&EPA
- *{
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of
Mobile Source Air
Pollution Control
Ann Arbor, Ml 48105
Date of Issue
July 1978
Air
Automobile Emission Control:
The Development Status,
Trends, and Outlook
as of January 1978
VOLUME II
v. ~

*
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EPA-420-R-78-107
Section 12.2
Foreign Vehicle Manufacturers

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12.2.1. Alfa Romeo
12.2.1.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
For the 1979 model year, Alfa Romeo (Alfa) plans to produce vehicles
equipped with 2.0L 14 engines, mechanical fuel injection (SPICA), an
aspirator, and a pelleted oxidation catalyst. There is also the possi-
bility of equipping some vehicles with a 2.5L V6 engine, feedback con-
trolled electronic fuel injection C3osch L-Jetronic), and 3-way catalyst.
The 1978 model year vehicles equipped with the 2.0L engine have already
met the 1980 Federal and California emission standards, however, the
1979 2.0L engine and emission control system will differ somewhat from
1978. Instead of four intake throttle valves, a single throttle valve
will be used in conjunction with, an air plenum chamber from which all
four cylinders are supplied. According to Alfa, the single throttle
valve system provides improved fuel vaporization, a more homogeneous
air/fuel ratio in each cylinder for improved ignition and flame pro-
pagation, and, at a given overlap, an Increase in internal EGR. Because
of the improved charge preparation, the engine operates at .17 to 18:1
air/fuel ratios at part throttle versus 13.5 to 14:1 for the 1978 ver-
sion. As a consequence, the air pump will be eliminated for 1979.
However, because of the need for some secondary air injection during
rich cold start operation, an aspirator will be used. The aspirator is
planned to be in operation only during cold start operation and will be
deactivated during hot operation. According to Alfa, the air/fuel ratio
will be lean enough for good catalyst operation without the use of the
aspirator when the engine is hot, however, the small quantities of air
introduced by the aspirator would not seem to be detrimental and its
deactivation would seem to add to the system's complexity.
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Because the new intake system provides increased internal EGR, idle
quality and low speed driveability have suffered somewhat. To improve
this situation, the intake valve camshaft for 1979 will also differ from
1978 by providing variable valve overlap as a function of engine speed.
Alfa requested that the technique by which this is accomplished be held
confidential. The valve overlap provides sufficient quantities of
internal EGR and eliminates the need for externally supplied EGR, accor-
ding to Alfa.
Other changes for 1979 include the eventual modification of the piston
crown for greater squish, an eventual slight compression ratio increase
for improved fuel economy, an eventual adoption of two spark plugs per
cylinder to reduce combustion duration, the replacement of conventional
breaker point ignition with electronic breakerless ignition, and an
improved catalyst with lower density pellets for earlier light-off.
Exactly when changes termed as "eventual" will be made was not specified
by Alfa.
The mechanical fuel injection system used by Alfa is significantly dif-
ferent from other mechanical fuel injection systems used by other manu-
facturers. The fuel pump features a three dimensional cam which regu-
lates the quantity of fuel injected into each cylinder as a function of
engine speed and throttle position. During moderately low to high speed
deceleration, the fuel supply is cut off.
Though the 2.5L V6 engine equipped with the 3-way catalyst system is
being developed to meet 1981 Federal emission standards, Alfa may intro-
duce it as early as the 1979 model year. The 3-way catalyst is highly
loaded and made by Degussa (OM 721 MLK). It uses a Pt/Rh ratio of
1.70/1 to 3.35/1 and a total loading of 98 to 131 g/cu ft. Both the
percentage of rhodium and the specific loading (in g/cu ft.) are among
the highest reported to date. Parameters sensed include intake air
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flow, engine speed, coolant temperature, throttle position, and exhaust
oxygen content with air/fuel ratio being the only parameter controlled.
One interesting feature is the use of spark, plugs with four electrodes.
Developmental efforts to achieve final system calibration are currently
in process.
12.2.1.2.	Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
Alfa's 1978 vehicles have already met the 1980 Federal and California
emission standards, but, without giving details, Alfa stated that the
engine and emission control system may change somewhat for 1980 but will
continue to use mechanical fuel injection. Since the 3-way catalyst
system is being developed for 1981, but may be used for 1979, it is not
certain if this system will be introduced in 1979, 1980, or 1981.
12.2.1.3.	Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
The 2.5L V6 engine equipped with a 3-way catalyst and feedback controlled,
electronic fuel injection, as described above, is targeted for 1981
Federal standards. To achieve these standards, Alfa's engineering
targets are 0.15 HC, 1.55 CO, 0.45 NOx at zero miles. Alfa did not
indicate the use of any other engine or emission control system to meet
this standard.
12.2.1.4.	Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
Alfa did not indicate any system under consideration to meet these
emission levels.
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12.2.1.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Exhaust Emissions
Most of Alfa's developmental efforts have centered around the above
described systems. For the 2.0L 14 engine, these have included efforts
to develop the single throttle intake system with Ricardo of England,
optimization of valve timing overlap for NOx control via internal EGR
control, location and tuning of the aspirator, catalyst location for
quick light-off and good durability, definition of the three dimensional
cam in the fuel injection pump, adaption of electronic ignition, vari-
able valve timing camshaft studies for NOx control, driveability,
response time, and noise. The areas considered for future study include
a digital electronic ignition system, increased squish and compression
ratio, and two spark plugs per cylinder.
For the 2.5L V6 engine, efforts have included location of the 3-way
catalyst for quick light-off and durability subject to the vehicle's
frame as a packaging constraint, oxygen sensor location for quick light-
off and to ensure the sensing of exhaust from both cylinder banks,
calibration and optimization of the feedback controlled fuel injection
system which is still in process, and ignition system adequacy. Alfa
plans on insulating the manifolds and exhaust pipe system upstream of
the 3-way catalyst as one way to improve the system's deterioration
characteristics. Table Alfa Romeo-1 presents some developmental data on
a vehicle equipped with the 3-way catalyst system.
12-317

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Table Alfa Romeo-1*
3-Way Catalyst System Data
Vehicle
Vehicle

	
g/mi-
	


Number
Description
System
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,
31B
2.5L V6; A3;
EFI/3W
0.33
1.24
0.39
u
17.5
tl

3.62 axle;

0.39
1.36
0.35
17.0


3500 lb. IW

0.32
1.39
0.35
17.2




0.31
1.48
0.33
17.1




0.27
1.24
0.42
17.2

  23.6
22.9
*Alfa Romeo Emission Control Status Report; November 1977, pg. 3e,
hereinafter referred to as Alfa Romeo SR.
Evaporative Emissions
Vehicles equipped with both 2.0L 14 and 2.5L V6 engines will utilize
the same type of evaporative emission control system. Since both
engines are equipped with fuel injection systems, evaporative emissions
from the fuel systems are less of a problem than carburetion systems.
Evaporative emissions from the fuel tank are vented to the engine's
crankcase, after the engine is turned off, and are then vented back
into the intake system through the crankcase ventilation system upon
engine startup. According to Alfa, the vapor will stratify near the
bottom of the crankcase and very little fuel vapor will dissolve into
the engine's oil. Also, according to Alfa Romeo, the contraction of
gases in the crankcase due to cooling after the engine is turned off
prevents fuel vapor from escaping out through the air filter. For these
reasons, Alfa Romeo believes they can meet the 2 g/test SHED standard.
They did not, however, indicate what effect, if any, excessive piston
ring wear would have on the potential ignition of these vapors in the
crankcase. No evaporative emission data were reported.
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Fuel Economy
Alfa Romeo has a general long term program for vehicle weight reduction,
constrained mainly by production tooling difficulties. They believe
there is not much to be gained, however, because their vehicles are
already in the subcompact class and utilize lightweight alloys in the
engine and transmission. Since 5 speed manual transmissions are already
standard equipment, only the overall drive ratios may be changed to
improve fuel economy, according to Alfa Romeo. No data were available
regarding the effects on fuel economy of various tires, transmission
shift points, or various engine oils.
12.2.1.6. Durability Data
Table Alfa Romeo-2 presents durability data from two vehicles equipped
with 2.5L V6 engines and 3-way catalyst systems.
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Table Alfa Romeo-2*
Vehicle Vehicle
Number Description System Mileage
9B**
2.5L V6; A3; EF1/3W
3.62 axle;
3500 lb. IW

MM
-g/mi
. , MMI


Mileage
HC
1 CO
NOx
MPG
Comments
0
0.23
0.94
0.44
u
16.8

5,000
0.28
1.74
0.98
17.1

10,000
0.35
3.22
0.71
17.9

15,000
0.47
4.00
2.83
15.6
Before maintenance
15,000
0.56
3.68
1.24
16.0
After maintenance
(new 0o sensor)
20,000
0.57
4.04
0.97
14.6
L
20,000
0.40
2.97
0.70
15.0
New catalyst;
difficult starting
20,000
0.27
1.50
0.57
14.8
(Repeat of above)
20,000
0.28
1.80
0.61
14.6
New air flow
meter.
20,000
0.26
1.65
0.53
14.3
New control unit,
new air flow meter
25,000
0.31
2.29
0.72
15.2

25,000
0.44
5.55
1.83
15.1
25,000 mi aged
O2 sensor
30,000
0.62
2.38
1.18

Before maintenance
30,000
0.38
2.39
0.98
'*
After maintenance
(new C>2 sensor)
36B**
2.5L V6; A3; EFI/3W
0
0.35
1.43
0.58
17.4

3.62 axle;
5,000
0.45
2.87
0.77
16.9

3500 lb. IW
10,000
0.53
5.52
1.33
16.6


15,000
0.44
3.09
1.32
14.7
Before maintenance

15,000
0.66
3.30
1.09
15.0
After maintenance






(new 0 sensor)
New catalyst

15,000
0.43
1.64
0.83
15.0

15,000
0.38
1.45
0.89
15.2
(Repeat of above)

20,000
0.62
3.37
1.03
15.5


25,000
0.51
6.04
1.54
15.8

*Alfa Romeo SR, pg 4e-5e.
**Vehicle no. 9B ran on AMA cycle and vehicle no. 36B ran on road route
(details of this road route were unspecified).
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12.2.1.7. Progress and Problems
Alfa's response was much improved compared to last year when Alfa sub-
mitted nothing in response to EPA's request for information. This may
reflect recent reports that Alfa is gearing up for a major thrust into
the U.S. market. Alfa has already met 1980 Federal and California
emission standards and is making progress toward meeting the 1981 stan-
dards. Some obstacles must still be overcome, however, including the
attainment of 1981 standards for 50,000 miles and the 2 g/test SHED
evaporative emission standard.
Though a Diesel engine equipped vehicle is being developed, Alfa re-
ported to EPA that their Diesel engine studies are currently targeted
for the European market.
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12.2.2. BMW
12.2.2.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
It was reported by BMW, since the emission standards have not changed
from the 1978 model year standards, they have no plans to make any
changes to their 1978 emission control system. The 1979 system will,
therefore, be a carryover from the 1978 system for BMW's existing 320i,
733CSi, and 733i models, engine families 120.8, 120.9 and 133.8, respec-
tively. Consequently these systems will continue to use thermal reactors.
On a new 528i model (128.8 engine family) BMW is introducing a 3-way
catalyst system. This system will use an oxygen sensor (X-sensor)
supplied by Bosch. This system is believed by BMW to have satisfactory
control on emissions to meet the standards up to the 1980 model year.
After that, BMW reported that a similar system to the 128.8 family will
have to be improved.
12.2.2.2.	Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
BMW reported that they plan to use the 3-way catalyst in conjunction
with the oxygen sensor on all their models sold in the U.S. This con-
cept will follow the 528i model. This is basically used to meet the
California 1.0 NOx standard, which can only be met with the 3-way catal-
ytic system on all models, according to BMW.
12.2.2.3.	Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
BMW reported they cannot meet the 1981 emission levels without further
developmental efforts. BMW reported they plan to meet these standards
using the existing concept on the 528i models. BMW also reported if
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these standards could not be met using this concept, they would intro-
duce a new concept. This consists of adding a start catalyst for cold
start control, in combination with air injection, along with the 3-way
catalyst and oxygen sensor.
12.2.2.4.	Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
BMW reported that more developmental efforts are needed to meet these
standards. BMW also reported they are convinced these levels can not be
met with the systems discussed above, and claimed that today's technol-
ogy is not sufficient.
One method reported by BMW is the use of EGR in conjunction with the 3-
way catalyst concept. According to BMW, they are concerned with the
fuel economy and driveability impacts of EGR.
12.2.2.5.	Other Developmental Efforts
The following systems will be used in BMW's Emission Control systems,
however, BMW did not specify in which model year these systems would be
used.
BMW plans to use a breakerless ignition system which consists of a
magnetic transmitter unit in the distributor, along with an inductive
pick-up to trigger ignition spark. The rotor is driven conventionally
by the camshaft, with the vacuum advance operated by a thermovalve which
is dependent on engine coolant temperature. This valve opens and allows
a vacuum signal to the vacuum advance unit when the coolant temperature
exceeds 113F. The vacuum retard is dependent on intake manifold vacuum,
governed by throttle position. The dwell angle control is provided
electronically by an ECU, which allows for larger dwell angles with
12-323

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increasing engine speeds. A high performance ignition coil is used with
two barrier resistors, one of which is bridged when the engine is started.
BMW did not provide the logic behind this system but did supply Figure
BMW-1 which shows a schematic of this system.
BMW reported they will use the Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection system,
which is electronically controlled. The parameters which determine the
time duration of injection are the quantity of intake air and the engine
speed. The L-Jetronic system is shown in Figure BMW-2. The fuel is
delivered by means of a fuel pump which supplies pressure to the injec-
tors. The quantity of injected fuel is now only a function of the time
the injectors are open and can be controlled by pulse-width modulation.
The injectors are mounted near the inlet valve for better mixing. BMW
reported this has a disadvantage in that the distance from the injectors
to the cylinders is small, and therefore at cold starts the fuel may not
have ample time to vaporize and to be mixed with incoming air. To
prevent this an additional injection valve was added to the intake
manifold to provide additional fuel downstream of the throttle valve at
cold starts. BMW reports this is adequate to temperatures as low as -
22F. The intake air flow is measured by a Bosch type sensor shown in
Figure BMW-3 and is described in the Bosch section of this document.
The amount of fuel is computed by the ECU for each engine cycle. This
system needs no additional engine speed transducer, since the ECU can
calculate this value by the time interval between consecutive trigger
pulses from the distributor. The injection timing of all the injectors
is constant, since all the injectors are electrically connected in
parallel to reduce the amount of circuitry needed for the system. The
injectors are then operated, and fuel is injected simultaneously at
different phases of the engine cycle with respect to each cylinder. The
injectors are each operated twice so that half of the fuel is delivered
during each injection.
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Figure BMW-1*
BMW Breakerless Ignition System
*BMW Status Report 1977 Prepared for the Environmental Protection
Agency, pg. 3-VIa-337, Hereafter referred to as BMW-SR.
12-325

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Figure BMW-2*
Bosch L-Jetronic Fuel Injection System
*BMW SR, pg. 3-VIa-351.
12-326

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ro
l
U)
ro
TO THROTTLE
BUTTERFLY
DAMPING VOLUME
BYPASS
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
INTAKE
AIR FLOW
Figure BMW-3*
Bosch Air Flow Meter
W  >g. Ia-

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BMW reported they have systems to control cold start as well as warm-up
control. During cold start, the enrichment is supplied by a cold start
valve. The on time of this valve is limited by a thermo time switch.
This valve is designed to hold the cold start valve open for a period of
8 seconds when the engine coolant temperature is -4P. The time the
cold start valve is held open is decreased with increasing engine coolant
temperature until at a temperature of 95 + 4F, the time is equal to
zero.
The time between cold start and when the engine reaches its operating
temperature is the warm-up phase. During this mode the engine requires
an enrichment of fuel, according to BMW. Immediately after cold start,
approximately twice the quantity of injected fuel is needed than when
the engine is at its operating temperature. This enrichment is decreased
with Increasing engine temperature until operating temperature is reached,
at which point the normal quantity of fuel is injected. At both cold
start and warm-up conditions, a larger volume of air is needed at idle
conditions as well as a richer air/fuel mixture. BMW reports this
excess air is needed to increase engine speed and allow for acceptable
idle quality, since the engine at cold start must supply greater amounts
of torque to overcome increased friction. The excess air is controlled
by an auxiliary air valve which bypasses the throttle valve. This is a
valve in which the open cross sectional area is varied with engine
temperature by means of a thermal expansion element.
The ECU used to control these systems along with the fuel injection is a
printed circuit board utilizing several Integrated circuits. The
trigger pulse from the distributor is fed to a pulse shaping network and
then to a frequency divider. There the frequency is divided into square
wave output pulses which triggers the division multivibrator. The pulse
width of the multivibrator is inversely proportional to speed, and
directly proportional to the quantity of air. In this manner, the on
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time of the multivibrator is proportional to the quantity of intake air
on a per stroke basis. A block diagram of the ECU is shown in Figure
BMW-4. The inputs to the ECU are from the temperature sensor, the
starter switch, and the throttle valve switch to determine the proper
control logic necessary for cold start enrichment, idle, and full load
conditions. BMW did not specify how this system will operate at full
load and therefore raises concern as to how this system functions,
especially outside the engine speed and load conditions of the FTP. The
oxygen sensor signal is fed to the ECU via the X-control network. This
network receives the oxygen sensor signal, which is dependent on the
composition of the exhaust gas. This network is used to correct the
air/fuel ratio to stoichiometry for maximum efficiency of the 3-way
catalyst. The oxygen sensor is installed in the exhaust pipe in front
of the catalyst so that it is fully immersed in the exhaust gas. The
oxygen sensor gives a voltage output dependent on the amount of oxygen
present in the exhaust gas. The details of this sensor's characteristics
of operation may also be found in the Bosch section of this document.
The catalyst system is a conventional 3-way. According to BMW, this is
a maintenance free catalyst. BMW did not specify if the catalysts under
investigation are monolithic or pelleted catalysts, nor the noble metal
loading for each catalyst examined.
The following are experimental programs under study by BMW. The effects
of different catalyst loadings were studied using different Pt/Rh ratios.
Tests were conducted using new and aged catalysts. The aging time was 6
hours on the aged catalysts at a temperature of 850C. BMW reported the
results showed at least 90% CO and 70% NOx conversion efficiencies with
higher loading and lower Pt/Rh ratios. BMW reported their results show
that a loading of 40 g/cu ft. and a Pt/Rh ratio of 5 to 1 had the best
results. These conclusions are based on three catalysts examined;
~
Degussa, Engelhard, and UOP. The data from these tests were not supplied
by BMW.
12-329

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AIRFLOW METER
r i
MULTI-
VIBRATOR
THROTTLE SWITCH
i
MULTIPLIER
INJECTORS
POWER
STA6E




-H
:	1





PULSE SHA-
PING STAGE
FREQUENCY
DIVIDER
L_
DISTRIBUTOR
WARMUP
ENRICH-
MENT
F
LAMBDA T
CONTROL
STARTER TEMPERATURE SENSOR
SWITCH (ENGINE)
OXYGEN-SENSOR
r SIGNAL
J
Figure BMW-4*
Block Diagram of L-Jetronic ECU
*BMW SR, pg. 3-VIa-352.

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Another study performed by BMW was on the effect of X-shifting (t^) on
exhaust gas emissions. This shifting t is the delay time before
correction is made to the air/fuel ratio. These tests were conducted on
vehicles equipped with fuel injection and A control. These were hot
start tests using a 2.3L 6 cylinder engine using K-Jetronic fuel injec-
tion. The results are shown in Table BMW-1. BMW did not state if the
t^ described was symmetrical or asymmetrical (i.e., if t rich-to-lean
was or was not equal to t lean-to-rich).
Table BMW-1*
Effect of Lambda Shifting on Exhaust Emissions
	g/mi**	
t (ms) HC CO NOx
v				
0	0.048	1.202	0.521
10	0.046	0.985	0.182
20	0.069	1.071	0.079
30	0.112	1.468	0.521
*BMW SR, Sec. 3, pg. 2.
**BMW did not report what test cycle was used.
BMW reported a cold start test conducted with a 20ms A-shift that showed
results of 0.25 HC, 3.93 CO, 0.24 NOx. All these tests were.obtained
using a low mileage catalyst and oxygen sensor. Similar tests were
conducted using the L-Jetronic system on a 2.8L 6 cylinder engine on the
Japanese 10 mode cycle. These results are shown in Table BMW-2.
BMW also supplied data on the L-Jetronic system without A-shift. These
data are shown in Table BMW-3.
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Table BMW-2*
Effect of Lambda-Shifting on Japanese 10 Mode Test
t (ms)	HC	CO	NOx
20	0.124	0.135	0.474
40	0.104	0.259	0.356
60	0.104	0.375	0.354
80	0.077	0.406	0.222
*BMW SR, Sec. 3., pg. 3.
Table BMW-3
Emissions Results on L-Jetronlc System
Without Lambda-Shifting
VEHICLE DESCRIPTION: 2.8L 6 cylinder; 3500 lb. IW; 3-way catalyst
-gm/mi-
Transmission	HC	CO	NOx	MPG	MPG,	MPG
				 			u		h		c
M5	0.38	2.9	0.61	19.3	28.3	22.5
A3	0.38	3.2	0.46	18.3	23.1	20.2
*BMW SR, Sec. 3, pg. 4.
**Cycle used not specified by BMW.
BMW also reported efforts on an axial piston engine with continuous
internal combustion. BMW reports they are expecting driveability pro-
blems using this engine in their vehicles. BMW does not believe this
will be a feasible alternative to their existing engine and indicated
they do not plan to continue the support of this project. No details of
the principles of operation were supplied.
Investigations of stratified charge engines were also reported by BMW.
To meet the future standards, BMW reported oxidation catalysts will be
required to control HC and CO levels on both divided and undivided
combustion chamber engines. In addition EGR will be necessary to meet
the 1.0 NOx level, according to BMW. Reports of higher cost and poor
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fuel economy has led BMW to conclude that there is a poor chance for
marketing this engine in the TJ.S. BMW believes by raising the com-
pression ratio they may be able to reduce fuel consumption to an accep-
table level.
Developmental efforts on the Diesel engine were also reported. Tests
have been conducted on a swirl chamber engine equipped with a turbo-
charger. BMW reported they believe this engine will be able to raise
their fleet fuel economy average above the 1985 standard, although
problems are foreseen in meeting the emission standards. BMW reported
they are doubtful whether the 1.0 NOx level can be met without causing
adverse effects on their ability to meet the 0.41 HC level. No data
were reported from these alternative engines by BMW.
It was reported in an outside news source* that BMW has concluded an
agreement with an Austrian company named Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG. This
agreement involves building Diesel engines in Austria for both stationary
and mobile use. According to this source,* this new plant will have the
capability to produce 30,000 engines per year. This may have a signifi-
cant impact on BMW's sales fleet with respect to Diesel engines.
12.2.2.6.	Durability Data
No durability data were reported by BMW.
12.2.2.7.	Problems and Progress
From their report, it appears BMW is confident they have sufficient
technology to meet the emission standards through 1980. From there BMW
reported they will need to direct more effort to emission control tech-
nology. The areas reported by BMW to be difficult are the 3.4 CO, 1.0
and 0.41 NOx standards, in addition to the fuel economy requirements.
*American Metal Market - Metalworking News Edition, July 3, 1978, p. 17.
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12.2.3. British Leyland (BL)
The main developmental effort to meet future emission standards is 3-way
catalyst systems with feedback controlled air-fuel metering systems.
12.2.3.1.	Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Though specific timetables were not detailed, BL expects to introduce a
vehicle equipped with a 3-way catalyst system and feedback controlled
fuel injection in early 1978 following the completion of certification
testing. BL successfully completed testing of such a vehicle and
received a certificate of conformity in February 1978. Another 3-way
catalyst system will follow in 1979 or 1980, according to BL. Further
feedback systems, both fuel injection and carburetion, may be applicable
only to the California market for the 1980 model year since vehicles
equipped with an oxidation catalyst, air injection, and EGR (i.e.
systems developed for California) will be used to meet 1979 and 1980
Federal standards, according to BL. No other details concerning 1979
model year emission control systems were provided by BL.
12.2.3.2.	Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
In addition to the above described systems for 1980, BL indicated that
vehicles using feedback controlled carburetor systems may require EGR in
order to reduce NOx levels to meet the 1980 California standards.
According to BL, this is due to the insufficient control of air/fuel
ratio for adequate control of all three pollutants with a single 3-way
catalyst system. BL believes a 3-way only or a 3-way only plus EGR
system is preferable to a 3-way plus oxidation catalyst system without
EGR. Also, according to BL, some larger vehicles equipped with 3-way
catalysts may require the addition of an oxidation catalyst and air
injection to meet the 3.4 CO level despite the use of feedback fuel
injection.
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12.2.3.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
Besides BL's statement regarding use of 3-way catalyst systems to meet
future standards and the possible addition of an oxidation catalyst and
air injection to meet the 3.4 CO level, BL provided no other information
on systems to meet 1981 standards.
12.2.3.4.	Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
BL provided no information regarding these research goal levels.
12.2.3.5.	Other Developmental Efforts
3-Way Catalysts
As indicated above, BL's main research and developmental efforts are on
3-way catalysts. Two 3-way catalysts have been durability tested on
vehicles equipped with 2.0L engines, but BL did not indicate whether
these vehicles were equipped with fuel injection or carburetion and BL
provided few details concerning the 3-way catalysts. Results of these
tests are presented in Table BL-1.
Several 3-way catalysts having various platinum to rhodium ratios and
loadings have been durability tested on a 4.1L engine mounted on a test
bed. At various intervals, the catalysts were mounted on a vehicle (of
unspecified weight) equipped with a 2.0L engine and tested over the FTP.
BL did not report what type of air/fuel metering system was used nor did
they specify what the relationship is between mileage and hours for this
durability testing. FTP test results at various intervals of durability
are presented in Table BL-2. Of some interest is the inclusion of a
metallic substrate 3-way catalyst in this table. BL has not put forth
much developmental effort on this catalyst until recently because of the
past difficulties with existing ceramic substrate 3-way catalysts.
12-335

-------
Table BL-1*
3-Way Catalyst Durability Data
Veh No.
N/R***
Veh Descrip.** System** Mileage
2.0L
3W
Pt/Rh - 5/1
50 g/cu ft.
N/R***
2.0L
3W
40 g/cu ft.
*Status Report British Leyland U.K. Limited, January 1978, pg. 4, Table A and Table B,
hereinafter referred to as BL SR.
**Very little information concerning the vehicle or control system was reported by BL.
***N/R - Not Reported.

	
	g/mi	
	
	mpg

Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
Bags 1 & 2
Bag 3
0
0.06
0.59
0.63
21.2

1,000
0.13
1.46
0.70
22.2
30.11
5,000
0.10
1.22
0.97
22.1
-
10,000
0.118
2.46
0.76
20.7
26.6
12,500
0.15
3.92
0.92
18.4
24.0
12,500
0.10
2.3
0.93
24.3
24.83
15,000
0.08
2.2
1.4
21.5
-
20,000
0.11
2.05
1.54
21.9
26.97
25,000
0.14
2.92
0.89
19.96
-
25,000
0.11
2.56
1.16
21.59
-
30,000
0.11
2.94
1.04
22.81
-
35,000
0.10
2.70
1.14
23.5
-
37,500
0.14
3.14
1.06
22.6
-
37,500
0.13
2.21
1.15
23.4
-
40,000
0.14
2.89
0.97
25.9
-
45,000
0.24
4.28
1.3
23.6
-
50,000
0.25
3.11
1.1
23.7
-
0
0.05
0.85
0.34
19.86
26.58
. 1,000
0.078
1.15
0.72
18.8
-
5,000
0.116
1.67
0.86
18.58
23.24
10,000
0.105
2.01
0.98
18.55
-
12,500
0.07
1.72
1.15
21.9
-
12,500
0.08
1.7
0.99
28.7

15,000
0.09
1.65
0.905
23.77
23.95
20,000
0.12
1.78
0.97
23.04
-
25,000
0.09
1.35
0.88
28.81
-
25,000
0.09
1.49
1.17
20.1
-
Comments
60 ms ECU fitted
Test aborted.
60 ms ECU fitted
Fuel economy
result suspect.
Fuel economy
result suspect.

-------
Table BL-2*
3-Way Catalyst FTP Results After Various Engine Dynamometer Test Intervals**
Pt Loading


Zero Hours	

50 Hours-
	
	
100 Hours	

-150 Hours	

200 Hours	
(g/cu ft.)
Pt/Rh
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
40
11/1
0.1
1.64
0.27
0.15
3.36
0.44
0.31
4.53
0.50






40
11/1
0.1
1.83
0.21
0.16
2.82
0.4
0.25
4.39
0.56






40
11/1
0.18
2.31
0.14
0.23
3.54
0.41
0.19
4.08
0.63




	
	
50
5/1
0.1
1.58
0.09



0.32
4.19
0.46



0.35
3.83
0.44
50
5/1
0.15
2.25
0.11
0.21
2.96
0.29
0.25
3.03
0.34
0.19
3.41
0.50
0.34
4.49
0.57
60***
7/1
0.1
1.76
0.05







	

	
	
__
50
11/1
0.13
1.75
0.06
0.15
3.18
0.32
0.2
3.88
0.46
0.19
4.56
0.59
0.21
3.7
0.6
50
2/1
0.13
1.63
0.15
0.15
3.53
0.29



0.23
2.86
0.31
0.14
3.42
0.25
40
7/1
0.16
2.56
0.23
0.12
3.01
0.34
0.15
3.39
0.45
0.17
3.56
0.8
0.1
4.05
0.42
40
11/1
0.2
3.28
0.35
0.23
4.44
0.6
0.25
5.75
0.7
0.33
6.36
0.81

	
	
*BL SR, Table D.
i
u>
**Catalysts were durability tested on a 4.1L engine mounted on an engine
dynamometer over an unspecified test cycle and then were tested on the
FTP on a 2.0L engine in an unspecified vehicle.
**Metallic substrate (no details were provided by BL).

-------
These efforts are now expected to increase, according to BL. BL did not
specify whether or not this is Matthey Bishop's fecralloy 3-way catalyst
metallic substrate.
Air/Fuel Metering
According to BL, "Vee" configuration engines present air/fuel ratio
control problems when compared to in-line engines. Two engines, a 5.2L
V12 and a V8 of unspecified displacement, have been equipped with
air/fuel metering systems under development. The system on the V12
engine was described only as "a significantly different control system
to that used on production systems" and has produced results of 0.31 HC,
3.0 CO, 0.43 NOx at low mileage with an unspecified vehicle and an
unspecified 3-way catalyst. The system on the V8 engine is an open loop
fuel injection system. Zero mile test results were 0.12 HC, 1.61 CO,
0.60 NOx, 14.3	and 27.3	^ut during 50,000 miles of durabil-
ity testing, problems with, excessive drift of the idle mixture set point
between service points have resulted in BL abandoning this open loop
approach in favor of feedback controlled systems. Air/fuel mixture
supplied by a non-feedback controlled carburetor system has also ran
into air/fuel ratio drift problems. An unspecified vehicle with a 3-way
plus oxidation catalyst system was equipped with a non-feedback con-
trolled carburetor, set slightly rich, and tested. Zero mile results
looked promising, but after only 5,600 miles, the air/fuel ratio had
drifted lean. Test results are shown in Table BL-3.
Table BL-3
3-Way Plus Oxidation Catalyst System with Non-Feedback Carburetor
	g/mi	
Veh No. Veh Descrip. System Mileage HC CO NOx MPG^
N/R**	N/R**	3W/AIR/0C	0 0.22 2.47 0.36 20.5
5,600 0.26 3.02 0.67 21.9
*BL SR, pg. 6.
**N/R - Not reported.
12-338

-------
According to BL, efforts on feedback carburetion are in the very early
stages. Results indicate that the wet intake manifold system presents
problems in making feedback carburetor systems operate effectively, and
these systems are, according to BL, less effective than feedback con-
trolled fuel injection in maintaining the desired air/fuel ratio.
Because of this, vehicles equipped with feedback carburetor systems may
also require EGR systems for adequate NOx control and to maintain a low
NOx DF. But, according to BL, such carburetor systems still represent a
cost advantage compared with fuel injection systems. Current BL efforts
are focusing on optimizing the electronic feedback control logic for the
types of transient operation encountered in the FTP. Also, BL is inves-
tigating several methods of air/fuel ratio modulation on carburetors
including float chamber pressure variation, jet position modulation, and
jet air bleed modulation. BL expects to begin full vehicle testing in
early 1978.
A transonic carburetor has been developed by BL which is set to deliver
air/fuel ratios of 18 to 19:1 during steady state operation but auto-
matically enriches during acceleration or full throttle operation.
Unfortunately, fuel economy improved only marginally compared to con-
ventional carburetion when tested over a variety of test cycles including
steady states and transients. Also, driveability was unacceptable
unless the carburetor was enriched somewhat, which in turn increased NOx
emissions. According to BL, further development of the transonic car-
buretor has been shelved, but it will still be used for lean burn inves-
tigations including various air/fuel ratio settings over the operating
range, better idle performance, and transient performance.
12-339

-------
Secondary Air Injection
BL has performed tests on an aspirator system with the intention of
realizing the advantages of reduced cost and improved fuel economy
compared to air pump systems. Two conclusions have been made by BL
regarding these tests: a reduction in NOx occurs using an aspirator
compared to an air pump, but the aspirator provides only a small margin
of excess air which inhibits effective oxidation at richer air/fuel
ratios. For this second reason, the aspirator has not yet been adopted,
according to BL. Table BL-4 presents typical results of this test
program.
Table BL-4*
Test Results of an Aspirator vs. an Air Pump




-g/mi


Veh No.
Veh Descrip.
System
HC
CO
NOx
Air Injection Location
N/R**
TR7 (no other
AIR
1.18
11.7'
2.0
Exhaust ports

description
PAIR
1.07
10.7
1.8
Exhaust ports

provided)
AIR/OC
0.18
2.0
2.2
Exhaust ports


AIR/OC
0.2
2.0
1.7
Exhaust manifold


PAIR/OC
0.6
6.3
1.7
Exhaust ports


PAIR/OC
0.35
2.3
1.6
Exhaust manifold
*BL SR, pg. 10.
**N/R - Not Reported.
Fuel Economy
Several areas are under investigation by BL to improve fuel economy.
Drivetrain investigations have included various torque converters
including lock-up units, various axle ratios, and automatic transmissions
equipped with overdrive. Also, efforts are proceeding on an infinitely
variable automatic transmission for which component testing is well
under way, according to BL. To determine the gains to be obtained
12-340

-------
by reducing vehicle weight, BL performed tests at lower inertia weights.
These and other data are presented in Figure BL-1 and Figure BL-2, but
it should be noted fuel economy improvements at lower inertia weights
may underestimate the potential gains to be achieved because smaller
engines may be used at the lower weights (to maintain constant perfor-
mance) resulting in even greater fuel economy improvements.
Investigations have been performed on a V12 engine to determine the fuel
economy improvements possible by running on less than twelve cylinders.
This is accomplished by not triggering specific electrically controlled
fuel injectors. Figure BL-3 presents data from this study at low speed,
steady state operation. The firing orders were selected for smoothest
engine operation and not all are practicable arrangements, according to
BL. On six cylinder operation, the engine was perfectly smooth. BL
notes the fuel economy differences between six and twelve cylinder
operation are reduced at higher vehicle speeds. Also, with an automatic
control system installed for switching to twelve cylinder operation
during acceleration, the fuel economy improvement was approximately 10%
compared with 15% for six cylinder only operation when driven over a
mixture of urban and highway type driving. Figure BL-4 presents results
at various steady state speeds for six and twelve cylinder operation.
According to BL, very little exhaust emission testing has been conducted
on this arrangement, but they expect emission problems because the
changeover from six to twelve cylinders and vice versa causes an increase
in emissions. No emission data were reported by BL.
Alternate Engines
According to BL, little work has been performed on vehicles equipped
with Diesel engines designed for the U.S. market. Though efforts con-
tinue on European requirements, some emission results were reported by
BL and are presented in Table BL-5.
12-341

-------
4.
P
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o
If

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TO PRC
1. N
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NOTE:
1975 EMISSOM TEST.
LOAP VCOHSUMPnOfi
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/H
3
^13
v3
(L
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12


























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12

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*(lbs


HIGHWAY TEST
LOAD V CONSUMPTION!
3000
3SOO
4000 4S00
o
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MEASURED
CONSUMPTION
THEORETICAL
consumption --x	
Inertia V consumption
flj3AD 11-2 MR  50 MPM.)
&
IO
12 . 14
3000
3S00
4000 4SOO
Figure BL-1*
*BL SR, Figure 9.
12-342

-------
Vehicle n
-------
IMPROVEMENT IN FUEL. ECONOMY" OF Vl2 ENGINE.
 AT 1QOQ K.PM. KOAD LOAD WITU VARIOUS CYLINDER'S

-------
XT 52-2 SPLIT VI2
STEADY" SPEED CONSUMPTION CHECKS AT M.I-g.A.
PATE OF TEST: 18.5.77
WEATUgg CONDITIONS:
Wind gusting io -20 mph. ne.
3AR0METEK SO-2"
HUMIDITY
AMB. TEMFT

-------
Table BL-5*
Diesel Emission Results
Veh No. Veh Descrlp. System
N/R**
1.6L; 3000
lb. IW
*BL SR, pg. 13.
**N/R - Not reported.
HC
g/mi	
CO NOx
FI 0.46 1.44
(Diesel)
0.9 1.73
1.34 3.01
1.00
1.03
4.93 0.83
0.58 1.5 1.41
0.5 1.63 1.32
MPG
1.26 28.6
29.2
28.0
26.3
26.5
26.3
Comments
Standard injection
timing; standard
brake load.
2 retard; standaz
brake load.
4 retard; standai
brake load.
8 retard; standai
brake load.
Increased brake
load.
Increased brake
load with E6R.
Two versions of three valve, carbureted, stratified charge engines are
being developed by BL. BL did not indicate what differences there are
between these two versions. In the past, efforts have concentrated on
improving combustion within the cylinder and on optimizing the pre-
chamber design. The two areas still in need of considerable Improvement,
according to BL, are the prechamber carburetor and its associated control
linkage and part throttle HC emissions. Because most carburetion devel-
opmental efforts are on feedback controlled carburetors, efforts to
solve prechamber engine carburetor problems have been limited. Results
on a 2500 lb. IW vehicle equipped with one of these engines (displacement
unspecified) have been approximately 3.5 HC, 5 CO, 1.0 NOx, and 27 MPG^
without a catalyst. BL expects when changes determined from steady
state testing are made to the prechamber geometry, HC levels may be
reduced by approximately one half compared to the above value and other
efforts in progress are also expected to improve HC during deceleration.
Also, since the current thermal reactor is almost completely ineffective
12-346

-------
and delays catalyst light-off, other efforts to improve the heat con-
servation characteristics of the cylinder head/exhaust manifold system
are proceeding. Efforts continue on single cylinder engines of both
two-stroke cycle and four-stroke cycle design with the former being
combined with high speed photography and laser techniques to study gas
velocities in the main chamber due to gas movement between the main and
prechamber.
Miscellaneous
Other efforts include digital electronic ignition timing control, high
compression ratio engines for Europe, valve timing, internally and
externally modulated EGR, and evaporative emission controls. Two vehicles
were durability tested using fuel containing 0.125 g/gal MMT and, accord-
ing to BL, in all cases the catalysts exhibited unusual and excessive
blocking of the substrate cells. Because of backpressure increases and
the deterioration of emissions, the two vehicles were terminated, one at
10,000 miles and the other at 25,000 miles. Also, no work is planned by
BL at present on the use of thermal reactors for the U.S. market because
they delay the light-off of catalysts. Finally, according to BL, con-
sumer costs of the proposed 3-way catalyst and closed loop fuel injec-
tion systems are between $350 and $450 dependent on the model and, for
the same system except with feedback carburetion, the consumer cost is
approximately $350, assuming no EGR or backup oxidation catalysts are
used.
12.2.3.6. Durability Data
Other than the abovementioned 3-way catalyst and MMT data, no other
durability data were presented by BL.
12-347

-------
12.2.3.7. Problems and Progress
In summary, the lack of specific detail makes it difficult to ascertain
BL's exact emission control technological status. BL may require con-
siderably more effort in such areas as 3-way catalyst, feedback controlled
fuel metering systems and evaporative emission control systems to meet
future standards. For 3-way catalyst systems, neither hardware (i.e.
the addition of EGR, secondary air injection, and a back-up oxidation
catalyst) nor system calibration have been determined, however, vehicle
testing is just beginning. If BL's optimism is justified, expected
improvements in the stratified charge engines could allow the attain-
ment of 1981 Federal standards using an oxidation catalyst, but no
leadtime Information for production of such engines was provided by BL
so it is not known whether or not these engines could be produced for
the 1981 model year. While a fair amount of BL's efforts have been
directed at improving fuel economy, this has not always Included
emissions testing.
12-343

-------
12.2.4. Daimler-Benz AG
12.2.4.1. Systems to be Used for the 1979 Model Year
Daimler-Benz (DB) manufactures a product line with a limited range of
vehicle models that are characterized by a model run extending seven to
eight years, according to DB. A description of the engines marketed in
the United States during the 1978 model year (MY) is shown in Table DB-1
for gasoline engines and in Table DB-2 for Diesel engines.
For gasoline engines in the 1979 model year, the 1978 DB Status Report
describes emission control systems for models M110, Mil7, and M100. The
M115 14 engine will be discontinued in 1979. K-Jetronic fuel injection
(CIS) and transistorized ignition will be standard on gasoline engine-
equipped models.
The model M110 basic engine will remain unchanged as compared with the
1978	MY with different emission control systems for California and the
49 states. Both will use K-Jetronic fuel injection, transistorized
ignition, and exhaust backpressure EGR. The 49 states version will use
modulated air injection in the exhaust manifold with air diversion
during deceleration to avoid backfire. A single oxidation catalyst will
be used as described in Table DB-3 for 49 states. For California in the
1979	MY, according to DB, two monolithic reduction catalysts (1.70 g/L
Pt + 0.73 g/L Rh) will be located close to the exhaust manifold, one for
cylinders 1-3 and one for cylinders 4-6. In addition, an underfloor
monolithic oxidation catalyst (1.831 g/L Pt + 0.915 g/L Pd) will be
used. Air injection is also modified to Include a "switch-over" system
which will allow air to be injected at the exhaust ports when the engine
coolant water is between 62.5F and 122F and injected at the front of
the underfloor catalyst above and below this temperature range. This
system is like a 3-way plus oxidation catalyst system, but without
12-349

-------
Table DB-1*
DB Gasoline Engines' Description for 1978 MY - 49 State
Engine Model
M-115
M110
M117
M100
CID
141
167.5
276
417
CR
8:1
8:1
8:1
8:1
HP
86
142
180
250
Engine Type
14
16
V8
V8
Emission Control
System
AIR/OC/EGR/
AIR/FI/OC/
EGR
AIR/FI/OC/
EGR
AIR/FI/OC/
EGR
IW
3500 lb.
4000 lb.
4500 lb.
4500 lb.
Fuel Management
Carburetor
K-Jetronic
K-Jetronic
K-Jetronic
Ignition System
TIS
TIS
TIS
TIS
*1978 Fuel Economy Program - 49 State Buyer's Guide Data, 3 February, 1978.
12-350

-------
Table DB-2*
DB Diesel Engines' Description for 1978 MY - 50 State
Engine Model
CID
CR
HP
Engine Type
Emission Control
System
IW
Fuel Management
0M616
147
21:1
62
14
FI
3500 lb.
FI
0M617
183
21:1
77
15
FI
4000 lb.
FI
0M617T
183
21.5:1
110
15
FI/TC
4000 lb.
FI
*Daimler-Benz AG Status Report, January 1978 (IA2.1).
Hereafter referred to as DB-SR.
12-351

-------
Table DB-3*
Catalytic Converter Description for the 1979 Model Year
Substrate	Catalyst
Engine Family	Manufacturer Manufacturer Active Material
M110 - 49 States
Oxidation Catalyst
Corning
Engelhard
1.831 g/L Pt +
0.915 g/L Pd
M110 - California



Oxidation Catalyst
+ Reduction Catalyst
Corning
Corning
Degussa
Degussa
1.831 g/L Pt +
0.915 g/L Pd
1.70 g/L Pt +
0.73 g/L Rh
M117 - 49 States



Oxidation Catalyst
(or)
Coming
Corning
Engelhard
Degussa
1.831 g/L Pt +
0.915 g/L Pd
1.45 g/L Pt +
0.17 g/L Rh
M117 - California



Oxidation Catalyst
(or)
Corning
Corning
Engelhard
Engelhard
1.831 g/L Pt +
0.915 g/L Pd
1.831 g/L Pt >
0.915 g/L Pd
M100 - 49 State and Cal.



Oxidation Catalyst
Corning
Engelhard
1.831 g/L Pt +
0.915 g/L Pd
Legend: N.R. = Not reported
Monolith	No. of No. of
Weight	Location	Monoliths Cans
1076g	Underfloor	One	One
1076g	Underfloor	One	One
N.R.	Underhood	Two	Two
693g	Underfloor	Two	Two
1061g	Underfloor	One	One
1425g	Underfloor	Two	Two
1076g	Underfloor	Two	One
1425g	Underfloor	Two	Two
*DB-SR, page IA2.1.

-------
closed loop control of fuel metering.
The model M117 basic engine will be unchanged compared with the 1978 MY-
using K-Jetronic, water temperature and manifold vacuum controlled EGR
as well as a transistorized ignition system (TIS). Air injection for 49
States will be by means of an aspirator, and for California the Saginaw
air pump will be used. As described in Table DB-3, this engine family
will use two different catalyst systems for the 49 states' applications;
namely, two noble metal monolithic catalysts or a single catalyst with a
Pt/Rh ratio of 8.5:1. The latter is described by DB as an oxidation
catalyst although this composition is conventionally used for NOx re-
duction as well as for HC and CO control. No explanation was offered by
DB for this design strategy.
For the M100 family, the same control system will apply to both 49
States and California. This family of engines will use K-Jetronic, air
injection, vacuum controlled EGR, and dual oxidation catalysts as
described in Table DB-3.
The Diesel models planned for the 1979 MY are essentially the same as
those produced in the 1978 MY. The OM617T turbocharged Diesel includes
an overload feature to protect the engine and transmission. This is
accomplished by means of a solenoid valve which reduces the fuel injec-
tion rate when the boost or inlet air pressure exceeds 1.1 atmospheres
(
-------
Figure DR-1*
Function Diagram of Engine and Automatic Transmission Protection
(Automat!
53.1
*DF>SR, page IA2.45.

-------
12.2.4.2. Systems to be Used for the 1980 Model Year
For the 1980 model year, Daimler-Benz will use the same emission control
systems for both 49 States and California. DB did not describe the 417
CID V8 model M100 gasoline engine for the 1980 MY, leaving two gasoline
engine types; namely, the M110 and the M117. Both types will use K-
Jetronic fuel injection, 3-way catalysts and oxygen sensor control. EGR
and air injection will be dropped in 1980. Both engine types will use
3-way catalyst control, but the detailed specifications are not yet
available, except that the Corning EM300 substrate will be used. The
engine will be controlled between 0.98 and 1.02 air/fuel equivalence
ratios which offer a compromise between engine power and fuel economy,
according to DB. DB stated that optimal fuel consumption would normally
be obtained close to a 1.1 air/fuel equivalence ratio. Due to shifting
of the oxygen sensor's electronic output with time, the durability of
the oxygen sensor is approximately 15,000 miles and must be replaced at
these intervals. No catalyst maintenance or replacement will be required
since the catalyst will be only slightly loaded due to small fluctua-
tions in air/fuel ratios close to stoichiometric, according to DB.
The 3-way catalyst system with K-Jetronic fuel injection requires closed
loop feedback control in conjunction with the oxygen sensor for close
control of the exhaust gas mixture. The analog signal from the oxygen
sensor, located in the engine exhaust system, is compared with a fixed
reference voltage. The comparative output provides information as to
whether the value of the voltage output is greater or less than that of
the reference voltage. DB stated that since it has proven worthwhile in
practice not to equate the reference voltage with voltage corresponding
to the theoretical lambda = 1 value, but with the voltage corresponding
\
to the most stable point (200 to 300 mV), electronic correction towards
stoichiometry is required. This action ensures that the integrator runs
longer in the rich mixture direction. The output voltage of the inte-
grator is fed to another comparator whose second output is connected to
a saw-tooth generator. At the output of this second comparator there is
12-355

-------
a pulse sequence whose duty cycle Is dependent on the magnitude of the
Integrator voltage. These pulses are amplified and fed to a solenoid
valve, which in the case of mechanical injection (K-Jetronic), modifies
the differential pressure in the fuel distributor, which in turn modi-
fies the quantity of fuel injected. The electronic closed loop system
is shown in Figure DB-2 and in schematic form in Figures DB-3 and DB-4
for the M110 and M117, respectively. Oxygen storage takes place as a
synergetic effect of catalyst material and components in the washcoat of
the catalyst, according to DB. After chemisorption, the oxygen is split
and stored in atomic form as oxygen radicals on the precious metals.
This process is assisted by special promoters and stabilized by other
substances in the washcoat. By varying the appropriate promoters and
stabilizers, DB stated that the catalyst industry is endeavoring to
further improve the behavior characteristics of the catalysts by way of
this storage capacity. This can also mean improving the efficiency of
the catalysts by adding less expensive base metals or maintaining their
efficiency, simultaneously reducing the quantities of more expensive
precious metals needed, according to DB.
Vehicle emissions data for research vehicles with a 3-way catalyst,
closed loop controlled vehicle are shown in Table DB-4. DB stated that
for these research vehicles, daily testing is necessary requiring hot
start tests on many occasions. This allows the same vehicle to be
tested several times during a single day. The research vehicles do not
follow a certain mileage accumulation schedule but serve mainly as a
means to screen the effectiveness of different components and systems.
Diesel models planned for the 1980 MY are essentially the same as those
planned for the 1979 MY. DB has chosen the prechamber combustion system
from the beginning of the Light-Duty Vehicle Diesel production as the
best compromise between prechamber, swirl chamber, and direct injection
combustion systems (Figure DB-5). For the three combustion chamber
processes, cylinder pressure diagrams are shown as a function of crank
angle in Figure DB-6. This figure supplied by DB shows shorter ignition
12-356

-------
Figure DB-2*
Electronic Closed Loop System
*DB-SR, pg. IIA2, Figure 2.

-------
Figure DB^-3*
M110 Exhaust Emission Control System for 1980
ii
Tl
hi
 i
.5
3
2/2F #/c |

40.
Sr
T33
MO.
3. J

$78
u
*DB-SR, pg. 175.
12-358

-------
Figure DB-4*
M117 Exhaust ssiori Control System for 1980
*D3-SR, pg. 178.
12-359

-------
1980 Model Year Gasoline Research
VIN
TyPe
CID
116E28-77 280SE 167.5
Emission
Controls
No. of
Tests
CIS/0-.sensor/ 59
3W
Mileage
N.R.
123E28-B1 280E
167.5
FI/0- sensor/
3W
1
2
4
22
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
116E28-154 280SE 167.5
CIS/0, sensor/
3W
N.R.
123E28-180 280E
167.5
CIS/0, sensor/ 33
3W
N.R.
107E45-66 450SL 276
CIS/0, sensor/ 71
3W
N.R.
107E45-81 450SL 276
CIS/0, sensor/ 29
3W
N.R.
116E45-87 450SE 276
CIS/0- sensor/ 47
3W
N.R.
116E45-143 450SE 276
CIS/0, sensor/ 16
3W
N.R.
116E45-162 450SE 276
CIS/0, sensor/ 4
3W
N.R.
116E69-74 450SE 417	CIS/0 sensor/ 69
3W
N.R.
116E69-139 450SE 417
CIS/O- sensgr/ 57
3W
N.R.
*DB-SR, pg. IV2B.la.
**  0.41, 3.4 1.0
N.R. - Not reported.
"mono" = single 0^ sensor, "stereo" = >1 0^ sensor
e DB-4*
Vehicle Results (0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2 BQx)
	Average FTP Results (g/inl)	
(# of Tests Below/# of Tests Above Standards)
	HC		CO		NOx	Remarks
0.07 - 0.43
(58/1)
0.17
0.14 (mean)
0.18 (mean)
0.37 - 1.04
(2/20)**
0.39 - 0.83
(1/8)
0.18 - 0.40
(33/0)
0.24 - 2.87
(47/24)
0.14 - 0.64
(25/4)
0.21 - 0.40
(47/0)
0.24 - 0.51
(13/3)
0.24 - 2.37
(3/1)
0.19 - 0.67
(48/21)
0.17 - 1.03
(31/26)
1.1 - 5.3
(59/0)
1.81
2.18 (mean)
2.45 (mean)
3.34 - 7.40
(2/20)**
13.67 - 6.69
(9/0)
1.57 - 4.2
(33/0)
0.89 - 14.67
(67/4)
1.28 - 7.87
(27/2)
1.40 - 5.19
(47/0)
1.40 - 6.30
(16/0)
2.93 - 13.94
(3/1)
1.68 - 15.38
(61/8)
1.44 - 11.14
(53/4)
0.10 - 1.42
(59/0)
0.34
0.50(mean)
0.41(mean)
0.46 - 1.94
(10/12)**
0.13 - 0.69
(9/0)
0.19 - 0.62
(33/0)
0.15 - 2.44
(67/4)
0.3 - 1.36
(29/0)
Different
catalysts.
New 02 sensor + Cat.
New 8tart cat.
New catalyst.
L-Jetronic.
0.52 - 2.39
(42/5)
0.10 - 2.09
(15/1)
0.32 - 4.60
(3/1)
0.13 - 2.56
(68/1)
0.17 - 2.47
(55/2)
Warm-up +
drlveabillty.
Warm-up +
drlveabillty.
Electronic governed
warm-up regulator.
Lambda control "mono" vs.
"stereo" decision;
"mono" + AIR
With/Without aspirated air.
Aspirated air @ idle
+ other.
Neu camshaft + advanced
Ignition @ idle.
Different catalysts.
Different 0^ sensors
+ 3-way catalysts.

-------
Figure DB-5*
Different LDV Diesel Combustion Systems
cc

c:

-r
<> Ji
Wi

PI
PRE-CHAMBER
i ^"'"1
' \'.' " . '.Li 1

	*	.*
y		'*WJ*-

i
( !


IT
SWIRL-CHAMSER

Bjjcg
J.h X
ti-t
uH / 

| : r\ v 'VAN'r ~~I:
i i ^	i ti I
4pnrT^;	nki
1 3 '		
r..=# 1 ? ...		3 at^
KJ
T\ r.
* ^
f i fj
*5
e
Ul
35 x?
/ i
/ .*?

> W4.
J' 'J "

J
E-i
DIRECT-INJECTION
ii


mc-Ma* >!j
DIFFERENT COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
LDV-DIESEL-ENGINES (240 D)
' \\rnjrs
| V1KD 0874
| 02.963
*DB-SR, pg. 213, Figure 1.

-------
Figure DB-6*
Pressure Diagrams of Different LDV Diesel Combustion Systems
PRE-CHAMBER
INCREASE dp
OF PRESSURE ^ "2at/ CA
v-nitjz-7rTT'Xr^rprTTXTvr;
/T\ 1 PSfSSURE DIAGRAMS OF OiFFERENT COMBUSTION I V1KD0874
I SYSTEMS LDV-DIESEL-ENGINES (240 D)
j n = 4000 RPiV . pe = 6.4 kp/crn-
02 964

*DB-SR, p. 213, Figure 2.

-------
delay and lower peak combustion pressure than either the swirl chamber
or open chamber combustion systems. The slow rate of pressure rise
encourages lower noise, lower relative NOx levels, and higher engine
speeds as compared against the open chamber system which is more com-
monly associated with heavy duty applications because of fuel consump-
tion advantages, according to DB. The swirl chamber offers slightly
better smoke levels and fuel consumption than the prechamber for equal
performance levels as shown in Figure DB-7. Figure DB-8 shows FTP
results for the three different combustion systems. Engine design
details for the three engine types and inertia test weights were not
reported by DB. Detailed FTP test information on the 240D, 300D, and
turbocharged 300D were reported for several research and durability
vehicles adjusted to comply with the 0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2.0 NOx MY 1980
standards. These data are reported in Table DB-5 for research vehicles.
These data demonstrate that DB should have no outstanding problems in
complying with the 1980 MY emissions requirements for HC, CO, and NOx.
12.2.4.3. Systems to be Used for the 1981 Model Year and Beyond
For model year 1981, there will be only one version for all 50 States.
The emission control system for gasoline engines, 3-way catalyst, oxygen
sensor, and CIS (Continuous or K-Jetronic fuel injection systems) will
be the same as used for the 1980 MY production. For the Diesel engines,
EGR is considered by DB as the most viable approach in meeting the 1.0
NOx requirement. Neither the 0.41 HC nor the 3.4 CO should pose any
problem for either the naturally aspirated or turbocharged versions. As
described in section 12.2.4.2., DB has selected the prechamber design
over the swirl chamber and open chamber combustion systems. Two dif-
ferent EGR systems considered by DB for NOx control are shown in Figures
DB-9 and DB-10. The working principle of the DB EGR system shown in
Figure DB-9 is accomplished by connecting the intake and exhaust gas
passages through a vacuum controlled EGR valve. The recirculation rate
is determined by the pipe diameter and the valve lift, depending on the
differential pressure between the intake and exhaust manifolds. The
12-363

-------
Figure DB-7*
Conparison of Different LDV Diesel Combustion
Characteristics at Full Load
SMOKE UNiT
i





n\.








-Dl


^2

ZSza.XKVz^stte'--.
^ 0
or

SC_









PERFORMANCE
HP









PC
Di
..err*
* WW


J^\
(
5%




S




z*1
/





/
/





/
/
9







vfy
DI
sc


1
U1







1000 2000 3000
Dl = DIRECT-INJECTION
FC= PRE-CHAMBER
SC= SWIRL-CHAMBER
RPM 4500

i
VA
3
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT
COMBUSTION SYSTEMS (FULL LOAD)
LDV-DIESEL-ENGINES (240 0)
a
h
\ VIMO 05'
I 01 502
*DB-SR, p. 213, Figure 4.
12-364

-------
Figure DB8*
Comparison of Different LDV Diesel
Combustion Systems - FTP Results
to
I
w
a\
Ln
LIMIT FED. '75/"76
1,5g HC/MILE
HC
0.9
0.8
g/MILE
0.6
0/1
Q4
0.2
(ZD PRE-CHAMSER
Ep] SWlRL-CHAMBER
OIRECT INJECTION
LIMIT FED. '7S/'76
15g CO/MILE
CO
I
g/MILE
L
3.4
3
25MPG
24.5MPG
26MPG
NOx
I
g/MILE
U
3.1
3
1
OX
0
LIMIT FED. 11 fH
H
li
*
iM
CVS-TEST FUEL ECONOMY
a
DIFFERENT COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
(CVS-TEST-RESULTS AMD FUEL ECONOMY)
V1KD 0976
06 575
*DB-SR, p. 213, Figure 5.

-------
Table DB-5*
1980 Model Year Dleael Research Vehicle Results (0.41 HC. 7 CO. 2.0 NOx)
	Average FTP Results (g/ml)
VIM
Type
CID
Inertia
Weight (lbs)
No. of
Tests
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
Remarks
123D24-176
240D
147
3500
6
NR
.063 - 0.11
0.9 - 1.0
1.56 - 1.71

123D24-344
240D
147
3500
1
NR
0.07
0.97
1.38

123D24-714
240D
147
3500
8
NR
0.04 - 0.15
0.87 - 1.1
1.6 - 1.9
Correlation test
123D24-812
240D
147
3500
9
NR
0.06 - 0.18
1.0 - 1.2
1.62 - 1.72

123D24-824
240D
147
3500
2
NR
0.14 - 0.19
0.9 - 1.4
1.44 - 1.63

123D30-94
300D
183
4000
5
NR
0.12 - 0.18
1.2 - 1.3
1.40 - 1.60
No EGR.
123D30-94
300D
183
4000
8
NR
0.13 - 0.23
1.6 - 2.3
0.91 - 1.07
EGR.
123D30-194
300D
183
4000
5
NR
0.11 - 0.20
1.2 - 1.5
1.44 - 1.67

123D30-279
300D
183
4000
3
NR
0.12 - 0.16
0.9 - 1.1
1.66 - 1.71

123D30-330
300D
183
4000
1
NR
0.14
1.37
1.78

123D30-715
300D
183
4000
13
NR
0.08 - 0.24
0.96 - 1.34
1.78 - 2.04

123.130-745
300D
183
4000
4
NR
0.10 - 0.17
1.22 - 1.42
1.61 - 1.70
Modulated EGR.
123D30-66
300D
183
4000
2
NR
0.07 - 0.08
0.85 - 0.83
1.51 - 1.66

123D30A-90
300D-TC
183
4000
2
NR
0.09 - 0.10
0.79 - 0.86
1.56 - 1.58

116D30A-116
300SD-TC
183
4000
4
NR
0.03 - 0.05
0.76 - 0.89
1.57 - 1.77

116D30A-119
300SD-TC
183
4000
3
NR
0.07 - 0.18
0.94 - 1.10
1.75 - 1.82

116D30A-135
300SD-TC
183
4000
4
NR
0.03 - 0.04
0.86 - 0.92
1.63 - 1.89

116D30A-149
300SD-TC
183
4000
3
NR
0.04 - 0.09
0.88 - 0.93
1.62 - 2.18

116D30A-189
300SD-TC
183
4000
22
NR
0.04 - 0.14
0.85 - 0.99
1.43 - 1.82

116D30A-212
300SD-TC
183
4000
4
NR
0.06 - 0.12
0.86 - 0.92
1.59 - 1.83

116D30A-213
300SD-TC
183
4000
3
NR
0.02 - 0.09
1.02 - 1.12
1.71 - 1.79

116D30A-
300SD-TC
183
4000
25
Low
0.06 - 0.15
0.78 - 1.28
1.64 - 2.05
Pre-production.
116D30A-
300SD-TC
183
4000
9
NR
0.09 - 0.15
1.01 - 1.14
1.54 - 1.65
Prototype.
115D22
220D
183
3500
1
9902
0.23
1.23
1.38
Comprex.
(Comprex)








C751
300D-TC
183
4000
15
NR
0.06 - 1.0
1.05 - 1.25
1.74 - 2.05

123D30C791
300D-TC
183
4000
5
NR
0.12 - 0.26
1.30 - 1.49
1.46 - 1.64

*DB-SR, IV2B2, pg. 286.
NR - Not reported.

-------
Figure DB-9*
System 1 - rchcmatic of Diesel EGR System (On-Off Load Controlled)
*tib-SR, pg. 189..
12-367

-------
Figure DB-10*
System. 2. Schematic of Experimental Diesel EGR System
CA/F Ratio Controlled)
PR. 190.
12-368

-------
vacuum motor is regulated by a pneumatic pilot valve which is governed
by a linkage to the throttle control. At a position of 4/5 load, the
valve loses pressure and is closed by the force of a spring preventing
EGR at full load. Also, for cold starts there is no EGR since the
vacuum line is closed by a thermo-switch at temperatures less than 40C.
Such a system can lower the NOx on a 3500 lb. inertia weight 240D vehicle
down to about 1.0 g/mi, an estimated reduction of around 40% from an
engine without EGR, according to DB. DB estimates that a NOx standard
of 1.0 NOx appears to be feasible for 240D vehicles using manual trans-
missions (and this EGR system if associated problems can be solved), and
240D vehicles using automatic transmissions (with the addition of fuel
injection pump modifications). For the 300D vehicles a similar situa-
tion exists. Test results vary between 0.7 and 1.2 NOx with EGR.
The other EGR system, developed by Robert Bosch, is air/fuel ratio
controlled (Figure DB-10) and provides proportional EGR for optimum
performance by matching EGR to the desired fuel rate. Original expec-
tations with this system were NOx levels well below 1.0 g/mi. The
system consists of a fuel distributor and an air metering device (simi-
lar to that used with the K-Jetronic gasoline injection system) which
are actuated by a servo assisted throttle valve. A modified fuel supply
pump produces the servo pressure needed to actuate the throttle valve.
The fuel injected quantity is therefore referenced to the air flow
volume allowing the optimum amount of EGR dilution in the intake air
system. At full load, EGR is automatically cut off by the throttle
valve. Adjustment of the air flow sensor at low idle speeds can be
adjusted according to the C02 concentration in the exhaust gas to find
the correct EGR rate. In the current state of development, however,
results are not much better than those obtained with the DB EGR system,
according to DB. One advantage, however, of the Bosch system is that
the control system senses any change in the intake air flow that may be
due to deposit build-ups in the intake air system and provides adjust-
ment of the EGR rates accordingly. DB is presently testing a number of
these systems in taxicab operation to gain durability experience. The
12-369

-------
Robert Bosch EGR system is discussed in greater detail in a technical
paper, SAE 780222, presented at the SAE Congress in Detroit, Michigan in
February, 1978.
DB considers turbocharging as a means to Improve fuel economy and overall
performance as well as to reduce particulates and smoke emissions. The
300D is the only turbocharged model currently marketed in the United
States by DB. The T3 turbocharger with internal wastegate is shown in
Figure DB-11. For NOx control, DB-is considering four different control
systems as shown in Figures DB-12A and DB-12B.
System 1; The recycled exhaust gas flows from the turbine outlet to the
compressor inlet. This system has special problems caused by deposits
on the aerodynamically sensitive small compressor wheel, according to
DB. The efficiency of this wheel may decrease sharply due to such
deposits which can result in a temperature increase of the charge air
and an increase of the NOx emissions while simultaneously increasing
engine loading. Also, if extensive deposit accumulation takes place,
the wheel may touch its housing, causing imbalance and finally destruc-
tion of the turbocharger.
System 2: The recycled exhaust gas flows from turbine outlet to com-
pressor outlet. DB stated that this system is not logical, since it
would require an additional pump.
System 3; The recycled exhaust gas flows from turbine inlet to com-
pressor outlet. Using this approach, no deposit accumulation can take
place on the compressor wheel. However, turbocharger rpm is reduced
under part load, which leads to a decreasing acceleration capability of
the engine (vehicle).
System 4: The recycled exhaust gas flows from turbine inlet to com-
pressor inlet. As with system 2, this principle is not considered by DB
to be a logical approach since the deposit accumulation can take place
12-370

-------
Figure DB-11*
T3-Turbocharger With Integral Wastegate -
Control for OM 617 A
*DB-SR, IIA3.1.2. Figure 1.
12-371

-------
Figure DB-12A*
Exhaust Recirculation on Turbochorqcd
DieseL - r~>Qt'r->es
  r
air mid I
\


j
ooooo
exhaust oulUt ^
Ti

1. po^j from turbine Outlet to compressor inlet
ooooo
exhaust oullct
2. pou from turbine Oullet lo compressor Outlet Lpumpnecdecf
''DB-SR, IIA3.1.2., Figure 4.
12-372

-------
Figure DB-12B*
Exhousl Recirculation on Turbochorged
Diesel - Engines
Oir inlet j





ooooo
exhaust oullet ^
V

3. {low J torn iutbific itile I lo comyor ess or" Oullel
exhoust
inlet j
C\






c
30000
V \
'1




T

U. f/ov from turbine inlet to compressor in!at

-------
on the compressor wheel and the kinetic energy of the exhaust gas is
wasted.
EGR has been explored by DB on turbocharged engines in the laboratory
but not many turbocharged vehicles have been equipped with EGR at the
time of the status report submittal.
Research vehicle data on gasoline engines equipped with different con-
trol systems designed to meet the 1981 emission requirements of 0.41 HC,
3.4 CO, 1.0 NQx are shown in Table DB-6. These data directionally
demonstrate the potential for meeting the 0.41 NOx research goal with
fuel injection, 3-way catalyst, and oxygen sensors on some mid-size or
compact vehicles at low mileage. The data were not broken down by DB to
Indicate the number of vehicles that were in compliance with the research
goal for all three pollutants. Early work with Diesel vehicles demon-
strates the effectiveness of EGR as a potential NOx control to accomo-
date the 1.0 NOx requirement for the 1981 MY. Data supplied by DB are
shown in Table DB-7 for research vehicles. Some work was performed and
data were submitted by DB using both swirl chamber and prechamber engines
with EGR and without EGR. The uncontrolled prechamber exhibited FTP
values in the range of 0.98 to 1.18 NOx without any EGR where the swirl
chamber counterpart exhibited values in the range of 1.23 to 1.29 NOx as
shown in Table DB-7. CO and HC values for both combustion systems are
the levels required by the 1981 MY standards (except for 3 of 22 tests
on vehicle 123D20-126 that were above the 3.4 CO requirement). NOx
reductions with EGR are on the order of 30% for both combustion systems.
12.2.4.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
For gasoline engines, Daimler-Benz will continue to use K-Jetronic fuel
injection with a 3-way catalyst and closed loop control. Research
vehicle data are shown in Table DB-8 for two vehicles. The major pro-
blem in maintaining the desired levels of control appears to be with
oxygen sensor reliability and with the control unit.
12-374

-------
Table DB-6*
1981 Model Year Gasoline Research Vehicle Results (0.41 HC. 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx)
VIN
Type
123E20-57 200E
CID
122.6
Inertia	No. of
Weight (lbs) Tests
NR
12
Mileage
NR
	Average FTP Results	
(# of Tests Below/0 of Tests Above Standards)
HC
0.28 - 1.00
(5/7)
CO
2.6 - 6.4
(2/10)
NOx
Remarks
0.89 - 1.72 CIS, 0, sensor, 3W
(3/9)
123E28-33 280E
167.5
NR
95
NR	0.10 - 1.91 1.2 - 4.1	0.22 - 4.14 CIS, 0, sensor, 3W
(91/4)	(89/6)	(88/7)
123E28-51 280E	167.5
116E45-62 450SE 276
Different wgts. 32
NR	83
NR
NR
0.14 - 3.90
(22/10)
0.10 - 0.81
(75/8)
1.4 - 11.7
(18/14)
0.9 - 11.7
(66/17)
0.05 - 5.99	CIS, 0 sensor, 3W
(18/14) 1
0.19 - 1.40	CIS, 0, sensor, 3W
(78/5)
NR
NR
0.48 - 1.22
(1/2)
10.0 - 14.3
(0/3)
0.29 - 0.41 0- sensor defective.
(3/0)	L
' NR
NR
0.30 - 0.56
(4/2)
1.59 - 9.0
(2/4)
0.34 - 1.43 Metering valve defective.
(5/0)
NR
NR
0.20 - 1.84
(2/1)
3.4 - 13.9
(1/2)
0.20 - 0.31 Wrong wire connection.
(3/0)
116E45-113 450SE 276
NR
26
NR	0.31 - 0.79 2.5 - 12.5	0.20 - 2.21 CIS, O sensor, 3W,
(13/3)	(17/9)	(17/9)	heated 02 sensor.
*DB-SR, IV2B2, pg. 25.
NR - Not reported.

-------
Table DB-7*
1981 Model Year Diesel Research Vehicle Results (0.41 HC. 3.4 CO. 1.0 NOx)
	Average FTP Results-
Inertia	No. of	(g/ml)
VIN
Type
CID
Weight (lbs)
Tests
Mileage

HC
CO
NOx
Remarks
123D20-126
200D
121.3
Different
22
NR
0.07
- 0.18
1.1 - 4.8
0.56 - 0.76
EGR
123D24-105
240D
147
3500
3
NR
0.16
- 0.20
1.7 - 1.8
1.23 - 1.29
Swirl chamber w/o EGR.
II
II
ii
ii
9
NR
0.13
- 0.22
1.7 - 2.2
0.82 - 0.94
Swirl chamber with EGR
123D24-105
2400
147
3500
3
NR
0.24
- 0.31
1.0 - 1.3
0.98 - 1.18
Prechamber w/o EGR.
It
It
M
.11
3
NR
0.18
- 0.19
1.3 - 1.35
0.69 - 0.78
Prechamber with EGR.
hO
I
C-J
-J
^ *DB-SR, IV.B.2., pg. 61.

-------
Table DB-8*
0.41 HC. 3.A CO. 0.41 NOx Gasoline Research Vehicle Results
VIN
Inertia	No. of
Type	CID	Weight (lbs) Tests Mileage
	Average FTP Results (g/mi)	
(0 of Tests Below/# of Tests Above Standards)
HC
CO
NOx
Remarks
129E45-51 450SE
276
NR
134
NR
0.1 - 0.8
(131/3)
0.8 - 14.7
(59/75)
0.22 - 2.61
(43/91)
Different 02 sensor
mountings.
126E50-51 500SE
306.6
NR
24
NR
0.20 - 1.78
(12/12)
2.0 - 7.2
(7/17)
0.05 - 4.32
(7/17)
CIS, 02 sensor, 3W
NR
NR
0.7 - 1.5
(1/1)
2.2 - 3.6
(1/1)
1.43 - 1.45
(0/2)
Control unit defective.
NR
NR
2.1 - 4.2
(0/2)
21.2 - 45.2
(0/2)
0.35 - 0.54
(1/1)
O2 sensor defective.
*DBSR, IV.B.2., pg. 26.

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12.2.4.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Stratified Charge Engine
Among the combustion processes examined by DB is the DB-TSC two stage
combustion process.
Because of the similarities between the stratified charge engine and the
Diesel engine, the Diesel engine was used as a basis for the design of
the engine. The precombustion chamber was replaced by the auxiliary
chamber, the heater plug by a spark plug and the injector system of the
Diesel engine exchanged for a smaller gasoline injection system as
described in Figure DB-13.
The main combustion chamber and the auxiliary chamber had to be provided
with a lean basic mixture via intake valve. For this purpose either a
carburetor or intake manifold injection can be used. The mixture in the
auxiliary chamber is then enriched and made more easily ignitable by a
relatively small quantity of fuel. The injection pump delivers the fuel
at the appropriate moment to the injector in the auxiliary chamber.
On the Diesel engine, injection time and length of injection are impor-
tant for emissions, performance, and noise levels. The DB-TSC stra-
tified charge engine is much more flexible and the injection timing
therefore simplified. Further details concerning this development are
described in a technical paper* presented at the Fourth International
Clean Air Congress. Results from three FTP tests conducted without fuel
injected to the precombustion chamber are shown in Table DB-9 for vehi-
cle 123E24-281. Neither mileage nor inertia weight information were
included by DB.
*The State of Development at Daimler-Benz of the Stratified Charge
Engine with Subdivided Combustion Chamber, K. Oblander, et. al.
12-378

-------
Figure DB-13*
Combustion Chamber Layouts of the DB Diesel and DB TSC
Stratified Charge Engines

COMBUSTION CHAMBER
LO.L DIESEL ENGINE
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
DB-TSC-ENGINE
Design on diesel and DB-TSC stratified charge engines
CARBURETOR
AUXILIARY
CHAMBER
INJECTION PUMP
FUEL
DELIVERY PUMP
FUEL TANK
Fuel system of DB-TSC engine
*DB-SR, II.A.4., Figures 1 & 2.
12-379

-------
Table DB-9*
Emissions From DB-TSC Stratified Charge Engine
Average FTP Results (g/mi)	
VIN
Type CID Tests
HC
CO
NOx
123E24-281 240D 146.5 3
123E22-167 220D 134.0 5
0.32 - 0.46 4.3 - 4.7 0.17 - 0.18
0.53 - 1.14 5.0 - 10.3 0.32 - 0.49
*DB-SR-II, pg. 331 and pg. 332.
Test data were also supplied for the 220D (4 cylinder) stratified charge
variant. No details were included in the DB Status Report to indicate
whether these were uncontrolled or controlled engines as the emission
control systems used in the tests were not described and this precludes
any further discussion of the data.
Computer Programs for Fuel Economy
A procedure has been developed by DB to explore various parameters by
computer analyses to determine fuel economy trends. Such a procedure
can save a substantial amount of developmental money, time, and testing
capacity. Computer analysis also can create a unique degree of compara-
bility which cannot be obtained from real life testing due to inherent
and unavoidable deviations, according to DB. The computer program
reportedly allows fuel economy calculations for any vehicle whose tech-
nical parameters are known for any test cycle. Comparative results with
those in real life are claimed by DB to show extremely good correlation.
A corresponding emission calculation program has not yet been successful.
The relationship between vehicle weight, aerodynamic drag, and fuel
economy is shown in Figure DB-14. This example shows that a weight
reduction of 10% can result in a fuel economy improvement of 3.4%.
According to DB, future models planned for the early or mid-1980's plan
for about a 5% reduction of exterior dimensions with interior space
being kept constant. A major modification of V8 engines includes the
replacement of cast-iron cylinder blocks with aluminum cylinder blocks.
12-380

-------
Figure DB-14*
Influence of Vehicle Design Parameters on Fuel Economy
Aerodynamic OrogReductio
Weight Reduction in 7.
*DB-SR, IV.l.A., Figure 1.
12-381

-------
Other cast iron blocks will benefit from a weight reduction by reduced
wall thickness. Turbocharging is also considered by DB as the most
advanced technology to improve fuel consumption on Diesels as well as to
overcome inherent power output limitations. Turbocharging will apply to
new generation Diesel engines scheduled for introduction in the mid-
1980' s. The influence of a "more direct" rear axle ratio is shown in
Figure DB-14. Together with the aforementioned weight reduction of
about 10%, a new rear axle ratio might nearly double the Improvements in
fuel consumption due to weight reduction alone. Several vehicles have
been built up to explore the effects of various engine and vehicle
parameters on fuel consumption. These vehicles include both the Mercedes
and another manufacturer's vehicles, identified as "non-Mercedes" vehi-
cles. Data have been gathered on four basic engine/vehicle combinations
identified in Table DB-10.
Table DB-10*
Engine/Vehicle Types and Variations Used to Study
The Influence on Fuel Economy
Vehicle Type	Engine Type	Variations
Non-Mercedes
Non-Mercedes
Non-Mercedes
Mercedes
Legend:
a - inertia weight
b - axle ratio
c - transmission ratio
d - fan
e - oil viscosity
f - shift speed
121.9 CID gasoline
97.7 GID gasoline
121.3 CID Diesel
121.3 CID Diesel
a,	b,	c, d, 6^ f
a
a,	b,	d, f,
a,	b,	d
The resulting fuel economy effects are summarized in Figures DB-15A to
DB-15D. It appears that the use of manual transmissions has the most
dramatic success in improving combined fuel economy for these particular
vehicles.
*DB-SR-III, p. 10.
12-382

-------
Figure DBr-l,5A*
Combined Fuel Economy Effects
*T>B-SR, TV.2.B- - og. 13.

-------
Figure DB-15B*
Combined Fuel Economy Effecto
N>
i
CO
CO
-p*
*DB-SR, IV.2.B., pg. 15.
Figure DB<-15C*
Combined Fuel Economy Effects
*T)B-SR. TV.2.B.. no. 17

-------
Figure DB-15D*
Combined Fuel Economy Effects
*DB-SR, IV. 2.B,, pg. 19..
12-385

-------
One other variation that offered significant improvements in fuel
economy on the non-Mercedes 121.9 CID gasoline engine was cutting off
fuel at idle and deceleration modes. This provided a fuel economy
advantage of about 7 MPG^ and 2 MPG^.*
12.2.4.6. Durability Data
Durability data were supplied by DB for both L6 and V8 gasoline engines
with K-Jetronic fuel injection (Continuous Injection System - CIS),
oxygen sensor, and 3-way catalyst control systems. These data are
included in Tables DB-10 and DB-11. Durability vehicles are used for
development by DB to serve the purpose of simulating a certification
i
durability run, and also to provide for various adjustments, catalyst
activity tests, variation of switch-over commands (rpm) etc., as des-
cribed in Tables DB-10 and DB-11. In addition, 22 vehicles equipped
with 3-way catalyst systems were durability tested over 30,000 miles
(each vehicle) in the state of California. The vehicles were run in
Los Angeles and operated by United States drivers. The oxygen sensors
were replaced at 15,000 miles for the L6 engines only. The oxygen
sensors in the V8 engines were not replaced in over 30,000 miles of
operation. FTP results for 18 L6 engines, installed in model 280SE
vehicles, are shown in Figure DB-16 at 5,000 mile test increments.
Similar 30,000 mile durability data for the V8 engines in 280SE vehicles
are shown in Figure DB-17. Replacement of the oxygen sensors at 15,000
miles on the L6 engines appears to have a significant effect in restoring
levels to the 1.0 NOx objective. Yet, on the V8 engines, the mean NOx
values appear to be reasonably stable through 30,000 miles of endurance
testing. No explanation for this discrepancy was provided by DB. When
the 30,000 mile durability tests were completed, underhood catalysts,
underfloor catalysts, and oxygen sensors were replaced step by step to
determine the Influence of the specific components. The FTP mean values
are charted in Figures DB-18 and DB-19 for the L6 and V8 engines,
*DB-SR,-IV, pg. 11 & 12.
12-386

-------
1980 Model Year Gasoline Durability
VIN	Type	CID
123E28-92	280E	167.5
116E28-167	280SE	167.5
107E45-71	450SL	276
ii	ii	ii
i	h	<
n	n	ii
107E45-90	450SL	276
107FA5-98	450SL	276
II	M	II
107E45-99	450SL	276
ii	ii	ii
n	ii	it
ii	ii	ii
116E45-122	450SE	276
ii	ii	tt
116E45-250	450SE	276
II	M	11
116E69-52	450SE	417
n	ii	ii
it	tt	tt
ti	it	ii
ii	ii	ii
116E69-164	450SE	417
Emission	No. of
Controls	Tests Mileage
CIS/O, sensor/ 50	21,748
3W
CIS/O sensor/ 48	29,329
3W
CIS/O- sensor/ 31	56,685
3W
1	45,495
" 1	48,225
1	48,225
CIS/O sensor/ 5	2,641
3W
CIS/O. sensor/ 32	24,271
3W
1	16,174
CIS/0, sensor/ 44	31,713
3W Z
1	1,553
 1	3,480
" 1	31,690
N.R. 53	16,753
16,541
CIS/0- sensor/ 13	258
3W
1	N.R.
CIS/O- sensor/ 32	36,315
3W *
1	3,889
4	5,435
2	16,380
1	36,262
CIS/O. sensor/ 34	16,280
3W 
5	17,953
1	18,106
2	22,455
" 1	22,520
" 3	25,748
" 2	26,284
" 4	N.R.
*DB-SR, IV.2.B.16.
i DB-10*
Vehicle Results (0.41 HC. 7 CO. 2.0 NOx)
	Average FTP Results			
(0 of Tests Below/0 of Tests Above Standards)
HC	CO	NOx
Remarks
0.10 - 0.54
(44/6)
1.92 - 10.71
(48/2)
0
25 - 2.96
(49/1)
Different 0 sensor
adjustments.
0.18 - 0.56
2.29 - 6.58
0.11 - 1.92
(43/5)
(48/0)
(48/0)
0.17 - 1.09
0.97 - 7.41
0.15 - 2.28
(9/22)
(29/2)
(30/1)
1.086
5.8
0.61
0.58
0.97
2.28
0.51
6.34
0.68
0.20 - 0.31
1.76 - 3.54
0.99 - 1.37
(5/0)
(5/0)
(5/0)
0.22 - 0.70
1.53 - 7.00
0.18 - 1.62
(16/6)
(32/0)
(32/0)
0.59
3.98
0.70
0.19 - 1.77
0.73 - 8.1
0.15 - 1.23
(18/26)
(39/5)
(44/0)
0.21
1.38
0.81
0.31
5.63
0.17
1.08
0.73
1.14
0.33 - 1.64
1.29 - 7.02
0.39 - 3.41
(12/41)
(52/1)
(51/2)
0.52
5.06
1.06
0.25 - 0.62
1.53 - 6.12
0.48 - 1.68
(10/3)
(13/0)
(13/0)
0.25
5.36
0.70
0.18 - 1.05
0.37 - 6.90
0.16 - 1.84
(27/5)
(32/0)
(32/0)
0.77
 7.95
2.88
0.46
10.17
0.16
0.33
7.6
0.29
0.73
19.52
0.23
0.13 - 0.94
1.97 - 9.12
0.29 - 2.31
(24/10)
(22/12)
(32/2)
0.67
8.40
2.8
0.59
B.65
1.22
1.70
34.34
2.17
0.715
7.53
1.06
5.45
11.62
0.70
0.82
13.21
0.71
0.50
7.42
0.65
0 sensor changed at
17,460 miles.
New warm up regulator.
New mixing section.
New control unit.
New warm up regulator.
New O- sensor.
New CIS.
New CIS.
Hew warn up regulator.
0^ sensor defective.
Cold start problems.
O- sensor changed - cold
scart problems.
0^ sensor changed.
Vehicle run with 5 0o
sensors,
engine.
only 1 activated
0 sensor defective.
Cold start problem.

-------
Table DB-|1*
0.41 HC. 3.4 CO. 0.41 NOx Gasoline Durability Vehicle Results
VIN
Type
116E45-123 450SE
CID
276
Inertia
WelRht (lbs)
NR
No. of
Tests
16
Mileage
NR
	Average FTP Results (g/ml)-
(Below/Above Standards)
HC
0.17 - 1.07
(11/5)
CO
1.3 - 9.7
(12/4)
NOx
0.13 - 0.55
(12/4)
Remarks
CIS, 0j sensor, 3W
NR
NR
22,966
39,035
0.3
0.46 - 0.47
(0/2)
2.3
1.6 - 3.5
(1/1)
1.3
1.23 - 1.42
(0/2)
Oj sensor defective
Oj sensor defective
*DB-SR, IV.B.2., pg. 28.
NR - Not reported.

-------
Figure DB-16*
30,000 Mile California Durability L6 Engine in 18-280E Vehicles
CO '
L6 e/fgine in sedan W123
CVS- iestresutts - jvergfe */y/ Celts
- *** nUe
m besi IfllM

-DB-S71, pg. 283, Figure 1.
12-389

-------
Figure DB-17*
30,000 Mlla California Durability Data - V8 Engine in Four 280SE Vehicles
..... f..
V8 engine in Sedan W116
7
M
s
i' 
-i"
CYS~tc&rCfUft& - qyavqg& vehicles
 ,Mr;
ft
:i"/f"
t*t
4*
 \
4*
I

- Aijint raCn

. ktU bmlic\
&
-44"'
4
i ';
-4* -
i
i		
0 S 40 ie iff 3o
X JOtO m/ett
*DB-SR, pg. 283, Figure 2. 12-390

-------
Post
Figure DB-18*
30,000 Mile California Durability Tests on L6 Engines for 1980 MY
Emission Control Systems
CO
(g/m)
$-
a-
7-
:-| 6-
| f.-
ft
3

1 -
; / ..
x
(Bh)
;
U
\ 10+
0
iS-ii~
0
if-10*
0
Numbtv cA
Ve.V\c-l
41
n
3
3
6
 6
1

t*C* W*tkC
*DB-SR, pg. 283, Figure 3.
12-391

-------
Post 30.000 Mile
Figure DB-19*
California Durability Tests on V8 Engines for
Emission Control Sygt-pmg
1980 MY
5-
Uif#u]
I
n V* lu 
\--4'
yf,6-
: 4*"
i <2-
I
r&-
v 0,6'

; -w
: 9*
V- Q6-
: W-
; 0,1-
i .
i
i ;
i
-tHtM ml** 

ftlileacjC cater Lyfi 2occo
mileage Ofsinsor Soooo
. . hum Ley of veVicJts ; 4
*D3-SR, Pg. 283, Figure 4.
3oooo
. 0
, ! i
12-392
o	o
30000	0
t	I
; 2	.2
foitts

-------
respectively. Replacement of the underfloor catalysts on the L6 as well
as on the V8 appears to have the most dramatic effect on reducing NOx
levels. Otherwise, a stepped reduction is apparent for both engines as
the oxygen sensor, underfloor catalyst, underlapped catalyst, and
combinations of these are replaced with new components.
Durability vehicle results were provided for the 300D turbocharged
engine designed to meet the 0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2.0 NOx standards for the
1980 MY. These results are shown in Table DB-12 for both low and high
mileage vehicles. Durability data on both the 240D and 300D are shown
in Table DB-13 using the Bosch air/fuel ratio controlled EGR system.
For the one vehicle that completed 57,000 miles of durability, VIN
115D24-184, blue smoke, high particulate matter (not quantified by DB),
and low power resulted. High oil content was found in the crankcase
ventilation system and the engine was removed for complete disassembly.
DB stated that the engine problems were apparently the result of inter-
mixing heavy lube oil vapor suspended in the crankcase breathing system
with the hot exhaust gas in the EGR system. No attempts were apparently
made by DB to separate or filter crankcase vapors, intercool EGR gas, or
increase the air/fuel ratio for the more severe operating modes to
attempt to alleviate such deposits in. the inlet air system.
12.2.4.7. Problems and Progress
DB reported they will have no problems in meeting the 1979 MY emission
standards as these are essentially carryovers from the 1978 MY production.
For both 1980 and 1981 MYs, K-Jetronic fuel injection, 3-way catalysts,
and oxygen sensors will be used for gasoline engines with closed loop
feedback control. Again, with proper maintenance control and with
appropriate oxygen sensor replacement schedules, DB should be in a
position to comply with these standards. The 0.41 NOx research goal
also appears within reach by DB with K-Jetronic, oxygen sensors, and 3-
way closed loop control with improved reliability of their oxygen
sensor and electronic control circuit components. The Diesel engine models
12-393

-------
Table DB-12*
1980 Model Year Diesel Durability Vehicle Results (0.41 HC. 7 CO, 2.0 NOx)
VIN
116D30A130
Type
CID
300SD-TC 183
Inertia
Weight (lba)
4000
	Average FTP Results (g/mi)-
No. of
Tests
10
Mileage
HC
38,250/29,372 0.05 - 0.15
CO
0.83 - 1.38
NOx
1.41 - 2.13
Remarks
2 engines (1st had low
compression pressure;
2nd crankshaft broke).

116D30A201
300SD-TC
183
4000
5
62,137
0.07 - 1.00
0.96 - 1.15
1.52 - 1.72

116D30A211
300SD-TC
183
4000
6
48,554
0.06 - 0.09
0.93 - 1.05
1.64 - 1.76

116D30A215
300SD-TC
183
4000
8
62,137
0.06 - 1.08
0.96 - 1.19
1.65 - 2.15
t-*
ho
1
116D30A219
300SD-TC
183
4000
3
193
0.04 - 0.06
0.91 - 1.04
1.49 - 1.62
vO
-
116D30A220
300SD-TC
183
4000
1
171
0.07
1.12
1.70
*DB-SR, IV.2.B.2, pg. 68.

-------
Table DB- 13*
1981 Model Year Diesel Durability Vehicle Results (0.41 HC, 3.4 CO. 1.0 NOx)
	Average FTP Results
Inertia	No. of	(g/ml)
VIN
Type
CID
Weight (lbs)
Tests
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
Remarks

115D24-184
24 0D
 147
3500
7
57,321
0.15 - 0.22
1.5 - 2.7
0.80 - 0.92
A/F ratio
controlled
123D24-288
240D
147
3500
1
300
0.15
1.62
0.69
EGR.

123D30-287
300D
183
4000
4
Low
0.19 - 0.21
1.24 - 1.3
0.90 - 1.03
A/F ratio
controlled
*DB-SR, IV.B.2., pg. 61.

-------
will essentially be uncontrolled and similar to the 1978 models through
the 1980 model year. Some method of proportional EGR is planned for the
1981 MY in order to comply with the 1.0 NOx standard. One durability
test car, a 240D, was run with a NOx emission range of 0.80 to 0.92 NOx.
Carbonaceous deposits throughout the intake air system with EGR were
reported by DB as a problem area. Filtration of the lube oil recircu-
lation vapors may alleviate this condition and further improvements may
be possible with turbochargirig, especially for particulate control.
Dr. Manfred Fortnagel, Manager of Diesel Engine Combustion Testing for
DB, was quoted in the June 12, 1978 edition of Automotive News, that DB
"...probably can meet the 1.0 g/mi NOx standard on Diesels, but not the
0.41 g/mi NOx." In the same article he indicated that Mercedes may
attempt to certify its Diesel cars in California in 1982 at 100,000
miles in order to qualify then at the 1.0 g/mi NOx standard. (Cali-
fornia alternate to the 0.41 NOx standard.) It should be noted that in
a later edition of the Automotive News (July 3, 1978), a letter to the
editor from Mr. Les Devine, General Manager of Public Relations for
Mercedes-Benz of North America, Inc. stated in part:
"Our development goal for California Diesel emission control
requirements for 1980 and 1981 is to achieve the 1.5 gram NOx
standard for 100,000 miles," and
"The achieving of a NOx level of 1.0 grams per mile for 100,000
miles by 1982, is, we feel, not possible."
This is somewhat different from Dr. Fortnagel1s original statement.
The 0.41 NOx research goal will continue to be a challenge for this
manufacturer with respect to their Diesel powerplants.
12-396

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12.2.5. Flat
12.2.5.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
For the 1979 model year, three engines will be offered; namely, the 128,
the 138, and the 132. These engines are described in more detail in
Table Fiat-1 for both the 49-state and the California versions. The
1978 Model 107 will be replaced by the.larger displacement 132 in 1979.
Model 128 will be a carry-over from the 1978 MY with an air pump for the
49-state version and air injection plus an oxidation catalyst for 1979
California. Models 138 and 132, 49-state vehicles will use thermo-
statically controlled air cleaners, modified carburetors, breakerless
ignition systems, backpressure controlled EGR, secondary air injection
by means of an aspirator and pelleted oxidation catalysts. For California
in 1979, air injection pumps will be used in place of pulsed air injec-
tion. Neither emissions data nor fuel economy data were reported for
the 132 and 138 variants.
12.2.5.2. Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
Fiat intends to comply with the 1980 Federal standards for models 138
and 132 that are essentially defined in Table Fiat-1 for California in
1979.	The control system will essentially consist of breakerless
ignition, secondary air injection, pelleted oxidation catalyst and
backpressure modulated EGR. For models to be sold in California in
1980,	two systems are considered, both aimed at meeting standards of
0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.7 NOx.
Both systems are based on the use of a 3-way catalyst and electronically
controlled feedback fuel management with an exhaust oxygen sensor. Fuel
metering will be a Weber carburetor on one system and an electronic
multipoint fuel injection system on the other. The electronically
controlled carburetor system is described in Figures Fiat-IA and IB,
consisting of the following:
12-397

-------
Table Fiat-1*
Flat Model
Displacement (CID)
Rating (hp @ rpra)
Fuel Management
Ignition System
Emission Control
System
Fiat Engine Description for the 1979 MY -
49 States and California
49-state
128 A
78.7
Carb
Breaker
Points
AIR
Cal
128CCL
78.7
49-state
138A
91.4
Cal
138AC
91.4
49-state
132A
121.7
Carb
Breaker
Points
AIR/OC
Carb
Carb
Carb
Cal
132AC
91.4
62 0 6000 61 0 5800 69 0 5100 65 0 5100 89 0 5100 82 0 5100
Carb
Breakerless Breakerless Breakerless Breakerless
PAIR/EGR/0C AIR/EGR/0C PAIR/EGR/0C AIR/EGR/0C
*1977 Fiat Status Report, February 8, 1978, hereafter
referred to as Fiat SR.

