United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Pollution
Prevention and Toxics
Washington, DC 20460
July/August 1992
EPA 741-N-92-001
<>EPA Pollution
2	Notes & Resources
3	E-Lamps
Zj. Watershed Protection
^ Great Lakes
Corporate Notes
7 Painting
8 Reducing Office
Paper Waste
Q Biking is Better!
\ Q State Legislation
In the States: Texas
22 Calendar
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Pollution Prevention News
401 M Street SW (MC 7409)
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Editorial Staff:
Priscilla Flattery, Editor
Gilah Langner
Teresa Opheim
judith Rosenthal
FTC Issues Guidelines on
Environmental Marketing Claims
On July 28, the Federal Trade Commission
announced new guidelines for environmental
marketing claims in advertising and labeling
of consumer products. The guidelines are
intended to help reduce consumer confusion
and prevent the false or misleading use of
terms such as "recyclable," "degradable," and
"environmentally friendly."
FTC Chair Janet D. Steiger said, "Our goal
is to protect consumers and to bolster their
confidence in environmental claims, and to
reduce manufacturers' uncertainty about
which claims might lead to FTC law-enforce-
ment actions, thereby encouraging marketers
to produce and promote products that are less
harmful to the environment." EPA, FTC, and
the U.S. Office of Consumer Affairs have been
working closely together on a task force on
environmental marketing claims.
The new guidelines are not legally enforce-
able and do not rigidly define environmental
terms. Instead, through specific guidance and
a series of examples of acceptable and decep-
tive claims, the guides identify the types of
claims that should be explained or qualified to
avoid deceiving consumers. Terms for which
guidance is provided include: degradable,
biodegradable, and photodegradable;
compostable; recyclable; recycled content;
source reduction; refillable; and ozone safe
and ozone friendly.
As with any advertising claim, the FTC
guidelines specify that any time marketers
make objective environmental claims, whether
explicit or implied, they must be substantiated
by competent and reliable evidence. Environ-
mental claims should also make clear whether
they apply to the product, the package, or a
component of either.
The guidelines are based on a review of
investigatory data, two days of public hear-
ings, and over 100 written public comments.
The Guides for the Use of Environmental Market-
ing Claims will be published in the Federal
Register shortly; copies are also available from
the FTC, 202-326-2222.
Energy Star Computer Partnerships
Announced with Eight Firms
EPA aims to sign up entire computer industry by June 1993
EPA and eight computer manufacturers
jointly announced in June that agreement
had been reached to promote energy-
efficient personal computers, contributing to
the prevention of air pollution associated
with power generation.
The agreement is the first one under
EPA's Energy Star Computers Program.
Charter partners in the agreement, account-
ing for 35 percent of U.S. personal computer
and work station sales, are: Apple Com-
puter Inc., Compaq Computer Corporation,
Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-
Packard Company, IBM Corporation, NCR
Corporation, Smith Corona Corporation,
(Continued on page 3)
Printed on Recycled Paper

Pollution Prevention News - 2
]uly / August 1992
Notes and Resources
Free Online Database
EPA's Online Library System is a free
bibliographic database containing more
than 1 million environmental reports,
documents, and audiovisuals. Updated
biweekly, it includes the following
databases: EPA's national catalog
(citations and summaries on environ-
mental topics plus EPA report distrib-
uted through the National Technical
Information Service); hazardous waste;
clean lakes; EPA Region l's library; and
the chemical collection system.
To dial in, call: 919-549-0720.
Baud Rate: 300-9600.
Parity: Even.
7 data bits per character.
One stop bit.
Duplex: Half.
At the first system prompt, type
IBMPSI. At the second system prompt,
type OLS. To log out, type Q or QUIT.
For more information or a User's Guide,
call the EPA Library at 919-541-2777.
Gulf Coast Library
The Gulf Coast Environmental Library,
formerly the Texas Pollution Prevention
Information Center, is located at Lamar
University in Beaumont, Texas, and
offers a reference library and electronic
bulletin board to large and small
companies and members of the public
seeking environmental information. The
library electronic bulletin board contains
the online library catalog and messaging
center, and is accessible toll-free, at 1-
800-252-6880. The library is located at
886 Georgia Avenue in Beaumont.
Mailing address: P.O. Box 10613,
Beaumont, TX 77710. For more informa-
tion, contact the librarian, Julie Weaver,
Case Studies Compendium
EPA's Pollution Prevention Research
Branch has compiled 31 case studies of
pollution prevention projects under four
of its key technology evaluation and
assessment programs. Case studies
range from a robotic paint facility to a
local school district to a manufacturer of
military furniture. The objectives of each
program are described and costs and
payback periods are summarized for the
recommended pollution prevention
technologies in each case study. The
Pollution Prevention Case Studies Compen-
dium (EPA/600/R-92/046) is available
from: U.S. EPA, Center for Environmen-
tal Research Information, 26 W. Martin
Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH
45268, or from the Pollution Prevention
Information Clearinghouse (PPIC), 703-
AIPP Elections
The American Institute for Pollution
Prevention has re-elected its chairper-
son, Dr. Robert B. Pojasek of GEI
Consultants, Inc., who represents the
American Chemical Society for the
Institute. Re-elected as Vice-Chair was
Dr. R. Lee Byers of the Aluminum
Company of America, representing the
Aluminum Association for AIPP.
Another 20 professional, industry, state,
and federal organizations are repre-
sented on the Institute which is oper-
ated by the University of Cincinnati
under a cooperative agreement with
EPA. For more information on AIPP,
contact Dr. Thomas Hauser, Executive
Director, AIPP, Civil & Environmental
Engineering, University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071.
Research Grants Awarded
Marking the end of its first year of
operation, the Pacific Northwest
Pollution Prevention Research Center
has announced the award of eight
grants totalling just under $200,000. The
funds will go towards a variety of
projects, ranging from reuse of caustic
solutions to a comparison of surge
irrigation with conventional irrigation,
to a small business source reduction
loan program involving the banking
industry in the State of Washington. The
Center will be expanding its activities
this year by sponsoring roundtable
discussions to spur thinking about
waste reduction in targeted industries.
