PROCEDURES MANUAL
FIELD OPERATIONS SECTION
DETROIT RIVER-LAKE ERIE PROJECT

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PERSONNEL
Richard D. Voughan
Sanitary Engineer
George L. Harlow
Sanitary Engineer
Phillip L. Taylor
Sanitary Engineer
Daniel F. Krawczyk
Chcrnint
Laurence B. O'Leary
Sanitary Engineer
Robert J. Burm
Sanitary Engineer
Phillip G. Harris
Sanitary Engineer
Frederic C. Blanc
Sanitary Engineer
Louis B. Cai'rick
Biologist
Charles T. Elly
Chemist
Judith A. McLane
Chemist
Leota A. Dye
Bacteriologis t
Albert C. Printz
Sanitary Engineer
Ralph G. ChristenGen
Bacteriologist
Professional Staff
Project Director
April 1962 - October 1964.
Chief, Stream Survey Section
July 1962 - October 1963;
Deputy Project Director
October 1963 - October 1964.
Chief, Engineering Evaluation Section
July 1962 - October 1964.
Chief, Laboratory Section
July 1962 - October 1964.
Chief, Special Studies Section
. March 1963 - October 1963;
Chief, Field Operations Section
October 1963 - October 1964.
September 1962 - October 1964,
September 1962 - September 1964.
May 1962 - August 1964.
June 1962 - October 1964.
oune 1962 - October 1964.
May 1962 - October 1964.
June 1964 - March 1964.
Assistant to the Director
April 1962 - September 1962;
Chief, Inventory and Reports Section
September 1962 - August 1963-
December 1962 - April 1963,
March 1964 - October 1964

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PERSONNEL
Supporting Staff
Norma Bey
Secretary-
Michael C. Dziak'
Sampler and General Mechanic
Roland J. Hartranft
Sampler and Draftsman
Wilbur J. Hartranft
Boat Operator and General Mechanic'
Jeanne K. Helmling
Secretary
Charles E. Henricks
Boat Operator and General Mechanic
Harold J. Henris
Boat Operator and General Mechanic
John J. Komraus
Administrative Aide
Patricia L. Laurain
Secretary
Ed K. McCue
Boat Operator and Laboratory Assistant
Mary Ann McGlathery
Secretary
Helen M. McNaughton
Secretary
Naomi Nash
Secretary
Robert M. Vadasy
Sampler and Laboratory Assistant
Kurt S. Yacuone
Sampler and Laboratory Assistant
June 1962 - June 1963
September 1962 - October 1961;
July 1962 - October 1961;
June 1962 - October 1961;
July 1962 - October 1961;
May 1963 - October 196U
July 1962 - October 1961;
May 1962 - October 1961;
June 1962 - May 1961;
November 1963 - October 1961;
August 1963 - October 1961;
June 1962 - October 1961;
June 1961; - October 196U
November 1962 - October 1961;
July 1962 - October 196U

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JULY 1962 - JUNE I96I1
DETROIT RIVER-IAKE ERIE PROJECT
PROCEDURES FOR
SAMPLING AND HYDROLOGY
SECTION I

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No.
1
2
J
h
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
13A
m
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2);
25
FIGURES
Description
Industrial Waste Sampling Sheet
Boat Speed Curves
Location of Sampling Stations - Detroit River
Location of Sampling Stations - Michigan Waters of Lake Erie
Location of Sampling Stations - Rouge River
Location of Sampling Stations - Raisin River
Location of Sampling Stations - U.S. Waters - Detroit River
Location of Industrial Waste Outfalls - Raisin River
Location of Bottom Material Stations - Detroit River
Location of Bottom Material Stations - Lake Erie
Location of Dye Release Stations - Detroit River
Location of Synoptic Vector Dye Release Stations - Lake Erie
Location of Dye Release Stations - Lake Erie
Location of Dye Release Stations - Brest Bay
^ Method of Plotting Results - Fluorometric Dye Studies
. Location of Flow Measurements - Detroit River
Location of Flow Measurements - Lake Erie Tributaries
Scoop Sampler
Kemmerer Sampler
A.P.H.A, Sewage Sampler
J.Z. Bacteriological Sampler
Electronic Thermometer
Drogues
Dye Tracing System Installed in 31-foot Boat
Dye Release Apparatus
Sludge Sampler

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METHODOLOGY
WATER SAMPLE COLLECTION
Purpose
The objective of the Project is to determine strengths of known sources
of wastes and to obtain an accurate picture of quality at any point in the
waters under study. A large number of samples were collected and analyzed to
yield the physical, chemical, and bacteriological data necessary to evaluate
the waste loading and water quality. A systematic system of sampling was set
up to gather data from the Detroit River and tributaries, Michigan part of
Lake Erie, beaches, industrial outfalls, and municipal outfalls. These sam-
ples had to be collected in the field and transported to the laboratories in
accordance with accepted practice, and in numbers and time sequence that
would allow optimum use of laboratory facilities.
Methods
In order to efficiently cover the large area involved and simplify
scheduling, '.t was necessary to divide the regularly sampled stations into
five groups called runs. The breakdown of these runs was essentially as
follows I
Run No. 1 - Upper Detroit River
Run Ko. 2 - Lower Detroit River
Run No. 3 - Lake Erie
Run No. h - Upper Tributaries and Beaches
Run No. $ - Lower Tributaries and Beaches
Because each of these runs could be covered in approximately five hours,
the samples could be delivered to the laboratory for the immediate analyses.
Runs No. 1 through 3 were taken from either the 31-foot boat or the 25-fcjot

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boat while Runs No. U and $ were taken by automobile. Sampling operations
were scheduled in detail on a weekly basis and these weekly schedules were
usually adhered to. Every member of the crew received a copy of the schedule
which outlined specific duty assignments for each man. This method greatly
decreased the amount of supervision necessary.
Identification of samples was accomplished by numbering the bottle caps
by station number with a grease pencil. The bottles were usually numbered in
advance and set aside in cases grouped according to run number. When the
samples were collected in the field, a field record of sample number, time,
and temperature was entered in the field log book. The field records of incus-
trial waste outfall grab samples were kept on separate sheets. Figure 1 shews
one such sheet with the field data filled in. These sheets were given to the
crew with the outfalls to be sampled designated by means of a check mark. This
method allowed a great flexibility in scheduling and eliminated a great deal
of paper work. The samplers could then fill in the sheets as th samples were
collected ar,a bring the sheets back to the office where they were filed in the
fireproof cabinet. In the laboratory, the field crews poured the samples into
other bottles and assigned each sample a laboratory number. This laboratory
number along with the field number and field data was entered on laboratory
data sheets resulting in one ) boratory sheet for each sample.
On regular sampling runs, the type of samples collected were chemical
and bacteriological grab samples. These samples were collected using "scoop
sampler" when working from a boat or a "bridge sampler" for bridge work. By
wading out from the shore, the crews could reach all the beach sampling stations.
Most of the tributary stations could be sampled from bridges. To reach the
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river and lake stations, elementary navigation, involving landmarks or compass
bearings and time and distance computations at known speeds were required.
River Sampling
The following procedure was used for sampling a particular range in the
Detroit River. As the boat approached the starting point near the U.S. snore
or west shore, the operator adjusted the engine rpmto give the boat a desired
operating speed. On the basis of numerous time runs, curves of engine rpm ver-
sus boat speed, have been drawn as shown in Figure 2 and from these, the speed
was selected. A speed of 10 fps was usually selected since this has proved the
most practical operating speed for the majority of the ranges. When the boat
rour.ded the turning point, the operator started his stopwatch beginning the
time run. To allow for the effect of the river current, the boat proceeded
across the range with its bow at a slight upstream angle. Distances were
determined by multiplying the boat's speed by the time from the starting point.
If the boat '.v-as traveling the usual 10 fps for example, it would reach a point
300 feet from the start in 30 seconds. When the proper time intervals were
reached, the boat operator informed the crew either by voice or by a short
blast on the horn and they immediately scooped up a sample. In addition to
the boat operator, there was arually a crew of two. men on a sampling run; one
to grab the sarnies and the other to handle bottles and record data. When the
operation was running smoothly, the crews could take a sample every 10 seconds.
In such cases, it was only necessary to cross a range once. Under rough weather
conditions, however, or where there were many sampling points at short intervals,
it may be necessary to cross the range twice, sampling the even numbered stations
a

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the first tine and the odd numbered stations the second. To insure that the
boat was making the proper headway across each range, the operator checked
his time when he passed certain known reference points, such as buoys, along
or parallel to the range. These points usually checked out with surprising
accuracy. If there was error, however, the operator would stop and do the
complete range over again when the speed adjustment had been made.
Lake Sampling
The lake sampling was conducted using much the same procedure as in the
river. In the lake, however, directions could not always be determined by
visual alignment with landmarks and therefore, were usually run on the basis
of compass bearings. Sampling stations are a considerable distance apart in
the lake, therefore, higher boat speeds such as 30 fps were used for purposes
of timing.
Industrial Sampling
In addition to regular sampling, the collection of grab samples from
industrial outfalls constituted a maj'r part of sampling activities. These
samples were often hard to get due to shallow water and submerged objects
near the outfalls. For this type of work the 25-foot boat and the 18-foot
jet boat were used. To get a sample the boatoperator noses the bow of the
boat up to the outfall and a member of the crew positioned in the bow scoops
the sample with an industrial waste sampler and pours it into a chemical
bottle. In some cases, it was necessary to make more than one scoop and/or
pass at an outfall in order to get the desired amount of chemical sample.

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Bacterial samples were normally not taken at industrial outfalls. However,
in cases where one was required, it was taken with the scoop sampler used in
river work or with a bridge sampler. Figure 7 and figure 8 show locations of
industrial waste outfalls. Industrial and domestic sampling surveys are
described in Section II.
Depth Sampling
To verify that surface samples would truly represent the water quality at
the various sampling points in the study area, a number of samples were taken
at various depths as well as at the surface. Types of samples collected at
depths included chemical, bacteriological, and dissolved oxygen samples. The
bacteriological samples were collected at depths using the J.Z. Aseptic bacteri-
ological collection device, which is described in the equipment descriptions.
Chemical samples were collected with a Kemmerer Water Sampler.
Dissolved Oxygen Sampling
Dissolved oxygen samples were taken not only during depth sampling work
but also in other instances. These were collected with either an American
Public Health Association sewage sampler or a Kemmerer sampler. When the
Kemmerer sampler was used, i\, :.ad a rubber delivery tube on it. This tube
was inserted so that it ran to the bottom of the bottle. In either case, the
2^0 cc. bottle was overflowed at least twice its capacity. The American Public
Health Association sampler is built for this purpose and does this automatically.
In the case of the Kemmerer sampler, this was accomplished by timing the flow.

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ENGINE RPM'S (BOTH ENGINES)

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Compositing Samples
\
On many occasions 12, 16 and 2U-hour composite samples were analyzed.
These composite samples enabled the Project to obtain results more representa-
tive of an average from fewer analyses. Some of the compositing was done in
the field, but the majority of it was done at the laboratory in the following
manner. Composites were usually limited to chemical samples only which were
collected on three shifts by three different crews. At the end of each shift,
the crew would return to the laboratory with all the samples in chemical col-
lection jars. When the crew from the last shift for the day came in, they
would do the compositing. This consisted of taking .the individual samples
from each station, usually 3 to 6 full 2~quart chemical jars, and pouring
their contents into the 3-gallon wide-mouth pouring jug. After shaking the
jug to assure adequate mixing, the laboratory bottles were filled from it.
Preservation of Samples
Many of the samples could not be analyzed immediately after collection
and required certain preservative measures. Chemical samples usually required
no preservation as they could be held over for a few days. Certain of the
chemical analyses were perform- in Chicago (Great lakes-Illinois River Basins
Project laboratories) because the Project's laboratory was not equipped to do
them. In this case, half of the sample (2 quarts) was preserved by adding
20 ml of HNO^ solution (strength 1:1) to it. This was done in the laboratory
by the field crews when they poured the samples from collection jars into
bottles for analyses. Bacteriological samples were all iced immediately after
collection ar.d analyses on them were performed within 2h hours. Dissolved
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oxygen samples were all fixed in the field immediately after collection in
/
accordance with the method prescribed on page 310 of "Standard Methods"
(11th Edition, American Public Health Association, N.Y.).
Safety
No sample is important enough to warrant risking a life or possible
injury due to an accident, therefore, the exercising of safety precautions
takes priority over everything else. Since sampling from boats usually
carried on during all types of weather and water conditions, the crews had
to be especially concious of the safety measures which they were to employ.
The first step towards safety was to make the boats as safe as possible.
This was accomplished by having thoroughly experienced boat operators at the
helm, and maintaining the necessary safety gear such as: lights, horn, life
jackets, fire extinguishers, distress flares, extra line, and a radio on board.
The two larger boats were equipped with twin engines to decrease the possibil-
ity of power .failure at a critical time. All the crew members were also made
thoroughly familiar with the sot of safety regulations drawn up specifically
for the Project's boats. These safety regulations are divided into general
rules for crew members and passengers and additional rules for crew member
only, as follows:
Rules for Crew "Tiber s and Passengers
1. Boat capacities not to be exceeded, except in emergencies, are:
a. When sampling activities occur during run:
(1)	3 passengers and 3 crew on 31' boat
(2)	3 passengers and 3 crew on 25' boat
(3)	2 crew and 1 passenger on 18' jet boat
(h)	2 crew on lh1 utility
(5) 2 crew on 9' pram
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b. When no sampling activities occur during run:
(1)	12 passengers and 3 crew on 31' boat
(2)	8 passengers and 2 crew on 25' boat
(3)	2 crew and 3 passengers in 181 jet boat
(li) 3 crew on lii1 utility
(5) 2 crow on 9' pram
All crew members should wear soft rubber soled shoes. Others in
office should wear them if they know in advance of a scheduled trip.
No smoking during fueling or while engines are being started.
Life preservers shall be:
a.	Worn by:
(1)	All persons aboard at all times if conditions warrant.
(This decision to be made by boat operator.)
(2)	All persons while in the process of sampling, working
over the side of the boat, or on the bow while boat is
in motion.
(3)	All hands in 9' pram, always.
b.	In sufficient supply so that there is at least one life
preserver for each parson on board.
c.	Kept clean.
Wo iiarson shall climb up onto flying bridge on 31' boat while boat
is  -i motion. Walking or other movement on boat decks and bridge
is discouraged and should be held to a necessary minimum. Everyone
must be seated while the boa-1 is proceeding at full throttle.
Care should be used in getting in and out of the boats.
Mo hands or arms should bo over the side of the boat except when
sampling. This is c 3'. .cially true when approaching or leaving a
dock.
No sittir.g on bow, or side and stern gunwales.
If you ever capsize, remember, that if the boat continues to float,
it is best to remain with it. You are more easily located by a
search plane or boat.
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Additional Ruins for Crew Members:
1.	Minimum crew should consist of three men (including the boat
operator) during regular work operations or two men on short
trips.
2.	At least one life ring buoy with line attached should be con-
veniently located within the work area of each boat.
3.	A first aid kit must be on each boat and-at least one crew
member must be able to administer first aid - including arti-
ficial respiration.
1;. All crew members should understand the operation of fire
extinguishers, flares, and radio, as well as being able to
take over the wheel in emergencies.
5.	Conditions under which the boat will not go out or cease
sampling operations:
a.	Under adverse weather (to be decided by boat operators).
b.	Boats "dill be pulled out when ice conditions warrant it.
c.	No run without boat operator except in emergencies.
6.	Crew members shall not cast off lines until the boat operator
gives the command.
7.	The boats will abandon sampling operations to aid any vessel
in distress and obey the Rules of the Road and all U.S. Coast
Gua ,-d regulations.
8.	Keep an alert lookout. Serious accidents have resulted from
failure in this respect.
9.	Watch your wake. Pass through anchorages only at minimum speed.
10.	Keep firefighting and lifesaving equipment in good condition and
readily available at r.il times.
11.	Know yr.ir fuel tank capacity and cruising radius. If necessary
to carry additional gasoline, do so only in proper containers
ana take special precautions to prevent the accumulation of such
vapor in confined spaces.
12.	Good housekeeping is oven more important afloat than ashore.
Cleanliness diminishes the probability of fire.
13.	Consider what action you would take under various emergency
conditions - man overboard, fog, fire, a stove-in plank or
other bad lc.;!c, motor breakdown, bad storm, collision.
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lii. Have an adequate anchor and sufficient, cable to assure .good
holding in a blow (at least six times operating depth).
lp. Eliminate tripping hazards where possible, make conspicuous
those which must remain, have adequate grab-rails.
16.	Always have a chart (or charts) of your area on board.
17.	Keep electrical equipment and wiring in good condition. No
knife switches or other arcing devices should be in fuel or
engine compartments.
18.	Check your fuel supply system; see that the tanks are vented
outboard, that the fill pipes which are located outboard of
coaming extend to the bottom of the tank. Have an adequate
filter on the fuel line.
In addition to the boating safety regulations, there were many other
safety considerations.
Daily weather forecasts were received from the Naval Air Station's
Weather Station at the beginning of each working day. These warned the boat
operators of any dangerous conditions which were likely to arise while they
were out sampling.
Sampler; were made thoroughly familiar with the hazards in each piece of
equipment before it was put to use. V'heneVer the crews had to set foot on
private property, such as railroad bridges, permission was first obtained from
the owner or custodian. Outfall sampling also required extra precautions such
as careful vigilance of waves from passing boat traffic which might throw the
sampling craft on rocks or against a dock. Bridges were convenient sampling
points, but traffic hazards were great. Precautions, such as not parking on
the bridge itself and making good use of vehicle lights when stopped, helped to
minimize dangers in bridge sampling.
In general, the fact that no major accidents occurred during the Project's
sampling activities can be credited largely to the extensive safety precautions
exercised by the Project's personnel.
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Location
Detroit River
The selection of sampling points on the Detroit River was influenced by
such factors as the location of known pollution sources, the flow character-
istics, and the location of points used by the International Joint Commission.
Comparison of the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project's results with those gathered
by the International Joint Commission, whose data dates back as far as 1913, was
desired. This was the reason for selecting many of the same ranges and points.
A mileage index system was used for the purpose of identifying the location
of sampling ranges on the river and its tributaries. This system involves the
use of one or mora letters in identifying the stream followed by a number which
represents the distance in river miles from the mouth or other point of reference.
In the case of the Detroit River, the reference point is the Detroit River Light
opposite Pointe Mouillee, which is the zero mileage point established by the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The designation Dt 30.8 for example, refers to
a range on t? 3 Detroit River approximately 30.8 miles from the mouth and the
designations DtCn, DtRg, DtEr, and DtMo refer to ranges on Conners Creek,
Rouge River, Ecorse River and Monguagon Creek, respectively. In the Detroit
River there are 15k sampling points located on 15 ranges as shown on the map
(Figure 3). These sampling points or stations are numbered from R1 to R15U
and are listed at follows:
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Ft. from U.S. Shore
Range	Description	Sample No. or West Bank
DT 20.6 Above Rouge River from Delray R1	5
Detroit Edison Dock to R2	20
Canadian Industries Ltd., R3	50
Dock RU	100
R$	200
R6	300
R7 '	iiOO
R8	500
R9	600
RIO	700
_T>.
R12	1,500
R13	1,800
Rlii	2,000
R15	2,200
Rl6	2,300
DT 19.0 NE Corner - Great Lakes Steel R139	100
Strip iMill to Canadian RlUO	200
Shore Rlljl	300
RU42	hOO
R1U3	800
RlliU	1,000
Rlii9	1,500
R150	2,000
R151	2,200
R152	2,300
R153	2,h00
R15U	2,500
DT 17.uW Ecorse Light to Head of R17	100
Fighting Island Rl8	200
R19	hOO
R20	600
R21	800
R22	1,000
R23	1,200
R2U	1,U00
R25	1,600
R26	1,900
R27	2,200
DT 17.OE Fighting Island to LaSalle R28	100
Oil & Coal Co. Slip R29	U00
R30	700
R31	900
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Ft. from U.S. Shore
Range	Description	Sample No. or West Bank
DT lh.6W Wyandotte City Power Plant & R32	20
Water Works Dock, over intake R33	100
and through cut to Fighting R3k	200
Island R35	300
R36	IiOO
R37	600
R38	800
R39	900
RhO	1,000
Rlil	1,100
Rh2	2,000
Rii 3	2,300
RJUU	3,000
RhS	1,000
DT 12. OW Trenton Channel Toll Bridge R86	122
from U.S. Mainland Shore to R87	322
West Shore, Grosse lie R88	Ii90
R89	670
R90	830
DT 9.oW 0. C. Howey Boat Dock on Rlh$	100
U.S. Mainland to West Shore Rlli6	300
Country Club on Grosse lie Rlli7	500
Rll:8	900
DT 9.3E Grosse lie to Canadian Shore Rii6	100
above Stony Island Rli7	200
Rii8	500
Rli9	800
R50	1,200
R>1	1,500
R52	2,000
R53	2,500
R5U	3,000
R55	3,300
R5o	3,600
R57	ii,000
R58	it, 500
R59	1,800
r6o	5,000
R6l	5,300
R62	5,600
R63	5,800
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Ft. frc.T. U.S. Sl':cre
Range	Description	Sample No. or west Bank
DT 8..7W Trenton Channel County Bridge R91	80
from U.S. Mainland to West R92	280
Shore, Grosse lie R93	U80
R9h	680
R 95	980
R96	l,2li0
DT 3.9 Maple Beach above Huron R6h	500
River outlet to Sunset Beach, R65	1,500
Bar Point R66	2,500
R67	3,500
Ro8	U,500
R69	5,500
R70	6,500
R71	7,500
R72	8,500
R73	9,500
R7U	10,500
R75	11,500
R76	12,500
R77	13,500
R78	lU,500
R79	15,000
R80	16,200
R8l	16,500
R82	17,500
R83	18,500
R8U	19,000
R85	19,300

