animals, primarily tube dwelling
polychaete worms and remnants of other organisms, were found in the
sludges at these stations which commonly had pulp fibers and wood
chips. Much fiber-containing sludge was noted in the bottom reaches
near Station 6 and bulked sludge with its conspicuous mat of fibers
was noted near the main mill and other sewer outfalls. Hydrogen sul-
fide bubbles rising to and then bursting on the surface undoubtedly
were apparent too, but were not reported.
During the 1974 survey, no hydrogen sulfide bubbles were observed
on the surface of Ward Cove even though this gas was apparent in many
of the bottom samples. Similarly, no mats of pulp fibers were found
in the bottom samples from the study area, and polychaete worms were
common at most of the stations sampled (no polychaete worms or other
macroscopic animals were observed at Stations 1 and 6). These obser-
vations are significant because they reveal that the installation and
operation of the primary treatment facility for wastewaters from the
pulping process in the mill has resulted in a perceptible improvement
41

-------
in the bottom reaches of the Ward Cove study area. There remained,
however, a paucity in the variety of organisms at the stations in
Ward Cove and the immediately adjacent reaches in Tongass Narrows,
a feature indicative that the improvement process is nowhere near
complete.
42

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REFERENCES CITED
1.	United States Department of the Interior, Federal Water Quality
Administration, Region X, Alaska Operations Office, "Effects of
Pulp Mill Wastes on Receiving Waters at Ward Cove, Alaska",
October 1970.
2.	U.S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration,, Northwest Region, "Ketchikan, Alaska Bacterio-
logical Survey", August 1969.
3.	Alaska Water Pollution Control Boards, State of Alaska, Report
No. 7, "Ward Cove Survey". Ketchikan, Alaska. August 1953.
4.	Alaska Water Pollution Control Board, State of Alaska, First
Draft, "Ward Cove Survey, 1949-1957". Ketchikan, Alaska.
September 1957.
5.	U.S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration, Northwest Region. "Oceanographic and Related
Water Quality Studies in Southeastern Alaska, August 1965".
Portland, Oregon. July 1966.
6.	State of Alaska, Department of Health and Welfare, "Alaska State
Plan, Water Quality Standards for Interstate Waters Within the
State of Alaska". June 20, 1967, Revised November 10, 1967, and
May 24, 1970.
7.	State of Alaska, Department of Environmental Conservation, "Water
Quality Standards", as revised October 1973.
8.	Barnes, C.A., et al, "A Standardized Pearl-Benson, or Nitroso,
Method Recommended for Estimation of Spent Sulfite Liquor or
Sulfite Waste Liquor Concentrations in Waters", Tappi 46(6):
247-251, 1963.
9.	U.S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration, and Washington State Pollution Control Commission,
"Pollutional Effects of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastes in Puget Sound",
Portland, Oregon, and Olympia, Washington, March 1967.
9a. Woelke, Charles E., Timothy Schink, and Eugene Sanborn, "Effect of
Biological Treatment on the Toxicity of Three Types of Pulping
Wastes to Pacific Oyster Embryos", State of Washington, Department
of Fisheries, March 1972.
10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region X, "The Effects of
Dredging on Water Quality in the Northwest", July 1971.
43