Fish processing and pulp and paper will
be the first industries examined. "One of
the Center's most important functions is
to bring top minds together to brain-
storm ideas that will reduce pollution,"
said Madeline M. Grulich, Executive
Director of the non-profit Center.
All About CRADAs
EPA and the Department of Energy
(DOE) will hold three conferences in
September to acquaint business and
academia with opportunities to collabo-
rate with federal laboratories to develop
innovative environmental technologies
that can be patented and licensed. The
meetings will be held as follows: Sept. 3-
4, Las Vegas, NV; Sept. 9-10, Cincinnati,
OH; Sept. 29, Research Triangle Park,
NC. DOE has negotiated over 140
cooperative research and development
agreements (CRADAs) as of June 1992.
In a recent agreement, DOE will help
fund thermal control systems for
batteries, as part of a four-year program
of a consortium of automakers, battery
manufacturers, and the electric utility
industry to develop advanced batteries
that could make widespread use of
electric cars feasible by the year 2000.
Call for Papers
A Pollution Prevention Conference on
Low and No-VOC Coating Technologies
will take place May 25-27,1993 in San
Diego, CA. Sponsored by EPA, the
Research Triangle Institute, and the
American Institute for Pollution Preven-
tion, the conference will provide a
forum for the exchange of technical
information on coating technologies,
particularly improved coating tech-
niques that result in less VOC and toxic
air emissions. Abstracts are due Septem^
ber 8,1992 to: Coleen M. Northeim, RTI,
P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park,
27709. (Tel: 919-541-5816.)

julylAugust 1992
3 - Pollution Preventiojj News
iI-Lamp Technology Moves Lighting into Electronic Age
Anew technology designed to
reduce the amount of energy used
for lighting—the E-Lamp—was an-
nounced in June by Intersource Tech-
nologies, a Silicone Valley company,
and American Electric Power Co., which
is investing $6.5 million in the new
technology. The E-Lamp is an electronic
light bulb that is designed to combine
the compactness and light intensity of
incandescent bulbs with the energy
efficiency of fluorescent lamps. Pierre
Villere, chairman and chief executive
officer of Intersource, was reported as
saying that current fluorescent bulbs are
"the eight-track of the '90s. We think we
have the CD."
The E-Lamp's makers say that the
lamp, which is comparable in size and
shape to conventional light bulbs, is
four times as efficient as an incandes-
cent bulb with identical lighting output,
jreover, with no filament to burn out,
;y claim it will last 15,000 to 20,000
hours rather than the 750-1,000 hours of
a conventional light bulb.
Initially, Intersource plans to market
an R-series replacement bulb for
traditional 75-watt flood lamps installed
as recessed lighting fixtures in stores,
offices and factories. Within a few years,
the company intends to
move into the market
for traditional "A-Line"
light bulbs, of which
1.5 billion were sold
last year in the U.S.
According to
Intersource, the
E-Lamp works by a
magnetic coil that
generates a high-
frequency radio signal.
When a sealed glass
globe containing the
same gas mixture used
in conventional
fluorescent lamps
interacts with this
signal, the gas is
converted to what
physicists call a
'plasma.' The plasma
emits invisible light,
striking a phosphor coating on the
inside of the glass, which then glows
with visible light.
One concern is whether, when the
bulbs come on the market at $10-20 a
piece, consumers will find them too
pricey. Villere says that with a little
forward thinking, however, the E-Lamp
will be a great deal: "For most busi-
nesses, their investment would be
recovered in just a few months.
Homeowners would save enough
money on their electric bills in just one
year to recover the entire purchase
price, and they wouldn't need to replace
another bulb for 10 to 20 years."
Energy Star
Computers Program
(Continued from page 1)
and Zenith Data Systems.
Office equipment is the fastest
growing electricity load in the commer-
cial sector. Computer systems alone are
believed to account for as much as 5% of
commercial electricity consumption.
Research shows that the vast majority of
the time the nation's 30-35 million
personal computers are turned on, they
re not in active use, and 30-40% are left
inning at night and on weekends.
Under the voluntary agreement, the
Energy Star Computer Partners will
introduce personal computers and/or
monitors capable of enterine a low-
power state (defined as 30 watts or less)
when the unit is inactive, and will
educate customers about the energy
savings and pollution prevention
potential of turning off existing comput-
ers. Computers meeting the terms of the
agreement will be identified for con-
sumers by the EPA Energy Star logo.
Through corporate purchasing efforts
modeled after EPA's Green Lights
program, EPA will encourage consum-
ers to buv computers bearine the EPA
Energy Star logo wherever they are cost-
effective. The logo will make its debut
on products and in advertisements one
year from this June. EPA is also working
within the federal government, the
largest purchaser of office equipment in
the world, to encourage agencies to
procure Energy Star products.
The new personal computers could
save enough electricity to power
Vermont and New Hampshire each year
and save ratepayers up to $1 billion in
annual electricity bills. Equally impor-
tant for many computer operators is the
reduced likelihood that power-hungry
computer systems will overtax capacity
in buildings that are not designed to
handle a heavy electrical load.