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Range
Description
Sample No.
Ft. from U.S.
Shore or West Bank
Dt 30.Sw Windmill Pointe to head R97	20
of Peach Island R98	100
R99	200
R100	300
R101	U00
R102	500
R103	700
RlOl;	1,000
R105	2,000
R106	2,500
Dt 30.7E Peach Island to Canadian R107	100
Shore at head of ^etroit R108	300
River R109	500
R110	700
Rill	850
R112	900
R113	980
Dt 28.U Waterworks Park Coal Dock Rllii	100
to Detroit Yacht Club R115	200
Dock, Belle Isle R116	300
R117	hOO
R118	700
R119	1,000
R120	1,300
R121	1,500
Dt 26.8W Belle Isle Bridge R131	52
R132	169
R133	292
R13l	h21
R135	689
R136	1,09U
R137	1,178
R138	1,903
Dt 25.7 U.S. Engineers Warehouse R122	50
to Jiram Walker & Sons Ltd., R123	100
Canada R12lt	300
R125	600
R126	1,000
R127	2,000
R128	2,600
R129	3,200
R130	3,hOQ
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Lake Erie
Sampling points in the Michigan waters of Lake Erie were selected after
taking into consideration such factors as tributaries, beach areas, lake sur-
face area, boundaries, wind variations and possible current variations. Here,
as in the river, the sampling points are on fixed ranges. Many of the Xli ranges
are identical to those established by the International Joint Commission in its
19h7 study of the area. There are 28 lake stations at various locations la-
beled LI through L28. These locations are listed as follows but*-a-j?e-rproba.bly
best explained by the map (Figure 3).
Station Description	No.
Range A to 3
la,000 ft. (Buoy 28)	LI
12,000 ft. (Buoy 13)	L2
Range B to Milleville Beach
10,000 ft.	L21
Range B to shore
3,580 ft.	L3
10,700 ft.	Ll,
Range B to H
ii,800 ft. (Buoy 7 & 8)	l5
ll;,ii00 ft. (Buoy 3 & I)	L6
Range li; to LB
11,000 ft.	122
Range H to shore
6,650 ft.	L7
20,000 ft.	L8
Range H to R
9,800 ft.	L9
29,ii00 ft.	L10
Range R to Stony Point
5,850 ft.	Lll
17,500 ft.	L12
16

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Station Description	No.
Range R to Raisin River
8,250 ft. (Buoy 3 & M	Ll5
16,500 ft. (Buoy 7 & 8)	L27
21,600 ft. (Buoy 9 & 10)	L23
Range Stony Point to Raisin River
5,600 ft.	, L23
16,800 ft.	I2h
Range R to shore below Plum Creek
7,200 ft.	L13
21,600 ft.	LlJU
Range R to C
10,9li0 ft. 	L17
32,800 ft.	Ll8
Range L20 to Lllj
11,000 ft.	L25
33,000 ft.	L26
Range C to shore
7,070 ft.	L19
21,200 ft.	L20
17

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Beaches
The 31 beach sampling stations listed here were picked so that they could
be sampled either by car or from a small boat. Stations are numbered B1
through B31 and are shown on the map of the Lake (Figure 3).
Station Description
Position: U2-03'-06"N, 83-ll'-06"W.
150' offshore - 100' south of Troyon
Road off Erie Drive.
Position: b2O-02'U8N, 83-ll'-06 "W,
200 ft. offshore 20' south of Longdon
Road off Erie Drive.
Position: Ul-59I-09IIN, 830-13'-3$"W,
1$0' offshore opposite house No. 7880
Lake Shore Drive on the northern end
of beach.
Position: hl-cjQ'-1>0"N, 83-lIi'-lfif"W,
loO'offshore from small sand strip
used as resident bathing beach next to
house No. 6792 Lake Shore Drive,
Position: It] -$6  -30"N,. 83-l> -39"W,
100' offshoiv.; in line with chain link
fence which divides the privately owned
Stony Point Park from the free access
beach along Dewey Road.
Position: kl-$6 '-2S"N, 83-l51 -kW,
100 ft. offshore 200 ft. south of the
face brick gate wall that crosses
Dewey Road.
Position: Ul-56-20"N, 83-l8-35"W,
1501 offshore in line with Clover-
dale Road.
Position: hl-$61 -15"N, 83-l8 1
150r offshore midway between Oakwood
& Woodland Blvd. off Parkwooa Street.
Name
Maple Beach
Estral Beach
Estral Beach
Dewey Beach
Dewey Beach
Woodland Beach
Woodland Beach
No.
B1
Milleville Beach B2
B3
Bh
B>
B6
B7
B3
18

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Station Description
Position: Ul-56r-13"N, 83-l8-52"W,
1^0 1 offshore midway between Beech-
wood and Elrawood Street,
Position: Jjl-561 -05"N, 83-l8'-56"W,
150' offshore in line with North
Grove Road which intersects Lakeshore
Drive in the Grand Beach properties.
Position: Ul-561-02'U, 83-19'-00"W,
150' offshore off Lakeshore Drive
midway between BIO and B12 locations
in line with Grandview Blvd.
Position: la-55.''-58"N, 83-19' -08"M,
1501 offshore in line with South
Grove Road which intersects with the
southern end of Lakeshore Drive in
Grand Beach property.
Position: Ul-55'-53"N, 83-19'-ll'W,
150' offshore of Kress Park in line
with the midpoint of Kress Park Bathing
Bsach approximately 300' south of
South Grove Road.
Position: Ul-551-50"N, 83-19'-12"W,
150' offshora in line with Monrona
Drive which intersects the northern end
of Edgewatev Blvd. in Detroit Beach.
Position: Ul-55'-ii6"N, 83-i9<-20"W,
150' offshore in line with 8th Street
at the point where it intersects
Eagewater Blvd.
Position: Ul-55'-38"N, 83-ly1-27 "W,
150' offshore line with Uth Street
at the point where it intersects
Edgewater Blvd.
Position: Ul-55'-30"N, 83-l9'-35"W
150' offshore in line with Grand Blvd.
which intersects the southern end of
Edgewater Blvd. in Detroit Beach.
Name	No.
Woodland Beach	B9
Willow Beach	BIO
Willow Beach	Bll
Willow Beach	B12
Willow Beach	B13
Detroit Beach	BlU
Detroit Beach	Bl5
Detroit Beach	316
Detroit Beach	B17
19

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Station Description
Position: ijl0-55'-17"N, 83-19'-39'W,
100' offshore 200' from pilings at the
north end of the park offshore from the
turning loop on the Beach Trail.
Position: la-55'-02% 83-19'-U3"W,
100' offshore in line with the
concession stand on the beach.
Position: 1|1-5U1 -h3"N, 83-19'-?0"W,
ISO' offshore 1600' south of the
concession stand on the beach.
Position: hl-5h'-21"N, 83-19-57"W,
150' offshore 500' north of the pilings
on the southern end of the beach.
Position: Ul-52'-02"N, 83-22,59"W,
100' offshore in line with Main Road
where it intersects Lake Erie.
Position: hl0-5l'-33"N, 83-231-25"W,
100' offshore ir. line with Lighthouse
Blvd. where it hits Lake Erie.
Position: Ul-5l1-10"N, 83-231-U5"W,
100' offshore in line with the
LaPlaisance ^d.-Lavigne Rd. intersection.
Position: hi -50'-52"N, 83-23 '
100' offshore 700' north of Otter
Creek where it flows into Lake Erie.
Position: 1+1~50' -39"N, 33-2li' -06intf,
100' offshore 300' south of Otter
Creek where it flows into La!\i _1ria.
Position: iil-50' -22"N, 83-2u' -11+"W,
100' offshore in line with South
Otter Creek Road where it runs into
Lake Erie.
Position: !+i-50' -00"N, 83-2l+ 1 -25'W,
100' offshore 2P!+00' south of point
where Scuth Otter Creek Road hits
Lake Erie.
Position: ll-h9l-32':MJ 83-2h1 -U3"W,
100: offshore 100' south of pilings
at the northern end of the picnic
ground a^usc-mant-beach area.
20
Name	No.
Sterling State Park BIS
Sterling State Park B19
Sterling State Park B20
Sterling State Park 321
Bolles Harbor	B22
Bolles Harbor	B23
North Otter	B2l+
Creek Beach
North Otter	B25
Creek Beach
South Otter	B26
Creek Beach
South Otter	B27
Creek Beach
Toledo Beach	328
Toledo Beach	B29

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Station Description	Name	No.
Position:	1 -50"N, 83-25' -58"W,	Luna Pier	B30
100' offshore in line with Allen Cove
Road at the point where it intersects
Lake Erie.
Position: 11-1|81 -32"N, 83-261-28"W,	Luna Pier	B31
100' offshore in line with Luna Pier
Road where it runs into Lake Erie.
Coordinates are taken from U.S. Lake Survey Corps of Engineer's Chart #37 and Ul.
Tributaries
Selection of sampling points on the tributaries was largely governed by
the locations of bridges, since nearly all tributary sampling was done from
bridges. The T indicates a tributary sample and the number indicates the
exact location. Each tributary has been assigned certain station numbers,
some of which have not been sampled as yet, but are designated for possible
future sampling. Unless otherwise stated in the location description, the
sampling points are located at midstream. The following is a list of these
sampling points by tributary.
Station Location	Station No.
\
Conners Creek (Nos. Tl through Th)
Conners Creek 0.3 miles up from mouth,	Tl
20' from right bank
Conners Creek 0.3 miles up from mouth,	T2
liO' from right L nk
Conners Creek 0.8 miles from mouth,	T3
20' from right bank
Conners Creek 0.8 miles from mouth,	Tii
i|0' from right bank
21

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Station Location
Station No.
Rouge River (Nos. T10 through T27)
Rouge River (middle of stream)	T10
DT&IRR bridge over new channel,	Til
0.37 miles upstream from mouth,
50' from right bank
DT&IRR bridge over new channel,	T12
0.37 miles upstream from mouth,
150' from right bank
At RR Bridge to Zug Island by intersection	T13
of White St. & Jefferson St. west in old
channel 0.81 miles from Detroit River
In old Zug Island channel at DT & IRR bridge	Till
on north side of Zug Island, G.33 miles from
Detroit River,
At Jefferson St. west 1.09 miles upstream	Tip
from Detroit River.
At NYC RR bridge 1.U7 miles upstream	Tl6
from Detroit River.
At Wabash RR bridge 1.87 miles upstream	T17
from Detroit River
At Fort St. bridge 2.19 miles upstream	Tl8
from Detroit River
At Dix Ave. bridge 2.75 miles upstream	T19
from Detroit River
At Schaefer Road bridge, 3.87 'niles	T20
upstream from Detroit River
At Greenfield Rc^.d bridge 5-02 miles	T21
upstream from Detroit River
At DT&IRR bridge next to I-9k Expressway	T22
5.28 miles upstream from Detroit River
At Rotunda Drive bridge 6.3h miles	T23
upstream from Detroit River
22

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Station Location
Station No.
At Michigan Avenue bridge 8.13 miles	T2U
upstream from Detroit River
At South Military Road bridge on Lower	T25>
Rouge River 10.37 miles upstream
from Detroit River
At Ford Road bridge 10.83 miles	T26
upstream from Detroit River
At Southfield Road bridge 7.5 miles	T27
upstream from Detroit River
Ecorse River (Nos. T31 through Till)
Ecorse River (middle of stream)	T31
At Jefferson 0.08 miles up from
Detroit River
At west side of E&T SLRR bridge	T32
in line with Alfred St. 0.2 miles
up from Detroit River
On South branch at Emmons Blvd. 0.9
miles up from Detroit River	T33
On South branch at Gohl St. 1.8 miles	T3U
from Detroi.' River
On South branch at Fort St. 3.0 miles	T35
from Detroit River
On South branch at Dix Road 3.9 miles	T36
up from mouth
On North branch at Mill St. 1.0 miles	T37
up from Detroit River
On North branch at Southfield Road	T38
1.3 wiles up from mouth
On North branch at Empire Avenue	T39
2.1 miles up from Detroit River
On South branch at Fort Street	TliO
2.3 miles up from Detroit River
On North branch at Dix Road	Till
3.6 miles up from Detroit River
23

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Station Location
Mongua'gon Creek (Nos. TI46 through TU9)
Mcngusgon Creek (middle of creek)
At Biadle, 0.5 miles up from
Detroit River
Off rail siding bridge closest to
Pennsalt's West Side Plant, 0.82
miles up from Detroit River
At E&T SLRR where Huntington Creek empties in
Where Huntington Creek flows in ditch
approximately 2,000 ft. west of Quarry Road
Huron River (Nos. T55 and T56)
Huron River at River Road,
middle of stream, 2.1 miles
upstream from Detroit River
Huron River at Fort St. in Rockwood,
middle of stream, U.8 miles upstream
from Detroit River
Swan Creek (No, T65)
Swan Creek at River Road, middle
of stream, 2 8 miles upstream from
Lake Erie.
Stony Creek (To. T70)
Stony Creek at River Road, middle
of stream, 0.6 miles upstream from
Lake Erie.
Sandy Creek (No. T75)
Sandy Creek at River Road, middle
of stream, 1.0 miles upstream from
Lake Erie
Raisin River (Nos. T80 through T90)
Raisin River (middle of stream)
at mouth, between buoys 11 and 12
Station No.
TU6
Th7
ThS
Tli9
T55
T56
T65
T70
T75
T80
2k

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Station Location
0.5 miles upstream from mouth approximately
600 ft. downstream from channel connecting
Raisin River with Plum Creek Bay
1.13 miles upstream from mouth, approximately
500 ft. downstream from turning basin between
blackcan buoys 15 and 13
1.56 miles upstream from mouth, approximately
ItOO ft. downstream from creek entering on the
left
1.95 miles upstream from mouth under 1-75
Expressvay bridge
3.0 miles upstream from mouth at Winchester
Road Bridge
3-h0 miles upstream from mouth at Macomb
Street bridge
3-55 miles upstream from mouth at N. Monroe
Street bridge
U.25 miles upstream from mouth at Roessler
Street bridge
U.8 miles upstream from mouth at
Telegraph Ro:-d bridge
13.50 miles upstream from mouth at
Ida Kaybee Road bridge
Plum Creek (No. T95)
Plum Creek 2.8 miles from mouth middle
of stream at Kentucky Avenue
LaPlaisance Creek (No. T101)
LaPlaisance Creek 0.8 miles from mouth,
middle of stream at LaPlaisance Road
25

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FIGURE 8
MICHIGAN

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BOTTOM SEDIMENT SURVEY (SLUDGE SURVEY)
Purpose
Moving water has the capacity to carry particles of various sizes depending
on the \relocity of the water. As the moving water slows in areas where the
river widens, or behind islands, the larger particles settle to the bottom. As
the river water moves into the lake, the velocity is greatly reduced so that the
finest settleable material will eventually find its way to the bottom of the
lake. Some of these particles result from natural phenomenon, such as soil and
bank erosion, and the debris from the life cycle of vegetables and animals.
Other sediment results from man's activities and the purpose of this study is
to identify such materials and determine their effect on water quality.
Method
One sample of bottom material was taken for every square mile in the
Michigan portion of Lake Erie and at selected stations in the Detroit River
where conditions were thought to be favorable for the settling of waterborne -
material.
When the boat arrived on a sampling station, a marker buoy with anchor
attached was thrown overboard. Then the bottom sampler was launched overboard
and allowed to sink to the bottom while the boat was drifting with the wind or
current. Samples for DO were taken at the surface and at the bottom anc a
water-temperature profile measurement was taken. While this was being done,
the sampler had been towed across the bottom by movement of the boat, and at
the end of this operation the sampler was towed to the surface by means of a
hand line. The contents were removed and observations made of color, consist-
ency, odor, oil, and bottom fauna. The entire operation took place within a
radius of one hundred feet of the anchor buoy marking the location of the
26

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sampling point. At the end of the operation, the buoy was picked up and a
timed run made to the next sampling point, where suitable points of observa-
tion were available. The exact location of the boat was verified by means of
sextant shots.
After physical observations were made and recorded, the sample was placed
in a one-half gallon glass jar. Part of the sample, well shaken and mixed,
was then poured into a plastic jar containing HgSO^ preservative. This was
later analyzed in the laboratory for the following: PO. , NO , NO . m NH .
u 3 2	3
and phenols. The remaining part of the sample in one-half gallon jar was
taken to -the laboratory and analyzed immediately for pH, metals, and oils.
Location
The location of the sampling points are shown on the accompanying maps
(Figures 9 and 10) and described on the list on page 28.
Equipment and Personnel
Crew - two or three
Boat - 25' or 31'
Detroit .':iver-Lake Erie Project bottom sampler
Electronic thermometer
Kemmerer sampler
Sextant
Marker buoys
27

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LOCATIONS OF DETROIT RIVER SLUDGE SAMPLING STATIONS
Approx.
Station
Mile-Point
Description
S 1
5.3
West side MAS Channel, 1000' north of buoy R2. .
S 2
5.0
At buoy BC 3, south of NAS Channel.
S 3
5.0
At east set of piles off south tip of Horse Island.
S k
5.0
800' east of last set of piles east off south tip Horse
Island.
s 5
5.0
11150' east of last set of piles east off south tip
Horse Island.
s 6
6.1
Trenton Channel at west shore on range extending from
near weather bureau signal station to south tip Swan Is
s 7
6.1
1100' from west shore (same range as S 6).
S 8
6.1
2800' from west shore (same range as S 6).
S 9
7.0
Trenton Channel 2000' west of East shore (Grosse lie)
at Groh Rd.
S 10
7.5
Trenton Channel 800' from west shore on range south of
Monsanto Chemical Co. new dike.
Sll
; .5
1550' from west shore (same range as S 10).
S12
7.5
2U00' from sst shore (same range as S 10).
S13
8.0
Trenton Channel off South end of Detroit Edison Co.
coal dock.
Slit
9.6
Tror.:on Channel at west shore (end dock of O.C. Howey
Boat Yard) on sampling range DT 9.6W.
sis
9.6
800' from west shore (same range as SlU).
S16
9.6
1200' from west shore (same range as SlU).
SI?
10.5
Trenton Channel 100' from west shore on range opposite
Church R. (Grosse lie).
SI8
10.5
800' from west shore (same range as S17).
S19
io.5
1200' from west shore (same range as S17).