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APPENDIX
44

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SALINITY WITH DEPTH (METERS) IN WARD COVE AND TONGASS NARROWS
SEPTEMBER 10, 1974 0930 - 1300 HOURS
STATION # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7	8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
DEPTH
1 21.11 17.67 23.85 23.85 21.11 21.11 21.11	23.85 21.11 21.11 22.49 20.43 19.05 18.36 20.43 	
7 21.11 23.85 25.91 25.91 22.49 22.49 22.49	18.36 23.17 23.17 21.11 22.49 21.80 21.11 21.11 	
10 25.56 24.20 26.59 26.59 23.17 23.17 22.49	20.43 23.85 23.85 20.43 23.85 22.49 21.80 22.49 	
12 25.56 24.20 26.59 26.59 22.49 22.49 23.17	20.43 23.85 23.85 21.80 23.85 23.17 25.91 21.80 	
SEPTEMBER	10, 1974 1545 - 1830 HOURS
1 20.43 21.11 20.43 21.80 20.43 18.36 19.05	20.43 19.05 19.74 20.43 19.05 19.39 18.36 18.36 21.11 19.05 	
7 22.49 23.51 23.17 23.85 23.17 22.14 22.49	23.17 22.49 22.14 21.80 22.49 22.49 21.80 19.74 24.20 20.08 	
^ 10 23.51 22.49 23.85 24.88 23.51 22.83 22.83	22.85 23.51 22.49 23.17 23.51 23.51 22.49 22.49 23.85 21.11 	
^ 12 23.51 23.17 25.91 24.20 23.85 23.85 22.49 23.51 22.83 	 23.17 23.51 23.51 23.51 21.80 24 54 23.51 	
SEPTEMBER	11, 1974 1600 - 1900 HOURS
1 19.05 23.17 23.85 21.11 19.74 21.11 20.43	20.43 20.43 21.11 21.80 19.05 18.01 18.36 20.43 21.11 18.01 	
7 19.05 26.94 25.91 25.22 23.85 23.85 22.49	23.17 23.17 23.85 24.54 23.51 22.49 21.80 23.17 22.49 22.49 	
10 21.80 27.28 26.94 25.22 24.20 24.54 22.49	23.85 23.85 24.54 24.54 22.49 21.80 22.49 23.85 22.49 21.80 	
12 21.11 27.28 19.05 25.22 24.20 24.88 23.85	23.85 24.20 24.54 24.54 23.17 22.49 22.49 23.85 23.17 22.49 	
SEPTEMBER	12, 1974 1245 - 1600 HOURS
1 8.94 10.23 	 0.11 13.89 13.89 13.89	12.20 9.58 7.45 11.54 13.21 4.14 12.87 0.18 10.23 14.23 17.32
7 16.63 15.60 15.60 14.91 16.22 16.29 16.29	16.29 15.74 15.60 15.60 15.60 15.26 16.29 16.29 16.29 16.29 19.74
10 17.32 16.63 16.29 16.29 16.43 16.63 16.63	16.43 16.43 16.29 16.63 16.63 16.98 16.63 16.43 16.63 16.29 	
12 16.98 16.98 16.63 16.63 17.32 16.63 16.63	16.63 16.63 16.98 16.63 16.43 16.98 17.39 16.63 16.63 16.29 	

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APPENDIX TABLE IB
TEMPERATURE WITH DEPTH (METERS) IN WARD COVE AND TONGASS NARROWS
SEPTEMBER 10, 1974 0930 - 1300 HOURS
STATION
# 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15 16
17
18
DEPTH

















1
13.2
12.5
12.2
12.5
12.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.0
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5 	
	——
	
7
11.0
10.2
11.0
10.2
11.5
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.5
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.5 	
	
	
10
10.2
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.5
10.5
11.0
11.5
10.5
11.0
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.0	
	
	
12
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.5
10.5
10.0
10.2
10.0
10.2
10.0
10.6	

—.	
v
f>s






SEPTEMBER
10, 1974 1545 - 1830 HOURS





1
11.5
12.5
12.6
12.6
12.5
12.5
12.5
13.0
13.0
12.5 13.5
13.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.6
12.5
7
11.0
11.5
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.0
11.0
10.8
11.0 11.0
11.0
10.8
11.0
11.5
11.0
11.0
10
10.8
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.5
10.6 11.0
10.8
10.6
10.6
11.0
10.5
10.5
12
10.6
10.5
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.6
	10.5
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.5
10.5