For more information, contact Brian
Inhnsnn 9fW-9M-Q11 ±

Pollution Prevention News - 4
July/August 1992
EPA Adopts Watershed Protection Approach
by Anne Robertson
EPA Office of Water
Historically, EPA's Office of Water
has addressed the environmental
problems affecting the Nation's waters
by targeting specific pollutants and
implementing pollutant-specific con-
trols, often referred to as end-of-pipe
solutions. These controls limit the
amount of a given pollutant that can be
discharged into a water body from a
single source. This approach has
produced significant improvements in
water quality; however, many waters
remain degraded and suffer from
continued contamination. Pollutant-
specific approaches are not sufficient to
address major problems such as
nonpoint sources of pollution (also
referred to as "wet weather runoff") and
habitat degradation that plague U.S.
waters today. In response to the need
for a "big picture" solution, EPA has
adopted a watershed protection ap-
The watershed protection approach
focuses on water basins which are
naturally defined geographic areas. This
approach expands the traditional focus
on "conventional pollutants" and toxics
to include physical water quality (e.g.,
temperature, flow, circulation), habitat
quality (e.g., channel morphology,
composition, and health of biotic
communities), and biodiversity (e.g.,
species number and range). A water-
shed approach addresses both surface
and ground waters.
EPA's watershed approach builds on
existing geographically-based programs
Continued on next
Helping Small Business Protect Groundwater
Public attention tends to focus on the
environmental issues of corporate
giants, whose pollution problems—and
solutions—are quite large-scale. Small
quantity generators (facilities that
produce 100 to 1000 kg of hazardous
waste per month) are often overlooked,
but can generate serious pollution
problems in their local areas.
To protect local groundwater re-
sources from problems caused by small
quantity generators, the Suffolk County
Water Authority in Long Island, NY,
offers a free, confidential technical
assistance program for source reduction
that focuses on small businesses. "That's
the void we're trying to fill—for those
who are not a DuPont or an Exxon,"
explained James Hartnett, acting director
of SCWA's Watershed Oversight and
Protection Department. SCWA relies
exclusively on groundwater to serve the
county's 1.2 million customers.
SCWA found that the businesses that
pose the biggest threat to the watershed
fall in the categories of vehicle mainte-
nance (auto dealers, body shops and
service stations), dry cleaning, printing/
photoprocessing, light construction,
metal finishing, and metal fabrication.
"Because of the vast number of these
establishments and the relative lack of
regulatory control over their operations,
they present the ideal market for
SCWA's Source Reduction Program/'
explained the program's progress report.
SCWA's Source Reduction Program has
arranged trade group seminars, set up
site visits, developed waste reduction
fact sheets for different types of indus-
tries, and contacted businesses by mail
"We don't want to do the work for them, but
we want to send them in the right direction."
and telephone to make them aware of its
The program has focused most of its
efforts thus far on the vehicle mainte-
nance sector. Program staff have made
presentations to the Long Island Gasoline
Retailers Association, the Greater New
York Auto Dealers Association, and
other such groups.
As expected, these presentations
generated requests for on-site audits,
which were followed up with written
reports and suggestions, many of which
stressed the economic benefits of waste
reduction. In the case of one car dealer,
Source Reduction Program staff offered
to compare the costs of having an in-
house recovery unit for recycling waste
antifreeze with the dealer's current
practice of using a contractor to haul the
antifreeze away. "You can then decide if
the costs of the hardware are justified by
the possible savings/' wrote the SCWA
In another case, program staff advised
an auto repair shop to reduce its inven-
tory of oils and other fluids. "By keeping
smaller quantities on your premises, yoi
will not be required to purchase as man
secondary contain-
ment vessels, thereby
lowering your costs of
compliance." SCWA
also recommended
that the shop not only
drain its used oil filters, but collect them
in a drum for pick-up by a recycler, who
could recover 80 percent of the oil that
remains after draining.
SCWA's Source Reduction Program
tries to save businesses from having to
spend time and money just to find the
appropriate resources to attack their
waste problems, explained Hartnett. "We
don't want to do the work for them, but
we want to send them in the right
Owners and managers of small
businesses seem to be grateful for the
program's services. As one owner wrote,
"[Your staff member] was extremely
helpful. I have been looking for informa-
tion and help and have been unsuccess-
ful in getting such honest information
and service elsewhere."
For more information, contact
SCWA's Source Reduction Program at
(516) 563-0308.

julylAugust 1992
5 - Pollution Prevention News
Lakes and Rivers
Continued from previous page
including the Great Lakes, Gulf of
Mexico, Chesapeake Bay, National
Estuary, and Clean Lakes Programs.
Within a particular watershed, the
approach involves evaluating the
condition of the natural resources and
the range of environmental threats,
enlisting the active participation of
public and private stakeholders, and
implementing holistic strategies for
restoring or protecting the resources.
Focusing on natural resources and
systems makes it possible to detect
problems not usually revealed by
traditional water pollution control
activities, for example, habitat loss and
Pollution prevention activities will
play an integral role in the protection of
watersheds. For example, farmers will
be encouraged to apply less fertilizer
and pesticides to decrease the impacts of
agricultural runoff. Watershed protec-
tion projects often include efforts to
istore natural channels and vegetate
le areas adjacent to streams in order to
reduce sedimentation caused by runoff
and erosion.
Example: Merrimack River
The Merrimack River Watershed
Protection Project is one of several in
which EPA has a lead role. The water-
shed covers 5,010 square miles in
Massachusetts and New Hampshire and
provides drinking water for more than
300,000 people. The river and its water-
shed are used for industrial and agricul-
tural purposes, waste assimilation, flood
control, recreation, and hydropower
generation and provide wildlife habitat.
Wastewater discharges, toxic contami-
nants, urban runoff, increased water
withdrawal, and wetlands loss are
among the threats to long-term water
quality and ecological integrity.
Beginning in 1988, EPA Region I,
*he States of Massachusetts and New
impshire, and the New England
terstate Water Pollution Control
lommission began an initiative to
mprove and protect water quality in the
Merrimack system. Subsequently,
regional planning agencies, the U.S.
| Great Lakes Update:
j Pollution Prevention
| by Danielle Green
{ EPA Great Lakes National Program
Ore of the projects coming out of
the International Joint Commis-
sion meeting last September was an
Auto Industry Pollution Prevention
Project. Over the last year, the project
has taken shape as a working partner-
ship between government and business,
including Chrysler, Ford, General
Motors, and the Motor Vehicle Manu-
facturers Association of the United
States, Inc. The State of Michigan is
taking the lead in coordinating govern-
ment activities with the other Great
Lake states, EPA, and Canada.