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LOCATIONS OF DETROIT RIVER SLUDGE SAMPLING STATIONS
Approx.
Station Mile-Point	Description	
520	11.ii	Trenton Channel at west shore on range in line with
buoys BC 21 and RN 22.
521	ll.Ii	600' from west shore (at buoy BC 21)(same range as S20).
522	11.ii	115>0' from west shore (same range as S20).
523	12.2	Trenton Channel 100' from west shore on range from
Firestone Steel Products Co. smokestack to Grosse lie
at a bearing of 110.
S2U	12.2	550' from west shore (same range as S23).
525	12.2	950' from west shore (same range as S23).
526	13.0	Trenton Channel at west shore on range extending from a
point on the west shore 500' downstream from Wye Steet
to Grosse lie at a bearing of 120 .
527	13.0	hOO' from west shore (same range as S26).
528	13.0	800' from west shore (same range as S26).
529	13.3	Trenton Channel at west shore off Wyandotte Chemicals
Corp. (south plant) approximately 1300' upstream from
Wye Street.
530	13.8	Trenton Channel 50' from west shore on range extending
through buoy R30 at a bearing of 110.
531	13.8	1*00' .from west shore (same range as S30).
532	13.8	800' from west shore (same range as S30).
533	$.2	At buoy RN 2 approximately 1 mile south of Hickory Is.
S3U	5.0	300' west of west edge of Livingstone Channel at south
end of dike (approximately 1100' south of Lt. 13).
5-0	200' east of east edge of Livingstone Channel at south
end of dike (approximately 1000' south of Lt. Uj.).
536	5.0	150' west of Lacey's Gas Dock near Bar Point, Canada.
537	6.8	At buoy BC 13, 900' north of Sugar Is. east of Grosse lie,
29

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300' west of Livingstone Channel dike on line through
Lt. 17 and Lt, 18 (Livingstone Channel).
UOO' east of Grosse lie and 1350' due west of buoy RN 6
(in area between Grosse lie and Livingstone Channel).
lllOO' east of Grosse lie and 350' due west of buoy RN 6
(in area between Grosse lie and Livingstone Channel).
850' north of buoy HBC adjacent to Powder House Is.
(in area between Grosse lie and Livingstone Channel).
U00' northeast of south tip of easterly Livingstone
Channel dike at the Sugar Is. cut (approximately 1100'
north-northeast of Lt. 20 in Livingstone Channel).
200' west of Canadian shore, lUSO' north-northeast of
buoy R 6k D in Amherstburg Channel.
650' east of Grosse lie on sampling range DT 9.32
(line from Ferry Rd. to Upper Entrance Light).
800' west of buoy B 27 (same range as SUIi).
At upper entrance light.
750' east of upper entrance light (same range as SUU).
200' west of Canadian shore (same range as SUli).
100' from tc st shore on sampling range DT lii.6W (line
from south pile at Wyandotte Power Plant to buoy R 92
in Fighting Is. Channel).
850' from west shore (same range as Sli9).
1600' from west shore at water intake (same range as
SU9).
2250' from west shore at east end of cut (same range
as Sii9).
At buoy B 91 in Fighting Is. Channel (same range as
Sli9).
At buoy R 92 in Fighting Is. Channel (same range as
SU9).
Fighting Is. Channel 200'- southeast of Grassy Is.
Light.
30

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Approx.
Station Mile-Point	Description	
556	15.9	Fighting Island Channel 200' south of buoy R 96.
557	15.9	Fighting Island Channel 650' east of buoy R 96.
558	16.2	Junction Ecorse and Wyandotte Channels at west shore
on range extending through buoys H3 and R 18.
559	16.2	At buoy HB (same range as S5>8).
560	16.2	At buoy R 18 (same range as S58).
561	17.1	Ecorse Channel at buoy BC ..
562	17.2	Head of Ecorse Channel at buoy B 7.
563	17.1	Head of Ecorse Channel at buoy RN 6.
S6I1	17.0	Head of Wyandotte Channel at buoy BC 23.
S6$	17.0	Head of Wyandotte Channel IpO1 south of buoy HB.
S66	17.0	Head of Fighting Island Channel 1$0' southeast of
Fighting Island north light.
So7-	17.0	Channel east of Fighting Island, 200' from Fighting
Island on sampling range Dt 17.OE (line from Fighting
Island at a bearing of 100 to Riverview Harbour Hoists
in Canada).
S08	17.0	100' from Canadian shore (sane range as S67).
569	18.h	t west shore on range extending from Great Lakes
Steel Corp. (Ecorse plant) through the two buoys
marking the south edge of the anchorage area.
570	l8.U	At y marking the southwest corner of the anchorage
area (same range as S69).
571	18.h	2700' from west shore and 500' from buoy marking
southeast corner of anchorage area (same range as
S69).
572	18.5	In center of south Nicholson Slip U50! from mouth.
573	18.6	In center of north Nicholson Slip hSO' from mouth.
S7it	19.0	At entrance to small boat dockage area along west
shore 60' downstream from pipeline.
31

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Approx.
Station Mile-Point
Description
575	19.5	At entrance to small boat launching ramp along west
shore approximately 700' upstream from north building
line of Great Lakes Steel Corp. strip mill (first
sampling point on range extending from the launching
ramp at a bearing of 110 to the Canadian shore).
576	19.5	1200' from west shore (same range as S75).
577	19.5	2550' from west shore (same range as S75).
S?8	19.7	100' from west shore opposite Detroit Edison Co.
Rouge plant water intake.
579	Rouge River (main channel) off south shore 800' down-
stream from West Jefferson Avenue bridge.
580	Rouge River (main channel) off north shore 900' down-
stream from West Jefferson Avenue bridge.
581	Rouge River (old channel) off east shore I4OO' south-
west of DT&I RR bridge.
582	Rouge River (old channel) off west shore 100' south
of Scott Paper Co. conveyor.
583	Rouge River (short-cut canal) off north shore 350'
east of DT&I RR bridge.
S8U	Rouge River (short-cut canal) off south shore 550'
east of DT&I RR bridge.
S85	19.8	150' from v st shore and 750' north-northeast of
buoy R2 at mouth of Rouge River.
S36	20.0	50' from west shore on range extending from a point
on Zug Island 1650' downstream from the north end
of t 3 Great Lakes Steel sheet piling to the north
end of the Ontario-Hydro dock in Canada (bearing of
range 110).
587	20.0	1350' from west shore on International Boundary
(same range as S86).
588	20.0	2600' from west shore at north end of Ontario-Hydro
dock (same range as S86).
589	20.3	100' from west shore 350' upstream from Allied
Chemical Corp. piling.
32

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Approx.
Station Mile-Point
Description
590	21.2	At west shore on range extending from south edge of
slip just south of Revere Copper and Brass to
Confederation Coal and Coke Slip in Canada. (Bearing
of range 110.)
591	21.2	95>Or from west shore (same range as S90).
592	21.2	2000' from west shore and 75' from Canadian shore
(same range as S90).
593	22.1	At north shore on range 100' south and parallel to
Ambassador Bridge.
S9U	22.1	1000' from north shore on International Boundary
(same range as S93).
595	22.1	1850' from north shore and 150' from Canadian shore
(same range as S93).
596	2h.S	At north shore on range extending from southwest
corner car ferry slip warehouse to Canada at bearing
of 170.
597	2h.S	12^0' from north shore at International 3oundary
(same range as S96).
S93	2h.S	2500' from north shore at Canadian shore (same range
as S9o).
S99	25.7	At north shore on range extending from Parke-Davis
fk Co. prop.- \y at Walker St. to northwest, edge of
Ford Motor Co. (Canada) building at bearing 155.
5100	25.7	1550' from north shore (same range as S99).
5101	25.7	39^0- from north shore at Canadian shore (same range
as S99).
5102	28.U	50' from north shore on range extending from East
edge Detroit Boat Basin slip to flagpole at end of
Detroit Yacht Club dock.
5103	28.U	1650' from north shore and 50' from flagpole (same
range as S102).
SlOlj	29-U	At north shore 7$0' downstream from buoy BC3-
5105	29.U	100'"..south.of buoy B1A.
5106	29.U	100' north of Lagoon Light on east end of Belle Isle.
33

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Approx.
Station Mile-Point
Description
5107	28.2	Fleming Channel 100' from south shore Belle Isle on
range extending from southeast edge of parking lot
near flagpole (2800' upstream from Dossin Great Lakes
Museum) to Canadian shore at bearing of 160.
5108	28.2	Fleming Channel 1800' from south shore Belle Isle
and 501 from Canadian shore (same range as S107).
5109	30-0	At north shore on range extending from mouth of Port
Lagoon through buoys B5, HB, and Rlj at bearing of
185.
5110	30.0	95>0' from north shore at buoy B5 (same range as
S109).
5111	30.0	2100' from north shore at buoy HB (same range as
S109).
5112	30.0	3550' from north shore at buoy Rl; (same range as
S109).
5113	31.0	At east corner breakwater 1300' upstream from Wind-
mill Point Light.
SI lit	31.2	At Rear Light (Peach Island Range Lights).
5115	30.8	501 from south shore Peach Island on range extending
from Peach Island to Edgewater Thomas Inn (Canada)
at bearing of 185.
5116	30.8	950' from sr.i.th shore Peach Island and 50' off
Canadian shore (same range as Sll).
31

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LOCATIONS OF LAKE ERIE SLUDGE SAMPLING STATIONS
Shown below are the coordinates of all Lake Erie sludge sampling stations,
expressed in miles North or South and East or West of the Detroit River Light.
UN - IE
3S
-
2E




UN - 0
3S
-
IE
7S - 2W
US
-
low
UN - 1W
3S
-
0
7 S - 3W
US
-
11W
UN - 2W
3S
-
IV/
7S - UW
US
-
12W

3S
-
2W
7S - 5w
IIS
-
13W
3N - IE
3S
-
3W
7S - 6W



3N - 0
3S
-
Uw
7S - 7W'
12S
-
7W
3N - 1W
3S
-
5W
7S - 8W
12S
-
8W
3N - 2W
3S
-
5iw
7S - 9W
12S
-
9W




7S - 9W
12S
-
10W
2N - IE
Us
-
IE

12S
-
11W
2N - 0
Us
-
0
8S - 3W
12 S
-
12W
2N - W
US
-
1W
8s - UW
12S
-
15W
2N - 1W
Us
-
2W
8s - 5W




Us
-
3W
8s - 6w
13S
-
8w
LN - IE
Us
-
Uw
8s - 7W
13S
-
9W
IN - 0
Us
-
5w
8s - 8W
13S
-
1CW
IN - |W
Us
-
sly
8s - 9W
13S
-
11W
IN - 1W



8s - 1CW
13S
-
12W
LN - lf.J
5s
-
0

13S
-
131V

5s
-
1W
9S - Uw
13S
-
1UW
0 - IE
5s
-
2W
9s - 5w



0-0
5s
-
3W
9S - 6w
1US
-
11W
0 - 1W
5 s
-
Uw
9S - 7W
1US
-
12W
0 - 2W
5s
-
5w
9S - 8W
1US
-
13W

5s
-
6w
9S - 9W
lUs
-
lUw
IS - IE
5S
-
7W
9S - law
lUs
-
I5w
IS - 0
5s
-
8w




IS - 1W
5S
-
9W
ios - 9//
15s
-
low
IS - 2W



10S - 6w
15s
-
11W

6s
-
1W
10S - 7W
15 s
-
12W
2S - 2E
6s
-
2W
ios - 8w
15 s
-
13W
23 - IE
6S
-
3H
ios - 9w
15s
-
lUw
2S - 0
6s
-
Uw
ios - low
15s
-
lU'iw
2S - 1W
6s
-
5w
ios - uw


2S - 2W
6s
-
6w
10S - 12W
16 s
-
11W
2S - 3W
6S
-
7W

16s
-
12W
2S - UW
6S
-
8w
lis - 6w
16 S
-
13W
2S - 5w
6S
-
9W
lis - 7W
lo S
-
lUw

6S
-
9|W
US - 8W
16 S
-
lUiw




lis - 5W



9 3/3S -




17 S
-
ljW
7 7/8W (Raisin River
Dumping Ground)
17 S
-
lUw
35

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LOCATIONS OF RAISIN RIVER SLUDGE SAMPLING STATIONS
Station	Description
SRA - 1	Midway between buoys BC9 and RNIO in the Raisin River
Channel.
SRA - 2	Midway between buoys BC11 and RN12 at the mouth of the
Raisin River.
SRA - 3	Mid-channel in the Raisin River east of the turning basin
near buoy BC15.
SRA. - h	Mid-channel in the Raisin River under the Interstate 75
bridge.
36

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o
o
(0
5109,110,111,112
S 104,1 05y {
s,o2'io3-\^f
MICHIGAN
\
S9 9 ,1 00,101
S 96,97,98
S93,94,95 y
/'Cf
Xff^S8J	//^-S90,9I,92
V flZUOi TVs89
S7 9,80-->t=^\I 4/*/s86,87,88
S82-y|\
I /VJ/,8
S73 .
S 7 2\> k
5,69,70,71^5^ ,
Ecorse (4"
S 58^-9,>0
S49,50,5i ,52 ;_!	;o
S30,31,32	J i
S 29
S 26,27,28
Mongucgo n C r.
S75,76,77
S 74
ONTARIO
S55, 56,57
S 23,24.. 25/.O
S20,21,Cil .
SJ7,I8,I9.L
S 14
If '
,15,16/./ //	'
S44,45/* *\
S46.47, 48
SCALE IN MILES
7e;,7 */S43
//IS4! I
] ' )S3 8
 \l C\ -si /
S3,4,5)  
 a
*S2

^-0
'S3 4
233 1 S35
S36
I
!
f
LAKE ERIE
LOCATION OF
BOTTOM MATERIAL STATIONS
DETROIT RIVER

-------
15$ 14/13 12-/'
 //Imlch '/'
T oh To
'' '^oVh^0
,11V'	^o0r Lt
i o
Or
TM ^AtS'ON
.*jih OF
TERIAL STA
LAKE ERIF
rfo
f\/S
i
I
i

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Octroi live:"-Lake 'irio Project	Special Studies
Sludge Study Data Sheet
C - - T: W. Hq*-"i"^a-^CV| ^-V-taxTa. flKC.T,	r ? VA"R	
Temperature
Profile
15,epth(ft.) ! C
D. Visual evidence of oil:
0
ii a
i. i^otuom -1^na: Fe.v.1 SLuAc,gNv0ttw.s
!i 12
)epth of sludge layer:
_lo
Other Comments:
:	1
li 20
7l~2F
1T~2T
TLJL
T. 36
!Hrg~
II . o
15.0. Samples
Taken
i'Io*0
Taken
51 depth
bottom

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METHODOLOC-Y
CURRENT TRACING TECHNIQUE (FLUOROMETRIC)
Purpose
The majority of fluorometric current tracing operations in the Detroit
River fall into three general categories. First, are those studies performed
to determine flow patterns in an area of changing channel characteristics
such as at the head of an island or channel division. Second, are dye releases
made'within or at the outfalls of sewage treatment plants in the area. Six of
these studies were made in the Detroit River area, three from the City of
Detroit sewage treatment plant outfall, and one each from sewage outfalls on
Belle Isle, in Trenton, and in Wyandotte. The third major area of study is at
the mouth of the Detroit River where current patterns in the transition zone
from river to lake were desired.
Methods
 A typic 1 current tracing operation begins by anchoring the boat at a
dye release point and pumping Rhodamine B dye slowly into the water. A posi-
tion fix is taken and the time of release and other pertinent information is
recorded. Floats are placed at the head and at the tail of the dye streak as
the dye is pumped. As long as the dye can be seen, it is traced visually by
making timed rv;.: into the dye from a temporary buoy left at the release point,
and by cross-referencing the location of the dye streak with respect to prom-
inent landmarks or buoys. Characteristics of the dye streak are noted such
as its length and width, and any irregularities in shape.
Cross-sectional runs across the dye plume using the fluorcmeter begin as
the dye becomes visually faint. This operation requires a minimum of four
37

-------
men; two sextant operators, one fluorometer operator and recorder, and one
boat operator. The boat is aimed at a buoy or at a prominent landmark on the
opposite shore, or set on a compass course. A speed is selected between ten
and twenty feet per second. Approximately one minute before the run is to
commence, the pump and fluorometer are turned on to permit electronic compon-
ents to warm up, and air bubbles to be expelled from the system. As the ran
is started, the recorder on the fluorometer is switched on and a reference
mark is made on the chart. Sextant fixes follow at approximately one-minute
intervals (closer if the cross-section is short). The fluorometer operator
marks the chart each time a fix is taken, records the time of the fix to the
nearest five seconds, and logs the angles as read by the sextant operators.
Occasionally fixes: are not used during a dye cross-section, usually in an area
containing numerous buoys. In this case, a course between several buoys is
run and reference marks are made on the recorder chart at each buoy. It is
particularly important that speed remain as uniform as possible between buoys
when using i .is method.
Sufficient sextant fixes are plotted in the field to check for ' ' *
errors. Upon completion of a day's work, the recorder chart is removed from
the machine and properly labelled. Due to the construction of the recorder,
which will not permit a pencil to be inserted near'the stylus, and also a
30-second time liig in the tubing and intake apparatus, the position fix marks
on the chart log the corresponding points on the curve of dye concentration
by three-quarters of an inch (chart speed is 30 inches per hour). Thus, all
fix marks must be shifted this distance and properly identified shortly after
the runs have been made. If all field records are clear and complete, z'r.e
final plotting and interpretation of results can be postponed to a later z:sr.e.