SEPTEMBER
11, 1974 1600 - 1900 HOURS





1
12.0
12.2
12.4
12.6
14.5
13.5
12.7
13.0
13.0
12.5 12.5
12.5
12.2
12.5
11.5
12.5
12.5
7
10.6
10.6
11.5
10.7
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.5
11.0
10.5 10.6
10.4
10.5
10.5
11.0
11.0
11.0
10
10.4
10.5
10.4
10.2
10.5
10.2
10.4
10.2
10.5
10.5 10.5
10.2
10.4
10.2
10.5
10.8
10.5
12
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.2
10.0
10.5
10.2
10.2
10.2
10.5 10.2
10.2
10.4
10.2
10.5
10.5
10.5
SEPTEMBER 12, 1974 1245 - 1600 HOURS
1
12.5
12.5
	
13.6
12.6
13.5
13.5
12.5
12.6
12.6
11.5
12.5
12.2
12.0
12.8
11.7
12.5
.12.5
7
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.2
11.2
11.5
11.0
11.0
11.2
11.2
11.0
11.5
11.0
10.8
11.5
11.2
11.5
11.5
10
10.6
10.7
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.8
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.8
10.5
10.5
11.0
11.0
———
12
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.4
10.4
10.6
10.6
10.5
10.4
10.2
10.6
10.2
10.5
10.8
11.0
	

-------
APPENDIX TABLE 2A
SULFITE WASTE LIQUOR CONCENTRATIONS (MG/L) WITH DEPTH (METERS) IN
WARD COVE AND TONGASS NARROWS, 1968-1969
STATION NUMBERS
Depth
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15






MAY 10, 1968

1 101
129
161
261
418
2040
374
880
418
5 —.
	
	
40
44
175
49
148
50
10 	
	
	
	
—
	
<5
<5
36






JULY
3, 1968

1 — — —-
214
214
303
415
	
376
2070
260
7 	
15
8
<5
<5
	
<5
<5
<5






JULY
7, 1968

1.5 11
8
21
9
11
	
13
11
10






OCTOBER 8, 1968


60


1111
244
———
142

10 	
	
	
	
26
<5
		
<5
	
446 519 350 178 37
24 23 37 43 19
311 231 208 30 221 	
<5 <29 <5 <5 <5 	
23 17 23
80 	 — 		7
<5 	 	 	 <5

-------
APPENDIX TABLE 2A (CONTINUED)
STATION NUMBERS
Depth
I
2
3 4
5
6
7 8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15






OCTOBER 9, 1968






1
7
	
	
	 	
	
	
DECEMBER 18, 1968
	
	
33
8
46
<5
	
1
45
—
	 203
483
———
162 	 	
APRIL 13, 1969
104
84
12
———
20
	
1
5
10
	
99
9
<5
	 	
269
42
8
336
18
8
	 34 	
	 32
MAY 13, 1969
	
159
8
<5
185
<5
<5
8
<5
	
76
8
<5
1
6

-------
APPENDIX TABLE 3A
DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS (MG/L) WITH DEPTH (METERS) IN WARD COVE AND TONGASS HARROWS
SEPTEMBER 10, 1974 0930 - 1250 HOURS







STATION
NUMBERS






Depth
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
4.5
5.4
4.7
6.3
5.2
5.7
6.1
6.2
5.9
6.6
7.0
6.0
6.8
7.2
7.8
7
5.3
6.4
6.2
6.7
6.6
6.3
6.7
6.9
7.4
7.9
7.2
7.0
7.7
7.5
8.2
10
5.5
6.3
6.3
7.6
7.1
6.5
6.7
7.9
7.8
8.0
8.3
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.2
12
4.5
6.1
5.9
7.2
6.9
6.5
6.7
7.6
7.7
8.2
8.3
7.6
7.9
6.9
8.2