The automobile industry is promi-
nent in the Great Lakes region, with
over 200 plants in operation in the Great
Lakes states and Ontario. Thousands of
firms in the Great Lakes Basin serve as
Geological Survey, the Fish and Wildlife
Service, the National Park Service, the
Army Corps of Engineers, local govern-
ments, industries, utilities, universities,
and a variety of organizations have
joined the Merrimack effort. The
following six goals have been set for the
•	Reduce pollution load by 30 percent
•	Meet water quality standards
•	Identify and protect priority wet-
lands, critical habitats, and enhance
•	Increase communication between
agencies and organizations
•	Build a constituency
•	Public stewardship.
EPA's Office of Water is committed to
meeting the challenges of making the
watershed protection approach a
pollution prevention success and in
producing cleaner, healthier waters
throughout the nation.
For more information, contact Anne
Robertson at 202-260-9128.
in the Auto Industry
suppliers to the auto industry. Promot-
ing pollution prevention is an important
way to protect the environment and
enhance economic competitiveness.
In December 1991, the Michigan
Department of Natural Resources and
the auto companies agreed on a list of 65
persistent toxics to be targeted under
the Auto Project, including halogenated
and non-halogenated hydrocarbons,
metals, and pesticides. Persistent toxics
are defined as any toxic substance that
has accumulated to levels which
significantly impact the Great Lakes
system, as evidenced by direct measure-
ment. The list will remain in effect for
four years to allow for adequate plan-
ning and implementation of pollution
prevention strategies.
Each auto company has identified its
historical pollution prevention efforts
and is currently evaluating which of the
targeted substances are used in its
operations. In addition, each auto
company will survey its plants in the
Great Lakes states to establish priorities
for targeting pollution prevention
efforts. The auto companies will provide
Michigan with descriptions of indi-
vidual pollution prevention projects,
goals, and time frames.
The auto companies, MVMA, and
(Continued on page 7)
Local governments looking for
help in tackling tough water quality
problems can turn to Water Quality:
Protection and Remediation, part of
the Building Sustainable Communi-
ties handbook series from The
Global Cities Project. Featured in
the handbook are step-by-step
projects, sample ordinances,
resource publications, and key
contacts. Cost: $40 ($20 for govern-
ment and non-profits). Contact:
Karen Bates, The Global Cities
Project, 2962 Fillmore St., San
Francisco, CA 94123,415-775-0791.

Pollution Prevention News - 6
Inly/August 199:
Corporate Notes
Corporations Report Going Beyond Compliance
A few years ago, if a company
concerned itself with environmen-
tal affairs at all, it focused strictly on
complying with the technicalities of
command-and-control regulations.
Today, compliance is still a major focus,
but pollution prevention efforts may be
include measuring the environmental
impact of its businesses. "We've looked
at where we can make improvements.
For example, we've made piping
changes and gotten better yields per
batch, and we now send packaging back
to suppliers," Lafond says.
environment by, for example,
carpooling and recycling. "Thousands
have been eager to take part in minimi-
zation and recycling. It was a matter of
taking advantage of that resource,"
Murphy says.
Disney World's Main Street cars run on compressed natural gas.
beginning to take center stage. S.C.
Johnson & Son, The Disney Co., and
Rubbermaid Inc. are typical examples.
S.C. Johnson is "much more involved
in waste minimization than the com-
pany was several years ago," says
Timothy Lafond, environmental opera-
tions manager. "As regulatory pressures
have increased and disposal costs have
risen, source control has become cost
effective. Source control was always a
good idea; now it's good business. That
has really changed."
Lafond estimates that S.C. Johnson's
environmental focus is about 50 percent
compliance, "our ongoing job," and 50
percent waste minimization. The
company's waste minimization projects
Capturing Consumers'
Rubbermaid has put into
place a number of process
changes that, according to the
company, drastically reduce
the use of toxic materials,
chemicals and solvents.
Rubbermaid also has put
extensive resources into
capturing consumers' interest
in recycling and source reduc-
tion. Among the company's
newer products are an insu-
lated cooler with reusable food
and beverage containers, and a
line of containers to separate
and collect recyclable materials
in the home.
The Walt Disney Co. also has
put into place a number of
source reduction and recycling
projects in the last couple of
years. At the same time,
however, Disney has been
getting its compliance house in
order. Kym Murphy, corporate
vice president of environmental policy
at Disney, says that when he was
appointed to his position less than three
years ago, "We went into environmental
culture shock. We didn't have the
human infrastructure to comply with
environmental regulations. The regula-
tions and laws are quite complex. For
example, to the hundreds of people in
the field dealing with paints, the
regulations are very complicated. If you
put 22 pounds of legislative jargon on a
painter's desk, it's overwhelming."
Disney has encouraged pollution
prevention among its 57,000 employees
through its Environmentality program,
a program that requires pledges from
employees to reduce their impact on the
News and Notes
•	Anheuser-Busch has developed
a design that will reduce the
amount of aluminum in the
company's cans by 20 million
pounds a year. The new cans have a
lid that is one-eighth inch smaller in
diameter than the lids currently
used by Anheuser-Busch and most
other beverage companies. The
design was developed through a
partnership among the packaging
and engineering departments at
Anheuser-Busch, brewery equip-
ment supplies such as can fillers,
and Chicago-based American
National Can Company.
•	Tests of a soybean oil diesel fuel
blend recently were completed at
Lambert Airport in St. Louis. The
fuel, a blend of 20 percent soybean
based diesel (methyl soyate) and 80
percent conventional diesel, was
used in 10 of the airport's mainte-
nance vehicles. According to the
Missouri Soybean Merchandising
Council, soybean oil diesel fuel is
essentially sulfur free, and it emits
significantly fewer particulates,
hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide
than regular diesel fuel.