-------
MajD
1
2
3
h
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1U
15
16
17
13
19
20
21
22
23
DYE STUDIES PERFORMED IN THE DETROIT RIVER
(upstream to downstream)
Date 	Description of Release Point	
9/23/63	Upper Peach Island Range Light
9/2ii/63	North of piling above Windmill Pointe Light
10/7/63	$ visual traces done at head of Belle Isle
7/30/63	Belle Isle sewage treatment plant (outfall line)
5/16/63	Buoy "HB" south of Belle Isle
5/13/63	Range Dt 20.6 (approximate center of channel)
5/lii/63	Range Dt 20.6 (3001 east of International 3oundary)
5/15/63	Range Dt 20.6 (300' from west shore)
6/20/63	In Rouge River (old channel) near mouth
6/20/63	In Rouge River (main channel) at Dix Avenue bridge
5/3/63	Detroit sewage treatment plant (over outfall)
6/17/63	Detroit sewage treatment plant (outfall line)

-------
Map #	Date	Description of Release Point	
2h	6/6/63	Range Dt 3.9 (approximate 5000' from west shore)
25	6/6/63	Range Dt 3.9 at middle of Livingstone Channel
10

-------
DYE STUDIES PERFORMED IN LAKE ERIE
(other than synoptic vector work)
Mao #
Date
Description of Release Point
1
2
3
r*
6
7
6/10/63	3 visual traces in Raisin River-Brest Bay
6/11/63	U visual traces in Raisin River-Brest Eay
6/27/63	1 visual trace at buoy B1 (west outer channel)
7/9/63	Off Pointe Mouillee
7/16-17/63	Off Pointe Mouillee
8/6-7/63	Buoy 31 (west outer channel)
8/7/63	1000' south of Stony Point
-"-See Figure 13
hi

-------
r I v. . ri u II

-------
f i ;. j f?  12

-------
FiGOSE 13

-------
FIGURE I 3 A

-------
FIGURE [4
!V. E 7 H v, J C PLOTTING RESULTS
F L U Q R 0 .V; H T R S C DYE STUDIES
PLOTTING A SEXTANT POSITION FIX ON A RANGE
USING A 3-ARM PROTRACTOR
A PORTION OF FLUO 30 METER RECORDER CHART
SHOWING DYE LOCATION AND CONCENTRATION
AC3CJS THE RANGE

-------
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-------
CURRENT TRACING TECHNIQUE (SYNOPTIC VECTOR CRUISE)
Purpose
The synoptic vector cruise is this Project's method of obtaining current
oattern information for one sot of meteorological conditions over s. largo area
(i.e. the Michigan waters of Lake Erie), in a relatively short period of time.
A technique such as this is necessary when currents are relatively slow, as in
a lake, and the study period must be short. Fluorometric techniques would be
much too time-consuming to be used by the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project.
Method
The method is as follows. A number of dye release locations ere selected
initially to give as comolete coverage as possible for the area in question
(i.e. Michigan waters of Lake Erie). One, or occasionally two boats visit all
release points designated for the day's work in an order determined primarily
by convenier.e. If xhe point happened to be a navigation buoy, a small quan-
tity of concentrated Rhodamine B dye was poured next to it and the time of re-
lease recorded. Most release points were not marked, however, and exist enly
as a bearing and a distance from some reference point (buoy, shore, etc.). To
locate them a timed run was  ."v. from the proper reference point and, upon
arrival, a tcr.ip-.rary buoy was released to mark the spot. Dye was then released
in the same manner as with an existing buoy. While waiting for the dye to move
away from the release point, wind direction and velocity readings wore taken
and a temperature profile recorded. A timed run was then made from the buoy
to the center of the dye plume. Three items were recorded following this run:
h2

-------
dye direction, tine elapsed from buoy to dye, and the time the run ended.
Conversion of the :,time elapsed frora buoy to dye" reading to distance from
buoy to dye was simplified by maintaining a constant boat speed during runs
at ten feet per second.
Plotting the results obtained at a release point can often be done
during the fifteen minute waiting period at the next point. A small field
work map, drawn especially for this work, was used. To complete the field
record dye vector direction, dye rate of travel (in f?m), time of dye release,
and wind direction and velocity were entered on the field map next to the
vector drawn from the release point.
Analysis of results was approached in two ways. The first method in-
volved scanning individual synoptic vector cruises for daily current pattern
trends. This would give successful results under conditions of constant
winds and water level during the period of field measurement. In the other
method, results for each station were tabulated and broken down into groups
by wind dire . cion and velocity. Results from all stations for a particular
set of wind conditions were then plo .^ed and analyzed for an overall current
pattern for a given wind situation.
Location
The location of all synoptic vector dye release points is shown on
Figure 12 and are described on the list shown on pages and h6.

-------
Equipment and Personnel
Crew - two (2) per boat
Boat - 31' and/or 2b'
Dye release apparatus
Stopwatch
Marker buoy
Dye in quart polyethylene bottles
Electronic thermometer or regular thermometer
Charts and forms
hh

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SYNOPTIC VECTOR CRUISE DYE RELEASE STATIONS (LAKE ERIE)
Station	Description	-
R 28d	Buoy on east edge of channel near Light 29D
r HiD	Buoy on east edge of channel near the Detroit River Light
R lii(EOC)	Buoy on east edge of East Outer Channel
B1A (EOC)	Extreme southerly buoy on uest edge of East Outer Channel
R 6(WOC)	Buoy on east edge at West Outer Channel
B1 (WOC)	Extreme southerly buoy on west edge of West Outer Channel
B1 (RRC)	Extreme easterly buoy on south edge of Raisin River Channel
B3 (RRC)	Buoy on south edge of Raisin River
B7 (RRC)	Buoy on south edge of Raisin River Channel
ECU (RRC)	South buoy at mouth of Raisin River
R 2(THC)	Extreme easterly buoy on north edge of Toledo Harbor Channel
R 10(THC)	Buoy on north edge of Toledo Harbor Channel
R l8(THC)	Buoy on north edge of Toledo Harbor Channel
LP 1	1000' south of tip of Stony Point
LP 2	15000' at a bearing of 270 from R6(W0C)
LP 3	10000' at a bearing of U5 from buoy RlU(E0C)"
LP U	15000' at z. bearing of 70 from buoy Rlli (EOC)
LP 5	20000' at a bearing of 90 from buoy B1A (EOC)
LP 6	20000' at a bearing of 215 frcra buoy B1A (EOC)
LP 7	20000' at a bearing of 290 from buoy R 18 (THC)
LP 8	20000' at a bearing of 30 from station LP 7
LP 9	10000' at a bearing of 180 from buoy B7 (RRC)
LP 10	1U5001 at a bearing of 75 from station LP 1
U5

-------
Station
Description
LP 11
150001
' at
a bearing of 1|0 from buoy B1 (FJRC)
LP 12
15000'
' at
a bearing of U0 from station LP 11
LP 13
7500'
at a
bearing of 270 from buoy R lUD
LP Hi
7500'
at a
bearing of 270 from buoy R 28D
LP 15
115001
1 at
a bearing of 170 from station LP 1
LP 16
50001
at a
bearing of Ii5 from buoy R ll;D
LP 17
5000'
at a
bearing of hS from station LP3
LP 18
7500'
at a
bearing at 70 from buoy R lli (EOC)
LP 19
7500-
at a
bearing of Ii5 from station LP li
LP 20
7500'
at a
bearing of 1^5 from station LP 19
LP 21
10000'
1 at
a bearing of 90 from buoy B1A (EOC)
LP 22
100001
1 at
a bearing of 30 from station LP 5
LP 23
10000'
1 at
a bearing of 30 from station LP 22
LP 2h
10000'
1 at
a bearing of 30 from station LP 23
LP 25
10000'
1 at
a bearing of 105 from station LP 12
LP 26
7500'
at a
bearing o^ 270 from buoy R 6 (WOC)
'h6

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-------
FLOW MEASUREMENTS IN THE DETROIT RIVER
Purpose
Flow measurements were made on each sampling range in the Detroit River.
The purpose of this is to determine the "percent of flow" distribution for
this Project's sampling points across a range, rather than for the amount of
flow. Actual flow in cfs was taken from the weekly averages published by
U.S. Lake Survey. The laboratory analysis of samples yields a concentration
value for each substance tested. To get the total quantity of these materials
passing a range in some unit of time, it is necessary to know the amount of
flow that should be assigned to each sample. The flow measurements made by
this Project were used to determine the percent of total river flow7 that each
sampling point represents.
Method
Because :he Detroit River averages approximately 3,000 feet wide and is
from 20 to UO feet deep, a different r .thcd of velocity measurement was re-
quired than that used on tributaries. The boat was put in approximate position
on the sampling range by a timed run, Lhen anchored in place and accurately
located by a sextar.t position fix. The water depth at the gaging site was
measured using Lh. depth-indicating cable reels on one of the modified bridge
cranes mounted at the stern of the boat. One current meter was lowered to
two-tenths depth and the other zo eight-tanths depth. The r.unber of meter
revolutions in four minutes was used instead of the one-minute interval "chat
was used on-the tributaries, to allow for possible variations in velocity
caused by turbulence or surges in the river channel. Both meters were rc-d
hi

-------
simultaneously. The boat pulled anchor and the operation proceeded to the
next gaging point. From ten to fifteen gaging points were used per sampling
range. The same computational methods were used for determining flow at each
point as were used on the tributaries. River cross-sections were drawn and
velocity curves constructed. From these velocity curves, the flow at each
sampling point was determined.
Location
The location of Detroit River sampling ranges is shown on Figure 15.
Equipment
Crew - three (3)
Boat - 31'
Cranes - two (2)
2 Price Type A current meters
2 Stopwatches
2 Sextants
Charts and forms
3-Arm protractor
U8

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- P E I 5

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TRIBUTARY STREAM GAGING
Purpose
Stream flow was measured on each tributary sampled so that a relationship
could be established to determine the quantity of water flowing each time a
water quality sample was taken. The laboratory results indicate the concentra-
tion of each substance in the sample. These concentration values are then
applied to the quantity of water flowing at the time to give the total pounds
of material carried by the stream, per unit time.
Method
On each tributary, a gaging site was selected to measure flow. A staff
gage was installed and each time the tributary was sampled, the gage reading
was recorded. By comparing this reading with the rating curve drawn for the
particular site, the flow in cfs was determined for each sample taken. The
site selected for the measuring section in each case, was above the backwater
effects of Lake Erie or the Detroit River. The staff gages were installed
where optimu metering conditions and good hydraulic control were found.
A Price Type A current meter war used in most cases for measuring flow,
but in shallow areas and in low flow during the summer the pigmy Price meter
was used. With the larger Price meter, measurements were taken at .2 death
and .8 depth when the depth of the river exceeded 1.5 feet. When the deDth
was less than 1 foot, the pigmy meter was used at the .o depth. The number
of sections taken across the stream varied from 10 to 20 depending on the
width of the stream. At each measuring point, the velocity of the current
was determined by counting the number of revolutions per minute on the current
meter and reading the velocity from a table furnished with the instrument.
The cross-section area for that reading was then multiplied by the flow to
k9

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give the total cfs for that measurement. The total for all the measurements
across the river was added together to give the total flow for the river at
that time. By making several of these measurements at gage readings, a rating
curve was developed from which the flow could be determined by reading the gage
during the sampling operations.
Location
The location of the tributary gaging sites is shown on the accompanying
chart (Figure 16) and are described on page $1.
Equipment
The following is a list of equipment required for stream gaging:
Staff gage
Level
100-foot tape
Stopwatch
Current meter
Tagline
5o

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LOCATIONS OF FLOW MEASURING SECTIONS ON TRIBUTARIES
TO THE
DETROIT RIVER AND LAKE ERIE
Tributary
Section Location
Ecorse River (North Branch)
Ecorse River (South Branch)
Monguagon Creek
Huron River
Swan Creek
Stony Creek
Sandy Creek
Plus! Creek
LaPlaisance Creek
Southfield Road bridge in Ecorse
Emmons Blvd. bridge in Lincoln Park
Jefferson (Biddle) Ave. bridge in Riverview
Willow Road bridge (5001 upstream) west of
Flat Rock
Drew Road bridge in Newport
Detroit & Toledo Shore Line RR bridge (adjacent
to North Stony Creek Road) in Frenchtown
North Dixie Hwy. bridge near Detroit Beach
New York Central RR bridge (adjacent to
Kentucky Ave.) in Monroe
Detroit & Toledo Shore Line RR bridge (adjacent
to Albain Rd.) south of Monroe
Si

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EQUIPMENT
To conduct the sampling program, many types of equipment were utilized.
The equipment available plays a part in determining the speed and efficiency
of samoling ooerations. Some of the equipment used by the Project is described
here in order to give a clearer picture of sampling work done.
Boats
31-foot Bertram
The 31-foot Bertram is the Project's largest boat. This fiberglass hull
is approximately 31 feet in length with an 11-foot beam and a 2-foot draft.
Because of its sturdy design and twin 230 hp engines, it proved to be a safe,
fast, and seaworthy boat for open water. It is large enough to carry special-
ized survey equipment and a crew of 3 to 6 men.
25-foot Bertram
The 25-foot Bertam has, basically the same fiberglass hull construction
as the 31-foox.er. It was mainly used for river sampling because of its 10-foot
beam and large open-work area. A secondary use was for industrial waste outfall
sampling since the stern-mounted outboard units allowed the operator to place
the bow in shallower areas.
l8-foot Turbocraft
A fast runabout with a 220 hp engine, the Turbocraft .jet-powered boat
has no propeller and can operate in shallow waters. It, was used to sample
industrial waste outfalls and do other shallow water work.
52

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ill-foot Aluminum Utility
The lli-foot Beco Craft Aluminum Utility with a 10 hp outboard moto
was used as a cartop boat for sampling in tributaries and in protected
areas of the Detroit River.
9-foot Pram
Powered by a 3 hp outboard motor, the 9-foot aluminum pram was a
lightweight cartop boat used for sampling along beaches, in coves, on
tributaries, and in areas which the other boats could not maneuver.
Collection Devices
Scoop Sampler
This collection device shown in Figure 17 was constructed by the '
Project personnel. It was used in regular sampling to collect most of
the surface jamples. Both chemical and bacteriological bottles fit snu
into their respective holders and ca be inserted or withdrawn ouickly
making it possible to take several samples per minute with this device.
j.ddge Sampler
The bridge sampler is essentially a scoop sampler with the pole
removed and a line in its place.


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Industrial Waste Sampler
A device, designed and constructed by the Project, consists of a poly-
ethylene container on an aluminum handle which may be used as a scoop dipped
into an outfall at various angles.
Kenmerer
For collecting chemical samples at various depths, a Kemmerer sampler
was used. This device which is shown in Figure 18 can collect an 18-inch
column of water (3,000 cubic centimeters in volume) at any depth desired by
entrapping it between the 2 valves or stoppers.
A.P.H.A. Sewage Sampler
Figure 19 illustrates the construction of the American Public Health
Association Sewage Sanoler. Used mainly for collecting dissolved oxyger.
samples at ~ny depth, it is designed to eliminate the possibility of entrap-
ping air in the water during collection.
J.A. Aseptic Bacteriological Sampler
The J.Z. Bacteriological Sampler is a mechanical device designed to
aseptically srj-.ole water at any depth ir. a lake or ocean. Since this is a
relatively new type of collection device, a description of its use is in
order. Figure 20 shows the assembled instrument ready for use. It is pro-
vided with a glass reagent bottle, 250 ml capacity for'the shallow water use
as was required by this Project. All components, except the messenger, must
be sterilized before use and assembled under aseptic conditions. The glass
5h

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FIGURE
COMMERCIAL
HAND CLEANER TIN
SCOOP SAMPLER

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FIGURE

MESSENGER
LINE
RELEASE JAW
UPPER VALVE
LOWER VALVE
'/
CYLINDER
DRAIN TUBE OPENING
DRAIN TUBE
KEMMERER SAMPLER

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FIGURE' 19
APHA SEWAGE SAMPLER

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FiGUSE 2C
MESSENGER
STEEL CABLE
SEALED GLASS CAPILLARY TUBE
GLASS REAGENT
BOTTLE
GLASS TUBING
J. Z. BACTERIOLOGICAL
SAMPLER

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bottle and its glass and rubber tubing should be assembled while hot to
create a partial vacuum upon cooling. The sampling operation is quite
simp-ie. After the frame is attached to the wire and lowered to a desired
depth, a messenger is released from above. This messenger sxrikes a trip-
ping lever which is forced upward against the sealed capillary glass tube
and breaks it. The broken tube attached to the flexible rubber tubing flips
over sideways so that the open end of the glass tube is approximately 6 inches
away from the metal frame. The evacuated bottle immediately aspirates water
and is filled in a matter of minutes. J.Z. Samplers may be attached in series
to a ship's wire for multiple sampling at a single station.
Bottles
Chemical
For field transportation of chemical samples, the Project has been using
wide-mouth, half-gallon glass jars with black plastic screw-caps. These can
be purchase from any of the leading chemical supply houses at about 50 cents
per bottle.
Eacteriological
The bacteriological booties used were of the wide-mouth round, reagent
type with a 250 -'*1 capacity. Stoppers for these were etched metric glass,
covered with heavy gage aluminum foil to protect the mouth from contamination
before use.
55

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Dissolved Oxygen
Bottles used for collecting dissolved oxygen samples were of the 300 ml
type recommended by the American Public Health Association.
Pouring Jug
At the laboratory, 3-gallon wide-mouth flint glass jugs with wire
carrying handles were used to composite samples collected in the field inhere
composite samples were required.
Auxiliary Equipment
Ice Chests
After collection in the field, the bacteriological samples must be
preserved until they are analyzed. For this purpose, the Project used steel
ice and picnic chests with cube ice to pack the samples in. These chests
were 13 n x lU" x 26" in size and were purchased for about $13 each from tha
local Coca Cola Bottling Comnany.
Thermometers
For temper."ture mcasur;... ~ nts during samoling, stainless steel thermom-
eters of tha P^'al Reset Type with a 9-inch stem length were used. Chess
responded quir.Vly to temperature change, were sturdy and very easy to read.