-------
Figure Fiat-l-A*
Electronically Controlled Carburetor System
Ni
I
CO
VO
vO
oxygen
sensor
*Fiat SR - (A3/I)

-------
Figure Fiat-IB*
Electronically Controlled Carburetor Actuator
	regulating air
carburetor
*Fiat SR - (A!i/I)
12-490

-------
feedback controlled carburetor
actuator-metering device
electronic controlled unit
3-way catalyst
0x5^ en sensor
The conventional fixed venturi carburetor is fitted with a suitable duct
which, delivering air in the idle speed and full power circuits, causes
mixture lean-out, according to Fiat.
The actuator-metering device consists of a stepping motor which, with a
cam, moves the air adjusting needles in the different circuits. The
digital-type electronic control unit receives the signal from the oxygen
sensor, the carburetor throttle position and the engine coolant tem-
perature and supplies the trigger signal to the actuator motor. No test
data were provided for this sytem.
Electronically controlled multipoint fuel injection is based on the
application of the Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection system. This pro-
gram, started in late 1976, involves the Lancia-Gamma 151.6 CID; hori-
zontally opposed piston, 4 cylinder engine. The best results reported
on a 3500 pound inertia weight car with an automatic transmission at two
different calibrations are shown in Table Fiat-2.
Table Fiat-2*
Electronically Controlled Multipoint Injection with
Bosch L-Jetronic - Two Different Calibrations
Calibration if 1
Calibration //2
0.19 HC
2.44 CO
0.67 NOx
15.69 MPG
24.8 MPG J1
h
0.22 HC
2.92 CO
0.38 NOx
14.9 MPG
24.6 MPG^
h
Note: Test procedure and mileage not defined
*Fiat SR CII A-61
12-401

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The developmental plan still to be carried out will include:
engine development to lower baseline emissions with air/fuel
ratios approximately stoichiometric
-	definition of 3-way catalyst
definition of position of oxygen sensor
definition of position of 3-way catalyst
-	definition of fuel metering system in various operating
conditions (steady state, hot transients, warm-up, cold
starting, etc.) with feedback control.
The 3-way catalyst will be defined after completion of endurance testing
of the car. So far, the best results have been obtained with the
Engelhard TWC-16 monolithic convertor with Pt/Rh ratio of 5:1 and a
catalyst volume of 1.9 litres.
12.2.5.3.	Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
The 1980 MY systems described in the previous section will be carried
over for the 1981 MY, assuming success in complying with the 3.4 CO
standard, according to Flat.
12.2.5.4.	Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
Fiat will concentrate their efforts on systems aimed at meeting the
research target of 0.41 NOx with the intent of deriving simplified
systems to meet less severe standards when applicable. Related programs
have only recently been decided upon and will commence early in the 1978
calendar year. Three programs are involved, of which one will be con-
ducted in-house and the other two will be commissioned to external
organizations in cooperation with Fiat.
The first program will involve electronic control of carburetors and
12-402

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dual-bed catalytic converters. The system will Include a Weber car-
buretor with electronic control of fuel metering, an oxygen sensor,
backpressure controlled EGR and a dual-bed catalytic converter. The
first bed will be a 3-way catalyst, the second will be an oxidation
catalyst, and secondary air will be injected upstream of the oxida-
tion catalyst. This program will start in the first half of 1978.
The second program will involve single-point fuel injection with inte-
grated electronic control of fuel metering, ignition timing, and EGR.
This program is aimed at the development of a second generation control
system, including the electronic control of fuel metering, spark advance
and EGR, an exhaust oxygen sensor and a 3-way catalyst.
It is intended to start these programs in the first quarter of 1978
aiming at the introduction of the system on some models in the 1981 MY,
as an alternate to the systems previously outlined in Section 12.2.5.2.
The third program will investigate turbocharging of conventional spark
ignition engines. This program is intended to meet the 0.41 NOx emis-
sion standards and to obtain at the same time improvements in perfor-
mance and fuel consumption.
The system considered includes:
an exhaust-gas turbocharger
Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection system, with exhaust oxygen
sensor
3-way catalytic converter.
The feasibility study is presently starting and will last three months.
At the end of this phase and on the basis of the results, the costs of
the additional developmental phases will be estimated and a decision on
the continuation of the program will be taken. This work is being
conducted on behalf of Fiat by Porsche.
12-403

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12.2.5,5. Other Developmental Efforts
Yamaha Lean Combustion System (YLCS)
In 1976 Flat commissioned Yamaha, a Japanese manufacturer, for the
application of a system invented by Yamaha which showed potential to
meet 1981 standards with an oxidation catalyst, secondary air injection,
backpressure controlled EGR and an auxiliary carburetor for the warm-up
phase. The system met the zero mile targets and is presently undergoing
durability tests.
The YLCS system was intended for production on Fiat 1981 models. How-
ever, it became apparent that NOx standards lower than 1.0 NOx would
have to be considered as early as 1981 and it is not clear whether the
Yamaha system is capable of meeting such standards. Therefore Fiat is
commissioning Yamaha to further develop their system in that direction.
Parts used for the system include the engine, carburetor, sub-carburetor
and control system, ignition system, EGR system, and exhaust system.
The carburetor is a Weber 34 DMS modified to include a mechanical power
valve plus another power valve operated by negative pressure. The YLCS
sub-carburetor is intended to be effective in reducing HC and CO emis-
sions in the cold transient portion of the FTP (Bag 1). The cold start
system, which contains the sub-carburetor, is supposed to improve exhaust
emissions and driveabilty during the warm-up part of the cycle before
the catalyst or reactor becomes activated. Further details of the YLCS
application are deleted from this report because of confidentiality
claims made by Fiat.
Tests were carried out on both the Lancia Scorpion (2L) and on the Fiat
128 (1.5L) vehicles at Yamaha's laboratories in Hamamatsu, Japan and
later at Fiat's Turin laboratory. Test results are shown in Table Fiat-
3. Driveability was judged as good by Fiat on both cars.
12-404

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Table Fiat-3*
YLCS Test Results on Lancia Scorpion and Flat 128
Yamaha Results	Fiat (Turin) Results
Lancia Scorpion:
2 litre
0.23 HC
1.7 CO
0.62 NOx
21 MPG
29 MPG"
0.30 HC**
2.48 CO**
0.66 NOx**
20.1 MPG **
28.7 MPG"****
n
Fiat 128
1.5 litre
0.21 HC
1.7 CO
0.57 NOx
25 MPG
32 MPG?
0.30 HC***
1.85 CO***
0.63 NOx***
24.3 MPG ***
33 MPG *&**
Note: Test procedure and mileage were not reported.
*Fiat SR til A-7 and II A-8)
**Ave 4 tests
***Ave 6 tests
****Ave 5 tests
Since these tests confirmed that the engineering standards set initially
were met for all practical purposes, the two cars were started on
mileage accumulation. The final configuration of the systems differed
in many details which were claimed by Fiat to be confidential. The'
baseline emissions without secondary air and without a catalyst are
included in Table Fiat-4.
Table Fiat-4*
YLCS Baseline Emissions Without
Secondary Air and Without a Catalyst
Lancia Scorpion (2L)	Fiat 128 (1L)
3.97 HC	3.50 HC
37.8 CO	28.6 CO
1.12 NOx	0.90 NOx
Note: Test procedure and mileage were not reported.
*Fiat SR (II A-9)
12-405

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Exhaust Gas Sensor
Flat has been conducting a program to develop an exhaust gas sensor to
be used for air/fuel ratio control with electronically controlled fuel
metering systems.
According to Fiat the sensor, which is based on the variation of resis-
tivity of metallic oxides, has shown a good potential for supplying a
signal for the feedback control of air/fuel ratio close to stoichio-
metry. Limited tests have been conducted to assess the potential of the
sensor in its research form.
The heated sensor was installed on the Fiat car 131 USA California model
year 1976 engine exhaust manifold at the EGR collection point. Char-
acteristics of the test cars were:
Engine displacement
Carburetor:
Distributor:
Air pump:
EGR:
Evaporative control:
Catalyst:
107.13 C1D
Weber prototype carburetor with electronic control
single contact distributor
disconnected
disconnected
disconnected
replacement of normal production oxidation
catalyst with an experimental 3-way catalyst.
Results obtained on this car on a chassis dynamometer are reported in
Table Fiat-5. The first set of figures were obtained without a cata-
lyst. The second set were measured with a 3-way catalyst, and the third
set were obtained with the 3-way catalyst and an improved choke system.
These data demonstrate that a significant part of the total emissions is
due to cold portion of the cycle. The numbers in parentheses in Table
Fiat-5 represent the values obtained from the 3 bags of the test.
12-406

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Table Fiat-5*
HC
(g/rcl)
Fiat 131 Car with Electronic Feedback Control
Carburetlon through Heated Exhaust Gas Sensor
CO
(fi/mi)
NOx
(b/m!)
MPG
u
Remarks
19.23
3.12
(7.65; 8.40; 3.19) (.73; 1.30; 1.10)
2.55
(.71; 1.30; .55)
0.585
(.35; .15; .09)	(6.98; 2.71; 1.10) (.48; .40; .58)
0.43
(.26; .12; .05)	(3.11; 1.82; .59) (.41; .56; .57)
(In brackets contribution of the three bags)
Note: System miles not reported
10.79
5.52
1.46
1.54
20.36 Without 3-way catalyst
19.77 With 3-way catalyst
19.38 With 3-way catalyst
and Improved choke system
*Fiat SR (A 8/11, Figure 1.)

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Evaporative Emission Control
Since the inception of the evaporative emission legislation, Fiat has
used a control system originally developed by Exxon, for which Fiat has
taken a license. The system is based on an activated carbon canister
for the storage of fuel vapors. Fiat has already introduced in its
evaporative emission control systems those developments recommended by
Exxon in the engineering evaluation program made for EPA.
The evaporative emission control systems to be used on new 1979 MY
vehicles are very similar to those used on 1978 MY vehicles. The major
change in the control system is the increase in activated carbon volume
in the vapor storage canister by about 20%.
On the basis of these results Fiat feels confident to be able to even-
tually meet the 2 g/test standard.
Parameter Adjustment
The consideration of limited adjustability is one of the reasons why
Fiat has decided to orient future emission control systems towards the
extensive use of electronics. Electronic controls, by their nature, are
more difficult to maladjust and they normally require less maintenance,
according to Fiat. Specific programs have not yet been defined by Fiat.
The engine parameters of the 1978 models which may be considered as
"adjustable" by Fiat are as follows:
-	Carburetor
idle mixture and speed
fuel level in the fuel bowl
-	Ignition Distribution
dwell angle
ignition timing
12-408

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Starting with 1979 models, Fiat will use a breakerless ignition system
and internal adjustments will be eliminated. The problem of ignition
timing is more of a problem for Fiat and a clear solution has not been
resolved. Fiat also reported that it will be difficult to resolve the
problem of idle speed adjustment and, to a lessor extent, idle mixture.
Fiat did not comment on the limitation of adjustment for the fuel level
in the fuel bowl.
Microprocessor Based Fuel Injection System
the development is in three stages:
a)	Development of a microprocessor based fuel injection system.
b)	Integration of the fuel metering control and spark advance
control.
c)	Further development of the system to meet 1981 and later MY
U.S. and California standards.
The research and technical work carried out in the engine electronic
control area from 1973 to 1976 led to the development of a micropro-
cessor-based electronic fuel injection prototype system that uses a fast
and accurate ultrasonic mass air flowmeter.
A complete description of the developmental status of this system as of
the end of 1976 is described in SAE Paper No. 770855, "Engine Control
System with Ultrasonic Mass Air Flowmeter."
To make a first evaluation of the system potential, efforts were made to
achieve open-loop exhaust emission control near stoichiometric to mini-
mize emissions through 3-way catalysts by operating at their maximum
conversion efficiency.
12-409

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The study and finalization of a system capable of meeting the emission
standards for the 1981 MY and subsequent model years is now in the
hardware assembly stage. This research activity will include the
technological knowledge and the technical improvements made both in the
components and in the system for the European program.
The engine used for vehicle testing is an 1800 cu cm., four-stroke
cycle, four cylinder engine with an 8.8 to 1 compression ratio installed
in a Fiat 132 manufactured for the European market.
Compared to the standard production engine, no changes were made in the
characteristic parameters (i.e., compression ratio, combustion chamber
configuration, intake and exhaust valve timing, etc.), while necessary
modifications to the intake manifold were made to allow application of
the injection system and ultrasonic mass air flowmeter. No vehicle
emissions data were provided by Fiat for the microprocessor controlled
fuel injection system.
In the program for 1978, emphasis will be placed on the development of
an engine control system that meets the emission standards for 1981 and
later model years.
Microprocessor Based Automatic Transmission Control
About a three year long research activity has been conducted by Fiat
Research Center (F.R.C.) in the field of electronically controlled
automatic transmissions. The main goal set for this research is to
reduce on-road fuel consumption by an optimized matching of engine and
vehicle.
Two types of transmission have been studied, developed and built:
One is a stepped transmission. This transmission is a 5 gear
12-410

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countershaft gearbox with integrated final ratio gears and differ-
ential. Gear shifting is provided by multidisc clutches; starting-
up by centrifugal clutch. An alternative version of the same
transmisstion is designed with 4 gears and a lock-up torque con-
verter. Lock-up is obtained in the three highest gears.
s
The second is a stepless transmission. This was a single V-belt
transmission with a centrifugal clutch. At this moment the belt is
made of rubber, but other non-conventional steel belts are under
development.
For both transmissions, the electronic control system has to perform two
main functions:
- Selection and control of throttle opening.
Selection of the transmission ratio.
Other functions are:
Transmission synchronization during transmission ratio changes.
Engine braking effect control.
In vehicles using these transmissions, the accelerator pedal is no
longer mechanically linked to the throttle, instead it is controlled
through a control loop. The accelerator pedal position is used as input
to the control system to indicate the power requested by the driver.
From the power demand it is possible, according to Fiat, to determine
the optimum throttle opening and engine rotational speed necessary to
operate the engine following the least fuel consumption schedule. The
least fuel consumption engine schedule is achieved exactly by the step-
less transmission and approximately by the stepped transmission. In the
12-411

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case of the stepped transmission, vehicle and engine speeds are syn-
chronized by properly using the throttle valve or the transmission -
engine braking during the very short idling period occurring by down-
shifts and upshifts respectively. Brake pedal actuation determines
other criteria of gear ratio selection in order to obtain an engine
absorbed power dependent on deceleration requirement.
The experimental tests performed on the automatic transmissions had two
different objectives:
To compare the transmission efficiency and
To compare the vehicle fuel economy with that of vehicle
equipped with conventional manual transmission.
The test vehicle used in the program was a small vehicle (1750 pound
inertia weight) not currently marketed in the U.S.A. The engine is a
production 4-cylinder type rated at 45 hp (DIN) at 6000 rpm.
Two parameters sensed are the following:
Engine rpm, transmission input shaft rpm (downstream from the
centrifugal clutch) and
vehicle speed by a sensor consisting of rotating teeth and
electromagnetic pickups.
The controlled parameters are:
Throttle position by a small electric d.c. motor with suitable
gear reduction and coupled to the throttle spindle.
Transmission ratio.
12-412

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In the stepped transmission the engagement of the different gears is
obtained by means of multi-disc clutches controlled by electrovalves
contained in the hydraulic control circuit. Specifications are listed
in Table Fiat-6. Layouts are shown in Figures Fiat-2 and Fiat-3.
In the stepless transmission, Figures Fiat-4 and Fiat-5, pulley dis-
placement and/or transmission ratio is controlled by an electric d.c.
motor coupled to the pulley with a mechanical system. The specifica-
tions of the stepless transmission are detailed in Table Fiat-7.
The microprocessor is connected to sensors and actuators through input
and output interfaces. The signals fed from the vehicle are of two
types: voltage proportional to throttle opening or to power demand and
ON/OFF signals for the other sensors.
The input interfaces process and convert these signals from analog to
digital. In this way rpm, angular positions, or states are converted to
an eight bit word. The output interface decodes the output signals from
the computer, rendering them suitable to control the actuators.
Since the vehicle is only sold in European and South American markets,
it complies only with European standards.
Fu6l consumption results for both prototype vehicles are shown in Table
Fiat-8 and compared against the same vehicles equipped with a conven-
tional transmission.
Work will progress during 1978 on the following points:
Impact of transmission control on emissions.
Evaluation of the stepped transmission with torque converter.
- Driveability and gearshift smoothness to be improved for the
stepped transmission.
12-413

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Table Fiat-6*
Fiat Stepped Transmission Specifications
Types of transmission: Double countershaft gearbox.
Max. input torque
Max. input speed 6000 rpm
-	1st gear ratio
(n.a. on torque-conv. version)
-	2nd gear ratio
-	3rd gear ratio
-4th gear ratio
-5th gear ratio
-	Final ^rive ratio
Centrifugal clutch
Engagement WOT speed 1'800 rpm
Disengagement WOT speed
1000 rpm
Type of gearshift actuators
Type of throttle actuator
6.3 mkg (DIN) at 3500 rpm
4.612
2.914
1.943
1.285
0.857
3.647
Torque converter
Stall speed 1800 rpm
Stall torque ratio 2.18
: Lock-up speed 1500 rpm
: Multidisc clutches
hydraulically operated by
electrovalves
: Electric d.c. motor and
position sensor in close-loop
*Fiat SR (G 2/IV)
12-414

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Figure Fiat-2
Fiat Stepped Transmission Layout
G2 c2	c4 G4
1
TO THE
WHEELS
S.  input shaft
31( = countershafts
^1' 2' ^3'	=	5"th gears
c c c c
2' 3* 4' 5 = multi-disc clutches
sS s sleeve forward, drive or reserve
*Fiat SR - (G2/IV)
12-415

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Figure Fiat-3*
Fiat Stepped Transmission
*Fiat SR (G2/IV)
12-416

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Figure Fiat-4*
Automatic Stepless Transmisstion Control Diagram
0	r
rA._uf
V* IS.
n gj CARBURATOR THROTTLEj
) %  C" V/^r, I 25	i ui\ i i ii\u i ! <	!_j
JgOSSeSPL 'L--Av> ^:-^^ggs^^-^a,as^WBaseeaieiagsr?g^aaagasae^rx??gssgKS!BBpi js

u // fejaaS5^!^KlJB?jaSSESSa3^**ir:
ii'i
vacs J*.
i^g"^iBvasKaaakssb2ss?2B
* ACTUATOR
a crvvno
V..1 Ll\\..wl\
*Fiat SR (G2/IV)
12-417

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Figure Fiat-5*
Fiat Stepless Transmission
*Fiat SR (G2/IV)
12-413

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Table Fiat-7*
Fiat Stepless Transmission Specifications
Type of transmission
Max. input torque
Max. input speed 6000 rpm
-	Lowest gear ratio
-	Highest gear ratio
-	Overall range
-	Final gear ratio
Centrifugal clutch
Type of gearshift actuator
Type of throttle actuator
Single V-belt continuously
variable transmission
6.3 m-kg (DIN) at 3500 rpm
14.7
3.09
4.75
4.55
Torque converter
Electric d.c. motor and
position sensor in closed
loop, operating on driven
section of transmission.
Electric d.c. motor and
position sensor in
closed-loop
*Fiat SR (G 2/IV)
Table Fiat-8*
FTP Fuel Economy Data with Microprocessor
Controlled Transmissions
(1750 pounds IW)
Transmission type
Conventional
,1 /
1/
Stepped
Stepless
2/
MPG
. u
27.8
31.4
32.7
increase
+13%
+18%
MPGj.
36.2
40.6
38.8
% MPG
increase
+12%
+7%
31.0
35.0
35.2
increase
+13%
+14%
*Fiat SR (G 2/IV)
1/
Tests done with same engine, same calibration.
2/
Test done with a different engine but same engine characteristics and
calibration.
12-419

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Ratio change velocity to be improved for the stepless trans-
mission.
Compliance with safety standards and reliability.
Lancia Experimental Engine. Code E100
Through Lancia, Fiat has entered a collaboration agreement with Mr. M.
C. May, a Swiss consulting engineer, who is the inventor of a combustion
chamber named the "Fireball", covered by German and U.S. Patents.
An engine embodying this combustion chamber has been derived from the
121.7 CID engine, 132-A engine family. The Code E100 "Fireball" engine
is different from the 132-A in the following ways:
cylinder head, embodying the combustion chamber sketched on
Figure Fiat-4 and one overhead camshaft instead of two,
piston, because of change in combustion chamber configuration,
Bosch K-Jetronic multipoint, continuous fuel injection system,
intake manifold, modified to accomodate K-Jetronic fuel injection,
-	compression ratio 15 : 1, and
-	no emission control system, except for an intake vacuum
limiter.
The combustion chamber (Figure Fiat-6) induces high turbulence and makes
combustion very fast. This is reflected in the MBT spark advance at WOT
as shown in Figure Fiat-7. The E-100 engine has demonstrated the
capability of running regularly on air/fuel ratios as high as 20:1 and
beyond. There is practically no loss in power output with respect to
the 132-A engine. The specific fuel consumption is about 10% less at
WOT and up to 20% less at part load, according to Fiat. Figure Fiat-8
shows specific fuel consumption and specific emissions of the E-100
engine at part load, with two different spark timings. So far no par-,
ticular attempt has been done at controlling emissions except for a
12-420

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Figure Fiat-6*
Experimental Engine, Code E-100
Scheme of Combution Chamber
12-421

-------
Figure Fiat-7*
MBT Spark Advance (crankshaft degrees) at WOT -
Fiat 132-A(European Version) vs. E-100
*Fiat SR (G2/V-4)
12-422

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Figure Fiat-8*
Specific Emission and Fuel Consumption of
Fiat E-100 Engine - 4000 RPM
400
300
I


i
Ci'lQ J
.'J'-'O .
300-
2QO .
260-
2-10 J
220
vl

1
i
	!

	

1
s.

	
*" v. !
C-t-.'C
r N f
T
 IC-:
bo. ( rj/KVv'!-,)
?(j- i (	
2:3"
	L_
-IC, NO,:, CO (y/ I'-Vv'li)
I	
i
r
	. 20 vO"
20
			

7
	


/
	
\
			


r		,			>	;	_
^	'1 1/ 1U \ 'J .'"'J I  p' j .>7|
*Fiat SR (G2/V-5), Fig. 3
12-423

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vacuum limiter in the intake system of the engine.
1975 FTP emissions and fuel consumption are shown in Table Fiat-9 for a
Beta 2000 car in three versions according to the U.S. FTP:
Current European version;.
Same with replacement of the normal engine with the E-100
engine.
Experimental USA 49 states version, 1979 MY.
Table Fiat-9*
FTP Emissions and Fuel Consumption - Beta 2000
2750 lbs IW,
vs. Beta
E-100 and
Beta 49 States

Emissions g/mile

Fuel Economy

HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,.
MPG



u
h
c
Beta 2000 Europe 4.42
24.9
4.05
20.0
30.0
23.53
Beta E-100 2.57
2.97
1.17
20.5
34.7
25.12
Beta 1979 0.75
11.50
1.75
17
25.5
20.0
49 states
*Fiat SR (IIG - 8)
The Beta European version and Beta E-100 were tested with leaded gaso-
line, 98 RON; experimental Beta 1979, 49 state vehicles were tested with
unleaded gasoline, 91 RON. Vehicle mileage was not provided.
According to Fiat, the Lancia E-100 engine, at the present time needs
further work particularly in the areas of:
driveability (not yet satisfactory),
- combustion smoothness at WOT (although knock-free, this aspect
of combustion is still not satisfactory), and
durability (not yet tested).
12-424

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In. view of the very promising baseline emissions and of the good pros-
pectives offered by this engine for fuel economy, it will be further
developed with the target of meeting the emission standards of 0.41 HC,
3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx.
It is intended as a first approach to reach this target by further
developing the fuel injection and ignition systems as well as using a
monolithic oxidation catalyst. As a consequence the engine will have to
be adapted to operate on unleaded gasoline of 91 RON.
It is impossible to forecast at this moment if, and how far, engine
performance and fuel economy will deteriorate due to the necessary
modifications, according to Fiat.
Fuel Economy/Emissions Tradeoff - Research Contract
Sponsored by the US DOT (Contract No. DOT-TSC-1422)
This contract involves the evaluation of three engine configurations of
the 131 vehicle equipped with the 132 (2 litre) engine. It is intended
to generate data that will provide trade-off information on maximum fuel
economy vs. emissions as a function of relevant parameters and con-
straints. All configurations will use electronic control systems. Of
the possible control strategies considered, near-stoichiometric control
with a 3-way catalyst and lean-burn control with an oxidation catalyst
plus EGR are the two strategies considered by Fiat to be more promising
than others in terms of fuel economy and low emissions. The program
plan is still in draft form and was submitted to DOT for formal approval.
This program will be carried out by the the Fiat Corporate Research
Center.
Diesel Engine
In the 1976 Status Report, Fiat had briefly reported on the activity
concerning Diesel engines in the following areas:
12-425

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a)	investigation of the combustion process by the development of
a mathematical model,
b)	development of a pre-chamber 2.4 and 2.0 litre 4 cylinder
Diesel engine, and
c)	"fumigation" to decrease engine combustion noise.
During 1978:
- work on item a) has been suspended for lack of resources
allocated to other priority work,
the development of the engine item b) has continued, mainly
concentrating on the reliability of the engine, production of
which is now starting for the European market,
the work on fumigation has continued, and
a program has also been started on the feasibility of a small
displacement direct injection Diesel engine.
On November 1, 1977 a research program on a pre-chamber Diesel engine
family sponsored by DOT (Contract DOT-TSC 1424) was started. The
objective of this work is to obtain a data base on the performance of
light-weight automotive Diesel powerplants on the engine and vehicle in
sufficient detail to permit projections of the potential benefits and
costs associated with the introduction of a significant number of Diesel
powered automobiles into the US domestic auto fleet. The planned com-
pletion date for this work is June 30, 1979. Engines which will be made
available for experimentation are listed on Table Fiat-10.
12-426

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Table Fiat-10*
I.D.I. Diesel Engines for Experimental Data

Inertia


Engine
Weight
Performance
HP/IW

Gib.)
(HP)

4-cyl 149 C ID
2750
70
0.025

3000
70
0.023
4-cyl 149 CID
3000
90
0.030
(turbochargedl
3500
90
0.026
6-cyl 224 CID
3500
106
0.030

4000
106
0.0265
6-cyl 224 CID
4000
130
0.0325
(turbochargedl
4500
130
0.029
*Fiat SR CH/III, p. 17)
Fuel economy/emission trade-offs shall be provided for selected engine
configurations including consideration of emission levels of 0.41 HC,
3.4 CO, 2.0 NOx and 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0-1.5 NOx or 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO,
0.41-1.0 NOx (if achievable).
In addition, data will be obtained on:
unregulated emissions,
-	powerplant durability, reliability and scheduled maintenance
requirements,
fuel grade, lubricants and filters requirements, and
-	startability and driveabilty.
The February 20, 1978 Detroit edition of the Automotive News, included
an article from Turin, Italy reporting that Diesel production will start
soon. 9jt the. SQFIM plant located southern Italy. SOFIM started produc-
tion at the beginning of 1978 at the rate of 700 units per day expecting
to reach a level of 1000 units per day. Fiat's program includes Diesel
12-427

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engine versions of the 131 and 132 models equipped with 2 or 2.4 litre
engines. A 1.5 litre Diesel version of the new 138 model will come out
in the spring and a turbocharged version is under study. The first
Diesel cars will probably be presented officially in the second half of
1978 but will probably not be considered for sale in the United States
for two to three years. Ward's Engine Update, May 12, 1978, on the
other hand, reports that a Diesel version of the 132 is expected to be
offered in the United States either late in 1978 or early in 1979. No
emissions data were supplied by Fiat for vehicles equipped with Diesel
engines.
Diesel - Fumigation
The work during 1977 has been devoted to the study of two possible means
of obtaining fumigation:
a)	external fumigation, introducing part of the fuel into the
intake manifold as a fine mist and
b)	internal fumigation by injecting part of the fuel into the
cylinder at closing time of the exhaust valve.
The method has confirmed its effectiveness in reducing engine combustion
noise and the capability of reducing NOx without impairing fuel economy;
however, the results of the studies for mass production have been totally
unsuccessful so far, according to Fiat.
In view of the attractive potentials of the method, the studies will be
continued in 1978. No data were provided by Fiat to assess the potential
of this interesting work.
Direct Injection Diesel Engine
This work Is part of a research program, called "Energy Finalized
Project - Subproject Traction", sponsored by the Italian Government
12-428

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through the C.N.R. (National Research Council], with the aim of investi-
gating the possibility for achieving energy savings in the field of
transportation. This research activity is carried out jointly by
working industries, universities, and government research bodies.
Scope of the research work on a direct-injection Diesel engine for vehicle
application is to conduct an extensive experimental investigation, aided
by mathematical simulating models, in order to verify the feasibility of
an open chamber Diesel engine as a possible alternative to the pre-
chamber type now widely adopted for this application.
The following laboratories contribute to the research:
-	Fiat Research Center (CRF),
-	Engine Institute of Naples (CNR),
-	Turin Polytechnic,
-	Milan Polytechnic, and
-	A.R.S., a consulting firm of Milan.
The distribution of tasks is the following:
The Fiat Research Center and the Engine Institute of Naples
conduct experimental single-cylinder and 4-cylinder engine
investigations chiefly consisting in injection system varia-
tions and combustion chamber testing.
The Turin and Milan Polytechnics are involved in combustion
chamber fluid swirl condition investigation.
The A.R.S. develops a calculation model of the different
cycles (intake, compression, air jet/flow interaction; combustion).
12-429

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Should the results obtained by end of 1978 prove satisfactory with
regard to general combustion conditions (efficiency, noise, smoke), a
prototype will be developed in order to investigate the lower fuel
consumption limits.
Primary emphasis will be placed on fuel economy. Emissions were not
considered during the first stages of the work, but specific research on
this subject is planned and will be conducted at a later date.
The experimental engine is a variant of the Fiat 237AZ prechamber
engine described on Table Fiat-11.
Table Fiat-11*
Description of Fiat 237AZ Engine
-	Pre-chamber Diesel cycle (RICARDO Comet V)
-	No. of cylinders	4
-	Bore x stroke	83.5 x 85 mm
-	Unit cylinder displacement	475 cc
-	Engine output	47 HP at 3700 rpra
-	Valve gear drive	Push rods and
rockers
*Fiat SR, Annex II, P 1-4.
Modifications to the reference engine were made as follows:
Bore reduced to 75 mm as the research main aim was to in-
vestigate feasibility on a total 4-cylinder piston displace-
ment engine not over 1500 cc.
Unit cylinder displacement : 369 cc
Valve gear drive : toothed belt, and OHC operated rockers
12-430

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Two inlet valves equipped with a tangential duct to improve
"swirling" effect - assuring a good volumetric efficiency -and
to allow the injector location (and consequently the in-piston
combustion chamber) in a position close to the cylinder axis*
Conventional injection pumps, both in-line and distributor
type.
Multi-hole type nozzles, suitably designed and developed for
experimental purposes.
Fiat reported that the fuel consumption values are penalized on the
average of 10% to 12% due to the low mechanical efficiency of the engine
as modified for this program.
Some of the other technical problems found by Fiat in arranging an
open chamber Diesel for LDV applications are described as follows:
Difficulty in coordinating fuel turbulence/injection inter-
action over a wide speed range. This problem is obviously far
less critical on engines applied to commercial vehicles, as
they operate within a more limited speed range.
High combustion chamber surface/volume ratio with consequent
thermal efficiency reduction.
Emissions measurements have not been performed yet.
Testing is currently in progress to solve such problems by investigating
several combustion chamber configurations. The results obtained to
date, however, are not yet competitive with the better pre-chamber
engine data. In fact, fuel consumption is almost equivalent, smoke and
12-431

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noise levels are worse, according to Fiat. In spite of the difficulties
encountered, the research work will continue through 1979, with programs
that (depending on obtained results) provide the following alternatives:
-	Development and testing of a prototype.
-	Prototype design only.
-	Basic -research work continuation.
The open chamber engine work reported by Fiat did not include any mention
of sophisticated electronically controlled fuel injection systems. One
of the advantages of the divided chamber engine compared to the open
chamber engine is that the swirl chamber or pre-chamber acts in some
respects like a nozzle, providing a turbulent spray of burned, partially
burned, and unbumed fuel to the main chamber which can provide good
combustion and a smooth heat release rate. It would appear that in
order to make a thorough investigation of the open chamber Diesel engine
for the passenger car application, a sophisticated fuel injection system
with the capability to vary and control injection pressure, injection
rate and injection profile might be needed. Such systems have been
developed for potential application to heavy-duty Diesel engines, and
the same principles could be applied to the light-duty application.
Divided Chamber Stratified Charge Engine with Fuel
Injection in the Pre-Chamber (C.S.V.F.)
The engine characteristics of this engine are derived from the European
version of the Fiat 132 engine. Figure Fiat-9 shows a cross-sectional
view of the engine. A computer was used to simulate emissions and fuel
economy projections in the naturally aspirated version, with and without
EGR, with and without an oxidation catalyst and as a turbocharged
configuration. Preliminary tests are now being run on a vehicle with
the following results shown on Table Fiat-12.
12-432

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Figure Fiat-9*
CSVF Multi Cylinder Engine
*Fiat SR (I2/I-2)
12-433

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Table Fiat-12*
CSVF Naturally Aspirated Flat 131 FTP
Results - 2000 lbs. IW, Axle Ratio = 3..1:1, M5 Transmission
	
	g/mi



HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,



u
h
Uncontrolled 3.35
1.25
1.17
28
40
With Oxidation Catalyst 0.47
0.35
1.19
27
39
*Fiat SR (12/17)
Dual Chamber Stratified Charge Engine -
Three Valve, Carbureted
This developmental program is aimed at exploring the potentials afforded
by this type of engine and the possible fuel economy/emissions compro-
mise. Therefore, no specific target was set in terms of emissions.

Single cylinder tests on the three-valve, single-cylinder unit and tests
on the second generation multi-cylinder engine are sponsored by the
Italian Government through the C.N.R. (National Research Council) whose
aim is to investigate the possibility of achieving energy savings in the
field of transportation.
Test results were reported on the first generation engine installed in a
131 model vehicle, 2500 lb. IW class, 3.6:1 rear axle ratio, and single-
outlet exhaust manifold version. FTP emissions results are reported in
Table Fiat-13. Mileage accumulated was not reported.
12-434

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Table Flat-13*
Dual Chamber Stratified Charge FTP Results
(1st generation three valve engine)
-g/mi		Fuel Economy
HC	CO	NOx	MPGu	MPGh
Single-outlet	2.5	5	1.4	23	30
manifold only
Plus underfloor	0.8	1.8	1.35	22
catalytic converter
*Fiat SR (12/III - 10)
The second generation engine was tuned exclusively for performance and
fuel economy. This engine was equipped with a dual-outlet manifold and
was rated at 86 hp (DIN) at 4800 rpm. The engine configuration is shown
in Figure Fiat-10. To date, it has not been possible to go below 1.2
NOx, according to Fiat. Future studies will include a thermal reactor
and catalytic convertor, transient operation, intake manifold heating,
carburetor tuning and GGR.
MAN-FM Stratified Charge Engine
This particular program is still in the preparatory stage and exper-
imental results are not yet available. The Fiat disclosure concerning
this program was submitted with the request that the information be
classified as confidential and is, therefore, not reported here in
greater detail.
Fiat 6803 Gas Turbine Engine
The status of this program is that reported in a paper presented at the
1977 ERDA - Fourth International Symposium on Automotive Propulsion
12-435

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Figure Fiat-10*
Dual Chamber Stratified Charge Engine -
Second Generation, Three Valve. Carbureted
*Fiat SR (I2/III), Fig. 1
12-436

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System/Low Pollution Power System Development, April 1977, in Washington,
D.C. No further developments are currently reported by Fiat other than
those reported in the paper by R. Cerrato, et al. This engine is pri-
marily designed for use on trucks and buses and has a maximum rating of
260kw (350 hp). Fiat cannot report on a program sponsored by the
European Communities concerning the feasibility of a Rankine cycle
actuated by the waste heat of the exhaust gases of a thermal-engine-gas-
turbine or Diesel, because Fiat stated that the results of the program
are the property of the sponsoring organization.
Fiat is now considering the advisability of starting a work program for
the development of a passenger car gas turbine engine to be competitive
with reciprocating engines.
Two power classes are being considered: 60 - 70 HP and 120 - 130 HP.
A preliminary evaluation of various thermodynamic cycles and engine
configurations was made. The engine should be of the regenerative type
with turbine inlet temperatures of around 1300C. The "hot" components
(combustor, turbine, regenerator) will have to be built with ceramic
materials (Fiat has been conducting work in this area).
The complexity of the problems involved in the development of the engine,
the uncertainties about the time needed to obtain satisfactory results,
and the tremendous financial investment required have suggested that
Fiat should possibly find European partners for a joint venture program.
An agreement is expected to be concluded by mid 1978.
Electric Hybrid Propulsion System
This work is part of a research program sponsored by the Italian Govern-
ment through the C.N.R. (National Research Council). Fiat's motivation
is. tq develop vehicles capable of providing benefits in terms of:
12-437

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Exhaust and noise pollution
Energy:
Inherent energy saving in terms of prime fuel
Possible utilization of prime energy source in alternative
with gasoline
Better utilization of electrical generation power plants
through possible use of off-peak energy
Operational/driving quality levels
Fiat's program is mainly based on research and development activity
concerning:
-	The propulsion system
-	The storage system
-	The vehicle structure.
The research and developmental program regarding propulsion systems,
storage systems, and vehicle structures will concentrate on three
typical electric vehicle categories:
Battery operated (including so called battery-flywheel hybrid)
Hybrid thermo-electric
Dual mode (energy supply from on board storage or external
electrical line)
12.2.5.6. Durability Data
Fiat reported limited durability data on both the YLCS Lancia Scorpian
(2L) and the YLCS Fiat 128. Mileage accumulation tests were obtained as
described in Tables Fiat-14 and 15. No readjustments nor maintenance
were performed except as specified. These test results are presumed to
haye been obtained with air injection and/or catalytic treatment although
this was not described in the Fiat submittal.
12-438

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Table Fiat-14*
YLCS Lancia Scorpion Durability Test Results
Miles
HC (s/mi)
CO (g/mi)
NOx (g/mi)
0
0.36
2.6
0.51
4000
0.93
6.9
0.89
5000
0.92
7.9
0.59
10000
0.90
5.0
0.82
** 10500
0.91
4.7
0.80
15000
0.93
4.1
1.36
*** 15000
1.00
5.3
0.91
Note: Test procedure was not identified.

*Fiat SR (II A-9)



**Further tests on
new car (other involved in accident)
***Test after replacement of EGR piping because of leakage.

Table Fiat-15*

t YLCS Fiat 128 Durability Test Results


	g/mi	

Miles
HC
CO
NOx
0
0.35
3.0
0.54
5000
0.72
6.4
0.53
6000
0.73
5.9
0.58
11000
0.58
3.9
0.55
*** 14500
0.61
3.2
0.81
19500
0.83
4.7
0.75
** 19500
0.77
4.7
0.75
Note: Test procedure was not described.
*Fiat SR (II A-9)
**Test after replacement of spark plugs.
***Further testing on a new car (other was involved in accident).
Parts replaced were ignition distributor, coil, electronic
ignition module and spark plug from #1 cylinder.
The test was interrupted and a diagnostic examination is under way to
assess, the causes of the high HC and CO emissions. Readjustments or
12-439

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replacement of parts will be made as necessary to bring the emissions
back to the original values.
To gain further experience on this system it will be applied to four
other vehicles. Components for this purpose are being ordered. In
parallel Fiat is negotiating a further developmental program with Yamaha
for improvement of fuel economy and particularly to assess the capa-
bility of the system suitably modified to meet the 0.41 NOx standard.
Use of the system for future production depends upon the success of this
work.
12.2.5.7. Progress and Problems
Fiat has outlined very ambitious and challenging programs for research
and developmental objectives in their 1978 status report to the EPA.
This plan includes both near term as well as long term goals Intended to
expand the state-of-the-art in microprocessors, oxidation and 3-way
catalysts, electronically-controlled and variable-ratio transmissions,
exhaust-gas sensors, and fuel management technologies. Advanced-design
combustion-efforts will Include divided chamber Diesel and stratified
charge, open chamber LDV Diesel, MAN-FM stratified-charge, May "Fireball",
Diesel fumigation, gas turbines and light-duty turbocharging technologies.
A long range plan for development of electric hybrids is also in progress.
12-440

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12.2.6. Fuji (Subaru)
Fuji reported they plan to continue the use of their opposed four
cylinder (04), water cooled, engine, which is a unique configuration in
the industry. They also reported the continued use of the Subaru
Exhaust Emission Control System (SEEC-T). The details of this system
may be found in an outside source.*
Basically, the SEEC-T system is a simple arrangement which adds EGR to
the intake charge of the intake manifold and then relies on secondary
injection of air by an aspirator to promote HC and CO oxidation. The
SEEC-T system employs no aftertreatment devices such as catalysts or
thermal reactors. With the use of an aspirator for secondary air
injection, the need for an air pump is eliminated. This system is shown
in Figure Fuji-1.
12.2.6.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Fuji reported in their submission** that this system was developed to
meet the Federal emission levels of 1.5 HC, 15 CO, 2.0 NOx. This system
uses the SEEC-T system described earlier as well as an Insulated Exhaust
Manifold (IEM). The IEM configuration relies on heat conservation
combined with air injection to control HC and CO. This is the same
system described in last year's report*** and is shown in Figure Fuji-2.
The air injection system uses an aspirator valve and injects the air
very close to the exhaust valve for maximum effectiveness. A ported EGR
system is also used for NOx control.
*Ward's Engine Update; April 29, 1977, pg. 6.
**1977 Status Report of Development and Testing for 1979 and Subsequent
Model Year Vehicles; January, 1978. Fuji Heavy Industries. Hereafter
referred to as Fuji-SR.
***Automotive Emission Control - The Development Status, Trends, and
Outlook as of December 1976; April, 1977, pg 7-286.
12-441

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anwagnwj
EXHAUST

gnarensgs
SS3SgSSMSi2'<
t. INTAKE
a.	Intake air temperature ad}uited
automatically.
b.	Air preheated to promote vapori-
zation.
c.	EQR valve. Part ol exhaust gases
recirculated and NOx reduced.
." d. Carburetor set at appropriate air
fuel ratio. Reduction of CO and
HC.
e. Intake manifold is long and Iso-
tonic lor improved vaporization
and even distribution of fuel.
I. Ample preheating with hot water
to promote vaporization. ..
Z COMPRESSION
a.	Combustion chamber. Power
stroke ratio Is very over-square.
b.	Appropriate compression ratio.
X COMBUSTION
a Control of appropriate Ignition
timing and partial recirculation of
. exhaust gases using EQR lowers
maximum temperature-of burning
gases, thereby controlling NOx.
4.	EXHAUST
a.	Air suction valve Introduces air
automatically without use of air
pump.
b.	Appropriate valve timing keeps
emissions In cylinder kmger.CO
and HC gases oxidized.
c.	Ah.

-------
Figure Fuji-2*
Fuji Exhaust Port Liner
*From Fuji-SR; December 1976. 12-443

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The following data in Table Fuji-1 were provided by Fuji on a test vehicle
equipped with a 1.6 L engine tested at 2250 lb. IW.
Table Fuji-1
Fuji Emission and Fuel Economy Data*
Vehicle Description	HC	8C0	NOx	MPG	MPG **
u
Federal 1.6L; MT;	1.12	10.1	1.81	29.5	22.3
2250 lb IW.	0.77 11.3 1.71 28.5
Federal 1.6L; AT;
2250 lb IW.
0.58
0.66
9.8
10.2
1.58
1.79
24.9
25.1
21.5
California 1.6L; MT;
2250 lb IW.
0.30
0.22
6.7
6.0
1.04
1.10
24.6
24.6
California 1.6L; AT;
2250 lb IW.
0.27
0.36
5.8
7.0
1.19
1.33
23.3
24.4
*From Fuji-SR; pg II-l. Fuji did not specify if these were FTP data.
**Slmilar vehicle 1978 Certification results.
12.2.6.2. Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
The system designed to meet the 1980 Federal emission standards is
basically the same as the 1979 California system. To lower CO below 7.0
g/mi, secondary air flow rate is optimized by Improvement of the muffler
and exhaust pipe. No details of these improvements were provided by
Fuji. In order to control NOx, minor changes were reported to be under
consideration for the carburetor, EGR valve, and the distributor cali-
bration. Again Fuji provided no details of these changes. The following
data in Table Fuji-2 show the results of Fuji's emission tests on this
system.
12-444

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Table Fuji-2
Fuji Emission and Fuel Economy Data*
Vehicle Description
HC	C0	NOx	MPG
1.6L; MT;
2250 lb IW.
Q.33
0.31
2.2
4.2
1.60
1.53
26.3
26.1
1.6L; AT;
2250 lb IW.
0.20
0.2Q
5.5
4.5
1.62
1.29
24.5
24.0
*From Fuji-SR; pg II-3. Fuji did not specify if these were FTP data.
Fuji also reported they have performed work to meet the California 1980
emission standards. This system is not radically different from the
1980 MY - 49 state system described above. Fuji reported they are
considering a new method of controlling EGR to lower NOx. This system
is called Vacuum Storage Type, and again, Fuji did not provide the
details of this system.
In addition, optimization is achieved by a combination of carburetor
setting, ignition timing, and EGR flow rate. Emissions from this system
were reported by Fuji to be well below the emission standards with
satisfactory driveability but with poor fuel economy. Durability
testing was reported to have started, but no data were available at the
time of the writing of their submission.
Fuji also reported their efforts to meet the 2 gram/test SHED standard
has had an adverse effect on exhaust emissions. At present it was
reported, Fuji has not been able to reduce both evaporative and exhaust
emissions below the standards simultaneously. Fuji also reported plans
to develop a carburetor which would satisfy a 9.0 CO standard at alti-
tudes of 0-6000 feet, by the use of an altitude compensator. Table
Fuji-3 shows the emission data reported for the California System.
12-445

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Table Fuji-3
Full Emission and Fuel Economy Data*


	g/mi	



Vehicle Description
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
Remarks
1.6L; MT;
0.16
3.5
0.78
23.2
NO EVAP.
2250 lb. IW.
0.10
6.2
0.70
21.8
NO EVAP.
1.6L; AT;	0.19 4.9	0.97 21.4 NO EVAP.
2250 lb. IW.	0.26 5.7	0.78	20.0 NO EVAP.
NO EVAP.
WITH EVAP.
0.19
4.9
0.97
21.4
0.26
5.7
0.78
20.0
0.24
5.2
0.70
-
0.45
8.3
0.66

*From Fuji-SR; pg II-5. Fuji did not specify if these were FTP data.
12.2.6.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
The system designed to meet the 1981 emission standards was reported to
be basically the same system as the 1979 MY California system described
earlier. Modification of the power jet in the carburetor was reported
to have lowered CO below the level 3.4 CO standard, with good driveability
after warm-up but poor driveability immediately after cold starts,
according to Fuji. Table Fuji-4 shows the results of this system.
Table Fuji-4

	
	g/mi	


Vehicle Description
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
1.6L; MT;
0.28
2.7
0.87
22.8
2250 lb. IW.
0.35
3.2
0.99
22.6
1.6L; AT;
0.20
2.8
0.93
19.9
2250 lb. IW.
0.16
2.6
0.96
20.2
*From Fuji-SR; pg II-6. Fuji did not specify if these were FTP data.
12-446

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12.2.6.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 041 NOx
Fuji plans to continue with the use of the SEEC-T system with a higher
rate of EGR to attempt to meet the 0.41 NOx research goal. To avoid a
loss in driveability, the air-fuel ratio is set slightly rich of stoi-
chiometry. This system was reported by Fuji to still have problems in
that CO and NOx could not be simultaneously reduced below the target
standards. Also reported were problems with driveability and low fuel
economy, though no driveability data were reported by Fuji. The emis-
sion and economy data from this system are shown in Table Fuji-5.
Table Fuji-5
Fuji Emission and Fuel Economy Data*
Vehicle Description
HC
	g/mi	
CO
NOx
MPG
Remarks
1.6L; MT;
2250 lb. IW.
0.26
0.23
2.8
3.9
0.67
0.39
21.5
21.4
NO EVAP.
NO EVAP.
*From Fuji-SR; pg II-8. Fuji did not specify if these were FTP data.
12.2.6.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Fuji reported additional research in the following areas: evaporative
emissions, high altitude emissions, the use of catalysts, and alternative
engines. Fuji's evaporative emission system consists of a charcoal
canister, a vapor separator, a two-way valve and a purge check valve.
Purge flow is controlled by the vacuum from the intake manifold and the
carburetor port. Fuel vapors are stored in the canister and purged back
into the intake manifold where they are mixed with incoming air/fuel
mixture. Fuji reported 4 g/test has been achieved on SHED tests with
prototype vehicles, but to reduce emissions to 2 g/test, studies will be
needed on HC penetration through the fuel hose, capacity of the canister,
and seals of the carburetor and air cleaner. No data were reported in
this area.
12-447

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Altitude compensating carburetors are being designed for use at high
altitude. These would maintain the air-fuel ratio with changes In
atmospheric pressure. Testing has been reported to have been started
with the pairing of Vacuum Storage EGR mentioned earlier, but the
target levels of 0*41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx have not been achieved. At
low atmospheric pressures, power output is reduced, resulting in a loss
of fuel economy, according to Fuji, but no data were reported.
Fuji reported they are just beginning to look at the possible use of the
3-way catalyst system for emission control. No other information was
provided in this area by Fuji.
Fuji's plans for alternative engines involve the Diesel engine because
of its low fuel consumption characteristics. Current investigations are
underway to determine the possibility of converting their current pro-
duction engines to Diesel engines. Fuji reported from initial studies
they believe it is possible from both a performance and volume produc-
tion standpoint to perform this conversion. Fuji reported this would
take further investigation, and the lead time for this conversion is
uncertain.
12.2.6.6.	Durability Data
No durability data were reported.
12.2.6.7.	Progress and Problems
From the data provided by Fuji, it appears from the emission data they
have made substantial progress in improving their SEEC-T system.
However, further improvement in reducing one pollutant, namely NOx, has
shown an increase in CO, as well as a loss in fuel economy.
12-448

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The use of a 3-way catalyst system in conjunction with the SEEC-T system
may eliminate these problems while allowing Fuji to meet the NOx research'
goal'with satisfactory fuel economy. Fuji, however, has previously
stated that they prefer not to use catalysts because they can no longer
use leaded fuel.
Fuji's omission of any durability data in their submission to EPA is
interpreted to mean that Fuji does not consider the durability perfor-
mance of their system to be a problem in attempting to meet future
standards.
12-449

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12.2.7. Honda
12.2.7.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Honda will market vehicles which are essentially the same as those
marketed in 1978. The two systems which will be used will be the "Com-
pound Vortex Controlled Combustion" CCVCC) 3-valve prechamber engine
system and a conventional engine plus air injection system. The model
year 1979 CVCC engine system has basically the same specifications as
those of the 1978 system which Honda claims have been improved year by
year since the 1975 models. The 1979 Honda vehicle offerings are:
Engine Engine IW
disp. Configuration Class
Emission
Cont. System
Transmission
Car
Line
1.6L 14
2250
CVCC
M5, A2
Sedan
1.5L 14
2250
CVCC
M4, A2
Wagon

2000
CVCC
M5, M4, A2
Sedan
1.2L 14
2000
AIR
M4, A2
Sedan
Honda indicated there were a number of research programs which need to
be completed before 1979 model year introduction. These following areas
of research are designed for the optimization of the CVCC system: 1)
ratio of the auxiliary combustion chamber volume to main chamber volume,
2) ratio of the torch opening area to the auxiliary combustion chamber
volume, 3) relative location of the spark plug and the torch nozzle, 4)
air/fuel ratio of the auxiliary and main mixtures, 5) ratio of the
auxiliary intake air mass to the main intake air mass, and 6) manifold
system.
Areas of concern to Honda are: 1) system recalibration (due to the
changes in the transmission shift speed schedule mandated by EPA^, 2)
12-450

-------
minor design changes which may result in component standardization among
various models, and 3) improvements in driver perceived performance such
as driveability, especially for vehicles sold at high altitudes.
Data for 1979 model year vehicles are shown in Table Honda-1. Honda
gave no indication of the mileage of these vehicles or if these vehicles
are durability or data type vehicles. Comparable 1978 model year
certification data are shown in Table Honda-2.
Honda did not present any durability data for the 1979 model year as
they expect to carry over the durability data from model year 1978. See
Table Honda-3.
Because Honda reported their developmental efforts based on model year,
it is more conducive to include these comments by model year rather than
by developmental system.
Regarding evaporative emissions, Honda reported these 1979 model year
vehicles will be essentially the same as their 1978 models with only the
confirmatory testing of 1979 model year components and specifications to
be accomplished. They reported the 1978 results shown in Table Honda-4.
12-451

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Table Honda-1*
Typical Emissions and Fuel Economy Levels of the 1979 Models


49St

Shift
FTP
Results
(g/mi)
Model
IW(lb)
Cal
Trans.
Procedure
HC
CO
NOx
1.5L CVCC
Sedan
2000
Cal
M5
*
kit
0.24
0.18
3.16
2.38
1.09
1.10
1.5L CVCC
Sedan
2000
49St
M5
*
**
0.88
0.84
4.26
4.23
1.72
1.86
1.5L CVCC
Wagon
2250
Cal
M4
*
**
0.23
0.15
3.04
2.14
1.17
1.17
1.6L CVCC
Sedan
2250
49St
M5
*
**
0.80
0.80
5.35
4.79
1.85
1.68
1.2L AI
Sedan
2000
49St
SA2
*
0.90
10, 22
1.71
1.8L CVCC
Sedan
NR
49St
M5
SA2
**
**
0.59
0.34
3.82
4.54
1.72
1.73

NR
Cal
M5
SA2
ft*
**
0.26
0.23
2.81
3.78
1.19
1.21
+Emission
Control Status
Report,
January 13,
1978, Honda
Motor Co
., Ltd.,

hereafter called Honda SR, p 79-14.
*1978 model year shift procedure
**1979 model year shift procedure according to EPA A/C No. 72,
"Shift Points for Manual Transmission Vehicles"
NR = Not reported

-------
Table Honda-2
Comparable 1978 Certification Data-Honda Data Vehicles
NJ
I
Ln
U>
VIN
SG-E4502558
WB-A4003021
SJ-D3015710
SJ-E3015711
WB-B4003022
SG-E4003241
5BD-6016334
SBE-6016333
1.5L
CVCC
1.5L
CVCC
1.6L
CVCC
1.6L
CVCC
1.5L
CVCC
1.5L
CVCC
1.2L
AI
1.2L
AI
49St
Engine Cal IW(lb) Axle Trans HC
FTP Results (g/mi)
CO
49St 2000 3.87 M5(0D) 1.06 4.7
49St 2250 4.12 A2(0D) 0.46 5.2
Both 2000 4.07 M4(OD) 0.40 4.4
49St 2000 4.12
1.06 12.8
NOx
1.68
1.78
1.15
1.60
49St 2000 4.64 M4(0D) 1.06 10.4	1.47
MPGu
36.98
49St 2250 4.43 M4(0D) 0.95 6.7	1.64 31.72
49St 2250 4.12 A2(OD) 0.42 5.8	1.48 27.58
49St 2250 4.27 M5(OD) 0.94 6.0	1.47 33.16
26.98
32.10
22.71
28.63
MPG,
36.43
33.22
43.58
NR
MPG
47.13 40.95
33.68
29.86
37.16
31.02 28.66
40.34 35.35
29.49 25.33
NR
OD = Overdrive
NR = Not reported

-------
Table Honda-3
1978 Certification Data-Honda Durability Vehicles
FTP Results
(a/ml) @5K
VIN	Engine IW(lb) Axle Trans	HC CO NOx MPG
FTP Results
(g/ml) @50K
HC CO NOx MPG
FTP Results (g/mi) Range
HC	CO	NOx
MPG
663VF2001 1.5L 2250 A. 43
CVCC
M4(OD) 1.24 7.3 1.73 32.79
1.04 5.9 1.58 32.77 1.04-1.27 5.9-7.3 1.58-1.75 32.77-33.59
663VF2002 1.5L 2250 4.43
CVCC
M4(OD) 1.31 7.4 1.76 32.99 0.84 5.6 1.41 31.06 0.84-1.34 5.6-7.4 1.41-1.79 31.06-34.00
647VF1001 1.2L 2000 4.64
AI
M4(OD) 1.35 13.0 1.73 29.78
1.28 7.1 1.76 31.20 1.21-1.37 7.1-13.0 1.62-1.76 29.78-33.39
647VF1002 1.2L 2000 4.64
AI
M4(OD) 1.33 12.4 1.78 30.50	1.16 10.2 1.64 29.78 1.16-1.34 10.2-13.2 1.64-1.80 29.78-33.86

-------
Table Honda-4*
1978 Evaporative Emissions Data (g)
DF's
Vehicle	Diurnal Hot Soak	Total 4K 5OK DF**
1.6L CVCC
49 state	0.40	0.61	1.01 -
1.5L CVCC Wagon
49 state	0.41	1.01	1.42
2.12 1.95 0.0
1.5L CVCC
Cal. Wagon	0.41	0.55	0.96
1.2L AI
49 state	0.32	0.75	1.07 2.73 2.57 0.0
*Honda SR, p 79-24
**Additive deterioration factor
Both the CVCC and the conventional engine evaporative systems contain a
purge control solenoid valve which allows the fuel vapors stored in the
charcoal canister to vent to the carburetor only when the ignition is
on. Honda presented the following data to indicate the effect of the
purge cycle on exhaust emissions.
Table Honda-5*
Test Vehicle:
Vapor Purge
1.6L CVCC 1978-49 state
Evaporative Emission (g)
FTP
Results
(g/mi)
Trans
Diurnal
Hot Soak
Total
HC
CO
NOx
M5 with purge
0.70
1.43
2.13
0.39
4.33
1.31
w/o purge



0.45
3.89
1.25
A2 with purge
0.40
1.45
1.85
0.24
5.43
1.25
w/o purge



0.25
4.02
1.08
*Honda SR, p 79-25
12-455

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Concerning the use of the CVCC and conventional engines at altitude,
Honda noted that the conventional engine would not be offered for sale
at high altitudes and the CVCC engines would be modified primarily to
maintain equivalent altitude driveability performance. A more detailed
discussion of Honda's altitude systems can be found in Section 9 of this
document, but the representative data are reproduced here.
Table Honda-6*
1979L Honda Vehicles Tested at Denver**
FTP Results (g/mi)
No. of
Engine
IW(lb)
Trans
HC
CO
NOx
MPG***
Tests
1.5L CVCC
2000
M5
0.8
9.0
1.1
35
6
1.5L CVCC
2000
A2
0.5
7.0
1.3
29
4
* Honda SR, p 79-31
**Driveability of these vehicles was rated 6.0.
***Assumed to be MPG^ by the EPA technical staff.
A comparison of the data between Table Honda-1 and Table Honda-6 indi-
cates the operation at altitude should have no adverse effects on HC,
NOx, or fuel economy, but will have an adverse effect on CO.
Concerning the reduction of in-use adjustability, Honda remarked there
would be no improvements for 1979 model year, but the 1980 model would
be improved.
Honda presented data concerning the driveability of their vehicles.
They feel their 1979 model year vehicle will be similar to that of the
1978 model year vehicles. The'1978 data are reproduced in Table Honda-7
and a more detailed discussion of the Honda driveability submission can
be found in Section 6. By way of reference, Honda considers a rating of
12-456

-------
5 or 6 to be "Barely Acceptable - Observed and demonstrated by critical
customers and occasionally by average customers - Will incur no signi-
ficant warranty complaints."*
Table Honda-7**
1978 Model Year Vehicle Driveability Rating
Vehicle
Trans
Idle
R/L
Crowd
T/I
P/T
WOT
Decel
Start
1.6L sedan
M5
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.0

A2
6.0
6.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.5
5.5
1.5L sedan
MT
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.0

A2
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
1.5L wagon
MT
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.5
6.0
6.5
6.0

A2
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
1.2L sedan
MT
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.0
6.0

A2
5.5
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.0
R/L : cruise (road load)
T/I : tip-in
P/T : part throttle
Honda indicated the 1979 model year vehicles will have the same main-
tenance schedule as the 1978 models and as shown in Table Honda-8.
*Honda SR, p. 79-36
**Honda SR, p. 79-37
12-457

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Table Honda-8
Maintenance Schedules	for 1978 Hondas
Vehicle: 1. 2L Conventional Engines
Maintenance Point (miles)	Time (hrs)** Cost ($)
5K	1.0 7.98
10K, 2OK, 25K, 35K, &
40K	0.5 7.98
15K and 45K	3.2 25.58
3OK	3.2 49.26
Vehicle: 1.5L and 1.6L CVCC engines
Maintenance Point (miles)	Time (hrs)** Cost ($)
5K	1.1 7.98
10K, 20K, 25K, 35K, &
40K	0.5 7.98
15K and 45K	3.0-3.3*** 22.83
3OK	2.8-3.0*** 47.63
*Honda SR., pp. 79-38 to 79-59.
**Flat rate changes vary by location,
***Depends on vehicle model.
Fuel economy from 1979 model year vehicles should be comparable to 1978
model year vehicles, according to Honda. More details can be found in
Section 4.
Honda commented on various unregulated emissions, see Section 7, and
provided the particulate data shown in Table Honda-9.
12-458

-------
Table Honda-9*
Honda Particulate Emissions
from a 1.5L CVCC Engine
Cycle
Mileage
Particulate
Ni
Ni
Fe
Fe

(milesi
(mg/mi)
(mg/mil (particulate %)
(mg/mi)
(particulate
FTP
1,000
38.63
0.022
a. 05
16.72
43.3

10,000
13.87
0.008
0.Q6
0.73
5.2
HFET
1,000
9.38
0.005
0.05
1.43
15.9

10,000
12.78
0.002
0.02
0.08
0.7
*Honda SR, p. 79-63.
Honda feels that because of a 30 day delay between mileage accumulation
and testing at the 1000 mile point, there was undue rusting of the
exhaust system which influenced the results. Honda gave no indication
if the testing was conducted at temperatures and with procedures similar
to those used by EPA.
12.2.7.2. Systems to be Used for Model Year 1980
Honda reported the information concerning model year 1980 in conjunction
with subsequent model years, therefore making it difficult to separate
1980 model year from 1981 model year vehicles. As Honda deems that 1980
and subsequent model years are a departure from previous years, they are
apparently conducting research, on all types of systems to achieve
specific developmental goals. The only difference is the time of
development for 1980 and 1981 respectively.
Honda's technical areas for improvements and goals therein are:
Specific developmental goals
Compliance with 1.0 g/mi NOx STD	o 0.7 g/mi
(including '80 CARB STD)
12-459

-------
Compliance with 2.0 g/test evapo-
rative emission standard
('80 CARB standard)
o 0.5 g/test
o no adverse effect on
driveability
Reduction or design improvement
of adjustable portions
o carburetor design
o ignition system
o auxiliary emission
control devices
Fuel economy improvement
o at least to compensate for
fuel economy loss due to
the more stringent emission
standards
In order to further improve fuel economy while achieving lower emis-
sions, introduction of a catalytic converter and/or EGR system is con-
templated by Honda as one of several control systems designed to take
advantage of the CVCC combustion characteristics.
Honda is also concerned about the regulatory changes in vehicle inertia
weight increments, short cycle testing, and reliable emission control
systems performance of in-use vehicles.
Honda reported that although the final decision has not been made yet,
marketing of the 1.2L engine will probably be discontinued.
Combustion Studies
With respect to Honda's research and developmental efforts, they are
investigating the CVCC combustion concept in two distinct areas:
1) CVCC combustion studies aimed at low NOx and HC plus low
specific fuel consumption characteristics - With this concept the
present CVCC configuration of the CVCC combustion chamber plus
improved exhaust manifold (thermal reactor) will be maintained. An
EGR system may be incorporated.
12-460

-------
2) CVCC combustion studies aimed at low NOx plus low specific fuel
consumption - Aftertreatment and systems such as catalytic conver-
ters are to be used. An EGR system may be incorporated as a driver-
ability and fuel economy improver. Honda is experimenting with
backpressure EGR.
The vehicles used for the developmental program are either 1.5L, 1.6L,
or 1.8L CVCC engines with port liners, thermal reactors, and no EGR.
With respect to these combustion studies, Honda is working on three
different combustion chamber configurations beyond the current pro-
duction configuration. The current (1977) CVCC combustion chamber
design is shown in Figure Honda-1. Two of the research combustion
chambers investigated are shown in Figures Honda-2 and Honda-3. An
additional type of combustion chamber (labeled Type 3 by Honda) was also
investigated. The details of this chamber are not available until Honda
receives a patent on this configuration.
Also in these studies, Honda noted that one of the combustion chamber
configurations (Type 3), while lowering NOx and improving fuel economy,
unfortunately increases HC output. Therefore, Honda investigated im-
proved exhaust manifolding and exhaust port liners.
Honda also studied the effects of adding a catalyst to the CVCC system
for 1980 and post-1980 model years. The catalyst chosen for investi-
gation was a 3.66 inch diameter by 5 inch long oxidation catalyst with a
Pt/Pd ratio of 2:1, 50 g/cu ft. loading on a 300 cell/sq. in. monolithic
substrate. The catalyst will be mounted under the vehicle's floor.
Honda reported screening, engine bench, and vehicle tests associated
with the evaluation of potential oxidation catalysts. Of note was the
fact that Honda accumulates 100,000 kilometers on a chassis dynamometer to
12-461

-------
			Current Design (197Q n,^-. w.
* Honda SR, p.
12-462

-------
Figure Honda-2
CVCC Combustion Chamber Configuration*
Type 1
* Honda SR, p. 80-12
12-463

-------
	The auxiliary chamber is shifted toward the
cylinder bore center.
	Multiple torch openings are provided.
Figure Honda-3
CVCC Combustion Chamber Configuration*
Type 2 ( S up er io rpar_ticyjarly in lean A/F zone)
* Honda SR, p. 80-13
12-464

-------
evaluate potential catalyst candidates. Unfortunately, Honda provided
no emission results of any extended durability testing.
A schematic of the complete experimental system can be found in Figure
Honda-4.
The test program status and results reported by Honda indicated the
final decision for 1980 model year systems will be made within a few
months and will be one of the following list of candidate systems.
Table Honda-10
Honda's Candidate System for the 1980 and
Subsequent Model Years
1.	Present CVCC system with modification (or with Type 1 combustion
chamber design).
2.	Type 2 combustion chamber plus improved exhaust manifold.
3.	System 2 above plus EGR.
4.	Type 2 combustion chamber plus oxidation catalyst.
5.	System 4 above plus EGR.
6.	Type 3 combustion chamber plus improved exhaust manifold.
7.	System 6 above plus EGR.
8.	Type 3 combustion chamber plus oxidation catalyst.
9.	System 8 above plus EGR.
Honda noted that remarkable improvements of oxidation catalysts in their
durability and reliability have enabled Honda to consider their use with
the CVCC system. Various merits in the engine system durability asso-
ciated with the use of unleaded gasoline could also be expected, accord-
ing to Honda. Honda also noted an EGR system may be adopted for improve-
ment in driveability.
12-465

-------
KJ
I
-
CT\
OS
/MPOt/<>
Com&US T/OkJ
ch^mqbr
C^KBufZe-rot?
8r*cK
p^essuea
seusotz
ECrZ
COhJTiiOU
\ZAL VE
cnrALyr/c.
* Honda SR, p. 80-24
Figure Honda-4*
Experimental Emission Control System
(CVCC engine)

-------
Data from this test program were supplied by Honda and are shown in
Figures Honda-5 and Honda-6.
The Type 1 combustion chamber is superior in HC-ISFC characteristics.
It is also better in NOx-ISFC characteristics than the current CVCC
design in the lean A/F zone.
The Type 3 chamber excels in NOx-ISFC characteristics. However, its HC
characteristics are similar to those of the current production combus-
tion chamber, according to Honda. The Type 2 design shows improved NOx
and HC characteristics as compared to the current production CVCC engine.
Honda reported that of these combustion chamber designs, Types 2 and 3
are contemplated to be incorporated in the CVCC system for the 1980 and
subsequent model years in combination with either an improved exhaust
manifold or a catalytic converter.
Honda reported catalyst test data which show the effects of various
catalyst parameters. These data are shown in Figures Honda-7 through
Honda-11. Note that as shown in Figure Honda-7, Honda reported sub-
stantial degradation of the oxidation catalyst efficiency was present
where test fuel with MMT of 0.125 g/gal was used, and that the effi-
ciency was determined on the Japanese 10-Mode cycle.
The graphs in Figure Honda-12 show the effect of EGR on CVCC engine's
emissions and fuel efficiency characteristics in comparison with those
of a conventional engine. It appears that the CVCC engine performs
better with EGR than the conventional engine. Other investigators*
*Parametric Studies of Performance and NOx Emissions of the Three-Valve
Stratified Charge Engine Using a Cycle Simulation, John C. Wall, John B.
Heywood, and William A. Woods, SAE Paper 780320, March 1978.
12-467

-------
30
1 25
I
Co
I
20
x
^ /-5
J-0
0>5
CURRENT CM2C
test condition;
40 km/Hr road load
x-
L L
160 ISO 200 220 240 260
ISFC (SVPsi-Hr)
Figure Honda-5*
NOx vs. SFC Characteristics by
Auxiliary' Combustion Chamber Configurations
* Honda SR, p. 80-26
12-468

-------
-/-Sr CCfidif jcr) j
40 Rozd Lczd
4
V
\ Ar
*1
TYPES
CURRENT CVCC
Type 1 /
-x- -
I L
160 l$0 200 220 240 260
ISPC C3r/Psi H>)
Figure Honda-6*
HC vs. SFC Characteristics by
Auxiliary Combustion Chamber Configurations
* Honda SR, p. 80-27
12-469

-------
%
100-
HC
Csnv-
Efficiency
90
SO-
MitrejM- (X.ccu-mu.1 fl.fr aw. : // Lap mode or e^uifAlti'C
tlf/o'c" y 4>vo.luafien : U-niLn. v/ayJanese /O nxoJjL.
T*aX.	'	Content 0,002. -	9/ya.
9 c&rfti~iC ccttr 0.000/ !)/va
Ca&J&jU  P*/pi  2// , SoVft*. mono&itic..
	-0 gj.ff*
re&i)
(CK<* 4
yo)
Ion Chttf.t 4yno)

70
/O0r
A, MA,T
CO
Cony-
EffitiaflC/
90
80
70
VlTHtftff

u.
o
2. 3 4- ** 6 ? 8
Accumulated PiitujCe (Km)
Figure Honda-7*
Oxdation_Catalyst Durability
O?0 *
JO
x 10
* Honda SR, p. 80-29
12-470

-------
t \
12^-
P^p./  /VC Cciov'e^r/t efficiency
2SV'V
(ft/Pi
50
- ft %)
5s
/oo
>f *8 )
3 /<5C>
11
 u
2
c
0

-------
HC 90 % CjonYtA+un.
3oo-
2 00-
o,S
AO	AS	2.0
fJoih	LoaJoO )

P80qC x 21/fr-
85
0.5
/.O	AS"	2-0
Note* MefaJl LcatLU^. C^/-t)
Figure Honda-9*
Metal Loading - Conversion Efficiency
* Honda SR, P. 80-31
12-472

-------
Y>
(00
HC
CorVer3irt
-?iCi e*ty
90r
SO 
7o *
80
CeCtftly^ Tfrgmxt A^a-
a?aX*xt ' Hone-L^Ut &*/. CAf,
Pf/P-i * 2/1 , SO r/f*J
Tjc	 ft, o.co2-o,eo'yi-^>aJe
TVirmoi
goo *c

iali Sg
-------
HC CP*) V. &f'c/ey
(%)ICG~ 	
SO -
10
HC cony- &?.0Q
Qfcmoda>/00~
?Q-
80
to
Spxci yjtiutn Etfc'cucv
9%0C *24- Hr Hjed.
aX 4caQc
N
\
N
\

/5"
20
2S	3o	3S
Speiejz. VoJtoc*lt*j
S,0*u	 HC cm
-------
f?rr vehicle ; / 2 Jh'tzr ccnvenficHaf engine I ^/f /4-~
L*/r l&
C'/CC engine
(type JL )
(V? I4--5
/6
i	i
l	L
o	c-
6f 2 Ti'c? 0^ 4-0 ^"/ht- teio.d load

h umbers *Ji?iTre*j /a/ &*aphs wend	Aafe ( e/o)
i
3:
i /

U"
v
i.
fj
U
"V
C
1
1

\
/5
"i-X.
' v ^\5
' '5
0
&	_
/S ' ~I0 5
y i
!
(J \

0 0 !
i
I
2/0 -




200
<


(9o
o*

s> 

k
(80

-------
report that the use of EGR indeed can reduce NOx levels and lower fuel
consumption. Concern, however, stems from the fact that the use of EGR
also increases HC emissions and lowers exhaust temperature. Consequently,
the engineering tradeoffs between HC and lower exhaust temperatures
versus lower BSNOx/BSFC must be considered.
The following table gives representative results from Honda's experimental
1980 and 1981 emission control systems.
Table Honda-11
Typical Emissions of Experimental 1980, 1981 Honda Systems
Experimental system* J?	A	15	C_	I)	E_	_F
FTP Results (g/mi)
HC	0.28 0.21 0.14 0.27 0.22 0.17 0.17
CO	4.20 4.00 1.14 4.08 3.75 0.61 0.65
NOx	1.29 '1.71 1.30 0.75 0.75 0.76 0.52
Fuel Economy (mpg)
MPG	33.5 30.9 34.5 29.2 29.2 34.9 33.1
MPG"	41.5 43.0 49.0 39.3 43.0 47.8 46.2
MPG	36.7 35.4 39.8 33.0 34.1 39.7 37.9
c
*Honda claimed confidentiality for. system description, inertia weights,
transmissions, use of catalysts, and vehicle driveability.
Honda stated they expected to achieve the 2.0 g/test evaporative emis-
sions standard in 1980 without adverse effects on exhaust emission and
driveability. They plan to achieve this by increasing the fuel tank
pressure setting from 30 to 70 mm Hg, decreasing maximum fuel tempera-
ture in the carburetor bowl during hot soak period by 10 to 15C, and
reducing vehicle background emission levels through improvements of
vehicle body undercoat, etc. The present 1978 production Honda CVCC
vehicles have evaporative emissions in the range from 0.3-1.0 gram for
diurnal emissions and 0.7-1.7 grams from hot soak emissions for a total
of 1.0 to 2.5 grams total evaporative emissions. The effect of raising
12-476

-------
the fuel tank pressure was to reduce evaporative emissions from 0.7 to
0.3 grams or a benefit of 0.4 grams total. Honda expects a 0.2 gram
benefit for sealing the hot air valve (heat stove) in an intake system,
0.3 grams from sealing the air cleaner case, and 0.1 gram from the
carburetor jet configuration and location.
Honda's work on high altitude, reduced in-service adjustability, drive-
ability, and reduced maintenance can be found in Sections 9, 6, and 10,
respectively.
Concerning the fuel economy projection for 1980 and beyond, Honda noted
the incorporation of EGR on the CVCC system is expected to enable them
to raise the compression ratio and advance the spark timing resulting in
fuel economy improvements. Their basic research (different combustion
chambers) has also produced fuel economy benefits.
Honda also is experimenting with a lock-up device on their two speed
automatic transmission and on a new three speed automatic transmission.
Honda provided no other details on the three speed transmission, but
they included the following data on the lock-up two speed transmission.
Table Honda-12*
Fuel Economy Improvement of A2 with Lock-up Device
(Test Vehicle: 1.5 litre conventional-engine)
rv_j . 	, FE of A2 w/ lock-up ,. , nna,
Driving Pattern	( o ^ w/o lock.;,, -D * 100%
LA-4
4.8
Highway
7.7
60 km/h cruise
6.0
80 km/h cruise
7.0
100 km/h cruise
7.5
*Honda SR, p. 80-54

12-477

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Honda mentioned that the following cost increase is expected for the
1980 and subsequent model systems.
CI). For the modification of combustion chamber configuration
(Types 1 to 31, change of hardware cost is very small (less
than half a dollar)..
(21 For the improved manifold, cost increase is also minimal (less
than half a dollar).
(31 The electronic ignition system: approximately $7 increase.
(4) EGR system: approximately $20.
(5) Catalyst system cost: less than $80 for a catalyst itself,
plus under-floor heat insulator, catalyst temperature sensor,
and over-temperature indicator.
12.2.7.3. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO. 0.41 NOx
At these emission levels, Honda reported that their objectives are:
o no penalties upon vehicle performance in comparison with the
1979 model year counterpart, and if possible, superiority over
the 1979 year models.
o no substantial cost penalty in comparison with the 1979
model.
12-478

-------
o system configurations flexible enough for part or all of them
to be usable to meet such various requirements as different
vehicle configurations and different emission standards (i.e.,
U.S. and Japanese Standards).
With the above-mentioned targets in mind, three systems, called, 0.41
NOx A, 0.41 NOx B, and 0.41 NOx C systems have been studied in parallel.
Honda provided the following descriptions of these systems:
0.41 NOx A system (Improved CVCC system)
The current CVCC system configuration is to be maintained. Improvements
in the combustion chamber design for low NOx - low SFC characteristics
inherent to the CVCC engine as well as in the exhaust system design for
more effective oxidation are sought.
0.41 NOx B system (Improved CVCC + oxidation catalyst + EGR)
All efforts are directed to obtain best possible NOx - SFC character-
istics through modifications of the CVCC combustion chamber configura-
tions and optimization of an EGR system.
An oxidation catalyst is used to reduce HC and CO in the exhaust system.
0.41 NOx C system (Three-way catalyst system)
An adaptation of 3-way catalyst to the CVCC engine as well as conven-
tional engines is being studied.
12-479

-------
Honda feels that if the durability and reliability of 3-way catalyst
system are such that EGR is still needed for the system to reduce NOx,
the CVCC engine plus 3-way catalyst system will be more advantageous
than the conventional engine - because of CVCC engine's superiority in
the NOx - SFC characteristics with or without EGR.
Vehicle descriptions provided by Honda indicated that the 0.41 NOx C
system was a conventional 1.5L engine with wedge shaped combustion
chambers (non-CVCC system) and equipped with a feedback carburetor, no
EGR, no AIR, and a 3-way catalyst (Pt/Rh = 19/1, 50 g/cu ft., 1.5 g
total loading). Data from these experimental systems are shown in Table
Honda-13. Honda reports the driveability of these vehicles is not yet
satisfactory. No data were reported for vehicles using both the CVCC
concept and 3-way catalysts.
12.2.7.4. Other Developmental Efforts
Alternate Engines
Honda has not pursued the gas turbine engine research they once studied,
but they did report data on their Diesel engine research. Work on two
cycle Diesel engines has also been suspended. The results reported by
Honda are shown in Figure Honda-13. The engine description is given in
the legend on the aforementioned figure. The engine was equipped with
glow plugs.
In response to a specific question from EPA, Honda provided a descrip-
tion of Honda's 1978 models for sale in Japan, 1975 FTP and 10-mode
emission results from various CVCC vehicles, and Honda's Japanese models
and their typical emissions levels.
12-480

-------
Emission Data
Table Honda-13*
from Experimental 0.4 NOx Systems
Experimental system
Combustion Current
Type
Type I
Type II
Type III
Ex. Manifold
Current
Improved
EGR
Catalyst
Transmisstion Type
Shift procs.
Inertia weight
Exhaust emissions
(g/mile)
CO
HC
NOx
Fuel economy (mile/gal)
City
Hwy
Comb
0.4lNQx System
(Production)	B	B	C
'78 Cal.
Yes
Conventional
Yes	engine
Yes	Yes	* Conventional
NA	NA	Yes	NA
NA	Oxidation	Oxidation three-way
(fresh)	(fresh)	(fresh)
M5	M5	M5	M5
'78 procs.	'78 procs.	*
2000	2000	-
4.20	0.26	0.59	3.3
1.28	'	0.19	0.39	0.35
1.29	0.40	0.34	0.35
33.5	29.2	30.6	36.3
41.5	41.4	41.5	44.0
36.7	33.7	34.7	39.4
-Vehicle data of 0.4 NOx A system are not available at present.
*Honda SR, p. 0.4-9
12-481

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-------
Honda markets the following models In Japan:
o 1.6L Accord CVCC
o 1.5L Civic CVCC
o 1.2L Civic CVCC
o 1.5L Civic Van
o 0.55L Small Truck
The combustion chamber configuration of the Japanese vehicles is a Type
1 configuration previously described. The major specifications and
emission results are found in Table Honda-14 and comparable Japanese and
FTP results are found in Table Honda-15.
12.2.7.5.	Durability Data
Honda again provided no durability data on their proposed emission
control systems. The durability data found in Table Honda-3 indicate
the durability levels from the present Honda vehicles. Based on pre-
vious Honda certification, the CVCC system is expected to have no dura-
bility problem at any of the emission levels legislated or at the 0.41
NOx levels, but Honda may have to consider the effects of catalyst dura-
bility for future systems.
12.2.7.6.	Problems and Progress
Honda exhibits continued success in achieving not only low exhaust
emission levels but also excellent fuel economy. Once system deter-
minations are made, Honda should have good potential for achieving all
regulated emissions levels during the 1981 model year with little or no
loss in fuel economy in the interim.
Honda has yet to demonstrate 2 g/test evaporative emission levels, but
their present research, approach indicates they may be able to achieve
that level by model year 1980.
12-483

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Table Honda-14*
Honda's Japanese Models and Their Typical Emission Data
CAs of Jan. 19781
Model
Engine Displacement (cc)
No. of cylinders
Bore x Stroke (inm)
Compression Ratio
Emission Control System
Complied Emission Std
Transmission
Car Line
Vehicle Curve Weight (kg)
Inertia Weight Class (kg)
Accord
CVCC
1599
4
74 x 93
8.0
CVCC/TR
1977 std.
Civic
CVCC
1500
1488
4
74 x 86.5
7.9
CVCC/TR
1977 std.
Civic
CVCC
1200
1238
4
72 x 76
7.9
CVCC/TR
1977 std.
M5, M4, SA2 M5, M4, SA2 M5, M4, SA2
Hatchback
Sedan
840-945
1000
Emission Data under 10-mode (average)
CO
HC
NOx
(g/km)
(g/km)
(g/km)
1.83
0.08
0.45
No. of tests	57
Emission Data under 11-mode (average)
CO (g/test)
HC (g/test)
NOx (g/test)
No. of tests
32.38
4.09
3.05
20
Sedan
745-795
875
1.91
0.13
0.23
12
45.63
4.96
2.06
12
Sedan
670-730
750, 875
1.95
0.09
0.45
29
38.90
4.21
3.11
15
*Honda SR, p. Add-3 (revised).
12-484

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Table Honda-15*
1975 FTP and 10-Mode Emissions From Various CVCC Vehicles
Emissions Under	1975 FTP Emissions Under 10 Mode
HC CO	NOx HC CO	NOx
Xfi/mil (8/nl)	(g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi)
U.S. Models
1.5L 2000 lbflW
A
0.62
4.36
1.66
0.39
2.00
0.59
B
0.54
5.16
1.69
0.20
2.10
0.65
C
1.20
4.44
1.60
0.80
2.30
0.79
D
0.75
4.74
1.76
0.45
1.73
0.78
E
0.35
3.15
1.49
0.31
2.13
0.63
F
0.28
3.53
1.30
0.16
2.08
0.46
G
0.28
3.49
1.30
0.08
2.25
0.45
H
0.29
3.00
1.30
0.25
2.10
0.47
I
0.29
4.08
1.29
0.28
2.30
0.47
1.6L 2250 lb IW
A	1.26	4.94	1.66	U.72	2.39	0.63
B	0.30	2.77	1.20	0.30	2.21	0.59
C	0.24	4.09	1.18	0.13	1.85	0.57
D	0.22	3.66	1.18	0.14	2.11	0.77
Jpn. Models
1.5L 875 kg IW
A	0.44 5.47 1.82 0.14 1.64 0.54
B	0.26 1.28 1.05 0.02 1.24 0.23
*Honda SR, p. Add-4.
12-485

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Honda continues to exhibit concern about their vehicle driveability, but
none of the work reported would indicate that driveability of future
emission control systems would be compromised to the extent of unaccept-
ability. Honda may incorporate EGR to assist in obtaining fuel economy
and driveability benefits.
At levels of Q.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx, Honda has reported work not only
with oxidation catalysts but also conventional engines with a feedback
carburetor and 3-way catalyst. Zero mile data indicate Honda may be
able to achieve these levels on their CVCC type engine with a fuel
economy penalty of 5.4%, but also can meet these levels with the con-
ventional engine with a 3-way catalyst with a fuel economy benefit of
7.4% on the combined cycle fuel economy figures.
It should be noted these data are very preliminary, and future fuel
economy improvements with the CVCC system could be expected because of
Honda's past aggressive engineering on the CVCC system.
12-486

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12.2.8. Isuzu
12.2.81. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
The emission control systems of the Isuzu 1.8L engine for 1979 will
essentially be carry over from model year 1978. These Federal systems
are AIR/EGR and AIR/EGR/OC respectively. The EGR system is ported, the
distributor uses breaker points, and the AIR system uses a small pump.
The evaporative system uses crankcase storage. The catalyst is a 160 cu
in. pellet from AC which is modified to include an overtemperature
sensor as shown in Figure Isuzu-1. The air pump output is dumped if the
overtemperature condition occurs.
Several devices are being added for improving highway fuel economy,
according to Isuzu. These devices include a carburetor air/fuel ratio
shift device, an EGR over-ride device, and a dual advance ignition
system.
The air/fuel ratio shift device is shown in Figure Isuzu-2. The high
speed enleanment is accomplished by dumping the air pump output into the
intake manifold. The EGR over-ride control schedule is shown in Table
Isuzu-1. The effect on NOx emissions due to these modulations of the
emission control system was not reported.
Low mileage test results of 1979 prototypes are shown in Table Isuzu-2.
Most notable in this table are the data using the oxidation catalyst.
Exhaust emissions of HC and CO and fuel economy were all improved.
12-487

-------
CATALYTIC CONVERTER (PC)
CATALYST CASE
FILL PLUG
INSULATION (CERAiMIC FIBER)
Figure Isuzu-1*
Pelleted Oxidation Catalyst With Overtemperature Sensor
*Isuzu's Development Status and Progress Report Toward Meeting the 1979, 1980,
and 1981 Model Year Vehicle Emission Standards, Jan 15, 1978, Isuzu Motors Limited
(hereafter referred to as Isuzu SR in this report), attached sheet number 20.
12-488

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VACUUM	PRESSURE AIR
(From intake manifold) (From air pump)
AIR DISCHARGE
(To intake manifold)
Figure Isuzu-2*
Air-Fuel Ratio Shift Device
*Isuzu SR, attached sheet number 18.

-------
Operation
Table Isuzu-1
of the EGR Over-ride
Device
Coolant


emp e ra tur e
Below specified
Above specified
Car"^^^^
temperature
temperature
speed


Below specified
speed
Above specified
speed
Not operational
Not operational
Operational
Not operational
*Isuzu SR, attached sheet number 15.
12-490

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Table Isuzu-2*
Emissions and Fuel Economy of 1979 Model Year
Prototype Vehicles
Emission
VIN
Control
System
Trans
Axle
N/V
HC
g/mi
CO
NOx
MPG
u
MPG,
n
MPG
c
1
AIR/EGR
M5
3.154
49.0
1.16
13.0
1.73
27.1
41.8
32.2
2
II
M5
3.308
51.3
0.96
11.5
1.59
26.5
40.7
31.4
3
II
M4
3.154
49.0
1.03
11.7
1.74
26.3
39.2
30.9
4
II
M4
3.308
51.3
0.95
10.7
1.60
25.9
37.6
30.1
5
II
A3
3.308
51.3
1.04
12.2
1.69
24.2
31.3
27.0
6
AIR/EGR/OC
M5
3.154
49.0
0.34
2.89
1.70
28.1
44.5
33.7
vo
i*
NOTE:	1.	Road Load Horsepower; 7.4 HP
2.	Transmission Gear Shift Procedure; Isuzu Recommended Method
3.	Inertia Weight; 2,500 lbs.
*Isuzu
SR, attached sheet number 22.

-------
Isuzu stated that additional fuel economy improvements would be achieved
by: 1). use of a catalyst, 2) using the optional coast down procedure,
and 3) changes in gear shift procedures. Unfortunately, only one of
these three methods may result in a real fuel economy benefit for the
purchaser of the vehicle.
The data shown in Table Isuzu-3 were compiled by the EPA technical staff
to provide a comparison in fuel economy between the 1978 Federal certi-
fication vehicles from Isuzu and their 1979 prototypes shown in Table
Isuzu-2. The data from the first two vehicles in Table Isuzu-3 are
comparable to vehicle 2 in Table Isuzu-2 and would indicate a fuel
economy improvement of 6 to 16% for the 1979 model year prototypes as
compared to the 1978 certification vehicles. The third vehicle in Table
Isuzu-3 is most comparable to vehicle 4 in Table Isuzu-2 (note differ-
ences in axle and N/V in particular). These data would indicate a 10 to
11% improvement in fuel economy for the 1979 prototype. The other
vehicles in the second table could not be matched closely to 1978 cer-
tification vehicles and no comparisons could be made.
Table Isuzu-3*
Fuel Economy of Comparable 1978 Federal
Certification Data Vehicles
VIN
IW
Engine
Trans
Axle
N/V
Dyno
HP
MPG
u
MPG,
n
MPG
c
4Y69B78402195
2500
1.8L
M5
3.31
51.3
9.4
25.1
38.3
29.7
4T77B78700527
2500
1.8L
M5
3.31
51.3
9.4
22.8
34.9
27.0
4Y69B78404564
2500
1.8L
M4
3.58
55.6
9.4
23.5
33.1-34.1
27.1-27
*1978 EPA Certification Data
12-492

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12.2.8.2. Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
The basic system to be used by Isuzu in 1980 is AIR/EGR/OC. The EGR
system will be upgraded from ported to backpressure EGR, and the igni-
tion system will be improved from a breaker point system to a high
energy, breakerless system. Many other vehicle manufacturers have
already incorporated these improvements. Additionally, the combustion
chamber and intake ports will be modified as shown in Figure Isuzu-3.
Isuzu stated that these modifications will provide rapid combustion of
lean mixtures and reduced octane requirement which in turn may permit an
increase in compression ratio from 8.5 up to 9.0.
Test results from 1980 prototype vehicles are shown in Table Isuzu-4.
Based on the NOx levels achieved by these vehicles, Isuzu may be targeting
these vehicles to be used in California as well as Federally.
Table Isuzu-4*
1975 FTP Test Results of 1980 Prototypes
IW
Engine
Trans
Axle
N/V
Dyno
HP
Emission
Control System
HC
g/mi-
CO
NOx
MPG
u
2500
1.8L**
M4
3.308
51.3
7.4
AIR/EGR/OC
0.31
3.01
1.07
23.8
2500
1.8L**
M5
3.308
51.3
7.4
AIR/EGR/OC
0.29
2.26
1.17
24.8
2500
1.8L**
A3
3.308
51.3
7.4
AIR/EGR/OC
0.36
3.32
0.93
23.3
*Isuzu SR, p. 12
**Not stated specifically by Isuzu, but 1.8L engine is the only one now
sold in the U.S.
Isuzu mentioned that the deterioration factors were 2.287 for HC, 3.033
for CO, and 1.000 for NOx (which are carry-over from the 1976 model
year), and it was not clear to the EPA technical staff if the results
shown in Table Isuzu-4 include the deterioration factor or not.
12-493

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MODIFIED
SWIRL
INTENCIFIEU
INLET PORT
SPARK PLUi
Figure Isuzu-3*
Modifications to the Combustion Chamber and Intake Ports of the Isuzu 1.8L Engine
*Isuzu SR, attached sheet number 26.
12-494

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The fuel economy goal of Isuzu is a 10% improvement for the 1980 model
year. In addition to the modifications previously discussed, Isuzu is
working on valve timing modifications to improve fuel economy at low
engine speeds and friction reductions in the engine and engine acces-
sories. The primary effort is in the investigation of lower friction
materials for rings and bearings.
The fuel economy data from the most comparable 1978 Federal certifica-
tion vehicles were previously shown in Table Isuzu-3. The 1980 proto-
type with the M5 transmission has urban fuel economy within the range
achieved by the 1978 certification vehicles (24.8 MPG versus 22.8 to
u
25.1 MPGu). The 1980 prototype with the M4 transmission has virtually
equivalent fuel economy to the 1978 Federal vehicle (23.8 MPG^ versus
23.5 MPG^). Again, axle ratios and N/V ratios were not exactly the same
between the latter two vehicles which were compared.
12.2.8.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year
Again Isuzu will utilize AIR/EGR/OC systems to achieve the emission
standards of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx. The EGR rate will be increased,
improved oxidation catalysts will be used, and a secondary air flow
control system will be incorporated. Isuzu did not discuss the AIR
control system in detail.
Data were reported for a single vehicle using an AIR/EGR/OC system which
was targeted toward 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx. The test results of this
vehicle are shown in Table Isuzu-5. Additionally, a vehicle using an
AIR/EGR/TR emission control system was operated near this emission
level. These results are also shown in Table Isuzu-5.
HC and CO control appear marginal with both vehicles for achieving the
target emission standards at high mileage.
12-495

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Table Isuzu-5*
Developmental Vehicles Targeted toward the 1981 Federal Emission Standards
2500
2500
Engine
Trans
N/V
Dyno
HP
Emission
Control System
HC
g/mi
CO
NOx
MPG
u
MPG,
n
MPG
c
1.8L**
M5
49.0
7.4
AIR/EGR/0C
0.32
2.89
0.96
31.9
48.2
37.6





0.35
3.00
0.80
30.4
45.7
35.8
1.8L
M4
55.0
9.4
AIR/EGR/TR
0.38
3.04
1.11
24.2
33.5
27.7
M
I
-P-
vO
CTN
*Isuzu SR, p. 22 and 27.
**assumed to be 1.8L engine.

-------
The fuel economy of the vehicle using the M4 transmission in Table
Isuzu-5 can be compared to vehicle number 4Y69B78404564 in Table Isuzu-
3. The combined fuel economies of the two vehicles are nearly identical
(27.7 MPGc for the prototype vehicle using the thermal reactor versus
27.1 to 27.3 MPGc for the 1978 vehicle). Comparison of the fuel economy
of the respective vehicles using M5 transmissions suggests a big 20 to
39 percent improvement with the 1981 prototype using oxidation catalysts.
Since Isuzu did not verify the 1.8L displacement of the engines of the
vehicles in question in Table Isuzu-5, this may indicate a new engine
from Isuzu.
12.2.8.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
'A single developmental vehicle was targeted toward this emission level
by Isuzu. The vehicle used an AIR/EGR/TR emission control system. The
emission and fuel economy results shown in Table Isuzu-6 suggest that
the reactor is functioning as a rich thermal reactor. HC control is
excellent.
Table Isuzu-6*
Low Mileage Results of Thermal Reactor Vehicle Targeted for 0.41-NQx
Dyno 	g/mi	
IW (lb.) Engine Trans N/V	HP HC CO NOx MPGu
2750 1.8L	M4	55.0 11.5 0.08 2.74 0.56 19.2
*Isuzu SR, p. 27.
12.2.8.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Stratified Charge Engine
Isuzu reported the data shown in Table Isuzu-7.
with a 1.8L stratified charge engine with an 8.2
The vehicle was equipped
compression ratio. No
12-497

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other details of the engine were provided except that it was equipped
with a thermal reactor. The two test points represent calibrations for
0.41 and 1.0 NOx respectively.
Table Isuzu- 7*
Isuzu Testing of a Vehicle with a Stratified Charge Engine
Dyno 	g/mi	
IW(lb.)Engine Trans N/V HP HC CO NOx MPG^ MPGh MPGc
2500 1.8L M4 55.0 9.4 0.29 2.89 0.58 19.1 28.0 22.3
0.37 3.13 0.89 24.9 35.7 28.8
*Isuzu SR, p. 26.
MPGc is slightly improved at the 1.0 NOx calibration compared to the
comparable 1978 vehicle in Table Isuzu-3.
Emission Control Systems to Achieve 1978 Japanese Emission Standards
The emission control system used by Isuzu to achieve the 10-mode exhaust
emission standards of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.4 NOx in Japan is much like the
system discussed for use in the United States in 1980 except that the
air injection system is replaced by an aspirator (reed valve) system.
A single vehicle using an PAIR/EGR/OC system was tested on both the 1975
FTP and 10-mode procedures. The results are shown in Table Isuzu-8.
It was not stated specifically by Isuzu, but it is assumed that the
vehicle had a 1.8L engine.
With the exception of CO, exhaust emissions remained well controlled on
the FTP. MPG is about the same as the Federal vehicle shown in Table
c
Isuzu-3 even though the axle ratio of the Japanese version is numerically
higher.
12-498

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Table Isuzu-8*
Testing of a Vehicle Designed to Meet the 1978 Exhaust Emission Standards In Japan
	1975 ftp			10-Mode-
Trans Axle IW Dyno HP HC CO NOx MPC MPG, MPG IW HC CO W)x Fuel Economy
(lb.)		g7mi	 		 	 			(kg) 	(g/km)	 (km/L)
M4	3.909 2500	7.4	0.27 9.85 0.64 24.4 33.5 27.8	1000 0.07 0.00 0.23	9.4
*Isuzu SR, p. 33.