•	N-Viro has won a number of
awards for its technology that turns
sewage sludge into an agricultural
and construction material that
resembles a fertilizer and soil. The
N-Viro technology thickens,
conditions, deodorizes, stabilizes,
and pasteurizes wastewater sludges
by mixing them with cement kiln
dust or with other similar alkaline
materials such as fly ash from coal
burning facilities.

July/August 1992
7 - Pollution Prevention News
Pollution Prevention: Painting and Paint Stripping
poy steve Hillenbrand
Waste Reduction Engineer,
Tennessee Valley Authority
In pollution prevention or waste
reduction assessment reports and case
studies, the following statements appear
quite frequently:
•	... and the company should change to
water-based paint which will eliminate
the hazardous waste from its coating
•	The switch to water-based paints lor
powder coatings] reduced their VOC
emissions to ZERO.
•	The lead-free paint does not produce a
sludge with heavy metals.
•	The equipment is now stripped prior to re-
coating by blasting with /take your pick:
plastic beads or dry ice or ice crystals or
baking soda] which completely eliminated
the operation's hazardous waste.
•	Stripping the paint with this non-
hazardous chemical stripper will
eliminate the need to dispose of the paint
sludge as a hazardous waste.
The above statements are not quite
true!! Although a switch to water-based
paints, alternative strippers and stripping
methods represents a marked improve-
ment, the new methods are not pollu-
tion-free and may still result in emissions
Great Lakes
(Continued from page 5)
Michigan have agreed to establish a
process for addressing regulatory issues
that may need to be resolved in order
for voluntary pollution prevention
efforts to be successful.
Supplier Outreach
Perhaps one of the most important
aspects of the Auto Project is the
commitment by the auto companies to
work with their suppliers to promote
Dilution prevention. A supplier
ollution prevention forum is scheduled
ror Fall 1992. The auto companies will
also participate in technology transfer
forums to share non-proprietary
information on prevention.
or wastestreams of environmental
Water-Based Paints
Water-based paints do greatly reduce
VOC emissions over conventional paints
and cleanup is primarily water and
usually does not generate a waste that is
an environmental concern (although, if
disposed of as a wastewater, chemical
oxygen demand may be a problem for
some discharges to publicly owned
treatment works).
However, most water-based paints
still contain from about 30 g/1 (.25 lb/
gal) to 250 g/1 (2 lb/gal) Volatile Organic
Compound (VOC) liberating solvents
even though they are "water-based."
There are some water-based formula-
tions that contain less than 30 g/1 but
they usually are not suitable for indus-
trial applications.
Water-based paints also contain the
same or similar range of heavy metals as
other paints. Under the Lead Based
Paint Poison Prevention Act, the term
"lead-free" paint means that it contains
less than 600 ppm or .06% lead. A rule
of thumb for leachability of paint sludge
(either from cleanup or stripping) is
1 in 20.
All paints have varying amounts of
heavy metals either as additives or
through process contamination. A lead
Parallel Canadian Program
In May 1992, the governments of
Canada and Ontario and the Big Three
automakers in Canada (Chrysler
Canada, Ford Motor Company of
Canada, and General Motors of Canada)
and the MVMA signed a Memorandum
of Understanding for voluntary reduc-
tion in toxic substance use, generation,
and release from automotive manufac-
turing facilities. The Canadian auto
companies will also work with their
suppliers. A joint industry/government
task force has been set up to manage the
project, beginning with the develop-
ment of a list of substances to be
targeted for reduction.
content of 500 ppm is not unusual and a
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Proce-
dure (TCLP) test could leach as much as
25 ppm which is much greater than the
"land ban" limit of 5 mg/1. Other heavy
metals that might be found in paint
formulations include barium and in older
formulations, mercury, cadmium,
chromium, and selenium.
Paint manufacturers' literature,
including their Material Safety Data
Sheets, usually do not give sufficient
information to determine the concentra-
tions of VOCs and heavy metals. This is
due in part to the constantly changing
formulations to improve the product,
which usually also reduces the VOCs
and heavy metal content. VOC content
can be determined easily from most
manufacturers' product information
hotlines. Heavy metal content can vary
from batch to batch and is best deter-
mined by a TCLP test of the paint sludge.
Powder Coating
Powder coatings almost eliminate
VOCs and are reportedly a superior
coating system in terms of durability,
reducing wastes, and operating costs.
Although disposal of sludge is not
usually a problem with powder coatings,
some VOCs can nevertheless be emitted
during the curing process. The VOC
emission of powder coatings is usually
minimal and would only be a problem in
massive operations or if other VOC
emitting processes were close to the air
standards allowable limit.
Paint Stripping
"Non-hazardous" stripping methods
greatly reduce the total toxicity and types
of toxics generated. They also usually
improve worker health conditions
during the operation. However, even
though the method or vehicle used to
strip a coating is not hazardous, the
wastes generated might be a hazardous
waste stream due to the contents of the
stripped material. State-of-the-art
industrial paint, when cured, has
potential to exhibit the characteristics of a
hazardous waste. If it does exceed the
characteristic limits for a hazardous
waste, it must be handled, treated, and
disposed of as a hazardous waste.

Pollution Prevention News - 8
July/August 1991
Pollution Solutions
INFORM Report Takes on Office Paper Waste
One might guess that the amount of
paper used in offices has de-
creased over the last 30 years, as
computers have become an essential
part of the workplace.
Not so! From 1.5 million tons of
paper thrown away per year in I960, the
amount of office paper discarded grew
to 7.3 million tons per year in 1988. By
2010, the office paper mountain is
expected to hit 16 million tons.
There are a number of simple
strategies that could slow the paper
proliferation, according to a recent
report, Reducing Office Paper Waste, by
the nonprofit research and education
organization INFORM. Office paper is a
good candidate for source reduction,
says INFORM, because "companies
have a relatively high degree of control
over its use and disposal. Additionally,
companies and institutions can save
substantial amounts of money by
reducing office paper waste."