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Navigation and Plotting Instruments
Sextant
The sextant is a portable instrument for measuring the angle between two
objects and is well suited to navigation work on small boats as it dees not
require stable support. The instrument operates on the principal of optically
aligning the reflected image of one object with a second object. This is
accomplished by moving a pivoted arm containing a mirror, in an arc until
coincidence between the two objects occurs. The angle between the two is
then read directly from a graduated scale on the arc around which the pivoted
arm is swung. Although the instrument is equipped with a telescope, it is
rarely used when sights are fairly close, thus allowing greater speed in making
observations.
To take position fixes from a moving boat,, two sextants are employed.
Three targets (objects) are used with the middle target common to both left
and right hand sextant shots. On signal, both shots are taken simultaneously.
As long as ~e boat is not located on a circle passing through the three
sextant stations, position of the bcrt can be determined from the two angles
so obtained.
When the boat is at anchor, and therefore, time is not a factor, one
sextant and one operator may take both sights.
Three-arm Protractor
The three-arm protractor is an instrument used to obtain a graphical
solution from position fix data. This device consists of a disk with three
arms projecting from its center. The middle arm is fixed ar.d is at the zero
degree location of two graduated scales marked at degree intervals in clock-
wise and counter-clockwise directions about the circle. The movable arms of the
57

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protractor are set at their respective sextant shot angles and are clamped by
means of^a thumbscrew. The type of three-arm protractor employed on this
Project is of plastic and has verr.ier scales on each of the movable arms enab-
ling angle settings to be made to the nearest two minutes.
Position is plotted by first placing the center line of the middle arm on
the middle sextant target and then moving the instrument about until all three
arms bisect their respective sextant rargets. A mark is then made through the
center of the instrument. This method of position fixing is rapid and can be
performed readily on a boat with the aid of plotting board and appropriate maps.
This also allows changes to be made in field operations while they are in
progress.
Course Protractor
This device is extremely useful for charting boat courses and also for
plotting certain types of field data, such as results of synoptic vector cruises.
This protractor consists of a plastic square with a compass rose etched on it
and a movab" 3 plastic arm. When correctly oriented on a chart, a course may be
plotted by setting the arm to the derired bearing.
Radio Direction Finder
The radio direction finder operates on the principal of "homing in" on the
signal emitted by a radio.\s nation. The instrument is operated by rotating t.he
direction-fincinj antenna until radio signal strength from the desired station
is at a minimum (i.e. minimum antenna length presented to the signal). This
antenna may be fastened to a hand-held compass or to a special plotting pro-
tractor provided with the set. The radio direction finder is less precise than
sextant positioning and in this Project's field operations, has been usee only
53

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when the 31-foot boat is out of sight of land or navigation buoys. Thus, the
instrument is also a safety device for emergency situations such as heavy fog
or a storm.
Boat Cranes
Two cranes were mounted on the 31-foot boat for use in current metering,
bottom fauna collection, temperature profile work, etc. The cranes were of the
type commonly used for current metering from bridges, modified for boat use by
removing three rubber-tired wheels and rearranging several structural components.
These, in turn, were mounted on two horizontally mounted airplane wheel hub
assemblies ana fastened to the deck. Thus the aircraft wheel assemblies served
both as support and pivots for the cranes, allowing them to be swung about.
Interchangeable cable reels were used with the cranes. One was wound with
insulated cable and was used for current metering work. The other reel was
wound with a heavy-duty steel cable and was used in lowering heavy objects such
as the Petersen dredge. All depth readings, when cranes were used for an oper-
ation, were ,aken directly from the footage indicator on the reel. For current
metering work in calm weather, the cranes were clamped directly to the stern
of the boat, thus allowing three cranes to be mounted simultaneously. This
permitted two current meter measurements and a temperature profile to be taken
simultaneously.
Depth Finding Equipment
The majority of depth-finding observations were made using a lead line,
consisting of a ten-pound lead and shrink-resistant rope marked at half-fathom
intervals. The 31-foot and 2?-foot boats are equipped with an electronic hull-
mounted transducers to which can be attached a Bendix Model No. DR21 battery
operated, echo sounding recorder. Because of its simplicity and reliability,
59

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the lead line was found to be more suitable on this' Project.
Wind Measuring Instruments
Two methods were used to determine wind velocity and direction in the
field. The first method employed a small plastic wind meter operating on
the pitot tube principal. This meter has two scales - one reading from
2 to 10 miles per hour, the other reading from 0 to 60+ miles per hour. As
this meter is not equipped with a vane arrangement for indicating wind direc-
tion, this measurement was determined by compass bearing.
A Navy hand-held wind measuring set was also used. This instrument has
a rotor 'with a vane-typc wind speed indicator and has two wind velocity scale
both reading in knots. The instrument is equipped with a wind direction vane
which is freed by pulling a trigger. When the vane has oriented itself to th
wind direction the trigger is released, locking the vane. Comparison of vans
direction with the course heading of the boat at the instant the reading was
taken, yiel:s wind direction. Calibrating the inexpensive plastic wir.d meter
readings against the more elaborate Navy equipment proved that the former
velocity readings were reliable and were used without correction.
Elcctrr Tic Thermometer
A resista.-.; ;-tvpe electronic thermometer was used for all temperature
profile and surface temperature runs. This instrument consists of a sm^ll
sensing element at the end of a 50-foot wire, which in turn, is connected to
a small plastic case containing the electronic components and a calibrated
temperature scale. A wooden case X'ras built to protect the thermometer with

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a cliD board for recording temperatures and space for the wire and the
element. The wire "as taped to a heavier steel-center cord as it was felt
the wire provided would not be durable enough to support the weights required
to make the element sink vertically when used for temperature profile work.
In operation, two fifteen-pound weights were hooked to the cord holding the
wire and element, then the assembly was lowered by means of a boat crane. A
temperature reading to the nearest tenth of a degree centigrade was taken at
four-foot intervals. For surface temperature run work, the sensing element
was fitted to the same intake used for the fluorometer. The instrument was
/
read and the reading recorded at timed intervals on each run.
Drogues
Two types of drogues, both built by Project personnel, were used for
field operations. The first type consisted of a four-foot length of cedar
fence post with weights attached by line. The amount of ballast was adjusted
so that the float would protrude approximately two feet above the water sur-
face. By replacing the weights with an anchor and adding line, the drogues
were used during synoptic vector cruises as temporary reference buoys.
The second type of drogue utilized, consisted of one-quarter inch ply-
wood, four foot square with a weight centered below. These drogues were
released along w_oh dye, for photography work from Navy helicopters. All
drogues were painted brilliant orange for better visibility.
61

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REAL) INC bCALt:
-HATITKY Tl SI
13U"I TON
SENSING
E L E M EIJ T
STORAGE FOR
SENSING ELEMENT
AND WIRE
ELECTRONIC
THERMOMETER
 CUPBOARD
Ci.
LI
'A
rn

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h jUmE 'id.
DROGUES
DROGUE USED FOR FLUOROMETRIC DYE STUDIES
AND FOR TEMPORARY MARKER.BUOYS
DROGUE USED FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC WORK

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Fluorometer
The Turner Model 111 fluorometer is an extremely sensitive instrument
cauable of detecting Rhodamine B dye in concentrations of less than 0.05
parts per billion. For current tracing work, the instrument was equipped
with a recorder ana a flow-through sample chamber. Thus, the instrument
can be used either for continuous monitoring of dye concentration with time
at a fixed location, or for providing a continuous record of dye concentra-
tion and location while the boat is moving on course.
The fluorometer is an optical equivalent of th- Wheatstone bridge used
in electrical work. Light rays from an ultraviolet lamp pass through a pri-
mary filter which extracts light of unwanted wave lengths. This light strikes
the sample flowing through a glass chamber (cuvette). The ultraviolet light
causes dye particles in the sample to emit light of a different wave length,
which in turn, falls upon a secondary filter designed so as to allow light of
or.ly this w ve length to pass. This light then strikes a photomultiplier
cell. The intensity of this light is "compared" electronically to the inten-
sity of light from a standard source. A servomechanism accomplishes the light
intensity balancing procedure and the result is shown on the fluorescence dial
on the instrument. Calibration, using kncwn concentrations of Rhocamine B dye,
is necessary i . ->rder to determine a relationship between scale reading on the
fluorometer dial and dye concentration. This procedure was done initially and
also several times during the course of operations.
Use of the fluorometer on the 31-foot boat required the installation of
a pump, a tubing system and intake, and a small electric power converter to
62

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convert the 12-volt d.c. current available on the boat to the 110 a.c. re-
quired by the instrument. A diaphragm type pump was chosen for the work as
it would not require priming; this being the main drawback of the centrifugal
type. A one-inch plastic tubing system for inlet and outlet connections, con-
taining several valves, was installed permanently in the boat. A small rubber
tube was tapped into the line to withdraw water for the instrument. As the
pump could pump 7 to 8 gallons per minute of water, and the instrument required
less than one-half gallon per minute, most of the water was bypassed. Although
this may appear inefficient, this has the advantage of allowing the amount of
water to the instrument, as well as the pressure on the instrument, to be
varied. This versatility is important in eliminating air bubbles in the system.
Two intake systems were used during the course of operations. The first system
utilized consisted of one-inch rubber- hose with an elbow and an intake nozzle.
Intake depth could be adjusted from the surface to thirty feet. This restricted
boat speed however, so that a new intake was constructed of steel pipe and fit-
tings designri to withdraw water at a depth of two feet. This intake operated
satisfactorily and did permit running at speeds up to 20 feet per second.
Rhodamine B Dye
Rhodamine B is a reddish-purple fluorescent dye with properties that
make it especialx/ well-suited to current pattern work. It can be detected
in concentrations of less than 0.05 parts per billion, using a fluorometer
and proper filters; can be used as a visual tracer, and is harmless to humans
and to fish. In addition, this dye will maintain fluorescent properties in
the water over a much longer period of time than does most other dyes.
63

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INTAKE LINE
INSTRUMENT
INTAKE LINE
FLUOROMETER
INSTRUMENT
DISCHARGE LINE
TO SINK
	DISCHARGE LINE
	INSTRUMENT FLOW
REGULATION VALVE
AUXILIARY TAP
INTAKE LINE
DISCHARGE LINE
OF EXCESS WATER
DYE TRACING
TALLED IN 31
SYSTEM 
FOOT BOAT m
ro
cj

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AIR PRESSURE HOSE
HAND PUMP
DYE RELEASE HOSE
FIVE GALLON
PLASTIC CARBOY
RELEASE APPARATUS

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Rhodamine B dye is sold by DuPont de Nemours in solution (h0% by weight)
with glacial acetic acid. Handling is much more simplified if this form is
used rather than the powdered form. One quart of the dye-acetic acid solution
(a commonly used dose in this Project's work) costs between $h and $5.
The dye was used both in concentrated and dilute form. A small quantity
of concentrated dye poured directly into the water from a quart bottle proved
to be the most effective when tracing currents visually (as in synoptic vector
cruises).
In fluorometric current tracing work in the Detroit River, a long streak
of dye was desired to maximize the likelihood of detecting the dye with the
instrument on a cross-sectional run after the dye became too dilute to be
seen. This is done by adding one to four quarts of dye (depending on the
magnitude of the particular current study) to a 5-gallon carboy and filling
the remainder of the jug with water.
Dye Release Apparatus
It was found desirable in some xrrent-tracing work to release Rhodamir.e
B dye in a streak rather than in a slug. A simple system was built consisting
of a five-gallon plastic carbon (jug), a tire pump, and two pieces of rubber
laboratory tubing. The top of the carboy was fitted with an air hose and a
dye dispensing hose. The air hose was connected to the manually operated tire
pump. With practice, the rate of dye release could be varied from five to
twenty minutes depending on the operator's speed in pumping.
61.

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Current Meters
Current meters used were of the Price type, having a rotor with cups
mounted on a vertical axis. The Price type A current meter was used for all
Detroit River work as well as for work on some of the larger tributaries. The
cable suspension mounting for this meter was used exclusively, both when hand-
held ana when supported by crane in a boat. The Price pygmy meter with wading
rod assembly was used on the smaller tributaries. The pygmy meter is a scaled
down version of the type A meter and is used in shallow streams for low velocity
work where the latter is inaccurate.
Water Level Recorders
Portable water level recorders (Belfort //5-F*J-1) were utilized in conjunc-
tion with field operations. These units consist of a float and counterweight
connected by a perforated stainless steel tape which is looped over a sprock-
eted wheel co the body of the recorder. Float movements are transmitted through
this wheel to a gear train and cam to s recording pen. The nen records on a
chart wrapped about a circular drum driven by a clock mechanism. The rate of
rotation of the drum can be altered from one day to eight days by changing
gears.
Installati v.i of a water level recorder requires the construction of a
stilling box and some type of platform mounting for the instrument itself.
The stilling boxes were built by Project personnel, of quarter-inch nlywood.
Cross-sectional dimensions are approximately one and one-half foot by or.e
foot with lengths varied to meet the individual situation at the prouoped
65

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recorder site. A small hole is drilled in the bottom of the stilling box
to permit water level in the box to adjust to the water level outside the
box, yet not show small transient fluctuations caused by wind action and
the passing of small boats.
One water level recorder station was kept in operation continuously
from April through November 19c3, -at the dock used by Project boats. Other
recorders were installed as needed at other locstions.
Detroit River-Lake Erie Project Sludge Sampler
The sampler developed by the Project for sludge survey purposes consists
of a 2-inch diameter tube, about 18 inches long, fitted with a horizontal
stabilizing member of wood and a pressure release tube that allows water to
exit as the bottom material enters the tube. The horizontal stabilizing
member serves a three-fold purpose; 1) adds buoyancy and stability to the
sampler while it is being towed behind the boat on the way to the bottom;
2) holds t'r sampler in upright position on the bottom so that the cutting
edge will dig into the bottom materia3) prevents the sampler from
sinking too far into the bottom material, thus taking a sample of the upper
layer which is in contact with the water.
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STAL.LIZING MEMBER
AIR PRESURE a WATER
RELEASE PIPE	
( -| GALV. PIPE )
-SAMPLE TUBE
(2" GA LV. PIPE )
SLUDGE
SAMPLER

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STORM WATER OVERFLOW
AND
DOMESTIC WASTE SURVEYS
SECTION II

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WASTE SURVEYS
DOMESTIC WASTE SURVEYS
Purpose
Comprehensive surveys of the six major sewage treatment plants in this
Project's study area were carried out at various times throughout the summer
and fall by Project personnel in cooperation with the Michigan Department of
Health to determine the waste loads to the river at different seasons of the
year.
The plants in question were studied at two separate times. First in
the summer during the chlorination season, and then in the autumn after chlor-
ination had ceased. The initial survey of the plants was very detailed, both
as to analyses required, and frequency of sampling. The later survey covered
only those areas where the initial results showed that a problem existed.
The plants originally surveyed were Belle Isle, Detroit, Grosse lie
(Potawatame-3 Woods Subdivision), Monroe, Trenton, and Wyandotte. After
studying the results of the surveys on these plants, it was decided that it
was unnecessary to run a second study on the Belle Isle, Grosse lie, and
Trenton Plants.
Survey Dates and Times
Plant surveys were spread over several weeks in order to ease the bur-
den on the laboratories and to allow related outfall and river studies to
proceed smoothly. The first survey of the Wyandotte plant was delayed
several weeks to allow plant expansion to proceed to a point where the results
would be more meaningful.
67

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Dates of the surveys for the various plants are listed below:
June 9 through June 12	Monroe and Grosse lie
June 16 through June 19	Detroit
June 23 through June 26	Trenton
August 11 through August lb	Wyandotte and Eelle Isle
November h through November 7	Detroit, Monroe and Wyandotte
The summer surveys all started at midnight on Sunday mornings and
extended through four days until midnight of the following Wednesday night.
The survey in November started at midnight on Monday morning and extended
four days through midnight on the following Thursday.
Analyses Performed
With the exception of the Belle Isle plant, the samples taken during
the initial survey were subjected to a comprehensive analytical breakdown.
The following analyses were run on the samples taken from the Detroit,
Grosse lie, Monroe, Trenton, and Wyandotte plants during the initial survey.
APS
Ammonia Nitrogen
BOD
Chloride
COD
Cyanide
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Streptocov,:.. o
Grease
ir'-.n
Nitrites
Nitrates
Organic Nitrogen
pH
Phenol
Phosphates
Settleable Solids
Suspended Solids
Sulphates
Total Solids
Toxic Metals
Analyses of the Belle Isle plant were curtailed because of the relative-
ly low volume of effluent as well as the fact that the volume of sample ob-
tained was also small; this was due to the fact that samples were taken at
the plant by an automatic sampler rather than manually. Analyses run on the
68

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Belle Isle samples were as follows:
pH
Phenols
Chlorides
Alkalinity
Suspended Solids
Settleable Solids
Total Coliform
BOD
COD
% Fecal Coliform
Fecal Streptococcus
During the second survey in November, analyses were performed only
on parameters shown to be significant by the first survey. Analyses were
as follows:
Sampling procedures varied both with individual plants and with the
The influent samples for chemical analyses were taken at a temporary
weir located in front of the sedimentation tanks-. Effluent samples for
both chemical and bacteriological analyses were taken as the sewage passed
over weirs at the end of the sedimentation tanks. Since the plant has
pre-chlorination, the influent bacteriological samples were taken as the
sewage entered the wet well.
pH
Phenols
Alkalinity
Suspended Solids
Settleable Solids
Grease
Phosphates
Nitrates
Nitrites
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Total Coliform
% Fecal Coliform
Fecal Streptococcus
Sampling Procedures
survey.  'ach plant will now be covered individually.
Grosse lie - June 9 through June 12
69

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Bacteriological samples of the effluent were taken every hour on the
hour while the influent bacteria samples were taken twice-a-day at 2 a.m.
and 2 p.m. Chemical samples were taken on a composite basis with sewage
being added to the bottles every hour in amounts directly proportional to
the number of pumps running at the time. Since there were periods at the
plant during which no pumps were running, on occasion the composites were
taken a few minutes before or after the hour. Composites were made up for
12-hour periods with the influent composites running from midnight through
11 a.m. and from noon through 11 p.m. Effluent composites were taken from
1 a.m. through noon and from 1 p.m. through midnight. Three separate jugs
were used for both influent and effluent composites. One jug contained a
phosphoric acid and copper sulphate preservative for the phenol analysis;
the second contained sodium hydroxide for the cyanide analysis, and the
third did not have any preservative but was kept cold by placing it in an
ice chest. Samples were taken manually by means of a sampling pole iden-
tical to hose used by the Project for river sampling.
Monroe - June 9 through June 12
Influent samples for both chemical and bacteriological analyses were
taken at a point between the grit chamber and the sedimentation tanks. All
effluent samples were taken through an opening over the outfall sewer about
2 feet above where the sewer empties its contents into the Raisin River.
Sampling procedures were identical to Grosse lie except that composites
were made in amounts proportional to that going through the plant which were
70