-------
Diesel Engines
Isuzu manufacturers both a passenger car and a pick-up truck with a
swirl chamber Diesel engine for the Japanese market. They are currently
investigating the possiblity of exporting the truck to the U.S., but do
not now plan to export the passenger car to this country.
Emission data from both types of vehicles are shown in Table Isuzu-9.
Table Isuzu-9*
Isuzu Testing of Diesel Powered Vehicles
Vehicle	Dyno 	g/mi	
Type
IWflb) Engine

Axle
HP
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG
MPG
LDV
2750
1.95L,
14
3.727
9.9
0.78
1.26
1.72
u
32.8
36.6
34.4
LDT
3000
1.95L,
14
4.100
10.4
0.42
1.53
1.22
31.1
40.3
34.7
*Isuzu SR, p. 34-35.
It is interesting to note that the LDT package with a higher IW, a
higher axle ratio, and increased dyno HP had lower HC and NOx emissions
and better composite fuel economy than the LDV package.
Control of HC emissions to the 0.41 standard was said to be the biggest
problem for Isuzu. A program has begun to reduce HC emissions and
includes investigations of:
o	injection timing
o	damping valves in the injection lines
o	modifications of the combustion chamber
o	increased compression ratio
o	improved oil sealing at the exhaust valve stem.
HC levels were reportedly reduced 15% by combustion chamber modifica-
tions without increasing NOx and were reduced 5% with the use of damping
12-500

-------
valves. Also, HC emissions were said to be improved at light load with
higher compression ratios, but at the expense of fuel economy and smoke.
A load plunger has been developed which advances injection timing only
k at light load for HC control, but production feasibility has not been
established for the device. Functional details of the plunger were not
provided by Isuzu.
No substantial results have yet been obtained with improved valve stem
sealing. EGR is being developed for NOx control of the Diesel engine to
the 1.0 NOx level. No data were reported using the EGR system.
Fuel economy improvements for the Diesel LDT are now being investigated.
The parameters under study include injection timing, axle ratio, shift
schedule, and engine cooling (apparently the fan drive mechanism).
Isuzu did not discuss the transmissions used in the vehicles of Table
Isuzu-9, but the fuel economy of 1978 light-duty trucks from Federal
certification are shown in Table Isuzu-10. Based on these data, the
Diesel trucks are achieving 22 to 39 percent better fuel economy than
their spark-ignited counterparts in 1978 certification.
Table Isuzu-10
Fuel Economy Data Generated by Isuzu
Trucks in 1978 Federal Certification
VIN
CLN1468224564
CLN1468224566
CLN1468224563
CLN1468224565
IWqb) Engine Trans Axle
2750
2750
3000
3000
1.8L
1.8L
1.8L
1.8L
A3
M4
A3
M4
4.10
4.10
4.10
4.10

Dyno



N/V
HP
MPG
MPG,
MPG

u
h
c
55.6
9.9
23.8
28.9
25.9
55.6
9.9
24.5
34.5
28.2
56.1
10.3
22.8
28.4
25.0
56.1
10.3
22.7
32.1
26.1
12-501

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12.2.8.6. Durability Data
Figure Isuzu-4 shows the only durability data reported by Isuzu using a
prototype vehicle for the 1979 model year. These results appear to be
adequate for both the Federal and California emission standards in 1979.
Following the 50,000 mile test, an inspection of the vehicle revealed
cracks in the vacuum tubing to the EGR valve. Replacement of the tubing
resulted in NOx emissions similar to those at zero miles, according to
Isuzu.
A modest durabllty effort was conducted by Isuzu using a dual catalyst
system which was targeted toward 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx. The reducing
and oxidizing catalysts were aged on an engine dynamometer and tested on
a vehicle at approximately 100 hour increments. Both the reducing and
oxidizing catalyst were pelleted, and the reducing catalyst was supplied
by TDK Electronic Company, Ltd. Isuzu mentioned that the secondary air
was injected into the exhaust ports for 125 seconds, and then injected
downstream of the reducing catalyst. The air/fuel metering system was
not discussed by Isuzu. The test results are shown in Table Isuzu-11.
Isuzu stated that this was the best reducing catalyst they have ever
tested; however, it appears that changes of both catalysts at 25,000
miles would be required to achieve the target emission levels. Fuel
economy results were not reported.
A prototype Diesel vehicle was run over 30,000 miles of AHA durability.
The vehicle was not described by Isuzu, but zero mile* emissions were
0.71 HC, 1.76 CO, 1.52 NOx and 30,000 mile* emissions were 0.72 HC, 1.48
CO, 1.33 NOx.
*Isuzu SR, pg. 36.
12-502

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Figure Isuzu-4*
Durability Test of a Vehicle Using an AIR/EGR/OC Emission Control System
Vehicle: PF No. 009

-------
Table Isuzu-11*
Durability Testing of a Vehicle Using
a Dual Catalyst System
Hours of
Equivalent



Dyno Aging
Miles
HC
CO
NOx
0
0
0.27
2.95
0.19
80
4K
0.28
3.03
0.24
200
10K
0.30
3.21
0.23
300
15K
0.32
3.88
0.22
400
2 OK
0.29
2.94
0.28
500
25K
0.30
3.04
0.33
600
3 OK
0.33
3.55
0.35
700
35K
0.39
4.07
0.48
800
4 OK
0.45
5.36
0.74
900
45K
0.63
5.14 '
1.02
1000
5 OK
0.82
6.48
1.11
df

3.4
2.2
25.5
*Isuzu SR, p. 25.
12.2.8.7. Progress and Problems
Isuzu has achieved the 1981 and subsequent Federal exhaust emission
levels at low mileage with vehicles using conventional engines and
AIR/EGR/OC systems, with conventional engines and AIR/EGR/TR systems,
and with a stratified charge engine and thermal reactors. However,
durability has only been established for the conventional engine using
AIR/EGR/OC.
Emission control was excellent with the light-duty, Diesel-powered truck
from Isuzu, considering the nature of the program.
Some of the devices that Isuzu plans to use for improving highway fuel
economy may cause emissions, especially NOx emissions, to be increased,
compared to what they would have been without the devices. The parti-
cular devices are the EGR over-ride device and the air/fuel ratio shift
device, and would appear to warrant investigation with respect to their
defeat device potential.
12-504

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The introduction of breakerless HEI has been delayed by Isuzu in the
past because of their ability to certify non-catalyst vehicles. Simi-
larly, Isuzu is apparently far behind most of the industry in the
development of electronics and 3-way catalyst systems as Isuzu gave no
indication that they have studied or plan to study any electronic emis-
sion control system or 3-way catalyst system. Possibly, Isuzu does not
feel they need such advanced technology.
12-505

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12.2.9. Mitsubishi
12.2.9.1. Systems to be Used for the 1979 Model Year
Mitsubishi vehicles are marketed in the United States by Chrysler
Corporation under such names as Colt, Arrow, Sapporo and Challenger.
Engine models planned for the 1979 model year are described in Table
Mitsubishi-1.
Table Mitsubishi-1*
Mitsubishi Gasoline Engine Description for 1979 MY
Engine Model	4G1
Displacement (CID)	86
Compression Ratio	8.8:1
Ignition System Breaker-Point
Fuel Management	Carb
Emission Controls EGR+OC
4G3	4G52	4G54
97.5, 121.75 155.92
8.5:1	8.5:1	8.2:1
Breaker-Point Breakerless Breakerless
Carb	Carb	Carb
EGR+OC	EGR+OC	EGR+OC
*Mitsubishi Motors Corporation Status Report on Emission Control
Efforts to Meet 1979, 1980 and 1981 Emission Standards, pg. 5 & 7.
Hereafter referred to as Mitsubishi SR.
Engine model 4G1 will be a new addition to the Mitsubishi product line
in the United States for the 1979 MY. All engine models will incor-
porate the MCA-JET three-valve, combustion system shown in Figure
Mitsubishi-1. This combustion system includes a secondary air inlet
passage and a small secondary inlet valve to induce air swirl in the
main chamber to enhance lean operation. The system is described in
greater detail in the April 1977 EPA report entitled Automobile Emission
Control - The Development Status, Trends and Outlook as of December
1976.
12-506

-------
Figure Mitsubishi-1*
Mitsubishi's MCA-JET System
Additional air passage
^Mitsubishi SR, p. 10.
12-507

-------
Exhaust emission control systems for the 1979 MY CI.5 HC, 15 CO, 2.0
NOx) are basically the same as for the 1978 MY consisting of EGR and an
oxidation catalyst in addition to the MCA-JET system. The choke control
system will be modified slightly using the wax-type thermal element for
choke release as a function of coolant temperature. Breakerless ignition
will be used on the 4G52 and 4G54 models in the 1979 MY for the first
time. The EGR system for the 1979 MY will be simplified in comparison
with the current system and will be calibrated for fuel economy and
driveability improvements. The new EGR system is shown in Figure
Mitsubishi-2. For engine model 4G3, either pelleted or monolithic
catalysts will be used. Other engines will use the monolithic oxidation
catalysts with lg loading .for 49 states and either 1.5g (4G1 and 4G3) or
2g (4G52 and 4G54) loading for Calfornia. All three loadings are 100%
palladium. The active material is also palladium for the pelleted
catalyst and will be 0.8g for 49 states and 1.4g for California.
Cataler Company, Ltd. will supply the monolithic catalyst and NGK
Insulators, Ltd. will supply the pelleted catalysts to Mitsubishi. For
the 1979 MY, the mixture control valve is activated by intake manifold
vacuum to reduce HC emissions during vehicle deceleration by enleanment
as shown in Figure Mitsubishi-3. In addition fuel flow is cut off to
the by-pass holes and idle mixture port during deceleration by means of
a ported vacuum activated switching valve as shown in Figure Mitsubishi-
4. Low mileage FTP emissions and fuel economy data supplied by Mitsubishi
for the 1979 MY vehicles are shown on Table Mitsubishi-2.
12.2.9.2. Systems to be Used for the 1980 Model Year
For the 1980 model year emission control system (0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2.0
NOx) will include some modification of the 1979 MY control system which
has not yet been determined. Use of air injection is considered but
preliminary determinations will not be resolved until late May 1978.
Mitsubishi did not supply either emissions data nor systems descriptions
considered for the 1980 MY production in their Status Report.
12-508

-------
Figure Mitsubishi-2*
EGR System for Use on 1979 MY Vehicles
^Mitsubishi SR, p. 12, Figure 4.

-------
Figure Mitsubishi-3*
Mixture Control Valve System - Mixture Enleanment
Sprina Chamber
^Mitsubishi SR, p. 15, Figure 5
12-510

-------
Figure Mitsubishi-4*
Deceleration Fuel Cut-off System
*Mitsubishi SR, p. 16, Figure 6

-------
Table Mitsubishi-2*
Low Mileage 1979 MY FTP Emissions and Fuel Economy Results




Inertia
FTP Emissions
Fuel Economy
Emission
Standards
Engine
Trans-
mission
Axle
Ratio
Weight
Class
(gm/mile)


(mile/gal.


(CID)


(lbs)
HC
CO
NOx
City
Highv/ay
Comb.
Federal
86 .0
M- 4
3 .166
2000
0.53
3.83
1.4 3
35.3
42.3
38.1

97.5
M-4
3.909
2500
0.44
8.25
1.57
29 .4
37.9
32.7

121.7
M-5
3.909
2500
0.30
5.56
1.42
26 .1
34 .8
29 .4

155.9
M-5
3. 308
3000
0.33
7.07
1.43
23.2
33.8
27.0
California
86.0^
M-4
3.166
2000
0.26
2.27
1.20
33.9
40 .5
36.6

97.5
M-4
3.909
2500
0.27
4 .72
1.01
28.0
36.5
31.3

97.5
A-3
3.545
2500
0.22
4 .96
1.07
26.3
32.9
28 .9

121.7
M-5
3 .909
2500
0.29
3.79
0.82
24.0
34 .2
27.7

121.7
A-3
3.545
2750
0.30
3.10
1.20
22 .8
31.4
26.0

155.9
M-5
3.308
3000
0.30
5.54
0 .95
21.7
32.7
25.7

155.9
A-3
3.308
3000
0.23
2 .14
1.18
20.7
26.7
23.0
Mitsubishi SR, p. 25, Table 4

-------
12.2.9.3. Systems to be Used for the 1981 Model Year and Beyond
The candidate system for the 1981 MY (0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx) consists
of MCA-JET, EGR, air injection, and two catalytic convertors. This
system is being developed for the purpose of complying with the 1981 MY
standards and with the purpose of complying with the 0.41 NOx research
goal. As an alternate system, Mitsubishi will consider a closed loop 3-
way catalyst system with the addition of EGR. Only the former is
described in detail by Mitsubishi in their Status Report.
The MCA-JET Control system modifications are not described herein because
of confidentiality. Of the two catalysts used in the system, the one
located closest to the engine will act as a 3-way catalyst, though the
air/fuel ratio is not feedback controlled but only calibrated near stoi-
chiometry according to Mitsubishi, and the other as an oxidation cata-
lyst. Pt/Rh ratios of 1:1, 10:1, and 5:2 are currently being tested as
supplied by Nippon, Engelhard, Ltd., and UOP. These are either 0.7L or
0.9L in volume. The active material being tested for oxidation cata-
lysts is either Pd or Pt/Pd in ratios of 1:1 or 5:2. Oxidation cata-
lysts are being supplied by Nippon Shakubai, Kagaku Kogyo, Mitsui Mining
and Smelting Co., Ltd., and Cataler Co., Ltd. Catalyst volumes range
from 0.3 to 0.8L. EGR rates will be higher than those currently used in
production. Developmental work on the complete system is at an early
stage and further testing will be required to optimize the system.
Early test results are shown on Table Mitsubishi-3 and -4 for 2750 lbs.
IW vehicles with 155.9 CID engine and 3.308 axle ratios using M5 and A3
transmissions, respectively.
12.2.9.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
The emission control systems to meet 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.41 NOx will
be similar to the 1981 MY system. Table Mitsubishi-5 shows low mileage
test data for different vehicles with different drivetrains and inertia
weights.
12-513

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Table Mitsubishi-3*
Vehicle FTP Data - 1981 Candidate System with
M5 Transmission - MCA-JET, EGR, AIR, Dual Catalyst
Vehicle
No.
1
2
2
3
Note:
No. of
Tests
4
4
2
3
HC	(o)
0.17	(0.02)
0.10	(0.02)
0.09	(0.03)
0.09	(0.02)
FTP Emissions (g/mi)
NOx (a)
CO	(a)
1.95	(0.98)
1.52	(0.95)
2.33	(1.49)
2.48	(1.82)
0.64 (0.16)
0.91 (0.21)
0.67 (0.11)
0.64 (0.18)
MPGu (a)
22.9 (0.44)
23.6 (0.29)
22.8 (0.57)
23.3 (0.21)
1.	Vehicle Mileage not reported by Mitsubishi
2.	Engine CID = 155.9
3.	Axle Ratio = 3.308
4.	2750 lbs. IW
5.	A/F ratio changed to richer side in the order of Test No.
^Mitsubishi 1977 SR, Table 7.
Table Mitsubishi-4*
Vehicle FTP Data - 1981 Candidate System
with A3 Transmission
Vehicle No. of	FTP Emissions (g/mi)
No.	Tests HC (ct)	CO (a)	NOx (a)	MPGu (a)
1	3 0.10 (0.02) 1.91 (1.4) 0.44 (0.13) 19.9 (0.98)
2	3 0.14 (0.06) 1.40 (1.20) 0.70 (0.39) 19.8 (0.12)
Note: 1.	Vehicle Mileage not reported by Mitsubishi.
2.	Engine CID = 155.9
3.	Axle Ratio = 3.308
4.	2750 lbs. IW
5.	A/F ratio changed to richer side in the order of Test No.
*Mitsubishi 1977 SR, Table 8.
12-514

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Table Mitsubiahi-5*
Vehicle FTP Data - 0.41 HC. 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx Research Goal
Vehicle No. of
IW
No.
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Tests Transmission (lbs.)
Engine Axle
M5
M4
M4
H5
M5
2250
2250
CID
97.5
97.5
2750 155.9
2750 155.9
Ratio
4.222
4.222
FTP Emissions (g/mi)
HC (a) CO (o) NOx (o)
0.20
0.15
2.9
1.9
0.21
0.55
MPG (o)
u	
23.9
27
2250 97.5 4.222 0.11(0.0) 1.8(0.3) 0.32(0.04) 27.0(0.4)
3.545
3.308
0.23
0.11
2.5
1.1
0.39
0.35
16.3
21.6
Comments
MCA-JET, ECR, Single OC
MCA-JET, EGR, Single OC, AIR,
feedback controlled A/F
MCA-JET, JET Air Control, EGR,
Dual 0C, AIR
MCA-JET, EGR, Single OC
MCA-JET, JET Air Control, ECR,
Dual OC, AIR
Note: Low Mileage Vehicles
^'Mitsubishi 1977 SR, Table 10.

-------
Mitsubishi's description of the emission control systems in Table
Mitsubishi-5 stipulate that all catalysts are oxidation catalysts. The
NOx levels reported in Table Mitsubishi-5 are quite low for vehicles
equipped with oxidation catalyst systems. Either the EGR rates were
very high (Mitsubishi claims the MCA-Jet system allows higher EGR rates)
or the catalysts contained active materials with reducing as well as
oxidizing capability. Though one vehicle was equipped with an air/fuel
ratio feedback control system, Mitsubishi did not comment upon the use
of reducing components in these vehicles or upon the low NOx levels which
these vehicles attained.
10.2.9.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Mitsubishi is now developing a Diesel version of the 4G54 (155.9 CID)
gasoline engine. This program is in an early stage of development and
program plans are expected to be resolved by February 1978. The Diesel
engine design under consideration is essentially a 2.35 litre swirl
chamber variant of the 4G54 gasoline engine with an overhead cam arrange-
ment. The best experimental data from a 2750 lb. IW vehicle with an M5
transmission and 4.222:1 axle ratio are included in Table Mltsubishl-6.
Mitsubishi did not report mileage accumulation at the time of the test.
Test results for a 4G54 gasoline vehicle with the MCA-JET, Jet Air
Control, EGR, dual oxidation catalysts and air injection are Included
for comparison.
Table Mitsubishi-6*
Experimental 2.35 Litre Diesel Vehicle Data
Engine Model
FTP Emissions (g/mi)
HC	CO NOx MPG
u
2.35L Diesel
4G54 Gasoline**
0.25 1.10 1.28 33.9
0.11 1.1 0.35 21.6
*Mitsubishi SR, p. 49.
**Table Mitsubishi-5, 2750 lb. IW, 3.308 axle.
12-516

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12.2.9.6. Durability Data
No vehicle durability data were included with the Mitsubishi Status
Report on Emission Control Efforts to Meet 1979, 1980, and 1981 Emission
Standards.
12.2.9.7. Progress and Problems
Mitsubishi has made significant progress toward meeting future standards.
Mitsubishi has continued to refine the MCA-Jet system and, from the data
reported, this system is capable of achieving relatively low emissions.
Efforts on proving this system's durability over 50,000 miles must still
be demonstrated, however.
Mitsubishi did not report on progress with the MCP (Mitsubishi Combus-
tion Process) stratified charge engine nor did Mitsubishi include any
information with respect to their MTI (Mitsubishi Transistor Ignitor)
used with this engine. These developments are interesting because of
the potential for low emissions, low fuel consumption, and multi-fuel
capability as reported in a paper entitled, "Recent Development of
Mitsubishi's Stratified Charge Engine MCP," by Masataka Mijake, Insti-
tute of Mechanical Engineer's Conference, London, November 1976. A 510
cc version of the engine is marketed in Japan for farm machinery use.
12-517

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12.2.10. Nissan (Datsun)
12.2.10.1.	Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Five basic engines will be used in Nissan's 1979 models in vehicles
ranging from 2250 lbs to 3000 lbs IW. These differ in some cases from
1978	models due to the introduction of the 1.5L engine, an oxidation
catalyst which will be used on some 1.4L engines as a result of changes
intended to improve fuel economy, plus other unspecified minor changes
said to be the result of regulation changes such as transmission shift
schedules and dynamometer load settings. The 810 model utilizing the
2.4L engine is expected to have improved fuel economy over 1978 models
because of the addition of an oxidation catalyst, a new combustion
chamber shape, and reduced mechanical engine friction. This was the
result of a reexamination program which included the emission control
system, drivetrain, tires, combustion chamber shape, and the entire 2.4L
engine. Table Nissan-1 presents system descriptions for the 1979 model
year. Figure Nissan-1 presents a schematic of the 1.5L engine's emission
control system, and Figure Nissan-2 presents a schematic of the 2.4L
engine's emission control system.
12.2.10.2.	Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
The basic 1.4L and 1.5L engine systems for 1980 will be the same as the
1979	California systems, in other words, EGR, air injection by means of
an air pump, and an oxidation catalyst. Fuel economy is to be improved
by changes in the carburetor, EGR, and ignition timing and by extending
application of the new cylinder head used on the 1979 models. Since
Nissan's main emphasis, besides the 1981 Federal standards, is on the
development of an emission control system to meet 1980 California
12-518

-------
Table Nissan-1
Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year*
Engine
Designation
Engine
Description
A14
14
1.4L
8.9:1 or
8.5:1 CR
A15
14
1.5L
8.5:1 CR
Federal Basis-
L20B
14
2.0L
8.5:1 CR
L24
16
2.4L
8.9:1 CR
L28
16
2.8L
8.3:1 CR
Induction
System
EGR System
2-V carb;
alum int man
Backpressure
modulated
2-V carb;
alum int man
Backpressure
modulated
2-V carb;
alum int man
Backpressure
modulated
Electronic
fuel injection
Backpressure
modulated
Electronic
fuel injecti
Backpressure
modulated
Air Injection Aspirator or Air pump
air pump
Exhaust	With or without None
Aftertreatment oxidation
catalyst
Air pump
None
Evaporative
System
Aspirator
Oxidation
catalyst
-Purged activated charcoal canister-
None
None
Engine
Designation
Engine
Description
A14
14
1.4L
8.9:1 CR
A15
14
1.5L
8.9:1 CR
California Basis-
L20B
14
2.0L
8.5:1 CR
L24B
16
2.4L
8.6:1 CR
L28
16
2.8L
8.3:1 CR
Induction
System
EGR System
2-V carb;
alum int man
Backpressure
modulated
2-V carb;
alum int man
Backpressure
modulated
2-V carb;
alum int man
Backpressure
modulated
Electronic	Electronic
fuel injection fuel injecti
Backpressure
modulated
Backpressure
modulated
Air Injection Air pump
Exhaust	Oxidation
Aftertreatment catalyst
Air pump
Oxidation
catalyst
Air pump
Oxidation
catalyst
None
Oxidation
catalyst
-Purged activated charcoal canister-
None
Oxidation
catalyst
Evaporative 	
System
*Advanced Emission Control Program Status Report to the Environmental Protection
Agency, January 1978, hereafter referred to as Nissan SR.
12-519

-------
NJ
I
tn
ho
O
RELIEF IP LB,
	 MCiVM |
SENSOR MOTOR
Distributer
atrc
muffler
Figure Nissan-1*
*M,i.SSi Cll>	TI~f
1.5L Engine Emission Control System

-------
FUEL TANK
B.F.T.
E.G.R.
CONTROL VALVE
I
FUEL
DAMPER
FUEL PUMP
MUFFLER
WATER TEMPERATURE
" SENSOR
CONVERTER.
Figure Nissan-2*
2.4L Engine Emission Control System
STARTING
MOTOR
*Nissan SR, p. 11-19.

-------
standards, the developmental program for the 1980 Federal standards was
not underway as of January 1978. Of particular Interest is the planned
introduction of Nissan's fast burn engine system which will replace the
L20B (2.0L) engine.
The new fast burn engine utilizes a hemispherically shaped combustion
chamber and two spark plugs per cylinder. EGR, an oxidation, and air
injection by aspirator will be applied to this vehicle. Figure Nissan-3
presents a schematic of the fast burn engine system. Further descriptions
and emission data are presented in the section on other developmental
efforts.
16 engines will also be based on the 1979 California systems, electronic
fuel injection, EGR, and an oxidation catalyst, but, according to Nissan,
the developmental program was not yet fully underway at the time of
their submission.
Previous circular shaped catalysts will be replaced by oval shaped ones
to achieve more compact installation and lower weight. The canning pro-
cess will also be revised to lower production costs. The developmental
program for this system was almost complete at the time of their submission.
12.2.10.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
Emission control systems for the 1.4L and 1.5L engines are being developed
on the basis of the 1978 California systems, but the air injection
system, EGR system, and carburetor will be recalibrated to meet this
year's standard. Also, the above-mentioned oval shaped oxidation
12-522

-------
IO
I
IO
u>
Figure Nissan-3*
Fast Burn Engine System
*Nissan SR, p. 11-83.

-------
catalyst will replace the current California one, the cylinder head will
be modified and compression ratio changed, a switche.d air-vent carburetor
will be used as part of the evaporative control system, and changes to
the intake manifold heating system are being considered. Figure Nissan-
4 presents a schematic of the 1.4L engine system.
The 2.0L fast burn engine system will be the same as the 1980 system
except the EGR rate will be recalibrated to meet the 1981 standards. A
schematic of this system is presented in Figure Nissan-3.
A 3-way catalyst system will be used on both the 2.4L and 2.8L 16
engines. This will include backpressure modulated EGR and EFI in com-
bination with an oxygen sensor. Figure Nissan-5 presents a schematic of
this system. Not shown in this generalized schematic is the use of
exhaust port liners for the 2.8L engine. It is not known if port liners
will also be used in the 2.4L engine, since a cross section of the 2.4L
engine's cylinder head was not provided.
12.2.10.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
.Two systems are under development by Nissan to meet the research emission
levels. These systems are variations of the above-mentioned 3-way
catalyst and fast burn engine systems. The 3-way catalyst system uses
recalibrated ignition timing and EGR rates compared to the system for
1981. The fast burn engine also uses recalibrated ignition timing and
EGR rates and, instead of the aspirator used for 1981, an air pump is
used to provide secondary air injection. A schematic of this fast burn
engine system is presented in Figure Nissan-6.
12-524

-------
CAC VALVt
CONVERTER
Figure Nissari-4*
1.4L Engine Emission Control System
Nissan SR, p. II-93.

-------
iliSujuin SRj  IX

-------
ro
l
Ln
IsJ
VACUUM MOTOR
j	
Figure Nissan-6*
Fast Burn Engine System to Meet Research Target
*Nissan SR, p. 11-171.

-------
12.2.10.5. Other Developmental Efforts
The fast bum engine concept has received considerable developmental
effort by Nissan during the period since their December 1976 submission
to EPA. As mentioned above, the EGR rates and ignition timing have been
recalibrated. Also, for more compact installation, a single oval-shaped
monolithic catalyst now replaces the two oxidation catalysts previously
used. It is said by Nissan to have equivalent conversion efficiency and
other catalyst characteristics that the twin catalyst system had.
Studies have also included the areas of swirl and squish effects for
improved combustion and use high speed photography as part of the analyses.
Nissan's basic approach in these studies has been to reduce NOx formation
in the cylinder while maintaining acceptable driveability and good fuel
economy. EGR is considered by Nissan to be the most effective measure
to accomplish this. Normally, as the EGR rate is increased, the com-
bustion process in the cylinder fluctuates more from cycle-to-cycle and
thus affects engine power output stability. As a measure of this,
Nissan chose to look at the parameter Cp defined as follows:
i
aP
Cp = __i x 100%
1 pT
i
where P^ = indicated mean effective pressure
C-. = fluctuation rate of P.
P.	i
l
a = standard deviation of P.
P.	l
i
P. = mean P.
i	i
12-528

-------
A stability limit of Cp equal to about 10% was determined based on burn
characteristics and HC increases. Because EGR slows the combustion
process, Nissan adopted a hemispherically shaped combustion chamber and
a dual spark plug ignition system to minimize the flame propagation
distance and shorten the combustion time interval. Figure Nissan-7
presents a cross section of the combustion chamber which was optimized
experimentally with regard to shape and spark plug location to equalize
the flame propagation from the two spark plugs.
At 14.5:1 air/fuel ratio and an EGR rate of approximately 18%, the com-
bustion stability limit (CL, = 10%) was reached with a conventional

engine, while the C_ was only 4% for the fast burn engine. Not until
i
the EGR rate was increased to about 33% did the fast burn engine reach
the stability limit. Fuel economy was markedly improved with the fast
burn engine with the greatest differences occurring at higher EGR rates.
One of Nissan's final conclusions was that gains in fuel economy and
driveability can be achieved concurrently with a marked reduction in NOx
emissions using their fast burn concept. Figure Nissan-8 presents data
comparing Nissan's fast burn engine with a conventional engine. This
figure shows the fast burn engine's greater tolerance of EGR, a marked
improvement in fuel consumption characteristics, and a reduced tendency
for HC increases at higher EGR rates. Figure Nissan-9 shows the simul-
taneous reduction of NOx emissions with an improvement in fuel consump-
tion for the fast burn engine compared to a conventional engine. (A much
more in-depth treatment of these studies on Nissan's fast burn engine is
described in SAE Paper #780006.)
According to Nissan, at NOx levels much below 1.0 g/mi, engine-out HC
and CO have been noted to increase somewhat while fuel economy decreases
as portrayed in Figure Nissan-10 and Table Nissan-2. From Figure
Nissan-10, at approximately the 1.0 NOx level the vehicle equipped with
the fast burn engine obtained about 27-28 MPG^. Of 67 vehicles having
2750 lb. IW in both the 1978 California and Federal Buyer's Guides com-
bined, only one vehicle (a Mitsubishi Sapporo, ID# Y-158, 1.6L, 77 HP,
12-529

-------
Figure Nissan-7*
Cross Section of Nissan Fast Burn Combustion Chamber
*Nissan SR, p. C-28.

-------
ho
I
Ln
CO
a?
10
o
si
cn
x
O
2
60
20
0



1 400rpm

3kg m
-\\
% \
v\
MBT '
\
A/F 14.5 = 1
\

FX
i i
^* - r
i
CD
x\
v; L_J
8 00
^ d
DC QJ
< "O
CL
CO
JZ
co
CL
CD
o
Ul
if)
CD
JZ
\
cn
0 10 20 30 40
EGR RATE %
o
X
20 30 40
!
o
o
*Nissan SR, pg. C- 32.
Figure Nissan-8 *
Nissan's Fast Burn Engine System

-------
Ol_	,	,	.
260 300 340 380 420
BSFC g/psh
Figure Nissan-9*
Nissan's Fast: Burn Engine System
*Nissan SR, pg. C-33.

-------
30
^20
o'10
cn
O
0
6
I'
Ql
o2
X
0
28
26
CD
QL

E24
o
c
o
u
LU
 22
o Lm
cc
Jt*L

. 
ww- ^
' cP " O " - --
**x
xx*x
*x
O:Without Cat.
 :With Aged Cat.
X! Nissan Dec%76 SR,
Fresh Cat.
20
0-5	1-0	1-5	2-0
Engine Out NOx (9/mile)
25
Figure Nissan-10*
Engine-Out NOx Emission vs. HC/CO
Emission & Roll Economy from a Vehicle** Equipped
with a Fast Burn Engine
*Nissan SR, p. 11-179.
**Datsun Model 710, 2.0L Fast Burn, 2-V Carb, Man Trans.,
2750 lb IW, EGR/AIR/OC.
12-533

-------
Table Nissan-2*
Engine-Out NOx vs. HC. CO. and Fuel Economy
From a Vehicle Equipped with a Fast Burn Engine**
Vehicle


g/mi


Number
Vehicle Description
System HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
8D-968
2.0L Fast Burn; 2-V
EGR/AIR/0C 0.32
2.51
0.61
23.8

Carb; MT; 3.545 axle;
0.30
2.20
0.84
24.2

2750 lb. IW
0.32
2.67
0.67
24.7
0.45
5.68
0.61
25.6
0.39
3.03
0.65
25.4
0.43
3.84
0.68
25.9
0.45
4.16
0.70
25.4
0.41
3.91
0.70
25.4
0.40
3.86
0.71
25.6
0.42
3.54
0.74
26.3
0.48
2.62
0.81
25.8
3.81
9.69
0.62
23.3
2.85
26.3
0.66
25.6
2.84
15.5
0.76
24.9
2.82
16.1
0.83
25.9
2.80
20.2
0.85
25.6
3.26
13.6
0.86
26.8
2.66
19.4
0.91
25.6
3.59
11.0
0.98
27.3
2.83
12.0
1.06
27.0
3.65
8.10
1.02
27.8
Comments
With 50,000 mile
aged catalyst; these
3 tests were with
leaner A/F ratio, higher
EGR rates, and retarded
ignition timing compared
to following tests;
also with poorer
driveability.
With 50,000 mile
aged catalyst.
1978 EPA Certification Results from
Comparable Federal Vehicles
MPGu	Vehicle Description
24.0	Veh^No. B1721; 2.0L; 2-V;
A3;T2.545 axle; 2750 lb. IW
EGR/AIR
23.3	Veh No. BU0173; 2.0L; 2-V;
M4; 3.545 axle; 2750 lb. IW
EGR/AIR
24.3	Veh No. AK0503; 2.0L; 2-V;
M5(0D); 3.89 axle; 2750 lb.
EGR/AIR
24.3	Veh No. BW0176; 2.0L; 2-V;
M4; 3.545 axle; 2750 lb. IW
EGR/AIR/0C
Without catalyst.
*Nissan SR, p. 11-139 to 11-140 and pg. 11-178 to 11-182.
A*Nissan did not explicitly state over what test cycle (e.g. FTP)
these results were obtained.

-------
Veliic le
Number Vehicle Description
8D-972 2.0L Fast Burn; 2-V
Carb; MT; 3.545 axle
2750 lb. IW
Table Nissan-2 (cont)


g/mi




System
UC
CO
NOx
KPG
u
Comments
ECR/AIR/OC
0.41
4.68
1.43
27.9
With
50,000 mile

0.32
4.00
1.57
27.5
aged
catalyst.

0.34
3.49
1.67
27.5



0.53
4.74
2.10
27.5



0.41
3.16
2.51
28.0



2.39
7.97
1. 74
28.0
Without catalyst

2.20
8.92
1.77
28.1



2.62
5.15
1.92
27.8



-------
8.5 CR, 2V, M5, 4.22 axle, 50.4 N/V, EGR/OC) achieved a higher fuel
economy rating than 27 MPG^ and that was 29.2 MPG^. The average fuel
economy rating of these 67 vehicles was approximately 20.2
Electronic Engine Controls
According to Nissan, electronic engine control is essential in achieving
improved emission control while at the same time meeting fuel economy
requirements and improving driveability. Development of a prototype
system using a microprocessor programmed to control ignition timing,
EGR, feedback control of idle speed, and feedback control of air/fuel
ratio is currently underway. Sensor inputs include inlet air flow (L-
Jetronic), throttle angle, crankshaft position, coolant temperature,
exhaust oxygen content, transmission gear position, vehicle speed, and
battery voltage. Nissan provided no FTP or HFET data using this system,
but they expect a 5 to 10% improvement in fuel economy compared to
conventional mechanical systems over the Japanese 10-mode driving cycle.
Among other things, further research on default logic in the event of
malfunction will be undertaken. Figure Nissan-11 and Figure Nissan-12
present a schematic and block diagram of this system, respectively. It
should also be noted, the use of control systems which sense variables
such as vehicle speed and transmission gear may provide input for
questionable emission control system modulating devices and/or strategies.
Oxygen sensor studies have led to the development of an output voltage
sensing system which switches from open to closed loop control when the
oxygen sensor output reaches the initial regulation voltage level. But,
because the output characteristics of oxygen sensors change with tempera-
ture, Nissan discovered this could not be done directly. So the system
was further improved by sensing the changes in internal oxygen sensor
resistance due to temperature changes, from which the switch to closed
from open loop control is made thereby assuring regulation of the air/fuel
ratio at stoichiometry. This system has proved effective and has been
installed in durability test vehicles, according to Nissan.
12-536

-------
Electronic Engine Control System Configuration
*Nissan SR, p. 11-190

-------
f
CRANK-
\ SHAFT
PULSE
/NPUT
MODULE
3
Rpn
COUNTER
A/R
FLOW
METER
A/D
CONVERTER
LOOK-UP TABLE FOR
/&NIT/ON T/M/NCr AMD
EGR
A/R FLOW
PER
REVO LOT/ON
COnPEN "
SAT/ON
U"
/CrNIT/ON J_ ' /GN/T/ON i
MODULE j A CO/L
L
EQR CONT.
VALVE
DR/VER
EGR
CONTROL
VALVE
6AS/C
/MJECT/ON
PULSE W/DTH
ho
I
Ln
U)
00
COMPENSATED
/NJECr/ON
PULSE W/DTH
/NJECTOR
DR/VER
/NJ ECTOR
OXYGEN
SENSOR
a/D
CONVERTER
COMPARE
WITH
REFERENCE
^F
CORRECT/ON
S/CtNAL
CALCULATE
COMPEMSA rm
FACTOR
I
J
f'
CONPENSAT/ON
PARAMETER
SE/VSO/QS
6ATT. VOLT.
/NT- A/R TEHP
COOLANT TEMP
T/v POS/T/ON
GEAR P0S/T/0N
\ VEH/CLE SPElA
A/q
converter
d/screte' ~
/NPUT
MODULE
VEN/CLE
SPEED
COCNTER
TEST
FOR
/OLE
TARGET
ENG/NE
SPEED
(REFERENCE,
COMPARE
WITH
REFENCE
	1
/DEE SPEED
CONTROL
S/GNAL
J
/OLE CONT-

/OLE
VAL VE

COATROL
DR/VER

VALVE


Figure Nissan-12*
Electronic Control System Block Diagram
*Nissan SR, p. 11-191.

-------
Nissan has developed an electronically controlled carburetor for use
with 3-way catalyst systems. The air/fuel ratio is controlled by air
bleeds which are in turn controlled by solenoid valves. The valves
operate at a constant frequency of 30 Hz; lower frequencies produced
poorer vehicle driveability. Few alterations to a conventional car-
buretor were necessary to add the feedback feature. The system has
reached a developmental level which can allow practical application,
according to Nissan. Figure Nissan-13 presents a schematic cross
section of this carburetor.
Rich Air/Fuel Ratio
According to Nissan, a richer air/fuel ratio can have a good effect on
fuel economy at levels below 1.0 g/mi NOx. Table Nissan-3 presents
results from this brief investigation. NOx emissions were reduced, but
CO increased, thus Nissan was not satisfied with the results.
Table Nissan-3*
Research on Using a Richer Air/Fuel Ratio
For a Vehicle Targeted at 1.0 NOx**
Vehicle

	
-g/mi-
	

Test

Description
System
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
Condition
Comments
Datsun B-210;
EGR/AIR/
0.12
1.13
1.04
u
25.7
hot start
#104 main jet
AT; 1978 Cal.
OC
0.22
2.41
1.14
24.3
cold start

system; Veh







ID A612.

0.15
1.34
0.75
26.7
hot start
//112 main jet;


0.26
3.34
0.83
24.6
cold start
increased EGR;
new cylinder
head ***
*Nissan SR, pg 11-131 to 11-132.
**These results are the averages from two tests.
***Details of this new cylinder head were not provided by Nissan.
3-Way Catalysts
Table Nissan-4 presents low mileage data from two vehicles equipped with
2.8L engines and 3-way catalyst systems.
12-539

-------
MAIN NOZZLE
MAIN AIR BLEED
2m IDLE AIR BLEED
MAIN CONTROL PASSAGE
IDLE CONTROL PASSAGE
I- IDLE AIR BLEED
MAIN JET
IDLE SCREW PORT
IDLE JET
IDLE SCREW
Qcaq SR n, P1A.
Figure Nissan-1 13*
Feedback Controlled Carburetor by Air Bleeds

-------
Table Nissan-4*
Low Mileage Emissions Results from 1981 Developmental Vehicles
Equipped with a 3-way Catalyst System
Vehicle No. Vehicle Description System
F675
Datsun 280Z; 2.8L;
M5; 3.545 axle;
3000 lb. IW; 49.6 N/V
HC
-g/mi-
C0
NOx
EFI/3W 0.27 2.3 0.44
1978 EPA Certification Results
from Comparable Federal Vehicles
MPG MPG Vehicle Desceiption
	u 	u 	c	
18.8 18.4 Veh No. F610; 2.8L;
M5(0D); 3.545 axle;
3000 lb. IW; 42.9 N/V;
FI/EGR
F671
Datsun 280Z; 2.8L;
A3; 3.545 axle;
3000 lb. IW; 49.6 N/V
EFI/3W 0.33 2.5 0.57 17.5
17.1 Veh No. F608; 2.8L; A3;
3.545 axle; 3000 lb. IW;
49.6 N/V; FI/EGR
N)
I
Ul
4^
*Nissan SR, pg 11-143 to 11-145.

-------
Engine Operation During the FTP
Nissan provided several graphs presenting various engine operating para-
meters as a function of the UDDS. Figure Nissan-14 and Figure Nissan-15
present a typical set of these graphs for a 1981 Datsun B210 equipped
with a 1.4L engine. This vehicle is just beginning a durability test
and is also discussed later in Table Nissan-16.
Diesel Engines
Nissan has manufactured and sold passenger cars equipped with Diesel
engines since 1964, however, Nissan has no plans at present for expor-
ting these vehicles to the U.S. Thus, the emission control develop-
mental program for Nissan's 2.0L and 2.2L Diesel engines is based on the
Japanese 6-mode test procedures used for heavy-duty engine applications.
The 6-mode results are not presented in this text.
Evaporative Emissions
Evaporative emission control developmental programs have centered on
several main areas at Nissan: improvements in overall canister ad-
sorption and purging capacity, reduction of evaporative emissions from
the carburetor, a hot soak test simulation on an engine dynamometer, and
actual vehicle testing.
To improve canister adsorption and purging capacity, Nissan has studied
the major hydrocarbon components in gasoline vapor from both summer and
winter grades. Table Nissan-5 presents the major hydrocarbon components
on a volume basis. According to Nissan, conventional activated carbon
is chiefly made to filter out butane particles, thus, when larger par-
ticles become trapped on the carbon pores, the total capacity decreases.
12-542

-------
EXHAUST GAS & CAT. TEMP.
IGNITION TIMING
CAT.

(

30

20
h-
Ni


10
>
u>

VACUUM ADVANCE
MECHANICAL ADVANCE
fihn
:i* :i; t!jf :!';[ -||i-\-| j; ! i'	' ijjj  J/'j	-J..
COLD START
DRIVING SCHEDULE
VEHICLE I.D.
VEHICLE
A555
B210 WITH
AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION
Figure Nissan-14*
1981 Model A14 Engine-1975 FTP
*Nissan SR, p. 11-138.

-------
CI/min)
2000
1000 -
EXHAUST GAS FLOW
1.0

16

14

12

10

8

(%)
20
--
10

0
	
AIR-FUEI. RATIO
. ; ":j ' ' : "'T i '"jy : jj" |	( , ; ! '  1 j. j  ' j -- "i'	T~~"" 1	r-jij - 	t- - 

-AJU:
" ;  N : Wi -
r;Tirr7'n'.'
; I ' -
< 1
ht
-O-
t-
(EGR R^XE
COLD START
DRIVING SCHEDULE
Figure Nissan-15*
VEHICLE I.D. : A555
VEHICLE	: B210 WITH
AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION
ANissan SR, p. 11-137.
1981 Model A14 Engine-1975 FTP

-------
An improved activated carbon has been used with the pore diameter dis-
tribution peak shifted toward a somewhat larger size and has resulted in
increased working capacity of 30 to 40% for butane and 35 to 45% for
pentane. Also, the weight of the improved, carbon is 20 to 30% less
compared to conventional activated carbon. Figure Nissan-16 and Table
Nissan-6 present the pore size distribution and specifications, respec-
tively, of this improved activated carbon.
Table Nissan-5*
Major Hydrocarbon Components in Gasoline Vapor
Component	Summer Grade	Winter Grade
Isobutane	1.48	3.62
Butane	27.95	72.75
Isopentane	44.93	8.12
Pentane	5.59	4.38
Heavy Ends	20.05	11.13
*Nissan SR, pg 11-197.
To increase the quantity of vapor purged from the canister, the orifice
diameter may be increased in size. Figure Nissan-17 presents a sche-
matic cross section of a carbon canister showing the purge orifice. The
butane purge weight as a function of time for two orifice sizes, 1.0 mm
and 1.7 mm, were 20.5g and 28.5g after five minutes at 408C and 380 mm Hg
vacuum. Figure Nissan-18 presents air/fuel ratio as a function of
intake manifold vacuum for the two orifices. According to Nissan, there
was no influence on exhaust emissions or driveability when the orifice
diameter was enlarged up to 1.7 mm. Other approaches are also needed to
increase purge weight, according to Nissan. No emissions or driveability
data were provided by Nissan using these orifices.
12-545

-------
An improved activated carbon has been used with the pore diameter dis-
tribution peak shifted toward a somewhat larger size and has resulted in
increased working capacity of 30 to 40% for butane and 35 to 45% for
pentane. Also, the weight of the improved carbon is 20 to 30% less
compared to conventional activated carbon. Figure Nissan-16 and Table
Nissan-6 present the pore size distribution and specifications, respec-
tively, of this improved activated carbon.
Table Nissan-5*
Major Hydrocarbon Components in Gasoline Vapor
	% by volume		
Component	Summer Grade	Winter Grade
Isobutane	1.48	3.62
Butane	27.95	72.75
Isopentane	44.93	8.12
Pentane	5.59	4.38
Heavy Ends	20.05	11.13
*Nissan SR, pg 11-197.
To increase the quantity of vapor purged from the canister, the orifice
diameter may be increased in size. Figure Nissan-17 presents a sche-
matic cross section of a carbon canister showing the purge orifice. The
butane purge weight as a function of time for two orifice sizes, 1.0 mm
and 1.7 mm, were 20.5g and 28.5g after five minutes at 40C and 380 mm Hg
vacuum. Figure Nissan-18 presents air/fuel ratio as a function of
intake manifold vacuum for the two orifices. According to Nissan, there
was no influence on exhaust emissions or driveability when the orifice
diameter was enlarged up to 1.7 mm. Other approaches are also needed to
increase purge weight, according to Nissan. No emissions or driveability
data were provided by Nissan using these orifices.
12-545

-------
Values in parentheses are the
catalogue values.
	SAMPLE TYPE
A
B
C
CONVENTIONAL
TYPE
DRYING WEIGHT LOSS
wt%
2.0
1.8
1.8
0.2
ASH
wt%
9.3
(18.0)




BULK DENSITY
g/cc
0.37
0.39
0.44
0.49
DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICLE SIZE
(MESH)
wtZ




below 8

41.4
4.8
3.5
9.7
8 to 10

44.7
31.0
36.1
35.8
10 to 14

12.5
36.5
30.9
27.4
14 to 20

0.3
27.2
23.2
17.5
20 to 28

o.i
0.5
5.6
8.4
28 to 60

0.2
0
0.7
0.8
over 60
(FINE POWDER)

0.8
0

0.2
ABRASION

59.3
81.2
78.6
82.8
WORKING CAPACITY FOR BUTANE
g/lOOcc
6.7
8.3
8.1 
5.2
SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA
m2/g

(1350)
(1120)
1000 to 1200
PARTICLE DENSITY
g/cc

(0.76)
(0.76)



TOTAL PORE VOLUME
cc/g

(0.74)
(0.82)



CANISTER ABSORPTION CAPACITY
g
31.7
41.2
40.5
30 to 34
*Nissan SR, p. 11-200.
Table Nissan-6*
Activated Carbon Specifications

-------
FROM CARB BOWL
FROM FUEL TANK
TO DIST. VC
<	
TO INTAKE
MANIFOLD
FIXED
ORIFICE
MfjfiL
tS D tr
Of i J i
i"\'v ,J J '
 > "C
D i**
00 a
CARBON


air
Figure Nissan-17*
Carbon Canister
*Nissan SR, p. 11-196
12-548

-------
12
13
	 PURGE ORIFICE PLUGGED
o	ce PURGE ORIFICE : 1. 04
x* PURGE ORIFICE: I .14
14
15
16

X-"
		
-X-
i
17
500
400
300
200
100
INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM (-mmllg)
Figure Nissan-18*
Air/Fuel Ratio as a Function of Intake Manifold
Vacuum for Two Orifice Sizes
*Nissan SR, p. 11-205
12-549

-------
According to Nissan, the hot soak portion of an emissions test accounts
for 80 to 85% of total evaporative emissions from the vehicle with the
SHED procedure. It is also highly dependent on fuel temperature in the
carburetor float bowl. Evaporative emissions from the air vent account
for most of the emissions from the carburetor. Figure Nissan-19 pre-
sents test results using a special bench procedure to simulate an actual
test. These results indicate the relative contributions of the various
emission sources to the total evaporative emissions from a carburetor.
Though not shown in this figure, the data were quite scattered, but
definite trends were observed, according to Nissan. Tests were also
conducted on sealing the throttle and choke shafts yielding O.lg and
0.4g reductions, respectively. Nissan considers sealing of these shafts
as inadvisable due to the increased friction. Also, they state the
correlation between this carburetor bench test and vehicle tests has not
been confirmed.
Evaporative emissions have been shown by Nissan to be substantially
affected by float bowl temperature. Using the above-mentioned test
simulation with float bowl temperatures measured after 30 minutes of hot
soak, carburetor evaporative emissions were 4.8g for a measured float
bowl temperature of 60C after the beginning of hot soak, 8.3g for 73C,
and 11.lg for 83C. Nissan's Datsun F10 model equipped with the 1.4L
engine and an EFE type intake manifold through which heat is conducted
to the carburetor currently has the highest evaporative emission level
of any Nissan vehicle, according to Nissan. From studies using a water-
heated intake manifold to decrease this heat flow, maximum fuel tempera-
ture was reduced by about 7C during the hot soak in actual vehicle
tests. This corresponds to a 2g reduction in evaporative emissions.
12-550

-------
' ' '	1  i		 		
J_[..	J.
OUTER VENT + MAIN SYSTEM
: : SEALED
Figure Nissan-19*
Evaporative Emissions from Carburetor Sources
*Nissan SR, p. 11-209
12-551

-------
To simulate the engine compartment during hot soak, a box is used to
enclose the engine on the dynamometer. According to Nissan, this
approach is more suitable for detailed analysis of individual emission
sources than the SHED procedure. By using a float bowl vented to the
outside, total evaporative emissions concentration at the air cleaner
duct was reduced approximately 93% on a ppm basis. From this knowledge,
Nissan is developing a float bowl vent which is switched by a solenoid
valve to the carbon canister instead of an inner vent which is vented to
inside the carburetor above the venturi. Using the combination of the
switched vent and the above water-heated intake manifold has resulted in
a decrease of evaporative emissions from about 5 g/test to about 2
g/test but with some data scatter. The reasons for this data scatter
are now being investigated by Nissan.
Nissan has investigated the use of a remote mounted air cleaner housing
connected to an air horn mounted on top of the carburetor by an air
duct. This configuration produces a total volume 3 1/2 times that of a
conventional air cleaner setup and has resulted in a decrease in fuel
temperature of approximately 1.5C with hot soak emissions reduced by
1.3g. Unfortunately, Nissan has not yet conducted tests using this
modified air cleaner configuration in combination with the above-mentioned
water-heated intake manifold and switched float bowl vent.
Fuel Economy
Nissan plans to reduce the weight of its vehicles by an average of about
5% by 1985 compared to 1977 models. According to Nissan, the reduction
of inertia test weights should tend to decrease CO and NOx emissions but
have no effect on HC. Also, Nissan does not plan to make any signi-
ficant reductions in the power to weight ratio of its vehicles in the
near future. Investigations have begun, however, on the use of wide
ratio transmissions and lock-up automatic transmissions.
12-552

-------
According to Nissan, improvements in tires in areas including adoption
of steel belted radials, reduction of tire weight, reduction of tire
rolling resistance, and use of a space saving spare tire in one model
have been achieved. Nissan states that tire rolling resistance is the
major component of total vehicle resistance at speeds less than about
65 km/h. Since the rolling resistance of steel belted radial tires is
20 to 30% less than that of bias ply tires, fuel economy can be improved
by between 3 to 6%, according to Nissan. Also, since tire rolling
resistance is proportional to the vertical load applied to the tires,
this resistance decreases by 2 to 3% for each 10 kg reduction in verti-
cal load under normal conditions. Figure Nissan-20 presents the effect
on tire rolling resistance versus vehicle speed as a function of vertical
tire load.
Nissan also claims to have developed an improved tire which is claimed
to have 20 to 30% less rolling resistance than conventional steel belted
radial tires. Figure Nissan-21 presents rolling resistance versus
vehicle speed for the improved tire compared with a bias and conventional
steel belted tires. By decreasing tire rolling resistance and tire
weight, Nissan claims to have not only improved fuel economy, but also
slightly improved vehicle acceleration and emissions. According to
Nissan, the 1977 B210 Plus model was equipped with these tires, and
their use is to be expanded to other models in the future.
Figure Nissan-22 presents the effect on emissions and fuel economy of
reducing tire inflation pressure. As tire pressure is decreased, both
fuel economy and emissions are adversely affected. Nissan did not
specifically state the test cycle (e.g. FTP) for which these results
apply.
12-553

-------
Figure Nissan-21*
Rolling Resistance - Tire Type
*Nissan SR, p. III-ll.
12-554

-------
Figure Nissan-22*
Effect of Decreasing Tire Inflation Pressure on
Emissions and Fuel Economy
*Nissan SR, p. 111-12
12-555

-------
Nissan measured engine friction while varying engine oil and water
temperature. Increasing these temperatures decreased engine oil vis-
cosity which in turn reduced engine friction. By computing the pro-
portion of total work reduction over the FTP, Nissan calculated a 1.3%
decrease in fuel consumption for a 10C increase in oil and water
temperature in the range of 70C to 90C.
During Nissan's investigations of various methods for improving fuel
economy, they have found that transmission shift procedures other than
those previously recommended are effective means for obtaining higher
EPA fuel economy ratings. Figure Nissan-23 and Figure Nissan-24 present
data showing these effects for vehicles equipped with a 1.4L engine and
a 2.0L engine. Because shifting a vehicle at very low vehicle speeds
tends to increase CO and NOx emissions, according to Nissan, they have
selected shift procedures to be used for their 1978 model vehicles in
EPA certification which optimize the tradeoffs between fuel economy and
emissions. Table Nissan-7 presents the shift point schedule selected by
Nissan for 1978 Datsun vehicles, and Table Nissan-8 shows the percentage
distribution of time in each gear during the TODS for these 1978 vehicles
and for 1975 vehicles. From Table Nissan-9, the percentage of time a
vehicle spends in lower gears has been reduced while the percentage for
higher gears has increased. Nissan provided no data to judge the repre-
sentativeness of these shift procedures compared to actual consumer use.
MMT
Nissan has performed several tests using fuel containing 0.125 g/gal of
MMT. Two types of tests were conducted: a high speed, high load e;ngine
12-556

-------
hli* GII-.* E : A14
Figure Nissan-23*
Effect of Transmission Gear Shift Point
*Nissan SR, p. 111-14
12-557

-------
Figure Nissan- 24*
Effect of Transmission Gear Shift Point
*Nissan SR, p. 111-15
12-558

-------
Engine
Vehicle model
Shift point
T/M
1 -*2
2 -> 3
3 -> 4
4 5
A14
B210
M4
10
25
35

M5
10
25
35
45
F10
M4
15
25
40

MS
10
20
30
40
L20B
510, 200SX
M4
10
20
40

M5
10
20
40
50
L24
810
M4
10
20
40

M5
10
20
40
50
L28
280Z
M4
10
20
40

M5
10
20
40
50
L20B, L24, L28
High altitude
M4
15
25
40

M5
15
25
40
50
Table Nissan-7*
Shift Point Schedule for 1978 Datsun Vehicles
*Nissan SR, p. 111-16.

-------
Applicable models: 510, 200SX, 810, 280Z
Gear
^\nosition
*
Shift schedul^\.
1
2
3
4
N
1975 FTP
9
17
38
9
27
1978 Nissan
5
9
50
9
27
* Shift schedule
1975
FTP
1  2
at
15
mph


23
at
25
mph


3 4
at
40
mph
1978
Nissan
12
at
10
mph


2 3
at
20
mph


34
at
40
mph
Table Nissan-8*
Percentage Distribution of Time in Each
Gear Position during the UDDS
*Nissan SR, p. 111-17.
12-560

-------
N>
I
Ln
On
L20B
4.16D x 6L
Catalyst
Engine
Size(inches)
Substrate
Precious	Pt: 26.7 g/ft^
metal loading Pd: 13.3 g/ft^
1.0m from
L28	A14
4.66D x 6L 4.16D x 3L
Note
Corning-M20
300 cell/in2
- 12 mil
Location
Spark plug Supplier
ID.No.
02-sensor s"PPlier
exhaust
manifold
NGK
BP-6ES-11
Fuel
Engine
operating
condition
Hours
Catalyst
outlet
temp.
ID.No.
MMT content
0.125 g/us gal.
WOT
6,000 rpm
146.5
830C
200
640C
WOT
5,600 rpm
200
830C
2.5m from 1.0m from
exhaust exhaust
manifold manifold
NGK
B-6ES-11
Bosch
*6Z120,6Z131

Base engine:
1978 Calif.
NGK
BP-5EQ-13
WOT
6,000 rpm
200
730C
*Nissan SR, p. 111-28
* Installed only for durability test, without feed back control
Table Nissan-9*
Conditions for High Speed Durability Test on Engine Dynamometer

-------
dynamometer durability test and an AMA durability test. The 1.4L, 2.0L,
and 2.8L engines were involved. Table Nissan-7 describes the engines,
control systems, and test procedures from this study.
With catalyst temperatures reaching about 830C on the 2.0L and 2.8L
engines during the engine dynamometer testing, the pressure drop between
the catalyst inlet and outlet increased abruptly due to catalyst plug-
ging after less than 100 hours of testing, according to Nissan. This is
in contrast to vehicles tested on an AMA route where the catalyst tem-
perature ranged from 650 to 680C with practically no pressure drop or
plugging noted after 30,000 miles. The catalysts were mounted in the
same location on the engine for both engine and vehicle tests. In
another high speed and load engine dynamometer test, the catalyst was
located 1.5m further downstream of the engine. The catalyst temperature
reached about 740C, but little pressure drop or plugging was observed.
Figure Nissan-25 presents a graph showing the pressure drops measured in
the engine dynamometer tests, Figure Nissan-26 shows end views of these
catalysts, and Figure Nissan-27 shows pressure drops for the AMA vehicle
test. Analyses of the deposits on these catalysts revealed large
amounts of Mn compounds, according to Nissan.
Though sparlc plug electrical insulation resistance was observed to be
much lower for plugs using fuel with MMT,- Nissan did not provide infor-
mation on how this affects emissions or fuel economy.
During the AMA durability test, Nissan has observed engine-out HC emis-
sions to increase about 8% using non-MMT fuel after 20,000 miles, but as
much as 22 to 39% after the same distance using fuel containing 0.125
g/gal of MMT. Figure Nissan-28 presents the results from this study.
Nissan also presented results which indicate catalyst conversion effi-
ciency deterioration was unaffected by MMT when catalyst plugging did
not occur.
12-562

-------
BiliiliiiiliiiiiiiiililjlliiW
Figure Nissan-25*
Catalyst Plugging Due to iiMT Under High Speed
Durability Engine Dynamo Test
*Nissan SR, p. 111-21.	12-563

-------
L20B Engine
Catalyst Temp.: 830*C
L28 Engine
Catalyst Temp.: 830*C
L20B Engine
Catalyst Temp.: 640*C
Figure Nissan- 26*
Catalyst Plugging after High Speed Durability
Tests on the Engine Dynamometer
*Nissan SR, p. 111-22.
12-564

-------
oo
H X
W S
hJ s
z w
H
H
Z
w >*
H hJ
s <
H H
W <
03	O
P-c P*
o o
PS
Q	H
W
W	J
OS	H
,D	D
W	O
t/i
W	Q
04	Z
d,	<
1111111; 11M:' H i:
Figure Nissan- 27*
Catalyst Plugging Due to MMT
		Under AMA Durability Test
*Nissan SR, p. 111-23	12-565

-------
WITHOUT CATALYST
Veh No. Veh Descrip. System
O	0 F559 280Z;2.8L; EFI/3W
A3;3.545 axle
3000 lb. IW;
49.6 N/V
710 Wagon;
2.0L;A3;
3.70 axle;
2750 lb.IW;
54.7 N/V
1.0
-L-:. !' Jr. i  :  l' '
. WITH CATALYST
gfggBf!
VARIABILITY FROM
3 DEVELOPMENT
CARS FOR 1978
1	2
MILEAGE (mile)
Figure Nissan- 28*
Effect of MMT on Emissions (AMA Durability Test)
EGR/AIR/0C
*Nissan SR, p. 111-26
12-566

-------
Though deposits were observed on oxygen sensors (with greater amounts
occurring with the high speed and load engine dynamometer test as shown
in Figure Nissan-29), Nissan observed that the deposit formation had no
effect on the sensors' performance during either the AMA or engine
dynamometer tests.
Nissan provided no data nor did they indicate what instantaneous effect,
if any, MMT may have on engine-out HC emissions.
Figure Nissan-29*
2.8L (L28) engine after
163 hours of high speed
durability tests on an
engine dynamometer.
"Nissan SR, pg. 111-25.
12-567

-------
Systems to be Used for the 1978 Japanese Market
Table Nissan-10 presents vehicle descriptions for the Japanese market
and emission results using the Japanese 10-Mode test. In addition to
these vehicles, Nissan is also investigating the use of an electroni-
cally controlled carburetor for the 3-way catalyst system.
Table Nissan-10*
Systems to be Used for the 1978 Japanese Market
Vehicle
Description
Model H250;
4.4L V8;
2000 kg IW
System
10-Mode (g/km)
HC CO NOx
EFI/EGR/ 0.04 0.02 0.07
3W
km/L Comments
5.1 Two oxygen sensors
and two 3-way cata-
lysts used; oxygen
sensors not changed
during vehicle
lifetime.
Datsun 810;
1.8L (fast
burn);
1250 kg IW
Datsun B310;
12.L; 875 kg
IW
Datsun B310;
1.4L; 1000
kg IW
*Nissan SR, pg V-l to V-7.
Relationship Between FTP and Japanese 10-Mode Data
EGR/PAIR/ 0.12 0.04 0.13 13.0
OC
EGR/PAIR/ 0.08 0.16 0.12 15.5
OC
EGR/PAIR/ 0.08 0.08 0.12 14.5
OC
The FTP and Japanese 10-Mode procedures were developed independently and
have no particular relationship with each other, according to Nissan.
For example, the 10-mode cycle has a lower average vehicle speed than
the FTP and thus emphasizes performance in a lower speed range.
12-568

-------
According to Nissan, this is an indication of the difference in the
representative driving patterns in Japan and in the U.S. stemming from
the different traffic conditions. Table Nissan-11 presents data for
1978 Japanese vehicles, 1978 and 1979 California vehicles, a 1981
Federal vehicle, and a 0.41 NOx prototype vehicle. Because of vehicle
calibration differences and data scatter, Nissan believes any attempt to
establish a relationship between the Japanese 10-Mode data and FTP data
is meaningless.
12.2.10.6. Durability Data
Three areas of durability data were reported by Nissan: catalyst data,
data from an emission evaluation program of in-use vehicles, and data on
developmental vehicles.
Table Nissan-12 presents oxidation catalyst durability data, and Table
Nissan-13 presents data from a vehicle equipped with a 3-way catalyst
system. Of significant importance is the vehicle shown in Table Nissan-
13 which achieved the research goal emissions of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41
NOx. CO exceeded the 3.4 g/mi level at the 45,000 and 50,000 mile test
points, but the predicted 50,000 mile CO level is 3.43 g/mi which,
because of EPA roundoff protocols, is considered to have complied with
the 3.4 CO standard. This vehicle represents an improved version of a
vehicle (No. 8D-740) reported in last year's submission to EPA which
exceeded the research goal levels after 30,000 miles of durability.
Nissan believes the use of a pelleted instead of a monolithic 3-way
catalyst, with a subsequent increase in cold start emissions, may have
been a major contributing factor to that increase in emissions. Thus,
the vehicle presented in Table Nissan-9 was equipped not only with an
improved 3-way catalyst (monolithic), but with an oxygen sensor resistance-
sensing feedback control system described earlier and an oxygen sensor
with improved low temperature characteristics (not detailed by Nissan).
12-569

-------
Table Nissan-11*
Emission Results from Vehicles Tested on the FTP and Japanese 10-Mode Procedure
Vehicle
Number
A764
Vehicle Description
B310; 1.4L; M5; 3.889
axle; 1000 kg IW;
60.1 N/V
A 7 42 B310; 1.4L; A3; 3.889
axle; 1000 kg IW;
60.4 N/V
B1782 810; 1.8L; M5; 4.111
axle; 1250 kg IW;
58.0 N/V
Target		FTP (g/mi)	
Market System HC CO NOx
-10-Mode (g/km)-
HC CO NOx
1978 ECR/PAIR/ 0.52 5.27 0.86
Japan OC
1978 EGR/PAIR/ 0.31 4.05 0.76
Japan OC
1978 EGR/PAIR/ 0.53 7.4 0.84
Japan
0.15 0.82 0.20
0.05 0.33 0.16
0.06 1.22 0.23
Comments
50,000 km aged
catalyst
50,000 km aged
catalyst
10,000 km aged
catalyst
F553 Prototype; 2.8L; A3;
3.545 axle; 1500 kg IW;
50.1 N/V
A588 B210; 1.4L; H5; 3.70
axle; 2250 lb. IW;
57.5 N/V
AK314 B210; 1.4L; A3; 3.889
axle; 2250 lb. IW;
60.4 N/V
BW176 510; 2.0L; M4; 3.545
axle; 2750 lb. IW;
53.3 N/V
1978 EFI/3W 0.62 4.48 0.76
Japan
1979 EGR/AIR/ 0.20 2.56 1.17
Calif. OC
1979 EGR/AIR/ 0.23 2.14 1.01
Calif. 0C
1978 EGR/AIR/ 0.19 3.1 1.34
Calif. OC
0.21 1.24 0.15
0.08 0.09 0.77
0.10 0.2B 0.45
0.12 0.60 0.92
100,000 km aged
catalyst
50,000 mi aged
catalys t
50,000 ml aged
catalyst
Fresh catalyst
B1658 510; 2.0L; A3; 3.545
axle; 2750 lb. IW;
55.4 N/V
F669 280Z; 2.8L; M5; 3.545
axle; 3000 lb. IW;
49.6 N/V
F672 2802; 2.8L; A3; 3.545
axle; 3000 lb. IW;
49.6 N/V
1978 EGR/AIR/ 0.16 1.2 1.00
Calif. OC
1978 EFI/EGR/ 0.33 5.50 0.94
Calif. OC
1978 EFI/EGR/ 0.23 3.21 1.05
Calif. OC
0.14 0.15 0.54
0.06 0.17 0.73
0.07 0.14 0.74
Fresh catalyst
Fresh catalyst
Fresh catalyst
8D-984
510; 2.0L (fast burn)
1981 EGR/0C
0.36
4.42
0.55
0.08
0.20
0.45
Fresh catalyst


M4; 3.545 axle; 2750
Federal
0.71
7.52
0.61
0.31
0.59
4.45**
50,000 mi aged
catalyst

lb. IW; 53.3 N/V

0.45
4.16
0.70
0.27
1.02
0.43
50,000 mi aged
catalyst
8D-64 5c
280Z; 2.8L; A3; 3.545
Prototype EFI/3W
0.26
1.98
0.31
0.03
0.04
0.10
Fresh catalyst


axle; 3000 lb. IW;
for 0.41
0.17
1.79
0.36
0.02
0.06
0.09
Fresh catalyst


49.6 N/V
NOx Research
0.37
3.81
0.24
0.05
0.19
0.13
50,000 rai aged
catalyst
Coal
*Nissan SR, pg V-8 to V-23.
**Tlvis value, "4.45", could be a typographical error, with the Intended value being 0.45.

-------
C)
nv e
CO
230
235
253
254
255
259
23 4
230
234
238
252
252
261
203
230
252
260
267
Table Nissan-12*
1978 Oxidation Catalyst Durability Daea
Vehicle
Number
BK197
F560
BK342



	
	
	g/mi	
	
	
Z
conversion
2 conv eff
Vehicle


(/
o catalyst)
(w/catalyst)
efficiency
<3 400
"C**
Description
System
Ml leage
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
1978 Datsun 610;
ECR/AIR/
0
1.17
11.52
2.46
0.16
1.28
2.28
85.9
88.9
7.3
94.6
98.9
2.0],; 2-V carb;.
OC












M4; 3.70 axle;

4,000
1.26
13.80
2.32
0.25
2.87
2.14
80.5
79.2
7.8
92.8
98.5
54.7 H/V; 2750













lb. IW

10,000
-
-
-
0.19
1.72
1.85
-
-
-
-
-


20,000
1.44
11.21
1.71
0.23
1.90
1.77
83.9
83.0
-3.8
88.5
99.2


30,000
1.59
9.72
1.81
0.39
1.50
1.82
75.2
84.6
-0.6
84.2
99.3






0.30
1.73
1.89
81.0
82.2
-4.3




32,500
-
-
-
0.33
2.82
1.60
-
-
-
82.9
99.5


40,000
2.37
6.91
1.96
0.45
0.97
1.76
81.1
86.0
10.2
84.4
99.2






0.51
1.09
1.63
78.4
84.2
17.3


1978 Datsun
EFI/ECR/
0
1.57
11.19
1.42
0.36
4.74
1.45
77.3
57.6
-2.2
93.0
96.7
2802; A3; 3.545
OC

1.57
11.18
1.33
0.31
3.67
1.25
80.8
67.1
6.2


axle; 49.6 N/V;













3000 lb. IW

5,000
1.58
11.50
1.31
0.40
5.20
1.20
74.8
54.8
8.3
91.8
97.0


10,000
1.72
12.51
1.24
0.36
4.59
1.41
79.4
63.3
-13.5
90.4
97.0


20,000
1.54
12.06
1.33
0.47
6.26
1.19
69.3
48.1
10.8
82.6
98.2


30,000
1.47
12.26
1.28
0.62
8.65
1.10
53.2
28. 3
14.2
85.2
98.1






0.37
5.69
1.07
75.0
53.6
16.3




40,000
1.51
13.44
1.25
0.50
6.86
1.16
66.6
4U.9
6.7
86.9
97.8


48,472
1.30
9.90
1.27
0.49
7.08
1.12
62.1
28.5
11.6
85.4
97.7
1978 Datsun 810;
EFT/ECR/0C
0
1.35
9.51
1.26
0.27
3.32
1.43
79.9
65.1
-13.3
92.6
97.2
2.4L; A3; 3.70













axle; 52.9 H/V;

4,000
1.23
10. 38
1.32
0.31
3.3a
1.6c
74.4
67.5
-27.5
85.5
96.2
3000 lb. IW





0.31
4.02
1.22
74.5
61.3
7.1




10,000
_
_
_
0.27
3.04
2.01
_
_

__
_






0.36
3.72
1.25







12,500
1.42
9.35
0.98
0.33
3.29
1.03
76.5
64.8
-4.9
86.9
97.0


15,000
-
-
-
0.27
2.75
1.09
-
-

-
-


20,000
1.42
9.38
1.06
0.37
4.39
0.97
76.3
53.2
8.6
86.8
97.4


30,000
1.56
0.48
0.69
0.36
4.47
0.84
76.7
52.8
-22.9
85.9
97.9


40,000
2.16
10.80
1.43
0.45
4.25
1.29
79.3
60.6
9.6
85.5
98.2


50,000
2.50
10.72
1.30
0.46
3.80
1.29
81.6
64.6
0.5
86.7
98.7
'Nissan SR, pg IXI-2 to ITI-8.
A*Determined from engine dynamometer tests tor wlilch details were not provided.

-------
Table Nissan-13*
3-Way Catalyst System Durability Data**
Feedback delay
Vehicle
Number
8D-645C




g/mi


time after
Vehicle Description
System***
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
a
280Z; 2.8L; AT;
EFI/3W
0
0.26
1.98
0.31
u
15.8
51
3.545 axle;

5K
0.18
1.83
0.34
16.2
45
3000 lb. IW;

10K
0.22
2.53
0.26
16.0
56
49.6 N/V

15K
0.17
2.06
0.23
16.2
56


20K
0.19
2.94
0.26
16.2
56


25K
0.28
2.03
0.21
16.2
57


30K
0.19
2.01
0.21
16.0
54


35K
0.23
2.41
0.21
16.9
60


4 OK
0.37
2.63
0.15
16.2
61


45K
0. 31
,4.03
0.21
16.4
70


50K
0.37
3.81
0.24
15.6
71


4K
0.16
1.79
0.28




50K
0.34
3.43
0.17




DF
2. 21
1.92
1.00


1978 EPA Certification Durability Results
from Comparable Federal Vehicles
Veh Description
MPGu Range
16.3-17.6
Veh No. F599; 2.8L; M4;
3.545 axle; 3000 lb. IW
FI/EGR/OC
*Nissan SR, pg 11-183 to 11-187.
**Nissan did not specify what, if any, maintenance
was performed during the 50,000 miles.
*A*Nissan did not specify what other control systems were on this vehicle,
for example, EGR.
//Nissan believes the reason for the increase in CO at 45,000 miles may have been
due to the increase in feedback delay time.

-------
Table Nissan-14 presents 3-way catalyst durability data on 1977 and 1978
vehicles equipped with 3-way catalysts and oxygen sensors, but otherwise
unchanged. Since the systems were not optimized, the fuel economy was
quite poor, according to Nissan.
Table Nissan-15 presents emission data from ten in-use vehicles owned by
Nissan Motor Company employees in the U.S. Since Nissan did not report
these vehicles' model years nor did Nissan indicate for which emission
standard these vehicles received a certificate of conformity, it is
difficult to evaluate the in-use emissions performance of these vehicles.
It should be noted that there is a seemingly high frequency of main-
tenance performed on these vehicles though neither the actual main-
tenance nor the recommended maintenance are stated. Also, 20 Nissan
vehicles were randomly selected in California as part of a 400 vehicle
surveillance program by the State of California Air Resources Board,
however, these data are not yet available.
Table Nissan-16 presents data from two vehicles just beginning dura-
bility and targeted for 1980 California standards of 0.41 HC, 9.0 CO,
1.0 NOx.
12.2.10.7. Problems and Progress
Nissan does not appear to have any major difficulties in meeting future
emissions and fuel economy requirements. Systems to be used to meet
1981 Federal standards and, to a lesser extent, the 0.41 NOx research
goal are already well defined with, in most cases, only final optimiza-
tion yet to be accomplished. Though several programs are underway,
Nissan must continue in its efforts to achieve the 2 gram SHED evapora-
tive emission standard.
12-573

-------
Table Nissan-14*
3-Way Catalyst Durability Data
Vehicle
Number
F615
F503
Vehicle
(engine-out)
(tailpipe)
X conversion
efficiency
% conv eff
crossover point
Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
MPC **
HC
CO
NOx
CO-NOx
HC-NOx
Comments
Datsun 280Z;
EFI/3W
0
3.46
15.42
1.66
0.25
1.96
0.40
u
92.7
87.3
75.9
95.5
93.7

2.81,; A3;

5,000
2.96
15.34
1.62
0.33
1.42
0.38

88.8
90.7
76.5
97.0
94.0

3.545 axle;

10,000
2.02
19.84
1.26
0.32
2.81
0.28
14.7
84.2
85.8
77.5
94.6
92.2
Vehicle body
3000 lb. 1W;














& engine changed
49.6 N/V














due to accident;















used same cata-















lyst & 0. sensor


15,000
1.76
15.98
1.28
0.27
2.21
0.25
15.2
84.4
86.2
80.3
-
_
L


20,000
1.6.1
15.32
1.32
0.26
2.99
0.34
15.7
83.8
80.5
74.3
95.8
94.8



25,000
-
-
-
0.29
2.86
0. 21
15.2
-
-
-
96.3
93.8



30,000
1.68
16.23
1.28
0.34
3.12
0.27
15.5
79.5
80.8
79.3
-
-



35,000
1.80
13.56
1.25
0.29
2.56
0.28
15.9
83.9
81.1
77.8
95.0
93.0



40,000
1.77
15.86
1.15
0.27
1.77
0.48
15.3
84.6
88.8
58.3
-
-
Adjusted valve















clearance; re-















placed spark


45,000
1.74
16.0
1.11
0.26
2.19
0.24
15.3
85.1
86.3
78.4
-
-
plugs.


50,000
1.58
16.7
1.24
0.31
2.72
0.26
15.3
80.4
83.7
79.0
96.0
92.8


4K



0.31
2.33
0.31









50K



0.27
2.66
0.25









DF



1.00
1.14
1.00







Datsun 280Z;
EFI/3W
0
2. 26
19. 23
1.61
0.32
3.84
0.36
14.6
85.8
80.0
77.5
97.4
97.4

2.8L; A3;

5,000
-
-
-
0.32
4.17
0.21
16.5
-
-
-
-
_

3.545 axle;

10,000
2.30
18.73
1.67
0.33
4.08
0.16
16.1
85.8
78.2
90.3
96.0
96.0

3000 lb. IW;

15,000
2. 28
17.38
1. 55
0.37
4.43
0.12
15.9
83.8
74.5
92.6
96.5
95.4
Adjusted valve
49.6 N/V














clearance.


20,000
2. 44
18.04
1.50
0.34
3.83
0.10
16.2
85.8
78.8
93.3
-
-



25,000
2.41
17.22
1.39
0.30
3.40
0.10
16.2
87.5
80.3
92.8
97.0
93.5



30,000
2. 21
20.2
1.57
0.36
3.91
0.13
15.5
83.7
80.6
91.7
96.7
94.7
Replaced spark
4K***
50K***
DF***
0.33
0.36
1.07
4.29
3.19
1.00
0.18
0.25
1.00
plugs.
"'Nissan SR, pg 11-145 to 11-151.
A*Slnce these systems were not optimized,
***i;xtrapolated values.
fuel economy was quite poor, according to Nissan.

-------
Table Nissan-15*
Durability Test Results From Ten In-Use Datsuns Owned by Nissan Employees in the U.S.
Vehicle
101
601
hO
I
Ln
Ui
102
Vehicle

Odometer

	g/mi	


Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
C0o
Comments
1.4L; MT; Serial
EGR/AIR
0
0.92**
10.42**
2.32**
309**
Quality audit test
No. 004463

100
1.03
9.56
2.52
305
Before P.D.I.***
Veh Model: PLF10FM

200
0.89**
8.56**
2.12**
312**
After P.D.I.
Eng Fam: N-081

1,000
0.87
6.52
2.41
305
As received
Eng Code: 143-M

1,100
0.91**
9.20**
2.48**
303**
After maintenance


6,200
1.11**
11.90**
2.62**
298**
As received


6,400
1.15**
9.09**
2.73**
294**
After maintenance


12,500
1.03**
8.77**
2.59**
296**
As received


12,600
1.10**
9.96**
2.64**
294**
After maintenance


18,800
0.82**
10.70**
2.57**
306**
As received


18,800
0.76**
12.04**
2.42**
301**
After maintenance
2.0L; AT; Serial
EGR/AIR
0
1.46
15.7
2.71
458
Quality audit test
No. 112683

100
1.00
11.01
2.71
425
Before P.D.I.
Veh Model: HLG620FA
200
1.25
13.65
2.64
411
After P.D.I.
Eng Fam: N-101

1,000
1.22
11.80
2.78
391
As received
Eng Code: 203-A

1,000
1.18
11.30
2.80
393
After maintenance


6,200
1.42
13.89
3.16
370
As received


6,300
1.36
11.58
3.07
367
After maintenance


12,400
1.39**
11.85**
3.05**
366**
As received


12,500
1.52**
13.02**
3.23**
358**
After maintenance


18,700
1.38**
13.79**
3.25**
389**
As received


18,800
1.34**
10.95**
3.36**
358**
After maintenance
1.4L; MT; Serial
EGR/AIR/OC
0
0.25**
2.65**
1.64**
333**
Quality audit test
No. 005039

100
0.33
3.80
1.54
325
Before P.D.I.
Veh Model: PLF10CM

100
0.32**
3.96**
1.53**
327**
After P.D.I.
Eng Fam: N-082

1,000
0.39
4.09
1.45
338
As received
Eng Code: 144-M

1,000
0.42
6.20
1.52
331
After maintenance


6,300
0.43**
4.72**
1.70**
315**
As received


6,400
0.37**
5.11**
1.57**
318**
After maintenance


12,600
0.48**
5.44**
1.60**
317**
As received


12,700
0.44**
4.93**
1.54**
301**
After maintenance


18,800
0.58**
8.34**
1.82**
320**
As received


18,900
0.46**
4.49**
1.68**
296**
After maintenance

-------
Table Nissan-15* (cont.)
Durability Test Results From Ten In-Use Datsuns Owned by Nissan Employees in the U.S.
Vehicle Vehicle
Number Description
System
602
201
603
2.0L; AT; Serial EGR/AIR
No. 111972
Veh Model: HLG620FA
Eng Fam: N-101
Eng Code: 203-A
1.4L; AT; Serial EGR/AIR
No. 743795
Veh Model: HLB210FA
Eng Fam: N-081
Eng Code: 141-A
2.0L; AT; Serial
No. 112687
Veh Model: HLG620CA
Eng Fam: N-102
Eng Code: 204-A
EGR/AIR/OC
Odometer
Mileage
0
100
200
1,000
1,000
6,200
6.300
12,400
12,600
18,600
18,700
0
100
100
1,000
1,100
6,200
6,300
12,500
12,600
18,800
18,800
0
100
200
1,000
1,000
6,300
6,400
12,400
12,400
HC
1.48
1.13
1.15**
0.94
1.08
1.26**
1.11**
1.37
1.29**
1.47**
1.28**
1.41
1.31
1.17**
1.14
1.10
1.18
1.12**
1.25**
1.25**
1.06**
1.22**
0.48
0.70**
0.74**
0.56
0.59
0.71**
0.59**
0.50**
0.46**
	g/mi	
CO	NOx
CO,
13.34
10.88
11.75**
9.82
7.88
12.57**
10.68**
10.75
9.89**
12.09**
8.77**
8.59
9.08
7.26**
5.76
6.86
9.23
7.12**
6.44**
5.95**
8.38**
8.30**
1.61
7.65**
8.30**
6.23
6.21
9.46**
7.52**
9.12**
7.08**
2.95
2.46
2.80**
2.48
2.64
2.75**
2.76**
2.68
2.94**
3.51**
3.22**
2.77
2.71
2.33**
3.22
2.55
2.48
2.60**
3.06**
3.27**
2.54**
2.87**
1.79
1.91**
1.82**
1.43
2.01
1.70**
1.80**
2.10**
2.25**
455
408
402**
370
396
386**
382**
368
359**
372**
349**
366
339
336**
313
309
292
295**
294**
291**
303**
285**
483
419**
417**
389
387
394**
394**
415**
412**
Comments
Quality audit test
Before P.D.I.
After P.D.I.
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
Quality audit test
Before P.D.I.
After P.D.I.
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
Quality audit test
Before P.D.I.
After P.D.I.
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance

-------
Table Nissan-15* (cont.)
Durability Test Results From Ten In-Use Datsuns Owned by NisBart Employees in the U.S.
Vehicle Vehicle
Number Description
202
604
1.4L; AT; Serial
No. 743887
Veh Model: HLB210FA
Eng Fam: N-081
Eng Code: 141-A
System
EGR/AIR
2.0L; AT; Serial EGR/AIR/OC
No. 112682
Veh Model: HLG620CA
Eng Fam: N-102
Eng Code: 204-A
Odometer
Mileage
0
100
200
1,000
1,000
6,400
6,500
12,400
12,500
18,800
18,900
0
100
200
1,000
1,100
6,300
6,400
12,500
12,600
18,800
18,900
HC
1.27
0.94
1.09**
1.09
1.10
1.81**
1.74**
1.67**
1.57**
1.41**
1.44**
0.44
0.44
0.30
0.36
0.33
0.48**
0.42**
0.58**
0.55**
0.52**
0.54**
	g/mi	
CO	NOx
CO,
7.30
6.60
6.64**
7.93
7.08
10.51**
8.37**
8.22**
7.20**
10.30**
8.75**
1.89
2.43
2.78
3.68
3.53
14.44**
5.51**
5.84**
5.87**
6.78**
6.70**
2.46
2.37
2.46**
2.43
2.36
2.91**
2.83**
2.85**
3.03**
3.09**
2.96**
1.75
1.79
1.71
2.12
1.96
1.65**
1.68**
1.70**
1.87**
2.21**
2.22**
383
349
333**
320
315
302**
296**
280**
281**
280**
274**
484
444
421
413
411
416**
413**
398**
371**
377**
389**
Comments
Quality audit test
Before P.D.I.
After P.D.I.
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
Quality audit test
Before P.D.I.
After P.D.I.
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance
As received
After maintenance

-------
Table Nissan-15* (cont.)
Durability Test Results From Ten In-Use Datsuns Owned by Nissan Employees in the U.S.
Vehicle
301
Vehicle

Odometer

	g/mi	


Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
co2
619
Comments
2.8L; AT; Serial
EFI
0
1.38
6.57
2.87
Quality audit test
No. 283806

100
0.94
5.72
2.42
546
Before P.D.I.
Veh Model: HLS30FA

200
0.94**
6.27**
2.31**
571**
After P.D.I.
Eng Fam: N-lll

1,000
1.06
6.60
2.40
543
As received
Eng Code: 281-A

1,000
1.14
6.52
2.69
536
After maintenance


6,300
1.33
6.91
1.98
477
As received


6,300
1.41
6.65
1.98
484
After maintenance


12,600
1.41**
7.01**
2.74**
482**
As received


12,700
1.51**
7.58**
2.95**
501**
After maintenance


18,800
1.52**
6.01**
2.96**
480**
As received


18,900
1.40**
6.05**
2.85**
491**
After maintenance


25,000
1.52**
8.14**
2.94**
469**
As received


25,200
1.40**
8.58**
3.08**
492**
After maintenance
701 2.0L; AT; Serial EGR/AIR	0
No. 042610	200
Veh Model: JKHL710FA	200
Eng Fam: N-091	1,000
Eng Code: 201-A	1,100
6,300
6,300
12,600
12,700
18,700
18,900
1.26
12.08
2.63
432
Quality audit test
1.02
9.54
2.52
415
Before P.D.I.
1.20**
12.39**
2.83**
398**
After P.D.I.
1.13
12.63
2.83
385
As received
1.13
9.56
2.82
393
After maintenance
0.97
11.48
2.53
360
As received
1.03
8.84
3.00
352
After maintenance
0.93**
9.74**
2.77**
360**
As received
1.07**
11.59**
3.13**
367**
After maintenance
0.76**
10.41**
2.88**
393**
As received
0.92**
9.80**
2.53**
368**
After maintenance
*Nissan SR, pg 111-41 to 111-51.
**Average results of two or three tests.
***P.D.I. was not defined by Nissan, but could
mean pre-delivery Inspection.