Duplexing, or photocopying on both
sides of the paper, would result in
significant paper savings, says IN-
FORM. Using both sides of other paper
as well would further reduce paper
waste. "Almost every piece of paper
A consortium of U.S. corporations,
state legislatures, mayors, and
county officials participating in the
National Office Paper Recycling Project
has issued a challenge to triple the
recycling of office waste paper by 1995.
Aiming the challenge at the nation's
largest public and private employers,
the group is calling for a significant
increase in the purchase of products
made with recycled paper fiber, as well
as in the collection of office waste paper.
EPA Administrator William K. Reilly
supported the initiative at a news
conference in May, saying: "I want to
sign EPA up!"
The project was formed 18 months
ago to develop a national office paper
used in an office—from pads to com-
puter paper to file folders—can be used
on both sides. If one-half of the 7.3
million tons of office paper in the
United States waste stream in 1988 was
used on both sides, 1.8 million tons of
paper would be saved," says the report.
Other suggestions in the report
•	Proofread documents on the com-
puter screen before printing.
•	Circulate memos instead of distribut-
ing multiple copies.
•	Avoid fax cover sheets.
•	Use central rather than individual
•	Print documents single-spaced rather
than double-spaced.
INFORM says that duplexing to the
estimated maximum possible extent
could result in a savings of $414 million
for U.S. offices. There are obstacles to
implementing duplexing, however.
According to INFORM, many photo-
copiers lack the capacity to duplex.
Also, photocopiers take longer in
duplex mode than in single-sided
recycling strategy. Highlights of the
strategy released in May include a call
for greater cooperation between
manufacturers of office machines and
the paper industry to enhance the
recycling of office paper and the
compatibility of recycled-content paper
with imaging products, increased
emphasis on the development of de-
inking technology, the development of
additional products containing re-
cycled paper fiber, and the establish-
ment of uniform labeling standards for
recycled-content products.
For more information on joining the
"Paper Challenge," contact Brian Day,
U.S. Conference of Mayors, 1620EyeSt.NW,
Washington, DC 20006, Tel: 202-223-3088.
mode, and duplex mode often leads to
paper curling, which in turns leads to
jams and breakdowns. INFORM
recommends that corporate and
government procurement policies
include specific duplexing reliability
standards to provide manufacturers
with an incentive to improve duplexing
The INFORM report also takes a look
at a recent corporate initiative at AT&T
to reduce office paper use. To help meet
a corporate goal of reducing office paper
waste 15 percent by the end of 1994,
AT&T introduced a policy at its central-
ized reproduction facilities requiring
that documents be copied double-sided
unless clients request otherwise. AT&T
estimates that increasing its average
duplex rates from 22 percent to 50
percent would reduce paper use at the
company by 77 million sheets of paper
annually and reduce costs to the
company by $385,000.
For a copy of Reducing Office Paper
Waste, contact INFORM at 381 Park Ave.
S., New York, NY 10016-8806. Tel: 212/
A conference jointly sponsored by
EPA, the American Institute for
Pollution Prevention, and the
American Iron and Steel Institute
will offer a pollution prevention
forum for iron and steel makers,
regulatory officials, and others on
technical and policy issues. Octo-
ber 14-15, Chicago, 1L. Contact-
Linda Reinders, 919-493-0078.
Prevention Conference focusing on
practical information, with special
sessions on textiles, solvent substi-
tution, metals recovery, and other
topics relating to the metal finish-
ing, photoimaging, painting, and
solvent-user industries. Sept 30-
Oct 1, Warwick, RI. Contact;
Richard Enander, 401-277-3434.
Office Paper Recycling Challenge

July/August 1992
9 - Pollution Prevention News
Pollution Solutions
CA Company Convinces Commuters: Biking is Better
Fleetwood's bicycle commuters at lunchtime event.
Almost everyone can ride a bike. Yet
most people aren't going to start
3iking to work unless they get a little
One of the best pushers around is
Roberta Holden, Transportation Coordi-
nator for Fleetwood Enterprises, Inc.
Fleetwood is bike crazy. The recre-
ational vehicle manufacturer based in
Riverside, California, is doing just about
everything to convince its employees to
use bikes to commute to work. And the
message is getting through.
Out of a 600-person workforce, there
were only a handful of dedicated bicycle
commuters when Fleetwood began its
bike program a few years ago. The
program was part of Fleetwood's
response to Regulation XV, a California
law that encourages businesses to get
workers out of their cars.
With a lot of employee participation,
Fleetwood set up a series of programs to
promote bicycling. The company
invested in several bikes to loan to
workers for up to 90 days, giving them a
chance to test bike commuting without a
Significant personal investment. Em-
ployees can then buy the bike after the
loan period at a significant discount.
Anyone who commits to ride to work
three days or more per week receives a
reflective vest, helmet, mirror, and a nite
lite from the company.
Even so, a lot of people won't start
biking to work unless they're sure it
won't be a hassle. "The key is to elimi-
nate all the reasons people won't ride
bikes," explains Shelly Dobkins, an
employee who has been instrumental to
the success of the program. "They
shouldn't have to worry about being
stranded or coming to work sweaty."
So Fleetwood took steps to make
pedaling hassle-free. Riders that get
stuck due to an accident or flat tire can
call the company's Employee Commuter
Services and be picked up quickly.
Fleetwood designed and installed bike
lockers for easy parking and security,
and provides access to a fitness center
with showers in the morning. Special
lockers are available for people to store
up to a week's worth of outfits. There's
even a maintenance facility with
employee volunteers who help with
minor bike repairs.
An important part of the program is
the "Fleetwood Mud, Sweat, and Gears"
bike club. Club members lay out their
routes on a master map, enabling riders
to meet and "buddy" to and from work.