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recorded by a meter built into the plant. Samples were taken manually by
means of a sampling pole identical to those used by the Project for river
sampling.
Detroit - June 16 through June -19
All samples were taken through sampling lines leading from the plant
directly to the laboratory inside the plant. The influent tap line is lo-
cated between the grit chamber and the sedimentation tanks. The effluent
tap line is located in the outfall sewer. During normal flow, an effluent
sample reaches the laboratory about ten minutes before the sample sewage
reaches the river.
Sampling procedures were identical to the above plants except that
the tap lines were used instead of the manual samplers. Composites were
made in proportion to the meter flow in the plant at the time of sampling.
Five additional effluent bacteriological samples were taken and held for
the requ -ed ten minutes before chlorine neutralization, in order to ad-
just for the ten-minute additiona" detention time in the outfall sewer.
Trenton - June 23 through June 26
Effluent chemical and bacteriological samples were taken as the
effluent entered the outfall line after passing through the chlorine con-
tact chamber. Influent chemical samples were taken as the sewage entered
the sedimentation tanks while the influent bacteriological samples were
taken as the sewage entered the plant in order to avoid the pre-chlorination.
Sampling procedure was identical to that done in the previous plants and
71

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composites were made on the basis of the number of pumps running, their
sise, and the duration of the run. Samples were taken manually by means
of a sampling pole identical to those used by the Project for river samp-
ling.
Wyandotte - August 11 through August Hi
Influent chemical and bacteriological samples were taken between the
grit chamber and the sedimentation tanks. All effluent samples were taken
as the sewage entered the outfall sewer.
Belle Isle - August 11 through August lli
Influent bacteriological and chemical samples were taken at a location
in front of the sedimentation tank. Effluent bacteriological and chemical
samples were taken at a temporary weir as the sewage left the sedimentation
tanks.
The -ampling program at this plant was considerably different from
that done at previous plants. Influent and effluent chemical samples were
taken automatically by devices designed to take samples proportional to the
flow. The use of these samplers prohibited collection of three separate
influent and effluent composites as was done at the other plants. Further-
more, the sample collected was in no way refrigerated. Bacteriological
samples were taken of the influent twice daily at 2 a.m. and 2 p.m., when
the automatic sampler was being serviced.
Detroit - November ii through November 7
Influent and effluent bacteriological samples were taken from the tap
72

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lines as in the previous survey. Bacteriological samples were taken of the
influent at 2 a.m. and 2 p.m.; the effluent samples were taken at 3 a.m.,
9 a.m., 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. There were no special samples prepared after a
f
ten-minute delay as was done in the previous survey at this plant. Chemical
composites were taken every hour in proportion to the flow at the time of
sampling, but no composites were made of either the influent or effluent
for cyanide analyses. Influent as well as effluent composites were, there-
fore, prepared in two jugs each; one containing copper sulphate and phos-
phoric acid for phenol analyses, and one jug without preservative for the
remaining analyses. Influent composites were taken from midnight through
11 a.m. and from noon through 11 pom, while the effluent composites were
taken from 1 a.m. through noon and from 1 p.m. through midnight, which was
the same as for the summer survey.
Monroe - November h through November 7
All ifluent and effluent chemical and bacteriological samples were
taken just after the grit chamber nd at the end of the outfall line,
respectively.
Bacteriological influent samples were taken at 2 a.m. and 2 p.m.,
while effluent samples were taken at 3 a.m., 9 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m.
Chemical samples were taken every hour and composited according to the
measured flow at the time of sampling. Composites were prepared in unre-
fr.igerated bottles as well as ones containing copper sulphate and phos-
phoric acid. Samples were taken manually by means of a sampling pole
identical to those used by the Project for river work.
73

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Wyandotte - November It through November 7
Influent samples during this survey were taken from an influont tap
line drawing sewage at a point below the grit chamber (in the previous sur-
vey the influent samples were taken manually). Effluent samples were taken
as the sewage passed over the discharge weir.
The sampling schedules were the same as for the previous two plants
and chemical samples were composited according to the measured flow at the
time of sampling. The effluent samples were taken manually by means of a
sampling pole identical to those used by the Project for river work.
Sample Preparation for the Laboratory
Summer Survey Excluding Belle Isle
As was mentioned in a previous section, chemical composites of both
influent and effluent were placed in three separate jugs,, One contained
preservative for the phenol analyses, one contained preservative for the
cyanide analyses, and one, without preservative, was kept under refriger-
ati on.
The compositing schedule for all plants was designed so that a mini-
mum of If gallons of sample ^as obtained in each jug. The figure of 1-|
gallons was "rrived at after adding together the amounts needed for the
various analyses. It was not necessary to gather ! gallons of sample in
the jugs for phenol and cyanide analyses, but it was decided that there
would be less chance for error if equal amounts were added to each jugc
When the sample collectors arrived, therefore, the contents of the cyanide
and phenol jugs were thoroughly stirred and one liter of the contents was
7k

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then poured into the proper polyethelene bottles. The remainder of these
samples was then discarded. Refrigerated samples in their entirety were
brought back to the laboratory along with the bacteria samples. Upon
arrival at the laboratory, the contents of the refrigerated jugs were
placed in four, separate smaller bottles. The first of these was a
gallon glass bottle to be used for separate laboratory analyses. The
second was a 2-liter polyethelene bottle containing nitric acid preserva-
tive which was set aside for later compositing with its counterpart from
the other 12-hour period and subsequent shipment to Great Lakes-Illinois
River Basins Project for the toxic metals and iron analyses. The third
bottle was also a 2-liter polyethelene which contained no preservative
and also was set aside for later compositing with its counterpart from
the other 12-hour period and subsequent shipment to Great Lakes-Illinois
River Basins Project for ABS, sulphate and phosphate analyses. The fourth
bottle was a ^--gallon glass container filled with the remainder of the
sewage fc * the grease analysis run in our laboratory. The samples for
Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins Project were combined on an equal volume
basis for shipment as 2lt-hour composites. A more accurate 2lt-hour com-
positing procedure involving the use of the flow records was not undertaken,
due primarily, to the difficulty in getting immediate records.
Belle Isle Survey
Mo samples were sent to Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins Project from
the 3olle Isle sewage treatment plant, and therefore, the only sample prep-
aration consisted of pouring the composites into the proper ^--gallon ^lass
7?

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bottles as well as bringing the bacteria samples back to the laboratory.
Autumn Survey-
Chemical composites of both influent and effluents were placed in two
separate jugs, one containing preservative for the phenol analysis and the
other containing no preservative. Sine the BOD test was not run during
this survey, the latter jugs 'were not refrigerated.
When the sample collectors arrived at the plants, the contents of all
jugs were thoroughly mixed and one liter of sewage from each of the phenol
jugs was poured into the proper polyethelene bottles. One gallon of un-
preserved sewage from each of the remaining two jugs was poured into two
gallon glass bottles. All bottles were brought back to the laboratory
(total of six bottles) where they were delivered without any further pour-
ing or transfer. No samples were sent to Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins
Project.
Personnel Involved
Plans for the surveys were formulated by the Michigan Department of
Health and by the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project. All prior arrangements
with the sewage treatment plant operators were made by the Michigan Depart-
ment of Health; installation of temporary weirs, water level recorders and
automatic samplers was also performed by the Health Department. The actual
in-plant sampling operations were carried out throughout both surveys by
the plant personnel, with the exception of Belle Isle, where the sampling
was automated. All sample bottle collections, processing, shipments, and
76

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analyses were done by personnel of the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project,
and sampling equipment, bottles and preservatives were furnished by the
Detroit River-Lake Erie Project. Water level recorders and weirs were
provided by both the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project and the Michigan
Department of Health. Automatic sampling equipment for the Belle Isle
plant was provided by the Michigan Department of Health.
77
1

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INDUSTRIAL WASTE SURVEYS
Purpose
The industrial waste program of the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project
was divided into two segments, the first being a comprehensive survey within
the industry, measuring the quality and quantity of the raw water and waste
discharges. These were short, intensive surveys featuring composite samp-
ling to determine the sources of waste which may have a bearing upon the
water quality in the Michigan area of the Detroit River and Lake Erie. The
second approach was an outfall sampling program whereby many spot collections
were made at all the outfalls which could be reached without stepping inside
the confines of the industrial properties. Here the purpose was to add
reliability to the comprehensive surveys and to provide a series of results
over a long period of time to measure changing plant process and production.
Effectiveness of newly installed treatment methods could also be evaluated.
Another "vsry vital purpose of the spot sampling was to determine if the
comprehensive survey was typical of a normal day's operation in the plant,
or whether more careful controls of waste processes were being followed
because the survey was being conducted. It seemed that, in several cases,
the theory worked out thaL, /ne industry was doing a finer job during the
survey than  ther times of the year. In fact, because of this, repeat
comprehensive surveys were performed on several of the industries.
The entire industrial waste program provided information whereby
recommendations could be made and a plan worked out to control the waste
discharges degrading the water quality in the study waters. Table 1 shows
the name, location and outfalls of the industries studied.

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Comprehensive Surveys
At the beginning of the Project, many conferences were held with
agencies within the State of Michigan to provide information for the plan-
ning of the study. Due to the nature of the intrastate enforcement actions,
the Project worked very closely with the two State agencies having juris-
diction over water pollution control matters and, in the case of industrial
wastes, this was the Michigan Water Resources Commission.
An excellent cooperative effort and close working relationship with
the Michigan Water Resources Commission was started at the outset. Several
conferences were held to plan the industrial waste programs. The major
issue resolved was who would handle the field work in the comprehensive
sampling program. For the reasons given, it was decided that the Michigan
Water Resources Commission could best handle this phase of the study:
1.	The Commission would have no problem getting inside the plant
property to plan and carry out the surveys.
2.	Jne Public Health Service had no mechanism besides legal action
to get inside plant property.
3.	The Michigan Water Resources Commission was considerably more
familiar with each industry in question and perhaps would be able to shed
more light on the information obtained.
Following this decision, the program began immediately with the Com-
mission making the arrangements and performing the field work at each indus-
trial location, and the Project laboratory performing the analytical chem-
istry on the samples collected in each industry.
19.

-------
The Public Health Service reviewed the field work of the Michigan
Water Resources Commission during some of the earlier surveys in order to
be familiar with the operation.
The order in which each industrial survey would be carried out and the
type of information collected at each industry was then determined. Table 2
presents the form that was used and the type of information collected.
In all, III industrial corporations or major divisions and 116 waste
effluent outfalls were studied.
Sampling installations were set up at the raw water intakes and the
industrial waste outfalls. Samples were collected automatically every 15
minutes for a period of usually 12 hours and composited according to flow.
The sampling usually continued for two days. In some^cases, longer studies
were followed because of the magnitude and complexity of the problem; some
studies were also repeated at a later date. Where reliable and continuous
flow records were not available, a flow measuring setup was installed con-
sisting of either a V-notch or rectangular weir and an L&S type F water
(1)
level recorder to measure the height of water over the weir. Figure
demonstrates a typical setup. In a few cases where temporary flow-meas-
ing equipment was impractical to install, flow volumes were either estim-
ated or obtained from cor..2L.,y records.
Follow;, 't collection, the samples were transported immediately to the
Detroit River-Lake Erie Project laboratory for analytical determinations.
Table 3 represents the chemical parameters studied in most cases. It was
felt that, although many of the parameters studied would be of little value
in the interpretation of the industrial waste results, it would be best to
(1) Black, H.H., "Procedures for Sampling and Measuring Industrial Wastes
Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 2h:hS, January 1952.

-------
approach it from a very comprehensive manner so as not to overlook anything.
In a few special cases other parameters such as cyanide, aluminum, fluorides,
turbidity, and fecal coliform determinations were performed.
8-1

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TABLE 2. INDUSTRIAL WASTE SURVEY FORM
Name of Industrial Company
Industrial Division
Address
Organization of Survey
Dates of Survey
Purpose of the Survey
Personnel Participating
a.	Industry
b.	Michigan Water Resources Commission
c.	U.S. Public Health Service
Location of Plant
Raw Material Used per Unit Time
Production per Unit Time
Operations, Hours and Days of the Week
Employee
Water Supply - source and amount
a.	Potable
b.	Sanitary
c.	Process
d Cooling
Sanitary Waste - Discharge location and/or treatment method
Process Waste - Discharge location and/or treatment method
Description of Waste Reduction Measures
82

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TABLE 2. INDUSTRIAL WASTE SURVEY FORM (CONTINUED)
Survey Procedures
a.	Sample Collection Methods
b.	Flow Measurement Methods
c.	Laboratory Analytical Results
d.	Flow Volumes Each Outfall or Process
e.	Calculations including Loadings
Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary
,83

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TABLE 3. CHEMICAL PARAMETERS STUDIED
ABS
Sodium
Potassium
pH
Phenols, ppb
Chlorides
Alkalinity
COD
BOD
Total Coliform
Nitrates
Nitrites
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Phosphates
Calcium
Magnesium
Total Iron
Silicates
Sulfates
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Settleable Solids
Copper
Cadmium
Nickel
Zinc
Lead
Total Chromium
Oil
Industrial Waste Outfall Surveys
Reconnaissance surveys with the assistance of the Michigan Water
Resources Commission helped locate the industrial waste outfalls. All
outfalls observed from the industries shown on Figures 7 and 8, Section I,
which either were discharging or were thought to discharge at any time
were studied and sampled. Altogether, 130 outfalls were investigated with
1,176 collections being made.
In most cases, samples were collected with use of the Project boats,
using a large can fastened c..i the end of a long pole to reach into the out-
fall. Darin-- the earlier part of 1962, the outfall samples were collected
by taking the regular industrial waste inspection trips with the Michigan
Water Resources Commission boat and personnel. Composite samples were
collected for a short time in July 1963 at two of the Pennsalt Chemical
Company outfalls on Monguagon Creek and again in October I963 at the
8U

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Monroe area industries. All other times, grab samples were collected.
Samples were not collected in any manner in relation to flow although
flow volumes were estimated at each outfall a few times. After much
thought, it was deemed impractical to attempt making reliable flow meas-
urements at the outfalls.
The large majority of the samples were collected during the daylight
hours; however, each outfall was sampled at night as often as possible to
give a better picture of the complete waste problem.
Emphasis was placed or, spot sampling at different times of the year
because of the availability of field crews and the volume of samples being
handled by the Project laboratory. Table U shows the frequency of collec-
tion of industrial waste spot samples.
85

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TABLE U. FREQUENCY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE OUTFALL SAMPLES
Week(l962)
No. of Samples
Week(1962)
No. of Samples
August 6
16
October 22
16
13
15
29
16
20
1U
November 5

27
16
12
16
September 3

' 19
16
10
lh
26

17
16
December 3
2k
2h
17
10

October 1
16
17

8
16
2h

15
16
31

Week(1963)
No. of Sairoles
Week(l963)
No. of Samples
January
February
March
At>ril
7
lh
21
2o
h
11
18
25
h
11
18
25
10
August
1?
22
19
26
Seotember 2
9
16
23
30
October 7
Hi
21
27
3U
32
27
16
12
53
3
21
3U
111;
10
12
2
8
25
lii
April
May
June
July
August
October
November
29
8
13
22
29
3
10
17
2h
1
8
15
22
29
5
12
28
h
11
18
25
2
9
16
23
30
29
7
7
3
13
28
71
131
28
11
hi
16
57
36
Also, more emphasis was placed on certain outfalls than others.
This is shoivn on Table 1.
86

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T'A'T-.E
Industry
KU^iSK OF SAMPLES BY
Outfall #
Allied Chemical Corporation
Plastics Division
General Chemical Division
Semet Solvay Division
Solvay Process Division
American Agricultural Corporation
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
b
5
6
\
7
1
2
3
b
Anaconda American Brass Corporation 1
2
3
1+
American Cement Corporation
Peerless Division
Chrysler Corporation
Araplex division
Cycles. .d Division
Engine Division
County Drain #5
Dana Corporation
Darling and Company
Dupont Corporation
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
1
2
3
b
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1A
2
HHJUSTRI/' u Ob'IFALL
Location
Old Channel Rouge
Rouge River
Old Channel Rouge
ri
Detroit River
Rouge River
II	ft
Detroit River
It
II
tr
n
IV
it
Rouge River
Old Channel Rouge
n	ii	it
Detroit River
II	tl
Elizabeth Park -
Detroit River
Detroit River
Nicholson Slip -
Detroit River
Rouge River
II	It
Detroit River
Detroit River
Ho. of.
Sanrales
16
16
18
6
lb
2
13
11
11
9
8
18
0
0
lU
0
0
0
0
2
b
IT
0
8
8
23
0
1
0
2
1
12
7
1
2
87

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i KUMBdSTi 0? SAMPLES BY INDUSTRIAL 3UTFALL
Industry
Ford Motor Company
Outfall 7r
Rouge Plant Tailrace
Slip Weirs
Ruolo Creek
Foundry
Naval Barracks
#7
Gate 11
Dix Street
Fuel Oil Corporation
Great Lakes Steel Corporation
Ecorse Rolling Mill
Blast Furnace Division
(Zug island)
80" Strip Mill
Koppers Corporation
Ed Levy Company
McKinstry Avenue Sever
McLouth Steel Corporation
Gibraltar
2
3
k
5
6
7
3
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
k
5
6
7
3
9
10
11
12
13
lb
1
2
1
1
1
Location
Rouge River
tt
11
tt
II
Tl
tl
n
it
n
ti
Nicholson Slip -
Detroit River
Nicholson Slip -
Detroit River
It
ft
tt
IT
tt
tt
It
Tt
tt
n
tt
rt
tt
tt
ft
tt
tt
tl	tT	Tt
Detroit River
tt
rt
tt
it
tt
tl
n
tt
Tt
tt
n
Old Channel Rouge
It	tl	tt
Detroit River
ii	ii
Detroit River
Rouge River
Detroit River
Detroit River
No. of
Samples
17
19
20
20
18
2
1
5
k
8
19
19
13
1+
1
k
o
0
0
3
10
o
n
6
13
6
9
13
6
8
o
7
2
2
2
13
13
7
h
88

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\T?
"1 jxr-r*	1
Industry
McLouth Steel Corporation
Trenton
OF SAMPLES m HOT STRIA" CULFALL
Outfall #	Location
MoMl Oil Corporation
Ifonsanto Chemical Corporation
Parke Davis and Coapaay
Pennsalt Chemical Corporation
East Plant
West Plant (Monguagon Creek)
Revere Copper and Brass Corporation
Schroeder Avenue Sewer
Scott Paper company
ShairLnigan Resins Corporation
Tank Farms
U.S. Rubber Company
Wyandotte Cheuuc-l Corporation
North Plant
South Plant'
1
,~2
3
k
1
2
3
1+
1
2
3
b
5
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
:2A
3
k
Ua
1
2
3
k
Detroit River
II	It
ft
11
ff
tl
tt	vi
n	tt
tt	rt
rt	tt
Detroit River
tt	n
Monguagon Creek
Detroit River
Detroit River
It	tl
Old Channel Rouge
Detroit River
Rouge River
Detroit River
t	n
Detroit River
tl
tt
tt
tt
ft
If
It
U
tt
It
It
rt
ti
tt
tt
rr
n
Ho. of
Samples
18
18
15
lU
12
12
11
12
0
18
18
16
19
6
in
5
7
8
7
5
IT
10
0
9
7
19
2
1
lU
10
i
15
20
19
3
89