-------
Table Nissan-16*
Durability Vehicles Targeted for 1980 California Standards
Vehicle No.
Vehicle Description
System Mileage
HC
	g/mi	
CO
NOx
MPG
A664
Datsun B210; 1.4L; M5;
EGR/AIR/OC
0
0.17
1.55
0.77
u
25.3

3.70 axle; 2250 lb. IW

0
0.26
2.27
0.65
23.2
A555
Datsun B210; 1.4L; A3;
EGR/AIR/OC
0
0.15
3.47
0.61
24.9
3.889 axle; 2500 lb. IW
*Nissan SR, pg 11-133 to 11-135.
IV3
I
U1
VO

-------
Unfortunately, Nissan has not combined two of its most promising and
effective approaches to emission control, the NAPS-Z or fast burn engine
and the 3-way catalyst system. The 3-way catalyst system has achieved
the 0.41 NOx research goal over 50,000 miles of durability (Veh No. 8D-
645C in Table Nissan-13 and Veh. No. F615 in Table Nissan-14) , but
with fuel economy averaging only about 16	for 3000 lb. IW vehicles.
The achievement of the research goals over full durability by Nissan
with two vehicles is considered a raojor technological achievement by
the EPA technical staff.
Nissan's fast burn engine can achieve 1.0 g/mi NOx levels with very good
fuel economy but must sacrifice some of its fuel economy advantages to
achieve the 0.41 NOx research goal. By combining the good aspects of
the fast burn engine, low engine-out NOx and excellent fuel economy,
with a 3-way catalyst system, Nissan could have a very strong candidate
to meet the 0.41 NOx research goal with very good fuel economy.
Only the 2.0L 14 engine was reported by Nissan to be sold in the U.S. in
future years. However, the 1.8L and 2.0L 14 engines and the 2.8L 16
engine sold in Japan utilize the fast bum concept.* Thus, this concept
does have the potential to be extended to other Nissan engines besides
the 2.0L 14 engine to be sold in the U.S.
Also, Nissan's 1.4L 14 engine has been reported to have, as optional
equipment for the Japanese market, electronic fuel injection.** Since
Nissan has extended the use of EFI down to the relatively small 1.4L
engine in Japan, this is also a possibility for vehicles to be marketed
in the U.S. in the future.
Nissan's plans not to export vehicles equipped with Diesel engines has
also been reported elsewhere.*** This is interesting for several reasons.
*Ward's Engine Update, 18 Fen 1977, pg. 1.
**Ward's Engine Update, 31 Mar 1978, pg. 8.
***Ward's Engine Update,8 July 1977, pg. 3 and 28 Oct 1977, pg. 6.
12-580

-------
Nissan already produces 2.0L and 2.2L Diesel engines for sale in Japan
and thus would be able to quickly move into the U.S. market with Diesel
engines. Also, reports have stated Toyota, Mitsubishi, Isuzu, Honda,
and possibly Toyo Kogyo may be planning to introduce Diesel engines and
thus could provide Nissan with significant competition in this area if
Nissan delays further.
Figure Nissan-30 presents the multi-gap spark plug used in the Datsun B-
210 Plus models. Combined with its transistorized ignition, it has been
reported to insure a uniform high-powered spark for efficient ignition
of the swirling intake charge. This vehicle has achieved fuel economy
ratings of 37 MPG^, 50	anc* 42 MPGc, and there is apparently
nothing involved in the B-210 high-mileage treatment that cannot be
adapted to other Datsun 14 engines in the near future.* Nissan did not
offer any details concerning the possible extension of the use of this
plug to other engines.
Nissan has been reported to be planning the introduction of a new 2-door
hatchback model equipped with a 1.4L engine for the fall of 1978. This
vehicle is said to resemble the Honda Civic and Ford Fiesta models, and
should be quite fuel efficient.**
*Ward's Engine Update, 15 Apr 1977, pg. 1 and 4.
**American Metal Market, Metalworking News Edition, 1 May 1978, pg. 1 & 2.
Figure Nissan-30*
Multi-Gap Spark Plug Used in Datsun B-210 Plus Models
12-581

-------
Nissan is also said to be conducting a feasibility study on building an
automobile manufacturing plant in the U.S. Economic and political
reasons are said to have prompted the study with parts costs, freight
costs, and labor laws among the most important factors in any decision
by Nissan.* If such a plant is built, Nissan's vehicles could be produced
at lower cost, could be priced lower, and could gain greater market
penetration. Such prospects make Nissan's technological capabilities
even more important.
^American Metal Market, Metalworking News Edition, 1 May 1978, p. 1 & 22.
Automotive News, 1 May 1978, p. 6.
12-582

-------
12.2.11. Peugeot
12.2.11.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Peugeot mentioned that their 504 model will be similar in all respects
to the 1978 model. It will be equipped with a carbureted engine and be
available in sedans and station wagons with automatic or manual trans-
missions and the option of air conditioning. The 604 model equipped
with a carbureted engine will differ only due to some engine modifica-
tions for performance improvements, according to Peugeot. No other
information regarding these models was provided by Peugeot. Regarding
Diesel engine development, Peugeot reported, "Due to the fact that these
emission standards have been effective for several years, there is at
the present time no development[al] program scheduled in view of meeting
these emission values."
12.2.11.2. Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
The above discussion regarding vehicles equipped with gasoline engines
also applies to 1980 standards. For Diesel engines, Peugeot's objective
is to reach the 1980 standards by conventional adjustment of engine and
fuel injection parameters while retaining a high level of driveability
and giving particular consideration to noise levels. Peugeot's 504
Diesel engine displaces 2.3L, has four cylinders, is a four stroke per
cycle design, and uses a 22 to 23:1 compression ratio. Peugeot believes
compliance with California's 1.0 NOx standard will tend to have a nega-
tive impact and this trade-off complicates 1980 Federal standard develop-
ment. Very little other information concerning this engine was provided
by Peugeot.
12-583

-------
12.2.11.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
Peugeot has two spark ignited engines to be used to meet these stan-
dards. These are described in Table Peugeot-1. Also, Peugeot is
attempting to define Diesel engine specifications which will allow them
to meet the 1.5 NOx requirement for 100,000 miles for California and the
Federal standard of 1.0 NOx.
Table Peugeot-1*
Spark Ignited Engine Control Systems for 1981 Model Year
Configuration Displ C.R. First Choice System** Second Choice System**
14	2.0L 8.35:1 FI/3W/AIR/0C	FI/EGR/3W/AIR/0C
V6	2.6L 8.2:1	FI/3W/AIR/0C	FI/EGR/3W/AIR/0C
*Peugeot Emission Control Status Report (Gasoline), February 1978,
pg. 9-18 (Gasoline), hereinafter referred to as Peugeot SR.
**The fuel injection system will be a feedback controlled Bosch K-Jetronic
unit, the oxygen sensor will be a zirconium dioxide type, and secondary
air will be injected into the exhaust port area during cold start
operation and then will be switched downstream of the 3-way catalyst.
Description of the 3-way catalyst was not provided since final selection
has not been made. The oxidation catalyst will be the same as that used
currently for 1978 vehicles, but interestingly, will be located near the
rear axle, far downstream of the 3-way catalyst. Two 3-way and two
oxidation catalysts will be used with the V6 engine, one of each for
each cylinder bank. The EGR valve will either be the one used currently
or one using backpressure modulation.
12.2.11.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
No systems were described or designated for use at these emission levels.
Peugeot is unaware of any system that would allow them to achieve both
the 3.4 CO and 0.4 NOx levels in production.
12-584

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12.2.11.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Diesel Engines
Peugeot has performed several tests on vehicles equipped with Diesel
engines, with and without EGR, and using two Diesel fuels, one with a
cetane rating of 42 (Amoco) which is the lowest cetane rating allowed by
EPA for certification emission testing and the other with a cetane
rating of 50 (Howell) which is the highest cetane rating allowed in
EPA's emission test fuel specifications. By varying fuel injection
timing, Peugeot determined the HC/NOx tradeoffs with both fuels as
presented in Figure Peugeot-1. Because of the large differences in
emissions as a function of the fuel's cetane rating, Peugeot recommends
that a tighter cetane specification be adopted for Diesel test fuels.
Since Peugeot's low mileage target is 0.25 HC to meet a 0.41 total HC
standard, it may be difficult for Peugeot to meet the 1981 NOx standard.
With Peugeot's current EGR system and a low mileage NOx target of 0.7-
0.8 NOx, it may also be difficult for them to meet the 1980 California
standard of 1.0 NOx.
Evaporative Emissions
For vehicles equipped with carbureted engines, the evaporative emission
control system will consist, of a carbon canister, an air cleaner element
containing activated carbon, tubing to connect the carburetor float bowl
and fuel tank with the canister, a purge system, an electrical fan to
cool the carburetor after the engine is stopped, and appropriately
placed heat shields to reduce the amount of heat transferred to the car-
buretor. For vehicles equipped with fuel injection systems, the above
system will be used minus the air filter storage, float bowl discharge
tubes, and the electrical fan. Best results to date have been about
1.8 g/test, but have ranged between about 1.8 to 2.3 g/test. There is
not a sufficient enough margin to meet the proposed 2 g/test SHED standard,
according to Peugeot.
12-585

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PSA PEUGECT- CITROEN
0G0/MD06-I3-7U
Figure Peuseot-1*
504 DIESEL :
I ! 	'	
EGR System
FTP (3 BAGS)
(THREE CARS)
! 9 11 13'a 3 STATIC INJECTION
TIMINGS
N^EG;R;
D-fc.. .
0,5-
cA-
3S-
y~ .77-77;

f '  f\ -
-^.4^/ / 7
TARGET
NOx
0.7 to 0.8
5D . HOWELL FUEL, CEIANE NUMBER : 50 . ..
20 AMOCO FUEL CEIANE NUMBER , 42
HC
|rl/iatU

*Peugeot document on
Diesel emission control,
19 June 1978.
_7 T V
0.25 IS PE TARGET
FOR 0.41 TUC
12-586
0.4

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Fuel Economy
Weight reduction involves the three areas of research at the general
structural level for the lightest fittings which can be installed,
component design optimization, and research and testing of new materials
for their cost/efficiency trade-offs. Gear spacing in both automatic
and manual transmission is being examined by Peugeot as well as a four
speed automatic transmission with a lock-up torque converter. Also,
Peugeot is performing tests on a new oil for use in the rear axle but no
further details were provided. For spark ignited engines, engine effi-
ciency improvements were mentioned by Peugeot, but no programs on speci-
fic engine parameters were reported. For Diesel engines, no information
was reported other than a statement saying Peugeot does not expect fuel
economy to decrease.
Stratified Charge Engines
Peugeot, Renault, and Volvo have all contracted with Porsche for deli-
very of an unspecified number of V6 engines which have been adapted with
Porsche's SKS stratified charge system. The first engine is expected to
be delivered soon, according to Peugeot. (See the section of this
report on Porsche for a description of the SKS concept.)
Electric Propulsion Systems
Two electric vehicles (vans) are under development by Peugeot. The
larger vehicle is a 3500 kg GVW van powered by a 25 kW motor and a
1500 kg GVW light van powered by a 10 kW motor. Both vehicles have a
maximum speed of 80 km/h and a 60 km range in urban traffic. Braking is
accomplished by an energy recovery system during initial brake pedal
travel and is assisted by mechanical braking for the rest of the brake
pedal travel. Peugeot did not specify the type of batteries (e.g. lead-
acid, nickel-zinc, lithium-metal sulfide, sodium-sulfur, etc.) which are
used in these vehicles.
12-587

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Table Peugeot-2*
Low Mileage Emission Data








	g/tni	



Model
Engine
System
Trans

HC

CO
NOx

MPG
504
2.0L
; 14
FI/3W/AIR/0C
-
0.
.15-0.
25
2-4.5
O
1
CN
o
.55
u
19-21
604
2.6L
; V6
FX/3W/AIR/OC
-
0.
.20-0.
30
3.5-6.5
0.3-0.
.6
15-17
Station
2.3L
; 14
FX
MT

0.70

1.8
1.02

26.6
Wagon
(Diesel)

MT

1.04

2.1
0.91

27.2




MT

0.91

2
0.96

26.9




AT

0.55

1.3
1.17

24.5




AT

0.6

1.3
1.05

26




AT

0.72**
2.26**
1.08**
24.8**
Sedan
2.3L:
; 14
FI
MT

0.71

1.6
1.05

27.6

(Die:
3el)

MT

0.89

1.6
1.01

28.2




AT

0.66

1.2
1.21

25.1




AT

0.52

1.2
1.1

26.2




AT

0.59

1.3
1.14

25.3
*Peugeot SR, pg. 40 (Gasoline) and pg. 7 (Diesel).
**Tests performed at high altitude (Denver, CO).
Fuel Economy Data From
Comparable 1978 Federal Vehicles
MPG, MPG KPG, Trans Comments
	h		u		h				
16.7-17.1 21.6-25.1 -	2.0L; 14; 3500 lb. IW;
ECR/AIR/OC
15.0-15.1 18.8-22.5 -	2.6L; V6; 3500 lb. IW;
EGR/AIR/OC
32.0	24.9	29.1	MT	2.3L; 14 (Diesel)
34.7	23.7	26.5	AT
29.8
30.6
24.6** 26.7** AT
35.5	24.7	28.4	MT	2.3L; 14 (Diesel)
35	23.6	27.1	AT
31.5
31.4

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Emission Data
Besides durability data, Table Peugeot-2 presents all developmental data
reported by Peugeot.
12.2.11.6. Durability Data
Table Peugeot-3 presents all durability data reported by Peugeot.
Table Peugeot-3*
Durability Emission Data
Vehicle
Vehicle


g/mi


Number
Descrip System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
224.AFK
MT; 3500 FI/3W/
0
0.13
1.68
0.35
u
19.0

lb. IW** AIR/OC
16
0.17
1.62
0.42
18.6


2,585
0.23
4
0.37
18.4


2,607
0.19
2.85
0.36
18.4


5,072
0.18
1.88
0.43
18.7


5,085
0.18
2.11
0.34
19.1


7,659
0.17
3.86
0.32
19.3


7,726
0.2
4.34
0.36
19.5


10,132
0.29
6.46
0.34
19.7


10,205
0.26
5.59
0.50
21.0
2513024
AT; 3500 FI/3W/
0
0.12
2.08
0.68
18.7

lb. IW** AIR/OC
19
0.10
2.10
0.84
19.0
1238***
MT; 3500 FI/3W
0
0.13
1.47
0.46
22.4

lb. IW**
31
0.15
1.86
0.51
22.1


2,144
0.17
2.42
0.54
22.2


2,162
0.16
2.24
0.60
23.4


4,779
0.17
2.21
0.72
24.2


4,798
0.17
2.16
0.74
23.7


4,848
0.15
2.32
0.59
21.8


6,750
0.2
2.29
0.77
22.5


6,773
0.2
2.99
0.79
23.5


6,790
0.21
2.28
0.79
23.4


9,305
0.25
3.64
1.28
22.6
1238***
MT; 3500 FI/3W
0
0.10
0.86
0.28
20.4

lb. IW**
25
0.16
1.01
0.28
21.0


63
0.14
1.57
0.32
20.9


2,747
0.20
2.50
0.45
20.6


2,797
0.25
2.64
0.53
21.6
Comments
Test continues.
Test halted due
to high NOx.
12-589

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Table Peugeot-3* (cont.)
Durability Emission Data
Vehicle
Number
Vehicle
Descrip System
Mileage
HC
g/mi
GO
NOx
MPG
Comments
1238***
MT; 3500 FI/3W
5,027
0.46
2.24
0.67
u
21.6



5,048
0.25
2.67
0.65
22.6
Test temporarily







halted to







inspect cata-







lyst (engine







misfiring).
1238***
MT; 3500 FI/3W
0
0.15
2.25
0.12
20.5


lb. IW**
22
0.14
.2.54
0.24
20.5



41
0.15
2.26
0.21
20.2



1,243
0.16
3.14
0.30
20.3



1,262
0.17
3.18
0.21
20.6



2,560
0.22
3.67
0.30
21.8



2,598
0.21
3.91
0.24
21.8



5,009
0.31
5.59
0.34
21.2



5,034
0.29
5.1
0.32
21.6



7,651
0.35
5.72
0.45
21.7



7,669
0.34
5.26
0.45
23.2
Halted due to
use of leaded
gasoline.
*Peugeot SR, pg. 40-49 (Gasoline). No Diesel durability data were reported.
**Engine size not reported by Peugeot.
***Vehicle numbeirs not explained by Peugeot.
12.2.11.7. Problems and Progress
From Peugeot's submission to EPA, it is not altogether clear what speci-
fic problems they have or progress they have made. Levels of 3.4 CO and
1.0 NOx will be difficult for vehicles equipped with spark ignited
engines and 1.0 NOx will be difficult for vehicles equipped with Diesel
engines, according to Peugeot. Fuel economy does not appear to be a
problem for Peugeot, but may require further improvement by the early
1980s to ensure compliance with fuel economy standards.
Peugeot also reported problems with Diesel EGR systems. According to
Peugeot, an interaction between the PCV flow and the EGR flow causes
excessive intake system deposits.
12-590

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It h'as been reported Peugeot is developing a turbocharged version of
their 2.6L V6 engine for the 604 sedan.* Peugeot did not report any
information concerning these developmental efforts.
*Ward's Engine Update, June 10, 1977, p. 1.
12-591

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12.2.12. Porsche
12.2.12.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Most of Porsche's emission control systems will be carryover from Model
Year 1978. Typical systems include K-Jetronic fuel injection, trans-
istorized ignition, an oxidation catalyst, and EGR. Major changes
involve the 930 Turbo, the 928, and the 924S models.
The 930 Turbo will incorporate the 1978 California configuration with
advanced part-load ignition timing, an increased compression ratio (7.5
vs. 7.0), and a boost pressure-dependent spark retard control system.
The 928 will incorporate an improved evaporative emission control system
and a modified fuel mixture control for improved driveability and NOx
control. The new model, the 924S, according to Porsche, is tentatively
scheduled for production in January 1979. This is a turbocharged ver-
sion of the 924 model. The 924S will utilize a 3-way catalyst emission
control system. Low mileage results with the 3-way catalyst system are
shown in Table Porsche-1.
Table Porsche-1*
Low Mileage Emission Results (g/mi) -
924S with a 3-way Catalyst Vehicle 924-610-0257
HC	CO	NOx	MPGu
0.17	4.68	0.56	16.4
*Average of 4 tests - Annual Status Report, Porsche, 1978. Hereafter
Referred to as Porsche 1977 SR.
According to Porsche, the emission levels they are aiming for with this
package are 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx, the 1981 standards. In terms of
meeting the 3.4 CO level, more work is apparently needed.
12-592

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Porsche indicated that the 924S will have a boost pressure-controlled
ignition system. UOP catalysts are being evaluated in a one biscuit or
two biscuit configuration. One example is two 4.66 inch diameter catalysts
each 3 inches long arranged in series, separated by a gap which Porsche
calls a "swirl section." This gap may provide for better mixing of the
exhaust gas before it enters the second catalyst.
Porsche indicated that the 3-way catalyst system on the 924S is designed
to operate at the full rich limit during a cold start (before the sensor
is warmed up), at full load by means of a throttle control switch, and
if the control system "fails". Porsche,like some other manufacturers
appears to favor the "fail rich" approach in the logic for 3-way catalyst
control systems. Porsche claimed that the driver would become "imme-
diately aware" of the over-enriched engine mixture, but did not indicate
if this awareness would be sufficient to encourage the driver to have
the system fixed. Porsche does plan to incorporate a visual warning
light to alert the driver in the event of an oxygen sensor failure.
Porsche also did not report data on any unregulated emissions that might
be produced or increased during this "fail rich" mode of operation.
12.2.12.2. Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
For model year 1980 the emission standards will be 0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2.0
NOx and Porsche will apparently use this year to begin to phase in some
of the systems that will also be used in the 1981 model year.
For the 1980 MY Porsche will use 3-way catalysts on all vehicles in
conjunction with K-Jetronic (mechanical) fuel injection, except for the
928/4.5 litre engine which will use L-Jetronic (electronic) fuel injection.
Fuel injection systems will incorporate closed-loop electronic control
systems in conjunction with the oxygen sensors in the exhaust system.
12-593

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Emissions data for the Porsche 930 turbo, with a 3-way catalyst, will
not be available until mid-1978. Emission values for the Porsche 924
equipped with a 3-way catalyst system are shown on Table Porsche-2.
Table Porsche-2*
Experimental Porsche 924 With a 3-Way Catalyst System
(Pt/Rh =5:1 loading)
M5 Transmission
(Ave 3 tests)
M4 Transmission
(Ave 2 tests)
System Miles - 7000 to 10,000
FTP - HC = 0.13 (g/mi)
FTP - CO = 2.4 (g/mi)
FTP - NOx = 0.26 (g/mi)
FTP - MPG = 21.3
HFET - MP& = 33.3
h
Odometer Miles - 14,000 to 23,00n
FTP - HC = 0.17 (g/mi)
FTP - CO = 3.5 (g/mi)
FTP - NOx = 0.16 (g/mi)
FTP - MPG =21.4
HFET - MPil =29.9
n
*Porsche 1977SR Section 6. Vehicle Data Sheet.
These data represent about 50% reduction in HC, 84% reduction in NOx and
11% improvement in highway fuel economy when compared against 1978
certification engines which had fuel injection, air injection and EGR
for emissions control. The integrated control logic, as with the 924S,
is in favor of the fail rich mode with a visual warning light in case of
an oxygen sensor failure.
The Porsche 924S will be a carryover from the 1979 MY with low mileage
emission results reported in Table Porsche-1. The 911SC will use a dual
monolithic 3-way catalyst with closed loop control. One vehicle, Serial
No. 911-760-1049, was reported by Porsche as shown on Table Porsche-3.
Mileage information was not included with the data. For the 3.4 CO
level required in the 1981 MY, more work is needed.
12-594

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Table Porsche-3*
911SC Emission Results** With a 3-Way Catalyst System (g/mi)
HC	CO	NOx	MPGu	MPGh***
0.26	3.62	0.46	16.4	29.9
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 19
**Average 19 tests
***Average 5 tests
I
For the 911SC catalyst, Porsche reported 98% Pt loading which is much
different from typical Pt-Rh ratios used in 3-way catalysts. Porsche
did indicate, however, that they favor an 11:1 Pt/Rh ratio, at least,
for the 1980 3-way catalyst systems. No emissions data were included in
the Porsche Status Report for the 928, 4.5 litre engine, which will use
L-Jetronic fuel injection with closed loop 3-way catalyst control. L~
Jetronic is preferred by Porsche for this engine rather than K-Jetronic
because of more favorable costs with L-Jetronic. Cost information,
however, was not included with the Porsche statement.
12.2.12.3.	Systems to be Used for the 1981 Model Year and Beyond
For the 1981 MY, Porsche plans on using essentially the same emission
control systems employed for the 1980 MY requirements. The Porsche
928/4.5 litre engine is the exception and may require an additional
oxidation catalyst with air injection or a rapid cut-off of the cold-
start enrichment device.
12.2.12.4.	Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO. 0.41 NOx
Prototype Vehicle Durability Evaluation
12-595

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Examinations have been carried out to show it is possible to reach 0.41
NOx with certain test cars. However, according to Porsche, this does
not as yet allow for production tolerance margins. NOx levels less than
0.41 g/mi will be possible by 1981 at the earliest for the Porsche 911SC
and 930 turbo models with K-Jetronic fuel injection, electronic 0^
sensor feedback circuit, air/fuel ratio control, and a 3-way catalyst.
Porsche indicated that it may be more difficult to control CO to less than
3.4 g/mi than to comply with the low NOx value, and experience with a
greater number of vehicles will be required to determine the exact NOx
reduction needed to comply with the 0.41 g/mi NOx level. No positive
results are available yet, but attention is being given to improved
response times of the oxygen sensor and the catalyst. One set of test
results was provided, however, with an experimental prototype (EVDM), 92
CID, 14 engine being developed for another European automotive manufac-
turer, with the following results reported over 50,000 miles with an M5
transmission:
Table Porsche-4*
0.41 g/mi NOx Durability Demonstration -
92 CID Experimental Engine
HC (g/mi)	CO (g/mi) NOx (g/mi) MPG
4,000 miles - 0.08	0.71	0.34	22.8
50,000 miles - 0.13	1.43	0.20	24.0
D.F.	1.7	2.02	1.0
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23
The inertia weight of this vehicle was 2500 pounds and the emission
controls consisted of L-Jetronic fuel injection with oxygen sensor
control and a 3-way dual-monolithic catalyst. The oxygen sensor was
replaced at 12,000, 30,000, and 45,000 mile intervals. Neither EGR nor
12-59'6

-------
air injection were required. The oxygen sensor installed at 12,356
miles was continued to be examined in the exhaust system, up to 50,000
miles for the purpose of aging. It was examined every 5,000 miles with
the following results:
Table Porsche-5*
O2 Sensor Aging Effect (g/mi)
0^ Sensor Mileage
0
HC
CO
NOx
0.08
0.66
0.65
2,627
0.09
0.78
0.41
8,025
0.08
0.95
0.34
12,805
0.10
1.02
0.36
12,824
0.07
0.64
0.31
17,458
0.11
1.11
0.24
22,567
0.13
1.45
0.31
27,607
0.15
1.53
0.30
32,443
0.15
1.98
0.39
37,419
0.14
1.71
0.36
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23
The dual monolithic catalyst was comprised of two sections, one biscuit
measured 4" dia x 3" long and the other 4" dia x 6" long. The catalyst
used during the test was further examined by removing the front 3"
monolith and continuing with the 6" monolith (catalyst A) with the
following results:
Table Porsche-6*
Emissions with Single 6" Catalysts (g/mi)
Catalyst Miles	HC	CO	NOx	MPG
u
49,790	0.17	1.57	0.32	23.2
49,802	0.15	1.88	0.24	22.7
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23
12-597

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Then the 6" monolith was cut in the middle and the front portion was
combined with the formerly removed 3" monolith to form catalyst B:
Table Porsche-7*
Emissions with Two 3" Catalyst Sections (g/mil
Catalyst Miles	HC	CO	NOx	MPG
u
49,815	0.18	1.71	0.31	22.4
49,838	0.17	1.19	0.33	22.7
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23
For comparison, a new 6" monolith, of the same construction was examined
as follows:
Table Porsche-8*
Emissions with a Fresh 4" x 6" Catalyst (g/mi)
Catalyst Miles	HC	CO	NOx	MPGu
35,000	0.10	1.08	0.16	22.4
47,000	0.10	1.04	0.14	22.3
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23
This developmental work encompassed five engines of which four were used
for detailed examination and one for test bench endurance evaluation.
Three vehicles were used for complementary emissions and fuel consump-
tion examinations, and one for 50,000 mile endurance. At the end of the
developmental phase, two additional vehicles were tested in order to
confirm compliance with the overall objectives of the development. At
the end of the developmental work, all test vehicles were subjected to
several FTP and highway fuel economy tests. From 39 FTP tests the
following average results were obtained:
12-598

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Table Porsche-9*
Average Results from 39 FTP Tests -
6 EVDM Vehicles
HC	0.10 g/mi
CO	1.11 g/mi
NOx	0.24 g/mi
MPG	(FTP/HFET) 22.5/35.4
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23
Upon completion of the developmental phase, 16 final FTP tests were
carried out on four different vehicles (two vehicles used during the
developmental phase and two new vehicles). These tests were to prove
that the target values can be obtained with new vehicles and engines
that have not been run-in. Emission control systems were new. All
vehicles displayed good driveability. Some driveability problems were
noted, however, on some vehicles under low load and at an engine speed
of 1800 rpm. The following results show the average values for each of
the four cars:
Table Porsche-10*
Average Results from 4 New Test Vehicles (g/mi)
Vehicle
Avg. System Miles
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
A
47
0.13
1.13
0.31
u
22.6
B
51
0.11
1.08
0.14
22.8
C
47
0.12
1.35
0.08
21.6
D
145
0.14
1.42
0.44
22.9
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23
No explanation or details were provided to explain the relatively high
NOx emissions reported for vehicle D. The durability results reported
by Porsche represent the best combined control of HC, CO, and NOx ever
12-599

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reported to EPA (see Table Porsche-4). It appears that with a fuel
injection system, a catalyst volume to engine displacement ratio of
about 1.25, and a segmented catalyst, 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx levels
can be maintained for 50,000 miles. While other durability results have
been very low (see the sections on Nissan and Volvo in this report) the
results reported by Porsche represent a major step since they provide a
significant margin below the 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx levels. A Porsche
representative was contacted informally by the EPA technical staff and
asked to identify the manufacturer for which these tests were run.
Porsche would not provide that information.
Other 0.41 NOx Efforts
The Porsche 928/4.5L project may possibly require an oxidation catalyst
in addition to a 3-way catalyst, an oxygen sensor and L-Jetronic fuel
injection. Porsche reported that it may be easier to comply with a 1.0
NOx standard for 100,000 miles than with a 0.41 NOx standard for 50,000
miles. No test results were reported.
Some data were reported for the 911SC06 engine with a 3-way catalyst and
two oxygen sensors as shown on Table Porsche-11.
Table Porsche-11*
911SC Horizontally Opposed 6 Cylinder Engine with
System
Emission
Results
(g/mi)

Miles
HC
CO
NOx
co2
421
0.207
3.07
0.40
527
743
0.248
3.40
0.39
544
758
0.309
3.41
0.30
548
1018
0.256
2.31
0.39
546
1124
0.219
2.46
0.31
541
1145
0.236
2.40
0.32
537
1167
0.272
2.28
0.35
529
4262
0.215
2.47
0.19
539
Evap. MPGu
16.2
16.1
16.0
16.1
16.3
16.4
16.6
16.3
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 2, Table 1
12-600

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Deterioration of CO emissions due to oxygen sensor drift as well as
catalyst deteriorization continues to be of concern to Porsche even
though this low mileage test does not appear to completely support this
concern.
12.2.12.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Other developmental efforts at Porsche include the following investi-
gations:
Porsche SKS Stratified Charge
According to Porsche, the stratified charge engine (Porsche's version is
called the SKS engine), is one of those alternatives having the potential
to meet the 0.41 NOx research goal while maintaining good fuel economy
and satisfactory driveability. The principle of stratified charge
combustion and overall lean burn operation is well recognized and iden-
tified in the literature. Porsche has been working on the development
of the stratified charge engine since 1973. The Porsche SKS system is
described in the April 1977 EPA Status Report and a schematic of the
system is shown in Figure Porsche-1.
Porsche indicated that favorable emission values and low fuel consump-
tion can be obtained with the stratified charge engine if high specific
output is not required. Examinations carried out with the Porsche air
cooled 911 06 SKS engine show that higher octane fuel is required than
that required by the conventional engine. The secondary fuel supply to
the auxiliary chambers is accomplished with the K-Jetronic fuel injec-
tion system and the quantity remains constant throughout the entire
speed and load regime. With K-Jetronic control also in the main chamber
and with an oxidation catalyst, the following range of FTP test values
were determined:
12-601

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Inlet manifold injection nozzle
Intake valve
N)
I
O
Spark plug


. ~



3S-
A uxiliary comb us tion \
Main combustion chamber chamber Ignition chamber
Figure Porsche - 1* Porsche SKS-engine
principal arrangement
^Automobile Emission Control - The Current Status and Development
mds >ri 77.

-------
Table Porsche-12*
Porsche 911 SKS with K-Jetronic Fuel Injection
CO = 0.2-1.3 g/mi
HC = 0.4-1.0 g/mi
NOx = 0.28-0.9 g/mi
MPG = 16 - 18.5
u
*Porsche 1977 SR, Projects 24 and 25
According to Porsche, realization of less than 0.41 NOx necessitates
air/fuel ratios on the order of 20 to 24:1 (X = 1.4 to 1.6) in the part
load range. Minimum HC emissions are obtained at air/fuel ratios of
17 - 19:1. Attempts to control the mixture by carburetion indicated to
Porsche that it is not possible to reach NOx values of 0.41 NOx since
exact distribution of the mixture to each cylinder is necessary. When
substituting the carburetor variant (without EGR), the raw emission
levels presented in Table Porsche-13 were determined.
Table Porsche-13*
Porsche 911 SKS with Carburetion
CO =6-10 g/mi
HC =3-6 g/mi
NOx = 0.7 - 1.1 g/mi
MPG = 16 - 18
u
*Porsche 1977 SR, Projects 24 and 25.
With identical cylinder displacement for an SKS engine, an increase of
the vehicle weight by 10% results in an increase in NOx of 12%. A
15,000 mile endurance test was conducted to establish the reliability of
SKS engine components such as the auxiliary chamber, injection nozzles,
injection pump, and exhaust control system. From preliminary results,
12-603

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Porsche concluded that NOx emissions do not change with mileage accu-
mulation, But HC emissions are strongly affected by changes in the idle
adjustment. With the 911 SKS engine in a 911 vehicle, Porsche claimed
that NOx levels less than l.Q g/mi can be accomplished irrespective of
engine adjustment. With optimum adjustment and consideration of drive-
ability, NOx values of less than 0.6 g/mi can be guaranteed, according
to Porsche, and NOx levels less than 0.41 g/mi are accomplished with an
increase in HC and a slight deterioration in driveability. With respect
to unregulated emissions, Porsche reported 0.0080 g/mi sulfate emissions
on the FTP and the same value at 40 mph under steady-state conditions.
For particulates, the six cylinder SKS engine produced 0.036 g/mi on the
FTP and 0.020 g/mi under 40 mph steady-state conditions. Odor from a
single cylinder SKS engine was reported to be equivalent to a conven-
tional engine, but no data were included by Porsche to demonstrate this
comparative assessment, and it is not known if the air/fuel ratio of the
conventional engine was representative.
To date, examinations of the 928 SKS engine have been limited to test
bench analysis to optimize fuel injection for both the auxiliary chamber
and the main chamber mixtures. No testing has been carried out yet with
the vehicle.
Effective Fuel/Air (EFA) Mixture System
According to Porsche, an engine with lean fuel/air mixture, the so-
called EFA-system (Effective Fuel/Air Mixtures), has the potential of
both:
-	low fuel consumption
-	low exhaust gas emissions
12-604

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The results of the basic examinations carried out on the single cylinder
test engine served as basis for the optimizing the parameters of the new
system which has been applied to the 14, water-cooled, 924 engine and
the V8, water-cooled, 928 unit.
As compared to the production versions, preliminary examinations with
modified spark plug position as well as with different ignition systems
showed no advantages with regard to the exhaust emission values or the
lean-mixture limit. The ignition quality might be improved by increas-
ing the compression ratios to values of 12 - 13 to 1 and by a special
design of the combustion chamber with distinct compression zones, accord-
ing to Porsche. It appears to the EPA technical staff that this de-
scription resembles that of the May "Fireball" concept, but not enough
data were provided by Porsche to allow a firm conclusion to be drawn.
The reduction of the EFA specific fuel consumption is accompanied by a
positive extension of the lean-mixture limit into the part load range.
The increased compression ratio resulted in an increase in NOx emissions
only in the air/fuel mixture range of X = 1.05 while it had no negative
effects in the range of X = 1.2. The desired NOx reduction could be
fully obtained by shifting the X value from 1.05 to 1.2 which has been
found to be the optimum setting for the lean-burn concept at part load
and steady state conditions. In conjunction with an increased CR of
12 - 13 to 1, a reduction in NOx by 50% was obtained while improving the
fuel consumption and leaving the HC emissions unchanged.
During the development of the Porsche engine with EFA system, efforts
were made to realize the advantages of the lean-burn operation without
impairing the maximum engine performance. This could be reached only by
using high-octane fuel (European engine version) and by carefully opti-
mizing the ignition timing and the air rate. Early tests conducted on
12-605

-------
the Porsche 924 EFA are shown on Table Porsche-14. It was not reported
by Porsche whether or not high compression ratio 12:1) was employed
for these tests, since the tests were conducted with unleaded fuel.
Tests with catalytic exhaust treatment and with the engine optimized for
unleaded fuel have not yet been concluded.
Table Porsche-14*
Experimental Porsche 924 EFA with Untreated Exhaust Gas
CO	8-9 g/mi
HC	2.1-5.2 g/mi
NOx	1.2-1.3 g/mi
MPGu/MPGjj	21.5-23/35-39.1
*Porsche 1977 SR, Projects 7 and 12
For driving test purposes a test vehicle was equipped with an 14, 924
engine. The demands of maximum performance (X =0.9) and utilization of
the optimum air rate range under part load (X = 1.2) resulted in problems
with the K-Jetronic due to excessively differing air rates.
Encouraged by the positive results of the Porsche 924 EFA engine,
Porsche tried to apply this system to the V8 engine. The experience
acquired to date with the 928 EFA engine is limited to test bench
measurements.
In the course of the first phase, Porsche optimized the engine to
comply with the European requirements, in other words, to be operated
with leaded high-octane fuel (0.15 Pb/litre) (RON = 98). During the
second phase which has just started, efforts will be made to make the
928 EFA engine adaptable to operation with unleaded fuel (RON 92).
12-606

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Alternate Fuels
According to Porsche, one alternate fuel having good medium-term chances
is methanol (Figure Porsche-2). When comparing the octane rating,
stoichiometric air rate, and thermal values of both methanol and gaso-
line, Porsche believes that an Otto cycle engine designed for use with
gasoline cannot be optimized for use with methanol. If such fuels are
to be considered, Porsche's contention is that engines must be developed
which comply with the requirements of the new fuels. The Otto cycle
engine does offer, however, the possibility of burning either straight
methanol or a mixture of gasoline and methanol. Porsche tests with a
single cylinder engine operated with straight methanol have shown dif-
ferent chemical and physical properties which differ from those of
conventional fuels. These influence the combustion process and the
exhaust emissions of the Otto cycle engine (Figure Porsche-3). The
pressures in the combustion chamber with gasoline and/or methanol under
identical test conditions show that methanol offers better combustion
potential. Throughout the entire mixture range examined, flame propa-
gation velocities were 20 to 30 percent higher. Characteristic data of
the single cylinder engine are shown in Figure Porsche-4. Specific fuel
consumption (b^) of methanol is about twice as high as gasoline because
of the low specific heating value of methanol. Thermal efficiency,
however, is more favorable, reaching the value of 34% as compared with
29% with gasoline. Figure Porsche-5 shows the emission characteristics
for each fuel with identical emission control components. There are
only slight differences in the NOx concentration in the rich mixture
zone (X <1), however, the methanol fuels provide lower NOx emissions in
the lean mixture zone (X >1). With a methanol-gasoline mixture, the
octane rating increases at a linear rate. Most Otto cycle engines can
operate with a 20% methanol content mixture if the fuel-air mixture
control is not readjusted, resulting in a leaner mixture. With an
unmodified Porsche 924, operating with a 20% methanol mixture, this
resulted in a 9% leaner mixture and the engine ran satisfactorily,
12-607

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Figure Porsche-2*
Fuel Properties
Methanol
Gasoline
Density
RON
MON
ructural_analYsis
Aromatic compounds
defines
Saturated hydrocarbon
?i20entarY_analYsis
c
h
o
c/h
L .
mm
P
Re id
Thermal value
Thermal value of
mixture
Boiling temperature
Evaporative heat
Odor limit
MAK
g/cnf
dm 3/dm 3
dm^/dm^
dm^/dm^
kgAg
kg/kg
kg/kg
kg/kg
bar
kJ/kg
kJ/m3
C
kJ /kg
ppm
ppm
o. 79o
1o6-14o
88-94
o. 375
o. 125
o. 5
3
6.65
o.123-o.34o
1968o
372o
64.6-65.o
llol
loo-2ooo
2oo
o.7l5-o.78o
91-98
82-88
o.l-o.7
o.ol-o.4
o.3-o.8
o.867
o. 133
6.52
14.1-14.5
o.45-o.9o
42-44/ooo
33o7-3465
4o-2oo
377-5o2
3oo
5oo
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 26, Figure 14
12-608

-------
Figure Porsche-3-
P-T Diagram - Gasoline vs. Methanol
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 26, Figure 15.
Figure Porsche-4 *
Influence of the Respective Fuel on the
Characteristic Data of the Otto Engine
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 26, Figure 16
12-609

-------
Figure Porsche-5*
Exhaust Gas Composition of the Otto Engine
 Fuel	"	Methanol
*Porschc 1977 SR, Project 26, Figure 17
Figure Porsche-6*
ECE and FTP-75 Test Results of the
Porsche 924 Engine
lb
HCuHA.
NO.
12
00
CO
00
glTest
to
a
6
1
2
0
12
C,
NO,
CO
0
glntie
a
2
0
50
CO
30
20
10
ECL Te>t
Fuel
CO
HC NO.
FTP-75- Test
Fuel
n
Fuel
20a/ot\:lhui ml
n
CO hc no.
dL)% Fuel
2Q/eMK
-------
according to Porsche. When the mixture control was adjusted to maintain
an air/fuel equivalence ratio of 1.05 at idle and part load, CO and HC
emissions were only slightly influenced, but NOx was reduced by 45% in
the FTP cycle and 63% in the ECE cycle (Figure Porsche-6). Bag #1 of
the FTP showed no improvement for the cold start portion of the FTP.
When operating the lean burn version of this engine, the 924 EFA,
performance was 12% higher with a 20% methanol mix. According to
Porsche, the high compression ratio and intense turbulence of the 924
EFA provided more efficient utilization of the methanol fuel properties.
Driveability was judged to be very good with slight difficulties exper-
ienced during the hot start mode. NOx was reduced by about 30% as
compared against gasoline performance on the FTP. Fuel economy was
lower with the methanol mix at 16.6 MPG^ as compared against 19.9 MPG^
with gasoline.
In the framework of basic research, Porsche also looked at the possi-
bilities of methanol for the operation of the SKS engine. The following
variants were explored with a single cylinder engine:
Operation with gasoline
-	Operation with two fuels:
1)	Methanol to the pre-chamber and gasoline to the main chamber
2)	Gasoline to the pre-chamber and methanol to the main chamber
-	Mixed operation with 80% gasoline and 20% methanol
Operation with methanol
12-611

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The characteristics of the combustion process were practically identical
for both fuel variants. Performance improved about 10% but effective
efficiency remained essentially unchanged with the methanol variants as
compared against gasoline at 2000 rpm. At X = 1.3, the CO emissions
were not influenced by the fuel composition, but operation with gasoline
produced small quantities of "soot" in the exhaust. Porsche did not
describe the test procedures used to measure this "soot", which is
assumed by EPA to be a particulate material. With methanol injection in
the pre-chamber and gasoline in the main chamber, small quantities of
"soot" were also identified as opposed to straight methanol which produces
no "soot" and reduces NOx by 90% compared against gasoline operation.
With the air cooled 6 cylinder SKS in the 911 vehicle, the mixture
control and ignition were optimized for smooth operation with all fuel
combinations. The FTP results showed distinct reductions in CO and NOx
with methanol, using an oxidation catalyst. Fuel economy was also
improved, but HC was greater than with straight gasoline. The HC emis-
sions were 13% (dual fuel) and 43% (blend) higher than with gasoline
which was mainly attributable to cold start operation (bag 1). HC
emissions during the hot start cycle (bag 3) showed decreases of 35%
(dual fuel) and 38% (blend) as compared with gasoline. As far as the
combustion kinetics are concerned, Porsche concludes that there is no
objection against the use of methanol in internal combustion engines.
When determining the alternate fuels suited for the different engines
it was found that the lean-burn engine can be operated with a great
variety of different fuels. Examinations carried out with a single
cylinder engine showed that fuels with higher octane numbers facilitate
the adaptation of the Otto cycle engine to lean-mixture operation and
enhance the opportunity for increased performance as shown in Figure
Porsche-7. This examination also showed that the engine motor octane
number (MON) influences performance at high engine speeds and the
research octane" number (RON)., influences high torque in the lower speed
12-612

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Figure Porsche-7
Influence of the Octane Number (MON, RON) on the
Performance of the 4-Cylinder EFA Engine
120
P.
100
kW
30
60
CO
90 91 93 102 106 HO ROZ 1W
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 26, Figure 24
12-613

-------
range. These properties are also characteristic of the SKS stratified
charge engine. With a single cylinder engine having a 10:1 compression
ratio, knock free operation was experienced even with an 88 octane iso-
octane-n-heptane mixture. The main problem of the Porsche SKS develop-
ment is the high amount of HC emitted during the cold start operation,
but it has been found that the increase of volatile components (final
boiling point @ 65C) definitely improves the cold start reactions.
Electronic Ignition
Porsche reported work on improved ignition systems. Figure Porsche-8
was provided by Porsche to show the influence of ignition energy on
emissions and fuel economy. Porsche feels that engine operation under
more severe conditions such as cold start, idle or high torque operation
requires either increased ignition energy or prolonged spark duration.
Porsche examinations indicate a short duration spark (T_ =0.5 ms) has
r
negative effects on smooth engine operation. This examination led to the
preliminary conclusion that the following characteristics should be
considered as optimum:
Ignition current : I = 100 mA
Spark duration : T^ = 10-25
r
Porsche stated that electronic components have an excellent chance to be
introduced on a broad basis for mixture, ignition and exhaust
gas control (EGR and sensor). Several improvements are anticipated
from electronic ignition for improved adaptation to the varying opera-
tion conditions. Tests are being carried out to equip future engines
with electronically controlled ignition which responds to input para-
meters such as engine speed, load, temperature, Av/At, ambient tempera-
ture, etc. No vehicle data were reported by Porsche for this area of
development.
12-614

-------
Figure Porsche-8*
Influence of Ignition Energy and Operation Parameters
One-cylinder test engine
o t JVOJmmc *
% j 0.2L JiarJ A * 12
ignition p:?p=	rF.:mS /spark duration
i
^ lM (
^ i60
UO
*	30
5
u iO
^	O
e
I *
o* 11
T
WA/a/ftw^rorg^/specific fliel consumption
1
1
1 1
{ hC
/mass! emission
^ 1! Hi&srwrtti5'u^ /mass|emission
J?
20
700
600
iuO
tto
j5
1X3
US
i co-Hissorrcis.^ /mass I emission
T
/exhaust gas temperature
/leanj-mixture limit
so	vo	iOO
Zundstrom /^/ignition current
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 27
12-615

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Turbocharging
Porsche introduced exhaust gas turbocharging for passenger car use in
the mid-1970s. Exhaust gas turbocharging was first used in the 1960s
to increase the output power of race cars. Effective performance
was obtained when boost-pressure control (wastegate). was introduced
(Figure Porsche-9).. Older systems, without control, performed as shown
in Figure Porsche-10, graph 1. In the low speed and load ranges where
less exhaust energy is available, turbocharging units were not capable
of supporting optimum boost pressure and the torque characteristics were
less than totally adequate to support good performance. At higher speed
and load values, excessive boost is available exceeding optimum values.
Moreover, response under acceleration modes of the uncontrolled turbo-
charger is unsatisfactory. Boost pressure control, by means of a waste-
gate by-pass valve upstream of the turbocharger, is one way to make
turbocharging feasible for passenger car applications. This provides
for smaller, more compact turbocharger designs which can furnish higher
boost in the lower speed and load ranges (Figure Porsche-10, graph 2).
Figure Porsche-11 shows a boost pressure control device located in the
exhaust pipe. The valve is kept closed by means of a coil spring and
opens as soon as the force acting on the diaphragm reaches the force of
the preloaded spring. The diaphragm is generally controlled by boost
pressure as in the case of the Porsche 911. In this case, the boost
pressure remains constant after having reached its maximum value. It is
also possible to use the backpressure in front of the turbine as a
control force. In this case, the exhaust gas backpressure remains
constant while boost pressure decreases with increasing full-load engine
speed (Figure Porsche-10, graph 3). This mode of control allows for a
further shifting of the maximum engine torque into the low speed range.
12-616

-------
Figure Porsche-9*
Turbocharged Engine With Boost Pressure
Control Valve (Waste Gate)

*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engines
12-617

-------
Figure Porsche-10 *
Boost Pressure Control

\
\
J
/
Q)
/ s
3
r>


Ai

-------
Figure Porsche-11*
Pressure Control Valve (Waste Gate)
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine
12-619

-------
One of the conditions for good matching of the exhaust gas turbocharging
systems is the exact proportioning of the fuel quantity as a function of
the amount of intake air. This is true under steady state as well as
under the non-steady state conditions. Injection systems having the
fuel quantity controlled by a direct control of the air quantity (e.g.
K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic) provide this function. A special feature of
such systems is the arrangement of the air quantity measuring device at
the intake side of the compressor as with the 911SC (Figure Porsche-12).
The fuel control system installed between the compressor and the engine
registers the boost pressure, the charge air temperature, and the charge
air volume, i.e. the mass flow, in order to be able to furnish a correct
mixture. These requirements could be theoretically fulfilled by an air
quantity device working according to the "hot-wire" principle. Systems
of that type are under development, however, these have not yet reached
the production stage, according to Porsche.
A similar function could be obtained by means of a carburetor installed
at the intake side of the compressor. With the carburetor version,
however, the compressor takes in a fuel-air mixture instead of combus-
tion air, which Porsche claims results in considerable difficulties
mainly with regard to the sealing of the turbocharger interior.
Porsche stated that the expenditures and technology required for making
the turbocharged engines comply with the emissions regulations are
almost identical to those of the normally aspirated engines. However,
differences do occur as far as the fuel economy is concerned. There are
quite a number of advantages but also a drawback with regard to the low
geometric compression ratio of many current supercharged engines (Figure
Porsche-13).
12-620

-------
Figure Porsche-12 *
Arrangement of Air Sensor Upstream Compressor
(911 Turbo)
Air Sensor
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine
12-621

-------
JZ
5
*
O)
V
A
400
350
Figure Porsche-13*
Influence of Compression Ratio on

Fuel Consumption, HC,and NO






0






0>
0
1
O)
O
z
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine
COMPRESSION RATIO
12-622

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The turbocharged engine offers several possibilities for locating the
catalyst. Figure Porsche-14 shows catalyst position A with the catalyst
placed next to the engine. This arrangement permits a rapid warming-up
and thus a short response time of the catalyst. However, Porsche claimed
that there is the risk of small particulates coming off from the ceramic
support and destroying the turbine rotor, but that the arrangement "A"
could be adopted without risk for the turbocharger if a catalyst with
metal support were adopted. No characterization data were reported by
Porsche to qualify or quantify the nature of the particulate.
Figure Porsche-15 illustrates catalyst position "B" with the catalyst
placed behind the turbine. With this arrangement there is no risk of
damaging the turbocharger by ceramic particulates, however, there is a
longer catalyst light-off time.
Figure Porsche-16 illustrates a variant of position B. With this ar-
rangement, the exhaust gas flowing through the bypass valve is not
conducted through the catalyst but directly to the exhaust muffler.
According to Porsche, this results in a reduction of the thermal load on
the catalyst. Note that the plumbing shown for this system could result
in dumping of untreated exhaust into the atmosphere under high load and
severe acceleration modes. Such severe modes of operation are not
normally experienced in the UDDS cycle, or FTP, but are a reality in
other operation. For this reason, this plumbing arrangement may not
conform with the intent of the Clean Air Act.
In the case of a catalyst being installed upstream of the turbine, the
gas pressures in front of and behind the turbine are smaller than with
the arrangement B. This means that the pressure ratio at the turbine is
hardly influenced by the catalyst position.
12-623

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Lambda
Sensor
Three Way
Catalyst
1
2
3
C
5
6
7
8
9
Figure Porsche-14*
Catalyst Arrangement for Turbocharged
Engine, Position A
Air Cleaner	10
Injection Unit	11
Low Pressure Air Hose	12
Turbo Charger ( Compressor)	13
Boost Pressure Relief Vaive	U
High Pressure Air Hose	15
Throttle Valve Housing	15
Manifold	17
Fuel Line	18
Exhaust Gas Collecting Tube
Turbo Charger ( Turbine )
Muffler
Wastegate ( Boost Pressure Control Vaive)
Bypass Tube
Control Lines
Control Line to Aux. Air Valve for Overn':i?
Vacuum Control Valve for Overrun
Safety Switch for Boost Pressure
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine
1"-624

-------
Figure Porsche-15 *
Catalyst Arrangement for Turbocharged
Engine, Position B
1
=
Air Cleaner
2
=
Injection Unit
3
=
Low Pressure Air Hose
L
=
Turbo Charger ( Compressor)
5
=
Boost Pressure Relief Valve
6
=
High Pressure Air Hose
7
=
Throttle Valve Housing
8
=
Manifold
9
=
Fuel Line
10
=
Exhaust Gas Collecting Tube
11
=
Turbo Charger ( Turbine )
12
=
Muffler
13
=
Wastegate ( Boost Pressure Control Vqlve)
14
=
Bypass Tube
15
=
Control Lines
16
=
Control Line to Aux. Air Valve for Override
17
=
Vacuum Control Valve for Overrun
18
=
Safety Switch for Boost Pressure
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine

-------
Figure Porsche-16 *
Catalyst Arrangment for Turbocharged
Engine, Position B - Bypass
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine
Air Cleaner
Injection Unit
Low Pressure Air Hose
Turbo Charger ( Compressor)
Boost Pressure Relief Valve
High Pressure Air Hose
Throttle Valve Housing
Manifold
Fuel Line
Exhaust Gas Collecting Tube
Turbo Charger ( Turbine )
Muffler
Wastecate ( Boost Pressure Control VcJvc)
Bypass Tube
Control Lines
control Line to Aux. Air Valve for Override
Vacuum Control Valve for Overrun
Safety Switch for Boost Pressure

-------
As compared to the naturally aspirated engine, the supercharged engine
requires a smaller geometric compression ratio, as the boost pressure
results in an increase of the final compression load. The geometric
compression ratio and the boost pressure permit the determination of an
effective compression ratio comparable to that of the naturally aspirated
engine.
Figure Porsche-17 shows the relationship between the geometric and the
effective compression ratios of a supercharged engine. Porsche stated
that the equation:
EFF GEOM
where x is the ratio of specific heats (about 1.4) and is based on the
assumption that the pressure and temperature at the end of compression
are identical for both the supercharged and the naturally aspirated
engine. Thus, the effective compression ratio is defined as the com-
pression ratio of a naturally aspirated engine that has the same tem-
perature and pressure at the end of the compression stroke as the
turbocharged engine.
The diagram in Figure Porsche-17 shows that a geometric compression
ratio of 6.5 and a maximum boost pressure of 0.8 bar (a P/P ratio of
L o
1.8) results in a maximum effective compression ratio of approximately
9.9 for a 911 3-litre engine. Figure Porsche-18 shows the relationship
expressed in terms of boost pressure P^ - Pq, instead of the ratio
P0/P_, where P is the pressure in the intake manifold and P is a
z U	i.	o
reference pressure, typically atmospheric pressure.
12-627

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70
Relation between
Geometric and Effective
Compression Ratio
on a Turbo Charged Engine
Figure Porsche-17*
Geometric Compression Ratio e
GEOM
7	8	9	10,
Effective Compression Ratio ZEFF
*Forsche 1977 SK, T/C Engine

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Geometric Compression Ratio E GEQM
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine	12-629

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Compared to a naturally aspirated engine, a turbocharged engine operates
with a variable effective compression ratio which depends on the boost,
which is related to engine load. The minimum value of effective compres-
sion ratio is the geometric compression ratio.
In the part load range, i.e. if there is no boost or only a slight boost
pressure, the supercharged engine operates at a relatively low effective
compression ratio. This has a negative effect on urban fuel economy.
Figure Porsche-19 shows the influence of the compression ratio on
specific fuel consumption. The increased consumption is to be attri-
buted to the deterioration of the thermal efficiency with decreasing
compression ratio. Porsche's experience is that the fuel consumption
increases by approximately 3-6% if the compression ratio is reduced by 1
unit.
There are limits to the increase of the geometric compression ratio.
Figure Porsche-18 shows the maximum admissible boost pressure is depen-
dent on the geometric compression for a specific effective compression
ratio. For the value	= 10, e.g., this results in a boost pressure
of approximately 0.65 bar with a geometric compression of	= 7.
When increasing the basic compression to 8.5, the admissible boost
pressure with identical effective compression decreases to a boost of
approximately 0.25 bar. While the increase in compression improves fuel
consumption by about 4.5-9%, the reduction of the maximum boost pressure
results in a performance decrease of approximately 20%.
Figure Porsche-18 shows that a specific admissible effective compression
pressure can be obtained either with a high boost pressure, optimized
with view to the output, combined with a low geometric compression ratio
or a high geometric compression ratio, optimized with view to consumption
and combined with a low boost pressure resulting in a reduced output.
12-630

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Figure Porsche-19*
Fuel Consumption of a Turbocharged
Audi 100 in Comparison with Other
Non-Turbocharged Cars of Same
Performance
*Porsche 1977 SR, T/C Engine
12-631

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Porsche claimed that a vehicle equipped with a turbocharged engine will
deliver better fuel economy results than a vehicle equipped with a con-
ventional engine of identical performance. Porsche maintains that the
only fair way to compare turbocharged and naturally aspirated engines
is to base the comparison at constant performance. Figure Porsche-19
shows a fuel consumption curve for a turbocharged Audi-100 compared to
two vehicles with similar performance. The Audi-100 engine had a
geometric compression of 6.9 and was not equipped with emission controls,
according to Porsche.
Based on the assumption that exhaust gas turbocharging results in an
increase of the specific engine output by approximately 25 to 35% (turbo
Saab: 26%, Porsche turbo 911: 36%), a smaller displacement can be chosen
for the supercharged engine.
Improved Ignition
In the interest of improved maintenance and more reliable operation,
Porsche is cooperating with Bosch on the development of high-quality
spark plugs, having a service life of at least 30,000 miles. However,
Porsche claimed that it will probably not be possible to drop the igni-
tion adjustment required every 15,000 miles as the results of the emis-
sion tests are strongly dependent on a correct spark setting, which is
no longer guaranteed with a driving distance of more than 15,000 miles.
This problem will be remedied, according to Porsche, by means of a fully
electronic ignition system which is also being developed in cooperation
with Bosch.
Limited Adjustability
Porsche is also working on the limitation of adjustability for the
different control elements. For example, the air/fuel regulator screw
12-632

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used for the adjustment of the air/fuel ratio at idle speed will be
sealed. The adjustment of the air/fuel ratio at idle speed will be
accomplished "only by means of a special wrench not available on the
market", according to Porsche.
12.2.12.6. Durability Data
Durability data were provided for only one vehicle, which has been dis-
cussed previously. This prototype vehicle had an experimental 92 cubic
inch displacement engine and was in the 2500 pound inertia weight class.
The emission control system consisted of feedback controlled L-Jetronic
(electronic) fuel injection, 3-way catalyst, and transistorized, breaker-
less ignition. Emission data are presented in Table Porsche-15.
Table Porsche-15*
Durability Data
HC Cg/mi) CO (g/mi)	NOx (g/mi) MPG^
4,000 miles 0.08 0.71	0.34 22.8
50,000 miles 0.13 1.43	0.20 24.0
DF 1.7 2.02	0.57
*Porsche 1977 SR, Project 23.
There was some engine trouble reported during the test. However, the
engine trouble did not appear to be related to the emission control
system.
A 250 hour endurance test at high load and engine speed was also con-
ducted using a similar engine with the following results:
12-633

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no failure of the A-control or oxygen sensor
the ignition distributor drive malfunction occurred after 83 hours
which destroyed the catalyst due to overheating
the air flow metering device portion of the L-Jetronic fuel injec-
tion system malfunctioned after 208 hours again destroying the
catalyst.
12.2.12.7. Progress and Problems
Porsche has progressed toward the selection of their future emission
control systems. In the future all Porsche engines will be equipped
with fuel injection systems and the engines for the 1980 MY will use
closed loop 3-way catalyst control systems using an oxygen sensor.
Porsche stated that a number of questions concerning reliability and
durability have not yet been clearly resolved. Porsche has also made
progress in investigating engine modifications and optimization, for
example, the EFA engine, and the SKS engine.
By far the most important progress made by Porsche is the durability
testing that resulted in emissions below the 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
levels for 50,000 miles.
Porsche's major problems in the emission control area for the future
would appear to be ones that are associated with adapting the type of
technology that they have demonstrated for another European manufacturer
to their own vehicles.
12-634

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12.2.13. Renault
Renault is the largest manufacturer of automobiles in France, and mar-
kets some of these vehicles in the U.S. The vehicles reported to be
sold in the U.S. are the Renault Le Car and the Renault 17 Gordini.
12.2.13.1.	Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Renault did not supply any information on their strategy for 1979.
Since the emission standards have not changed from 1978, Renault is
expected to use the same systems they used last year.
12.2.13.2.	Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
Renault reported the final specifications for these systems are not yet
complete, but they did mention they plan to use feedback control of the
carburetor on the Le Car, which indicates a 3-way catalyst may be used.
Another possible alternative was reported in using the 1978 California
model Le Car equipped with an oxidation catalyst, air injection, and
EGR.
The 17 Gordini will be fuel injected by the Bosch L-Jetronic system,
which is described in detail in the Bosch section of this document.
This system will be closed loop and will employ a 3-way catalyst.
Renault also reported that since the technology used for this system is
superior to that of the carbureted system, no backup system is planned.
Apparently, Renault is confident this system will meet the required
standard, but supplied no data on any of these systems.
12-635

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12.2.13.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
Renault reported that if their 1980 goals can be met, they do not anti-
cipate a durability program for 1981. No other information on these
systems was reported by Renault.
12.2.13.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 C0 0.41 NOx
Renault reported they have programs currently underway, independent of
their programs for 1980 and 1981. These programs include:
a dual 3-way catalyst without air injection,
- a dual 3-way catalyst in conjunction with an oxidation catalyst and
secondary air injection,
improving the catalyst aging properties,
improving carburetion to achieve more accurate mixture regulation,
influence of fuel and oil additives on catalyst aging,
location of the catalyst on vehicles for maximum operation,
location of oxygen sensor for best response,
improvement of engine base level emissions by improving combustion
at light load,
improving cold and hot start emissions,
12-636

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improving air/fuel mixture distribution between cylinders, and
studies of ignition conditions and their effects on emissions.
Renault reported no data from these programs.
12.2.13.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Renault reported they are investigating ways to optimize their planned
systems. They also reported that the feedback carburetor with a 3-way
catalyst appears to offer the best compromise for the following factors:
emissions,
fuel economy,
amount of noble metal needed in the catalyst,
installation cost,
vehicle weight, and
driveability.
The carburetor used on these systems is a Weber electronically con-
trolled carburetor using a Holley feedback system. The ECU is supplied
by Ford and is modified for this control system. The oxygen sensor is
the Bosch oxygen sensor (A-sensor) described in the Bosch section of
this document. An Engelhard 3-way catalyst is used for emission control.
Renault also reported data on evaporative emission control. These data
are shown in Table Renault-1 along with exhaust emission data. After an
external device was added to limit percolation, the results shown in
Table Renault-2 were obtained.
12-637

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Table Renault-1*
Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions
	



(g)
HC
CO
NOx
MPG**

1.39
13.1
1.85
20.0
4.68
1.23
13.8
1.93
19.9
5.22
1.23
12.7
1.67
20.3
4.27
1.09
12.5
1.69
21.4
6.94
1.23
12.3
1.64
22.3
3.73
1.09
11.8
1.50
22.2
4.12
*Emission
Control Status
Repo r t, Renault,
January, 1978,
pg. II-
Hereafter referred to as Renault SR.
**Renault did not specify which test cycle was used.
Table Renault-2*
Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions with
Limited Percolation
	


(g)
HC
CO
NOx
EVAP
0.29
1.65
1.49
2.23
0.70
7.58
1.67
2.25
0.60
2.53
1.47
3.20
*Renault SR, pg. II-8.
**Renault did not specify which
test cycle was used.
Work was also reported by Renault on evaluating different catalyst
combinations. Renault reported that the use of a second catalyst had
little or no effect on exhaust emissions. The results from these tests
are shown in Table Renault-3.
12-638

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Table Renault-3*
Effect of Catalyst Combinations
HC
g/mi**
CO
NOx
MPG**
1	catalyst w/o AIR
2	catalysts w/o AIR
2 catalyst w/5% AIR
0.18
0.15
0.19
3.0
2.8
1.2
0.30
0.34
0.42
22.9
23.3
21.9
*Renault SR, pg. II-2.
**Renault did not specify which test cycle was used.
It can be seen from these data, that the addition of secondary air
between the two catalysts increased NOx and reduced CO. This system
also experienced a fuel economy loss of 0.7 to 1.0 MPG, which is believed
by Renault to be a result of the extra work required by the air pump.
Renault reported the response curves of their current carburetors are
not sufficient and therefore they will run additional bench tests on
these carburetors. Renault also indicated these results are not avail-
able yet.
12.2.13.6. Durability Data
No durability data on specific vehicles were reported by Renault. They
did, however, supply catalyst durability data.
Two catalyst benches were used in these tests, one for the carbureted Le
Car controlled by an oxygen sensor, the other bench was equipped for
testing the 17 Gordini with feedback fuel injection. Each catalyst was
tested for 500 hours, at temperatures of 600 to 650C at the inlet.
This is near the maximum in-use temperature, according to Renault.
These tests indicate to Renault that 500 hours of engine bench testing
is equivalent to 42,000 miles of road durability.
12-639

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Renault reported the following conclusions:
efficient 3-way catalysts utilize a Pt/Rh ratio less than 10
the use of ruthenium stabilized with lanthane oxide does not permit
sufficient 3-way activity to increase this ratio to 19
the existence of oxidation catalysts containing no platinoids which
allow the use of leaded fuel encourages hope for development of the
3-way catalyst with similar properties.
The data supporting the above conclusions were not reported.
Durability of oxygen sensors was also reported to be under study by
Renault. The results lead Renault to believe that the oxygen sensor
used with leaded fuel, exhibits an increased response time while its
electrical characteristics change within several hours.
With unleaded fuel, the sensor operation was reported to be satisfactory
for more than 20,000 miles, and Renault believes it can operate for more
than 30,000 miles.
In addition, several twin electrode oxygen sensors were also tested by
Renault. Such devices allow for faster activation of the sensor during
cold starts, because of the superficial conductivity of zirconium,
according to Renault. Zirconium also has poor thermal conductivity,
which inhibits reaction at temperatures above 300C. Renault reported
the operation of this type of sensor needs to be determined at higher
temperatures in the 700 to 800C range. Another oxygen sensor under
investigation uses oxides such as Ti02 whose electrical resistance
depends on the pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere surrounding it.
This type of oxygen sensor has problems with sensitivity to temperature
variations and the fact that they operate adequately only at tempera-
tures above 500C, which could cause cold start problems.
12-640

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12.2.13.7. Problems and Progress
Reports in the press have indicated a relationship between Renault and
AMC. One such report* stated Renault announced they will combine with
AMC dealerships to market their vehicles. Renault anticipates this will
double their U.S. sales. It was also reported that Renault has no plans
to build vehicles in the U.S. since they do not sell enough vehicles to
justify such an expense.
Some questions arise as to whether Renault will supply engines and/or
other automotive components to AMC, and how much technological exchange
will occur between these two companies? Renault reported* that they do
not plan to involve themselves financially with AMC. This was also
confirmed by AMC in the same source.
No mention was made in this source if Renault and AMC would buy com-
ponents such as catalysts, ECUs, and oxygen sensors from other suppliers
to lower the cost. The source reported a new model will be introduced
by Renault in Europe called the R18. This vehicle is expected to sur-
pass the 1985 fuel economy standard of 27.5 MPGc*. The Le Car already
surpasses this standard with a fuel economy of 31 MPGc.. How much loss,
if any, in fuel economy is expected in meeting future standards was not
specified.
One business-related source** reported the following on the Renault-AMC
agreement. Renault and AMC are considering plans to begin final assem-
bly operations on the R 18 in AMC's Kenosha, Wisconsin plant by 1980.
If this is the case, then it would appear that Renault and/or AMC will
have to certify this vehicle-engine combination, yet no developmental
work toward meeting U.S. emission standards with the R 18 was reported
by Renault. Apparently the lead time to certify a new vehicle is
relatively short.
*Ward's Engine Update, April 14, 1978, p. 1.
**Wall Street Journal, June 13, 1978, p. 1.
12-641

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12.2.14. Saab
12.2.14.1. Systems to be Used for 1979. 1980, and 1981 Model Years
Saab continues to aggressively pursue their 3-way catalyst system for
both the naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. Saab is appar-
ently committed to 3-way catalyst systems for all model years under
consideration, and possibly for use at the 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
levels also. Saab indicates that they will likely reach 1981 model year
levels without adding other components such as EGR, light-off catalyst
or dual bed catalysts (assumed to mean an additional oxidation catalyst)
to the present 3-way catalyst system. At a NOx level of 0.41 g/mi, Saab
will add EGR, but they are not optimistic that this level can be achieved.
The system configurations to be used for the various model years are
shown in Table Saab-1.
Saab presented a discussion of their developmental goals and milestones
for their programs to meet future emission standards. Certification
work must be started about a year before introduction of the vehicles,
i.e., in August or September of the previous year. Normally a "pre-
certification" durability test is started in March or April of the same
year as introduction to assess the outcome of the "real" durability
testing. This means that the emission control system must be finalized
about 18 months before start of production with only minor refinements
allowed afterwards. The time schedule for development of an "average"
exhaust emission control system can be seen in Figure Saab-1.
Since Saab will be concentrating on the 3-way catalyst system, they did
not discuss alternative emission control systems or engines. Saab
indicated that for MY 81 and beyond, further improvement in CO and NOx
control is necessary. Therefore, the remainder of this section will
detail their efforts to reduce CO and NOx plus other improvements noted
for their 3-way catalyst system.
12-642

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Table Saab-1
J.
Emission Control Systems to be Used for Various Model Years
1979
1980
1981
Model Year
System
1.5 HC, 15 CO, 2.0 NOx 0.41 HC.7.0C0, 2.0 NOx 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx
Nat. Asp.
Compression Ratio
7.2
8.5
9.2	X
Exhaust Manifold
Single branch
Dual branch	X
Air Injection
at Cold Start
ECR
3-Way Catalyst
Catalyst Location
llnderf loor
Close Coupled
Closed Loop
Control*
Bosch K-Jetronic X
Decel System	X
Vacuum Advance X
Delay Valve
Electronic	X
ignition
Turbo Nat. Asp.
Turbo Nat. Asp.
(X)
X
X
(X)
Turbo Wat. Asp.
X
(X)
Backup
Turbo
X
X
X
(X)
X
X
X
X
X
X
(X)
X
X
X
X
X
X
	Beyond 1981	
0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.4 NOx
Nat. Asp.	Turbo
X
(X)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(X)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

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Table Saab-1 (cont.)
Emission Control Systems to be Used for Various Model Years
Model Year
System
Service Interval
Indicator
	1979	
1.5 HC, 15 CO, 2.0 NOx
Nat. Asp.	Turbo
	1980	
0.41 HC.7.0C0, 2.0 NOx
Nat. Asp.	Turbo
	1981	
0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx
Nat. Asp.	Turbo
Backup
Nat. Asp.
Turbo
Beyond 1981
0.41 HC, 3.4 CO,
Nat. Asp.
0.4 NOx
Turbo
EGR
Oxygen Sensor
*Not clear if this is only after start up
or over entire engine operating regime.
( ) - To be determined.
'i*3	Saab-Scania 1977 Status Report, February 16, 1978, hereafter
2	referred to as Saab SR, p. 2A.
F-

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Figure Saab-1*
SAAB-SCANIA
*Saab SK, Enclosure 1

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12.2.14.2. Other Developmental Efforts
Generally speaking, Saab considers it necessary to improve their present
system in order to meet the model year 1981 standards in spite of the
fact that Saab engines have certified at levels, at or close to those
standards. Saab feels that the increase of minimum sulfur content in
the certification test fuel and the new rules concerning transmission
shift points will lead to higher emission levels. Consequently, Saab
has concentrated on the reduction of CO emissions during the cold start
phase of the FTP and on the optimization of the most important engine
parameters, i.e., fuel metering and ignition timing.
Saab feels that the CO emissions at cold start contribute more than 50%
of the total FTP results. According to Saab, some of the systems to
reduce cold start CO emissions that have been tested and abandoned for
various reasons are electric pre-heating of catalysts and intake air
(abandoned because of high energy consumption), oxidation start catalyst
(too costly), and retardation or advancement of spark timing (not
effective at all). The most promising system to date for Saab has been
an electrically driven air pump that injects air during the first part
of the FTP cycle. The durability of this system has yet to be proven,
according to Saab.
Saab's efforts to reduce their CO emissions to below 3.4 g/mi were dis-
cussed in detail and are included here because of the impact of achieving
this level with 3-way catalyst systems. Unfortunately, Saab only included
the cold transient results (bag 1 of the FTP) with each of the systems
evaluated. Saab usually did not indicate what the full FTP results
would have been, nor did they report their methodology for determining
the relative worth of a particular system based on the results of bag 1
testing.
12-646

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The Saab 3-way catalyst closed loop system is calibrated by controlling
the oxygen sensor voltage and X-displacement (air/fuel ratio bias). The
data, shown in Table Saab-2, indicated to Saab that a gain in CO con-
version efficiency corresponds to a loss in NOx reduction, but if CO can
be reduced at cold start, NOx reduction can be treated in the rest of
the cycle, according to Saab. NOx can also be reduced by means of EGR
and a corresponding improvement in CO conversion can be attained.
In an attempt to achieve more CO conversion by using leaner air/fuel
ratios, the possibilities to reduce NOx emissions by means of EGR were
investigated. These test results are included in Table Saab-2. Saab
concluded that with the right combination of air/fuel ratio setting and
EGR, a net gain in CO control for a certain NOx level can be achieved.
Elimination of acceleration and full load enrichment will give a re-
duction of CO of about 0.2 g/mi on the FTP test with concommitant power
loss at WOT, according to Saab. The emission test results submitted are
shown in Table Saab-2.
Warm-up regulators with faster response, 40 seconds instead of 100
seconds, will reduce the CO emissions about 0.4 g/mi, but this has been
incorporated in the MY 78 Saab-vehicles. These data are shown in Table
Saab-2 also.
An oxidizing start catalyst mounted on the exhaust manifold will decrease
the CO emissions about 0.3 g/mi, according to Saab, but they feel this
is an expensive solution and the catalyst will have a short life due to
engine vibration. See Table Saab-2 for data on this system.
12-647

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Table Saab-2*
Various Attempts by Saab to Reduce Cold Start CO Emissions
Tests with Different A-System Adjustments
Test Cars: #658, NA Auto, #686, NA Manual w/acceleration
and full load enrichments
X	X	Bag 1 Emission Results (g/mi)
VIN
Voltage (mV)
Displacement (ms)
HC
CO
NOx
#658
500**
20
0.34
4.96
0.83
w/o cat
500
0
0.33
4.59
0.85

400
0
0.32
4.40
0.90
w/TWC-16
500**
20
0.14
2.20
0.14
(50 g/cu
ft) 400
0
0.12
1.79
0.30
#686
500**
20
0.15
2.65
0.08
w/TWC-16
500
10
0.15
2.33
0.12

500
0
0.15
2.38
0.17
Comparable FTP Results Above Bag 1 Results
#686
500**
20
0.22
3.79
0.26
w/TWC-16
500
10
0.22
3.28
0.35

500
0
0.21
3.20
0.55
EGR on Closed Loop Control
X	X	FTP Results (g/mi)***
Vehicle
Voltage (mV)
Displacement
(ms) HC
CO
NOx
EGR?
NA, AT,
500**
20
0.27
4.47
0.51
No
Cal MY78
500**
20
0.34+
5.54
0.21
Yes



0.07




300
0
0.47+
3.78
0.65
Yes



0.20




300
0
0.47
3.54
1.12+
No





0.47


400
0
0.23
2.96
0.55
Yes

450
0
0.26
3.24
0.42
Yes

500
0
0.28
3.74
0.36
Yes
*Saab SR,
pp. enclosures
14.1a, b, and
c, 14.2a, 14.3,
14.4a,
and 14.5a

**MY77 California calibration.
***The additive emissions results noted in these data were not explained
by Saab.
12-648

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Table Saab-2 (cont.)
Various Attempts by Saab to Reduce Cold Start CO Emissions
Tests Without Acceleration and Full Load Enrichments

Full Load
Acceleration
Bag 1
Results
(R/mi)
Vehicle
Enrichment
Enrichment
HC
CO
NOx
#686, NA MT;
Yes
Yes
0.15
2.56
0.09
full load
Yes
Yes
0.20
2.72
0.09*
enrichment
No
Yes
0.15
2.47
0.10
60/40
No
Yes
0.15
2.47
0.10

Yes
No
0.13
2.23
0.09

No
No
0.15
2.29
0.08

No
No
0.18
2.10
0.09

No
No
' 0.17
2.18
0.10**
"Comparable certification FTP results: 0.26 HC, 4.42 CO, 0.30 NOx, 21.1 'IP'? .
**Comparable certification"FTP" results: 0.21 HC, 3.26 CO, 0.30 NOx, 21.6
Optimization of the Harm-Up Regulator
Bag 1 Results (g/ml)
Vehicle
Regulation Time (sec)
HC
CO
NOx
#658, NA AT,
100
0.16
2.31
0.11
w/o accel and

0.14
2.20
0.14
full load
70
0.15
1.96
0.12
enrichment
50
0.13
1.77
0.12

40
0.13
1.78
0.13

40
0.18
1.66
0.10
Tests with Two Different Start Catalysts
Vehicle
Condition
HC
CO
NOx *
#686, NA MT; Warm-
w/o main cat
0.27
3.69
0.53
up regulator




(40 sec, 24 psi),
w/maln cat
0.08
1.24
0.17
X-sensor voltage




400 mV, X-disp.
w/main cat +
0.06
1.43
0.16
0 ms, w/o full load
start cat
0.08
1.43
0.17
enrichment. Pulse-
-air



durlng cold starts.
w/main cat
0.09
1.39
0.24
TWC-16 main catalyst.
Metallic 2x2" oxidation
start catalyst.
~Comparable certification FTP results (g/mi): 1.14 HC, 12.82 C.n, 2.40 NOx
0.11 HC. 2.37 CP, 0.52 NOx.
12-649

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Table Saab-2 (cont.)
Various Attempts by Saab to Reduce Cold Start CO Emissions
Bag 1 Results (g/mi)
Vehicle
Condition
HC
CO
NOx
#886, NA AT; same
w/o cat, w/o air
0.40
3.43
1.03
Car #686




Start catalyst
w/ cat, w/o air
0.15
1.39
0.47
ceramic 3.66x2"

0.17
1.50
0.38
oxid 50 g/cu ft




Pt/Pd = 7.5/1
w/cat + start cat,
0.17
1.38
0.53

w/o air




w/cat + start cat,
0.14
1.12
0.52

w/pulse air




w/cat, w/pulse air
0.17
1.46
0.42


0.18
1.46
0.38
Tests
With Air Injection During Cold
Start



Bag 1
Results
(g/mi)
Vehicle
Condition
HC
CO
NOx
#886, NA AT; same
w/start cat
0.17
1.38
0.53
as Car #686
w/o air injection
0.14
1.12
0.52

w/pulse air




w/pulse air 2.8 cfm
0.13
1.16
0.51

w/pulse air 3.5 cfm
0.12
1.14
0.48

w/pulse air 4.2 cfm
0.11
1.07
0.50

w/pulse air 5.3 cfm
0.10
1.00
0.57

w/o start catalyst




w/o air injection
0.15
1.39
0.47


0.17
1.50
0.38

w/pulse air
0.17
1.46
1.42


0.18
1.46
0.38

w/air 2.8 cfm
0.18
1.56
0.40

w/air 4.2 cfm
0.13
1.31
0.39

w/air 4.9 cfm
0.15
1.42
0.37

w/air 5.6 cfm
0.16
1.41
0.40

w/start catalyst




w/o air injection
0.15
1.26
0.42

w/air 4.2 cfm
0.10
1.07
0.14
12-650

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Table Saab-2 (cont.)
Various Attempts by Saab to Reduce Cold Start CO Emissions
Tests with Hot Catalysts - Pulse Air During Cold Start
Vehicle
Condition
Bag 1 Results (g/mi)
HC
CO
NOx
#658, NA AT;
w/o acceleration
and full load
enrichment
Cat in normal position
w/air
w/o air
0.18
0.15
2.61
2.25
0.13
0.15
Hot cat in normal position
w/air
w/o air
0.12
0.10
2.10
1.44
0.09
0.13
Cat mounted in manifold
w/air
w/o air
0.14
0.12
2.34
2.20
0.19
0.17
Test with BSI (Turbocharged) Exhaust Manifold
Vehicle
#1092, NA MT;
w/o full load
enrichment
TWC-16 catalyst
Condition
w/o catalyst
400 mV/O ms
500 mV/20 ms
w/catalyst
400 mV/0 ms
500 mV/20 ms
Bag 1 Results (g/mi) (NA/Turbo
HC	CO	NOx Manifolds)
0.35/0.38 3.40/3.59 0.81/0.81
0.43/0.38 4.02/4.12 0.77/0.78
0.14/0.17 1.57/1.76 0.33/0.37
0.16/0.15 1.98/1.94 0.17/0.21
w/cat + pulse air
400 mV/0 ms	NR/0.13
500 mV/20 ms
NR/0.11
NR/1.38
NR/1.55
NR/0.36
NR/0.22
NR - Not reported.
12-651

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Table Saab-2 (cont.)
Various Attempts by Saab to Reduce Cold Start CO Emissions
Bag 1 Results (g/mi)
Vehicle	Condition	HC	CO	NOx
w/o catalyst
a - normal ignition 0.38	4.74	0.80
setting
b - w/o advance & 0.35	4.82	0.76
w/12 retard
at idle
w/catalyst
a - normal ignition 0.14	1.96	0.09
setting
b - w/o advance & 0.14	1.97	0.09
w/12 retard
at idle
c - w/o advance & 0.17	2.11	0.07
w/12" retard
during 160 sec.
w/catalyst + one
pulse air valve on
the exhaust pipe
#658, NA AT; w/o
acceleration and
full load
enrichment
a - normal ignition 0.12	1.66	0.11
setting
b - w/o advance & 0.13	1.83	0.10
w/12 retard
at idle
w/catalyst + pulse
air system and oxygen
sensor disconnected
a - normal ignition 0.11	1.78	0.09
setting
b - w/o advance & 0.11	1.92	0.08
w/12 retard
at idle
12-652

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The influence of air injection during cold start can also be seen in
Table Saab-2.
A cold start with a preheated catalyst and air injection by means of
an aspirator (pulsair), gave Saab a CO reduction of about 1.2 g/mi.
However, heating of the catalyst before start requires a considerable
amount of electrical energy which has to be supplied by the vehicle's
battery. Therefore, this solution is not considered to be technically
feasible'at the present time, according to Saab.
The influence of the amount of injected air during cold start has been
investigated. The results, shown in Table Saab-2, indicate that air
injection by means of an electric pump is better than pulsair during
cold start.
If the catalyst is moved closer to the engine and is mounted on the
exhaust manifold flange, no improvement is achieved with respect to CO
conversion. Later investigations have, however, shown that if extra
oxidation air is injected, the same improvement as with a start catalyst
can be obtained.
In order to increase the temperature of the exhaust, tests with delayed
spark timing at cold start were performed by Saab. An increase in
temperature of about 50 was obtained, but no improvement in CO emis-
sions could be detected by Saab. These preceeding data are in Table
Saab-2 also.
Saab concluded that the following remedies are the most efficient for
reducing CO at cold start:
Leaner setting of the A-system, in combination with EGR.
12-653

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Warm-up regulator with lower time constant.
Deletion of full load and acceleration enrichment.
Air injection during cold start.
Catalyst located closer to the engine.
With the right combination of the above-mentioned measures, it might be
possible to meet the 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx standard provided that a
reasonable deterioration factor is obtained with a fuel containing no
more than 250 ppm of sulfur, according to Saab.
Evaporative Emission Control Systems
Saab's evaporative control system will be the same for MY79 as for MY78.
SHED results with this system as a function of mileage on a MY78 Federal
and a MY78 California vehicle indicated that the 2 gram standard for
California MY80 has been reached in most of the tests on the California
MY78 version. The average figure is 2.0 g/test.
Saab reported that tests have shown that a car without engine, fuel tank
and fuel system contributes approximately 1 gram/test of evaporative
emissions. Saab stated that the tires alone emit 0.2 g/test during a
complete SHED test. The emissions from the body and tires seem to be
very hard to bring down and, therefore, Saab's efforts have been con-
centrated on the engine, fuel tank, and fuel system emissions. With the
MY78 car mentioned above, those emissions were approximately 1 gram. By
sealing all rubber hose connections in the fuel and tank systems very
carefully, a reduction of approximately 0.2 grams can be obtained.
Replacing all rubber hoses by metal pipes will give an additional
reduction of about 0.3 grams, but this is not possible due to crash
regulations, according to Saab. Of course, there are rubber materials
which have less diffusion, but the increase in cost will be very
12-654

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high, according to Saab. Consequently, the lowest obtainable SHED
result with an optimized MY78 vehicle is approximately 1.5 g/test.
Saab will investigate the following:
Leak prevention.
Rubber hoses with less diffusion.
Increased purge rate. Here the closed loop system has an advantage
because it has the ability to compensate for a possible enrichment
by the purge gases.
Emission Control At Altitude
Saab-Scania only offers cars with 3-way catalysts and closed loop systems
in high altitude areas. The Federal limits can easily be met with this
system at high altitude as the closed loop system has the ability to
keep the air/fuel ratio correct within about +3000 feet without adjust-
ments. For this reason, only a few tests at high altitude have been
carried out. The test results, which also include a SHED test, are
discussed in Section 9 of this report.
Saab's discussion and/or data concerning reduced in-service adjust-
ability, driveability, and reduced maintenance can be found in the
corresponding sections of this report.
Fuel Economy Programs
Saab discussed their efforts in some detail to improve the fuel economy
from their vehicles. Saab has a weight reduction program underway which
includes reduced weight engine components, power to weight reductions,
increased use of manual transmissions, use of wide ratio and/or lock up
transmissions, and an engine efficiency program.
1.
2.
3.
12-655

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The investigation of the influence of lower power to weight ratios has
been carried out with the following results.
FTP Results (g/mi)
Fuel Economy
MPG MPG, MPG
Engine
HC
CO	NOx
u	h * c
1.985L
1.654L
1.91
1.85
30.7
26.3
2.25
2.20
20.43 28.31 23.36
21.17 30.12 24.42
Although some reductions in HC, CO, and NOx are indicated, with simul-
taneous improvements in fuel economy, Saab feels that it is premature to
draw any conclusions from these results, but it seems to Saab that the
same gain in fuel consumption could be obtained by using a somewhat
lower overall gearing in combination with the 2 litre engine. Saab did
not mention what emission control system, if any, was used with these
engines. From the emission values, it appears that these are engine-out
emissions. Saab noted that they are manufacturing only one engine, and
the U.S. market is responsible for less than 20% of their total sales.
Consequently, it has not been considered feasible by Saab to carry out
extensive testing in this area. Saab suspects that at a constant NOx
level, the gain in fuel consumption is very small.
Saab does not plan to reduce the number of automatic transmissions in
favor of manual transmissions, but they will be testing a lock-up torque
converter and/or a four speed automatic transmission in the future.
Engine Efficiency Programs
Within the Saab-Scania corporation, an ambitious engine developmental
program is underway to meet the most stringent emission standards
without sacrificing fuel economy, driveability, or performance. Saab
identified this work as the "Fuel Economy Engine" developmental efforts.
12-656

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In summary, this developmental work starts with the basic Saab 99 two
litre, four-cylinder Otto cycle engine with a 9.2:1 compression ratio
and increases the compression ratio to 11.0:1. Further work included
the retardation of ignition timing below 3000 rpm and engine throttling
above 3000 rpm. To reduce the increased HC emissions caused by the
higher compression ratio, Saab experimented with intake ports which
generate high turbulence and wedge shaped piston crowns.
Saab presented the FTP emission data shown in Table Saab-3, using the
wedge shaped pistons, higher compression ratio, spark advanced power
control (it is assumed that no throttling was used), 97 RON/86 MON fuel,
and no emission control aftertreatment.
The fuel consumption improvement shown in these tests is 9%. At equal
NOx emission levels, Saab data indicate that the fuel consumption im-
provement is approximately 7%. The fuel consumption in the Highway Fuel
Economy Test was improved by 7%, according to Saab. Road testing in
Sweden using comparable vehicles also indicated a typical 7-9% increase
in fuel economy with the new higher compression ratio engine, according
to Saab.
Saab concluded that the Saab-Scania Fuel Economy Engine concept shows
that a significant increase in fuel economy can be achieved if the
compression ratio is optimized for part load efficiency and the full
power output is adjusted (by means other than the compression ratio) so
that the engine will operate satisfactorily on the octane number of the
fuel selected.
In the Saab-Scania Fuel Economy Engine, a decrease in fuel octane number
primarily affects the engine torque curve and not the engine fuel consumption.
12-657

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Table Saab-3 *
Comparison Between MY76 Production Engine With Compression
Ratio 9.2 and Engine With Turbulent Inlet
Ports With 11.0 Compression Ratio


FTP
Results
(g/mi)


Test
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
Compression Ratio 9.2
I
II
2.14
1.94
25.64
21.07
1.94
2.01
22.34
21.92
Average:

2.04
23.35
1.97
22.13
Compression Ratio 11.0
I
II
III
2.37
2.16
2.16
15.59
15.48
13.52
2.15
2.25
2.25
24.32
24.30
24.07
Average:

2.23
14.86
2.21
24.23
Diff:

+ 9%
- 37%
+ 12%
+ 8.6!
*Saab SR, p. enclosure
4-14.




12-658

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In order to compare a standard production engine to the Fuel Economy
Engine on an equal basis (unspecified)., the Fuel Economy Engine that was
discussed above is optimized for 97 RON/86 MON fuel. However, Saab
noted that most of their Fuel Economy Engines have been optimized for 93
RON/84 MON fuel, still using an 11.0 compression ratio. At engine speeds
up to 4500 rpm, Saab states they can follow the road load curve (assumed
to mean driver's trace in FTP), with a good safety margin using ignition
advance optimized for best fuel consumption.
Catalyst Conversion Efficiency
In order to get an idea concerning the average conversion efficiency of
the 3-way catalysts, FTP tests on the same car with and without a catalyst
were conducted. The average figures from these tests are given below.
Table Saab-4*
Raw Emissions From a Vehicle With Bosch K-Jetronic
and Oxygen Sensor (Unidentified Vehicle)



FTP
Results
(g/mi)
System


HC
CO
NOx
Manual Transmission

VL.5
M.5.0
^3.:
Automatic Transmission

VL.5
M.5.0
^4.:
Conversion Efficiency




Fresh Catalyst
FTP

80%
75%
95%

Bag
1
70%
50%
95%

Bag
2
95%
90%
98%

Bag
3
80%
80%
98%
Aged Catalyst
FTP

75%
65%
75%
50,000 miles
Bag 1
65%
40%
70%

Bag
2
90%
80%
80%

Bag
3
80%
70%
75%
*Saab SR, p. 14
Effects of MMT and Sulfur on Catalysts
Saab expended considerable effort on investigating the influence of MMT
and sulfur on catalyst deterioration. The test results from production
12-659

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catalysts aged on engine dynamometers for 600 hours with lead sterile
fuel containing 320 ppm of sulfur are shown in Table Saab-5.
A comparison of Engelhard TWC-9 and TWC-16 3-way catalysts with respect
to sensitivity for fuel containing MMT and sulfur resulted in Table
Saab-6.
From these tests, Saab concluded that it will not be possible to use the
"mine mix" catalyst (TWC-9) as long as the fuel contains MMT and sulfur.
Work in this area is continuing.
Saab also investigated the influence of fuel contaminants and catalyst
location. The results are shown in Table Saab-7 which includes the FTP
results and catalyst conversion efficiencies.
According to Saab, these test results indicate that sulfur has a dra-
matic effect, especially on the NOx conversion of the 3-way catalyst.
Saab also concluded that with the catalyst located close to the engine,
improvements of CO conversion on cold start can be achieved, but the
close coupled location is suspect when catalyst deterioration is con-
sidered. Therefore, Saab finally concluded that a successful devel-
opment of a 3-way catalyst that can meet the MY81 standards is very
dependent on the sulfur content in the fuel.
The influence of sulfur on the deterioration factor of the 3-way cata-
lyst and the data are shown in Table Saab-8. Saab stated that they
noticed the sulfur-containing fuel increases the DF 2 to 3 times that
of sulfur-free fuel. Since correlation between bench testing and road
durability has not been demonstrated, Saab plans to carry out vehicle
durability testing with fuel containing sulfur. These tests will be
completed in June 1978.
12-660

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Table Saab-5 *
FTP Results (g/mi) with Production Catalysts Aged 600 Hours
With Fuel Containing Sulfur
Test Vehicle: 779 IM, Catalyst mounted underfloor
\-settings: 500 mV, 20 ms
Fuel: Lead sterile with 320 ppm of sulfur
Catalyst: Production Engelhard - 4 inch diameter
by 6 inch long 3-way, 50 g/cu ft. loading,
Pt/Rh = 5/1, 300 CPSI


Sample 1


Sample 2

Aging Time
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
20 hours
0.188
3.24
0.249
0.197
3.11
0.229
200 hours
0.288
4.82
0.530
0.213
3.85
0.535




0.186
3.65
0.487
400 hours
0.273
4.27
0.420
0.267
3.85
0.381
600 hours
0.205
3.89
0.639
0.201
3.81
0.497




0.183
4.02
0.522
*Saab SR, p. enclosure 10.
12-661

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Adjustment
Catalyst
TWC-9D
30 g/cu ft.
6% Rh
Table Saab-6
Test Vehicle 386IA, Catalyst Aged 600 Hours
On Fuel Containing MMT and Sulfur
FTP Results (g/mi)
400 mV, 0 ms	500 mVt 20 ms
HC
0.289
CO
2.71
NOx
1.78
HC
0.420
CO
5.37
NOx
1.16
TWC-16
50 g/cu ft.
16% Rh
0.197
2.07
1.28
0.272
3.51
0.45
TWC-9D
Corresponding Catalyst Efficiency (%)
38 hours
623 hours
77
70
93
85
55
41
74
57
79
63
87
62
12-662

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Table Saab-7 *
Impacts of Fuel Additives Various Distances from Exhaust Manifold
Test Vehicle: 779, IM
Catalyst: TWC-16, 50 g/cu ft.
X-settings: 500 mV, 20 ms
Distance from exhaust
manifold during aging
FTP Results (g/mi)/Catalyst Efficiency
-0.7 Metre-
-0 Metre-
Additives
in Lead
Aging
Sterile Fuel Time (Hrs)
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
None
20
0.17/83
3.99/87
0.35/94
0.15/84
3.37/87
0.17/96
None
200
0.19/67
0.19/67
3.95/63
4.12/63
0.25/87
0.29/87
0.20/63
4.75/57
0.63/86
MMT
20
0.18/NR
3.62/NR
0.32/NR
0.21/NR
0.21/NR
3.83/NR
4.07/NR
0.41/NR
0.38/NR
MMT
200
0.18/NR
3.87/NR
0.31/NR
0.24/NR
4.70/NR
0.94/NR
Sulfur
20
0.19/81
3.24/87
0.25/92
0.20/84
3.39/82
0.40/97
Sulfur
200
0.23/72
4.82/76
0.53/95
0.29/67
0.28/67
7.50/61
5.95/61
1.02/86
1.04/86
MMT + Sulfur
20
0.20/85
3.11/91
0.23/98
0.17/83
2.98/91
0.34/97
MMT + Sulfur
200
0.21/72
0.19/72
3.85/67
3.65/67
0.53/95
0.48/95
0.29/53
0.24/53
5.87/51
4.92/51
1.12/77
0.94/77
NR - Not reported.
*Saab SR, p. enclosure 12.1.
12-663

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Table Saab-8*
Deterioration Factors After 200 Hours Aging
(Same Vehicle as Table Saab-7)
Distance from
exhaust mani-
fold during
aging
	o.
7 Metres-
______

0 Metres	


HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
None
1.13
1.01
0.79
1.36
1.41
3.60
MMT
0.97
1.07
0.97
1.17
1.19
7.39
Sulfur
1.21
1.49
2.13
1.45
1.98
2.61
MMT + Sulfur
1.01
1.21
2.23
1.55
1.81
3.01
*Saab SR, p. enclosure 12.2.
12-664

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Turbocharged Engine
Saab was asked to comment on the progress and problems associated with
their turbocharged version of the basic 120 CID engine. Saab responded
with some general comments concerning the potential for the turbocharged
engines. Saab's goals for this engine are:
Further improvements of reliability and durability
Saab considers turbocharged engines to meet all engine reli-
ability goals,
The waste gate is to be redesigned to reduce service require-
ments and simplify the setting of boost pressure, arid
Reduce "turbo whine".
Development of emission control system for MY81 and 82
Due to lower exhaust temperature (100C lower) a 10% lower
axle ratio is used to aid warm-up.
- NOx is about 0.3 g/mi higher than the naturally aspirated
engine. Data are shown in Table Saab-9.
Saab may use some or all of the following to improve the
turbocharged engine's emissions and fuel economy levels:
Warm-up regulator with faster response,
Optimized setting of the A system,
Deletion of full load enrichment,
Catalyst with decreased space velocity located close to
engine,
Air injection during cold start, and
EGR (for the 0.41 NOx level).
12-665

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Table Saab-9*
Representative Emission and Fuel Economy Data From Pre-Production
and Certification Turbocharged Engine/Vehicle Combinations
Pre-Production
VIN
839
MT
Emissions
Goals
MY 80
168
MT
MY 81
5,907
5,920
8,511
0.32
0.28
0.24
3.61
3.15
1.80
1.21
1.27
0.99

FTP Results
(g/mi)

Teat
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
No.

0.24
2.11
0.82
u
18.5
3332

0.20
2.06
0.84
18.7
3334

0.21
2.40
0.79
18.8
3335

0.22
2.84
0.83
18.5
3346

0.23
3.11
0.82
18.5
3348

0.25
2.59
0.76
19.3
3353

1.16
15.71
2.45
15.5
3445

0.19
2.55
0.79
17.2
3467

0.16
2.39
0.28
17.6
3498

0.12
2.19
0.78
17.7
3506

0.16
2.64
0.70
17.5
3517

0.18
2.72
0.77
16.8
3520

0.21
2.67
0.87
18.8
3522

0.24
2.61
0.99
18.7
3525
3,752
0.41
5.23
0.22
	
6126
4,345
0.30
3.62
0.18

6160
4,604
0.35
6.50
0.82

6188
5,597
0.21
2.66
1.37

6239
5,763
0.27
2.66
1.15

6270
6293
6301
6469
Comments
w/o catalyst
CR = 7.2
same as 3517.
New air filter.
TWC-16 - EPA
shift points.
Full load enrich.
EPA shift points;
no accel. enrich.
Std. accel. enrich;
connected to cold
start valve.
Speed gov. decel.
system - close
coupled 3-way.
8,525
0.20
1.70
0.89

6475
Same as 6469.
8,758
0.19
1.50
1.06

6508

9,367
0.20
2.50
1.01

6540
Close coupled
catalyst.
9,470
0.21
2.96
1.20

6559
Std. catalyst
9,483
0.19
2.24
1.20

6563

9,495
.0.25
2.90
1.06

6571

9,520
0.19
2.60
0.99

6573

13,546
0.24
3.43
1.44

6674

13,580
0.03
0.49
2.16
21.2
6676
KDC
13,573
0.23
2.82
1.07
20.3
6680

*Saab SR, p. enclosure 6.3.6.
12-666

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Table Saab-9 (cont.)
Representative Emission and Fuel Economy Data From Pre-Production
and Certification Turbocharged Engine/Vehicle Combinations
Pre-Production
Emissions
VIN Goals Mileage
168 MY 81 13,587
13,599
13,610
14,151
14,159
15,457
15,465
15,920
15,932
15,970
15,127
16,198
21.426
21,435
24,909
25,291
25,870
215 MY 80 7,435
MT	7,945
7,957
7,967
8,017
8,029
8,283
8,476
8,975
9.713
FTP Results
(g/mi)

HC
CO
NOx
MPG
0.03
0.22
1.26
u
29.4
0.31
2.50
1.13
16.8
0.04
0.50
2.19
20.5
0.22
2.22
0.93
19.8
0.02
0.23
1.41
28.0
0.19
1.78
0.87
19.0
0.04
0.45
1.83
24.5
0.28
2.55
1.15
21.6
0.03
0.22
0.93
25.0
0.02
0.23
0.93
28.0
0.23
2.37
1.20
20.0
0.19
2.60
1.33
22.2
0.21
2.60
1.53
20.8
0.02
0.60
2.54
26.5
0.27
3.90
1.32
21.6
0.21
2.30
1.02
22.2
0.22
2.10
1.11
23.6
0.22
2.40
0.68

0.25
2.80
1.11
18.8
0.05
0.90
1.58
26.7
0.26
2.80
0.80
19.0
0.05
0.70
1.09
25.8
0.24
2.70
0.89
19.0
0.04
0.30
1.21
25.3
0.25
3.00
0.55
17.8
0.28
3.00
0.73
17.7
0.40
4.50
1.21
18.1
0.53
5.30
0.67
17.8
.12-667
Test
No. Comments
6681 HDC
6684	New catalyst.
6685	HDC
6705	EPA shift schedule
6706	HDC
6796	10% lower
gear ratio.
6797	HDC
6841	Saab shift points.
6842	HDC
6853 HDC
6852 Close coupled
catalyst.
6870
6997	Close coupled
catalyst aged
12,733 miles.
6998	HDC
7062
7077
7234
7259
7141 Std. MY 78.
4142 HDC
7152 05 restriction.
2 p t. EGR
7154 HDC
7174	010 restriction.
7175	HDC
7195 01 restriction.
7250 EGR w/o delay
2 pt. EGR.
7277 Cat aged 50K,
2 pt. EGR.
7351

-------
Table Saab-9 (cont.)
Representative Emission and Fuel Economy Data From Pre-Production
and Certification Turbocharged Engine/Vehicle Combinations
1978 Certification Vehicles
Emissions 5K Miles FTP Results 50K Miles FTP Results 	DF's	
VIN Goals HC CO NOx MPG HC CO NOx MPG HC CO NOx
	 	 	 	 	 	u 	 	 	 	u ! 	  -
99-927 MY 78 0.28 2.79 0.78 22.2 0.28 3.6 1.15 21.5 1.0 1.0 1._ vS
Dura Veh.
7.5 CR,
135 HP,
3000 IW,
3.89 AR,
48.9 N/V,
M4
Naturally Aspirated Engine
99-246 MY 78 0.17 2.60 0.31 23.2 0.41 4.80 0.19 23.0 1.085 1.745 1.0
Dura Veh.
8.7 CR,
110 HP,
3000 IW,
3.89 AR,
51.9 N/V,
M4
Data Vehicles
Turbocharged Engine
Emissions 4K Miles FTP Results
VIN Goals HC CO NOx MPG MPG, MPG
	 	 	 	 		u	h	c
99-951 MY 78 0.23 2.5 0.74 19.72 27.17 22.49
Data Veh.
72. CR,
135 HP,
3000 IW,
3.89 AR,
48.9 N/V,
M4
Naturally Aspirated Engine
99-261	0.21 3.9
8.7 CR, 110 HP,
3000 IW, 3.89 AR,
51.9 N/V, M4
99-262	0.18 2.4
Same as 99-261
except 53.9 N/V,
A3
0.14 22.18 29.69 25.03
0.36 20.23 26.15 22.52
12-668

-------
Saab's basic philosophy for the turbocharged engine is to utilize its
high output at relatively low rpm, and by doing so the friction losses
are reduced and the thermal efficiency of the engine is increased due to
the higher load factor. As a result, both exhaust emissions and fuel
consumption are reduced, according to Saab.
No testing of how tire parameters influence emissions and fuel economy
have been conducted by Saab although fuel consumption is a factor con-
sidered when selecting tires for production cars, according to Saab. No
investigations of the influence of engine oils on emissions and fuel
economy have been performed by Saab.
There are no plans to develop a spark knock sensor contemplated by Saab.
If such a device is marketed, Saab would undertake evaluations of the
device.
Also, there are no plans to use the Texas Instrument blanket (an elec-
trically heated and insulated cover for the intake manifold) on the U.S.
vehicles since this .device, used to reduce the need for enrichment
during the cold start and warm-up period and benefit HC and CO emis-
sions, works only on vehicles equipped with carburetors.
Cost Information
First Cost
Saab provided the following information. In the following table, the
first cost of the emission control components of the 1979 through 1981
model years are shown. These costs show the incremental increase over
non-emission controlled cars fitted with the K-Jetronic fuel injection
system.
12-669

-------
Model Year Model Year
Model Year 1979 1980-1981	1982
Item
Fed
Cal
50 State
(0.41, 3.4.
Closed loop control
$
$115
$115
$115
Oxygen sensor

15
15
15
3-way catalyst at engine

- 

120
3-way catalyst underfloor

90
90

Heat shield

5
5
5
Pulsair
11



EGR
14


16
Decel. system


14
14
Service Ind.
3
3
3
3
Assembly costs
4
6
6
6
Air injection



50
Electronic injection

20
20
20
Value added
$32
$254
$258
$364
Sticker price
(150% Value Added)	$48	$381	$387	$546
Fuel and Lubricant Costs
A comparison of composite fuel economy (miles/gallon) for the Saab
engine families as compared to model years is given in the following
table:
1982
Engine Family	1978	1979	1980-81 (.0.41, 3.4, 0.4)
Manual, Federal 23 (22) 22	24	*
Automatic, Federal 21 (20) 21 (24) 23	*
Manual, California 25 (27.5) 24	24
Auto, California 23 (22.8) 23	23
*
k
*Data not available.
Figures in parentheses are last year's
estimates, 1976 SR, pg. 7-356.
12-670

-------
Based on the above information, the following shows fuel costs as com-
pared to 1973 for 50,000 miles of operation, assuming a fuel cost of
$.70/gallon.
Engine Family	1973*
Manual	$1,522
Automatic	$1,750
Manual, California $1,522
Auto, California $1,750
^Estimated.
**Data not available.
Over 50,000 miles, lubricant costs will be reduced by 35% from 1978 to
1979 due to the fact that oil change intervals have been increased from
5,000 to 7,500 miles. No further changes are presently contemplated.
Extra Maintenance Costs Other than Catalyst and Electronic Control
Component Replacement
As compared to 1973 models, there would be no extra maintenance costs,
except for EGR (when used) service at 15,000 mile intervals. When this
service is performed with the normal recommended 15,000 mile interval
service, the extra cost is negligible.
Catalyst Replacement Cost
The estimated life of the 3-way catalyst used in the Lambda control
closed loop system is over 50,000 miles.
The initial cost of the catalyst, including the container, is approxi-
mately $90. The replacement cost is $258. One-third of an hour labor
would be required for replacement of the catalyst.
1978
$1,522
$1,667
$1,400
$1,522
1979
$1,591
$1,667
$1,458
$1,522
1980-81
$1,458
$1,522
$1,458
$1,522
1982**
12-671

-------
Electronic Control Component Cost
There should be no replacement of electronic components prior to 50,000
miles, except for the oxygen sensor which must be replaced at 15,000
mile intervals in 1979. It is expected that for MY 80 and onward the
sensor will need replacement only at 30,000 mile intervals. The cost
for replacing the sensor is $15.30 plus a few minutes labor.
12.2.14.3.	Durability Data
Durability data were submitted by Saab in response to EPA's request for
durability data. Table Saab-10 describes the vehicles durability tested
and the reasons for stopping the test, if any. Figures Saab-2 through 8
are the emissions data corresponding to the vehicles discussed in Table
Saab-10.
12.2.14.4.	Problems and Progress
Saab appears to be involved mostly in system refinement since they have
chosen the general system for their future vehicles. Saab is still
plagued with ignition problems which result in catalyst failures; they
appear to still have difficulty with 3.4 CO in spite of an aggressive
research program to solve this problem, and the expected improvements in
fuel economy have not materialized.
Saab has demonstrated the potential for turbocharging and achieving
reasonable emissions and fuel economy levels compared to the naturally
aspirated engines. Work on advanced transmission concepts and more fuel
efficient engines and weight reduction programs should allow Saab to
achieve improved fuel economy. Saab still possesses the potential to
achieve emissions levels of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx with their emis-
sion control concept.
12-672

-------
Table Saab-10*
DURABILITY TESTS WITH 1978 EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS
CATALYTIC REACTORS WITH MONOLITHIC SUPPORT
ENGELHARD TWC REACTORS
Test No.
137
138
139
140
" started
761213
770311
761220
770309
" stopped
770310
771007
770308
770913
" car No.
200
200
201
201
Engine size
2.0 1
2.0 1
2.0 1
2.0 1
Fuel system
CI, oxygen
sensor
CI,, oxygen
sensor
CI, oxygen
sensor
CI, oxygen
sensor
Gear box
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Catalyst
identification
TWC 16
TWC 16
TWC 16
TWC 16
Container type
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Substrate
Extruded
Extruded
Extruded
Extruded
Air injection
No
No
No
No
EGR
II
ii
ii
ii
Fuel
Lead sterile
Lead sterile
Lead sterile
Lead sterile
Mileage accu. route
Normal drive
Normal drive
Normal drive
Normal drive
Accu. system
mileage
17 245
49 091
16955
43 518
at zero
Exhaust'0'1"86 1:0
0.368
6.48
0.235
2.84
0.165
2.38
0.281
3.34
emissions NO
g/mile x
1975 FT? HC
at accu
mileage
NO
X
0.97
0.707
11.84
1.293
0.098
0.40
5.8
0.76
0.38
0.803
9.83
2.087
0.082
0.53
7.0
0.85
Power loss
-



Driveability
7-8
7-8
7-8
7-8
Fuel cons. 1975 FTP
20 - 23
20 - 23
20 - 23
20-23
Main test purpose
Brake system
test
Brake system
test
Brake system
test
Brake system
test
Reason for test
stop
Catalyst burnt
due to misfire
at ignition
coil during
snow-storm
50 000 miles
completed
Catalyst burnt
due to misfire
at ignition
coil during
snow-storm
Catalyst poisened
Wrong fuel
*Saab SR. d. 1. Enclosure 7

-------
Table Saab-10 (cont)*
DURABILITY TESTS WITH 1978 EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS
CATALYTIC REACTORS WITH MONOLITHIC SUPPORT
ENGELHARD TWC REACTORS
Test No.
" started

i
stopped
car No.
Engine size
Fuel system
Gear box
Catalyst identification
Container type
Substrate
Air injection
EGR
Fuel
Mileage accu. route
Accu. system mileage
Exhaust
.emissions
g/mile
1975 FTP
at zero
mileage
at accu.
mileage
Power loss
Driveability
Fuel cons. 1975 FTP
Remarks
Main test purpose
Reason for test stop
HC
CO
NO
2
HC
CO
NO
141
770920
Continued
201
CI, oxygen
sensor
Manual
TWC 16
Cylindrical
Extruded
No
ii
Lead sterile
Normal drive
22 974
0.13
2.1
0.11
0.28
3.7
0.37
7-8
19 - 22
Turbo charged
Turbo engine
durability
Continued
142
761227
770603
192
2.0 1
CI, oxygen
sensor
Manual"
TWC 16
Cylindrical
Extruded
No
It
Lead sterile
Normal drive
30 590
0.326
2.14
0.97
0.62
9.4
2.40
7-8
19 ~ 22
Turbo charged
Turbo engine
durability
143
770617
771129
192
2.0 1
CI, oxygen
sensor
Manual
TWC 16
Cylindrical
Extruded
No
ii
Lead sterile
Normal drive
29 210
0.23
2.4
1.18
0.34
3.0
1.23
7-8
19 - 22
Turbo charged
Turbo engine
durability
Catalyst burnt;Catalyst burnt
due to broken
ignition
cables
due to broken
ignition
cables
*Saab SR, p. 2, Enclosure 7

-------
Figure Saab-2*
IM i'.'i.ivm 20 f/i hi 6 ICO n 9JI
g
\
u->
x
o
55
RESULTS FROM DURABILITY TESTS
TEST CAR NO: Ml.
TEST NOs 137
o
o\
o
CJ
u
n
to
Q
2
5:
s
I/)
J
s
o>
O)
lL
O
\Q
{
50	3
MILES *103
*Saab SR, p. 3, Enclosure 7

-------
Figure Saab-3*
ijs 'jrr.wtm jo.wo m t ios < rsi
RESULTS FROM DURABILITY TESTS
TEST CAR NO: 3.9.9... test no: 138
o	o He
A	& CO
*Saab SR, p. 4, Enclosure 7

-------
Figure Saab-4*
im vttr-im .w) M iw > *.71
RESULTS FROM DURABILITY TEST
TEST CAR NO:	test no: 139
-0 HC
M
:o
I
--.I
to
Q
cfc
*
Cj
< "
3
t-0
Ij
 J
n'
o
o>
c<
<1

t>	<1 CO
o	a nox
dai**a
-------
Figure Saab-5*
I J Sy!?W) * M 6 in M 9JI
RESULTS FROM DURABILITY TESTS
TEST CAR NO: ..1Q.L TEST NO: 140
o	-o He
A-		4 CO
*Saab SR, p. 6, Enclosure 7

-------
Figure Saab-6*
im z'f.vi w) n.r/> M *  #>l
RESULTS FROM DURABILITY TESTS
TEST CAR NO:	test no: 141
10
Q
>
3
IS)
U.
-j
"V
u
o
Cx
U:
4,	A
^ ^	_ 	
- 		
Kir
o :
o '
~*r*~
70
r~
20
30
40
i
5 o , ;
MILES *10J \
*Saab SR, p. 7, Enclosure 7

-------
Figure Saab-7*
oeo nvn m i w  7!
				j
RESULTS FROM DURABILITY TESTS
TEST CAR NO:	test no: 142
e	* /-/C
a-	-4 CO
*Saab SR, p. 8, Enclosure 7

-------
Figure Saab-8*
IM SCOTir-MO .) M 6 1W  tJI
RESULTS FROM DURABILITY TESTS
TEST CAR NO:	test not 143
	 HC
A-	<4 CO
0	10	20	30	io	50 ,
HUB'S a 10" j
*Saab SR, p. 9, Enclosure 7

-------
12.2.15. Toyo Kogyo (Mazda)
Toyo Kogyo (TK) Is the only manufacturer of the rotary (Wankel) engine
sold in the U.S. TK reported data on this engine as well as for their
conventional piston engines sold in the U.S.
12.2.15.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Rotary Engines
TK reported the rotary engine they plan to use in 1979 is basically the
same as the one used to meet the 1978 emission standards. This is
called the Lean Combustion System (LCS) and is the same system described
in last year's report.* The LCS uses a twin rotor unit with air injection,
proportional EGR, and a thermal reactor. This system is shown in Figure
TK-1.
TK reported they have improved this system by simplifying the emission
control system for increased performance and lower cost. No details of
this improvement were provided, however, TK did report a torque increase
of 5% over the 1978 model engines by reducing the flow resistance of the
intake passage.
The use of a leaner carburetor is allowed because of improved heat
insulation of the thermal reactor, according to TK. These improvements
were reported to be responsible for increased fuel economy especially on
the highway test. TK provided the information shown in Table TK-1,
supplied in their submission.**
*Automobile Emission Control - The Development Status, Trends, and Outlook
as of December 1976, April 1977.
**Emission Control Status Report to the Environmental Protection Agency,
Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd., 1978. For the remainder of this report will be
referred to as TK SR.
12-682

-------
Figure TK-1*
Lean Combustion System (LCS)
*Automotive News, April 29, 1977, p. 2.
12-683

-------
Table TK-1
LCS Emission and Fuel Economy Data*
Trans
HC
g/mi	
CO
NOx
Evap
MPG
MPG.
h
u
M
M
A
A
0.7-1.4
0.8-1.3
0.7-1.2
0.5-1.1
5-12
6-10
8-14
5-11
1.2-1.5
1.4-1.8
1.3-1.6
1.5-1.9
3-6
4-5
5-7
2-6
16-19	26-28
17-20	26-30
15-19	24-27
15-18	25-28
*From TK-SR, pg. 122-129, TK did not specify if these are FTP data.
Conventional Engines
TK reported they plan to use a modified system based on their 1978
engine. This system uses an oxidation catalyst with aspirated air
injection for HC and CO control. EGR is also used to control NOx
formation. TK believes this system will meet the 1979 emission levels
with good fuel economy.
TK reported they plan to use two types of this engine system. The first
of these systems is called the UC (86.3 CID). This engine is being
considered because of its good fuel economy with satisfactory drive-
ability, although no driveability data were reported. TK also reported
this could be a low cost system.
This system uses a modified lean combustion chamber called the Stabilized
Combustion System (SCS). The details of the modifications were not
provided by TK, but the data in Table TK-2 show a comparison of the
improved combustion chamber to the current system used by TK.
12-684

-------
Table TK-2
Comparison of Combustion Chambers*
Ignition 	g/mi	
Chamber
EGR Ratio* A/F
Timing
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
MPGh
Current
6 14.6
11
0.31
5.2
1.6
32.5
41.3
Modified
9 15.1
7
0.33
4.3
1.6
34.4**
43.7
*From TK SR, pg. 68; TK did not specify if these are FTP data.
**Reported as 66 in the table from TK-SR, value recalculated on the
reported 6% increase, in fuel economy.
These data show a 6% increase in fuel economy due to leaner air/fuel
mixtures even with a higher rate of EGR and retarded spark advance, with
comparable emission levels.
TK reported this system will use a dual point distributor which they
believe will increase fuel economy an additional 3%.
The other engine is called the MA (120.2 CID) system and like the UC
system uses a lean combustion process. This system uses aspirated air
injection in conjunction with an oxidation catalyst and EGR. TK reported
they are working on optimization of EGR, carburetor, and distributor
settings for better fuel economy. TK also reported this engine is
undergoing 30,000 mile durability tests, but no data are available yet.
TK did, however, supply emission and fuel economy data on these engines
but did not specify which engine was used. These data are shown in
Table TK-3.
*assumed to mean EGR rate by the EPA technical staff
12-685

-------
Table TK-3
Conventional Engine Emission and Fuel Economy Data*



	g/mi



IW (lbs)
Trans
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,.





u
h
2250
M
0.28
4.5
1.41
34.7
42.7
2250
M
0.31
4.2
1.60
34.2
44.0
2500
M
0.39
5.6
1.58
33.1
41.2
3000
M
0.33
3.9
1.60
26.7
35.7
3000
M
0.36
4.8
1.50
27.2
37.7
2250
A
0.31
4.6
1.63
29.1
34.1
2500
A
0.38
4.0
1.58
27.9
32.8
3000
A
0.36
4.8
1.50
27.2
37.7
3000
A
0.27
5.1
1.56
25.3
32.2
*From TK-
SR, pg. 122-129;
TK did not specify if these
are FTI
12.2.14.2
Systems
to be
Used for
1980 Model
Year

Rotary Engine
This system is based on the 1979 California system. TK reported they
expect a fuel economy loss of 0.5 to 1 MPG.
TK reported they plan to equip this engine with a 30,000 mile maintenance
free ignition system. The changes to this system over the 1979 Cali-
fornia system were reported as follows:
A leading spark plug is used at retarded spark advance to deal with
HC and CO.
-	High Energy Ignition (HEI) will be used in order to meet the 30,000
mile spark plug maintenance free requirements.
-	An altitude compensating device will be used to correct the air-
fuel mixture for changes in atmospheric pressure.
12-686

-------
- Changes to the carburetor, distributor, and emission control
devices will be made for anti-tampering purposes.
TK reported the data shown in Table TK-4.
Table TK-4
Rotary Engine Emission and Fuel Economy Data*



-g/mi

Evap.