They also conduct safety workshops
and plan lunchtime and weekend
outings. Members of the club make it
known that they are available to answer
questions for those who are thinking
about biking to work for the first time.
Then there's Bike to Work Day, held
in May. Everyone biking to work gets
free pancakes cooked up by manage-
ment. "It's really a good way to get
people to start biking for the first time,"
says Holden. "It's quite a morale
The time and energy put into the
program have paid off. Seventy-five
employees, 12% of the work force, now
ride to work regularly. And the impact
of the company's efforts has gone
beyond Riverside. "We get a call about
once a day from people throughout
California asking us for more informa-
tion about our program," says Holden.
Why has it worked so well? One reason,
according to Dobkins, is that "manage-
ment has been very supportive." Many
of Fleetwood's managers demonstrate
that support every day when they pedal
to work.
For more information, contact: Roberta
L. Holden, Fleetwood Enterprises, Inc. 3125
Myers Street, P.O. Box 7638, Riverside, CA
92524. Tel: 714-351-3500.
This article is reprinted from The
Action Exchange, a bimonthly bulletin
highlighting outstanding environ-
mental action published by The
Environmental Exchange, a national
nonprofit organization that gathers
and disseminates information on
local environmental initiatives.
Descriptions of programs and
initiatives are being compiled in a
series of reports entitled What Works.
The first report, What Works Report
#3: Air Pollution Solutions, analyzes
the strategies and impact of local
efforts on air pollution problems and
profiles programs that illustrate the
potential of local initiatives. To
order, send $15 (plus $2 S&H) to The
Environmental Exchange, 1930 18th
St. NW, #24, Washington, DC 20009

Pollution Prevention News -10
Inly/August 1991
In the States
State Pollution Prevention Legislation
by Bob Style, WRITAR
Since 1987, 27 states have enacted
legislation designed to promote
pollution prevention as the preferred
method of waste management. This
legislation represents a deepening
commitment on the part of the states to
foster the adoption of pollution preven-
tion options in their generating commu-
Most of these laws are directed at
wastes defined under RCRA or required
to be reported to the Toxics Release
Inventory (TR1). All 27 states with
legislation direct their activities at
RCRA wastes while 17 acts extend the
authority of the legislation to include
SARA Title III releases and facilities.
One state (Iowa) further extends the list
of included wastes to those governed
under the Clean Air Act.
Source reduction is mandated as the
most favored method of waste manage-
ment in 25 of the 27 pieces of legislation.
An explicit multi-media focus of activities
is called for in 21 states. Toxic materials
use reduction is emphasized in 10 states.
Rather than going through all the
permutations of state laws, I will discuss
two of the most recent bills as examples.
In many ways these acts represent the
two most popular forms of prevention
Type#l: Colorado
The first basic type of state pollution
prevention legislation establishes a waste
management hierarchy with source
reduction or pollution prevention at the
top, and sets up an office in the state
environmental or public health agency to
direct the state's pollution prevention
activities. Often this legislation calls for
the establishment of a technical assis-
tance and/or grant program designed to
help generators develop and adopt
pollution prevention options appropriate
to their process or industry.
Colorado enacted a bill of this type last
spring. The Colorado legislation man-
dates the establishment of a Pollution
Prevention Advisory Board responsible
AlMka ^
for providing general policy guidance,
developing reduction goals, and review-
ing the regulatory structure to identify
pollution prevention incentives and
disincentives. The Advisory Board will
also study and make determinations
regarding the placement and activities of
a state pollution prevention technical
assistance program. The Colorado law
also establishes a coordinating agency in
the Department of Public Health and a
Pollution Prevention Fund, generated from
a limited fee on facilities reporting to TRI.
Type #2: Arizona
Another type of state pollution
prevention legislation moves beyond
establishing a program and requires
generators to produce facility-wide
pollution prevention plans. These plans
are intended to assist waste generators
in analyzing their waste streams with an
eye toward isolating pollution preven-
tion opportunities. Of the 19 state laws
that mention facility planning, 15
require these plans from certain classes
of generators; 4 make the plans volun-
tary. Some states require that these
plans include some sort of facility-wide
reduction target. A number of states
(ME, MA, MS, NJ, NY, TN, VT, WA)
also establish numeric state-wide waste
reduction goals ranging from 10 to 50
percent over the next 1 to 7 years.
Pollution prevention facility planning
for TRI facilities is an important aspect
of the recently enacted Amendments to
the Arizona Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment Statutes. The facility-wide pollu-
Legislation in place
Legislation proposed
tion prevention plan is to include:
•	identification of the facility
•	the name of the senior official with
management responsibility
•	certification by upper management as
to the accuracy of the plan
•	a statement of management policy
•	specific pollution prevention goals
for the facility
•	a statement of scope and objectives
•	pollution prevention opportunity
•	a statement of pollution prevention
activities already in place
•	employee awareness and training
•	provisions to incorporate the plan
into management practices
•	a description of options considered
and explanation for those not
The Arizona law also sets up a tech-
nical assistance program and a Hazardous
Waste Management Fund to implement
the act. The fund is made up of fees
assessed on facilities that dispose of, store,
or ship off-site any hazardous wastes.
Although the details and structures
vary greatly from state to state, most
state pollution prevention legislation
tends to follow one of these two models.
More details are available in WRITAR's
Survey and Summaries of State Legislation I
Relating to Pollution Prevention. For more
information or to order a copy of the
Survey ($25 plus postage and handling),
please contact WRITAR at 612-379-5995.

July/August 1992
11 - Pollution Prevention News
fexas Program Combines Citizen and Corporate Participation
Annually, Texas businesses and
industries contribute 20 percent of
the hazardous waste and 13.9 percent of
the reported toxic releases in the United
States. In addition, Texas households
generate just under two million tons of
household hazardous waste per year.
This pollution has been targeted by The
Texas Water Commission in its new
program, Clean Texas 2000, a project
that will reach Texas companies and
everyone else in the state as well.