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7.1-Z: n- IrUMEll o,1 SAMPLES BY INDUSTRIAL ./JTiALL
Industry
Wyandotte Chemical Corporation
South. Plant
\?ye Street Sever
Ford Motor Company - Monroe
Consolidated Paper Company
South Plant
North Plant
West Plant
Monroe Auto Equipment Company
Monroe Steel Casting Company
River Raisin Paper Company
Monroe Paper Products
Total
Outfall #
1
2
3
1*
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
130
Location
Detroit River
Detroit River
Raisin River
No. of
Samples
Raisin River
II
tJ
n
Raisin River
Raisin River
Mason Run - Raisin River
Raisin River
22
1
1
1
0
21
20
20
21
0
0
1
21
21
1,176
As thf study progressed, more outfalls vere discovered and added to the
field sheet. Industrial waste outfalls,which, were inaccessible either "by
"being submerged or inside company property,vere collected upon request "by the
Michigan Water Resources Commission. At each outfall, time, temperature, and
observations vere recorded. \n example of the field record form used is
shovn in Table 	.
After collection, the samples vere brought to the Project laboratory for
immediate analyses. With the limitations of the laboratory in mind, the
following determinations vere regularly attempted on all the samples collected:
90

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phr
Chlorides
Suspended Solids
Phenols
Oil

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STORM WATER OVERFLOW
Automatic Sampling of Overflow
Sites of Overflow Monitoring Equipment
Two basic locations were selected for the storm water overflow sampling
stations. One was the City of Detroit which has a combined sewerage system,
and the other was the City of Ann Arbor which has a separate storm water system.
Ann Arbor is located about UO miles west-southwest of Detroit and, because of
this, its climate and rainfall is very comparable to that of Detroit.
In Ann Arbor, the Allen Creek drainage system was selected while the
Conners Creek system was selected for monitoring in Detroit. The selection of
this latter system necessitated the installation of two sampling locations.
One of these is located where the system empties, into Conners Creek and the
other is located at the end of a relief sewer for the system which empties
into the Detroit River about four miles below Conners Creek.
Construction Details of Overflow Sites
CONNERS CREEK: The Conners Creek sewerage system ends in a large gate
house about 1,500 feet above the head of Conners Creek. A triple-barrel
underground box sewer connects the gate house with the creek. This connecting
sewer always cOij.ains water at the level of the Detroit River. There are nine
independent 10'xlO' flap gates in the gate house. The gates are designed so
that when the water on the river side is highest, the gates are closed, but
when the water level in the sewerage system exceeds the river level, the gates
swing open and allow the sewage to pass on into Conners Creek and eventually
92

-------
enter the Detroit River.
The installations at all overflow locations consist of two basic systems;
one is the sampler activation and supply system which will be covered individ-
ually for each site, and the other is the automatic sampling mechanism itself,
which is essentially the same for all sites and which will be covered in
another section of this report.
The activation system at Conners Creek consists "basically of a proximity
switch located at the bottom of one of the overflow flap gates. When the gate
swings open, the switch closes the circuit and provides current to both the
automatic sampling mechanism as well as a one-horsepower submersible pump used
to supply sewage to the sampler. The pump is located in a steel cradle at an
elevation low enough in the sewer to assure submergence before it is operating.
During operation, the pump lifts the sewage about 10 feet in a 3-inch neoprene
hose to a 3'' x ijr tee followed by a throttling valve. A p--inch plastir hose
runs from the tee to the automatic sampler and the throttling valve is used to
regulate the amount .of flow passing through this hose to the sampler. The
majority of the sewage passes through the throttling valve and is returned to
the sewer.
When flow through the gates is marginal, there is a tendency for them to
flutter. This, of course, vov". d cause the sampling equipment to turn on and
off several tir". - within a few minutes. To prevent this, an electrical meter-
ing device was installed which does not allow the system to turn on until the
gates have been open for a preset number of minutes.
Flow measurement is accomplished by the placement of floats on both sides
of the gates together with proper recording equipment. Head differential be-
93

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tween the sewage in the system and the river can therefore be determined
during an overflow, and with the correlation of these head differentials and
actually measured flows, a fairly accurate measurement of total flow can be
obtained.
JEFFERSON AND LEIB: The Leib Street sewer is a relief for the Conners
Creek system. When the sewage reaches Jefferson Avenue during normal flow,
it turns and pa.sses through a regulator chamber into the Jefferson Interceptor
sewer. During conditions of storm 'water runoff, however, the regulators close
when the flow becomes excessive, and the sewage then rises until it reaches
the elevation of a nearby overflow barrier. It then passes over this barrier
or weir, travels on for aoout 1,$00 feet in an underground box sewer, and
then empties into the Detroit River. The activation of the pump and sampler
at Leib is accomplished by the use of a float switch located on the wall of
the sewer; when the sewage causes the float to rise to the level of the bottom
of the overflow weir, the switch engages and the pump and sampler are placed
into operation. The pump is a one-horsepower submersible pump identical to
that installed at Conners Creek. The sewage is transported about 10 feet
vertically and 25 feet horizontally in a 3-inch neoprene hose to a nearby man-
hole. In the manhole, the ca'. .ge passes through a 3" x tee and throttling
valve. The majority of the sewage then passes through the valve and back into
the sewer. An amount, regulated by the throttling valve, is carried about
another 25 feet through a -|-inch plastic hose and into a small wooden struc-
ture containing the automatic sampler as well as flow monitoring eauipment.
Flow depth over the weir is measured by an electric drive Bristol 6-inch
strip chart recorder in conjunction with a bubbler-type liquid level gage.
9h

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invert of the sewer. A float switch with modifications for the high velocity
t
encountered in the sewer is also mounted on the wall and set to activate the
entire system'when the water reaches a level high enough to submerge the pump.
The sewage is lifted about 8 feet vertically and 10 feet horizontally along
the wing wall of the sewer in a 3-inch neoprene hose; the sewage then passes
through a 3" x tee followed by a throttling valve. As at-the other instal-
lations, most of the sewage passes through the valve and back into the sewer,
while a small amount is forced through a tj-inch plastic hose to the sampler.
The sampler at Ann Arbor is located in a small steel shed about 25 feet away
from the wing wall of the sewer. The flow-monitoring equipment consists of
an electric drive Bristol 6-inch strip chart recorder in conjunction with a
bubbler-type liquid level gage and its operation is identical to that at Leib.
A correlation betv/een water level in the sewer and flow can be established by
proper stream gaging of the sewer during periods of runoff.
Details of Automatic Samplers
At the present time,, the Detroit River-Lake Erie Project has five auto-
matic samplers: three of these samplers are always at the overflow locations
during the overflow season, and the other two are kept as replacements and/or
demonstrators.
The samplers are all constantly being modified and improved, and because
of this, all five of them are different from each other in the minor details.
The original samplers had a wiring system which required 5 individual timers;
now, however, all but one use a wiring system which requires only h timers.
96

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NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLERS: As can be seen from the accompanying
drawing, the sampler consists of a circular table with 2h holes drilled uni-
formly around its circumference. A sterile bacteria bottle is placed in each
hole. The table is mounted on wheels and is driven in a clockwise direction
(looking from above) by a motiondiser located under it which is not shown on
the drawing. The actual samples are taken by means of the mechanism located
on the right side of the device. During operation, sewage enters the sampler
by means of a jy-inch hose attached to the vertical tube on the sampler (1).
When a sample is not being taken, the sewage passes on through the sampler ana
out the discharge line (2). When a sample is taken, a solenoid (3) pulls the
intake pipe to the left and the sewage then passes down into the bottle below.
The actual time that the solenoid is engaged and the sample is being taken is
usually less than 1-| seconds and this time is controlled by an industrial
timer (k). As soon as the sample has been taken, the motiondiser is engaged
and moves the table to the next bottle. Control over where the motiondiser
stops is achieved by the microswitch (5), located beneath the solenoid. When
the switch drops into one of the small holes shorn on the turntable, the cur-
rent is shut off to the motiondiser. The three box-like structures located
on the left side of the sampler (6, ?, t) perform all of the device's other-
time functions. In order to collect a sample within a minute or so after the
entire mechanic -1 has been activated, a separate timer with its own setting is
required; in the drawing, this is the timer labelled (o). The construction
of the entire mechanism is such that samples would be taken repeatedly at the
intervals set on this timer unless it is removed from the circuit after the
initial sample. This timer is taken out of the circuit by the timer -which is
97

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labelled (7). After the initial sample, all subsequent sample times are con-
trolled by the end timer ( ) Another microswitch is located on the apparatus
(9) for the purpose of shutting the sampler off after one complete revolution
of the turntable has taven place. This prevents any bottles from receiving
z double sample. With the exception of the electrical equipment, the samnler
consists pi'-U'iarilof aluminum.
NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF SAMPLER: A pictorial
description of the sampler's electrical pattern at any instant of operation
has been prepared and should be followed simultaneously while reading this
description.
The Paragon timers all operate basically as follows: to mate the timing
mechanism work, it is necessary to complete a circuit from terminals 9 as
well as 10 to terminal $. If a lead is connected to terminal 9 or 10 alone,
and the other is connected to terminal 5, the timer will not run. In addi-
tion to the timer's circuit, there are two other independent circuits in each
timer. T'n first of these controls terminals 6, 7 ana 8. Power is normally
fed into this circuit through terminal 8, and during the actual timer opera-
tion, terminal 8 is connected directly to terminal 6. After the preset time
on the device has expired, terminal 8 is immediately disconnected from ter-
minal 6 and power is transferred over to terminal 7. This terminal will then
remain "hot" un -il the power to the timing circuit is cut off. When power is
again supplied to the timing circuit, terminal 6 will again be :,hot': until
the set time has again expired. The third curcuit in the mechanism controls
terminals 1, 2, and 3 (terminal U is a junction terminal only). Power is
normally fed into this circuit through terminal 3. As long as power is
98

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supplied to the timer circuit regardless of whether or not the set time has
elapsed, terminal 2 will be "hot". Only when power has been cut off to the
timer circuit will terminal 1 become "hot" instead of terminal 2 It is seen,
then, that terminals 6 and 7 change over when the timer expires while terminals
1 and 2 change over only when power is actually cut off to the timer circuit.
The industrial timer also consists of a timer circuit which controls
terminals LI, L2 and CL2. A circuit from LI as well as CL2 to L2 must be
completed in order for the timer mechanism itself to run. The other circuit
in the industrial timer controls terminals C, NC, and NO. Power is normally
supplied to this circuit through terminal C. When the timer is actually
running, terminal NC is "hot". After the preset time has expired, terminal
NO becomes "hot" and remains so until the power to the timer circuit has been
cut.
When the sampler receives current initially, all three Paragon timers
are in operation. The timer circuits of the 132 timer and the outer 112
receive thp:.r power from the main inlet line, while the inner 112 receives
its power through the outer 112 timer. The industrial timer does not oper-
ate at this time because there is not a ground to its timer circuit.
If the timers are set properly, the first one to expire is the middle
112. Upon expiration, its -vfnminal 7 becomes "hot" and, since grounded wires
are in this c^. -nit, wires from the terminal provide a ground to the indus-
trial timer as well as the solenoid. The solenoid is therefore engaged during
the period that the industrial timer is actually running.
The instant the industrial timer mechanism expires, terminal NC loses
power and terminal NO receives power. This cuts the current to the solenoid
99

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while providing current to the motiondiser. The instant the solenoid snaps
back, therefore, the turntable begins to rotate.
After the turntable starts to turn, the microswitch nearest the solenoid
is thrown; this breaks the ground in the timing circuits of both the 132 timer
as well as the center 112 timer The breaking of the ground to the middle 112
timer cuts off terminal 7 of this timer and therefore shuts off the industrial
timer. This shutting off of the industrial timer eliminates terminal MO as
the source of power to the motiondiser. The motiondiser must receive power
from another source at this time, therefore, and this is provided by terminal
1 of the 132 timer. This terminal gets power at the same instant that ter-
minal NO of the industrial timer loses its power.
When the motiondiser advances the turntable far enough that the micro-
switch is rethrown, it loses its power, because at this instant, the 132
timer circuit is reactivated and terminal 1 of this timer subsequently loses
power. At the same time, the middle 112 timer regains power and all three
Paragon tirers are therefore running again at this point.
If the timers are set correctly, the outer 112 timer expires shortly
after the first sample is taken. Upon expiration, its terminal 6 loses power,
and therefore,cuts power off to the center 112 timer The outer 112 timer
receives its power directly om the inlet and will not be reset until the
entire mech"r,i is shut off and turned on again; the two 112 timers are,
therefore, permanently out of the circuit from this point on.
The same basic cycle covered above is now repeated over and over again,
until all 2h bottles are filled. The only difference is that the industrial
timer and solenoid are engaged through terminal 7 of the 132 timer, instead
100

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of terminal 7 of the 112 timer. After the 2l*th sample has been taken, the
microswitch on the inlet line is thrown and the entire system loses its
power.
River and Beach Monitoring of Storm Water Overflows
Purpose
Results from samples taken prior to this special survey indicated that
the direct discharge of overloaded combined sewers to the river had a definite
effect on the quality of the water in the river. It was desired, therefore,
that more information about the water quality in the river be obtained before
and after overflows had- occurred. To achieve this, a separate river-monitor-
ing program of storm water overflows was set up as outlined below.
Method
In order to obtain a sound comparison, it was desired that x.he river
be sampled jefore the overflows occurred, preferably within the 2h-hour
period preceding an overflow. To ao this, arrangements were made with the
Weather Bureau at the Naval Air Station, in which the bureau was to notify
Project personnel at least fc-.r hours before a rainfall with an intensity
greater than 0,1 inches per hour was to arrive in the area. Upon receipt
of this notification, Project personnel were to immediately go out and
sample the river, regardless of the time of day, at points which would give
a general picture of the river quality. After a significant rain had passed
through the area, the river was sampled again as many times as it was deemed
101

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necessary, or conditions permitted, or until the effect of the storm upon
the water had subsided.
Equipment
Sampling was done from one of the Project boats and no unusual
equipment was required.
Location
Three stations were selected on Range DT 30.8W to show the quality of
the water entering the river; three stations were selected on Range DT 28.UW
to show the effect, if any, of the effluent from Conners Creek, and five
stations were also sampled at DT 20.6 which is located below most of the
Detroit outfalls on the river. Three stations were also sampled at DT ll;.6,
which is located below the Rouge River as well as Ecorse Creek, and three
stations were also sampled on DT 3.9, which is located at the mouth of the
Detroit Ra- sr.
102

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AUTOMATIC SAMPLER USED IN
STORM WATER OVERFLOW STUDY
DETROIT RIVER-LAKE ERIE PROJECT
PREPARED BY PU8LIC HEALTH SERVICE
103

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. !2V.T
i^ICAL DESIGN l/lh/6l
BLACK
WHITE
iob

-------
INITIAL CYCLE: JUST AFTER RECEIVING CURRENT
	GROUND
v" RUNNING
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105

-------
I:!I1.lAL CloLZ: JUST AFTER THE KIDDL- 112
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106

-------
INITIAL CI CLE : MOTIONDISER
MICROSWITCH NOT YET THROW
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3
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107

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TERI'IMAL "1" OF
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6
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132

1
2

4
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100

-------
IMITIAL C.C 7.: JUST BEFORE UPPER *. .2
TIMER EXPIRES
I	"1
109

-------
c ."CL3: JUST AFTER UPPER 1:
TIMER EXPIRED
	GROUND .
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110

-------
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-------
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TERMINAL "NO" OF
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-------
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113

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BIOLOGICAL STUDIES

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BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
Introduction
The procedures followed in the biological studies were standardized
with those employed by the Public Health Service, Great Lakes-Illinois River
Basins Project. With minor variations, the same procedures are also used by
the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and the University Institutes engaged
in studies of the Great Lakes.
Descriotions and figures of most of the pieces of apparatus mentioned
in this summary of ooerptions are provided in :,Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater" (11th edition) and in Welch's ''Liranol-
ogical Methods." Details of methodology are also covered in these treatises.
To assure adherence to standard practice, 'all personnel cooperating ir.
the biological work were trained by the Project biologist. The usual orecsu-
tions v:ere taken, of course, to label sample containers and specimen jars with
the statior location and date of collection. In the field, this was done with
a c.hina-marking crayon. In the laboratory, collection identification labels
were placed in the preserving fluid of the jars and vials into which soecimsns
were sorted. The catalogued collections of preserved material are available
for reference.
The 31-foo. boat was used for the survey work. Operations were carried
out by a team composed of the boat operator, two engineers, two aa.uatic
samplers, and the biologist. When the biologist was not aboard, responsibi-
lity for proper collection and handling of the biological samoles was
delegated to the engineer in charge of the survey.
Ill

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Bottom-fauna Sampling and Processing
To obtain information on the distribution and abundance of benthie
invertebrates, 53 key stations were selected for sampling: 23 located on
critical ranges of the Detroit River and 25 located in the Michigan waters
of Lake Erie. These bottom-fauna stations were selected on the basis of
reconnaissance surveys conducted  during the 1962 season. (For lake station
numbers and locations, see map, Figure 26.)
Depths at the stations on the river ranges vary from a minimum of 1l feet
at the American 'shore to a maximum of U3 feet in the channel at the interna-
tional boundary lines. The majority of the river stations are located at
depths of from 20 to 30 feet. Most, of the lake stations are between 20 and
2$ feet in depth; the maximum depth as shown on the U.S. Lake Survey chart
is 26 feet3 the minimum 5 feet.
Three bottom-fauna surveys were conducted during the 1963 season: one at
the end of May, one. the last week in August, and one the third week of October.
All the sta ions were sampled during the spring and autumn surveys. In the
August survey, only the river stations were sampled.
While the boat was anchored for bottom-fauna dredging, the following
meteorological and hydrological measurements were made: wind velocity and
direction, wave height and direction, current velocity and direction, sic?/
cover, air tempt., ature, resistance-thermometer profiles, and Secchi-disc
transparency readings. (See field data sheets for record of complete meas-
urements and observations: for description of Secchi disc and method of
making measurements, see Welch (1), pp. 159-160.)
7-15

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Water samnles for chemical determinations of pH, alkalinity, dissolved
oxygen, nitrates and phosphates were also taken at selected stations. On the
river, samples were taken at the surface only. On the lake, one sample at the
surface and one near the bottom were taken for dissolved oxygen determinations
at all stations. A surface sample for pH and alkalinity determinations was
taken at all stations. Nitrate and phosphate determinations were limited to
surface samples taken at the 12 stations where phytoplankton collections were
mace periodically. Sampling for phytoplankton and zooplankton, as described
below, was also'done while the boat was at anchor for bottom-fauna dredging.
A hand-operated winch, equipped with metering wheel and wire cable, wss
used to lift the dredge. All samples from the bottom were taken by a Petersen
dredge with weights attached to bring its total weight to 70 pounds, unloaded.
With .jaws fully open, it bites into an area of bottom approximately 0.9 souare
foot. (For detailed description of Petersen dredge construction, maintenance
and operation, see Welch (1), pp. 173-180 and "Standard Methods" (2), on.
571-515.)
Principal steps in handling th'~ bottom-fauna, samples follow:
1. Three dredge hauls are taken at a station.*- Contents of the dredge
are discharged into a heavy-duty metal pan; then dumped into a large plastic
cishpan. Material from each naul is worked up separately so that averages of
-::-Because of prolonged bod weather during the spring survey, only one haul
for bottom fauna was taken at each of the soft-bottom lake stations.
During this survey, an extra haul for bottom material analysis was collected
at the lake and river stations.
116