IW (lbs)
Trans
HC
CO
NOx
Xsi
MPG
u
MPG,
n
2750
M
0.25-0.44
3-6
0.7-0.9
3.1-3.8
16-19
20-28
2750
M
0.28-0.40
3-6
0.6-0.8
1.2-2.1
17-19
28-30
2750
M
0.28-0.41
3-5
0.8-1.1
1.3-1.9
17-20
27-30
2750
A
0.29-0.37
3-7
0.6-0.8
2.0-2.3
16-18
23-25
2750
A
0.22-0.42
4-7
0.7-1.0
1.5-2.0
16-18
24-26
*From TK-
SR, pg.
122-129; TK did not
specify if
these are
FTP data.

Conventional Engines
TK reported improvements over the 1979 system by lowering HC and CO
levels. TK reported their efforts have been directed towards further
utilizing the lean burn potential of the UC and MA engines. TK reported
that improvements have been made to the aspirator air injection system
that allows for better secondary air utilization. TK also reported they
are looking for ways to improve emissions at cold starts. No details or
data were provided in this area.
The UC engine's lack of secondary air is supplemented by a second reed
valve at high load ranges. TK reported that recalibrations have been
made to the carburetor and EGR systems. The MA system uses a two stage
EGR valve for wider ranges of EGR. A dual wall exhaust pipe is used to
help control HC and CO. TK reported the data in Table TK-5 on these
engines but did not specify which engines were used.
12-687

-------
Table TK-5
Conventional Engine Emission and Fuel Economy Data*
	g/mi	
IW (lbs) Trans	HC	CO	NOx	MPG
u
MPG.
h
2250
2250
2250
2500
3000
3000
2250
2250
M
M
M
M
M
M
A
A
0.24	4.3	1.25	31.2
0.19	3.2	1.40	33.1
0.23	3.6	1.30	32.2
0.26	4.4	1.18	31.4
0.26	4.0	1.28	26.6
0.28	4.2	1.31	27.0
0.24	3.8	1.31	27.5
0.25	4.6	1.18	26.5
40.1
42.0
43.5
42.3
35.2
37.1
34.0
32.1
*From TK-SR, pg. 122-129; TK did not specify if these are FTP data.
12.2.14.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 and Beyond
Rotary Engines
The LCS system described earlier is the system considered by TK to be
the most promising in achieving the above goals. Because of the more
stringent NOx and fuel economy standards, TK is also studying a catalyst
system as a back up system for the 1981 model year. TK reported that if
the 1.0 NOx standafrd can be met, the catalyst system will yield a 10 to
15% increase in city fuel economy.
TK reported that the prime 1981 49-state system, which is based on the
1980 California system, (non-catalyst), will have the following changes
to the 1980 49-state system:
-	Adapted EGR to reduce NOx.
Air/fuel mixture is more precisely controlled to prevent drive-
ability loss.
-	The range of function of the leading spark plug only, is extended
to reduce NOx and CO. Combustion temperature is lowered, thus
reducing NOx, and exhaust gas temperature rises, enhancing reaction
in the thermal reactor, thus reducing CO.
12-688

-------
Choke calibration, secondary air, and ignition timing are optimized
to reduce CO at cold starts.
TK also reported they expect a fuel economy penalty of 0.5-1 MPG compared
to 1980 Federal vehicles.
TK provided the data shown in Table TK-6.
Table TK-6
Rotary Engine Emission and Fuel Economy Data*
t
	g/mi	
IW (lbs) Trans HC CO NOx MPG MPG.
	*	 							u		h
2750	A 0.30-0.45 2.8-4.1 0.78-0.93 15-18	23-26
2750	M 0.25-0.38 2.9-4.3 0.75-0.94 16-18 28-30
*From TK-SR, pg. 122-129; TK did not specify if these are FTP data.
Conventional Engines
TK reported plans to use the 1980 system with the addition of an air
pump in place of the aspirator for secondary air injection, and an
oxidation catalyst to lower HC and CO levels below the 1981 Federal
standards. NOx control will be provided by EGR, and TK believes this
system will emit less than 1.0 g/mi NOx. TK also reported they would
continue to use aspirated air injection on their vehicles equipped with
manual transmissions. No reasons were discussed as to why this strategy
is used.
TK reported they have had problems with this system because of increased
CO levels and poor driveability, although no driveability data were
provided. They reported the system is undergoing refinements, especially
during cold start warm-up conditions.
12-689

-------
Another system being considered to meet the 1981 standards is the SCS
engine described earlier. This system uses a modified combustion
chamber with a curved intake port to promote swirling of the air/fuel
mixture. TK claims with the use of HEI this system can tolerate higher
rates of EGR for better NOx control. A two-way EGR system is used that
recirculates exhaust gas both up and downstream of the throttle in high
load conditions, where NOx formation is the highest. This EGR system is
shown in Figure TK-2 and more detail of the carburetor is shown in
Figure TK-3. TK provided data from their conventional engines, but
again did not specify which systems were used. These data are shown in
Table TK-7.



Table TK-7




Conventional
Engine
Emission and
Fuel Economy Data*




	g/mi	



IW (lbs)
Trans
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,
2250
M
0.21
2.6
0.85
u
30.0
h
39.2
3000
M
0.22
2.9
0.90
24.5
31.5
2250
A
0.19
2.8
0.88
25.6
31.5
3000
A
0.23
3.1
0.96
22.8
28.8
*From TK-SR, pg. 122-129; TK did not specify if these are FTP data.
TK also reported they are looking for better ways to use catalysts. TK
claims, by improved insulation techniques of the exhaust port they can
lower HC 20 to 30% compared to the conventional exhaust port system.
Since the rotary engine emits roughly three times as much raw HC as a
conventional engine, according to TK, it is necessary to reduce unburned
HC in the exhaust system upstream of the catalyst to prevent overheating
of the catalyst. To accomplish this task TK reported they are studying
the shape of the reaction exhaust manifold, as well as the catalyst
housing for the best combination to lower raw HC. No details or data
were provided in this area by TK.
12-690

-------
Figure TK-2*
Dual EGR System
*TK SR, p. A-15.
12-691

-------
Figure TK-3*
Dual EGR System Carburetor
*TK SR, p. A-14.
12-692

-------
TK also reported they are exploring the feasibility of a 3-way catalyst
system. This is a pelleted catalyst which uses Pt and Rh.
12.2.14.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
Rotary Engines
TK reported the same engines as last year's report with modifications
for advanced emission levels. The engines described are as follows:
1)	Lean Combustion System (LCS)
2)	Compound Induction Step Control (CISC)
3)	Rotary Stratified Combustion (ROSCO)
The LCS system is equipped with either a carburetor or manifold fuel
injection system. TK reported this system is being developed with
improvements in combustion chamber, gas seals, and the intake system to
achieve better thermal efficiency and more stable combustion. TK reported
they plan to combine this system with a catalytic converter to optimize
fuel economy. TK reported that complete data from this system are not
available, but reported this system shows results of 0.28 HC, 1.0 CO,
0.64 NOx with fuel economy of 22 MPGu and 31	TK reported problems
with the catalyst overheating, deterioration of fuel economy, and drive-
ability loss. No other emission or fuel economy data were reported on
this system.
12-693

-------
The CISC system relies on a carburetor for air/fuel mixture distribu-
tion. This system is shown in Figure TK-4. TK reported this system has
very good combustion stability in relation to air/fuel ratio. Figure ,
TK-5 shows combustion stability at various air/fuel ratios. Figure TK-6
shows similar data with different rates of EGR. Problems were reported
by TK in that it has a tendency for exhaust gas to leak in through the
peripheral port diluting the air/fuel mixture to the point of lean
misfire at idle. This, along with production and maintenance problems,
has compelled TK not to use this system as their first choice to meet
the 0.41 NOx level.
The R0SC0 system uses mechanical, direct fuel injection, and is reported
by TK to have good cyclic combustion and variation stability. The ROSCO
system is shown in Figure TK-7 and its combustion stability character-
istics are shown in Figure TK-8. This system is very tolerant of EGR as
shown in Figure TK-9. TK reported they are presently discontinuing the
development of this system because it could not meet the 0.41 NOx goal.
TK reported they will continue to study this engine in the future with
goals of improving the stratified combustion and fuel injection to the
point where NOx levels are acceptable.
TK is also developing a new engine called the P-3 engine, which is
designed to meet the 0.41 NOx research goal and the 27.5 MPG fuel
economy standard, according to TK. Improvements have been made to the
combustion chamber, gas seals, intake and ignition systems, along with
the cooling system. TK reports these improvements have improved the
thermal efficiency and combustion stability of this system. Figure TK-
10 shows fuel economy comparisons of the P-3 engine to the current
production engine.
12-694

-------
CARBURETOR
I	r
t
SIDE PORT
to
I
v>
Ln
*TK SR, p. 81.
HOUSING
ROTOR
SPARK PLUG

-------
LLJ
5
CZ
s
o
0.08 -
ENGINE : 13B
COMB. RECESS : LOR  = 10.0
IG. SYSTEM : CONVENTIONAL
L SPARK PLUG ALONE
GAS SEAL : '76 MODEL TYPE
0.06
CONVENTIONAL SIDE PORT
O
D
-J
LL
- 0.04
GS
z>
CO
C0
L'J
0.02
KS
<
Ml
l
CISC
2000 RPM
BMEP:3KG/CM2
10
12	14	16
A/F RATIO
18
Figure TK-5*
CISC Combustion Stability
*TK SR, p. 82.
12-696

-------
LU
h
<
GZ
2
O
D
8
o
D
LL
LJJ
cc
Z)
to
00
LU
C
CL
v/
<
LLJ
CL
0.10
:2000 RPM
_BMEP:3KG/CM:
A/F:14.8
(STOICH)
0.08
0.08
O.C<
ENGINE : 13B
COMB. RECESS : LDR &=10.0
iG. SYSTEM: CONVENTIONAL
L SPARK PLUG ALONE P
GAS SEAL :	/
'76 MODEL TYPEy
CONVENTIONAL SIDE PORT
0.02 \r
5	10
EGR RATIO (%)
15
Figure TK-6*
CISC Combustion Stability and EGR Effects
*TK SR, p. 83.
12-697

-------
N5
I
ON
VO
00
MECHANICAL INJECTION PUMP
INJECTION NOZZLE
PERIPHERAL PORT
REED VALVE
SIDE PORT
HOUSING
ROTOR
SPARK PLUG
Figure TK-7*
ROSCO System
--TK -	78

-------
0.12 -
< 0.10
en
s
o
0.08 h
H
O
3
f
SJL
IU
oz
ZD
CO
o
LU
cc
CL
<
LU
CL
0.05
0.04
0.02
2000 RPM
BMEP:3KG/CM2
A/R14.8
(STOICH)
ENGINE : 13B'
COMB. RECESS : LDR 6 = 9.2
IG. SYSTEM : CONVENTIONAL
L SPARK PLUG ALONE
GAS SEAL : '76 MODEL TYPE


3^
CARBURETOR
ROSCO
5	10
EGR RATIO (%)
15
Figure TK-9*
ROSCO Combustion Stability and EGR Effects
*TK SR, p. 80.
12-699

-------
0.12
LU
H
<
Cl
h
<
D
r-
o
ZD
-J
LL
LU
K
D
(/)
co
LLJ
Q.
v
mim
<
LU
CL
0.10 -
0.08
0.04
0.02
ENGINE : 13B
COMB. RECESS : LDR .=9.2
IG. SYSTEM : CONVENTIONAL
L SPARK PLUG ALONE
GAS SEAL : '76 MODEL TYPE
2000 RPM
BMEP:3KG/CM2
0.08 i-
4
/
/
/
/
CARBURETOR
ROSCO
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
A/F RATIO
Figure TK-8*
ROSCO Combustion Stability
*TK SR, p. 79.
12-700

-------
	Engine : 12A
	L Spark Plug Alone
	1500 rpm
550
500
450
400
v>
a.
u
o
u.
w
CD
350
300
250
200 l-Jf


Current Production
P-3
Apex
Seal


X
>
Corner
Seal

(^-Elastic
Sealing
Material
Sid
Seal
Spring
4 Kg
2 Kg
Combustion
Recess
SLDR
(Serai-leading
Deep Recess)
LDR
(Leading Deep
Recess)
Compression
Ratio
9.4
10.0
Current Production Engine
P-3 Engine
*TK - SR, pg. 76
BMEP (Kg/cm?)
Figure TK-10*
Fuel Economy Comparison
between Current Production and P-3 Engines
12-701

-------
TK reported a 7 to 9% BSFC decrease from the 1981 engine systems. TK
attributes this improvement to the alteration of the shape of the combustion
chamber and increased compression ratio, as well as improving the gas
seals. TK reported they plan to use HEI with semi-surface discharge
spark plugs, to avoid misfire and improve fuel economy.
TK reported this system still needs work in that it doesn't satisfy the
statutory emission levels. TK reported the data in Table TK-8.
Table TK-8
P-3 Engine Emission and Fuel Economy Data*

	g/mi	



HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,



u
h
0.28
1.0
0.64
22.8
30.5
0.36
2.1
0.34
22.0
30.2
Remarks
With best settings.
Rich A/F mixture
increased EGR. Catalyst
temp, over 950C.
*From TK-SR, pg. 74; TK did not specify if these are FTP data,
nor nor they report any vehicle information.
TK reported they will look at 3-way catalysts for this system. TK plans
to reduce NOx by controlling air/fuel mixture, but did not mention if
this would be open or closed loop. TK believes this system has the
greatest potential of lowering NOx below the 0.41 level, based on the
data shown above in Table TK-8. TK also reported serious problems at
catalyst temperatures greater than 950C, as a cost increase and drive-
ability loss. No details were provided.
12-702

-------
Since this system is based on the 1981 engine with the addition of a
catalyst, this is more practical than the ROSCO or CISC systems described
earlier for production reasons, according to TK.
Conventional Engines
TK reported they intend to improve the SCS engine to the point where it
can meet the U.S. statutory standards, since this engine has already
passed the 1978 Japanese standards. This system will use open loop
carburetor control with a 3-way catalyst and large amounts of EGR. The
catalyst is a Pt/Rh pelleted type and will not use an oxygen sensor to
monitor the air/fuel ratio. TK reported the carburetor to be used on
this system will be equipped with a compensating device which auto-
matically adjusts the air/fuel ratio to stoichiometry under accelerations
and high load conditions where NOx is most favorable. At stoichiometry,
the 3-way catalyst is most effective against NOx, thereby keeping these
emissions down. At normal driving conditions the carburetor is readjusted
lean to favor oxidation of HC and CO. This method allows TK to take
advantage of the trade offs between NOx and HC/CO at different air/fuel
ratios. In normal driving conditions TK believes EGR is sufficient in
controlling NOx, even without full NOx efficiency of the 3-way catalyst.
TK reported this system needs more lead time for development, but did
not mention any specific time as to when this system might be ready. TK
reported data shown in Table TK-9 but did not specify which engines were
used.
Table TK-9
Conventional Engine Emission and Fuel Economy Data*
	g/mi	
IW (lbs) Trans HC CO NOx MPG	MPG,
	 	 	 	 	 u h
2250
2250
3000
3000
M
M
M
M
0.38
0.32
0.37
0.42
3.6	0.52	30.9	39.9
3.0	0.61	31.8	41.3
3.5	0.78	26.1	34.1
4.1	0.69	25.3	33.3
*From TIC-SR, p. 122-129; TK did not specify if these are FTP data.
12-703

-------
12.2.14.5. Other Developmental Efforts
TK reported they are pursuing technological advancements in several
areas of emission control. One of these areas is evaporative emissions.
TK believes they can reduce evaporative emissions as low as 1.9-3.6
g/test as early as the 1979 model year. TK reported they are working on
meeting the 1980 California standard of 2 g/test. Little progress was
reported in this area. TK reported a list of evaporative sources and
their relative emission levels in Table TK-10.
Table TK-10
Evaporative Emission Sources*
Source Evaporative Emissions (g/test)	% of Total System
Carburetor 1.0-1.5	50-42
Fuel line and tank 1.0-1.4	50-39
Other 0-0.7	0-19
Total	2.0-3.6	100
*From TK-SR, p. 89; no vehicle description provided.
TK reported they will reduce these emissions by using nylon fuel hoses
because they have a lower rate of fuel permeation than conventional fuel
hoses. TK reported they are exploring different methods of decreasing
carburetor temperature and Improving the purge capacity of the evaporative
systems, as well as the storage volume of the carbon canister.
TK reported test cars have achieved the 2 g/test goal, but have the
following problems: poor reliability, impractical production feasibility,
and cost. TK reported they will need to spend more time and effort on
this project.
12-704

-------
TK reported efforts in the area of 3-way catalyst development. They are
working on developing a monolithic 3-way catalyst to be part of an
emission control system that may meet the emission standards with good
fuel economy. TK used a two bed system but found that it was ineffec-
tive compared to single bed systems, so the development of this system
has been suspended. TK also reported they have found monolithic cata-
lysts to be more effective than pelleted catalysts at low temperatures,
but not as effective at the NOx/HC-CO crossover point. TK plans to
improve the catalyst crossover point efficiency and maintain its effi-
ciency with catalyst age. TK reported they plan to expand the air/fuel
window of the catalyst, but they did not discuss how they planned to
accomplish this. TK also reported they are investigating methods to
reduce loading of Rh in the catalyst and maintain its activity with age.
TK reported they are also looking at the possibility of using a mono-
lithic oxidation catalyst which shows good efficiency on the lean side.
TK reported work on Diesel engines. TK reported they have in the past
produced small high speed 2.5L A-cylinder Diesel engines for use on
small trucks in Japan since 1967. Since then they have developed
engines with displacements of 2.7L, 3.0L, and 3.7L (4-cylinder engines)
as well as 3.8L, 4.1L, and 5.5L (6-cylinder engines) which are now
marketed in Japan. Another Diesel engine is being developed which is
smaller than any existing Diesel from TK. No data were available for
the small engine, and TK reported no definite plans to market any
Diesel-powered vehicle in the United States.
TK reported they are working on emission control subsystems to replace
their current systems. One such system is a fuel enrichment system.
This consists of a power valve solenoid, which acts as an accelerator
12-705

-------
pump, and opens and closes with negative pressure of the power valve.
TK reported this system improves driveability during acceleration and
allows the use of EGR. TK reported vehicles with manual transmissions
will be equipped with this system for added performance during acceler-
ation modes.
TK also reported they have a system which works in deceleration modes,
and reduces emissions as well as improving driveability and preventing
afterburning. The intake manifold is supplied with air by an anti-
afterburn valve during deceleration modes. TK reported this system will
be mounted on their 13B engines with manual transmissions.
In the area of fuel economy, TK reported significant weight reduction
does not appear to be feasible. TK reported they will discontinue their
heavier vehicles, but they did not specify which models. TK has decided
to pursue the fuel economy problem by reducing friction and improving
thermal efficiency in their engines.
TK reported fuel economy data with different engine oil viscosities,
shown in Table TK-11.
12-706

-------
Table TK-11
Engine Oil vs. Fuel Economy Data
Vehicle	Test	Oil
Description	Cycle	Viscosity	MPG
1978 Mazda RX-4; 1974 FTP	10W-40	20.2
M5	5W-20	20.7
HFET	10W-40	29.2
5W-20	30.2
1975 FTP	10W-40	19.1
5W-20	19.5
1978 Cosmo; A3	1974 FTP	10W-40	18.3
5W-20	18.8
HFET	10W-40	23.7
5W-20	23.9
1977 GLC; M5	1974 FTP	10W-40	36.4
5W-20	36.1
HFET	10W-40	44.9
5W-20	45.1
1975 FTP	10W-40	34.8
5W-20	35.2
TK also provided data on the effects of different tires on exhaust
emissions and fuel economy. These data are shown in Table TK-12. These
data appear to show differences in fuel economy due to the use of
different tire types and brands. Without knowing more of the background
information concerning the test program it is difficult to conclude to
what degree the emission and fuel economy results are statistically
*From TK-SR, pg. 133.
different.
12-707

-------
Table TK-12
Tire Effects on Emissions and Fuel Economy*


1974 FTP
Hot Start Test




\7oVi "f p 1 p




/ 4



V ClllLlC




 g/mi	



Description
Brand
Type
Size
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,
1976 MY; 70 CID;
A
Radial
155SR13
0.25
5.39
1.71
u
20.2
n
MT; 2750 lb. IW;
B
Steel Radial
155SR13
0.26
5.59
1.70
20.8

rotary.








1976 MY; 80 CID;
A
Radial
185/70R14
0.57
7.21
1.84
17.9
24.5
MT; 3000 lb. IW;
A
Steel Radial
185/70R14
0.63
6.72
1.80
18.5
24.6
rotary.
A
Bias Ply
B78-14
0.60
7.40
1.87
18.1
24.4

B
Steel Radial
185/70HR14
0.68
6.93
1.75
18.6
25.4
1977 MY; 77.6 CID;
A
Bias
6.15-13
0.36
5.30
1.71
34.2
41.9
MT; 2250 lb. IW;
A
Steel Radial
155SR13
0.38
5.20
1.74
34.6
42.4
piston.
A
Steel Radial
175/70SR13
0.38
5.80
1.76
33.1
40.2
1977; 96.8 CID; MT;
A
Bias
6.15-13
0.75
9.50
1.51
25.1
30.6
piston.
A
Steel Radial
155SR13'
0.71
9.20
1.52
25.7
31.4
*From TK-SR, pg. 131.

-------
The effects of different shift procedures for manual transmissions were
also reported by TK. These effects are shown in Table TK-13.
Table TK-13
Effect of Shift Points on Emissions and Fuel Economy*
12A Rotary Engine
% difference compared to 10-25-40
Shift Points (MPH)
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
15-25-30
-2.0
-2.0
+2.0
+2.0
10-20-30
+2.8
+16.0
+1.2
+5.2
10-15-25
+2.0
+9.2
-6.0
+8.8
TC
(77.6 CID)
Conventional
Engine

10-25-30
+2.8
+2.0
-1.6
+2.0
10-20-30
+3.6
+14.0
-6.0
+4.8
10-15-25
**
**
**

*From TK-SR, pg. 132.
**Not measured.
TK reported fuel economy data on their systems for the near future, but
unlike their emission data, TK did differentiate the systems. These
data are shown in Table TK-14.
12-709

-------
Table TK-14
Fuel Economy Data for Future Systems*
Emission
MY
Engine
System

Trans
MPG
MPG,
n
(29.4)
26.0
1979
12A
Rotary
TR; AIR

M
A
u
19.2
17.9
1979
UC
CAT; AIR;
EGR
M
A
34.0
28.5
42.0 (44.0)
33.5
1979
MA
CAT; AIR;
EGR
M
A
27.0
25.3
35.7 (37.6)
32.2
1980
12A
Rotary
TR; AIR

M
A
18.3
17.4
(29.0)
25.0
1980
UC
CAT; AIR;
EGR
M
A
32.0
27.0
41.4 (43.5)
33.0
1980
MA
CAT; AIR;
EGR
M
A
26.4
24.5
34.8 (37.1)
31.3
1981
12A
Rotary
CAT; AIR;
EGR
M
A
18.0
17.0
(28.5)
(24.5)
1981
UC
CAT; AIR;
EGR
M
A
30.0
25.6
39.2
31.5
1981
MA
CAT; AIR;
EGR
M
A
24.5
22.8
32.6
28.8
*From TK-SR, pg. 135; parentheses indicate M5 transmissions.
12.2.14.6. Durability Data
TK reported data on rotary and conventional engines but did not distin-
guish between the engine systems described in their report. Table TK-15
shows the durability data from rotary engines, and the conventional
engine data are shown in Table TK-16.
12-710

-------
Table TK-15
Rotary Engine Emission Durability Data*
Vehicle
Emission


g/mi
	
Evap.


Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
(&)
MPG
MPG,
1979 Coupe;
TR;
AIR
200
1.31
9.5
1.70
4.0
u
18.5
n
28.0
70 CID; MT;


5K .
1.11
7.7
1.68
3.5
19.2
29.0
3.909 Axle;


10K
0.92
7.0
1.68
' 3.8
18.5
29.5
2750 lb. IW


15K
0.85
6.6
1.54
3.7
18.9
28.9



20K
0.77
7.3
1.61
2.2
19.3
29.4



25K
0.89
6.9
1.62
3.3
18.3
29.4



30K
0.86
7.4
1.49
3.0
17.7
29.0
1979 Coupe;
TR;
AIR
200
1.19
11.3
1.64
3.4
17.0
24.3
70 CID; AT;


5K
0.88
8.3
1.59
2.5
18.0
25.5
3.909 Axle;


10K
0.92
9.0
1.50
3.6
17.8
26.0
2750 lb. IW


15K
0.94
8.4
1.57
3.6
17.8
26.4



2 OK
0.85
8.5
1.66
4.3
18.0
26.7



25K
0.91
8.7
1.50
3.2
17.5
26.1



30K
0.75
6.6
1.52
3.2
17.6
25.8



35K
0.81
7.1
1.43
4.0
17.4
26.0



4 OK
0.78
8.0
1.52
3.3
17.3
25.5



45K
0.95
7.8
1.60
3.5
17.4
25.5



50K
0.87
7.8
1.57
2.9
16.9
25.1
1980 Coupe;
TR;
AIR;
200
0.38
5.92
0.87
2.7
16.3
23.7
70 CID; AT;
EGR

5K
0.29
4.45
0.80
2.4
17.1
24.5
3.909 Axle;


10K
0.28
5.14
0.79
2.4
17.2
24.4
2750 lb. IW


15K
0.33
5.03
0.83
1.8
17.5
24.8



20K
0.30
4.78
0.81
2.1
17.2
24.8



25K
0.25
4.32
0.76
1.9
17.3
24.7
1981 Coupe;
TR;
AIR;
200
0.40
3.20
0.83
_
15.8

70 CID; AT;
EGR

5K
0.35
3.15
0.87
-
16.5
-
3.909 Axle;


10K
0.35
2.66
0.84
-
16.7
-
2750 lb. IW


15K
0.37
2.78
0.88
-
16.8




20K
0.33
2.65
0.80
-
17.2




25K
0.38
2.52
0.89
-
17.0

*From TK-SR, pg. 122-129; TK failed to qualify which engines were used
on these tests.
" - " means not reported.
12-711

-------
Table TK-16
Conventional Engine Emission Durability Data*
Vehicle
Emission

.
g/mi

Evap.

Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
(g)
MPG
1979 Sedan;
Catalyst;
5K
0.28
4.5
1.64

u
MT; AIR; EGR

10K
0.35
5.8
1.67
-
-
2250 IW

12.5K
0.26
4.2
1.75
-
-


12.5K**
0.31
5.1
1.60
-
-

'
15K
0.29
4.9
1.69
-
-


2 OK
0.34
5.5
1.64
-
-


25K
0.23
4.0
1.72
-
-


25K**
0.28
4.7
1.62
-
-


30K
0.37
5.0
1.65
-
-


35K
0.31
4.4
1.70
-
-


37.5K
0.25
5.3
1.63
-
-


37.5K**
0.33
5.7
1.54
-
-


4 OK
0.35
5.4
1.58
-
-


45K
0.30
4.8
i. 65
-
-


5 OK
0.33
5.4
1.68
-
-
1979 Coupe;
Catalyst;
5K
0.34
4.5
1.73
_
_
AT;
AIR; EGR
10K
0.37
5.1
1.68
-
-
3000 lb. IW

12.5K
0.42
4.1
1.73
-
-


12.5K**
0.39
4.5
1.67
-
-


15K
0.38
5.3
1.59
-
-


2 OK
0.41
4.5
1.68
-
-


25K
0.40
5.0
1.70
-
-


25K**
0.43
5.5
1.75
-
-


30K
0.41
4.9
1.68
-
-
1980 Sedan;
Catalyst;
5K
0.25
3.4
1.26
_
_
MT;
AIR; EGR
10K
0.33
3.9
1.29
-
-
2500 lb. IW

12.5K
0.30
5.0
1.20
-
-


12.5K**
0.21
3.7
1.26
-
-


15K
0.24
3.3
1.23
-
-


20K
0.21
3.0
1.32
-
-


25K
0.28
3.8
1.28
-
-


25K**
0.35
4.5
1.19
-
-


30K
0.27
4.2
1.25
-
-


35K
0.31
3.9
1.23
-
-


37.5K
0.34
4.9
1.25
-
-


37.5K**
0.30
4.0
1.30
-
-


4 OK
0.26
3.5
1.26
-
-


45K
0.24
4.0
1.23
-
-


5 OK
0.29
4.4
1.28
-
-
12-712

-------
Table TK-16 (cont.)
Conventional Engine Emission Durability Data*
Vehicle
Emission


g/mi-

Evap.

Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
(8)
MPG
1980 Wagon;
Catalyst;
5K
0.21
3.7
1.26

u
AT;
AIR; EGR
10K
0.30
5.3
1.19
-

2500 lb. IW

12.5K
0.24
4.5
1.31
-



12.5K**
0.21
4.0
1.25
-



15K
0.21
3.8
1.25
-



20K
0.31
4.8
1.20
-



25K
0.20
3.5
1.34
-
-


25K**
0.25.
4.2
1.27
-



30K
0.23
3.9
1.28




35K
0.34
5.6
1.18
-



37.5K
0.23
4.4
1.24
-



37.5K**
0.27
4.2
1.28
-



40K
0.30
4.5
1.27
-
-


45K
0.24
5.2
1.23
-



5 OK
0.28
5.5
1.26
-
-
1980 Coupe;
Catalyst;
5K
0.21
3.2
1.36


MT;
AIR; EGR
10K
0.31
3.8
1.28


3000 lb. IW

12.5K
0.26
3.3
1.37
-



12.5K**
0.23
3.1
1.31
-



15K
0.21
3.5
1.40
-



20K
0.28
4.4
1.34
V-
-
1980 Coupe;
Catalyst;
5K
0.25
3.3
1.38


AT;
AIR; EGR
10K
0.23
3.1
1.34
-

3000 lb. IW

12.5K
0.27
3.1
1.29
-



12.5K
0.26
3.7
1.33
-



15K
0.27
3.8
1.37


*From TK-SR,
pg. 122-129
; TK failed to
state
which
engines

were used on
these tests






** Maintenance performed
-Not reported
12-713

-------
In the. above data, several of the vehicles did not accumulate 50,000
miles. TK gave no reasons why these tests were not completed. It is
also unfortunate TK did not present these data in a manner in which
comparisons could be made between the several engine systems described
by TK in their submission.
12.2.14.7. Problems and Progress
TK reported their emission control strategy uses the following guidelines:
-	Increase the thermal efficiency and combustion stability through
modification of the intake system and ignition system to develop an
engine which can tolerate more EGR for better NOx control.
Develop better EGR techniques for further reduction of NOx emissions.
-	Establish a catalyst system that will meet emission standards while
still allowing good fuel economy.
Establish better secondary air control by aspirators and air pumps.
The following information was not reported by TK in their submission but
was reported in outside sources. One source* reported TK will soon
announce a new engine called the 2000 AP. This is a 2.0L piston engine
with good fuel economy, according to TK, who claims this engine to have
the best recorded MPG of any 2.0L engine to date.
*Ward's Engine Update, April 15, 1977, p. 8.
12-714

-------
Another source* reported TK is planning a change from carbureted systems
to electronic fuel injection (EFI). It was also reported TK is developing
a single rotor unit engine for possible use in the future. This single
rotor unit is expected to operate at higher speeds, (8000 RPM) compared
to the current twin rotor 12A engine, which operates up to 7000 RPM.
For 1985, TK expects the RX-7 to meet the fuel economy target of 27.5 MPG,
according to this source, and will be equipped with secondary air and a
thermal reactor similar to that currently used on the Mazda RX-4 and
Cosmo models. It was also reported that efforts were being concentrated
on using EFI in conjunction with a catalyst for use on the R0SC0 and
CISC engines. The EFI system TK plans to use is the Bosch L-Jetronic
system.
The same source reported TK had no definite plans for turbocharging
their engines, but are considering the possibility of using turbochargers
if they decide to use their current engines in larger vehicles. Also
reported was a new developmental effort by TK to produce a new type
automatic transmission with less slip loss. It was not stated if this
is a lock-up transmission or not, but was reported to still be in the
laboratory stage. An earlier edition of this source** reported future
rotary engines may burn kerosene or other low quality fuels. This would
yield a fuel cost saving since kerosene needs less refining than does
Diesel fuel. This configuration uses high pressure fuel injection and a
single spark plug per rotor. No lead time for this system or any further
details were provided.
*Automotive News, April 24, 1977, p. 15.
**Automotive News, March 20, 1978, p. 95.
12-715

-------
12.2.16. Toyota
12.2.16.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Table Toyota-1 presents the engines and generic emission control system
descriptions to be used for the 1979 model year. These are basically
carryover versions of Toyota's 1978 systems, according to Toyota. With
the exception of the 2.2L Federal engine, only slight changes have been
made that are intended to improve fuel economy and driveability, accor-
ding to Toyota. Of particular significance, Toyota states these changes
were "intended to make emission control devices interchangeable for the
Japanese and U.S. markets."*
Primarily, the changes for 1979 Federal systems include: for the 1.2L
engine, a dual diaphragm distributor will be used to provide greater
ignition advance during engine warm-up for improved driveability, an
automatic control will be used for the hot air intake system, the EGR
rate will be increased because of a change in road load horsepower, and
the precious metal loading of the oxidation catalyst will be increased
for improved catalytic conversion efficiency; for the 1.6L engine, the
oxidation catalyst will be increased in size from 1.5L to 1.85L (this
will be the same catalyst used for the Japanese market) and the bulk
density of the catalyst will be reduced to improve its warm-up charac-
teristics while maintaining the same precious metal loading; for the
2.2L engine, an oxidation catalyst will be used (2.1L with low density
substrate), the rate of secondary air will be increased by modifying the
air pump vanes, the throttle positioner will be eliminated, ignition
timing will be advanced, the air/fuel ratio will be enrichened, and the
air injection nozzles will be discontinued; and for the 2.6L engine, the
oxidation catalyst will be increased from 2.5L to 2.7L (this will be the
same catalyst used for the Japanese market), the front exhaust pipe
*Toyota's Emission Control Status Report, January 1978, pg. 3.
Hereafter referred to as Toyota SR.
12-716

-------
12.2.16.2. Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
For the 1980 Federal standards, Toyota has no specific developmental
programs. They do state, however, that the 1979 California systems will
be recalibrated to meet these standards.
Table Toyota-2 presents some data for systems to be used for the 1980
California standards.
12.2.16.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
Table Toyota-3 presents some data and control systems for 1981 Federal
standards. Problem areas, according to Toyota, include: for the 1.6L
engine, the thermal reactor (termed reactive manifold by Toyota) still
has too much deterioration from high temperatures, optimization of low
thermal inertia thermal reactors with acceptable durability is diffi-
cult, to meet the CO and NOx standards the low mileage emission targets
should be 1.5 for CO and 0.70 for NOx for this engine, the highway fuel
economy is unacceptable to Toyota, there is insufficient acceleration at
low speeds for automatic transmission equipped vehicles, there is surging
for manual transmission equipped vehicles, and the temperature of the
catalyst is high; for the 2.2L engine, it is difficult to install two
catalysts because the floor must be redesigned, system durability has
not yet been established, and the carburetor flow tolerance must be
tightened to reduce emission variations; and for the 2.6L engine, cold
start driveability is not acceptable and air injection during cold start
plus "other drastic system changes" not detailed by Toyota may be
necessary to meet the 3.4 CO standard.
12-717

-------
will be changed from a double wall to a single wall pipe, the air
injection nozzles will be discontinued, a low density substrate will be
used in the catalyst, and the EGR rate (maximum flow) will be decreased.
The system changes for 1979 California standards include: for the 1.6L
engine, the compression ratio will be increased from 8.5 to 9.0 (the
same cylinder head will be used for both the U.S. and the Japanese
market), a 2.1L catalyst with low density substrate will be used, the
air/fuel ratio will be leaner, the EGR rate will be Increased, and the
throttle positioner will be changed from electrical to mechanical; for
the 2.2L engine, this is basically the same as the Federal version
except the carburetor, distributor, EGR system, and ignition timing
calibrations will be different; and for the 2.6L engine, this will have
the same specifications as the Federal version except for the EGR system
and ignition timing calibrations.
Table Toyota-1*
Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
1.2L	1.6L	2.2L	2.6L**
Federal	EGR/PAIR/OC EGR/PAIR/OC EGR/AIR/OC EGR/AIR/OC
California (not offered) EGR/AIR/OC EGR/AIR/OC EGR/AIR/OC
*Toyota's 1977 Part I Application for Certification.
**Toyota also plans to introduce a 2.6L engine equipped with feedback
controlled EFI and two 3-way catalysts, a close coupled monolithic
one and a downstream pelleted one. Toyota provided no other details
concerning this control system nor for which market (Federal and/or
California) this system is targeted.
12-718

-------
Table Toyota-2*
Low Mileage Emission FTP Data for Systems to be Used for 1980 California Standards










Fuel
Economy
from Comparable





	
	g/mi-



1978
California Vehicles
Engine
Trans
IW

System
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG
MPG
MPG
Comments





0.20
1.5
1.3
u
h
u
23.0
n
28.9
A3
1.6L; 2500 lb.





0.18
1.8
1.6


23.3
29.3
A3
IW; EGR/AIR/OC





0.20
1.5
0.8


24.7
33.6
M4











24.2
34.0
M5

1.6L**
M4
2125
lb.
EGR/AIR/0C
0.21
2.90
0.78
27.0
31.6
20.2
31.6
M4
2.2L; 2750 lb.

M5



0.21
3.18
0.81
27.1
31.3
20.2
32.5
M5
IW; EGR/AIR/OC

A3



0.15
2.86
0.75
22.8
26.7
21.2
27.1
A3







hot
start






2.2L***
M5
3000
lb.
EGR/AIR/0C
0.03
0.30
0.86
20.7
25.3
19.6
28.5
M4
2.2L; 3000 lb.

A3



0.04
0.12
0.84
16.7
21.5
18.7
22.8
A3
IW; EGR/AIR/OC

A3



0.04
0.12
0.75
16.2





2.6L//
MT
3000
lb.
FI/EGR/3W/
(see
Table Toyota-11
18
25
17.8
24.5
A4
2.6L; 3000 lb.

A3


3W
for durability data)
19
26



IW; EGR/AIR/OC
*Toyota SR, pg. 7-11.
**Driveability needs to be improved and durability testing will
begin in the near future, according to Toyota.
***Durability testing will begin in the spring of 1978, driveability
is considered poor, and fuel economy needs to be improved, according
to Toyota.
#C>2 sensor needs to be more durable, the Pt/Rh ratio of the close coupled
3-way catalyst needs to be optimized, cold start driveability needs to be
improved, and the effects of air/fuel ratio enrichment during acceleration
without an increase in CO during the FTP needs to be studied further,
according to Toyota.

-------
Table Toyota-3*
Low Mileage FTP Emission Data for Systems to be Used for 1981 Federal Standards
Fuel Economy from Comparable





g/mi




1978
Federal
Vehicles
Engine
Trans
Axle
IW System
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG,
h
26.7
Comment
MPG
MPGU
n
32.3
Comments
1.6L
A3
3.73
2500 lb EGR/AIR/TR/
0.16
2.1
0.73
u
22.9

u
26.1
A3
1.6L; 2500

M5
3.58
OC
0.23
2.5
0.56
27.0
33.5

24.3
30.5
A3
lb. IW;

M5
3.73

0.13
1.4
0.76
26.3
31.5

27.6
28.4
37.1
38.0
M4
M5
EGR/AIR/OC
2.2L
M5
3.58
3000 lb EGR/3W/AIR/
0.11
2.05
0.49
20.8
30.0
**





M5
3.58
OC
0.12
1.14
0.43
20.9
30.0
***
20.5
33.7
M5
2.2L; 2750

M5
3.58

0.13
1.40
0.38
20.4
30.0
#
21.8
26.8
A3
lb. IW;

M5
3.58

0.07
0.85
0.41
21.1

//////
20.5
32.9
M4
EGR/AIR

A3
3.73

0.13
1.43
0.55
19.5
22.5
////
19.0
23.3
A3
2.2L; 3000
2.6L


EGR/3W/3W
(no data are
available)


20.3
28.6
M4
lb. IW;













EGR/AIR
2.6L; 3000
lb. IW;
EGR/AIR/OC
*Toyota SR, pg. 13-17.
**2.5L pelleted 3-way with no oxidation catalyst.
***2.5L pelleted 3-way plus 1.5L pelleted oxidation catalyst.
//2.2L pelleted 3-way plus 1.5L pelleted oxidation catalyst.
////2.0L pelleted 3-way plus 1.5L pelleted oxidation catalyst.
//////Monolithic 3-way and oxidation catalyst, size not reported.
19.6 26.8 A4
19.0 26.9 A4

-------
12.2.16.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
Table Toyota-4 presents some emission data and control systems to be
used to meet this research goal. Problems, according to Toyota, include:
for the 1.6L engine, difficulties in optimizing EGR and air/fuel ratio
calibrations for cold start driveability and NOx and CO control, the NOx
standard has not yet been achieved, and there is a problem of high
catalyst temperatures; and for the 2.6L engine, there are significant
emission variations due to variations in oxygen sensor characteristics,
there is insufficient catalyst and oxygen sensor durability, cold start
HC and CO emissions are too high, cold start driveability is poor, and
the installation of a large volume catalyst (the size of which was not
specified by Toyota) is restricted by space limitations.
Table Toyota-4*
Low Mileage FTP Emission Data for Systems to
Meet the 0.41 NOx Research Goal
-g/mi	
Engine Trans IW System HC CO NOx MPGu MPG^ Comments
1.6L M5 2500 EGR/AIR/ 0.39 3.88 0.41 26.0 33.4 (see Tables
A3 lb. OC**	0.27 3.52 0.40 21 26 Toyota-2
and 3 for
comparable
1978 data)
2.6L A3 3000 EGR/AIR/
lb. 3W
0.21
1.97
0.20
19.5

***
0.27
1.94
0.24


ft**
0.21
1.29
0.35


***
0.25
1.50
0.24


//
0.32
2.16
0.20


////
*Toyota SR, pg. 19-22.
**Engine modifications include the use of a turbulence generating
pot (TGP), see Figure Toyota-3 for a description of the TGP.
***Fresh catalyst. All catalysts are 2.55L in volume but no
Pt/Rh ratio was reported.
//Catalyst aged 200 hours on engine bench test.
////Catalyst aged 400 hours on engine bench test.
12-721

-------
12.2.16.5. Other Developmental Efforts
3-Way Catalysts
For the 3-way catalyst system to be Introduced in 1979, several tests
were performed for determining the optimum values for the various
catalyst parameters. For the close coupled, monolithic 3-way catalyst,
noble metal loading and Pt/Rh ratio studies on warm-up conversion
efficiency led to Toyota's conclusion that 1.79 g/L (50.7 g/cu ft.)
loading and about a 10/1 Pt/Rh ratio were the most promising for this
start catalyst. Of three monolithic catalyst types tested, one gave
superior warm-up characteristics (earlier lightoff) than the other two;
however, Toyota did not provide any descriptions of these three cata-
lysts. Durability studies using a bench setup and actual vehicles
are currently being conducted, but no data were provided. Location
and exterior shape determinations were made on the basis of considering
such things as quick lightoff, backpressure, volume, space limitations,
manufacturability, tolerances, strength, and heat resistance. Though
specific details were lacking, Toyota chose a 130 mm outer diameter
for the catalyst container located 200 mm downstream of the exhaust
manifold.
For the main 3-way catalyst (pelleted), several catalysts have been
tested for widening the air/fuel ratio window by adding various elements
to Pt and Rh, for improved low temperature conversion efficiency using
various noble and base metals, for development of a light weight sub-
strate, and/or for the replacement of Rh. Though few details concerning
these catalysts were provided by Toyota, they did make some conclusions.
According to Toyota, none of the catalysts containing both noble and
base metals proved effective in improving low temperature conversion
efficiency and only by increasing the Rh content was the low temperature
12-722

-------
conversion efficiency improved. Also, no alternative with which to
replace Rh has been found, thus Toyota believes they must try to reduce
the Rh loading of their 3-way catalysts but with a minimum Rh loading of
at least 0.1 g/L for adequate efficiency. Toyota found a reduction in
substrate density from 0.7 to 0.35 g/cu cm. had a greater effect on
catalyst lightoff time than doubling the noble metal loading from 0.75
to 1.5 g/L.
Evaporative Emissions
To meet the 2 g/test SHED standard, Toyota considers as a first choice
the inclusion of activated carbon filaments in the air filter. Further
developmental efforts are needed, according to Toyota, to study the
effects of the increased flow resistance through the air cleaner and to
durability test the technique for absorption abilities, potential exhaust
emission impacts, and resistance to engine oils.
Fuel Economy
According to Toyota, they foresee no serious problems in meeting the
1985 standard of 27.5 MPG^ for passenger vehicles. Because Toyota views
fuel economy as a competitive factor in the market, several technical
areas are under consideration for improving fuel economy. These include
improving power plant efficiency, decreasing friction, reducing weight
and rolling resistance, improving aerodynamics, and improving lubricants.
No data were provided by Toyota because many of these technical improve-
ments are in the early stages of consideration.
Alternative Engines
Diesel engines have been undergoing development at Toyota since 1972,
but these have been primarily for the Japanese market. Very little FTP
12-723

-------
data are available because Japanese Diesel emissions are determined
using the 6 mode test procedure. Toyota's current Diesel engine is a
2.2L, swirl chamber, 14 design and is not planned for U.S. introduction
in the near future, according to Toyota. Present emission levels for
FTP operation are claimed to be 0.4 to 0.7 HC, 1.8 to 2.0 CO, 1.9 to 2.5
NOx, and 25 to 27 MPG^ for a 1,500 kg IW vehicle equipped with this
engine. No special emission control devices are used, according to
Toyota, except modification of the injection system and the combustion
chamber. Also, according to Toyota, since Diesel engines have recently
increased in popularity, studies have begun on their possible introduction
in the U.S. No further FTP data were reported by Toyota.
The above Diesel emission results are in contrast to work conducted
by Toyota in 1975 and for 1976 and reported through a Society of
Automotive Engineers (SAE) publication. SAE paper //760211, authored by
four engineers at Toyota, discusses several approaches to reducing
emissions on a 4000 lb. IW vehicle equipped with a 3.0L, 14 Diesel
engine with a swirl chamber. Using various engine modifications, EGR,
and an oxidation catalyst, this vehicle achieved levels of 0.34 HC, 0.91
CO, 0.96 NOx, and 19	at low mileage. Extrapolating their results
to a smaller vehicle and engine using a simulation model, the authors
predicted levels as low as 0.30 HC, 0.75 CO, 0.50 NOx using the same
types of control techniques with a 2250 lb. IW vehicle equipped with a
1.8L Diesel engine.
A stratified charge rotary engine equipped with an oxidation catalyst is
under development to meet the 1978 Japanese standards. According to
Toyota, calibration for FTP testing has not begun. Toyota did not
indicate whether or not the engine would be introduced into the U.S.
market. Current efforts involve durability and reliability development,
reduction of oil consumption, improvement of catalyst durability, and
improvement of fuel economy. Figure Toyota-1 presents a schematic of
this engine.
12-724

-------
PORT TIMING
RICH MIXTURE AIR
CARBURETOR f $
INTAKE MANIFOLD
SIDE PORT
to
Ln
jwwvDlTi7
i
HEATIIvG BY EXHAUST GAS
EARLY FUEL EVAPORATION ^
PERIPHERAL PORT
GCi
LjlJ
CST

INTflKE { PERIPHERAL \
CD

s
exhaust

UsJ



Cb3

, P77^
\
BDC TDC BDC
ECCENTRIC SHAFT ANGLE
TRAILING PLUG
LEADING PLUG
Figure Toyota-1*
Schematic Diagram of Toyota's
Stratified Charge Rotary Engine
*Toyota SR, p. 93.

-------
Two gas turbine engines, GT24 and GT54, are under development by
Toyota using a bench setup and a vehicle. Figure Toyota-2 presents
a sectional view of the GT54 gas turbine engine. These efforts include
a hybrid system whereby the output shaft of the gas turbine is directly
connected to a high frequency wave generator. The alternating current
(AC) generated is converted to direct current (DC) through a rectifier
and is then sent to an accumulator or vehicle drive motor or both,
depending on the vehicle's energy requirements. This electric power
from the accumulator is controlled by a chopper duty change from the
accelerator pedal gate signal. The drive motor is connected through a
conventional drive train.
Gas turbine development of the GT24 and GT54 engines has resulted in
the achievement of 90% of the target power output, but specific fuel
consumption is still unsatisfactory, according to Toyota, with heat
exchanger efficiency improvement still needed. Some durability testing
has been accomplished but more will be performed. Emission targets
are 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.4 NOx and, for the hybrid system, the overall
energy efficiency target is 70%. The lead acid batteries used as an
accumulator still lack sufficient capacity (especially input capacity)
and efficiency, according to Toyota. Table Toyota-5 presents the gas
turbine developmental program with goals and milestone schedule.
Inter Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Project
This project consisted of an engine optimization study which included
evaluation of the effects of combustion chamber shape and compression
ratio on emissions, fuel economy, and octane requirements by varying
EGR rate, ignition timing, and air/fuel ratio. The engine being used
in this study is a 1.6L, 14 engine. With the combustion chamber shape
12-726

-------
TOYOTA GT-SJ Single shaft gas turbine (75 HP 68000 rpm)
A: Air bearing chamber B: Ball bearing C: Compressor T: Turbine
CD: Compressor discharged air l;: Combustor E: Exhaust gas
Figure Toyota-2*
Sectional Drawing of Toyota GT54
Single Shaft Gas Turbine Engine
*Toyota SR, p. 97.
12-727

-------
Program
Goal
Milestone Schedule
77
78
79
80
81.
82
Test Program
Gas Turbine
|1he development of j
| the gas turbine 
ihybrid system with i
;energy accumulator;
Ifor passenger car ^
To achieve a hybrid system
superior to conventional,
gasoline engines in emis-
sions, fuel economy, drive-
ability, reliability, and
total cost performances.
Vehicle performances
Engineering to
mainly improve
the hybrid sys-
tem
Vehicle
Performance
TOYOTA
Century
TOYOTA
Publica
Soorts
Vehicle weight
2000 kg
1000 kg
Passenger capacity
6
4
Cruising speed
120 km/h
Maximum speed
160 tan/h
Fuel economy
a reduction of 30
percent to ccmpare
with conventional
engine
0 - 400m
acceleration time
< 1G sec.
Cruising distance
> 500 km
Brussion performance
To achieve the
statutory standard
Development of
complete vehicle
equipped with
improved hybrid
system
o Improvement of the aerody-
namic performances for
compressor and turbine.
o Improvement 0f the sealing
performance for regenerator
o Development of pre-mixed
ccmbustor
o Development of transmission
o Development of control
system for hybrid powered
vehicle
o Vibration analysis for bear-
ing and rotor system
o Configuration and materials
o Actual vehicle testing
Table Toyota-5*
Development Program of Gas Turbine Engine
*Toyota SR, p. 100.

-------
and compression ratio chosen, the engine calibration and vehicle parameters
were optimized using a simulation program with emissions, fuel economy,
and driving cycle as inputs. The results of the simulation are then to
be applied to an actual vehicle to check actual emissions, fuel economy,
and driveability. The air/fuel ratio, EGR rate, and spark advance will
be controlled by an electronic control unit. No FTP data were reported
by Toyota for this engine.
Relationship Between Japanese 10 Mode and 11 Mode and FTP
Tables Toyota-6, 7, and 8 present data on vehicles which were targeted
for 1976 and 1978 Federal standards and tested on the 10 Mode, 11 Mode,
and FTP. The data show some correlation but are quite scattered.
Turbulence Generating Pot (TGP)
This modification to the combustion chamber is currently used in some
engines sold in Japan. To meet the 0.41 NOx research goal, Toyota's
1.6L engine will use a TGP. Very little information was reported by
Toyota regarding the TGP system. Other sources have described the TGP
as helping to reduce NOx by shortening the combustion process, maintaining
power output compared with a non-TGP engine under high EGR rate or lean
air/fuel ratio conditions, and allowing stable combustion over a wider
range of conditions making emission control easier.* Figure Toyota-3
presents a schematic of this TGP system.
Last year, Toyota also reported on efforts to develop a variation of the
TGP which uses its own intake valve to supply a mixture to the cavity in
the TGP. This system is similar in concept to Honda's CVCC prechamber
engine. Toyota did not report data or efforts on any engine using this
more sophisticated TGP concept.
*Ward's Engine Update, September 16, 1977, p. 7.
12-729

-------
^	_
Corolla
Corolla
Corona Mark II
Test Vehicle
Spec.
Engine Family
4K-U
12T-U
M-EU
Engine
Displacement (cc)
1290
1533
1983
I.W. (lbs.)
2250
2250
2750
Transmission
4 M/T
5 M/T
3 A/T
Emission Control
System
PAIR/EGR/OC
TGP/PAIR/EGR/OC
EFI/EGR/3W
10 mode
(g/km)
KC
0.099
0.237
0.035
CO
1. 09
0.92
0.13
NOx
0.18
0.22
0.09
11 mode
(g/test)
HC
4. 64
4.91
4.66
CO
28.9
23.6
21.5
NOx
3.73
2.50
1.56
'75 FTP
(g/mile)
HC
0.77
1.00
0.48
CO
5.49
7.16
2.89
NOx
0.66
1.15
0.39
Table Toyota-6*
Emission Test Results of Japanese 1978
Emission Standard Compliance Vehicles
*Toyota SR, p. 127.
12-730

-------

Starlet
Corolla
Corona
Mark II
Crown
Test Vehicle
Spec.
Engine Family
3K-U
12T
18R-U
M-U
Engine
Displacement (cc)
1166
1588
1968
1988
I.W. (lbs.)
2000
2250
2750
3500
Transmission
5 11/T
4 M/T
5 M/T
4 M/T
Emission Control
System
AIR/EGR/OC
TGP
AIR/EGR/OC
AIR/EGR/OC
10 mode
(g/km)
HC
0.142
0.125
0. 057
0.082
CO
0.38
1.93
0.88
0.29
NOx
0.46
0.43
0. 66
0.78
11 mode
(g/test)
HC
3. 54
4.60
3.91
5.22
CO
20.7
22.9
30.7
27.8
NOx
4.77
4.70
6.54
3.92
'75 FTP
(g/mile)
HC
0.47
0.70
0.28
0.33
CO
2.22
5.65
4. 54
2.23
NOx
1.82
1.50
2.03
1.73
Table Toyota-7*
Emission Test Results of Japanese 1976
Emission Standard Compliance Vehicles
*Toyota SR, p. 128.
12-731

-------

Corolla
-e	
Corona
	
Corona
Mark II
Corolla
Corolla
Cressida
Test Vehicle Spec.
Engine Family
2T-C "
<	
2 OR
<=	
4M
3K-C(F)
2T-C(F)
4M
Engine Dis-
placement (CC)
1583

2139
*	
2563
1166
1583
2563
Model Year j '76
-s
76
<	
76
77
'11
'78
Market
California
s	
California
<	
California
49 States
49 States
49 States
I.W. (lbs.)
2500
=	
3000
S	
3000
2250
2500
3000
Transmission
4 M/T
3 A/T
4 M/T
3 A/T
3 A/T
4 M/T
4 M/T
4 A/T
Emission Con-
trol System
AIR/OC
	
AIS/EGR/OC
<
AIR/EGU/OC
PAIR/ECR/OCJ AIR/EGR
AIR/EGR/OC
10 mode
(g/km)
HC
0.170
0. 048
0. 081
0. 067
0.121
0. 300
1.19
0.057
CO
0.83
0. 17
0.83
0.42
0. 06
2. 04
10.1
0. 02
NOx
0.71
0.95
0.62
0.72
1.11
0.80
0.84
0.64
11 mode
(g/test)
HC
4.68
1.33
1.63
1. 54
3.34



CO
38.0
59.3
19.2
13.1
22.3



NOx
5.15
6. 05
3.73
4.67
5.48
^	^

'7 5 FTP
(g/mile)
HC
0.4 1
0.15
0.27
0.17
0.32
0.71
1.23
0. 30
CO
4.08
2. 92
2.10
1.48
1. 16
4.22
12.8
2. 56
NOx
1.79
1.77
1.44
1.68
1.50
1.61
1.80
1.32
Table Toyota-8*
Emission Test Results of U.S. 1976, 1977 and 1978 Model Year Vehicles
^Toyota SR, p. 129.

-------
Outline of Toyota TGP System
Air-fuel
Mixture
Control
Secondary Air
Injection Device
'Exhaust Gas Recirculating
Figure Toyota-3*
*Vfard's Engine Update, 16 Sept 1977, pg. 7.
Systems Used to Meet 1978 Japanese Standards
There are three basic systems used by Toyota to meet 1978 Japanese
standards: EGR/PAIR/OC on light weight vehicles equipped with small
engines, TGP/EGR/PAIR/OC on medium weight vehicles equipped with middle
engines, and EFI/EGR/3W on heavy weight vehicles with large engines.
Table Toyota-9 describes the four models which Toyota has already certi-
N
fied in Japan, and Figures Toyota-4, 5, 6, and 7 present schematics of
these control systems. All other vehicles yet to be certified will fall
within one of the categories shown in Table Toyota-10.
12.2.16.6. Durability Data
Table Toyota-11 presents all the durability data reported by Toyota for
systems not claimed to be confidential.
12-733

-------
^-:	
Corolla
Corolla
Carina
Corona
Mark II

Family
4K-U
12T-U
13T-U
M-EU
Engine
Displacement
(cc)
1290
1588
1770
1988
Cylinder
layout
In Line


-

No. of
cylinder
4
-

6
GVW (Kg)
1070 - 1140
1170 - 1215
1225 -1255
1390 - 1540
I
.W. (Kg)
875 & 1000
1000

1250
Tra
nsmission
4 & 5 M/T
~-
~-
4 &. 5 M/T
3 A/T


3.909
3.727
3.727
3. 909
Diff. ratio

3 . 909
3.909
4 .100


4. 100
4 .100
4.100

Emission Control
System
PAIR/EGR/OC
TGP/PA1R
EGR/OC
-
EFI/EGR/3W
Table Toyota-9*
Outline of Toyota Models In Compliance with the
Japanese Emission Standards
*Toyota SR, p. 121.

-------
Figure Toyota-4*
Schematic Drawing of Emission Control System (4K-U)
*Toyota SR, p. 122.

-------
t-O
I
-J
LO
ON
Ex. Temp.	^
Warning Lamp
Computer
" BVSV
(water outlet)
BVSV
(intake manifold}
Solenoid Valve
for Secondary
Fuel Cut
Solenoid Volve
for Primary
J fuel Cut
Computer
2)r-Engine r.p.m
Vacuum
Switch
Ex. Gas Temp.
Sensor
Figure Toyota-5*
Schematic Drawing of Emission Control System (12T-U)
*Tc"n SP 1"

-------
N)
I
LO
Ex. Gas
Temp. Lamp
Computer
Ex. Gas Temp.
Sensor
BVSV
(water outlet)
Solenoid Valve
for secondary ,
Fuel Cut
Solenoid Volve
		, for Primarv
kfuel Cut
I
| r~|e Canputer
ye- Engine r.p.m
Vacuum
Switch
Sensing Port
Figure Toyota-6*
Schematic Drawing of Emission Control System (13T-U)
*Toyota SR, p. 124.

-------
Air Flow-Meter
Air Cleaner
Figure Toyota-7*
Schematic Drawing of Emission Control System (M-EU)
*Toyota SR, p. 125.

-------
Table Toyota-10*
Categories of Toyota Vehicles Yet to be Certified in> Japan
Engine
Displacement I.W. Class	System
1300 cc
750-1000 Kg
AIR or PAIR/EGR/OC
1500-
1800 cc
I
875-1250 Kg
TGP/AIR or PAIR/EGR/OC
1600-
3400 cc
1000-2000 Kg
EFI/EGR/3W
*Toyota SR., p. 120.
12-739

-------
Table Toyota-11
Durability Data
Vehicle
Vehicle


	
g/mi



Number
Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
Comments
No. 8
1.8L; M4;
EGR/PAIR/
0
0.05
0.72
1.10
u
25.9
0.125 g/gal MMT

2500 lb. IW
OC
5,000
0.13
1.17
1.19
25.8




10,000
0.13
1.08
1.16
27.3




10,000
0.18
0.99
1.03
27.1




15,000
0.20
1.27
1.09
26.5




20,000
0.23
1.23
1.26
26.7




25,000
0.21
1.27
1.10
26.9




30,000
0.29
1.40
1.54
26.6




35,000
0.24
1.51
1.06
26.3




40,000
0.32
1.71
1.34
27.0

MX-PF-
2.6L; M4;
EFI/EGR/
0
0.24
1.40
0.27
	

302
3000 lb. IW
3W
5,000
0.34
1.82
0.47





10,000
0.29
1.64
0.64





15,000
0.41
2.23
0.62





20,000
0.51
2.85
0.62

Test discontinueu








due to high HC.
MX-PF-
2.6L; A3;
EFI/EGR/
0
0.24
0.98
0.43
	

10
3000 lb. IW
3W
5,000
0.30
1.57
0.72





10,000
0.33
1.75
0.81





15,000
0.40
2.28
0.78





20,000
0.43
3.15
0.67

Test discontinued








due to high HC.
TE-
1.6L; A3;
EGR/PAIR/
0
0.46
7.85
1.33
	

78PF-1
2500 lb. IW
OC
5,000
0.41
7.84
1.53





10,000
0.61
10.86
2.29

Before maintenam




0.58
9.69
1.68

After maintenance.








(carb + aspirator








valve replaced).



15,000
0.51
10.20
1.60





20,000
0.74
11.32
1.76

Before maintenance
0.65 12.33 1.84
25,000 0.62
30,000 0.57
0.62
35,000
40,000
0.64
0.65
11.26
12.71
15.52
10.78
12.30
1.65
1.78
1.73
1.64
1.49
After maintenance
(aspirator valve
replaced)
Before maintenanc
After maintenance
(EGR modulator
replaced).
Test discontinued
for system
modification.
12-740

-------
Table Toyota-11* (con'
Durability Data
Vehicle
Vehicle


	
g/mi-
Number
Description
System
Mileage
HC
CO
N/R **
1.8L; A3;
EGR/PAIR/
0
0.14
1.40

2500 lb. IW
OC
5,000
0.19
1.61



10,000
0.26
1.40



15,000
0.30
1.72



20,000
0.29
2.14



25,000
0.39
3.19



30,000
0.43
2.83
No. 1
2.6L; M5;
EFI/EGR/
0
0.19
1.16

3000 lb. IW
3W/3W
5,000
0.26
1.07



10,000
0.21
1.24



15,000
0.28
1.70




0.23
2.25



20,000
0.21
2.18



25,000
0.25
2.73
No. 2
2.6L; A3;
EFI/EGR/
0
0.17
0.97

3000 lb. IW
3W/3W
5,000
0.23
0.91



10,000
0.33
2.01




0.22
1.06



15,000
0.17
0.67




0.19
1.70



20,000
0.19
1.65



25,000
0.24
0.61
^Toyota SR, pg. 101-115.
**Not reported.
12-741

-------
12.2.16.7. Problems and Progress
Though further efforts are needed to meet 1981 standards and 2 g/test
SHED standards, fuel economy will probably not be a problem for Toyota.
In addition to spark ignited, reciprocating engines, Toyota has diver-
sified their developmental efforts through studies of Diesel engines,
rotary engines, and gas turbine engines. According to reports in the
literature, Toyota's rotary engine has achieved fuel economy equal to or
better than comparable spark ignited, reciprocating engines.*
Other progress is being made on the merging of emission control compo-
nents compatible with both U.S. and Japanese standards. Though Toyota
did not detail any specific program to combine systems for standards in
both countries nor how far such efforts may take them, some catalysts
and cylinder heads are now being used for both markets. If these
efforts continue to any significant degree, cost (and price) reductions
may be realized due to economy of scale increases.
In last year's Toyota submission, a 3-way catalyst (catalyst T) was
reported with very good conversion efficiency characteristics both fresh
and after 600 h of aging (see pg. 7-384 and 7-835 in EPA's April 1977
status report). Though further dynamometer aging tests were reported
this year by Toyota on this catalyst and durability data on four vehi-
cles equipped with 3-way catalysts (see Table Toyota-11), Toyota did not
specifically state whether or not any vehicle tests using catalyst T
have been performed.
*Ward's Engine Update, 11 November 1977, pg. 5.
12-742

-------
12.2.17. Volkswagen (VW)
12.2.17.1.	Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
Previous status report submissions from VW included little data. This
year's submission contained some improvements in data submission, but
the submission remains somewhat unclear. Consequently, the data refer-
enced in Table VW-1 are an estimation of what VW's intentions are
concerning their compliance with emission standards for various model
years.
While VW did not supply emissions test data from their emission control
concepts for model year 1979, it is apparent from a review of the 1978
certification results that VW will have no difficulties achieving 1979
emissions standards since the standards are essentially the same. Other
than those systems noted in Table VW-1, VW apparently will utilize those
systems certified in 1978 model year, and VW will be gaining in-use
experience with the systems noted in the aforementioned table.
12.2.17.2.	Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
For model year 1980, VW reported they intend to apply basically their
existing California concepts.
12.2.17.3.	Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year and Beyond
For model year 1981, VW plans to introduce three different concepts
based on the use of 3-way catalysts. Two of the concepts employ fuel
injection, and the third concept uses a feedback carburetor system.
12-743

-------
Table VW-1*
Future Emission Control Systems
Engine Type
(MY 79)
1.5 HC
15 CO
2.0 NOx
97 CID, Air Cooled-4 cyl L-Jetronic (EFI)
(MY 80)
0.41 HC
7.0 CO
2.0 NOx
Engine Mods
EGR
97 CID, Engine Family 1 L-Jetronic
120 CID, Eng. Family 11 0^ Sensor, 3W, EFI
(Microbus in California) Engine Mods, Air
Valve
Water-cooled, 4 cyl.
89-97 CID,
Eng. Family 47
Water Cooled
5 cyl., 131 CID
Engine 5000 CL
(California Version)
EGR, Air Injection
OC
Carbureted
K-Jetronic (CIS)**
3W, O2 Sensor
(MY 81)	(LDT)
0.41 HC	0.41 HC
3.4 CO	9.0 CO
1.0 NOx	1.5 NOx
Concept 1
for air-cooled
engine, L-Jetronic,
Engine Mods,
3W, sensor
0.41 HC
3.4 CO
0.41 NOx
VW will use a 3-way
catalyst, possibly
EGR or an additional
oxidation catalyst
with air injection
between catalysts.
Low mileage results
indicate these levels
are possible, but
50,000 mile durability has
not been achieved,
according to VW.
Concept 2
for water-cooled
engine, K-Jetronic,
Engine Mods,
3W, O2 Sensor
Concept 3
for water cooled engine,
Engine Mods,
Carburetor,
0^ Sensor, 3W
*VW SR, pi
**Continuous Injection System

-------
Concept 1
This concept employs the L-Jetronic fuel injection system, a 3-way
catalyst, C>2 sensor and no EGR. Other details of improved control
systems, catalyst loadings, etc. cannot be revealed since they were in
the 1979 Part I application from VW, and VW did not reveal these details
in their status report submission.
VW did submit data describing their efforts to establish a production 3-
way catalyst.
No details were given concerning the construction, loading and Pt-Rh
ratios of this catalyst. This concept has been investigated on the air-
cooled engine installed in a microbus.
Table VW-2
VW Three-Way Catalyst Evaluation of Fresh Catalysts
Average Engine-Out	Average Tailpipe
Emissions (g/mi)	Emissions	Efficiency
Catalyst
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
HC
CO
NOx
"A"
0.94
19.4
5.4
0.34
4.93
0.84
64
74
84
"B"
1.00
20.2
5.76
0.32
3.4
0.26
68
83
95
"C"
0.91
19.7
5.5
0.27
5.4
1.1
70
73
78
"D"
0.92
19.6
5.1
0.24
4.6
' 0.39
73
77
92
The above table indicates that VW has investigated some 3-way catalysts
with good low mileage NOx efficiency.
VW also tested this concept at altitude at approximately 630 mm Hg
ambient pressure with following average values: 0.40 HC, 5.76 CO, and
0.26 NOx. No fuel economy values were given for these tests. Dura-
bility results for this concept are shown in Table VW-3.
12-745

-------
Table VW-3
VW Durability Testing of Model Year 1981 Emissions Control Concepts*
Concept 1 - Engine Family 11
VIN
FTP Emission Results (g/mi)
CID
Systems
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
Comment
120
EFI/3W/
8
0.32
4.1
1.02
16.7
	
M4
2







Cat Code
4807
0.40
7.8
1.44
17.4
-

D3
10102
0.41
6.0
1.41
18.0
-


14781
0.54
10.6
1.55
17.6
Testing discontinued
120
EFI/3W/
8
0.18
2.89
0.50
16.6
_
M4
2
4929
0.35
3.09
1.20
17.1
-

Cat. Code
10077
0.27
4.63
1.11
21.3
-

EW 23/39
15086
0.26
4.40
1.05
17.6
-

L 1/4
19961
0.27
4.87
1.14
17.8
-


24780
0.27
5.96
0.74
16.4
-


29869
0.26
2.56
1.33
17.4
Test before maintenance


29889
0.34
4.95
1.35
17.3
Test after maintenance


34851
0.37
5.51
1.22
17.9



40051
0.29
4.38
1.07
18.3



44786
0.24
4.92
1.02
18.6
Test before maintenance


49801
0.33
4.38
1.10
17.5
No adjustment of idle CO







and speed necessary over







entire test
120
EFI/3W
8
0.22
4.07
0.19
15.9
Zero Mile Test
M4
2
3802
0.27
4.34
0.40
16.9
Test in FRG

Cat. Code





MPG, =25.4

TWC 16D3





n


3840
0.40
7.63
0.32
16.9
Test at altitude







627 mm Hg MPG =25.2


3880
0.22
3.53
0.53
17.4
EPA Test MPG,. = 23.3
n
405-Z-6841
(Data
Vehicle)
*VW SR, pp. 4-13 and 22-25.

-------
Table VW
VIN	CID	Systems	Mileage
405-Z-6842 120 EFI/3W	8
(Data A3 0.	3801
Vehicle) Cat. Code	3850
EW 23/39L 1/4
Concept 2 - Engine Family 5000 CL
Audi Fox NR	EFI/3W	93
O2 Sensor	3360
6395
6400
9018
11810
14970
18450
20700
24870
27051
30001
30014
33618
36635
38761
42001
45577
50258
5000	NR	EFI/3W	18
0 Sensor	3195
6355
9060
11998
15685
18288
24330
30045
3 (cont.)
FTP Emission Results (g/mi)
HC CO NOx MPG	Comment
0.21 3.39 0.34 15.8 Zero Mile Test
0.23 2.60 0.61 16.9 Test in FRG
0.18 2.79 0.76 17.6 MPG = 22.8 in FRG
at EPA, MPG, =21.1
n
0.23
1.80
0.39
23.3
0.18
1.24
0.94
23.2
1.49
55.00
0.68
22.9
0.19
1.82
0.41
23.7
0.23
1.53
0.37
23.8
0.27
1.67
0.36
23.1
0.21
1.87
0.77
24.6
0.22
2.34
0.34
23.0
0.21
1.97
0.45
25.5
0.27
2.64
0.60
26.1
0.24
2.70
0.51
24.0
0.23
2.54
0.32
23.5
0.20
2.06
0.54
23.9
0.24
3.04
0.29
24.6
0.25
2.79
0.46
22.8
0.23
2.63
0.55
23.9
0.29
2.54
0.40
23.2
0.33
2.44
0.38
22.9
0.29
2.64
0.56
22.6
0.21
2.81
0.40
16.9
0.23
2.72
0.42
17.4
0.25
3.63
0.63
19.0
0.27
3.32
0.53
18.9
0.28
4.18
0.46
17.9
0.26
2.90
0.52
18.1
0.38
4.37
0.50
19.2
0.33
2.92
0.66
16.1
0.32
4.27
0.58
16.4
Modified timing of the
control loop.
Short circuit in control loop,
Before maintenance
After maintenance

-------
Table VW-3 (cont.)
Diesel Engine Data
VIN
CID System Mileage HC
FTP Emission Results (g/mi)
"026" WOB-0452
90 Diesel
4 cyl
5021
9807
14790
14810
19853
25059
29865
29886
34914
39919
44829
44849
50026
0.23
0.40
0.33
0.34
0.39
0.36
0.38
0.35
0.40
0.26
0.33
0.34
0.18
CO
1.1
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.2
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.1
0.9
NOx
0.83
0.93
0.84
0.93
0.92
0.88
0.93
1.00
0.96
1.04
0.96
1.16
1.17
MPG
Comments
Projected Results
781" H-04368
90 Diesel
4 cyl
Projected Results
4K
5 OK
DFs
5007
9798
14786
14807
19877
25067
29840
29861
34904
39890
44750
47770
50024
4K
50K
DFs
0.3587
0.3035
0.846
0.29
0.40
0.36
0.27
0.47
0.36
0.46
0.35
0.39
0.27
0.31
0.29
0.41
0.3619
0.3509
0.969
1.0639 0.8229
1.0297 1.0962
0.967 1.332
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.9
1.1
0.86
0.88
0.89
0.93
0.91
0.94
0.95
0.94
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.09
1.10
1.0328 0.8400
0.8697 1.0915
0.842 1.299
Not reported
120 Diesel
5 cyl.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
30000
30000
35000
35000
0.28
0.28
0.30
0.33
0.31
0.38
0.35
0.38
0.35
1.04
0.99
0.96
0.99
0.88
0.94
0.92
1.00
1.04
1.33
1.31
1.32
1.25
1.26
1.38
1.52
1.46
1.27
29.1
29.6
29.6
30.5
29.5
29.5
29.4
29.2
29.8
Before maintenance
Before maintenance
After maintenance
12-748

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Concept 2
The second concept uses a K-Jetronic fuel injection system rather than
the L-Jetronic fuel injection system. The remainder of the emission
control system is the same as Concept 1.
Volkswagen presented data from various experimental attempts to optimize
this concept. Only cold start FTP results are reported.
Table VW-4*
VW Experiment to Optimize Concept 2 for Model Year '81
Test No.
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
Warm-up Phase Optimization
1
2
0.25
0.20
3.09
1.88
0.36
0.49
22.6
22.3
Ignition Optimization
1
0.22
3.97
0.18
16.3
2
0.21
3.78
0.26
16.7
3
0.21
3.53
0.45
17.8
Electronic Control Optimization
1
2
3
4
5
0.20
0.18
0.18
0.17
0.23
1.66
1.81
2.24
3.81
4.80
High Altitude Tests
Audi Fox
1	0.31 3.49
2	0.37 3.48
1.33
1.24
0.94
0.74
0.39
0.37
0.39
0.29 3.51 0.35
*VW SR, pp. 15-19.
MPG, Comments
n 	
Base
Modified fuel control
pressure after cold start
Baseline
No ignition retard
but with advance
Wider range of ignition
advance, no ignition
retard
Variation of the
sensitivity of the
control - no details
300 m
1600 m no adjustment
from 500 m
1600 m idle adjustment
at high altitude
12-749

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Table VW-4 (con't)
Audi 5000
1
0.24
3.70
0.45
300 m
2
0.18
3.55
0.48
1600 m, no adjustment
3
0.21
2.95
0.39
from 500 m
1600 m idle adjustment
at high altitude
Catalyst Conversion Efficiency
1
1.47 16.5
4.16
17.9
Raw
emission
2
0.31 4.43
1.18
18.0
Cat
"A"
3
0.22 2.65
0.70
17.3
Cat
"B"
4
0.22 2.99
0.53
18.0
Cat
"C"
Concept 3
This concept differs from the two previous concepts since the fuel
metering is a closed loop feedback carburetor rather than fuel injec-
tion. The O2 sensor controls the fuel metering valve (No. 4 in Figure
VW-1) which richens up the basically lean operating main fuel circuit.
This system has a range of authority of 2 1/2 air/fuel ratios over the
air flow range of the carburetor and one air/fuel ratio at idle. VW
presented hot start FTP results which allowed them to conclude that 0.41
HC, 7.0 CO, 1.0 NOx could be attained with sufficient production margin
of safety. It is 'not clear from this conclusion if VW is planning to
ask for a CO waiver for model year 1981 or if they plan additional
research work to attain the 3.4 CO level. VW expects to achieve <0.35
HC,  6.0 CO, and 0.7 NOx in their American pre-production fleet
testing prior to the 1980 model year.
To achieve 3.4 CO, VW plans to use a heated intake manifold system
(similar to the Early Fuel Evaporation system used by GM) to diminish
the cold start problems during the early portion of the FTP test. VW
plans to pass exhaust gas through the intake manifold. Up to now there
have been durability problems with their system which resulted from the
exhaust diverter valve sticking and the intake manifold overheating or
possibly melting.
12-750

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9 2 7  lt
5 8
Figure VW-1*
VW Feedback Controlled Carburetor
*From VW Status Report Submission, p. 29, hereafter referred to as VW
(VW did not include legend for this figure)
12-751

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12.2.17.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.41 NOx
Volkswagen and Audi NSU maintain they do not have technology available
to meet a standard of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx for 50,000 miles. They
mentioned they would use 3-way catalyst systems with the addition of EGR
or an additional oxidation catalyst and secondary air injection. VW
reported they have achieved test results below 0.41 NOx but only at low
mileage and without the VW perceived safety margin.
According to VW, complying with a NOx standard of 0.41 g/mi over 50,000
miles in actual customer use requires an engineering goal of 0.1 g/mi to
compensate for prototype-to-production slippage, spread in production
vehicle emissions, the proposed California highway emission standard for
NOx (0.53 g/mi), restriction of adjustability, etc. VW presented the
rationale for these engineering goals as part of the DOT contract to
generate a Passenger Car Spark Ignition Engine Data Base.* The engi-
neering goal VW has set for themselves for an emission level of 0.41 HC,
3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx is 0.2 HC, 1.7 CO, and 0.1 NOx. This engineering goal
is based primarily on 1) achieving one half of the emission levels for
all three pollutants at 50,000 miles and 2) not allowing a NOx deteri-
oration factor of over two.
VW reported the data from their DOT contract. The data are shown in
Table VW-5. There were no durability data given for these emission
levels.
*Passenger Car Spark Ignition Engine Data Base, Contract No. DOT-TSC-1269,
Ninth Montly Progress Report, August 1977, pg. 5.
12-752

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Table VW-5
Average FTP Results of Low Mileage Vehicles Targeted at
0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
Avg.
VIN System IW Disp. HC CO NOx MPG MPG, MPG Drive.
		i	  	E 	 	 	 	u 	h 	c 	
WOB-VD50 FI, 3W, 2250 97 0.13 0.87 0.12 24.0 32.4 27.2 9.55
Rabbit Closed
Mod 17 loop,
W0B-VS- FI, 3W, 2250 78 0.23 1.66 0.1 24.6 36.5 28.8 9.46
35	Closed
Scirocco loop,
Mod 19 Spark
retard.
12.2.17.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Catalyst and 0^ Sensor Development
Volkswagen has apparently decided, through their catalyst studies, that
a 3-way catalyst with a platinum-rhodium ratio of 5:1 is preferred to a
catalyst withanll:l ratio. VW claims the Pt:Rh ratio of 5:1 is pre-
ferred over an 11:1 Pt:Rh ratio for the following reasons:
-	at steady state conditions the light-off temperature for NOx
after aging is about 70C lower for the 5:1 ratio.
-	the conversion efficiency for NOx after aging is 17% higher with
a Pt:Rh ratio of 5:1.
With respect to oxidation catalysts, VW noted that their testing of
platinum-palladium versus platinum-rhodium catalysts demonstrated
advantages for platinum-rhodium catalysts. These advantages were a) 70%
better conversion of NOx after aging, and b) 30 to 80C lower light-off
temperatures for HC and CO conversion after aging.
12-753

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Therefore all new oxidation catalysts will have a rhodium content range
of 5 to 10% which results in a rhodium content of 0.09 to 0.19 grams per
catalyst. It should be pointed out that a 3-way catalyst with a 11:1
Pt/Rh catalyst has a Rh content of 8.3%, which in terms of Pt/Rh content
makes the VW oxidation catalyst like an 11:1 Pt/Rh 3-way catalyst.
Volkswagen conducted a development program to evaluate 0^ sensors from
two potential suppliers. VW didn't identify either of the potential
suppliers. Upon completion of as received light-off temperature,thermo-
shock, chemically aged, and vehicle durability testing, VW selected one
of the manufacturers for production based on better shock and corrosion
resistance plus better durability results. VW mentioned that the light-
off characteristics of the sensor they selected were not initially as
good as the other sensor, but the selected manufacturer subsequently
improved the light-off characteristics of their sensor. VW will require
replacement of the sensor every 30,000 miles, but is hoping that 50,000
mile durability will be available soon. Durability results are shown in
Table VW-3 under vehicle 405-Z-7979.
Metallic Substrate Catalysts
Volkswagen reported they have investigated the use of Fecralloy steel
alloy as a substrate for both their oxidation and 3-way catalysts.
Fecralloy is a registered trade mark of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy
Authority and is a steel alloy of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), aluminum
(Al), and yttrium (Y).
Volkswagen noted there are inherent advantages with the use of metallic
substrates. These advantages are shown in Table VW-6.
12-754

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Table VW-6*
Comparisons of Some Typical Properties of
Ceramic and Metallic Catalyst Supports
Ceramic	Metallic
Cell per in2 200	300 400	450	500
Wall thickness
In	0.011	0.012	0.002	0.002	0.002
Mm	0.28	0.30	0.05	0.05	0.05
Cell area
mm	2.3	1.4	1.5	1.3	1.1
Surface to volume
ft~|	576	672	987	1032	1084
Cm-1 18.9	22.1 32.3	33.9	35.6
Open Area % 70	60 89	88	86
*VW SR, p. 8.4
The test results reported by VW included the data shown Table VW-7 which
shows the results of average conversion efficiency of a fresh metallic
catalyst (33.7 cu in. volume oxidation catalyst). The test vehicle was
a Rabbit.
Federal Test Procedure HC and CO conversion efficiency results from a
fresh metallic substrate are shown in Figure VW-2.
From their investigations, VW concluded that conversion performance
equivalent to the production catalyst using a ceramic substrate can be
obtained using a catalyst with a metallic substrate that is only 45% of
the volume of the production catalyst. Of course, this may also mean
that the efficiency of the metallic substrate catalyst with the same
volume will be better. Because of this space savings, VW feels their
metallic catalyst offers particular advantages in vehicles where space
is restricted. Also, VW feels the metallic substrate catalyst offers
greater resistance to thermal shock and mechanical vibrations. VW did
not provide data concerning an investigation using metallic substrates
with 3-way catalysts.
12-755

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HYDROCARBON
100
80
z
o
g50
UJ
>
2
O
O
AO
20
20	28	36
CATALYST VOLUME (cu in)
100
80
z
o
60
UJ
>
o ^0
o
*20
7r?y
CARBON MONOXIDE
V,
L
20	28	36
CATALYST VOLUME (cu in)
Figure VW-2*
Catalyst activity of metal supported catalysts at zero
hours. Sum weighted hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide
'conversions'""for'"platinum"rhodium catalyst. 7 400 CPSI
o 450 CPSI A 500 CPSI. All metal supports contained the
same concentration of precious metal in g/ft
VW SR, p. 8.11
12-756

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Table VW-7*
Average Conversion Efficiencies of a Fresh
Metallic Catalyst and a 50,000 Mile Aged
Catalyst (33.7 cu in. Volume)

Speed
Load
Speed
Load

1500 rpm
4J&
3000 rpm
12 Kp





Miles
^C
KC0
^C
o
o
0
92
100
94
92
50,000
82
94
77
68
inlet concentration - outlet concentration
inlet concentration
*VW SR, p.8.11
is efficiency; K =
Catalytic Exhaust Manifold
Late last year, VW reported work involving catalytic exhaust pipes and
catalytic exhaust manifolds. Volkswagen was asked to provide an update
of their work in this year's status report submission. VW reported that
the principle to be explored was the phenomenon of catalytic aftertreat-
ment taking place along metal walls coated with a catalytic material.
VW noted that the conversion zone of catalytic tubes is larger than that
of monolithic catalysts.
According to VW, there are some basic differences between catalytic
tubes and monolithic catalysts which have to be taken into account:
1) In monolithic catalysts, M is defined as follows:
M _ wall surface
total volume
The dissipation of heat toward the outside of a monolithic catalyst
is lower than for catalytic tubes as M is 3.8 in standard catalysts
and 10 in catalytic tubes. As a result, the temperature distri-
bution curve over the length of the tube is flatter, and the
specific heat loading is lower as shown in Figure VW-3.
12-757

-------
Figure VW-3*
Temperature Distribution Curves
*VW SR, pg. 9.1.
2)	The conversion properties of catalytic tubes are dependent on space
velocities and flow mechanics. Therefore, developments with cata-
lytic tubes are directed at the following goals:
a)	To improve conversion by installing additional surfaces.
b)	To improve the flow mechanics of the entire system as far
as possible.
c)	To increase the coated surface area.
3)	In monolithic catalysts there is laminar flow in all channels,
whereas in catalytic tubes there is turbulence, according to VW.
This tends to improve conversion. Therefore a disadvantage of
catalytic tubes is the fact that their geometric surface is 10 to
20% lower than that of monolithic catalysts. This is partially
offset by the effect of the turbulence inside the tubes, in VW's
opinion.
Three different types of catalytic tubes were investigated. Descrip-
tions of these tubes are shown in Table VW-8.
12-758

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Table VW-8*
Catalytic Tube Descriptions
Tube Designation
Dimensions (mm)
Diameter Length
Geometric
Surface
KR 1
42
1000
1225 cm
2
KR 2
44
1000
2440 cm
2
KR 3
45
1000
2930 cm'
2
*VW SR, p.9.2
The geometric surfaces of tubes 2 and 3 were increased by inserts. In
tube if2, a cruciform perforated sheet of metal was installed which was
twisted in two complete turns over the length of the tube. In tube #3,
6 ribs were installed in a similar fashion. All tubes were coated with
VW formula 0M 722/14 MK, the noble metal content of which is 1 g per
tube. This corresponds to a noble metal concentration of 22.5 grams per
cubic foot, a saving of 50% compared to standard catalysts, according to
VW. The noble metal composition of VW formula OM 722/14 MK was not
given.
VW investigated the relationship between the conversion rate of the
tubes, the temperature of the exhaust gas, and the air/fuel ratio.
According to VW, the light-off characteristics of catalytic tubes are
inferior to those of monolithic catalysts.
Table VW-9 shows that the maximum CO conversion rate found in all light-
off behavior tests was 63%; monolithic catalysts, on the other hand,
have conversion rates of nearly 100% at the same temperature.
Table VW-10 shows the HC conversion rates established by VW's light-off
tests. The maximum HC conversion rate is 69%, which is higher than that
of CO. Monolithic catalysts, on the other hand, will convert more than
90% of the total HC at 400C.
12-759

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Table VW-9*
CO Light-Off Behavior

T(C)

CO Efficiency
Test Subject
50%
70%
At 400C
CT 1
N.A.
N.A.
34%
CT 2
400.
N.A.
50%
CT 3
368
N.A.
63%
*VW SR, pg. 9.7.
Table VW-10*
HC Light-Off Behavior
T(C)	HC Efficiency
For Conversion
Efficiencies of
Test
Subject
50%
70%
At 400C
CT
1
N.A.
N.A.
14%
CT
2
395
N.A.
53%
CT
3
365
N.A.
69%
CT - Catalytic tube
N.A. - Not attained
*VW SR, pg. 9.7.
According to VW, the difference between the higher conversion rate of HC
than CO can be explained as follows:
Uncoated tubes will still function somewhat like thermal reactors
reducing HC although the CO conversion effect is nearly nonexistent.
Therefore, the good HC conversion of coated tubes is due to the combined
effect of the tube itself and its catalytic coating. Moreover, the
efficiency of a reactor tube increases with the temperature of the
exhaust gas, which in turn is increased by the conversion of CO.
Table VW-11 shows the conversion rates of individual exhaust gas compo-
nents generated with fixed A-adjustments. In Table VW-11, X >1 means
lean operation and X < 1 means rich operation.
12-760

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Whereas the CO conversion rates are around 85%, the maximum HC conver-
sion rate approximates 70%. It must also be noted that catalytic tubes
will also reduce the nitrogen oxides content at rich mixtures, the
maximum NOx conversion rate being 72%.
Table VW-11*
Conversion Efficiency
HC
Average Max.
a > 1)
CO
Average Max.
a > 1)
NOx
Average Max.
a < 1)
CT 1
CT 2
CT 3
11.1
56.0
67.7
29.2
58.8
69.9
22.1
73.3
81.5
30.8
78.6
84.6
13.2
35.8
39.6
16.3
62.2
71.6
*VW SR, p. 9.8.
Volkswagen concludes:
1)	Just like commercial catalysts, catalytic tubes are capable of
reducing the CO, HC, and NOx content of exhaust gases.
2)	The catalytic tubes tested are less efficient than standard catalysts.
3)	Increasing the geometric surface of catalytic tubes by installing
inserts improves conversion.
4)	Due to their inferior light-off behavior, catalytic tubes should be
installed as close to the engine as possible.
5) At the moment, the practical use of catalytic tubes is prohibitive
because these tubes are still in the developmental stage. Aging
tests will show whether or not it is possible to develop them to
meet the U.S. exhaust emission standards.
12-761

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6)	Should it prove possible to make a sufficiently lead-resistant
coating, these tubes might be used in European emission control
concepts.
7)	Furthermore, catalytic tubes may be useful to protect standard
monolithic catalysts against overheating and melting.
Diesel Engines
For model year 1978, Volkswagen is marketing a 90 CID four cylinder
Diesel powered vehicle. The exhaust emission data from the durability
vehicle for this engine family are shown in Table VW-3.
For model year 1979, VW will market a five cylinder 121 CID version of
the same basic four cylinder engine. Both the five and four cylinder
engines are based on gasoline engine blocks of a comparable number of
cylinders. The durability data for this engine are also shown in Table
VW-3.
Volkswagen submitted sections of the Summary Report for Contract No.
DOT-TSC-1193, a contract between the U.S. Department of Transportation
and Volkswagen designed to obtain a data base on light-weight automobile
Diesel powerplants suitable for passenger cars. A selected sampling of
the information from this report is included in the following figures
and tables.
Figure VW-4 is a reproduction of the introduction of the aforementioned
report to DOT. This introduction gives the objective of the contract
and a description of the vehicles used. Figure VW-5 summarizes the
major conclusions VW drew from the study, and Figure VW-6 presents a
summary of the results VW achieved during this testing.
12-762

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
This Summary Report is Volume I of a three-volume report. The objective of the study reported
herein was to obtain a data base on light-weight automobile Diesel power plants suitable for
passenger cars. The power range of the engines studied was from 50 to 100 horsepower and the
applicable curb weight range was from 1900 to 2900 pounds.
The characterization of the fuel economy, regulated exhaust emissions ( 41 4/2 0 and 41/3 4/
1.0 g/mi HC, CO and NOx, respectively were two specified constraint levels), several components
of unregulated exhaust emissions, odor, noise, driveabtlity, acceleration performance and other
consumer related attributes of these engine/vehicle systems constituted the major effort of this
program. Engine/vehicle systems tested and analyzed include:
a.	A subcompact vehicle (VW-Rabbit, 2250 pounds inertia weight) equipped with a 4-cylinder
Diesel engine, naturally aspirated (50 horsepower) and turbocharged (70 horsepower).
b.	A subcompact vehicle (VW-Oasher, 2500 pounds inertia weight) equipped with a 4-cylinder
Diesel engine, naturally aspirated (50 horsepower) and turbocharged (70 horsepower), and
with a 5-cylinder Diesel engine, naturally aspirated (66 horsepower).
c.	A compact vehicle (Audi 100,3000 pounds inertia weight) equipped with a 5-cylinder Diesel
engine, naturally aspirated (66 horsepower),a 6-cylinder Diesel engine, naturally aspirated
(75 horsepower) and turbocharged (100 horsepower) and a V-8 Diesel engine, naturally
aspirated (100 horsepower). Data on the 6-cylinder turbocharged engine and the V-8 engine
are projections only.
d.	In connection with the engine/vehicle systems mentioned above, 12 different manual trans-
missions including 4 and 5 speed gearboxes were analyzed and a number of them were
tested.
e.	Three typical vehicles were analyzed to investigate the compatibility between light-weight
automotive Diesel power plants and frontal impact crashworthiness at three safety levels.
f.	A systems analysis computer programm previously developed by Volkswagen was updated.
The main variables are: Engine Function, Installation Suitability, Material and Fuel Conservation
Environmental Requirements.
Throughout the study the Diesel engines considered were treated in the context of vehicle
systems with the following variables paramount (the salient results for each variable are discussed
in the section indicated):
1.Fuel	Economy (4.1)
2.	Emissions (4.2)
3.	Consumer Attributes (4.3)
4.	Compatibility with Advanced Crashworthiness (4.4)
Section 5 describes the results of hardware efforts: A turbocharged Diesel Rabbit and the VW
Integrated Research Vehicle, in which the compatibility of one of the engines studied with an
automobile of advanced crashworthiness is demonstrated.
Figure VW-4*
*VW SR, p. 1.5.
12-763

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2.0 MAJOR CONCLUSIONS
The data of vehicles and engines which were evaluated are listed in Table 1 It summarizes
the major results.
2.1	FUEL ECONOMY
The composite fuel economy of vehicles in the 2250-to-3000lb inertia weight (IW) range
equipped with naturally aspirated Diesel engines with nominal EPA road load setting varies by
24%, 41 to 33 mpg at constant performance levei (4.1.1). The fuel economy value at 2250 lb IW
with an EPA road load setting that reflects the actual road load is 44 mpg.
Comparing the naturally aspirated and turbocharged Diesel engines under study and yielding
equivalent vehicle performance the composite fuel economy of turbocharged Diesel engines is
higher by about 20% (4.1.2).
Comparung naturally aspirated and turbocharged Diesel engines with equivalent output the
composite fuel economy of turbocharged Diesel engines is higher by 20% (4.1.2).
The composite fuel economy can be improved by 10% using drivetrains designed for optimal
fuel economy (4.1.2).
Varying the horsepower-to-weight ratio from 0.030 to 0.022 leads to an increase of the compo-
site fuel economy by 8% in naturally aspirated Diesel engines (4.1.3).
Changing the emission level from 0.41/3.4/2.0 to 0.41/3.4/1.0 g/mi HC/CO/NOx causes the fuel
economy to drop by 5% with some other adverse effects (4.1.4).
2.2	REGULATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS
It is possible to meet an emission level of 0.41/3.4/2.0 gram/mile HC/CO/NOx with all engine/
vehicle systems under consideration. Complying with a NOx emission level of 1.0 gram/mile, requires
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) which is problematic as far as smoke, particulates, odor, driveabiiity,
durability and maintenance are concerned. In the presence of EGR additional work for the reduction
of HC is required (4.2.1).
2.3	UNREGULATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS
During normal road operation the smoke emitted by all engine/vehicle systems was invisible.
Compared to current engine technology, the amount of particulates emitted is low. but it is
increased when EGR is used. The odor level of the engines studied is in the range of modern
designed passenger car Oiesel engines, but increases when EGR is used. The actual emissions
of sulfates are largely dependent on the sulphur content of the fuel used. The emissions of ammonia
and aldehydes compare to those of spark ignition engines. First measurements of polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbon emissions indicate lower values than those of gasoline engines (4.2.2).
2.4.	NOISE
The acceleration noise of Diesel and gasoline engines (with indentical HP/IW) is the same.
Gasoline engines produce slightly less noise when idling or cruising (4.2.3).
2.5.	PERFORMANCE, DRIVEABIUTY, AND STARTABILITY
The acceleration performance (0  60 mph) of Diesel engine powered vehicles (2000-3000 lb)
ranges from 11 to 20 sec. .which is similar to vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines.
Under the operating conditions, fuel composition, and lubriants to be found in the U.S. driveabiiity
as well as startability present no major problems (4.3.1). All engines studied exhibited no startability
problems above minus 11" F (-25 C).
Figure VW-5*
*VW SR, p. 1.6.- 1.7.
12-764

-------
2.6	DURABILITY AND MAINTENANCE
The maintenance requirements of modern Diesel engines are lower than those of comparable
gasoline engines.
Based on test data and engineering analysis the service life of the Diesel engines studied exceeds
the service life of equivalent gasoline engines.
2.7	INITIAL COST
Diesel engines are more expensive than gasoline engines. The higher cost are partly offset by
the emission control measures required by gasoline engines. The price for the naturally aspirated (NA)
4 cylinder Rabbit Diesel is $ 170 higher than of an equivalent gasoline version.
2.8	COMPATIBILITY OF DIESEL ENGINES WITH STRUCTURES OF ADVANCED CRASHWORTHINESS
Studies performed on three typical vehicles in the inertia weight classes of 2250 lb to 3000 lb
have shown, that the installation of Diesel engines comply with safety requirements, and that it does
not entail significant changes in either vehicle geometry or vehicle weight (4.4).
2.9	ADVANCED ENGINE/VEHICLE SYSTEMS
The test data obtained on the engine families show that the more advanced Diesel engine
(turbocharged Diesel as compared to the naturally aspirated engine) offer definite advantages in
terms of engine performance (efficiency, emissions and noise) and vehicle packaging, namely, the
lower volume requirements for the engine allows for greater flexibility in the design for passenger
comfort and safety at constant fuel economy and power.
To demonstrate the compatibility of a turbocharged Diesel power plant, 4 cylinder 70 HP. five
speed manual transmission with a vehicle of advanced safety features, high performance, acceptable
emissions, and good fuel economy, an Integrated Research Vehicle (IRVW) was built.
The main characteristics are (5.2):
2250 lb inertia weight, 4 passengers
60 mpg fuel economy (composite)
0.41/3.4/1.5 g/mi HC/CO/NOx
40 mph frontal impact
 13.5 seconds (0-60 mph)
Another equivalent 4 cylinder turbocharged Diesel engine installed in a standard "77 Rabbit
vehicle (2250 lb IW) with a four speed manual transmission has yielded approximately 50 mpg
(composite EPA cycle) and has also met the above emission standard. The same '77 Rabbit with the
above five speed transmission and the same calibration of the IRVW would also yield 60 mpg. Those
values are based on road-load settings that correspond to the actual road-load consistent with EPA
procedures.
Figure VW-5 (con't)
12-765

-------
Main Results of the Evaluated Engine/Vehicle Systems
ON
G>

- -
1
1

i








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. .