"The focus of Clean Texas 2000 is for
industry, citizens, and the state govern-
ment to form partnerships," says Brad
Cross, assistant partnership coordinator
of Clean Texas 2000. "We're encourag-
ing industries, local governments and
citizens to work together on hazardous
waste and toxics reduction and recy-
cling, for example."
Citizens participate in Clean Texas
000 through programs such as the
tate's citizen volunteer water quality
monitoring program. Through this
program, the Texas Water Commission
provides technical assistance and
education to volunteers. The volunteers
then sample surface and groundwater in
their parts of the state and submit their
findings back to the Commission. The
Commission hopes to have as many as
20,000 citizen monitors by the year 2000.
Citizens also are encouraged to partici-
pate in Clean Texas 2000 by collecting
and returning unused pesticide and
household hazardous waste, composting
yard waste, and participating in recy-
cling programs.
Two Feet of Letters
Although Clean Texas 2000 was just
announced in April 1992, citizen
participation has been strong. "We have
a stack of letters two feet high from
citizens telling us what they're doing,"
says Cross.
Business and industry are asked to
rticipate in Clean Texas 2000 by
„nducting an environmental audit to
identify the amount and type of
pollution they are generating, and to
prepare a pollution prevention plan
that will reduce hazardous waste,
nonpoint source pollution and pollu-
tion discharged into the waterways.
The commissioners of the Texas Water
Commission are visiting with the
state's top 40 hazardous waste genera-
tors to encourage them to voluntarily
reduce hazardous waste by 50 percent
by the year 2000, work with citizen
groups, and provide support and
services to Clean Texas 2000 programs.
Participating companies, which will
provide annual reports on their
progress, will be placed on an industry
honor roll.
In turn, the Texas Water Commission
is expanding its technical assistance
program and streamlining its proce-
dures to shorten the regulatory pro-
cesses and provide greater certainty
about the time required for approvals.
This streamlining, called "Operation
Paper Chase," will help "cut red tape
and unnecessary levels of bureaucracy,"
according to Clean Texas 2000 organiz-
ers. At the same time, the Commission
will work for tougher penalties for
repeat offenders with an emphasis on
pollution prevention.
Goals of Clean Texas 2000, which also
includes a strong public education
component and an environmental
FMC Corporation of Pasadena, TX has
developed a technology to recover and
reuse the methanol used to regenerate a
hydrogen peroxide purification unit. The
technology will reduce the generation of
more than 288,000 gallons of hazardous
waste per year and will save more than 19
billion Btus per year. FMC's methanol
recovery technology is a demonstration
project funded by the NICE3 grant
program through the Texas Water
Commission and the Texas Governor's
Office. NICE3 (National Industrial
Competitiveness through Efficiency:
Environment, Energy, and Economics) is
jointly sponsored by EPA, DOE, and the
Commerce Dep't.
awards program, include an overall
reduction by 50 percent or more in the
release of toxics and/or the generation
of hazardous pollutants in Texas from
1987 levels, by the year 2000. The Texas
Water Commission also hopes to reduce
the disposal of solid waste in landfills
by as much as 50-60 percent by 2000.
Texas ACB Joins
Green Lights
In March, theTexas Air Control Board
became the first Texas state agency to
join the Green Lights program.
Charged with safeguarding the air
quality of Texas, the Texas Air Qual-
ity Board has installed energy effi-
cient lighting for its nearly 185,000
square feet of office space.
EPA estimates that if all businesses
adopted high-efficiency lighting tech-
niques, 11 percent of all electricity
used in the United States could be
saved. The Texas Air Control Board
has calculated that an 11 percent re-
duction could prevent the emission
of 145,000 tons of sulfur dioxide,
76,000 tons of nitrogen oxides and 20
million tonsof carbon dioxide by large
users of energy in Texas each year.

Pollution Prevention News -12
]ulylAugust 1992
Annual Conference & Expo
1992 World Congress on
Adventure Travel & Eco-Tourism
1st Annual Conf. for Southern
States on Hazardous Waste Min.
Minimization & Recycling
Protecting Our Nation's
Pollution Prevention
Conference & Expo
Conference on Surplus Asset
Management & Disposition
Pollution Prevention
Technology & Application (course)
9th Annual New Jersey
Environmental Exposition
Tropospheric Ozone, Nonattain-
ment & Design Value Issues
12th Annual Intl. Symposium:
The Year of Clean Water
Budapest '92: Forum
for Technology Transfer
Pollution Prevention
Pollution Prevention:
National Regulatory Update
Water Environment Federation
UNEP, Canadian Parks Service,
B.C. Ministry of Tourism
MISSTAP, DoD, EPA Regions 4,6,
MS Dept. of Env. Quality
Haz. Materials Control
Resources Institute
National Environmental
Health Assn.
R.I. Depts. of Econ. Devel.,
Environmental Management
Investment Recovery Assn.
University of Missouri -
NJDEPE, others
Air & Waste Management Assn.
North American Lake
Management Society
EPA, DOE, Florida State
University, others
Government Institutes
Sept. 20-24
New Orleans, LA
Sept. 20-23
Whistler, BC
Sept. 22-24
Biloxi, MS
Sept. 22-24
Crystal City, VA
Sept. 27-30
Norfolk, VA
Sept. 30-Oct.l
Warwick, RI
Oct. 12-14
Chicago, IL
Oct. 14-15
Columbia, MO
Oct. 19-21
Somerset, NJ
Oct. 28-30
Boston, MA
Nov. 2-7
Cincinnati, OH
Oct. 12-16
Budapest, Hungary
Nov. 18-20
Dallas, TX
Dec. 3
Washington, DC
Nancy Blatt
Tel: 303-649-9016
Fax: 303-649-9017
Dr. J. Carpenter
Eileen Marino
Tracy Waddell
John Atkinson
Env. Expo Inc.
Marci Mazzei
Susan Lampman
Martha Swiss
Educ. Dept.
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