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the numbers of various groups of organisms can be used in calculating the
numbers per square foot of bottom at each station.
2.	The sample obtained from a haul is washed by gently hosing it
through a set of two rectangular utility screens. The top one for coarse
material is i-inch galvanized hardware screen; the bottom one is No. 30
brass screen. These are nested on a waist-high table rigged on the rail of
the vessel so that the water is sluiced overboard
3.	Preliminary picking and sorting of the collections are done on board
ship. The larger snails, clams, and leeches are picked out during the hosing
operations. The rest of the material from the No. 30 screen is washed into
a white enamelled pan for tweezer picking and sorting. Some samples require
additional screening. This is done with a No. 30 U.S. standard sieve, using
a bucket of water and a turkey baster.
k. All specimens are sorted into screw-cap plastic jars containing
collection water, and they ere stored in an ice chest. Stones covered with
colonies o:' organisms arc submerged in galvanized buckets for examination at
the laboratory. Occasionally, undo"' foul weather conditions, a few dredge
hauls are brought back in the plastic dishpans to be sieved at the laboratory
--A slight variation in this method was employed during a follow-uo survey
of selected y-'ver and lake stations conducted during the week of August 10,
196k. All the samples were taken from soft bottom. The 25-foot boat, used
for this survey, was not equipped with a hose pump. Mud, silt, and ooze
were removed from each dredge haul by dumping the aishpan into a 23 mesh
nylon bag, which was stitched to a 20-inch diameter canvas collar, grasping
the collar securely, and dunking the bag in the water. (The Tyler ecuivaler
for the No. 30 U.S. Standard Sieve is 28 mesh: check of losses with a 32
mesh nylon bag disclosed that escape of tubificid worms from the 2b mesh
nylon was negligible.) Washed samples from the bag were sieved through a s=
of No. 5, No. 10, and No. 30 U.S. Standard Sieves in a wide-nouth bucket,
using water dipped by ship's bucket 'while at anchor.
117

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5.	Samples are brought to the laboratory the same day they are collected
ana are held in a refrigerator at about 7 C. Each haul is processed into
Torocer preservatives for the various types of organisms. (Formalin, 10 per-
cent, is most commonly used.) The specimen .jars are labelled, and the collec-
tion record is completed. Wherever feasible, identifications are made to
species from the living animals. Total counts are made of the number of each
taxonomic grouping.
6.	Numbers of worms in the large tubificid aggregations are estimated
by the water displacement method. Care must be taken to free the aggregation
from all foreign material by repeated floatation, washing, and screening.
Fluid from the cleaned sample is removed by draining and blotting. Worms
are separated from an aliquot of the sample with jewelers tweezers, and a
number counted sufficient to displace 1-ml of tap water contained in a 25-^1
graduated cylinder. Displacement of the total sample is measured in a S00-n1
graduated cylinder, and the total number of worms in the sample is calculated.*
7.	R native abundance of periphytic organisms, such as sponges and
bryozoans, which colonize stones is axpressed as "sparse," "medium," or
"dense."
-"-The modified floatation method developed by Anderson (3) was used to remove
tubificid vo^ms from the 196U bottom samples. These had been preserved in
10 percent foi.-.alin, so the floatation time was five minutes or less: bits
of bottom debris which were floated by the sugar solution along with the
worms also interferred with the procedure. In arriving at quantitative
estimates., uin.e number of oreserved worms obtained by repeated floatations
was multiplied by 2 (the factor derived by Anderson for efficiency of
floatation of tubificid worms removed from bottom samples before and after
preservation by using a solution of granulated sugar with a specific gravity
of 1.12).
113

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ci. A complete record for e^ch collection is kept by station on field
data sheets and laboratory bench sheets. Data is collated on needle sort
punch cards. The catalogued collection of preserved specimens is maintained
in 'ohe laboratory for reference.
Phytoplankton
Surface samples for determining the distribution and abundance of olank-
tonic algae were collected at approximately three-week intervals. Thirty-five
stations were selected: 23 on ranges of the river, 12 in critical areas of trie
lake.
Samples from near the bottom were collected only at selected stations
during the bottom-fauna cruises mentioned above since depth sampling studies
had indicated that the waters were homothermous and well-mixed vertically.
After the boats we re laid up, phytoplankton collections were limited to samples
taken from the Belle Isle bridge and the two C-rosse Tie bridges.
Phytoi ankton sampling runs were made during the day, using the 25-foot
boat. Usually the river stations *e sampled on one day, and the lake stations
the following day.
Collections were made from .just below the surface with a Kemmerer sampler
(capacity, 3 liters): description end instructions for ooeration and mainten-
ance are given in Helch (l), pp. 199-201, 231.
The raw water sample was run into a two-liter polyethylene bottle contain-
ing approximately 70 ml of phytoplankton preservative (tnimerosal - 0.16 percent,
Lugol1 1 solution - 1.0 percent, plus one gram of sodium borate for each gram of
thimerosalj for effectiveness of this preservation, see Williams (U).

-------
Care was exercised to take the samples with the Kemmerer sampler in a
vertical position and to keep the sample bottles out of direct sunlight. Air
and water temperatures were recorded at time of collection.
The methods employed in the laboratory for processing and analyzing the
phytoplankton samples followed closely procedures developed by the Public
Health Service in its National Water Quality Network plankton studies. A
critical discussion of these methods is given by Williams (U). For descrip-
tion of equipment and discussion of techniques employed in plankton analysis,
refer to Welch (l), pp. 279-297, also "Standard Methods"(2), pp. SU3-S72.
Identification and Enumeration of Algae by
Sedgwick-Rafter Slide Strip Count Technique
The following covers the sequence of operations as performed in our
laboratory from the 2-liter preserved sample:
1.	The sample is thoroughly mixed by inverting the bottle, swirling the
contents, and then gently rocking it lengthwise.
2.	An liquot of about 250 ml is poured at once into a beaker and trans-
ferred to a polyethelene bottle of a size to fit the hand conveniently for
remixing.
3.	The Sedgwick-Rafter counting slide is immediately loaded with a
straight-tip dropping pipetta (polypropylene, 2 ml capacity, 110 mm in length,
with orifice oi , bout 1 mm),
U. Two strip counts are made under 200 diameters magnification by moving
the slide lengthwise with the mechanical stage of the microscope and enumera-
ting those specimens which are enclosed in the area of the Whipple ocular
micrometer. The minute centric and pennate diatoms are simply tallied by
120

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groups since they cannot be identified to genus under magnifications obtain-
able with Sedgwick-Rafter slide.
The colonial diatoms Melosira, Asterionelle, Fragilaria, and Tabellaria,
can be recognized to genus, however. Algae belonging to other groups can be
determined to genus, some to species. Each single-celled individual or natural
colony is counted as one unit.
5.	Counts for each genus and group of algae are recorded on the bench
sheet, tallying counts obtained in each strip separately. Counts of inert
diatoms or other specimens which were not in the living state at time of
collection are also tallied.
6.	Quantitative expressions of the number of phytoplankters per ml are
derived by applying the factor of 2$, which was obtained from calibration of
the microscope, micrometer, and slide.
Membrane Filter Preparations
1.	A netal millipore filter holder is mounted into a 2-liter sidearm
flask attacaed by heavy rubber tubing to a vacuum outlet. This is the same
setup used for bacteriological membrane filter operations. Sterile technique
is not required for plankton work. However, membrane filters must be kept
free of dust, and the filter* runnel must be rinsed with tap water and wiped
after each operation.
2.	A membrane filter is positioned in the filter holder, using tweezers
to handle the filter. (Type of filter used is millipore; plain, 0.U5 micron
1
pore size, Ii7 mm diameter.)
3.	The vacuum is turned on, and a 2$0 ml aliquot of the mixed sample is
poured into the funnel.
12!

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li. The vacuum is turned off as soon as filtration is completed, and the
filter is removed from the holder with tweezers.
The filter is labelled in the free margin immediately upon removal
from the holder. Station number, date of collection, and the size of aliquot
are recorded in waterproof ink.
6. Filters are dried in a covered tray and stared in screw-cap vials.
The membrane filter preparation serves as an herbarium record of most of
the phytoplankters. For diatom identification and enumeration, the filter can
be mounted in cedarwood oil or immersion oil. If preferred, a permanent hyrax
slide can be made by the method described below, after dissolving the filter
in acetone and decanting the excess fluid. A comprehensive discussion and
bibliography covering the application of membrane filter techniques to studies
of the phytoplankton are contained in a paper by C. D. McNabb (5).
Vial Concentrates 'from Settled Plankton
1.	The sample remaining in the bottle is thoroughly mixed, and excess
sample down to one liter is discarded.
2.	The remaining one liter of the sample is then settled for about 2k
hours. This is done in the inserted sample bottle which is stoppered with
siphoning tubes, adjusted so approximately 200 ml of the concentrated sample
can be retained. (A set of 12 bottles are inverted in racks hung over the
sink.)
3.	Excess fluid is run off into the sink by releasing the clamp on the
outlet tubing.
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h. The vacuum is turned off as soon as filtration is completed, and the
filter is removed from the holder with tweezers.
$. The filter is labelled in the free margin immediatel?/ upon removal
from the holder. Station number, date of collection, and the size of aliquot
are recorded in waterproof ink.
6. Filters are dried in a covered tray and stored in screw-cap vials.
The membrane filter preparation serves as an herbarium record of most of
the phytoplankters. For diatom .identification and enumeration, the filter can
be mounted in cedarwood oil or immersion oil. If r>referred, a permanent ir/rax
slide can be made by the method described below, after dissolving the filter
in acetone and decanting the excess fluid. A comprehensive discussion and
bibliography covering Lhe application of membrane filter techniques to studies
of the phytoplankton are contained in a paper by C. D. McNabb (5)
Vial Concentrates from Settled Plankton
1.	The sample remaining in the bottle is thoroughly mixed, and excess
sample down to one liter is discarded.
2.	The remaining one iiudr of the sample is then settled for about 2h
hours. This is uone in the inverted sample bottle which is stopoered with
siphoning tubes, adjusted so approximately 200 ml of the concentrated sample
can be retained. (A set of 12 bottles are inverted in racks hung over the
sink.)
3.	Excess fluid is run off into the sink by releasing the damn on the
outlet tubing.
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U. The stopper is removed, and the cor.centrated sample is poured into
a 250 ml beaker labelled with station number and collection date. Beaker is
covered and left undisturbed for about 2h hours. (Siphon tubes and sample
bottles are rinsed with tap water and drained.)
5.	Fluid is removed from the beaker with a syringe so that approximately
hO ml of the concentrated sample remains. (The pipette of the syringe must
be lowered gradually into the fluid and the inflow into the syringe bulb
controlled so that none of the settled plankton is disturbed.)
6.	The UO ml concentrate, which represents the settled plankton from
one liter of the preserved sample, is stored in a US ml screw-cap vial in
which a permanent identification label has been placed.
Vial concentrates, when properly catalogued and maintained, provide a
collection of valuable material for critical qualitative and quantative studies
of nannoplankton. The vials need to be checked periodically for replenishment
of preserve ive.
Preparation ox Hyrax Slides
for Diatom Identification and Enumeration
1. The plankton concent"?'' 0 from one liter of the sample is used in pre-
paring the hyrax slides. Materials required are: hyrax liquid mounting med-
ium (refractive index 1.65), benzene, 18 mm cover glasses (No. 1, square),
non-corrosive microscope slides.
2. A set of a dozen slides at a time are produced. Care must be taken
to arrange the vials, cover glasses, and slides in a matched sequence.
Station numbers and collection dates are inscribed on the slides with a
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diamond marker.
3. The series of cover glasses is set up on an electric hot plate
adjustable for temperatures up to 600 F.
h. Each cover glass is loaded with 16 to 20 drops of the mixed concen-
trate delivered from a glass dropping pipette of suitable aperture.
5.	Fluid is evaporated from the cover glasses very gradually by setting
the hot plate at low heat.
6.	Residue on the cover glasses is incinerated on a red-hot plate for
an hour.
7.	The cover-glass preparation is affixed to the slide by grasping it
with tweezers and inverting it onto a drop of hyrax mounting medium placed in
the center of the slide.
8.	The slide is placed on the hot plate (at about 200 F.) to evaporate
the mounting medium.
9.	The slide is removed from the hot plate to a masonite mounting board
where the c-ver glass is centered before the medium hardens.
10.	Excess medium is scraped from the slides with a razor blade, ana
slides are cleaned with benzene. Finished slides are stored in a slide box,
arranged by station and date sequence.
11.	Identification and proportional counting of the diatoms are done
from the hyrax _"ide under oil immersion at 1212.5 diameters, using Koehler
illumination. About 250 individuals are counted to determine the four most
abundant species. The percent occurrence of each species in the sample is
then applied to the diatom group total derived from the Sedgwick-Rafter strip
counts to obtain an expression in numbers per milliliter. (See the monograph
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by Williams (1) for a discussion of proportional counting.)
Zooplankton
To obtain data on the occurrence and relative abundance of the plan letonic
microcrustaceans, rotifers, and protozoans, collections of net plankton were
made at the phytoplankton sampling stations during the spring and autumn
bottom-fauna surveys.
Zooplankton sampling was done with a one-half meter oceanographic net
(No. 20 nylon) equipped with a weighted plankton bucket.
Samples were taken by vertical tows, one tow at each station. The net
was lowered through the water until the weights attached to the bucket almost
touched the bottom. It was towed to .the surface by hauling in the line slow-
ly at a uniform speed of about one foot per second. The ring of the net was
quickly raised from the surface of the water, and the sleeve was rinsed by
repeated immersions. The bucket containing the collection was detached from
the net, an the contents were drained into a polyethylene bottle. Clinging
plankters were removed from the buck -1 by squirting preservative from a
syringe. Ninety-five percent ethyl alcohol was used to kill and preserve
the zooplankters. The net concentrate was brought up to a volume of 100 ml
with the preservative.
Enumeration was done under a widefield stereoscopic microscope at 120X
magnification from two 1-ml aliquots of the concentrate contained in a
Sedgwick-Rafxer counting cell. A survey count by groups of microinvertebrates
was made, i.e., all copepods and nauplii, cladocerans, and rotifers were
enumerated. Protozoans were not included. The mean of the two counts was
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used to compute the number of organisms per liter. Whenever a oair of counts
showed marked deviation from the mean, one or more additional aliquots were
counted.
The number of organisms per liter in each group of animals was roughl;/
calculated by applying concentrate and depth factors to the survey count totals.
The net strains a column of water the area of the 0.5 meter ring. For
vertical tows with this net, the simplified conversion formula applied wss
n/l - 1.7 N where N equals the mean of the paired counts, D equals sounded
D-S
depth in feet, 5 equals height in feet of net ring when weights are touching
bottom. No efficiency factor .for the net was derived since it is recognized
that the quantitative data can be used only for rough estimates of relative
abundance. (See Langford (6) for a critical discussion of zooplankton samp-
ling methods.)
Periohyton
Collei ions of periphytic organisms, such as hydras, bryozoar.s, sessile
protozoans,''algae, fungi, and sheeth^d bacteria, were obtained by suspending
sets of microscope slides contained in racks from U.S. Coast Guard buoys on
the river located near ranges DT 30.3, DT 17. C, and DT 8.7.
A rectangular rack was built to hold a set of 18 microscope slides, ^t
was made from t^rips of cypress wood with bottom and hinged lid of hardware
screen according to the general design given in Welch's ,!Limnological Methods,"
pp. 260-262. The 18 saw-cuts in the long pieces of frame were made wide enough
to hold two slides in the slot instead of a single slide.
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Because of strong currents and boat traffic in the river, it was neces-
sary that the racks tied off the buoys should float horizontally at a depth
of three feet. Each rack, accordingly, was fitted with a current baffle at
the end where the retrieving line was to be fastened and with a float at the
other end. The baffle was made from a piece of sheet metal 3 inches wide bent
around the frame end at a 60-degree angle to form fins about U inches long.
For the float, a toilet bulb was bolted to a piece of sheet metal cut at a
right angle to cover the butt end of the frame. Eoth pieces were slotted and
attached with bolts and wing nuts to the frame so that they could be demounted
when the rack was lifted from the water at collection time. The rack was
counter-balanced with lead weights attached to the bottom of the frame so
that it would float out horizontally from the buoy in the current at the
desired depth. A length of heavy-duty sash chain was affixed to the padsye
of the buoy to serve ss a retrieving line, and the rack was attached by clip-
ping the snap fastener at the end of the chain to an eyebolt centered in the
frame end 5 the baffle. During the summer season, a lush growth of peri-
phytic organisms populated the slide-  within a submergence period of two weeks.
Four collections were made from the slide racks during the season. A
summary of the method of handling the collection follows.
The retrieving line at the buoy is picked up with a boat hook, and the
rack is quickly mclipped from the snap fastener. The baffle and float
attachments are demounted, and the rack is wrapped in aluminum foil. Racks
are covered with collection water in separate trays which are nested in an
iced refrigerator chest.
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Collections are worked up in the laboratory the afternoon and evening
of the collection day in the following manner. The three sets of slides from,
the middle of the rack are preserved in screw-cap jars: one set in 10 percent
formalin for reference, the two adjacent sets for nitric acid treatment and
diatom hyraa mount preparations. Every other set of the remaining slides is
examined for living organisms, which grow attached to the outside surfaces of
slides. Each of these eight sets is placed, clean sides down, in a petri
dish lid containing enough water for the tray to cover them. The slides are
inspected under a widefield stereoscopic microscope providing magnifications
ut> to 120 diameters. The density of the various kinds of organisms found on
the slides from each rack is expressed qualitatively on a scale of relative
abundance. Clean sets of slides are placed in the vacant slots of the rack.
Racks are held submerged in the water of the tray in the chest refrigerator
to be reset at their respective buoys the next day.
j'iLj'jL a
it if iT u ir
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REFERENCES
1.	Welch, Paul S., "Limnological Methods." McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., New York, 19^8.
2.	American Public Health Association, et al., "Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater."
American Public Health Association, Inc., New York,
11th Edition, I960.
3.	Anderson, Richard 0., "A Modified Floatation Technique
for Sorting Bottom Fauna Samples." Limnol. Oceanogr.,
h:223, April, 1959.
iu Williams, Louis G., "Plankton Population Dynamics."
U.S. Dept. Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, Washington, D. C., Public Health
Service Publ. No. 663, Sup. 2, 1962.
5.	McNabb, Clarence D., "Enumeration of Freshwater Phyto-
plankton Concentrated on the Membrane Filter." Limnol.
Oceanogr., 5:57, January, I960.
6.	Langford, R. R., "Methods of Plankton Collection and a
Description of a New Sampler." J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can.,
10:238, 1953.	~
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G J * E 2 6

OHIO
J963 Stations Sompled for Bottom Faun-a,
May and October
1964 Stations Sampled for Bottom Fauna,
August, plus L24 ond L4I
LOCATION OF LA.KE ERIE
BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING STATIONS

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