No
Vuhirlu
Size
j No of
jP.issoiicier.s
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Cl'l)
HP
HP/IW
Acc
0-60
I Tunc
30-70
Camp
fuel
(icon
Apiriiciihlc
Emission
Standiiid
HC/CO/NO*
Emissions
Achieved
in Lab
HC/CO/NO*
Particul
Emiss-
ions
Odo 
ranis
(TIA)
Idle
0 5m
(19.7*)
Accel
15 m
159.1')
j Conyi
1 15 rn
j <59. n |
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4
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6
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7
c
5
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i
130
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75
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8
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4
2250
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i 4
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9
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4
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10
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5
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5
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6
146
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12
c
5
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6
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13
c
5
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NA'
8
130
100
0 033
1 1 1
120
30
41/3 4/2
43/2 0/1 3





14
sc
4
1750
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4
90
50
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14 0
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15
sc
A
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NA EGR
4
90
50
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16
sc
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4
90
50
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183
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39

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0 32
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71
61 j
17
sc
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2250
TC EGR
4
90
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0031
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.20/1 2/.40
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2.9
76
69
61
18
c i
5
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4
90
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40
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j

		
. . .
i..	
		-
L	
	1
	
	1
	
	
	
-	
 ,
	
	
	
	
	
	1
Projected Engines
Abbreviations SC. Subcompact. C: Compact
N A.. Naturally Aspirated. TC: Turbocharged
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
TIA Total Intensity of Aroma (ADL-Method)
ClD Engine Displacenwnt in Cubic Inch
HP/IW Horsepov/er to Inertia Weight Ratio. HP/lb
Units Acceleration Time in sec.
Fuel Economy in inpg
Emissions in gram/mile
Weight m lb
Noise in dB (A)
Figure VW-6*
*VW SR, p. 1.8.- 1.9.

-------
At an emission target of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 2.0 NOx, VW obtained the
results shown in Figure VW-7. Comparable composite fuel economy results
are shown in Figure VW-8. Volkswagen feels as far as the four cylinder,
naturally aspirated engine and the turbocharged version are concerned,
the margin necessary for manufacturing tolerances and a deterioration
factor are acceptable. Also, the results obtained from the 66 horse-
power naturally aspirated Diesel engine and the projected 100 horsepower
naturally aspirated Diesel engine are sufficient to meet a 2.0 NOx
level.
At emissions levels of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx, VW was able to achieve
0.39 HC, 1.4 CO, 0.85 NOx with a "laboratory engine" at an inertia
weight of 2250 lb. by using internal engine modifications (swirl chamber
geometry and injection profile). This resulted in a fuel economy penalty
of 7%, according to VW. It was not evident from the VW report if this
was a composite fuel economy impact. Figure VW-9 gives the emission
results of two Diesel engines with modulated EGR (naturally aspirated
and turbocharged versions). Volkswagen indicated that to comply with
levels of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx in production, they must achieve one
half those levels with research vehicles. The majority of tests in
Figure VW-9 appear to satisfy the VW goals. No details of the dura-
bility test mileage or procedures used to generate these conclusions
were given. Volkswagen claimed that EGR increased smoke and odor levels,
reduced durability, increased maintenance requirements, and induced
poorer driveability. Little backup data were supplied.
Volkswagen maintains they have no current plans to introduce turbo-
charged Diesel engines although they have studied the effects on fuel
economy and emissions of turbocharging Diesel engines. They have also
investigated the effects of turbochargers on spark ignition engines.
12-767

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50 HP N.A.
Production
I'Erfil
66 HP N.A.
Pre production
~
70 HPTC
Research
100 HP N A
Projection
E
X
O
2 0
rr>3.4
E
o>
I
1.3
I
1.3
.9
1.2
1.5

1.3
1.1
1.7
1.8

:
1.2

1.3




-









3
I
1.4

1.2
.7
1.7
.8
r~
i
1.8
2.0

O
O
E
O
0
.41
.16
.15
.35
.11
.16
.15
.40
.15
.35
.43
.14
1750	2000	2250	2500	2750
Vehicle Inertia Weight [lb]
3000
Figure VW-7*
REGULATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM VARIOUS DIESEL ENGINES.
Deterioration factors and variances due to manufacturing (30% of the
figures indicated), are not taken into account.
*VW STL p. 1.17.
12-768

-------
50
43
50
45
o>
a
>
E
o
c
o
o
UJ
"55
3
LL
43
to
o
a
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Q
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h-
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o
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Q
<

Z
.z
Q.
0l
X
x
(O
o
(C
o
1750	2000	2250	2500	2750
Vehicle Inertia Weight [lb]
3000
Figure VW-8*
COMPOSITE FUEL ECONOMY OF VARIOUS DIESEL ENGINES AVERAGED OVER
THE CITY AND HIGHWAY DRIVING CYCLES.
The fuel economy is given in terms of No. 2 Diesel fuel based on
nominal EPA road load setting. The figures given may vary by +2 mpg.
results obtained by EPA at actual road load setting.
*VW SR p. 1.15.
12-769

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50 HP NA EGR
Research Diesel
~ 70 HP TC EGR
Research Diesel
E
.05.
1
X
o
z 0
.40
HI
.46
.40
.47
.45
.40
.50
r-i3.4
E
8 0
~zir
2.5
1.2
2.5
- 1.0
1.5
1.6
O)
ij
O
X
1750
2000	2250	2500	2750
Vehicle Inertia Weight [lb]
3000
Figure VW-9*
REGULATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF TWO DIESEL ENGINES WITH CONTROLLED
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (PRELIMINARY DATA).
The trade-off between low NOx, and acceptable HC and CO is a function
of the amount of exhaust gas recirculated (EGR). Note the increased
smoke and odor levels which are due to EGR.
VW SR. p. 1.18.
12-770

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Volkswagen revealed they were experimenting with ceramic materials in
Diesel combustion chambers. VW feels that because of the high resis-
tance to erosion and temperature of ceramic materials, parts such as
swirl chambers, chamber throats, and pistons can be coated with ceramic
materials. Although the engine efficiency of the engine at WOT will
improve by no more than 2-3%; the combustion quality is improved and HC
emissions are reduced, according to VW. Emissions data comparing a
ceramic versus metallic swirl chamber are shown below. Note that the
data are reported on the European Test Cycle. VW did not report data
for this concept on the FTP.
Table VW-12*
Comparison of Ceramic vs. Metallic Swirl Chamber
Tested on the European Test Cycle
Emission Results (g/km)	Fuel Consumption
Material
hcfid
CO
NOx
L/100 km (MPG)
Ceramic
0.24
1.4
0.68
7.4 (31.8)
Metal
0.4
1.84
0.65
7.3 (32.2)
*VW SR, p. 3.1.
The ceramic swirl chambers brought about slight improvements in cold
start and warm-up noise, but more importantly a 40% reduction in HC
emissions. VW claimed that the entire combustion system (injection
system and swirl chamber geometry) will have to be redesigned to incor-
porate the ceramic materials. The degree of redesign was not specified.
Volkswagen is also experimenting with ceramic pistons, but VW stated
that emissions or performance tests have yet to be conducted.
12-771

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Turbocharged Engines
In addition to the previously mentioned turbocharged Diesel engine work,
Volkswagen has also conducted studies aimed at turbocharging the 97 CID
spark ignition engines. The purpose of this program is to develop a
high performance engine concept which complies with U.S. emission regu-
lations. A schematic of the turbocharger concept is shown in Figure VW-
10. It should be noted in this figure that the turbocharger is waste-
gated. When the wastegate is in operation, that portion of the exhaust
which does not go through the turbine also does not go through the
catalyst. In spite of the obvious reduction in emission control system
effectiveness, Volkswagen maintains this is necessary because when the
wastegated flow went through the catalyst, the backpressure caused by
the catalyst would not allow the engine to produce maximum horsepower.
VW did not specify what was considered to be acceptable power for this
concept. Volkswagen feels a lower backpressure catalyst or a metal
substrate catalyst may allow passage of all the exhaust through the
catalyst.
The treatment of the wastegate flow is important because the wastegate
will probably not be operational during the relatively lightly loaded
FTP or Highway Fuel Economy Test, but during high power demand modes,
the untreated exhaust is discharged to the atmosphere.
Emissions and fuel economy data from an unspecified vehicle and unspeci-
fied test procedure are given in Table VW-13.
12-772

-------
(See Figure VW-lOb for legend)
*VW SR, p. 1.35-1.36.

-------
Figure VW-lOb
Legend for Figure VW-lOa
1	Air pump
2	Air filter
3	Silencer
4	Air bypass valve
5	Check valve
6	Deceleration control valve
7	EGR valve
8	Duel-way solenoid
j 9	Thermal vacuum valve
10	Micro switch
11	EGR tube
12	Exhaust gas probe (for raw emission check)
13	Catalytic Converter
14	Turbocharger
15	Prevolume
16	Closing damper
17	Vacuum advance diaphragm box
18	Vacuum retard diaphragm box
19	Check valve
20	Power brake vacuum reservoir
21	Waste gate
22	Blow-off valve
23	Exhaust bypass
12-774

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Table VW-13*
Emission and Fuel Economy Data from a Turbocharged
97 CID Spark Ignition Vehicle
Emission Results (g/mi)
Fuel Economy
MPG,
h
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
MPG
u
c
1.36
0.29
0.34
0.20
3.55
3.48
2.82
2.32
0.66
0.69
0.87
0.82
20.8
19.8
20.9
20.9
20.6
31.2
30.9
30.4
31.0
30.87
24.5
23.6
24.3
24.5
24.2
*VW SR, p. 1.34.
Volkswagen reported these fuel economy values were 10% lower than a
comparable naturally aspirated engine. The apparent reason was a
mismatch between the turbocharger and the overall transmission ratio
used during these tests. Since the vehicle descriptions were not
reported it is impossible to confirm VW's allegation of a 10% fuel
economy penalty. Volkswagen will continue to lower the backpressure of
the catalysts and will explore use of the turbocharger with a closed
loop 3-way catalyst system.
Stratified Charge Engine
Volkswagen reported the following efforts to meet future exhaust emis-
sion standards of Europe and the U.S. while at the same time aiming for
lower energy consumption by using their stratified charge engine con-
cept. Their philosophy in conducting these studies was to control
emissions by improving the combustion process within the engine itself
rather than with the use of exhaust gas aftertreatment. This work was
completed in March 1977.
Table VW-14 shows the sequence of the VW R & D program, beginning with
experiments performed on air-cooled, one-cylinder engines. The schedule
contains combustion bomb tests and the generation of a universal mathe-
matical flow model intended to expand the scope of basic data available.
12-775

-------
Table VW-14*
R&D Schedule for the Stratified Charge Engine Program
1973 1974 1975 1976	1977
	NTO 58		 TV 7601 4
Tests of an air-cooled
PCI one-cylinder engine
Combustion bomb tests
Mathematical flow model
Tests of 4-cylinder PCI engine
Engine/vehicle concept tests (VW Beetle)
Cooperation contract with LAT, RWTH Aachen
Design of water-cooled PCI/PCV engine
IEP design (Audi NSU)
Tests of water-cooled PCI/PCV one-cylinder engine
Tests of water-cooled 4-cylinder stratified charge engines
Tests of a CVCC engine
Engine/vehicle tests involving Rabbit and Dasher
Special Investigations
Modified ECE concept
*VW SR, p. 6.3.

-------
This was followed by engine dynamometer trade-off tests, by tuning work,
and by engine/vehicle tests. Most of this work was completed ahead of
schedule. The results of the engine/vehicle tests involving a PCI*
engine installed in a 1303 VW Beetle were available as early as 1973.
As the relative percentage of water-cooled engines produced by VW kept
increasing during that period, VW's findings regarding air-cooled stra-
tified charge engines had to be adapted to the new 1.6L in-line engines.
During the second year of the German government-subsidized experiments,
VW began testing water-cooled, one-cylinder PCI and PCV** engines.
Towards the end of 1974, VW began a series of engine/vehicle tests of
water-cooled four-cylinder engines. After this, VW began to work on
trade-offs under transient operating conditions. To get the emissions
of HC and CO to their lowest possible level, VW tested a lean mixture
reactor. VW investigations of the combustion process were paralleled by
intensive studies of the carburetion system.
Concerning the air-cooled PCI stratified charge engine vehicle tests,
Volkswagen reported that this engine had a slightly higher power output
than the comparable 1.6 litre U.S. version spark ignition engine.
Emission tests results from an unspecified vehicle, but without any
aftertreatment or EGR, were as follows:
HC 2.1 - 2.5 g/mi
CO 4.4 - 8.0 g/mi
NOx 0.8 - 1.0 g/mi
MPG^ 22 - 26 mpg
The water-cooled PCI stratified charge engine was also tested by Volks-
wagen. During these tests, the main combustion chamber mixture was
*PCI - Pre-Chamber-Injection
**PCV - Pre-Chamber Valve
12-777

-------
supplied by carburetion rather than by fuel injection into the intake
3
manifold. The engine had a 3 mm injection fuel rate to the prechamber.
The results indicated abnormally high HC emissions. Volkswagen installed
a port liner and a lean thermal reactor to improve HC and CO emissions
levels. These modifications also allowed fuel economy to be improved by
5 to 10%, according to VW.
Vehicles equipped with PCI engines tested at 2500 pounds inertia weight
produced the following FTP results: (Unspecified vehicles for 23 tests).
HC	0.55	0.05 g/mi
CO	4.5	0.4 g/mi
NOx 1.13	0.08 g/mi
MPG 21.3	1.0 mpg
u
In addition to the PCI procedure, which involves direct fuel injection
into the prechamber, the mixture in the prechamber may also be supplied
by a separate auxiliary air intake system fitted with a separate car-
buretion unit. This was identified as the PCV stratified charge engine
concept.
12-778

-------
Just like the PCI process, this system required modifications to the
cylinder head. The rest of the engine was essentially unchanged from
the standard model. Whereas the main chamber valves are activated in
the same manner as in the standard engine, the auxiliary inlet valve is
activated by a rocker arm. This is illustrated by Figure VW-11, which
shows a cross section of the cylinder head.
With this concept, VW also used what is called an IEP (Intake pipe/
Ebchaust gas Package) consisting of a thermal reactor and an integrated
air intake pipe preheating device. This package was designed in cooper-
ation with Audi, NSU, Neckarsulm. The thermal reactor features a cast
outer jacket and a flange connecting it to the intake pipe. The intake
pipe bottom of the collector pot is heated directly by exhaust gas,
according to VW.
Initially, VW used Kei Hin carburetors taken from CVCC stratified charge
engines to test the concept while waiting for the modified carburetors.
With the engines fitted with Kei Hin carburetors, the FTP test results
were as follows:
HC - 0.53 g/mi
CO - 5.83 g/mi
NOx - 1.1 g/mi
B* - 20.6 mi/gal
Based on these results and other considerations, VW decided to give
preference to the PCI process because it seemed more suitable for
further development, according to VW.
Recent investigations of the stratified charge engine concepts include
mathematical simulation of special configurations, heat flow analysis in
*B is a VW abbreviation and is assumed by the EPA technical staff to
mean MPG .
u
12-779

-------
Figure VW-11*
Configuration of Prechamber and Auxiliary Valve
Drive in the Cylinder Head of a PCV Engine.
*VW SR, p. 6.19.
12-780

-------
prechamber inserts, complete engine thermodynamic analysis, an energy
balance for a PCI engine, and a PCV engine concept with optimum fuel
consumption. This latter experiment was run to find ways of lowering
fuel consumption while neglecting exhaust emissions and concept cost.
VW took the following steps: Compression ratio increase from 8 to 9;
optimization of both air/fuel ratio and ignition timing; use of K-
Jetronic fuel injection; alternatively, installation of either a cata-
lyst or an EGR system. In the course of some preliminary experiments
run on an engine dynamometer, VW optimized both the ignition timing and
the air/fuel ratio so that the fuel injection and ignition systems could
be designed accordingly. VW found that with optimum ignition timing,
the fuel consumption as determined during FTP warm-start tests could be
brought down to 8.8 L/100 km (27 MPG). However, if there is no exhaust
gas aftertreatment,.the emissions of HC and NOx will be quite high,
according to VW. Using a catalyst, whose conversion will be satis-
factory at relatively low exhaust gas temperatures, will bring down the
HC and CO emissions while fuel consumption and NOx emissions remain
nearly unaffected, according to VW. If EGR is introduced in addition to
this, the emissions of NOx will be more than halved, and again the
emissions of HC and CO will remain nearly constant, while the influence
on fuel consumption will be negligible, again according to VW. Relin-
quishing the ignition advance at part throttle, however, produces a
significant increase in fuel consumption from about 9.3 L/100 km (25.5
MPG) to about 10.3 L/100 km (23 MPG). On the other hand, the emissions
of NOx are cut in half once again, dropping to about 0.7 g/mi.
Volkswagen also reported on a concept to simplify a PCI engine to meet
European exhaust emission standards. ECE tests run on vehicles equipped
12-781

-------
with PCI engines fitted with lean reactors, and with a standard exhaust
system, produced the following results:
Lean-Mixture Reactor
(Average of 19 Tests)
Standard Exhaust System
(Average of 12 Tests)
HCfid 3.5 g/Test
CO	30.6 g/Test
HCfid 6.8 g/Test
CO	24.4 g/Test
NOx
2.9 g/Test
NOx
2.3 g/Test
Fuel	14.1 L/1Q0 km
Consumption
Fuel	13.8 L/100 km
Consumption
It is clear that under these test conditions, the reactors primarily
reduce HC emissions. Reducing the exhaust gas backpressure by using a
standard exhaust system will increase the power output of the engine by
up to 6 kW. If PCI engines are to be built to ECE standards in the
future, lean thermal reactors can be dispensed with only if the HC
standards are not too stringent, according to VW.
Gas Turbine
Because Volkswagen feels that future power plants for automobiles must
combine high fuel economy, low pollutant levels, multifuel capability
and reasonable production costs, they have investigated the automotive
gas turbine as a potential solution for the future. Volkswagen has, in
conjunction with Williams Research Corportion, Walled Lake, Michigan,
developed and tested two gas turbines with power outputs of 55 kW and
100 kW respectively. The 55 kW engine was installed in a Microbus and
the 100 kW engine was installed in an R080 manufactured by AUDI NSU.
This vehicle was tested at 1700 kg (3748 lb). The acceleration time
from zero to 100 km/hr (about 62 raph) is 14 seconds. The vehicle response
is reported by VW to be powerful enough to follow the FTP driving cycle.
A combined fuel economy of 14 mpg is also reported by VW. Using a
diffusion-flame combustion system, the 100 kW gas turbine vehicle has
attained 3.4 g/mi CO, 0.4 g/mi HC, and 2 g/mi NOx, according to VW. The
vehicle can be driven on gasoline, Diesel, JP4, and methanol fuel.
12-782

-------
Volkswagen has several programs underway to improve fuel consumption.
With respect to reducing pollutant levels, Volkswagen has developed
three combustion chambers: 1) a continuous diffusion flame combustion
chamber, 2) a single-stage premixing chamber, and 3) a two-stage com-
bustion chamber. The latter combustion chamber is designed so the first
stage is used for idling and low loads, and the second stage is only
used for acceleration and higher loads. Using a computer simulation to
predict FTP results, Volkswagen predicted all three combustion chambers
could achieve 0.41 HC and 3.4 CO, and the first chamber could achieve
2.0 NOx, the second could achieve 1.0 NOx and the two-stage chamber
could achieve 0.41 NOx. Only the diffusion combustion chamber has
achieved its goals, although no vehicle data were presented by VW.
Future plans call for VW to install the second type of combustion
chamber'into a vehicle for testing.
Volkswagen, like other manufacturers, is experimenting with ceramic
turbine materials to increase the turbine inlet temperatures and improve
fuel economy.
Using an analog simulation technique which includes models for the gas
turbine, the transmission, and the vehicle, Volkswagen predicted the
fuel economy potential of the gas turbine. The results are given in
Figure VW-12. The upper diagram shows the engine power which has to be
attained to provide the vehicle with acceptable acceleration perfor-
mance. The lower diagram shows the fuel economy in terms of combined
FTP and HFET values. The fuel economy which can probably be attained
with gas turbines is shown as a grey band, according to VW. Also
according to VW, gas turbines using today's technology can attain fuel
economy values near the lower border of this range. High temperature
gas turbines using ceramic components should attain a fuel economy near
the upper border. In comparing the fuel economy of the different engine
12-783

-------
CL
X
cr
LU

O
CL
Q
LU
I-
<
QC
250
Figure W-12*
150
50
o
o
LU
LU
3
^ 10
"///////,/////
- ,//////.i
/////
'//
y////J." 13?3k
m/s
W///////.
' 
150
100
50

cr
LU

o
CL
Q
LU
H
<
q:
- 15
- 10
1000
1500	2000
VEHICLE TEST WEIGHT , kg
2500
FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL OF GAS TURBINES
*VW SR, p. 23-39.	12-784
E
LU
O
>-
o
CD
Z
o
u
>
o
2
o
o
LU
LU
Z>
ll

-------
types, considerable fuel economy advantages for gas turbines in heavier
cars are obvious, according to VW.
Figure VW-13 shows CO-NOx correlations for turbines which have been
measured with diffusion flame type combustors and with premix combustion
concepts. The HC emission values are not shown as this pollutant nor-
mally does not exceed the tolerated limit if the CO limit is met. The
tolerated operation ranges for 1.5 g/mi NOx and 0.41 g/mi NOx are shown
as dark bands. According to the analog simulation described above,
future metallic gas turbines attaining fuel economies of 15 mpg in the
FTP would operate in the indicated ranges. Therefore, it is likely that
future gas turbines can meet the most stringent future standards, accor-
ding to VW. However, two stage premix combustion systems together with
more complex fuel controls will be needed, according to VW.
These predictions apply to gas turbines working with today's turbine
inlet temperatures. According to VW, for gas turbines with higher
process temperatures, the engine simulation and the extrapolation of
combustion chamber test results indicate that the most stringent stan-
dards are attainable up to the desired ceramic turbine inlet tempera-
tures of 1623K.
Some of the work on gas turbines was performed on behalf of the German
Ministry for Research and Technology.
Rotary Engine
In response to a specific question from EPA concerning Volkswagen AUDI's
progress with the AUDI rotary engine, Volkswagen submitted an advanced
12-785

-------
Figure VW-13*
K>
I
00
cn
jx.
CD
O
O
X
LU
Q
O
<7)
CO
IE
LU
200
100
60
40
20
10
6
4
1
PREMIX
COMBUSTION
DIFFUSION FLAME
T0L. OPERATION :i
RANGE FOR 15 mpg
CITY CYCLE FUEL
ECONOMY
CO = 3.4 g/mile
N0X < 1.5 g/mile
TWO STAGE COMBUSTION

I I I I
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 1
10
EMISSION INDEX N0X
20
g/kg

-------
copy of an SAE paper which was to be submitted to the SAE Congress in
early 1978. The paper* was subsequently published and the can be found
in the literature. However, there are some emissions and fuel economy
results which are included here for completeness.
The authors of the SAE paper concluded that the present disadvantage of
rotary engines is still the high HC emissions. During the development
of the AUDI rotary engine (KKM871)., efforts to attain better fuel con-
sumption also resulted in reduced hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emis-
sions. Figure VW-14 indicates the base emission levels of two different
prototype carbureted engines (II and III) versus a prototype engine with
Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection (IV). The authors also reported a fuel
economy improvement of 8% over city operation and 11.3% over highway
operation when comparing the fuel injected version to the carbureted
version.
An emission control system consisting of two 3 in. by 3 in. start cata-
lysts, (1 catalyst per exhaust port), port liners, a start catalyst
bypass control, and main catalysts (3 in. by 5 in. diameter Degussa
oxidation catalysts located in the exhaust stream) was utilized. Air
was injected into the exhaust port until the water temperature exceeded
68C at which time the air was dumped to atmosphere. The range of
emissions and fuel economy results is shown in Figure VW-15. The cor-
responding range of HFET results is shown in Figure VW-16. Both figures
contain confirmatory data from an unspecified U.S. vehicle manufacturer.
The same engine was also tested using the Japanese emission control
system (an unspecified main oxidation catalyst without the start cata-
lyst system). The emission and fuel economy results are shown in Figure
VW-17 and 18. Volkswagen reported they would be attempting to adopt EGR
*An Update of the Development on the New Audi NSU Rotary Engine Generation
by Richard van Basshuyer and Gottlich Wilmers, SAE Paper 780418, March 1978.
12-787

-------
Figure VW-14*
PROTOTYPE I I
HC
I TK H
N0X
FTP - FUEL ECONOMY TEST DATA
*VW SR, p. 2.49.
12-788

-------
2.0 T
1.8-
1.6-
s1.4
1.21
' 1.0 f
to
I
00
SO
x
o
I
0
1
.8-
.6-
.4-
.2-
0
15*
I	1
FEDERAL
20 EMISSION STANDARDS: *1978
18	**1981
16
U 5-
12 fe
10 o
8 
6
U
2
2.0
1
1
1

!
1.0
*#
J

1
1
.90

I

1
1
.65


.68
[3^11
-fcLnTWT
.23

1

CO

NOx

20
HC
AUDI NSU TEST DATA
US-AUTOMOBILE COMPANY TEST DATA
FE
-15
-10
o
Q_

O
z
o
o
LU
5
LU
ZD
U_
0
AUDI
NSU
CVS-TEST EXHAUST EMISSION DATA
AND FUEL ECONOMY
Figure VW-15*
*VW SR, p. 2.50.

-------
Figure VW-16*
TESTVEHiCLE: AUD1100 (3000 LBS.)
ENGINE : KKM871
TRANSMISSION: MANUAL 5-SPEED
26.5
245
18.5
170
seaa
17.6
25.7
21.5
20.0
20.5
CITY HIGHWAY COMBINED
AUDI NSU TEST DATA
US-AUTOMOBILE COMR TEST DATA
FTP - FUEL ECONOMY TEST DATA
SR, p. 2.51.
12-790

-------
* STANDARDS 1976
** STANDARDS 1978
hO
^sj
v>
HC	CO	N0X
"AUDI NSU TEST DATA
JAPANESE AUTOMOBILE COMPANY TEST DATA (AVERAGE)
AUDI
NSU
JAPANESE 10-M0DE TEST
EXH.EMISSION DATAAND FUEL ECONOMY
Figure VW-17*
*VW SR, p. 252.

-------
* STANDARDS 1978
t 8 t 80
w 71 70 uj
6 + 60-
o	o
x^"50o
9 U -40"
i
0
1
3-30
2-20
1 +10
0
60
I
I
11.9
11.1
Z2
HC	CO	N0X
AUDI NSU TEST DATA
m JAPANESE AUTOMOBILE COMPANY TEST DATA
AUDI
NSU
JAPANESE 11-M0DE TEST
EXHAUST EMISSION DATA
Figure VW-18*
*VW SR, p. 2.53.

-------
and possibly feedback controlled 3-way catalysts to meet the Japanese
emission standards.
The SAE paper also reported preliminary emission results of a stratified
charge rotary engine that AUDI is researching. The engine is being
investigated with either partial direct injection (PDI) or full direct
injection (FDI). The partial direct injection system is shown in Figure
VW-19, the full direct injection system in Figure VW-20. In the PDI
system, a small fuel quantity is injected into a lean, homogenous basic
mixture inducted via a carburetor, thereby generating a rich ignition
mixture at the spark plug (so called pilot injection). The FDI is
direct injection of the total fuel quantity near top dead center upon
the rotor surface. The rotor surface has a special recess shape to
induce highly turbulent gas flow to help fuel mixing. Preliminary
emission results are shown in Figure VW-21.
Lean Burn System
Volkswagen continues to investigate lean burn systems as a method of
reducing exhaust emission levels of gasoline engine powered vehicles.
Volkswagen contends that even with EGR, NOx levels below 1.5 g/mi can
be achieved only at the expense of poorer fuel economy. Consequently,
Volkswagen is researching, with public funds from the German Ministry
of the Interior, a lean burn engine concept called the "Low Pollution
Engine Concept" (LPC) for use principally in the European market where
exhaust emission standards may not be as stringent as U.S. standards.
The LPC system utilizes a microprocesser to control EGR rate, spark
timing, and air/fuel ratio via computer control. Sensed parameter use
to compute desired engine conditions include air flow, fuel flow,
throttle position, coolant temperature, and engine speed. The ultimate
12-793

-------
SPARK PLUG
INJECTION NOZZLE
DIRECTION
OF
ROTATION
AUDI R.E. WITH PARTIAL
NSU| DIRECT INJECTION(PDI)
*VW SR, p. 2.06.
Figure VW-19*
12-794

-------
FUEL
INJECTION 
NOZZLE-OEg
SPARK
PLUG
hO
I
^4
KO
Ln
INTAKE
PORT
EXHAUST
PORT
AUDI
NSU
R.E. WITH DIRECT FUEL INJECTION
(FDD
Figure VW-20*
*VW SR, p. 2.57.

-------
iir
O FDI
~ PDI
K-JETRONIC
8 1.0 12 % 16 18 20
EXCESS AIR RATIO
AUDI COMPOF SC-SYSTEMS
NSU AND K-JETR. AT2000RPM
*vw SR, p. 2.59.
Figure VW-21*
12-796

-------
desire is to provide overall, lean combustion while retaining good
vehicle operation during those operational modes (i.e., warm-up and
operation near the lean ignition limit), which can result in poor
driveability or inadequate emission control performance.
To date, only engine dynamometer testing has been conducted, but VW
remains encouraged by the results. Volkswagen indicated that the test
results which have been described, and especially those shown in Figure
VW-22, have established that the selected concept of the LPC engine
results in a power plant with good driveability and great potential
regarding emissions. The utilization of this potential lies, on the one
hand, in an accurate matching of the individual components to each
other, and on the other in the optimization of the contents of the
tables for both air/fuel ratio and spark advance. In this context
particular attention must be paid to driveability. This can be assessed
only under actual driving conditions. Thus, for the continuation of the
work, it is planned to transfer the LPC into the vehicle. The LPC
experimentation appears to be one of VW's major attempts to explore the
use of engine/vehicle electronics. This approach has potential for
introduction to the U.S. market, even though the European application
is the current emphasis. The control strategies and emission control
system would, of course, have to be modified.
12.2.17.5. Other Developmental Efforts
MMT Studies
Because of the interest shown by U.S. manufacturers on the effects of
MMT on catalyst equipped vehicles, Volkswagen also initiated tests to
determine MMT's- effects on their emission control systems. Volkswagen
12-797

-------
Figure VW-22*
Emissions and Fuel Consumption In the LPC Test (Warm Start) With
Computer Controlled Engine, Plotted Versus the Given Air/Fuel Ratio
*VW SR, p. 10.12.
12-798

-------
tested two types of engines: an air cooled 2.0L engine on an engine
dynamometer, and a 1.46L water cooled engine over several durability
test procedures. The air-cooled engine was equipped with L-Jetronic
fuel injection, an oxygen sensor, and a 3-way catalyst close-coupled to
the exhaust ports. The water-cooled engine was equipped with a car-
buretor, pulse air injection, EGR, and an oxidation catalyst. The test
fuel contained 0.125 gram Mn/gal of MMT.
The test results from the dynamometer evaluation of the air-cooled
engine indicate that the catalyst inlet was completely plugged by man-
ganese after 49 hours of high load durability. The durability test was
stopped at this point. Figure VW-23 indicates the effect of the use of
MMT on HC emissions for this engine. Volkswagen noted that the oxygen
sensor, although completely coated by manganese deposits, was not
affected. Spark plugs and combustion chamber walls were severely
coated, attributing to the drastic increase in engine-out HC emissions,
according to VW.
For the water-cooled engine, Volkswagen noted there was no catalyst
plugging evident. However, the HC emissions started to escalate at 1000
miles and continued to get worse at higher mileage. These results are
shown in Figure VW-24.
Other Items
Volkswagen also noted they will be introducing a new high performance
ignition system using a Hall effect sensor. The 1979 model year Micro-
bus vehicles marketed in California will be used to evaluate the dura-
bility of the system.
12-799

-------
Figure VW-23*
Comparison of Raw-HC-Emissions Air-Cooled Engine;
Test Point: 1710 tot, 4.-35 kp
*VW SR, p. 11.5.
12-800

-------
Effect of MMT on CVS #C Emission Results,
Watar-Cooled Engine; 0.125 gr Mn/Gal.
*VW SR, p. 11.6.
12-801

-------
12.2.18.6. Durability Data
All of the durability data provided by Volkswagen in this year's status
report submission are included in Table VW-3.
12.2.17.7. Progress and Problems
/
A review of the information submitted by Volkswagen-AUDI in this
year's status report indicates that they should have little difficulty
achieving emission standards through model year 1981 with their gasoline
engine powered vehicles. Volkswagen-AUDI will have to work with their
larger Diesel engines to achieve NOx levels below 1.0 g/mi, but it
appears to be within their capabilities to achieve this level.
One of the areas that may cause problems for Volkswagen will be the
possible use of EGR to reduce NOx below levels of 1.0 .g/mi for their
Diesel engine. Certainly at levels of 0.41 NOx, Volkswagen intends
to use EGR. The VW data developed for DOT (and reported to date) necessi-
tate concern about the effects of EGR on particulate emissions, engine wear,
and EGR circuit plugging.
Also reported previously was the fact Volkswagen was still waiting for a
new May engine. They have been waiting for a new May engine for quite
some time now. Consequently, Volkswagen has no new data other than the
previously reported data of 2.1 HC, 3.7 CO, 1.9 NOx with 37.3 MPGc
reported last year.
In general, VW finds it difficult to understand the emphasis on elec-
tronic controls by U.S. manufacturers. They see their problem as a
different one. In order to justify the cost for an all-electronic
system, they feel that their systems should be designed for world-wide
l]-802

-------
application. Therefore, they need generalized control schemes that work
with and without unleaded fuel, can be calibrated for various octane
numbers and can be easily reprogrammed for different applications. One
approach is closed loop control based on L-Jetronic, optimized for fuel
economy for non-U.S. application. They may be able to get torque and/or
torque fluctuations from engine mount sensors, air flow from the L-
Jetronic air meter and optimize for best BSFC. In order to investigate
the optimum emission performance, they are mapping engines with the
independent variables being spark timing, throttle angle, and air/fuel
ratio. There is some evidence that independent control of throttle
angle may give better BSFC, and that the optimum BSFC occurs at an
air/fuel ratio close to lambda equals 1.0, rather than the classical
value close to 1.1.
Also, VW mentioned that the torque sensors are being used in an in-house
program to develop an objective driveability test. So far, the corre-
lation is not good, but VW sees much promise in this area. No further
details were provided.
Volkswagen noted that it was possible to get better BSFC with the use of
EGR. EGR should be off at WOT for volumetric efficiency and knock
reasons, in VW's opinion. VW. showed a graph to EPA representatives
of some engine testing which indicated that NOx could be reduced in
excess of 80% at some modes of engine operation, and BSFC could be improved
by about 10% at the same time. EPA was promised detailed information on
this work; however, Volkswagen had not provided the information at the time
of this report.
12-803

-------
Information Not Reported
Information previously reported to EPA, but not mentioned in this
year's status report submission also deserves mention. For example,
Volkswagen indicated that the Johnson-Matthey Corporation was develop-
ing Diesel catalysts as well as a lean NOx catalyst. While it is
unclear what relationship exists between Volkswagen and Johnson-Matthey,
this work deserves mention and reporting due to its potential impact
on the Diesel engine's ability to meet future emission levels.
12-804

-------
12.2.18. Volvo
12.2.18.1. Systems to be Used for 1979 Model Year
The emission control systems to be used by Volvo for the 1979 model year
Federal exhaust emission standards are EGR/OC on vehicles equipped with
the 130 CID, 14 engine and MFI/3W on vehicles equipped with the 163 CID,
V6 engine.
The compression ratios of both Volvo engines will be increased for the
1979 model year, apparently in an effort to improve the fuel economy of
those vehicles. The compression ratio of the 130 CID engine will be
increased to 9.3:1 from 8.5:1, and the compression ratio of the 163 CID
engine will be increased from 8.2:1 to 8.8:1.
Volvo estimated the initial cost of their 1979 and subsequent model year
emission control systems to the consumer to be as shown in Table Volvo-
1.
The fuel economy estimated by Volvo to be achieved by their vehicles is
shown in Table Volvo-2. Because Volvo's fleet includes both the 130 CID
and 163 CID families it is evident from Table Volvo-2 that Volvo is
projecting difficulty in meeting future fuel economy standards. Apparently,
however, this table does not consider the introduction of either the
Diesel engine or the 343 vehicle into the U.S. Also, no fuel economy
improvement is shown for the 1979 Federal vehicles despite higher
compression ratios and revised spark timing for those vehicles.
The current emission related maintenance costs of Volvo vehicles are
shown in Table Volvo-3. The sensor change is scheduled to be 30,000
miles for the 130 CID engine and 15,000 miles for the 163 CID engine in
1979. The other items in this table are not replaced at scheduled
intervals.
12-805

-------
Table Volvo-1*
Volvo Estimates of the Costs of
Exhaust Emission Control Systems to the Consumer
Based on 1978 cost levels and exchange rate ? 1 = 4.85 Sw.Kr.
Model year and	Control system required	Sticker price in dollars
emission standards	130	163
Engine	Engine
1978, 1979 Fed Evaporative system	9
1.5 HC, 15 CO, 2.0 NOx Proportional EGR system	30
Oxidizing catalyst	83
Total	122
1978, 1979 50 State Evaporative system	9	9
0.41 HC, 9.0 CO, 1.5 NOx Lambda-Sond system	133	136
Three-way catalyst	113	113
Total	255	258
1980	Improved evaporative system	10	10
0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2.0 or
1.0 NOx Lambda-Sond system	133	136
Three-way catalyst	113
Front nounted 3-way catalyst	140
Total	256	286
1981
0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx Evaporative system	10	10
Lambda-Sond system	133	136
Acc. enrichment and quick choke	14	14
Extra ox. catalyst and air
injection (alternative to acc.
enr. or additional)	118	118
Front mounted 3-way catalyst	140	140
Total	297	300
to	to
415	418
To meet 0.4 NOx Improved 3-way catalyst and larger	38	38
(if this is possible) oxidizing catalyst (additional)
EGR system (additional or
alternative)	30	30
Total	327	330
to	to
483	486
*Motor Vehicle Emission Control Status Report for the United States Environmental
Protection Agency from A.B. Volvo, January 1978 (hereafter referred to
as Volvo SR in this report), p. 4-4
12-806

-------
Table Volvo-2*
Engine Trans
Volvo Estimates of the Fuel Economy of
Their Current and Future Vehicles
1978
S	W
1979
S	W
Composite Fuel Economy/Model Year
1980	1981	1982	1983
1984
1985
130 Fed
130 Calif
M
A
M
A
23
21
24
22
22
20
23
21
23
21
24
22
22
20
23
21
22.5
to
23.0
Values Estimated for 130 CID Families
X 23.0X 23.0X 23.0X 23.5X
to
23.5
to
23.5
to
24.5
to
26.5
23.5
to
27.5
x
Values estimated for 163 Families
163 Fed M	19 19	19 19	19.0X 20.5X 20.5X 21.0X
18 18	19 19
163 Calif. M	19 19	19 19
A	19 19	19 19
19.5X 19.0X
to	to	to	to
20.0	21.0	22.0	24.5
*Volvo SR, p. 4-7
X
Estimated overall sales-weighted fuel economy for gasoline powered vehicles.
S = sedans W = wagons

-------
Engine
130 Federal
Table Volvo-3*
Volvo Estimates of the Cost to the Consumer
of Replacement Parts and Labor
Part Description
130 Federal
130,	163, 50 State
130,	50 State
163,	50 State
130, 163, 50 State
130,	163, 50 State
130, 163, All
Oxidation catalyst
PTX 514.5 IIC
EGR valve
3-way catalyst
PTX 516 TWC 16
Sensor
Sensor
Electronic control unit
Frequency valve
Evaporative canister
Parts
Cost $
229
37.5
358
23.5
40
159
61
10.5
Labor
Cost $
10.5
7
11.5
19.5
18
24
7
*Volvo SR, p. 4-9
12-808

-------
12.2.18.2. Systems to be Used for 1980 Model Year
Volvo plans to use the MFI/3W system on their vehicles using both the 14
and V6 engines to achieve the 0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2.0 NOx standard in 1980.
The 3-way catalyst used with the six cylinder engine will be moved
closer to the exhaust manifold.
The evaporative systems of all vehicles may also be revised to provide a
larger storage volume and improved purge rate control.
The revised system is to improve Volvo's safety margin at the 2.0 g SHED
level by increasing the purge rate of the charcoal canister during the
FTP without increasing FTP emissions of HC and CO. Testing with the
production canister and purge system is shown in Figure Volvo-1. The
production system does not purge at idle and is opened by manifold
vacuum.
The amount of HC purged over a hot 505 was increased from 15.5 g using
the production system to 27.2 g with the use of a Rochester canister
with increased charcoal volume and an integral purge valve. The test
using the Rochester system is shown in Figure Volvo-2. The HC and CO
spikes which were present in the exhaust with the production system were
nearly eliminated with the Rochester system. The Rochester system had a
low purge rate at idle and a smoother transition to the highest purge
rate than the Volvo system.
Actual SHED tests were not run by Volvo, but Volvo stated that the
production system could normally achieve the 2.0 g SHED level. Use of
the Rochester system would be expected to improve both exhaust emissions
and evaporative emissions.
Though developments had not begun at the time of the Volvo submission to
EPA in January of 1978, Volvo stated that they hoped to be able to offer
a turbocharged version of the 14 in the 1980 model year.
12-809

-------
Figure Volvo-1*
Continuous Exhaust Emissions over a
Hot 505 Using the Production Volvo
Evaporative Emission Control System
Total of 15.5g HC purged from canister
*Volvo SR, p. 2-51

-------
Figure Volvo-2*
Continuous Exhaust Emissions over a
Hot 505 Using a Rochester Evaporative
Emission Canister
* ^ 1 " *1
v W v r  J
Total of 27.15 g HC purged from canister
-  O	Q . _.
t : 6 C 5 C G  : t t E .
o
'7os_L2..qz_
*Volvo-SR, p. 2-53.
12-811

-------
12.2.18.3. Systems to be Used for 1981 Model Year
Three basic systems are being considered by Volvo for production in the
1981 model year. These systems are MFI/3W, MFI/AIR/3W/0C, and FBC/AIR/3W/0C
for vehicles using both the 130 and 163 CID engines.
As Volvo considers CO to be the most difficult pollutant to control in
1981, several programs have either commenced or are scheduled to begin
in the near future to reduce CO emissions while maintaining good drive-
ability. These programs include development of:
o	quick chokes
o	cold start acceleration enrichment
o	MFI/AIR/3W/0C systems
o	high energy, breakerless ignition
Additionally Volvo hopes to have their Diesel-powered vehicles and the
Volvo/DAF 343 vehicle ready for introduction into the U.S. in 1981. The
Diesel engine will be a six cylinder, swirl-chamber model from Volkswagen,
and the engine for the small 343 vehicle may be one which is already
certified for use in the United States. The introduction of these
vehicles into the U.S. is intended to enable Volvo to meet the more
stringent fuel economy standards.
Feedback carburetors are now being studied by Volvo as a cost saving
measure as compared to the K-Jetronic system now being used. The
program has just started at Volvo. They plan to evaluate carburetors
from two suppliers. One carburetor has a basic lean calibration and
fuel is added to maintain stoichiometry, and the other is calibrated
rich and air is added to maintain stoichiometry. No vehicle test
results were reported using either carburetor.
Apparently not all of the previously mentioned programs have begun, but
Volvo has tested various combination of quick chokes in conjunction with
a device called acceleration enrichment as shown in Table Volvo-4.
12-812

-------
Table Volvo-4*
Volvo Testing of Quick Chokes and the Acceleration Enrichment Device at Low Mileage
V1N
IW
Engine
Trans
Axle
jlC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
Comments


END828

163
A3
3.54
0.305
0.195
0.157
2.91
2.23
0.84
0.541
0.671
0.927
15.8
17.0
16.6
A.
B.
C.
Standard cold start enrichment system, ignition
Standard cold start enrichment system, ignition
Very quick choke, high choke airflow, high idle
timing
timing
speed,
7BTDC
10BTDC
accel. enrichment
timing 10BTDC
ro
i
oo
M
U)
*Volvo SR, p. 2-?0
0.154
1.29
0.742
16.0
0.159
2.27
0.866
16.0
0.156
1.78
0.804
16.0
0.152
2.06
0.612
16.2
0.176
2.25
0.991
16.4
0.164
2.16
0.802
16.3
0. 323
3.56
0.663
16.4
0.312
3.61
0.764
15.9
0.175
2.91
0.583
15.9
0.184
2.39
0.720
16.9
0.248
3.12
0.682
16.3
D.	Quick choke, accel. enrichment on complete FTP
Repeat
2 test average
E.	Standard choke, accel. enrichment below 53C water temperature
Repeat
2 test average
F.	Same as above, but without accel. enrichment
Repeat
Repeat
Repeat
4 test average

-------
This device is a modification of the warm-up fuel pressure regulator as
now used on the K-Jetronic system from Robert Bosch.
According to Volvo, the old regulator provides about 200% enrichment for
a cold start and cannot reduce the enrichment fast enough for emission
control purposes when the engine begins to warm up without causing a
driveability problem when the throttle is opened. The new regulator
provides temporary enrichment during the throttle opening to eliminate
the driveability problem. Since this is a vacuum controlled function,
it can be turned off at any desired coolant temperature.
For purposes of comparison with the tests in Table Volvo-4, the fuel
economy of the most comparable vehicle in 1978 Federal certification
(VIN 78:11) was 17.2 MPGu.
Diesel Engines from Volkswagen
Volkswagen is developing both a 5 cylinder and a 6 cylinder Diesel
engine for use by Volvo. The 5 cylinder model will be less than 2
litres in displacement and will be sold in Italy. The 6 cylinder model
is for the Scandinavian and European markets. Volvo is responsible for
installation of the engine into their vehicles and for the adaptation of
emission control systems.
Volvo hopes for a late 1979 model year introduction in Europe and a 1980
or 1981 introduction into the U.S. Specifications of the 6 cylinder
engine are shown in Table Volvo-5.
No vehicle test results were reported using the engines from VW.
12-814

-------
Table Volvo-5*
Specification of the Six Cylinder Diesel Engine
Which is to be Produced by Volkswagen for Volvo
Displacement
2.380 litre (145 CID)
No. cylinders
6
Bore
76.5 mm (3.01 in)
Stroke
86.4 mm (3.40 in)
Compression ratio
23.5:1
Combustion chamber
Ricardo Comet V modified
Power
75 HP DIN at 4800 rpm
Torque
14 kgm (101 lb ft) at 3000 rpm
*Volvo SR, p. 2-74
12.2.28.4. Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC. 3.4 CO. 0.41 NOx
As Volvo has already certified vehicles using 3-way catalysts that were
very close to the emission goals of the NOx research program, their task
is expected to be considerably easier than for most other manufacturers.
Studies planned by Volvo using their 3-way catalyst system for this
emission level include:
1)	richer air/fuel ratio settings to reduce engine out NOx
2)	the addition of an oxidation catalyst for further HC and CO
3)	testing of improved catalysts using ceramic substrates with
400 cells per square inch (CPSI) and using metallic substrates
with 600 CPSI, and
4)	the addition of proportional EGR
control
12-815

-------
The only program which has started is the evaluation of improved catalysts.
Evaluation of New 3-Way Catalysts
Several promising 3-way catalysts were evaluated on vehicles by Volvo
both in the fresh condition and after engine dyno aging as shown in
Table Volvo-6. Catalysts from Johnson-Matthey using metallic substrates
and low Pt/Rh ratios (volume and total noble metal loading were not
specified) were included in the testing as well as DeGussa monoliths
containing very high Rh loadings.
Only one of the catalysts performed as well as the production Engelhard
catalyst at low mileage - the DeGussa OM 724 with the popcorn casing.
The popcorn casing is a fibrous material that replaces the conventional
wire mesh which retains the monolithic biscuit inside the container.
None of the catalysts appeared to be outstanding after 50 hours of
engine dyno aging; however, Volvo did not provide comparative emissions
using the production Engelhard catalyst after 50 hours of engine dyno
aging. The production catalyst uses about 3 grams of Pt/Rh in a 5:1
ratio. It is possible that the dynamometer aging cycle was overly
severe or the engine out emissions of the test vehicles were somewhat
high.
All of the 3-way catalyst testing was apparently conducted at 3500 lb IW
with the "super short" exhaust system. This system has the catalyst
moved closer to the exhaust manifold and redesigned exhaust pipes to
accomodate the new catalyst location. The purpose of these modifi-
cations is to provide more rapid light-off of the catalysts.
12.2.18.5. Other Developmental Efforts
Volvo stated that they have studied about 20 different cylinder heads.
All heads used variations of what Volvo called a "compact"* combustion
*Volvo SR, p. 2-23
12-816

-------
Table Volvo-6*
Catalyst Studies with "Super Short" Exhaust System
viN
IW
Engine
Trans
Kilometers
HC
CO
HOx
MPG
u
Supplier
Pt/Rh
-Catalyst	
LoadIns
(B)
Substrate
CPSI
EPY913

163
A3
low
low
0.33
0.34
3.82
3.93
0.89
0.77
14.0
13.9
Johnson-Hat tliey
5:1
-
Metallic
600




low
low
0.38
0.36
3.78
3.98
0.66
0.80

Johnson-Mat they
19:1

Metallic
600




2500
250
0.27
0.24
3.63
3.16
0.16
0.24
14.0
13.4
Engelhard
(production)
5:1

Ceramic
300
FIIA995

163
M4
**
**
0.56
0.54
9.19
8.63
1.23
1.33

Johnson-Ma t they
5:1

Metallic
600




50
0.30
4.92
0.11

Engelhard
(production)
5:1

Ceramic
300




**
**
0.66
0.53
9.55
7.89
1.42
1.33

Johnson-Hat they
19:1

Metallic
600
FYK939

163
A3
ft*
**
**
**
A*
**
0.341
0.322
0.390
0.459
0.45
0.50
0.57
5.79
6.15
6.22
6.87
4.76
4.65
5.55
0.760
0.919
0.946
0.965
1.12
1.13
1.20
14.8
15.7
15.4
Degussa
Degussa
Degussa
Degussa
Johnson-Mat they
2:1
3:1
5:1
5:1
3.00
2.75
2.50
3.00
Ceramic
Ceramic
Ceramic
Ceramic
Ceramic
300
*Volvo SR, p 2-9 to 2-13, 3-55 to 3-57
**ufter 50 liours of engine dyno aging
***after 200 hours of engine dyno aging

-------
Table Volvo-6 (cone)
VIN	W Engine
JllP-887	163
JNY-228	163
Trans Kilometers HC
A3	low	0.294
low	0.280
**	0.436
**	0.298
***	0.474
***	0.397
low	0.238
low	0.175
**	0.512
**	0.450
***	0.502
***.	0.366
low	0.268
low.	0.245
low	0.307
low	0.252
M4	low	0.32
230	0.31
**	0.354
**	0.374
**	0.381
2000	0.27
2000	0.27
CO	NOx MPCu
2.49
0.430
14.8
2.63
0.393
14.0
3.43
0.776
15.4
3.01
0.908
14.6
4.05
0.920
15.2
4.14
0.897
15.1
2.01
0.293
15.1
1.52
0.263
16.6
3.61
0.781
14.9
3.22
0.807
14.8
4.68
1.004
15.1
4.10
0.997
14.9
2.66
0.304
15.5
2.61
0.344
15.4
2.43
0.373
15.1
:.66
0.266
15.1
2.84
0.45
14.6
2.89
0.60
14.3
5.49
0.896

6.65
0.878

7.87
0.889

2.58 0.32 14.5
2.62 0.50 14.7
Supplier
Degussa
	Catalyst	
Pt/Rh Loading	Substrate CPSI
(8)
OM724ML, standard casing
Degussa	OM724ML, popcorn casing
Johnson-Mat they	Ceramic	300
Engelhard	5:1	Ceramic	300
(production)
Johnson-Matthey	5:1	-	Metallic	600
Degussa
2:1
3.00
-
Degussa
3:1
2.75
-
Degussa
5:1
2.50
-
Engelhard
5:1

Ceramic
(production)

-------
chamber that "is formed around the exhaust valve which is recessed into
the flat cylinder head face."* This sounds like the May-Fireball
concept to the EPA technical staff though this was not confirmed by
Volvo. The heads which were studied had variations in intake ports,
valve shrouding, and plug location at a compression ratio of about 14:1.
The most promising head was said to be the HT4 head. A comparison of
the HT4 head and the one now used on the European B-21 E (130 CID)
engine is shown in Figure Volvo-3 and Tables Volvo-7 and Volvo-8. Test
results from several other head configurations are shown in Table Volvo-9.
HC emissions were higher with all the new heads as would be expected
with a high squish combustion chamber. Also, NOx emissions were quite
high at low speed and low load conditions' with the HT4 head.
From the air/fuel ratio range investigated by Volvo (15.5 to 1 -18.0 to
1) it is apparent that they are considering operation in the lean
regime. If the HT4 head allows satisfactory engine operation with
dilute mixtures it may also provide good EGR tolerance. Although
Volvo's investigation of this new cylinder head appears to be currently
targeted toward the European application (the comparison was made to the
standard European version of the engine), it is possible that the new
head could be used for a U.S. version. This is because if Volvo changes
their cylinder heads to accommodate a new concept like the HT4 head,
it would probably involve at least a major casting change and possibly
a tooling change. It might be considered to be more cost-effective to
have the same basic cylinder head for both the U.S. and Europe. It is
not known if the fuel consumption improvements with the HT4 head shown
in Table Volvo-8 would be realized with a U.S. version which is assumed
to operate at stoichiometry for 3-way catalyst use, possibly include
EGR, and be able to operate on 91 RON fuel.
*yolvo SR, p. 2-23.
12-819

-------
Figure Volvo-3*
Power and Fuel Consumption Comparisons
Between the HT4 Head and the Standard
European Head for the 130 CID Engine
*Volvo SR, p. 2-25
12-820

-------
Table Volvo-7*
Emissions Using the HT4 Head and Relative Emissions
as Compared to the Standard European Head for the 130





Brake Specific Emissions





Relative
Emissions






















(HT4/STD)








Speed
Load
Timing
HC
(g/kWh)

CO
(g/kWli)
NO
(g/kWh)

HC


CO


NO





(RPM)
(Nm)


A/F


A/F


A/F


A/F


A/F


A/F

Average





15.5
16.5
18
15.5
16.5
18
15.5
16.5
18
15.5
16.5
18
15.5
16.5
18
15.5
16.5
18
HC
CO
NO

1500
25
MBT
8.3
8.3
10.8

7.3
8.3
6.2
6.2
5.1
1.30
1.34


.88

2.82
3.26







MBT-10
8.3
8.3
10.8

7.8
9.1
4.4
4.5
3.5
1.73
2.12
1.52

.82
.76
2.44
3.46
2.92
2.18 .
85
2.71



MBT-20
8.1
8.1
9.5

9.2
9.8
3.1
3.2
2.6
3.38
3.86
2.20

.99
.80
1.94
2.46
2.36




1500
100
MBT
2.7
2.8
3.4
2.3
2.3
2.7
12.4
11.9
9.4
.67
.78
.81
.77
.88
1.00
.84
.84
.90






MBT-10
2.9
3.0
3.6
2.7
2.6
3.0
9.8
8.7
7.0
.85
1.00
"1.03
.79
.81
.94
.87
1.02
1.08
.90 .
.92
.92



MBT-20
2.5
2.3
3.0
5.1
4.8
4.5
7.3
6.1
3.9
.93
1.00
1.07
1.11
1.04
.98
.89
.91
.93




2500
41
MBT
5.0
5.1
6.0
6.3
5.6
6.1
11.0
11.3
11.3
1.14
1.38
1.30
.82
.81
.74
1.02
1.15
1.55






MBT-10
4.7
4.7
5.8
7.0
6.4
6.7
8.6
8.2
7.6
1.51
1.62
1.57
.85
.81
.73
1.04
1.14
1.65
1.74 .
89
1.24



MBT-20
4.2
4.1
5.5
8.8
8.2
7.8
5.6
4.9
4.4
2.62
2.41
2.11
1.31
1.11
.83
1.10
1.06
1.42



h-*
N>
I
2500
100
MBT
4.7
5.4
5.3
3.1
2.8
3.0
13.8
15.3
15.7
1.24
1.46
1.20
.72
.74
.79
.89
.93
.95



OO
N3


MBT-10
4.7
5.0
5.4
3.6
3.2
3.2
12.6
12.3
12.2
1.81
1.92
1.59
.68
.67
.63
.91
.87
1.14
1.96 .
76
.99
(-


MBT-20
3.8
3.3
5.0
5.4
5.4
4.4
8.7
8.2
7.6
2.92
3.00
2.50
.90
1.02
.69
1.00
.99
1.19



3500 64
MBT
MBT-10
MBT-20
3500 100
MBT
MBT-10
MBT-20
*Volvo SR, p. 2-26











HC
CO
NO

MBT
1.09
1.24
1.10
.77
.83
.84
1.39
1.55
1.13
1.14
.81
1.36
Average
MBT-10
1.48
1.67
1.43
.77
.78
.77
1.32
1.63
1.70
1.53
.77
1.55

MBT-20
1.73
2.57
1.97
1.11
1.04
.83
1.23
1.36
1.48
2.07
.99
.86

-------
Table Volvo-8*
Fuel Consumption with the Standard European Head
and a Comparison with the HT4 Head
Fuel Consumption (g/kWh)
	Standard Head	 	HT4 Head	 % Change from Standard
Speed Load A/F MBT MBT-10 MBT-20 MBT MBT-10 MBT-20 MBT MBT-10 MBT-20 Average
(rpm) (Nm)	
1500
25
15.5
523
548
621
485
497
518
-7
-9
-17



16.5
530
568
642
474
487
513
-10
-14
-20
-11


18
494
531
602
476
497
512
-4
-6
-15

1500
100
15.5
278
278
309
255
273
310
-8
-2
0



16.5
265
272
308
252
271
304
-5
0
-1
-2


18
256
265
294
247
266
293
-3
0
0

2500
41
15.5
357
365
399
355
363
384
-1
-1
-4



16.5
352
360
397
353
361
379
0
0
-5
-2


18
358
364
393
351
355
368
-2
-2
-6

2500
100
15.5
259
271
308
256
266
285
-1
-2
-7



16.5
259
265
300
262
267
282
+1
+1
-6
-3


18
254
261
289
249
253
263
-2
-3
-9

3500
64
15.5
308
317
339









16.5
304
312
330









18
302
310
325







3500
100
15.5
261
271
298









16.5
258
265
290









18
259
266
283















Average
-3.5
-3.2
-7.5

*Volvo SR, p. 2-27

-------
Table Volvo-9*
1500/25
1500/100
2500/41
2500/100
Average
Relative Emissions and Fuel Consumption Obtained with Other Head Configurations
Using Compact Combustion Chamber**
Speed/Load
-HT 2	

	HT 5-
-HT 6-
	HT 7-
	HT 8-
(RPM/Nm)
HC
CO
NO
Fuel
Consump.
IIC
CO
NO
Fuel
Consump.
HC
CO
NO
Fuel
Consump.
HC
CO
NO Fuel
Consump.
HC
CO
NO Fuel
Consump.
HC
CO NO Fuel
Consump
1500/25
1.96
.96
.93
.99
1.73
.88
.81
1.01
1.36
1.42
.69
1.04






1.62
1.36 .95 1.07
1500/100




1.41
.99
1.21
1.00










1.51
.97 1.37 1.02
2500/41
1.85
.96
1.05
1.05
1.59
.85
1.37
1.03
1.09
.99
.90
1.01
1.40
.91
1.15 .99
1.24
1.03
.95 1.02
1.45
1.15 1.28 1.01
2500/100
1.18
.97
1.11
1.00
1.12
.87
1.12
.98










.89
1.04 .94 1.01
Average
1.66
.96
1.03
1.01
1.46
.90
1.13
1.01
1.23
1.21
.80
1.03
1.40
.91
1.15 .99
1.24
1.03
.95 1.02
1.37
1.13 1.14 1.03
	HT 9	
IIC CO NO Fuel
Consump.
1.63 1.61 .57 1.12
1.36 1.10 1.02 1.OA
.95 1.12 1.06 1.00
1.31 1.28 .88 1.05
*Volvo SK, p. 2-28
A*A11 values are presented as the ratio of the number obtained with the new head
divided by the number obtained with the standard head.

-------
Electric Cars
Two electric vehicles have been built by Volvo which utilized conven-
tional batteries. No further details of the vehicles were provided.
Volvo stated that they felt that improvements in batteries were needed
before electric vehicles could become practical for-urban-only vehicles.
Vehicles Using Flywheel Energy Storage
Volvo is studying the potential use of flywheels on vehicles such as
town cars or taxis which have a high frequency of low load, low speed
operation. Apparently no vehicles have been built using this concept.
Stratified Charge Engines
Both current Volvo engines have been converted to stratified charge
operation for Volvo by contractors. Functional details of the engines
were not totally clear from the Volvo discussion. The 14 effort is
being conducted by Ricardo. Volvo stated that bench testing suggests
that a 5% improvement in fuel economy compared to the base engine can be
achieved, but the 0.41 NOx level cannot be achieved with this "direct
injected prechamber"* engine. No data or analysis were provided to
support this contention.
The stratified charge V6 engine uses the "Porsche SKS fuel injection
system with a carburetor."** One engine has been installed in a vehicle.
Fuel economy was said to be equivalent to the base engine using a 3-way
catalyst, but power output was down by 10%.
*Volvo SR, p. 2-78
**ibid.
12-824

-------
No actual vehicle data were provided, but relative emissions compared to
the base V6 engine were said to be 200% for HC, 35% for CO, and 50% for
NOx. The system was said to have the potential to meet 1.0 NOx and
would require exhaust aftertreatment for HC control. Two more vehicles
are scheduled to be built using this engine.
The Diesel Engine Developed for Volvo by Ricardo
The Diesel engines from Ricardo were reported to have shown 20 to 50%
improvements in fuel economy compared to their gasoline-fueled counter-
parts now in production. However, development work on the engine has
been terminated in favor of the Diesel engine from VW.
Emission test results were obtained by Ricardo and are shown in Table
Volvo-10. Exhaust emissions of 0.41 HC and 1.5 NOx were not simul-
taneously achieved, and no testing was reported with either catalysts or
EGR.
Gas Turbine Engine
Two prototype "triple turbine" engines have been built. One is being
used for bench testing and the other is being installed in a vehicle for
testing of a new transmission. No test results were reported for either
engine.
Fuel Economy Improvement
Volvo reported that they are or will be conducting several programs
to improve their corporate average fuel economy that are not discussed
elsewhere in this report. These programs include:
12-825

-------
Table Volvo-10*
Vehicle Test Results with the Diesel Engine



(3500 lb. IW)

HC
CO
NOx
MPG
	u
MPG,
	h
MPG
	c
1.3
2.66
1.19

-

1.42
3.06
1.18

-

0.32
2.17
2.23

-

0.37
1.7
1.55
26.5
29.5
27.8
0.44
1.8
1.75
25.5
32.5
28.2
0.33
2.2
2.15
19.5
-
-
1.07
2.7
1.1
25.4
29.5
27.1
1.40
3.35
1.0
24.8
30.0
26.9
1.42
3.05
1.2
22.8
-
-
0.45
1.72
1.75
25.5
32.5
28.6
0.67
1.82
1.35
26.3
34.5
29.4
0.55
1.30
1.85
24.9
32.5
27.8
0.67
1.82
1.35
26.3
34.5
29.4
1.15
2.05
1.00
25.8
32.0
28.3
Notes
DP 20763
Pump 6222 1L
6233 1L
" " 5E
DP 76/303
Axle ratio 3.73 5E
3.91 5E
4.1 5E
3.73 1L
3.91 1L
4.1 1L
DP 76/644
CR 22.5 5E
24.5 5E
22.5 8E
5E
2E
DP 76/748
0.43 1.73 1.73 25.5 32.5 28.2 Nat. asp. 5E 3.91
0.90 1.95 1.45	26.3 27.5 26.8 Turbo	3E 3.73
DP 76/1029
Manual (all speed gov)
Automatic (road speed gov)
Manual (road speed)
0.42
1.75
1.72
25.4
32.5
28.2
0.80
1.90
1.42
28.5
31.5
29.8
0.56
2.25
1.73
29.5
36.5
32.3
*Volvo SR, p. 2-75
12-826

-------
o	reduced vehicle weight
o	improved vehicle aerodynamics
o	various drivetrain combinations
o	wide ratio automatic transmissions
o	lock-up automatic transmissions
o	further increased compression ratio on the V6
o	reduction in engine friction
o	evaluation of low friction lubricants
o	electronic spark control
o	temperature controlled cooling fans
No vehicle data was reported from these programs.
Fuel Injection Systems
Volvo is beginning to study two additional fuel injection systems from
Robert Bosch. The first is a single point injection system using a hot
wire air mass flowmeter. The second is the Bosch L-Jetronic system
which also uses the hot-wire air mass flowmeter.
Apparently Volvo has no intention of changing from the K-Jetronic system
at this time, but they are interested in electronically controlled
air/fuel metering systems because it may be easier and less expensive to
integrate other electronic emission control systems with these electronic
systems than would be the case with the current mechanical fuel injection
system. Specific electronic emission control systems discussed by Volvo
were electronic spark control, EGR, and air injection.
No test results were reported using either of these injection systems or
any of the electronic emission control systems. Volvo did mention,
however, that their switch to electronic spark control may be accomplished
by elimination of the distributor.
12-827

-------
12.2.13.6. Durability Data
The emission results achieved by the Volvo durability vehicles in
certification are shown in Table Volvo-11. The deterioration factors
generated by the 14 family are considerably better than those achieved
by the V6 family. This may be due to the fact that the same catalyst is
used on both vehicles and the V6 engine exposes the catalyst to more
exhaust gas (and fuel contaminants such as lead, sulfur, and phosphor-
ous) over mileage accumulation.
The Volvo 25 Car Test Fleet
The Volvo 25 car fleet was started over a year ago and is composed of
vehicles using 130 CID engines and 3-way catalyst systems. The results
of the fleet testing as reported by Volvo are shown in Table Volvo-12.
The vehicles were said to be driven by Volvo employees to represent in-
use operation. Based on these data Volvo has previously contended that
in-use deterioration is higher than that seen in certification. Actual
emissions of the certification vehicle at 50,000 miles were 0.27 HC, 4.0
CO, 0.43 NOx. An additional consideration may be that the Volvo cert-
ification fuel contained very low quantities of catalyst poisons.
Other Durability Vehicles
The data shown in Table Volvo-13 represent Volvo durability efforts with
vehicles using the 130 CID engine. Only vehicle JJB 941 was run on the
AMA durability schedule. Increases in catalyst volume or loading
12-828

-------
Table Volvo-11
Volvo Durability Test Results in
VIN IW Engine Trans Axle Miles HC CO NOx MPG
	 	   	 	u
77:2 3500 130	A3	3.91 5008 0.28 3.7 0.37 16.6
17.5
17.6
17.0
17.5
17.4
17.4
17.7
17.8
18.3
18.0
17.1
18.3
78:1 3500 163	A3 3.54 4760 0.36 3.1 0.57 15.7
14.6
15.9
15.9
16.4
16.5
17.1
15.5
16.0
13.8
16.6
15.1
15.6
Miles
HC
CO
NOx
5008
0.28
3.7
0.37
9837
0.26
4.4
0.38
14821
0.29
4.2
0.41
14839
0.26
3.6
0.39
19835
0.26
3.4
0.37
24990
0.23
3.6
0.36
29898
0.25
3.8
0.43
29925
0.21
2.5
0.50
34787
0.24
3.5
0.28
39869
0.22
3.3
0.43
44948
0.22
3.8
0.39
44965
0.22
3.3
0.48
49925
0.27
4.0
0.42
4K Proj.
0.27
3.83
0.37
50K Proj.
0.22
3.4
0.43
df
0.82
0.90
1.14
4760
0.36
3.1
0.57
9995
0.37
3.0
0.61
14821
0.33
2.8
0.46
14839
0.31
3.3
0.66
20163
0.30
3.4
0.52
25011
0.42
3.9
0.69
29766
0.36
3.7
0.83
29785
0.35
3.5
0.84
34885
0.35
3.8
0.78
39880
0.38
3.5
0.76
44868
0.36
3.7
1.03
44887
0.35
3.4
0.88
49829
0.35
3.6
0.85
4K Proj.
0.34
3.1
0.51
50K Proj.
0.36
3.8
0.93
df
1.05
1.21
1.84
12-829

-------
Table Volvo-12
Volvo 25-Car Test Fleet
Test
No. cars now at
Average emission results
mileage
this mileage
for test
cars



HC
CO
NOx
5,000
2
0.12
2.15
0.38
10,000
3
0.19
2.94
0.82
15,000
4
0.29
2.97
0.72
20,000
2
0.27
3.90
0.85
25,000
6
0.42
3.85
0.74
30,000
6
0.47
4.53
1.18**
40,000
2
0.43
5.37
0.99
*Volvo SR, p. 3-7
**One vehicle at 30,000 miles gave CVS results of 0.94/46/0.20.
This has not been included in the average.
12-830

-------
Table Volvo-13*
Volvo Durability Vehicles Using the 130 CID Engine
	Catalyst-
VIN
IW Engine Trans
Durability
Axle
ID
Pt/Rh Vol. (in ) Cycle
Miles
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
Sensor
Number
Comments

80
0.219
1.71
0.210
17.5
6828


5224
0.324
4.20
0.782
17.4
6828


10116
0.225
1.70
0.948
17.0
6828


14924
0.279
3.29
0.961
17.9
6828


14935
0.206
2.95
0.818
16.9
6829
Reference
sensor,ASM
20253
0.248
3.05
0.831
16.4
6828


20266
0.264
3.45
0.874
16.3
6829
Reference
sensor
25041
0.248
2.48
1.128
17.1
6828


25051
0.263
3.04
0.843
16.4
6829
Reference
sensor
30033
0.387
3.80
1.15
16.0
6828


30050
0.273
3.08
1.076
15.9
6828
ASM

30060
0.307
3.25
0.676
16.3
6829
Reference
sensor
35092
0.281
3.38
1.221
16.0
6828


35105
0.339
3.04
1.051
16.9
6829
Reference
sensor
40039
0.335
5.10
1.50
16.8
6828


40049
0.336
4.67
0.902
16.7
6829
Reference
sensor
45059
0.354
4.56
1.36
16.7
6828


45071
0.332
5.26
1.31
16.7
6828
Idle CO =
0.22, ASM
45087
0.351
5.30
1.01
16.6
6829
Reference
sensor
50081
0.635
7.36
1.29
17.1
6828


50093
0.511
6.11
0.98
17.4
6829
Reference
sensor

2.09
2.59
1.84




JJB 941 3500
130
A3
3.73 TWC-9D 19:1
^80
AMA
df
*VoIvo SK, pp. 3-8, 3-9, 3-10, 3-14 to 3-16, 3-20 to 3-22.

-------
Table Volvo-13 (cont)
	Catalyst	-r- Durability
VIN	IW Engine Trans Axle ID Pt/Rh Vol. (in ) Cycle Miles
JPP 448 3500 130	A3	3.73 TWC-16 5:1	^102	Taxi	0
0
15747
15761
15770
28572
28584
28606
44209
44222
44258
52398
	1	i	52408
ro	_
2	66791
 66807
66823
75529
75541
d
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
Sensor
Number
Comments
1.23
16.0
4.04
16.6

Engine out emissions
0.120
2.75
0.086
16.2


0.167
2.22
0.505
17.1


0.189
2.72
0.324
18.2

ASM
0.181
2.68
0.710
17.9

With Reference sensor
0.223
2.95
0.530
17.0


0. 208
3.31
0.414
16.9

ASM
0.348
3.15
0.917
17.4

With reference sensor





627-s, bad cold stait
0.666
10.94
0.189
16.1


0.679
8.01
0.249
16.2

ASM, 0^ sensor





replaced after





this test
0.227
2.07
0.904
16.6

Uith reference sensor
0.321
3.43
0.915
16.6

50,000 mile test
0.316
3.12
1.36
16.6

With reference sensor
1.92
15.3
6.39
16.6

Engine out emissions
0.329
2.53
1.14
18.0

Idle CO = 0.15
0.268
2.56
1.04
16.6

ASM
0.277
2.65
0.721
17.0

Reference sensor
0.338
4.07
1.08
17.4


0.317
3.28
0.920
17.9

Reference sensor
2.11
1.12
5.34




-------
Table Volvo-13 (cont)
VIN
IW Engine Trans
	Catalyst	Durability
Axle ID Pt/Rh Vol. (in ) Cycle Miles
JPA 393 3500
130
A3
3.73 TWC-21
7:1
VL02
Taxi
0
0
14768
14837
27014
27027
27042
42512
42523
42533
49908
df
49920
57318
57329
JOA 911 3500
130
M4
3.91 TWC-16
5:1
^102
Road
0
11242
23400
29810
35888
42033
42544
49565
49799
55504
55585
df
Sensor
HC CO NOx MPG Number Comments
	 	 u
1.32
24.6
3.35
17.0
Engine out emissions
0.221
4.04
0.119
16.8

0.403
6.53
0.456
18.1

0.230
2.98
0.582
18.1

0.306
3.78
0.383
18.4
Reference sensor
0.268
3.96
0.358
17.6
ASM
0.327
3.21
0.541
17.7
Reference sensor
0.474
5.11
0.467
17.3

0.380
5.39
0.627
17.2
ASM
0.400
5.45
0.499
18.1
Uith reference senscr
0.663
7.70
0.774
17.5
Bad results - Bag 2




(replaced); sensor




replaced after




this test
0.436
6.62
0.474
18.0
Uith reference sensor
1.46
15.3
4.15
18.0
Engine out emissions
0.545
7.35
0.947
18.2

0.483
5.80
0.819
18.4
With referense sensor
1.82
1.45
1.80


0.139
2.22
0.154
17.6

0.175
2.13
0.864
16.5

0.292
3.11
0.783
16.9

0.245
3.08
1.30
16.6

0.247
3.25
0.759
17.4

0.408
3.53
1.01
18.1

0.379
3.53
1.26
17.1
Reference sensor
0.365
4.25
1.04
17.1

0.306
3.73
1.30
17.1
Reference sensor
0.645
5.29
0.664
18.0

0.517
4.20
1.27
16-9
Reference sensor
2.49
1.86
2.30



-------
Table Volvo-13 (cont)
	Catalyst	s- Durability
VIN	J.W Engine Trans Axle ID Pt/Rh Vol. (in ) Cycle Miles
JJA 595 3500 130	MA	3.91 TWC-21 7:1	V102	Road	0
8117
14686
20656
25303
32304
38030
38854
IGNITION FAILURE - Test restarted with new catalyst and new sensor
0
7732
9273
16408
16638
22435
22627
33642
33811
40420
40531
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
Sensor
Number
Comments
0.283
3.89
0.679
17.0


0.414
4.57
0.995
17.3


0.378
3.97
0.758
17.8


0.399
2.95
0.937
18.8


0.405
5.03
0.817
17.9


0.356
4.99
1.01
16.2


0.606
6.90
1.27
17.5


0.574
5.04
1.50
17.5

Reference sensor
0.253
3.28
0.495
16.5


0.346
3.42
0.784
17.0


0.302
2.94
1.01
17.5

Reference sensor
0.350
3.18
0.932
16.4


0.371
3.23
0.795
17.0

Reference sensor
0.505
5.43
0.616
17.4


0.387
3.58
0.593
17.5

Reference sensor
0.811
10.5
0.755
16.4

Sensor replaced





after this test
0.434
6.47
0.668
16.4


0.599
4.40
0.549
18.5


0.535
4.81
0.453
17.6

Reference sensor

-------
would be expected to improve the durability performance of the TWC-9D.
This catalyst as well as the others in Table Volvo-13 were from Engelhard.
Loadings were not provided for any of the catalysts.
Deterioration factors from the vehicles using the TWC-16 catalyst were
poorer than seen in certification. The durability schedules were
different, and the contaminant levels in the fuel used in the vehicles
of Table Volvo-13 were a maximum of 5 ppm lead, a maximum of .001 g/L
phosphorous, and a minimum of .025 g/lOOg sulfur.
The production TWC-16 catalyst was superior in emission control to the
TWC-21 and TWC-9D. Testing with low mileage or reference sensors at
various points over the mileage accumulation schedule indicate that the
catalysts were responsible for nearly all of the deterioration seen over
mileage accumulation. Vehicles JJB 941 and JOA 911 completed mileage
accumulation with no oxygen sensor changes.
The vehicles in Table Volvo-14 are the durability vehicles run by Volvo
using the 163 CID engine. All vehicles use the "super short" exhaust
system with the production Engelhard catalyst except for vehicle JRZ 233
which used a DeGussa catalyst.
Compared to the certification vehicle with the standard exhaust system,
the NOx deterioration factor is generally lower with the "super short"
system. The addition of the spark delay valve appeared to reduce the
deterioration factors for both CO and NOx. The deletion of the cold
start injection system (Volvo did not state whether this vehicle was
equipped with the acceleration enrichment device or not) provided
reductions in all three deterioration factors and a reduction in tailpipe
CO emissions.
12-835

-------
Table Volvo-14*
Volvo Durability Vehicles Using the 163 CID Engine
VIN
IW
Engine Trans
Durability
Axle Cycle Miles
HC
	75 FTP-
CO NOx
MPG
Comments
JGY272
3500
163
A3
3.54
AMA
0
2.954
17.82
5.092
14.5
0
0.262
1.79
0.368
14.1
5K
0.278
2.49
0.511
14.5
10K
0.368
3.06
0.587
14.6
15K
0.294
2.61
0.828
16.1
15K
0.283
2.49
0.609
15.0
20K
0.356
3.24
0.705
15.7
25K
0.458
4.78
1.172
15.4
25K
0.375
3.10
1.074
15.4
30K
0.327
2.91
0.849
15.6
30K
0.386
2.85
0.918
15.5
35K
0.433
2.90
0.809
14.4
40K
0.390
3.61
1.032
14.2
45K
0.642
5.40
0.335
15.1
45K
0.354
4.49
1.198
13.5
50K
0.378
2.95
1.104
14.0
df
1.59
1.49
1.50

No cold start injection or sj
delay valve used in any of tl
following tests
Engine out emissions
New sensor
Fuel pressure regulator prob!
0
0
5K
10K
15K
2.771
0.333
0.291
0.276
0.299
18.12
2.20
2.89
2.80
3.31
3.546
0.287
0.562
0.730
0.675
14.3
13.7
14.3
14.2
14.7
Same vehicle as above, excepl
tested with spark delay valv<
Engine out emissions
*Volvo SR, pp 3-26 to 3-56

-------
Table Volvo-14 (cont)
VIN
IW
Engine Trans
Durability		75 FTP
Axle Cycle Miles HC CO NOx
MPG
Comments
50K
50K
50K
df
0.41
0.32
2.46
2.52
1.48
3.14
3.33
16.3
17.1
1.31
0.34
0.60
2.97
2.83
1.57
15.4	Repeat above
14.5	New sensor
14.2	Engine out emissions
14.3	Engine out emissions
JRZ 233
3500
163 A3
3.54
Tire
0
0.231
3.18
0.271
14.6
5K
0.198
2.75
0.499
15.3
10K
0.237
2.74
0.404
15.2
15K
0.370
3.51
0.447
14.9
15K
0.348
3.27
0.473
15.7
20K
0.261
2.93
0.380
15.6
25K
0.35
3.73
0.35
14.8
30K
0.42
4.12
0.53
14.9
30K
0.407
3.90
0.532
15.3
35K
0.45
4.11
0.66
15.5
40K
0.46
3.94
0.61
16.0
50K
0.64
5.20
0.87
15.2
df
2.48
1.65
1.90

0
0.25
2.88
0.68
14.8
0
0.27
2.83
0.55
14.7
15K
0.24
2.60
0.38
14.2
15K
0.29
3.36
0.53
14.6
Same vehicle as above except
tested with cold start inject:
Problem with fuel pressure
regulator
New air cone & pressure reguli
Idle CO not adjusted
Catalyst is DeGussa OM 724
with standard casing plus
MLKI
Ignition failure and catalyst
melt following this test

-------
Table Volvo-14 (cont)
Durability		75 FTP	
VIN	IW Engine Trans Axle Cycle Miles HC CO NOx	Comments
15K
0.307
3.26
0.741
14.9
20K
0.338
3.71
0.678
14.8
25K
0.314
4.17
0.711
15.1
25K
0.332
2.99
0.736
14.9
30K
0.406
3.54
0.631
15.4
30K
0.318
2.76
0.612
15.2
35K
0.370
3.65
0.405
15.6
40K
0.306
3.38
0.917
14.7
45K
0.595
4.00
0.475
14.9
45K
0.450
3.62
0.966
13.7
50K
0.304
2.51
0.881
14.0
df
1.56
1.09
1.21

New sensor
Fuel pressure regulator pro
HJL 545	3500 163 A3 3.54 Tire	No spark delay valve or
cold start injection
0
2.393
19.52
3.683
14.8
Engine out emissions
0
0.244
3.03
0.185
14.1

0
0.327
3.09
0.173
14.2

0
0.262
3.50
0.153
14.5

5K
0.232
2.20
0.655
15.6

10K
0.221
2.48
0.293
15.1

15K
0.367
3.22
0.416
15.2
Problem with fuel pressure
regulator
15K
0.424
2.76
0.456
14.9

20K
0.274
2.92
0.354

New air cone and pressure
regulator
25K
0.30
3.46
0.38
15.1

30K
0.34
3.43
0.48
15.3

30K
0.392
3.59
0.536
16.2

35K
0.36
3.52
0.54
15.5

40K
0.32
2.68
0.59
15.9

50K
0.53
4.26
0.72
16.0

50K
0.39
3.16
0.48
15.3
New catalyst

-------
Table Volvo-14 (cont)
VIN
IW
Engine Trans
Durability
Axle Cycle Miles
HC
	75 FTP-
CO NOx
MPG
Comments
JPR 410
3500
163
A3
3.54
Tire
JRN 483
3500
163
A3
3.54
Tire
JJB 561
3500
163
A3
3.54
0
0.18
2.39
0.62
13.7
15K
0.41
2.86
1.03
15.4
15K
0.29
2.99
0.73
14.2
30K
0.46
3.91
0.74
14.7
30K
0.45
3.52
0.63
14.5
45K
0.42
3.52
0.84
14.3
45K
0.58
2.10
1.34
14.0
60K
0.65
6.25
1.63
15.9
60K
0.64
5.84
1.70
15.1
0
0.24
2.49
0.34
14.6
15K
0.37
3.45
0.61
14.1
15K
0.35
3.50
0.79
13.5
30K
0.32
2.95
0.98
14.9
30K
0.44
4.21
0.51
15.1
0
0.22
2.36
0.21
14.7
5K
0.24
2.92
0.38
14.7
10K
0.55
4.59
0.69
14.3
15K
0.39
3.0
0.66
14.8
15K
0.38
3.08
0.51
15.3
20K
0.51
4.37
0.73
15.5
25K
0.63
4.68
0.59
15.6
25K
0.29
4.32
1.36
15.4
30K
0.23
3.65
0.94
15.7

-------
MMT Durability Studies
Two 1979 California prototype 14 vehicles were run over durabiltiy
mileage accumulation (assumed to be AMA by the EPA technical staff).
One vehicle was run with 0.125 g/gal MMT and the other with no MMT. The
vehicles both had the higher 9.3:1 compression ratio, no vacuum retard,
and basic timing of 10 BTDC. The test results of the vehicles are
shown in Table Volvo-15.
Vehicle JLP 927 completed the 50,000 miles using MMT without problems
except that "MMT appeared to be the cause of high HC emissions",*
according to Volvo. When the combustion chamber deposits were removed,
engine out HC dropped from 2.56 to 1.62 g/mi, but tailpipe HC emissions
did not go down. The 0^ sensor was not changed over the 50,000 miles of
durability.
Volvo stated that the air/fuel metering system on vehicle JTK 672 was
replaced at 30,000 miles and again at 40,000 miles. Tailpipe NOx
emissions started rising after the second air/fuel metering system
change. After these problems the EPA technical staff are doubtful that
the vehicle provides a valid comparison to the vehicle using MMT. Volvo
is continuing to run the vehicle on durability to evaluate their capability
for 100,000 mile certification. The oxygen sensor has not been changed
over the 75,000 miles that have been accumulated.
It is worthy of note that engine out NOx emissions were about 5 g/mi
from both vehicles using the higher compression ratio. Engine out NOx
was approximately 3 to 3.5 with the lower compression ratio.
Volvo also reported data from engine dynamometer aging of a 3-way catalyst
system on an 14 engine using 0.125 g/gal MMT. The reported data are
shown in Table Volvo-16. Again, the MMT had little effect on the catalyst
or sensor. The hour values in parenthesis indicate the number of hours
of operation on the fuel with MMT. The first two hundred hours were
mistakenly accumulated without MMT in the fuel.
*Volvo SR, p. 2-30
12-840

-------
Table Volvo-15*
Comparable Durability Vehicles with and without MMT
VIN
IW Engine Trans Axle
Miles
Tailpipe Emissions
HC CO NOx MPG
Comments
Miles
Engine Out Emissions
HC CO NOx MPG
Comments
JLP 927 3500 130
(with .125 g/gal MMT)
A3
3.91
26
0.226
2.73
0.126
17.3



6
1.53
16.8
4.55
16.4

37
0.170
2.49
0.096
17.0
Reference
sensor
28
22
1.65
15.6
4.62
16.5
Reference sensor
5132
0.332
3.35
0.173
15.7



5120
1.85
15.8
5.70
16.0

10181
0.247
2.43
0.140
15.9



10193
1.55
17.0
5.13
16.5

15270
0.385
3.39
0.190
15.8



15282
2.02
15.5
5.88
15.6

15294
0.305
2.59
0.384
15.7
Reference
sensor
28






15319
0.296
3.35
0. 292
16.3
ASM








20413
0.333
3.21
0.283
15.3



20424
2.11
14.67
5.57
16.7

25474
0.387
3.30
0.255
17.5



25486
2.21
14.34
5.57
17.5

30595
0.447
3.60
0.319
17.2



30607
2.26
14.08
4.77
17.7

30618
0.500
3.40
0.240
17.3









30629
0.418
2.98
0.282
17.4
Reference
sensor
28






35682
0.458
3.43
0.246
17.5



35694
2.53
14.83
5.21
17.4

40730
0.469
3.06
0.243
17.6



40741
2.42
14.8
4.74
17.4

45828
0.62
4.49
0.30
18.2



45840
2.43
17.3
4.37
17.5

45852
0.39
3.33
0.348
17.5









45866
0.36
3.02
0.551
17.5
Reference
sensor
28






50869
0.38
2.80
0.317
18.1



50892
2.59
17.3
4.64
18.0
Reference sensor
50881
0.38
2.52
0.466
17.5
Reference
sensor
28
50906
2.56
18.8
4.67
18.3

50944
0.26
3.06
0.313
17.4
Reference
sensor
28






50955
0.40
5.47
0.181
17.7



50918
1.62
17.6
4.11
17.1
After combustion
chamber deposits
50966
0.45
6.10
0.201
16.9








were removed
50978
0.35
4.60
0.257
17.1
Terminated

50933
1.50
15.4
3.85
17.7
Reference sensor
*Volvo SR, P. 2-34 to 2-40

-------
Table Volvo-15 (cont)
VIN
1W
Engine Trans Axle
Miles
Tailpipe Emissions
HC CO NOx MPG
Comments .
Engine Out Emissions
Miles HC CO NOx MPG
Comments
JTK 672 3500
(no MMT)
130
A3
3.91
0
^ 0
-v. 0
5K
10K
15K
15K
15K
20K
25K
30K
30K
30K
35K
40K
45K
45K
45K
50K
50K
55K
60K
60K
60K
60K
65K
65K
7 OK
75K
75K
0.298
0. 211
0.225
0.249
0.224
0.282
0.256
0.268
0.252
0.257
0.287
0.302
0.231
0.365
0.251
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.37
0.33
0.26
0.27
0.32
0.36
0.26
0.28
0.271
0.224
0.264
0.296
2.32
1.95
2.29
2.27
1.99
2.74
2.27
2.21
2.57
2.21
4.04
3.34
2.56
3.90
2.89
3.14
3.35
2.87
4.05
3.48
3.32
2.89
3.24
4.39
2.84
2.93
2.45
2.54
2.96
3.02
0.320
0. 250
0.144
0.401
0.446
0.552
0.546
0.445
0.616
0.651
0.967
0.367
0.445
0.417
0.573
0.535
0.528
0.772
0.67
0.647
0.92
0. 702
0.787
0.781
0.637
1.04
0.860
1.00
0.771
0.710
17.0
16.9
17.2
16.8
17.0
16.0
15.6
15.3
16.2
16.5
17.2
17.7
17.5
16.9
17.7
17.4
19.4
17.3
17.7
17.6
17.2
17.7
18.0
17.3
17.3
18.0
18.3
18.4
17.2
17.5
2 OK
25K
Reference sensor 28
Reference sensor 28
ASM
ASM
Reference sensor 28
ASM
Reference sensor 28
Reference sensor 28
ASM
Test with reference catalyst
Original catalyst	65K 1.28
After check of fuel distributor
70K 1.19
75K 1.26
Durability continuing to 100K miles
0 2.02 12.8 4.99 16.9
5K 1.54 13.9 5.46 16.8
10K 1.64 13.1 5.75 16.7
15K 1.59 13.9 5.05 16.1
1.642 14.0 5.38
1.602 13.18 5.65
16.1
17.8
30K
1.605
15.36
4.93
17.6
35K
1.531
14.99
4.76
17.6
40K
1.396
13.78
4.75
17.9
45K
1.53
15.3
4.26
18.6
50K
1.58
14.9
4.73
17.7 Reference sensor 28
50K
1.55
16.1
4.87
17.7
55K
1.36
14.7
4.91
18.2
60K
1.43
14.2
5.50
17.2
12.6 4.87 18.5
11.8
13.6
4.77
4.53
17.9
18.2

-------
Table Volvo-16*
Engine Dynamometer Testing of 14 Engine and
3-Way Catalyst System Using MMT
/
Conversion efficiency
Catalyst Sensor Hours	HC CO NOx Remarks
mv = 500
tv = 30
MMT
MMT
MMT
New
New
New
0
92.6
97.8
98.6
200
84.3
90
99.5
200
88.1
92.9
99.3
(400)
85.1
87
98.9
400(600)
83
86.5
99.5
600(800)
85.5
85.6
99.3
800(1000)
85.9
86.5
96.9
1000(1200)
84.5
84.4
97.6
0
92.2
97.7
99.6
200
85.3
93.6
95.1
(400)
-
-
-
400(600)
82.1
85.7
99.5
600(800)
90.1
89.7
99.1
800(1000)
90.4
91.5
97
1000(1200)
83.7
86.4
98.2
0
94.4
93.3
99.6
200
92.5
94.1
99.8
(400)
-
-
-
400(600)
84.2
86.1
99.8
600(800)
89.8
90.6
99.8
800(1000)
87.4
92.4
99.7
1000(1200)
84.3
89.8
99
With new spark plugs
Spark plugs changed 600 h
Spark plugs changed 863 h
Spark plugs changed 1167 h
Spark plugs changed 600 h
Spark plugs changed 863 h
Spark plugs changed 1167 h
Spark plugs changed 600 h
Spark plugs changed 863 h
Spark plugs changed 1167 h
*Volvo SR, p. 2-44
12-843

-------
12.2.18.7. Progress and Problems
Volvo has made considerable progress in the evaluation of 3-way catalysts
over the past year. Several catalysts with high loadings of platinum
and rhodium were evaluated, including metallic substrate catalysts.
None of the catalysts were reported to be superior to the production
Engelhard catalyst. Two big questions remain in the Volvo catalyst
testing - What were the volumes and loadings of the catalysts which were
tested, particularly for those with metallic substrates? With con-
sideration of the publicity about the potential for reductions in
catalyst volume with metallic substrates, the EPA technical staff
believe that the Volvo testing of metallic substrate catalysts may have
been conducted with catalysts of smaller volume than their counterparts
with ceramic substrates and that catalysts with metallic substrates
continue to be promising alternative catalysts.
Also, considerable progress has been made in the evaluation of the
revised Bosch K-Jetronic system which includes the warm-up pressure
regulator with acceleration enrichment.
Low mileage CO emissions of less than 1 g/mi have been reported using
this system. NOx emissions were increased somewhat, however. According
to Volvo, the driveability problem which normally accompanies leaner
air/fuel calibrations during the cold start are remedied by the acceler-
ation enrichment. Durability testing of the new system remains to be
conducted.
If the 3.4 CO/driveability problem is resolved, Volvo is now free to
concentrate on fuel economy improvements. This may be a more severe
problem for Volvo than others because of their priority on maintaining
high specific power outputs from their engines, their general lack, of
electronic emission control hardware, and Volvo's dislike of EGR.
12-844

-------
Section 12.3
Independent Developers

-------
12.3.1. Curtiss-Wright Corporation
Direct Injected Stratified Charge Rotary Engine
Curtiss-Wright (CW) reported that they are currently concentrating most
of their activity on a contract with NASA to provide performance and
emission data on the RC2-75 prototype aircraft engine which is in the
300 horsepower class. Curtiss-Wright has not been actively developing a
carbureted automotive rotary engine since mid 1960. Field testing of
the RC2-60 (rated at about 80 HP) has been carried on continuously,
however, since 1963. This activity is covered to some extent in SAE
paper number 770044 entitled "An Update of the Direct Injected Stratified
Charge Rotary Combustion Engine Developments at Curtiss-Wright," by C.
Jones, et al. No light-duty vehicle test data were supplied by Curtiss-
Wright with their submittal. They did however supply Figures CW-1 and
CW-2 which show the results of Curtiss-Wright1s efforts on brake speci-
fic fuel consumption on their RC1-60 stratified charge rotary engine,
and the interpolated values from these figures at 2000 rpm are shown in
Table CW-1.
Table CW-1*
Comparison of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
on the RC1-60 Stratified Charge Rotary Engine at 2000 RPM


	lb./BHP-HR	

(psi)
1975
1976
1977
BMEP
BSFC
BSFC
BSFC
20
0.71
0.65
0.73
30
0.58
0.54
0.60
40
0.52
0.49
0.54
50
0.48
0.47
0.49
60
0.47
0.46
0.48
70
0.46
0.46
0.49
80
0.47
0.47
0.54
90
0.48
0.48
0.57
100
0.50
0.50
-
*Values interpolated from Figures CW-1 and CW-2.
12-845

-------
Figure CW-1*
1975 and 1976 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
for the RC160 Stratified Charge Gasoline Engine
1.50
COMPARISON DATA-COMET MKV DIESEL
ALUMINUM ROTOR HOUSING, 1975
1000
2000
3000
4000
.60
.50
.40
.30
CAST IRON ROTOR
HOUSING, 1976
RCI-60 S.C
2000 RPM
PROJECTED S.C.-
10
20	30 40 5 0 6 0 70 80 90 100
BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE-PS I
*An Update of the Direct Injected Stratified Charge Rotary
Combustion Engine Developments at Curtiss-Wright by Charles
Jones, et.al., SAE paper #770044, Figure 36
12-846

-------
Figure CW-2*
1977 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
for the RC1-60 Stratified Charge Gasoline Engine
*Curtiss-Wright submission to EPA, December 23, 1977,
Figure-1, hereafter referred to as CW SR.
12-847

-------
The data in Table CW-1 show a decrease between 1975 and 1976 in BSFC.
This may be due to the replacement of the aluminum rotor with one made
from cast iron. The BSFC increase for 1977 may be due vto the minimum
specific HC base shown in Figure CW-3.
Figure CW-4 shows CW's target levels for brake specific HC as being 4
g/BHP-HR at loads greater than 20 PSI-BMEP. Figure CW-5 shows that CW
has been able to meet these target levels with the use of a bolt-on hot
rotor, described in further detail in the SAE paper.
12-848

-------
RC1-60 Stratified Charge Engine
*CW SR, Figure 2.