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APPENDIX TABLE 3A (CONTINUED)
SEPTEMBER 10, 1974 1555 - 1830 HOURS








STATION
! NUMBERS







Depth
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
4.4
3.5
3.4
3.6
4.4
4.7
3.6
4.7
4.6
6.9
4.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.9
7.2
6.8
7
5.0
6.3
5.6
5.4
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.2
6.2
6.9
6.2
6.2
6.5
6.4
6.9
7.4
7.0
10
5.5
6.2
6.0
6.4
6.6
5.8
6.0
6.6
6.5
7.0
7.2
7.3
7.5
6.5
7.5
7.4
7.2
12
5.5
6.1
5.7
6.6
6.5
5.1
6.3
7.0
6.9
7.3
7.3
6.8
7.7
6.6
7.7
7.6
7.4

-------
APPENDIX TABLE 3A (CONTINUED)
SEPTEMBER 11, 1974 1600 - 1900 HOURS
STATION NUMBERS
Depth 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1	3.4 3.7 3.3 2.6 3.8 2.9 2.9 4.8 3.2 6.0 5.8 5.3 6.7 4.7 7.9 6.7 7.3
7 4.9 5.6 6.0 5.7 5.3 5.2 5.7 6.4 6.4 7.1 6.7 6.3 6.9 6.4 7.6 7.2 7.2
10 5.2 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.0 5.7 6.0 6.9 6.6 7.5 7.4 6.7 7.7 6.6 7.9 7.5 7.6
12 4.7 5.9 6.1 6.6 6.7 6.1 6.4 7.3 6.9 7.5 7.4 7.0 7.8 6.6 7.9 7.6 7.9

-------
APPENDIX TABLE 4A
DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS (MG/L) AT SELECTED DEPTHS (METERS) IN
WARD COVE AND TONGASS NARROWS, 1968-1969
STATION NUMBERS
Depth
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15







MAY 10, 1968







1
3.8
4.6
4.6
5.9
5.9
	
8.3 	
8.5
___
	
——



7
	
5.7
7.0
7.0
7.0
	
	 	
8.8
	
	
	
	
	
	
11
	
5.7
6.4
7.2
7.0
	















MAY 15, 1968







1
5.7
5.6
5.9
5.4
4.3
5.4
6.2 6.9
5.3
6.7
6.1
5.1
_—„


7
	
	
8.0
8.4
8.3
8.2
8.0 9.0
8.8
8.8
8.6
8.2
	
	
	
11
	
——
6.7
8.4
7.6
7.4
7.7 8.3
8.8
8.5
7.8
7.7
	
	
	







JULY 3, 1968







1

	¦ -
1.8
2.2
4.5
2.9
4.8 4.0
3.7
	
7.0
——-



7
	
		
4.8
5.9
6.1
5.9
6.2 7.0
6.7
	
7.5


——
——
11
	
	
5.4
6.6
6.2
6.1
7.0 7.0
4.6
	
8.2
	
	
	


-------
APPENDIX TABLE 4A (CONTINUED)
STATION NUMBERS
Depth
1 2
3
4
5
6 7 8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15





JULY 8, 1968







1
7
10
	 	
8.3
8.2
8.0
	
	
	 	 8.3
	 	 7.8
OCTOBER 8, 1968
	
	
8.6
7.7
	
	
	
	
1
5
10
	 3.9
	 4.3
	
	
3.2
5.4
5.5
2.9 	 2.4
5.0 	 6.7
1.9 	 7.5
APRIL 13, 1969
	
	
2.8
6.8
7.6
3.6
5.6
5.8
	
5.9
5.9
8.1
7.9
1
7
10
	 9.5
	 9.7
	 9.5
——
	
8.3
9.2
9.3
8.3		 8.4
9.4		 9.3
9.1 	 8,7
	
	
8.9
9.3
8.1
8.9
8.9
	
	
9.7
9.6
9.5

-------
APPENDIX TABLE 5A
SECCHI DISK (20CM) MEASUREMENTS IN METERS
FOR WARD COVE AND TONGASS NARROWS
SEPTEMBER 10, 1974 0900 - 1300 HOURS
STATION it
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1.9
1.8
1.7
1.1
1.1
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.9
1.2
1.1
2.0
1.1
1.6
"1
u

-------