-------
Figure CW-4*
Specific HC Emissions
*SAE Paper #770044
12-850

-------
Figure CW-5*
Effect of Heated and
Non-Heated Rotors on Specific HC
Emissions and Fuel Consumption
*SAE Paper #770044
12-851

-------
12.3.2. Ethyl
Ethyl Corporation is a supplier of fuel additives such as lead and MMT.
These additives are used to prevent engine knock, especially at higher
compression ratios. Since leaded gasoline cannot be used in vehicles
using catalytic converter emission control systems, Ethyl has an interest
in non-catalytic systems. Ethyl reported their goals are to develop
exhaust emission control systems which will be effective enough to meet
the levels of future emission standards, and remain compatible with
fuels containing lead. Ethyl did not mention the relative cost of such
a system compared to catalytic systems.
Ethyl reported they have done research on improving mixture distribution
of fuel for lean burn operation. Continued research of the Turbulent
Flow Manifold (TFM) has shown improvements in fuel mixture distribution.
This is the same system described in last year's status report.* Ethyl
reported their programs are designed to use the advantage of better fuel
mixing with heat conservation techniques to achieve low exhaust emissions.
The Turbulent Flow System (TFS) allows better vaporization by collecting .
the larger droplets of fuel and revaporizing them back into the air/fuel
mixture. This allows finer atomization and improved distribution of the
fuel.
Ethyl reported they have developed a hybrid reactor concept that is
capable of lowering HC and CO emissions to extremely low levels.
Experiments on V8 engines were reported with results below 0.41 HC, and
3.A CO. This system combined with the use of EGR reportedly has also
met the 1.0 NOx level. With finer atomization of fuel, Ethyl reports
higher rates of EGR may be tolerated with some loss of fuel economy.
*Automobile Emission Control - The Development Status, Trends, and Outlook
as of December 1976, April 1977.
12-852

-------
Ethyl reported but supplied no data on their most recent tests on a
vehicle equipped with this hybrid system which showed a fuel economy
loss of 4 to 7%, while meeting the goals of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 1.0 NOx.
Results from conventional carburetor techniques showed somewhat higher
HC and CO levels with a fuel economy loss of 12 to 15%.
Ethyl reported they will put less emphasis on V8 engines because of
projections V8 engines will not be a major portion of the future market.
Ethyl's main efforts will be directed to further improve their 4 cylinder
package. A new experimental vehicle made from an American chassis and
body, powered by an aluminum V6 European engine will be developed by
Ethyl and will use the hybrid reactor and TFM. Ethyl predicts this will
be representative of the types of family sedans the auto industry will
sell in 1985. Ethyl's goal will be to achieve levels of 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO,
and 1.0 NOx with highest possible fuel economy using fuels containing
lead.
Ethyl reported research in the area of fuel economy benefits due to
increased compression ratios. The compression ratio of two cars was
increased one unit, while holding emissions and performance nearly
constant. Both vehicles were modified for lean operation by using TFM,
a lean adjusted carburetor, and calibrated ignition timing and EGR rate.
Exhaust port liners and a deceleration valve were needed to reduce the
tendency for HC emissions to increase at higher compression ratios. A
thermal reactor was installed on one of the increased compression cars,
and showed a decrease in HC emissions. High compression engines also
have a greater tendency to knock, therefore octane additives are needed
to prevent detonation of end gases.
These tests indicate to Ethyl:
12-853

-------
1.	At any- emission level, the compression ratio/fuel economy rela-
tionship is greatly influenced by the efficiency of the after-
treatment emission control system.
2.	An increase in compression ratio of one unit increased composite
fuel economy 4.2 to 5.3% while keeping emission levels below the
1
49-state, 19.77 emission standards.
3.	Port liners can be used to offset the HC increase caused by lower
temperatures that occur at higher compression ratios. Port liners
limited HC increase to 6% for one unit increase in compression
ratio.
4.	Using thermal reactors in conjunction with port liners showed a
4.8% reduction in fuel consumption compared to the same vehicle's
1977 certification counterpart.
5.	Combining this 4.8% reduction in fuel consumption with the refinery
energy saving of 3.4 percent associated with using Tetraethyl Lead
(TEL) in place of more severe refining yields a total fuel saving
cost of 8.2%.
More details of these tests can be found in an SAE paper.*
Ethyl also reported that by controlling the air injection sequence of
the hybrid reactor, performance could be improved. The hybrid reactor
is a combination of rich idle and lean part throttle operation with
controlled air injection rates. Ethyl reported this system is capable
of CO emissions well below 3.4 g/mi, with low HC emissions. Table
Ethyl-1 shows the effect of air injection on emissions.
Compression Ratio Effects with Lean Mixtures, F. J. Marsee, R. M. Olree,
W. E. Adams, SAE paper 770640.
12-854

-------
Effect
Table Ethyl-1*
of Air Infection on FTP
Emissions


HC
CO
NOx
Reactor w/o AIR
0.79
14.99
1.77
Reactor w/AIR
0.12
2.68
1.86
% Reduction
85
82
-5
Cast Iron Manifold w/o AIR	1.38 11.27	1.93
Cast Iron Manifold w/AIR	0.81	7.88	1.85
% Reduction	.41	.30	.04
*1977 Status Report on Research Programs Related to Vehicle Emissions;
Ethyl Corporation, January 1978, p. 1-4; hereafter referred to as Ethyl-SR.
An electronic idle fuel enrichment system is used to control the air/fuel
ratio rich at idle for maximum efficiency of the hybrid reactor, due to
the increase in exhaust temperature. Off idle, a lean mixture provides
adequate exhaust temperatures for the thermal reactor, according to
Ethyl. Table Ethyl-2 shows the effect of this system.
Table Ethyl-2*
Effect of Idle Fuel Enrichment System on FTP Emissions
1973 BMW; 2L 4 Cylinder; AT; TFS;
Port Liners; TR; AIR
System	HC	CO	NOx
Hybrid Reactor	0.08	2.04	1.83
Hybrid w/Electronic	0.13	1.68	1.24
Idle Enrichment
*Ethyl-SR, pg 1-5.
The same car was then recalibrated and tested at the Fiat Research
Laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan. The results of these tests are shown
in Table Ethyl-3.
12-855

-------
Table Ethyl-3*
Fiat Research Laboratory FTP Test Results
1973 BMW;
HC	CO
0.11	2.28
0.11	2.13
0.08	1.85
*Ethyl-SR, pg. 1-7.
Electronic Idle Enrichment
NOx	MPG
1.47	21.0
1.50	24.6
1.20	27.9
1
No explanation was given by Ethyl to define vehicle miles or other test
conditions nor was an explanation provided to explain the dramatic
improvements in fuel economy.
In order to achieve the 1.0 NOx level, a production BMW two-stage EGR
valve was used. Ethyl reported that, at this NOx level, driveability
would not be acceptable. A multiple spark discharge system was added to
increase the power of the production system and improve driveability.
According to Ethyl this multiple spark system should be more efficient,
since the intake charge, when extremely diluted with EGR, is difficult
to ignite with a single strike. The effects of these design changes are
shown in Table Ethyl-4.
This table shows HC and CO emissions increased significantly with
increasing EGR. A 9% fuel economy loss was also experienced. Ethyl
believes by improving the quality of the air/fuel mixture, the EGR rate
would not have a great effect on driveability. This led to the develop-
ment of a sintered metal emulsion tube in the carburetor. According to
Ethyl, the porosity of the metal tube has improved the air/fuel mixture
quality, as well as driveability.
12-856

-------
Table Ethyl-4*
Effect of Hybrid Reactor Design Changes on FTP Emissions and Fuel Economy
1973 BMW; 2L 4 Cylinder



System
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
Hybrid Reactor w/std. EGR
0.15
2.61
1.30
21.7
Hybrid Reactor w/dual EGR
0.23
0.39
0.26
0.25
4.23
4.24
3.74
3.47
0.73
0.64
0.75
0.75
20.3
20.6
20.4
20.0
Dual EGR and Multi-Spark Ignition
0.050 in. plug gap
0.030 in. plug gap
0.025 in. plug gap
0.032 in. plug gap
0.35
0.25
0.27
0.34
4.35
3.47
3.24
3.36
1.03
0.97
0.96
0.94
19.0
18.9
18.4
19.3
Dual EGR/Multi-Spark Ignition/
2 Initial Timing Advance
0.05 in. plug gap
0.03 in. plug gap
0.41
0.52
0.42
3.63
3.81
3.97
0.97
0.94
0.96
20.3
20.2
19.8
Dual EGR/Sintered Metal-Emulsion Tube
0.13
2.80
0.77
19.4
*Ethyl-SR, pg. 1-8.
Ethyl reported a new carburetor nozzle design is under development. The
emissions from this system are about the same as with the sintered metal
emulsion tube. The fuel economy loss has been reduced from 9 to 4%, but
Ethyl reported they are not sure why. Results of the use of this nozzle
are shown in Table Ethyl-5.
Table Ethyl-5*
Effect of New Carburetor Nozzle on FTP Emissions and Fuel Economy
1973 BMW; 2L 4 Cylinder; Hybrid Reactor
	g/tni	
HC	CO	NOx	MPG
*Ethyl-SR, pg. 1-9.
u
0.19	2.58	0.85	19.8
0.18 2.96 0.83 20.1
0.17	2.74	0.82	20.2
12-857

-------
Ethyl has also done research on the effects on MMT on exhaust emissions
from production cars, as well as the effects of MMT on cars equipped
with catalysts. Tests were run using gasoline with and without MMT, on
vehicles at 500 miles. This study used 14 cars, 7 of which were run
with fuel containing no MMT, and the other 7 were run with fuel contain-
ing 1/16 g Mn/gal as MMT. These cars were tested at 500 miles and again
at 50,000 miles. The results of these tests are shown in Table Ethyl-6.
Table Ethyl-6*
Comparison of MMT Fuel to Non-MMT Fuel on FTP Emissions
Baseline Fueled Vehicles** (0 g MMT/gal)
Miles	HC	CO	NOx
500	0.34	3.12	1.10
50,000	0.47 4.61 1.10
MMT Fueled Vehicles** (1/16 g MMT/gal)
Miles	HC	CO	NOx
500	0.36 2.39 1.05
50,000	0.48 3.86 1.06
*Ethyl-SR, pg. II-3.
**Average of seven vehicles.
According to Ethyl, these data show the average increase in HC, CO, and
NOx emissions was essentially the same for both the clear fueled and MMT
fueled vehicles. The catalysts were removed at 50,000 miles for inspection,
and an activity check. No data were reported on this inspection. Ethyl
also measured engine out emissions from these vehicles and the data are
shown in Table Ethyl-7. These data show a substantial increase in the
HC and CO emissions from the MMT fueled vehicles compared to the clear
fueled cars. The reason for this increase is believed by Ethyl to be
caused by carburetor changes within the MMT vehicles since CO increased
with little difference in NOx. Ethyl did not report any further inves-
tigation into this problem, but it is very interesting this carburetion
change did not occur in the clear fueled vehicles.
12-858

-------
Table Ethyl-7*
Engine Out FTP Emission Comparison Between
MMT and non-MMT Fuel
Baseline Fueled Vehicles** (Q g MMT/gal)
Miles	HC	CO	NOx
500	2.08	26.46	1.53
5K	1.76	21.48	1.62
3OK	1.85	18.76	1.35
50K	1.92	19.19	1.40
MMT Fueled Vehicles** (1/16 g MMT/gal)
Miles	HC	CO	NOx
500
5K
3 OK
5 OK
2.08
2.15
2.39
2.45
22.89
20.55
22.89
24.85
1.50
1.66
1.49
1.49
*Ethyl-SR, pg. 11-6.
**Average of seven vehicles.
Ethyl reported that MMT enhances catalytic activity. Although the
average engine out emissions are greater with vehicles operated with
MMT, the catalytic converters are able to maintain tailpipe levels close
to that of the clear-fueled vehicles. The conversion efficiency of the
catalytic converters with and without MMT is shown in Figure Ethyl-1.
The pressure drop across the catalysts was measured after 500 miles and
again at 50,000 miles. The results of this study are shown in Table
Ethyl-8.
Table Ethyl-8*
Catalytic Converter Pressure Drop Conditioned With and Without MMT
4000 RPM; WOT
Vehicles	MMT	Pressure Drop (in. Hg)
Tested	(g/gal)	500 Miles 50K Miles	% Change
7	0	5.9 6.5	10.2
7	1/16	6.3 6.9	9.5
*Ethyl-SR, pg. II-8.
12-859

-------
u
c
- 90
AA
nl
U
80
T	1	r
CO
*A 1/16 g Mn/gal.
7 5
' Baseline
70
J.
10
20	30	40
Test Miles/ 1000.
50
60
70
Figure Ethyl-1*
Effect of MMT on Catalyst Efficiency
*Ethyl-SR, pg. II-7.
12-860

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Ethyl concluded from the above data that there is little difference in
the pressure drop across the MMT and non-MMT conditioned catalysts.
Because the percent difference in pressure drop between the MMT and non-
MMT conditioned catalysts is small, this indicated to Ethyl that there
was no tendency for catalyst plugging due to the use of MMT.
Ethyl reported work on the effect of MMT on 3-way catalysts and oxygen
sensors. The 3-way catalysts were mounted on 400 CID Ford V8 engines.
To maintain a constant air/fuel ratio at stoichiometry, the engines were
operated at steady state conditions at 55 MPH, with air/fuel ratio
manually controlled. Two catalysts were preconditioned by aging for 400
hours. One catalyst was aged with exhaust from the above-mentioned type
of engine using clear fuel, the other catalyst was aged with exhaust
containing MMT from the same type of engine. Table Ethyl-9 shows the
results of this study.
Table Ethyl-9*
Conversion Efficiency of 3-Way Catalyst Conditioned With and Without MMT
Engine Dynamometer Test Procedure
(55 MPH).
Test
MMT
	
% Conversion-
	
Hours
(g/gal)
HC
CO
NOx
0
0
77
67
99

1/8
86
76
97
100
0
59
70
97

1/8
86
79
94
200
0
52
52
96

1/8
70
76
90
300
0
29
27
85

1/8
67
73
95
400
0
63
66
94

1/8
70
79
71
*Ethyl-SR, pg. II-9.
These data indicate to Ethyl that MMT does not affect conversion effi-
ciency of the 3-way catalyst under these conditions.
12-861

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Ethyl also reported tests on Volvo production cars equipped with 3-way
catalysts and oxygen sensors, and the effects of MMT on these components.
Ethyl obtained the voltage output characteristics of the oxygen sensor
during these dynamometer tests. Ethyl reported they detected little
change in the output characteristics of the oxygen sensor after aging,
on either clear fuel or fuel containing MMT. Other tests were reported
on sensors aged for 11,000 hours on 91 RON Indolene fuel containing 3/8
g MMT/gal. This is claimed by Ethyl to be equivalent to more than 60,000 mile
of operation at 55 MPH on fuel containing 1/16 g MMT/gal. Figure Ethyl-
2 shows the effect of MMT aging on the oxygen sensor, at up to 200 hours
with 3/8 g/gal MMT. Ethyl reported problems with low voltages due to
cracking of the ceramic on the oxygen sensor. This was compensated for
by the addition of an amplification circuit connected to the Volvo ECU.
This circuit allows a maximum output level to be preset, so as peak
sensor voltage is reduced with increased mileage, or by physical deter-
ioration, the automatic gain amplifier resets the voltage to the preset
value. Peak voltage is set at 1000 mV. The results of this amplifier
are shown in Table Ethyl-10.
Table Ethyl-10*
Effect of O2 Sensor Amplifier on FTP Emissions
Amplifier
	g/mi	
Miles	HC	CO	NOx
Off
Off (new sensor)
On
On + delay
15K
0
15K
15K
0.60
0.41
0.42
0.39
3.68
1.97
2.99
1.73
0.35
0.34
0.33
0.34
*Ethyl-SR, pg. 11-12.
12-862

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800
700
600
500
400
300
200
10C
C
1
~ul '
 Ad
An
.	O 0 Hours
g ^	A 50 Hours
h *o
 100 Hours
A 150 Hours
~ 200 Hours
o
A

D 6
*A t? * o
J	L
14.0	14.4	14.8	15.2	15.6 15
Air-Fuel Ratio
Figure Ethyl-2*
Effect of MMT on Oxygen Sensor Output
With 3/8 g/gal MMT
*Ethyl-SR, pg. 11-10.
12-863

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The amplifier was delayed on one test shown above during cold start to
deactivate the warm-up control circuit prior to normal cut off. The
results show with a 60 second delay the CO levels were reduced to levels
below that of the new sensor without the delay circuit.
12.3.2.1. Problems and Progress
Ethyl has shown by the data submitted in their report, that under speci-
fic operating conditions, emissions can be held to low levels without
using catalytic converters. Ethyl's hybrid reactor system shows promise
in lowering emissions, while still allowing the use of lead or MMT to
prevent knock. Ethyl believes MMT has no detrimental effects on cata-
lytic systems and has shown data which Ethyl claims confirms their
position. However, other emission control research groups have per-
formed research tests on MMT and have concluded from their tests an
opinion contrary to that of Ethyl. Since this issue has been treated in
public hearings on the use of MMT, and in subsequent decisions that EPA (
has made it is unnecessary to comment further in this report.
Ethyl's use of additional electronic circuitry for the oxygen sensor
output shows promise. Although the idea of compensating electronics to
adjust for varying oxygen sensor performance seems obvious, the auto-
mobile manufacturers have not reported much information in this area.
Approaches such as the one taken by Ethyl may lead to improved system
performance, longer sensor life, or in the future, an oxygen sensor
deterioration characteristic that matches the 3-way catalyst deteriora-
tion characteristics, to maintain optimum system performance.
12-864

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12.3.3 Questor
Questor's emission control system is a combination thermal reactor and
converter and has been given the name Reverter. This system involves a
three step process consisting of thermal oxidation of CO, HC, and
catalytic reduction of NOx; and further oxidation of remaining CO, HC,
and H2. This is the same system reported in last year's status report.*
The initial step is a rich thermal reaction at high temperature ranging
from 1550 to 1750F, followed by catalysis by a base metal catalyst
made up of copper, chromium, and nickel powder sintered into a base
metal substrate. The final step consists of injecting secondary air
into a lean thermal reactor for final oxidation of HC and CO. These
three areas are shown as A, B, and C respectively in Figure Questor-1.
In order to reach the high temperature needed for thermal reaction, this
system uses a rich A/F ratio (12:1 to 14.4:1) which can tend to result
in losses in fuel economy.
Improvements have been made on this system by using a twin wall exhaust
pipe with an air gap between the walls of the pipe. This acts as a heat
exchanger where the exhaust gas heats the air passing through the air
gap. The heated air is then injected into the rich thermal reactor and
increases the reactor temperature. This system not only operates more
efficiently but also allows leaner carburetor settings, thus improving
fuel economy. At cold start temperatures, an ignition control system is
used to quickly heat the reactor to the operating temperature. This
system uses an electronic timer to retard the basic spark advance from
TDC to 5ATDC for 90 seconds, or until the engine coolant reaches a tem-
perature of 100F, whichever occurs first. By retarding the spark
*Automobile Emission Control - The Developmental Status, Trends, and
Outlook as of December 1976, EPA, April 1977.
12-865

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Figure Questor-l*
*Questor SR. December 1976.	^uestor s Reverter System

-------
advance, it allows partial combustion to occur during the exhaust stroke
of the engine cycle. This means that less heat is tranferred to the
engine and results in higher exhaust gas temperatures. This system
allows for faster reactor light off time.
Further improvement to the cold start systems employs diverting all
secondary air from the air pump to the exhaust ports, again for 90
seconds or until the cooling temperature reaches 100F. After 90
seconds, or until minimum exhaust temperature is reached, the air is
then injected into the thermal reactors to allow oxidation to occur.
12.3.3.1 Systems to be Used for 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 0.41 NOx
The Reverter system was designed to meet goals of 0.41, 3.4, 0.41 on HC,
CO, and NOx respectively. Emission results were said to be promising
with good control of HC and NOx but poor and unstable control of CO.
This is thought by Questor to be caused by unstable carburetion since
the carburetor used was designed for lean mixtures and was modified to
be used at richer levels. The CO levels were 2 to 3 times the target
level. The Reverter system was installed on a 1976 Plymouth Fury
equipped with a 318 CID V8 engine. The 1976 EPA fuel economy estimate
on a similar vehicle equipped with an oxidation catalyst was 13 MPG on
the urban cycle. Test results are shown in Table Questor-1. Loss of CO
control was also thought to be due to low oxygen levels in the reactor
during the first 90 seconds of engine operation, preventing complete
oxidation of CO. The best results obtained in these tests were 0.2 HC,
4.3 CO, 0.46 NOx.
12-867

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Table Questor-1
tlf Emlsaion and Fuel Economy Data*
Test Vehicle: 1976 Plymouth Salon;
318 CID V8 engine;
4500 lb. IW
Factory Stock Vehicle
	g/mi-
HC	CO
0.49	2.89
0.53	3.07
0.53	3.65
NOx
MPG

u
2.04
11.8
1.65
11.9
2.21
12.0
Reverter Equipped Vehicle




HC
CO
NOx
MPG
0.19
9.65
1.46
u
13.2
0.59
11.31
0.56
12.4
0.58
15.97
0.27
11.5
0.15
5.86
0.91
12.9
0.19
5.02
0.51
11.5
0.21
7.95
0.58
11.3
0.20
17.21
0.79
12.4
0.09
4.89
0.70
12.1
0.08
4.35
0.79
12.3
0.18
6.40
0.41
12.0
0.07
4.19
0.61
12.1
0.06
3.86
0.53
12.4
0.09 '
4.22
0.40
12.0
0.10
4.23
0.35
11.8
0.17
7.61
0.32
12.1
0.16
6.78
0.34
11.9
0.15
6.89
0.21
11.8
0.12
5.01
0.22
11.9
0.17
7.19
0.22
11.8
0.10
4.35
0.60
12.2
0.14
4.58
0.35
11.8
0.14
6.51
0.32
11.7
0.14
6.13
0.25
11.8
Reverter Equipped (Second Calibration)
	
g/mi	
	

HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
0.14
0.09
0.09
0.10
0.13
0.09
5.79
3.77
4.03
4.61
5.11
7.74
0.92
1.23
1.17
0.89
0.55
0.59
11.1
11.3
11.2
10.8
10.8
11.9
*From Third
Generation
Reverter System;
AP Parts l
(Questor Submission).
12-868

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12.3.3.2 Other Developmental Efforts
Questor reported they are developing a Thermo-stabilization system which
would offer protection of the catalyst against excessive temperatures.
This system uses a thermal switch which diverts secondary air into the
catalyst when the temperature exceeds 2000F. Once the temperature of
the catalyst falls below this maximum temperature setting, the secondary
air is then diverted back to the reactors. This system was reported not
to be functional at this time.
12.3.3.3 Durability
In order to determine the CO control problem of the vehicle in Table
Questor-1, the catalyst was disassembled and inspected. It was found
that the inner shell at the exhaust outlet end cap of the secondary
reactor, as well as the inlet and outlet catalyst beds had fractured.
This is believed to be a result of excessive temperatures above 1700F
at the catalyst inlet. Operation below this temperature resulted in
even poorer CO control.
It was suspected by Questor that the catalyst had degraded to the point
where NOx control was good, but CO was poor and unstable. The catalyst
screens were found to be coated with a green fluffy substance that was
not a typical catalyst formation. Questor reported they did not know
what this substance was, and that the screens were sent to the catalyst
manufacturer, International Nickel Company, for inspection.
Warpage was found to be minimal and the shell appeared to be in good
condition, however evidence was found that the exhaust gas had started
to "short circuit" the catalyst package, but was retained before it
could reach the exhaust pipe.
12-869

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Durability testing could not be started due to loss of NOx control
because of apparent catalyst inactivity. The reason for this is not
known but is again suspected to be related to excessive temperatures.
The control of HC was maintained and after the system stabilized did not
exceed 0.21 g/mi on any of the tests. The CO levels never reached the
initial target levels of 2.5 g/mi, while fuel economy was close to the
factory stock levels (see Table Questor-1). It was reported that
initial levels of 0.2 HC, 2.5 CO, 0.6 NOx would be needed to allow for
catalyst deterioration in 50,000 mile durability testing to meet the 0.4
HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx level.
12.3.3.4 Progress and Problems
The Reverter system has experienced problems due to high temperature
operation causing failure in materials and subsystems. Even the use of
expensive materials for high temperature operation and electron beam
welding techniques did not remedy the problem. Poor CO control and
stability resulted from operation at lower temperatures, and poor fuel
economy resulted because of rich air/fuel ratios.
The Reverter system was the only emission related system under develop-
ment by Questor in 1977. Due to the aforementioned problems, and high
costs, the developmental program of the Reverter system was terminated
in August of 1977.
12-870

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12.3.4. Siemens
12.3.4.1. On-Board Gas Generator
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Research Laboratories, Erlangen, Federal
Republic of Germany, reported to the EPA on their "Compact Gas Generator
for Fuel Gasification Aboard Motor Vehicles." The schematic repre-
sentation of the gasification process and a cross section of a generator
suitable for production are shown in Figure Siemens-1. The catalyst
filling tubing has a diameter of 10 cm and is lined with A^O^. The
catalyst, in pellet form, is rigidly fixed by two porous Al*23 P^-ates
and the gaseous fuel products are circulated two times over the exterior
jacket of the reactor. Heat losses, therefore, are kept to a minimum in
comparison to the heat of reaction, according to Siemens. With a
catalyst filling of 300 cu m,* at a maximum temperature of 800C and an
air/fuel ratio of 1.35:1, 26 litres per hour of straight-run gasoline is
possible. This corresponds to a space velocity of the catalyst bed of
86 litres per hour of liquid and a maximum Residence time of reactants
in the catalyst bed of about 10 milliseconds. The efficiency of gasi-
fication under such conditions is on the order of 95%, according to
Siemens, and the load-dependent conversion is about 75%.
The use of gaseous fuels in internal combustion engines is a possible
strategy to reduce specific emissions and to improve fuel economy since
the fuel may have good octane properties and it may support "lean bum"
combustion. A gas generator for this purpose was designed and built by
Siemens for installation on a 1.6 litre Volkswagen engine. Table
Siemens-1 includes data from this engine operated at 2000 rpm and about
74 psi mean effective pressure both with normal carburetion and with the
Siemens gas generator.
*Siemens SR, p. 4. Three hundred cu m catalyst volume reported by Siemens
seems quite large and disproportionate for automotive use.
12-871

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Figure Siemens-1*
FL77 Q25
. Schematic representation of the autothermal process of
fuel gasification by partial oxidation
~ starting fuel

generated gas*
	F L 77 037
Design of a gas generator suitable for production
^Siemens 12 January 1978 report to the EPA on "Compact Gas
Generator for Fuel Gasification aboard Motor Vehicles,"
(Figure 1 and 2). Hereafter referred to as Siemens SR.

-------
Table Siemens-1*
Performance of a 1.6 Litre VW Engine at 2000 rpm,
74 MEP, with Siemens Gas Generator
IT	MEP P	BSFC NOx CO HC
	A/F (BTDC). (Bar). (kW) (g/kWh) (g/kWh) (g/kWh) (g/kWh)
Engine with
normal
carburetor 16.7 35 5.0 13.3	319	12.4 27.9 2.0
Engine with
gas
generator 22.5
40 5.0 13.3	276
0.74 3.6 1.5
*Siemens 12 January 1978 Report to the EPA on "Compact Gas
Generator for Fuel Gasification aboard Motor Vehicles.",
Herafter referred to as Siemens SR.
Figure Siemens-2 shows the relative fuel consumption relationships
between liquid and cracked fuels at different air/fuel ratios. Note
that Figure Siemens-2 shows a 6% specific fuel consumption improvement
for the gas generator at 0.4 NOx, compared to the best specific fuel
consumption shown for the standard carburetor. The test procedure and
methodology used by Siemens to arrive at the 0.4 NOx capability con-
clusion were not provided.
Figure Siemens-3 demonstrates the response time for torque rise on a 2
litre Mercedes Benz engine with a gas generator where the input to the
gas generator was increased instantaneously by means of electronic
control. FTP data on NOx versus fuel consumption were supplied for the
Siemens gas generator. These data are superimposed on a chart excerpted
from a 1974 report of the National Academy of Sciences entitled, "Report
by the Committee on Motor Vehicle Emissions," for vehicles of 1.5 to 2
litre displacement and inertia weights of 2500 to 3000 pounds. This
information is shown in Figure Siemens-4. The FTP data using the
Siemens gas generator were not too explicit, however, and did not iden-
tify the vehicle tested or the inertia test weight.
12-873

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Figure Siemens-2*
Relative specific fuel consumption of a 1.6 I VW engine as a function
of the A/F ratio for operation with a stock carburetor and with
a gas generator
*Siemens SR - Figure 3
12-874

-------
Figure Siemens-3*
time	~
	FL77 7 09
:Torque A/dof a 2 I Mercedes Benz engine with gas generator operation for
instantaneous change in the fuel supply
^Siemens SR - Figure 4
12-875

-------
Figure Siemens-4*
26.1
23.5
21.4
19.6
18.1
3.5
J_
mile
3.0 h
16.8 mpg 15.7
GO
CO
2.5 
IT=40BTDC
/

/
/
with catalyst
without catalyst
20BTDC
2.0 
52 1.5
' gas generator
I
I
I
L
1
hi
i
i
J?
LU
x
O
1.0 
0.5 
\ 
\
A
xt
Diesel-
engines
conventional
engines

stratified charge engine
\\xthree-way-catalyst
* T		 			L	
9.0	10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION
>14 0 100km
F L 77 033
15.0
N0X emission of the competing systems as a function of the fuel
consumption under CVS-test conditions
*Siemens SR - Figure 5
12-876

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The on-board gas generator concept offers an interesting approach to
emission control and possible fuel economy gains. Siemens did not
comment on the current state of the development whether this concept is
still in the prototype developmental stage or whether the development
has progressed to a point where it can be applied to different vehicles
by different manufacturers. Siemens offered limited test data on both a
1.6 litre Volkswagen and a 2 litre Mercedes-Benz but did not offer
information on other vehicle or engine manufacturers with whom they may
have cooperative agreements.
For the gas generator concept, there appear to be several areas that
require further investigation. First, the cold start performance of the
system needs to be investigated and optimized. If gaseous fuel is not
stored and used for starting, there would appear to be a delay before
the gas generator can produce gaseous fuel for the engine, due to the
need for the generator to warm up. This could be a serious problem,
since most of the emission problems with current and future systems
result from the cold start portion of the test. Second, the efficiency
of the gas generator must be maximized so that any engine-related effi-
ciency gains are not cancelled out by gas generator inefficiency.
Third, the cost of the gas generator system, the availability of the
catalyst material, and the production and manufacturing costs must be
studied in detail in order to determine how the gas generator system
compares to other emission control approaches. Finally, the size of the
gas generator must be reasonable for automotive use.
12-877

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Section 12.4
Catalyst and Substrate Suppliers

-------
12.4.1. Corning
Corning Glass Works has been supplying monolithic ceramic catalyst
substrates to both domestic and foreign auto manufacturers since cata-
lytic systems were introduced in 1975 MY. These substrates are then
washcoated with y-alumina by the automobile or catalyst manufacturers,
to increase the surface area of the substrate. Noble metals such as Pt,
Rh, or Pd are then impregnated into the washcoat to react with exhaust
gas emissions.
12.4.1.1. Problems and Progress
Corning reported they are continuing their research and developmental
efforts and are directing them towards improving the thermal character-
istics, mechanical strength and control of porosity of the substrate.
Prototype ceramic substrates with increased geometric surface area were
reported. This reportedly was accomplished by increasing the number of
cells per sq in., and by reducing the thickness of the webs used to
separate the channels. Samples were reported with a cell density of 400
cells/sq in. (CPSI), and a reduced web thickness of .006 in (6 mil).
Corning believes this will allow catalysts to be available at reduced
cost and smaller volumes. Corning indicated that the 400 CPSI, 6 mil
substrate could be available in production for MY1980. Corning also
reported that research and developmental work is underway on a 600 CPSI,
4 mil substrate, but that its production availability was uncertain due
to the fact that this new substrate was still in the developmental
process.
Substrates of higher cell density are important because catalyst light-
off may be improved and better packaging may be possible. It should be
pointed out that the existence of metallic substrates with high
12-878

-------
cell density has probably also stimulated Coming's work in this
area. With a given overall substrate package, increasing the cell
density will improve catalyst light-off, because the front face
light-off area is important in a monolithic catalyst, and thinner
sections allow for faster warm up times, according to Corning.
Corning also indicated to EPA that all other variables being constant
the catalyst with the smaller face area would light off faster.
Coming's work is important because it indicates that advances are still
being made in the area of catalyst substrate design. Whether or not
these technological advantages will result in improved emission capa-
bility is not clear, however. It is clear to EPA that one use of this
improved substrate technology could be for the industry to make cata-
lysts that are smaller and cheaper than today's catalyst with roughly
the same effectiveness. As long as the standards can be met, the
more cost-effective the approach, the better. However, it must be
pointed out that advances in cell density with the same catalyst volume
may permit the use of more effective emission control systems.
Coming reported they have discontinued laboratory, engine dynamometer,
and vehicle testing, therefore no data were provided. Corning also
reported further technological advancements are to be evaluated by the
auto manufacturers.
12-879

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12.4.2. Degussa
Degussa reported very little information in their submission to EPA,
concerning their efforts on emission control systems. Degussa did,
however, report that they are looking for ways to replace, either
partially or totally, Rh in 3-way catalysts. Ru was reported to be a
possible replacement for Rh, but lacks sufficient stabilization to
justify its applications, according to Degussa.
Degussa reported they are working on methods of reducing the Pt/Rh
ratios currently of 10/1, and believe it is feasible to achieve a ratio
of 15/1 in the near future. Many of the catalysts supplied by Degussa
to the automobile companies in the past have been relatively highly
loaded in Rh.
The following information was found in outside sources.
One such source is an SAE paper* related to catalysts. Briefly, this
paper describes four cases related to 3-way catalysts with respect to
air/fuel ratios. They are reported as follows:
1)	3-way system with a narrow air/fuel window.
2)	3-way system with an enlarged air/fuel window.
3)	reduction systems close to stoichiometric air/fuel ratio.
4)	oxidation systems close to stoichiometric air/fuel ratios.
The general principle for all the above systems is good activity at or
near stoichiometry, for control of HC, CO, and NOx. This paper also
shows the chemical reactions that occur within the catalyst. This paper
reported that 3-way catalyst systems have the following advantages:
Characterization of Multifunctional Catalysts for Automotive Exhaust
Purification by E. Koberstein, SAE Paper 770366.
12-880

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1)	Only one conversion is necessary for removal of HC, CO, and NOx.
2)	No secondary air is needed thus eliminating the need for an air
pump.
3)	There is no SO^ problem.
4)	There is no formulation of additional pollutants (NH^, HCN, I^S,
etc.) in comparison with operations away from the stoichiometric
air/fuel ratio.
Degussa believes that start catalyst location is critical for effective
operation. Degussa also reported that they believe the durability of
their start catalysts is sufficient to allow exhaust gas to flow through
constantly rather than bypassing it when the engine reaches its warmed
up condition, when used with fuel injected systems. Degussa is not sure
of the start catalyst durability when they are used with carbureted
systems, because of the higher air/fuel ratio fluctuations which result
in higher temperature fluctuations.
Degussa has also indicated that they believe monolithic catalysts have
advantages over pelleted catalysts for use in small engines, due to
their ability to better withstand mechanical vibrations. However,
pellets are cheaper because of increased costs in manufacturing the
monolithic catalyst. Degussa reported that catalyst noble metal loading
and Pt/Rh ratio have significant effects on catalyst conversion effi-
ciency, Pt for oxidation of HC and CO, and Rh for NOx conversion.
Degussa uses a wide range of Pt/Rh ratios in their 3-way catalysts
ranging from 2/1 to 11/1 but indicated that mine mix catalysts with a
Pt/Rh ratio of 19/1 may be sufficient to meet 1.0 NOx. Degussa also
reported that the necessary Pt/Rh ratio is a function of air/fuel ratio.
Degussa reported they have, experienced secondary pollution problems with
Cr. Therefore, they use no Ni or other materials that they believe
could result in emissions: of secondary pollutants. Degussa reported
that Rh is not involved in these secondary emissions.
12-881

-------
Degussa reported that Pd will not be used in their catalysts, even
though it may improve 3-way catalyst light-off time. Degussa also
reported that they have produced oxidation catalysts using some Rh, but
have not done any work to reduce	from oxidation catalysts since
they believe oxidation catalysts will be replaced by 3-way catalysts in
the future.
Degussa reported they have done little research and developmental work
for Diesel catalysts over the past several years. Degussa reported the
problem is in NOx control, and current catalysts are not capable of
reducing NOx in an oxidizing atmosphere.
Degussa reported they are also working on lead tolerant catalysts. They
reported that they have produced catalysts that are effective at low
mileage, but have not yet met the durability goals. No data were
provided by Degussa.
12-882

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12.4.3. Hoechst/Sud Chemie
Two West German companies, Hoechst AG of Frankfurt and Slid Chemie AG of
Miinchen, have cooperated in the development of a lead (Pb) tolerant
oxidation catalyst with base metals as the active materials. The cata-
lyst is primarily targeted for the European market, since European
gasoline may continue to contain lead for the foreseeable future. It
may also, however, have potential applications in the U.S.
Active materials include copper, manganese, nickel and cerium in the
form of their aluminates. According to Hoechst, the total quantity of
active materials is 10% of the total weight. The catalyst should be
kept at 550C minimum work temperature to preserve a low light-off
temperature for oxidation. One mechanism of catalyst poisoning, pore
plugging, is reduced thereby because the adsorption of lead compounds
is diminished. Sulfur poisoning is not a problem, also according to
Hoechst, because of the high operating temperature. The pellets are
claimed to be very temperature tolerant, more than 1000C for a short
time. Pellet size is 2.1 mm in diameter by 2.1 mm in length.
According to Hoechst, durability test distances in excess of 30,000 km
have been performed on a vehicle equipped with this catalyst without
dramatic losses in catalytic activity. Lead content of the fuel was
0.15 g/L. A similar test is being conducted on two similar vehicles,
Audi 100s, equipped with a 1.9L engine and Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injec-
tion. Exhaust temperature into the catalyst is 700C. One vehicle
using unleaded fuel has completed 30,000 km with little deterioration in
emissions. The other vehicle using fuel with 0.45 g/L Pb has completed
approximately 13,000 km with similar emission levels and also, with
little deterioration. According to Hoechst, fuel consumption is not
12-883

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increased by using the catalyst, however, no specific mention was made
of exhaust back pressure effects.
Table Hoechst/Siid Chemie-1 presents some activity measurements of the
lead tolerant catalyst using a synthetic exhaust gas mixture.
Table Hoechst/Stld Chemie-1 *
Lead Tolerant Catalyst Activity Measurement - Fresh Catalyst
Gas Composition	Conversion Temperatures
CO: 1.8% by volume	50% CO conv.:	125C
O2: 2.8% by volume	90% CO conv.:	180C
^0: 2.5% by volume	50% n-hexane conv.: 350-360C
n-hexane: 1000 ppm	90% n-hexane conv. : AAO^ASCC
balance
space velocity = 17,000 h ^
* Hoechst/Siid Chemie information pamphlet. Hoechst states this
information is based on their present state of knowledge and
is intended to provide general notes of their products thus,
it should not be construed as guaranteeing specific properties
of their catalyst or its suitability for a particular application.
So far, attrition has been one of this catalyst's major problems.
According to Hoechst and SUd Chemie, neither one of them is well-versed
in canning catalysts for use in automobiles. Thus, they are seeking
assistance from organizations with more experience in this area and who
may be able to help correct this problem.
Obviously, one of the advantages of this base metal catalyst is its non-
reliance on noble metals. Thus, potential supply problems and high
costs might be alleviated when compared to current oxidation catalysts
12-884

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using noble metals if the catalyst is developed to be a suitable
replacement for current catalysts.
Hoechst and Siid Chemie reported no information regarding the catalyst's
potential for phosgene (COC^) production or any other unregulated
emissions.
On balance, it appears to EPA that this type of catalytic approach
may be better suited to the European application than the U.S. appli-
cation. If, however, there is expanded interest in non-noble metal
catalysts for the U.S. application, it would appear that firms in the
process of developing such catalysts now, like Hoechst and Siid Chemie,
may have somewhat of a head start.
12-885

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12.4.4. Universal Oil Products (UOP)
UOP is a component supplier of emission control systems. UOP therefore
reported they have dedicated their research efforts towards improving
the efficiency of their catalysts. One such method of achieving the
above-mentioned goal reported by UOP is varying the noble metal ratios
within the catalyst. This particular study used only fresh catalysts.
The results of these tests are shown in Tables UOP-1, 2, and 3 which
show the light-off activity for HC, CO, and NOx at different temperatures.
Table UOP-1*
HC Activity Characteristics

T(25)
T(50)
T(75)
n(400)
ri(500)
Catalyst
(F)
(F)
CF)
(%)
(%)
PZ-1029
324
332
343
91.8
94.0
PZ-1032
404
408
412
10.0
96.8
PZ-1033
317
326
341
92.0
94.6
PZ-1034
323
333
354
88.2
92.9
PZ-1035
324
347
440
69.2
79.5
PZ-1037
335
344
363
84.0
89.3
PZ-1038
332
342
352
91.5
92.9
PZ-1039
335
344
356
91.5
94.9
PZ-217N
329
366
386
84.9
93.7
*Emission Control Status Report to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Automotive Products Division, UOP Inc. January 1978, pg. 8. Hereafter
referred to as UOP-SR.
T(x) - Temperature at which x% conversion efficiency is achieved.
Vi(y) - Instantaneous conversion efficiency at yF.
12-886

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Table UOP-2*
CO Activity Characteristics

T(50)
ti(400)
Catalyst
(F)
m
PZ-1029
314
99.5
PZ-1032
400
50.0
PZ-1033
302
99.3
PZ-1034
303
99.5
PZ-1035
302
98.3
PZ-1037
327
99.2
PZ-1038
315
99.7
PZ-1039
328
99.5
PZ-217N
344
91.7
*U0P-SR, pg. 9.
T(50) - Temperature at which 50% conversion efficiency is achieved.
ri (400) - Instantaneous conversion efficiency at 400F.
Table UOP-3*
NOx Activity Characteristics
Catalyst	Temperature (F)	n max (%)
PZ-1029	330	31.0
PZ-1032	410	36.0
PZ-1033	320	34.5
PZ-1034	330	37.5
PZ-1035	300	21.5
PZ-1037	340	30.5
PZ-1038	340	26.0
PZ-1039	340	23.0
PZ-217N	370	39.0
*U0P-SR, pg. 9.
UOP did not specify the noble metals, the noble metal loading, or the
noble metal ratios used in generating the above data, but did, however,
report the following conclusions from these data:
12-887

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1)	The inclusion of Pd in the catalyst has a beneficial effect on
initial CO light-off activity, but higher temperature steady state
conversion efficiencies are not affected.
2)	The effect of Pd in the catalyst on HC conversion is highly dependent
on the nature of the HC. Unsaturated HC activity was improved by
Pt/Pd in the catalyst, but has an adverse effect on saturated HC.
3)	Optimum performance at a given noble metal loading and ratio is
achieved when the metals are concentrated near the pellet surface.
Impregnation of these metals below the pellet surface results in
decreased initial activity.
UOP reported that engine dynamometer tests are favored over CVS tests
for catalyst screening. UOP claims the repeatibility of engine dyna-
mometer tests appears to be superior to that of the CVS test.
UOP reported tests on a series of catalysts prepared on Corning EX-20
substrates with a cell density of 300 cells per square inch (CPSI). The
Pt/Pd ratio was held constant at 2/1 while the noble metal loading was
varied from 10 g/cu ft. to 25 g/cu ft., according to UOP. Two series of
six catalysts were prepared and aged and compared to reference catalysts
using only platinum. Each catalyst was aged for 500 hours on an engine
dynamometer. The results of these tests are shown in Tables UOP-4 and
5.
12-888

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Table UOP-4*
Monolithic Catalyst Activity and Durability as a
Function of Noble Metal Loading
Conversion Efficiency (%)
on acceleration modes
Loading	Pt/Pd	Fresh			Aged	
Catalyst
(g/cu ft.)
Ratio
HC
CO
HC
CO
Reference
25
1:0
63.9
89.3
43.3
69.0
PZM-16092
10
2:1
59.0
87.0
14.7
24.3
PZM-16055
12
2:1
62.4
87.3
40.0
68.5
PZM-16053
20
2:1
59.0
86.0
40.1
68.5
PZM-16052
25
2:1
60.9
86.4
38.9
66.3
*UOP-SR, pg. 34.
Table UOP-5*
Monolithic Catalyst Activity and Durability as a
Function of Noble Metal Loading

Loading
Pt/Pd
Fresh
i	
Catalyst
(g/cu ft.)
Ratio
HC
CO
Reference
27**
1:0
12.8
8.4
PZM-16092
10
2:1
20.7
12.6
PZM-16055
12
2:1
11.3
7.6
PZM-16053
20
2:1
16.6
10.3
PZM-16052
25
2:1
12.9
8.6
	Aged	
HC
CO
17.9
19.9
19.1
17.6
*UOP-SR, pg. 35.
**Reported as 27 in UOP-SR, but was inferred to be the same reference
catalyst as in Table UOP-4, therefore this is believed to be 25 g/cu ft.
The data in the above tables indicate to UOP the following conclusions:
1)	Under fresh conditions, all catalysts tested appear to be equiva-
lent for HC and CO activity, regardless of the noble metal loading.
2)	Under fresh conditions, little difference is observed with respect
to light-off time. The greatest deviation occurred in the time
necessary to reach 50% conversion of HC and CO for the 10 g/cu ft.
samples.
12-889

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3) Until the lead and phosphorus levels are significantly reduced
below current levels (0.006 g/gal Pb and 0.0002 g/gal P) it appears
that the minimum noble metal for oxidation catalysts with a Pt/Pd
ratio of 2:1 is 12 g/cu ft.
UOP reported that pelleted oxidation catalysts are also being tested,
and that a significant cost advantage is obtained when Pd is substituted
for an equal weight percentage of Pt in catalyst preparation. Pd has
greater thermal resistance but has poorer resistance to chemical de-
activation than Pt, according to UOP. A study was performed by UOP to
determine the effect on initial activity and activity stability of
substituting Pd for Pt while holding frhe total noble metal loading
constant at 0.47 g/L (13.4 g/cu ft.). The Pt/Pd ratio was varied by
weight from 100/0 to 20/80, and the aging cycle used fuel which was
highly doped with lead and phosphorus (0.015 g/gal Pb, 0.002 g/gal P).
This aging cycle was expected by UOP to be very severe for the catalyst
containing Pd. These catalysts were aged for 400 hours on an engine
dynamometer. The results of these tests are shown in Table UOP-6 for HC
efficiency and in Table UOP-7 for light-off time.
Table U0P-6*
Pelleted Catalyst Activity and Durability as a
Function of Noble Metal Ratio

Pt/Pd
Accel.
Mode
Cruise
Mode
Catalyst
Ratio
Fresh
Aged
Fresh
Aged
PZ-1018
1:0
87.0
75.2
87.8
86.1
PZ-1019
5:2
83.0
73.7
82.9
76.3
PZ-1020
1:4
82.1
68.4
80.0
62.1
All catalyst
loading at 0
.47 g/L (13.4
g/cu ft.)


*U0P-SR, pg.
41.




12-890

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Table UOP-7*
Pelleted Catalyst Activity and Durability
as a Function of Noble Metal Ratio

Pt/Pd
	Fresh-
	
	Aged-
	
Catalyst
Ratio
HC
CO
HC
CO
PZ-1018
1:0
44.9
40.6
103.4
85.3
PZ-1019
5:2
23.6
19.3
40.6
32.2
PZ-1020
1:4
22.1
16.3
35.2
25.7
All catalyst loadings at
0.47 g/L (13.4 g/cu ft.)


*UOP-SR, pg. 40.
Based on the data above, and other tests, UOP reported the following
conclusions:
1) Increasing the Pd content at a constant noble metal loading will
decrease the light-off time of both the fresh and aged catalysts.
No significant advantage in light-off time or stability was obser-
ved in increasing the Pt/Pd ratio from 5/2 to 1/4.
2) Increasing the Pd content at a constant noble metal loading appears
to reduce the catalyst's initial HC conversion efficiency during
high working temperature operation such as in an acceleration mode.
3)	Increasing the Pd content at a constant noble metal loading may at
best only slightly enhance the stability of the catalyst's HC
conversion efficiency at high working temperature operation.
4)	Increasing the Pd content at a constant noble metal loading will
reduce the catalyst's HC conversion efficiency under lower working
temperature conditions. Increasing the Pd content will also reduce
the catalyst activity durability when evaluated under lower working
temperature operation.
12-891

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5)	Increasing the Pd content at a constant noble metal loading may
reduce the initial conversion efficiency of CO under both high and
low temperature operating conditions.
6)	Results regarding CO conversion activity, durability, and noble
metal ratio are not definite.
Some work was done by UOP in the area of catalyst activity as a function
of the location of noble metal on monolithic washcoats. UOP reported
that as noble metals are brought to the surface of a pelleted catalyst,
the initial oxidation activity is increased. UOP believes this is due
to alleviation of diffusion limitations.
According to UOP, monolithic catalysts also suffer from diffusion
limitations, since the alumina washcoat placed on the monolith tends to
build up in the corners of the channels. UOP reported that they have a
proprietary method which reduces Pt penetration into the alumina sphere,
allowing more noble metal at the pellet surface. The following are the
conclusions reported by UOP on this subject:
1)	Surface impregnation of monolithic catalyst washcoats appears to
slightly increase the HC and CO conversion characteristics.
2)	Surface impregnation of monolithic catalyst washcoats does not
appear to significantly increase the deactivation rate of the
catalytic material.
3)	Subsurface impregnation of Pd appears to produce a catalyst which
exhibits less deactivation of light-off characteristics after
aging.
12-892

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UOP reported that since the availability of Rh is becoming a problem,
it is important for a 3-way catalyst system to use as little Rh as
possible. UOP reported that they are continuing their efforts to
keep the total catalyst loading at 40 g/cu ft. with a Pt/Rh ratio
at 19/1 or greater. UOP reported data on a study performed to deter-
mine the difference in catalyst activity as a function of Pt/Rh ratio
with a constant noble metal loading. Two catalysts were prepared
for this study, one with a Pt/Rh ratio of 19/1, the other at 10/1.
These catalysts were reportedly aged simultaneously, and the data
are shown in Table UOP-8.
Table UOP-8*
Comparison of 3-Way Catalysts With Different Pt/Rh Ratios
Pt/Rh
Hours
Maximum Efficiency
(%)
Ratio
Aged
HC
CO
NOx
10:1
0
88
86
96
19:1
0
89
87
96
10:1
60
88
88
96
19:1
60
84
86
92
10:1
120
84
86
88
19:1
120
77
84
80
10:1
180
80
85
83
19:1
180
61
58
60
10:1
240
78
83
81
19:1
240
57
54
57
10:1
300
77
86
82
19:1
300
58
59
60
*U0P-SR, pg.
58.



12-893

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These data indicate the following conclusions to UOP:
1)	Rh content has a significant effect upon not only NOx activity
durability, but HC and CO activity as well.
2)	The catalysts had the same noble metal loading with different Pt/Rh
ratios, and it appears that the lower Pt/Rh ratio catalyst exhibited
better durability.
UOP reported that activity on the rich side of stoichiometry could be
improved if the oxidation properties of Pt could be used at air/fuel
i
ratios greater than stoichiometry. UOP reported they have tried to
accomplish this by adding an oxygen storage component. Although no data
were presented by UOP, they reported that an oxygen storage component is
imperative in 3-way formulation for an increase in CO and NOx activity
over straight Pt/Rh formulation, at air/fuel ratios greater than stoichi-
ometric.
Other areas discussed by UOP were the use of metallic substrates and the
use of thin walled substrates. UOP reported that when properly prepared,
metallic substrate oxidation catalysts have better activity fresh and
after 20,000 miles of vehicle aging than similarly prepared ceramic
substrates. It was also demonstrated, according to UOP, that washcoat
adhesion on metallic substrates was equivalent to that of the ceramic
substrate.
Thin walled substrates were reported under evaluation. This indicates
to UOP that better conversion efficiency is achieved with higher cell
density.
12-894

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UOP reported they are working on catalysts for Diesel engines. One
major objective reported was to improve the soot resistance of these
catalysts. These catalysts should also provide good HC and CO con-
version. Also being looked at are methods of reducing NOx emissions
under lean conditions. UOP reported that the likelihood of developing
a method of reducing NOx emissions catalytically in the highly oxidizing
atmosphere of typical Diesel exhaust to be very small. Apparently, UOP
has accomplished this for gasoline engines, according to an SAE paper.*
Minimizing the effect of catalyst sooting will result in lower catalyst
backpressure, according to UOP.
UOP reported they have not performed any work in the areas of MMT effects
on catalyst performance nor the effects of catalyst formations of
sulfate emissions.
12.4.4 .1. Problems and Progress
UOP still has not found a method to reduce the amount of Rh needed for
satisfactory performance of 3-way catalysts. Perhaps more research and
developmental efforts will solve this problem, which is common among the
catalyst industry. UOP also reported that they have cooperative programs
with the following companies to improve their catalysts:
Chrysler
Ford
Toyota
- Nissan
Toyo Kogyo
Fiat
Porsche
*The Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide in the Presence of
Excess Oxygen, by G. R. Lester, G. C. Jay, and J. F. Brennan, SAE
paper 780202.
12-895

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UOP also reported that they have worked closely with and have provided
samples and technical assistance to the following companies:
General Motors
AMC
Honda
Mitsubishi
- Daihatsu
Fuji
Volkswagen
BMW
Daimler-Benz
UOP reported that their existing facilities will enable them to satisfy
the catalyst requirements for each year through 1981. Also reported
were that conversions will have to be made to change from oxidation
catalysts to 3-way catalysts. UOP's main concern is whether or not they
will have a big enough stockpile of Rh to meet the demand.
12-896

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Section 12.5
Air/Fuel Metering Suppliers

-------
12.5.1. The Bendix Corporation
The Bendix multipoint electronic fuel injection (EFI) system, used on
some General Motors vehicles since 1975, was described in detail in last
years status report.* Product improvement programs will continue for
the multipoint system in 1978 by extrapolating results to a sequential
injection system. The test effort will concentrate on a 350 CID (31
engine with standard production hardware. Sequential injection con-
siders the use of four feedback signals per engine revolution rather
than the current concept of one per revolution for closer control of
fuel delivery for closed loop air/fuel ratio systems. Studies of sequen-
tial injection are scheduled to be completed by February 28, 1978, tests
and definition of an optimium injector by March 1, 1978 and the design
of a custom intake manifold by June 15, 1978. The long term cost objective
is to define a system with an incremental cost increase of $25 over the
cost of a single point system.
The development of a single-point system is being done in cooperation
with the Cadillac Division of GM. This system uses the same basic
control techniques used with the multipoint EFI system. Manifold pres-
sure is the primary measured variable used to control the duration of
injection. A single-point system uses one injector for more than one
cylinder and a typical V8 engine uses two injectors, each of which
discharges into a portion of the intake manifold separated from that fed
by the other injector and comprised of those four cylinders equally
spaced in the firing order. The injector is energized once for each
cylinder per engine cycle and is controlled by two pulses per revolution
for each injector. Three methods of fuel injection into the air stream
have been investigated by Bendix. These are described as the Hybrid
*Automobile Emission Control - The Development Status, Trends, and
Outlook as of December 1976, a Report to the Administrator, April
1977, Section 7.2.1.
12-897

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System, the Sonic Venturi System and the Above-Throttle system.
The Hybrid system uses standard production injectors that spray the fuel
into the air stream just below the throttle blade. The Sonic Venturi
system uses the high air velocity in a venturi exposed to manifold
vacuum just below the throttle blade to help atomize the fuel. The
Above-Throttle method uses a wide spray angle injector to distribute the
fuel in the air stream above the throttle blade. The Hybrid system
essentially uses standard or modified standard production hardware. The
Sonic Venturi system uses all new components and technology. The Above-
Throttle system uses an injector mounted concentric with the throttle
bore. The general design is such that a satisfactory compromise is
achieved between the use of production components and the performance
necessary for single-point injection, according to Bendix.
Since the fuel delivery of a single-point system is considerably different
than that of a multipoint system, significant changes in transient
response have been observed. A more sophisticated acceleration enrich-
ment system is sometimes necessary. However, one advantage of a single-
point system, according to Bendix, is the more frequent update of fuel
delivery as compared with a multipoint system. With a relatively simple
and inexpensive single-point injection system, Bendix associates air/fuel
distribution as being competitive with standard carburetors.
Steady-state engine dynamometer tests have been conducted with single-
point injection systems using a GM 350 CID V8 engine, but neither emis-
sions nor fuel consumption data are reportedly available for any of the
three single-point injection systems. Some vehicle testing, however,
has been done by Bendix using the single-point injection system with the
350 CID engine at 4500 pounds inertia weight at 13.4 indicated dyna-
mometer horsepower. The vehicle was a 1976 Cutlass equipped with pro-
duction AIR, EGR and catalyst. An experimental electronic control unit
was used to control the single-point injection system. Mileage accu-
mulation on the system was not reported. The data reported from this
system are shown in Table Bendix-1.
12-898

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Table Bendix-1*
FTP Emissions and Fuel Economy with
the Bendix Single-Point Injection System - 350 CID V8 Engine
FTP Emissions (g/mi)

HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
MPG,
n
Bag 1
1.25
0.12
2.0
12.2
-
Bag 2
0.12
0.20
1.1
12.7
-
Bag 3
0.11
0.03
1.9
13.9
-
Weighted
0.35
1.50
1.51
13.0
19.1
*Bendix Electronics and Engine Control Systems Group, January 13, 1978
response to the EPA request for a description of development and
production programs, p. 11.13, hereafter identified as Bendix SR.
According to the Buyer's Guide, the fuel economy for a 1976 350 CID
Oldsmobile Cutlass was reported as 15 MPG and 21 MPG, .
u	h
Data were also supplied by Bendix to demonstrate comparative performance
between a vehicle equipped with carburetion and equipped with multipoint
fuel injection optimized for fuel economy. Both EFI and the carburetor
version were production configurations and applied to 260 CID V8 engines
on Oldsmobile Omegas. The vehicles were equipped with a 1976 California
emissions control system which had EGR, air injection, and a catalyst.
Comparative data are shown in Table Bendix-2 for two axle ratios.
Table Bendix-2*
EFI Multipoint vs. Carburetion FTP Results
on a Oldsmobile Omega Equipped With a 260 CID V8 Engine


FTP Emissions
(g/mi)


Performance
Fuel System
Mileage
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
u
MPG,
n
0-60 MPH
EFI (2.73 axle)
EFI (2.56 axle)
Carbure tor (2.73
3000
8000
axle) 1000
0.6
0.6
0.4
3.3
3.4
3.1
1.8
1.3
2.2
13.5
14.6
12.6
18.0
18.9
15.5
15.2 sec
18.4 sec
18.2 sec
*Bendix SR, pg. 11.16.
12-899

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Other ongoing developments at Bendix on Electronic Control System com-
ponents include those sensors and actuators shown in Figure Bendix-1.
In addition, several injectors have been developed by Bendix for both
multipoint and for single-point systems. Design variations concern
spray pattern, flow rate Clow flow for multipoint and high flow for
single-point systems), and fuel pressure (39 psi or 10 psi). Examples
of two such designs are shown in Figures Bendix-2 and Bendix-3. Another
objective for calendar year 1978 is the development of manufacturing
capability for a reduced volume air pump for smaller displacement engines.
The basic pump design has been developed by the Saginaw Steering Gear
Division, GM and is under a licensing agreement. Prototype pumps are
scheduled for production in mid-1978.
12-900

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n-ndi"
Bendlx Electronic Control 3yoteui Coiui
Under Development.
N)
t
O
ELECTRONIC
CONTROLLER
*Bendix SR, p. 111-3

-------
Bendix E-l Injector
VALVE HOU8INQ
-NEEDLE
SPACER;
N>
I
\o
o
to
-PROTECTIVE
CAP
O'RINQ
(MEDIUM!
* Bendix SR, p. 111.12
Figure Bendix-2*
- Flow Range 3 - 8 cu cm.s at 39 psig
COPPER
WIRE
SPRING
-CORE
-BOBBIN
PLASTIC
CONN&CTOR
FILTER
INLET
CONNECTOR
ADJUSTING
TUBE
O-RING
(LARGE)
O-RING
(SMALL}
HOUSING

-------
Figure Bendix-3*
BENDIX INJECTOR (-2)

PLASTIC
CONNSCTOR
ACTUATOR*
O'RINO
-'C'MTASHCR
O-RINQ
COPPER WIRE
INLET
CONNECTOR
ADJUSTING
TUM*
*Bendix SR, p. 111.14

-------
12.5.2 Bosch
12.5.2.1	Introduction
In their submission*, Bosch reported information in four general areas:
oxygen sensors, electronic engine controls, Diesel EGR, and air/fuel
metering systems.
12.5.2.2	Oxygen Sensors
The Bosch oxygen sensor is now a mass production item, and is being used
by some automobile manufacturers.
The principles that determine oxygen sensor performance can be found in
an SAE paper.** Briefly, the oxygen sensor provides a voltage signal as
an output which is related to the oxygen content of the exhaust gas, and
therefore to the engine air/fuel ratio. The output signal shows a very
steep characteristic at the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Rich opera-
tion typically yields outputs of approximately 900 mV and lean operation
yields outputs of approximately 100 mV. The most common use of the
oxygen sensor is as part of a feedback control system. The output from
the sensor is used as input to a control unit. A simplified description
of the control logic is as follows. The control unit has a set point
voltage that corresponds to an air/fuel ratio close to stoichiometric,
for example, about 400 mV. If a signal above 400 mV is detected (a rich
mixture), the fuel metering system is adjusted to provide a leaner
mixture, and if a signal below 400 mV (a lean mixture) is detected, the
fuel metering system is adjusted to provide a richer mixture. In this
way, the average air/fuel ratio can be maintained close to stoichiometric,
which is desirable for 3-way catalyst operation.
^Emission Control Status Report, Robert Bosch GMBH, 1978. Herafter
referred to as Bosch-SR.
**Lambda - Sensor with Y^O^, - Stabilized ZrO,, - Ceramic for Application
in Automotive Emission Control Systems, by Et Hamann, H. Manger, and
L. Steinke, SAE Paper 770401.
12-904

-------
Bosch claimed to have made improvements in their sensor. A platinum
thickfilm, applied by a special process, improved the lifetime of the
sensor electrode. Improved sensor ceramic lifetime has also been
obtained by further definition of production parameters, accurate
processing, and by additional test methods, according to Bosch.
Thermal shock performance has been also improved by utilization of a
special metal boot.
Bosch has extensive durability testing experience. According to Bosch,
1,038,700 sensor-hours have been accumulated on engine dynamometers, and
4,453,000 sensor-miles have been accumulated during vehicle tests. Fuel
additive tests (lead, phosphorus, sulfur, and MMT) were said to have
been evaluated. No further data were given.
One of the more important areas of oxygen sensor performance is that of
lifetime - how many miles can the sensor be used before it has to be
replaced. The first application of Bosch's oxygen sensor required
changes at 15,000 miles. Some applications have no sensor changes for
50,000 miles. Bosch sidestepped this issue by indicating that sensor
replacement intervals were up to the automobile manufacturers.
Bosch also stated that their existing production capacity for oxygen
sensors could be extended to an eventually rising market demand within a
period of 12-18 months. Production quantities were not mentioned.
Bosch is also developing a new sensor family. The goals for this new
sensor are at minimum equal performance and reliability, and the capability
for mass production in large numbers at reduced costs. No further
details were given.
12-905

-------
Bosch is also working on investigating sensor positioning. The sensor
should warm up to operating temperature, 300C, (572F) quickly, but its
maximum permissible temperature, 950C (1742F) should not be exceeded.
Bosch reported that they are studying ways to counteract sensor aging at
the very beginning of the sensor's life. Areas such as biasing the
emissions to one side of the tolerance band, and allowing the values to
shift after aging, and thermal pretreatment of the sensors are under
study. No further information was provided.
12.5.2.3 Electronic Engine Controls
Bosch apparently feels that electronic engine controls are the wave of
the future and have programs in the following areas:
-	Ignition Control
-	Fuel Injection
-	Carburetor Control
-	Automatic Transmission Control
-	Centralized ECU
-	Optimization
The computer for an ECU system has to meet stringent requirements,
according to Bosch, because during engine operation a given parameter
has to be computed quickly, and more than one parameter may have to be
computed at or near the same time. For automotive use, the ECU has to
operate at high and low temperatures, with battery voltages that could
vary between 24 volts and just a few volts.
Bosch mentioned that in the event of an ECU failure, a failsafe circuit
will take over as a backup. No details were provided.
A system to control ignition and injection is now being tested in the
laboratory and on vehicles. No further information was provided.
12-906

-------
Future work, according to Bosch, will involve continuation of optimi-
zation work with respect to fuel economy and emissions.
12.5.2.4 Diesel EGR System
Bosch is developing an EGR system for Diesel engines. A schematic of
the system is shown in Figure Bosch-1.
The system measures air flow and fuel flow and adjusts the EGR valve to
give the proper amount of recirculated exhaust gas. Some of the infor-
mation that was used to determine the EGR rate is shown on Figure Bosch-
2.
For the given engine condition 1.7 bar (about 25 PSI) BMEP and 1600 rpm,
Figure Bosch-2 indicates that an EGR rate of 40%, compared to no EGR:
1.	Had essentially no impact on soot emissions (about 1.5 g/kWh for
both cases).
2.	Increased fuel consumption by less than 1%.
3.	Doubled CO emissions by 100% (from about 4 g/kWh to 8 g/kWh).
4.	Reduced NOx emissions by 80% (from 5 g/kWh to 1 g/kWh).
5.	Tripled HC emissions (from 0.5 g/kWh to 1.5 g/kWh).
Bosch applied the following performance criteria to determine the EGR
rate that would be utilized:
1. As low NQk as possible
12-907

-------
EGR pipe ""
Butterfly
valve
Fuel tank
Fuel filter

M
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
K5/EV/L2
0015
Bosch-1*
* From Bosch SR - Annex 4, Figure
12-908

-------
Control pressure p
-------
2.	Soot emissions should not increase
3.	HC emissions should not be increased by more than 50%
4.	Fuel consumption should not increase more than 3%
Application of these criteria (the details were not provided) yielded
the results shown in Figures Bosch-3 and Bosch-4.
Figure Bosch-3 indicates that high EGR rates are utilized at light and
moderate loads, and that the EGR rate reduces to zero at full load. The
EGR rates on Figure Bosch-3 are much higher than are typical for gaso-
line engines. While some gasoline engines such as Nissan's NAPS-Z have
been reported to tolerate 35% EGR, values above 50% are not generally
utilized. Note that the maximum rate on Figure Bosch-3 is 78%.
Figure Bosch-4 shows that the engine when operated with this EGR system
has relatively little variation in air/fuel ratio, compared to con-
ventional Diesels. In this regard, both Diesel and gasoline engines
might be considered to be evolving toward fixed air/fuel ratio opera-
tion. The gasoline engine may become a fixed air/fuel system due to the
desire to run at stoichiometric for 3-way catalyst operation, and the
Diesel engine might always aspirate just enough air to get the combus-
tion job done, filling .up the rest of the unthrottled charge with EGR.
Bosch reported test data from vehicles equipped with the EGR system.
The vehicles were not described except for a numerical designation (1
through 4) and the statement that the engine displacements were between
0.4 and 0.5 litres/cylinder, and the inertia weights were between 3500
and 4000 lb. Bosch modified the vehicles to reduce HC emissions by
installing "snubber valves". These valves were installed to prevent
secondary injections. The results are shown on Figure Bosch-5.
12-910

-------





....  ,
sA- -
 


 - ....
.29
 11
 27

.28
^0
 28

	 33
26
*43
"
 40
35

 43
 5U
I 65
|
 49
49
71 53
 
78

66
I 
47
.
1000 2000 3000 4000 rpm
Engine Speed
Exhaust Gas Mass as a Relative Pro-
K5/EWL2
portion of the whole Cylinder Charge (%j) 0011
Figure Bosch-3*
Bosch SR - Annex A, Figure 14
12-911

-------
bar
a> 8
c_
3
W
to

6
a>
>
o
a
a
o
o

X4




 1,7*1'4
.1,2
.1,2
1,2
.1,2

.2,0-1'8
1,3
.1,2
1,2

.2,4-2,3
1,6
.1,2
.1,3
3,1
.2,1.3,3
.1,5
.1,3
.1,6
0
1000
2000
3000 4000 rpra
Engine Speed

Minimum Permissible Excess-Air Factor A
with Application of Exhaust gas Re-
circulation
K5/EWL2
0012
Figure Bosch-4 *
* From Bosch SR - Annex 4, Figure 15
12-912

-------
Vehicle type
Vehicle type
Vehicle type
Vehicle type
o with EG
 without
NCL limit
Federal 1&81
HC limift
Federal
1980
0,75 1,0 1,25 1,5 g/mile
HC emission
EGR
M
CVS Test Results with and without
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
K5/EWL2
0032
Figure Bosch-5*
* From Bosch SR - Annex 4, Figure, 17
12-913

-------
In the figure, NOx emissions are plotted versus HC emissions. For each
vehicle, increases of EGR rate reduced NOx emissions. For 3 of the 4
vehicles, NOx was reduced while maintaining HC performance constant,
up until a point where HC increased. On the other vehicle, increasing
the EGR rate caused an increase in HC throughout the test. Note that
the NOx emissions of all four vehicles could be reduced below the
1.0 NOx level required in 1981. It should be pointed out that one
vehicle with no EGR was below 1.0 NOx and that one vehicle was con-
trolled below the 0.41 NOx level, which is now a research goal. Bosch
indicated that they felt that 0.3 HC was a reasonable target for a
0.41 HC standard and that at the lowest NOx levels, all of the vehicles
exceed this value.
Bosch also reported the results shown in Table Bosch-1.
Table Bosch-1
Effect of EGR on NOx Emissions*
	NOx g/mile
Vehicle Type
IW (lb)
w/o EGR
w/EGR
% Reduction
1
4000
1.56
0.56
64%
2
3500
1.14
0.41
64%
3
3500
1.25
0.65
48%
4
3500
2.5


*Data from Bosch SR, Annex 4, Figure 17
Bosch indicated that the above low NOx values were read from Figure
Bosch-5 at a value of 0.30 HC. However, none of the no-EGR values from
any of the vehicles match those on Figure Bosch-5, and vehicles 3 and 4
from Figure Bosch-5 never achieved 0.30 HC at any time. Either Figure
Bosch-5 or Table Bosch-1 contains erroneous data.
12-914

-------
Of more interest, perhaps, is the percent reduction in NOx that can be
obtained by use of EGR with no HC penalty, from Figure Bosch-5. Table
Bosch-2 shows the results.
Table Bosch-2
NOx Reduction With No HC Increase*

Bosch
EGR System




NOx g/mile

Vehicle Type
IW (lb)
w/o EGR
w/EGR**
% Reduction
1
4000
1.70
0.72
57%
2
3500
1.30
0.52
60%
3
3500
0.95
0.60
37%
4
3500
2.33
2.33
0
*Bosch SR, Annex 4, Figure 18
**Value chosen such that HC did not increase.
It can be seen from Table Bosch-2 that three of the vehicles could be
brought down below 1.0 NOx with no HC penalty. The fact that the shape
of the NOx vs. HC curve for each vehicle was different, and assuming
that the EGR systems were basically the same, implies that there may be
important parameters in engine design and calibration and in vehicle
powertrain configuration that influence the relationship between NOx and
HC when EGR is used. Unfortunately, these influencing parameters cannot
be deduced from the data supplied by Bosch.
Bosch did not supply any data on particulate emissions from the vehicles
using EGR. If the "soot" referred to by Bosch as being a no-increase
design constraint can be related to particulate, then Bosch may have
achieved NOx reductions via EGR without increasing particulate, a result
contrary to that reported by automobile manufacturers.
12-915

-------
Bosch reported that there were some reservations about the use of EGR.
These are:
1.	Contamination of the intake passages
2.	Contamination of lubricating oil
3.	Excessive wear of piston rings and cylinders
Bosch did not report any durability testing on engines or vehicles
equipped with EGR, or any discussion of PCV flow/EGR interactions. They
indicated that the EGR system may tend to increase transient smoke, but
that there appear to be ways to alleviate this problem.
According to Bosch, their EGR system:
1.	can be used with turbocharged engines
2.	does not affect driveability
3.	may not require maintenance
4.	may not need to be modified for altitude
5.	maintains air/fuel ratio control that is not affected by changes in
the pressure and temperature of the exhaust gas, or alterations to
the fuel injection system, or changes in the exhaust system or EGR
pipe diameters.
Bosch provided no cost information for the EGR system, but did indicate
a lead time of 18 to 24 months before the system could be in production.
12-916

-------
12.5.2.5 Air/Fuel Metering Systems
Bosch reported developments in several areas. For the K-Jetronic fuel
injection system, a new way to adjust the load springs in the differen-
tial pressure valve has been introduced. For the L-Jetronic system,
slight modifications have been made to the potentiometer. Both the K-
Jetronic and the L-Jetronic systems have the capability of being adjusted
at the first service interval for the idle metering and then the setting
can be blocked for the remainder of the vehicle's life. Schematics of
these approaches are shown on Figures Bosch-6 and Bosch-7.
Altitude compensation hardware has been developed for both the K-Jetronic
and the L-Jetronic systems. Schematics of this hardware are shown in
Figures Bosch-8 and Bosch-9. The K-Jetronic system controls the warm-up
regulator by means of an aneroid, and the L-Jetronic system is controlled
by an aneroid which controls a potentiometer which is connected to the
electronics. Bosch also stated that the feedback system with the
oxygen sensor is automatically controlled with "no error" up to 2,500
metres altitude (approximately 8,000 feet).
Bosch has continued to improve the warm-up characteristics of their fuel
\
injection systems, especially during the time before the catalyst lights
off. The enrichment scheme for the L-Jetronic is shown on Figure Bosch-10.
Bosch did not supply any information concerning the cost of their K-
Jetronic or L-Jetronic systems. Bosch indicated that by 1981, 100,000
fuel injection systems per month will be produced. The distribution
between K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic was not provided.
One of the most difficult problems in any fuel metering system is the
measurement of the air. Ideally one would like to measure the mass of
the air. Bosch is developing a new airflow sensor. The goals for this
sensor are:
12-917

-------




' t


.to be, detached afti
adjustment of idle
adjustment screw
idle adjustment screw
9VE 21 691
Blocking of Idle Adjustment Screw
for K-Jetronic
Figure Bosch-6 *
K5/EWL 3
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 5
12-918

-------
to be pressed in after adjustment
of idle adjustment screw
BOSCH
81ocking of Idle Adjustment Screw
K5/E1 3

for L-Jetronic
BVE 21 851
Figure Bosch-7 *
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 6
12-919

-------
barometric capsule
Altitude Compensation of the
Warm-up Regulator for K-Jetronic.
K5/EWL 3
BVE 21 651
Figure Bosch-8 *
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 7
12-920

-------
potentiometer
barometric capsule
9VE 21 ssi
Altitude Compensation for L-Jetronic
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 8
Figure Bosch-9
12-921

-------
ENRICHMENT FACTOR AS A
FUNCTION OF ESGUIE TEMP.
DECREASE GF ENRICHMENT
FACTOR AS A FUNCTION GF TIME
T! Ml
TOTAL ENRICHMENT FACTO,
AS A FUNCTION OF EMGIM'
TEMP
Operating Principle of Acceleration K5/EJE
Enrichment for L-Jetronic	344 e
bve 21 ssi
.	Figure Bosch-10 *
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 9
12-922

-------
1.	Electrical Output Signal
2.	Measurement of air mass (no temperature and altitude error)
3.	High frequency response (small pulsation error when averaging the
output)
4.	Simple construction (no moving parts)
5.	Small space requirements
6.	Low pressure drop (small power loss)
The sensor that Bosch is developing is a hot wire mass airflow meter.
According to Bosch, this meter is expected to be cheaper than the
airflow meters on the K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic systems.
The resistance bridge circuit for the airflow meter is shown in Figure
Bosch-11, and the voltage output of the sensor is shown in Figure Bosch-
12. Figure Bosch-12 indicates that the airflow meter can apparently
measure airflow over a 40:1 range.
A schematic of the airflow sensor is shown in Figure Bosch-13. Bosch
stated that further work was required to "study and control the changes
originating through metallurgical effects of the wire material and from
dirt depositing on the wire surface".
Bosch stated that an introduction date for the hot wire airflow meter
could not yet be determined precisely.
12-923

-------
incoming air
n>.
temper at tire
T.
I = heating current
4
3VE 2! 631
Selfadjusting Resistance 8ridge for
Hotwire Airflow Meter
Figure Bosch-11 *
K5/EWL 3
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 2
12-924

-------
mi	40  liij
Snax	Lmin
Characteristic of Voltage Output
of Hotwire Mass Airflow Meter
K5/EWL 3
BVE 21 651
Figure Bosch-12*
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 3
12-925

-------
/ ' Ni-film resistor
/ 	
/ hotwire (platinum)
Design Characteristics	K5/ELA
of Hotwire Mass Airflow Meter	58- -
8VE 31 651
Figure Bosch-13 *
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 4
12-926

-------
The hot wire airflow meter could be adapted to the K-Jetronic and L-
Jetronic systems with a potential savings in cost, but it appears that
it may also be used in a new fuel metering system under development by
Bosch.
Much of the reluctance by many manufacturers to use fuel injection
appears to be related to system costs. Therefore, it is understandable
that a supplier such as Bosch would be interested in trying to develop
fuel metering systems that are less expensive than conventional fuel
injection systems with some of the desirable attributes of fuel injection.
Such a system may be the single-point fuel injection system that Bosch
is developing. A schematic of the system is shown on Figure Bosch-14.
The system incorporates a hot wire airflow meter, one injector down-
stream of the throttle plate, and apparently is set up to operate with
an oxygen sensor-feedback control system. This indicates that the
application for this system is likely in the U.S. market and/or the
Japanese market. Bosch stated that the system would not be available in
large production quantities for model year 1981.
While the system would be expected to be cheaper than a conventional
fuel injection system, the major issue is whether or not the system can
perform as well as a conventional system in terms of emissions, fuel
economy, driveability, and performance. Bosch did not discuss these
issues.
EPA technical staff has made a preliminary cost estimate to the consumer
of this Bosch single point fuel injection system including the hot wire
airflow meter. This estimate is $60 (1978 dollars) assuming a produc-
tion volume of 1,000,000 units per year and assuming it replaces a
typical 2V carburetor.
12-927

-------
HOT WIRE
ANEMOMETER
AUXILIARY
AIR VALVE
FUEL FILTER
PRESSURE REGULATOR
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
ELECTRONIC
CONTROL UNIT
A STARTER
SWITCH

I \ nT 2.
'||||||lKsj||
IlllllrfrJlllll
System Layout of
Single-Point Injection
K5/EJE
403 e
SVE 21 631
* From Bosch SR - Annex 5, Figure 10
Figure Bosch-14 *
12-928

-------
12.5.2.6 Other Information
None of the information in this section was reported in the Bosch status
report.
Bosch tested a vehicle equipped with the Bosch single-point fuel injec-
tion system and a 3-way catalyst. Low mileage emissions were 0.13 HC,
1.49 CO, 0.40 NOx, with 25 MPG , 32.6 MPG., and 27.8 MPG .
u'	h	c
Another Bosch source* reported that correct adjustment of fuel injection
systems can result in smoke-free Diesel engines. Odor from these engines
can be reduced by a combination of the following:
- Alteration of the fuel injection system
Controlling injection timing as a function of operating load and
engine speed.
Use of EGR
Heating of intake air or by supercharging.
It was also reported that the cost of an odor-free engine would be
higher than the current Diesel engine.
An electric fuel pump immersed in the gas tank has been developed for
use in the K and L-Jetronic fuel injection systems. Rather than try to
isolate the electric motor of the pump from the fuel, the fuel flows
around the armature of the motor. The passing fuel cools the motor and
the heat absorbed by the fuel allows for easier vaporization. This pump
was reported to be safe from explosion since no air is present, and
therefore, there is never a combustible mixture inside the pump. The
use of metal to metal contacts is avoided because of the poor lubri-
cation qualities of gasoline. The contacts in the pump are metal and
plastic for longer life.
*Diesel Report: 50 Years of Fuel Injection by Robert Bosch.
12-929

-------
Stratified charge engines have been developed* that reduce NOx emissions
with acceptable fuel economy. This engine uses a localized rich fuel
mixture in a prechamber, which when ignited, the flame front emerges
into the main combustion chamber and initiates a reliable combustion
process of the relatively lean mixture in the main combustion chamber.
This process allows shorter combustion time thereby inhibiting the
formation of NOx, while still maintaining a high enough temperature for
the combustion of HC. A minimum quantity injection pump has been
developed for a 4-cylinder stratified charge engine and is driven by the
engine. This pump injects 1.5 cu. mm. of fuel per engine cycle into the
prechamber. It was reported that pollutants in these engines are highly
dependent on the quantity of fuel injected into the prechamber, there-
fore this quantity must be precisely controlled and must not deviate
more than + .07 cu. mm. Special consideration must be given to valve
design because of the high demands imposed on them by of high exhaust
gas temperatures. Less than 1.0 g/mi NOx was reported on emission
tests.
Another source** reported that Ford Motor Company will use Bosch fuel
injection nozzles and fuel pumps in their EFM systems. These components
reportedly will be used with a 3-way catalyst and the oxygen sensor.
Bosch also did not report the development of a swirl chamber shown in
Figure Bosch-15. This was exhibited at the SAE convention in Detroit,
Michigan on February 27 through March 2, 1978. This swirl chamber
allows for better mixing of fuel in the combustion chamber because of
the high velocity swirl action initiated in the swirl chamber and there-
fore causes more complete combustion to occur.
*Diesel Report: 50 Years of Fuel Injection by Robert Bosch.
**Ward's Engine Update, March 31, 1978.
12-930

-------
V
*

swirl chamber^jj
conventional
mixture-formation
with:
carburettor
L-Jetronic
K-Jetronic
Figure Bosch-15*
* From Bosch exhibit, SAE Convention
February 22 - March 2, 1978,
Cobo Hall, Detroit, Michigan
12-93.1

-------
12.5.3. Carter
Because of the increasing importance of improved fuel management, the
Carter Carburetor Division of ACF Industries was requested to submit
detailed information for this year's status report. Carter responded by
indicating they were developing two fuel management systems; a feedback
carburetor system and an electronic carburetor.
Feedback Carburetor System
The Carter feedback system consists of an oxygen sensor, electronic
control unit, air metering unit, carburetor, catalytic converter (3-way
catalyst), and a vacuum operated electrical switch. The oxygen sensor
and 3-way catalyst converter are typical of units utilized by the
vehicle manufacturers. The electronic control unit takes input para-
meters from an engine and/or vehicle and provides an output signal to
the air metering unit. The air metering unit is an electro-mechanical
device which contains a motor and two tapered air metering pins. The
electrical signal from the electronic control unit moves the metering
pins in the appropriate direction to lean out or richen the air/fuel
ratio. The air metering unit is mounted to the carburetor and the air
metering pins vary the amount of air being bled into the low speed
(idle) and high speed (main) circuit. According to Carter, the amount
of air being bled into each circuit controls the vacuum signal produced
by the engine, on each fuel circuit, thus changing the air/fuel ratio.
This method of control, air metering rather than fuel metering, is
different from most of the other feedback carburetors used to date. The
other types of carburetors use metering rods to meter fuel for main
circuit operation, and use air bleeds for idle circuit and power enrich-
ment. Finally, the vacuum operated electronic switch puts the electrical
signal in hold when the engine is cold. It also puts the system in hold
during low vacuum conditions to provide normal power enrichment.
12-9.1?

-------
Carter describes this system thusly:
"As can be seen in Figure Carter-1, the basic carburetor contains
two fuel supply sub-systems, the high speed (main) circuit and
the low speed (idle) circuit. The high speed circuit meters fuel
with a tapered metering rod positioned in the jet by the throttle.
Fuel is metered into the nozzle (main) well where air from the
feedback controlled variable air bleed is introduced. Since this
air is delivered above the fuel level, it reduces the vacuum
signal on the fuel, consequently reducing the amount of fuel
delivered from the nozzle.
"The idle circuit is needed at low air flows through the venturi
because there is insufficient vacuum at the nozzle to draw fuel
into the air stream. After leaving the main jet, fuel is supplied
to the idle circuit by the low speed jet. It is then mixed with
air from the first idle bleed, accelerated through the channel
restriction and mixed with additional air from the second idle
bleed before being discharged from the idle ports below the
throttle. Air from the variable air bleed is generally intro-
duced between the first idle bleed and the channel restriction.
This air reduces the vacuum signal on the low speed jet and, con-
sequently, the amount of fuel delivered to the idle circuit.
"All power enrichment conditions override the feedback operation."*
Carter described the default operation of their system by stating that
during most failure modes the air metering pins would stay in the last
position that was required to provide a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio.
Should the electronic logic fail, the metering pins would move to a
maximum rich or lean condition depending on the vehicle manufacturer's
specifications. The system does not operate in the closed loop mode
when the engine and oxygen sensor are cold or when a low vacuum con-
dition exists (power enrichment).
Carter claimed the following for their feedback system:
*Carter Carburetor Division, ACF Industries, Emission Control Status
Report, January 13, 1978, p. 1-2, hereafter referred to as Carter SR.
12-933

-------
.METERED AIR BLEED TO IDLE CIRCUIT
-METERED AIR BLEED TO HIGH SPEED CIRCUIT
-CLEAN AIR FROM AIR HORN
V SOLENOID/STEPPER
MOTOR ASSEMBLY
AIR METERING UNIT
AM METERINS PINS
METERING MO
U CARBURETOR
LOW-SPEED CIRCUIT
CARBURETOR
HIGH-SPEED CIRCUIT
Figure Carter-.!

-------
The feedback system itself is not applicable to the 2 g SHED
evaporative standards since fuel handling is not altered.
- Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio provides excellent drive while warm.
Some warm-up drive problems remain to be solved.
Because feedback corrects for changing conditions including com-
ponent wear, the periodic carburetor adjustments should not be
required.
The idle mixture screws can be adjusted initially and then perma-
nently sealed.
The system has a range of authority of four air/fuel ratios, and
this is sufficient to provide correction at altitude.
Carter expects their components to last at least 50,000 miles but
they have no experience yet. The responsibility is with vehicle
manufacturers.
Unfortunately, Carter provided no details or test data to support their
conclusions.
Limited engine dynamometer testing was conducted with a 1977 Chevrolet
305 CID V8 and an IH 345 CID V8 to quantify the transport delay times of
these engines. No data were included from these tests.
Concerning vehicle tests, Carter indicated the vehicles listed in Table
Carter-1 were tested for cold and hot start FTP emission levels, drive-
ability, altitude (up to 11,000 feet), and hot fuel handling. Carter
12-935

-------
noted these vehicles were equipped with 3-way catalysts, but they had no
knowledge of the catalyst composition. No individual vehicle data were
supplied although the emissions levels for a cold start FTP ranged from
0.2-0.4 HC, 4.0-8.0 CO, and 0.6-1.2 NOx, according to Carter. They
experienced no malfunctions over 5,000 miles of road tests. Altitude
testing at Denver, Carter stated, showed that emission levels did in-
crease due to lower engine vacuum which put the feedback system into
hold more often than at sea level. The system did compensate for the
change in altitude and improved driveability considerably, even at
11,000 feet. Hot fuel handling was not affected, according to Carter.
Vehicles
Used to
Table
Evaluate
Carter-1*
the Feedback
Carburetor System

Make
Year
CID
Trans
Weight

Plymouth Fury
1977
318
Auto
4,000
11.0
Ply. Volare
1977
225
Auto
3,500
9.7
Ford Granada
1977
250
Auto
3,500
9.7
AMC Hornet
1977
258
4 Speed
3,500
9.7
IH Scout
1977
345
Auto
4,500
11.0
AMC Pacer
1977
258
Auto
3,500
9.7
*Carter SR, Feedback Carburetor Section, p. 3.
Carter supplied no cost data since this system is not a production
system. Production quantities would require major tooling changes,
according to Carter.
Carter Electronic Carburetor
The Carter electronic carburetor is a low pressure, single point injection
system utilizing a microprocessor computer to control a metering pump.
The metering pump is driven by a Direct Current motor which is controlled
by the microprocessor. The normal operation of the Carter electronic
carburetor is accomplished by combining the input parameters from the
12-936

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engine sensors (see Table Carter-2) to determine the correct fuel flow
which is then outputted by the microprocessor to the fuel metering pump.
The fuel requirements are based on a speed-density approach. The input
parameters modify the fuel flow based on external conditions. The
modifications to the base fuel flow, depending on operational conditions,
are listed following Table Carter-2.
Table Carter-2
Sensors Utilized For Input to the Carter Electronic Carburetor
1.	Magnetic proximity transducer - commercially available unit
monitors the metering pump revolutions for feedback to the micro-
processor.
2.	Engine coolant sensor - the sensor is located in the engine water
jacket.
3.	Air and fuel temperature sensors - a semi-conductor type ther-
mistor.
4.	Throttle position sensor - standard rotary potentiometer connected
to the throttle shaft to sense position, rate of movement, direction,
wide open throttle and closed throttle.
5.	Engine RPM sensor - the positive terminal of the ignition coil
is used to sense spark pulses.
6.	Crank sensor - the starter relay is used to sense the crank mode.
7.	Manifold absolute pressure and barometric pressure transducer -
variable inductance type.
8.	Oxygen sensor - a commercially available oxygen sensor is used to
sense oxygen in the exhaust for closed loop, stoichiometric operation.
Warm Operation: The fuel flow is a function of engine RPM, mani-
fold absolute pressure, inlet air temperature and reservoir fuel
temperature. Interaction on warm operation of the oxygen sensor
was not discussed by Carter.
Acceleration Enrichment: The acceleration enrichment is additional
fuel added to the base fuel flow. Additional fuel is required to
provide acceptable driveability during transient conditions.
12-937

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Cold Enrichment: Cold enrichment is a function of coolant tem-
perature and additional fuel is added to the base fuel table. The
enrichment is a function of coolant temperature and manifold
absolute pressure.
Wide Open Throttle: Wide open throttle fuel for maximum power is a
function of engine RPM and manifold absolute pressure. The fuel
delivered is a function of the engine characteristics for best
power.
Curb Idle: Curb idle fuel is also a function of engine RPM and
manifold absolute pressure when the engine is warm. Cold engine
fuel is controlled by the cold enrichment mode. The only accessi-
ble adjustment is the position of the throttle valves to set the
idle speed.
- Closed Loop Air/Fuel Ratio Control: The exhaust system is modified
for installation of an oxygen sensor. The oxygen sensor indicates
if the air/fuel ratio is rich or lean and the signal from the
sensor is used to correct the fuel flow to stoichiometry. The
closed loop operation occurs when the sensor is above a minimum
operating temperature of the sensor. Wide open throttle overrides
the closed loop and returns to the base fuel flow for power enrich-
ment. The default operation would be specified by the customer at
the time of a joint development program leading to production,
according to Carter.
Carter also maintains that the electronic carburetor will not impact 2 g
SHED testing, has improved warmed-up driveability and improved cold
driveability over conventional systems, minimal maintenance and ad-
justability, and the potential to meet emission standards at altitude.
12-938

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Engine dynamometer testing has been directed toward achieving good
cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution at wide open throttle and part
throttle loads. The fuel demand of the engine at various loads and RPMs
for a 1977 Chevrolet 305 CID V8 has been used for development of base-
line fuel data. No catalyst is used during the testing, nor were any
durability hours accumulated. No emission data were presented by Carter.
Concerning vehicle test data, Carter identified two vehicles which were
modified to include the electronic carburetor and 3-way catalyst. The
vehicles are identified in Table Carter-3.
Table Carter-3*
1977 Model Year Vehicles Equipped With Electronic Carburetors and
Two 3-Way Engelhard Catalysts
Make/Model Eng. Trans Axle IW Dyno HP Calibration Other System
Chev/Malibu 305 Auto 2.56 4500 12.7 49 State Ported EGR
Ford/Granada 302 Auto 2.47 4000 12.0 California Ported w/
*Carter SR, Electronic Carburetor Section, p. 3.
With the exception of the installation of 3-way catalysts, no optimiza-
tion of emission controls was undertaken. These vehicles were returned
to potential customers for their evaluation. Typical FTP emission
results with aged (mileage unspecified) 3-way catalysts were reported to
be:
delay spark,
BPEGR, AIR
disconnected.
HC
CO
NOx
77 Chevrolet
77 Ford
0.30-0.40
0.30-0.40
4.0-6.0
5.0-7.0
0.60-0.80
0.50-0.70
12-939

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Carter did not include any fuel economy data in their report.
The electronic carburetor is in the developmental stages and only
prototype systems have been built, hence Carter has no cost estimates
available.
Carter stated that this system will not be available for model year
1981.
12-940

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12.5.4. Dresser
Dresser Industries reported in their submission they are working on
further development of their Dresserator sonic carburetor. Briefly, the
Dresser system operates as follows. Fine fuel atomization is achieved
over a wide range of operating conditions, maintained by a choke flow
condition in the carburetor throat. The fuel is metered upstream of the
throat, therefore, the fuel must pass through the shock wave which
occurs when the air flow becomes sub-sonic in the diffuser located
downstream of the throat. The fine droplet size created by the Dresser-
ator allows for uniform air/fuel ratios. The smaller droplet size also
minimizes wall wetting within the intake manifold and therefore allows
for better cylinder to cylinder distribution, with respect to air/fuel
ratio. Further details of this carburetor can be found in last year's
Status Report.*
Dresser reported two types of this carburetor are now available. The
first of these is called a Model II pivoting jaw unit, the other is a
Model III sliding jaw unit. No details of either system were reported
by Dresser. Each of these units was equipped with electronic controls,
and again no details were disclosed by Dresser.
Tests were run on a Toyota 2000 cc vehicle which is to be representative
of 4 cylinder small cars and a Chevrolet 350 cu in. vehicle, represen-
tative of larger cars, according to Dresser. Table Dresser-1 shows the
baseline data of a 1976 Toyota Corona, and Table Dresser-2 shows the
results with the Model III using lean air/fuel ratios of approximately
17/1.
^Automobile Emission Control - The Developmental Status, Trends, and
Outlook as of December 1976, EPA, April 1977.
12-941

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Table Dresser-1*
Baseline Data
Vehicle Description: 2000 cc Toyota Corona;
3000 lb. IW; 11.3 HP;. EPEGR

	
	g/mi


Test Type
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
1974 Cold
0.22
5.99
1.65
14.2
1974 Cold
0.32
5.64
1.50
14.1
1974 Hot
0.06
0.94
1.43
15.0
HFET
0.23
0.46
2.70
25.4
*Speclal Report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency
Dresser Industries, January 15, 1978, Table II between pp. 3 & A.
Hereafter referred to as Dresser-SR.
Table Dresser-2*
Model III Lean Mode Results


		
	g/mi	
	

Test
Type
HC
CO
NOx
MPG
1975
Cold
0.30
0.71
1.49
16.8
1975
Cold
0.27
0.74
1.36
16.8
1974
Cold
0.38
1.77
1.58
16.2
1974
Cold**
0.63
4.67
1.50
16.2
1974
Hot**
0.08
0.57
1.34
17.7
1974
Hot
0.08
0.09
1.37
17.2
HFET

0.06
0.04
1.31
26.5
*Dresser-SR, Table I, between pp. 3 & 4.
**Without air pump.
12-942

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The Dresserator System consists of the following items:
throttle body/inductor
fuel metering and control
-	sonic EGR valve
-	NOx reduction unit
economizer
The Dresser Inductor Model III system has operated well on the Toyota,
according to Dresser, and the Model II system is currently being installed
on the Chevrolet. Dresser also reported Ford has operated an earlier
version of both these systems on a vehicle equipped with a Ford 400 cu in.
engine. Dresser reported the Model II pivoting jaw as developed by Ford
could be improved, even though it yielded better results in their tests
than any other system. The Model II was modified to include a fuel bar
to eliminate flow disturbances. A diffuser design was established for
increased stability and improved cylinder to cylinder distribution. The
Model III unit is a cast verion of earlier Model III units. This was a
Ford casting modified for regulator size and redesign of the entry
section to provide parallel entry walls to improve flow stability. This
resulted in excessively high exit velocities compared to the short
distance to the bottom of the intake manifold of 4 cylinder engines. A
3 in. spacer was used between the manifold and the carburetor, to allow
more expansion and thereby slowing down the exit velocity, according to
Dresser. No data from the Ford study were supplied in Dresser's sub-
mission.
12-943

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Current development of the Model II electronically controlled system Is
reported to be in the final adoption stage on the 350 cu in. Chevrolet
Nova. The initial tests on this vehicle will be in the lean mode fol-
lowed by stoichiometric operation for use with 3-way catalysts.
Other modifications planned for the Model III are the addition of two
electronic fuel control systems which have recently been developed. One
is a AP system which is a high pressure automated version of the earlier
fuel system. The pressure differential of the fuel valve is sensed and
controlled to provide the desired air/fuel ratio. The fuel flow is
controlled to the mass flow of air as controlled by the throttle body.
Compensation is provided for sub-sonic flow, power enrichment, and cold
starts based on sensed engine parameters. The differential pressure is
controlled by a variable pressure regulator, in response to electronic
control.
Another electronic fuel control system is a pulse width modulated injec-
tor system. This is reported to be a modification of the Bosch and
Bendix system concepts. Two injectors feed fuel through a fuel bar
above the carburetor throat so atomization is accomplished by the sonic
throat, not the injectors. According to Dresser, the injectors are
simplified since there is no need to atomize the fuel as in typical fuel
injection systems. The injectors are alternately pulsed, twice per
engine revolution. The injectors are also used with a pulse damper to
provide smooth operation, avoiding fuel pulse effects experienced in
other injection systems, according to Dresser. The electronic circuitry
is readily converted to any engine size by changing a plug-in module.
The mass flow of air is determined by engine speed, temperature, and
manifold vacuum. The throttle body may also be used as a mass flow
measuring device in this system, according to Dresser.
12-944

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Dresser also reported their system is free from pulsation variations,
therefore reducing cycle to cycle variations. Dresser believes the CO
levels are greatly influenced by these cycle to cycle air/fuel varia-
tions, which could be a problem when operating with a 3-way catalyst.
Dresser also reported they are attempting to adopt the sonic principle
to EGR control. According to Dresser, sonic EGR allows the programming
of EGR, which results in more effective NOx control, and improved fuel
economy. An improved EGR valve was developed for this system and a
reportedly unique control technique has been proposed which is directly
related to inhibiting NOx formation. No details or description of this
technique were provided by Dresser.
Another NOx control system was reported that operates with lean air/fuel
mixtures and has a limited temperature range of effectiveness. Dresser
also reported this system may offer an advantage in that precise air/fuel
ratio control may not be required for 3-way catalyst control. No details
of this system were provided by Dresser.
An economiser was also reported by Dresser who believes this to provide
up to a 20% increase in fuel economy over base vehicles using the same
fuel system without this device. Dresser also claims a 5-11.5% increase
on city fuel economy, and 9-12% on highway fuel economy. Dresser also
reported the emission levels were essentially unchanged. Dresser again
did not provide any details of operation for this system.
12.5.4.1. Problems and Progress
Dresser reported they have cooperative developmental efforts underway
with the following companies:
12-945

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Ford Motor Company
Holley Carburetor
SU/Buter
Toyota
General Motors
Chrysler
Ricardo Consulting Engineers
Dresser hopes to maximize the atomization properties of their systems to
the point where they may be easily put into production. Dresser did not
report any efforts in the way of feedback control sensors and how this
would affect their design. As throughout their submission Dresser did
not provide operating principles behind their systems.
Through EPA conversations with Dresser, EPA learned that Dresser was
working on developing a NOx sensor. EPA had specifically asked Dresser
to report information on this system in their submission. Apparently
this request was ignored by Dresser.
Results of an EPA-funded study* indicate that the Dresserator fuel
atomization principle may differ in its effectiveness depending on the
power-to-weight ratio of the vehicle. If the vehicle must operate much
of the time in a manner which results in a departure from choked flow
conditions (high manifold absolute pressure), then it would appear that
the flow through the carburetor would not be sonic much of the time. At
the same emission level as the baseline vehicle, the Dresserator system
did not improve fuel economy. In addition, the driveability of the
vehicle with the Dresserator system was reported to be poor,** a problem
which is common among emission control systems which depend on lean
operation. Further developmental work may improve the emissions, fuel
economy, and driveability performance of vehicles equipped with the
Dresserator.
*Advanced Fuel Metering Demonstration. Report EPA-960/3-77-003, April 1977.
**Test Results of a Dodge Dart Equipped with the Holley Sonic Carburetor,
EPA Report 77-14CH, December 1977.
12-946

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12.5.5. Holley
Holley's submission contained only limited information, most of which
was reported in last year's Status Report. Holley reported they are
continuing work on the Holley feedback carburetor which was used on a
1978 2.3L Ford engine. Most of this work was reported towards improv-
ing and simplifying this system. No details of how this is being
accomplished were provided by Holley.
The 1978 system uses five components: a feedback carburetor, a vacuum
regulator/control valve, an Electronic Control Unit (ECU), an oxygen
sensor, and a 3-way catalyst. Holley only supplies the first two of
these five items to the automotive industry. Holley reported that
for 1980 and 1981, an alternate feedback carburetor design is being
developed. Holley also reported these carburetors are being considered
by several automobile manufacturers for MY 1980.
Holley reported they are investigating air/fuel metering systems. These
are closed loop carburetor systems designed for use with 3-way catalysts.
This is reported by Holley to be a revised system of the one reported
in last year's Status Report, however, no details of these changes
were reported by Holley.
Holley reported they have dedicated effort to lowering the evaporative
emissions from their carburetor, to enable automotive manufacturers
to achieve the 2 g/test target level on evaporative emission tests.
This effort involves the use of the following:
non-wicking gaskets
throttle shaft seals
choke shaft seals
12-947

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-	choke linkage seals
float bowl vent switch (internal & external)
-	concealed idle mixture screws
Holley made no attempt to quantify how much of a reduction would be
expected from these modifications with respect to evaporative emissions.
Holley also reported that their feedback carburetors and vacuum regulator/
control valves used in the 1978 system have been tested for 50,000
miles. No data from these tests were reported by Holley.
Holley reported no emission or fuel economy testing was performed since
they are only a component supplier. Holley indicated that such tests
are the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturers, since these manu-
facturers are responsible for the overall system.
12.5.5.1. Problems and Progress
Holley reported that feedback operating elements may be incorporated in
the production of any particular existing carburetor model within a
period of 18 to 30 months. Holley also indicated that by 1980, four of
their current carburetor models will incorporate the use of electronic
controls to maintain stoichiometric air/fuel ratios. Holley reported
that presently they have a capacity of manufacturing 4 million units per
year, and that this is expected to be increased to 5 million units by
1981.
Holley did not supply any durability data on their feedback systems.
The lack of demonstrated durability may be a problem in that fluctuation
in air/fuel ratios would result in efficiency losses in the 3-way catalyst.
If these systems are capable of demonstrating sufficient durability,
they would offer the domestic automobile manufacturers the option of
continuing the use of carburetion as opposed to fuel injection techniques.
12-948

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One problem in the Holley feedback system was encountered by CRC in a
contract effort with Olson Laboratories Inc. Of their nine vehicle
fleet equipped with the Holley feedback system, five of them experienced
CO problems. Test results as high as 25.0 CO were reported by Olson who
blames this problem on rich carburetion at idle. Other durability
problems were encountered in an EPA contract conducted by Exxon Research
and Engineering Co. In this contract, problems were encountered with
air/fuel ratio drift and with the vacuum regulator/control valve which
also resulted in poor CO control. None of the problems mentioned above
were discussed by Holley.
12-949

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Section 12.6
Electronics Suppliers

-------
12.6.1 Intel
Intel Is a manufacturer of large-scale integrated circuits used in
automotive engine controls. Intel provided information on their pro-
gress in standard microprocessor products, custom microprocessor devel-
opments, and the application of an erasable programmable ROM (EPROM).
Intel reported in their submission* that they supply microprocessors and
related components to manufacturers of electronic engine control systems.
They also reported that they cooperate with the designers of emission
control systems in the application of Intel's existing microprocessors,
and in defining new microprocessors. No emission data were provided in
the report since, according to Intel, they do not perform such tests.
Intel offers microcomputer components for use in automotive emission
control systems. These include single chip microprocessors, general
purpose multi-chip microprocessor sets, and programmable peripheral
memory chips.
Intel's microprocessors are divided into the following families:
MCS48 Family, including the 8048, 8049, 8021, and 8022 single-chip
microprocessors.
MCS85 Family, including the 8085 microprocessor, 8155 data memory I/O
chip, and 8355 program memory and I/O chip.
Program Peripherals, including the 8041 universal peripheral interface,
the 8253 programmable interval timer chip, and the 8255 programable 1/0
chip.
*Technical Programs and Capabilities Relevant to Automotive Emission Control:
Intel Corporation, January 12, 1978. Hereafter referred to as Intel SR.
12-950

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Intel's objective is to assist designers and manufacturers of emission
control systems in developing such systems with standard microprocessor
products. Emission control systems are being developed using standard
microprocessors. Some of these systems are spark'advance systems using
the 8048 or 8253 microprocessor, multipoint fuel injection systems using
the 8048 and 8253 microprocessor, and closed loop carburetor control
using the 8021 or 8048 microprocessor. Integrated engine control
systems are controlled by the 8085, 8155, 8355, or 8253 microprocessor
as well as fuel metering systems using either the 8048 or 8041 microprocessor.
Intel's strategy is to develop custom microprocessors for large volume
applications. Intel believes this would minimize overall system cost
for a specific system. Intel reported it can offer custom programs in
what they call the "802X Concept." This uses the 8021 as the "nucleus"
of the system. Additions can be made to this system by changing the
memory configuration or I/O circuitry. This system allows a general use
microprocessor to be used as a custom specialized microprocessor. Intel
reported they are involved with Ford Motor Company in developing a
custom microprocessor chip set for Ford's third generation Electronic
Engine Control (EEC-Ill system). No details were given in their sub-
mission since it is proprietary to Ford Motor Company. Intel predicts
it will require two years for development and a third year to achieve
production volume. Intel believes, on the basis of Ford selling 3
million cars per year with this system, these chips can sell for less
than $10 per car.*
12.6.1.1 Other Developmental Efforts
Intel believes the use of EPROMs will bring additional advantages to
automotive microprocessors over conventional ROMs. EPROM reportedly
offers interchangeability, besides having the ability to be programmed
*Automotive News, May 9, 1977, p. 26.
12-951

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by the user, rather than the IC manufacturer, which cannot be done
with ROM. EPROM's ability to be easily and quickly programmed, erased,
and reprogrammed in engineering labs reduces the developmental time of
the system, according to Intel. EPROMs can be made pin-compatible to
ROM, and therefore can be substituted in place of ROM. Intel reported
EPROM offers the following benefits over ROM:
-	User programmability permits virtually immediate response when
production changes of the program are required.
-	Small quantities of an individual program can be produced cost
effectively.
-	Erasability and reprogrammability allows modification of systems
in the field.
Intel reported they are applying this EPROM/ROM interchangeability
concept to their single chip microprocessor family. The 8748 micro-
processor containing EPROM is pin-compatible with the 8048 microprocessor
containing ROM. EPROM single chip microprocessors have aroused interest
for automotive applications, but currently are not ready, according to
Intel, to meet the harsh environment and low cost requirements of the
automotive industry.
A figure of the EPROM cell used in the 2716 EPROM and 8748 microprocessor
with EPROM can be seen in Figure Intel-l(a). The c'ell is a transistor
with stacked gates, a floating gate below a top select gate. The
floating gate is used for charge storage, and the top select gate is
connected to a row decoder. The cell is programed by injecting high
energy electrons onto the floating gate. The charge is trapped on the
gate since there is no electrical connection to this gate.
12-952

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SELECT GATE
FLOATING GATE
(CHARGE STORAGE)
(a) CROSS SECTION
VCC
DRAIN
SELECT
GATE
FLOATING
GATE
Q1 SUBSTRATE
SOURCE VBB
(b) SCHEMATIC SYMBOL
Figure Intel-1
The EPROM Cell*
*From Intel-SR; pg 26.
12-953

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In the initial state, there is no charge on the floating gate. This
gives the cell a low threshold voltage and turns the transistor on by
way of the top select gate. By programming the gate, a charge is
retained by the floating gate and shifts the threshold voltage of the
transistor to a higher level. This means a higher voltage must be
applied to the transistor for it to conduct. The characteristics of the
threshold voltage are shown in Figure Intel-2.
If a "1" is programmed into the cell there is no charge on the floating
gate. This allows a higher current to flow from source to drain of the
transistor than if a "0" is programmed in the cell, charging the floating
gate.
Since there is no electrical connection to the floating gate, the
charge has to be removed by non-electrical means to erase the cell.
This is accomplished by illuminating the cell with ultraviolet light of
specific wavelength and energy. This illumination imparts photon
energy to the trapped electrons to allow the floating gate to be fully
discharged, thereby erasing the cell's program.
12.6.1.2 Durability Data
Both the 2716 EPROM and the 8748 microprocessor with EPROM require a
single 5 volt supply in normal operation. An external 25 volt supply is
required in programming the cell. The EPROM is subject to the same
constraints as other MOS devices in reliability considerations. In
addition there is a failure mode in EPROMs due to loss of charge from
the floating gate resulting in data retention failure. Table Intel-1
shows the failure rate of EPROM to be comparable to the failure rate of
standard memory and microprocessor circuits.
12-954

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SENSE THRESHOLD
VOLTAGE ON GATE OF CELL	
Figure Intel-2
ZPROU Cell Electrical Characteristics*
>m ~ l-S" g

-------
Table Intel-1
Comparison of Calculated Failure Rates
Based on Operating Life Test Data*
Device Number
Device Type
Calculated Failure**
Rate (% Per 1000 Hours)
2708
8080A
2102A
2115
2104 A
1024 x 8 bit EPROM
Microprocessor
1024 x 1 bit RAM
1024 x 1 bit RAM
4096 x 1 bit RAM
0.006
0.012
0.014
0.009
0.020
*From Intel-SR; pg 13.
**55C device ambient temperature.
Non-operating failure of EPROM due to loss of stored data is a function
of temperature. Intel finds the failure rate to follow an Arrhenius
relationship with temperature as follows:
E = thermal activation energy
(empirically observed to be 0.8 eV)
Intel observes by this relation, the charge loss in one hour at 80C is
equivalent to 7.4 hours at 55C.
For testing purposes, EPROMs are subjected to programming, a high
temperature bake, and. a data retention check. This screens out un-
acceptable components with a high failure rate. The acceleration
factors at different temperatures are shown in Table Intel-2.
F = acceleration factor of failure rate at two temperatures T^ and
T~ (K)
y	-5
K = Boltzmann's constant (8.63 x 10 eV/K)
12-956

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Table Intel-2
Non-Operating Temperature Profile and Equivalent Hours at 50C
For an Automotive Microcomputer System*
Ambient Actual Hours Equivalent Hours
Temperature (C)	Per Year	at 55C	
30
2800
280
40
2800
728
50
2800
1792
60
330
495
70
16
54
80
8
59
90
4
60
100
2
60
TOTAL
8760
3528
*From Intel-SR; pg 16.
Reliability studies by Intel on the 2716 and 8748 EPROM devices indicate
to Intel that the data retention failure rate is better than 2.9 x 10
per bit, per hour at 55C. Intel reported for any number of EPROM bits
at any temperature, the non-operating data retention failure rate can
be predicted, as well as the life of the EPROM at the specified condi-
tion. Intel reported that 99.9% of their EPROM units can be expected to
retain stored data for 10 years at a temperature of 55C, although no
actual tests were conducted for this length of time. A non-operating
temperature profile for automotive microprocessors is shown in Table
Intel-3.
Table Intel-3
Acceleration Factors for
Data Retention Failure Mode*
Ambient	Acceleration Factor
Temperature (C)	Relative to 55C
30	0.10
40	0.26
50	0.64
60	1.50
70	3.40
80	7.40
90	15.00
100	30.00
*From Intel-SR; pg 15.
12-957

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Intel believes EPROM offers several advantages in the applications of
automotive microprocessors. One key feature is pretestability. This
allows the user to assemble and seal the system module first, and then
program the microprocessor. This offers a significant advantage over
conventional bipolar PROM which cannot be nondestructively tested,
according to Intel. The advantage of pretestability is that it minimizes
the turnaround time in response to system changes. Time can be substan-
tially reduced over ROM based systems by keeping a supply of blank
EPROMs in reserve and programming them as needed. This keeps inventory
simple and increases availability over ROM. Blank EPROMs can also be
used as universal spares, again reducing inventories.
Personalization to specific engine families is also a prospect for
EPROM. This would allow the personality chip to be programmed on the
assembly line using a central microprocessor unit for all vehicles with
independent personality modules for each model line and engine family.
Intel forsees an increasing trend in the use of EPROMs in automotive
microprocessor systems. Intel believes EPROMs will have adequate
reliability and low cost for automotive applications besides having
significant advantages over alternative memory techniques.
Intel reported the cost of EPROMs is higher than conventional MOS-ROM
because it requires a greater silicone chip area and a more complex
manufacturing process. Intel also reported the relative cost of EPROM
to bipolar ROM is decreasing at a rapid rate and will soon be comparable
as seen in Figure Intel-3.
12-958

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Figure Intel-3
Cost Per Bit Trends - EPROM and Bipolar PROM**
*1 Ini SR; _ 28.

-------
12.6.1.3. Problems and Progress
Intel is the first semiconductor company to develop EPROM based micro-
processors as well as single chip microprocessors. Intel believes they
can further reduce the cost of these systems by mass production volumes
that appear will be needed by the automotive industry. Intel faces the
same problem as the rest of the semiconductor industry in that if the
auto companies continue with their plans of using microprocessors for
engine control, Intel and the rest of the semiconductor manufacturers
will not be able to produce microprocessor components fast enough to
meet the industry's demands.
It was reported in an outside source* Intel believes by the early 1980s
over 30 million automobiles will be produced annually with three micro-
processor-like chips in each vehicle. That is approximately 100 million
chips per year, which may be beyond the company's current production
capability.
Intel, along with the rest of the semiconductor industry will need to
explore new manufacturing processes which will be more efficient and
allow higher yields from current production quantities. If Intel and
the rest of the industry cannot meet the auto manufacturers' supply
demands, this could cause a detrimental effect to the auto industry in
the area of exhaust emission control systems.
Intel's discussion of the features of the EPROM, which make it attrac-
tive from a customer's (automobile company) viewpoint, shows some of the
potential problems that EPA may face if EPROMS become a commonly-used
part of future emission control systems. EPROMS may easily be tailored
by the automobile industry to specific engine families, but there may be
difficulties in ensuring that the correct programs and information are
*Electronics, January 5, 1978, p. 103.
12-960

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stored in each EPROM on the assembly line. Also, if, as Intel infers,
there can be basically one type of replacement EPROM for the service
industry it may be difficult to ensure that the correct information is
put into replacement EPROMS. An EPROM that is reprogrammable in the
field may also lead to maladjustment if this reprogramming capability is
not used properly..
12-961

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12.6.2 National Semiconductor
National Semiconductor Corporation reported they are involved in the
joint semiconductor/automotive industry program to reduce auto emissions
and improve fuel economy. National claims to be one of the largest
semiconductor manufacturers, and to offer the second largest number of
products available from a single semiconductor manufacturer. National
credits themselves with introducing the first single card microprocessor
as well as the first 16 bit microprocessor. With this experience in the
electronics field, National confirmed that electronics, when applied to
automobile engine and drive train systems, can contribute to improved
exhaust emissions and fuel economy. National also believes that a
massive effort is needed to solve the pollution and energy problem.
National sees the major benefits of electronics to the auto industry as
being twofold. The response time is improved over mechanical systems
and the long life reliability is also better, according to National.
National's role in the electronic engine control program is to supply
electronic components to auto manufacturers' specifications, who are
solely responsible for their applications according to National's
report.* National supplies standard and custom discrete ICs to GM,
Ford, and Chrysler. Some of these components are used for engine
control, and the remainder used for entertainment equipment. No mention
was made as to how much effort at National was dedicated to each type of
program.
National reported the joint semiconductor/automotive industry effort is
rising from its initial stages, and is growing at a rapid rate. Typical
1978 MY engine control systems utilize analog sensors and actuators with
either analog or digital processors to control spark advance and fuel
*Response to EPA Inquiry - Automobile Emission Control, National
Semiconductor, February 27, 1978. Hereafter referred to as NS-SR.
12-962

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adjustment. No details of these systems were reported since they are
proprietary to the auto manufacturers. No emission or fuel economy data
were reported since National does not perform any such tests.
National reported that the electronic control strategy of the three
largest auto manufacturers follows a parallel design path. National
believes electronics can bring higher reliability at reasonable costs to
automotive control systems, with further reduction in size.
National is in the process of developing a future generation micro-
processor which will aid in engine control cost reduction. National
also is developing adaptive systems to correct for wear factors over the
engine system life. This type of adaptive system can be particularly
useful to oxygen and engine knock sensors, according to National.
The greatest challenge was reported to be in the area of sensor develop-
ment, especially for temperature and pressure. No details were given in
this area, nor any lead time as to when these sensors might be put into
production.
The semiconductor industries have several factors to overcome. One is
the ability of the industry to meet the auto manufacturers specifica-
tions, in small enough packages. Another is the ability of the industry
to produce the quantities required on time. The high quantity expected
to be required by the auto industry in 1980 and 81 are not even close to
the relatively low volumes produced today. National believes expansion
in product capacity must be initiated now to meet the demand expected in
the future. Cost is also a factor. The industry must be able to meet
reasonable cost objectives which are bearable to the consumer. National
reported this task will require significant technological advancements
in the semiconductor industry.
12-963

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With the growth of the microprocessor, additional memory capability is
needed. National has been pursuing improvements in this field and are
producing low power RAM with up to 1 K bits of memory as well as low
power ROM with up to 64K bits of program memory. In the field of new
memories, PROMs and EPROMs are developed to 8K of memory and will soon
be raised to 16K according to National's predictions. These memories
are produced using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and
bipolar techniques for fabrication. The CMOS process is most common and
is described as follows. This technique requires three processes:
11 Circuit photographic process*
"The chip will be made using the 'planar' technique; that is, it
will be built up of interconnected layers or planes of circuitry,
each layer dedicated to a certain function. All of these layers
were represented in the composite drawing; now they must be separated.
"A final drawing, or mask, for each circuit layer is created by
computer-controlled photocomposition of the circuit elements. The
circuit patterns are reduced to a fraction of their originally
drawn size. The first step is a reduction of the circuit layer
image onto a two-inch-square glass plate (a separate plate for each
layer).
"The plate goes into a step-and-repeat camera that again reduces
the mask by a factor of ten and reproduces it many times onto a
second glass plate - the 'workplate.1 The individual circuit masks
are now the actual size of the final chip, duplicated hundreds of
times to fill the workplate.
"These mask images can be contact printed or projection printed
onto the wafer and photodeveloped there.
"The same photoreduction process is repeated with each of the other
masks - each representing a different circuit layer - that are
needed to make the IC. Three to six masks would be typical."
2) Substrate development*
The silicone substrate is "grown" into a large cylinder called an ingot
which is 4 to 6 inches in diameter. This is the purest industrial
*National Semiconductor SR, IC's Made Simple: An Executive Primer on
Integrated Circuits.
12-964

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substance man produces, with impurity levels being less than one part
per billion, according to National.
The ingot is cut into round thin slices called wafers. The surface of
each wafer is polished to a mirror smooth finish and placed into an oven
and heated to 1250 degrees. This forms a thin layer of silicone dioxide
(SiC^) on the wafer. The wafer is now ready for photo-lithographic
processing.
3) Photo-lithographic Process
Figure NS-1 explains the photo-lithographic process at various stages.
Each chip is then tested, and those that pass are inserted into epoxy
packages and connected to external pins.
12.6.2.1 Progress and Problems
According to National, the largest single reason for failure in ICs is
thermocompression. This can be avoided by cold welding copper bumps to
a copper clap polymide film carrier which relieves stresses on the
contact wires and protects the chip. Finally, an epoxy encapsulation
over the IC protects it from moisture, high temperature cycling, corro-
sion, and intermittent open circuits.
National feels that the ultimate control system will have digital sensors
and processors. This avoids costly analog to digital conversions and
National believes this would lower the system cost. National is also
continuing to develop standard products to meet the market demands and
reduce the response time to meet technical requirements. National's
ultimate goal is to reduce the cost per function of ICs through reduced
chip size and better production yield. National's report did not include
any cost information about electronic control systems, and did not give
any information on single chip microprocessors which seem to be the
current developmental trend in the semiconductor industry.
12-965

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coating now gets a coating of photoresist
an emulsion that hardens upon contact
with light
2.	Through the workplate, ultraviolet light
is beamed at the wafer prelecting the hun-
dreds of tiny mask patterns.
3.	We wash the wafer in a special solvent,
removing the photoresistexcept In the
areas struck by the ultraviolet light
Wherever the photoresist has been removed,
the oxide Is now exposed.
4.	An etching bath removes the oxide In
those exposed areas, revealing the original
wafer surface.
5.	We put the wafer Into a diffusing
furnace, where a specific element In gaseous
formboron (p), phosphorous, arsenic,
antimony (all n>Is diffused into the wafer.
It only enters those areas where the oxide
has been removed, altering the electrical
characteristics of those areas. The tem-
perature: 900C, over a period of at least an
hour. All factorsquantity of dlffusant (or
dopant), depth of diffusion, rate of diffusion
are critical, lfemperature is held within
0.5C.
6.	But there are other layers of circuitry to
be added before the chip is complete. So
we wash away the remaining oxide
7.	And add a layer of epitaxial silicon on
the surface of the wafer by chemical vapor
deposition at temperatures up to 1200'C.
This forms a layer of mono-crystalline
silicon, electrically negative (n).
8.	Then add another layer of silicon dioxide
on the surface of the wafer. This is grown
onto the surface by oxidation, becoming an
integral part of the waferbut with neutral
electrical characteristics.
Now we repeat the process with the mask
for the next layer: photoresist mask, UV
light wash, etch, diffuse. This sequence
is repeated for each successive layer in
the circuit.
9.	The final oxide layer Is then etched to
expose circuit contact areas. An evaporation
technique is used to apply a layer of metal
(aluminum).
10. Portions of the metal layer not needed
to make connections are etched away,
completing the circuit Now this microscopic
device must be connected to the outside
world.
Figure NS-1
CMOS Technique of IC Fabrication*
*NS SR, ICs Made Simple pamphlet p. 3.
12-966

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12.6.3. Texas Instruments (TI)
TI's submission lacked specific information requested by EPA, and what
little information that was reported did not provide much detail, relative
to microprocessors for automotive applications.
TI reported they are currently involved in several programs regarding
electronic engine controls. These programs are time scheduled to co-
incide with the emission standards for upcoming model years. TI indi-
cated that these systems are developed by the automobile manufacturers
and therefore the specific goals of these systems are proprietary to the
manufacturers.
TI is one of the leading manufacturers of large scale Integrated Cir-
cuits (IC). TI will supply these ICs to the auto industry based on the
auto industry's design specifications. TI reported their milestone
schedule for fabrication of these ICs and the required lead time for
production. This information is shown in Table TI-1.
TI reported that they are strictly a component supplier, and therefore
their test efforts are only related to system components rather than
overall systems. TI reported they plan to supply the following com-
ponents for use in automotive microprocessors:
Central Processing Unit
Read Only Memory
Random Access Memory
(CPU)
(ROM)
(RAM)
Analog-Digital Converter	(A/D)
Digital Input/Output Circuits (I/O)
12-967

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Table TI-1*
Integrated Circuit Milestone Schedule
Task
Required Lead Time
System and Circuit Specifications
Completed
First Prototype Circuits
Production Circuit Prototypes
Design Verification and
Reliability Testing
Production Commitments
Production Start
36 months prior to
given model year
24 months prior to
given model year
20 months prior to
given model year
12 months prior to
given model year
11 months prior to
given model year
8 months prior to
given model year
*Texas Instruments submission; June 1978, pg. 1.
12-968

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- Power Supply
Interface Protection Circuits
TI indicated that two or more of the above components can be integrated
onto the same chip, depending on the system specifications.
TI reported only limited vehicle testing is performed at their facility
which is equipped with a chassis dynamometer. Most of these tests are
run to prove the functionality of the microprocessor software. No data
were provided. TI also indicated that the vehicle emission testing is
the responsibility of the automotive manufacturer.
12.6.3.1. Problems and Progress
TI reported that they presently do not manufacture a standard set of ICs
or sensors for selling to the automotive industry. TI indicated that
work to date is too premature to release at this time. It is interesting
to note, however, that other semiconductor manufacturers have reported
several operational systems for automotive applications.
12-969

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Appendix I
Abbreviations

-------
ABBREVIATIONS
A/F
-
air/fuel ratio by mass
AIR
-
air injection system
AMA
-
Automobile Manufacturers Association
ATC (or ATDC)
-
after top (dead) center
axle
-
rear axle ratio
BaP
-
benzo (a )pyrene
BHP
-
brake horsepower
BMEP
-
brake mean effective pressure
BPEGR
-
backpressure modulated exhaust gas recirculation
BSCO
-
brake specific carbon monoxide
BSFC
-
brake specific fuel consumption
BSHC
-
brake specific hydrocarbons
BSNQx
-
brake specific oxides of nitrogen
BTC (or BTDC)
-
before top (dead) center
C
-
the element carbon
C
-
degree(s) Celsius
Ce
-
the element cerium
CFDS
-
Congested Freeway Driving Schedule
CID
-
cubic inch displacement
CL
-
chemiluminescence
cm
-
centimetre(s)
CO
_
carbon monoxide
AI-1

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CC>2	- carbon dioxide
CPU	- central processing unit
Cr	- the element chromium
CR	- compression ratio
Cu	- the element copper
cu cm.	- cubic centimetres
cu ft.	- cubic foot or cubic feet
CVS	- constant volume sampler
ECU	- electronic control unit
EFE	- early fuel evaporation
EFI	- electronic fuel injection
EFM	- electronic fuel metering
EGR	- exhaust gas recirculation
EPROM	- erasable programmable read only memory
F	- degree(s) Fahrenheit
F/A	- fuel/air ratio by mass
FBC	- feedback carburetor
FI	- fuel injection
FID	- flame ionization detector
F3M	- Federal Three Mode
ft	- foot or feet
FTP	- Federal Test Procedure
AI-2

-------
g	- gram(s)
gal	- U.S. gallon
g/mi	- gram(s) per mile
h	- hour(s)
HC	- hydrocarbon(s)
HCN	- hydrogen cyanide
HEI	- high energy ignition
HFET	- Highway Fuel Economy Test
HP or hp	- horsepower
14	- inline, four cylinder
15	- inline, five cylinder
16	- inline, six cylinder
IC	- integrated circuit
in	- inch(es)
IW	- inertia weight
kg	- kilogram(s)
km	- kilometre(s)
km/h	- kilometres per hour
kPa	- kilopascal(s)
kW	- kilowatt(s)
L	- litre(s)
L/100 km	- fuel consumption in litres per 100 kilometres
AI-3

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LA-4
lb
lb ft.
A or lambda
LSI
Los Angeles driving cycle
pound(s)
pound-feet
air/fuel equivalence ratio
large scale integration
m
MAIR
MBT
mg
mg/mi
mi
min
MMT
Mn
MON
yP
yg
MPG
c
MPG,
n
MPG
metre(s)
modulated air injection system
minimum spark advance for best torque
milligram(s)
milligram(s) per mile
mile(s)
minute(s)
methylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl
the element manganese
motor octane number
microprocessor
microgram(s)
composite fuel economy MPG = _ cr , . .F
. .,	-.	c 0.55 + 0.45
in miles per gallon:
MPG
u
MPG,
highway fuel economy in miles
per gallon as measured on the
Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET)
urban fuel economy in miles per
gallon as measured on the Federal
Test Procedure (FTP)
AI-4

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mph	- miles per hour
N/A	- not applicable
NDIR	- nondispersive infrared analyzer
Ni	- the element nickel
NMHC	- nonmethane hydrocarbons
NO	- nitric oxide
NC>2	- nitric dioxide
NOx	- oxides of nitrogen measured as NO
N/R	- not reported
N/V	- engine speed in RPM divided by vehicle speed
in highest gear
2	- oxygen
OC	- oxidation catalyst
ORI	- octane requirement increase
PAIR	- aspirator
Pb	- the element lead
PCV	- positive crankcase ventilation
Ed	- the element palladium
PNA	- polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
ppm	- parts per million
ppm C	- parts per million as carbon
ppm	- parts per million as propane
ppm H6	- parts per million as normal hexanei
AI-5

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PROM	- programmable read only memory
Pt	- the element platinum
RAM	- random access memory
Re	- the element rhenium
Rh	- the element rhodium
ROM	- read only memory
RON	- research octane number
Ru	- the element ruthenium
s	- second(s)
SO2	- sulfur dioxide
SO^	- sulfur trioxide
SO.	- sulfate
4
TR	- thermal reactor
TVS or ICS	- thermal vacuum switch or thermal control switch
UDDS	- Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
V4	- "Vee" configuration four cylinder
V6	- "Vee" configuration six cylinder
V8	- "Vee" configuration eight cylinder
VI2	- "Vee" configuration twelve cylinder
3W	- 3-way catalyst
WOT	- wide open throttle
AI-6

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Appendix II
Requests for Information from EPA
to the Manufacturers

-------
Dear Mr. 	:
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 (PL 95-95), which establish new
light-duty vehicle emission standards, became effective on August 7, 1977.
These amendments have continued the requirements for the Environmental
Protection Agency to provide overview of the industry's efforts and
progress on the development of emissions controls in order to implement
several sections of the Clean Air Act, including sections 202(b)(4) and
202(b)(5). Therefore, EPA continues to need current information on
efforts by automobile manufacturers to meet the 1979, 1980, 1981, and
subsequent model year light-duty vehicle emission standards, and on
meeting certain other statutory requirements. Accordingly, your company
is requested to provide information regarding its developmental work and
progress toward meeting these standards and requirements. The information
requested is similar in scope to, and will update, the information which
your company has provided in response to previous annual requests of
this type.
The requested information, which is described in detail in the enclosed
outline, is divided into three main areas: a) information describing
your goals and milestone schedules for research, development, and pro-
duction programs to meet future standards, b) information describing the
design and development of your emission control systems, including
regulated gaseous emissions, driveability, reduced maintenance, fuel
economy, and currently unregulated emissions, and c) cost information.
Additionally, certain specific questions that may be relevant only to
your company are attached to the enclosed outline.
The information to be provided by your company in response to this
request is expected to be complete with respect to your company's
developmental work and progress towards meeting future standards. As
was highlighted in the technology assessment report published by EPA in
April 1977, in some cases significant gaps in last year's industry
reports were apparent. I am sure that you are aware of the House
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce concern that incomplete
A2-1

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reporting "... should be corrected, and if changes in current laws are
needed the Administrator should recommend to the committee the manner in
which EPA can best obtain proper and complete information on new tech-
nology, fuel consumption, and costs." (H.R. Rep. No. 95-294, p. 244).
The 1978 technology assessment report that will be prepared on the basis
of data received in response to this request will specifically include
an assessment of the degree to which the industry responses are deemed
to be complete.
The Agency recognizes that significant efforts are being expended by
automobile manufacturers to meet fuel economy standards, in addition to
meeting emission standards. Many of the technical approaches for
improving fuel economy can also affect emissions. The Agency needs to
receive information about all aspects of your research, development, and
production programs that can impact on the emission performance of a
vehicle. In the past, some manufacturers have maintained that some
techniques or systems are "fuel economy devices" and not emission
control devices, and have on the basis of such reasoning not submitted
full and complete information on certain relevant projects to EPA. The
Agency cannot accept such non-reporting of relevant information without
which a full, complete, and accurate analysis of the status of the
development of emission control technology cannot be made. For that
reason this request also encompases a thorough, complete, and accurate
discussion of your company's fuel economy-related programs and developments.
Since unfavorable driveability characteristics may increase the like-
lihood that a vehicle will be maladjusted in an attempt to improve
driveability, we also request that your submission provide complete
information on the driveability characteristics of current and develop-
mental emission control systems. In addition, we request that your
submission include a complete account of all systems that are intended
to improve or influence driveability, and of all techniques that are
designed to limit the range of adjustability on those components where
adjustment is provided.
The information provided by your company should, in general, follow the
enclosed outline. You may limit the response to this request to such
information which has not previously been supplied to EPA. However, if
portions of the requested information have already been supplied to EPA
and you elect not to resubmit these materials, please provide specific
reference to the appropriate documents. Your response should also, for
each item in the enclosed outline, specifically indicate which areas in
which your company is not engaged or does not have the data requested.
In part the information requested on the 1979 model year systems will be
included in your company's 1979 Part I Application for Certification.
That document, however, is at all times needed in the certification
process and cannot be made available to the Status Report Team for the
A2-2

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purpose of this report. Therefore, if you elect to reference the Part I
in your submission, include a copy of that document with each copy of
your response to this request, in addition to the other information
requested in the outline.
Three complete copies of your response should be provided to EPA no
later than January 15, 1977. These copies should be sent to:
Director, Emission Control Technology Division
Environmental Protection Agency
Attention: Status Report Team
Motor Vehicle Emission Laboratory
2565 Plymouth Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
In addition, two copies of your report that exclude all material for
which confidential treatment is claimed by your company should be sent
to EPA Headquarters. One of the copies sent to EPA Headquarters will be
placed in the public docket, and should therefore contain no material
for which your company has claimed confidential treatment. The other
copy will be provided by us to the Department of Transportation (DOT),
for use in preparing its annual report to the Congress on technology
associated with meeting fuel economy standards. Although the copy
provided to DOT will not contain confidential material, we will make
such material available to DOT on request according to the provisions of
40 CFR 2.209.
The request to have the two copies that do not contain confidential
material sent directly to Washington is intended to eliminate the
possibility that confidential material is inadvertantly placed in the
public docket. In each part of your submission from which confidential
material has been deleted, you should indicate that such material has
been deleted, as well as the nature of the deleted material. A detailed
discussion of how EPA will treat material for which confidential treatment
is requested by the manufacturer is contained in Section V of the attached
outline. The two copies of your submission with confidential material
deleted should be sent no later than January 15, 1977 to:
Deputy Assistant Administrator
for Mobile Source Air Pollution Control (AW-455)
Environmental Protection Agency
Attention: Science Advisor
401 M Street SW
Washington, D. C. 20460
Questions concerning the data requested should be addressed to Mr. John
P. DeKany of the Emission Control Technology Division, whose group has
A2-3

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primary responsibility within EPA for acquiring, analyzing, and reporting
data on the status of technology for automotive emission control. Also,
staff from that Division may contact you for additional information or
explanations, and such requests should be considered by you to be an
integral part of the request for data made by this letter.
Your cooperation in supplying thorough, detailed, and clearly under-
standable information describing the efforts of your company in the
design, development, and testing of future model year emission control
systems will contribute significantly to assuring a sound decision
making process related to the implementation of the Clean Air Act.
Sincerely yours,
David G. Hawkins
Assistant Administrator
for Air and Waste Management
A2-4

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OUTLINE FOR EMISSION CONTROL STATUS REPORT
The following outline should be followed in submitting the requested
information. Any information not identified in the outline or the
discussion of the outline that you believe is necessary for an accurate
and complete description of the emission control technical effort of
your company may also be included.
Since the legislated emission standards for model year 1979 are 1.5 HC,
15.0 CO, 2.0 NOx, for model year 1980 are 0.41 HC, 7.0 CO, 2.0 NOx, and
for model year 1981 are 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, 1.0 NOx, programs to meet these
standards should be fully discussed. Because of the need for EPA to
report to the Congress on the technological feasibility of meeting
0.41	HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.4 NOx, programs to meet these emission levels
should also be fully discussed.
1.	Goals and Milestone Schedules for Development Programs to Meet
Future Emission Standards
A.	Goals for Development Programs
B.	Research, Development, and Certification Milestone Schedules
to Meet Future Emission Standards
C.	Production Milestone Schedules to Meet Future Emission Standards
II. Development and Testing Programs
A.	Exhaust Emission Control
1.	Test program basis arid rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
B.	Evaporative Emission Control
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
C.	Emission Control at Altitude
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
AII-1

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D.	Reduced In-Service Adjustability for Emission Control Systems
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
E.	Driveability
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
F.	Reduced Maintenance
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
G.	Fuel Economy
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
H.	Unregulated Emissions
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
I.	Alternate Engines
1.	Test program basis and rationale
2.	Description of test program and organization
3.	Test vehicle/test hardware descriptions
4.	Test program status
5.	Data from program
AII-2

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III. Experimental Data
A.	Vehicle Data
B.	Non-vehicle Data
IV.	Cost Information
A.	First Cost
B.	Operating Cost
V.	Confidentiality of Trade Secret Information
AII-3

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Discussion of Outline
I.	GOALS AND MILESTONE SCHEDULES FOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS TO
MEET FUTURE STANDARDS
A.	Goals for Development Programs
This should include both general and specific goals or achievements
considered necessary in order to meet emission standards for each
applicable model year. As examples, these may include specific
dates to have each engine family's emission control system defined
and specified in order to meet a particular production date, to
improve certain durability characteristics of a particular system,
to obtain a certain catalyst efficiency, to reduce cost or weight
by a given amount, to determine whether a candidate control technique
is capable of a particular emission level, or to improve a design
feature or incorporate a new one such as reduced adjustability idle
screws into an emission control component.
B.	Research, Development, and Certification Milestone Schedules
to Meet Future Emission Standards
This should include when research and development systems must have
attained a particular stage of development, when all or individual
systems must be defined, when Part I applications for certification
must be submitted, or when any other significant milestones your
company feels it must meet in order to comply with future emission
standards.
C.	Production Milestone Schedules to Meet Future Emission Standards
A specific lead time discussion for meeting future standards should
be included. Graphical and narrative presentations can be used.
Examples are: (1) when agreements with suppliers must be made,
(2) when production committments must be made, (3) when tooling
must be specified/ordered, etc.
II.	DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING PROGRAMS
The Agency needs information on all systems that either directly or
indirectly influence any aspects of emission control. For example, as
explained in the accompanying letter, systems that affect fuel economy
and driveability may significantly influence emission control. Accord-
ingly, the information discussed below is needed for all systems and
components that have been or are now being developed for the purpose of
improving emissions, fuel economy, or driveability.
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For each of the items II. A. through II. G. describe and explain your
development program. Under "Test Program Basis and Rationale" should be
the basic objectives for conducting the program, with reference to the
goals described in Section I. For "Description of Test Program and
Organization", include a discussion of where in the organization the
program is located, what the test program actually consists of, and what
the extent of the program is or is planned to be. The type of data
required for "Vehicle Description" is provided below. For "Test Hard-
ware" a detailed list of required information is not supplied, due to
the wide variation of non-vehicle testing that is done. However,
please be sure to include a complete description of test hardware and
the testing methods. "Data from Program" includes all data, submitted
in accordance with the format and content required in Section III. of
this outline.
The following engine-emission control system description is primarily
exhaust-emission related. However, the same information should be
supplied for other vehicles for which data are provided (e.g., evapor-
ative emission development vehicles).
1.	Engine type - reciprocating 4-stroke, rotary, etc.
2.	Engine modifications - compression ratio, combustion chamber
shape, valve timing, bore/stroke ratio, spark plug location, etc.
3.	Intake system - detailed description of carburetor(s), fuel
injection system, choke and choke control, intake manifold, and
intake port.
4.	Exhaust port and manifold description.
5.	Ignition system - spark advance as a function of all spark
control parameters.
6.	EGR system - flow rate as a function of engine speed and load,
flow rate as a function of other control variables, type of control,
take-off location, introduction location, and type of cooling (if
cooled).
7.	Air injection - type of pump, supplier, flow rate vs. engine
speed and load, modulation and switching control, location and
type of air injection nozzles.
8.	Thermal reactor - type (lean, rich), configuration, materials,
internal flow geometry.
9.	Catalysts - type (reducing, oxidizing, three-way), active
material (general) class, loading and total weight of each catalytic
material and the total in troy ounces per vehicle (to include
oxygen storage components, water-gas shift components, and
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steam reforming components), substrate structure type (monolith/pellet),
substrate composition, number of cells per square inch of substrate,
washcoat composition, extent of segregation or heterogeneous distri-
bution of active materials over or within the entire catalyst or on
or within individual pellets or substrate structure, total surface
area of the washcoat, surface area per displacement of the washcoat,
catalyst location, shape and size, geometry, manufacturer and
manufacturer's identification number, nominal space velocity, and
space velocity range.
10.	Electronic controls - electronic control unit type (analog,
digital), parameters sensed (coolant temperature, engine speed,
exhaust oxygen content, throttle position, manifold vacuum, humidity,
etc.), parameters controlled (air-fuel ratio, ignition timing, EGR
rate, choke position, secondary air modulation, etc.), size and
amount of program primary storage, relationship between sensed and
controlled parameters (equations, graphical representations, etc.),
method of programming controller, transducers and actuators used,
schematic of electronic control system, effect of power supply
voltage variations on control signals, default control logic during
failure of any combination of sensors, transducers, and/or actuators.
11.	Evaporative emission control system - general description
including fuel tank capacity and use of any fuel tank inner liner,
degree of use of air cleaner/horn as storage volume, type of
storage material, location of storage material, volume of storage
material container(s), purge and fill tube routing, purge rate,
purge controls, location and design of purge vapor inlet to the air
cleaner/carburetor/ exhaust system, location and design of carburetor
vent valves, sealing between carburetor surfaces including the
throttle shaft, and air cleaner housing seals.
A. Exhaust Emission Control
1. Include both a generic and specific description of each
system (first choice and all backup systems) under consideration
for the model years under discussion. If any feature of the
emission control system differs between model lines it should
be treated as a different system. An example might be the
emission control system for a 2250 lb. IW vehicle as contrasted
to the emission control system for a 5000 lb. IW vehicle. An
example of a generic model year 1978 emission control system
is engine modification, EGR, and an oxidation catalyst. The
detailed description should include enough information about
the system to distinguish it from other systems in the same
generic category. The description should be accompanied by
engineering drawings and pictures when appropriate to more
fully identify and describe the system or subsystem.
This section should also include all developments in the area
of electronic control of emission-related parameters. The
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discussion and data presented should include, but not be
limited to electronic control of: (1) spark ignition, (2)
air/fuel ratio, (3) EGR rate, (4) transmission controls, (5)
air injection, (6) choke, (7) knock sensing and feedback, (8)
idle speed, (9) evaporative purge, and (10) turbocharger
controls. A complete discussion of the sensors, actuators,
and control logic should be provided, along with the emission
sensitivity to control parameters. Default logic and control
philosophy as functions of ambient conditions and vehicle
operating conditions should be discussed.
2. Discussion of System Optimization
a)	This should include a discussion of the design
constraints within which each system was optimized for
emissions. Examples of such constraints are fuel economy,
safety, cost, driveability, packaging, maintenance, and
performance. Quantitative values should be identified
for all of the constraints for which your company has
determined such quantitative values. Others should be
discussed in the manner in which they were set down for
the design engineer.
b)	This should provide a discussion of all designs that
were not successful in surviving the optimization studies
that your company performed, giving the criteria by which
they failed.
c)	Of the systems that are under consideration for the
model year being discussed, identify and explain the
trade-offs that have been made within the emission
control system. Trade-offs to be considered are first
costs, operating costs, fuel economy, emission levels,
driveability, performance, and durability. The rationale
considered in evaluating these trade-offs shall be
described and explained. Quantify any examples by
including design calculations or engineering reports. An
example might be catalyst location, where one emission
control related trade-off could be the trade-off between
a location close to the exhaust port for fast light off
versus a more remote location that might provide a longer
catalyst life. Another trade-off might be the interaction
between increased mechanical octane (to permit operation
on 91 RON fuel at higher compression ratio for improved
fuel economy) and the desire to reduce engine-out HC
emissions.
d)	The Agency considers that the design and/or operation
of the emission control system might influence vehicle safety.
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To assist the Agency to understand the emission control/safety
interrelationships, please answer the following questions.
i.	At what stage in the research, design, development,
and testing phase are the safety aspects of emission
control systems and/or devices considered?
ii.	What sort of testing and analysis is performed
to evaluate the designs for their likely safety-
related performance? Please give specific examples.
iii.	List and discuss all changes made to the
exhaust and evaporative emission control systems
developed by your company that were made because of
safety considerations. Include both changes made
during the development process and changes made
after the systems were in production.
B. Evaporative Emission Control
The Agency requests specific information on your development
efforts to control evaporative emissions. Considered especially
important are those programs targeted toward meeting a "2 gram"
SHED requirement. Evaporative system control description includes
the following: fuel tank capacity and use of any fuel tank inner
liner, degree of use of air cleaner/horn as storage volume, type of
storage material, location of storage material, volume of storage
material container(s), purge and fill tube routing, purge rate,
purge controls, location and design of purge vapor inlet to the air
cleaner/carburetor/exhaust system, location and design of carburetor
vent valves, sealing between carburetor surfaces including the
throttle shaft, and air cleaner housing seals.
The discussion of evaporative emissions should include system
optimization with special emphasis on the interactions between the
evaporative and exhaust emission control systems. The Agency knows
that there can be interactions between the evaporative and exhaust
emission control systems and considers the subject area to be an
important one for the future, especially at low HC and CO levels.
More effective evaporative emission control systems may be required
for the proposed 2 gram SHED standard. Therefore, you are requested
to discuss the optimization of the entire emission control system
including the evaporative emission control system. The discussion
shall include listing of all test results including all SHED tests
run on your vehicles with developmental emission control systems.
Additionally, the description of the evaporative emission control
system should include a discussion of the purge rate strategy,
including the purge rate versus time on the test cycles for different
control systems.
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C. Emission Control at Altitude
The 1977 Clean Air Act amendments may require changes in the
development of emission control systems for high altitude appli-
cations. Include a description of your development goals and
programs for control of emissions at altitude. Especially impor-
tant are programs to achieve the necessary emission control regard-
less of altitude.
D.	Reduced In-Service Adjustability for Emission Control Systems
On 11 October 1977 EPA promulgated an NPRM on the issue of in-
service adjustability of emission control systems. It is expected
that one approach toward meeting the intent of these proposed
regulations will be the development and introduction of emission
control systems that are less adjustable. Provide a complete
description of your programs to reduce the emission impact of
adjustments and/or reduce adjustments of emission control systems.
E.	Driveability
Driveability is now a subject that the Administrator must consider
in deciding to grant or not grant a request for suspension of the
CO standard. Also, the subject of vehicle driveability is of
interest due to possible driveability/maladjustment problems in-
use. Accordingly, provide details on your programs to (1) evaluate
and (2) improve vehicle driveability with special emphasis on
driveability/emissions interactions.
F.	Reduced Maintenance
The Agency is aware of the intent by the State of California to
take actions that may have the result of requiring the development
of emission control systems with less frequent or no maintenance
requirements. Since programs to develop and/or adapt such tech-
nology are emission related and may interact with other programs to
reduce exhaust emissions, provide a complete description of your
development programs to reduce/eliminate maintenance.
G.	Fuel Economy
The Agency expects that extensive efforts are being expended
toward meeting the fuel economy standards. However, as discussed
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in the cover letter, many approaches toward improving vehicle fuel
economy can have impacts on emissions. Provide information on the
following fuel economy related efforts by your company:
1.	Vehicle Weight Reduction Programs
The Agency is aware that major reductions in vehicle weight
are going to be implemented for the future. Describe, in
general terms, your weight reduction programs. The discussion
need not be extensive for most areas, however emission related
subjects should be included. Specifically, the Agency is
assuming that reduced vehicle weight programs will tend to
have a positive (beneficial) impact on the ability to control
emissions. Developments that would tend to run counter to
this assumption should be discussed and described in detail.
2.	Power to Weight Reduction Programs
If reduced power to weight ratios are utilized in an attempt
to improve fuel economy, there may be emissions impacts. The
relationship between power to weight ratio and emissions
should be fully discussed, if reductions in power to weight
ratio are contemplated. If data are available to quantify the
following, provide them.
a)	Effect on CO due to increased power enrichment
b)	Effect on NOx due to higher load factor operation
c)	Effect on emissions due to quicker exhaust system
warm-up
d)	Potential for NOx reduction due to improved EGR
tolerance
3.	Drivetrain Programs
Improved transmissions are another route toward improved fuel
economy. However, since the transmission characteristics can
influence exhaust emissions, a complete discussion of the
emissions impacts of:
a)	Increased use of manual transmissions (including
adding extra gears to existing manual transmissions)
b)	Use of wide ratio and/or lockup automatic transmissions
should be included, with emphasis on emission data that show
the effects.
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4. Engine Efficiency Programs
Approaches toward improving engine efficiency are intimately
related to emission control. Describe and discuss your programs
for improving engine efficiency and provide emission data
obtained in such programs.
H. Unregulated Emissions
EPA is interested in your efforts to characterize and control
emissions that are currently unregulated, but which may be a
potential health concern. Therefore:
1.	All data developed by your company on the following types
of unregulated emissions and related information shall be
submitted.
a.	particulate mass, composition, and size distribution
b.	nickel, cobalt, and other trace metals
c.	nitrogen compounds (amines, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide,
nitrosamines)
d.	sulfur compounds (sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulfide,
carbonyl sulfide, organic sulfur compounds)"
e.	polynuclear aromatics
f.	hydrocarbon composition
g.	aldehydes
h.	tire wear products
i.	asbestos
j. odor
2.	All work describing how the emission of these compounds is
affected by mileage should be reported. All work on how these
emissions differ with various types of gasolines and with
different fuel and oil additives should be included, as well
as, all work with alternate fuels (alcohols, hydrogen, gasolines,
or other fuels made from crudes derived from coal, oil shale,
etc.). The test method and analytical methods should be
described fully and HC, CO, NOx emissions, and fuel economy
impacts should also be discussed.
3.	The unregulated emissions should be reported under both
normal and malfunction conditions together with a discussion
of what typical malfunctions are.
4.	Data should be provided for non-catalyst cars, oxidation
catalyst cars, 3-way catalyst cars, cars with oxidation and 3-
way catalysts, other cars with advanced catalyst concepts,
alternate engines (PROCO, Diesel), and alternate engines with
catalysts. Full descriptions of all vehicles tested should be
reported.
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5. Finally, a complete description of your company's overall
characterization plan to determine what unregulated compounds
are emitted from various systems (and the priority of measur-
ing one type of compound versus another) should be reported.
I. Alternate Engine and Control Systems
Provide a full and complete discussion of your company's efforts in
the following areas: Diesel engines, stratified charge engines,
gas turbine (Brayton Cycle) engines, Rankine cycle engines, Stirling
cycle engines, hybrid propulsion systems (more than one prime
mover), electric propulsion systems, and any other technological
approaches that you currently have under development for possible
production by your company prior to or during model year 1984. The
emissions and fuel economy characteristics of these engines are
considered of greatest importance; however, other areas addressed
in this outline (e.g., unregulated emissions) should also be
covered. If your company has no data in any of the areas of
interest to EPA, please so specify in your response. Such in-
formation is needed by EPA to prepare itself to evaluate possible
requests for temporary suspension of the NOx emission standard
authorized by section 202 (b)(6) of the Clean Air Act for innovative
technology; understanding of the status of innovative technology
development industry-wide will be important to the evaluation of
individual company requests for such suspensions.
III. EXPERIMENTAL DATA
In order to respond fully to the request for information, the submittal
of the following relevant data to EPA will be required. Listed below
are the types of data and the detail required.
A. Vehicle Data
The following vehicle data are requested. Please respond to each
type of data request. If your company does not possess the data
requested, please so indicate in your response to EPA.
The information is requested for each engine family/emission
control system. If more than one control system behaves the same
during the test, that may be noted and not detailed. However, data
from vehicles with control systems with markedly different charact-
eristics, i.e., proportional vs. non-proportional EGR, different
carburetor metering principles, or different ECU input/output
characteristics should not be deleted.
1. Include full vehicle test logs showing all 1975 FTP,
"highway" fuel economy test, and evaporative emission data
from all experimental and developmental vehicles described in
your response.
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2.	Include full vehicle test logs showing all 1975 FTP data
on all durability fleet vehicles above, including evaporative
emissions.
3.	Include full descriptions of all fuels used in testing,
especially MMT, lead, sulfur, and phosphorus contents.
4.	Include all test results made to determine catalyst and/or
other aftertreatment device efficiency on the full 1975 FTP or
any portion thereof including all engine-out, tailpipe, and
catalyst and/or other aftertreatment device efficiency data.
Indicate the method used (modal analysis, back-to-back testing,
etc.).
5.	Include a description of all programs and data gathered
to date to evaluate catalysts and other emission control
systems from in-use vehicles, either fleets or on individual
vehicles.
6.	Include a description of all programs and all data gathered
to date to evaluate the effects of tire construction, tire
type, inflation pressure, etc. on emissions and fuel economy.
7.	Include a description of all programs and all data gathered
to date to evaluate the effects of transmission shift points
and procedures on emissions and fuel economy.
8.	Include a description of all programs and all data gathered
to date to evaluate or compare a variety of engine oils (such
as one brand vs. another, 10W-40 vs. 30W, with and without
graphite and/or molybdenum disulfide, synthetic vs. petroleum
based, etc.), transmission lubricants, differential lubricants,
or any other lubricants with regard to their effect on emissions
and fuel economy.
9.	Include a description of the reasons for any vehicle not
completing the full scheduled durability mileage.
10.	Include a discussion of the driveability and performance
of the test vehicle, again with quantitative data and with
quantitative comparisons to current model year vehicles.
Please include the driveability rating procedure used by your
company if this has not previously been supplied.
11.	Include any data acquired at your request by another
organization, supplier, or consulting firm, or, if you know of
the existence of data acquired on your vehicles, include a
brief statement concerning the data and who acquired the
information on such vehicles.
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12.	If there are agreements between your company and another
organization(s) to hold such data as confidential, inform EPA
as to the existence of such data and of the nature of the
agreements and identify the organization(s) involved. You may
either supply EPA with the data and request that EPA maintain
the data as confidential, or may indicate that you will not
provide the data unless EPA uses the authority granted it
under section 307(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act to obtain the
data from your company.
13.	For each vehicle for which there are detailed data, submit
the following, as a function of time during the 1975 FTP or
"highway" cycle.
a.	engine exhaust flow rate in SCFM
b.	engine air flow rate in SCFM
c.	spark timing, vacuum and centrifugal separately, plus
total spark timing or simply total spark timing if an
electronic system is used.
d.	exhaust gas recirculation rate as a percentage of
fresh inlet air flow.
e.	air injection flow rate into the exhaust manifold or
pipe.
f.	nominal engine air/fuel ratio, as determined upstream
of any aftertreatment device, for example, a catalyst or
thermal reactor.
g.	exhaust gas temperature before and after any after-
treatment device.
h.	catalyst temperature (if a catalyst is used). The
information may be presented graphically, for example,
superimposed on the speed vs. time trace of the emission
test, or in tabular form, on a second-by-second basis.
i.	sensor and/or transducer output signals as well as
electronic control unit output signals with the subsequent
engine operating parameters they control.
j. exhaust gas level before and after any aftertreat-
ment device.
14.	The way in which the system operates under the following
other conditions should be discussed; the emissions under such
conditions should be quantified as described above.
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a.	Operation in low (less than 60 degrees F) or high
(greater than 86 degrees F) temperature ambient conditions.
b.	Operation under conditions of speed and/or load which
do not occur during the 1975 Federal Test Procedure.
c.	Operation at low barometric pressure, for example, at
elevations significantly higher than sea level.
15. Fuel Economy Data
a.	On the 1975 Federal Test Procedure
Provide the weighted, carbon balance 1975 FTP fuel
economy for all tests run on advanced emission control
systems.
You may also supply the fuel consumption equivalent in
litres per 100 kilometres = 235.2
mpg
b.	On the EPA Non-metropolitan Driving Cycle
Provide the fuel economy and fuel consumption data for
all tests run using the EPA Non-metropolitan ("Highway")
Driving Cycle.
c.	Fuel Economy on Other Cycles
If you possess fuel economy data using a different pro-
cedure, you may also submit that data. The test proce-
dures should be referenced or specified in detail, if
that information has not been previously submitted to
EPA.
B. Non-Vehicle Data
1.	This should include the results from any catalyst or
electronic component screening tests, with a description of
test methodology, and must include the test results from the
catalysts and electronic components that were selected for the
durability vehicles.
2.	Include any other non-vehicle data such as engine dyna-
mometer studies of the effect of fuel contaminants on catalyst
durability, evaporative control system component durability
testing, or studies of the effect of ambient conditions on
electronic component durability. Include all engine map data
that show the relationship between specific emission/specific
fuel consumption and engine speed and load.
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3.	Include any data acquired at your request by another
organization, supplier, or consulting firm, or, if you know of
the existence of data acquired on your emission control
components, include a brief statement concerning the data and
who acquired the information on such components.
4.	If there are agreements between your company and another
organization(s) to hold such data as confidential, inform EPA
as to the existence of such data and of the nature of the
agreements, and identify the organization(s) involved. You
may either supply EPA with the data and request that EPA main-
tain the data as confidential, or may indicate that you will
not provide the data unless EPA uses the authority granted it
under section 307(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act to obtain the
data from your company.
COST INFORMATION
A.	First Cost
1.	The cost breakdown should be by major components such as
catalysts, EGR valves, air pumps, ECUs, sensors and/or
transducers, and include as separate items such additional
hardware as vacuum lines, wiring harnessess, brackets, belts,
pulleys, insulation, shields, and requisite engine modifications.
2.	The production volume assumed, what fraction of the
various product lines will require specific devices, number of
suppliers or vendors, and each supplier's approximate market
share should be clearly stated.
3.	The method(s) used to estimate the retail price equivalent
or "sticker price" such as vendor price times a mark-up factor
should also be described. If such a mark-up factor is used,
the factor should be stated and a discussion of what influences
the level of this factor such as the number of suppliers,
component complexity, consumer target market, etc. should also
be presented.
B.	Operating Costs
This should include expected extra costs to the vehicle owner over
the vehicle lifetime (assume 50,000 miles) due to:
1.	Fuel and lubricant cost, specifying the miles per gallon
fuel economy assumed for each engine family and a comparison
to 1973 model year vehicles of the same class.
2.	Maintenance cost other than catalyst and electronic
control component replacement. Such estimates should break
out parts and labor cost separately, providing the ratios of
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parts cost for OEM vs. replacement parts for required main-
tenance on each major emission control component which results
in such costs.
3.	Catalyst replacement cost. This estimate should separate
labor and material costs and should give the estimated life of
the catalyst. Material costs should break out catalyst and
container costs.
4.	Electronic control component replacement cost. This
estimate should separate labor and part costs and should give
the estimated life of such components. Part costs should
break out transducers, sensors, ECUs, and wiring harness
costs.
V. CONFIDENTIALITY OF TRADE SECRET INFORMATION
A.	Information submitted in response to the request which accom-
panied this outline will be deemed to have been obtained pursuant
to section 307(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act.
B.	You may assert that some or all of the information you submit
in response to this request is entitled to confidential treatment.
If you do assert that any information is confidential, you must
submit that information on separate pages in the report that are
clearly marked "CONFIDENTIAL" and are easily detached from the
report. In a separate section of the report labeled "CONFIDENTIAL
INFORMATION" identify the number of each page on which confidential
information appears. If you do assert that some or all of the
information is entitled to confidential treatment, the information
covered by your confidentiality claim will be disclosed by EPA only
to the extent and by means of the procedures set forth in 40 CFR
Part 2 Subpart B (41 Federal Register 36906, September 1, 1976).
If no claim accompanies the information in the report at the time
you submit it to EPA, the information may be made available to the
public by EPA without further notice to you. Please note that two
copies of your response (to be sent to EPA Headquarters) should
have all information claimed as confidential deleted.
Please note that information that constitutes "emission data" must
be made available to the public and may not be claimed as confi-
dential (see 40 CFR 2.301(a)(2)).
C.	If the information you submit is relevant to a proceeding
under the Clean Air Act it may be disclosed notwithstanding the
fact that it is confidential. 40 CFR 2.301(g) sets forth the
procedures by which information is determined to be relevant to a
proceeding and the manner in which disclosure is made. In evaluating
relevancy to a proceeding, EPA will consider the guidelines in 39
Federal Register 41899, December 3, 1974.
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UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN 48105
OFFICE OF
AIR AND WATER PROGRAMS
You will be receiving shortly or have received a letter from Mr. David
G. Hawkins, Assistant Administrator for Air and Waste Management,
requesting information for the annual industry status report. As Mr.
Hawkins indicates in his letter, my staff or I may contact you requesting
additional information or explanations, and any information request
should be considered by you to be an integral part of the data requested
in his letter. Consequently, consider this request for information on
particulate matter in that regard.
As you undoubtedly know, the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (PL
95-95) in Section 214 require that the EPA Administrator shall prescribe
regulations applicable to emissions of particulate matter from vehicles
manufactured during and after model year 1981. Pursuant to this section
of PL 95-95, my division will be drafting these regulations and the
testing procedures necessary for compliance with these regulations.
Because of the short time frame mandated by the new law, I am requesting
that you submit information concerning particulate matter in advance of
your annual status report submission. Also include this information
plus any updated information in this year's status report submission.
The information that I am anxious to obtain concerns four basic areas:
measurement, characterization, control of particulates, as well as your
information on particulate toxicity.
Concerning the measurement of particulate matter, I would like you to
share with us your experience in measurement techniques, accuracy and
precision of measurement techniques, costs of equipment, time for
measurements, procedure methodology and any other problem, difficulty,
or knowledge you wish to share with us.
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Regarding particulate characterization, we would like both physical and
chemical identification data. The physical identification would include
mass rate measurements as well as size distribution. The chemical
identification data would include elemental analyses (carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, and sulfur, as well as others) plus quantification of adsorbed
organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Also
needed is information regarding the effects of engine parameters adjustments,
engine operating conditions, ambient effects and the effects of fuels
and fuel additives.
I am also interested in your thoughts concerning the control of particulates
by means of: (1) modifications to fuels, (2) modification of fuel-
air/fuel pretreatment, (3) in-cylinder control, (4) aftertreatment, and
(5) modification of engine operating parameters. Any test results or
engineering evaluation and analysis of particulate control to support
your contentions will be helpful. Feel free to discuss control techniques
not mentioned above as well as cost, lead time, and potential success of
these methods.
I would also appreciate any information you may have regarding the
carcinogenic, mutogenic, or toxic potential for any part of the adsorbed
species.
Finally, I would like you to comment on what particulate level you think
is feasible. Base your analysis first on the assumption that the
particulate test procedure will be based on a total particulate mass
basis using a dilution procedure similar to the sulfuric dilution
tunnel procedure with the sample filter held at 125F. Your analysis
and recommendation can also be based on any other test procedure, for
particulate measurement, or on any health effect basis you may wish to
discuss. Any of your technical thinking in this area would be appreciated.
Since we are dealing with a rather short lead time, please reply not
later than thirty days after receipt of my letter.
I am looking forward to your reply with great interest.
Sincerely yours,
John P. DeKany, Director
Emission Control Technology Division
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Appendix III
Communications Regarding the Lack of Adequate Reporting
by the Industry to EPA

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UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460
JUL! 1977
THE ADMINISTRATOR
Honorable John E. Moss
Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight
and Investigations
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce
House of Representatives
.Washington, D.C. 20515
Dear Mr. Chairman:
I regret that my letter of June 10, 1977, in which I responded
to your May 12, 1977, questions about the validity of our recently
published Technology Assessment Report, did not adequately allay
your concerns with the accuracy of that report, and that it was
thus necessary for you to write to me again on this matter on
June 22, 1977. Nevertheless, I^feel that in my letter of June 10
we set forth as fully as it is possible to do our position on this
matter. Since that letter was rather long, in an effort to provide
you with a complete and thorough response, I am pleased to have
the opportunity to restate our position on this matter.
As I said at the top of page three of the June 10 letter,
"on the basis of our overall knowledge of the subject, it is our
judgment that the 1977 report presents a fair and accurate picture
of the status of emission control technology, and in its entirety
provides a valid data base for the Congress1 deliberations on the
issue of future emission standards."
That statement continues to represent our judgment on this
matter. The discussion of Conclusions One and Two in the report,
on pages 2-5 through 2-10, which conclusions deal with the timeframe
in which we believe various levels of emission standards can be met,
would not be likely to .be modified by additional data on the results
achieved with various technologies on which we may have received
less than full reports. Our judgment as to the timeframes for meeting
emission standards took into consideration not only demonstrated
technologies but also the lead time required by the industry to
apply that technology on an industry-wide basis. We believe that
there is little likelihood that technological experiments of which
we may not be aware could change these lead time parameters.
AIII-1

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- 2 -
The foregoing in no way reduces our concern about any failures
by the industry to fully report their work to us. We fully intend
to remain vigilant on this matter, and will do everything that we
can to assure that such non-reporting does not occur again. I
have directed our technical staff to include in next year's report
a discussion of the degree to which they believe this problem may
not have been resolved.
Sincerely yours,
Douglas M. Costle
AIII-2

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N'NCTY.FIFTH congress
JOHN E. MOSS. CALIF.. CHAIRMAN
JAMrS M COLLINS. TEX.
riOMMAN r. LENT, N-Y.
MATTHEW J. RINALOO, N.J.
DAVE STOCKMAN, MICH.
MARC U MAnKS, PA.
SAMUEL L. OEVINE, OHIO
(cx OFFICIO)
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HA >'LC 1 O. CTAGGER9, W. VA.
(CX OFFICIO)
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT ANO INVESTIGATIONS
OF THE
COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20515
ROOM 2323
RAYBURM House Opticc duiloino
PHCUZ (202) 225-4441
MICHAEL ft. LEMOV
CHIEF COUNSCL
JAMES NFLLIGAN
OPERATION? Ol RECTOR
J. THOMAS GREENE
COUNSEL TO THE CHAIRMAN
June 22, 1977
HAND DELIVERED
Honorable Douglas Costle
Administrator
Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, D. C. 20460
Dear Mr. Costle:
By letter dated May 12, 1977, we wrote to you concerning
deficiencies in data submitted to you by manufacturers re-
garding their emission-related development programs. The
Environmental Protection Agency had reported the deficiencies
in its sixth annual technology assessment report entitled,
"Automobile Emission Control~-The Development Status, Trends,
and Outlook as of December 1976," dated April, 1977. In our
letter, we asked you to assess whether the identified in-
stances of incomplete data reporting would alter the con-
clusions of the technology assessment report. l\Te also
asked you to initiate an investigation to identify other
instances of incomplete reporting in addition to those of
which you were then aware.
In your response of June 10, 1977, you stated:
"the instances of incompletely-reported data
that we have been able to identify would not
have materially altered the report's con-
clusions. Obviously, we can not speak to
data that may exist but about which we know
nothing, but it seems clear that any such
data could only have resulted in the report
being more [rather than less) optimistic
regarding the feasibility of meeting
emission standards without losses in fuel
economy." (Emphasis added.)
AIII-3

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Honorable Douglas Costle
Page Two
Later, you reiterated this phrase:
"we emphasize again that we have little reason to
believe that any data that was not reported could
change the report's conclusions in the direction
of being less optimistic about the possibility of
meeting the emission standards."
Your statements do not allay our concerns with the accuracy
of the report's conclusions. The Congress is on the verge of
relaxing automobile emission standards, in part because of claims
by automobile manufacturers that they cannot meet a more stringent
schedule. If the data that were not reported would suggest that
the manufacturers' are not being straightforward in their claim
of hardship, the Congress and the American people should be
alerted.
In your letter you also sought to explain on behalf of the
manufacturers:
In a major company there is so much information
that could conceivably be reported that it be-
comes unmanageable to report everything. ...
In the absence of statutory guidance on how much
a company must tell the government about its work,
it is difficult to make judgments of good or bad
faith in reporting on such work.
The companies were not at a loss for guidance. Appended to the
agency's request for information to the manufacturers was an out-
line which the companies were instructed to follow. Also
appended was a "Discussion of the Outline" that expanded on
the agency's needs.
The "Discussion of the Outline" specifically designated many
topics about which the agency desired information. Engine design
was a designated topic; yet, the report identified four instances
of new engine developments not reported. Spark control was a
designated topic; yet, the report identified, for example, one
instance where a spark control system was not reported until
five years after initial development. The Exhaust Gas Recir-
culation System (to control emissions of nitrogen oxides) was
a designated topic; yet, in your letter of June 10, 1977, you
identified the development of improved Exhaust Gas Recirculation
valves as an area in which incomplete information may have been
received.
In our letter of May 12, 1977, we asked that you assess the
issues represented by these examples by May 20, 1977, in order
that your conclusions could be evaluated before the Clean Air
Act Amendments of 1977 were considered by the House. The House
AIII-4

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Honorable Douglas Costle
Page Three
concluded its consideration of the Amendments on May 26, 1977.
We did not receive a response to our inquiries until June 13,
1977 .
The Conference on the Amendments is imminent, and we still
have received no response to our substantive concerns. We
expect you to make every effort to prp^de us with your immediate
evaluation of outstanding data deficiencies.
' U <
JOHN E. MOSS
Chairman
Subcommittee cni
Oversight and Investigations
JEM:rhj
AIII-5

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UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460
M 1 0 1977
THE ADMINISTRATOR
Dear Mr. Chairman:-
Thank you for your letter of May 12, 1977, in which
you expressed your concern about potential incompleteness
of our sixth annual emission control technology assessment
report, "Automobile Emission Control  The Development Status,
Trends, and-Outlook as of December 1976". Specifically, you
raised several questions about the statements at pages 3-18
through 3-23 that indicate that the data submitted to the Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency by the manufacturers for the pre-
paration of this:.report may have been  incomplete.
Before responding to the specific questions posed in your
letter, some preliminary discussion of the context in which the
technology- assessment reports are prepared may be useful-i' As you
have pointed put in your letter, Section 202(b)(4) of the Clean
Air Act requires that the" Administrator -report" annually to the
Congress with respect to the "development of systems necessary
to implement, the established emission standards.- It is impor-
tant to note, however, that our technology assessment reports
are not the same as the reports required by Section 202(b)(4)
of the Act, which is submitted annually. There is no statutory
requirement for the preparation of the technology assessment
report, which is a report to the Administrator from his technical
staff. However, as you suggest in your letter, we do of course
make use of-some of the information collected for the technology
assessment report for the purpose of preparing the 202(b)(4)
report, which report also covers many other subjects related to
automotive air pollution.
The first technology assessment report was prepared by.
our staff in 1971," in anticipation of the need for such a
document in proceedings* under Section 202(b)(5) of the
Clean Air Act on the suspension of the 1975/76 statutory
emission standards. Likewise; in 1972, 1973, and 1974, fol-
low-up reports were prepared for the use of the Administrator
in anticipated suspension proceedings. By 1975, this annual
AIII-6

-------
-2-
evaluation of the state-of-the-art of automotive emission-
control technology had demonstrated its usefulness and had
come to be expected by a great many parties, in both public
and private sectors, including several Committees of the
Congress. For that reason, we have continued to prepare these
reports on an annual basis even though no suspension pro-
ceedings were in the offing.
Our technical staff appropriately made clear.in the most
recent report that.some manufacturers appeared not to have
reported the full scope of their emission-control research
and development effort to EPA. From this one most under-
standably can draw the inference that the technology
assessment report-itself might not be complete, and that,
"the Congress, then, is apparently being asked to legislate
on the basis-of information which-is incomplete with respect
to potentially important" factors that should be considered
in any thorough and accurate technology assessment."
We concur that.such a situation is a matter of serious,
concern. However, the instances of. incompletely-reported
data that we have been able- to identify would not have
materially altered the report's conclusions. Obviously,
we can not speak to data-that may exist but about which
we know nothingjLbut "it" seems, clear, that-any such data
could only have resulted in the report being more (rather
than less) optimistic regarding the feasibility-of-meeting
emission standards without losses in fuel economy.
The issue of data that companies may feel reluctant
to report in their responses to our request for information
for the technology assessment report is not simple. In
a major company there is so much information that could con-
ceivably be reported that it becomes unmanageable to report
everything.' In addition, some work being done by a company
may be deemed to have a high degree of proprietary value,
and a company may even be reluctant to risk letting its com-
petitors know that it is working on a subject  much less
provide details about that work. In the absence of statutory
guidance on how much a company must tell the government about
its work, it is difficult to make judgments of good or bad
faith in reporting on such work. On the whole, we feel that
we have had reasonable cooperation from most companies in the
preparation of the annual technology assessment report, even
though (as our staff made clear in this year's report) there
are times when we feel we could have had better cooperation.
AIII-7

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-3-
Finally, on the basis of our overall knowledge of the subject,
it is our judgment that the 1977. report presents a fair and
accurate picture of the status of emission-control technology,
and in its entirety provides a valid data base for the Congress',
deliberations on the issue of future emission standards. '
In response to' your request, our technical staff has con-
ducted a review of any failures to report significant devel-
opments in areas other than those discussed in the report. The
trade press (in April and May of this year) reported three re-
cent Japanese efforts directed toward low emission-levels; these
efforts may have been programs directed toward the statutory Jap-
anese emission standards.' Also, it has not been feasible
for us to determine at. what time...these recently reported
developments may have taken place in relation to the time
of submission of the manufacturers', status reports to EPA,
i.e., whether they occurred before or after these reports
were submitted.
Based on their knowledge of the emission-control research
and development process, our staff" believes that there may-
be other areas in which incomplete information may have been
received, but they, are unable to verify the existence of
such data.- -These areas-include electronic controls and
engine optimization,.catalyst development, and the devel-
opment of other components-such-as sensors and improved
EGR-valves.- - The completeness of-reporting by companies in
the fir^t two of- these areas is suspect because the extensive
testing required- and concomitant lead time..implications sug-
gest: that such-work should be in progress. The last of these
areas is suspect on thebasis of past reporting history,
which suggests that the development status and methods of
operation of these components have generally, not been completely
reported. However, we emphasize again that we have little reason to
believe that any data that was not reported could change
the report's conclusions in the direction of being less
optimistic about the possibility of meeting the emission
standards.
Your letter asks.whether EPA plans to seek a legal remedy
under.18 U.S.C. 1001 or other statute for incomplete data
submissions. 18 U.S.C. 1001 provides "sanctions for anyone
who "...knowingly and willfully falsifies, conceals, or covers
up...a material fact or makes any false," fictitious or fraud-
ulent statements or representations...." This provision does
AllI-8

-------
-4-
not seem applicable in the cases at issue here. We are not
in a position to show that any willful falsification or
concealment has occurred; additionally, simply to refuse
to reply to a question is not comprehended by 18 U.S.C. 1001.
The Agency does not intend to bring legal action against
any company on this matter. The material that we considered
to be necessary to prepare the technology assessment was requested,
not subpoenaed, and thus we believe that we have no basis for
legal action. Nevertheless, as was suggested by the conclu-
sion to section 3.9 of the report, we believe it to be impor-
tant to consider carefully the implication and ramification
on future reporting efforts of incomplete industry submis-
sions,- and intend - to"do-everything possible to resolve this
problem in the future.
Sincerely yours,
YjZ Douglas M: Cosfie
Douglas M. Costle
Honorable John E. Moss
Chairman, Subcommittee on
Oversight and Investigations
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce
United States House of Representatives
Washington, D-C. 20515.
AIII-9

-------
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Hay 12, 1977
Honorable Douglas M. Costie
Administrator
Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, D. C. 20460
Dear Mr. Costlo:
As von know, the Administrator of the  linvironrnental
Protection Agency is required bysS'ecticn. 2Q2(j)j [dj of the
Cl?3Ji A4r ^Lct. to Triage an annual report to .Congress vrith re-
spect to the CGVclop:nent of systems, necessary to implement
the automobile omission standard.1;. The Administrator .is
directed to include information regarding "the exteat and
progress of efforts being made to develop the necessary
systems
On April 22, 1977, we urote to you requesting information
concerning the ircoacts on: (1) fuel economy; (2) air quality;
(3) health;._and (4) consumer costs of the various .emission. ,.
standards beihf? considered by the Congress in its assessment
of the Clean Air Act and the possible need iot amendments
thereto. You responded, in paTt, on May 2, 1977 f by trans-
witting three documents' to the Subcommittee, Among the
documents was the sixth.annual technology assessment report
entitled, "Automobile Emission Control--The Development Status,
Trends, and Outlook as of December 1976," dated April, 1977.
In your letter of transmittal, you stated that that report,,
contained information used in developing tho Administration,
position on the automobile emission standards.
We are quite concerned that the technology assessment
report to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection .
Agency and, consequently, the information upon which Congress
is being asked to rely, is incomplete.
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AIII-10

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Honorable Douglas M." Costle
Page Two.
The report On page 3-13 states:
"The responses requested front the manufacturers
are expected to be fall and complete de-
scriptions of thoir emission-related devela-
ment programs. However. SPA technical '.s.tgfj;
have reason to "believe sr.at .?:ot nil or the-
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work TTi.uy l>s ' co^nietely reported. to HPA in
a	sasnion." (iisp.nasis aciaea.J.
tit tr3 i?oll.owin2 pHSOs f "the Tcnort outlines- a. iiurnbc-r of-
examples demonstrating instances of incomplete reporting, r It
is trcuoling tliat tho znstaftcos cited 3.7,'e reported .only 35'
examples oi a presumably larger problcia of uaderineri scope.
The repoTt succinctly identifies the problem at pages
3	"in1	7 7 t.rVi an	- #^ar7	
  v ' * M t # v I  I fc 4 * A b	V V A	
"F.PA. has to rely to a large extent on the
manufacturers to supply full and complete
reports so that E?A~ can ir.aks its own
timely judgments as to..what the data ^can,"
The Congress must rely similarly on the Environmental Protection
Agency to supply full and complete reports so that it may
infdl 7 } fTrtTV-^ 1 V	r- 7	n
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-------
Honorable Douglas M. Costle
PagQ Thr^e
To avoid this'untenable result, and to ensure that we
may intelligently consider the Clean Air Act Amendments of
1977; wo request that you iiricnediately undertake an assess-
ment of the extent to which, if at all, the identified 
instances or incomplete data reporting-alter the report's -
conclusions and, consequently, the Adsjinistration position'
on the automobile emission .standards. Further, we'request 
that you initiate an investigation to identify "ther instances,
if 'any, of incomplete reporting in addition to thoso instances
of which you are currently aw-are. wc request .that you resort
your findings, no ..later, than May 20,._1S77?. so .tliat. they,..nay b'e .
evaluated before the Amendments are considered by the House.
As you know. Section 1001 of Title IS of. the United States
Code prescribes the inakin!? of a false statement to s.n aenc^r
of the United States, In the Agency-'.3 request for infor-
mation to the manufacturers, it expressly.-stated .the statutory -
basis for its request and outlined in detail the. nature of
the information needed:
"As part of its continuing overview of
the industry's efforts, ana to implement
sections 202(b)(4) and.. 202(h) (5) of the
Clean Air Act, as amended, the Environ-
mental Protection Agency needs current .
information on efforts by automobile .
manufacturers to moot the 1D73 and 1979
and subsequent model year li^ht duty
motor vehicle emission standards.
Accordingly, pursuant to section 307(a)
(1) of the Clean Air Act, you.are re-
quested to provide information regarding,
your development status and progress
toward meeting these standards."
Does the Agency plan to enforce its statutorily authorized ..
request for information by seeking a le^al-re.-sdy under IS
U.S.C, 1001 or any other statute for the submission of
incomplete information? If not, why not?
By invoking Section 202(b)(4) of the Clean Air Act in
its request, the Agency made clear its intent to use tho
information it received in--preparation of Its annual report
to Congress. We can assure, you that ve will consider the
need for action by the Congress to ensure that full and cora-.
plete reporting is made by the manufacturers.
Aiii-12

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Honorable Douglas M. Costle
Vnart r-nur
  .- "" ' 
V?e trust'that you-will give this.^atter your iiwnediate
artsntion,	//
//jf j
/ ry>?v>
k-
johm'e. moss / 
Chairman 9.
Subco-jr.ittee on
Oversight and liiv'-sstigat ions
AIII-13

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Appendix IV
Manufacturers, Developers, and Organizations
to Whom Requests for Information Were Sent

-------
Table AIV-1
Manufacturers, Developers, and Organizations to Whom
,Requests for Information Were Sent
Letters from David G. Hawkins, EPA Assistant Administrator
Date	Manufacturer/Organization
28 October 1977
AMC.
Chrysler
Ford
GM
VW*
Mercedes-Benz*
Porsche
Automobile Importers of America (ALA)**
Electronic Industries Association (EIA)**
Letters from John P. DeKany, Director, Emission Control Technology Division
Independent Developers
Date	Developer
9 November 1977
it	it	it
Ethyl
Questor
Air-Fuel Metering Developers
Date
4 November 1977
Catalyst Developers
Date
4 November 1977
ii	ii	ii
Developer
Autotronics
Bendix
Bosch
Carter
Dresser
Holley
Developer
Degussa
Nippondenso
Union Carbide
AIV-1

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Electronics Developers
Date
4 November 1977
Date
Developer
American Microsystems
Fairchild
Intel
Mostek
National Semiconductor
Signetics
Texas Instruments
Other Developers/Organizations
Developer/Organization
4 November 1977
9 November 1977
9 November 1977
9 November 1977
Borg-Warner
Curtiss-Wright
Siemens
Manufacturers of Emission
Controls Association (MECA)***
* not a member of ALA
** these organizations were asked to distribute the request for
information to their members.
AIA members include:
Alfa Romeo
BMW
British Leyland
CitroSn
Fiat
Honda
Toyo Kogyo
Nissan
Peugeot
Renault
Rolls Royce
Saab
Subaru
Toyota
Volvo
EIA members include:
Delco
General Instruments
Hitachi
Motorola
Raytheon
RCA
Rockwell
*** MECA was asked to distribute the request for information to
its members. MECA members include:
Air Products and Chemicals (catalyst)
Corning (catalyst)
Eaton (electronic)
Gould (catalyst)
Industrial Electrical Rubber (electronic)
Matthey-Bishop (catalyst)
Metex (electronic)
Robertshaw (electronic)
Universal Oil Products (catalyst)
Walker (catalyst)
Engelhard (catalyst)
W. R. Grace (catalyst)
] cooperat
AIV-2

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Table AIV-2
Receipt of Status Reports
from the Various Manufacturers
and Other Developers
in Chronological Order*
Date	Manufacturer/Developer	Comments
28 December 1977
Curtiss-Wright
Rotary engine data
9 January
1978
Robert Bosch
Status
report
10 January
1978
Questor
Status
report
13 January
1978
Chrysler
Status
report


Degussa
Answers to specific



questions only


Holley
Status
report


Ford
Status
report
16 January
1978
Nissan
Status
report


Bendix
Status
report


GM
Status
report
17 January
1978
Toyota
Status
report
18 January
1978
Carter
Status
report


Siemens
Status
report
19 January
1978
Mercedes-Benz
Status
report



- 2 of
3 vols.


Honda
Status
report
20 January
1978
Degussa
Status
report


Porsche
Status
report


Ethyl
Status
report


AMC
Status
report
30 January
1978
BMW
Status
report


Isuzu
Status
report


Intel
Status
report


Alfa Romeo
Status
report
31 January
1978
VW/Audi
Status
report
1 February 1978
Volvo
Status
report
3 February 1978
Toyo Kogyo
Status
report
7 February 1978
Fuji
Status
report
9 February 1978
Mitsubishi
Status
report
10 February 1978
UOP
Status
report
14 February 1978
Dresser
Status
report
17 February 1978
Saab
Status
report
3 March 1978
Fiat
Status
report
9 March 1978
National Semiconductor
Status
report
9 March 1978
Peugeot
Status
report
9 March 1978
Renault
Status
report
20 March 1978
Mercedes-Benz
Status
report - 3rd vol
23 March 1978
British Leyland
Status
report
12 June 1978
Texas Instruments
Status
report
*The due date was 15 January 1978.
AIV-3

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